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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B18


ANNE THERESA ALTILIA (nee DiGiacomo) April 17, 1924 April 11, 2018

Passed away peacefully in her 94th year with the loving comfort and support of her family.

Predeceased by her husband of 72 years, Anthony Joseph Altilia, who she lost 8 months earlier; her 6 siblings; son-in-law, Peter Parise; Anne will always be loved and respected by her sister, Bessie (Frank) Bassano; children, Anna Maria (Phil), Anthony Jr. (Josephine), Paul (Ross), Paulette (Thomas) and John (Laura). Greatly missed by her grandchildren, Anthony, Peter, Andrea, Zachary, Elliott, Jason, John-Paul, Alexandria, Ayla and Briana; as well as her greatgrandchildren, Adam, Sophia, Michael, Emily, Ronan and Violet.

Anne will always be remembered as a loving and dedicated mother who welcomed all who passed through the doors of 312 with a sincere smile and hot piece of fresh pizza or a cup of tea. That same hospitality was received by anyone fortunate enough to be served by her in the Housewares Department at The Bay where she was regularly acknowledged for her outstanding service.

A funeral mass and reception will be held at St. John's Church, 794 Kingston Rd., Toronto on Monday, April 16th at 11a.m. If desired, donations in lieu of flowers may be made to the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.mcdbrownscarb.ca

GRACE BENNETT (née Relyea) 1932 - 2018

In Parksville, Vancouver Island February 5, 2018 Grace's spirit transitioned peacefully with her sister by her side. For the past three years Grace lived with patience and grace with the challenges of Alzheimer's disease. Always proud of being born in the US of Canadian parents, Franklin and Dorothy (née Johnston) Relyea, Grace grew up in Kitchener-Waterloo, ON. After graduation Trinity College, University of Toronto (1953) she travelled, worked in Europe, and was a copy writer at Eaton's City Advertising, Toronto.

In the 1970s she moved to Duntroon then to Collingwood, ON with her husband, William Bennett (1928-1999).

Grace was active as a volunteer with the Blue Mountain Foundation for the Arts. She was a very good bridge player, an excellent golfer and long time member of Blue Mountain Golf and Country Club. Grace's greatest passions were travel and Sammy, her cat. She will be missed by many longtime friends; sister, Joyce Relyea of Comox, BC; and cousins.

Cremation has taken place and burial will be later in Relyea family plot in Woodlawn Cemetary, Kitchener, ON.

LESLIE BOURNE

After a full life well lived, Leslie Bourne passed away on March 16, 2018 in Victoria, B.C. The seventh of eight children; he is survived by wife, Peggy; sons, David and Geoff; and grandson, James.

He leaves behind his beloved sister, Dorothy; and an extended family in the U.K.

Growing up during and after the war in Birmingham, England, Les was an active sportsman and a keen tennis player. He arrived in Canada in his early 20s with the intent of continuing to New Zealand. It was only many years later, while representing his adopted country at tennis, that he eventually made it across the Pacific. In his later years, Les was fortunate to represent Canada in tennis tournaments around the world.

Les was a skilled photo engraver in a graphic arts world without computers. Good with his hands and not one to sit idle, Les enjoyed working around the house and was a keen gardener, always with a project on the go. Through much planning and hard work, he was able to turn a blank canvas into a colourful masterpiece. The family appreciates the care and attention given to Les during his final months in Extended Care at Saanich Peninsula Hospital.

D. ROGER BROADBENT

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Roger Broadbent at his home on Saturday, March 31, 2018, at the age of 85 years. He is survived by his loving daughter, Sonja (Lyle Zunti); grandsons, Kaden, Ethan, and Colten; his brother, Michael; niece, Emma; and nephew, Bartholomew.

Roger's love of music, tuning, and playing the piano touched many people. He volunteered countless hours playing the piano at Sunnybrook, Belmont House, Toronto Rehab Center, and others.

Roger enjoyed playing tennis, riding his bike, going to the opera, and attending social events.

A celebration of life is planned for a future date. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

KATHRYN CRAWFORD (nee Hallsworth) "Kathy" 1944 - April 6, 2018

In 1969, the miniskirted star Grade 1 teacher at Rippleton Road Elementary met an LLM student from New Zealand, a long distance romance ensued, and for 47 years, Kathy starred as "Mum" to three wonderful girls and "Grandma" to four loving grandchildren.

She was the eldest of three children born in Windsor to her parents, Ken and Gwen Hallsworth. The family moved to the new subdivisions in Don Mills in 1956, as Ford Canada opened its new Oakville plant and Ken moved up the management ladder to become Vice President.

Kathy was vital and outgoing, an energetic force who found summer camps an ideal outlet for her energy. She attended Rippleton Road Elementary and Don Mills Collegiate, made lifelong friends at Bangor Lodge, and became a teacher...the 1967 drive across Canada to Vancouver with two special friends gave rise to many stories and a lot of laughter.

The teaching years saw more special friendships made, links never broken with trips to PEI, and Toronto especially for Mr. Davis' 100th birthday last September.

White wine reunited the teacher friendships.

Kathy was supermom to her three girls, ensuring they passed through French Immersion school programs and individually developed their own special talents, learned good manners and were always impeccably turned out. New Westminster was home for a decade when she made many new friends especially at Queen's Avenue United Church. Now Crescent Beach has been home for 38 years, and she has been a second Mom to many of her children's friends, a bridge player, and inspired hostess to incredible Christmas, Easter, and Halloween celebrations.

Over the years, travel to New Zealand, London, California, Wisconsin, Iowa, Texas, Hawaii, Mexico, Iran, Poland, Yugoslavia, South Africa, Holland, and much of Canada ensured the personal pillow racked up the air miles...

even when ill health started to take its toll over the last decade, the travels continued, buoyed by the wonderful friends that ensured the indomitable spirit was nurtured at every visit.

A day after having her monthly manicure, a heart attack felled her. Though she made a little recovery the following day, she slipped away from us late at night, surrounded by family, love and tears.

Her friends around the world have been quick to praise the joy she brought to all she met. Kathy will be loved forever and her presence will be missed by all, but especially by her daughters, Lindsay (Andrew), Julie, and Meghan; her granddaughter, Kendall; her grandsons, Eamon, Callum, and Luke; her sister, Barbara (David); her brother, Robert (Heather); the Crawfords in New Zealand; and her loving husband and best friend, Robert Crawford. She was, in those beautiful words of Bette Middler, "The wind beneath our wings."

A special thank you goes to the Ocean Park Fire Hall and Medics who revived her, and the ICU unit at Peace Arch Hospital who gave us that extra day. If you are able, Kathy would appreciate you making a donation to the Peace Arch Hospital Foundation. She would not want the fuss, but there will be a celebration of life at the family home on Mother's Day, and another in Toronto on August 14, 2018.

Condolences may be offered at http://www.victorymemorialpark.com

JOHN BARLOW WOTHERSPOON CUMBERLAND

Died peacefully in his home in Kingston in his 82nd year on April 10, 2018. Cherished husband of Maureen for 53 years, loving father of Jennifer (Alaric) and Pamela (Mark). Most loving "Pops" of dear granddaughter, Ella.

Devoted brother of Jill Trennum (Bob), step-brother of Chris and Tom Currelly.

Predeceased by his infant son, Christopher; his parents, Betty and Ian Cumberland; sister, Nancy Redner and brother-in-law, Alan; stepfather, John Currelly. Friend and teacher of many children and their families and loving companion to many faithful family dogs.

We would like to thank Community Palliative Care Team for their compassion and understanding. If you choose to remember John with a charitable donation, a cause close to his heart was the Kingston Humane Society, 1 Binnington Court, Kingston, ON K7M 8M9.

In accordance with John's wishes, cremation has taken place. A private family graveside service will be held in Port Hope at a later date.

jamesreidfuneralhome.com

SIMON LUMSDEN DELLANDREA

Born and too soon departed March 29, 2018, Toronto.

Baby Simon passed on to a kinder place after a short stopover in our world silently, gracefully, endlessly loved. To be forever missed by his loving parents, Brendan Dellandrea and Alissa Lumsden; grandparents, Jon and Lyne Dellandrea, Paul and Linda Lumsden; uncles and aunts, Matthew (Danielle) Dellandrea, Jeffery (Karen) Lumsden; and cousins, John, Finnick and Riley.

A private ceremony will take place at Siloam Cemetery, Machar Township, where Simon will join his late Uncle Brock. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Women and Babies Program at Sunnybrook Hospital would be appreciated.

ROBERT CHIPMAN DOWSETT FSA, FICA, MAAA June 27, 1929 - April 8, 2018

Cherished family man, successful businessman and respected community leader, Rob Dowsett passed peacefully after a brief illness in his 88th year.

The youngest son of the late Jean and Reginald Dowsett; predeceased by his beloved brothers, Bill and John. Proud brother-in-law to Jane Dowsett and the late Maxie Dowsett. Loving father to David (Vivian), Marisa, Carol (Ralph Rae) and devoted Grandfather/Boppa to grandchildren, Larena, (Nicholas Cashmore), Benjamin (Laura), Daniel, James (Melissa), Colin and Gwenna (Michael). Survived by former wife, Lois Dowsett (nee McHardy); brotherin-law, Don McHardy and wife, Diana; and sister-in-law, Eleanor McHardy.

Predeceased by brother-in-law, Bob McHardy. Much admired uncle to many Dowsett and McHardy nieces and nephews.

Devoted partner to Anne Folger and her children, Jarrod Liberatore (Shelley, children, Lucy and Roxanne) and Katharine Liberatore (Lynn).

Rob attended University of Toronto Schools (UTS) graduating in 1946, just before his 17th birthday. At UTS he met life-long friends John Evans and Joe MacArthur and captained the football team. In his later years, Rob founded the Monday Night Club (that meets on Tuesday), a group of UTS grads reunited. Rob began a lifetime association with Victoria College at U of T, graduating in 1950 with a BA (Honours Mathematics and Physics).

Rob began his working career at Crown Life Insurance Company in 1950 while pursuing Actuarial Sciences. He became an actuary in 1954, the youngest person in Canada to achieve this designation. Progressing through management ranks, Rob became EVP of Crown in 1970 and President and CEO in 1971. In 1982, Rob left Crown to join William M. Mercer as Director and was appointed Vice-Chairman in 1985. Rob was a founding member of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries, serving as President in 1973-1974. Retiring from Mercer in 1995, he operated Robert Dowsett Consulting until months before his death. Through each phase of his career, Rob's principled ways earned him the respect of countless friends and colleagues.

Rob's impact on his community was significant. He was a tireless volunteer and fundraiser; he often said his greatest achievement was giving back to others. He served on many non-profit boards including The Donwood Institute, The Council for Canadian Unity, Addiction Research Foundation, UTS, U of T and the CAMH Foundation. An art enthusiast, he assisted the McMichael Canadian Art Collection for almost 40 years, honouring his parents' legacy. A spiritual man, he was one of the founding members of Bethesda United Church in Don Mills.

An avid outdoorsman, Rob pursued life-long passions for canoeing, sailing and waterskiing at cottages on Bella Lake in his childhood, at the family cottage on Lake Joseph in Muskoka and at Anne's cottage in Newago near Montreal. Rob loved sports and was active all his life, from his daily calisthenics, bike riding, and walks with his loyal dog Tally. Rob enjoyed snow skiing in Utah. He was an active member of the Donalda Club beginning in 1972, playing tennis and participating in club trips to Jamaica for tournaments. He will be remembered for his keen mind and the hours devoted to duplicate bridge. Rob enjoyed gardening and working with his hands; a skilled handy man and jack-of-all trades.

Rob possessed unparalleled optimism and zest for life. His grandchildren brought him immeasurable joy. His exuberance for the wonders of mathematics was contagious. A man of deep thought, he was always willing to extend a hand and offer assistance. Above all, he was a man of honour; the true definition of a gentle man.

A Celebration of Rob's Life will be held in Jubilee United Church, 40 Underhill Drive, North York, on Saturday, May 26th at 1:00 p.m., followed by a reception at 2:30 p.m. at the Donalda Club, 12 Bushbury Drive, North York.

Donations in Rob's memory can be made to the CAMH Foundation (http://www.supportcamh.ca) or the North York General Hospital Foundation (http://www.nyghfoundation.ca) with great appreciation. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

DONALD ERIK ERLING March 21, 1930 - April 6, 2018

"A mighty fortress is our God" Great husband of Loretta (nee Yendt) for 66 years and caring father to Dave (Lori), Tom (Monica) and Kathy (Gerry Johnston). He leaves behind 5 grandchildren and 8 great-grandchildren.

Don died in Cambridge Manor and a memorial to his life will take place at a later date.

He loved teaching chemistry and physics. Don taught at Sudbury High, North Bay (Chippewa), Burnhamthorpe Collegiate, New Toronto and Scarlett Heights in Etobicoke. He was also an active member of the CSCA (Canadian Scientific and Christian Affiliation).

He was also a reserve infantry and artillery officer in Sudbury and North Bay regiments. Don loved God and his family. Sharing his love of the bible with others was also important to him.

He loved living in Northport where he continued to enjoy his many hobbies which included woodworking, gardening, making bread, pancakes, porridge and beef bourguignon.

Tributes to the Alzheimer's society.

JOHN PETER HAMILTON FORD QC April 15, 1934 - April 10, 2018

"Until next time." True to one of his favourite sentiments, John passed away peacefully surrounded by his family. Devoted and beloved husband of Yvonne, and much loved father of Jill (Mike) Menard, Susan (Bevis) Bullock, and Jennifer (Murray) Thomas. John took great pride in his wonderful grandchildren, Kyle and Sean Menard, Charlotte, Brett, Brady, and Shannon Bullock, and Liam and Adam Thomas. John was also a beloved uncle to cherished nieces and nephews.

An accomplished and respected lawyer, John graduated from Osgoode Hall Law School and was called to the Bar in 1960.

He pursued his passion for law for 57 years and was awarded the prestigious Queen's Council designation in 1973. A lifelong Oakville resident, John shared with his family the importance of giving back to others through his involvement in numerous community foundations.

John was happiest surrounded by family and friends, sharing wine and stories from the head of the table while creating wonderful memories for the many lives he touched. John will also be remembered for his sense of fun, his all-weather barbequing prowess (snowstorms included) and making everyone feel at home.

John was an ardent gardener. A perfect weekend usually involved time spent with his plants and a round or two at the Oakville Golf Club. He was a member there for 45 years and served 2 terms as club president. John was also integrally involved with the Tin Hat Memorial Tournament - a yearly event honouring all branches of the Canadian Military including his own, The Royal Canadian Navy.

When not gardening or golfing, John loved to travel and enjoyed sharing these adventures with his wife, and their lifelong friends.

Living life to the fullest, John was honorable and optimistic with a deep capacity for unconditional love. He was one of a kind and will be dearly missed by his family and friends.

The family would like to express our deepest appreciation for the compassionate care provided by the staff at Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital as well as the continuing care of Dr. Justine Seuradge.

A Celebration of Life will be held Sunday, May 6 at the Oakville Golf Club from 11:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.

1154 Sixth Line, Oakville. Private interment to follow at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Kidney Foundation of Canada are welcomed, http://www.kidney.ca.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.koprivataylor.com

WILLIAM DOUGLAS FOULDS

"Bill" 1 91 8 -2 01 8 Passed away Easter Sunday, April 1, 2018. Son of William Charles Foulds and Frances Ena Foulds (nee Butler). Loving father to Gary, grandfather to Jesse and Jefferson, and father-in-spirit to Ruth and Manuela. Devoted husband to Margery Alberta Foulds (nee Alcorn), and brother to Margaret Coburn. Dedicated to his many nieces and nephews. Bill was devoted to his family and friends.

He attended Ridley College, where he won the silver and gold medals for academic excellence and went on to attend the University of Toronto, at University College.

He played football and hockey and was a proud member of the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. He was a Captain in WWII and spent over 50 years working at the University of Toronto before retiring in 1984 as the Assistant Dean of Arts and winning the Chancellor's Award.

During his time at the university he was dedicated to the Faculty Club where he served in many capacities. Bill will be remembered for his sense of humour, as well as his kindness and generosity to all, but, also for his humility.

As such, he requested that no special services be conducted upon his passing. There will, however, be a celebration of life in the Fall (date to determined) for family and friends. Charitable donations can be made to the United Way.

DR. NIELS HENRY HANSEN May 9, 1935 - April 10, 2018

Unexpectedly on April 10, Dr. Niels Henry Hansen, nearing his 83rd birthday, while working out. He would want everyone to know that his regular gym visits greatly extended his life and that this coincidence should not be regarded as necessarily causal.

Beloved family physician; respected professor of Family Medicine at Dalhousie University and Cleveland's Case Western Reserve University; champion and trailblazer in many challenging features and varieties of health care; Order of Canada nominee; audiophile; and, photographer.

Constant learning meant he was continually reinventing his lifework in medicine. His care never flagged, as if he were directly responsible for the well-being of each person he encountered: a responsibility he wore with humility, competence and focus.

After graduation from Dalhousie and time in the military, Niels cofounded the Dartmouth Medical Centre. He delivered many, many babies when house calls were common and years later, delivered those babies' babies too. When he returned home and Jean asked after each baby, he always replied with utmost sincerity, "It was beautiful. The most beautiful baby."

He taught at Dalhousie's Department of Family Medicine and was a Fellow of the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

He taught Family Medicine at Cleveland's Case Western Reserve University for two years, while earning a Masters' degree in Education. After his return to teaching at Dalhousie and a oneyear sabbatical at the University of Manchester, he moved on to pioneer development of Palliative Care at the Freeport Campus of the Grand River Hospital in Kitchener, Ontario.

Niels was first and foremost a family physician with a need for continuous learning and unrepressed tendencies towards teaching. He loved people above all, and afforded both dignity and respect to each and every person he encountered. Those whose lives he touched, those he helped, are simply without number.

He involved himself in all communities in which he lived and moved. Much was done in the background. Very quietly.

Very lovingly.

Niels is survived by the love of his life, Jean; by son, Paul (Jane); and daughters, Karen Martin (Fred) and Lynn Hornacek (Peter); and by his five grandchildren, Victoria Scott (Glenn), Devon Hansen (Jonathan Hebert), Heather Hansen, Benjamin Martin and Olivia Hornacek); and one great-grandchild (William Scott).

His quiet contentment, deep pride and beaming joy in being surrounded by happy, loving family will be forever treasured, and constantly renewed by us all.

Niels was a prolific philanthropist and passionate about the value of Family Medicine. In lieu of flowers, donations are welcome to Dalhousie Family Medicine or the charity of the donor's choice.

Private cremation. A visitation will be held on Sunday, April 15 from 1-4 p.m. in the event room of the apartment complex at 38 William Carson Ct., Toronto (near Yonge at the 401), M2P 2H1.

RODERICK HENRY "Huck" December 15, 1929 April 9, 2018

Huck slipped away peacefully on April 9, 2018, after a short illness in Palm Beach, Florida, surrounded by his family.

Huck grew up in Hudson, Quebec and attended Lower Canada College. His passion for hockey led him to play Junior A hockey for the Montreal Royals. He married Jill Foster and started a lifelong career with Wire Rope Industries, starting as a salesman and eventually becoming President, which was a source of great pride for his father-in-law, George "Bunny" Foster.

Huck and Jill had three daughters, Willa, Diana, and Jane, and life was full with trips from Montreal to Knowlton with endless activities including skiing, golf and tennis. Huck loved a party and created a life which was full of fun and laughter. He would often be found chopping down trees to create a view for Jill, winning money from his friends at golf, and working with his sons-in-law in the woods (Scott Jones, Phil Dixon, and John Morse).

Knowlton became a summer sanctuary for his many grandchildren who would arrive each summer. He will be deeply missed by Sarah, Lindsay, Samantha and Zoe Jones, Jill, Alix, and Anthea Morse, Taylor and Jason Dixon.

Jill died tragically in 1988, which was a devastating blow for Huck.

Luckily, he soon met beautiful, vivacious Josephine "Dodie" Massey and a second wonderful chapter began. They married in Dorset, Vermont, in 1990. He now had two wonderful sons, John (Lynne) and Peter (Pam) Massey, and a daughter, Debbie (Pam).

There were few restaurants that could handle the raucous Henry/ Massey crowd! Many happy years were spent in Dorset, Vermont- with another four grandchildren, Olivia, Charlotte, Jack and Sam Massey; and the arrival of three greatgrandchildren, Christopher and Bennett Czyrka, and Henry Dixon.

Huck contributed to his communities wherever he lived.

He actively raised funds for the building of the Knowlton Community Centre. He served as President for both the Knowlton Golf Club as well as the Ekwanok Golf Club in Vermont. He was a man of action- creating change that has impacted both Knowlton and Dorset. His energy, enthusiasm, and drive, along with his sense of humor, will be missed by his many friends.

Huck was involved with the Brome Lake Duck Farm for almost 60 years. He played a part in the growth and success of the farm and cared deeply about the employees. Huck loved connecting with people and made us all laugh. You could always count on him to crack a joke with a waitress or tease a caddie. Many will miss his fun presence.

Many loving thanks to Dr. Willa Henry and son-in-law, Dr. Manny Borod, for steering Huck and his family through the end of his life. We also want to express our gratitude to Trustbridge Hospice and his caregivers for facilitating Huck's wish to die at home in Florida with his wife and family by his side. This allowed him to stay with his beloved wife in the home he loved until the end.

A private family celebration has taken place. Donations in memory of Huck may be made to the CARKE Foundation (a Knowlton Community fund) (270 Victoria Ave, Knowlton, Quebec, J0E 1V0) or the Ekwanok Scholarship Trust (PO Box 467, Manchester, Vermont 05254).

SHIRLEY HERSCHMAN 1927-2018

Shirley Herschman passed away peacefully in her home on April 12, 2018. She was with the ones she loved, and those who loved her.

Shirley grew up in Brooklyn, and worked in the fashion industry. On a trip to Minneapolis, she met her soul mate Paul on New Year's Eve.

They fell in love, married, settled in Minneapolis, and stayed in love together for 67 beautiful years.

After a full life in Minneapolis, and the children were married and had moved away, Shirley and Paul settled in Florida, where they enjoyed life together each and every day.

After Paul's passing, and at the age of 87, Shirley picked up and moved to Toronto, where she spent three wonderful years with her loved ones.

Shirley leaves behind her beloved daughter, Linda Hechter (William); and son, Gary (Valery). She also leaves her loving grandchildren, Sloane Freeman (Marc), Brooke Yasskin (Mike), Adam Herschman (Jen), and Chase Herschman; and greatgrandchildren, Jack, Sammy, Bobby, and Paige Freeman, Bridget and Asher Yasskin, and Tanner Herschman.

The children were her inspiration, her great love, and her legacy. Shirley was similarly the children's inspiration, and their great love.

She will forever be in our memory.

The funeral will be Sunday at 2:30 p.m. at the Beth Tzedec Cemetery.

DOROTHY THERESA IAMARINO April 21, 1928 - November 18, 2017

Celebrating a Life In Loving Memory Turner & Porter, Butler Chapel 4933 Dundas Street West, Etobicoke April 21, 2018 11:00 a.m.

Please come share your memories

JUDITH ANNE JANES (née Macklam)

Judith (Jude) was a woman of tremendous warmth, humour, and vitality, who left us far too soon.

Jude died peacefully, surrounded by family and friends, at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto, on Friday, April 6, 2018, as a result of complications following a stroke.

She was born on September 24, 1955 in Toronto. She is predeceased by her parents, Doris Whiteside and Ronald Macklam; and her older brother, John; and is survived by her sister, Susan.

Jude was the beloved wife and life partner of Robert for over 35 years. Together, they shared a love of home, travel, and their treasured dog, Coco.

Jude was a 39-year Scotiabanker, who found in her four years of retirement the chance to bake for friends and neighbors, to travel widely, and to enjoy her garden.

Jude was the much-loved stepmom of Daniela (Matt) and Andrea (Rob), and the affectionate and proud grandma of Ella, William, and Alice. She was a loving sister-in-law of Doug, and aunt of Matthew (Yara) and Adam (Kristen), and great-aunt of young Adam. She had many cousins and felt great love for all family ties. She was a dedicated friend, and has friendships from every stage of her life, including loving connections with friends formed over the last decade.

Jude was at the centre of our family life. As the host of every festive gathering for the last 20 years, she drew family, friends, and neighbors around her with her welcoming smile, vivacity, and superlative cooking. Those who loved her will remember her dancing green eyes, her ability to keep a secret, her laughter, her love of flowers, her skill at remembering everyone's favourite dish, her tenderness, her sense of humour, and her compassion.

A funeral service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Friday, April 20th at 11:00 a.m. In lieu of flowers, a donation to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or Toronto Community Living would be appreciated. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

MARILYN SKINNER JENKINS (Tolley)

Born September 28, 1930 died March 30, 2018. Born in Elgin, Illinois and raised in nearby Macomb, daughter of Donald B and Winnifred (Minck) Tolley.

Athletics, academics and arts all featured brightly in her colourful life. A championship golfer, competitive diver and all round athlete in the great outdoors Marilyn attended Vassar College graduating in 1951. Marilyn then worked at the Boston Museum for a year and found Museum Work to be her occupational dream. Next Marilyn spent a year volunteering at the Grenfell mission in Newfoundland where she met the father of her children, John Charles Jenkins, and travelled by schooner to Nova Scotia where she married and worked at the Nova Scotia museum both before and after her six children were born. Attending Western University for her Education Degree Marilyn qualified to work at the Royal Ontario Museum.

She loved the ROM and biked there nearly every day for over 25 years where her spectrum of skills in Native History, Natural history and Egyptology were revealed to thousands of school visitors.

A talented clarinet and guitar player, Marilyn loved music and she and her children all enjoyed playing and singing together, several becoming career musicians in their own right.

Predeceased by older sister, June (Neathammer); survived by her six children; five grandchildren; and one great-granddaughter.

Marilyn's last years were filled with joy and comfort despite her declining health by the wonderful staff and residents at Christie Gardens, whom she was so blessed to know. Memorial will be at Manor Road United Church, 11 a.m. on July 28th.

JAMES GETHYN JONES "Jim" 1915-2018

In his 103rd year Jim joined many who went before him on the afternoon of April 2, 2018, Easter Monday. A graduate of Upper Canada College he served in the Army with the Sherbrooke Fusiliers during WWII as a radio operator. Returning from the war Jim began his own business in General Insurance and Real Estate, J.G. Jones Real Estate and Insurance was a long time business on Weston Road in Toronto. He continued to make the trek to Weston into his eighties. He married his wife, Margaret (Wardlaw) Jones after returning from the war being encouraged by his best friend, Ted McEvoy who was dating Marg's best friend, Doreen. Jim and Marg married in 1949. Marg passed away in 2000.

Many summers were spent enjoying lovely Stony Lake at Kawartha Park and in semiretirement, long stays in St.

Petersburg, Florida. Jim also was an avid stamp collector, gardener and RCYC member.

From his small garden on Lawrence Avenue he produced tomatoes that his neighbours and family looked forward to every year. Jim and Marg were long time members of Glenview Presbyterian church where he served as an Elder for many years. Jim lived independently into his 98th year making the decision to move to The Viva residence in Mississauga early in 2013. A decision he never regretted.

Dad/Papa/Grandpa will be lovingly remembered by his children, Richard (Maureen), Liz Bassett (Darryl) and his grandchildren, Gareth (Tiffany) and Braden Jones, Colin and Mark Bassett. He was predeceased by his parents and siblings.

We will say so long to Jim on April 28th at 1:30 p.m., The Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Avenue, Toronto. Reception to follow. He always liked a party.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Sunnybrook Veterans Grant a Wish. Funeral arrangements entrusted to Trull Funeral Home, 1111 Danforth Ave. (416)465-4661.

LISA LEBRETON KORTHALS December 3, 1968 March 28, 2018

Age 49, died on Wednesday, March 28, 2018 in an avalanche just north of Pemberton, BC.

Born in Toronto on December 3, 1968, Lisa enjoyed a life full of adventure. Her defiant will to live life on her own terms led her into many fields of pursuit, all of which she diligently perfected with grace and determination.

As a young girl she pursued a variety of activities including sailing, tennis and badminton but really discovered a passion for the outdoors while attending Camp Wanapatei. She became an avid canoe tripper and parlayed this into leading young teens on long, remote trips in Northern Ontario and the Yukon. The Coast Mountains of BC beckoned after high school and she based herself in Whistler where she thrived and progressed in the ski school, becoming a Level IV instructor.

Later in life she transitioned into ski guiding and worked at Mike Wiegele as well as becoming operations manager for Coast Range Helisports. She also managed at this time to obtain her real estate license and it soon became a flourishing business for her. She was also heavily involved in her husband, Johnny's handcrafted ski manufacturing business.

Lisa leaves behind a huge legacy in Whistler and Pemberton and will be remembered for her dazzling smile, infectious laugh, candour, warm hugs, many kisses and uncompromising style. Lisa is survived by her husband, Johnny; her son, Tye; her mother, Judy and husband, Peter Irwin; her father, Robin and wife, Janet Charlton; and her brother, Jamie. She was predeceased by her brother, Chris.

Many relatives include sisters-inlaw, Julie and Juliette; nieces, Mackenzie, Emma, Willa and Frances; and nephew, Leaf. www.

lisakorthals.forevermissed.com www. gofundme.com/lisa korthals-and-family-fund

HORST KREYSSIG

It is with great sadness, we announce the passing of Horst Kreyssig, dear Husband to Jean, beloved Father to Marcia and Paul, Jennifer and Nathaniel, and Mark and Susan. Loving Opa to James and Eva, Stefan, Alex, Leonardo, Amanda and Ryan. Grand Opa to Emily Jean. Horst passed away peacefully on Good Friday March 30, 2018.

Horst had great respect for the precious nature of time. His days were always full with the responsibilities and joys of family and, up until very recently, his well-regarded work as a financial planner. We will miss his constant support.

In his last years, he was committed to building thoughtful and deep connections with all those he loved.

Many will recall his legendary stories, his early years spent in Berlin and Austria, and his many adventures after immigrating to Canada at 18 years of age--landing first in Winnipeg and later to Toronto, where he met his life partner of 57 years, Jean and started his family.

Horst also had great appreciation for the finer things in life...

camping with the kids, southern sunsets by the ocean, and long walks with friends. Conversations with Horst on the meaning of life, modern art, photography, Jazz, and so much more, enriched and inspired many. In his final years, Horst was an avid reader and he gained much comfort in the writings of Thomas Merton. Until his last breath, Horst's faith in God was profound.

As were his wishes, Horst was cremated with only immediate family present. A celebration of Life will be announced at a later date, where all who loved and admired Horst will be able to share memories and toast to his memory.

In lieu of flowers, a donation to the Scott Mission would be welcome.

http://www.scottmission.com/donate/.

JAMES H. LAND At Sechelt, B.C., April 12, 2018.

Son of the late Louisa and Archie Land of Toronto.

Brother of Nancy Watson of Picton, ON. Uncle of Pamela (Col Rory) Radford of London, UK and Peter Watson of Picton. Predeceased by brother-in-law, Geoffrey Watson; and niece, Prudence Watson.

He was a nature lover, activist, innovator and adventurer.

Interment Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto.

LUISE LEIKAUF

Passed away peacefully in her sleep at Mackenzie Health Centre on Saturday, April 7, 2018.

Luise, in her 90th year, was born in the city of Nurnberg, Germany on October 30, 1928. She moved to Canada in 1954 with her husband and raised her family in the city of Toronto. Luise is the widow of beloved husband Bill.

Loving mother to Glenn and Janice. Adoring Oma to Troy, Tayler, Thomas and Erik.

In celebration of her life, a viewing will be held at R. S.

Kane Funeral Home on Tuesday, April 17 from 6:00 p.m. until 9:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please make a donation to the Canadian Cancer Society.

MARGARET LILLIAN MARSH (nee Peddie)

Died peacefully at Glen Warren Lodge in Victoria at 90. Born in Prince Rupert on July 19, 1927 to parents, Thomas Peddie and Olga Sophia Esther, she was one of six siblings.

Graduating from Burnaby South High School, Margaret was gifted and hard working, graduating with top honours. With a scholarship to Queens University to study Medicine she graduated in 1955, and practised medicine for the next 15 years. She also loved playing the piano which she often said was her true passion. Her other passion was traveling to escape winters, and lived in New Zealand, India, and the Philippines.

Our mother was an optimist, some would call her a visionary, always searching for ways to help people through nutrition, spirituality and holistic medicine. She lived her life on her terms pursuing what she believed in. She was impulsive often unconventional, but also adventurous and courageous.

Ultimately her life long quest was to help others! Survivedbysons,Peter,Chris,Steve, David; and 11 grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Predeceased by her siblings, Ida, Olga, Tom, and Jennie; survived by brother, Jock.

There will be a celebration of life service on June 23rd, 2-4 p.m. at First Memorial, 4725 Falaise Dr. Victoria, BC. Send condolences to: http://www.dignitymemorial.com

LYNN MORRISON (nee Hyde)

It is with profound sorrow that the family of Lynn Elizabeth Morrison (nee Hyde) announce her death in Guelph, on Saturday, April 7, 2018, at the age of 63. She is survived by her husband, Ronald Roy Morrison; father, Alexander (Sandy) Hyde; sister, Janet Hyde (Tom Mercik); uncle, Farrell Hyde (Marguerite); and her cousins, niece, and nephew.

Lynn had a lifelong passion for nursing. She was valedictorian of the last class of nurses to graduate from The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and went on to earn her BSc. and MSc. in nursing at the University of Western Ontario and University of Toronto respectively. Lynn worked as a neonatal nurse at the Hospital for Sick Children and later as a nurse practitioner specializing in neonatal air transport. Eventually her illnesses prevented her from continuing her nursing career and she enjoyed a quiet life in Guelph with her loving husband, Ron. Services are private.

Arrangements entrusted to the Gilchrist Chapel - McIntyre & Wilkie Funeral Home, 1 Delhi Street, Guelph, (519-824-0031). If desired, donations to Sick Kids Foundation http://www.sickkidsfoundation.com would be appreciated. We invite you to leave your memories and donations online at: http://www.gilchristchapel.com and they will be forwarded to the family.

ROBERT FRANCIS NOBLE

After a long battle with cardiac disease Robert died peacefully at home on April 10, 2018 in his 79th year.

Beloved husband of Anne (nee Jeffery) for 49 years.

Dear brother of Mary-Lou Merritt and her husband the late Gordon, and brother-inlaw of John Jeffery and his wife Barbara of the UK.

Lovingly remembered by his niece, nephews, and their families. A memorial service will be held at the R.S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge St. (at Goulding, south of Steeles) on Wednesday, April 18 at 1:30 p.m., with visitation from 12:30 p.m. If desired, donations to the Heart & Stroke Foundation would be appreciated. Condolences http://www.rskane.ca

ELIZABETH "BETTY" JOAN NORTH (nee Cox)

Passed away peacefully at her home in Meighen Manor, Toronto on Tuesday, April 10 at 6:10 a.m.

She was 93 years old.

Betty was born on May 31, 1924 in Ottawa to George and Nellie (Moodie) Cox. She grew up in Ottawa and spent much of her youth at the family cottage near Fitzroy Harbour. She trained at Ottawa Civic Hospital and the University of Toronto to be a Public Health Nurse and started her career with the Victorian Order of Nurses in Guelph and Ottawa. In 1952 she married John North and continued her nursing career in Ottawa, as possible, while raising a family. John and Betty retired to Nanaimo BC in 1986 where they lived together until his death in 1993. Betty moved to Toronto in 2012 to live with son Ian and his wife Jennifer.

Betty was always helpful to others both as a nursing professional and as a friend. She was a fan of singer Bing Crosby and during her life travelled to Mexico, the UK, Italy, Scandinavia and Russia.

She enjoyed nature and travelling with her husband John and their camper van all over North America.

She is survived by two sons, Ian and James; a daughter-in-law, Jennifer; two grandchildren, Adelaide and Brendan; and two great-grandchildren, Ella and Cayden. She will be missed by her entire family, including nieces and nephew, Wendy, Jane, Olwyn, Neil, and her dear friends Mary and Ruth.

In the words of a 1949 NFB documentary about her work in the VON, "she was everybody's nurse".

In lieu of flowers, the family requests that memorial donations be made to the Victorian Order of Nurses at von.ca. Interment will be held in Nanaimo at Cedar Valley Memorial Gardens and announced at a later date.

HEINZ H. RIEGER May 12, 1940 - April 7, 2018

Heinz passed away peacefully at home in his 78th year, surrounded by his family, with the Masters in the background on TV.

Friend, soulmate, and beloved husband of Margaret (nee Buchan). Proud father of Mark (Jennifer Platz) and Janice (Jon Colpitts). Outstanding Opa to Max and "Squashie" Colpitts, James Rieger, Andrea and Benjamin Platz. Cherished brother of MaryLouise from Quebec (Daniel McCormick) and Greti Rieger from Australia (Paul Wickham), and brother-in-law of Elizabeth from New Zealand (Murray Roberts).

Loving uncle to Michael and Matthew McCormick, and David and the late Helen Roberts. Dear friend to many.

Heinz came to Canada in 1957 to join his family in Montreal after completing his apprenticeship in plumbing, heating, and sheet metal in his native Austria. He worked in these trades while completing his commerce degree at Sir George Williams University.

After graduating, he worked at Sears Canada in Ottawa and Toronto, in the Plumbing and Heating Department. From Sears he moved to the fireplace industry, and ultimately cofounded CFM Inc. (Canadian Fireplace Manufacturing) in 1987, which became the leading gas fireplace manufacturer in North America.

Heinz retired in 1997 to pursue his many interests including photography and rebuilding antique cars. Together with Margaret, he greatly enjoyed travel and Scottish Country Dancing. He also devoted considerable time to his passion, golf, finding a number of kindred spirits with whom to share his enthusiasm.

Family and friends are invited to share their memories of Heinz during visitation at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Tuesday, April 17 between 2:00 to 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. The funeral will take place on Wednesday, April 18, at 11:00 a.m. at Northlea United Church, 125 Brentcliffe Road, Toronto.

The family wishes to thank Heinz's many wonderful caregivers: Dr. Robert McKellar, the Michael Garron and Sunnybrook Hospitals, the Temmy Latner Centre, Saint Elizabeth Home Care and nurses Eunice and Christina from Nurses Next Door. In lieu of flowers, donations in memory of Heinz can be made to the Sunnybrook Foundation, directed to Melanoma Research.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

WARREN RITCHIE August 18, 1932 - April 7, 2018

Dad died the way he lived - with decisiveness, a consideration for others, and an eagerness to embrace the next adventure. And he got the timing right... At 85, he died before he got old. Weeks before the stroke that claimed his life, he was regularly catching first tracks on the slopes of Holimont, and he was excited about his upcoming trip to Whistler. Skiing came second only to family in what made him happiest.

He leaves behind children, Kelly, Stewart (Deb), Julie (Chris Byers); grandchildren, Sam, Jessica, Allison, Bridget and Libby; as well as nieces, Heather Bilodeau and MaryAnn McKenzie (Roy); and a handful of old friends.

Warren was a man whose qualities were as diverse as they were admirable. True to his Port Arthur roots, he was a real outdoors man, with a love of nature, duck hunting and fishing.

He was able to fix and build anything, skills garnered from turning fixer-uppers in Lorne Park Estates and Ellicottville, NY into beautiful living spaces. Privacy and natural beauty were key, and properties were always well tended yet authentic, from the periwinkle and impatiens in LPE to his "lawn" in E'ville. Just last summer he was planting seed and pushing his mower across his 2+ acre property.

As a father, he was strong, supportive, and relaxed. And though we knew he loved us, we were often afraid as kids of his quick - yet mercifully shortlived temper. Friends were not always spared from his exacting standards. Ever a generous and gracious host, you'd be met with a look of shocked disapproval if you asked for ice in your single malt, or your beef done any way other than rare. Heaven help the person cooking his burgers! He also had a healthy sense of fun.

Friends still recount tales of late night jazz shows, boozy dinners, and terrifying drives down treacherously snowy (and closed) Whig Street.

His gentle side was evident in the company of his grandchildren, his fondness for watching deer pass outside the chalet window, and his love of animals, especially cats.

A thoughtful man, he endeared himself to owners of obscure yet excellent restaurants (God knows how he and mom found these places!) by giving small gifts like Red River Cereal or Canadian Back Bacon. A natural athlete, we learned late in his life about the races he won running against the older boys at St. Andrew's College. Throughout his career as a Chartered Accountant and his decade as Treasurer of Holimont, he showed great integrity and honesty.

But by far the greatest love in his life was his "best buddy", Glenna.

Rarely are spouses more unified, and we are forever grateful for the loving example they set. Of course, as kids this gift was lost on us, as we tried (unsuccessfully) to muffle the sounds of their LPs playing late into the night as they snuggled on the couch with a bottle or 2 of red wine! Sad as we are to lose him, we can't help but feel happy that he and mom are now reunited, no doubt cruising down the best ski hills, drinking scotch, and tracking down where Glenn Miller is playing next.

You got it right, dad. You are an inspiration to us all, and we have no doubt you will enjoy this next chapter with the same zest you did the last.

Goodbye, dear dad. We love you and will miss you, always.

IAN ROBERT RUSSELL

Born in Toronto on October 25, 1940, the middle child of Michael and Ruth (Petrie) Russell, Ian died at 1:40 a.m. on April 12, 2018 at his home in Christie Gardens.

A graduate of UTS and with a Master degree in Engineering from the University of Toronto, he was a brilliant student and an independent thinker, moved and directed by high principles of justice and compassion. His career at Ontario Hydro spanned over two decades. He was its Comptroller General and, when promoted Director of Corporate Planning and Forecasting, he introduced major management innovations in the department, including increasing employees' autonomy and gender parity.

He inspired staff and colleagues around him in various ways.

One of these colleagues, after a visit with Ian, reminisced on different aspects of the influence Ian exerted on him.

His words echo other peoples' frequent comments about Ian.

Professionally: "There were times [...] Ian had to play referee. I don't think he ever directed me to take a different approach, he just pointed out alternatives."

In health and fitness: "If Ian had not been such an avid runner and avid student of running, I would [...] have a totally different body shape". As a parent: "He was definitely ahead of his time in taking such an active role in parenting. Things like leaving a meeting before it was over to make the daycare pickup time weren't common at the time, yet somehow Ian was able to manage it all and be respected by his boss, staff and colleagues for being able to do that."

Curious, loyal, and thorough, Ian distinguished himself by his ability to read a situation, capture its essence, and introduce improvements. Socially aware, an engaged citizen, a feminist man before his time, unassuming, gentle and sensitive, Ian was an active member of the local, national and international social justice community. Some of the Boards and Committees he served on were: as Chair of the Board of the Addiction Research Foundation (Present CAMH) from 1993 to 1997; as Co-chair, with Jack Layton, of the White Ribbon Campaign; as Treasurer of COSTI; on the Board of Oxfam Canada; on the Admission Committee of the United Way of Toronto.

He is survived by his wife, Bruna Nota; son, Michael; grandson, Rashon; step-children, Moira and Martin Nota-Smith; stepgrandsons, Xavier and Félix Lorrain-Smith; sister, Jane; brother, Michael (Marlene Turner); niece, Emma (great-nephew, Kaenoa); and nephew, Ben.

Bruna and the family are deeply appreciative of the staff at Christie Gardens for their consistently dedicated care. At his request, Ian's brain will support research on Parkinson's disease at the Movement Disorder Centre at Toronto Western Hospital. Other organs will be used for donation or research.

A memorial will be held at a date to be determined. In lieu of flowers, the family suggests that donations be made to the Christie Gardens Foundation or other charity.

BETTY SINGER

Peacefully on Thursday, April 12, 2018 at North York General Hospital. Beloved wife of the late Hyman Singer. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Cathy Singer and Matty Grossman, Peggy and the late Robert Singer.

Dear sister and sister-in-law of the late Ruth and Sam Teitelbaum, the late Jean Smith and Wayne Smith, and the late Micki and Bert Nyman. Devoted Bebe to Rachel and Jamie, Noah and Sarah, and Jordan. Great-Bebe to Jack and Oliver. Loving aunt to her nieces and nephews. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, April 15, 2018 at 11:30 a.m.

Interment Pride of Israel Section of Mt. Sinai Memorial Park. Shiva Sunday following the interment at 7825 Bayview Avenue #611, and Monday to Wednesday from 6:30 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. at 359 Glengrove Avenue. Memorial donations may be made in Robert's memory to CNS Site Group - Odette Cancer Centre c/o The Sunnybrook Foundation, 416-480-4483. Betty, Bea, Bessy, Bebe and Mom - you were a shining star and a guiding light.

You will be sorely missed.

BRENDA CHRISTINA SMITH (Tomlin)

With great sadness, the Smith family announces the passing of Brenda on April 9, 2018. Born on July 5, 1938, Brenda was a devoted wife and best friend to Garry; loving mother to Leah, Lyndsey (Dan) and Erin; proud grandmother to Sarah, Luke, Lauren and Kaitlyn; and sister to Brian Tomlin (Georgia).

She met Garry in their teens in 1955 while working at Dominion Stores then married in 1961, living in their Mississauga home for 54 years. Brenda had an esteemed career first with the Peel Board of Education and then as Human Resources Manager with the City of Mississauga.

With an infectious joy for life, Brenda's bubbly, friendly and caring personality touched countless people. She shared her intelligence, grace and humour with friends and family near home and at the family cottage in Gravenhurst.

Her life's passion was her family in whose hearts she will live on forever. She loved music, reading, travelling, playing bridge, pilates and spending time with her sorority sisters.

A Celebration of Life will be held at Islington United Church, 25 Burnhamthorpe Rd, Etobicoke, on Saturday, April 21, 2018, 11 a.m. with reception to follow, visitation 10 a.m. - 11 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, memorial donations can be made to Trillium Health Partners Foundation - Mississauga Hospital, ICU at trilliumgiving.ca (905.848.7585) or to The Dorothy Ley Hospice at dlhospice.org (416.626.0116)

JAMES CHARLTON THOMPSON

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of James Charlton Thompson (Jim), at Peterborough Regional Health Centre on Thursday, April 12, 2018, at the age of 77. Jim fought with great optimism against lymphoma, making plans to visit England to see family and friends and to attend the Bisley meeting.

Born in Leeds, Yorkshire, Jim attended St. Lawrence College and Cambridge University, completing his Ph.D. in Chemistry. His long academic career started with a post doctorate posting in Houston, Texas at Rice University before moving to Toronto where he spent his career at the University of Toronto in the Chemistry Department as Associate Chairman and later at the Scarborough campus as Physical Sciences Division Chairman.

Jim retired in 2003, allowing him to devote his time and energy to his passion for target rifle shooting.

A Life Member of the Ontario Rifle Association and Dominion of Canada Rifle Association, he traveled the world to participate in shooting competitions, captain international teams and catch up with friends. His committed involvement to the ORA and DCRA in various administrative positions resulted in being named to the DCRA Shooting Hall of Fame in 2005 and being made a Life Governor of the DCRA.

Jim was the much-loved father of Claire (Richard Draycott) and Eva (Pascal Lemieux); and grandfather of Peter and Stephanie. Dear brother of Pete and Sue; and beloved stepson of Liz. Fondly remembered by Marion Thompson.

Jim will be remembered for his wit, love of good single malt and Madeira, appreciation of his friends and family, and will be greatly missed.

Many thanks to the staff of the Peterborough Regional Health Centre palliative care staff for their affectionate care and attention over the past few weeks.

A service will be announced at a later date. In lieu of flowers, a donation may be made to the Dominion of Canada Rifle Association or Peterborough Regional Health Centre.

DR. DONALD VERNE THOMSON DC

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Dr.

Donald Verne Thomson on April 11, 2018 at the age of 89. He leaves his loving wife, Huguette and stepdaughters, Kerry Ann (Steven) Asprey and Sherry Lyn (Mark) Duley. Predeceased by his wife, Joan and his son, Curtis. He leaves his sons, Lance (Sheila), Shawn and Darryl (Kerri). He also leaves a total of eight grandchildren and one great-granddaughter.

A Celebration of his life will be held at the Ridley Funeral Home, 3080 Lake Shore Blvd. W. (at 14th St., between Islington and Kipling Aves., 416-259-3705) on Saturday, April 21, 2018. Visitation will be held from 2:00 to 3:00 p.m. A Memorial Service will begin in the Chapel at 3:00 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, contributions to Bethell Hospice - foundation. bethellhospice.org would be greatly appreciated. Messages of Condolence may be placed at RidleyFuneralHome.com.

DOROTHY MARION TIEDJE (nee Taylor)

Passed away peacefully at her home on March 26, 2018, at the age of 95, as previously announced on March 31. A memorial service will be held at 11:00 a.m. on May 5, at Central United Church, 220 George St., Sarnia, Ontario.

Arrangements entrusted to McKenzie & Blundy Funeral Home & Cremation Centre, 519-344-3131. Messages of condolence and memories may be left at http://www.mckenzieblundy.com

ELIZABETH WEBSTER 1925-2018

Elizabeth Webster died peacefully, aged 93, at her home in Dundas, Ontario, Wednesday, April 11, 2018, surrounded by her family.

Daughter of the late Anne Marie Holbourne and William Lowe Gush. Survived by her children, Marc, Ardyth (Boris) Brott, Charlie (Carol), and Jimmy (Mary-Anne); her grandchildren, Alexandra, David (Marijana), Benjamin (Jennifer), Lauren (Mark), Callum, and Colin; and treasured greatgrandchildren, Isabella, Everett, Audrey, and Ève.

Born in Toronto, she specialized in modern languages at the University of Toronto, Victoria College, graduating with honours in 1946.

She was awarded the Queen's Silver Jubilee Medal in 1978 for her services to Canadian music, the Association of Canadian Orchestras Award in 1986, she was the first recipient of the annual Cultural Executive Award by the Association of Cultural Executives.

She was appointed to the Order of Canada in 1992, was awarded the Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal in 2002 and the Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012.

Betty made an indelible impression on everyone who knew her and was a positive force in Canadian orchestral life throughout her tenure with the Hamilton Philharmonic Orchestra (1967-75), the Ontario Federation of Symphony Orchestras and Association of Canadian Orchestras (1975-97), and as the founding Executive Director of Orchestras/Orchestres Canada (1997-2001). She was a very proud Canadian and revered and loved every part of this great country.

Visitation Sunday, April 15th and Mon. April 16th, 6 p.m. - 8 p.m. at Dodsworth & Brown Funeral, 378 Wilson St. E., Ancaster. Funeral Tuesday, April 17th, 2:30 p.m.

at Christ Church Cathedral, 252 James St. N. Reception to follow in Myler Hall.

DEBORAH EMILY SCHARBACH WHITEMAN 1952 - 2018

Deborah Emily Scharbach was born the youngest of three children on January 21, 1952 to John and Myrtle Scharbach. Deb completed elementary and secondary school in Toronto and an Honours BA in English Literature at Trent University in 1975; she was one of six students awarded the Symons Medal for a student in an honours program with highest overall standing on graduation.

During that time, she married and had two children, Emily Thera Whiteman, who lives in Pasadena California with husband, Bruce Buonauro, and Jesse David Whiteman, currently pursuing a PhD in neuroscience at York University, Toronto. She subsequently moved to Toronto, then Hamilton, Ontario (where she completed work towards a dual major in French), Montreal, Que, and Los Angeles, California (where she obtained her Masters in Library and Information Sciences (with distinction) at UCLA in 2003: Specialization - Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Many friends might be surprised to learn that Deborah spent two years as a private librarian to Loren and Frances Rothschild, major American collectors of Somerset Maugham. She wrote a bibliographical catalog for their collection, published by Heritage Books, LA, 2001.

Deborah worked at UCLA as a Rare Book Cataloguer and Special Collections Librarian 2004-2009 and then assumed the position of Head, Archives & Special Collections at Santa Clara University. In November, 2013, she attained the position of Head, Department of Rare Books & Special Collections at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto and was delighted to come home to Canada. Back in Toronto, she became even closer to her sister, Pat Harris and her husband, Dave; nephews, Michael, (Brandy), Sean (Lori) and Stephen (Brandy); and their children, Kaylee, Connor, Ocea, Jordan, Emma, and Owen.

When she retired from The Thomas Fisher Library in 2017 because of the recurrence of pancreatic cancer, there was an outpouring of sadness and praise from her staff. All of Deborah's colleagues from the top down let her know in phone calls and mail that her presence had changed the culture at the Fisher in so many positive ways.

On Easter Sunday, April 1, 2018, Deb left us. She had chosen Medical Assistance in Dying.

On January 5, 2018, Deb came to live with us, her sister, Nan Williamson and husband, Rod in Peterborough, for her palliative care. Pat lamented that she was "losing her best friend."

In the weeks before Easter, Deb had visits, tearful and happy, with her nephews, Stephen, Sean, and Michael. Deborah's children, Jesse and Emily, were at her side talking and sharing their love in her last three days. Deb had requested candles, incense and music; and so, that last Sunday morning, her children sang to her as Jesse played one of her favourite songs, The Canticle of the Sun, also known as Laudes Creaturarum, Canticle of the Creatures, composed by Saint Francis of Assisi. It is a song to the Creator giving praise for the wonders of the material world; Francis wrote that everything in the natural world was a gift from God and, as such, deserved to be appreciated and valued.

All creation is shouting for joy Come, dance in the forest, come, play in the field, And sing, sing to the glory...

These lyrics so expressed Deborah. She loved all the things of this world, most of all beauty: changing winter sky colours and patterns, snow-lined trees, chickadees and juncos, seen each day from our parlour windows while she was ill, and before illness, the pleasure of neighbourhood walks in the ravine, deep blue violets popping up on the lawn. When she could no longer be out of doors she found beauty inside. Hers was a life of the arts: she found beauty in the curved lines of a copper pitcher, sketched for her notebook, she appreciated fine art, music and literature and, of course, the book, not only the historical significance, but the physicality - the beauty of bindings and illustrations. According to Pierce Carefoote, her successor, she loved the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 and showed it to a lot of visitors, the first super-illustrated book in print history with over 1800 wood cut illustrations and a wonderful Book of Hours from Paris ca.1460.

In early days she played the flute and the recorder and created sensitive watercolours. A visit to the AGO was her favourite Toronto outing. Other pleasures were creating delicious meals, wearing lovely clothes - the feel of cashmere, the smell of lavender, the taste of a perfectly ripe avocado, sliced and sprinkled with lemon juice and sea salt. These past months, she greeted us with a big smile every morning, felt joy as the sun touched her bed, as she drank her strong coffee with honey and cream. I have been aware these past months how deeply she responded to touch and caress that is truly present and truly loving. Such a sensitive, sensuous woman.

Deb loved beauty, yes, but also something more. Brought up as a Catholic, she kept the best parts for herself but searched for personal spiritual meaning in many places. She kept a copy of Aunt Blanche's bible and she searched for personal meaning in Buddhist philosophy. By her side, was a thumbed and underlined copy of You Are Here by Thich Nhat Hanh, the renowned Zen monk, author and meditation master. She was in the process of discovering how far mindfulness could take her.

Those who know her will remember her deep and compassionate listening.

She never listened in order to judge, criticize or evaluate. She listened to offer the other person a chance to express him or herself. And her deep looking directed toward the other made her capable of understanding and forgiveness.

One nighttime support worker said, "It was an honour to be with her."

We took care of Deb at our home for the last three months. We loved having her with us, so many interests, so intelligent and thoughtful, such a sense of humour, so grateful for the little pleasures of this world.

The morning of her leaving, a wonderful coincidence occurred: the doctor, who delivered Jesse at a Montreal hospital in 1988, was the same doctor who delivered Deb to peace. Deb rejoiced at their meeting.

She died with courage and grace, went to sleep surrounded by those close to her, with candles, incense and love.

That's the personal Deborah we knew. Her presence enriched us.

There will be a gathering of remembrance for close family and friends in Toronto: date and location TBD. Instead of a gift of flowers or other tributes, please consider a donation to the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, U of T.

NANCY JANE REID (nee Boyd) June 20, 1926 - December 18, 2017

Friends are cordially invited to join her family and The Chamber Music Society of Mississauga in a memorial celebration of Nancy's life and accomplishments at Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario Street, Mississauga (HWY 10, N. of QEW) on Saturday, April 21, 2018 at 3 p.m., followed by a reception.

RSVP's may be made through her guestbook at http://www.turnerporter.ca

RONALD WHITE

On April 4, 2018 Ron White was cast in a courageous and undaunted final fight with cancer.

Thousands of messages from adoring friends and relatives inspired this last act of his rich and full life.

He was a hugely celebrated Canadian actor who masterfully moved from stage to screen.

Born in 1953 in Dawson Creek, B.C., Ron was predeceased by father, Thomas Earl; mother, Grace Mary; brother, Brian; and twin brother, Don. Ron will be dearly missed by his treasured son, Jesse White; best-friend and best-foe, Lisa; big brother, Earl; and many much loved nieces, nephews, and in-laws.

The family expresses deepest thanks to Dr. Gail Darling and Dr.

Jennifer Knox, TGH staff, as well as the many friends who loved and supported him.

A celebration of Ron's life will take place at Crow's Theatre, May 6th at 3 p.m., Streetcar Crowsnest, 345 Carlaw Avenue, Toronto.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to The Actors Fund of Canada in memory of Ron White.

MARJORIE ANNE WYNDHAM

After a long and wonderful life, passed away peacefully, at Muskoka Landing, Huntsville, on Tuesday, April 10, 2018 in her 98th year. Anne was the beloved wife of the late John Steen "Jack" Wyndham. Loving mother of John (Lois), Andrea Ross (Geoff), and the late Cam (Mary Rothfels).

Cherished grandmother of Morna Watts (Chris), Gregory Watts (Melissa), Colin Wyndham (Sarah), Jennifer Ross, Trevor Ross (Jenny), Martin Wyndham, and Lee Wyndham (Nathan). Greatgrandmother of Connor, Griffin, Owen, Spencer, Cameron, Rowan, Oscar, Felicity, and Chelsea. Anne was predeceased by her three sisters and one brother.

She leaves behind countless memories of love, laughter, and finding something special in every day.

A celebration of life will be held in the summer. If desired, memorial contributions may be made to the Alzheimer Society.

Arrangements entrusted to Reynolds Funeral Home, Bracebridge, ON. Personal condolences may be sent at http://www.reynoldsfuneral.com

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B18


DAVID IAN WILLIAM BRAIDE

David Braide died on Thursday, April 12, 2018, at Lady Minto Hospital in Ganges, Salt Spring Island, British Columbia. In his 91st year, he took to the road in his beloved 1994 Subaru SVX, had a heart attack while underway, made it home, and was then transported to the hospital where he died with his wife, Joan, at his side. While he wasn't ready to leave this earth, it is doubtful he could have scripted a better end.

David was born on February 23, 1928, in Liverpool, England (mother, Laura Davida Braide, nee Ker) where his father, Reginald William Braide, was posted with the British Army. In 1933, his father's regiment transferred to India and David spent the next six years at St. Piran's School in England.

After joining his parents in India he, his sister, mother and governess left at the outbreak of the Second World War, and the family relocated to Victoria to live with his mother's relations. David was educated at University School in Victoria, BC, Trinity College School in Port Hope, ON and the University of British Columbia, and received a Master of Arts in Economics at the University of Toronto. During his time at U of T, he met Janet Harbron, who would become his wife, until her death in 1987. David was a gifted student and had a lifelong love of economics and world affairs. He liked to tell the story about the time he took sticky tape and a razor blade into a microeconomics exam to construct a pop-up demand curve in the exam booklet.

David had been preparing himself for a career in the diplomatic service but having graduated at 20, didn't make the age minimum. He accepted what he thought would be a brief posting with Canadian Industries Limited (CIL).

That brief posting turned into a 36-year career with CIL culminating in his retirement in 1985 as Vice-Chairman. David took on increasingly senior roles in Montreal, New York and Toronto, including Vice-President of ICI North America Ltd., and made significant contributions to Canada's international business standing as Chair of the Task Force on Canada-U.S. Trade Policy, Chairman of the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, Chair of the Institute for International Peace and Security and on the Executive Committee of the Canadian-American Committee. While David advanced in his career, Janet obtained a Master of Fine Arts degree and became a successful curator, author and lecturer on Canadian art history. They travelled extensively, often as part of Janet's art history research, or repaired to the family country place on the St. Lawrence River near Iroquois where David kept a wildly overproductive vegetable garden that no doubt benefited from the output of CIL's agricultural chemicals laboratories. David was a lifelong maker and fixer of things and would rather have repaired something five times than replace it. He was a talented woodworker and made several pieces of furniture, the first family TV and hi-fi units that are now family treasures.

David retired from CIL to lead the Niagara Institute in Niagara-On-The Lake where his devoted Schnauzer, Heidi, was a constant companion.

As important to David as his professional career, was his lifelong dedication to volunteer leadership and contributing to the communities in which he lived. In board roles that included The Montreal and Westmount YMCAs, The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, The Canadian Equestrian Team, The Lady Minto Hospital Foundation and Meadowbrook Seniors Residence in Ganges, David was known as a compassionate and principled leader who tended not to draw attention to himself but rather to help others shine. He was an early advocate for the advancement of women into leadership at CIL and a dogged supporter of Canadian art through growing the CIL art collection. These principles of giving back to the community live on in his children who have all made significant commitments to volunteer leadership in their professional lives.

In 1989, David met Joan Farlinger on an Art Gallery of Ontario trip to Thailand and Bali, and soon they were building a life together that included shared loves of travel, music, tennis and equestrian sport. In 1996, they de-camped from Toronto to Salt Spring Island where they built a classic West Coast house perched on the rocky Pacific shore. For David, it was a welcome return to the West and the chance to be closer to his sister, Penny, and the Ker, Hibbard, and Helmcken families.

David was a private man who enjoyed the peaceful quietude of his home life. Since purchasing the first Macintosh in 1984, he was a dedicated Apple enthusiast and always had the latest gear. As Chief Technology Officer of the household - and to some degree the family - he had an active presence on Apple forums and chats and was a willing tech trouble-shooter for anyone who would ask (and even some who didn't).

One of David's greatest pleasures was making (and consuming) his own marmalade, which he did for longer than anyone can remember. Even after decades of perfecting his recipe he still had the occasional disaster batch which was generally attributed to a bad season for oranges or the damp weather. He railed against the annual injustice of the Salt Spring Island Fall Fair. His marmalades never won ribbons and - to his dismay - were routinely disqualified for being "too chunky."

David was a voracious news reader and stayed in close touch with world affairs and contemporary economics. At 90, he still had a powerful mind and was eager to debate big questions about the future, frustrated that he wouldn't be around to "see how it all works out."

While age did not erode his faculties, it did soften his soul. Anyone lucky enough to know David in his later years will know he became a peacemaking and affectionate man who was deeply moved by the love and support of his family and friends. He persevered through innumerable health challenges with great stoicism and never took his eye off the possibilities for the future.

His plan for the coming summer was to do some body work on the Subaru to get her looking herself again.

David is survived by his second wife, Joan Aileen Farlinger; son, Robbie David Braide of Montreal (Marie Saint-Amour); daughters, Martha Janet Braide of Zurich, CH and Mary Jane Davida Braide of Toronto (John Hanna); stepdaughter, Margot Witthun of Dartmouth; step-son, Stephen Molz of Toronto; grandchildren, Vicki Braide, Ian Braide, Laurent Crevier, Jason Kurth, Kennedy McKee-Braide, Katie Burchert and Zach Witthun; sisters-in-law, Florence Kristjanson (nee Harbron) and Lillian Dyson-Babcock (nee Harbron); nephew, Mark Teare of Calgary (Irene deBruin) and their children, Hugo and Emily; niece, Alexandra Teare of Nanaimo; and brother-in-law, Peter Farlinger.

David was predeceased by his first wife, Janet Grace Mills Braide (nee Harbron, 1987); his sister, Penelope Ann Teare (nee Braide, 1998); and brother-in-law, John Harbron (2015).

A gathering for family and close friends will be held from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Saturday, May 12 in the Veranda Room at Hastings House, in Ganges.

Those who cannot attend are asked to remember David in their own way. He would probably suggest that in lieu of flowers or donations, each of you back up your hard drives, update your security software, and change your passwords.

CONSTANCE CONACHER November 25, 1930 - April 15, 2018

Her brave optimism, her gracious love, her wonderful energy and brilliant mind. All with a sense of humour, joy, and awe of life. A Spring of Light.

Strong Con, a beautiful soul who danced on this earth will be remembered lovingly and missed dearly.

Connie passed away swiftly and peacefully in her sleep. She was still running her own organizing business at 87! After her formative education at Havergal she had many careers over the years at Nursery Schools, Simpsons, Windsor Jewels, and her Dynamites store in Yorkville to name a few.

Mom was avant-garde even for the seventies, bringing art and dance to public schools with Prologue to the Performing Arts and in the eighties on the President's Council committee for the Canadian Opera Company.

The eldest child of the late Lionel Pretoria Conacher and Dorothy Kennedy of Toronto. Survived by her sister, Deanne (the late Evan Leuty); and brother, Brian (Susan Davis). Sister to the late Lionel K. Conacher (Judi Wilson) and the late David Conacher (Donna Taylor).

'Aunt Connie' to extended family and many friends. Cherished wife of the late John Murphy. Wonderful Mother to her daughter, Caroline Murphy; and her son, the late Geoffrey Murphy. Loving Nana to the late Connor Murphy Woods.

Family and friends are invited to a celebration of life service on Saturday, May 12 at 2 p.m. held at the Mount Pleasant Visitation Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Rd. The family welcomes you to the reception following the service.

Donations may be made to a charity of your choice. Condolences and memories may be forwarded through http://www.etouch.ca.

MARY LEA KENLY BELL January 22, 1932 - April 9, 2018

It is with great sadness that our family announces the passing of Mary Lea Kenly Bell. Born in Toronto to the late Jocelyn (Lea) and Robert Douglas Kenly. Mary Lea graduated from the Bishop Strachan School, Toronto, and from the School of Nursing at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, and the Montreal Neurological Institute. She had a challenging and interesting career in nursing clinical care, teaching, and administration at The Hospital for Sick Children and the Toronto General Hospital. In 1989, she married the love of her life, Ken Bell, and they moved to Gibsons Landing, BC, where they lived happily for many years.

She was predeceased by Ken in 2000; and leaves her sister, Judith Kenly; step- daughters, Karen Zacha and Susan Amon; as well as grandchildren, Andrew, Caitlin, and Chase Zacha and Mathew and Blake Amon.

Heartfelt thanks to the staff at the Sechelt Hospital including those who provided medical assistance in dying, (MAID).

ROBERT WALTER CADMAN January 23, 1929 - April 17, 2018

Robert "Bob" Cadman, 89, passed away peacefully surrounded by his loved ones, in Kingston, Ontario, a few days following a stroke that ended an otherwise healthy and fulfilling life. Beloved husband of Katharine "Kathy" Silver for 60 years. Loving father and (father-in-law) to Janet (Martin Chartrand) and Richard (Laurie Ross). Proud grandfather to Sarah and Robert. Bob will be greatly missed by his immediate family, including brother-in-law, William "Bill" Silver, as well as his many nieces, nephews, former CBC colleagues and duplicate bridge partners with whom he shared his life.

Bob attended the University of New Brunswick on a prestigious Lord Beaverbrook scholarship, and graduated with a B.A. degree in 1950. He had a 40-year career at the CBC and Radio Canada International as a producer and broadcaster in Halifax and Montreal. Bob was well known in Montreal as the quizmaster of the popular CBC TV show "Reach For the Top" for nearly 20 years.

For a generation of high school students, Bob represented the importance of getting a good education and "knowing your stuff."

Throughout his long life, Bob displayed a willingness to learn new things, always searching for more insight into our vast, complicated and beautiful universe, as expressed by such notable scientists as Stephen Hawking, Neil deGrasse Tyson and Paul Davies. Bob was an avid "indoorsman" and could always be found with a good science book in his hands.

The family would like to extend its thanks to the staff at Trillium Care Community.

A celebration of Bob's life is planned for later this year in Kingston.

In lieu of flowers, a donation may be made in his name to the Kingston Humane Society (http://www.kingstonhumanesociety.ca) or a charity of your choosing.

Share your memories and condolences at: http://www.cataraquicemetery.ca.

HAROLD RICHARD DENHAM P.ENG. "Rich"

On Thursday, April 19, 2018, Rich passed away quietly and peacefully, after complications from cardiovascular surgery.

Rich is proud to have spent 50 wonderful and enriching years with his wife and partner, Donna (Jarvis); with whom they raised four children, Adrienne (Simon), Michael (Chantelle), Tara (Scott), and Rebecca. Through these children, four energetic and thriving grandsons, Seth, Colton, Bryn, and Taylem, are left with loving memories.

Rich and his family pride themselves on his dedication and strong moral ethics that guided his outstanding career as a leader in civil and humanitarian engineering, and a trail blazing feminist. Rich cultivated and fostered a career that took him and his ideals from being the Commissioner of Environmental Services RMOC, to the war-torn mountains of Rwanda and Turkey with Médecins sans Frontières, and to many other countries and continents in between.

The passion for his career was matched by his community and volunteer work (recognized by The Canadian Society of Engineers with the Humanitarian Award). He loved fishing, skiing, cooking, playing his guitar, playing with his grandsons, and performing all manner of home renovations.

Rich is survived by his brother, Paul (Gail); and sister, Laurie (Nad). Rich was larger than life, impacted everyone he met, and lived and loved to the extreme.

A celebration of life is being planned for early summer.

Donations are encouraged to Médecins sans Frontières.

WILLIAM MARSHALL DODDS

Passed away peacefully at home, with his family on April 17, 2018. Beloved husband of Diane, enjoying 58 years of marriage. Loving father of Michael, Sharon, and Catherine. Proud grandfather of Zackary. He will be greatly missed by his surviving family members.

Bill's wishes were to be cremated and a private family service will take place at a later date. Online condolences may be made at http://www.dixongarland.com.

MARY HILDA DICKSON (nee Healey) May 25, 1920 - April 19, 2018

It is with great sadness for our loss, but incredible gratitude for the time we had together, that we announce the peaceful passing of our family's matriarch, Hilda Dickson, in her 98th year. Profoundly missed by her daughters, Catherine Crigger and Christine Barnes; grandchildren, Ryan Barnes (Catherine), Kevin Crigger (Ethan), Karen Szwedo (Mathew) and Bradley Barnes (Jordan); great-grandchildren, Audrey, Andrew, and baby Sebastian; many nieces, nephews, and dear friends. Predeceased by her husband, Robert and daughter, Colleen, we take great comfort in knowing they have been reunited at last.

Hilda lived an exemplary life and has left her family with a wonderful legacy.

She had a lifelong passion for learning, and instilled in those around her its great importance. Whether it be hours of reading with her grandchildren, continually drilling them on their multiplication tables, or many late nights working together on school projects, Hilda's grandchildren always had a constant support in their corner, pushing them on to succeed. She instilled in her children and grandchildren a strong work ethic, the importance of family, and strength of faith.

An insightful, tenacious, and deeply religious person, Hilda took great comfort throughout the trials and tribulations of life in her Catholic faith.

Predeceased by her parents, husband, daughter, 11 brothers and many family members and friends. Hilda experienced the ups and downs of life, but was always steadfast in her faith.

From her school days at St. Clare's and St. Joe's Wellesley, through to her work days at Toronto City Hall, and her many years in Etobicoke, Hilda made deep and lasting friendships wherever she went. She travelled extensively with "the girls", many of whom she was friends with her whole life long.

Since her birth in 1920, Hilda has seen a world of incredible change, having lived through the Great Depression, World War II, and numerous social and political conflicts. She saw a world of immense progress, having lived through 20 Prime Ministers, 9 Popes, and 4 British Monarchs.

Hilda sought to live life for as long as she could, and showed the same tenacity in death, as she did in life. The family would like to thank Dr. L. Mavrogiannis and Dr. R. Mah for their dedication and compassionate care; the staff of Dorothy Ley and The Westbury; Lori Parfenuik, Maureen Curtis, Father Ed Curtis, Joanne Cronin, Gordana Karan, Eva; and her incredible caregivers, Feli, Sally, Melanie, Bless and Claire for their support over the years.

Friends will be received at the Turner & Porter Butler Chapel, 4933 Dundas Street West, on Sunday, April 22nd from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. and 6 p.m. to 9 p.m.

A Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated at St. Clement Catholic Church, 409 Markland Drive in Etobicoke, on Monday, April 23rd at 11 a.m. Interment to follow at Mount Hope Catholic Cemetery, 305 Erskine Avenue and a reception at The Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Avenue immediately following.

Donations may be made in Hilda's memory to The Dorothy Ley Hospice.

SEYYED ALI EZZEDDIN MD, FRCP(C) 1936 - 2018

Dr. Ali Ezzeddin passed away peacefully and surrounded by his loving family on April 15, 2018.

Ali was born in Tehran, Iran to Seyyed Esmaiel Ezzeddin Zandjani and Sakineh Aghajan; and was brother to Nejat, Hassan, Fakhri, Akhtar, Reza, Javad, Parvin, and Nahid. Ali attended the University of Tehran and moved to North America in 1961 as a medical intern. He studied in New York, Philadelphia, and Winnipeg to gain his specialty recognition in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

Ali met and married Dr. Lois Stayura while working at the University of Alberta in Edmonton.

They later settled in British Columbia, where Ali established his practice in New Westminster, consulting at Royal Columbian, Surrey Memorial, Eagle Ridge and St. Mary's hospitals. After 45 years as residents of Delta, BC, Ali and Lois moved to Ottawa to be closer to their children and grandchildren.

Ali was recognized by his medical peers as a curious and extremely thorough physician, who loved taking on the most challenging cases. He cared deeply about the well-being of his patients and gave generously of his time, listening carefully to each person's story in consultations that could last for hours. His goal was always to provide the best care possible, no matter how long it took.

Ali was a gentle and loving father, who instilled in his children a love of learning and taught them to value kindness, education and service to others. He is survived by his wife, Lois Ezzeddin; his three children, Ross (Stephanie Tanton), Paul (Becky Clar), and Claire (Davide Cargnello); and four wonderful grandsons, Graydon, Jack, Andrew, and Luke.

Donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or Doctors Without Borders. An online memorial is available at http://www.beechwoodottawa.ca.

BERNARD CHARLES GRYBOWSKI January 2, 1948 - April 19, 2018

Devoted partner to Brenda Clarke, beloved father to Carly, Charles, and Lisa, Bernie passed away April 19th in his 70th year. He was an exuberant man, surviving two massive strokes a few years ago, and unfortunately passed away from complications.

Bernie was a charismatic individual always receiving the utmost respect from his peers.

He was a star athlete and scholar, played starting quarterback for the University of Toronto while completing his undergrad degree in business. He later completed his Masters in Business Finance at the University of Western.

Toronto born and raised, he created a successful career for himself in Venture Capital on Bay Street. He had tireless work ethic and a knack for finance always aiming for perfection.

Bernie was held in high regard by his colleagues, truly a remarkable business man of his time. He devoted his life to his career and family and will invariably be remembered for his accomplishments.

Bernie was the type of man that lit up the room. He was the life of the party, and always the center of conversation. He had a Zest for life. Brenda and him enjoyed many years of travelling and celebration, he truly loved her with all his heart. They were each other's everything, a true love story.

Muskoka was his favourite place to relax, the cottage will always be where his heart is. He enjoyed early morning slalom skies and barefooting. He was the official ski coach on 3 mile lake, teaching generations including his own children how to water ski. His Mastercraft was his prized possession and everyone on the lake would always see his boat first out in the morning. He had many friends on the lake, Brenda and him, relished in entertaining, throwing karaoke parties that went well into the night. He made many lifelong friends through all stages of his life, he treasured these friendships, may he always be remembered.

In memory of Bernie there will be a celebration of life held in early June. If anyone feels inclined to make a donation, please donate to the Trillium Health Partners.

The family would like to thank everyone for their thoughts and prayers during this emotional time. Condolences, photographs and memories can be forwarded to lisa@hfcan.com.

MARIANNE HARRIS (nee Syk)

Passed away peacefully on April 15, 2018 surrounded by her family at age 97, a fighter to the end.

Beautiful lady, devoted mother and best friend.

Survived by daughter, Madeleine (Ed Callway); granddaughter, Claire (Mitch Risman); and nephews, Staffan (Inger), Peter (Nina) and Ingvar Syk (Gisela).

Predeceased by her husband of 64 years, Daniel Harris; son, Michael Harris; and brother, Robert Syk (Ingrid).

The family thanks the staff of Kensington Gardens for their love and excellent care.

A celebration of Marianne's life will be held Sunday, April 29th, 2-4 p.m. at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Avenue West. No flowers. Donations to Toronto Humane Society (torontohumanesociety.com) or Ontario SPCA (ontariospca.ca)

BARBARA OWEN HILL (née Crassweller)

Died peacefully, April 14, 2018, aged 97. Predeceased by her beloved husband, Bob; and her brother, Peter. Dear mother of Sally (Gérard) and Martha (Jan).

Grandmother of Alex (Trisha), Geoffrey (Julia), Stephanie (Jeff), and Nicky. Great-grandmother of Elyssa and Maxwell.

Graduate of the University of Toronto. Served in the Canadian Women's Army Corps rising to Captain. Prodigious volunteer with the Junior League of Toronto and the Royal Ontario Museum.

Passionate bridge player and solver of cryptic crosswords until short weeks before her death.

Tennis player at the B&R until almost 90. Friend to so many.

The family sincerely thanks her community at the Russell Hill Retirement Residence, and the wonderful staff at Mount Sinai and Bridgepoint palliative care.

Cremation has taken place.

The family will receive friends at Morley Bedford Funeral Services, 159 Eglinton Avenue West, on Sunday, April 29 from 11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. with remembrances at 12:00 p.m.

Extra parking on side streets.

In lieu of flowers, a donation in her memory to ShelterBox Canada, 159 Jane Street, M6S 3Y8, http://www.shelterboxcanada.org, or your favourite charity would be appreciated.

MARY LOUISE HUBER (nee Shelley)

Of North Vancouver, died peacefully at age 97 on March 23, 2018. Mary was born in Kitchener Ontario in 1920, and was married to Dr. Grant Huber, an engineering professor, for 67 years.

Her sons, David of Hillside, Colorado (Cynthia), Chris (Kedy), and Alan (Ngaio); along with grandchildren, Jasmine, Jeremy, Jason, and Ella, all of Vancouver, will miss her.

Memorial donations may be made to the Dr Paul Sugar Foundation (https://www.paulsugarfoundation.

com/) or the MS Society of Canada (https://mssociety.ca/).

JAMES KEITH JOHNSON "J .K . "

Born in Sydenham Township, Ontario in 1930, James Keith Johnson died suddenly on April 13, 2018. The son of George Milford and Mary Louise Johnson, both of Sydenham Township; he was predeceased by his sister, Marjorie Woodhouse; and his brother, Tom.

Keith was the partner, husband, and best friend of Dr. Jill Vickers for 49 years; loving father of Mary and Elizabeth "Bobby" Johnson, Michael Vickers and Matthew Johnson; and affectionate "Grampa" of Alec, Calum, Leo, and Miles. He is also survived by his sister-in-law, Marjorie; nieces, Nancy, and Marilyn Plaumann, and nephews, Russell and David Johnson; nephew, Peter Woodhouse and nieces, Kathryn Taylor, Barbara Fawcett, and Margaret Hamilton.

Keith studied history at the University of Toronto, graduating from Victoria College with the Class of 5T3. He worked for the Public Archives of Canada and then taught in Carleton University's Department of History, specializing in Upper Canadian history. Retiring from teaching in 1995 as Emeritus Professor, he continued his research and writing right up until the day he died.

Keith was honoured with many academic awards including the Canadian Silver Jubilee Medal and the Ontario Historical Society's Cruikshank Gold Medal. His contributions to Canadian history include editing the Canadian Directory of Parliament and Affectionately Yours: The Letters of Sir John A. Macdonald and his Family and his books Becoming Prominent: Regional Leadership in Upper Canada and In Duty Bound: Men, Women and the State in Upper Canada.

Keith was known for his wry humour and for his gentleness, kindness, generosity, and humility. He was an enthusiastic supporter of all things Canadian, a longtime Toronto Argonauts fan, and an ardent and knowledgeable classical music lover. His daily pleasures included Jeopardy! and the Globe's Cryptic crossword.

A scholarship will be established in his name, to be awarded to Carleton University students studying Upper Canadian history. To send messages of condolence, receive details about the memorial, or find out how to donate to the scholarship fund, please email jkjohnsonmemorial@gmail.com.

SHARI KOLKER

On Thursday, April 19, 2018 at Hill House Hospice, Shari Kolker passed away peacefully after a long and courageous battle with Melanoma Cancer. Beloved wife of Stephen Flomen. Devoted daughter of Sam and Freda Kolker. Dear sister and sister in law of Lori Kolker, Pamela Kolker and Jason Praw, Lana Lewin, Avrum and Andrea Flomen.

Loving stepmother of Natalie and Jaclyn Flomen. Loving aunt of Jonathan, and Matthew Praw, Zachary Kolker, Celia, Daniel and Raquel Lewin, Hayley, Cody, and Shelby Flomen. Throughout her health battle she never lost her spark. Everyone who met her knows what a bright light she was on this earth. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, April 22, 2018 at 11:30 a.m.

Intermemt in the Adath Israel section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva visits at 171 Coltrane Drive, Thornhill.

Memorial donations may be made to Ride To Conquer Cancer c/o http://www.conquer cancer.ca/site/TR/Ride/ Toronto2018?px=3680655&pg= personal&fr_id=1641, or Hill House Hospice 905-737-9308, http://hillhousehospice.com/ donate/.

NINETTA LEAN

On Thursday, April 19, 2018 at her home. Beloved wife of Norman Lean. Loving mother and motherin-law of Marc and Alison Lean, Rob Lean and Andrea Lisus, John and Lucy Lean. Devoted Bubi of Nathan and Nicole, Naomi, Gabriel, William, and Hannah. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, April 23, 2018 at 11:30 a.m. Interment Pride of Israel Section of Mt. Sinai Memorial Park. Shiva 6 Carluke Crescent.

Memorial donations may be made to the Sunnybrook Hospital Foundation, 416-480-4483.

JEAN MACPHERSON MCCONNELL (nee MacKay) August 1, 1918 - March 21, 2018

It is with great sadness that Jean's family announces the death of their remarkable mother, motherin-law, grandmother, and great grandmother in her sleep on Wednesday, March 21, 2018, at Port Alberni, British Columbia.

She was born in Brandon, Manitoba in 1918. Preceded in death by her husband, Dr. Frederick Lorne McConnell (ret'd Captain, Canadian Army Medical Corps WWII); her parents, Dr. James Roy MacKay and Violet Mary MacKay (nee Macpherson); her brother, Dr. Ritchie MacKay; and sister, Margaret (Peggy) Fitzgerald; Jean was survived by her brother, Dr. John MacKay (USA); and her four children, Sandra Martin (Gerald), James McConnell, Janet Calcaterra (Frank), and Maryann McConnell; her nine grandchildren, Erica Austrums (Tim), Christine BenMeir (Gadi), Dr. Yarrow McConnell, Nikoline Calcaterra, Kieran McConnell (Katie), Campbell McConnell, Katie Calcaterra, Amelie Morin (Malcolm) and Matthieu McConnell; her eight great-grandchildren, Emily Austrums, Jonathan BenMeir, Abigail BenMeir, Elizabeth Austrums, Elianna Austrums, Michael BenMeir, Tyson McConnell and Luca Dewell.

Jean grew up in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, attended the University of Saskatchewan, graduating with a B.A. in 1938.

She taught high school in both Lloydminster and Regina returning to Saskatoon in 1943 when she married. She remained in Saskatoon through the war and until after the birth of Maryann, her fourth child. She, her husband and children spent a year and a half in Montreal where he studied for his Neurosurgery Degree at the Montreal Neurological Institute under Dr. Wilder Penfield.

In 1954, Jean moved to Toronto (Etobicoke) where she resumed her teaching career at Royal York Road Collegiate in business education. She then moved to Scarborough where she taught at W. A. Porter Collegiate and Winston Churchill Collegiate where she was named the head of the Commercial Department.

Subsequently, this extraordinary woman became the Vice-Principal at Bendale Vocational School, the first woman in Ontario to be appointed to such a position.

Following that, she joined the Ministry of Education in Ontario and rose through positions on the Niagara Peninsula and then back to Toronto in the Curriculum Department, finally retiring at age 62. During her professional career, she also co-authored with William Darnell, a typing textbook and a bookkeeping textbook, published by McGraw Hill and used for many years in Canadian schools.

She was active in professional educational organizations and served as President of the Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation.

After retirement, Jean lived in Parry Sound, Ontario where she served on the Board of the "Festival of the Sound". Later she moved to North Bay, Ontario where she belonged to the CFUW, the Probis Club, volunteered at the hospital and served on its Board.

In 1998 she moved to Vancouver Island, BC where she continued with her volunteer work and was active in the South Island Division of the Retired Teachers of Ontario.

Jean was loved and respected by all who knew her; family, friends, colleagues and ultimately her caregivers. She was outwardly focused, loved to read, travel and spent a lot of time visiting and helping her children and grandchildren. She was a constant source of encouragement and hope to those around her, believing strongly in education, hard work and giving of her time and resources. She was an avid gardener and a brilliant hostess, both of which brought her great joy. She kept in touch with her far flung family, east coast, west coast, United States etc.

by travelling to be with them all and relishing family reunions and get-togethers.

She died four months short of her 100th birthday. We feel so blessed to have had her with us for so long and will cherish our memories. God Bless you Jean, Mother and Grandma Jean.

Services have been held.

Please send any donations in her memory to Echo Village Foundation, 4200 10th Ave. Port Alberni, BC V9Y 4X3.

HUGH DESMOND MULLIN October 30, 1944 - April 17, 2018

Passed away (most unwillingly) of cancer in Mississauga, Ontario. Son of Francis Elmore and Margaret MacMillan (Trueman) Mullin. Husband of Xiaoli Wang; brother of Geoffrey (Ann), John (Susan), Christopher (Sandie) and Sally (Kevin Murphy). Proud uncle of Jennifer, Robert, Christopher, Gillian, Peter, Drew, Laura, Patrick, Peter, Stuart, and Katie. And, great-uncle to many grandnieces and nephews.

The family is grateful for the long standing support of Jim and Trish Gordon, who have been yeomen in their attention to Des and Xiaoli, particularly these last few months.

Desmond was a graduate of Lawrence Park Collegiate Institute and one of the last students to article under the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Ontario (I.C.A.O) five year programme. In the 1970s, Desmond formed his own chartered accountancy practice in Milton, Ontario, where he practiced both accounting and golf for over forty years.

In lieu of flowers, get thee to the links and have a great round of golf. A celebration of life will be held at a later date.

Bye, bye brother

BRUCE MCDOUGALL January 2, 1930 - April 15, 2018

Father to Janice (Gervais Goodman) of Millarville, Alberta, Craig (Lynn) of Toronto; and grandchildren, Kim, Blair, Erin and Grant McDougall. Predeceased in 2013 by his loving wife of 59 years, Beth McDougall; his daughter, Cynthia; siblings, Lorna (Ness), Wanda (Harris), Keith, and Joyce (Bill and Sue Amos); and niece, Susan Ness Anderson (Ross).

Bruce was a dear uncle to Judy Ness, Arlene Harris-Tanner, Greg, Ian, and Eric Amos, Rick, Bill and Diane Henwood (Plitz); and greatuncle to David Anderson, and Katherine and James Scrivener.

Born in Toronto, Bruce made lifelong friends and stayed close to his fellow Upper Canada College and University of Western Ontario classmates. He valued the friendly competition and support of his skeet shooting buddies at the Uxbridge Shooting Club, and was a longtime member of the Granite and Caledon Mountain Trout Clubs.

Bruce enjoyed a long and successful career with Shell Canada. Upon retirement from Shell he was Assistant VP of Administration at the University of Toronto. He spent many years volunteering his business and financial skills as a CA with the Access Centre, Meals on Wheels, Living and Learning in Retirement, and other charitable organizations.

He enjoyed his apartment at Living Life on the Avenue, and made several good friends, including his special companion Eleanor Siegel, with whom he enjoyed travel to the cottage, Alberta and Florida, and many family gatherings.

The family wishes to thank the staff at LLoA; Dr. Sibai's excellent team and the caring staff in the blood transfusion unit at Princess Margaret Hospital; staff and services of LHIN, including the stellar palliative team; staff at Sunnybrook and Toronto General Hospitals; his neighbours in Toronto and at the cottage; the many people behind the scenes who made things "happen;" and his caregivers Junite, Maxine and Osa for their kindness, humour, caring and compassion.

A reception in Bruce's memory will be held later this spring. If you are so moved, please donate to your favourite charity, or become a blood donor. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

LAURIE J. MCPHAIL RN

Peacefully in Ottawa on Thursday April 12, 2018 in her 81st year.

After a career in nursing, her life was spent nurturing her husband (Neil, d. 2006), children (Ian, Kate), grandchildren (Alex, Adam, Michael, Ian), extended family, and friends. She loved books, music, theatre, art, travel, skiing, and time at the cottage with family and friends.

All comers received a warm welcome and delicious cookies.

Kind, elegant, loving and wise, she will be dearly missed.

Memorial donations may be made to the Alzheimer's Society of Canada. A private celebration of life will be held at a later date.

F. DONALD MCPHUN

Dad was born January 31, 1924, and passed away peacefully on April 12, 2018, surrounded by his family. Loving husband of Nan McPhun for 68 years; and father to Catherine McPhun Beatty (Stuart Wason) and Lyndy McPhun (Anne Green). Adored Papa to Caitlin Beatty (Peter Stewart) and Daniel Beatty. Predeceased by his sister, Mary Elizabeth McPhun, 2011.

Following his training and serving with the RCAF, Dad began his career with Imperial Oil, and moved to the financial sector where he worked for Nesbitt Thomson as a greatly admired and respected stockbroker for over 40 years. He was well known for his integrity and business acumen and helped many people achieve their financial security and dreams. He also served as a mentor to many in the industry.

He was an avid fly fisherman and founding member of the Cuckoo Valley Fishing Club - the irony of this was not lost on his family.

Dad loved to play the piano and could play anything by ear. His favourite spot in the world was the cottage at Whitefish Lake, which he and Nan built and enjoyed every summer for the past 50 years, fishing, sailing and hosting lifelong friends and family. He made his own wine for a short time, a hobby he mercifully gave up after a few years. He and Mom travelled extensively during their life together and were active participants in the LLR program at Glendon College, always staying interested in life.

Dad volunteered at the Yonge Street Mission for years and gave generously to many charities that were near and dear to him and Mom.

Dad was a charming character, soft spoken - a true gentleman.

Thank you to the wonderful and caring staff at Amica Barrie for their compassion and support.

He will be greatly missed by his family. We love you Dad.

A celebration of his outstanding life will be held on Friday, April 27th at 11:30 a.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Rd.

(East gate entrance).

For online condolences please visit http://www.etouch.ca

ALEXANDER DOUGLAS MUTCH "Sandy" 1920 - 2018

Passed away peacefully at the Perley Rideau Veterans' Health Centre on April 15, 2018, 98 years old. Sandy is survived by his children, Elaine Petermann (Tony), Rory Mutch (Kathy), Linda Seaden (George) and Douglas Mutch; and by his grandchildren, Rob and Joe Petermann (Lisa), Carly and Linsey Mutch (Marcel MacDonald), Amy and Maia Seaden, Kevin and Stephen Mutch (Brenna); by his great-grandchildren, Rowan and Amelia MacDonald; by his "little sister" Nancy Plunkett (Ron) and numerous nieces and nephews in England and Canada.

A child of the manse, Sandy came from a long line of Presbyterian ministers on both sides of the family. His father served in Truro, Halifax, Regina and Hamilton. Born April 7, 1920 in Toronto, Sandy was the second of four sons, and one daughter born to John Mutch and his wife, Marjory Fraser. All the boys signed up for military service during WWII and one, Rory, was killed in action in the El Alamein campaign in 1942.

Sandy enlisted in the RCAF in March 1940 and was trained as a Radio Mechanic in Montreal. He was sent to Lincolnshire, England to service the aircraft of No. 1 and No. 2 fighter Squadrons. He met and married, an English farm girl, Dinah Smithson in 1943. (Their marriage of 66 years ended with Dinah's death in May 2009.) Further training on two-engine aircraft led to four-engine Halifaxes and Lancasters of 428 "Ghost Squadron", 24 missions over Germany. With government assistance, Sandy completed a B.A.Sc. in Mining Geology and a Master's in Mining Geology at the University of Toronto.

Sandy, Dinah and four children followed his career to Sudbury, Onaping, Falconbridge and Montreal with Falconbridge Nickel Mines for 17 years. He spent 10 years leading the Raglan Ungava project in Quebec, and spent two decades in Toronto working for a variety of organizations as an employee or consultant in exploration, mine contracting, financial analysis and cargo inspection in Canada, the US, Europe and Australia until retirement in 1991. He traveled extensively in northern Canada and enjoyed holidays in the Caribbean, Bermuda, England, Australia and Canada culminating in an Alaskan cruise in 2013. His long-standing interest in climate change developed into a crusade to convince the world that spending billions to manage carbon is pointless.

He was proud of his Scottish heritage and compiled a family history from Scotland, through the arrival in Canada of the Frasers in 1773 aboard the Hector. He kept in touch with all branches of his family, aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews. His own young family went to church on Sundays, with family outings in the afternoon - exploring back roads, hiking, picking wild blueberries. Summers were spent by Windy Lake or Wahnipitae. In winter, he introduced the children to skating and skiing on the new hill in Onaping, passing on his love of nature and outdoor activities.

Sandy and Dinah were active members of churches, horticultural and orchid societies in Montreal, Toronto, Bramalea and Stittsville. He continued to be active at Stillwater Creek Retirement Community, helping with the newsletter, leading the men's discussion group and enjoying many activities. He continued his decades of gardening on a balcony and was actively involved with grandchildren and great-grandchildren providing advice on university choices and enjoying more holidays visiting them.

Thank you to the staff at Stillwater Creek and the Perley Rideau Veterans' Health Center for their care in the last few years. The warm, friendly and professional care was much appreciated by Sandy and the whole Mutch family.

Visitation will be at the Garden Chapel of Tubman Funeral Homes, 3440 Richmond Road (between Bayshore and Baseline Road) on Friday, April 27 from 2 to 4 p.m. and on Saturday, April 28 from 10 a.m. until service at 11 a.m.

A reception will be held from noon to 1:30 p.m. Private burial at Beechwood.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Bells Corners United Church, 3955 Old Richmond Rd, Nepean, ON K2H 5C5 or The Ottawa Mission in recognition of their support of young veterans and the aboriginal community. Condolences, donations and tributes may be made at http://www.tubmanfuneralhomes.com.

JOYCE DIANNE MORRIS (nee Little)

The family of Joyce sadly announce her passing in Burlington, on Saturday, December 23, 2017, at the age of 70. Beloved wife of Doug for nearly 40 years. She leaves behind her step-mother, Joan Little and her children, Scott and Lori and their families: siblings, Judythe (Don Fraser), Nina, JoAnn (Doug Bourque), and Calvin (Colette); nieces, nephews, and many friends in Toronto, Scarborough, and Lindsay.

Private cremation. A celebration of Joyce's life will be held at Smith's Funeral Home, 485 Brant Street, (one block north of City Hall), Burlington, 905-632-3333 on Saturday, May 5, 2018 at 1 p.m. Reception to follow at the funeral home.

http://www.smithsfh.com

CINDY NEBBS

Cindy passed away on Monday, April 2, 2018, at the age of 53. Loving daughter of Sharon and Herb; stepfather, Monty Young; and stepmother, Gisele Simard.

Dear sister of Jessica and Andrea. Special aunt of Zoe.

Treasured friend of Jay Brown. Cindy will be greatly missed by her many aunts, uncles, cousins, and friends in both Canada and the USA.

A memorial gathering will be held at Smith's Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Saturday, May 5, 2018 from 3-6 p.m. For those who wish, in lieu of flowers, donations in memory of Cindy may be made to the Salvation Army.

http://www.smithsfh.com

HARICE PARKINSON September 7, 1925 - April 10, 2018

Harice, eldest child of Harold and Bernice (Clapp) Knapman, grew up in Picton, Ontario, part of a family of original settlers on her mother's side. From her father's family, she enjoyed a life-long tie to Stoney Lake, Ontario. After completing her RN in Kingston, she adventurously moved as a newlywed to start her family in exotic Barrancabermeja, Columbia. The family returned to Canada in the mid-1950's, and lived in Winnipeg, Toronto and Montreal. There, while raising three children, she graduated with a BA Honour's English from Sir George Williams University, and taught underprivileged children, particularly in Pointe St. Charles.

Heeding the siren song of the West Coast, in 1972 she migrated to Sidney, British Columbia, and was appointed a teacher and librarian at Parklands High School.

She found her dream home on Saltspring Island in 1979, and, once retired, joyously gardened, walked, played bridge, sang with the Raging Grannies and supported the NDP. In 2009, she returned to Sidney, where she lived independently in her condo until her death. A highly-read intellectual, her extensive library, music collection and numerous subscriptions kept her occupied, along with her patio garden and cat, until health issues confined her to her chair. Even so, she was always up on current events and ready for rousing discussions.

Survived by her children, Anne, Geoff and Jane Parkinson; former husband, Curtis Parkinson; 2 granddaughters, Megan Sloan, Lindsay Alley; three great-grandchildren; and three nieces and their families. She was predeceased by her sister, Dorothy Drake. Many thanks to the team whose care allowed her to remain peacefully at home: Doug and Frances Hudson, Dr.

Johnson (GP), Angela Lucas and staff (RN, VIHA) and Dr. Trouton (West Coast Assisted Dying).

DONAT PHARAND

Born in Hanmer, Ontario, in 1922, the youngest and last survivor of fourteen children of Alphonse Pharand and Georgiana Henri, Donat served in the Canadian Army, after which he earned an LL.M. from Dalhousie University and an LL.D. from the Université de Paris, and also the Diploma from The Hague Academy of International Law. In 1959, he joined the Law faculty at the University of Ottawa, where he enjoyed a distinguished twentynine-year teaching career in both the Common Law and Droit Civil sections, and earned an S.J.D. from the University of Michigan while on sabbatical. An Officer of the Order of Canada, he was one of Canada's foremost experts on the law of the sea and the Arctic, and author of The Law of the Sea of the Arctic, The Northwest Passage: Arctic Straits, and Canada's Arctic Waters in International Law.

Donat was an optimist as well as a pragmatist who valued integrity, hard work, and academic achievement. Gregarious by nature, he had a playfulness and a keen sense humour beloved by all. Donat passed away peacefully at home in Ottawa, on April 18, 2018, at the age of 95 years and four months.

He was predeceased by his first wife, Aline (née Prévost); and second wife, Yolaine (née Michaud). He is survived by his companion of twenty-five years, Sylvia Herrera; his three children (with Aline), Michel (Ginger Young), Bernard, and Gisèle (Tom Schneider); his grandchildren, Logan, Rees, Peter, and Angéline; as well as many colleagues and friends. Special thanks are owed to the staff of both the New Edinburgh Square and The Edinburgh for their unfailing care and compassion.

The family will receive condolences at the Racine, Robert & Gauthier Funeral Home, at 180 Montreal Rd., on Saturday April 28, 2018 at 11:00 a.m. A short Christian Mass will be held in the chapel at 12:00 p.m.

ARTHUR ANGUS SCOTT MD. FRCP March 28, 1923 - April 14, 2018

Arthur passed away in Victoria, British Columbia on April 14th after a lengthy illness. Arthur was the beloved husband of Sallie (Wallace, Teasdale); the loving father of Jarvis, Owen, and Sarah (Arbuckle); and the caring grandfather of Ruby, Sean, Sidney, Owen, Kaylem, Helena, and Scott. He was predeceased by his oldest son, Stuart; his sister, Ruby; and his four halfbrothers, Russell, Jarvis, Gordon, and Stuart.

He was an exceptional man dedicated to his family and to his profession.

Born the youngest of six children in a small Southwestern Ontario town to Reverend Gilbert Scott and Sarah Sinclair (who died in childbirth). He attended a one-room schoolhouse and quit school in grade ten after the death of his father to help support his stepmother. He joined the RCAF as a teenager and served four years overseas during World War II. He completed high school in an accelerated veterans' program, earned a medical degree at the University of Toronto (U of T), married Helen Bridgeman in 1951 (now deceased), and spent the next ten years as a family doctor in Sault Ste. Marie.

He moved his family to Toronto in 1964 to specialize in anaesthesia and, after earning his FRCP, was soon given the challenging job of director of the Toronto General Hospital (TGH) Intensive Care Unit, a post he held for the following 10 years.

He was elected Chairman of anaesthesia (1977-87) presiding over all anesthesia departments in the eight Toronto teaching hospitals, which included being a full professor of U of T and chief of anaesthesia at TGH.

As the specialty of anaesthesia was relatively new and first recognized as independent following the Second World War, Arthur resolved to elevate its status and its contributions to patient care. He accomplished this by his own example, by increasing the number of government allowed anaesthesia residency positions, and by allowing his colleagues more time to teach, to participate in intensive care, to do research and to serve on various hospital and community committees.

During his professional life, he wore many hats. He was an active consultant to many hospitals throughout Canada. He was chairman of the medical school undergraduate admissions and appeals committee. He was a cofounder of the Canadian Intensive Care Society and medical director of the TGH hyperbaric Unit. He was chairman of the board of governors of Toronto Medical Institute of Technology, a member of the Society of Academic Anesthesiologists and president of the Ontario Chest Society. He served on the Board of Directors of the Hospital Council of Metropolitan Toronto, served on and chaired a number of hospital, Ontario Medical Association government committees and retired a professor emeritus of U of T.

From 1987 to 1992, he accepted successive short-term posts as vice president of medical affairs of TGH, chief operating officer of the Toronto Western Hospital and medical director of the University and Veterans Hospitals in Vancouver.

Arthur spent his final years with his wife, Sallie, in Sidney, BC, attracted by the opportunity to motor his North Sea trawler around the nearby islands, grow roses and create a home for his children and his wife's children to visit.

He will be remembered as a gentleman who led his colleagues with compassion, integrity and a bit of wit. He had many friends and admirers and he leaves this world a better place.

We will miss his wise counsel, his love and his deep concern for us all.

Arthur's family is very appreciative of the care Arthur received from Dr. Geoff Luckhurst and the dedicated staff at Broadmead Lodge. In lieu of flowers, if desired, a memorial donation in Arthur's memory may be made directly to Broadmead Care Society, 4579 Chatterton Way, Saanich, BC, V8X 4Y7.

Family and friends are invited to the memorial service to be held in the Sands Funeral Chapel, 1803 Quadra Street, Victoria on Saturday, May 12, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. A reception will immediately follow and interment will follow the Reception at Hatley Memorial Gardens at 3:30 p.m.

Condolences may be offered at http://www.sandsvictoria.ca

ANNE ROBINSON (nee Bach) December 4, 1927 April 17, 2018

It is with profound sadness that we announce the peaceful passing of Anne.

Fondly remembered by Janet and Judy (Gord), Ryan (Courtney) and Jeff.

A special thank you to Dying With Dignity and the many caring and compassionate individuals who supported her during this journey.

Always a friend to the Dandie, donations may be made in her memory to: The Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club of Canada c/o M. Heffernan 10 North St., Uxbridge, ON L9P 1B9

H. DOUGLAS SCHARF CA, CPA September 15, 1944 - March 22, 2018

Doug passed away suddenly in Naples, FL after having just returned from a long and lively walk in the sunshine with one of his oldest friends. Eldest son of the late Gladys and Hubert Scharf, Doug graduated from York University and went on to have a long career as a Chartered Account in the Canadian and international mining sectors.

Doug remained active in the Toronto business community in his retirement while also enjoying the calm of his home in Ballantrae and the warmth of wintering in Florida.

Doug is survived by his wife, Rachelle Souliere; children, Christopher and Jennifer; their mother, Carolyn, and grandson Maddox; sister, Karen Roach.

Predeceased by his brother, Donald (Wanda). Doug will be greatly missed by his extended family.

Family and friends are invited to share their memories of Doug during a reception on Wednesday, May 16th between 3:00-5:00 pm at the Toronto Hunt Club, 1355 Kingston Rd., Scarborough, ON.

In lieu of flowers, the family asks that those wishing to honour Doug's memory do so by donating to the charity of their choice.

EDWARD BROWN SWINTON

Edward was born March 3, 1927 in Orillia, Ontario. He died peacefully in his 92nd year on Tuesday, April 17, 2018. Beloved husband of Eldred Frances Cook for over 67 years. Father of Sheila (Mark), Louise (Ricardo), Peter (Doris).

Grandfather of Amelia, Tessah (Brett), Yarra, Austin (Lacey), Melissa (Matthew), Darlene (Michael), and the late Traviss.

Great-Grandfather of Arianna, Evelyn, Isla, and Logan.

Edward was a banker with Dominion/Toronto Dominion for 42 years. His career took him from Toronto ON, to Winnipeg MB, and Vancouver, BC. Edward was a freemason for 73 years; a WWII Veteran; and a member of the Royal Canadian Legion for over 30 years. He provided leadership in Scouts Canada, Clan Ross Association of Canada, was a Shrine Clown and member of the United Church of Canada. The Ontario Provincial Government awarded Edward a certificate for all of his volunteer activities.

Edward and Eldred travelled the world. They Scottish Country danced in the Military Tattoos at the Canadian National Exhibition Grand Stand Shows in 1976 and 1977, and at the Skydome in honour of Toronto's 200th birthday.

A Memorial Service for Edward's Life is to be held at Cooksville United Church, 2500 Mimosa Row, Mississauga on Saturday, April 28, 2018 at 11 a.m. Interment at a later date in Mount Albert, ON. For those who wish, donations may be made to a charity of your choice. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

SHIRLEY CATHERINE TEOLIS (nee Pezzack)

Shirley died peacefully on March 28, 2018. Born September 30, 1925, she was the beloved daughter of Thomas and Marcella Pezzack.

Shirley was predeceased by her devoted husband of 52 years, Hubert Angelo Teolis; and her cherished brother, Thomas Richard Pezzack (Kay). She will be deeply missed by her five loving children, Mary (Rick), David, John (Maricar), Catherine (Michael) and Nancy (Peter); her beloved grandchildren, Christopher (Adrienne) and Adam (Holly); great-grandson, Oliver Thomas / Yu Wén; as well as Meme Teolis; numerous cousins; nieces and nephews.

After graduating from Loretto Abbey and St. Michael's College at the University of Toronto, Shirley delighted in raising her family, all of whom have cherished memories of growing up in Toronto and time spent at Lake Simcoe, Georgian Bay and Haliburton.

She was a formidable hostess and homemaker, a devotee of the arts and lover of nature, a lifelong learner and avid reader, as well as a tireless volunteer to various alumnae, charities and the Toronto Symphony Women's Committee (President from 1982 - 1984).

From 1985 to 1995, Shirley worked with the Ontario March of Dimes, helping bring the post-polio program to national attention.

Further, Shirley enjoyed golfing in the summer, playing badminton in the winter and swimming in all seasons. An enthusiastic baseball fan, she thoroughly enjoyed Blue Jays and Yankees games A funeral Mass will be held in the Church of St. Bonaventure, 1300 Leslie Street at Lawrence Avenue East, Tuesday, April 24th at 10:30 a.m., followed by a reception at the Toronto Hunt Club.

A special thank you to all the doctors and nursing staff at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Sunnybrook Palliative Care and the compassionate home nursing care provided by CCAC.

As expressions of sympathy, donations may be made to the Alzheimer Society of Toronto. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

STANLEY TINGLE April 5, 2018

We announce the peaceful passing of Stanley Tingle in his 91st year. Stanley was born in Coventry, England and served in the Royal Navy (1944-1947) as a telegraphist aboard warships.

Immigrating to Canada with his new wife, Janet, in 1957, he was an Electrical Engineering Technologist in Toronto later taking up residence in Oakville and fathering four boys, Warren, Chris, Mark, and Michael.

He acquired a reputation during his years in Canada for being a gentleman, enthusiastic outdoorsman and all round sportsman excelling at badminton in his later years. After retiring from Teleglobe in 1991, he sailed his 29' Alberg TWOSOME to Florida and the Bahamas, where he resided for two years before returning.

In addition to being a doting grandfather to Samantha, Jeremy, Spencer, Jacqueline, and Quinten, he supported his wife's volunteering efforts at Oakville's Wellspring Birmingham Gilgan House, particularly where children suffering from cancer were involved.

MARGARET ELLEN WANLESS

August 4, 1946 - April 18, 2018

Margaret was a loving mother to Julia, and an adoring grandmother to Ty. She will be remembered by all who knew her for her fierce intelligence, dry wit, keen insightfulness, generous spirit, and remarkable tenacity. Margaret was a respected teacher in the field of deaf education for over twenty years. In her youth, she was an accomplished track and field athlete and archer. Margaret had an abiding interest in the arts: she was an avid reader of literature and poetry, a collector of painting and sculpture, and a fan of cinema and Latin music. She also kept pace with popular culture as an aficionado of the British royal family. She found comfort and purpose in the Christian faith, and was a devout, practicing Anglican for her entire life. Margaret loved waterfronts and ocean vistas.

She will be cremated, and her ashes scattered at scenic points around mainland Vancouver and Vancouver Island so she may live forever where she was at peace. Your greatest joy - your beautiful grandson - will visit you every time he looks out on the horizon, Mom... and you will see him grow up. We love you to Heaven and back.

DR. WILLIAM M. WILSON "Bill" Pediatrician

Bill passed away on September 16, 2017 in Hamilton. A private family service was held at the time.

His wife, Marilyn; and sons, Ian, Brian, and Colin, along with their families, invite you to celebrate his wonderful life on Sunday, May 6, 2018 at the Hamilton Golf and Country Club in Ancaster, Ontario.

Please come by any time between 2 to 5 p.m. A few brief words will be spoken at 3:30 p.m.

As the golf season begins, Bill wanted all to "tee it up" on his behalf. We invite you to come and share your memories of a dear relative, colleague, friend, and golf partner. A life so well lived deserves to be well remembered.

RUSSELL ALLAN WILLOUGHBY

Surrounded by family, Russell Allan Willoughby, loving husband of Peggy (Ramsey) passed peacefully on April 17, 2018 at Guelph, ON.

Born July 7, 1933 in Tilston MB to the late J.T. Wilfred and M. Christina (Young) Willoughby, Russ was raised on the family farm in Alameda, SK.

Russ obtained a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, University of Toronto (Guelph) in 1957. He established a large animal practice in Grenfell, SK then obtained a PhD from Cornell University in 1965, before returning to the Ontario Veterinary College where he was a Professor, Head of Medicine, Chair of Clinical Studies, and Associate Dean Research and Development. Russ established and was first Director of the Equine Research Centre.

He was a charter member of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, member of the CVMA, AVMA, and President of the Guelph Rotary Club, Hospice Wellington and Guelph Probus.

Russ treasured family and challenged us to be the very best we could be. He lived by the Golden Rule, and valued good friends, hard work and being of service to others.

Survived by his devoted wife, Peggy; son, Doug (Connalyn); daughters, Joanne (Jonathan), Sandra (Steve); and grandchildren, Corene, Lauren, Adrienne, and Rowan. Predeceased by his brother, Gerald.

A Memorial service will be held 1:00 p.m. Friday, May 11, 2018 at Harcourt Memorial United Church, Guelph.

In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to Hospice Wellington.

LEN MITCHELL

In loving memory of my beloved husband. A golden heart stopped beating, hard working hands at rest. God broke our hearts to prove to us, He only takes the best. Love, Herta and family

JAMES ANTHONY TAPP "Jimmy"

Celebrating the glorious life and memory of James Anthony "Jimmy" Tapp on the 100th anniversary of his birth. April 18, 1918 - November 20, 2004. Always in our thoughts, laughter and ongoing celebration of family. Swing Easy!

THE CROSSING
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For a Syrian family, a global refugee crisis became a personal tragedy when two-year-old Alan Kurdi, his mother and brother drowned off a Turkish beach in 2015. Now, the boy's aunt in Canada, Tima Kurdi, reflects on the struggle to cope with her relatives' deaths and find new life
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By TIMA KURDI
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


Author of The Boy on the Beach: My Family's Escape from Syria and Our Hope for a New Home, from which this essay is adapted have made many attempts to grow jasmine - I yasmin - in my garden in Vancouver, but the flowers never give off much of a scent. My father even shipped me a bulb from my birthplace of Damascus, which all the locals simply call Sham. In the spring, I planted that bulb in the garden and it blossomed that summer, but you had to stick your nose right inside the petals to get a subtle whiff of its hypnotic scent. That bulb survived away from home soil for one winter, but it didn't survive the next.

I was safe in Canada, where I'd lived since 1992, when half a world away, my family was forced to leave their homeland after war erupted in Syria in 2011. Like that jasmine bulb, they had to grow new roots in foreign soil. And the conditions they had to survive in were far from ideal.

Whenever my family talks about the tragedy, we always say, "Tinziker wama tinaad. To be remembered, but not to repeat." History is meant to be remembered but not repeated. Unfortunately, history does tend to repeat itself. Wars continue, making more tragedy inevitable. What is it about us that we keep repeating the same mistakes over and over and over? I know I must sound pessimistic, but when tragedy strikes, it's hard to tame the fear that life could become even worse, no matter how much you fight off these dark thoughts.

Recently, I've allowed myself to think that maybe the war can also change us for the better. We can't rewrite history, no matter how much we want to.

But we can find a new purpose in life. Before the war, I was an average, middle-class, middle-aged suburban woman - a mother, a wife and a hairdresser who loved to cook, socialize with friends and travel to interesting places. When terrible things happened to other people, I empathized with them.

But I didn't understand them the way I do now. I would write a cheque to support a charity, donate to food banks and do all the things that are easy. Then I would go right back to living my life. After the war, and especially after the tragedy, I changed.

'THEY SAY THEY WANT FREEDOM'

In April, 2011, I returned to Damascus to visit my relatives, as I had done regularly since leaving the country when I was 22 years old.

Life on the streets of Damascus seemed just as it always had, even though there had been protests against the government of Bashar al-Assad. In Daraa, a group of teenagers were imprisoned for spray-painting anti-regime messages. There were reports that some police officers and protesters had been killed. By the time I arrived in Sham in April, the protests had spread to Latakia, Homs and Hama. Initial calls for democracy and freedom were soon replaced by calls to overthrow the government.

On TV, we watched coverage of these protests.

"What do the people want?" I asked my dad.

"Baddon al-hurriya. They say they want freedom, but I'm not sure what they mean by that."

As with so much else during those early days, and ever since, it was hard to know who to believe.

Information from the many news sources varied so much, it was like reading the coffee grounds: the analysis depended on the viewpoint. Some protesters wanted economic reform. Others wanted political reform and democratic elections. Maybe another factor was the growing number of university-educated young adults who craved the freedoms of the West, and all this fervour was stoked by the Arab Spring that had swept Tunisia and Egypt in early 2011.

We were shocked when the protests erupted into greater violence so quickly and they spread like a sandstorm. Had citizens suddenly turned against each other? Or was this the fault of a small number of extremists on both sides of the growing divide?

Foreign instigators? And what part did international powers play in these early days and months of the uprising? When my family discussed the political climate, the consensus was that nobody wanted our peaceful country to dissolve into sectarian violence. We all worried that such violence would turn back the clock of progress.

Before I left for Sham, my husband, Rocco, had registered me with the Canadian embassy. I thought he was just being unduly cautious, so it was a surprise when the embassy called in the midst of my trip and advised me to leave.

With the streets of Sham so peaceful, it was hard to take their warning seriously.

By the middle of July, 2012, more than one million Syrians had to flee their homes. The most feasible option for the displaced was to seek refuge in less dangerous areas within Syria. But too many regions had become dangerous, with hundreds of different rebel groups assuming control of cities, towns and villages, and fighting against Mr. al-Assad's military forces. Some of these regions were called "liberated," meaning liberated from the regime. More often, it meant being liberated from food, water, electricity, schools, hospitals and safe shelter. And if you happened to be a woman and your town had instituted ISIS's laws around proper dress, you were "liberated" from the freedom to leave your house without a khimar and an abaya, the face-covering veil and anklelength robe. If you were Shia, Alawite, Kurdish, Armenian - name any ethnic or religious sect - you were "liberated" from the right to exist in your own country, unless you disowned your heritage and your beliefs. And if you were a Sunni Muslim who believed in secularism and ethnic and religious tolerance, you had to "liberate" yourself from liberal ideals.

Syrian citizens were caught in the middle of a civil war, which meant they had to pick a side or leave the country altogether.

Many families fled to the border countries, including Lebanon to the west and Jordan in the south, or to the northern countries of Turkey and the Kurdish republic of Kurdistan to the northeast. All these countries had created refugee camps near border towns, though many families had to go to the big cities of Beirut and Istanbul to find work. When people started trickling into Lebanon and Turkey, they were not given legal work permits and so they had to make a living in the underground economy, which made life very difficult.

My brother Abdullah lived in Kobani, but he continued to commute to Sham for work. It was no easy task. The highway from Aleppo to Damascus straddled many territories under the control of various different rebel groups. One day, Abdullah was returning from Sham to Kobani. He was near Aleppo, inching ever closer to his home, when a group of long-bearded men seized him.

"You are a Kurd, and all Kurds are kafreen," they yelled, meaning, "You are not true Muslims." They spoke Arabic with the accents of foreigners. Abdullah recounted that they got even angrier when they saw that he had a pack oef cigarettes, wehich they considered haram, forbidden. Then they accused him of being a peshmerga fighter.

"Tell us about your next mission," they yelled. "Tell us where you're getting your weapons.

Who are you getting them from?" "Wallah, I swear to God, I have no idea what you're talking about," Abdullah responded.

"Yes, I am Kurdish, but I grew up in Sham, and I'm not involved with anyone."

But they didn't believe him.

They dragged him to a nearby house that appeared abandoned.

They took him to a room where four captive men dangled from ropes like sides of beef. They tied Abdullah up the same way. From the other rooms, he could hear men whimpering or outright screaming in pain. The air was thick with the smell of sweat, urine and blood, so intense that Abdullah started to vomit. Periodically, men would appear to beat and torture him: for being Kurdish, for having haram cigarettes, even for daring to fall asleep.

After many days of beatings, Abdullah began to wonder if he'd ever see his family again. After more than a week of this torture, the terrorists entered the room armed with pliers. They held open Abdullah's mouth and yanked out his teeth, one by one.

It was so painful that Abdullah passed out at some point, flickering in and out of consciousness throughout the ordeal. When they finally finished, they left my brother with only the stumps of a few deeply rooted molars. He was living in a horror movie; no civil human being can even imagine it.

Soon after, the terrorists concluded they had the wrong man. They threw him out and threatened that if he told anyone what had happened, they'd come after him and his loved ones.

It was the middle of the night.

Abdullah stumbled down the road, walking for many hours, until a vehicle appeared. The plainclothes civilian inside took pity on him and drove him close to Kobani. When his wife, Rehanna saw him, she screamed.

"Shush," he whispered. Abdullah was so traumatized that he didn't dare tell anyone what had happened, except for close family - myself included. He was deeply scarred but relieved to be alive and back home. He got antibiotics from a doctor, but he couldn't afford a dentist. His remaining broken teeth were useless; he often swallowed his food whole. His mouth was a festering wound and the abscesses were hard to clear up. He lost so much weight that he looked like a skeleton.

Still, Abdullah's mind remained entirely preoccupied with finding work to put food on his family's table. He would never commute from Sham to Kobani again. So he decided to leave his family behind and go to Turkey.

By March of 2013, the overall registered Syrian refugee count had reached 1.1 million. (That's equivalent to the entire population of Sham when I was a girl.)

But that number is likely an underestimate. If Syrians didn't have a valid passport to enter another country legally or they didn't cross through official borders, which was typical at the border with Turkey, they weren't counted. The refugee camps in Turkey, Jordan, Egypt and Kurdistan had taken in more than 400,000 Syrians. The camps offered basic survival, but many could not keep up with the steady flow of new arrivals. Some camps had inadequate sanitation and health care and were teaming with diseases and deadly parasites. The camp refugees also suffered from the invisible wounds of psychological trauma, from the stresses of living through warfare, to the indignities and humiliation that comes with being displaced. Registered refugees couldn't work; their movements in and out of the camps were restricted or disallowed altogether.

At first, Abdullah worked in Turkish towns near the border with Syria, doing whatever jobs he could find, like working at a warehouse and unloading produce from trucks. His body was still weak and his mouth was in a terrible state, but he tried his best to send money home to his family. He wasn't the only one facing challenges: There were many Syrians looking for work and many employers looking to exploit them. The typical wage was $7.50 a day. When Abdullah could no longer find work in the border towns, he went to Istanbul, a oneday journey by bus from the border. There he picked up odd jobs in construction, sharing the rent on one room with 10 other men, most of them Kurdish refugees who were also commuting between northern Syria and their jobs in Turkey. Abdullah tried to return home at least once every few months, and whenever any of the other refugees returned to Kobani, he sent money and food and whatever else he could scrape together for his family.

He reunited with Rehanna and their sons, Ghalib and Alan, in Istanbul in the fall of 2014. Their life in Turkey wasn't sustainable, but they couldn't return home, either - they were stuck between a rock and a hard place. Eventually, they made the impossible choice to try the perilous sea crossing to Greece.

'SO CLOSE AND YET SO FAR'

"I can see it from here," said Abdullah, describing the landscape to me, his older sister, far away and safe in my home in Canada.

"It's right there," he said. "So close and yet so far."

My brother was standing on Turkish soil and looking at Kos, a large, soft-shouldered Greek island on the horizon. During the day, Kos was a mirage in the middle distance. At night it twinkled with life and seemed close enough to touch. For thousands of Syrian refugees during the summer of 2015, that island shimmering across the sea was their touchstone, their last hope for a better future.

"One hundred per cent, the smuggler said, we'll go tomorrow," Abdullah texted me.

"Talk to Dad before you leave," I texted back.

Thunderstorms rolled in and out, pushed by high winds of as much as 80 kilometres an hour, delaying their departure. A few days passed.

Aug. 9: "Leaving tonight." But there were more thunderstorms and gusty winds.

Aug. 10: "We went, but the smuggler sent us back."

"Did you lose your money?" I texted.

"No. We will try again tonight.

Don't worry, sister, go to sleep."

It was impossible not to worry.

Each time Abdullah texted, "We're leaving tonight," I held my breath. There is an eight-hour time difference between Turkey and my home in Vancouver, and I got into the habit of going to sleep early so that I could wake up before dawn to check my cellphone.

But my husband had to keep regular working hours, and so, to preserve his sanity, I left my cellphone in the kitchen every night.

Every morning, the butterflies knocking in my stomach would wake me up and I would rush to the kitchen for my phone. Every day for a month, each time that phone made a peep, my heart threw a fit.

My brother was only four kilometres from the shores of Kos, so close and yet so far. He was living in Bodrum, Turkey. He and his family had survived many hardships in Istanbul as poor illegal immigrants, barely able to keep themselves fed and housed. They had endured the callous indifference of the many governments that had closed their doors to them. Turkey now offered the closest available corridor to Greece, the only country in the region from which refugees could get to the few Northern European countries accepting Syrian refugees. Countries where life was a bit better. In Germany and Sweden, for instance, refugees were offered legal asylum and resettlement, something Turkey and many other neighbouring countries in the Middle East did not provide. And refugee children could go to school, something they could not do in Turkey.

But reaching that Greek island was no easy feat. First, Abdullah had to get Rehanna, Ghalib and Alan across the Aegean Sea, across a patch of the Mediterranean monitored by police and coast guard officials ready to turn the refugees back to the shore. This was a stretch of sea known for its late summer winds, which can materialize in an instant and blow for days, turning the water into a rabid beast. Abdullah had to believe that he could get his family safely across that passage. They had already crossed vast swaths of dangerous terrain to reach Turkey. Surely they could make it across four more kilometres to find hope for a new life on the other side.

To make that crossing, Abdullah had to trust smugglers. His family could not make the crossing legally via the many large ferries that criss-cross the sea, because the Turkish authorities required valid documentation to exit the country, and legal entry to the majority of European countries, including Greece, required valid passports and visas, with a long list of backup material that only wealthy Syrians could provide - bank statements, insurance, passport photos. Abdullah, like most refugees, had a passport, but after so many years of war, it had expired; his wife and young sons had never had passports. The smugglers provided space on boats, for a fee. But even the highest amounts didn't satisfy the smugglers' greed and they typically overloaded the boats far beyond safe capacity for maximum profit.

That year, close to one million refugees had arrived in Europe by sea and the lion's share of those desperate souls were Syrians landing in Greece. By June, the Greek coast guard had rescued almost 50,000 people, but thousands more drowned in the Mediterranean. As many as one in four of them were children, the majority under the age of 12. Five per cent were infants.

My nephew Ghalib had recently turned four and his little brother, Alan, was just 27 months old when their desperate parents took that perilous journey on a raft to seek a better life. You must be wondering, "What could possibly compel refugees to make that dangerous crossing, risking their lives and those of their children?" It may be impossible to comprehend unless you've lived the life of a refugee.

At that time, four of my five siblings and their families had escaped to Turkey, barely able to keep their young families afloat. By the summer of 2015, with the Syrian war in its fifth year and no end in sight, their situations had become more desperate. Many of my siblings, my nieces and nephews, my cousins and other relatives were poised to risk that crossing; a few of them had already made it all the way to Germany and Sweden, where conditions were better. All my siblings had young children, and with no access to school, the kids were falling behind; many of my teenaged nieces and nephews had to work in Turkish sweatshops to help their parents make ends meet. Abdullah did not want the same fate for his two boys. His hopes for them were simple - adequate food and shelter, education and health care - but fulfilling those basic needs was impossible in Syria and beyond challenging in Turkey.

I knew all too well the kind of life that my brothers and sisters had endured since their families had been forced to flee Damascus in 2012. I had seen for myself their destitute living situation in Istanbul when I visited in 2014.

During that trip, I began to see the world through a refugee's eyes. You are there, wherever you happen to be, but you can't shake the feeling that life is going on without you. That you are a ghost among the living. We discovered that Istanbul has throngs of laughing doves just like Sham.

They congregate in Taksim Square and people love to feed them. But I felt as if I were looking at those birds through a telescope, as though I were far away.

I learned that this estranged state of mind is common to refugees. Everywhere I went, I talked to Syrians living on the streets and in the parks. Sometimes their children had to beg for food or sell tissues or sing to the crowds to earn a few coins. Syrian refugees had the same struggles in Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt - everywhere.

It wasn't the exclusive fault of Istanbul or the country of Turkey and its many fine citizens. The government had many pressing concerns of its own. The people of Turkey, like the citizens of any country, had their own lives to worry about first and foremost.

They didn't write the restrictive laws concerning asylum seekers and they were also adversely impacted in many ways by the huge flood of refugees. Despite that, many people were very kind to my siblings.

That summer, more than seven million Syrians were displaced within Syria and the number of Syrian refugees living outside their home country surpassed four million, making the Syrian crisis officially the worst refugee crisis since the Second World War.

Half of those refugees were living in Turkey. In Istanbul, my family heard rumours from other Syrian refugees that the Turkish government might be planning to build a refugee camp on the Syrian side of the border or that they might even send refugees back into Syria. Maybe those were paranoid rumours, but with all the fighting going on in Syria and along the border with Turkey, refugees were very scared; no safe harbour seemed within reach.

The refugees were victims of terrorism and global geopolitics, yet they were increasingly viewed with the same suspicion and hostility as the terrorists they had barely managed to escape. In such a climate of fear and uncertainty, more of my relatives began to talk about the possibility of fleeing to Germany via the Greek islands.

After all, my older brother Mohammad had made it, and while his life at a refugee shelter was very difficult, it held the promise of a legal resettlement and a better future for his family.

My trip to Turkey changed me.

As soon as I returned home in late September, 2014, my first priority was to attempt to get my siblings asylum in Canada. But to do that, I would have to navigate the bewildering bureaucratic asylum-seeking process. The Canadian government had granted asylum to only 1,002 Syrian refugees since July, 2013. Prime Minister Stephen Harper had a vague plan to allow about 11,000 Syrians to seek asylum in Canada over the next few years. Despite these plans, the Harper government had what seemed to me an indifferent attitude to their plight.

I would have liked to rescue all my siblings from their dismal lives. But the majority of refugees that were granted asylum in Canada came from private sponsorships from citizens, which cost $28,000 for just one family of six.

The government rarely funded refugees, and even with private sponsorships, approval by the Canadian government also required approval from the Turkish government and the UNHCR, which involved intensive, slow vetting. We couldn't possibly afford to sponsor all five families by ourselves.

At first I went through official channels, trying to provide them a safe harbour in Canada. My husband and I had committed to privately sponsoring my eldest brother Mohammad's family and we had also started collecting the application paperwork for Abdullah's sponsorship. But my attempts failed. I couldn't get all the paperwork needed - it was impossible to get documents from a country destroyed by war - and the price of two private applications at once was just too much.

By the summer of 2015, I had given up hope of Canadian asylum for Abdullah and his family. I decided to give him $5,000 to pay the smuggler's demand for him, his wife and my two little nephews. Of course, I had many, many doubts about whether I should do this. But in times of such abject desperation, knowing that my family was already in such danger, I decided to pay for the journey.

There isn't a day that goes by when I wish I hadn't.

'THE WAVES WERE TOO HIGH'

At the end of July, Abdullah texted me from Istanbul: "I got the money. Your friends are nice people."

He had received the last chunk of the smuggler's fee. The next day, he and his family departed for Izmir, a port city about halfway between Istanbul and Bodrum and a hub for refugees to meet smugglers. The refugees were easy to find. Thousands of them camped overnight in parks. And they would often shared their smuggler contacts.

Abdullah secured a smuggler in Izmir. Abdullah and Rehanna were petrified by the thought of getting on a dinghy; they wanted a sturdy fibreglass boat, but the smuggler repeatedly told him they couldn't afford that.

I remember every call he made to me, every message he left me during this time. I still have every text he sent. That long chain of messages provides a record of the events that transpired. It is also a testament to the human condition under extreme pressure, to our hopes and fears, to our many nagging doubts and anxieties - about the impending voyage and so much more than that, going right back to our earliest memories of ourselves.

Aug. 11: "Didn't go."

As the days inched by and Abdullah refused to take a rubber dinghy, my anxiety turned to frustration, and I pushed him to just make the journey or call it quits and return to Istanbul. Later, reading back through my texts, I could hear the voice of a nagging older sister, prodding her younger brother: stay put, turn back, be more cautious, be less cautious, just get it done.

I put so much pressure on Abdullah that he sent me a video of the sea. Those big waves filled me with dread.

Aug. 21: "The waves were too high. I would not do it."

Aug. 27: Water so calm today.

But the smugglers had a rubber dinghy. I won't take a rubber dinghy."

Aug. 31: There were no messages from Abdullah. That long chain of texts ends with at least a halfdozen texts from me, asking, "Where are you?" "What happened?" "Text me, please."

All my messages were sent to the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.

From The Boy on the Beach by Tima Kurdi. Copyright © 2018 by Tima Kurdi. Reprinted by permission of Simon & Schuster Canada, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY MELINDA JOSIE

Ontario kept billions of borrowed money off its balance sheet. Here's how
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As Ontarians head to the polls, voters have to make sense of two competing versions of the province's books: the Auditor-General's and the Kathleen Wynne government's. Matthew McClearn investigates how creative accounting made their math so different
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By MATTHEW MCCLEARN
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A12


TORONTO -- In March last year, Kim Marshall I called and left a message for Bonnie Lysyk, Ontario's Auditor-General. Ms. Marshall was the chief financial officer of the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the agency that manages the province's electrical system and acts as an intermediary between power generators and consumers. The IESO had just made a big change to its accounting practices, and Ms. Marshall said she wanted to give the Auditor-General a "heads up."

Ms. Lysyk was already well aware of the change. She and her staff had found the IESO's latest financial statements online. Poring over them in their downtown Toronto office, they found a terse footnote describing the new accounting policy.

"And my staff go, 'What the heck is this?' " Ms. Lysyk told The Globe and Mail. "You're not supposed to do this."

Ms. Lysyk believed the IESO's new practice - a method known as rate-regulated accounting - violated government accounting standards. What she didn't know was that it represented a radical departure in how the government of Premier Kathleen Wynne - not just the IESO - planned to disclose its future borrowing activities to the public.

Earlier that month, the government had announced significant reductions in electricity rates, what it dubbed the Fair Hydro Plan. A decade of investing in greener power sources, such as wind and solar, and the shuttering of cheaper but dirtier coal-fired power plants had resulted in soaring hydro bills - a serious political liability for Ms. Wynne, who had accepted personal responsibility for fixing the problem.

But charging Ontarians less for electricity than it cost to produce meant the province would have to borrow billions of dollars to cover the shortfall.

"In order for that to not show up on the bottom line, they created creative accounting to take it off the government's statements," Ms. Lysyk said.

Using that new accounting, the government declared it had balanced the province's books for the fiscal year ended Mar. 31, 2018, just months before a general election. But Ms. Lysyk said that was not true. And the Financial Accountability Office, the body responsible for providing the legislative assembly with independent analysis and advice on Ontario's finances, agreed: In December, it forecast that the province would actually rack up a deficit of $4-billion - a discrepancy that will grow markedly as the government's off-balance-sheet borrowing continues.

Ms. Lysyk said she's worried that the Wynne government's success in concealing its borrowing will encourage more aggressive bookkeeping, both in Ontario and in other provinces.

"If you get away with doing something that's inappropriate accounting, the next time you'll do it again and you'll do it again," she said. "Pretty soon they won't have any numbers that will have any integrity behind them."

Ontario had been racking up large deficits every year since the 2008-09 recession and already owed more than $300-billion - almost $22,000 for every person in the province. Bond rating agencies had downgraded its credit rating. That, too, had become a serious political liability.

Even before Ms. Wynne became Premier in 2013, Ontario's Liberals promised a return to balanced budgets. In his April, 2017, budget speech, Finance Minister Charles Sousa boasted that her government had finally done it. "And next year and the year after we're projecting it to be balanced, too," he declared. "And the people of Ontario can count on it."

It was made possible by a team led by the Ministry of Energy that also included senior officials from the Ministry of Finance, Treasury Board Secretariat, the Provincial Controller, Ontario Power Generation and the IESO. Between December, 2016, and May, 2017, they devised a novel approach that would allow the government to have its cake and eat it, too.

"THE GOVERNMENT IS MAKING UP ITS OWN ACCOUNTING RULES"

As with most businesses, utilities record consumers' outstanding balances as assets, typically as "accounts receivable." The IESO's new practice, rate-regulated accounting, is akin to accounts receivable on steroids. The underlying idea is that heavily regulated industries, such as power generation, which are unable to set their own prices, should have a means of deferring costs, such as building a new power plant. Rate-regulated accounting allows utilities to place such costs in special accounts to carry them forward into future years, provided their regulator gives them the right to recover those costs through future bills.

Such rights can be recorded as assets - even though no electricity has been generated, used or billed for.

The main criticism of the practice is that it can produce books bearing little resemblance to reality. When BC Hydro adopted it, that province's auditor-general objected strongly, warning in a special report that "if overused, rate-regulated deferrals can mask the true costs of doing business, distort the financial condition of an enterprise and place undue burdens on future taxpayers."

And what happens if the utility can't collect? "On a number of occasions," explained Michael Ferguson, the Auditor-General of Canada, "there has [later] come a realization that, in fact, the organization will not be able to charge those rates. And, therefore, there have been fairly large amounts of some regulatory assets that have been written off."

Recording expenses as assets is perfectly legal in certain contexts, but the practice has been controversial in the private sector. In their book Easy Prey Investors, forensic accountants Al Rosen and Mark Rosen write that recording "fake assets" on corporate balance sheets is one of the "most common financial scams of the past 50 years."

If the accounting concept is elusive, the IESO's motives for adopting it are even murkier.

In fact, the IESO decided against adopting rate-regulated accounting when it was formed in 2015 - a decision supported by its auditor, KPMG. And earlier this year, Ms. Marshall told the province's public accounts committee that in February, 2017, she presented financial statements prepared in the usual way to her audit committee. The following month, though, she produced a fresh set of financial statements using rateregulated accounting.

The official explanation is that in mid-January, 2017, at one of the earliest meetings to discuss the Fair Hydro Plan, Ontario Controller Cindy Veinot ordered Ms. Marshall to "take a closer look" at adopting rate-regulated accounting because she didn't think the IESO's existing policies were appropriate.

The government has repeatedly stated that Ms. Veinot's request was completely unrelated to the Fair Hydro Plan. Deputy energy minister Serge Imbrogno asserted that "the important thing is that the changes that the IESO made

reflected its existing business" and not the Fair Hydro Plan, which had not been announced yet. Peter Gregg, who was appointed IESO president and CEO in April, 2017, said the management team simply asked itself: "Is this the right thing to do?" Since Canada's public sector accounting standards make no mention of rate-regulated accounting, the IESO turned to private-sector standards in the United States known as generally accepted accounting principles, which permit the practice.

The official story overlooks two crucial details. First, while the IESO was changing its accounting policy, Mr. Imbrogno, Ms. Marshall, Ms. Veinot and other senior officials were already part of the team devising the Fair Hydro Plan.

Enacted last June, the Fair Hydro Plan Act put IESO's new policy to immediate use, instructing the IESO to create a "regulatory asset" on its books. This "asset" reflected the agency's right to recover the costs it was about to incur paying for hydro discounts from future consumers, over a 30-year period.

Tim Beauchamp, a member of the auditor-general's advisory panel and a former director of the Public Sector Accounting Board, said the entire accounting structure of the Fair Hydro Plan depended on the IESO's ability to call this right an asset. "Without [the IESO], it doesn't work," he said.

The second detail is that, as an agency of the Province of Ontario, the IESO's finances are consolidated into the province's public accounts. With the provincial controller's encouragement, the agency's management had effectively adopted a new accounting policy on behalf of the entire province.

With those new rules in place, the Fair Hydro Plan could proceed.

Ontario Power Generation, which operates the province's fleet of nuclear and hydroelectric stations, has assigned four of its employees to manage the Fair Hydro Trust, a special-purpose entity created in December. OPG's financial results will actually get a boost because it will earn interest and management fees from the trust. And OPG doesn't need to worry if the trust blows up financially, because the trust "is structured to be bankruptcy remote and ring fenced from OPG."

Even so, OPG appears to be the only arm of government that has expressed reservations about its role in the Fair Hydro Plan. "OPG's reputation could potentially be adversely impacted through its involvement as the Financial Services Manager under the Fair Hydro Act," the company warned in its 2017 annual report.

The Fair Hydro Plan's complexity comes at a cost. Had the province borrowed directly, the interest costs likely would total tens of billions of dollars over the plan's duration. But using information and assumptions supplied by the government, the Financial Accountability Office (FAO) calculated the additional interest costs at $4-billion over 30 years. Said Ms. Lysyk: "We're talking $4-billion more than needed, to get an accounting result."

Alexandre Laurin, the C.D.

Howe Institute's research director, said he'd never before encountered such a convoluted arrangement in the public sphere.

To him, the use of related party transactions between multiple entities resembles tax-avoidance schemes in the private sector.

"The same accountants that are advising the government are advising the private sector to build other types of complex accounting structures," he told The Globe. "How crazy is this, really?" FAO officials had immediate concerns. "It looked like there was at least a very novel new approach being taken to a large amount of planned borrowing and repayment," chief financial analyst Jeffrey Novak said.

Meanwhile, the auditor-general's office scrambled to find out what had happened. Ms. Lysyk demanded tens of thousands of pages of briefings and e-mails created by the Fair Hydro Plan's architects.

She began meeting with the senior officials responsible and their advisers, including KPMG.

Months later, she concluded that the IESO's accounting change was no mere coincidence: The government had instructed the Fair Hydro Plan's architects that the rate reductions must not cause a reported increase in the province's deficit and net debt.

Other options were rejected on that basis.

Energy Minister Glenn Thibeault categorically denied accusations that the Fair Hydro Plan was an election ploy. And he justified the new accounting practice that made it possible by telling the provinces's estimates committee last October that because electricity ratepayers, not taxpayers, would be required to repay the debt and interest costs associated with the Fair Hydro Plan, the associated costs did not belong on the province's books.

In order to weigh the AuditorGeneral's allegations against the government's position, The Globe sought the same documents Ms.

Lysyk used in preparing her reports. Her office is not subject to the province's Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, so The Globe requested them from the departments that originally produced them.

In responses to the requests, all the departments anticipated that large volumes of records would fall under exemptions in the act.

The Treasury Board Secretariat, for example, said that of the 1,500 or so relevant pages in the possession of its deputy minister, just 169 would be released. Citing the large number of records involved, the Ministry of Energy estimated The Globe would be charged $112,000 in fees, half of that up front.

So The Globe issued narrower requests and also asked that the Information and Privacy Commission mediate some of them.

At publication time, The Globe had received no documents.

"DON'T TELL THE AUDITOR-GENERAL WHAT WE'RE DOING" What is clear is that, in devising the Fair Hydro Plan, the government relied heavily on consultants, including three of the world's "Big Four" accounting firms: KPMG, Deloitte and Ernst & Young. It also hired Blakes, a law firm. According to the AuditorGeneral, the government paid these advisers a total of $2-million for their services. In a statement, the Treasury Board Secretariat emphasized that work was part of the government's efforts to "ensure due diligence was completed."

Their opinions and advice carried the day. Sophie Kiwala, a Liberal MPP and member of the estimates committee, said on Oct. 24: "Our plan has been approved by the peers of the Auditor-General at some of Canada's top accounting firms, including Ernst & Young, KPMG and Deloitte."

KPMG's team, composed of more than half a dozen of the firm's partners, was led by Michel Picard. In one 32-page document provided to The Globe by the government, KPMG itemized and refuted the Auditor-General's objections to the new accounting practice. "The concerns expressed by the AGO result from a difference of opinion in the application of professional judgment," KPMG spokesperson Lisa Papas told The Globe in a statement. As the auditor of IESO's books, the firm also signed off on the application of these new accounting standards, just as it had under the IESO's previous accounting methods. "We would like to emphasize that the standards provide a choice," the firm said in a statement. "There has always been the ability to choose between two alternatives."

In the past three years, KPMG earned between $86,000 and $92,000 in annual fees for auditing IESO's books. Last year, it earned $652,000 for its advice on the new accounting policy.

Did KPMG's dual role as auditor and consultant represent a conflict of interest? "You might say that their ability to be impartial and effective auditors had become compromised," said Randy Hillier, a Conservative MPP who sits on the public accounts committee. "Why would you not [sign off] when you're getting such a significant bundle of cash?" Ms. Lysyk told the same committee that firms should not be advocating for particular accounting treatments on a client's behalf while auditing the client's books.

Forensic accountant Al Rosen said that, generally speaking, it's not difficult to hire consultants to provide favourable accounting opinions in Canada, in part because standards are so elastic.

"You can go to any of the public accounting firms and get them to render an opinion on whatever you want," he said. "The ethics have gone all to hell."

KPMG and the IESO denied any impropriety. "It is very common for auditors to provide advisory services to help their clients understand the application of complex accounting matters," KPMG said in a statement.

Should the Auditor-General have been consulted?

On Jan. 11, 2017, as Ms. Lysyk's office prepared to audit Ontario's public accounts, it sent a letter to KPMG asking if there would be any accounting policy changes at the IESO. KPMG did not respond.

There was a follow-up phone call, but KPMG did not call back. In Ms. Lysyk's opinion, KPMG had a professional obligation to respond.

She also felt that the Ministry of Finance and the Treasury Board should have told her earlier. "You do assume when you're the external auditor for anybody that you're kept in the loop," she said.

"That's the relationship, it should be open and transparent."

She said the e-mails reviewed by her office confirm that the architects of the Fair Hydro Plan expected her office to object to the IESO's proposed accounting changes - and that their silence had been deliberate. "All the stuff said, 'Don't tell the Auditor-General what we're doing.' " Helen Angus, the deputy minister of the Treasury Board Secretariat, resisted that allegation before the public accounts committee. "I don't think we secondguessed the Auditor-General on her opinion," she said.

KPMG agreed that it had a professional obligation to respond to the Auditor-General's requests, but it said it discharged that duty by answering her inquiries in the months after the publication of the IESO's statements.

And the IESO's senior management saw no need whatsoever to consult the Auditor-General. Mr. Gregg, the CEO, said his obligation was to satisfy his own board of directors and its audit committee.

And Ms. Marshall told MPPs in February: "We would speak to the Auditor-General once we had come to a conclusion on our own."

So what did those "approvals" from the big accounting firms actually mean? In a statement to The Globe, KPMG emphasized it had no formal role in selecting or approving Ontario's accounting policies. Nor did Deloitte. Ernst & Young declined to answer questions about its work.

The Auditor General's office, on the other hand, is the only body responsible by law for opining on whether the province's financial statements have been prepared according to appropriate accounting standards. And if the government did not stand down, Ms. Lysyk warned, she would issue a qualified opinion on Ontario's books.

Other auditors-general confirmed that is not something they do lightly.

"It's one of the most serious things we can do ... to say we don't believe this set of financial statements has been fairly stated," said Mr. Ferguson, Canada's AuditorGeneral.

Ms. Lysyk said she received letters from all the other auditorsgeneral in Canada supporting her position. Although she declined to release those letters to The Globe, Mr. Ferguson confirmed that wrote such a letter.

So did Carol Bellringer, B.C.'s Auditor-General. "It's inconsistent with the framework that is in place for the public sector," she said. "If British Columbia decided to set up a regulatory account within its provincial accounts, we would say, 'No, you can't do that.' " Others also rallied to Ms. Lysyk's defence. In a report published in December, the FAO adopted her recommended accounting policy and warned that the government's approach "reduced the transparency and reliability of Ontario's fiscal plan."

But Ms. Wynne's government seemed untroubled by Ms. Lysyk's warnings. She had already issued a qualified opinion on a separate issue - the government's accounting for the assets of two pension funds, a matter of billions of dollars - but the government shrugged that off, too.

Deputy finance minister Scott Thompson signed the statement of responsibility on last year's public accounts, with which the government accepts responsibility for the statements' integrity and avows that they conform with public sector accounting standards. So did Ms. Veinot, the controller, and Ms. Angus, deputy minister of the Treasury Board. In theory, these signatures conferred substantial obligations upon these officials - even as the Auditor-General was warning them that the province was using improper accounting. (None of them granted The Globe an interview.)

The last line of defence was the legislature. The public accounts committee is charged with reviewing the Auditor-General's reports and making recommendations to the Legislative Assembly.

When it convened in February to discuss the Auditor-General's concerns, Mr. Hillier, the Tory MPP, flagged the issue as unusual.

"This committee has a track record of being non-partisan to a large extent," he said - suggesting, though, that neutrality might be difficult when it came to the politically charged Fair Hydro Plan.

Indeed, the committee's questioning split along party lines. Mr. Hillier and NDP MPP John Vanthof hammered the officials involved in creating the financial and accounting structure, demanding justification for the additional interest costs.

Liberal MPP Liz Sandals, by contrast, asked no questions about the Fair Hydro Plan. Instead, she voiced her support for rate-regulated accounting and defended the IESO's decision to not consult the Auditor-General. She used much of her allotted time to ask Mr. Thompson to comment on the balanced budget. He responded that the government was "in a very solid position to balance this fiscal year."

AN ERA OF COOKED BOOKS?

Last month, the government published the 2018 Pre-Election Report on the state of the province's finances. The requirement to produce that report was first introduced in 2004, by the government of Dalton McGuinty. Published in the lead-up to the 2007 election, then-finance minister Greg Sorbara presented it as an antidote to the Conservatives' alleged accounting shenanigans.

"The previous government's approach to balancing the budget was to count on phantom revenues like asset sales which they knew would not materialize," Mr. Sorbara said in a statement. "It is essential that the real state of the province's finances be known before and not after an election."

With Ontarians heading to the polls on June 7, they are confronted by two conflicting accounts about the state of their province's current and future indebtedness.

At press time, the Auditor-General's office was rushing to prepare her opinion on the Pre-Election Report. She is likely to issue another qualified opinion.

The Fair Hydro Plan triggered a breakdown of trust. Previously, the Auditor-General relied on KPMG to audit the IESO's books.

Not any more: This year, she conducted her own special audit. "We couldn't risk that something else is going to pop up on this," Ms. Lysyk said.

It did not go well. Ms. Lysyk said she was "professionally unable" to provide an audit opinion because management refused to sign certain documents.

"They basically treated, I think, my audit team like we were subservient to KPMG," she told the public accounts committee.

"When a board or management in any other province recognizes that an AG's office has issues with their accounting, they would have handled it differently."

Both the IESO and KPMG said they co-operated fully at all times.

Ms. Marshall will step down as the IESO's CFO at the end of this month. (No replacement has been named.) But the battle over the integrity of Ontario's financial statements rages on. In March, Ms. Lysyk warned the public accounts committee that the government risked receiving its firstever "adverse" opinion - essentially a disclaimer that the financial statements should not be trusted.

One year after the unveiling of the Fair Hydro Plan, the irony is that the alleged raison d'être for the accounting practice that made it possible has suddenly vanished: Mr. Sousa, the finance minister, has revealed that Ontarians can no longer count on balanced budgets; he has forecast deficits of more than $6-billion for each of the following three years as the government ramps up spending on health care, child care, social assistance and postsecondary education.

The government now forecasts its next balanced budget won't arrive until 2024-25. In a recent report examining Ontario's finances, the C.D. Howe Institute concluded: "While the government may claim to have balanced the budget for 2017/18, the mediumand long-term fiscal outlook for Ontario is dire." BY THE NUMBERS Financial projections for Ontario appear to vary between those of the governing Liberals and the province's Auditor-General.

ELECTRIFYING THE BOOKS

Last year, the Fair Hydro Plan lowered electricity rates for Ontario consumers by 25% and held increases to the rate of inflation for four years. The government must borrow billions of dollars to pay for most of it. The Auditor-General of Ontario says the government is using "bogus" accounting to keep that debt off its books.

Here's a simplified illustration of how it works:

FOLLOWING THE MONEY

1 Ontarians pay discounted hydro rates to local distribution companies, which remit that money to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), which manages Ontario's electrical system.

2 The IESO owes more to generators than it receives from ratepayers, causing a shortfall.

Using new accounting policies, the IESO calls this shortfall a "regulated asset." (The Auditor-General prefers the term "nonexistent asset.")

3 The IESO adds interest charges, fees and other expenses incurred by other government bodies to the "regulatory asset," then sells it to the Fair Hydro Trust, a specialpurpose entity the government created in December.

4 The trust receives the asset, which under its own policies must be called an "intangible asset."

Meanwhile, the trust borrows 51% of the money needed to pay for the "asset" from investors.

5 Ontario Power Generation (OPG), which controls the trust, raises another 5%.

6 The province borrows the remaining 44%.

7 The province forwards its borrowings to OPG as an "equity injection." This "investment" offsets the borrowing on its books.

8 OPG lends the money it borrowed, plus the government's contributrion, to the trust. Now the trust has enough money.

9 The trust pays the IESO for the "asset."

10 The IESO pays generators.

11 Future ratepayers will pay back all that borrowed money, plus interest costs, management fees and other expenses, through "Clean Energy Adjustment" charges on their electricity bills.

Associated Graphic

Auditor-General Bonnie Lysyk has raised red flags about the accounting practices used in Ontario's Fair Hydro Plan, and questions whether the Finance Ministry and Treasury Board should have consulted her sooner about the plan.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne and Finance Minister Charles Sousa applaud as the government delivers its latest budget at Queen's Park on March 28. The Wynne government published a pre-election report to outline the province's finances before Ontarians vote on June 7. But the government's math differs widely from the Auditor-General's.

CHRIS YOUNG/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Apotex next
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Scientist, deal maker, litigator: Barry Sherman was everything to the Canadian drug giant that turned him into a billionaire. Can the company thrive again now that he's gone?
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By TIM KILADZE, PAUL WALDIE
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


They arrived in droves, hundreds of mourners wearing bright blue scarves and dresses and T-shirts, coming together to commemorate the man who built an empire.

Six days after Barry Sherman and his wife, Honey, were found dead in their Toronto home, scores of employees from Apotex Inc., the Canadian drug giant that Mr. Sherman founded, gathered at a convention centre on the outskirts of Toronto. There, on a drab December morning, they joined thousands of others at a memorial service for the popular couple.

It was a public spectacle. The Prime Minister attended. Prominent members of Toronto's Jewish community did, too.

Yet away from the limelight, Apotex employees were reeling. Mr. Sherman built their company from the ground up. Its identity, its ethos, was intertwined with his own.

"We are like a family," a solemn employee told reporters. Many of his colleagues wore apparel in the same blue hue as Apotex's signature logo, including T-shirts bearing a powerful message: "We will continue your legacy."

For staffers, life hasn't gotten any easier in the four months since that mournful day. Although the initial shock has dissipated, the upheaval throughout Apotex's far-flung operations hasn't let up.

The company is struggling in the face of challenges that have gripped the generic-drug industry worldwide and led to thousands of layoffs, including hundreds at Apotex - so far.

Not only has the company lost its guiding force, but Mr. Sherman left no ownership succession plan.

Mr. Sherman's stake is likely to be divided among several relatives whose intentions aren't clear. Some employees also hold shares, according to court filings, complicating the company's control even more.

A new management team has been put in place and there are already plans to sell divisions and cut back operations. But there's no guarantee any of that will be successful and the future of one of Canada's premier companies is now in doubt.

Mr. Sherman's death has already set off a round of internal turmoil. Within weeks of the memorial, chief executive officer Jeremy Desai abruptly resigned after 15 years at the company, including nearly four as CEO. Mr. Desai had been enmeshed in a messy lawsuit alleging that he had stolen trade secrets from arch rival Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., with the help of a U.S.-based Teva executive with whom he'd had an affair.

Without a clear No. 2 to take the reins, the company reached for a familiar hand: Jack Kay, a former Apotex CEO, who agreed to come out of quasi-retirement at age 77.

While Mr. Kay was a familiar face in a fragile time, his steadying influence didn't last long.

A few weeks after his return, Mr. Kay sent an e-mail to Apotex's senior leaders telling them to brace for a significant restructuring. However, it is made clear that someone younger will be charged with implementing the revamp.

The man most likely to do that is Jeff Watson, a Kay protégé and the company's new president and chief operating officer.

Mr. Watson faces a complicated task. Mr. Sherman's legacy looms large at Apotex, even after his death. At the company's office complex in north Toronto, a banner with his portrait hangs over the reception desk.

But Apotex must be re-tooled, which means some of the founder's work will have to be undone. Despite the company's status and its track record of success that made Mr. Sherman a billionaire, it faces serious headwinds.

The generic-drug industry is under siege, and Mr. Sherman and Mr. Desai made key decisions in recent years that have hampered the company's performance.

In a rare interview, the new president is candid about the need for change. Almost everything seems to be on the table. "A year from now, our geographic footprint will look different. A year from now, our supply chain will look different," Mr. Watson said. Apotex's drug portfolio is also likely to shrink.

Altogether, it amounts to a "tighter, more focused approach" - a new strategy that was quietly taking shape last summer and fall. Mr. Sherman's death put things on hold, but the initiative has resumed. Recent changes have included staff cuts at Apotex's hub in Brantford, Ont., about an hour west of Toronto, and putting the company's European division up for sale.

The goal, in Mr. Watson's words, is simply to establish a "sustainable business that can stand on its own two feet."

DISRUPTION FROM ALL ANGLES

Five months before he died, Mr. Sherman finally accepted that the status quo wouldn't suffice. Generic-drug makers used to mint money - with operating profit margins around 30 per cent - but those days were vanishing.

Apotex became a Canadian champion by reverse-engineering the formulations of brand name drugs and then selling them for much lower prices once their patents expired. With his doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and brief history in the drug business thanks to an uncle, Mr. Sherman founded the company in 1974 and drove the business hard. He oversaw almost every operation and served as lead scientist, mixing the chemicals that formed the essence of new drugs. By the late 1990s, Apotex had operations around the world and held 40 per cent of Canada's generic market.

In the past few years, most of the institutional drug purchasers in the key market of the United States have either consolidated or formed partnerships. The three largest buyers now make up roughly 90 per cent of drug purchasing in the country, giving them incredible negotiating power over producers.

As well, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration plans to keep increasing the number of generic drugs it approves for sale. The hope is that the greater supply will drive drug costs lower - and new generic drug manufacturers in low-cost countries such as India are desperate to tap the U.S. market.

Generic drug prices had been falling 7 per cent to 8 per cent annually in the United States, and in late 2017 analysts at Credit Suisse projected even more carnage, with prices perhaps soon falling 10 per cent to 12 per cent annually.

"The worst has not yet played out, and returns should decline sharply," they wrote last October.

Similar pressures exist in countries with public health-care systems - including Canada - albeit for different reasons. Chiefly, cash-strapped governments are desperate to save money as their baby boomers age, so they target drug costs. As of 2016, average generic drug prices in Canada had declined to half of what they were a decade ago, according to Canada's Patented Medicine Prices Review Board.

Last year proved to be a turning point. By December, Sandoz, one of the world's largest genericdrug manufacturers, said it was considering exiting its oral dose business in the United States. A week later, Teva announced plans to lay off more than a quarter of its work force and suspended its dividend.

Asked to explain the shake-up on a conference call, Teva CEO Kare Schultz said the generic price wars had gotten ugly. "My guess is that not only Teva but other manufacturers have ended up competing to the bottom, where it's not really sustainable or profitable," he said.

As this global upheaval unfolds, Apotex is particularly vulnerable. The company has developed several business lines, but it is still predominately a producer of oral-dose drugs. In the months before he died, Mr. Sherman had been spending most of his time reworking old concoctions because many weren't robust enough for the current market - they were originally engineered to be stored in the types of pill bottles commonly seen behind Canadian pharmacy counters, but in emerging markets, drugs are typically sold in blister packs that aren't protected by a hard shell. Apotex also needed to make its pills more suitable for what are known as Zone IV climates, which have different temperatures and humidity levels.

"Sandoz, Teva, Mylan - they all lost volumes to the Indians," Ronny Gal, a pharmaceutical equities analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., said. "It's just that some of these other companies actually had other businesses to fall on, and Apotex did not."

Because the company is privately held, it's not clear how badly Apotex has suffered financially.

But in March, London-based Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC, whose generics division has a very similar profile to Apotex, announced a $1.1-billion writedown on this unit. Hikma's latest financial reports show the division pulled in one-third of total revenue last year, but generated only 5 per cent of profit.

Complicating things further at Apotex was Mr. Sherman's pride and his combative personality.

Under his leadership, Apotex amassed a huge drug portfolio, but he could be reluctant to cast off poor performers. In his eyes, the drugs were his babies, his inventions. Once, when management signed off on halting some production, Mr. Sherman furiously defended the products and launched into a diatribe about their history and his designs, according to someone who was at the meeting.

Mr. Kay alluded to this trait in a speech at the memorial service.

"Barry would stick to his guns on anything that was important to him, even if the economics would say to let things go," he said. "The concept of letting go was just not anywhere in his DNA."

Mr. Sherman also had pet projects, such as developing a triplecombination drug to treat people who were HIV-positive. "The big pharma companies would say, 'Screw that, why are we going to waste our money on one of those things? Let the universities figure that out,' " said Hank Klakurka, who ran Merck Generics when it was sold to Mylan in 2007. He also worked at Apotex from 1997 to 2001, reporting to Mr. Kay.

Initiatives like these are "the kinds of thing that Barry saw a need for and would finance year after year after year," Mr. Klakurka adds. "Some of us would look around and say, 'Why are we throwing all that money away?' " Mr. Klakurka was not privy to Apotex's finances, but based on his estimates, Merck would have been much more profitable for a simple reason: "Because we were run like a real business."

And then there was Mr. Sherman's penchant for litigation.

Historically, in order to be first to market, generic companies had to push for exclusive rights to launch a generic version just before a patent expired. That has grown more difficult lately because of changes to patent laws that mean generic drug companies typically all start production on the same day.

Mr. Sherman's court contests could also create financial volatility. Apotex was constantly at risk of losing big cases and paying financial penalties, sometimes to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars. In one famous example, Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. shared a patent on Plavix, a popular blood-thinner. Mr. Sherman thought he'd found a legal window to flood the U.S. market with a generic version of the drug, but the move backfired and after years of litigation, BristolMyers won a $442-million (U.S.) judgment in 2011.

MANUFACTURING WOES

Mr. Sherman was always proud of his Canadian roots. Apotex manufactures roughly 80 per cent of its drugs at plants north of Toronto. The company also employs 6,200 Canadians, a commitment in the face of incessant industry outsourcing that won Mr. Sherman accolades - he was set to receive the Order of Canada before he died - and helped him build relationships with politicians.

So when the U.S. FDA sent inspectors to two Toronto plants in 2009, Mr. Sherman likely felt confident. But FDA inspectors found a host of problems including "yellow powder," "charred material" and other contaminants in certain drugs, according to a warning letter sent to Apotex. Products from the plants were soon banned from entry into the United States, a damaging blow to a company that depended on growing U.S. sales. Apotex later alleged that the ban cost the company hundreds of millions of dollars in lost sales.

Mr. Sherman went to war, ultimately filing a lawsuit against the FDA under the North American free-trade agreement in 2012. Yet the narrative that developed of Mr. Sherman standing up to protect Canadian manufacturing was flawed. In its filings, Apotex acknowledged that its products "did not fully meet specifications," and the company hired someone from a global rival to oversee its quality control.

To make up for the years of legal battles and lost revenues, Apotex had to do something. In 2013, when cash was tight, Mr.

Sherman decided to sell the company's interest in Doc Generici, a profitable Italian generics producer, in a deal alongside its joint venture partners. It was reportedly valued around 300-million (more than $472-million).

It wasn't long before another showdown with the FDA loomed.

Before he'd become CEO in 2014, Mr. Desai had devoted much of his time shepherding Apotex's expansion into India - an initiative designed to fend off lowercost rivals. Yet starting in 2006, the FDA began looking into quality-control issues there, too. And by 2014, the regulator was so concerned that it banned nearly all imports from Apotex's Bangalore plant into the United States.

In a letter, the FDA cited repeated failures to keep proper drugtesting data and alleged Apotex staff had manipulated results. A year later, the regulator raised even more concerns, with inspectors alleging Apotex workers had disregarded adverse test results and conducted unauthorized drug injections.

As the FDA troubles played out, Apotex struggled with a "tech transfer" to India - that is, exporting its Canadian manufacturing prowess abroad. These struggles are common for older companies, yet Apotex's issues were likely rooted in some historical dysfunction, according to Mr. Klakurka. "His [Mr. Sherman's] flaw, I would say, would be that he would put up with technical people and their b.s. for maybe too long, and gave too many people second, and third and fourth chances to get it right - at his expense," he said. "When you have something like India, or China, you've got to have a guy there, sitting on the ground with those people - somebody who you know and trust your life with," he added.

Mr. Sherman trusted Mr. Desai, who led the push into India, but Mr. Desai seemed to lean on local talent. Now, the problems in India are seemingly never-ending.

While the FDA issues were eventually resolved, last December Britain's equivalent to the FDA banned imports from the Indian facility - a ruling that applies to the entire European Union.

"India has been an anchor around Apotex's neck," said a former senior employee.

THE INCREDIBLE SHRINKING COMPANY

After Mr. Desai abruptly left Apotex in January, it fell to Mr. Watson, the new president, to put out all the fires. A Halifax native, he joined the drug maker's sales and marketing team in 1993 after playing a few seasons as an offensive lineman in the Canadian Football League. Save for a brief stint with Shoppers Drug Mart, he has been there ever since. Mr. Watson is a close confidant of Mr. Kay's, and the two men had breakfast every month for years as he rose through the ranks.

The strategy he is now spearheading is multi-faceted. Most notably, although, it emphasizes Apotex's North American roots.

"Over four decades we've been in and out of international markets and learned lots of lessons along the way," Mr. Watson said, sitting in his ground floor office that looks out on a parking lot. As a result, the Apotex of the future won't reflect Mr. Sherman's global ambitions. "I would say a year from now you'll see a very focused footprint geographically," Mr. Watson adds.

As part of the retreat, there is a plan to sell Apotex's European business, which includes an operation in Poland that used to be highly regarded internally. Apotex is also pausing the construction of a massive new manufacturing plant in Florida - an endeavour that Mr. Desai announced in March, 2017, and was set to be the company's largestever investment in the United States, worth US$184-million. In turn, one of the signature components of Mr. Desai's short-lived legacy could get wiped from the books.

The moves do not suggest Apotex is giving up on these markets - especially the United States, which is crucial to the new vision.

It's just that Apotex may source these markets in different ways, perhaps with Canadian production, perhaps through contract manufacturing.

Canada will remain the firm's bread and butter, but Mr. Watson concedes domestic production will need to be even more efficient. Apotex hired McKinsey & Co. in 2015 to consult on its Canadian operations, and despite following some of the recommendations, more work is needed to hold up against lower-cost regions. "We continue to sweat our assets," Mr. Watson said.

In the United States, which is the second linchpin in the new vision, there will be a new strategy.

"In the past, it was really a pursuit to get bigger and better," Mr. Watson explains. Apotex craved market share, and it pursued producing a broad portfolio of drugs.

"We'll continue to launch products, we'll continue to add revenue. ... But we're not really defining ourselves on whether we're going to be able to get close to [the size of] a Mylan or get close to other organizations." Apotex currently has the 11th-largest market share in the country, down from a top-five standing before the FDA bans.

The big question mark is India, especially after Britain's. regulatory ban. There are hints that the latest failed inspection was the final straw for the current leadership team. Mr. Watson acknowledges the country is part of Apotex's review. "Is it delivering to the strategy that we need? It's something that we're taking a close look at," he said. Reading between the lines, it sounds as though Apotex could exit Indian manufacturing, but keep some other operations in the country, such as a business services office in Mumbai and a research and development arm in Bangalore.

Should the Indian plant be shuttered or sold, it would be another blow to the legacy of Mr. Desai, who led the entry in India after being hired as head of research and development in 2003.

The former CEO declined to comment - however, he and Apotex have denied the claims in the Teva lawsuit and the case appears headed for settlement in May, according to recent court filings.

The final leg of the new strategy involves revamping Apotex's drug portfolio, and culling weaker-performing drugs.

"When we had launch calendars that were more robust, many companies would carry what we would call 'the tail' along - products that you weren't really making money on, or they were marginal in nature," Mr. Watson explains. Not anymore. At the same time, Apotex wants to increase its production of complex drugs, such as injectables, which are more difficult for low-cost rivals to replicate. "There's no question that we see a greater involvement in specialty and complex [drugs]," Mr. Watson said.

Apotex isn't starting from a standstill - under Mr. Desai, the drug maker invested heavily in drugs known as biosimilars, and created a division specifically for them, called Apobiologix. Biosimilars are advanced forms of generic drugs, and they are created from living cells.

The task now is to determine how to make them profitable. For all the industry hype around biosimilars, 10 years in, there hasn't been much of a return on investment for anybody. At Apotex, traditional generics still generate 90 per cent of revenues.

"Everybody wanted to look at large molecules and biosimilars as the hope," said Pratap Khedkar, managing principal at pharmaceutical consultancy ZS Associates in Philadelphia. "So many people stampeded in with the gold rush mentality."

Developing biosimilars has proved to be much more intricate than the process for creating traditional generic drugs. With biosimilars, the regulatory bar is much higher, which creates the need for clinical trials. (Read: Higher costs.) At the same time, regulators have been slower to embrace these drugs, because of their complexity.

Marketing biosimilars is also likely to require new skill sets. In their early days, generic drug companies were seen as disruptors, which meant they needed to convince pharmacists to stock their products alongside their branded equivalents. Cash, or heavy rebates, often did the trick, and Apotex was known to offer some of the most aggressive financial rewards.

The biosimilar market is a different ballgame, one that involves educating and marketing to doctors, patients and payers.

"It will be very hard to succeed without taking on some of the trappings of a branded pharma company," Mr. Khedkar said. That means drug makers will need to develop some competencies in sales and marketing, both of which can be expensive endeavours.

THE ODDS OF SUCCESS

The question for Apotex is whether it can restructure fast enough to keep pace with the pharmaceutical market's global giants, which benefit from their scale. As if that isn't enough of a challenge, Apotex must find a way to do so without the guiding vision of the company's founder.

The good news is that Apotex appears to have stability where it needs it most: The backing of the Sherman family. In a deposition last May, Mr. Sherman revealed he had no succession plan, and his death raised questions about future ownership. But the company said family members have endorsed the transformation. "To accomplish what I've been speaking to you about, we certainly have the support and the ability to do that," Mr. Watson said. A request for confirmation through the family's lawyer was not returned.

Given this support, it appears that Apotex will focus on re-tooling as a standalone company.

Some kind of consolidation is common at this stage of the business cycle, but an Apotex spokesperson said that, at this time, there are no plans to sell the company or to take it public.

"There are lots of opportunities for a company like Apotex," Mr. Klakurka argues. Should it seek a partner or even a sale, private equity backers would likely be intrigued.

"As long as there's money coming in, and there are a lot of costs involved," he said, alluding, for one, to Canadian manufacturing, "then there are lots of opportunities for improvement."

What may ultimately determine Apotex's success - or demise - is the commitment of its employees. Even the most exemplary strategies can't be executed if the rank and file don't buy in.

Morale is a powerful thing.

Long before Mr. Sherman died, Apotex suffered on this front.

Some of the company's most respected leaders, including Steve Lydeamore, who used to run the biosimilars division, and Craig Baxter, who was once a close confidante of Mr. Sherman's and one of the few people privy to Apotex's finances, serving as a director on multiple Sherman family holding companies, left the drug maker. Mr. Baxter declined to comment, and Mr. Lydeamore did not respond to requests for comment.

The current leadership team is well aware that business transformations tend to depend on employee support. "There's no question: The people part of this business is where we're really spending our time," Mr. Watson said.

If anything, he adds, this is where Apotex may actually find its strength. This isn't just a company - for many employees, particularly those in Canada, it is a family. And since December, the family has something special to work for. In Mr. Watson's words, "the legacy of Barry has been something people have rallied around."

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Jeff Watson, president and COO of generic drug company Apotex, is part of the new management team following the death of the company's founder, Barry Sherman.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Apotex employees work at the drug maker's North York, Ont., packaging operations on March 29. Apotex manufactures roughly 80 per cent of its drugs at plants north of Toronto.

FRED LUM /THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Honey and Barry Sherman pose for a photo at a fundraiser. Before he died, Mr. Sherman had been reworking old Apotex drugs that weren't robust enough for modern markets.

JANICE PINTO /THE GLOBE AND MAIL

TRANS MOUNTAIN END OF THE LINE?
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Trans Mountain isn't just another project to move crude. The death of Kinder Morgan's west coast dream would deal a blow that would be felt for years - from the oil patch to Bay Street to Parliament
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By JEFF LEWIS, KELLY CRYDERMAN, SHAWN MCCARTHY
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


CALGARY, OTTAWA -- It was supposed to be the sure bet.

As investment poured into Northern Alberta's oil sands during the past two decades, a race began to build a pipeline that could get large amounts of crude to the refineries that turn it into usable fuel.

One by one, many of the projects foundered because of politics, economics or environmental opposition. TransCanada Corp.'s southbound Keystone XL ran into an adversary named Barack Obama, and the company's Energy East project was scrapped. Enbridge Inc.'s Northern Gateway, which would have cut across Northern British Columbia to the town of Kitimat, B.C., hit legal and political trouble.

Eventually, Kinder Morgan Inc. emerged as the clear front-runner to build significant new pipeline capacity for Canada's oil industry.

Desperate to secure new export routes, some of the world's largest energy companies threw their support behind the Texas firm's contentious plan to thread a new pipeline alongside an existing one that had ferried Alberta crude across the Rocky Mountains since the Korean War.

While tanker traffic would increase in Vancouver Harbour, many wagered the Trans Mountain expansion stood a more realistic shot at getting built than the others.

Demand for Trans Mountain was so great that Kinder Morgan upsized the plan in 2013 to 890,000 barrels a day.

Ottawa gave its blessing to the project in November, 2016, and drove a stake through Northern Gateway on the same day. Investors bought in, snapping up $1.75-billion worth of shares in an initial public offering last year of Kinder Morgan's Canadian unit.

But the oil industry's sure bet suddenly looks like a massive gamble.

This week, Kinder Morgan put the $7.4-billion oil pipeline on life support, warning it would scrap the already-delayed expansion without assurances by May 31 that it can actually start construction this summer without facing a political battle in British Columbia that could stop the project months from now and cost its shareholders dearly.

The company's threat has reverberated across Canada.

In Ottawa, the surprise ultimatum has triggered a political and national-unity crisis unlike any faced so far by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who this week said he would interrupt a scheduled 10-day trip to Peru, France and Britain to meet with the warring premiers of Alberta and B.C.

Oil-industry executives and the heads of major Canadian banks have issued dire warnings. With the U.S. sharply cutting taxes and regulations, they say, Canada already seems a less attractive place to invest. The failure to build Trans Mountain - even after it won approval from the federal government - would amplify the risks to the country's economy. It would cost the oil industry billions of dollars, with knock-on effects for the rest of the country.

Faced with the prospect of cancellation, Alberta Premier Rachel Notley has made the extraordinary threat to choke off fuel deliveries to B.C.'s Lower Mainland and has vowed to buy the expansion project outright, if necessary, to ensure its survival. Meanwhile, Ottawa has said it would consider loan guarantees and other mechanisms to prop it up.

Kinder Morgan's demand has galvanized environmentalists who say Trans Mountain threatens the coast and undermines Canada's commitment to help slow climate change. First Nations who oppose the project maintain it will never be built, pointing to unresolved challenges before the Federal Court of Appeal.

For his part, B.C. Premier John Horgan has not blinked, arguing his province has a right to defend its coasts, economy and interests.

His government raised the temperature further this week, saying that whether the expansion is built or not, B.C. intends to pursue authority to restrict the diluted bitumen from moving across the province by rail.

Hanging in the balance is a national consensus on fighting climate change, including measures imposed by Ms. Notley to limit the growth of planet-warming greenhouse gases from the oil sands.

In Calgary's office towers, frustration has turned to bewilderment. Trans Mountain could yet be built, but many in the downtrodden oil industry are asking the same questions: What happens if it fails?

"This is the simplest, most straightforward, least-invasive project that we have," said Jim Davidson, deputy chairman of investment bank GMP FirstEnergy, a boutique dealer that specializes in energy.

Although Mr. Davidson still believes the expansion will go ahead, the project has become a litmus test for Canada's ability to attract global capital - for its ability to get something done to develop its resources.

"If we can't get this built - if we can't get this project complete - why would international investors even take a look at us?"

OPTIMISM FADES

Oil sands producers had only started to emerge from a bruising price slump that prompted waves of cuts to staffing and spending levels and permanently dented investor confidence in the sector.

But while much of the global oil business is reaping benefits as prices recover, Alberta's dominant industry is once again grappling with bouts of steep discounts. The extra-heavy crude trades at a discount to the main North American price because it must be shipped over long distances to refineries and because it takes extra energy to convert into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel.

Tight export capacity means the price is especially sensitive to even slight changes in demand or supply. The gap between the extra-heavy oil and the U.S. benchmark price, West Texas intermediate, mushroomed late last year to more than US$30 owing to restrictions on major pipelines.

Some pressure has eased as producers curtail output, but analysts say the relief is temporary.

Backers say Trans Mountain offers a more lasting solution, giving Alberta's hard-hit oil producers what they have long sought: wider access to global markets, a boost in prices and a sharp break from near-total dependence on the United States.

The federally approved project involves threading almost 1,000 kilometres of new pipe from Edmonton to a marine terminal at Burnaby, B.C. Much of it would follow the same route as the existing, 300,000-barrel-per-day line and other utility corridors, but the project requires a major expansion of storage capacity in Vancouver's suburbs.

"This is the opportunity for us to move into those new and growing markets in Asia, which everyone sees as where the future is going to be," energy consultant Greg Stringham said. "It ties us to that, so this is really important."

Kinder Morgan's ultimatum has been widely praised in the oil patch, where opposition to the plan has sparked fears the company and its oil-shipper customers are about to lose another construction season.

That would push the project's start date even further into the next decade, an alarming prospect for an industry that is losing out as more barrels compete for space on pipelines that are effectively full. Big price discounts sap corporate revenue and have made even the largest companies reluctant to invest in new growth, triggering concern in Alberta, a province that relies heavily on energy royalties to fund health care and education.

"Until some major pipe capacity comes on, we're going to continue to lose $10- or $15-billion a year, just through discounted oil, as barrels are competing to get into the pipeline rather than competing at the market hubs at the other end," said Hal Kvisle, the one-time head of TransCanada and a board nominee for oilsands producer Cenovus Energy Inc.

"That's what is really a horrific challenge for Alberta today."

The project's demise would ratchet up pressure to get TransCanada's Keystone XL or Enbridge's Line 3 done, while also forcing producers to pay more to ship growing volumes by train.

Although they each face resistance, both Line 3 and Keystone XL would enable more crude to flow south to the United States, where big refineries on the Gulf Coast are already consuming more than 800,000 barrels per day of heavy oil sands crude, according to estimates by consultancy IHS Markit.

While history is rich with examples of Canadian governments pushing contentious energy infrastructure across the finish line, it is far from clear that public investment in Trans Mountain will mollify opponents in Vancouver Harbour.

Mr. Kvisle bluntly called the region an "unbuildable endpoint" for the project and said the expansion plan is at risk of withering on the vine.

"I'm not optimistic at all." POLITICS The economic magnitude of the multibillion-dollar project, along with the accompanying increased tax revenue and royalties, always meant that politicians at all levels of government would pay close attention.

However, the project has also become emblematic of Mr. Trudeau's pledge that he can both make Canada a world leader in environmental protection and promote the country's economic growth. His credibility came into sharp focus the moment Kinder Morgan said it would give Canada only a matter of weeks to prove that it can remove the roadblocks to the pipeline expansion.

At risk is the understanding between Mr. Trudeau and Ms. Notley that Alberta, Canada's largest greenhouse gas emitter, will support the federal Liberals' carbon price and place a cap on its oil sands emissions in exchange for pipeline access to Asian and other global markets.

The political stakes are high for all leaders. Mr. Horgan is presiding over a minority government in partnership with the Green Party and could see that deal collapse if he caves on Trans Mountain.

Alberta's NDP Premier, who has become an increasingly hawkish advocate for pipelines over her three years in power, risks losing a provincial election early next year to the United Conservative Party.

But for Mr. Trudeau, the pipeline crisis has exposed political weaknesses in his government that few foresaw just a few months ago. Hot off the heels of a poorly received trip to India, the fight over the pipeline is Mr. Trudeau's first real national unity test.

He and his staff have long insisted that those who doubt his government's resolution to get the project done will be proven wrong. If Kinder Morgan backs away from the project, it will be a severe blow to his credibility, even as his poll numbers already show signs of weakness.

In Vancouver, former federal Liberal cabinet minister and former B.C. premier Ujjal Dosanjh said something even greater is in question.

"Where we are as a federation is in a dangerous spot," he said.

Mr. Dosanjh says that if the pipeline expansion is built, many in B.C. will still be angry about the spill risks but will eventually reconcile themselves. If it's not built, the political alienation of Alberta, and even separatist sentiment, will spike. "You haven't seen the likes of what might happen in Alberta if it's not built," he said.

"There has to be some understanding that you can't have landlocked provinces at the whim and mercy of coastal provinces," Mr. Dosanjh said.

"Perhaps I am too critical in my old age, but the longer whatever decision is going to be made by the federal government is delayed, the worse it is," he said.

"The federal government has known that this was coming, and if they still want the thing built, they should have acted sooner."

Ted Morton, a former Alberta PC cabinet minister who now runs a consultancy focused on political and policy risks in Canada's energy sector, said whatever path Mr. Trudeau's government takes, it will have to walk a fine line - particularly in relation to vote-rich Quebec, where the Liberals hold 40 seats.

Facing tough new rules on greenhouse gas emissions, TransCanada killed off its controversial Energy East pipeline six months ago. But Quebeckers are still not particularly fond of new heavy oil pipelines - or alpha-dog displays of federal authority. The federal Liberals may have to reconcile themselves to losing seats in the Lower Mainland of B.C. out of the pipeline fracas (and Alberta was already a wasteland for Liberal votes), but now Mr. Trudeau must make sure that any decision does not come back to haunt him in Quebec.

"It might hurt Trudeau more than it would help him," Dr. Morton said.

THE CLIMATE FALLOUT While Mr. Horgan invokes the threat of an oil spill to justify his anti-pipeline stand, the national climate change debate is never far from the surface.

Federal Environment Minister Catherine McKenna argues the demise of the Trans Mountain expansion would threaten the fragile national consensus cobbled together in December, 2016, in an agreement called the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change.

Ms. Notley only agreed to the climate-change plan - and to increase carbon prices to $50 a tonne by 2022 - in exchange for federal approval on the Trans Mountain project, which came just weeks before Mr. Trudeau sealed the deal at a first ministers' meeting in Ottawa.

In reviewing the Trans Mountain expansion proposal, the federal government assessed the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions from the oil sands and declared that, while GHGs were likely to rise, the increase fit within the federal-provincial climate plan.

The pipeline project needs to be seen in the broader context of all the actions Ottawa and the provinces are taking to cut GHGs, including Alberta's climate plan, as part of a long-term transition to a low-carbon economy, Ms.

McKenna said in an interview on Friday.

"Alberta has taken extremely serious measures to tackle climate change," she said. That action is threatened by "politicians who want no climate action at all," she added, a clear reference to United Conservative Party Leader Jason Kenney, who opposes the province's carbon price and is urging Ms. Notley to scrap it if the pipeline fails.

Pipeline opponents insist it is foolhardy to pin the success of a GHG reduction strategy on a pipeline that will increase emissions in the oil sands, which have been the fastest-growing source of GHGs in the country since 2000.

B.C. environmentalist Tzeporah Berman said it would be a good thing for the country if the expansion did not go ahead. "It would show the world that Canada is going to lead on building a new, cleaner economy - that we're moving forward, not backwards," she said.

The Alberta government's climate plan includes an economywide carbon tax and a cap on emissions from the oil sands set at 100 megatonnes. That cap would still allow oil sands emissions to increase by 47.5 per cent above 2014 levels - and that does not include the exemptions for new upgrading facilities or cogeneration plants that use steam for both electricity and extracting bitumen.

Construction of the Trans Mountain pipeline would facilitate more investment in the oil sands and more GHG emissions, especially if accompanied by the completion of either Line 3 or Keystone XL through the United States.

Simon Fraser energy economist Mark Jaccard states it bluntly: The expansion of oil sands emissions is inconsistent with Canada's target - pledged under the 2015 Paris climate agreement - to reduce GHGs by 30 per cent from 2005 levels by 2030. And it is inconsistent with the global goal of limiting the increase in average temperatures to less than two degrees above preindustrial levels, as the Paris accord sets out.

Regardless of the fate of the Notley government, Ottawa has the power to impose a carbon price and regulations on the oil industry that would ensure that Alberta's emissions fall over the next 12 years, he argues.

Ms. McKenna rejected the view that Alberta's plan is inadequate, though she did not directly address the question of how the Paris target can be met if GHG emissions in the oil sands rise to hit the Alberta cap.

"This is a multigenerational transition ... There's so much focus on one pipeline - stopping this pipeline is not going to stop climate change," Ms. McKenna said. "We need to change behaviour."

FIRST NATIONS While much will be lost in terms of industry, the economy and some political careers if the project fails, much will be gained from the perspective of several First Nations in the Lower Mainland. They are prepared to fight federal approval to the Supreme Court of Canada to enforce their argument that they must give consent to a project that poses so much risk to their land and homes.

Somewhat lost amid the political spectacle of one NDP premier confronting another, and the federal government putting its credibility on the line, is the impact the pipeline issue is having on the government's reconciliation effort with First Nations.

The situation on the ground around Kinder Morgan's terminal in Burnaby is becoming increasingly tense.

Indigenous and environmental activists are pursuing a strategy of civil disobedience to block activity around the terminal and to provoke police into making dozens of arrests each day.

In an opinion piece on The Globe and Mail website on Thursday, two prominent First Nations leaders warned that the government is risking a violent standoff as a result of its failure to obtain consent for the pipeline project.

"If the federal government tries to ram through this pipeline, it could mean going back to one of the darkest times in modern Canadian history: the Oka standoff with the Mohawk Nation," wrote Chief Stewart Phillip, president of the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, and Serge Simon, Grand Chief of the Mohawk Council of Kanesatake.

While they mount direct action along the pipeline route, several First Nations have challenged in court the National Energy Board review process and the federal approval of the project. The Tsleil Waututh Nation, the Musqueam Indian Band and the Coldwater Indian Band have argued that the government failed to meet its obligations to consult and accommodate their concerns over the project.

A federal court decision is pending - expected this spring, though perhaps not before Kinder Morgan's May 31 deadline.

Natural Resources Minister Jim Carr is confident that Ottawa met its constitutional obligations, which he maintains were clearly spelled out in previous court rulings.

In a conference call this week, Kinder Morgan chief executive Steve Kean said anything less than a clear federal victory would jeopardize his company's willingness to proceed. Still, even a clear victory in federal court will not end the legal fight, as the TsleilWaututh vow to fight it to the Supreme Court if necessary. The "People of the Inlet" are determined to protect the coast from what they believe would be an inevitable oil spill from the increased pipeline volume and tanker traffic.

"We've been here for thousands of years. We'll never leave," said Rueben George, manager of the community's Sacred Trust, which was set up to stop the pipeline project.

"We need the money [the project would bring], but we don't need it enough to sell out the things we love and are spiritually connected to - and that's our land, our water, our people. We do that because we love it and we'll never stop."

Still, Kinder Morgan and the federal government do have some allies among B.C. Indigenous communities.

Ernie Crey is the elected chief of the Cheam First Nation near Chilliwack and chair of the TMX Indigenous advisory and monitoring committee, which was established by Ottawa to monitor the company's compliance with its licensing conditions.

He notes that 43 First Nations have signed benefit agreements with Kinder Morgan - 30 of them in B.C. They will receive revenue, employment opportunities and business contracts.

"If this project doesn't go through, it'll hurt our people," Chief Crey said in an interview. "It will provide a major leg up out of poverty."

Associated Graphic

Workers set poles for a new fence under construction at a Kinder Morgan facility in preparation for the expansion of the Trans Mountain Pipeline in Burnaby, B.C., on April 9. B.C. Premier John Horgan has argued that his province has a right to restrict diluted bitumen's movement across British Columbia, putting him at odds with Alberta.

DARRYL DYCK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Indigenous leaders and environmentalists march in protest against Kinder Morgan's Trans Mountain pipeline expansion in Burnaby, B.C., in March.

NICK DIDLICK/REUTERS

HEZBOLLAH'S HOMECOMING
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Between Syria's civil war and Tehran's escalating standoff with Israel, Lebanon's 'Party of God' has been busy fighting a mini-world war of sorts in the region lately. Now, the Iranian-backed militia's members are coming home. Mark MacKinnon investigates what they're returning to, and why
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By MARK MACKINNON
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A14


KFAR KILA, LEBANON -- Standing on a hill overlooking Lebanon's border with Israel, Talal Saad is telling his brother, visiting from Germany, tales of the last war between Israel and the Hezbollah militia - and the destruction that was wrought in the south of this country.

The border is quiet now, and has been for most of the intervening 12 years. But few things in the Middle East feel permanent these days, as the multisided war in Syria grinds on and the risk of a major clash between Israel and Hezbollah's main backer, Iran, grows larger.

The seven-year-old conflict in Syria has grown into something like a mini-world war in recent months, further dragging regional and global players into the fray at an alarming pace. The United States and its allies Britain, France and Saudi Arabia stand on one side of the conflict, seeking to isolate and perhaps topple the regime of Bashar al-Assad, who is backed by Russia and Iran, both of which have forces on the ground to support Mr. al-Assad. There's a separate, but related, conflict in the north of the country, pitting Turkey's army against a Kurdish militia that it considers to be a "terrorist" group, while Turkey's NATO allies the United States and France support the same Kurds in a fight that has pushed the Islamic State to the brink of defeat.

But none of those dynamics is as flammable as the confrontation between Israel and Iran. And Tehran's firmest ally in any fight with the Jewish state would be Hezbollah, the Shia militia called "terrorist" by Canada and the United States - that is the dominant military and political force in Lebanon, a country with fading hopes of staying out of the fighting that surrounds it.

Hezbollah is armed and funded by Iran, and for the past six years it has fought on the side of Mr. al-Assad's forces, helping prevent the collapse of the regime. There are reports Hezbollah fighters have also been dispatched to help train pro-Iranian forces in Iraq and Yemen. Now, Lebanese analysts say, with the Syrian regime increasingly gaining control over the country, Hezbollah is starting to bring the bulk of its fighters home.

The question hanging over Lebanon and the region is what Hezbollah intends to do with them next.

In the valley below the road the two brothers paused on, Israel has begun erecting a concrete barrier between the Lebanese village of Kfar Kila and Metula, an Israeli town a shouting distance away.

Eventually, the seven-metre-high wall is supposed to extend along the entire Israel-Lebanon frontier. Mr. Saad isn't sure it will matter. "If there's another war, it will happen whether this wall is here or not."

'I WOULDN'T CALL IT PEACEFUL'

On Feb. 10, an Iranian drone that Israel says was armed with explosives was shot down over the Golan Heights, prompting an exchange of fire that saw Israeli fighter jets strike at the Syrian base the drone was launched from, while Syrian anti-aircraft defences shot down one of the attacking planes, which crashed just after it crossed back into Israeli airspace.

On April 8, Israeli jets - this time operating from Lebanese airspace - struck again, attacking another Syrian airbase, known as T-4. Seven Iranians were among the dead. Israel, in a break with past practice, acknowledged it was behind the strike. "It was the first time we attacked live Iranian targets - both facilities and people," an unnamed military source told The New York Times.

Israel has signalled repeatedly that it will not allow Iran to continue building up its military infrastructure in Syria. The nightmare scenario for the Jewish state would be to see Iran take advantage of Syria's civil war to replicate a Hezbollah-like force there, the same way it used the chaos of Lebanon's wars in the 1980s to create the original.

Assaf Orion, a retired Israeli brigadier-general, recently told The Globe and Mail that any effort to confront Iran in Syria would almost certainly involve Hezbollah and Lebanon as well.

Iran has vowed vengeance for the strike on T-4. The country's Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, said on Thursday the Islamic Republic was facing its enemies on "a large battlefield."

In words that will be taken as orders by the country's military establishment, Ayatollah Khamenei added that "besides defending, we should have offensive plans against the enemy, too."

In Lebanon, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah has delivered his own warning. Israel, he said in a televised speech, had made a "historic mistake" by attacking T-4. Iran and Israel, he said, were now in "direct confrontation."

Israel, which is on high alert amid celebrations to mark the country's 70th birthday, announced this week that it was cancelling plans to send fighter jets to Alaska to take part in joint exercises with the United States, just in case the warplanes were needed on the home front.

While some analysts dismiss the rising rhetoric as bluster that neither side is likely to follow through on, Kamel Wazne, a Beirut-based expert on Hezbollah, said he believes the danger is real.

"What has happened in the past week to 10 days is very serious ... my estimate is that war between [Israel and Iran] will happen, it's just a matter of timing," Mr. Wazne says. "And any miscalculation by either of these two entities will bring regional war to our area."

The fragile peace along the Israel-Lebanon frontier is supervised by a 10,500-soldier UN force that first deployed here in 1978, and which saw its mission expanded after the 2006 war.

"We have to make sure on a daily basis that there is no escalation of tension," says Andrea Tenenti, spokesman for the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, or UNIFIL. "The situation on the ground is stable now. But I wouldn't call it peaceful."

HEZBOLLAH'S COSTLY WAR

Lebanese analysts believe Mr. Nasrallah wasn't initially keen on joining Syria's war. The bearded 57-year-old cleric, who studied in Qom, Iran, and rose to power after his predecessor was killed in an Israeli air strike, prefers to portray himself as a regional, rather than a sectarian, leader - the only one willing to confront Israel over its occupation of Arab lands. Although its name means "Party of God," Hezbollah often refers to itself simply as "the Resistance," indicating its willingness to stand up to both Israel and its supporters in the West. Its flag features a hand clutching a Kalashnikov assault rifle.

Syria's war has been sectarian from the moment it began in 2011, pitting Mr. al-Assad's regime which is dominated by followers of the Alawi faith, which is an offshoot of Shia Islam - against the country's Sunni Muslim majority.

In the eyes of many of the region's Sunnis, Hezbollah reduced itself to just another Shia militia by wading into the morass of Syria.

Mr. Nasrallah likely felt he had no choice. The fall of Mr. al-Assad's regime would have severed the route via which Iran supplies Hezbollah with weapons. It's also unclear whether Mr. Nasrallah is allowed to say no to Iran, which has armed and funded Hezbollah since 1982, when it was established by a unit of Iran's crack Revolutionary Guards who entered Lebanon via Syria.

Hezbollah first made its existence known in the early 1990s with a wave of suicide car bombs against Israeli and U.S. targets, including an April, 1983, attack on the U.S. embassy in Beirut that killed 63 people.

Syria has been a costly war for Hezbollah. In addition to the political damage, the military wing is believed to have lost upward of 1,500 fighters. "Even the Shi[ites] themselves are not very keen on the war, because they are losing a lot of young people," says Timur Goksel, a Turkish journalist who spent more than two decades working for the UNIFIL mission in Southern Lebanon.

But Mr. Goksel says many Lebanese also accept Hezbollah's assertion that its intervention in Syria has kept the fight on that side of the border and that it prevented the Islamic State from bringing its jihadi carnage to Lebanon.

"There have supposedly been high costs of casualties, but [also] a high level of recruitment," Mr. Wazne says. "The Shi[ites] accept the high costs because they feel that if Hezbollah did not go to Syria, the costs would have been higher."

CHALLENGING THE 'PARTY OF GOD'

Riad al-Assaad has one of the most daunting political challenges anywhere. He's running for office in Lebanon's May 6 parliamentary election, facing off against Hezbollah in its Southern Lebanon stronghold.

Mr. al-Assaad has no illusions about how it will go. Lebanon's new electoral law is expected to create cracks in the political order that emerged after the country's own 1975-90 civil war - a system that remains dominated by sectarian-based political parties - by opening the door for more independent politicians to win seats in parliament. But nobody expects Hezbollah will lose its hold on the country's Shias, who are estimated to account for somewhere between 1.2 million and two million of the country's total population of 4.3 million. (Lebanon hasn't conducted a census since 1932.)

"Of course, they are confident.

They have a strong power base.

The Shi[ites] are unified," Mr. alAssaad says when asked if he expects to defeat Hezbollah and its fellow Shia party, Amal. "But we are running to show that not all the people in the south are Amal or Hezbollah."

The middle-aged Mr. al-Assaad, a Shiite who is running as part of a slate of independent candidates, walks a careful line in challenging the "Party of God." Unlike some Sunni and Christian politicians and their supporters outside Lebanon - he does not question Hezbollah's need to retain its own militia separate from the Lebanese army.

The independents are running, he says, to highlight Hezbollah's failure to help bring economic development to the country. Lebanon's economic growth has slowed from 8 per cent in 2010, before the start of the war in Syria, to about 2 per cent last year. President Michel Aoun recently acknowledged that the country is awash in debt and risks bankruptcy. Meanwhile, the country's civil service has mushroomed in size as sectarian leaders reward their co-religionists with jobs in the ministries they control.

Hezbollah, Mr. al-Assaad says, could win over a lot of skeptical Lebanese if it used its political clout to tackle such corruption, especially as Mr. Nasrallah is viewed as one of Lebanon's few clean political leaders. But while Hezbollah has held seats in parliament since 1992, it hasn't sought to set the country's economic agenda. Instead, Hezbollah lawmakers have largely served to ensure the movement maintains a veto over government decisions that might affect it.

Hezbollah went into politics primarily to protect the movement's status as a heavily armed state within the state. A dozen years ago, after the war against Israel, some Lebanese politicians tried to press Hezbollah into giving up its weapons and leaving the country's security to the Lebanese army.

After the group's military successes in Syria, there's no force in Lebanon strong enough to even raise the question any more.

"You're not going to be able to fight Hezbollah and you shouldn't fight Hezbollah. The question is how are we going to bring Hezbollah into the body politic?" Mr. al-Assaad asks. "This election, finally, everybody is saying, 'We have no issue with your weapons, we have no issues with the resistance.' We're saying 'who will create jobs? Who will deliver electricity?' "

A BLANKET OF SILENCE

The 2006 war is widely considered to have been a stalemate, a bloody one that left 165 Israelis and 1,300 Lebanese dead. Israel, however, fell short of its stated aim of eliminating the threat posed by Hezbollah and the arsenal of missiles it used to threaten cities such as Haifa and Tel Aviv.

It's a conflict that changed how the "Party of God" works. After briefly courting foreign and Lebanese media - and winning some public-relations battles by highlighting the suffering of Lebanese civilians in the 2006 conflict - the movement has once again become a box that's closed to outsiders.

Hezbollah's media office in the Beirut neighbourhood of Haret Hreik was among the buildings destroyed in 2006, when Israeli warplanes battered the Shiadominated southern suburbs of the Lebanese capital.

The suburb has been rebuilt, and so has the media office, which now sits above a hairdresser's on the second floor of a non-descript apartment block. Plastic toys are visible on some of the neighbouring balconies.

But where foreign journalists could visit the prewar media office to request and receive interviews with senior members of the Hezbollah leadership (although not Mr. Nasrallah, who was in hiding even then), the new media office is there largely to collect business cards and passport copies from journalists - and then tell them the answer is no.

"We've found [dealing with media] didn't work very well for us. It caused a lot of troubles," explains Aya, a pleasant young woman in a headscarf who meets journalists in a room furnished with couches along all four walls.

The only decorations are a redwhite-and-green Lebanese flag and a yellow Hezbollah banner.

A blanket of silence has also descended over some of Hezbollah's former critics. With Syria's war creating fears of a spillover into Lebanon - where many Beirut buildings still bear the scars of bullets and heavier weapons fired during the civil war - the awkward peace that exists here is maintained largely by the knowledge that no other Lebanese force could hope to confront Hezbollah militarily. "No one is powerful but Hezbollah. They have a monopoly on power," says Selim Sayegh, a former Lebanese cabinet minister and a member of Kataeb, a Christian party. "They let the other parties play politically, in terms of the issues of the state, but all the issues that matter - defence, security, foreign affairs, the electoral law - are under the control of Hezbollah."

Kataeb and Hezbollah have been on extreme opposite sides of Lebanon's divide since the moment of the latter's creation.

When Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982, one of its objectives was to install a Kataeb president, hoping to see an Israel-friendly government on its northern border. The invasion turned into a two-decade Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon, which in turn gave birth to Hezbollah.

Thirty-five years on from those events, Kataeb is a marginal force - and one of the few groupings still openly opposed to Hezbollah's influence here.

Fear of Syria's sectarian conflict spilling over Lebanon's borders has led to an informal peace pact between the country's main Sunni, Shia and Christian leaders. Barring a catastrophe, the elections will go ahead on May 6, but no one expects to see any change to the power-sharing agreement that sees Saad Hariri, a pro-Western Sunni politician, serving as the country's Prime Minister, while Mr. Aoun, a Maronite Christian who has aligned himself with Hezbollah and Syria, remaining President. Nabih Berri, the head of the Shia Amal movement, will keep the parliamentary Speaker post he has held since 1992.

The peace pact has seen all sides make an effort to tone down their sectarian rhetoric.

Mr. Hariri's father, the popular former prime minister Rafic Hariri, was killed in a 2005 car bombing, for which prosecutors at a special international tribunal in The Hague are trying four Hezbollah fighters in absentia. But even the younger Mr. Hariri rarely criticizes Hezbollah any more. In 2016, he gave into a long-standing Hezbollah demand and voted in favour of Mr. Aoun becoming President.

"Of course it's dangerous to oppose Hezbollah," says Mr. Sayegh, whose driver tries and fails to hide the fact that he has an assault rifle in the car with us as we drive through the Christian neighbourhoods of west Beirut. "You're taking a risk by coming to see me."

HISTORY REPEATING ITSELF

High on another hill in Southern Lebanon stands perhaps the bestmaintained museum in the country. Mleeta, which is dubbed "a touristic site about the resistance in Lebanon," offers a one-sided tour of the region's violent history. Visitors are told how "the Zionists" invaded Palestine in 1948 and then came to Lebanon again and again after that.

No reasons are given for the Israeli military actions, other than a desire to crush "the resistance."

(Israel invaded Lebanon in 1978 and 1982 to push the Palestine Liberation Organization away from its borders after a series of crossborder attacks; the 1996 and 2006 assaults were in response to provocations by Hezbollah.)

Hezbollah's involvement in Syria gets no mention at all in the open-air museum, nor does the party's long affiliation with Iran.

Visitors to Mleeta, which opened in 2010, are allowed to wander through tunnels and bunkers used by Hezbollah fighters and to peruse an exhibition of captured Israeli weapons, including the ID cards of Israeli citizens whose fates are unknown.

The entire museum - which includes a gift shop selling yellow Hezbollah flags and kitschy fauxgrenade keychains - is guarded by Hezbollah security men in their trademark ballcaps and beige fatigues.

The exhibit is about the past, but visitors are also shown a 10minute video that ends with Mr. Nasrallah making clear it could all happen again. "If you bombard Rafic Hariri International Airport in Beirut, we will bombard Ben Gurion Airport in Tel Aviv," the Hezbollah leader tells the camera.

He's dressed in his customary brown robes and his words are punctured by the angry waving of his right finger. "I announce this confrontation, and we and I all accept this confrontation."

A 30 year-old tour guide named Mohammed appears after the movie is finished to ask if there are any questions. So, is Hezbollah worried - after the clashes in Syria - that war will come again to Lebanon? "No one knows what will happen," he says, before launching into a long diatribe about how it's the United States and Israel who are responsible for Syria's long civil war.

Behind him is the opening to a twisting path that takes visitors through a graveyard of captured and destroyed Israeli military equipment. The sign indicates that this part of the tour is called "the Abyss."

"People anywhere want peace," Mohammed continues, "but if war comes, we will fight."

Associated Graphic

Young Hezbollah supporters, above, attend a rally with a poster of Imad Mughniyah, one of the main founders of Hezbollah. The history of the movement, and that of the region, is given a one-sided treatment at the open-air Mleeta museum, top, and does not mention Hezbollah's involvement in Syria or connections with Iran.

PHOTOS BY DIEGO IBARRA SANCHEZ/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

HEALING HUMBOLDT
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One week after the deadly bus crash, a rural community is reeling from the loss of 16 of its loved ones. But acts of kindness, big and small, are helping residents to cope
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By MARTY KLINKENBERG
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A8


HUMBOLDT, SASK. -- The first funeral, for Tyler Bieber, the team announcer, was held on Thursday in the arena where the Humboldt Broncos play. Jacob Leicht, one of the team's hometown players, was next on Friday. Brody Hinz, another Humboldt teenager, will be buried on Saturday. Followed by the coach, Darcy Haugan, later in the afternoon. There will be a dozen more.

There is confusion, shock and sadness on people's faces, and so many tears.

There is no normal, and after the bus crash of April 6, there won't be for a long time. Along with the 16 who died, there were 13 injured, three critically.

When something tragic occurs in big cities, life carries on quickly. In small-town Saskatchewan, it is a different story altogether.

"We are still taking care of our families and there is still a lot of pain," says Kevin Garinger, the Broncos' owner and the education director for the local school district.

"When you look at the future, it's a long road ahead and there is a lot ahead.

"We still have multiple funerals. We are really not at a place where we can start to do much healing right now."

Healing evolves from anguish and starts with small steps.

In Humboldt, Sask., it can be seen in residents leaving hockey sticks and skates out on the porch for deceased players. It can be seen in the $19,000 in donations collected at the A&W on Wednesday. Meals were free, but customers were asked to give what they could to the Broncos organization. The amount raised was five times more than the restaurant takes in during an average day.

It can be found in volunteers offering to cut and deliver flowers for the Humboldt Florist. And in the basement at the Pioneer Hotel, where middle-aged crafters are producing "Humboldt Strong" decals that sell for $5 apiece. What started as a simple Facebook fundraising venture has turned into an enormous undertaking. Orders are pouring in from all over North America, some for 300 stickers each.

There is a helplessness that occurs when tragedy strikes. It generates a need in people to do something, anything, to help.

The collision between the Broncos' motor coach and a semi-tractor trailer claimed the lives of 10 hockey players between 16 and 21 years old, along with two coaches, the athletic therapist, a broadcaster, bus driver and the team statistician, a highschool student on a job-shadowing assignment.

The Junior A level team was on its way to play the Nipawin Hawks when the accident occurred at the intersection of Highways 35 and 335 near Tisdale, Sask.

Photos showed the bus lying on its side with much of the front half missing and the roof torn off. Hockey bags and other belongings were scattered around. A DVD of the movie Slap Shot was on the frozen ground, cracked in two.

Two days earlier, in the fourth game of their Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League playoff series, the Hawks rallied to beat the Broncos in triple overtime on their home ice. The game took so long that it spanned two days. The opening faceoff was at 7:30 p.m.; the winning goal wasn't scored until midnight.

"We walked out of here disappointed," says Rob Muench, the Humboldt mayor, sitting in his regular seat behind the home team's net in an empty arena. "I was angry as I was walking up the steps, not at the players, but at the game itself."

Over the years, the Broncos have drawn crowds so large that it has alarmed fire marshals. The players are heroes in Humboldt. They billet, or live, in residents' homes and play ministicks and street hockey with their kids. They shovel driveways after snowstorms and share the arena with 18 youth teams. There is a closeness and a familiarity that goes way beyond anything in pro hockey.

"I usually keep my emotions under control, but I am finding this tough," Harold Theissing says. He has attended Broncos games since their inaugural season in 1970.

"That Wednesday night, you would have never thought it would be the last time you would see them."

A REPEATING NIGHTMARE

Randy and Peggy O'Neil-Arseneau were on vacation in South Carolina when the Saskatchewan crash happened. More than others, they can relate to the shock, pain, anger and depression in Humboldt.

Their son Bradd was a member of the Bathurst High School basketball team that lost seven players in a January, 2008, accident in northern New Brunswick.

Bradd survived, but his closest friends didn't. Their house had been the boys' favourite gathering spot. Mrs. O'Neil-Arseneau had some of them in her French class.

Until April 6, it was the worst accident to befall a Canadian sports team. The team was on its way back from a road game when their 15-passenger van slid on an icy highway into the path of an oncoming semitractor trailer.

"Ours was big and it was a nightmare," Mrs. O'Neil-Arseneau says. "This one in Humboldt is another degree of magnitude.

We have heavy hearts like the rest of the country."

The past decade has been difficult for everyone in Bathurst.

"It feels a little better with time, but you never forget," says Stephen Brunet, the city's mayor.

Initially, the Arseneaus cried on a daily basis, then it became every other day. At times, they are still sad. Mr. Arseneau cried when he saw a picture of three Humboldt players holding hands in the hospital. His son and one of his teammates held hands 10 years ago as they lay in the darkness, teammates dead or dying near them.

"There is a wave of ups and downs, and times where you move sideways and backwards," Mrs. O'Neil-Arseneau says. "You have to take one baby step at a time.

"When you are trying to heal, you try to parcel and pack things away, and sometimes you can't do it. It is like a wound that heals over, and then reopens again."

She allowed herself to be vulnerable and cried with her students. Years later, she found joy in reading them Christmas stories some of the Bathurst victims had written for her as part of a class project. When memories weighed too heavily, the family would escape to a cabin on the Cains River in the Southwest Miramichi. There is solitude there and Atlantic salmon that rise to a well-presented fly.

"As time goes on, you find a little peace and become a little less vulnerable," Mrs. O'Neil-Arseneau says. "You develop a new normal. Little by little, joys find their way back into your life."

Her spirits were lifted by small acts of kindness.

"To me, it is love and time that gets you through," Mrs. O'Neil-Arseneau says.

She is planning a trip to Humboldt in June. Her nephew, Neil Landry, is marrying a local woman. Mr. Landry once played for the Humboldt Broncos.

"I know in June things will be raw, and people will be healing," Mrs. O'Neil-Arseneau says. "While I am there, I would love to sit down and chat with people and help in any way I can.

"When you are in a tunnel of darkness, you think you will never see the light. Eventually, you do."

STORIES OF SURVIVAL

Sheldon Kennedy survived a bus crash in 1986 that killed four of his teammates on the Swift Current Broncos of the Western Hockey League. He went on to play eight seasons in the NHL with the Red Wings, Flames and Bruins.

Last weekend, he visited accident victims at the Royal University Hospital in Saskatoon and counselled grieving parents. The injured players are being kept in close proximity to one another, where possible, so that they can see one another and talk.

"We never hear enough about people living in good recovery," Mr. Kennedy says.

"That was one of the biggest questions parents had. They wanted to know how you get through it.

"I told them, for what they have gone through, those feelings are normal. From what I know about recovering from trauma, acceptance is critical. You have to learn to live with the events that have created this new path for your life."

Some parents felt guilty that their child had survived when so many hadn't.

"They were whispering," Mr. Kennedy said. "They were afraid to celebrate that their son was alive."

On Sunday, Ron MacLean and Don Cherry came to Humboldt to attend a prayer service for the team. The Hockey Night in Canada broadcasters stopped at the hospital along the way. In the hours after the accident, the emergency room had looked like a war zone.

"I was unable to shake the idea of the first responders and tried to visualize what the ER was like," Mr. MacLean says. "I know how hard it must have been. Saving even one child's life would have required so much effort."

His father was a dispatcher with the RCMP in Red Deer, Alta., for 10 years, but he never spoke much about it. Later, a fellow Mountie told Mr. MacLean that his father had responded once to an accident where six lives were lost.

"My heart goes out to the families and players, almost in lockstep with the staff of the ER," he says.

He doesn't doubt Humboldt can recover.

"Our capacity for regeneration is undeniable," he says. "People will be happy again, but it is not easily done. It is going to require that everybody asks for help, and don't ask why this happened. That is where we all get stuck."

In the hours after the crash, Dr. James Stempien, the department head of emergency medicine at the Royal University Hospital, put a call out for extra staff and called in canines as well.

Three years ago, the medical centre became the first in Canada to regularly deploy St. John Ambulance therapy dogs in the emergency room. The specially trained animals are proven to relieve stress, lower patients' blood pressure and decrease pain levels.

Dr. Stempien says the dogs played a critical role on the night of April 6 and the days that followed, cuddling up to the injured and the heartbroken in the emergency and intensive-care units.

"I have seen some amazing things," says Lisa Collard, the director of emergency.

"The dogs are instantly surrounded. "They bring a little light in a dark and horrible situation. You can see a difference in the room."

Colleen Anne Dell, a PhD and research chair in health and wellness at the University of Saskatchewan, brought her boxer, Subie, to the arena in Humboldt several times this week. They were mobbed after the prayer service for the Broncos on Sunday night and attracted attention from disconsolate high-school students who came to visit a memorial set up at one end of the rink this week.

"The dogs connect to people in a way I can't," Ms. Dell says. "There is no way I could ever greet someone in the same way, with the same happiness and authenticity.

"It is a momentary meeting, but it has impact that stays."

Daigon Elmy, whose friends are in the hospital with injuries suffered in the crash, stopped to pet Subie and laughed as the dog tried to climb into his lap.

"They have played a huge role at the hospital," says Mr. Elmy, an 18-year-old who played last year for the Humboldt Broncos Midget AA team. "I'll be sitting there feeling numb, and when I see one of the dogs, I sit on the floor and hope they come over to me.

"They say they are man's best friend, and it has never been truer than this week."

Jane Smith and her six-year-old wagging English springer spaniel, Murphy, have been on hand in the emergency room and critical care unit throughout the week.

They were the first team the hospital employed three years ago.

"I say I am bond-making," Ms. Smith says. "I want people touching the dog as soon as possible. That's when the magic begins."

It is not only the hockey players whose injuries need healing but Humboldt's collective spirit, as well. The municipality has engaged Kevin Cameron and the Canadian Centre for Threat Assessment and Trauma Response to help develop a strategy. Mr. Cameron, an Alberta-based expert in traumatic stress, was called in by officials at Columbine High School in Colorado after the shooting rampage in 1999 and also served as a consultant to Bathurst High.

All over Humboldt this week, residents have placed hockey sticks outside their home. It is something small but meaningful to them.

Ken Klassen, whose brother played in the NHL and whose son played for the Broncos, propped two of his old wooden sticks against his garage door. He also hung his 47-year-old battle-worn helmet there.

"I'm not afraid anyone will try to steal it," Mr. Klassen said.

Next door, Ross Ruedig suspended a stick that he used in the Long Lake Senior Hockey League in 1976 from his garage door. He attached an old pair of gloves to it, making it look to passersby like someone is gripping the stick.

"It helps you feel you are doing something," Mr. Ruedig says. "The nice thing is that you don't have to buy anything. Everyone has a hockey stick."

The phone hasn't stopped ringing at the Humboldt Florist this week. Businesses have been asking for arrangements in the Broncos' team colours, yellow and green.

Orders have been placed by NHL clubs, and NFL and CFL teams. Someone in Australia requested a bouquet be delivered to the arena.

"He didn't know anybody here, but felt bad about what had happened," says Ruth Brinkman, an employee at the flower shop.

Volunteers have been showing up wanting to help however they can.

"When tragedy strikes, we go to each other's houses with cabbage rolls and perogies," she says. "That's what small-town Saskatchewan is like."

In the basement at the Pioneer Hotel, Loriann Wuchner and other volunteers are fashioning Broncos decals out of rolls of vinyl donated by local businesses.

"Everybody is doing something," she says. "Everybody is affected. I'm not a hockey fan, but I am a fan of the community."

A funeral was held in Humboldt on Friday morning for Jacob Leicht, an undersized winger and fan favourite. Later, another was held in Montmartre, Sask., for Adam Herold, who, at 16, was the youngest on the team. On Friday afternoon, the bus driver, Glen Doerksen, was remembered during a service in the community hall in Carrot River.

The Elgar Petersen Arena was full and people without a seat lined up in rows threedeep for a celebration of Mr.

Leicht's life. A simple wooden cross rested atop his casket, with a hockey picture to one side and buckets of sticks to the other.

Vases of flowers, many in team colours, were set up on the ice's surface, and two rows of bouquets rimmed the circle at centre ice in which a Broncos logo is painted.

Born on Valentine's Day, Mr. Leicht was 19 and his parents' first child. In the lobby, there was a picture of him as a young boy, beaming as an ample pike dangled at the end of his fishing line. His handprint as a baby, preserved in plaster, was there for all to see.

Eulogized by Shaun Gardner, Mr. Leicht was remembered as a mischievous young man who excelled at everything but cleaning. He attended a Bible camp as a kid and didn't shower for the entire week.

Prayers were said for him and the others who died, those still recovering and for the emergency workers who responded to the accident. A soloist sang a beautiful rendition of How Great Thou Art. By the time she finished, eyes were being dabbed and some children were holding a parent's hand.

The Broncos will field a team in the fall, but at this point it is too early to tell exactly what it will look like. The league may hold a special draft to help them be competitive.

The Nipawin Hawks will begin a series against the the Estevan Bruins on Saturday night to determine the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League championship.

The Hawks held a 3-1 advantage in their seven-game series against the Broncos when the crash happened. In the last two years, they played one another 20 times.

Friendships formed between rival players.

For Nipawin, the season continues. The Hawks say they are trying to win, not just for themselves, but also the Broncos.

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Marty Klinkenberg reports Photos by Amber Bracken

On Thursday, a tribute stands at the crash site where a semi-trailer collided with the Humboldt Broncos' team bus, at the intersection of Highways 35 and 335, north of Tisdale, Sask.

Hockey sticks with messages of support lie at the crash site north of Tisdale, Sask.

A flower is seen on one of the Broncos players' car, still parked in the lot of Elgar Petersen Arena in Humboldt, Sask.

Constable Dave Hart, left, and Staff Sergeant Jeremie Landry drove from Cold Lake, Alta., to offer a tribute to the Broncos organization at Elgar Petersen Arena on Wednesday.

Humboldt Mayor Rob Muench sits in his season-ticket seat at Elgar Petersen Arena, the home of the Broncos.

Therapy dog handlers Jane Smith and Colleen Anne Dell came to Humboldt with their dogs, Murphy the English springer spaniel and Subie the boxer. DAVID STOBBE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The Humboldt Florist is the only one in town and has been swamped with orders for bereavement bouquets in the Broncos' colours of yellow, green and white.

From left to right: Linda Reineke, Cindy Ramler, Sue Davis and Susanne Bernhard prepare stickers. The stickers are being sold to raise funds for the Broncos team.

THE WRITING IS ON THE WALL
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We live in a time of widening divides - between wealthy countries and poor ones, and between rich and poor within each country. There's a crisis coming, writes Ian Bremmer, and survival requires that we invent new ways to live together
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By IAN BREMMER
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


Ian Bremmer is the president and founder of Eurasia Group. His books include Us vs. Them: The Failure of Globalism, which was published this month.

We live in a time of fear.

Workers everywhere fear lost jobs and wages. Citizens fear surging waves of strangers who change the face and voice of the country they know. They fear terrorists and criminals who kill for reasons no one can understand.

They fear that their governments cannot or will not protect them.

Then the call for help is answered. Donald Trump tells an excited crowd that he will take them (back) to the promised land. Champions of Brexit tell voters they must reclaim control of Britain's borders and reject laws and rules forced on them by Europeans. Populists in Italy, Germany, Poland and Sweden promise to protect patriots from outsiders. All these leaders tell citizens they've been cheated of their chance to succeed, and that the media is in on it. They promise to comfort the afflicted, afflict the comfortable and burn down the houses of power.

Populists have a gift for drawing boundaries between people.

They offer a compelling vision of separation, of "us versus them," of the worthy citizen fighting for his rights against the entitled or grasping thief. Depending on the country and the moment, "them" may mean rich people or poor people, foreigners, or religious, racial or ethnic minorities.

It can mean supporters of a rival political party or people who live in other provinces. It can mean politicians, bankers or journalists.

We can attack the populists, mock them or dismiss them, but they know something important about the people they're speaking to. They understand that many people believe that the cross-border flow of people, money, goods and services has stripped them of their chance to get ahead. The refusal of the political, business and media elites to recognize the downside of cross-border interdependence confirms the suspicions of those losing their sense of security and their living standards that elected leaders, and many non-elected ones as well, don't care what happens to them.

There's a larger crisis coming.

Many of the storms creating political turmoil in the United States and Europe - including job-killing technological change in the workplace and a sense of grievance at income inequality - are now crossing into the developing world, where governments and institutions are even less prepared than their Western counterparts. Developing countries are especially vulnerable, because their institutions and social safety nets aren't as strong as in wealthier countries. They face an even bigger gap between rich and poor. They are less prepared for the downsides of technological change.

How will emerging-world governments respond? The weakest will fall away, leaving more failed states, such as Syria and Somalia.

Some governments will build walls - actual and virtual - that separate people from one another and government from citizens. Those still hoping to build or simply maintain open societies will adapt to survive, attempting to rewrite social contracts to create new ways to meet the needs of citizens in a changing world.

HOW AUTOMATION THREATENS A VIRTUOUS CYCLE

An important factor that's likely to exacerbate inequality in both wealthy countries and poorer ones: next-generation automation. In a study published in 2016 for the National Bureau of Economic Research, and written by Daron Acemoglu of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Pascual Restrepo of Boston University, the authors predicted that the net effect of automation and other technological changes in the American work place would ultimately prove positive as they create new kinds of jobs, which also pay higher wages, to replace existing lower-wage work.

But in 2017, they revised their views based on more detailed research. They found that industrial robots were responsible for as many as 670,000 lost manufacturing jobs between 1990 and 2007; that this number was likely to rise as the number of robots quadruples in coming years; and that other sectors weren't creating enough jobs to offset the losses in manufacturing. Therefore, even if overall employment and wages recover, it will take a long time for affected communities to recover.

The increasing automation of the work place, advances in machine learning and the broad introduction into the economy of new forms of artificial intelligence will ensure that the new jobs that do get created will require ever higher levels of education and training. People who can pay will get the education, and those with the attendant knowledge and skill sets will have opportunities to secure jobs that pay well. Those who lack these things face a dark future.

Nowhere will it be darker than in emerging countries. In November, 2016, the United Nations warned that while automation and innovations in machine learning threaten 47 per cent of all existing jobs in the United States, the number is 65 per cent in Nigeria, with a population of 186 million people; 69 per cent in India, home to more than 1.3 billion; and 77 per cent in China, a country of 1.4 billion.

Successful emerging-market countries follow a pattern of development. They begin poor, with large numbers of people living in the countryside. The young begin moving toward cities, where they hope to earn higher wages for themselves and their families. They arrive ready to work, but are in no position to command high wages. This sudden surge of inexpensive labour attracts the attention of manufacturers who own factories in countries where workers are much more highly paid. New factories appear, and word of new jobs makes its way to rural areas, generating an even bigger wave of poor young people headed for the big city. This story has played out countless times in China, India and across Southeast Asia, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa.

The next stage of development begins as these once-poor workers demand higher wages and better working and living conditions. Consumer classes appear in countries that have never had them. Higher pay for these workers means the country is no longer as attractive for foreign companies, but some countries - those with capable, reform-minded governments - can adapt. New technologies - purchased, invented or stolen - allow the companies operating within them to get more productivity from each worker, who then produces more sophisticated goods and services, with higher value added, that continue to push wages upward.

A sea change that began with low-cost manufacturing ends with the birth of a true middle class.

But the virtuous cycle that depends on favourable demographics, labour mobility, economic growth and political reform is beginning to break down. The introduction of robotics and AI across the globe, even on a limited scale, will sharply reduce the low-wage advantage that helps poor countries and poor people become middle-income countries and middle-class consumers.

Where do all those energetic, ambitious young people go? The youth bulge we see in many developing countries can move from economic advantage to political threat as their path out of poverty is blocked. If they never join the active work force, they will never have access to the education and training needed to earn 21st-century jobs, and they justifiably fear that their children will fare no better. Those able to keep their jobs may discover they must work for lower pay and fewer (if any) benefits.

If automation slashes jobs and reduces wages in developing countries, it may become impossible for workers to gain the education needed to succeed in a world where advanced AI generates a much bigger share of the economic growth. Lower growth means less government revenue - and less money to spend for education and services, for infrastructure and for all the other things that middle classes expect from government. The virtuous cycle becomes a vicious cycle.

In 2018, it's still too soon to know for certain whether the tech revolution will kill more jobs than it creates. But as in the rich countries, we can be sure that the new jobs will be very different from the old ones, that education and training for these new forms of work will be fundamentally different as well and that large numbers of workers won't make the leap from the old order of things to the new. It's an open question where those who lose from this next wave of change will declare their political allegiance - or whether they will declare war on the entire system.

WALLS EVERYWHERE, NOT LEAST ACROSS THE WEB

As governments try to "safeguard" the lives and livelihoods of citizens - and to protect themselves against public anger when their safeguards don't work - we can expect both old and new forms of economic protectionism. Here, Mr. Trump has led the way with the announcement of steep new tariffs on China.

They're more bark than bite at this point. That said, Beijing has already begun to bark back.

But in most countries, protectionism is no less real, even if it's less obvious to the naked eye.

Many governments have sharply increased the number of non-tariff barriers, such as import quotas and stricter product-safety standards. They provide subsidies for domestic industries. To protect their affluence and advantages, wealthier countries treat science and technology as "strategic" economic sectors, restricting the export of new intellectual property.

Anxiety over immigration, as well, will create new kinds of walls and new technologies to buttress them. We can expect more infrared sensors and cameras to update border controls, as well as wider use of biometric tools that allow governments to admit more of "us" and fewer of "them," however each of those is defined in each country.

The newest forms of walls are on the rise in cyberspace. During the Arab Spring, Hosni Mubarak in Egypt, Muammar Gadhafi in Libya, Bashar al-Assad in Syria and other leaders disconnected the internet in their countries. To avoid major unrest during politically sensitive events, India has shut down the internet so often that the issue has become the focus of a protest movement. In Turkey, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government has sometimes blocked Facebook, Twitter and other social-media tools that amplify the words of his critics.

Iran announced plans several years ago to create a "Halal internet," which Reporters Without Borders describes as a system in which "content is controlled and all users are identified, an intranet that can be completely disconnected from the World Wide Web when the authorities so decide." In August, 2016, Iran announced the opening of the National Information Network, a move accompanied by the shutdown of many news agencies and websites - and the arrest of more than 100 internet users.

In Russia, the state maintains a registry of banned web pages. It also forces media outlets to formally register with authorities and demands that companies store data within Russia's borders. In November, 2017, the government ordered foreign media to register as "foreign agents." It is also finding new ways to manage politically sensitive content.

Many Russians were never able to read about massive anti-corruption protests in March, 2017, at least not while they were happening, because Yandex News, the country's largest news aggregator, uses an algorithm that prioritizes stories according to the Russian government's attitude toward the media outlets that publish them.

To create walls intended to safeguard "cybersovereignty," China's leaders use the Great Firewall, which blocks access to tens of thousands of websites the government doesn't want citizens to see. The Golden Shield is an online surveillance system that uses keywords and other tools to shut down attempts to access politically sensitive content. More recently, China has rolled out the Great Cannon, which can alter content accessed online and attack websites that the state considers dangerous to China's security. It does so by employing a "dedicated denial-of-service" attack that can overwhelm servers to knock them offline.

Now, China's government is experimenting with a social-credit system." Imagine a credit report that reveals whether you've ever committed a felony, have traffic violations, been fired from a job, signed a petition, been photographed at a protest or written something on the internet that had to be censored. A good score can get you a raise, a better apartment, the right to travel, a generous pension as well as access to approved dating websites, better stores and better doctors.

The plan is to go nationwide with an early version of this system by 2020. We can't know yet how intrusive the information requests will be, or who all the plan will affect. Nor should we underestimate the technical challenge in building it. But the potential for intrusion into 1.4 billion personal lives is unprecedented.

TIME TO TRY OUT A NEW SOCIAL CONTRACT

Other governments - those with the will, the means and the inclination - will experiment with new ways to meet the needs of the public, by rewriting the social contract that binds citizens and the state. Inequality will be a prime target of these changes.

This means rethinking assumptions about the purpose and content of education - and how it's provided. It means preparing people to compete in a fastchanging economy and providing for their basic needs when they can't make the leap. It means changes in the way governments collect taxes. This project requires that government work with, or clear space for, others to play a role.

Opportunity begins with education. Multiple studies have shown that access to early education is a critical component in battling income inequality, and solutions can't come from government alone. Canadian Tariq Fancy is founder of the Rumie Initiative, an ambitious non-profit project designed to give children in developing countries a chance to learn. Rumie provides children who live in areas with limited or no access to education, including refugee camps, with tablets preloaded with textbooks, interactive lessons and other teaching tools. An article he wrote, called From Books to Bytes: A Learning Revolution for the Poor, explains how the smart use of crowdsourcing technology can help people in the Arctic Circle use their computers to help Syrian refugees living in camps in Turkey get an education.

But education must extend far beyond youth. The increasing speed of technological change ensures that workers must learn new skills quickly and often, and that they will be asked to shift jobs, and even industries, much more often. By providing access, or incentivizing others to provide access, to training and retraining on an historically unprecedented scale, governments can help citizens make the most of the opportunities that change creates.

Given the increasing speed of automation in the workplace, and other trends, some governments will experiment with incentives for participation in the "gig economy," one in which individuals accept a life of freelance work because they can't find (or sometimes don't want) full-time work from a single employer. The need has become urgent. In Europe, half of all jobs created between 2010 and 2016 were based on temporary contracts. As people working in gig-economy jobs - as Uber or Lyft drivers, or parttime workers in any field - struggle to build families, buy homes, educate their children, find affordable health insurance, care for aging parents and save for their own futures, governments, citizens and companies must find ways to help them succeed and provide a strong social safety net.

If we believe the gig economy will be the future of work for large numbers of people, governments must find ways to help people accept this kind of work. Some unemployed people refuse to look for part-time work because the salaries on offer are less generous than the benefits they must give up in order to take these jobs. So they remain on the dole and pay few or no taxes. Their services are provided almost entirely by the state.

What if the state provides these people with enough income to survive, and assures them that the cheques will keep coming even if they take a job? In that way, people can afford to take part-time or freelance work to contribute to society, generate economic growth, pay taxes and provide for themselves and others. Or maybe the income allows them to care for their sick children or aging parents, work that clearly has value for society.

Will a person who receives guaranteed income still look for work? Knowing that benefits won't be lost might help, but until variations of this are tested, adapted and tested again, we won't know whether it can work on a large scale.

All these solutions, large and small, can only be implemented in societies where government is willing and able to experiment, institutions are capable of executing these plans, and citizens believe they share basic values with their fellow citizens, even if it's only a common patriotism.

A TIME OF WIDENING DIVIDES

When we focus our criticism on Donald Trump's many shortcomings or the hypocrisies of the world's fast-expanding roster of populists, we ignore the underlying emergencies that lifted them onto the global stage. We make it easier for governments to build walls and harder to help those who need help most.

We live in a time of widening divides - between wealthy countries and poor ones, and between rich and poor within each country. But history reveals that people give their best when their best is required. Human beings use their natural ingenuity to create the tools they need to survive. In this case, survival requires that we invent new ways to live together.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: BRYAN GEE. SOURCE PHOTO: REUTERS

Traveller, heal thyself
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With the drudgery of day-to-day life taking its toll, Marsha Lederman headed to New Zealand for a change of scenery. Thanks to the country's nature, culture and, yes, wine, the temporary escape offered her a refreshed view of her world
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P12


She was about five weeks old, her status officially threatened, and her survival was a question mark. If I was looking for a life metaphor during my trip to was about five weeks old, her status officially threatened, and her survival was a question mark.

If I was looking for a life metaphor during my trip to New Zealand, I probably couldn't have found a better one than this tiny kiwi bird. When the conservation officer located her, pulled her from the bramble deep in the woods and told us her name, I almost couldn't believe it: Sacred Journey.

Even if I'm not so much for the sacred, I was on a journey. I had had a fairly brutal couple of years, and was seeking the escape that travel quite literally offers. I have always found travel invigorating, and thought that maybe it could be healing, too, even transcendent. Because a vacation is not just about vacating your home; it is more than a move along the map.

It's about vacating your life, a little bit, and getting into a new headspace - or at least acquiring a new perspective.

In 2016, I had the opportunity to travel to New Zealand to report on a contingent of Canadian writers appearing at the Christchurch writers' festival. It had been a bit of an annus horribilis for me, and in the middle of that rotten year, I found some peace on Middle Earth, with its green rolling hills, no-nonsense friendly people and excellent wine. I was inspired by the spirit of Christchurch, which was (and is) still very much a construction zone after the 2011 earthquake. On Waiheke Island, off Auckland, I sat at a hillside winery with new friends and for that couple of hours all that mattered was the view, the conversation and the syrah.

When an opportunity to return to New Zealand in 2017 presented itself, it felt like a godsend. Another chance to hit pause on real life in a faraway land of islands where there are famously more sheep than people, the people have a special spirit about them, and you are never too far from a spectacular body of water.

The Maori greet nose-to-nose, with a sharing of the breath. The universal term "Kia Ora" - which you will hear again and again, beginning with your first contact with the Air New Zealand flight crew - is one of those versatile phrases that means many things: It's a greeting, a thank-you, a you're welcome, a farewell. But its actual translation, one of my Maori guides on this trip explained, is "to be living."

NUTURED BY NATURE

For those who can afford it, the Farm at Cape Kidnappers offers the epitome of living well. On a breathtaking property in Hawke's Bay, the purpose-built lodge in farmhouse style is carefully crafted and furnished with treasures from around the world - vintage brown leather boxing bags from Ireland, barn doors from Mexico, stone tile imported from a monastery in Tibet. Its golf course has been ranked No. 1 in New Zealand and 16th in the world (sixth if you exclude the U.S.).

Fresh off the plane, I was driven with a group toward the cape to see "the gannets." Everyone was very excited about this. Once I figured out that gannets were birds (I still have a lot to learn when it comes to flora, fauna and wildlife), I asked guide Andrew Broderick what they looked like, so I would know if I saw one.

"Like an oil painting," he responded.

There were hundreds of them, nestled and nesting on the edge of the land, periodically taking off into the gusty wind and floating on it, circling overhead.

These regal birds, with their fuzzy yellow heads, black wingtips, and faces that look like they've been outlined in black marker were captivating - and loud, their high-pitched calls competing with the roar of the ocean. I didn't want to forget the magic of the moment when I hiked down the cliff through the bushes and encountered my first (and second and 300th) gannet. I took about 8,000 photos.

The rooms, a short, scenic stroll from the main lodge, offer a primo healing environment, with breathtaking views, what should be an award-winning bed and a bathroom that had to be bigger than some studio apartments back home in Vancouver.

As I soaked in sweet orange and petitgrain bath foam in a tub I could almost swim in, I looked out the window onto the pastoral landscape and could hear cows mooing and tui birds singing their multinote songs to each other, possibly drunk on flax nectar.

There would be more indulgent, healing experiences in New Zealand: baths with a view, local wines, too much food. But more than anything, I wanted to be in nature. And so on my first full day in the country, I ventured with a conservation group into the pine forest at Cape Sanctuary (or Te Matau a Maui) to track kiwi birds.

Sacred Journey, or Tapu Hapai in Maori, was one of about 100 chicks released under a privately funded restoration project that is supported by tours like this.

The sanctuary is working to restore endangered populations - including what they call the world's weirdest bird: kiwis lay eggs but are sometimes referred to as honorary mammals - they have whiskers, marrow on their bones and they dig burrows. They don't fly. The population is declining and the birds are classified nationally as threatened. In areas where there is no predator control, most are killed in their first few weeks of life. This program removes eggs from the nest to a nearby lab, where they can incubate away from predators. The chicks are later returned to the sanctuary and monitored.

While we followed quietly behind him, sanctuary manager Beau Fahnle made his way through the woods holding a radio receiver that looked like an old-fashioned TV antenna high above his head, looking for Sacred Journey, following a frequency transmitting from the tiny band attached to her leg. She was well camouflaged and probably asleep when Fahnle finally located her and brought her out for a health check. Each of us was given a short time to co-hold the bird with Fahnle, who is also comfortable with "kiwi catcher" as his title.

"It's not rocket science; it's much more complex," he says of his work with endangered species. "You're playing God all the time."

MAORI-INSPIRED MEDITATION

If you're looking to be in nature, New Zealand has your back, and then some. One sunny afternoon, I sailed on Lake Taupo to view the magnificent Mine Bay Maori Rock Carvings. That night, I rambled over suspension bridges on a tree-top stroll through Rotorua's Redwoods Treewalk, the darkness illuminated by David Trubridge Design lanterns.

On the South Island, in Aoraki Mount Cook National Park, I hiked out to the Tasman Glacier's lake, which is growing at an alarming rate; our guide told us it did not even exist 30 years ago.

Still digesting that definitely not fun fact, we were taken for a thrilling boat ride among little icebergs that included a taste of glacial ice our guide fished out of the water at my request.

In Napier, back on the North Island, my group experienced nature from a Maori perspective.

The Maori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand; they arrived hundreds of years before the Europeans. In 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi, an agreement between Britain and the Maori, was signed. Maori language and culture are a central part of the country's identity, and trip to New Zealand would feel incomplete without some sort of Maori cultural experience.

We were fortunate to take part in traditional food-gathering techniques on the Ahuriri Estuary. There was joy when our guide Cameron Ormsby pulled up his fishing net and found a parore, a fish they smoke with manuka wood; and then shock and sorrow when we discovered that the same net had caught and killed a little blue penguin. I pictured the penguin becoming separated from its family, and thought about the comforting chaos of that gannet colony, and I considered how fleeting life is.

Ormsby and his partner, Hinewai Hawaiki,rangi said a prayer for the penguin and took it away for a proper burial. Then we tucked in to fresh seafood the couple had prepared, including a yellow-bellied flounder, also from the estuary, and talked about food, fashion, family, politics while sitting under a lush plum tree.

In our real lives, we are often too busy discussing and conquering the little details of life - schedules, work crises, domestic duties - to consider life's big questions.

Being away from your world offers the luxury of a different perspective and more time to ponder and discuss the big questions, sit for a drawn-out meal, walk along the shore and listen to the waves.

As I toured through the city of Napier's centre, I appreciated the art deco architecture, but also considered how it came to be: This is a pretty town built on devastation. In 1931, the 7.8 magnitude Hawke's Bay earthquake and subsequent Napier fire killed at least 256 people and reduced the seaside town to rubble. But it also caused a shift in the landscape - suddenly there was land where there had been sea - and the opportunity to start again, almost from scratch. The locals vowed to rebuild and, through the 1930s, a new town rose with wider streets, an underground power system and the sturdy, more earthquake-safe art deco architecture that makes this place a must-visit.

In vacation mode, I am in the right headspace to think about the metaphor of the place. Or to notice, elsewhere, the satisfying crunch of walking over cockles on an estuary at low tide, or the laboured delight of plowing through pebbly sand during a sunrise hike - and then surprising a seal basking in the rising sun.

In Rotorua, with its geothermal features, it's not unusual to encounter steam rising from hot springs or even spouting geysers and bubbling mud pools. I planned top-notch, on-theme experiences At the Polynesian Spa, with its purportedly healing waters, I plunged into a series of increasingly hot geothermal mineral pools with a view of the lake, then hung out on a geothermally heated lounge chair. I swear that my right knee, which has been hurting for two years, felt okay for a few hours afterward. (Not any more, however, I am sorry to report.)

At the Wai Ora Day Spa, which bills itself as a cultural destination, I booked myself in for a traditional Maori mirimiri massage.

Based on treatments Maori warriors were given before and after battle (to psych them up and then reward them), the massage starts and ends with a spiritual prayer. My masseuse, Rachel Tahuriorangi, swept her fingers down my legs, over my feet and out into the air, and repeated the motion with my arms and hands.

"We like to flick out all the bad energies," she explains. It's a personal take on a ritual practice; her auntie, she tellsme, doesn't do the flicking. "She doesn't know who she's flicking it to." Tahuriorangi figures her flicks are sending the bad energy to the Creator, who knows what to do with it.

But I also found spiritual inspiration in unexpected places. In Roturua's Ohinemutu Village, my Maori guide Josephine Scott took me past the steaming geothermal pools to St. Faith's Anglican Church, completed in 1914. It's an amazing place - a blend of Maori and Christian symbols that acts as a metaphor for the mixture of Indigenous and colonial people that make up the country. There are Maori carvings and weavings of flax adorning the interior, including the pulpit and altar. On a window wall looking out on the lake, an image of Jesus in traditional Maori garb is positioned so that he appears to be walking on water. "A Maori Jesus in a Maori robe walking on our Sea of Galilee," Ms. Scott remarked as the Lord's Prayer played softly in Maori over the speakers.

In Whakarewarewa - a cultural attraction but also a neighbourhood where Maori live and work (they call it "the living Maori village"), I tasted corn boiled in one of the natural hot pools. Visual artist and musician Jason Phillips, who has a shop there, played traditional Maori instruments including a putorino and a hue ponga ihu for us. Sunk deep into one of the couches in his studio, I noticed that he was standing under a First Nations dream catcher, suspended from his ceiling.

My journey through New Zealand wasn't all spas and Hawke's Bay Chardonnay. My anywhere happy place is on a bicycle, and on the South Island I found cycling heaven on the Otago Central Rail Trail, a dismantled rail line that has been transformed into a 152-kilometre bike route stretching from tiny, historic Clyde to Middlemarch, near Dunedin, traversing pastures and rivers with the mountains all around. I pedalled past curious cows and nonplussed sheep, over bumpy viaducts and through old railway tunnels (okay, I walked through those, as advised; it was dark). A bike feels like the perfect speed to see a new place: You're not going so fast that you miss stuff, or so slow that you tire of it.

LIFE IS A HIGHWAY

Do one thing a day that scares you, Lululemon's bags advise us.

But really, who has the time? Dayto-day life is busy enough with its particular brand of scary - drudgery - but on holiday, we have the time to consider and access the kinds of things that might scare us. And facing fears, they say, is good for growth. So, near the town of Lake Tekapo, airsickprone, scaredy-cat me climbed up into the front seat of an Air Safaris Cessna next to the pilot and prepared for takeoff. I was quietly panicking (I have motion sickness issues), but I didn't vomit (hurray) and the ride was a thrill.

We spotted climbers high on the mountain, the bluest water I have ever seen - Lakes Tekapo and Pukaki, and views of the Tasman Sea in the distance. But for certain the scariest thing I forced myself to do in New Zealand was ... drive. I am generally a good driver and I love a road trip, but the idea of navigating an unfamiliar place on the left side of the road terrified me. I had tried it once, years ago in Ireland, and didn't make it out of the parking lot. But this time I got comfortable; I navigated the roundabouts like a pro and became so confident that I was actually stopped for speeding (the kind police officer let me off with a warning).

On the last day of my journey, on my final triumphant left-sideof-the-road expedition, I drove from Lake Tekapo to Christchurch. When Radio New Zealand's Sunday Morning program started to fade out in the middle of an interview about architecture, I scanned for a clearer signal.

The tuner stopped on a music station, in the middle of a song, at the beginning of a verse: "Well, some say life will beat you down," Tom Petty sang. "And break your heart, steal your crown."

I didn't spend as much time in Christchurch as I had hoped - the GPS lady and I were fighting that day - but I made my final stop a sacred one: the Transitional Cathedral or, as it's colloquially known, the Cardboard Cathedral.

It was constructed primarily from cardboard and steel shipping containers following the 2011 earthquake that left much of the town in ruins, including the iconic Christchurch Cathedral. Architect Shigeru Ban's simple A-frame structure is both an airy refuge and a testament to the beauty that can rise in the wake of - and not just in spite, but because of - unexpected shattering events.

It might not sound like much: A challenge at the wheel of a rental car, a radio lyric, some churches, some birds. But it was out of this world. And when you are out of your own world, in a different space, you are able to not just see but to really notice and contemplate things - the gannets, the nose on a local pinot noir, a glacial lake that didn't exist when you were born. And in that environment you are somehow more capable of noticing things about your own faraway life. The escape might be temporary, but its impact can be long-lasting.

Tom Petty is dead, the glaciers are melting, the kiwi bird is vulnerable. But then you hold a little Sacred Journey and you feel hope about the world, your world. We are all learning to fly, in our various ways. Holidays help.

Marsha Lederman was the guest of Tourism New Zealand and Air New Zealand. Neither reviewed this article.

Associated Graphic

Opposite page: From steaming geysers in Rotorua on the North Island to the charming Otago Central Rail Trail on the South Island, the natural wonders of New Zealand never fail to thrill. This page, clockwise from top: Olivers Lodge and Stables, the city of Napier and Lake Tekapo showcase the range of the country's beauty.

GETTY/ISTOCK, TOURISM NEW ZEALAND (OLIVERS LODGE).

HOT DOCS TIME MACHINE
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As the documentary-focused film festival celebrates 25 years, Barry Hertz looks back at its humble beginnings, growing pains and surprising industry dominance - straight from those who survived
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By BARRY HERTZ
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


On Feb. 25, 1994, a short item appeared in The Globe and Mail announcing an event celebrating a tradition as Canadian as "hockey, maple syrup and clear-cut logging": documentary filmmaking. Hot Docs: The National Documentary Film Awards kicked off as a four-day Toronto summit hosted by the Canadian Independent Film Caucus (now called the Documentary Organization of Canada).

RUDY BUTTIGNOL (FORMER HOT DOCS BOARD DIRECTOR): A bunch of us doc filmmakers, we'd meet the first Tuesday of every month to gripe. Finally, we came up with the name Canadian Independent Film Caucus. I pulled out a three-ring sheet of paper, wrote the name down, the date, and told everyone to sign it and give me $10. We had $90 and were on our way. That's the root of everything.

JOHN WALKER (FILMMAKER, FORMER BOARD DIRECTOR): The concept evolved out of trying to simply support each other's work, to exhibit it to the public, to have an awards show. We worked on the premise that Canadian audiences in particular wanted documentaries, and that we were pretty good at making them.

PAUL JAY (FOUNDING BOARD CHAIR): The CIFC had no revenue, so I said, "Why don't we start a festival and use that to fund the CIFC?" Everyone said I was insane and knew nothing about festivals, which was true. There was a vote: 11-1 against the idea. Well nobody cares if I do this on my own time, right? I phoned Debbie Nightingale and asked for help.

DEBBIE NIGHTINGALE (FOUNDING EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR): It was scary, exciting, nerve-wracking.

I'd been running the industry centre at TIFF and it seemed like there were festivals popping up everywhere. The feeling was, "Oh, God, not another film festival." But Paul made a compelling argument. The only thing, he told me, was that I had to raise the money. It took six months to get about $100,000, which in 1993 was a hefty chunk of change.

PJ: I got a meeting with Kodak Canada and asked for a grant to fund a feasibility study.

They gave us $10,000. I took $2,000 to hire a guy to write the study, and used $8,000 to start the festival. Debbie worked for free the first six months, and I was a volunteer. And it took off like wildfire. We got 100 entries, had screenings at the Bloor Cinema, others in hotel rooms. At the first gala dinner, I said, "Tonight, I'm going to reveal the results of the feasibility study." I opened to the report's last page, which said: "Not feasible."

The inaugural fest opened with Canadian director Jean-Claude Labrecque's film André Mathieu, musicien, and includes the Canadian premiere of Aileen Wuornos: The Selling of a Serial Killer by future provocateur Nick Broomfield. The next few years remained largely industry focused, with programming selected by juries made up of other documentarians.

BARRI COHEN (FILMMAKER, FOUNDING BOARD MEMBER): Some of the chaos then was trying to recuse yourself from one thing or another because you knew the filmmaker who submitted. I also remember being furious that my first film, Not Yet Diagnosed, wasn't at Hot Docs because that jury was just a bunch of white guys from out east saying, "Eh, we didn't get it." I was, like, what the hell?

The timing of the festival also delivered a slight buzzkill.

RB: I heard a lot of grumbling from international guests: "Why are you making me come to Toronto now, of all times?" LOUISE LORE (FILMMAKER, FORMER BOARD CHAIR): Those who came from Europe hated it. The commissioning documentary editor from the BBC, he's got a choice to go to either L.A.

or Toronto in the middle of winter - which is he going to choose? ... You have to remember, too, let's face it, "documentary" is not sexy. It's not like going to TIFF, where you might rub shoulders with a movie star.

In 1996, Hot Docs became a separately incorporated organization, and soon began to focus on international cinema, public screenings and brand awareness. Notable late-nineties films includes Peter Lynch's Project Grizzly and Barbara Kopple's Wild Man Blues.

PJ: At the same time, the CIFC was knocking on doors lobbying people for documentary filmmakers, we were asking the same guys for money for the film festival.

JW: [The CIFC] realized it was time to get other people to run this thing so we could make the films we so desperately wanted to make. Hot Docs would continue on, and the board would be half filmmakers from members of what's now called DOC.

ANNE PICK (FILMMAKER, FORMER BOARD CHAIR): We'd been doing everything from licking stamps to organizing screenings.

LL: It began enthusiastically, but these people had their own films to make. And I think they were $40,000 in debt. I hired Chris [McDonald] as the first actual employee, so he could start revamping it.

RB: That was our come-to-Jesus moment, when we knew that we had to start engaging with the broader public. Chris had the right personality, too, to deal with the eccentric characters who make up this industry - which is pretty much everybody.

CHRIS MCDONALD (FORMER EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, CURRENT PRESIDENT): It was a roll of the dice. I had a great job at the Canadian Film Centre, but this was an opportunity to be the head of an organization. I literally walked into an empty office with no furniture. Maybe there was a chair. I went a couple months without cashing my paycheque because I knew it wouldn't clear. I was intimately aware of our bank balance.

AP: Chris had to raise half of his own salary as part of his fundraising goals.

KAREN TISCH (FORMER MANAGING DIRECTOR): If you said you worked for Hot Docs, people would say, "What? Hot Dogs?" Even establishing "doc" as a familiar term for the general public was an issue. But what was happening in the culture was fortuitous, as there was a surge of interest in non-fiction work. Suddenly, more docs were getting commercial releases, Michael Moore's stuff. We were able to ride that momentum.

After his hire in 1998, McDonald and his team enacted a series of game-changing moves, including shifting the festival to May and hiring programmers.

LYNNE FERNIE (FILMMAKER, CANADIAN PROGRAMMER EMERITUS): It was all different then, screening VHS tapes. I'd go to the office and load up like a camel with 40 films at a time. It was a job about volume.

But in an ill-fated bid to appeal to the public, Hot Docs in 1999 set up shop in Little Italy.

CM: That was my dumb idea. I thought it'd be supercharming to have screenings in cafés and bars during the day. The filmmakers were not so thrilled because there are espresso machines running, telephones ringing, streetcars rumbling by. It was just one year.

In 2000, the festival hit a turning point, nearly doubling its audience numbers to 16,700, welcoming living legends D.A. Pennebaker and Chris Hegedus, and launching what's now known as the Hot Docs Forum, an international co-financing pitch event.

KT: Part of developing the scope of the event was making it more of an international industry event, so we developed the Doc Forum, which had been done at IDFA [International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam].

JENNIFER BAICHWAL (FILMMAKER): I hate pitching, there's something demeaning about it. But we pitched our film The True Meaning of Pictures at a Hot Docs Forum and got financing to make it, got partners. As an arena of industry activity, it's pre-eminent in North America.

NORM BOLEN (FORMER BOARD CHAIR): When I joined around 2001, it was a little dysfunctional with a lot of rivalries. Some wanted it to be an industry-only event, some wanted it to be more public. There was confusion as to who was in charge. But these were swept away. Chris McDonald in particular, once he knew he had a board interested in resolving these issues, we could focus. There were reservations, but if you set ambitious stretch goals and commit to them, you can do more than you think.

The festival grew by leaps and bounds in the early aughts (32,000 attendees in 2003; 51,500 in 2006), premiered films that would go on to Oscar fame (War/Dance, Man on Wire, The Cove), introduced education initiatives and free daytime screenings for seniors and youth, and cemented its year-round presence with monthly Doc Soup screenings. At the same time, the industry landscape underwent seismic shifts.

ROBIN MIRSKY (CURRENT BOARD CO-CHAIR): We went from multiple broadcasters licensing docs to a very small number willing to do so now, mainly the CBC and educational broadcasters. It's been getting more and more difficult for filmmakers to live and work.

LF: We were a bit worried after funding dried up for some filmmakers - we thought our submissions would go down. But technology also started making it possible to make films less expensively. It was a democratization, in a way.

BC: There were a number of changes in the funding ecology, and not to the benefit of filmmakers. It would hurt the pool of what one could curate. Around 2003, 2004, that period was pretty shallow.

BRETT HENDRIE (CURRENT EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR): There's only so much that we can control - we program the films, we don't make them.

For the programming team, they're always looking for the best possible films, and we try to be careful to not overload the festival with something like [celebrity-focused films], because they can take the oxygen out of the room.

RB: Documentaries about international rock stars get you lots of press, especially if Sting or U2 show up, but those aren't important.

They're not the ones that are going to change the world. Look at what Blackfish did, or An Inconvenient Truth. That's the spirit of the festival.

In 2005, Hot Docs rebranded, introducing the current slogan, "Outspoken. Outstanding." Yet, as it grew, it faced tests as to balancing corporatization with its commitment to a medium ingrained with ideals of social justice.

EZRA WINTON (VISITING SCHOLAR, LAKEHEAD UNIVERSITY; DIRECTOR OF PROGRAMMING, CINEMA POLITICA NETWORK): In 2006, Cadillac was a sponsor, and ran an ad before every screening. That same year, they showed An Unreasonable Man, a film about Ralph Nader. Word got out, and people started to bring in their bicycle bells to ring during the ad.

CM: I remember that film spending an awful lot of time on Nader's crusade against the auto industry. That was a bad one, but a lesson learned.

PJ: Commercialization, it's a hard thing to wrestle with. Even when we started it, we needed the grant from Kodak. On the other hand, we were more restrained about naming things after sponsors.

EW: The question of values becomes central when talking about documentaries - there's a long-standing historical engagement with truth-telling. Hot Docs has, after 25 years, a chance now to be a leader in the festival world by publishing its best practices to actually articulate its values.

Festival attendance continued to grow - 122,000 in 2009; 150,000 in 2011 - and a few months before the 2012 edition, Hot Docs and Neil Tabatznik's Blue Ice Group opened the newly renamed Bloor Hot Docs Cinema after a multimillion-dollar renovation. At the time, it was the world's only doc-focused cinema.

NEIL TABATZNIK (CURRENT BOARD MEMBER): I'd been thinking of opening a documentary theatre for 15 years. I'd go to see docs at Hot Docs and Sundance but the audience beyond festivals - the potential to change people's worldview - was incredibly limited. Outside Michael Moore, who made it to theatres?

CM: Neil suggested looking at the two theatres on Mount Pleasant, and the one in Bloor West Village.

NT: We looked at the porn theatre in Koreatown for two seconds.

CM: But we said almost immediately: the Bloor. We knew the owners, knew they wanted to sell, and knew they didn't want it redeveloped. Neil stuck his neck out for us and provided a safety net, to underwrite any shortfall for the first go.

NT: Hot Docs were the best partners I could've invited to run the theatre. But no one was convinced it was going to be a success, or even able to wash its own face. I was giving my financial adviser a huge headache. Early on, we'd have docs with three to five people in the audience. But the uptick began almost immediately, and the fear of having to carry it disappeared.

CM: It took us a while to get the balance. I didn't appreciate that the cinema's yearround audiences are very different from the festival's. Festival-goers, some will see anything. So we created subscription series and mini-festivals where we controlled the content, not waiting for a blockbuster to be released.

In 2016, the festival screened a record 232 films, its audience numbers hit 211,000 and it finally became the master of its own domain. Thanks to a $4-million donation from the Rogers Foundation, Hot Docs took ownership of the Bloor, with the theatre renamed the Hot Docs Ted Rogers Cinema.

Meanwhile, a $1-million gift created the Ted Rogers Fund for production development (complimenting the fest's other long-running doc production funds).

RM: That was spearheaded by Martha Rogers, who loves docs and wanted to honour [her late father] Ted. It allowed us to buy the building from Neil, so we run the business and the festival. Having a 365-day presence in a theatre that everybody in Toronto knows, that's a game-changer.

NT: Chris calls and says, "I have some good news for you!" And I said, "That was the worst news you could've given me." It was sad, but it's the right thing for Hot Docs.

CM: We have ambitious plans for the cinema, still. I wouldn't mind having a couple smaller screens. I think there are enough doc enthusiasts out there in Toronto.

In 2018, the festival's 25th edition arrives with its largest lineup yet (246 full-, mediumand short-length films), and reaches gender parity in its programming. As streaming services such as Netflix increasingly look toward docs to build their catalogues, though, questions arise as to how large both the festival and its theatrical exhibition operation could, and should, grow.

CM: I worry about everything, but nothing has come along to replace that magical and collective experience of watching a film with hundreds of strangers. When that happens, I'll worry more.

LF: It's a political performance, to go to a theatre and watch a film together. There's always a desire to do something new and keep it fresh, sure, but the festival should take its cues from the films and filmmakers. Listen to them. They're the ones putting their lives and Visa cards on the line.

JW: As a Canadian filmmaker, I want to make sure that our films are being highlighted. We could be showing more Canadian films, and there is a danger in getting too big. Too big, too fast, and you collapse.

CM: We've learned by listening to our audience. We know that price is a factor, accessibility is a factor. You don't want to get too big, so a nice number is closer to 200 [films]. I trust Brett and [director of programming Shane Smith] explicitly. I don't imagine they want to go any bigger than they are now. You don't want to overwhelm.

PJ: The festival is in a place and time right now where we're facing existential issues as humans, from climate change to geopolitical rivalries. The festival needs to position itself in the context of the moment we're in. To just celebrate the documentary form, so what? These films are meant to have a social impact. They're made by people who want to change the world.

Let's change the world.

The 2018 edition of Hot Docs runs April 26 through May 6 in Toronto (hotdocs.ca).

Associated Graphic

An undated archival shot captures Toronto's Royal Cinema during the Hot Docs Festival. Hot Docs now operates its own theatre, the Hot Docs Ted Rogers Cinema on Bloor Street.

COURTESY OF HOT DOCS

Light from the projection booth shines down as viewers wait for a sold-out film to start at the Bloor Hot Docs Cinema in 2015.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A history in posters: Hot Docs promos from 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2010 show the festival's gradual evolution from small and industry focused to an 'outspoken' and 'outstanding' event.

COURTESY OF HOT DOCS

The Hot Docs festival grew by leaps and bounds in the early aughts, premiering films that would go on to Oscar fame and upping its attendance by almost 20,000 people from 2003 to 2006.

TOP: COURTESY OF HOT DOCS; ABOVE: KIANA HAYERI/HOT DOCS

In Tuktoyaktuk, residents take a stand on shaky ground against the Beaufort Sea's advance
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A northern community built on a foundation of ice is battling a double threat - melting ground and rising seas - that residents are powerless to stop, Matthew McClearn reports. Fourth in a series
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By MATTHEW MCCLEARN
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Wednesday, April 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A8


Sandy and Sarah Adam reside at 123 Beaufort Dr. on the northernmost peninsula in Tuktoyaktuk, NWT. They have spent their entire lives in the remote community, and moved into this one-storey house in 1994.

They would like to relocate it across the road, or at least turn it sideways - anything to buy more time in the place they call home.

"It's my ancestors' land, they used to stay here," Mrs. Adam said. "It's special, sacred land."

But Mr. Adam, sitting on his porch, acknowledged his family is one bad storm away from losing everything. The sea has whittled his backyard, which he estimates once stretched many tens of metres westward, to just two metres. During storms, the Beaufort Sea splashes his house and washes around its foundation of piles. "Every year, it has moved closer and closer," Mr. Adam said.

Just down the road, a sea of white and orange-brown crosses bear the names of deceased Grubens, Nasogaluaks, Capot-Blancs, Steens and Kowanas, framed by an archway inscribed with a request for divine intervention to provide them eternal rest. The Beaufort seems unlikely to honour that request: It has already claimed other graves and historical sites along the fragile coast.

Erosion has been a problem since people first settled here; increasingly violent storms, thawing permafrost and rising sea levels are quickening the pace. A ribbon of boulders (known as riprap) along the shore a couple of metres below the cemetery and the Adams' home are just the latest salvos in a running battle with the Beaufort Sea for the hamlet the locals call Tuk. Those defences have slowed, but not halted the sea's inexorable advance.

Stand your ground if you can, give way if you must. It is a precept embedded in Inuit culture, and not infrequently a practical necessity of northern living. A review of satellite imagery shows more than half a dozen structures have been removed from the peninsula since the summer of 2016. Hamlet administrators say some homes were moved to Inuvik, while others now sit on vacant lots in Tuk, awaiting future use. Among the last holdouts, Mr. Adam secured relocation funding from the hamlet, found a new lot farther inland and plans to consult a carpenter to see whether his house can withstand relocation.

A SISYPHEAN TASK

Talk of the worst-case scenario - abandoning Tuk entirely - goes back at least a generation. "Attempts to control erosion at Tuktoyaktuk will become increasingly expensive and the site could ultimately become uninhabitable," a 1998 paper by the Geological Survey of Canada predicted. The hamlet is trying to draw up a formal plan to avoid that fate. But time is running out.

The Beaufort coastline is exceedingly challenging to defend.

Comprised largely of soft sediments, it has been retreating for thousands of years: By one Geological Survey of Canada estimate, about 7,000 years ago it lay more than 100 kilometres north of its current position. Tuk's harbour is actually a flooded river valley. "There's no bedrock anywhere there," said Donald Forbes, a retired research scientist whose career with the Geological Survey of Canada brought him to Tuktoyaktuk numerous times beginning in the 1970s.

Back in the 1930s, the Hudson's Bay Co. was looking for a Beaufort Sea port to transfer freight brought down the Mackenzie River by barge to deeper-draught coastal vessels. It selected one of the Beaufort's only viable harbours, east of the Mackenzie delta, and dubbed it Port Brabant.

(In 1950, it became Tuktoyaktuk, the first community in Canada to revert to a traditional Indigenous name.) The surrounding landscape is dominated by pingos towering mounds of earth pushed skyward by ice underneath - which form only in permafrost environments.

The community's geological vulnerability was obvious from the outset: Within a decade, HBC had lost buildings to flooding, and its employees had already observed serious erosion.

By the time Tuk was incorporated as a hamlet in the 1970s, the town's coastline had retreated as much as 100 metres inland in places; the elementary school and curling rink were in jeopardy.

But Tuk was emerging as the key staging area for oil and gas exploration across the Beaufort Sea. It still has some political significance as one of Canada's northernmost inhabited settlements, bolstering Canada's claims to its northern regions.

So began the battle. A series of "Longard" tubes - sausageshaped cylinders filled with sand - were installed in 1976 on the shore in front of the school to slow the erosion. These were destroyed, although the cause remains disputed. (A 1982 study by the federal Public Works department blamed vandalism; others pointed to driftwood and sea ice.)

The school had to be abandoned, and the curling rink succumbed to the sea during a 1982 storm.

In the late 1980s, the hamlet added dredged sand to its beaches, and shored them up with sandbags. Storms undermined and broke the lower bags, spilling their contents and causing those above to collapse.

Concrete footings salvaged from the school were placed on the shore, but they, too, were undermined by the elements and toppled. A single storm in 1993 destroyed half the shoreline defences.

In 1998, an oil company donated 40 concrete slabs, which were installed on gravel pads along 100 metres of shore at the peninsula's north end. The Geological Survey of Canada has monitored all of the community's coastal defences for years; Dustin Whalen, a physical scientist, said the slabs, which direct the waves upward and away from the shore, have performed well.

But concrete pads simply are not an option to protect the rest of the community. "It's very costly to fabricate them here or bring them in," said Darrel Nasogaluak, who served as mayor last year.

"And to locate them properly, you need a big heavy-lift crane, which we don't have anywhere in the North right now."

So during the past 20 years, the community installed rip-rap brought in from Inuvik along the peninsula. A review of historical satellite imagery by The Globe and Mail suggests this significantly slowed erosion.

Yet it is also a Sisyphean task.

The boulders are porous: water infiltrates and freezes, splitting them into ever-smaller fragments. The shore is littered with scraps of geotextile fabric torn from underneath the rip-rap by waves, bunched up and useless.

A FOUNDATION OF ICE

One reason shoreline defences proved so ineffective is that Tuk essentially rests on a foundation of ice. The Arctic is warming at twice the global average; temperatures across the Northwest Territories increased by three to four degrees in just half a century. "As air and sea temperatures rise, that promotes more rapid recession through melting of excess ground ice and thawing of icebonded sediments," Mr. Forbes explained. Unlike eroding soils, melting ice does not even contribute materials toward a beach that might buffer against future erosion. It just melts.

Tuktoyaktuk's thawing beaches offer a pitiful foundation for coastal defences. "There were rocks all the way down past my house," resident Noella Cockney, a retired RCMP officer who lives on the peninsula, said from the cab of her pickup truck. "But because of the force of the waves and the moisture, everything sunk into the beach."

Tuk used to be sheathed in sea ice from October to June. The warming climate shortened that season, extending the period during which Tuktoyaktuk is exposed to the storms that blow in predominantly from the north and the west.

For these reasons, the Beaufort Sea would eventually claim Tuk even if it weren't rising. But it is rising. And the Earth's crust is also subsiding underneath. The combined result of both forces is stark: The Geological Survey of Canada predicts that if human carbon emissions continue unabated, sea level along the Beaufort coast will rise about 70 centimetres between now and 2100.

Even this conservative estimate, if realized, would greatly increase flood risks. Flood maps show that if the Beaufort rose just one metre, about 14 per cent of the community would be flooded. At two metres, more than one-third of Tuk goes underwater. Get to three metres, and nearly three-quarters of the hamlet floods. Any combination of sea level rise, storm surge and wave action could deliver such levels.

Tuktoyaktuk is running low on options. With its oil and gas heyday a distant memory, it is all the more difficult to attract funding from the territorial and federal governments to support expensive new infrastructure projects to mitigate erosion and flooding.

The opening of a permanent, all-weather road last year that connects Tuk to Inuvik does open new possibilities: It should reduce the cost of bringing in boulders and other materials, for example. And there is hope the road will bring in flocks of tourists to rejuvenate the economy. But it will not alter the fundamental shortcomings of traditional shoreline-protection measures.

"There's been no real concentrated effort in the last decade" to halt erosion in Tuk, said Lorie Fyfe, a regional superintendent of Municipal and Community Affairs for the territorial government, who visits the community two or three times a year. The community is instead pursuing an informal strategy of gradual retreat to inland locations such as a new neighborhood called Reindeer Point.

Mr. Nasogaluak explained that the peninsula, which is the site of the northern terminus of the Great Trail (formerly the Trans Canada Trail), has been designated an "environmental reserve," and will be for day-use only. "We can't protect it long-term," he said. The hamlet will continue to replenish the rip-rap in front of its cemetery, Mr. Nasogaluak said, but elsewhere the defences will be discontinued. The community will slowly move inland, he predicted.

But there are likely limits to how far the community can retreat inland and remain economically viable. Although the Hudson's Bay Co. is a distant memory, Tuk's habour remains its raison d'être. So far, the harbour has been spared from the erosion that has destroyed so much of the peninsula, thanks to Tuktoyaktuk Island. It's one of many barrier islands across the Arctic long, sandy formations that shelter the nearby coast. Tuk Island guards the harbour from storm surges and wave action, and probably also prevents it from silting up.

But the same forces that ruined the peninsula are destroying the island. Its northern coast retreats at about two metres a year, Mr. Whalen said. Digitized historical coastlines produced by the Geological Survey of Canada using aerial and satellite photos show it retreated around 130 metres between 1947 and 2008.

Much of the eroded material has been deposited in the main shipping channel, and Mr. Whalen predicts the island will be breached in 2037. Separated into several smaller islands, it might erode even more quickly. Once Tuk Island breaks up, the harbour will be exposed to "much bigger waves than ever before," he warned.

RUSTING RELICS

On the island's northeast shore lies the remains of an old wooden barge, which may suggest a solution. It has laid there rotting for Mr. Nasogaluak's entire life. As a child, he hunted ptarmigan (a game bird in the grouse family) on the island's dunes and bluffs with a slingshot. "That old barge is almost beat to nothing now, but it protected that island," Mr. Nasogaluak said. "That is the only spot on Tuk Island that hasn't seen any erosion."

Some old steel barges recently became available after the bankruptcy of a northern company, Mr. Nasogaluak said. The community considered sinking them off Tuk Island to form an offshore breakwater. "We're not sure if we want to put some rusting relics out there," he said. "But, I mean, it may be the only way."

Mr. Whalen believes putting some kind of barrier in front of Tuk Island is "inevitable." This year, he hopes to study how much the seabed would sink if a heavy barrier were placed on it information he thinks the hamlet will need one day soon.

Last year, the territorial government helped Tuktoyaktuk secure $250,000 in federal funding to hire a coastal engineer to prepare a flood and erosion mitigation plan. Part of its argument was that Tuk's harbour must be preserved to support future oil and gas exploration and production in the Beaufort Sea. Administrators hope the plan will help the hamlet secure much larger sums of federal funding to execute the plan. But it could be difficult to find a consultant whose experience exceeds that of local leaders. "The real issue is that there isn't really engineering expertise to manage erosion of an ice-rich shoreline in a setting like that," Mr. Forbes said.

Even if the hamlet can stabilize its own shores, residents can do little else but watch the continuing disintegration of the rest of the Beaufort coast.

Climate change is also threatening the Inuit way of life, says the head of the Inuvialuit Regional Corp. (IRC), which manages more than 90,000 square kilometres of land granted to the Inuit of this region through a treaty with the federal government in 1984.

Duane Ningaqsiq Smith, the IRC's chair and chief executive, said Tuk residents depend on hunting and fishing over a huge area to supplement their diets.

Mr. Smith has had to replace his own hunting cabin twice in recent years because of damage from storms that he said are becoming increasingly violent. "A lot of the other areas along the Western Arctic coastline of Canada are eroding away," he added.

"It's significantly increased within the last five years."

"WE'RE COASTAL PEOPLE"

The implications became clear during last summer's Canada C3 expedition, when participants visited Baillie Island, about 225 kilometres northeast of Tuk on the Beaufort Coast. There, massive blocks from the island's cliffs slough off into the sea, bowing into the surf like penitent monks.

On a smaller but accessible block that had recently fallen, the melting permafrost that had until recently bonded the cliff together could be seen. In places, people's boots sank several inches into the quicksand-like beach.

But even that pales in comparison to Pelly Island, 100 kilometres west of Tuk. Every year, members of the Geological Survey of Canada visit Tuktoyaktuk to monitor the deterioration of the surrounding coastline. At as much as 40 metres a year, Pelly Island's coastal retreat rate is among the most rapid witnessed anywhere on Earth.

Their options limited by geology, remoteness and financial resources, Tuk's residents must live with their deteriorating coastline.

But Mr. Nasogaluak suggested the region's Inuit are undaunted by change. "My grandfather was born in an igloo," he said. "My mother was born in a tent. And I was born in a tent in a government community. We're an adaptive people; we've been through a lot in the last 100 years."

A 2014 hazard-risk assessment published by the territorial government made a similar point: People who live in isolated communities such as Tuk are accustomed to violent weather, power and communications failures, and their traditional knowledge of local conditions leaves them better prepared for natural disasters.

"We'll always be on the shoreline, whether it's where it is today, or wherever the shoreline's going to be in 100 years," Mr. Nasogaluak said. "We're coastal people."

SEA CHANGE: ABOUT THE SERIES

The world's oceans have been rising in lockstep with global temperatures since the mid-1800s - and the pace is accelerating. In this occasional five-part series, Sea Change, The Globe and Mail examines how Canada's most vulnerable coastal communities are preparing for an inexorable force that will reshape their coastlines - in potentially catastrophic ways - for generations to come.

To read more on the science behind this series go to: tgam.ca/climate-primer PART 4: TUKTOYAKTUK, NWT Population: 898 Projected sea-level rise by 2100: 42 TO 68 CM

Associated Graphic

These concrete slabs have been one of the more effective remedies for Tuktoyaktuk's erosion problems, but installing more of them is difficult and expensive.

MATTHEW MCCLEARN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Along the Beaufort Sea in Tuktoyaktuk, NWT, homeowners face tough decisions about whether to relocate or stand their ground against natural forces.

PATRICK DELL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Sandy and Sarah Adams' house, above, at 123 Beaufort Dr., is at risk of falling into the sea. Erosion has been a problem since people first settled in Tuktoyaktuk. But Darrel Nasogaluak, below, who served as mayor of Tuk last year, says that no matter what happens in Tuktoyaktuk with the eroding land, the community will 'always be on the shoreline ... we're coastal people.'

PHOTOS BY MATTHEW MCCLEARN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, April 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B17


MARJORIE JEAN BURLEY

Passed peacefully on April 10, 2018 at the age of 107.

Predeceased by her sister, Eileen Tyler and her nephew, Ron Tyler. Marjorie was a loyal employee of Scotiabank for her entire career. She was an amazing lady with a wonderful spirit and strong faith. She will be lovingly remembered by her friends and caregivers, Liz Gray, Pam Poyser and Ian Gibson.

Funeral service will be held at the R.S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge St. (at Goulding, south of Steeles) on Friday, April 13 at 11 a.m. Marjorie will be buried in her family plot at Victoria Lawn Cemetery, St.

Catharines on Tuesday, April 17 at 10:30 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to Canadian Guide Dogs For The Blind would be appreciated.

Condolences http://www.rskane.ca R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

RICHARD STANLEY ELLIOTT "Dick"

Of the Town of Mount Royal, Quebec, died peacefully on Saturday, April 7, 2018 at the Jewish General Hospital.

Dick will be lovingly remembered by Olive Mulroney, his wife of 60 years and their children, Richard (Lena), Tim (Jane), Brian (Barbara), and Maureen (Douglas) Waterston. Dick will also be lovingly remembered by his twelve grandchildren, Raffi (Mariam), Patrick, Maral, Matthew, Alex, Margaret, Catherine, Sasha, Nina, Douglas, Kathleen, Brian; by his great-granddaughter, Maral Olivia; and by his brother, Terry.

Dick was predeceased by his brother, Bill. Dick will be sorely missed by his extended family and many friends.

Dick was born on December 11, 1933 in Neudorf, Saskatchewan, to Stanley and Jean McBurney Elliott and grew up in Rosetown, SK. Dick was a standout hockey player, playing for the University of Saskatchewan varsity team and maintained a lifelong love of the game. He was also a devoted fan of the Saskatchewan Roughriders football team. His family have been season ticket holders for 70 years. Dick would go to extreme lengths not to miss a game on tv.

No event was more sacred than a Riders game.

After graduating as a civil engineer from the University of Saskatchewan in 1955, Dick moved to Baie Comeau, QC to work on the Manicouagan Dam. It was here that he met his lifelong love, Olive, who for the next sixty years would travel the world with him enjoying life's adventures.

Dick, who often would jokingly refer to himself as an "itinerant construction worker", was in fact a highly respected engineer. He managed major construction projects over a career that spanned six decades. The result was that he and Olive would move their family at the end of each project to a new location, with a new set of challenges, which took them to live all over Quebec and Ontario as well as Iran, Trinidad, Slovenia and South Africa.

The most important thing in Dick's life was his family. He was a proud father whose greatest joy was to spend time with his children and play with his grandchildren.

He will be remembered for his compassion, hospitality and loyalty to family and friends and "family" was always broadly defined. Though a citizen of the world, he loved his country and was a proud Canadian.

The family would like to thank the Jewish General Hospital, nurses, doctors and staff; the team at the West Island Manor where he has resided for the last 18 months, and his personal care givers.

Visitation at Kane Fetterly funeral home, 5301 Décarie boulevard on Friday, April 13, from 6:30 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. Funeral Mass to be held on Saturday, April 14 at 2:00 p.m. at Our Lady of the Annunciation Parish, 1020 Laird Boulevard, Town of Mont Royal.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Dick's memory to Our Lady of the Annunciation Parish, 1020 Laird Boul., Mont Royal; or The Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada (http://www.heartandstroke.ca).

To send condolence to the family go to http://www.kanefetterly.qc.ca

JOAN JARDINE GOODALL (nee Spaulding)

Surrounded by her family, Joan passed away from congestive heart failure on April 9, 2018 at Sunnybrook Palliative Care. Greatly loved and missed by her children, Martha (Gordon) Main, Sandy (Josiane) Goodall, Janet (Roger) Dickhout. Joan was predeceased by youngest son, Colin. Adored by 10 grandchildren, Jimmy, John, Fiona, Heather, Alex, Jonas, Julie, Graham, Allison, and Jenny, as well as 12 great-grandchildren.

Joan was born on August 7, 1922. She loved to regale the family with stories of her childhood spent roaming the beaches of Shediac, NB with her sister, Ruth (Coop) and cousin, Anne (Petite). At only 20, she graduated from Mt.

Allison University with a BSc. in biology, and moved to Toronto. There she worked at the Connaught Laboratory, and met husband, RCAF W/C Alex Goodall (predeceased) with whom she shared 50 years of loving marriage.

They lived on air force bases throughout Canada and Europe, before settling in Toronto in 1966.

Joan loved people, and her exuberance and joie de vivre drew others, young and old, to her. Her love of nature and adventurous spirit saw her picnicking and fishing on the French River and watching big game on safari in South Africa at age 89!!! With her curious nature and inquiring mind, she was a life long learner and avid reader. Her strong Christian values and urge to help others led her to lead a life of volunteerism - Girls Guides, CNIB, Red Cross, Dorothy Ley Hospice and especially her church family, at St. George's. But her family was always her biggest source of pride and joy.

A Funeral Service will be held at St. George's-on-the-Hill, Anglican Church, on Saturday, April 14, 2018 at 11 a.m., interment to follow at church cemetery, reception after in church hall.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Dorothy Ley Hospice.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

AGNES MOULSON (nee Szendro) 1935-2018

Agnes Moulson (nee Szendro), died peacefully in her sleep on April 9, 2018 in Burlington. Born in Budapest, Hungary in December of 1935. Strong, beautiful, smart, kind and dignified, she used her strength to survive the Nazis, daringly escape the Communists and make a new life for herself in Canada. She met and married Colin, a wonderful Yorkshireman (d. 2003) who was just visiting Toronto but chose instead to stay and marry the captivating Hungarian. Together they had a life full of love, travel, art, music, and most of all, family and lasting friendships. Later in life, she found a new chance at love with Gordon Inglis (d. 2013) and his loving family.

An only child, she is survived by her three children and their spouses, Peter and Meri Moulson, Rob and Nadine Moulson, Andrea and Steve Starkman; and the delight of her life, her grandchildren, Samuel, Tara, Kailey, Sara, Alexandra, and Charli.

Many thanks to the loving staff at Carpenter Hospice. Private burial.

A celebration of life will be held details to follow. In lieu of flowers, donations to The Carpenter Hospice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

http://www.smithsfh.com

COLONEL THE HONOURABLE ROBERT CAMPBELL RUTHERFORD MBE, CD, QC NOVEMBER 29, 1922 - APRIL 3, 2018

Robert (Bob) Rutherford died peacefully, under superb care at K-Wing, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto after a life of devoted service to his country in war and peace as a Soldier, Lawyer, Judge, Royal Commissioner, tireless volunteer and fundraiser for veterans and their families in need.

Predeceased by his father, the late Brigadier-General Thomas John Rutherford, CBE, ED; his mother, Helen Sibbald; and wives, Elizabeth Ann ("Betsy") Sutcliffe, and Donna Lee Richards; and siblings, Jaffray, Anne and Bruce. He is survived by his daughter, Susan (Jesus); and Robert (Kath); grandchildren, Nicola and Brendan; sisters-in-law, Sally Gardner (John), Molly Harper (Chuck), Louise Sutcliffe and Shelley Richards (Koichi); 12 nephews and nieces; and 26 great-nephews and great-nieces.

Born in Owen Sound, Ontario, Bob was raised on the family farm at Leith, Ontario. A King's Scout and graduate of Owen Sound Collegiate and Vocational Institute, with the outbreak of the Second World War he joined the Grey and Simcoe Foresters Regiment while still underage. Transferred to the Governor General's Horse Guards, he served in Africa, Italy, and Northwest Europe as a tank, troop, and squadron commander. Promoted Captain at the age of 21 in Italy, he was awarded a Military MBE for gallantry during the Battle of Monte Cassino and the Liberation of Rome. Continued service followed in Northwest Europe and Germany until VE Day.

At the end of the war, he earned admission to and graduated from Khaki College in London, England and then Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto.

Bob was called to the bar in 1950 and practiced as a civil and criminal barrister with the Toronto firm Phelan, O'Brien, Rutherford, Lawer and Shannon. He was appointed a Queen's Counsel in 1960.

Bob Rutherford joined the Governor-General's Horse Guards in 1947 and commanded the regiment from 1956 to 1960, serving as Honorary Aide-DeCamp to Governors-General Vincent Massey and Georges Vanier. He was later appointed Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel of the Horse Guards (1976-1980), Honorary Colonel of his old regiment the Grey and Simcoe Foresters (19801997), and elected President of the Royal Canadian Military Institute (1973-1976).

In later life, he served as chair of the Gurkha Welfare Trust and devoted much of his time to fundraising for the veterans of the Brigade of Gurkhas. He remained close to the military for the rest of his life and was an outstanding advocate for many veterans issues. In 1975, he received the Queen's Silver Jubilee Medal and in 1998 the Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation Humanitarian Award.

Bob was a Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and a Knight Commander of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem; a Past Governor of Trinity College School, Port Hope, Ontario; an Honorary Life Director of the Canadian Equestrian Federation, Life Member of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps Association, Governor of the Corps of Commissionaires of Ontario, and a Member of the St. Andrew's Society of Toronto.

A member of Delta Chi fraternity, he lectured on civil procedure in the Bar Admission Course at Osgoode Hall, was a Member of the Council of the Medico-Legal Society of Toronto, a Director of the Advocates' Society, a Member of the York County Law Association, the Lawyers Club of Toronto and the International Association of Insurance Law. He served on the York County Legal Aid Committee and was Vice-Chair of the Criminal Injuries Compensation Board. He also served as a Bencher with the Law Society of Upper Canada.

In1979,BobRutherfordwasappointedaJusticeoftheSupremeCourtofOntario, and Judge of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. He was appointed a Commissioner of the Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces to Somalia (1994-1997) and as Ontario's Integrity Commissioner (1997-2001).

Bob always enjoyed spending extended periods of time at his cottage at Leith, Ontario, in the company of family and lifelong friends. It was where he was happiest.

The family expresses deepest thanks to caregivers Winsome, Lilly, Lera, Gani, Daphne, Mel and Joanese, to therapist Alisha, and to Dr. Hung and the nurses and staff at K-Wing. Special gratitude is owed to the late John Lawer, QC, Bob's friend and former law partner, the law firm of Legge & Legge; and to Colonel Michael Stevenson.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 to 8:00 p.m. on Thursday, April 12th. A memorial service will take place at the Royal Canadian Military Institute, 426 University Avenue, on Friday, April 13th friends are welcome to gather at 12:30 p.m. with a service to follow at 1:00 p.m. Interment will take place at Leith Cemetery, 419134 Tom Thomson Lane, Leith, on Saturday, April 14th at 12:00 p.m.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

SIMON SAKS On Monday, April 9, 2018 at

North York General Hospital. Beloved husband of Renee. Loving father and father-in-law of Alan and Kelly, and Brian and Alicia.

Devoted grandfather of Justin, Brooke, Ethan, and Arly. Special thanks to the Doctors, Nurses and Staff of 8W, North York General Hospital for their love, kindness and compassion. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, April 11, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Interment Temple Sinai Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 224 Honiton Street. Memorial donations may be made to Alzheimer Society of Canada, 1-800-616-8816 or to the Sarah and Chaim Neuberger Holocaust Education Centre, 416-631-5689.

ALFONSINA VACCARINO

After a blessed life our mother and Nonna passed away peacefully with her two sons by her side on April 9, 2018, at Trillium Hospital in Mississauga. Alfonsina was born in Siculiana, Italy, on October 8, 1933, the daughter of Antonio and Giuseppina Vella. She is together again with Leonardo, her beloved husband of 55 years.

Full of boundless energy, our mom loved spending time with her family and friends, they all meant everything to her. Loving and caring mother to Franco (Cosmina) and Anthony (Julie) and dear Nonna to Oriana (Bryan), Elysia (Sam), Sophie and Isabelle.

She is survived by her sister, Rina (Mimmo). A loving person who was always willing to help others, she will be fondly remembered by her many relatives and friends and will be missed by all who knew her.

Friends may call at the Turner & PorterPeelChapel,2180Hurontario Street, Mississauga (Hwy 10 N. of QEW) from 4-8:30 p.m.

Thursday. Funeral Mass will be held at Saints Peter & Paul Parish, 4070 Central Pkwy. E., Mississauga at 10:00 a.m. Friday, April 13, 2018.

Interment Assumption Catholic Cemetery. Our family would like to extend our deepest gratitude to the ICU staff at Trillium Hospital for their attentiveness and care.

Donations to Trillium Hospital would be appreciated. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

WILLIAM CARRICK TRUSLER MD, FRCP November 5, 1929- March 25, 2018

Died with dignity and grace in Toronto, on Sunday, March 25, 2018, in his 89th year.

Devoted and beloved companion for 58 years of the late Carol (nee Purdy). Deeply loved father to Michael and Wendy; and proud and caring grandfather to Owen Trusler and Finley Taylor.

Cherished son of the late George and Mona Trusler; and brother to George (Connie-deceased) and Doreen Trusler, Jane Maher (Frank-deceased), and Jim and Heather Trusler. Dear son-in-law of the late Arthur and Ethyl Purdy; and brother-in-law to Beverly Heyd (Gordon-deceased), Heather Schreiber and the late David (Joydeceased) and Ann Purdy. Much adored uncle to many nieces and nephews.

Bill was happiest surrounded by family and friends in the homes he and Carol created together.

A graduate of Oakwood Collegiate and the University of Toronto (1954), Bill began his medical career in Toronto before moving to London with his young family where he established a long and distinguished private practice in radiology.

Bill was a natural athlete and outdoorsman. He was a champion swimmer and avid skier in his youth, and in his later years was sustained by memories of Go Home Bay picnics, fly fishing at the Caledon Mountain Trout Club, and the view from the top of the Bluff at Osler.

Honorable, positive and forwardlooking, with a deep capacity for unconditional love, Bill will be remembered for his quiet sense of fun, his barbequing prowess, and the way he laughed with his whole person.

Our heartfelt thanks to the staff in the Acute Care for Elders Medical Unit at Mt. Sinai Hospital and to Monica Byrne, Marlene Dixon, Dr.

Sydney Smart, and the caregivers at the Balmoral Club who made such a wonderful home for him and Carol.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Friday, April 13th from 3:00 - 8:00 p.m. A celebration of Bill's life will be held in Rosedale United Church, 159 Roxborough Drive on Saturday, April 14th at 2:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Sinai Health Foundation in support of Dr. John Floras Cardiology Research (supportsinai.ca/in memory) 416-586-8203 would be greatly appreciated. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

Apotex next
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Scientist, deal maker, litigator: Barry Sherman was everything to the Canadian drug giant that turned him into a billionaire. Can the company thrive again now that he's gone?
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By TIM KILADZE, PAUL WALDIE
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


They arrived in droves, hundreds of mourners wearing bright blue scarves and dresses and T-shirts, coming together to commemorate the man who built an empire.

Six days after Barry Sherman and his wife, Honey, were found dead in their Toronto home, scores of employees from Apotex Inc., the Canadian drug giant that Mr. Sherman founded, gathered at a convention centre on the outskirts of Toronto. There, on a drab December morning, they joined thousands of others at a memorial service for the popular couple.

It was a public spectacle. The Prime Minister attended. Prominent members of Toronto's Jewish community did, too.

Yet away from the limelight, Apotex employees were reeling. Mr. Sherman built their company from the ground up. Its identity, its ethos, was intertwined with his own.

"We are like a family," a solemn employee told reporters. Many of his colleagues wore apparel in the same blue hue as Apotex's signature logo, including T-shirts bearing a powerful message: "We will continue your legacy."

For staffers, life hasn't gotten any easier in the four months since that mournful day. Although the initial shock has dissipated, the upheaval throughout Apotex's far-flung operations hasn't let up.

The company is struggling in the face of challenges that have gripped the generic-drug industry worldwide and led to thousands of layoffs, including hundreds at Apotex - so far.

Not only has the company lost its guiding force, but Mr. Sherman left no ownership succession plan.

Mr. Sherman's stake is likely to be divided among several relatives whose intentions aren't clear. Some employees also hold shares, according to court filings, complicating the company's control even more.

A new management team has been put in place and there are already plans to sell divisions and cut back operations. But there's no guarantee any of that will be successful and the future of one of Canada's premier companies is now in doubt.

Mr. Sherman's death has already set off a round of internal turmoil. Within weeks of the memorial, chief executive officer Jeremy Desai abruptly resigned after 15 years at the company, including nearly four as CEO. Mr. Desai had been enmeshed in a messy lawsuit alleging that he had stolen trade secrets from arch rival Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., with the help of a U.S.-based Teva executive with whom he'd had an affair.

Without a clear No. 2 to take the reins, the company reached for a familiar hand: Jack Kay, a former Apotex CEO, who agreed to come out of quasi-retirement at age 77.

While Mr. Kay was a familiar face in a fragile time, his steadying influence didn't last long.

A few weeks after his return, Mr. Kay sent an e-mail to Apotex's senior leaders telling them to brace for a significant restructuring. However, it is made clear that someone younger will be charged with implementing the revamp.

The man most likely to do that is Jeff Watson, a Kay protégé and the company's new president and chief operating officer.

Mr. Watson faces a complicated task. Mr. Sherman's legacy looms large at Apotex, even after his death. At the company's office complex in north Toronto, a banner with his portrait hangs over the reception desk.

But Apotex must be re-tooled, which means some of the founder's work will have to be undone. Despite the company's status and its track record of success that made Mr. Sherman a billionaire, it faces serious headwinds.

The generic-drug industry is under siege, and Mr. Sherman and Mr. Desai made key decisions in recent years that have hampered the company's performance.

In a rare interview, the new president is candid about the need for change. Almost everything seems to be on the table. "A year from now, our geographic footprint will look different. A year from now, our supply chain will look different," Mr. Watson said. Apotex's drug portfolio is also likely to shrink.

Altogether, it amounts to a "tighter, more focused approach" - a new strategy that was quietly taking shape last summer and fall. Mr. Sherman's death put things on hold, but the initiative has resumed. Recent changes have included staff cuts at Apotex's hub in Brantford, Ont., about an hour west of Toronto, and putting the company's European division up for sale.

The goal, in Mr. Watson's words, is simply to establish a "sustainable business that can stand on its own two feet."

DISRUPTION FROM ALL ANGLES

Five months before he died, Mr. Sherman finally accepted that the status quo wouldn't suffice. Generic-drug makers used to mint money - with operating profit margins around 30 per cent - but those days were vanishing.

Apotex became a Canadian champion by reverse-engineering the formulations of brand name drugs and then selling them for much lower prices once their patents expired. With his doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and brief history in the drug business thanks to an uncle, Mr. Sherman founded the company in 1974 and drove the business hard. He oversaw almost every operation and served as lead scientist, mixing the chemicals that formed the essence of new drugs. By the late 1990s, Apotex had operations around the world and held 40 per cent of Canada's generic market.

In the past few years, most of the institutional drug purchasers in the key market of the United States have either consolidated or formed partnerships. The three largest buyers now make up roughly 90 per cent of drug purchasing in the country, giving them incredible negotiating power over producers.

As well, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration plans to keep increasing the number of generic drugs it approves for sale. The hope is that the greater supply will drive drug costs lower - and new generic drug manufacturers in low-cost countries such as India are desperate to tap the U.S. market.

Generic drug prices had been falling 7 per cent to 8 per cent annually in the United States, and in late 2017 analysts at Credit Suisse projected even more carnage, with prices perhaps soon falling 10 per cent to 12 per cent annually.

"The worst has not yet played out, and returns should decline sharply," they wrote last October.

Similar pressures exist in countries with public health-care systems - including Canada - albeit for different reasons. Chiefly, cash-strapped governments are desperate to save money as their baby boomers age, so they target drug costs. As of 2016, average generic drug prices in Canada had declined to half of what they were a decade ago, according to Canada's Patented Medicine Prices Review Board.

Last year proved to be a turning point. By December, Sandoz, one of the world's largest genericdrug manufacturers, said it was considering exiting its oral dose business in the United States. A week later, Teva announced plans to lay off more than a quarter of its work force and suspended its dividend.

Asked to explain the shake-up on a conference call, Teva CEO Kare Schultz said the generic price wars had gotten ugly. "My guess is that not only Teva but other manufacturers have ended up competing to the bottom, where it's not really sustainable or profitable," he said.

As this global upheaval unfolds, Apotex is particularly vulnerable. The company has developed several business lines, but it is still predominately a producer of oral-dose drugs. In the months before he died, Mr. Sherman had been spending most of his time reworking old concoctions because many weren't robust enough for the current market - they were originally engineered to be stored in the types of pill bottles commonly seen behind Canadian pharmacy counters, but in emerging markets, drugs are typically sold in blister packs that aren't protected by a hard shell. Apotex also needed to make its pills more suitable for what are known as Zone IV climates, which have different temperatures and humidity levels.

"Sandoz, Teva, Mylan - they all lost volumes to the Indians," Ronny Gal, a pharmaceutical equities analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., said. "It's just that some of these other companies actually had other businesses to fall on, and Apotex did not."

Because the company is privately held, it's not clear how badly Apotex has suffered financially.

But in March, London-based Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC, whose generics division has a very similar profile to Apotex, announced a $1.1-billion writedown on this unit. Hikma's latest financial reports show the division pulled in one-third of total revenue last year, but generated only 5 per cent of profit.

Complicating things further at Apotex was Mr. Sherman's pride and his combative personality.

Under his leadership, Apotex amassed a huge drug portfolio, but he could be reluctant to cast off poor performers. In his eyes, the drugs were his babies, his inventions. Once, when management signed off on halting some production, Mr. Sherman furiously defended the products and launched into a diatribe about their history and his designs, according to someone who was at the meeting.

Mr. Kay alluded to this trait in a speech at the memorial service.

"Barry would stick to his guns on anything that was important to him, even if the economics would say to let things go," he said. "The concept of letting go was just not anywhere in his DNA."

Mr. Sherman also had pet projects, such as developing a triplecombination drug to treat people who were HIV-positive. "The big pharma companies would say, 'Screw that, why are we going to waste our money on one of those things? Let the universities figure that out,' " said Hank Klakurka, who ran Merck Generics when it was sold to Mylan in 2007. He also worked at Apotex from 1997 to 2001, reporting to Mr. Kay.

Initiatives like these are "the kinds of thing that Barry saw a need for and would finance year after year after year," Mr. Klakurka adds. "Some of us would look around and say, 'Why are we throwing all that money away?' " Mr. Klakurka was not privy to Apotex's finances, but based on his estimates, Merck would have been much more profitable for a simple reason: "Because we were run like a real business."

And then there was Mr. Sherman's penchant for litigation.

Historically, in order to be first to market, generic companies had to push for exclusive rights to launch a generic version just before a patent expired. That has grown more difficult lately because of changes to patent laws that mean generic drug companies typically all start production on the same day.

Mr. Sherman's court contests could also create financial volatility. Apotex was constantly at risk of losing big cases and paying financial penalties, sometimes to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars. In one famous example, Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. shared a patent on Plavix, a popular blood-thinner. Mr. Sherman thought he'd found a legal window to flood the U.S. market with a generic version of the drug, but the move backfired and after years of litigation, BristolMyers won a $442-million (U.S.) judgment in 2011.

MANUFACTURING WOES

Mr. Sherman was always proud of his Canadian roots. Apotex manufactures roughly 80 per cent of its drugs at plants north of Toronto. The company also employs 6,200 Canadians, a commitment in the face of incessant industry outsourcing that won Mr. Sherman accolades - he was set to receive the Order of Canada before he died - and helped him build relationships with politicians.

So when the U.S. FDA sent inspectors to two Toronto plants in 2009, Mr. Sherman likely felt confident. But FDA inspectors found a host of problems including "yellow powder," "charred material" and other contaminants in certain drugs, according to a warning letter sent to Apotex. Products from the plants were soon banned from entry into the United States, a damaging blow to a company that depended on growing U.S. sales. Apotex later alleged that the ban cost the company hundreds of millions of dollars in lost sales.

Mr. Sherman went to war, ultimately filing a lawsuit against the FDA under the North American free-trade agreement in 2012. Yet the narrative that developed of Mr. Sherman standing up to protect Canadian manufacturing was flawed. In its filings, Apotex acknowledged that its products "did not fully meet specifications," and the company hired someone from a global rival to oversee its quality control.

To make up for the years of legal battles and lost revenues, Apotex had to do something. In 2013, when cash was tight, Mr. Sherman decided to sell the company's interest in Doc Generici, a profitable Italian generics producer, in a deal alongside its joint venture partners. It was reportedly valued around 300-million (more than $472-million).

It wasn't long before another showdown with the FDA loomed.

Before he'd become CEO in 2014, Mr. Desai had devoted much of his time shepherding Apotex's expansion into India - an initiative designed to fend off lowercost rivals. Yet starting in 2006, the FDA began looking into quality-control issues there, too. And by 2014, the regulator was so concerned that it banned nearly all imports from Apotex's Bangalore plant into the United States.

In a letter, the FDA cited repeated failures to keep proper drugtesting data and alleged Apotex staff had manipulated results. A year later, the regulator raised even more concerns, with inspectors alleging Apotex workers had disregarded adverse test results and conducted unauthorized drug injections.

As the FDA troubles played out, Apotex struggled with a "tech transfer" to India - that is, exporting its Canadian manufacturing prowess abroad. These struggles are common for older companies, yet Apotex's issues were likely rooted in some historical dysfunction, according to Mr. Klakurka. "His [Mr. Sherman's] flaw, I would say, would be that he would put up with technical people and their b.s. for maybe too long, and gave too many people second, and third and fourth chances to get it right - at his expense," he said. "When you have something like India, or China, you've got to have a guy there, sitting on the ground with those people - somebody who you know and trust your life with," he added.

Mr. Sherman trusted Mr. Desai, who led the push into India, but Mr. Desai seemed to lean on local talent. Now, the problems in India are seemingly never-ending.

While the FDA issues were eventually resolved, last December Britain's equivalent to the FDA banned imports from the Indian facility - a ruling that applies to the entire European Union.

"India has been an anchor around Apotex's neck," said a former senior employee.

THE INCREDIBLE SHRINKING COMPANY

After Mr. Desai abruptly left Apotex in January, it fell to Mr. Watson, the new president, to put out all the fires. A Halifax native, he joined the drug maker's sales and marketing team in 1993 after playing a few seasons as an offensive lineman in the Canadian Football League. Save for a brief stint with Shoppers Drug Mart, he has been there ever since. Mr. Watson is a close confidant of Mr. Kay's, and the two men had breakfast every month for years as he rose through the ranks.

The strategy he is now spearheading is multi-faceted. Most notably, although, it emphasizes Apotex's North American roots.

Associated Graphic

Jeff Watson, president and COO of generic drug company Apotex, is part of the new management team following the death of the company's founder, Barry Sherman.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Apotex employees work at the drug maker's North York, Ont., packaging operations on March 29. Apotex manufactures roughly 80 per cent of its drugs at plants north of Toronto.

FRED LUM /THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B19


DICKIE

Emma Verity and Robert Dickie are delighted to announce the birth of their first-born child, Hazel Anna Elizabeth Dickie, at 10:41 a.m. on January 17, 2018 at St.

Michael's Hospital. Hazel is welcomed with love by grandparents, Lisa and Keith Verity of Toronto and Janet and Bill Dickie of Toronto; aunts and uncles, Hailey, Jonathan, Kate, Christine and Jason; cousins, Halle, Cole, David, Heather and William; along with an amazing group of extended family and friends.

SIR WILLIAM GREGORY DE MARCHI K.C.E.O.H.S., M.D., CCFP, PhD Physiology, MA Theology

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Greg on April 12, 2018. Born August 17, 1944 in Galt, Ontario, the only child of the late Armand John De Marchi and the late Elizabeth Theresa De Marchi (née Crompton).

He is survived by his wife of 32 years, Dr. Marianne Duemler; and his five children, Dr. Joshua Armand De Marchi (Dr. Sinead Maguire), Rachel Elizabeth De Marchi (Gary Watterson), Paige Simone De Marchi (David Shebib), Naomi Clare De Marchi and Sydney Lise De Marchi.

As a young adult, he became a Trappist monk at the Abbey of Gennesee, New York. His later travels took him to Oxford, England where he was granted his doctorate, and then to University of Toronto and McMaster University, where he received his medical education. He practised community family medicine at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto prior to becoming chief medical advisor to the Ontario provincial Ministry of Children and Youth Services. After his retirement he received his Masters in Theology from Regis College and was ordained a deacon in the Roman Catholic Church, Archdiocese of Toronto.

Throughout his life's journey, he travelled and lectured extensively. He has authored many publications in various fields of endeavor. While in Japan he earned his sixth degree black belt in Jiu-jitsu.

He had many other passions in life including language, art and restoration, and has mentored many young lives.

His love for people and learning has instilled great values in his children and one hopes his legacy will continue to touch many lives.

The funeral Mass will be held at St. Andrew's Church, 47 Reynolds St., Oakville on April 19th at 11 a.m. Visitation is at Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville on April 18th from 3-8 p.m. Those wishing to commemorate Greg's life may do so by making a donation to a charity of their choosing.

Interment will be private and for immediate family only.

Visit our guestbook through http://www.koprivataylor.com

RUTH DOROTHY HILDA FAIRBANKS (nee Bynoe)

Passed on March 8, 2018, and was proud to be born in the beautiful island of Trinidad in 1927.

Ruth had three great loves in in her life - to study, to travel, and her family.

Mom loved to study. She was delighted to come to Canada and graduated with an Honour in History from the University of Toronto.

Throughout her life, she continued her education and was a long-standing member and past president of the Univeristy Women's Club of Toronto.

Mom loved travel. Every summer, Mom worked and travelled to a different part of Canada. She also took extended trips to every continent in the world, excluding the Antarctic.

She met Earl Fairbanks at Bigwin, Lake of Bays, they married in 1951, and had a large loving family, all of whom are proud Canadians! Her third great love was for her family: her late husband, Earl (married for 57 years); and their five children, Douglas (Elly Crawford), Wendy, Richard (Suzanne Schiller), Leslie Jane (Michael Feltham), and James Ian (Jacqueline de Raadt).

The family increased by eight grandchildren: Richard's three boys: Matthew, Joshua, and James; Wendy's twin boys, Kalen and Sasha; and James and Jac's three girls, Kamala, Kaitlin, and Kiyara. All my grandchildren are dearly loved and admired by their grandmother for their different abilities at school and in athletics.

We will miss you Mom, you sacrificed a lot and left a legacy of a loving family.

lesfair13@gmail.com

RICHARD EWALD HOHMANN

March 12, 1949 - April 9, 2018 Richard passed away suddenly but peacefully, on Monday, April 9 at OakvilleTrafalgar Memorial Hospital surrounded by loved ones and close friends.

He is deeply missed by his daughter, Tiiu (Matt); his longtime companion and dearest friend, Jeannine Campbell-Jones and her children, Callon (Alahnnaa, their children, Caedenn and Lexie), Shanna, Sabrina, Christopher (Vikki) and Alicia; his cousins, Gabriela Bajin, Ilona Hurst (David), Maria Demett (John), Randy Kolu (Judith) and their families; and his many friends, fraternity brothers, and colleagues.

Richard's life will be celebrated on Thursday, April 19 at the Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Rd, Toronto (East gate entrance), visitation from 10:30 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. and service to follow at 12:00 p.m.

If so desired, donations to Parkinson Canada or a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

For online condolences, please visit http://www.etouch.ca.

MARILYN SKINNER JENKINS (Tolley)

Born September 28, 1930, died March 30, 2018. Daughter of Donald B. and Winnifred (Mink) Tolley; and survived by six children, six grandchildren, and one great-granddaughter.

PHYLLIS KITAI

April 15, 2018

Mother of Carol (Peter Rosenthal) and Ian (Georgina Wilcock); grandmother of Daniel, Esther, Sarah, and David. Predeceased in 1963 by her beloved husband, Dave Kitai.

Widowed early with no income and two young children, she completed her teaching qualification, and then went on to teach high school history and raise her children with determination, selflessness and great courage. Her children and grandchildren stand proudly on the firm ground that has been prepared by years of her grit, values and love.

Thank you to her devoted caregivers Marites, Mercedita, and Tiblez; and to Dr, Katja Heineck. Funeral 3 p.m. today, April 17, 2018 at Steeles Memorial Chapel.

HELEN JEAN LONG (nee Crowther)

Surrounded by her family, Jean died on April 13, 2018, at the age of 80. She was born in Toronto, attended Havergal College and graduated from Victoria College at University of Toronto. A lifelong Torontonian, proud and loving wife, mother, grandmother, and friend. Jean was married for 58 years to Stephen Long; mother to Mary Eleanor, Stephanie (Greg), and Alex (Neel); and grandmother to Hannah and Thomas. Her sister, Mary Thompson predeceased her.

Whether through cross-Canada camping adventures, visiting her children in far-flung places, global travel with Stephen and friends, or spending time at her beloved schoolhouse, Jean's caring, loving and adventurous spirit was always in evidence. She was a keen sportswoman and was at various times a champion runner, swim team captain, badminton and tennis player, jazz dancer, and more recently, aquafit aficionado.

Her strong Christian values and urge to help others led to a life of volunteerism - Brownies and Girl Guides, Delisle Youth Services, Churches-on-the-Hill food bank and especially with her church family, at Calvin Presbyterian Church. Later in life, she enjoyed a second career teaching adult high school to new Canadians.

Her retirement party was a large gathering, attended by many students who had been touched by her passion, hard work and dedication. But Jean's family was always her biggest source of pride and joy.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 2:00 - 4:00 and 6:00 - 8:00 p.m. on Friday, April 20th. A funeral service, followed by a reception, will be held in Calvin Presbyterian Church, 26 Delisle Avenue on Saturday, April 21st, at 2:00 p.m. If desired, contributions in Helen's memory may be made to the Churcheson-the-Hill Foodbank (www. cothfoodbank.ca). Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through www. humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

F. DONALD MCPHUN

Dad was born January 31, 1924, and passed away peacefully on April 12, 2018, surrounded by his family. Loving husband of Nan McPhun for 68 years; and father to Catherine McPhun Beatty (Stuart Wason) and Lyndy McPhun (Anne Green). Adored Papa to Caitlin Beatty (Peter Stewart) and Daniel Beatty. Predeceased by his sister, Mary Elizabeth McPhun, 2011.

Following his training and serving with the RCAF, Dad began his career with Imperial Oil, and moved to the financial sector where he worked for Nesbitt Thomson as a greatly admired and respected stockbroker for over 40 years. He was well known for his integrity and business acumen and helped many people achieve their financial security and dreams. He also served as a mentor to many in the industry.

He was an avid fly fisherman and founding member of the Cuckoo Valley Fishing Club - the irony of this was not lost on his family.

Dad loved to play the piano and could play anything by ear. His favourite spot in the world was the cottage at Whitefish Lake, which he and Nan built and enjoyed every summer for the past 50 years, fishing, sailing and hosting lifelong friends and family. He made his own wine for a short time, a hobby he mercifully gave up after a few years. He and Mom travelled extensively during their life together and were active participants in the LLR program at Glendon College, always staying interested in life.

Dad volunteered at the Yonge Street Mission for years and gave generously to many charities that were near and dear to him and Mom.

Dad was a charming character, soft spoken - a true gentleman.

Thank you to the wonderful and caring staff at Amica Barrie for their compassion and support.

He will be greatly missed by his family. We love you Dad.

A celebration of his outstanding life will be held on Friday, April 27th at 11:30 a.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Rd.

(East gate entrance).

For online condolences please visit http://www.etouch.ca

ELAINE THOMPSON

Margaret Elaine Thompson passed away at the West Parry Sound Health Centre on Thursday, April 12, 2018, age 87 years. Beloved wife of Frank Thompson for 65 years.

Elaine and Frank celebrate four children, Michael and his wife, Gift; Ian and Tracey; Grace and her husband, John; and Megan and her husband, Wayne. Loving grandmother of Theo and Charles, Josie and Ben, Jonathon and Jocelyn, and Morgan and Alyna. Survived by her brother, John Hunt; and predeceased by her brother, Norman.

Elaine graduated from Trinity College at the University of Toronto in 1952, and married Frank the same year. They immediately set off to South India, where they taught for three years. Elaine then accompanied Frank to Kolkata in 1962, where for eight years she cared for her two boys and ran a nursery school in Bishop's College.

Elaine loved teaching young children. She received her Bachelor of Education in 1975, and taught kindergarten and English as a Second Language under the Waterloo Board from 1975 to 1994. After moving to the Parry Sound area, she volunteered at Nobel School for 17 years.

With Frank, she helped introduce their young family to wilderness camping near Killarney.

Elaine shared with Frank a passion for social justice. She made lasting friends with people who came to Kitchener in the 1980's as refugees from Central and South America, helping them settle in the community.

Resting at Trinity Anglican Church, Parry Sound, where friends will be received on Saturday, April 21st, from 10:00 - 11:00 a.m. Funeral service will take place at Trinity Anglican Church on Saturday, April 21st, at 11:00 a.m. Reception to follow. As expressions of sympathy, donations to Trinity Anglican Church, or Doctors without Borders would be appreciated.

Arrangements entrusted to the Logan Funeral Home, 81 James Street, Parry Sound, (705-746-5855). To send an online condolence, please visit logansfuneralhome.com

GRETA YELOVICH

After years of fighting a progressive illness, Greta Yelovich, passed away peacefully at 3:00 a.m. on Friday, April 13, 2018. Born on August 17, 1925 in Bras d'Or, C.B., Nova Scotia of Francis Cantwell and Mary Cantwell (nee McGrath). She was the tenth of eighteen children.

Trained as a registered nurse, she was shipping out to serve overseas when World War II ended. Moving to Ontario with her husband, Peter Yelovich, she went on to rise from Head Nurse, to Ward Head, and then into the top echelons of Hospital Administration. But dissatisfied with the direction of care developing with the Government takeover of hospitals; Greta teamed up with her husband to found Canadiana Towers Limited.

With the dynamic combination of her financial administration and his leadership in acquisition and renovation, this real estate development and management company expanded, prospered and is active to this day. Greta continued at the company helm as Secretary-Treasurer into her eighties.

Accomplishments aside, my mother was a woman of great charm and an extremely cooperative nature. She had an impeccable character, an iron will, and absolute dedication to duty, work and faith. Generous but prudent, she was a brilliant organizer and a diligent steward of whatever she undertook: whether nursing, business or motherhood.

She is predeceased by her younger son, Craig, and her husband, Peter. She is survived by her elder son, Peter Jr. She will be greatly missed by her five grandchildren, Mary-Clair, Stephanie, Peter (III), Cheryll-Ann and Joseph.

Friends may visit at the Turner & Porter "Yorke Chapel", 2357 Bloor St. West (at Windermere, near the Jane Subway) on Thursday from 2-4 and 7-9 p.m. Funeral Mass will be offered at Our Lady of Sorrows Catholic Church, 3055 Bloor St. West at 11:00 a.m. Friday, April 20, 2018. Interment Queen of Heaven Cemetery. For those who wish, remembrances may be made to the Charity of Choice.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

RAY HOLLINGS

March 22, 1927 - April 17, 2002

Our dearest Ray, remembered with love and missed always June, Bill, Jenny, John, Brenda, Sean, Jade, Adam, Emma, Nicholas

JAMES ANTHONY WALSH

May 25, 1945 - April 16, 2008

10 years since I have held you.

I have wondered if I can ever live again. Your death has made me stronger. That I would survive is amazing. That I would live more fully is unexplainable.

"One sees clearly only with the heart. Anything essential is invisible to the eyes."

Loved and still missed Heather, Matthew, Russell and Graham.

In Uruguay, the fight to be recognized as Indigenous
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By STEPHANIE NOLEN
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Friday, April 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A10


MONTEVIDEO -- When Felipe Lobato was growing up, people sometimes called him negrito (darky) and asked him if he was Peruvian, or some other kind of exotic foreigner. He was in his teens when he began to learn the history of Indigenous people who lived, not just in the Andes or other far-off corners of South America, but in Uruguay. Four years ago, as he was trying to put words on his own identity, Mr. Lobato stumbled across Facebook photos posted by people who looked like him and who said they were Charrua - members of Uruguay's First Nation.

The hitch, for Mr. Lobato, was that the Charrua are extinct. So say the history books, the government, anthropologists and indeed Uruguay's whole national creation story.

Intrigued, Mr. Lobato, a 28-year-old sound engineer and DJ who lives in the capital, sought out the people in the pictures and learned that there is a significant challenge to that creation story - living, breathing Charrua who are undeterred by the anthropologists and the textbooks who say they were wiped out nearly 200 years ago.

"We lived on this territory before the Uruguayan state started to administer it - and they tried to erase our whole existence - but some of us are saying, we are still here," he said. "It doesn't have to be over because some anthropologists claim it is. We're used to that, by now."

Today, a nascent campaign by Mr. Lobato and others who say they are Indigenous, who want the government to recognize them as a people and as victims of a cultural genocide, is slowly forcing a public reckoning with Uruguay's history and self-image. At the same time, it is raising broader questions about what, exactly, makes a people.

The Charrua were among a handful of First Nations who inhabited the territory that is now Uruguay when the Spanish arrived in the early 1500s. Colonial settlement came relatively late here, compared with the rest of the Americas and the historical record is limited. Some accounts say there were about 10,000 Charrua when the Spanish came, but their numbers fell fast after exposure to new diseases, as the Portuguese and then Brazilians successively claimed the region.

The Charruu were a semi-nomadic people and soon came into conflict with the owners of ranches and plantations that began to spread through their traditional territory - a different experience than the Guarani, who lived in the north of the country near the border of what is now Brazil and who settled into agricultural communities based around Jesuit missions.

However many Charrua there may have been, their numbers were dramatically reduced in a conflict led by Fructuoso Rivera, a Uruguayan founding father, who mounted an army financed by plantation owners against them in 1831. In a battle known as Salsipuedes ("get out if you can"), after one of its locations, all, or nearly all, the Charrua men of fighting age were killed. The elderly, women and children were sent on a forced march toward the capital - but many were parceled out along the way to plantation owners who agreed to "Christianize" them in exchange for their slave labour. Four Charrua adults, including a healer, were sent as a curiosity to France, where they were put on display to the public but soon died of disease. How many others survived Salsipuedes is a subject of historical contention and central to the debate happening here today.

"When I was a child in school, I learned, 'We are a very civilized country, very advanced, because we're white and European and, thank God, we had no Indians,' " said Nicolas Guigou, who directs the department of social anthropology at the Humanities University in Montevideo. Eventually, he said, the historical narrative that celebrated wiping out the Indigenous evolved to the idea that the population was sparse to begin with and over time just disappeared, drifting away to other places or succumbing to disease.

This became the Uruguayan creation story: the Indigenous were exterminated or evaporated, leaving behind only a bit of useful warrior genetics - the nickname for the national soccer team is the Charruas and someone who does something daring is described as having garra charrua, meaning strength.

That bit of fighting DNA was blended with that of the white, European immigrants who became the population of the country, along with a small number of descendants of African slaves.

This story only began to be questioned after the end of the military dictatorship in 1985 - when there was a sense that everything Uruguayans knew about themselves merited reconsideration.

In 1989, a first group of people with Indigenous identity began to work together - including Monica Michelena, the woman whose pictures Mr. Lobato saw on Facebook years later.

"We called ourselves 'descendants of the Charrua nation' - that was all we could be," Ms. Michelena, a 59-year-old math teacher, says. "It was impossible to be Charrua in Uruguay at that time - people laughed in your face. They said, 'How is it that now we have Charrua when we didn't have any before - you must have an agenda, you're looking for something, some kind of compensation.' " In the late 1990s, she and others in the movement got a call from a group of Charrua in Argentina who suggested they come visit. Ms. Michelena and some of her fellow activists went and began to learn from their experience in a country where the fight for Indigenous rights was more advanced.

"They asked us, 'Why don't you call yourselves Charrua - what are you afraid of?' " Ms. Michelena recalls. For her, it was a revelation. "If my grandmother was Charrua, why aren't I?" The version of history that says no one survived Salsipuedes, that they were wiped out, is simply untrue, says Martin Delgado, the director of the National Council of the Charrua - not all the clans at the time went to confront General Rivera, and some eluded confrontation after the massacre. They, and the survivors taken to the city, passed the language and culture to their children. (Mr. Delgado, 26, is studying for a doctorate in anthropology in Montevideo, the first-ever Indigenous student in the faculty.)

Almost nothing of that language or culture survives today. There is one living speaker of the closely related language Chara, a septuagenarian in Argentina; and one historical source, an interview with survivors of the massacre a couple of years later that contains about 70 words in Charrua. Mr. Delgado said his organization is hopeful that other sources that could help reconstruct the language may be found in archives in Europe, as has happened with other Indigenous languages.

"We are debating within the Charrua - do we need the language to be a people?" Ms. Michelena said.

"Of course, the language contains the vision of the world." She said they are "stitching together" the culture that they lost, from the memories of elderly people, historical accounts and meetings with other Indigenous communities in Argentina and Brazil. It makes her no less Charrua that she cannot speak the

language, she said.

But this is a point of considerable contention: Some Uruguayan anthropologists argue that without any of these things - a language, cultural practices, traditional dress or songs or customs - the Charrua today are, regrettably, only descendants.

"I've been investigating this for years. ... There is no document or other proof that a group was permanently here and maintained customs into the twentieth century: The last group, maybe 15 people, disappeared in 1850," said Oscar Padron, a prominent historian with an expertise in the Indigenous issue. "So 150 years later, you have descendants saying they are Charrua - from a scientific point of view, there is no basis to say they are a people. Yes, they are descendants - but there is nothing to demonstrate an ethnic continuity for 150 years - it's personal fantasy."

That argument elicits a dark laugh from Felipe Lobato. "These anthropologists say, 'You're not isolated in a tribe' - well, how can we be if the state itself forced us out? This is our history."

Prof. Guigou says that anthropologists in Canada or elsewhere would not hesitate to call the Charrua a people and that their battle within Uruguay is a symptom of racism entrenched in the universities.

"Self-identification is what's most important," he said. He described, with distaste, a program by other researchers at his university to take blood samples from people with Charrua heritage to study the proportions in their DNA. "The academy here is very provincial and close-minded. Identity is not a question of blood unless you're a Nazi."

Today, the Charrua council is focused on the goal of getting government to recognize the existence of living Charrua and to put the name "genocide" to the events of the 1800s - including the massacre at Salsipuedes - and the subsequent obliteration of Indigenous people from official history.

Mr. Delgado said there is no consensus within the movement about whether the Charrua should also be pressing for some sort of land rights - some feel that the surviving Charrua are so displaced that there is no connection with a particular place that needs to be recognized.

But Guidai Vargas, a 24-year-old teacher who is a leader among young people claiming Charrua identity, said the movement cannot rule out potential land claims. "We can't cede that right, not now, because it would be deciding for future generations," she said. "In a few years, the land will become more important as people want to go back to the land of their ancestors."

Uruguay's government has not signed the International Labour Organization's Convention 169, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples' Convention, which is the framework many neighbouring countries have used to negotiate agreements with Indigenous people. Prof. Guigou said they haven't done it precisely because of the risk of opening the need to negotiate with the Charrua and he called it indicative of state "schizophrenia."

The federal government, a left-wing coalition, is internally divided on the issue, he said - some ministers feel it is important not to recognize the existence of present-day Charrua in order to avoid the messiness of claims for land or other rights; and another group feels that failure to address the Indigenous issue makes Uruguay look bad internationally.

"Uruguay is a very liberal country in other senses - abortion is legal, marijuana is legal, gay couples can marry and adopt kids - but in this sense, it is hugely behind," he said. "It's a liberal, racist state."

No one in several government departments approached by The Globe and Mail would comment on the issue.

Last year, Ms. Michelena was appointed to an unpaid position as an advisor on Indigenous affairs in the "racial and ethnic unit" of the foreign ministry.

The Charrua succeeded in getting a question added to the national census in 2011 - people were asked to identify the race of their ancestry and, if they identified more than one, to say which they considered predominant. Nearly 5 per cent of people said they had some Charruan ancestry and 2.4 per cent said that was their main heritage - some 76,000 people. "That means there are 76,000 Charrua," Ms. Michelena said.

But Prof. Padron says that is simply untrue: There is a historical record of Indigenous presence in Uruguay, he says - tens of thousands of church records of marriages, births and deaths of people listed as Indigenous. But almost none of them were Charrua; most were the Guarani who settled near the missions. "We have a large Indigenous history but it isn't Charrua," says Prof. Padron, who directs a museum called Casa Rivera, in the General's historic home in the city of Durazno.

The desire to claim Charrua identity stems from an admiration for their supposed tradition of fiercely resisting colonization, he said, and a sort of nationalism - "every country has its own Indian, the Charrua are Uruguay's."

Prof. Guigou called this attitude the "second violence of the political strategy" - first came the genocide of the 1800s, and now there is denial of the existence of survivors. Today, the fifth-grade school social studies books in Uruguay contain a couple of paragraphs on the "slaughter" at Salsipuedes; the sixth-grade unit, on genocide, discusses Armenia, Bosnia and Rwanda, but makes no mention of Indigenous people.

Mr. Lobato says that is something government could address fairly easily, as is the fact that a great many Charrua work in conditions one step above slavery as labourers on plantations today. But the incentive to remain the one Latin American country without Indigenous people is strong, he said.

"No government wants to deal with this ghost in the closet because the territory [that Charrua could claim], although small compared to other nations, has a lot of interests, lots of value," he said. "The government looks at what is happening in other countries - giving us control of land, including us in decision-making - and they don't want to get into that."

Associated Graphic

Top: Felipe Lobato poses for a photo in the outskirts of Montevideo.

Left: Guidai Vargas, 24, in in Montevideo, Uruguay, in February, says 'we can't cede' the right to potential land claims for Charrua descendants, 'not now, because it would be deciding for future generations.'

PHOTOGRAPHY BY MATILDE CAMPODONICO/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Above: A monument called Los ultimos Charruas (The last of the Charruas) depicting four Charruas - Senaque, Vaimaca, Guyunusa and Tacuabe - is displayed at the Prado, a park in Montevideo, Uruguay. Right: Monica Michelena, in her Montevideo backyard, says the Charruas are 'stitching together' the culture that they lost. Bottom: Martin Delgado, left, Ms. Michelena, centre, and Ms. Vargas, sit in a garden in Uruguay in February.

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, April 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B21


TANIA BATTEN (nee Hurmuses) December 20, 1929 April 9, 2018

I've gone to see what's on the other side...

ROMEO DE GASPERIS

It is with deep sorrow that we have to announce the passing of Romeo De Gasperis on Monday, April 16, 2018 at 4:12 p.m. After a long and courageous journey over the past eighteen years, Romeo passed away peacefully surrounded by his caring family at Toronto General Hospital. He is survived by his devoted and loving wife, Marialisa of 25 years; his loving daughter, Natalie; and cherished sons, Justyn and Giordano. He is survived by his adoring parents, Angelo and Lorenza De Gasperis. He will be sadly missed by his brother, Tony and fiancé, Janet; his late brother, Frankie (the late Rosa); with niece, Laura (Mike); with great-nephew, Giuseppe; and nephew, Frankie Jr.; his twin sister, Julie; and brother-in-law, Claudio; with nieces, Jessica and Valerie; and nephews, Marco and Angelo; his sister, Nancy and brother-in-law, Peter; with niece, Nicole; his mother-in-law, Silvana (the late Giovanni); sister-in-law, Enza (Fabien); with nephew, Éli and niece, Léa; brother-inlaw, Giancarmen; (Daniella) with nephew, Gio; and niece, Ariella; his many aunts, uncles and cousins, and several very special friends.

Romeo leaves a legacy of profound kindness, generosity, a great admiration and unwavering devotion to his beautiful family, his parents and loving support to his extended family and simply anyone that he touched. Romeo will always be remembered in the community as an honourable man with such strength and determination in everything that he did and an incredible aptitude for business; all while holding true to his humble self and charismatic personality. He was a very special man and will always be remembered with great pride, true joy and most of all; loving and unforgettable memories. He now joins his beloved brother, Frankie.

Visitation will be held at St. Clare of Assisi Parish, 150 Saint Francis Ave. in Woodbridge on Thursday, April 19th from 2 p.m. - 4 p.m. and 5 p.m. - 8 p.m. Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated at St.

Clare of Assisi Parish on Friday, April 20, 2018 at 10 a.m. Private Entombment to follow at Holy Cross Catholic Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre at the Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation in honour of Romeo De Gasperis would be appreciated by the family, please call 416-603-5300 or visit http://www.tgwhf.ca/tribute.

God Bless and may Romeo De Gasperis Rest In Eternal Peace.

Funeral arrangements entrusted to Vescio Funeral Home Woodbridge Chapel, (8101 Weston Rd., 905-850-3332).

LOUIS FLOM

On Monday, April 16, 2018, at North York General Hospital.

Beloved husband of the late Dorothy Flom. Loving father and father-in-law of Gaye and the late Stan Newman, Randy and Nina Flom, Joye Labow, and Daniel Flom. Dear brother and brotherin-law of Gert and the late Sam Truster, Dorothy and Cyril Davis, Barbara and Norman Gilbert, Beatrice and the late David Flom, and the late Anne and Ben Langer, Albert and Sadie Flom, Bessie and Saul Glass, Lily and Mac Weltman, Art and Shirley Flom, Morris and Lila Flom, and Solly Flom. Devoted grandfather of Jessica Newman and Mark O'Brien, Mara and Robbie Schachter, Michael and Hailey Flom, Shainie and Jordan Blum, and Jake Labow; and greatgrandfather of Nate, Coby, Lily, Brooke, Zack, and Kayla. A graveside service will take place in the Anshei Poland Section of Roselawn Cemetery on Wednesday, April 18, 2018, at 11:00 a.m. Shiva 616 Avenue Road, #201. Memorial donations may be made to Cystic Fibrosis Canada 1-800-378-2233.

ANDREW INGLIS GRIERSON

Peacefully, and with family by his side, at age 95, Andy passed away in the Sunnybrook Veterans Centre, Toronto on April 13, 2018.

Eldest son of Andrew and Chrissy Grierson, born in Winnipeg, he spent the majority of his life there until his move to Toronto five years ago to be closer to his three daughters and their families.

Predeceased by his sister, Agnes Grant (Alex); brother, Alex Grierson; and his first wife, Mary Stewart (Hepburn); with whom he had four children, Bob, (Shirley), Marilyn Rhind (Bob), Joanne Ackland (Geoff) and Nancy Occhipinti (Roberto).

He will be sadly missed and lovingly remembered by a large extended family including his brother, Charles and wife, Marjorie in Vancouver, along with many nieces and nephews, 11 grandchildren and 14 greatgrandchildren. Dad also had three step-children with second wife, Eleanor: Angela Lamboo, (Tom) Granddaughter Chantel Gerrits, (Trevor) Bill Prokop and Rick Prokop (Denise).

A Canadian Veteran, Andy served as an RCAF pilot in WWII and was a long time member of the Wartime Pilots Association. Andy's professional career was spent at Investors Group in Sales and as a Division Manager until his retirement. During his many years at Investors, he was a mentor to many Rookie salesmen which gave him an added sense of pride and accomplishment.

Over many years in Winnipeg, Andy was very active in the community. He was a long time member and past President of the Winnipeg Kiwanis Club, strong supporter of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers Football Association, avid Curler at the Granite Club and member of the Shriners organization. As a young man he was a fine athlete excelling in gymnastics, track and field, hockey and swimming. He was also a frequent golfer at the Wildwood Club with many of his long time friends.

In his youth Andy spent many summers at the family cottage at Victoria Beach and then later with his own family. He had a passion to restore old cars and became very accomplished at it. But the one passion Andy enjoyed most was music. Self taught on the clarinet, he loved to listen and play the music of the Big Band era.

The family is so appreciative and would like to thank all the staff at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre for their compassionate care and support while he was there.

In keeping with Dad's wishes, cremation has taken place. There will be a celebration of his life for family and friends at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, please send donations to the Sunnybrook Foundation Veterans Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 or the charity of your choice.

BRUCE MCDOUGALL January 2, 1930 - April 15, 2018

Father to Janice (Gervais Goodman) of Millarville, Alberta, Craig (Lynn) of Toronto; and grandchildren, Kim, Blair, Erin and Grant McDougall. Predeceased in 2013 by his loving wife of 59 years, Beth McDougall; his daughter, Cynthia; siblings, Lorna (Ness), Wanda (Harris), Keith, and Joyce (Bill and Sue Amos); and niece, Susan Ness Anderson (Ross).

Bruce was a dear uncle to Judy Ness, Arlene Harris-Tanner, Greg, Ian, and Eric Amos, Rick, Bill and Diane Henwood (Plitz); and greatuncle to David Anderson, and Katherine and James Scrivener.

Born in Toronto, Bruce made lifelong friends and stayed close to his fellow Upper Canada College and University of Western Ontario classmates. He valued the friendly competition and support of his skeet shooting buddies at the Uxbridge Shooting Club, and was a longtime member of the Granite and Caledon Mountain Trout Clubs.

Bruce enjoyed a long and successful career with Shell Canada. Upon retirement from Shell he was Assistant VP of Administration at the University of Toronto. He spent many years volunteering his business and financial skills as a CA with the Access Centre, Meals on Wheels, Living and Learning in Retirement, and other charitable organizations.

He enjoyed his apartment at Living Life on the Avenue, and made several good friends, including his special companion Eleanor Siegel, with whom he enjoyed travel to the cottage, Alberta and Florida, and many family gatherings.

The family wishes to thank the staff at LLoA; Dr. Sibai's excellent team and the caring staff in the blood transfusion unit at Princess Margaret Hospital; staff and services of LHIN, including the stellar palliative team; staff at Sunnybrook and Toronto General Hospitals; his neighbours in Toronto and at the cottage; the many people behind the scenes who made things "happen;" and his caregivers Junite, Maxine and Osa for their kindness, humour, caring and compassion.

A reception in Bruce's memory will be held later this spring. If you are so moved, please donate to your favourite charity, or become a blood donor. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

F. DONALD MCPHUN

Dad was born January 31, 1924, and passed away peacefully on April 12, 2018, surrounded by his family. Loving husband of Nan McPhun for 68 years; and father to Catherine McPhun Beatty (Stuart Wason) and Lyndy McPhun (Anne Green). Adored Papa to Caitlin Beatty (Peter Stewart) and Daniel Beatty. Predeceased by his sister, Mary Elizabeth McPhun, 2011.

Following his training and serving with the RCAF, Dad began his career with Imperial Oil, and moved to the financial sector where he worked for Nesbitt Thomson as a greatly admired and respected stockbroker for over 40 years. He was well known for his integrity and business acumen and helped many people achieve their financial security and dreams. He also served as a mentor to many in the industry.

He was an avid fly fisherman and founding member of the Cuckoo Valley Fishing Club - the irony of this was not lost on his family.

Dad loved to play the piano and could play anything by ear. His favourite spot in the world was the cottage at Whitefish Lake, which he and Nan built and enjoyed every summer for the past 50 years, fishing, sailing and hosting lifelong friends and family. He made his own wine for a short time, a hobby he mercifully gave up after a few years. He and Mom travelled extensively during their life together and were active participants in the LLR program at Glendon College, always staying interested in life.

Dad volunteered at the Yonge Street Mission for years and gave generously to many charities that were near and dear to him and Mom.

Dad was a charming character, soft spoken - a true gentleman.

Thank you to the wonderful and caring staff at Amica Barrie for their compassion and support.

He will be greatly missed by his family. We love you Dad.

A celebration of his outstanding life will be held on Friday, April 27th at 11:30 a.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Rd.

(East gate entrance).

For online condolences please visit http://www.etouch.ca

DAVID WEBBER

On Monday, April 16, 2018 at Toronto Grace Hospital. David Webber loving father of Evan.

Dear brother of Mark Webber, Debbie Shapiro, and Ellen Webber. Shiva at 1603 Bathurst Street, #505, beginning Wednesday, April 18th, with visits Wednesday and Thursday from 5:00 to 9:00 p.m. and on Friday from 2:00 to 6:00 p.m. Memorial donations may be made to the David Webber Memorial Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324, http://www.benjamins.ca or to the charity of your choice.

KURT WELDON

On Tuesday, April 17, 2018, in his 101st year. Kurt Weldon beloved husband of Marjorie. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Joan Howard, Edith Howard, and the late Anny Wachtl, and Eric and Barbara Weldon. Devoted uncle to Janey and Paul Rooney, Jim and Carolyn Howard, Andrea Howard, Steven Marullo and Debbie. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Friday, April 20, 2018 at 10:00 a.m.

Interment Community Section of Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park.

Private Shiva will be held.

Memorial donations may be made to the Kurt Weldon Memorial Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324, http://www.benjamins.ca

AUDREY JOYCE WIPPER 1928 - 2018

Audrey passed away on April 15, 2018 after an incredibly full and interesting life. Retired as a professor of sociology at the University of Waterloo, she graduated from McGill University and Berkeley with her PhD. in African women's studies. This led her to an enduring belief that the future of Africa was in leadership by its women. Her contributions to and work with Rotary International's African Women's Education Fund were recognized when she was named by it as an eighth level Paul Harris Fellow. She also travelled to India with Rotary, helping to distribute oral polio vaccine in remote villages. She has authored many books dealing with conditions in Africa and women's rights. In 1948 she broke the male-only rowing barrier at the Royal Henley Regatta when she crewed with one of the first two women's eights rowing teams in North America. An athlete all of her life, horses and riding, especially cross-country eventing and dressage were what she loved doing most.

She was the daughter of Harry and Victoria; sister of Harry, all of whom predeceased her; and aunt to Jennifer, Peter, Phil and Liz, all of British Columbia; cousin to The Cowans of the GTA and the Courts of St. Catharines, ON. Her family is grateful for the tender care provided by the staff at Victoria Place residence and the Village at University Gates, and the friendship provided by her friend and dog walker, Tara. Her long-time friend and physician, Dr. Sandra Wismer looked after her until the end with the attention and loving care that does her profession proud.

In accordance with her wishes a private family service will be held.

Arrangements entrusted to the Turner & Porter "Neweduk-Erin Mills Chapel", 905-828-8000.

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Monday, April 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B19


DENISE ALTMAN

On Friday, April 13, 2018 ,at her residence, surrounded by her loving family. Beloved wife of the late Alfred Altman. Loving mother and mother-in-law of David, and Jacque Altman and David Smith.

Dear sister and sister-in-law of Patricia and Isaac Silberman, and Marilyn and the late Izzy Light.

Devoted grandmother of Aaron, and Colin and Daniela. Devoted great-grandmother of Tabitha, and Cordelia. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, April 16, 2018 at 2:30 p.m.

Interment in the Habonim section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery.

Shiva at 37 Burton Road, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to The Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care 416-586-4800.

SIR WILLIAM GREGORY DE MARCHI K.C.E.O.H.S., M.D., CCFP, PhD Physiology, MA Theology It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Greg on April 12, 2018. Born August 17, 1944 in Galt, Ontario, the only child of the late Armand John De Marchi and the late Elizabeth Theresa De Marchi (née Crompton).

He is survived by his wife of 32 years, Dr. Marianne Duemler; and his five children, Dr. Joshua Armand De Marchi (Dr. Sinead Maguire), Rachel Elizabeth De Marchi (Gary Watterson), Paige Simone De Marchi (David Shebib), Naomi Clare De Marchi and Sydney Lise De Marchi.

As a young adult, he became a Trappist monk at the Abbey of Gennesee, New York. His later travels took him to Oxford, England where he was granted his doctorate, and then to University of Toronto and McMaster University, where he received his medical education. He practised community family medicine at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto prior to becoming chief medical advisor to the Ontario provincial Ministry of Children and Youth Services. After his retirement he received his Masters in Theology from Regis College and was ordained a deacon in the Roman Catholic Church, Archdiocese of Toronto.

Throughout his life's journey, he travelled and lectured extensively. He has authored many publications in various fields of endeavor. While in Japan he earned his sixth degree black belt in Jiu-jitsu.

He had many other passions in life including language, art and restoration, and has mentored many young lives.

His love for people and learning has instilled great values in his children and one hopes his legacy will continue to touch many lives.

The funeral Mass will be held at St. Andrew's Church, 47 Reynolds St., Oakville on April 19th at 11 a.m. Visitation is at Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville on April 18th from 3-8 p.m. Those wishing to commemorate Greg's life may do so by making a donation to a charity of their choosing.

Interment will be private and for immediate family only.

Visit our guestbook through http://www.koprivataylor.com

HEDY EDELSTEIN (née Wintrobe) 1944 - 2018

It is with profound sadness that we announce the passing of Hedy Wintrobe Edelstein on Friday, April 13, 2018, in Montreal. Born in Edmonton, Alberta. Wife of the late Hymie Edelstein.

Funeral service from Paperman & Sons, 3888 Jean Talon St. W., Montreal, on Tuesday, April 17 at 12:00 noon. Burial at the Dorshei Emet Reconstructionist Congregation Section, Eternal Gardens Cemetery, Beaconsfield.

"Memory believes before knowing remembers."

JULIUS KARLINSKY "Jake"

On April 13, 2018 in Toronto age 93, formerly of Winnipeg.

Beloved husband of the late Sharna Karlinsky. Loving father and father-in-law of Janice Karlinsky and Jon Ennis, Audrey Karlinsky and Richard Anderson, Cheryl Karlinsky and Alan Levy.

Dear brother and brother-in-law of Leah and Tzvi Trefler, Minnie and the late Willy Karlinsky, and the late Chaim and Eva Karlinsky.

Devoted Zaida of Joshua, Miriam and Naomi Ennis, Rachel and Kyle Harris, and Valerie Anderson.

Great-Zaida to Benjamin. Heartfelt thanks to his longtime devoted caregiver Bibi Bacchus and the staff at Wellesley Central Nursing Home. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, April 15, 2018 at 2:30 p.m.

Interment in the Holy Blossom section of Pardes Shalom cemetery. Shiva at 8 Conrad Avenue, Toronto. Donations may be made to The Rekai Centre, 416-964-1599 or http://www.rekaicentres.com

PHYLLIS KITAI April 15, 2018

Daughter of Israel and Sarah Davidson; mother of Carol (Peter Rosenthal) and Ian (Georgina Wilcock); grandmother of Daniel, Esther, Sarah, and David.

Predeceased in 1963 by her beloved husband, Dave Kitai.

Widowed early with no income and two young children, she completed her teaching qualification, and then went on to teach high school history and raise her children with determination, selflessness and great courage. A dedicated teacher for twenty years in Johannesburg, she is still remembered by many students with admiration. She actively fostered critical thinking when it was officially discouraged. As an avid learner, she returned to university after her retirement to complete a further education in the emerging field of gifted education, and embarked on a second career as a consultant. She had an amazing work ethic and always strove for near perfection, however small the task. She was invariably honest, smart and brave. She will always be an inspiration to her children and grandchildren, who stand proudly on the firm ground that has been prepared by years of her grit, values and love.

Thank you to her devoted caregivers Marites, Mercedita, and Tiblez and to Dr. Katja Heineck.

Funeral will be held at Steeles Memorial Chapel, 350 Steeles Avenue West, Thornhill, at 3 p.m. on Tuesday, April 17.

Interment at Beth Tzedek Memorial Park, 5822 Bathurst Street. Shiva will be held at 70 Barrydale Crescent, Toronto after burial with services at 8 p.m. and at 367 Palmerston Blvd, Toronto on Wednesday, April 18 at 8 p.m. with visitations from 6 p.m.

Donations to a charity of your choice.

HELEN JEAN LONG (nee Crowther)

Surrounded by her family, Jean died on April 13, 2018, at the age of 80. She was born in Toronto, attended Havergal College and graduated from Victoria College at University of Toronto. A lifelong Torontonian, proud and loving wife, mother, grandmother, and friend. Jean was married for 58 years to Stephen Long; mother to Mary Eleanor, Stephanie (Greg), and Alex (Neel); and grandmother to Hannah and Thomas. Her sister, Mary Thompson predeceased her.

Whether through cross-Canada camping adventures, visiting her children in far-flung places, global travel with Stephen and friends, or spending time at her beloved schoolhouse, Jean's caring, loving and adventurous spirit was always in evidence. She was a keen sportswoman and was at various times a champion runner, swim team captain, badminton and tennis player, jazz dancer, and more recently, aquafit aficionado.

Her strong Christian values and urge to help others led to a life of volunteerism - Brownies and Girl Guides, Delisle Youth Services, Churches-on-the-Hill food bank and especially with her church family, at Calvin Presbyterian Church. Later in life, she enjoyed a second career teaching adult high school to new Canadians.

Her retirement party was a large gathering, attended by many students who had been touched by her passion, hard work and dedication. But Jean's family was always her biggest source of pride and joy.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 2:00 - 4:00 and 6:00 - 8:00 p.m. on Friday, April 20th. A funeral service will be held in Calvin Presbyterian Church, 26 Delisle Avenue on Saturday, April 21st, at 2:00 p.m. If desired, contributions in Helen's memory may be made to the Churcheson-the-Hill Foodbank (http://www.cothfoodbank.ca). Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

LINDA RANKIN 1946 - 2018

In hospital in Ottawa, Ontario on April 3, 2018.

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Linda Rankin, on April 3. Linda was born in Foam Lake, Saskatchewan on June 16, 1946 and predeceased by her parents, Cliff and Isabel (née Deacon) Rankin. She graduated from the University of Regina and headed to Toronto and ultimately Ottawa. Although she lived in the nation's capital for more than 40 years, Linda always described herself as 'just a prairie girl.' Linda will be forever loved and missed by her adoring husband of 23 years, Guy Houdin; and the Houdin family in France; especially sons, Jon and Alex; by her three cherished brothers and the wives she considered sisters, Stuart Rankin and Johanne L'Heureux (London), Wayne Rankin and Terry Rutherford (Sarnia), and Doug and Coleen Rankin (Regina); her generous cousin, Cathy Deacon; her treasured nieces and nephews and their families, Adam, Amy, Benjamin, Carter-Ethan, Jennifer, Megan, and Steven; and by the numerous, thankful friends from all walks of her life.

Those who crossed her path were drawn to Linda's warmth, adventurous spirit, grace, empathy, determination, and to her positive outlook on life; these traits served her, and those around her, well as she dealt during the last three decades with multiple health issues. The family would like to thank all the doctors, nurses and other medical staff who provided Linda with such excellent care and support over the years, most recently those at the Ottawa Heart Institute, Alive to Strive Kidney Fitness Project, and ICU unit at the Ottawa Hospital Civic Campus.

Cremation has taken place and a memorial service will be held at a date to be determined.

Those wishing to honour Linda are asked to register for organ donation and consider a gift to unitedwayottawa.ca, ottawaheart.ca, ohfoundation.ca, or your local SPCA.

ALBERT BOWRON

A Celebration of Life for Albert Bowron will take place on Saturday, May 12 from 2-5 p.m. Snacks, drink and jazz.

Remarks at 3:30 p.m. All who knew him are welcome.

Please email albertwilsonbowron@gmail.com for location details.

PETER BOWMAN STUART BA, LLB, QC February 21, 1925 - April 12, 2018

Surrounded by his loving family, Peter Bowman Stuart surrendered his spirit peacefully to the care of his Lord on Thursday, April 12, at the age of ninety-three.

Peter was born and raised in Toronto. During his senior years in high school, Peter served in the Artillery Regiment Reserve.

Following graduation he enlisted in the Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve, serving until his honourable discharge in October 1945. After his service, Peter studied at Trinity College, University of Toronto, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in 1948.

Peter then studied law at Osgoode Hall Law School and was called to the Bar in June 1950.

Having married Mary Louise Stuart (nee Yetton) in 1949, Peter and his wife moved to Gravenhurst, Ontario, where he began to practise law. In addition to his own law practice, Peter was appointed Area Director for Muskoka at the inception of the Ontario Legal Aid Plan in 1967.

He held this position until 2010, for which he has the distinction of being the longest serving Area Director in the history of Legal Aid in Ontario.

Among his other honours, Peter was appointed a Queen's Counsel in 1965. In 1994, he was presented with the Award for Distinguished Service by the Canadian Bar Association-Ontario. He was also made a life member of the Law Society of Upper Canada on the occasion of his fifty years of membership in the Society.

Peter was also involved in the life of his community through service to organizations including ARC Industries, the Muskoka Foundation for the Arts, the Muskoka Law Association, the RMS Segwun Museum, of which he was the Founding Chair, and St. James Anglican Church.

Peter and Mary were also busy and joyous parents of three children, and Peter remained a loving and considerate father and grandfather.

One of nature's gentlemen, Peter will be remembered with particular love and fondness by his daughter, Anne Louise Stuart; his daughter, Elizabeth Catherine Elissa; his son, Charles Anthony Stuart (Christine Louise Purdon); and by his grandchildren, Alexandre Julien Merk, Dylan Stuart Cunningham, Mary Louise Stuart, and William Eric Stuart.

Peter will also be remembered with great affection by Chuck Cunningham, Mary Leger, and his many friends, colleagues, and caregivers. Peter was predeceased by his beloved wife, Mary, in 1997.

There will be a visitation at Cavill-Turner Funeral Home in Gravenhurst on Monday, April 16, from 2:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:009:00 p.m. The funeral service will be held at St. James Anglican Church on Tuesday, April 17, at 1:00 p.m. Following the service, there will be a reception at the Muskoka Steamships and Discovery Centre.

Donations in memory of Peter may be directed towards the South Muskoka Memorial Hospital in Bracebridge or St. James Anglican Church in Gravenhurst.

Condolences may be offered at http://www.cavillfuneralhome.com.

Playoff dangers still loom for the Raptors
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Toronto has never had an easier path to the final, but will likely have to battle James
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By CURTIS WITHERS
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Friday, April 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B15


TORONTO -- The Toronto Raptors have never before had such a feasible path to the NBA final, but the road ahead will have no shortage of daunting obstacles.

Entering the playoffs as the top seed in the Eastern Conference gives the Raptors home-court advantage through to the final.

That's a significant edge for a Toronto team that tied Houston for the best home record in the league this season at 34-7.

But to get to the final, Toronto would likely have to survive a second-round encounter with nemesis LeBron James, and then face the prospect of taking on the red-hot Philadelphia 76ers in the conference final.

Here is a look at a hypothetical path to the final for the Raptors: FIRST ROUND - WASHINGTON WIZARDS Despite having home-court advantage, the fourth-seeded Raptors faced a humiliating firstround sweep at the hands of the Wizards in 2015.

Toronto will surely expect a different result this time around.

Washington is still a dangerous opponent, with all-star point guard John Wall, shooting guard Bradley Beal and centre Marcin Gortat returning from the 2015 Wizards team.

However, Toronto's core of allstar backcourt DeMar DeRozan and Kyle Lowry and centre Jonas Valanciunas has a much better supporting cast this time around.

Toronto's elite bench, and the fact that the Wizards no longer have access to Paul Pierce's effective mind games, should see the Raptors through. Toronto will want to win this series quickly, as it gets significantly tougher from here.

The Raptors and Wizards split their four-game season series in 2017-18 with each team winning one on the road.

SECOND ROUND - CLEVELAND CAVALIERS

A conference semi-final against the Cavaliers is not what the Raptors envisioned when they locked up the top seed in the Eastern Conference. But unless the Indiana Pacers upset James and company in the first round, that's what Toronto's going to get.

On paper the Raptors should win this series. They have superior depth, and Cleveland's defence is often a tire fire. In fact, the Cavaliers finished the season with the second-worst defensive rating in the league, with opponents scoring 109.5 points per 100 possessions.

But despite Toronto's "culture reset" that led the Raptors to 59 regular-season wins while retaining the same core roster and coaching staff of past seasons, the Raptors are a team that has done little to inspire postseason confidence, especially against Cleveland.

Yes, they made it to the Eastern Conference final in 2016, but there it was an achievement just to take Cleveland to six games.

The next year Cleveland easily dismissed the Raptors in four straight games in the second round. James was clearly in the Raptors' heads, and he was having so much fun he pretended to drink a beer after being fouled late in Game 1.

And no matter how defensively inept this version of the Cavaliers may be, James has proven he can overcome this deficit almost single-handedly. Look at the March 21 game in Cleveland, when Toronto scored 79 points in the first half and still lost 132-129 as James scored 35 points and added 17 assists without committing a single turnover.

But home-court advantage could be the key to Toronto exorcising this particularly troublesome playoff demon. While Toronto went 1-2 against the Cavs this season, the Raptors won the only meeting at Air Canada Centre 133-99 back on Jan. 11. And Cleveland did go 1-3 against the Pacers this season, so could conceivably enter the second round with more wear-and-tear than Toronto.

THIRD ROUND - PHILADELPHIA 76ERS

While the Sixers finished one seed behind No. 2 Boston in the East, they should be able to beat the Celtics in a hypothetical second-round matchup and advance to the conference final.

Without injured guard Kyrie Irving, the Celtics would be hardpressed to beat a Sixers team that ended the regular season on a 16game winning streak powered by young stars Joel Embiid and Ben Simmons.

Toronto won three of four games against the Sixers this season, and two of the victories were blowouts at Air Canada Centre.

But those came early in the season, before Philadelphia really got rolling. The last meeting between the two teams was a 117-111 Sixers victory in Philadelphia on Jan. 15 that saw Embiid dominate with 34 points, including 11 from the free-throw line as the Raptors struggled to contain the sevenfoot native of Cameroon.

Philadelphia would be a tough test for the Raptors, but not an insurmountable one. In spite of their playoff disappointments, the battle-tested Raptors are making a fifth straight postseason appearance. The Sixers are making a return to the postseason after six years of being a league doormat. Also, Embiid has proven to be fragile over his career - he's missing Game 1 of Philadelphia's first-round series with Miami due to an eye injury - and Simmons has yet to experience the increased pressure of postseason basketball.

The Sixers represent yet another playoff demon for Toronto to slay. The Allen Iverson-led 76ers knocked Toronto out of the second round of the playoffs in 2001 when Vince Carter's buzzerbeating shot to win Game 7 clanged off the back of the rim.

BEST BETS FOR THE FIRST ROUND OF THE NBA PLAYOFFS EASTERN CONFERENCE NO. 1 TORONTO RAPTORS (59-23) VS. NO. 8 WASHINGTON WIZARDS (43-39)

Season series: Split, 2-2 Storyline: It was the best regular season in Toronto history and its first time going into the playoffs as a No. 1 seed, but the Raptors know it's the playoff result that will determine if 2017-18 was a success. The Raptors got out of the first round once in their first 20 seasons; they're now trying to do so for a third straight season. Washington was inconsistent all season, but now has all-star John Wall back from injury, and he'll be needed.

Key matchup: Toronto's Kyle Lowry and DeMar DeRozan vs. the Wizards' Wall and Bradley Beal. The teams mirror each other in that their backcourt stars lead the way. Lowry and DeRozan have risen to challenges all season, and their playoff run starts with a very stiff matchup.

Prediction: Raptors in five.

NO. 2 BOSTON CELTICS (55-27) VS. NO. 7 MILWAUKEE BUCKS (44-38)

Season series: Split, 2-2 Storyline: The Celtics won't have Kyrie Irving, probably won't have Marcus Smart for much of the first round and haven't had Gordon Hayward since the sixth minute of the season. But they earned the No. 2 seed anyway, and hear the whispers of naysayers suggesting they're vulnerable. The Bucks will try to win their first playoff series since 2001 - when star forward Giannis Antetokounmpo was 6.

Key matchup: Celtics coach Brad Stevens vs. Bucks coach Joe Prunty. The chess match will be fun; Stevens is easily one of the NBA's best at scheming, especially on the fly, and Prunty has done a strong job since taking over for Jason Kidd around the midseason mark.

Prediction: Celtics in six.

NO. 3 PHILADELPHIA 76ERS (52-30) VS. NO. 6 MIAMI HEAT (44-38)

Season series: Split, 2-2 Storyline: The 76ers finished on a 16game winning streak, although 13 of those wins came against non-playoff teams. In their last 24 games, Philadelphia was 20-2 against everyone other than Miami - and 0-2 against the Heat, including one game where Dwyane Wade hit a game-winning shot. The 76ers are young, brash and backing it up, while the Heat have the confidence of knowing that they can knock off Philly.

Key matchup: Philadelphia's Joel Embiid vs. Miami's Hassan Whiteside.

Embiid says he doesn't think he'll play in Game 1 while continuing to recover from an orbital fracture. But the lure of facing Whiteside - they simply don't like each other - should get him back out there as soon as possible.

Miami's best chance is for Whiteside to be great.

Prediction: Heat in seven.

NO. 4 CLEVELAND CAVALIERS (50-32) VS. NO. 5 INDIANA PACERS (48-34)

Season series: Pacers, 3-1 Storyline: LeBron James is bidding for his eighth consecutive trip to the NBA finals, and the Cavs are trying to get there for a fourth straight year. They will be tested from the outset by an Indiana team that many thought would be rebuilding this season. And the Pacers indeed did rebuild, but managed to do so on the fly behind Victor Oladipo, probably the NBA's most improved player.

Key matchup: James vs. Oladipo. The best players on each team, and while they may not go head to head all that much, Oladipo surely knows he has to be fantastic in this series. James is coming off perhaps his most complete regular season, and everyone knows that his motivation level, always high, gets cranked up several notches at playoff time.

Prediction: Cavaliers in six.

WESTERN CONFERENCE NO. 1 HOUSTON ROCKETS (65-17) VS. NO. 8 MINNESOTA TIMBERWOLVES (47-35)

Season series: Rockets, 4-0. Storyline: After rolling to the best record in the league, the Rockets get started toward what they hope could be the first championship for Mike D'Antoni, James Harden and Chris Paul. They open against the Timberwolves, back in the postseason for the first time since 2004 after ending what was the NBA's longest active playoff drought.

Key matchup: Harden vs. Jimmy Butler. Nobody really slows down the Rockets - the Wolves sure didn't, yielding 122.8 points a game in the four games - but the best hope of doing it comes if Butler, their top defensive player, can slow down the league's leading scorer and MVP candidate.

Prediction: Rockets in five.

NO. 2 GOLDEN STATE WARRIORS (58-24) VS. NO. 7 SAN ANTONIO SPURS (47-35)

Season series: Warriors, 3-1.

Story line: The Western Conference final matchup last season comes in the first round now after Golden State struggled down the stretch without Stephen Curry, and the Spurs had a difficult time playing almost all season without Kawhi Leonard. Curry is not expected to play in this series, while the Spurs haven't ever ruled out Leonard, but also given no indication he could play.

Key matchup: Draymond Green vs. LaMarcus Aldridge. Aldridge had his best season in San Antonio in carrying the Spurs as best as possible without Leonard, and the Warriors' task in trying to limit him probably begins with Green, the Defensive Player of the Year last season and one of the league's best defensive forwards.

Prediction: Warriors in five.

NO. 3 PORTLAND TRAIL BLAZERS (49-33) VS. NO. 6 NEW ORLEANS PELICANS (48-34)

Season series: Split, 2-2.

Storyline: Two of the NBA's top scorers lead their teams into what could be a high-scoring shootout in the first round. Damian Lillard and the Trail Blazers won on the final night of the season to grab the Northwest Division title and finish a game ahead of Anthony Davis and the Pelicans, who surged into the postseason on a fivegame winning streak.

Key matchup: Lillard and CJ McCollum vs. Rajon Rondo and Jrue Holiday.

Portland has one of the most potent backcourts in the league but New Orleans, with a pair of good defensive guards, at least has some hope of slowing them down. And Holiday will score quite a bit himself.

Prediction: Trail Blazers in seven.

NO. 4 OKLAHOMA CITY THUNDER (48-34) VS. NO. 5 UTAH JAZZ (48-34)

Season series: Thunder, 3-1.

Storyline: Despite some tough times after acquiring Paul George and Carmelo Anthony to play with Russell Westbrook, Oklahoma City won its final three games to get home-court advantage in the first round, with a new chance to prove it can be the team it hoped when it made the high-profile acquisitions.

Key matchup: Westbrook vs. Donovan Mitchell. The reigning NBA MVP and the potential Rookie of the Year have shown they can do whatever is necessary to carry their teams offensively.

Westbrook probably has more help, which could make the difference in this series.

Prediction: Thunder in six.

Associated Graphic

DeMar DeRozan of the Toronto Raptors pursues the ball ahead of Kelly Oubre Jr. of the Washington Wizards in Washington in March, 2017. Toronto's elite bench should help the team when they face Washington in the first round this postseason.

ROB CARR/GETTY IMAGES

The great escape
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Indulging a long-standing fantasy, Catherine Dawson March ditches her workaday responsibilities and embraces the thrilling chaos of Bali
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By CATHERINE DAWSON MARCH
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P14


Every now and then, I indulge in a fantasy, usually about escaping the drudgery of day to day for the exhilaration of moment to moment. It may not be an original fantasy, but what is unusual is that I acted on it.

Leaving behind the responsibilities of work, wife and mother to teens (whose fault-seeking scorn wears one out faster than any toddler drama) became doable when one of my girlfriends was just as ready to disappear.

The Indonesian island of Bali stars in a lot of escape fantasies. Its mystique - a potent swirl of white sand and cerulean sea, laid-back locals and strong cultural heritage - is tempting. But we aren't interested in Bali's infamous tourist spots. We'll bypass the commercial party zones of Kuta, Seminyak and Legian in the wild and crazy south. Instead, we seek remote resorts on the outskirts: the new Hoshinoya Bali near the island's spiritual centre of Ubud and the powdery black-sand beaches by the newly renovated Soori Bali, near Tabanan on the central-western coast. (Bali's active volcano forced the closing of the international airport there for two days in late 2017, but Mount Agung is calming down. The threat level has dropped and tourism amenities on almost all of the island are open for business.)

We find paradise, but we also come across tourist traps, garbage-strewn streams and crowded beaches. Bali, we discover, can be as maddening as it is overpoweringly beautiful.

Perhaps that's always been part of the attraction. Despite its remoteness, it has drawn Western artists and intellectuals with a taste for the exotic since the late 1920s, Robert Pringle writes in A Short History of Bali: Margaret Mead, Noel Coward, Charlie Chaplin, even Canadian musicologist Colin McPhee, the first Westerner to study the country's music. This "expatriate intelligentsia" gave Bali, Pringle wrote, "a global reputation as a place of extraordinary cultural value."

UBUD OR BUST

Elizabeth Gilbert's book and the 2010 film Eat, Pray, Love have not done Ubud any favours. Tourists flock to this mountain town looking for spiritual serenity, but its takes some time to find it among streets clogged with motorbikes, cars and Western-branded shops. What was once a quiet agricultural town known for its healers is now thronged with tourists, street hawkers and local touts. The Ubud Royal Palace is overrun with outsiders more intent on the perfect selfie than learning anything about the shrines and architecture. You find a little quiet along the Campuhan ridge walk or wandering the Lotus Temple with is pretty ponds walled off from the noise.

But Martha and I find our peace at Hoshinoya Bali, a 20-minute drive from Ubud's main drag. The luxury Japanese brand - known for its ryokan hotels - blends Japanese sleek with Balinese tradition. The Bali outpost recently earned a place on Travel + Leisure magazine's 2018 list of best new hotels in the world.

It's the middle of the night when we finally arrive, but several staff greet us with deep bows and big smiles. We step through an intricately carved stone arch and into a quiet calm. Waves of music - softer than a harp, more percussive than a pan flute - come from two musicians bent over what look like bamboo xylophones. These gamelan players produce a rolling hum of harmonics that lull the senses.

On the way to our villa, we pass others (there are 30 in total) arranged in quiet alleys that mimic a Balinese family compound. In the morning, we'll see that Hoshinoya Bali is perched on the rain-forested gorge of the sacred Pakerisan River and discover ancient shrines and monuments throughout the property.

After 24-hours of travel, Martha and I sink into Japanesestyle beds that sit on a low, raised platform. A wall-length Balinese wood carving is a masterpiece of delicate work.

Jet-lagged, we're up before daybreak and open the French doors to our villa's upper patio with its enormous daybed. I zone out here while listening to a Buddhist morning chant drift over from our neighbour's villa. As the sun rises and the light improves, I see that my perch overlooks a long, slender pool and that each villa has its own private pool deck, with an overhead fan and more lounge beds. The chestdeep water is as cold as a Canadian lake.

But you do your laps anyway. In this heat, you call it refreshing.

The beauty of being near Ubud, but not in Ubud, means it doesn't take our tour guide (booked through the hotel) long to show us the real Bali. We're passing through neighbourhoods where tourists never go and every time we exclaim about some new sight, he stops to let us get closer - to the eye-popping green of rice fields; the ingenuity of terraced rice fields in Tegalalang; children running barefoot with a homemade kites. On it goes as we weave along two-lane roads skinnier than most Canadian driveways.

Martha and I ask about Balinese Hinduism, so Yande takes us home to meet his family and see their shrine. Spirits, or gods, influence everything here. He shows us how spirits and ancestors are cajoled with daily offerings (hence the home temple) and that Balinese people work to keep a balance between gods and demons. Yande also talks about how Balinese view time: What's important isn't the calendar or the clock, but the type of day or time. Is it an auspicious time or an unlucky day to perform a task?

On the way back to Hoshinoya, Yande is careful to swerve around piles of rice drying on the edge of the road. Motorbike drivers fend for themselves (many are adolescents, even women holding small children with one hand and steering with the other): Almost no one wears a helmet. The bikes always seem to dodge just in time, but the blithe disregard for safety is jarring - though maybe understandable given they believe the gods influence everything.

If a true escape is a break from our own societal norms, we picked the right place.

There are more cultural lessons back at the resort. Hoshinoya Bali offers several daily classes or tours for free. One afternoon, half a dozen guests sit under a traditional thatched roof bale as a local woman shows us how to make an offering to the gods. We start by weaving our own bananaleaf boxes, then placing specific items and colours in specific corners. To finish, she helps us tie on sarongs to ensure we are properly attired to place our offerings at the base of a hotel's temple. I say a silent word of thanks for getting Martha and I here safely, and pray my family is coping well without me. But there must have been something wrong with my offering. Later, when my phone rings with a call from home, I start describing my adventures only to be stopped by the main reason for their call: "Mom, Dad wants to know where you left the ant powder!?" I think about that call on our last morning, while sipping tea in Hoshinoya Bali's most stunning feature - lounge beds suspended over the lush valley. It's like hanging out in the treehouse you never had as a kid. The breeze carries a deliciously sweet scent of champak flowers and humus-y forest floor. I breathe in deeply, pull out my phone - and slip it into airplane mode.

BLACK SAND TABANAN

One of the first social-media brags guests make at Soori Bali is posted from the open lobby: The area is a soaring, impressive stage for the ocean view. Staff members, accustomed to the stunned reaction, simply steer guests to the wide couches so they can sit and soak it all in with a chilled cocktail and an even chillier, tightly rolled white towel. Consider the towel a chance to cleanse yourself of the outside world before stepping into architect Soo K. Chan's version of paradise.

Chan, founder of Singapore based SCDA Architects, and his wife, Ling Fu, designed Soori as a vacation home, blending its stellar location with proper feng shui. Eventually, the property expanded from private retreat to resort refuge.

Perched between waving rice fields with views of Batukaru, an extinct volcano, and the pounding surf of the Indian Ocean, there is no dull view from any of Soori Bali's 48 villas. It's this dazzling colour combination of black sand, white surf and radiant green rice fields that mesmerizes guests.

Chan relaunched the hotel in 2017 when he took the management reigns back from Alila Bali. He took it in a new direction, focusing on health and well-being, offering a range of holistic treatments at the spa, yoga and qigong sessions, tea ceremonies and more. The hotel grounds are used as practice and performance areas by the local gamelan orchestra and dance group. As a guest, you will stumble across both often and it's enchanting.

With the refocus successfully under way, touch-ups to the villas continue. The wallsized glass doors of our ocean-facing villa also open onto a burbling plunge pool. A teak pool deck with an enormous lounge bed covered in oversized pillows is a great spot to watch the sun set over the surf. The soft spongy spots of decking that need replacing are not so lovely, but flip flops solve that problem quickly enough, and this area is our go-to spot every day. Amazingly, no lounge chairs or umbrellas mar the beach view: The sand is black as tar, soft as icing sugar and packed down enough that biking along the sand is easily done. As dusk approaches, villagers turn out to enjoy the ocean, too. And look for the bat cave near the end of the beach: We learned of it one night to our horror and delight while dining on one of Soori's restaurant patios.

Soori employs most of the residents of the village next door and we borrow bikes one morning to explore it. We stop to take more photos than is actually necessary of religious statuary (so grotesque and adorable at the same time) and guzzle Teh Botol (jasmine iced tea). Our ride brings us closer to the locals but also to local problems, such as a few litter-plugged streams and a beach strewn with plastic flotsam. It is an an unvarnished look behind the tourist brochures.

A free guided tour offered by the hotel also takes us on a walk along the rice fields during harvest. A longer, customized tour the next morning takes us farther afield and gives us more time to explore temples, including one of Bali's most picturesque (and, therefore, most busy and commercialized): the fisherman's seaside temple, Tanah Lot. Lunch that day is cooked by our driver's wife and served away from Tanah Lot's commercial bustle: seasoned beef and rice with sambal, or hot sauce, wrapped ingeniously in a banana leaf. Still, stumbling into the tourist masses Bali is infamous for was a shock. For some visitors, this is the only "real Bali" they see. Time to get back to Soori's sanctuary.

That night I take a good look at the flowers left on our pillows daily: frangipani cupped by a palm leaf and secured with a sliver of bamboo. They are like little, readymade offerings. Just before our ride to the airport, I take a detour onto that soft, black sand one last time.

I place my offerings in the surf and whispered a prayer of my own. Sure, I am hoping it is an auspicious day for our long flight home, but I am also praying that Bali remains a fantasy-fulfilling paradise, a place to indulge the senses and restore the soul, for years to come.

Accommodation was complimentary; the writer received a business-class upgrade from Cathay Pacific. Neither the airline nor the resorts reviewed or approved this story.

Associated Graphic

The view from Soori Bali resort in Tabanan, top. Hoshinoya Bali resort's entrance, above, embraces traditional Balinese design.

TOP: SOORI BALI

The power of protest endures
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Twenty-five years ago, First Nations and environmentalists united in civil disobedience against clear-cut logging in B.C. Now, a planned oil pipeline is rekindling idealism for an even more important cause - not just protecting our land, but healing our society
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By TZEPORAH BERMAN
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O5


Professor, mother, writer and environmentalist who was the blockade co-ordinator in B.C.'s Clayoquot Sound, where she was arrested and charged with 857 counts of criminal aiding and abetting. She is currently a director of Stand.earth.

In recent weeks, hundreds of Canadians have been arrested for peaceful protest at the gates of the Kinder Morgan oil facility in Burnaby, B.C. They run the gamut from Indigenous leaders to grandmothers, engineers to economists, scientists to school teachers - even politicians have been blockading the gates to the Kinder Morgan terminal. It is a story that has dominated headlines across the country and plunged the country into a war between provinces and governments, with some observers predicting this crisis could turn into another Oka.

You've got to ask yourself: What is happening for Canadians to take the law into their own hands? After all, it's not the kind of behaviour we are known for.

There's an old joke: How do you get 20 Canadians out of a swimming pool? You say, "Hey, you Canadians, please get out of the pool!" On the whole, we're a pretty compliant bunch.

In their founding document, our American neighbours got life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Instead, we got peace, order and good government. But don't mistake that compliance for indifference. Canadians are lauded as good global citizens, not because we blindly embrace the status quo and keep a low profile, but because we confront injustice, stand up for equality and rights and punch above our weight when it comes to globalscale challenges.

But, sometimes, injustice and inequality needs to be confronted here at home. The climate crisis and the systematic abdication of our responsibilities to First Nations are two of the greatest challenges facing Canada today, and they are intertwined with the high-stakes fight over the Kinder Morgan pipeline.

The fact is, this is not simply a disagreement over a new pipeline project. With 19 municipalities and the majority of the First Nations in fierce opposition (of the 150 impacted First Nations who were approached, only 43 agreed to support the project, leaving 107 First Nations opposed), something much more profound is at play: Our political and economic systems and institutions have swung out of balance and need reform. We need to face the challenge of climate change. And governments must recognize that Indigenous consent isn't optional.

It's vital.

I first experienced the power of protest in Clayoquot Sound. This year is the 25th anniversary of the height of the logging protests, where more than 1,000 people were arrested. I met thousands of fascinating people (including my future husband) as we camped in a clear-cut area called the Black Hole, and woke every morning at 4 a.m. to block the logging road at Kennedy River Bridge. We loved the immense, moss-covered, 1000-year-old cedars. And we knew we had to take a stand against the entrenched logging system before it was too late for all the old-growth rainforests of the West Coast.

Civil disobedience is a last resort to show the injustice of outdated or unjust laws, when groups of people are jailed over a matter of conscience. We camped, we sang (I'm hearing some of those songs again, at the Kinder Morgan gates), we banded together and met by the fire each night and we hashed out statements of non-violence to match our idealism and our belief in "people justice." B.C.'s prisons were suddenly full of inmates needing vegetarian meals and starting recycling programs.

Clayoquot happened because B.C.'s political system and institutions were failing to process change. Since the early days, the B.C. government had been like an arm of the logging industry with parties of the left and right alike doing its bidding. First Nations and their legal rights over their traditional territory were barely an afterthought. When challenged, government and industry told us "clear-cutting was good for the forest." Really? Looking back, it seems outlandish to believe this was the government line. The rhetoric itself indicated how deeply the system was broken.

The dispute almost brought down the B.C. government.

It unleashed reforms to forest practices all over the province and, indeed, around the world.

Major customers joined the call for more protection, a change in forest practices, certified forest products and an end to clear-cutting. First Nations ended up playing a powerful leadership role in resolving the situation, not just in Clayoquot but in all of B.C.'s coastal rainforests. New systems and institutions, such as the Forest Stewardship Council, the B.C.

Forest Practices Code and Iisaak Forest Resources were created to reflect changes in underlying values. By the end of the protests, 86 per cent of Canadians were calling for the protection of Clayoquot Sound. Today, over a million tourists a year visit Clayoquot to experience the kind of nature our government and the forest industry were once set up to destroy. At the time, one premier called us enemies of the state for organizing campaigns to protect Clayoquot Sound and the Great Bear Rainforest. Ten years later, another premier called us heroes - for the same work.

Fast-forward to this Earth Day weekend.

With the mass arrests (more than 200 people have been arrested in the past month) over the building of the Trans Mountain pipeline, there are similarities with Clayoquot, but also differences. Indigenous leadership is a powerful force, and although the government hasn't yet woken up to this change, people on the ground clearly have. Those who block the gates of Kinder Morgan, facing down trucks, will cite the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as often as they mention the Paris climate agreement. Everyone knows and acknowledges that they are on the unceded Coast Salish land of the Tsleil-Waututh, Musqueam and Squamish peoples.

There is a sense of pride as Indigenous and non-Indigenous people work together. But make no mistake: The Kinder Morgan protests are being led by First Nations, and they have much stronger legal and moral standing than they did 25 years ago. Any resolution must recognize their rights and their leadership. Reconciliation means seeking consent, and not just the window dressing of consultation.

Clayoquot was big, but the stakes with this new oil sands pipeline are far bigger. While I joined Clayoquot as a 23-year-old idealist, and fell in love with my husband at the fireside and on the blockade, now I join this new fight as a mom, keenly aware of my responsibility as a parent to protect the future for my sons. I'm fiercer now and so are the people I am standing beside, horrified by the rise in extreme weather, the forest fires that have devastated our province and the floods and droughts setting records around the world. And we will fight against climate change with every breath in our bodies. For the sake of our children, we will give it everything we have.

This time, the imbalance the protest is addressing is due to oil.

Decades ago, with the boon of oil sands development, we designed our economy and institutions around further oil expansion. No one ever considered how big it should get. No one spoke of the many risks, whether from oil spills, toxic tailings ponds, air pollution or habitat destruction. But now we do so with regularity. We have no choice.

Climate scientists were some of the first people to raise concerns. The science is conclusive - we must begin to replace fossil fuels with clean energy, or else create dangerous disruptions to everything we value. That doesn't mean we turn the taps off overnight. It doesn't mean we have to stop using or producing oil today.

It means we need to start to plan so that we can begin the transition that our governments agreed to when former prime minister Stephen Harper signed agreements at the Group of Seven to "decarbonize" this century and when Prime Minister Justin Trudeau signed the Paris accord. We simply cannot move away from fossil fuels while building more fossil-fuel infrastructure and approving more fossil-fuel projects.

Having a conversation about a transition away from oil, or a reduction in oil production, is a conversation that is very difficult for Canada. We produce a lot of it and we fall back on an old deeprooted identity as hewers of wood and drawers of oil.

The Kinder Morgan pipeline debate is more than one energy project with various sides; it represents a reckoning for our country. Can we have the difficult conversation, finally?

Can we start talking meaningfully about how Canada must plan for a just transition for workers and their families? Can we start talking meaningfully about how Canada must begin to phase out new oil and gas production, as we're doing with coal? The Trans Mountain pipeline is chipping away at the walls of denial.

That's why it's so intense. That's why it's so messy.

It's true that both the Trudeau and Notley governments have introduced stronger climate plans than we have ever seen in this country. But they've fallen very short of the change needed by refusing to address the expansion of the oil and gas industry. Canada does not yet have a credible plan to meet our climate targets, and the bizarre rhetoric that we need a new oil pipeline to save the climate only reinforces the depth of institutional denial over the truth of climate change. It's "clear-cutting helps forests" - 2018 style.

Vancouver and Burnaby are being asked to accept a sevenfold increase in risky tanker traffic and a dramatic expansion of tank farms next to schools and houses, when the conversation should be about an oil industry that already produces four million barrels a day, and how that's already big enough. The conversation should be about how we diversify our economy, how we lift up other industries, how we ensure our economic health in the climate era and support leaders in clean energy, clean tech and build the electrification systems and digital infrastructure of tomorrow.

Instead, the conversation doesn't touch these vital issues, and when political denial is so potent, when one highly profitable industry has so much political sway and power, despite the fallout for millions, these are the conditions under which people will protest and put themselves on the line.

We Canadians do like to get along with our neighbours, but at the same time we're not afraid to stand up when we know something is wrong and we're not easily fooled. Clayoquot exposed a rupture in our system, and many brave people sacrificed their freedom to help fix it. The mass arrests over Kinder Morgan likewise show that once again we face a serious imbalance - the focus on oil over all other interests.

There are moments in history when our governments fail us - when they are too influenced by the next election cycle or those that stand to benefit from the status quo. These are the moments when we are called to stand up.

The power of the people to speak out, to demand better - it is the most powerful tool we have, and we will continue to use it.

Associated Graphic

Protesters march near the Kinder Morgan facility in Burnaby, B.C., on March 10. Opposition to the company's proposed Trans Mountain pipeline expansion has prompted protests in B.C., across Canada and around the world.

ROGUE COLLECTIVE/GREENPEACE

Left: RCMP officers lead a woman away from a protest on logging roads at Clayoquot Sound on Aug. 9, 1993. Right: Dan Wallace of the Kwakwaka'wakw First Nation is led away by RCMP officers at an anti-Kinder Morgan protest in Burnaby on March 19.

PHOTOS BY THE CANADIAN PRESS

Patients have more power than they think
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When Kate Cole-Adams first began researching general anesthesia, she assumed it was sort of like an on/off switch. The reality, it turns out, is far more complex
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By KATE COLE-ADAMS
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O8


Kate Cole-Adams is a Melbourne, Australia-based journalist and novelist, and author of Anesthesia: The Gift of Oblivion and the Mystery of Consciousness

Some years ago, I arrived at hospital for an operation to fuse most of the vertebrae of my spine. I brought with me my mother, a collection of lucky charms and a rumbling disquiet at the prospect of going under a general anesthetic. I confided to a receptionist that, after more than a decade of research, I thought I might know too much; "Oh dear," she said. "That's not good."

My research had taken me from the blithe certainties of my old life into a netherworld of shifting, slippery questions. (Can we hear under anesthesia? Or learn? Or feel pain?) It was unsettling. Yet, it had also equipped me with some ideas I hoped would help me through: The strangest of these was the notion that, during surgery, I would be able to limit the amount of blood I lost under the knife.

When I first began researching the odd and fascinating process of general anesthesia, I assumed that it was a sort of switch - on/off - a hiatus during which we (the anesthetized) are entirely absent.

Certainly this was my recollection of my own previous brief encounters with the practice.

The reality, it turns out, is more complex and far more interesting. Under general anesthesia, our brains, while altered, are still active, with possible implications for the anesthetized patient. For many years now, small groups of doctors have been exploring the possibilities of using hypnosis before surgery to help patients during and afterward.

Hypnosis, like anesthesia, is an imprecise art, and not entirely understood. It conjures images of dangling fob watches and people behaving like chickens at the behest of stage hypnotists. Definitions differ but, in essence, it is a state of inner absorption and focus that can leave us receptive to suggestion (our own or other people's) and in which we can experience disturbances in sensory perception (how things feel, look, sound, smell or taste) and memory.

It has long been known that hypnosis can be weirdly effective in treating pain.

Before the official discovery of general anesthesia in Boston in 1846, it was often a patient's best hope. In the 1830s, French and British doctors documented several major operations using only hypnosis. In the 1840s, Scottish surgeon James Esdaile reported having performed 300 painless surgeries in India (including removal of 17 scrotal tumours) using only hypnosis. All that fell away after Oct. 16, 1846, when Boston dentist William Morton famously used his new inhaler to administer the gas ether as doctors operated to fix a tumour in the jaw of 20-year-old Edward Gilbert Abbott.

But in recent years - amid soaring health budgets and the human fallout of the opioid crisis - there has been a sharpening focus on the potential of non-pharmacologic approaches to pain control in and out of the operating theatre.

The findings suggest that, as patients, we may be more powerful than we think, even when unconscious.

In 2002, a team from New York's Mount Sinai school of medicine published an analysis of 20 studies and found that surgical patients who received hypnotic suggestions before surgery did better than 90 per cent of those in control groups on measures including pain, anxiety, depression, duration of surgery and of hospital stay.

Several years later, members of the same team staged a study that hinted we might also do better on (and off) the operating table if we see ourselves as playing an active role in our own surgeries.

They took 200 women going in for breast-cancer surgery and split them into two groups. Before going under anesthesia, each woman had a short meeting with a psychologist.

Those in the control group were told the sessions were a chance to chat or ask questions, but the women in the experimental group were hypnotized and given specific suggestions, including that they would feel reduced pain, nausea and fatigue when they woke.

The results were startling. The hypnotic group used less drugs, spent less time in surgery and reported less pain, nausea and distress afterward. The hypnotic intervention was estimated to have saved the hospital more than $770 a patient, mainly in reduced surgery time.

"If a drug were to do that, everyone would by now be using it," psychiatrist David Spiegel wrote in an editorial in the same edition of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, "So why don't they?" In a recent interview, Dr. Spiegel (who is Willson Professor and associate chair of psychiatry and behavioural sciences at Stanford University school of medicine) said he did not have an answer to that question.

"I wish I knew. I used to think if we just provided enough science people would come around. And we provided the science - and people haven't exactly come around."

Part of the problem, he said, only halfjoking, was the lack of a business model for hypnosis. "Maybe we should have stuck with dangling watches because at least the watchmakers might have been interested, but there's nothing to sell."

But the deeper problem was one of perception. As far back as 1963, the Canadian Medical Association's Special Committee on Hypnosis recommended that hypnosis be permitted in obstetrics and anesthesia "as an alternative technique when indicated."

But, Dr. Spiegel says, many patients and doctors simply don't have confidence in it.

"I think most doctors and most patients still have this fundamental prejudice that the only real treatments are the biological ones. And the only way to relieve pain is to numb people's brains in one way or another. We think of our bodies, including our brains, as a kind of machine that needs to be tinkered with or have parts replaced, rather than a really interesting finely tuned instrument that can manage itself in ways that we don't give it credit for."

In January this year, Dr. Spiegel was invited to the Swiss town of Davos to speak about the role of hypnosis in pain control, as part of the 2018 World Economic Forum.

Hypnosis may not seem to have much to do with economics. But pain does. Dr. Spiegel points to the costs, direct and indirect, of an overreliance on pharmaceutical solutions. Apart from the human toll of opioid addiction and drug-overdose deaths, he says, the finances simply don't stack up.

"By the middle of the century, there's going to be 9.7 billion people on the planet, and the way we're delivering health care just is not going to work. So we need to enlist people's brains to help them manage their bodies. We just aren't doing it."

In 1986, American psychologist Henry Bennett published a strange and seemingly improbable study. He took 92 patients facing major spinal surgery - typically a bloody affair - and assigned them to three groups.

One group, the control, was simply given some information about monitoring.

The other two each got additional relaxation exercises; and one, the experimental group, was also given a very specific instruction: "that 'the blood will move away' from the area of surgery beginning then and continuing though the operation, after which it would return to the area."

It was a small study, but the results were startling. People in the "blood-shunting" group lost on average 650 millilitres, a third less than those in the control group (who averaged a litre). Those in the relaxation group lost even more.

Dr. Bennett subsequently made a longer tape recording of his preoperative instructions, and in the lead-up to my own back operation in 2010, I contacted him and asked if I could listen to it. In my book, I talk about his looping, dreamy syntax and his suggestions about waking without undue pain or nausea, with my stomach relaxed; and, of course, the idea that under anesthesia I would somehow draw the blood in my body away from the 19-inch wound in my back. I was not entirely convinced. But I was strongly drawn to the idea of the patient - me - not just as a passive recipient, but an active participant in my own surgery, conscious or not.

So I listened.

In fact, Dr. Bennett argues all this is possible without relying on hypnotic techniques to deliver the instructions. He didn't use hypnosis in the original bloodshunting study.

Instead, and based on the teachings of the late psychologist Theodore Barber, he says he simply delivered "believable physiological instructions ... to an attentive subject in language he can understand."

Just words.

It turns out that part of the power of words is in shaping the expectations we carry around with us, often unexamined.

At Davos, in that same session, Stanford psychologist Alia Crum told the assembled leaders and policy makers that our minds - and mindsets - change our futures in ways both concrete and literal.

Words, images and expectations that are poured into us by our parents, culture and advertisers "have an uncanny authority to craft how we expect ourselves to be." She has done experiments that show the power of those expectations. Hotel cleaners who were simply told the work they were doing was good exercise lost weight, slimmed down and lowered their blood pressure with no change in their behaviour.

So might those expectations also affect us as we go into surgery? The third member of the party was Beth Darnall, clinical professor in the department of anesthesiology and pain medicine at Stanford.

"Your thoughts, your beliefs, your expectations - your mindset - impacts your health, how quickly you heal and how well your medications work, including powerful opioid painkillers," she said.

And when we expect the worst - or "catastrophize" - that is what we tend to get. "A negative pain mindset is more predictive of postsurgical outcomes than the disease, the surgery or the surgeon." This has implications for long-term chronic pain, estimated, she said, to cost the U.S. economy US$635-billion each year. Pain, whether in your head or hand, is processed through the brain and spinal cord and is closely linked to individual expectations and psychology.

Dr. Darnall has developed an online presurgical pain psychology treatment that she hopes will soon be freely available to help patients reprogram their mindsets and in doing so change the ways their brains process pain after their operations.

Dr. Spiegel says such instructions may also influence patients during their surgeries.

"There are people who are still processing information during general anesthesia and we don't know to what extent, but the brain is sufficiently complex that we are not consciously aware of even a small fraction of all the things our brains are doing. There's no reason to think that your set of expectations has no effect on how the brain processes what's happening."

So what of my own far-from-scientific attempts to enlist my own brain to help manage my body during surgery? The operation was long, but neither longer nor shorter than expected. I didn't feel nauseous when I awoke; I felt very, very high.

Was I pain-free? Nooo! Not then and not for a long time after. But there was one measure on which I came through remarkably well. When I asked my surgeon some time afterward how much blood I had lost on the operating table, he cast me what might have been a speculative glance. "Not much. Surprisingly little.

About 400 millilitres." Less even than the experimental group in Dr. Bennett's 1986 experiment.

Of course it proves nothing. Would I do it again if I ever have to face more major surgery? Absolutely.

Associated Graphic

ISTOCK

ESTEEMED MANITOBA MLA REMAINED FAITHFUL TO HIS ROOTS
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As a minister in the province's first NDP governments, he was key to implementing progressive initiatives, including medicare and a policy to support multiculturalism
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By A.J. LEVIN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B24


Long before Saul Cherniack became an influential Manitoba MLA, he was working for a family friend one summer when he learned that he was being paid more than his co-workers. He was shocked. So, according to his granddaughter Katherine Cherniack, he went to his employer to demand that either his salary be lowered, or theirs raised.

The ethical standards that guided him that day and throughout his life inspired those who knew him to say he was incorruptible.

Born to secular Jewish immigrants from what is now central Ukraine, Mr. Cherniack was raised in a socialist intellectual environment with high expectations. During his long career in politics, Mr. Cherniack, who died last month at the age of 101, remained faithful to his roots.

The younger of two children of Joseph Alter Cherniack, a watchmaker who worked his way through law school, and seamstress Fanya Cherniack (née Golden), Saul Mordecai (Mark) Cherniack was born in Winnipeg on Jan. 10, 1917.

His parents had fled the Russian Empire after both were jailed for socialist activities in the wake of the 1905 Revolution. Fanya used her weeks in the cells to teach the nonpolitical female prisoners, such as sex workers and thieves, to read and write.

In the Cherniack household, literacy and ideas were paramount. A parade of secular Jewish thinkers, writers and activists passed through the house, among them Chaim Zhitlowsky, who translated Nietzsche into Yiddish.

His older sister, Dr. Mindel Cherniack Sheps (1913-1973), set a high bar for Saul. A physician and pioneer in biostatistics, epidemiology and demographics, she worked for Saskatchewan's Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) government, and served as a Winnipeg school trustee before working for Planned Parenthood.

Saul attended Winnipeg's Jewish, socialist I.L. Peretz Folk School, which his father had helped found, before going to Machray School and St. John's High. He then took law at the University of Manitoba, as his father had. At university, he met Sybil Claire Zeal. The pair, who were both active in a leftist Yiddish-language theatre group, married and were, according to their son Lawrie, a lawyer and former city councillor, "hopelessly in love" until her death in 1997.

After passing the bar, Saul went to work with his father, but left the practice in 1943 to join the Army. He was assigned initially to an artillery unit then to the Intelligence Corps. Officer training was, according to Lawrie, "possibly the only time Saul got any real exercise in his life."

Saul was sent to study Japanese in British Columbia, where his classmates included future writer and federal politician Judy LaMarsh. He then worked in Ottawa translating signal intercepts, and started his family of two sons, Howard (born in 1943) and Lawrence (born in 1945). In 1946, Saul left the military with the rank of captain.

As a father, Mr. Cherniack was loving but intellectually demanding, as his own father had been, treating his children as little adults with real minds. When Lawrie was 8, Mr. Cherniack cautioned him always to "judge your actions by their consequences."

Mr. Cherniack thereafter devoted himself to the twin pursuits of politics and social good. He joined Manitoba's Independent Labour Party (ILP) and was active in the Canadian Jewish Congress, which his father had helped start. As the ILP declined, he affiliated with the CCF and remained with it and its heir, the NDP.

As a lawyer, Mr. Cherniack fought for just compensation for Japanese-Canadians who were evicted from their land during the war.

Mr. Cherniack's support for the downtrodden was tied to the socialist values with which he had been raised. Longtime Saskatchewan CCF/NDP member Meyer Brownstone suggests that it may also have been linked to the subtle antiSemitism in Manitoba of the time.

Mr. Cherniack resumed practising law with his father, mostly working in real estate and tax law. While he was happy to be with family, the nature of the work - often, helping clients avoid paying taxes by legal means - was not in tune with his principles.

He was not usually involved in litigation, but one of the few times he did appear in court, he made an impression on the opposing counsel Roy Gallagher, who later told Lawrie that Mr. Cherniack was "one of the best cross-examiners he had faced."

Mr. Cherniack started his political career as a trustee with the Winnipeg School Board, then served as an alderman for the Winnipeg City Council and councillor for Greater Winnipeg before first becoming the member for the North Winnipeg constituency of St. John's in Manitoba's legislature in 1962. He would go on to hold that seat until 1981, when he did not seek re-election.

In opposition, he was respected by most Conservative MLAs, largely because when he debated, he did it logically, without malice and with a twinkle in his eye. "He neither treated people with awe nor condescended to them," Lawrie says. He maintained cordial relations with PC premier Duff Roblin, and with Winnipeg's independent populist mayor Stephen Juba.

His wry humour won him unlikely friends. He did not, however, suffer fools gladly, says Ed Schreyer, Manitoba's NDP premier from 1969 to 1977 and governor-general from 1979 to 1984.

"He was cool-headed and motivated by the nobler instincts, but did not shy away from debate with those who displayed the meaner instincts."

It was as minister of finance and urban affairs, as well as deputy premier, in Manitoba's first NDP governments that he would leave his greatest legacy. Mr. Cherniack was key to the implementation of a number of progressive initiatives in the province, including medicare; the creation of a public car insurance Crown corporation; the decision not to use nuclear power; and honouring Métis leader Louis Riel as a founder of Manitoba, rather than viewing him as a traitor, which had been the previous government line.

Many of Mr. Cherniack's accomplishments were less visible, such as useful changes to family law. Mr. Schreyer also credits him for the introduction of a provincially funded home-care program, the first in Canada; and the policy statement that multiculturalism was officially desirable, introduced in Manitoba before former prime minister Pierre Trudeau did so federally.

"The 1970s were a time of rapid formulation and adoption of policies and programs," Mr. Schreyer says, and Mr. Cherniack was fundamental to many of them. "Saul was immensely competent, probably the most competent minister in the Schreyer government and one of the best I ever met," Mr. Brownstone says.

The most mixed of his legacies was overseeing the amalgamation of what was then a patchwork of Winnipeg-area cities, towns and rural municipalities into one entity, Unicity. This unification had been a major part of the NDP's 1969 election platform. While in hindsight it seems inevitable that Winnipeg could not continue as a two-tier patchwork of 12 squabbling municipal governments, the logistics of combining property tax systems, police and firefighting agencies, and so on were daunting, Mr. Schreyer says.

In his capacity as minister of urban affairs, Mr. Cherniack visited countless town halls and forums, listening patiently to the citizens' many complaints.

Ultimately, Mr. Cherniack ensured that Unicity would be fair. His sense of equity, patience and reasonableness stood the NDP in good stead: The party went from having a minority government in 1969 to gaining a majority in the 1973 general election, shortly after Unicity had been implemented.

Unicity had, however, originally been conceived as something much more ambitious than mere unification. It was to have given neighbourhoods some control over budget spending and zoning, for example, and a say in how essential services would be handled.

While Mr. Cherniack had pushed to make Unicity as close to its original vision as possible, he eventually had to relent under pressure from various sources.

That an autonomous, innovative Unicity did not materialize as planned was regarded as something of a failure, not just by NDPers such as Mr. Cherniack and Mr. Brownstone, but also by the likes of former Liberal Manitoba MLA Lloyd Axworthy, who went on to become federal foreign affairs minister.

Despite winning his seat by a comfortable margin every election, he was not a traditional politician. He did not go door-to-door, back-slap or make effusive promises, Mr. Schreyer says. He surrounded himself with no-people rather than yes-people, and took the time to introduce himself to every branch and office in the finance ministry: a rarity among elected officials.

After leaving provincial politics in 1981, he became chair of Manitoba Hydro. In that capacity, his knowledge of Japanese language and culture was useful, and he acted as the "respectable face of a socialist government to Japanese bond buyers," says Lawrie, helping to sell the provincial Crown utility's bonds at high interest rates.

Mr. Cherniack was a founding member of the Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC), which provides civilian oversight of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS). Though specifics of his work at SIRC remain secret, there can be little doubt that Mr. Cherniack continued to be his thorough self, combing over cases to assess possible overreaches of authority by the federal spy agency.

While immensely loyal, Mr. Cherniack also had the highest of ethical standards. When long-time colleague Mr. Brownstone asked if Mr. Cherniack could look into a case in which an activist was being interviewed repeatedly by CSIS, Mr. Cherniack admonished him: "You know I can't talk about my work!"

Mr. Cherniack was "incorruptible," says his son Lawrie, a word Mr. Brownstone also uses. "When he first took office as minister of finance, a representative of a professional organization phoned him to tell him the party would get a donation of 10 per cent of the value of their contracts. My father went straight to Premier Schreyer, and it stopped."

After Mr. Cherniack's wife, Sybil, suffered an incapacitating stroke in the 1990s, the family was not sure what he would do. "She had always taken care of him," Lawrie says.

"People took care of him so he could do the things he was doing." After her stroke, though, Saul was happy to reverse roles, and after her death, Saul tearfully told Lawrie, "I never loved your mother more."

Some years after Sybil's death, Mr. Cherniack moved in with his long-time acquaintance, and then partner, Myra Wolch.

Late in life, as his old friends passed away, he acquired new ones. He volunteered teaching English as a second language with the Winnipeg School Division.

He remained open to new experiences throughout his life, his son Howard says. In his 80s, he learned to use computers, and filed his taxes himself online until he was 99.

Mr. Cherniack, who died of organ failure in Winnipeg on March 30, leaves his partner, Ms. Wolch; his sons, Howard and Lawrie; two grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren.

To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

In this 1974 photo, then-finance minister of Manitoba Saul Cherniack, left, greets then-federal finance minister John Turner at the start of the federal-provincial finance ministers' meeting in Ottawa.

THE CANADIAN PRESS

Historical home hits a market that seeks land
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The current owners of Kew House hope they can find a buyer who will respect its heritage and craftsmanship
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, April 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H4


VANCOUVER -- red Taylor never got the credF it he deserves for the role he played in the development of West Vancouver and the Lions Gate Bridge.

Victoria-born Alfred James Towle Taylor, president of British Pacific Properties, spent years obsessively pushing for the construction of the bridge and even took his campaign all the way to the prime minister's office. Until the bridge opened in 1938, West Vancouver was remote cottage country across the First Narrows, accessed only by boat. Mr. Taylor, an enterprising engineer, knew the bridge was essential in opening up the area's development potential, and he used his extensive overseas connections to acquire funding from Britain's Guinness family to get it done.

A few years before the bridge, his company purchased the newly built and now iconic Marine Building for less than $1-million.

The Depression had begun, the Art Deco building had gone over budget and its owners had filed for bankruptcy. Mr. Taylor saw it as "the ideal flagship for the British Pacific ventures in Vancouver, with the First Narrows and the North Shore mountain slopes highly visible from its harbourside windows," heritage consultant Don Luxton wrote in the book he co-authored, Lions Gate.

Mr. Taylor's street namesake, Taylor Way, is a major thoroughfare in West Vancouver. The only other reminder of the prominent role he played there is his house, which is going on the market now that the owner of 30 years has decided it's time to move on.

You have to cruise down a long curving driveway at 5324 Marine Dr. before the handsome house comes into view - a Mediterranean villa style home designed by Scottish architect William Bow, that overlooks a terraced garden and endless ocean. Framing the house's entrance are a pair of lion sculptures, early mock-ups of the famous lions that now stand at the gateway to the Lions Gate Bridge. These smaller versions were a gift to Mr. Taylor from the lions' sculptor, Charles Malega.

Kew House, built in 1937, has a panoramic view of Howe Sound, situated across from Passage Island. And although it no longer stands on the 26 or so acres it once did, it is surrounded by rock and trees, and feels intensely private. The property has been subdivided down to 1.6 acres, but the heritage aspect of the house itself has largely remained intact.

It has had a few influential owners throughout the years, including a member of the Weston family, philanthropist and theatre supporter Kay Meek, and developer Ken Bream, an executive with Cadillac Fairview who oversaw Toronto's Eaton Centre and Vancouver's Canada Place and Pacific Centre.

Mr. Bream moved with wife, Leslie, from Toronto in the early 1980s, and they purchased the Kew House in 1987, for $1.050-million. When he died in 1998, Leslie decided to stay on in the house.

She embarked on a three-year restoration and upgrade on the house, which is how she met Bela Krohman, a residential builder who worked with her on the $2.3million renovation (that amount includes the furnishings and art work).

They got married in the house and Mr. Krohman's children lived there as teenagers. Now, as with a lot of boomers who've lived in a house for decades, they want to move on.

"We are 65 years old and decisions have to be made," Mr. Krohman says . "Could we live here for the rest of our lives? Very happily.

The idea of leaving the peace, the privacy, the view, the history, is a difficult thing to do, but if that move isn't made now, the next move is likely to have somebody looking after you."

Adds Ms. Krohman: "I don't want to be here when I'm 70 or 75.

Because we are still physically active enough and psychologically willing to embrace change, so, [let's see] wherever that takes us.

"We don't know where we are going to go, if it does sell," she adds. "We have no idea."

As they go around the house pointing out every detail, it's clear the house has been a major undertaking for the couple. They tore out the few bad renovations that had been done and enhanced the house's original design. Luckily, most of the woodwork was intact, including the hand-adzed Sitka spruce ceiling beams that came from Haida Gwaii, arched doorways and teak windows. They added more arched doorways, restored any missing herringbone oak flooring, imported marble, onyx and limestone and added a huge teak picture window in the living room. They commissioned artists to hand-paint and apply gold leaf to the ceilings, restored the builtin cabinets to a higher standard, added silk to the dining room walls, replaced several of the coal-burning fireplaces with energy efficient ones, had giant, ornate mirrors carved and custom furniture made for each room.

Any original details, such as the single-paned windows, slate terrace and white oak and cedar banister, were preserved. There isn't a trace of cheap mediumdensity fibreboard - prevalent in the expensive new houses - anywhere in the 5,200-square-foot space.

"We tried to keep it a human scale and very intimate, so as two people we can sit here and feel very comfortable in this big space," Ms. Krohman says .

The house would have been considered state of the art in 1937, with air conditioning, loudspeakers for music and towel warmers in the bathrooms. The dumbwaiter, used to lift meals from the kitchen to the upstairs breakfast room back in Mr. Taylor's day, was removed. The breakfast room became a study. There is a small, teak-panelled elevator if the grand staircase is too much.

In the TV room is a pretty, small stained-glass window of a flute player that they believe was installed by the Weston family.

"You are inheriting more than a house," Mr. Krohman says. "I feel you get to be part of something bigger than the four walls, and the more you live in it, the more you appreciate that you are a caretaker of a place in time, and someone else was a caretaker before you."

They haven't yet listed the house on the Multiple Listing Service, but they've hired a realtor.

The price isn't confirmed, but they're thinking in the $15-million range. It's a tricky market to gauge. Their neighbour on the less desirable side of the street - the non-water side - recently built a 38,000-sq.-ft. house that looks like a concrete-cast Italian villa with a cruise ship inspired interior. That house is listed for $20,880,000, according to the online listings.

Sales in the detached house market, especially in the highend neighbourhoods, have gone soft in the past year. The couple had tried listing in 2012, for $8million, but the market had gone soft then, as well. When it started to climb, they decided to hang onto it, according to the realtor's publicist.

The current slowdown is likely due to several factors, including the new foreign buyer tax, which has increased to 20 per cent, and an increased effort by Beijing to limit foreign exchange purchases, instituted last year. West Vancouver has the second highest percentage of single-detached houses owned by foreign nationals in the Vancouver region, according to analysis of Statistics Canada data by Andy Yan.

In March there were 150 detached houses listed in West Vancouver for more than $5-million.

Of those, only three sold. The market for detached houses is a buyer's market, with six in 100 homes selling, according to SnapStats. The number of sales for detached houses is less than half what it was the same time last year.

And the current market for high-priced homes isn't looking for a house steeped in history.

Finding the right buyer will be a challenge.

"This is a difficult house to sell," Mr. Krohman says .

"Because not everybody loves the heritage aspect," Ms. Krohman says. "They don't want this kind of house. They want to blow it away and build a big 15,000-sq.ft. house.

"The first people to come along on any listing, in any offering, are people are looking to get something out of the place. In this case, in West Vancouver, it's the land. I see this everywhere, the lots for the old houses come up, and people go, 'What can we make of it? We can put two homes on the lot, at a cost of $9-million to produce, plus the [lot] to buy.' In a period of a year and a half, people can net out $5-million, $6million, $7-million. So they are not looking for a home. They are looking for an opportunity."

The house is not legally protected, and it's not on the heritage register, because Ms. Krohman worried that a designation would limit what she could do with the house. However, it could be saved if the lot is subdivided and the district considers the house a "primary resource," which means there are options.

District of West Vancouver planning staff have contacted the Krohmans' agent and discussed potential development incentives in exchange for retention and protection of the house, according to a district spokesperson. The Rush House on 12th Street, built in 1923, was saved as part of a Heritage Revitalization Agreement that saw it relocated on the lot so that infill cottages could be added. A similar plan would be the ideal outcome for Kew House, in a market that wants to maximize its profit margins.

The Krohmans hope they find a buyer who appreciates the craftsmanship and the history, who won't toss the lion sculptures and beams from Haida Gwaii into the landfill.

They know too that a young family very likely won't be able to afford the house. Mr. Krohman's own kids have had to move away for work, to Fort McMurray, Alta., and Australia.

Ms. Krohman understands her good fortune in living for so long in Kew House, which belonged to a time, not just culturally, but generationally.

"We try to reflect back on when we were younger and what could we have afforded," she says. "I grew up in Toronto. It was never an issue as to whether we could find a place to rent or if I could even afford a place to rent, because it was always there. In terms of buying a house, I can't even think back to what the values of the homes would have been when I was 25 or 30."

Associated Graphic

Kew House on 5324 Marine Dr. in West Vancouver was built in 1937 with a wonderful view of Howe Sound. The 5,200-square-foot house has been renovated over the years, but its heritage look has been preserved.

Turning a new page
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What's next on your reading list? We can help. From the freshest fiction to Paul Simon, Becky Toyne picks 17 of her favourites from this season's book haul
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By BECKY TOYNE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P18


Is your bedside to-be-read pile rapidly morphing into an eye-high room divider? Yeah, mine too. And I've got bad news for you: There are a few more books you'll be wanting to add to it soon. Big names like Sheila Heti (Motherhood), Michael Ondaatje (Warlight), David Chariandy (I've Been Meaning to Tell You) and Rachel Kushner (The Mars Room) all have excellent new works slated for release in May. As spring prepares to, er, spring, I have one or seventeen other suggestions for your consideration, too.

FOR A HUSTLER, A CULTISH ISLAND COMMUNITY, AND A NARRATOR WITH NO NAME

A tale of young love, young dreams and identity, The Parking Lot Attendant (March, Henry Holt & Co.), a debut novel by Nafkote Tamirat, is the coming-of-age story of an unnamed teenage girl in Boston's Ethiopian community. The story begins on a nameless island where the narrator and her father are the two newest inhabitants, before rewinding to the narrator's life in Boston and her relationship with Ayale, a parking lot attendant and born hustler.

FOR A DEVASTATING STORY OF ANGUISH AND LOVE, AND OF A WOMAN FINDING HER POWER TO SPEAK

In her debut memoir Heart Berries (March, Doubleday Canada), Terese Marie Mailhot tells a story of family dysfunction and abuse, and of a personal reckoning with mental illness.

Tough subject matter, yes, but she approaches it with a disarming and often devastating turn of phrase and the evocation of the fragmentary nature of memory. This is a powerful story about intergenerational trauma and personal shame, but also about love, forgiveness and the power of words to offer hope.

FOR MUST-READ FICTION WITH ITS FINGER ON THE POLITICAL PULSE

Meg Wolitzer is beloved by legions of readers around the world for her strong female characters, her sharply observed depiction of family relationships and her prescient ability to keep publishing novels that are heralded as "of the moment," whatever the moment in which they happen to be published. To her required-reading backlist including The Interestings and The Ten Year Nap, Wolitzer now adds The Female Persuasion (April, Riverhead Books), a #MeToo-moment novel about power, ambition, friendship and the ideals we carry with us into adulthood.

FOR A KAFKA-ESQUE NOVEL BASED ON A TRUE STORY OF MADNESS

Published in Britain by Galley Beggar Press - an indie house that garnered an avalanche of attention after Eimear McBride's A Girl Is a Half-formed Thing became a multiaward-winning sensation - Brit Alex Pheby's second novel, Playthings (April, Biblioasis), has been extremely warmly received both in Britain and in the United States. A Kafka-esque tale that blurs the lines between madness and sanity, it is a fictional telling of one of the most famous psychotherapy cases in history: Daniel Paul Schreber's psychosis.

FOR A MULTICULTURAL, MULTIGENERATIONAL STORY OF RECONCILING TRADITIONAL FAMILY WITH NEW

French-Iranian author Negar Djavadi's debut novel Disoriental (April, Europa Editions) has already won a whole slew of awards in France, where it was also a bestseller. Available now in an English translation by Tina Kover, it's the autobiographical-ish story of a young woman who, along with her family, fled Iran at the age of 10 for a new life in France. Now in her 20s and contemplating the prospect of the next generation as she sits in the waiting room of a Paris fertility clinic, the narrator thinks back on her family history and culture in a kaleidoscope story worthy of Scheherazade.

FOR A WRITER WHO'S DEFINING WHAT QUEER INDIGENOUS WRITING CAN BE

Following his 2017 poetry debut, fullmetal indigiqueer, Oji-Cree writer Joshua Whitehead is preparing to launch his debut novel Jonny Appleseed (April, Arsenal Pulp Press) this spring.

Whitehead is breaking out as a major new voice, and Jonny Appleseed - a story about a two-spirit Indigiqueer young man and "proud NDN glitter princess" - promises to appeal to readers of Raziel Reid's When Everything Feels Like the Movies or Cherie Dimaline's The Marrow Thieves (both Governor General's Literary Awardwinners).

FOR POETIC PROSE AND A STORY OF PERSONAL REINVENTION

Kim Thúy's novels are as compact as her tiny titles might suggest - Ru and Man clocked in at 160 pages each - but their poetic contents punch well above their weight in terms of story and emotional heft. With Vi (April, Random House Canada), translated from French by Sheila Fischman, Canada Reads and Governor General's Literary Award-winner Thúy once again explores the lives, loves and struggles of Vietnamese refugees as they reinvent themselves in new lands after the war.

FOR A SEARING PERSONAL ACCOUNT OF THE DEVASTATIONS AND NEW BEGINNINGS WROUGHT BY FLEEING ONE'S COUNTRY

One of the biggest buzz non-fiction books coming down the pipe this season is In Praise of Blood by investigative journalist Judi Rever: a groundbreaking work that significantly changes what we know about the Rwandan genocide. For a more personal account, there's also The Girl Who Smiled Beads: A Story of War and What Comes After by Clemantine Wamariya and Elizabeth Weil (April, Doubleday Canada). Praised by the likes of Junot Diaz, who calls Wamariya "as fiercely talented as she is courageous," this memoir - Wamariya's personal account of fleeing the Rwandan massacre at the age of six with her older sister - promises to be a painful but beautiful book about the life that war takes away and the new life created in its wake.

FOR A FATHER'S DESPERATE SEARCH FOR HIS ISIS-INDOCTRINATED DAUGHTERS

Norwegian journalist Asne Seierstad first came to international notice in the early 2000s with her wonderful and internationally bestselling The Bookseller of Kabul. A dense and harrowing account of Anders Breivik's massacre of 69 young people at a camp in Norway, One of Us, followed in 2015.

Now, she turns her focus to the Islamic State and Syrian civil war with Two Sisters: A Father, His Daughters, and their Journey into the Syrian Jihad (April, Farrar, Straus and Giroux), which follows the story of two sisters - Norwegianraised Somali women - who leave their family to join IS and their father who attempts to find them.

FOR AN EPIC HISTORICAL NOVEL INFORMED BY AN AUTHOR'S EXPERIENCES OF WAR

Iraq war veteran Kevin Powers published his debut novel, The Yellow Birds, in 2012 and it was heart-stopping. I wept my way through its emotionally fraught 160 pages on a transatlantic flight, drawing concerned glances from my seat-neighbour. Powers's sophomore novel, A Shout in the Ruins (May, Little, Brown & Co.), once again marries the author's intimate personal experiences of the violence of war with his flair for a damn fine sentence, this time in a century-spanning historical novel that begins in antebellum Virginia and traces the American Civil War's lasting effects until the 1980s.

FOR AN UNRELIABLE NARRATOR TO KEEP YOU GUESSING AS YOU FLY THROUGH THE PAGES

In her award-winning debut, Elizabeth Is Missing, Emma Healey delighted readers with a page-turner in the Memento vein starring Maud, an elderly woman with dementia. Similarly thriller-like in its execution, Whistle in the Dark (May, Knopf Canada) serves up a psychologically complex story, though this time with a young heroine who appears to be lying when she says she can't remember.

FOR A BIBLIOPHILIC ACCOMPANIMENT TO PAUL SIMON'S FAREWELL TOUR

Reading books about hugely famous people functions, for me, as a kind of amuse-bouche to whatever else is going on in the world: real life, but on a parallel, famousperson planet where normal rules and consequences don't apply. Cue Paul Simon: The Life (May, Simon & Schuster) for my spring reading pile. Published to coincide with the beginning of Paul Simon's farewell tour, this tome from acclaimed biographer and music critic Robert Hilburn is billed as an intimate portrait of the deeply private Simon and his work. Prepare to hum a Paul Simon soundtrack as you read.

FOR ESSENTIAL FOOD FOR THOUGHT ON WHAT IT MEANS TO BE MALE TODAY

Readers of Rachel Giese's journalism may already be familiar with some of her research into masculinity today. In Boys: What it Means to Become a Man (May, Patrick Crean Editions), Giese questions our narrow definitions of masculinity and explores how traditional notions such as "boys don't cry" and "man up" could soon make way for a revolution in how we raise young men. Are young men and boys subjected to damaging messages about manliness? This one is set to become required reading, especially for people (like me) raising little boys.

FOR A BIG-BUZZ DEBUT NOVEL AND A POWERFUL STORY OF THE NATIVE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE

Along with fellow 2018 buzz author Terese Marie Mailhot (above), Tommy Orange is a recent grad of the MFA program at the Institute of American Indian Arts in New Mexico, and his debut novel has been gathering advance praise aplenty. Blurbed by Canadian novelists from Margaret Atwood to Omar El Akkad (author of one of my absolute favourite novels of 2017), There There (June, McClelland & Stewart) tells the intersecting stories of attendees of the Big Oakland Powwow in a multigenerational tale about the contemporary urban Native American experience.

FOR CANONICAL PERSPECTIVES ON TRUTH IN AN AGE OF FAKE NEWS

More than 70 years after it was first published, George Orwell's 1984 remains a fairly robust seller.

But in early 2017 a White House aide's casual reference to the use of "alternative facts" saw it instantly catapulted to the top of the bestseller lists. So, as discussions of truth and fake news play out on our nightly newscasts, it's good timing for Orwell on Truth (June, Harvill Secker), a collection of Orwell's writing taken both from his novels and his nonfiction, gathering his thoughts - good and two legs bad - on the subject of truth.

FOR A BEAUTIFUL PILLOW BOOK AND MODERN-DAY "A ROOM OF ONE'S OWN"

And finally, speaking of Orwell - Things I Don't Want to Know by Deborah Levy (July, Hamish Hamilton) is a fabulous little memoir (part one of a trilogy, actually) that was written as a response to Orwell's Why I Write. I read this when it was first released in Britain as a gorgeous little hardcover by indie publisher Notting Hill Editions. This July, it finally makes its way to Canada. Lucky you! Levy is a respected playwright, and two of her novels - the brilliant Swimming Home and Hot Milk - have been shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize. In this "living autobiography," Levy offers reflections on the writing life and womanhood. It is a small and beautiful book, worth every bit of its real estate in your to-be-read room divider.

Becky Toyne is the "Should I Read It?" columnist for Day 6 on CBC Radio One.

Canadian weightlifter finally gets her gold
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Christine Girard was cheated out of Olympic medals twice, by rivals on steroids. The IOC on Thursday finally made it right. David Ebner reports on the Quebecker's long grind to the medals she should have won years ago
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By DAVID EBNER
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S12


VANCOUVER -- Christine Girard woke up calm.

It was a Tuesday morning, the last day of July, at the start of the 2012 Olympics in London.

Girard, a weightlifter, was a medal contender in the women's 63kilogram event. The podium promised redemption for the 27year-old Canadian, after a fourthplace finish four years earlier at the Beijing Olympics.

A week before London, however, Girard had hurt her right shoulder training in France. She couldn't raise her arm and days of intense physiotherapy followed.

On waking in London, there was no stress. It was a cool day. Girard did some mental prep and watched a bit of television. She didn't know if her shoulder would buckle but she felt ready.

On the competition platform midafternoon, her face steeled, Girard shouted "Let's go!" to herself. The first lift was the snatch, in which the weightlifter hoists the bar from the ground over her head in one deceptively complex motion. Girard started with 103 kilos, one more than her best in Beijing.

She got the bar over her head.

Her body was shaking under the weight.

Her hurting shoulder held up.

Girard missed her next two snatches. The clean and jerk followed, in which a weightlifter first pulls the bar to her shoulders before pushing it above her head. It's the king of lifts, where competitions are won or lost. Girard nailed her first two clean and jerks. Her total was 236 kilos - more than 500 pounds.

Girard's husband, Walter Bailey, a former weightlifter who joined Girard in London as a second coach, knew she had enough to win bronze. But when Girard failed on her last lift, she was, for a moment, riven by pain. She thought she had finished fourth, again. Stepping off stage, she saw Bailey smiling. He flashed three fingers: Third, an Olympic medal, bronze.

On the medal podium, Girard watched the Canadian flag rise and gazed out at her parents in the crowd. Afterward, Girard was ebullient. "It feels so good. I'm so happy," she told an interviewer.

"It was the best moment of my life." Asked if anything else compared, Girard laughed. "Well, I guess I should say my wedding!"

That evening, after celebrating with her family, Girard stared at her bronze medal before bed.

"This is mine," she thought. "I really am an Olympic medalist."

Four years later, the moment became irrevocably tarnished.

THE DIRTIEST SPORT

Signs of cheating in weightlifting were always there. Girard could see masculine attributes in some of her competitors, enlarged Adam's apples or facial hair. She would notice catheters discarded in garbage cans backstage at lesser events.

"It was part of our reality," Girard says in an interview at her home in the Vancouver suburbs.

"I made peace with that years ago.

Life isn't fair."

Advancements in anti-doping technology have exposed weightlifting as the dirtiest sport at the Olympics. Before the 2008 Beijing Games, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) said it would undertake long-term storage of urine samples from athletes. It was meant as a deterrence, in the hope that detection technology would improve. In the past, steroid use was difficult to uncover.

Drug tests could be beat. New methods now let investigators see indications of drug use from months before a urine sample is collected.

In 2016, the reanalysis of samples from the 2008 and 2012 Summer Olympics began to emerge. The new testing revealed what the IOC called an "unfortunately spectacular and unprecedented high number of positive cases." In total, there were 111 positive samples discovered from cheaters, with 49 in weightlifting, followed by 46 in track and field.

Of the positive tests, more than half - 61 - were medalists.

And nearly half of those - 30 - were weightlifters.

Back at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, years before the rampant use of anabolic steroids in her sport was uncovered, Girard was 23 - and she had a shot at a medal.

The university gymnasium where weightlifting was staged was full and the crowd was enthusiastic.

Girard started well and was in contention after the snatch portion of the event but faltered during the clean and jerk. On her final lift, she had 130 kg above her head but couldn't hold it. The bar and plates slammed to the floor.

Girard finished fourth.

That night, she couldn't sleep.

Her mind churned over her mistakes. "Why? Why?" she thought.

"What went wrong?" After Beijing, Girard felt burned out. She finished university and moved from home in Quebec to the Vancouver area, where her then-boyfriend, Bailey, had grown up and secured a job as an RCMP officer.

Girard didn't speak much English. It was lonely. Most of the time, working on threadbare funding and without much coaching, she trained alone in the unheated carport of the house she and Bailey rented from his parents. The core of the training was twice-a-day sessions, three days a week. She wanted her dog around for company, but the dog didn't like the crash of the weights hitting the ground. The pounding left cracks in the cement.

The grind produced results. In 2010, Girard won gold at the Commonwealth Games. In 2011, she won gold at the Pan American Games, where she set a Pan Am record in her weight class. She lifted 238 kilos, 10 kg more than in Beijing. It was nine months before London. Girard was poised for redemption.

'WE SHOULD HAVE ALL BEEN ABLE TO CELEBRATE'

In the span of 10 weeks, in the summer of 2016, Girard's fourth in Beijing and bronze in London began to transform into bronze and gold.

The first news came when Girard and her husband were at a doctor's office with their infant daughter for a checkup. Bailey saw the news on his phone. Maiya Maneza, a Kazakh who won gold ahead of Girard in London, was on a list of "adverse analytical findings," the first indication Girard's bronze was getting an upgrade, to silver. The couple laughed about the new medal they had to celebrate. The doctor asked if she had missed a joke.

"No," Girard exclaimed, "you missed a silver medal at the Olympics!"

When Girard found out she was in line for gold - after Russian Svetlana Tsarukaeva, the 2012 silver medalist, was caught - her feelings grew more complex. Girard was coaching at the home gym the couple had built in their backyard. Part of Bailey's daily routine was to check for new cheats and he texted Girard the news: "Congrats." Girard wasn't struck by any grand feeling of victory. She couldn't help think about what could have been, what should have been: her moment on top of the podium to savour gold.

It happened again, a month later, when Girard was home with family in Quebec. She found out the silver medalist in Beijing, Kazakh Irina Nekrassova, was set to be disqualified. Amid congratulations, the news shook Girard, the sudden reality that she should not have been subjected to the pain of her fourth-place finish in Beijing and the struggles thereafter.

Now - almost another two years later - the IOC on Thursday this week officially confirmed Girard will be awarded gold for 2012.

A medal ceremony, for both the London gold and the Beijing bronze, will be staged for Girard, likely by the end of this summer. It is one long decade after Beijing and six years after London.

There can never be a true restitution. The lift of bronze in Beijing was lost. It would have been Canada's first medal of those Olympics.

The glory of gold in London, Canada's first gold there - the personal achievement, the potential profit - never happened.

"What if I had my gold medal in London?" Girard says. "If it was our anthem playing when I was watching my parents on the other side of the flag rising? It would have been so much more. Maybe I would have been on cereal boxes.

It could have been much bigger.

For my sport, too. How many little girls would have wanted to do weightlifting? It's a sport that's empowering. For most people, it's a man's sport."

Her hope now, after all this time, is that this gold medal - Canada's first ever in weightlifting - garners at least some attention, that it can stand as a victory for clean sport. That it inspires Canadians. And that it draws girls to the sport.

Still, the emotions of what should have been are hard to shake off.

"It sucks," she says. "And a lot of people will say, 'Too bad you missed your moment.' It's not just me that missed out. It's the whole country that missed that moment, the gold. We should have all been able to celebrate."

One salve is her family, her three young children. Another is forgiveness. Girard doesn't harbour anger toward the three women who were caught cheating, the women she could blame.

"I feel sad for them," Girard says. "As weird as it sounds. They probably had no choice. It's their countries. It's not those girls."

Another outlet has been putting words on paper. Girard's memoir, From Defeat to Victory, was published in French in March and will be translated to English.

"The truth is that the flag of my country should have been higher than the others," Girard writes of London. "It is our national anthem that should have played."

The journey between Beijing and London, however, is integral to who she is. "Those years were difficult but they were also magical.

They are a part of me and I do not know who I would be without them."

While Girard's feelings oscillate, where there might be bitterness, she is happy.

"I know I won't get any money from it now," Girard says. "I'll just get two medals and it will be one day and it will be done. So hopefully, it will be a good ceremony. I hope it will be fun."

She laughs. She has an easy laugh.

"What's done is done," she says. "Who would cry to get a gold? It's amazing, and it's amazing for my sport. Even though it could have been much bigger, it's still big."

Associated Graphic

Seene last year in her home in White Rock, B.C., Olympic weightlifter Christine Girard wear her bronze medal from the 2012 London Olympics. Since then, her medal has been upgraded to gold and she has also gained a bronze medal for her performance at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, where she originally finished fourth.

DARRYL DYCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, April 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B19


DEATHS KATHRYN CRAWFORD (nee Halls worth) "Kathy " 1944 - April 6, 2 018 In 1969, the miniskirted star Grade 1 teacher at Rippleton Road Elementary met an LLM student from New Zealand, a long distance romance ensued, and for 47 years, Kathy starred as "Mum" to three wonderful girls and "Grandma" to four loving grandchildren.

She was the eldest of three children born in Windsor to her parents, Ken and Gwen Hallsworth. The family moved to the new subdivisions in Don Mills in 1956, as Ford Canada opened its new Oakville plant and Ken moved up the management ladder to become Vice President.

Kathy was vital and outgoing, an energetic force who found summer camps an ideal outlet for her energy. She attended Rippleton Road Elementary and Don Mills Collegiate, made lifelong friends at Bangor Lodge, and became a teacher...the 1967 drive across Canada to Vancouver with two special friends gave rise to many stories and a lot of laughter.

The teaching years saw more special friendships made, links never broken with trips to PEI, and Toronto especially for Mr. Davis' 100th birthday last September.

White wine reunited the teacher friendships.

Kathy was supermom to her three girls, ensuring they passed through French Immersion school programs and individually developed their own special talents, learned good manners and were always impeccably turned out. New Westminster was home for a decade when she made many new friends especially at Queen's Avenue United Church. Now Crescent Beach has been home for 38 years, and she has been a second Mom to many of her children's friends, a bridge player, and inspired hostess to incredible Christmas, Easter, and Halloween celebrations.

Over the years, travel to New Zealand, London, California, Wisconsin, Iowa, Texas, Hawaii, Mexico, Iran, Poland, Yugoslavia, South Africa, Holland, and much of Canada ensured the personal pillow racked up the air miles...even when ill health started to take its toll over the last decade, the travels continued, buoyed by the wonderful friends that ensured the indomitable spirit was nurtured at every visit.

A day after having her monthly manicure, a heart attack felled her. Though she made a little recovery the following day, she slipped away from us late at night, surrounded by family, love and tears.

Her friends around the world have been quick to praise the joy she brought to all she met. Kathy will be loved forever and her presence will be missed by all, but especially by her daughters, Lindsay (Andrew), Julie, and Meghan; her granddaughter, Kendall; her grandsons, Eamon, Callum, and Luke; her sister, Barbara (David); her brother, Robert (Heather); the Crawfords in New Zealand; and her loving husband and best friend, Robert Crawford. She was, in those beautiful words of Bette Middler, "The wind beneath our wings."

A special thank you goes to the Ocean Park Fire Hall and Medics who revived her, and the ICU unit at Peace Arch Hospital who gave us that extra day. If you are able, Kathy would appreciate you making a donation to the Peace Arch Hospital Foundation. She would not want the fuss, but there will be a celebration of life at the family home on Mother's Day, and another in Toronto on August 14, 2018.

Condolences may be offered at http://www.victorymemorialpark.com

ROBERT CHIPMAN DOWSETT FSA, FICA, MAAA June 27, 1929 - April 8, 2018

Cherished family man, successful businessman and respected community leader, Rob Dowsett passed peacefully after a brief illness in his 88th year.

The youngest son of the late Jean and Reginald Dowsett; predeceased by his beloved brothers, Bill and John. Proud brother-in-law to Jane Dowsett and the late Maxie Dowsett. Loving father to David (Vivian), Marisa, Carol (Ralph Rae) and devoted Grandfather/Boppa to grandchildren, Larena, (Nicholas Cashmore), Benjamin (Laura), Daniel, James (Melissa), Colin and Gwenna (Michael). Survived by former wife, Lois Dowsett (nee McHardy); brotherin-law, Don McHardy and wife, Diana; and sister-in-law, Eleanor McHardy.

Predeceased by brother-in-law, Bob McHardy. Much admired uncle to many Dowsett and McHardy nieces and nephews.

Devoted partner to Anne Folger and her children, Jarrod Liberatore (Shelley, children, Lucy and Roxanne) and Katharine Liberatore (Lynn).

Rob attended University of Toronto Schools (UTS) graduating in 1946, just before his 17th birthday. At UTS he met life-long friends John Evans and Joe MacArthur and captained the football team. In his later years, Rob founded the Monday Night Club (that meets on Tuesday), a group of UTS grads reunited. Rob began a lifetime association with Victoria College at U of T, graduating in 1950 with a BA (Honours Mathematics and Physics).

Rob began his working career at Crown Life Insurance Company in 1950 while pursuing Actuarial Sciences. He became an actuary in 1954, the youngest person in Canada to achieve this designation. Progressing through management ranks, Rob became EVP of Crown in 1970 and President and CEO in 1971. In 1982, Rob left Crown to join William M. Mercer as Director and was appointed Vice-Chairman in 1985. Rob was a founding member of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries, serving as President in 1973-1974. Retiring from Mercer in 1995, he operated Robert Dowsett Consulting until months before his death. Through each phase of his career, Rob's principled ways earned him the respect of countless friends and colleagues.

Rob's impact on his community was significant. He was a tireless volunteer and fundraiser; he often said his greatest achievement was giving back to others. He served on many non-profit boards including The Donwood Institute, The Council for Canadian Unity, Addiction Research Foundation, UTS, U of T and the CAMH Foundation. An art enthusiast, he assisted the McMichael Canadian Art Collection for almost 40 years, honouring his parents' legacy. A spiritual man, he was one of the founding members of Bethesda United Church in Don Mills.

An avid outdoorsman, Rob pursued life-long passions for canoeing, sailing and waterskiing at cottages on Bella Lake in his childhood, at the family cottage on Lake Joseph in Muskoka and at Anne's cottage in Newago near Montreal. Rob loved sports and was active all his life, from his daily calisthenics, bike riding, and walks with his loyal dog Tally. Rob enjoyed snow skiing in Utah. He was an active member of the Donalda Club beginning in 1972, playing tennis and participating in club trips to Jamaica for tournaments. He will be remembered for his keen mind and the hours devoted to duplicate bridge. Rob enjoyed gardening and working with his hands; a skilled handy man and jack-of-all trades.

Rob possessed unparalleled optimism and zest for life. His grandchildren brought him immeasurable joy. His exuberance for the wonders of mathematics was contagious. A man of deep thought, he was always willing to extend a hand and offer assistance. Above all, he was a man of honour; the true definition of a gentle man.

A Celebration of Rob's Life will be held in Jubilee United Church, 40 Underhill Drive, North York, on Saturday, May 26th at 1:00 p.m., followed by a reception at 2:30 p.m. at the Donalda Club, 12 Bushbury Drive, North York.

Donations in Rob's memory can be made to the CAMH Foundation (www.

supportcamh.ca) or the North York General Hospital Foundation (www.

nyghfoundation.ca) with great appreciation. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

VALERIE MARGARET KNIGHT January 7, 1926 April 6, 2018 Valerie Margaret Knight (nee Clarke) passed peacefully on April 6, 2018. Cherished wife of Alan (predeceased 2008).

Beloved mother of 3 daughters, Jane Dack (Bob, Elora), Julie Bregenhoj (Chris, Sydney, Australia), Melanie Knight (Etobicoke).

Grandmother of 5 and greatgrandmother of 3.

Remembered and loved by many nieces, nephews and friends.

Valerie was a proud member of the Angela Bruce Chapter of the I.O.D.E Oakville from 1978-2016 and was Regent during 1985-1986. Private cremation.

A Celebration of Life will be held on Saturday, April 21, 2018 1-3 p.m. at The Tapestry Village Gate West, 15 Summerland Terrace Etobicoke (416-777-2911). In lieu of flowers, donations gratefully received to the Angela Bruce Chapter IODE c/o Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville L6K 1E1 Visit our guestbook online at http://www.koprivataylor.com YOLANDE RUTH MOSES (Lani) 1947-2018 Friends are invited to join us as we celebrate Lani's life Monday, April 16, 2018 At 12 o'clock noon Royal Canadian Yacht Club 141 St. George Street Toronto

STACIA SUVERA MAE SAHI

April 15, 1985

April 10, 2018

Peacefully surrounded by her family on Tuesday, April 10, 2018, Stacia Suvera Mae Sahi passed away. Our family has lost a beautiful, brilliant, thoughtful, selfless and loving daughter (Ash and Wendy), sister (Stephanie and fiance Mike), granddaughter (Grant and Peggy Izzard) (Savira and Jagjit, deceased), niece (Meenu and Suniel, Barb and Mark, Gita and Satish, Sarita and Vippan) and cousin (Angel, Sujay, Shawn, Sharon, Nitika, Amit and Vijay and Priya), Cat (Lotus), and Dog (Jazz).

Stacia will be remembered by a large number of family members, friends, colleagues and even people she had only met once or twice. Her smile, enthusiasm and larger than life personality touched so many people near and far in her short time on Earth. She had a huge heart and a special bond with her family, especially her cousins. She loved the cottage near Kingston, kayaking, boating, jumping off cliffs, adventures, travelling, photography, activity brochures, trip planning, hiking, animals, kids, toys and games. She had no fear and a huge passion for people, the planet, recycling, philanthropy and making the world a better place - and so her university degrees, job choices and locations always reflected those goals. Her generosity and her smile will never be forgotten.

We want to thank the Marvelle Koffler Breast Centre and the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital; with thanks to Dr. P. Goodwin, Dr.

J. Escallon, Dr. J. Hunter, Jenn (her chemo nurse), and Dr. C. Whelan. Special thanks also to Dr. Constance Weicker for her many years of care and support to Stacia and our family.

The family will receive their friends at the Egan Funeral Home, 203 Queen Street S. (Hwy. 50), Bolton (905-857-2213) on Friday evening 5-8 o'clock. Funeral service will be held in the chapel on Saturday, April 14 at 3 o'clock.

Followed by cremation.

Donations can be made to UNHCR, SPCA, Unicef USA, World Food Program or Sinai Health Foundation. Stacia would ask that you please recycle and conserve water always!

Damning with praise
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A radical uptick in social-media use has produced an economy of accolades into which all users are drawn. Today, we are all performers and we all have to decide: Will I read the reviews?
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By MICHAEL HARRIS
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O8


Author of Solitude: A Singular Life in a Crowded World and The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in an Age of Constant Connection

In a gilded ballroom, beneath a Waterford crystal chandelier and the stern gaze of Her Majesty's 10foot-tall portrait, I sat and clawed the pants of my tuxedo. This was the autumn of 2014 and I, along with the other winners of that year's Governor-General's Literary Awards, had been summoned to Rideau Hall for an evening of praise and celebration.

I tried to enjoy the moment despite my mounting anxiety. But, as I sat in my chair and watched the other winners make their speeches, I couldn't relax. I was thrilled - of course - but also desperate for the ceremony to conclude. It seemed to me that the whole, luxurious affair concealed an existential danger.

When at last it was my turn to climb onstage and shake hands with the Governor-General himself, I was nearly blinded by the light, the embarrassing attention - the praise. I received my award from David Johnston and, as we shook hands for the photographers, I murmured through my smile, "Is that enough? Can we stop?" His Excellency said we could. And then I blanked out for the remainder of the ceremony.

During the party that followed - a blur of polished smiles and Order of Canada pins - a drunken young man cracked his tumbler against mine, saying, "Cheers, you won; that means you were every jury member's second pick."

Praise is always fraught for creative folk.

One of the other recipients, when delivering her acceptance speech, said, "I feel that I stand in a new light." But that's just it. The light arrives, which means we are seen; perhaps we even think we are seeing ourselves for the first time. And then, inevitably - oh so cruelly - the light shuts off. And if it was this light that allowed you to see yourself, then aren't you lost when it's gone?

That night I lay in bed, in the dark, buzzing still from the party. And a little voice came to me then: This is the most precarious moment of your professional life.

If we hang around long enough, every writer - every artist - finds out about the problem with praise. Here it is: if you believe the praise, then you're letting other people control what you think about your work.

And - because you've become, by this point, so intimately invested in that work - you're also letting those people control what you think about yourself. That's dangerous for a bunch of obvious reasons. But the harshest - the really toxic reason - is that, once you've been pumped up by the praise of others, you can be squashed by their criticism. If you were buoyed by the kudos, you'll be sunk by the boos.

Many writers and actors and artists make a point of not reading reviews.

This involves a tug-of-war between the desire to be talked about and the desire to not go crazy. Gretchen Rubin doesn't read her reviews because "negativity bias" keeps her from reading them with a neutral gaze.

Jeanette Winterson doesn't read reviews because "it's too late."

I don't read reviews for the same reason I don't ask strangers what they think of my face: it's asking for trouble.

As dangerous as all those awards and reviews and star-ratings are, they at least aren't dangers that most people have had to face. The bulk of us have, historically, not been confronted with constant, public appraisals. And those who were - the artists - well, we were asking for it.

But now all that has changed. A radical uptick in social-media use has produced an economy of praise into which all users are drawn. Today, we are all performers and we all have to decide: Will I read the reviews?

We've become blasé about the dopamine hits we get from each incoming message or alert. A blip of hormones, a flush of brain activity on a scan. Scientists at Harvard showed us years ago how sharing information about ourselves stimulates the reward systems in the brain - just as surely as sex and food.

We begin to understand - however vaguely - that the pellets of affirmation we gather online are a form of psychological calorie, dispensed by our devices. And our cravings keep getting increased as the years go by.

Instead of sugar, we crave social grooming. Instead of fats, we hoard external validation. We're now gluttons for the praise our devices dish out. So much so, they change our behaviour and our thoughts. Everything we do online is a contrivance to get more views, more retweets and, ultimately, more praise. In The Attention Merchants, Tim Wu writes that we've seemingly, "devolved into a chaotic mutual admiration society, full of enterprising Narcissi, surely an arrangement of affairs without real precedent in human history."

We're living through a shift-point.

We're suddenly more aware of our child-like hunger for praise. Everyone wonders how worthy their onceanonymous self might be. We change our profiles to reflect an aspirational self, a persona that draws the approval of others. We publish only good news, only filtered photographs - and this compounds our anxieties.

Sherry Turkle writes, "I have found that when people use the aspirational self as an object for self-reflection, it can make them feel curiously envious - of themselves." The desire for praise twists in on itself, redoubles.

We pretend to be what others might approve and, in the process, we forget to value the broken birds that we are.

Meanwhile, we're more than willing to answer the calls for praise that issue from our growing list of contacts. We groom one another constantly. Facebook users generate four million "likes" every minute. Ordinary limits of space and time - which once truncated the amount of praise a person could expect in the course of a day - have been obliterated. I can praise 20 people while standing in line at Starbucks.

For the first time in our history, more people have access to the internet than not (51 per cent of the world's 7.6 billion people can now hop online). That means more people on the planet could share this article tomorrow than could not. More people could like it on Facebook ... The writer's ego reels.

Something primal is going on here.

Social media is popular across cultures and age groups because it fulfills a basic human need: that desire for social grooming.

There's a simple reason that Facebook doesn't offer a thumbs-down icon and Twitter asks you to tag things with hearts. The attention merchants know that it's praise and approval that keeps us coming back.

B.F. Skinner's idea of operant conditioning (positive reinforcement) comes into play. We're social animals and we'll behave in whatever way produces loving feedback from the pack.

But how large a pack can we manage? The evolutionary anthropologist Robin Dunbar argued that our brains set us up nicely for communities of 150 (which is roughly the size of the communities we lived in for most of human history). As our devices now hijack those primal instincts, creating a pack of billions (with every member crying out for social grooming) is it any wonder we feel a need for more and more praise - more likes, more hearts, more followers?

As new as it all feels, it's also the oldest story in the world. Many ancient technological advances extended our sense of self. Consider the most basic tool for self-reflection: By the 16th century, the surface of glass could be improved so that, once coated with a silver amalgam, it turned into a fine mirror. For the first time, it was possible to look at ourselves as others saw us. A stunning achievement. And with it came an inflation of the human ego. "Self-consciousness, introspection ... developed with the new object itself," writes the great historian Lewis Mumford. We learned to worry more about how others perceived us. "Indeed," writes Mr. Mumford, "When one is completely whole and at one with the world one does not need the mirror... ." From that point on, though, we turned "to the lonely image to see what in fact is there and what [we] can hold on to."

Not for nothing is there a dystopian Netflix drama called "Black Mirror" - the spectral reflection offered by our phones does enhance the problem first encountered by the 16th-century mirror gazer. We search those glossy surfaces all the more for some sign that our personal place in the world has been improved, expanded. We hope to affirm a grander sense of self by studying "the lonely image."

Backstage, before that ceremony at Rideau Hall, I worried about how much the award mattered to me, even as I felt it would be an enormous gift. How my heated ego recast itself, spreading out and spreading thin, so that who I was became what I was dubbed - in this one glittery moment.

They lined the recipients up before two enormous doors. I turned to the playwright Jordan Tannahill and tried to say something.

But then the doors were drawing inward - by what force? - and a string quartet was playing. The esteemed guests in the hall were turning the lamp of their collective attention to shine - on what?

On us: you, me, all of us. The lucky and the unlucky; the worthy and the unworthy. Some of us randomly decorated and other randomly unnoticed.

Anyone who spends a portion of their days online. We, all of us, are drawn into that same dangerous ballroom. It doesn't feel that way when we glance at our follower count on the subway, when a few strangers celebrate a selfie. But our addiction to those chilled metrics of affection are gently warping us nonetheless.

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Michael Harris, left, receives a Governor-General's Literary Award from David Johnston at Rideau Hall in November, 2014. He writes that he was nearly blinded by the light and praise. 'As we shook hands for the photographers, I murmured through my smile, "Is that enough? Can we stop?" '

VINCENT CARBONNEAU/RIDEAU HALL

U.S., Britain, France launch military strikes on Syria
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The assault began less than a week after Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's forces were accused of killing dozens in a chemical weapons attack on the rebel-held town of Douma
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By MARK MACKINNON
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A12


BEIRUT -- The United States and its allies launched an attack on forces loyal to Syrian President Bashar alAssad, a military action that President Donald Trump said would continue "until the Syrian regime stops its use of prohibited chemical agents."

The announcement, made shortly before the dawn call to prayer on Saturday morning across the Middle East, was followed by the sounds of loud explosions that could be heard in the Syrian capital of Damascus. It immediately raised questions about how Syria's backers in Russia and Iran would respond to the attack on their ally.

The assault began less than a week after Mr. Assad's forces were accused of killing dozens in a chemical weapons attack on the rebel-held town of Douma, on the outskirts of Damascus. In a televised address, Mr. Trump said the action was necessitated by a "significant escalation in a pattern of chemical weapons use by that very terrible regime."

The scope of the U.S. action was not immediately clear, although Mr. Trump said the United States was acting to punish Mr. Assad in coalition with Britain and France. The attack came just before investigators from the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons were to arrive in Douma to look into the alleged attack.

Speaking from the White House, Mr. Trump said: "To Iran and to Russia, I ask: What kind of a nation wants to be associated with the mass murder of innocent men, women and children?" He added: "The nations of the world can be judged by the friends they keep."

British Prime Minister Theresa May said on Saturday she had authorized British forces to conduct precision strikes against Syria to degrade its chemical weapons capability.

"This is not about intervening in a civil war. It is not about regime change," Ms. May said in a statement. "It is about a limited and targeted strike that does not further escalate tensions in the region and that does everything possible to prevent civilian casualties." The attack began hours after Russia's ambassador to the United Nations warned that any action against Syria would be "fraught with grave repercussions for global security." Moscow, which has troops, planes and warships - as well as formidable air defense units - in Syria to support Mr. Assad's regime, has said it could retaliate against U.S. ships and planes if Russian military personnel are threatened.

The U.S. action and whatever comes next in the region has many in neighbouring Lebanon worried that peace in their own country, which still bears the scars of its 1975-1990 civil war - would be jeopardized.

Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah fuelled those concerns with a speech on Friday in which he slammed Israel for an April 9 airstrike that killed 14 Iranians at an airbase in Syria. Mr. Nasrallah said Iran and Israel were now in "direct confrontation."

That's bad news for Lebanon, where Hezbollah is both the strongest military power and a proxy for Iran. Israeli military analysts recently told The Globe and Mail that they see no way to deal with Iran's growing military presence in Syria without also confronting Hezbollah in its south Lebanon stronghold.

The showdown between Israel and Iran is a dangerous subplot to the dramatic faceoff between the United States and Russia over how to deal with the Kremlin-backed Mr. Assad.

Like Russia, Iran has been instrumental in helping Mr. Assad maintain a grip on power he once seemed on the verge of losing. While Russia has provided the air power that has aided the advance of pro-regime forces, Iran and its proxies have been the key force on the ground. Iranian advisors are believed to be present at many Syrian military bases.

Iran's growing presence in Syria has already drawn repeated Israeli airstrikes, including an April 8 attack that saw Israeli jets - operating from Lebanese airspace - fire missiles at Syria's T-4 airbase. At least 14 Iranian nationals were killed in the attack.

Iran has promised vengeance for that attack, threatening to "turn Haifa and Tel Aviv into dust." Any escalation against Israel - or against U.S. special forces operating in eastern Syria - would almost certainly involve Hezbollah.

"Attacking the T-4 airport is a pivotal incident in the history of the region that can't be ignored.

You made a historic mistake and a great folly which brings you into direct confrontation with Iran," Mr. Nasrallah said in a televised address that was carried by Hezbollah's al-Manar channel.

The speech contained some of Mr. Nasrallah' strongest rhetoric since Hezbollah fought a monthlong war against Israel in 2006 that left much of south Lebanon devastated.

Even before Mr. Nasrallah spoke, there were growing worries that Lebanon might be sucked into the swirling conflict next door.

Basem Shabb, an MP from Lebanon's pro-Western Future Movement, said Lebanon had managed to remain a "demilitarized zone" throughout Syria's civil war largely because of the former U.S. president Barack Obama's desire to improve relations with Iran. The Obama White House tacitly accepted Hezbollah's role in Lebanon - and its intervention in support of Mr. Assad in Syria - while Hezbollah looked away as U.S. aid helped rebuild the Lebanese army into a credible fighting force that could one day serve as a counterweight to Hezbollah.

That cold peace may be over now, particularly if Mr. Trump and Mr. Bolton follow through on their declared ambitions to terminate the pact Mr. Obama negotiated to freeze Iran's nuclear program in exchange for a lifting of some Western economic sanctions.

"With the Trump Administration, it has become more difficult to keep the situation in Lebanon as it was," said Bassem Shabb, a Lebanese MP from the Future Movement, a pro-Western bloc. "Lebanon is a faultline again."

Like much of the rest of the world, Lebanon is deeply divided about what happened in Douma, and what should happen next in Syria, where seven years of civil war have already left upwards of 500,000 people dead and driven millions more from their homes.

Lebanon has been divided for decades into pro-Western and pro-Syrian camps roughly equal in size. Pro-Western Lebanese - who blame Damascus for a string of assassinations in their own country - have no trouble believing the Assad regime would use chemical weapons against its own people. "Many Lebanese don't need to wait for some investigation of the chemical attack to reach their own verdict on the Syrian regime," Mr. Shabb said, referring to a team of inspectors from the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons that began arriving in Syria on Friday.

Meanwhile pro-Syrian Lebanese - especially Shia Muslims living in the Hezbollah-dominated south of the country - have been bombarded with the narrative that the attack on Douma was a hoax perpetrated by antiAssad forces. "Even reality is perceived differently in different parts of Lebanon," said Imad Salamey, an associate professor of political science and international affairs at the Lebanese American University. "Different narratives, different realities."

Moscow escalated its own information campaign on Friday, when a spokesperson for the Russian Ministry of Defense alleged that Russia had proof that the attack was staged by the White Helmets - a civilian rescue group working on the ground in Syria - working under the orders of the British government.

Britain, which is already at odds with Russia over Moscow's

alleged role in the poisoning of former double agent Sergei Skripal, dismissed the allegation of its involvement in the Douma attack as a "grotesque, blatant lie."

Mr. Nasrallah delivered a message similar to the Kremlin's in his speech on al-Manar. He told Hezbollah's faithful that the crisis in Syria was a "play," and that no chemical weapons had been used in the Syrian army's assault on Douma. The battle for Douma ended Sunday, when fighters from the Saudi-backed Jaish al-Islam militia agreed to a ceasefire that saw them surrender the town to pro-Assad forces.

Russian troops entered Douma on Thursday, and the Syrian flag was raised there hours later.

It's unclear what evidence will remain in Douma for the OPCW inspectors.

Even when at peace, Lebanon is a country constantly on edge, a place where checkpoints bar the roads to the homes of prominent politicians, and where cars are swept for bombs before they're allowed to park near large shopping malls or hotels.

In Sunni neighbourhoods of Beirut, images of former prime minister Rafik Hariri are ominipresent - a reminder of his 2005 assassination, which many in Lebanon and the West blame on Mr. Assad and Hezbollah.

Tensions are again rising ahead of a May 6 election that will see a struggle for power pitting politicians backed by the U.S. and Saudi Arabia against those aligned with Syria and Iran.

Prof. Salamey said he saw two options for President Trump in terms of how to deal with Syria and the wider region. He could move to restore American influence in the Middle East with a prolonged military operation - and a follow-up political strategy - that would force Iran and Russia to "change their calculations."

Or the U.S. should stand down and admit that the region is now under the sway of Moscow and Tehran.

"He has to have a political strategy first. You have to know what you want to achieve, and what you're willing to pay for it in Syria, in Iraq, in Lebanon," Prof. Salamey said, adding that it would change nothing if the U.S. simply fired another round of cruise missiles at Syria, as Mr. Trump ordered following a previous chemical weapons attack, almost a year to the day before the incident in Douma.

"If this will be a move like the other moves - a hit-and-run kind of move - it will probably cause more damages than benefits. Assad will continue business as usual. He will continue to attack, and will continue to be backed by Iran and Russia."

WITH A REPORT FROM REUTERS

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Missiles streak across the Damascus skyline as the U.S. and its allies launch an attack on Syria early Saturday. President Donald Trump said the military action would continue "until the Syrian regime stops its use of prohibited chemical agents."

HASSAN AMMAR/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Brexit thrusts Commonwealth summit out of the shadows and into the spotlight
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Much of the focus of the two-day leaders' meeting is expected to be on Britain's departure from the EU, Paul Waldie reports
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By PAUL WALDIE
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A10


LONDON -- As the leaders of the 53 Common wealth countries prepare to gather this week in London for their biennial summit, there's a growing sense of revival within the organization.

Once seen by many as a relic of the colonial era, the Commonwealth has suddenly become relevant, thanks largely to Brexit and the increasing isolationism in the United States. And, with 2.4 billion people and nearly US$10-trillion in total economic output, the organization is hard to ignore.

Trade will be a major topic of discussion during the two-day leaders' meeting, which starts on Thursday with much of the focus on Britain's departure from the European Union in March, 2019. But it won't be the only topic. There will also be a discussion about a new charter on ocean governance to promote environmental protection and sustainable development of maritime industries, as well as a declaration on cybercrime and new guidelines for election observation.

The leaders will also have to wrestle with human rights and the treatment of LGBT communities in 37 member countries. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who heads to London for the summit after visiting France, has made LGBT rights a major concern at the Commonwealth, but leaders have controversially taken that off the agenda for this meeting.

And then there's the issue of leadership. The Queen is turning 92 and the leaders will attend a special birthday concert. There's also speculation they will privately discuss who should succeed her as head of the Commonwealth. It's not a hereditary position and her successor won't automatically assume the title. So who will it be?

Here's a look at what to expect from the meeting.

Trade

Commonwealth leaders have talked about increasing trade among member states for decades with little to show for it.

Brexit has given the debate some new momentum. Britain will be out of the EU next March and the country is eager to find new trading partners. Many British lawmakers see the Commonwealth as a natural place to start. They argue that the common ties among the 53 member countries make it an ideal trading bloc. Indeed, some studies have shown that the commonalities among Commonwealth members - such as similar legal systems and the same language - mean that the costs of trading within the group are 19 per cent less than trading among non-member states.

Currently, intra-Commonwealth trade stands at around US$560-billion annually. That's expected to rise to US$1-trillion by 2020 and could go higher if Brexit leads to more trade.

Canada, too, should look toward the Commonwealth for greater trade diversity, especially if the United States pulls back from the North American free-trade Agreement, says Imran Abdool, an economics professor at the University of Windsor. He believes that in the next 10 years or so, Canada should increase its trade among its Commonwealth brethren. "If there is the political will, I think it's something that could very well happen," he said. "A lot of these countries, they are kind of becoming mistrustful of traditional trading partners. And I think there's going to have to be a restart to international trade."

There is also a growing move toward free trade and free movement of people, among four key Commonwealth members: Canada, Britain, Australia and New Zealand. "What we're saying is that especially between Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, there's definitely no harm in having free trade and there's certainly a great benefit," said James Skinner, who heads the Vancouver-based Commonwealth Freedom of Movement Organization. "Brexit is going to be a great opportunity for the U.K. to negotiate its own trade agreements. What we would like to see is for the United Kingdom to join the trade agreement that exists between Australia and New Zealand and also for Canada to join that as well. That's not only for trade in goods, but also mutual recognition of skills such as doctors and architects, to work in each country."

In another signal of the importance of the trade issues within the Commonwealth, India's Prime Minister is attending the leaders' summit for the first time in nine years. India has been lacklustre about the Commonwealth, but Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been keen to develop new trading relationships. There have also been suggestions that India could take on more of a leadership role within the organization.

Many others question the likelihood of the Commonwealth becoming an effective trading bloc, or even much of an alternative for Britain after Brexit. They point to the huge economic disparity among Commonwealth members, which range from dozens of tiny countries such as Nauru, with a population of about 13,000, to India with around 1.3 billion people. The far-flung nature of the association also makes trade difficult and Britain's current trade with Commonwealth countries makes up about one-tenth of its total exports.

Canada has also shown little interest in boosting trade among its Commonwealth partners. In an interview last month, Finance Minister Bill Morneau said although Canada has historic ties to the Commonwealth, the government's trade priorities lie elsewhere. "Our approach around expanding trading relationships has been to be focused on places where we have current and future opportunities," he said, referring to the EU and China. "So we are thinking about the size of the economies that we're trying to expand trade with."

Human rights

The Commonwealth likes to pride itself on its charter of values, which stresses democracy, human rights and gender equality. But the organization is voluntary and works on the basis of consensus, which rules out taking a stand on many issues. LGBT rights have been a particular sore point and last week the Commonwealth secretariat received a petition signed by 104,000 people calling on the organization to push for LBGT rights in 37 member countries where same-sex relationships are criminal offences and, in some cases, punishable by death. Leaders have opted not to discuss the issue during this summit, but that isn't likely to stop protesters who have already been gathering in London.

British diver Tom Daley joined the call to action last week during the Commonwealth Games in Australia. After winning a gold medal in the 10-metre synchronized dive, he lashed out at member countries that deny gay rights. "There are 37 countries in the Commonwealth where it is illegal to be who I am. And hopefully we can reduce that number," Mr. Daley said. "You want to feel comfortable in who you are when you are standing on that diving board and for 37 Commonwealth countries that are here participating that is not the case."

The Commonwealth is also facing calls to take action against Cameroon over violence and human-rights abuses in that country's English-speaking region. The Cameroon government has faced international condemnation for its heavy-handed tactics in putting down protests. President Paul Biya will be at the summit and he could come under pressure from other leaders.

Some politicians in Britain also want the British government to apologize during the meeting for the many wrongs the country has committed against its former colonies over the decades, including not joining the Commonwealth in sanctions against South Africa during the apartheid era.

"This week would be an appropriate moment to correct that historic mistake, and would send a wider signal to our Commonwealth cousins that we in the U.K. truly recognize that the days are gone when our union was described - in colonial terms - as the 'British Commonwealth,' " British member of Parliament Emily Thornberry said.

There are some encouraging signs for the Commonwealth.

Gambia has rejoined the association after the democratic election of President Adama Barrow last year, which ended 22 years of iron-fisted rule by Yahya Jammeh. He pulled the country out of the organization in 2013.

There's also talk of Zimbabwe rejoining, too, now that Emmerson Mnangagwa has replaced Robert Mugabe, who had ruled the country since 1980. Zimbabwe was suspended from the Commonwealth in 2002,s and Mr. Mugabe later withdrew its membership.

Leadership

The Queen was named head of the Commonwealth at her coronation in 1953, taking over the title from her father, King George VI. But the ceremonial role is not hereditary and it's up to Commonwealth leaders to decide who will replace her.

That's become a critical issue since it's unlikely the Queen will be able to attend another leaders' summit, given that she no longer travels outside Britain.

It is widely expected that Prince Charles will take over as head of the Commonwealth when, as expected, he becomes King, but the leaders could opt for a non-royal to better reflect member countries. Of the 53 Commonwealth members, only 16 have the British monarch as their head of state.

Kate Osamor, a British MP, has urged Commonwealth leaders to select someone other than Prince Charles. Ms. Osamor said someone more "level-headed" who "thinks outside the box" would be a better choice. "I just don't think it should be him [Prince Charles]. I don't really know what he's been up to of late. He's not been that vocal on issues," she added.

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THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCES: COMMONWEALTH SECRETARIAT'S PROJECTION EXERCISE BASED ON WTO TRADE GROWTH ESTIMATES; COMMONWEALTH TRADE REVIEW 2018; IMF; WTO; BREXIT AND COMMONWEALTH TRADE; COMMONWEALTH SECRETARIAT (CALCULATED FROM IMF WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK DATA, OCTOBER 2017)

Pedestrians walk underneath flags of Commonwealth countries hanging in central London on Sunday.

BEN STANSALL/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

FRED LUM/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

JACK HILL/REUTERS

Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, shake hands with onlookers in Wellington, Ont., in 2017.

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Protesters wave Ambazonian flags in Bamenda, Cameroon, in 2017. The Commonwealth is facing calls to take action over violence and human-rights abuses in Cameroon's English-speaking region.

REUTERS TV/REUTERS

British diver Tom Daley holds up his gold medal on April 13. Last week during the Commonwealth Games in Australia he joined the call to action for LGBT rights.

ATHIT PERAWONGMETHA/REUTERS

David Grossman on the story he couldn't forget
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Author's novel A Horse Walks Into a Bar is about the last performance of an Israeli stand-up comedian
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By DAVID BEZMOZGIS
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Thursday, April 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A18


ast year, the renowned IsraeL li author and peace activist David Grossman was awarded the Man Booker International Prize for his novel, A Horse Walks Into a Bar - a compact, savagely funny and moving book about the last performance of an Israeli stand-up comedian. The story that inspired the book - about a teenage boy at an army preparatory camp who's told that one of his parents has died, but not which one - had haunted him for more than two decades. "I thought the people who did this must have been so cruel, but it was a very specific kind of cruelty," Grossman said in a phone interview with The Globe and Mail.

"The most cunning kind of cruelty is indifference."

In the intervening years, each time Grossman finished a book, he tried and failed to write this story until he realized that it needed to be told by a stand-up comedian, who, under the guise of jokes, smuggles in the more tragic elements of his life.

Once you realized this was going to be about a stand-up comedian, where did all the jokes come from?

I think you know as a writer that when you are writing about a topic, the world becomes like a hermetic system of this topic.

And, when I started writing about a comedian, suddenly I noticed how often people told me jokes.

There is something fascinating about the idea of the joke. Because if we met on the corner of Jaffa Street and King George Street in Jerusalem, I will not stop you and start singing you an aria, but I will tell you, "Listen, David, a Jew, a Christian and a Muslim were on a plane and suddenly the pilot comes on and says the engine is broken and we have only one parachute." Now it's totally far-fetched, absurd and surreal information that you have no connection to, and yet immediately you know that I'm going to tell you something that is imaginary, about people you don't know, but that in the end you will have the pleasure of laughing. It's really one of the most unique creations of mankind, the joke.

The thing with jokes is that there has to be a commonality, enough frames of reference for people to understand that something is funny. And in reading the book, I had the impression that it was a very Israeli book. As compared to a very Jewish book. I'm drawing the distinction between Israel and the Jewish diaspora. There are many references that Israeli Jews will get that North American Jews will not. In this way, I thought the book was very much of its time - when there's a role reversal between Israeli Jews and the diaspora, where that role of the senior partner and the junior partner has changed. Were you conscious of this when you wrote it?

When I wrote it, I had no intention to deal with the relationship between Israelis and world Jewry.

I wrote a story about an Israeli comedian. But I feel also that it's a very Israeli book because it gives people outside of Israel a way to look at Israel today, if they care.

They can see the process Israel is undergoing: the process of vulgarity, of becoming more vulgar and rude and violent. Of course there is a difference between Israeli humour and the Jewish, Yiddish humour, which is more delicate and sophisticated - a selfironic kind of humour, while the Israeli humour is much more straightforward. Superficial in a way. It's like a punch in the stomach.

In thinking about Yiddish humour compared to Israeli humour, Jews are traditionally known to be funny, though I don't know if Jews were funny in the Bible.

No, the Bible is not funny. I cannot even think of one joke in the Bible.

I wonder if it isn't a question of exile. I'm not the first to say that humour is a coping mechanism.

Jews became funny because of their marginality. Is it possible to be funny when you're no longer marginal? You have a great line in the book that the lefties' biggest problem is that they don't know how to laugh, even when they're alone - which they usually are.

Which is very funny. But then what about the people on the right?

Hitler wasn't funny.

No, Hitler wasn't funny.

Stalin and the Bolsheviks weren't funny.

And Putin is not funny.

The left was where you were supposed to be funny and transgressive, where there were no taboos, but it seems like the left you're talking about isn't funny either. The right isn't funny, the left isn't funny - So, who is funny?

Yeah, who is funny?

Regarding laughter here in Israel, maybe because we are fed up with ourselves, because our situation has become such a routine and all the arguments have been consumed and exhausted, on both sides, that we are in a dangerous situation where despair is no longer an incentive to act but it's the last stop before apathy. And even when there are jokes about the situation, and there is a brilliant satire show called Eretz Nehederet (A Wonderful Country), and another called Gav Ha'Uma (The Back of the Nation) - it's from a quotation, a reference to stabbing a knife into the back of the nation - both of them are quite, not all, but quite leftist. And so many times my wife and I are watching it, because we need to watch it, we want to find some relief, but after 10 minutes we look at each other and say, "Yes, but reality is funnier. Or not even funnier, but more extreme than what they dare to say." And maybe when the reality is so absurd it's really hard to be funny about it.

If you don't mind, I'll read what I wrote when I got to the end of your book. It pertains to your protagonist, Dovaleh G. This is what I wrote: "Dovaleh is a specific man and at the same time a representative of something more, something that is being extinguished or is flickering out and what is replacing it is not as good.

There's a sense of nostalgia or worse ..." Am I reading more into the book than you intended? Not at all. I think the way to create a character who is more than himself is to make him as concrete a human being as possible.

There are two kinds of identification with a literary character. The easier one is that you identify with him because he reminds you of yourself. This is the most immediate and almost trivial way of identification. But there is another way of identification that suddenly you feel that this concrete person radiates something bigger, something deeper, something more common to you and it tells you something about the drama of being a human being.

How did the character personified by Dovaleh G, the novel's protagonist, make you feel about the future of Israelis and Jews around the world? Because the connection to Yiddish, as a shorthand for this more delicate way of being, is coming to an end. Is it something you think about?

Very much I think about it. I travel a lot. I meet a lot of Jews all over the world. And I feel the worry. I feel different processes.

On the one hand the more vigorous and belligerent tendency and the feeling that we are the eternal victims so we should be stronger and stronger. And on the other hand the worry for the character, for the nature of Israel and for the processes we are undergoing.We are a culture of nuances, because we have a verbal tradition and a verbal heritage, because we have a language that counts back 3,500 years, and it developed the ability for nuances, for delicacies. And I feel that now, because of the air of violence in which Israel is immersed, we have become more and more thick, less and less distinctive, less and less sensitive.

But if you occupy another people for more than 50 years, deeply, in yourself, you start to believe that they are different kinds of human beings, existentially. And if the Palestinians are losing for so many years and if they are unable to change the situation in any way, and if they comply with our occupation, well, maybe it says something existentially about them as human beings? This is the most dangerous point from which deterioration is almost inevitable. And our future and the way we shall be and the character of us as a society and as a nation will be defined mostly by what will happen in the coming years regarding our relationship with our neighbours. There are such heavy consequences of living in violence, of having no hope for peace, of preparing every moment for the next war. And if this is the way you live your life, if every moment can be the moment before the eruption of a new war, inevitably you start to believe that war is the right order of things. This is what reality is made of - war, animosity, suspicion, hatred. You cannot live like this for so many years without being changed and even distorted in your character, in the range of your hopes and what you allow yourself to wish for and hope for.

David Bezmozgis, a writer and filmmaker, is the director of the Humber School for Writers.

David Grossman will be in conversation with Michael Enright on April 12 at 6:30 p.m. at the Glenn Gould Studio in Toronto as part of the Dorothy Shoichet Lecture Series presented by the Koffler Centre of the Arts. For tickets and more information, go to kofflerarts.org.

Associated Graphic

'I think the way to create a character who is more than himself is to make him as concrete a human being as possible,' writer David Grossman says about character development.

KOBI KALMANOVITZ

Inuit historian was the 'last great Franklin searcher'
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After a lifetime of gathering elders' stories, he used his people's oral history to help pinpoint the location of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror
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By SUSAN FERRIER MACKAY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B24


Inuit historian and teacher Louie Kamookak played a vital role in the discovery of the wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. The two doomed vessels were commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir John Franklin, whose expedition left England in 1845 to navigate and chart the Arctic's Northwest Passage. The location of the sunken ships, in frigid waters off Nunavut's King William Island, had long been one of Canada's great maritime mysteries.

Through amassing stories of Inuit elders, including members of his own family, Mr. Kamookak cross-referenced journals and books about the icebound ships.

He read voraciously in order to piece together clues that helped lead Parks Canada to the momentous finding of the wrecks: HMS Erebus in 2014 and two years later, her nearby sister ship HMS Terror.

Mr. Kamookak also developed a theory about the location of Franklin's body, but didn't live to learn if he was right. He died of cancer on March 22, at the age of 58, in Yellowknife, more than 1,000 kilometres from his hometown of Gjoa Haven on King William Island.

"Canada has lost a passionate scholar of our Northern history," wrote former prime minister Stephen Harper in an e-mail. "Louie leaves behind an incredible legacy."

In recognition of his efforts, in both exploration and the preservation of traditional knowledge, the Royal Canadian Geographic Society (RCGS) gave the title "honorary vice-president" to Mr.

Kamookak in 2016. It's one of the highest honours the organization can bestow. It also recently established the Louie Kamookak medal for a noteworthy activity in making Canada's geography better known to Canadians or abroad, or for advancing the discipline of geography. It will be awarded to Mr. Kamookak posthumously. He was invested as a member of the Order of Nunavut in 2016 and an officer of the Order of Canada last year.

A physically powerful man who could seemingly glide stealthily across the land, Mr. Kamookak was a great hunter and a staunch custodian of his culture.

"I come from a long line of highprofile Netsilingmiut people," Mr. Kamookak told Up Here magazine in 2014. The lineage included his grandfather William (Paddy) Gibson, an Irish Hudson's Bay Company trader on his mother's side, who was also interested in Franklin.

In 1931, Paddy Gibson journeyed to the Todd Islets, specks of land in the Northwest Passage.

There, his party discovered a complete human skeleton, plus skulls and some bones belonging to Franklin's men. Paddy Gibson published his findings in The Geographical Journal and The Beaver. Two generations later, his grandson Louie would become more involved in the search for Franklin and his ships than just about any other individual.

Louie Iriniq Kamookak was born on Aug. 26, 1959, during a famine at a seal-hunting camp on the Boothia Peninsula near Taloyoak, formerly known as Spence Bay. He was the second oldest in a large family belonging to George Kamookak, an Inuit hunter, and his wife, Mary. After Louie's birth his mother was so starved she couldn't produce breast milk. His first meals were mashed raw seal blubber.

Trained in survival skills from an early age, Louie accompanied his father and grandfather on hunting and fishing trips across the tundra. When Louie was 7, his father took him to see the skeleton of one of the early fur traders, a ne'er-do-well named Russian Mike. Mike, it seemed, had done a lot of fighting and drinking and gotten himself in trouble. The story was that he'd shot his dogs and then himself. Even though most Inuit dislike being around dead bodies, young Louie forced himself to take a good look at Russian Mike's skull. He observed that the bullet had entered from the top, rather than the bottom, indicating murder rather than suicide. An amateur forensic sleuth was in the making.

Formal education began for Louie in late childhood when he went to school for the first time.

At 12, a teacher's lesson about the Franklin expedition sparked a Eureka moment. Louie's greatgrandmother had told him a story about travelling with her family to the north shore of King William Island to cut wood when she was a girl of 6 or 7. On top of a ridge they found strange objects such as forks and spoons but didn't know what they were. Farther down, a long rope trailed into the bay. When the teacher said some of Franklin's men died on the land, his great grandmother's story clicked into place. Louis had long wanted to visit the area.

Now there was even more reason to go. He wanted to link the past to the present.

Throughout the 1980s and 90s, Mr. Kamookak accompanied many Franklin searchers around the vast terrain of King William Island. He considered himself to be an explorer but also served as a guide and source of Inuit knowledge. John Geiger, CEO of the RCGS, believes the Franklin search was hampered by a failure to take the Inuit oral histories fully into account. "It's possible searchers dismissed them because they were unaware of the accuracy of this tradition, that these stories were often retold in exacting detail, word for word," he said.

Despite a previous lack of government funding for expeditions, and assorted bureaucratic squabbles, in 2008, Mr. Kamookak began working with a team of researchers from Parks Canada.

The researchers heeded his advice, proceeding cautiously for several years to finally discover Franklin's missing ships. When news of their success broke, it reverberated around the world. At the high school, where Mr. Kamookak worked as a staff support teacher, the phone rang constantly. Russell Potter, a professor at Rhode Island College and author of Finding Franklin, said the attention led his soft-spoken friend to an observation that typified his wry sense of humour.

"I'd be harder to find if I had a more common name, but I'm the only Louie Kamookak in the world," he said.

He did, however, add to the Kamookak clan by fathering five children with his wife, Josephine.

His family was a source of pride, along with his connections to ancestors and the informative names they conferred on geographic locations. One name might translate into "where polar bears pass." Another might mean "where seals gather on rocks."

Mr. Kamookak recorded this nomenclature, although the names of white explorers often prevailed. Starvation Cove, an inlet on the Adelaide peninsula just south of King William Island, was named for being a gory site where some of Franklin's men resorted to cannibalism. Inuit lore told of hacked up bodies, and of finding pieces of china, and bones with fragments of wool still attached.

A single note uncovered on land recorded that Franklin died on June 11, 1847, earlier than most of his crew. Weak with cold and hunger, and perhaps driven mad by lead in their supplies of canned goods, they divided up and scattered in hopes of salvation. The remains of two men were found to have been buried, then eventually thrust by permafrost onto the land's surface.

Since 19th century Inuit didn't bury their dead, but wrapped them in sealskin, the findings seemed to indicate the remains belonged to members of the expedition. A person of John Franklin's stature, however, probably would have received a more elaborate interment.

"A group of Inuit said they saw the burial of a great chief under the ground, under stone," Mr. Kamookak told The Canadian Press in 2017. "I believe that Franklin is in a vault on King William Island."

In a stark, flat landscape of pummelling winters and fleeting summers, it would've taken exceptional eyesight and observation skills to discern the crumbled vault of a burial that took place more than 150 years earlier.

Able, at a glance, to tell if a bone belonged to a fox or a human finger, Mr. Kamookak possessed such skills. Author Ken McGoogan, recalled travelling with him to rebuild a cairn that John Rae built in 1854 to mark his discovery of the Rae Strait. On the way back in Mr. Kamookak's 20-foot boat, they pulled onto a sandy beach and climbed a ridge to scan the horizon. Mr. McGoogan wrote: "There was nothing to see. But Louie pointed and whispered "caribou." Almost invisible against the tundra stood a huge antlered beast more than 100 metres away. Too far, in Mr.

McGoogan's opinion. "But Louie fell to one knee, brought his gun to his shoulder and fired." Mr.

McGoogan was convinced it was a miss but when they arrived at the caribou, Louis was jubilant.

"Straight through the heart," he cried. He skinned the animal, hoisted the carcass on his back and staggered back to his boat saying, "Meat will last all winter."

In addition to continuing the search for Franklin, Mr. Kamookak was working on a paper about signs of climate change in the North and planning another expedition for next year. Professor Potter wrote that Mr. Kamookak had noticed that the Lapland longspur, whose distinctive song was familiar, had stopped singing. Mr. Kamookak felt that climate change was also connected to an increase in cancer among Inuit. He spoke of his own illness with few people.

Mr. Kamookak leaves his wife, Josephine, their five children and seven grandchildren.

"Louie was the last great Franklin searcher," Mr. Geiger said.

"He was a gentle man and a teacher of great wisdom, not only for the Inuit, but for all of us."

Associated Graphic

Louie Kamookak, top, cuts some Arctic char on King William Island in 2015. Above, a sea-floor scan reveals HMS Erebus, one of the long-missing ships from the Franklin Expedition that was located with the help of Mr. Kamookak's research. Sir John Franklin's mission sailed in search of the Northwest Passage in 1845 and ended in disaster.

TOP PHOTO: JASON FULFORD; ABOVE PHOTO: PARKS CANADA

B.C. politicians are making the same mistake as their predecessors
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By MARY JANIGAN
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


Author of Let the Eastern Bastards Freeze in the Dark: The West Versus the Rest Since Confederation

If British Columbia politicians knew their history, perhaps they would not be so cavalier about thwarting their neighbour's economic prospects with rash regulatory roadblocks. From the early decades of the 20th century, the province was always one of the main spoilers in the Prairie provinces' quest to gain control over their resources. British Columbia always insisted that its concerns had to come first. Those clashes were rarely amiable and usually about resource wealth - the lands, minerals, oil and natural gas, forests and water power of the rich Prairie west.

The disputes have left an historical legacy of mistrust and resentment that still runs deep in the western soul. And it was dangerous to awaken them.

The roots of this rivalry lie in a largely forgotten tale of competing dreams that played out across the Prairies for 60 years.

In 1870, the fledgling Canadian federation completed the deal to acquire the vast terrain of Rupert's Land and the NorthWestern Territory from Hudson's Bay Co. for £300,000. When the Métis inhabitants clustered around the Red River settlement protested, fearing for their lands and their way of life, Sir John A.

Macdonald reluctantly carved the Province of Manitoba out of his acquisition, confirming existing land titles and promising lands for the "families of the half-breed residents."

However, resources were always the pivotal issue. In the Manitoba Act of 1870, the federal government retained resource control. This was an anomaly.

The four original provinces that had joined together to create Canada in 1867 had retained that responsibility. Manitoba was different.

The Prime Minister wanted to cut out a path for a railway that would guarantee commercial prospects from the Atlantic to the Pacific - and induce British Columbia to join Canada. He sought access to the region's rich mineral wealth. And he wanted control over the lands so that federal officials could stake out lots for immigrant farmers.

When British Columbia joined Canada in 1871 and Prince Edward Island followed in 1873, they retained their resource control.

But when Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta in 1905, it once again refused to include resource control among the new provinces' rights, just as it did to Manitoba.

Interior Minister Clifford Sifton reasoned that the prosperity of Canada depended on sustained immigration and immigrants might stay away if a new government took control of the lands.

Anyway, Sifton asserted, "the Dominion owns these lands."

The inequality rankled. Virtually from the start, Manitoba protested its plight, asking for ever-increasing amounts of money in compensation for its loss of resource revenues. It secured subsidies in lieu of resources. But its lobbying efforts would only have an impact when it joined forces with its Prairie partners. Meanwhile, it became clear British Columbia was a powerful competing force. In October, 1906, the three Prairie provinces joined their peers for an Interprovincial Conference on Parliament Hill.

Predictably, all Premiers wanted more money. Manitoba complained about Ottawa's misuse of its swamplands. Alberta and Saskatchewan were publicly silent on the issue of resource control - partly because they were struggling to organize their governments.

But there was discord anyway.

B.C. Premier Richard McBride was young, ambitious, mercurial and seemingly incapable of forming alliances. He resentfully compared his subsidies with those of Manitoba. Even though Saskatchewan and Alberta had only existed for 14 months, the Conservative Premier disdainfully insisted that his subsidies were "far too little" in relation to theirs. He irritated everyone. Laurier decided to transfer an additional $100,000 a year for 10 years to British Columbia - because of its vast territory, mountainous landscape and sparse population. McBride remained unsatisfied. British Columbia's aggressive stance was a sign of the trouble ahead.

The B.C. Premier remained irrepressible. He peppered the new Prime Minister, Robert Borden, with more than a dozen demands, soon after Borden's Conservatives won the Sept. 21, 1911, election. His pivotal issue, which would drive the Prairie premiers to distraction, was the railway lands. In the 19th century, the British Columbia government had transferred lands to Ottawa so that the federal government could link the Pacific coast with Central Canada by rail. Those railway lands spanned a corridor across the province, spilling out for 20 miles (32 kilometres) on each side of the proposed route.

They also covered 3.5 million acres within the Peace River region. British Columbia wanted the return of any unused lands and full control over any resources within those lands. The province had been complaining about Ottawa's disposal of those lands since Canadian Pacific's transcontinental railway reached the coast in 1885. Now, McBride wanted action.

On his home turf, Borden was a clumsy politician, beset amid a world that abounded with supplicants. He satisfied his Conservative partisans. In January, 1912, he agreed to McBride's demand for a three-person commission on subsidies. He expanded the boundaries and the subsidies of Manitoba, which Conservative Premier Sir Rodmond Roblin governed. But he flatly rejected pleas from the Liberal premiers of Alberta and Saskatchewan for resource control. They fumed impotently.

Then, the Prime Minister made his mistake. When the premiers gathered for an Interprovincial Conference in Ottawa in October, 1913, he agreed to meet with the premiers of Alberta and Saskatchewan to discuss resource control. He invited Manitoba Premier Roblin, assuming that he would be his ally. But Borden set so many arduous conditions on any resource transfer - including an end to subsidies in lieu of resources and the continued guarantee of virtually free homesteads - that he deeply offended the Manitoba Premier, who was an ardent proponent of provincial equality. Within two months, the three premiers had formed an alliance. They consolidated their demands into a one-page proposal for resource control, continued subsidies in lieu of resources already used and complete control over lands earmarked for homesteading. The Prime Minister sent their demands to the Maritime premiers, who predictably objected. It was a bad precedent. The Prime Minister moved on in a world careening toward war.

And then came the DominionProvincial Conference of November, 1918, that turned British Columbia into the spoiler of Prairie dreams - and strained civility among all provinces. Anticipating the end of the First World War, the Prime Minister had invited the premiers to Ottawa to discuss soldier settlement, the "general problem" of land settlement and the transfer of resource control to the Prairie provinces. All nine premiers accepted his invitation of Oct. 26, 1918. But, two days later, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George asked the Canadian Prime Minister to travel to England to discuss peace abroad.

Borden accepted with alacrity. As the premiers headed to Ottawa, the Prime Minister arrived safely across the Atlantic.

The First World War was over.

The war in Ottawa was just commencing.

Interior Minister Arthur Meighen immediately proclaimed Ottawa would transfer resource control to the Prairie provinces with key conditions.

He included a new stipulation that Ottawa would continue its subsidies in lieu of resources if the other provinces agreed. The room erupted. The three Maritime premiers demanded that Ottawa settle their special claims at the same time as it dealt with the west. More dissent followed.

On the third day of the conference, the new Premier of British Columbia, John Oliver, tabled his stance. The Premier had a folksy exterior and a spine of steel.

Meighen had refused to put his demand for the return of the railway lands on the conference agenda, but his province's claims were "of an even stronger character" than those of the Prairie provinces. Ottawa had to address them when it tackled the demands of the Prairie provinces.

It was the last straw. On the final day of the talks, the three Prairie premiers presented a ferocious letter. They would never allow this situation to happen again. They would not permit other premiers to link their issues with resource control. That would "virtually establish an admission on our part that the other provinces have a right to share" in the west's resources. No other province had seen its resources used "by the Dominion for the general benefit of Canada." They demanded constitutional equality. And they told the other provinces to get lost.

The impasse continued for almost a decade. In 1927, Prime Minister Mackenzie King solved the immediate problem by bribing everyone. He returned the railway lands to British Columbia, transferred resource control to the Prairie provinces, confirmed increased subsidies for the Maritimes and eventually asked the Supreme Court to determine what level of government had control over the water power on navigable rivers at the request of Ontario and Quebec.

Most provinces were (relatively) happy - although the formal transfer of resource control in 1930 occurred as the Great Depression hit. (The federal government has the constitutional right to approve the transport of energy resources across provincial boundaries.)

The fights over resource control have become integral to Western Canadian identity. When the Liberal government of Pierre Trudeau froze the domestic price of oil in 1973 and when it brought in the National Energy Program in 1980, it tapped the same reserves of anger within westerners.

British Columbia may have different issues with its neighbour today - this time the battle is over Kinder Morgan's Trans Mountain pipeline extension - but it is once again impeding Alberta's efforts to control its own resources and get them to market. B.C.'s stance raises serious constitutional issues. But there is more at stake: It is eerie to see how little British Columbia politicians know their history. They should understand the intensity of what they have provoked in their Albertan colleagues.

COMMUNITY-BUILDER HAD A GRAND VISION
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In addition to providing the land for Toronto's Harbourfront and leading the CMHC, he created Kanata and other Ottawa suburbs
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By ALEX BOZIKOVIC
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Thursday, April 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B21


Bill Teron was born into a family of carpenters, and he spent his life as a builder: shaping suburban Ottawa, as well as Toronto and Vancouver's waterfronts and structures around the world.

Mr. Teron, who died of natural causes on March 12 at the age of 85, was the founder of Teron International, a development and building technology company that worked around the world. But he was best known for his work in Ottawa: Along with Robert Campeau and the Greenberg family, he was among the leading builders of postwar Ottawa - and an advocate for thoughtful planning and good design, dedicated to building good places and communities.

Dorothy Wigmore moved into the first house completed in the Qualicum neighbourhood of Nepean, a house that Mr. Teron completed for her parents, in 1961. She remembers the builder visiting with her family: "He was quite handson, in my 10-year-old's memory," she says. "He insisted on a cedar shingle roof, to show off the material's possibilities, and didn't charge extra for it."

But Mr. Teron was particularly adamant about trees: "Like the [neighbours], we had to plant a red maple in the front yard near the road," Ms. Wigmore says. "He also kept the old farm trees along Graham Creek, which went through our backyard. They were the homes for lots of birds and animals, including three raccoons we adopted one summer."

This attention to detail, and to the entire picture of building and landscape, paid off through the lives of clients such as Ms. Wigmore's parents. "He was absolutely a detail person, and he insisted on quality," says Mr. Teron's son Chris, who worked alongside him for 40 years. "He had to make his homes cost-competitive, but he absolutely believed that good design didn't have to cost more."

Bill Teron inherited his talent for making things and making them well. He was born Wasyl Teron in Gardenton, Man., a small village south of Winnipeg, on Nov. 15, 1932. His grandparents on both sides were from Bukovina, now part of western Ukraine, and immigrated to Manitoba in the 1890s with their families.

His great-grandfather, Wasyl Kekot, a carpenter, was credited with leading the construction of the St. Michael's Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church in Gardenton, along with his son-in-law Onufry Tyron. Young Wasyl, who became Bill, learned carpentry from his grandfather Onufry and his other grandfather, Wasyl Sandul. Yet ,Bill also learned from his father that "while carpentry is good, the people who get the real credit are those who design the buildings," Chris Teron recalls.

In high school in Winnipeg, where his family had moved, Bill showed himself an excellent draftsman. He entered a national competition in 1951 and won the prize: a job as a draftsman for the federal government. Only 18, he made the move to the nation's capital.

This was where Mr. Teron would build his future. His initial job in the civil service didn't last long; his salary, his son says, wasn't enough to pay the bills. Mr. Teron moved to a job with a home builder, Charles Johannsen, and soon clients were asking Mr. Teron to design their homes for them. He did, and entered a business in which he would be highly successful.

Ottawa was rapidly expanding and Mr. Teron saw opportunities, first in Qualicum, on the edge of Nepean, and then outside the region's greenbelt in what would become Kanata. Here, he had the opportunity to articulate a big vision of "a complete community," his son says. This was in keeping with the planning theory of the period; and when real estate developers followed planners' precepts of mixed-use and mixed-income "villages," as in Toronto's Don Mills, the results were successful.

Mr. Teron tried. "When he set out to build Kanata," Chris Teron says, "he set out that it would not be simply a bedroom community, but would have as many jobs as people." This was the impetus for the Kanata Business Centre, which became a hub for the region's tech industry. But Mr. Teron couldn't continue working at this scale without partners, and he entered into an arrangement with Power Corp. Within a few years there were substantial disagreements, and Power bought him out.

Mr. Teron's vision for Kanata would not be fully executed. The rest of Kanata - and later Ottawa suburbs - were largely built out as bedroom communities.

Mr. Teron's home life during this period echoed that of many of his home buyers. In 1955, he married Jean Woodwark, and the first two of their children, son Chris and daughter Kim, were born in 1957 and 1959. Two more sons, Bruce and Will, would follow exactly a decade after their siblings. They were "a very, very close-knit family," Chris Teron recalls, growing up in a neighbourhood that the elder Mr. Teron had developed in Qualicum. Chris and Kim would go on to work with their father until his death.

But first Mr. Teron would go into the public sector, accepting a position from Pierre Trudeau's government as head of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., a position he held from 1973 to 1979. This was a tumultuous period at the CMHC, when a crowd of younger bureaucrats tried, as one told a reporter in 1973, "to turn this damned corporation around from being a banking institution into something else." That meant constructing social housing, including for Inuit and other Indigenous people. "He was a change agent," says Karen Kinsley, who worked with Mr. Teron before going on to head the CMHC herself.

Also in the 1970s, Mr. Teron came to play an important role in Toronto's history. He assembled land along the city's old port lands, which were being superseded by new larger facilities; the old buildings and lands seemed ripe for redevelopment. But Mr. Teron had a bigger vision for the land, as a public park. "He saw the magic of the waterfront city," Chris Teron says.

Bill Teron agreed to sell the land to the federal government at cost. "And the Liberal government of the day announced the establishment of Harbourfront," recalls David Crombie, Toronto's mayor from 1972 to 1978. "That was possible because he'd assembled it."

Mr. Crombie recalls Mr. Teron in this period as a force. "He understood real estate and he understood development," Mr. Crombie says, "and he had lots of youthful energy. I'm not short on energy myself, and after I spoke with him I always felt like I'd been gassed.

"Bill never had small visions," Mr. Crombie added. "'Let's do the big thing and let's do it well.' That was his stock in trade."

At the CMHC, he introduced programs to stimulate home ownership and to support rental housing. "Affordability was very important to him," Ms. Kinsley adds. "And his vision in that respect is very relevant today."

Mr. Teron's vision extended beyond housing.

A series of the CMHC's "Demonstration Projects" showed how central cities might be adapted as their industrial economies shifted; under Mr. Teron, the CMHC drove the creation of Vancouver's Granville Island as a cultural and recreation centre.

Mr. Teron's ambitions for large projects never went away. In the 1980s and 1990s he continued to advocate for his vision to bury Toronto's waterfront Gardiner Expressway under nearby Lake Ontario, thereby remaking the waterfront area. He also worked with then-Paris mayor Jacques Chirac on a plan to bury part of the Périphérique expressway "and on top of that expressway build parks and new buildings," Chris Teron recalls. Neither idea was executed in the end.

While out of government in the 1980s, Bill Teron went back full-bore into the development business, and spent much of his energy on research and development. His companies developed a modular building system to improve efficiency and speed. These began as U-shaped concrete modules that could be arranged to form the interior walls of houses, containing within them such elements as cabinets or bathtubs. Larger variations on this system were used to build industrial buildings, including a large factory for Bell Helicopter in Montreal and a hotel near Toronto. In the later 1980s, Mr. Teron moved himself and the company's headquarters to Toronto, constructing office, condominium and hotel projects in the region during the era's real estate boom.

In later life, Mr. Teron never fully retired, although he received the Jane Jacobs Lifetime Achievement Award from the Canadian Urban Institute in 2013. He had also been named an officer of the Order of Canada in 1982.

Family and work were linked for Mr. Teron, just as they had been for his ancestors. While his two younger sons went on to professional success outside of Ottawa, his older two children worked with him from their teen years until the end. "My mother always complained that we got to have lunch with him five days a week," Chris Teron says. But "it was always a pleasure."

"All his work was motivated by a grand vision. And that never went away."

Bill Teron leaves his wife, Jean; his four children and seven grandchildren.

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Associated Graphic

Bill (Wasyl) Teron pores over plans for Qualicum circa 1957. Mr. Teron was known for his attention to detail and an ability to think big. He was a native of Manitoba who made a career in Ottawa before moving his company to Toronto.

PHOTO COURTESY OF THE FAMILY

Friday, April 13, 2018

The things we do for bread
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When fast-acting yeast can be store-bought, why do people go out of their way to develop their own yeast starters? Julie Van Rosendaal explores the measures people take to foster their fungus
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By JULIE VAN ROSENDAAL
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P7


On a snowy Tuesday night in February, 17 sourdough enthusiasts crowded into the kitchen classroom of Calgary's Cookbook Co. to learn secrets from one of the city's best-known bakers.

Attendees passed around a bucket of sour-smelling, bubbling goo, each taking a whiff of its clean, briny scent as Aviv Fried contemplated where the community of bacteria and yeast in each sourdough starter (a mixture of flour and water that eventually gets inoculated with wild yeasts) originate. They could come from the air, as bakers in San Francisco believe, or the surface of the grains ground into flour (which Fried believes is most likely), or even from the bakers' hands.

Fried is a scientist by training; he earned his master's degree in biomedical engineering, but strayed from his intended career path to teach himself how to bake and ultimately opened Sidewalk Citizen Bakery, which he runs with his partner, Michal Lavi. As with other modern artisan loaves, their chestnut-crusted sourdough is made using a naturally fermented starter - the same method all bakers used to coax their dough to rise before Fleischmann's created the world's first shelf-stable, fast-acting, commercially manufactured yeast in the late 1860s.

The development streamlined the bread-baking process at home and enabled mass production.

But wild yeast exists everywhere - it thrives on the surface of our skin, plants and fruits, anywhere there's a source of carbohydrates to feed on - and many bakers such as Fried have returned to old methods of harvesting the naturally occurring life forms to create their loaves, giving the bread a more complex flavour and texture. Sourdough diehards have been known to take their open jars of starter for a walk to encourage them to diversify by mingling with a wider community of wild yeasts. (Some are so dedicated to the craft that they bring their starters on holiday in order to keep them on their regimented flour and water feeding schedules.) Meanwhile, stories of 100-year old sourdough starters kept alive for generations are like trophies earned for dedication to the art of baking. For these enthusiasts, what it all comes down to is a desire for a more meaningful connection with the source of their food.

Fried's sourdough class was fully prepared to adhere to strict feeding schedules for their newly fermenting starters, slurries of precisely measured flour and water left to colonize by attracting yeast or letting those pre-existing in the flour do their thing on their countertops, although Fried admits you can neglect your sourdough starter in the back of the fridge for a full year, forget to feed it and still be able to coax it back to life. There's something renegade about wrangling wild yeasts you can't even see, cultivating the microbes yourself to do your bidding.

The process doesn't just fascinate bakers: The single-cell fungi are also key ingredients in beer, wine, cheese and some fermented products such as kombucha.

Many brewmasters and winemakers also prefer to coax the invisible micro-organisms from their natural surroundings into a vessel of mashed grains or strained grapes; more diversity in the strains translates to a more complex flavour profile, one that reflects the terroir.

"Yeast has an incredible personality - people don't realize the flavour components it contributes," says engineer-turnedbrewmaster Graham Sherman, who along with his team at Tool Shed Brewery made their first batch of spontaneously fermented beer by loading a batch of barley wort, the liquid extracted after the mashing and steeping of grains, into the back of his pickup truck and touring it around the province.

The goal was to produce a terroir beer, an authentically Alberta brew made entirely with locally grown and malted barley and hops - as well as yeast. It's a method that has been used for centuries by brewers in Belgium, who place a shallow stainlesssteel pan called a coolship filled with wort up in the rafters of their breweries to trap wild yeasts.

Many home brewers in Belgium and other European countries have family strains they've cultivated over the years, much like the generations-old sourdough starters.

Sherman worked with the brewmasters program at Olds College near Calgary to isolate individual strains of yeast, discovering 15 that were potentially usable.

"Some were absolutely horrific," he says of the beer they brewed using those strains, "but three were fantastic - a sort of wild Belgian saison-style - and one strain was previously unidentified."

They sent the winning strain to Escarpment Labs in Ontario, where founders Angus Ross and Richard Preiss - both of whom have graduate degrees in molecular biology from the University of Guelph - have amassed more than 900 unique cultures in their yeast archives. It took Tool Shed three years to ferment, isolate and then come up with a recipe for the brew they called Alberta Pride.

The beer sold out in weeks, but the strain will remain at Escarpment Labs and be available to anyone who wants to try it, boosting biodiversity in an industry where 90 per cent of beer on the market is produced using a small handful of strains from two families of industrial domesticated yeast.

"Starting from scratch, you're definitely subject to a lot of variability," says Preiss, who with Ross has built a business foraging for interesting cultures. Because harvesting wild yeast is kind of a gamble, isolating usable strains prevents unintentional fermentation by rogue yeasts, which in the business is considered contamination - much of the reason so many in the industry will tell you brewing beer is 90 per cent cleaning tanks.

Preiss says in many beer styles, yeast is a big flavour driver. "They take what's there and do all sorts of things metabolically; some yeasts can convert more or less of the sugar, making a sweeter or drier beer, and some of them take compounds in the malt and hops and transform them into citrusy or floral flavours. Hops and malts are a little more tangible - you can see them, handle them, taste and smell them, but you don't necessarily want to taste and smell yeast. But it really has a huge impact on the flavour profile."

In Oliver, B.C., the Culmina Family Estate Winery's No 002 Wild Ferment Gruener Veltliner is made using only yeasts from the vineyard in order to develop flavours that are not only more complex, but also unique and indigenous to their vineyard - that add to the wine's sense of place. Wild yeasts from the grape leaves go directly from vineyard to Petri dish, are given nutrients to propagate and then used to ferment the wine, which develops savoury notes of rising bread and spice with aromas of ripe yellow plum and delicate white flowers.

Other brews aren't quite as delicate. In Lacombe, Alta., shelves on Steve Schultz's classroom at Lacombe Composite High School are lined with mason jars; in some, a rubbery SCOBY (an acronym for symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast), a squidgy mass that resembles a cross between an oyster and a pancake, provides residence for the bacteria and naturally occurring yeast that transform sweet tea into fizzy kombucha.

"We store the SCOBY in a jar we call the SCOBY hotel, and it naturally reproduces every week," Schultz says. "It's a great discussion starter with students. And we can sell the offspring SCOBYs or use them in different recipes and experiments." Schultz has his students make their own batches of kombucha, which take about a week to ferment. They hold several kombucha-making workshops a year and some students sell the fermented drink - which gets its mild effervescence from the yeast consuming sugars and creating carbon dioxide - at parent-teacher interviews, farmers markets and special events.

For home bakers, the process is far less scientific, more mysterious and only slightly less timeconsuming. In Calgary, Fried holds two sourdough classes a month and they always sell out; not only are aspiring yeast hunters eager to learn, they're completely willing to devote the time it takes to produce a three-day loaf and adhere to a strict starterfeeding schedule not entirely unlike having a newborn.

"I like the idea of having something elemental and primitive living on my windowsill that I keep alive," says Rick Thomas, an attendee of one of Fried's sourdough classes who regularly bakes sourdough at home. "It's like tending a garden of microorganisms that keep mutating and developing flavour, that brings life to something as simple as a loaf of bread. They've become a part of our lives - in breads, pizzas, pancakes, anything. I keep them alive and in turn they nurture my family."

"You get to know your starter," says Fried, who has never named his, but has staff who have added name tags to their jars in the bakery fridge. "You know when it's happy, you know when it's hungry, you know when it's tired. This is my tool - I need to make it do whatever I want it to do."

Feed it well and that crusty jar in the back of your fridge will feed you back.

Associated Graphic

Many bakers have returned to old methods of harvesting wild yeast to create their loaves, giving their sourdough bread a more complex flavour and texture.

PHOTOS BY ISTOCK

Condo flips flying under the radar
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Some real estate industry experts say the lack of scrutiny is a major issue that is slipping through the cracks
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H3


VANCOUVER -- You only have to scan the Multiple Listings Service to see Vancouver's property flips in action - and the money that's being made, by people working in and outside the real estate industry.

At Yaletown's Kinghorne Mews, Unit 802 is currently listed for $2.688-million. The sellers had purchased it in June, 2016, for $1.580-million. The same sellers, who are not listed as realtors, show up as having sold six listings for downtown condos in the past three years.

A realtor purchased 878 E. 13th Ave. in Vancouver for $887,850 in 2013, and sold it for $1.265-million in 2015. The second owner, represented by the same agent, sold it for $1.756-million in February this year.

In Onni's the Mark at 1372 Seymour St., there were three sales in 2014 that stand out.

An Onni executive was owner of Unit 4301, which he purchased in 2016 for $1.5million. The unit sold for $5.280-million a year later. A penthouse in the building, Unit 811, sold in 2014 to another Onni employee for $1.448-million. The seller, who's not identified on the listing, sold in 2017, for $6million.

Clearly, they got a very good deal.

An agent who saw both units says they were sold far below their value, and they were not made available to the public.

He cites Unit 4601, which is the same size as Unit 811, and also sold in 2014 - but for $3.725-million. That one was listed publicly.

Don't feel too badly for the buyer who paid more - he or she sold the property a year later, for $5.25-million.

Realtors are especially active investors.

One realtor had sold 16 properties over the past 15 years, all west side condos.

A search of condo sales shows that in the past 12 months on the west side, 101 sellers were also licensed realtors.

In February, the B.C. government introduced new tax measures aimed at returning home prices to a semblance of something approaching affordable, while also collecting funds to create much-needed affordable housing. The budget addressed investment properties left empty, and introduced a more expansive foreign buyer's tax, as well as heftier taxes for expensive homes. It included a promise for a registry to track condo presales - transactions that for too long have not been tracked.

And the Canada Revenue Agency recently made it a requirement that anyone who sells their home, even if it was their principal residence, needs to report it on their income tax return or face a fine as high as $8,000.

However, the free-for-all that is property flipping is so far escaping scrutiny and will continue to drive up prices if not checked. It's a major housing issue that is slipping through the cracks, some industry experts say.

There's nothing wrong with investing in real estate, even among those who work in the industry - some of whom have a passion for it - says property lawyer and commissioned notary public Ron Usher. He sat on the independent advisory group that was given the task of reviewing realtor misconduct in 2016.

"It's not inherently evil that somebody in real estate invests in real estate," Mr. Usher says. "Truth is, if he bought this as an investment and he's going to sell it, he's going to pay serious taxes on it."

However, as the United Nations' special rapporteur on adequate housing, Leilani Farha, has pointed out in a report, the financialization of housing has jacked up the cost of workforce housing and pushed local income earners out of the market. That's a problem. Money that has flowed into the country, mostly from China, is pushing on every housing market, from top down. And local investors are also seeing opportunities in all that new wealth.

As well, there is the question of lost tax dollars. Are people paying their taxes? Or are they claiming that their investment properties are their principal residences in order to avoid capital gains or income tax? Also, if a new property is under-priced because of insider advantage, the property transfer taxes are lower.

Mr. Usher believes we don't need new taxes so much as we need to enforce the taxes we already are expected to pay. Earnings on property should be reported the same mandatory way that a person's RRSP contributions are reported.

"So many people who are blowing their minds out about Vancouver real estate and the speculation tax act as if we didn't already have taxes. We have a whole tax regime, either as income or capital gain, and that's always been the law. We've just never had a good way to collect it, and it's a double problem with the non-resident. When a non-resident does the presale flip, nothing is getting reported anywhere."

When a person sells an investment property in B.C., he or she is taxed on 50 per cent of the net profit. If it's a principal residence, it's exempt.

Enforcement of that tax alone would throw cold water on the speculator party.

But our tax system is largely based on the honour system: You are expected to tell the truth about that house you sold when you fill out your income tax form. Mr. Usher says the system of "self-reporting" isn't working.

In a guest blog post on Price Tags, Mr. Usher outlined measures that needed to take effect immediately to redirect all that speculator cash sloshing around. One measure would be to require buyers to complete and file a "notice of acquisition," when they submit to the land title office for a land transfer. This notice would tip off the CRA, which would make an electronic note of the acquisition, and would then expect to see the goods and services tax remitted by the developer, for example. A seller would file a "notice of disposition," which would trigger an electronic note that they would be expected to pay capital gains tax on their tax return if it's an investment. Such a notice could also declare if it's a principal or secondary property.

As is, says Mr. Usher, the CRA would have to do an audit to acquire that type of insight. The information on property ownership just isn't there. It would be easy enough to track, since each property has a parcel identifier number.

"We've been voluntarily collecting information on real estate only after you've sold it. CRA has no idea who's bought. We don't have any idea what people's real estate portfolios are.

"Just like we did for property transfer tax, we have to have a system that requires proper notice of acquisition/disposition at the time of registration. Not when you are filling in the tax return."

If those notices had been filed at the time of registration, we wouldn't see the case of the developer who was just sentenced and fined for tax evasion. The CRA issued a press release Monday that said Rajinder Singh Mann of Surrey was sentenced to nine months of house arrest, 150 hours of community service and given a total fine of $462,092 for failure to remit the GST he had collected on the sale of 44 townhouses in Maple Ridge. Mr. Mann pleaded guilty to seven counts of GST fraud under the Excise Tax Act. The fraud had happened in 2010 and 2011.

But if the buyers had been required to file notices of acquisition, CRA would have been tipped off long ago that the developer had collected the GST, Mr. Usher says.

He has other suggestions to overhaul the system, such as mandatory transparency.

"Maybe we need to have a one-time census," he suggests. "We say: 'Everybody, we need to see every parcel identifier you have in B.C.' We need everybody to fess up, tell us who you are, give us your social insurance number, and the penalty if you don't is, we will deem you all to be non-residents and you pay crazy taxes when you dispose of it."

Other countries have tackled the flipping problem head on. In Singapore, property owners are charged a seller's stamp duty that decreases after three years to zero.

Realtor Ian Watt calls that "smart."

Mr. Watt believes that the reason flipping is so popular is because it's so easy to avoid taxes owed.

"Whether they are realtors or regular homeowners, they are using the system to get rich," he says. "If they are legitimately paying taxes as a business, there is probably not a lot of profit. But if they are taking advantage and cheating the CRA, and saying it's their principal residence, then there is profit.

"Clearly, it's a business and it's not what the owner/occupier tax-free exemption was put in place for."

Associated Graphic

Vancouver has seen more than a few condo sales over the past few years that featured huge price gains. Some of the vendors were realtors.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Office-space race: WeWork seeks to keep up with Toronto demand
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U.S. firm that subleases office space to businesses, entrepreneurs plans two more locations in city by next year
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By RACHELLE YOUNGLAI
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


WeWork has turned an old office-sharing idea into a hot commodity.

The young U.S. company leases office space and then subleases it at a premium to tech startups, big firms, entrepreneurs - anyone who needs space for anywhere from a few hours to a few months or longer.

So far, the strategy has worked wonders. Valued at US$20-billion, the privately held company is now one of the largest corporate occupants in Manhattan and London.

In eight years, WeWork has expanded from one co-working office in New York to more than 300 in more than 20 countries. It plans to reach 400 locations by year end.

Toronto is one of WeWork's fastest-growing cities; it opened its first space in Toronto last summer and its second in December. Both locations quickly filled up and have a waiting list, the company said.

Inside its first Toronto location just west of the financial district, people work elbow to elbow in rooms with glass walls. There are spotless desks, soft couches, coffee tables and bars stocked with fruit water, beer, coffee and tea.

WeWork plans to open a third location in Toronto this fall and a fourth early next year.

"We look in Toronto and we go 'Wow,' this is just extraordinary by any measure in terms of the reception for the business," said Dave McLaughlin, a WeWork general manager in charge of Toronto, Montreal and the northeastern United States.

The company currently has two locations each in Montreal and Vancouver; it wants to have 20 spots in Toronto by 2020.

Demand for office space in Toronto has been insatiable, with financial-services firms widening their footprint and tech firms clamoring for space. The city's office vacancy rate is the lowest in Canada and the United States. It is expected to fall further this year, well below Manhattan and San Francisco.

That has made it hard for any businesses to find office space, including WeWork.

"It's not a market conducive for WeWork to find space," said Aly Damji, senior vice-president with Hullmark, which was the first Toronto property owner to lease to WeWork.

Mr. Damji said he initially had concerns about WeWork because its valuation had grown "very, very quickly." But Hullmark "believed in what they offer" and gave WeWork what it wanted: a long lease and more than $100 per square foot to renovate the space to its liking, also known as "tenant improvements."

That is more than triple the going rate in the financial district, where a top tenant can get a landlord to pay between $30 and $40 for every square foot for building renovations, according to leasing agents.

CO-WORKING GROWS

Although office sharing has been around for decades, WeWork's high profile has made it popular and the number of coworking offices is multiplying.

Mr. Damji said he started noticing that many of his tenants wanted shorter leases in part because they did not know how much space they would need in the future.

"They would rather pay a lot more on a per-square-foot basis to get on a month-tomonth tenancy than to sign a two-year lease with a landlord that could handcuff them," he said.

More contract work, technology, globalization and the growth in tech firms has helped fuel demand.

WeWork is now the second-largest corporate tenant in Manhattan and the largest private occupant in Britain's capital, according to Cushman & Wakefield.

In Vancouver, WeWork and its officesharing rivals dominate the business district, according to commercial realtor Cresa.

In Toronto, co-working space has increased about 11 per cent to 1.2 million square feet over the past year, Cresa said.

Swiss-based IWG, which has run coworking offices for nearly three decades, said there was a time when co-working was a foreign concept for landlords.

"There were questions around who's going to be coming into my building, how is this going to operate. That's not that long ago," said Wayne Berger, an IWG executive vice-president in charge of Canada. IWG operates under the Spaces and Regus brands.

"Now the reality is Spaces and Regus are amenities in the building. They build vibrancy in the building. They become an amenity for all the other tenants," he said.

HIGH-RISK PROPOSITION

While IWG and WeWork are both big players in the same business, their valuations couldn't be more different.

IWG has operated shared offices for 29 years and has more than 3,000 locations in more than 1,000 cities. It is publicly traded and has a market value of around US$2-billion.

In contrast, WeWork is eight years old, has more than 300 locations in more than 60 cities and is worth around US$20-billion, as indicated by a recent financing.

Why is WeWork worth so much more?

One of its biggest financial backers, Japanese conglomerate SoftBank Group, says WeWork has the data and technology to transform the way people work. WeWork, whose stated mission is to create a world where people work to make a life, not just a living, says its offices are where companies and people grow together and that they are "dynamic environments for creativity focus and connection."

WeWork's main business is co-working, although it has branched out into dorm living (WeLive); startup incubating (WeWorkLabs) and early childhood education (WeGrow).

Because WeWork is a private company, it is not known whether it is profitable, whether expenses are manageable or whether revenue - which the company says will double to more than US$2-billion in one year - is growing organically.

"WeWork is a high-risk proposition for a landlord," said Michael Emory, chief executive of Allied Properties REIT, which owns offices across Canada and is credited with having the vision to restore and refurbish derelict industrial buildings into offices.

Mr. Emory believes WeWork, Spaces and other co-working offices are needed in Toronto. But he will not lease to WeWork.

"Maybe WeWork will go from success to success. I have no real rational way of evaluating it. It is a very high-risk proposition for a landlord and an investor. At some point and time, some investor may be holding the bag on WeWork," he said.

Although WeWork started in the wake of the Great Recession with one co-working shop in SoHo in 2010, its global business has been expanding in other cities when their economies have been booming and has not been tested during an economic slump.

After the dot-com bubble burst at the turn of the century, the U.S. Regus business was forced to file for bankruptcy protection in 2003, when demand for short-term rentals dried up. (Regus emerged from bankruptcy protection about a year later.)

"It is a business model that can introduce some strain depending on how high your occupancy is," said Rich Kleinman, LaSalle Investment Management's head of U.S. research and strategy.

"[WeWork is] an unproven business model through a full cycle. That is the kind of thing that you look at when you are underwriting a tenant that you would be signing a long-term lease with," he said.

WeWork's general manager Mr. McLaughlin said co-working lowers tenant capital expenditures and does not tie them into long-term leases. "Regardless of economic backdrop, we've seen an increasing value placed on flexibility, moving real estate from a fixed asset to a more fluid one," he said.

Flexibility could mean businesses and contractors choose co-working spaces during a downturn. On the other hand, it could mean businesses and contractors stop renting their co-working space.

No one knows if an economic downturn or simply the addition of new buildings will hamper the popularity of shared offices or whether the co-working glow will fade and leave landlords, their buildings and cities with vacant office space.

More critical are WeWork's leases. It is not known whether WeWork's U.S. parent company guarantees every location's lease, which would help ensure that landlords are paid if WeWork does not have enough tenants to fill its space. A WeWork spokeswoman said the company does not comment on "the structure or content of our lease structures."

Hullmark's Mr. Damji would not say whether WeWork's parent company was backing up its lease. But he said Hullmark has a backup plan if WeWork fails.

"If they do fail, then their buildout is generic enough that we could lease each floor to a typical office tenant," Mr. Damji said.

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A communal work space at the WeWork building on Toronto's Richmond Street West. The company, which also has two locations each in Montreal and Vancouver, wants to have 20 spots in Toronto by 2020.

CHRIS YOUNG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

People sit in a communal space at WeWork in Toronto on March 27. The company, which provides shared co-working space, is eight years old, has more than 300 locations in more than 60 cities and is worth around $20-billion.

CHRIS YOUNG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

'If you do this, it will help people heal'
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The director and stars of Indian Horse discuss their personal connections to the confrontation with Canada's dark past
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By JOHANNA SCHNELLER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R10


The question had to be asked.

Over the phone, the Montreal-born director Stephen Campanelli is relaxed, friendly, eager to communicate. He read Richard Wagamese's acclaimed novel Indian Horse, he tells me, followed by Dennis Foon's film script, and was electrified by them. As a Canadian, he was angered and embarrassed that he hadn't been taught the history behind the story: Indigenous children ripped from their families, forced into residential schools and physically and sexually abused.

He wrote the producers an impassioned, six-page e-mail about what the book meant to him and why he had to direct the film. He wanted to open others' eyes as his had been, to champion the story of Saul Indian Horse - a residential-school survivor and natural hockey player who struggles against racism, alcoholism and what exactly "Canada's game" means. Campanelli has been Clint Eastwood's go-to camera operator for 22 years, from The Bridges of Madison County through Million Dollar Baby to Sully. So when Indian Horse needed a financial and commercial boost, he called on Eastwood to be an executive producer.

But did he ever wonder if an Indigenous director should do the job instead? "That's a good question," Campanelli answers unhesitatingly.

"You're the first person to ask me that. But for me, no. I just felt I was the person to tell it. I read hundreds of scripts. This one spoke to me. I knew I could do it. I had full confidence, which is very weird for me. I wanted other people to be affected and learn from it the way I did. My research, the depths I found about what happened. It basically changed my life."

Wagamese, who was also an actor (North of 60), and who died in March, 2017, approved of Campanelli's hiring and his vision. Although Wagamese never saw the finished film, Campanelli consulted with him and sent him rushes. "Richard was such a brilliant, prolific, poetic, cinematic writer," Campanelli says. "I picked his brain as much as I could."

In fact, Campanelli added more of Wagamese's words to Foon's script: the voice-over narration, lifted straight from the novel. "It's Richard's story, not mine," Campanelli insists. "I didn't impose myself on it." The film weaves together three periods in Saul's life: his childhood in residential school, his teenage hockey playing and his struggles as an adult drifter. Saul No. 1is played by Sladen Peltier, an 11-year-old newcomer from Ottawa who's been on skates since he was two. At Little NHL (Native Hockey League) tournaments, the film's producers put up flyers announcing open casting calls.

Peltier's mother brought one home, and his charisma won him the gig - over 500 other kids. "His acting was a little rough; he'd never even been in a school play," Campanelli says. "But it was a leap of faith."

Peltier is a lefty, but learned to play right-handed hockey to make things easier for the two right-handed Sauls who succeeded him: No. 2, Forrest Goodluck (The Revenant) and No. 3, Ajuawak Kapashesit, who is in his 20s, is Cree and Ojibwa, and grew up in Minnesota and Ontario. In a dual interview in a Toronto airport hotel, in-between hockey tournament games, Peltier lords his skills over Kapashesit's.

"This guy didn't know how to skate, and Stephen didn't want to make his job harder," Peltier crows.

"Even switching hands to shoot, Sladen is still the most talented hockey player I've ever seen," Kapashesit says, emphasizing the word "talented" so it becomes both compliment and bigbrother ribbing.

"That's so nice. I wish I could say the same about you," Peltier shoots back.

"It was hard because we had to use straight sticks and historically accurate skates," Kapashesit continues.

"Oh, 'historical,' I'm cool," Peltier interrupts.

"This is what he does," Kapashesit says, laughing. "This is why I can't go anywhere with him."

The three Sauls shared only a few flashback scenes, but the older two came to set to study Peltier's mannerisms and idiosyncrasies. "They'd always be off in a corner yapping away together," Campanelli recalls.

Although Campanelli tried to keep the mood light, his material was heavy going. It's one thing to tell a kid in a horror movie that it's all pretend. This horror happened. "Sladen's a sensitive, wonderful soul," Campanelli says. "At the end of long days, I had to hug him and make a silly joke to cheer him up from what he was going through."

The scene in which Saul's long braid was chopped off at the residential school was the hardest, because it was Peltier's actual hair. "We were all bawling our eyes out," Campanelli says.

"I wasn't okay with it at first," Peltier says. "But then my mom and dad had a talk with me. They said, 'If you do this, it will help people heal.' " He donated his hair to wigs for cancer patients.

Both actors have relatives who survived residential schools. "My grandfather would talk to us about getting hit with the strap, not being allowed to speak Cree," Kapashesit says. "All his siblings on the Cree side went to the schools. Cousins, too. People think of it as ancient history, a mistake that happened a long time ago. But it went on until 1996."

"My grandpa on my dad's side talked about it a little bit, but it took him a long time," Peltier says. "My grandpa from my mom's side still doesn't talk about. My dad and mother could have gone." He nods at Kapashesit. "You could have gone."

As well, both actors are all too familiar with the racism Saul faces. "The war-whoops, people chucking stuff at us, that was tough to play, but we had to depict it accurately," Kapashesit says.

"It's important that we show it, so other people can hear it. A lot of non-Indigenous people still don't know anything about the Native communities that surround them, or the Native people who have lived here since long before any of their people came. That lack of knowledge - of interest - leads to a lot of misunderstanding."

"When I had my long hair, people would always look at me different," Peltier says. "Sometimes in hockey they'd pull on it. When I would go to the washroom, people would say, 'This is the men's washroom.'" "I still get that," says Kapashesit, who wears his hair long. "The after-effects of the residential schools are still felt in all our communities. As for what Canada or Canadians should be doing about that, I don't have those answers.

But I know that doing nothing isn't appropriate. How about land? Or some money to help teach us to speak our native languages? Or to help us deal with the poverty and alcoholism that grew from the trauma of the schools? Formal apologies are fine, but they don't fix anything."

There was a second question I needed to ask Campanelli.

He said the book changed his life. How?

"I've learned so much about how First Nations peoples are connected to the earth and family and spirituality. I feel most North Americans have lost that connection," Campanelli replies. "When the Indigenous actors came to set, they brought not only their mothers and fathers, but also aunts, uncles, grandmothers, kids. We had blessings every day on set. It opened my eyes. It changed my perspective on people in general.

First Nations people are grounded in what matters most: protecting natural resources, protesting pipelines, supporting their families. That's what we should all be doing."

Canadians owe it to themselves and to First Nations peoples to learn this history, he continues.

"It's not a good part of our history, but it must be talked about. I'm happy to be part of that wave. After our screenings, I can see conversations starting, people in groups not leaving their seats."

"Elders have approached me after screenings," Kapashesit says. "They say, 'This is my story.' It opens up things in them that are hard to share." Then he throws down a new challenge, an answer to "Now what?" "But I don't want to just do Native roles," Kapashesit says. "Native people are more than just characters in buckskins in the 1800s. We're students and professors, we're working at the bank and putting money in the bank.

We're sitting here right now! I want to see more Native people in roles that are just roles."

Last question: Directors, are you listening?

Indian Horse opens across Canada April 13.

Associated Graphic

Sladen Peltier, left, and Ajuawak Kapashesit play residential-school survivor Saul Indian Horse at different ages in an adaptation of Richard Wagamese's novel, Indian Horse.

GLENN LOWSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In India, the rape of a child, and a moment of morality
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The horrific rape and murder of Asifa Bano, an eight-year-old Muslim girl has the country on the cusp of having a rare moment of self-reflection. But, Samar Halarnkar writes, India's fledgling morals may yet yield to the calumny of its social media
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By SAMAR HALARNKAR
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O3


Journalist and editor of Indiaspend.org, a data journalism non-profit in India

When a storm of protest broke in India last week over the rape and murder of an eight-year-old, the nation took itself by surprise. The child, a girl named Asifa Bano, was from a nomadic Muslim tribe in the restive, Muslim-majority Himalyan state of Jammu and Kashmir. Middleclass Indians - Hindu, Muslim, Christian and Sikh - who rarely take to the streets, poured out of their homes, lit candles and turned to social media to seek #JusticeforAsifa. Why they did this more than three months after the brutality became known is a comment on the dire state of India's justice system and public morality.

The rape of children is not uncommon in India, where 1.3 billion people are squashed together in an area smaller than Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia combined. Fifty-four children are raped every day, and child rapes are increasing, according to the latest available national crime data. Many are infants, a substantial number murdered after being brutalized, their fates occasionally revealed as briefs tucked away on the inside pages of newspapers. In a country riven by 22 official languages, tens of sub-nationalities, castes and frequent religious strife, and united by a general apathy to death and suffering, these crimes rarely trouble the national or local conscience.

Adding to this, once regarded as reasonably efficient and independent, the justice system has been eviscerated over the years. Police officers who are not loyal to politicians often find career progress difficult, and investigations and courts are open to manipulation. As religious and ethnic strife further batters public and political morality, Indians do not expect much from their leaders, their police or themselves.

The protests and their aftermath renewed many debates in the world's largest democracy: the safety of children, the injection of religion into politics and administration, the faltering justice system, the radicalization of Hindus, who make up 80 per cent of India's population, and the deleterious effects of a vibrant fake-news industry.

Above all, the girl's gruesome death forced on the land of Mahatma Gandhi an enough-is-enough moment, forcing Indians to cast aside their differences and apathy and stand up for what was moral and just. When they did, politicians had little choice but to respond.

Asifa, the illiterate daughter of shepherds who migrate from the Himalayan foothills to high mountain meadows every summer, was abducted by a group of local Hindus when she went looking for the family's horses. (The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which over all is predominantly Muslim, is divided into three regions: Jammu, which is predominantly Hindu; Kashmir, which, like the entire state, is predominantly Muslim; and Ladakh, which is predominantly Buddhist and Muslim.) Dragged to a temple in the woods - one of the suspects is the priest - she was gangraped over days, drugged, beaten and her head finally smashed with a stone, according to a police report. Two of the eight suspects were police officers, accused of washing the child's clothes to destroy forensic evidence.

The brutality was not unusual. A day after the protests, the body of an 11-year-old girl with 86 injuries was found in the western city of Surat, raped before being killed. A day later, at least six more children were raped.

Asifa's death gained some local attention in Jammu and Kashmir more than a month ago, after some Hindus banded together as a new organization, the Hindu Unity Forum, and organized protest marches waving the national flag - to support the suspects.

The Forum - one of many Hindu fundamentalist organizations allied with India's ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) - demanded a federal inquiry, implying a lack of faith in the investigation team because half the officers were Muslim.

The protesters were urged on by two ministers of the state government, which is a coalition of a local Muslim party and the BJP, whose leader, Narendra Modi, is India's Prime Minister. The ministers were from the BJP, which in elections won the province of Jammu, whose majority Hindu population has grown ever more distant from its northern Muslim cousins, many of whom are involved in violent rebellion against the Indian state.

Asifa's death finally made national headlines when Hindu lawyers in the Jammu city of Kathua tried to stop police investigators from submitting their report to a reluctant judge, who only accepted it after superior judges intervened.

Rarely before in India - a secular republic - has religion been the motivation for the rape of a child, and rarely before have religious affiliations been so nakedly deployed to impede an investigation. These were reactions too abnormal even in a country where, like so many others worldwide, majority sentiments have morphed into Hindu ultranationalism and turned against minorities, in particular India's 200 million Muslims.

A group of retired, and usually reticent, Indian bureaucrats wrote to Mr. Modi, calling the rape and the attempt to undermine the justice system "India's darkest hour" since independence from the British empire in 1947.

"Prime Minister, we write to you not just to express our collective sense of shame and not just to give voice to our anguish or lament and mourn the death of our civilizational values - but to express our rage," they said.

"Rage over the agenda of division and hate your party and its innumerable, often untraceable offshoots that spring up from time to time, have insidiously introduced into the grammar of our politics, our social and cultural life and even our daily discourse ... Given your supremacy within the party and the centralized control you ... more than anyone else, have to be held responsible for this terrifying state of affairs."

The ultranationalists found it difficult to weather the flood of revulsion.

Even pro-Hindu and pro-government private television broadcasters - called "North Korean channels" because they doggedly peddle the state line - joined the demand for justice.

After days of silence, the Prime Minister, an avid tweeter with 42 million followers, who usually ignores violence against Muslims, said, "Our daughters will definitely get justice."

He referred also to the rape of a teenager in another state, where local police stalled action against the suspect, a legislator from Mr. Modi's party.

The two BJP ministers who defended Asifa's alleged rapists were then forced out of office. On television and Twitter, party spokespersons continued to defend the ministers, questioned national outrage and floated conspiracy theories.

The assault on India's moment of morality had begun.

As more details emerged from the police investigation, the larger motivation behind Asifa's rape and murder was revealed: a plan to drive Muslim nomads from the Hindu enclave of Jammu. Ethnic cleansing is not new to Jammu and Kashmir. During an earlier phase of an Islamist insurgency in the 1990s, nearly half a million Hindus left Kashmir and many were killed. Some Hindus in Jammu are still keen on revenge, their hatred fuelled by the renewed rebellion in Kashmir and a flood of fake images of Muslims killing Hindus.

Hindu radicalization is evident across India, as Mr. Modi's BJP attempts to build a new make-Indiagreat-again national narrative, spawned from a supposedly golden Hindu era that ended with Muslim invasions about 1,000 years ago. Websites and social-media posts reveal how many Hindus would like Muslims to either leave for Pakistan (which was carved out of India as a Muslim homeland) or stay on as second-class citizens. Photos of Turks at the Istanbul airport wearing - obviously photoshopped - T-shirts that read, "Women are not worthy as cows in India", and "Beware in sending your females to India #JusticeforAsifa," have gone viral, pushed by ultranationalists and some media as evidence of a global Islamist conspiracy against India.

The Hindu right is flooding social media with theories that attempt, once again, to undermine justice and morality: The postmortem found no evidence of rape; a Muslim investigator on the case previously murdered a man and raped his sister; Asifa's parents were dead (they are not); the girl had a large inheritance. Compiled and published in an English-language newspaper, these allegations are being widely shared, including by many Twitter handles followed by the Prime Minister. A line at the bottom - ignored by radicalized handles, of course - says, "This article is a pure concoction based on fiction. Any resemblance with any character or event is unintentional and coincidental."

India's fledgling moment of morality may yet yield to the calumny of its social media.

Associated Graphic

Students participate in a candlelight procession in Jammu, India, on April 13 to protest the rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl, Asifa Bano.

CHANNI ANAND/AP

An activist burns an effigy representing one of the men who raped and killed eight-year-old Asifa Bano during a protest in Bangalore, India, on April 13.

AIJAZ RAHI/ASSOCIATED PRESS

U.S. to sanction companies connected with Syria's chemical-weapons program
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By ADRIAN MORROW, PAUL WALDIE
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Monday, April 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A10


PARIS -- The United States is preparing to announce sanctions Monday against companies connected with Syria's chemical-weapons program and push the United Nations for a full investigation of the Assad regime's use of poison gas on the battlefield.

Coming three days after American, British and French air strikes against three of dictator Bashar al-Assad's chemical facilities, the measures are meant to crank up the pressure on Syria to avoid a repeat of its attack on Douma earlier this month, during which the Syrian army is accused of deploying chlorine and sarin in retaking the city from rebel forces.

The moves - along with American warnings that Russia, Syria's ally, has deployed internet trolls in a disinformation campaign about the air strikes - show an increased willingness by the Trump administration to confront the Kremlin, even as some of the President's associates remain embroiled in an investigation over whether they colluded with Moscow to tip the 2016 U.S. election.

Nikki Haley, Washington's ambassador to the UN, said on CBS's Face the Nation Sunday that she will roll out penalties for companies "that were dealing with equipment" connected to the Syrian chemical-weapons program. Ms. Haley, along with her British and French counterparts, will also press the UN to investigate the program and kick-start negotiations aimed at ending Syria's bloody civil war.

Donald Trump, meanwhile, doubled down on his "Mission Accomplished!" tweet on the air strikes - even as it remains unclear that the bombing campaign will actually stop Mr. al-Assad from using gas again.

The President took heat for using the phrase, which is heavily associated with a speech on May 1, 2003, by then-president George W. Bush, who declared victory in the U.S. invasion of Iraq while standing on an aircraft carrier with a banner emblazoned with the slogan behind him. Iraq, however, promptly descended into civil war and, 15 years later, U.S. troops are still there.

Mr. Trump hit back Sunday.

"The Syrian raid was so perfectly carried out, with such precision, that the only way the Fake News Media could demean was by my use of the term 'Mission Accomplished,' " he tweeted. "I knew they would seize on this but felt it is such a great Military term, it should be brought back.

Use often!"

In a Pentagon briefing Saturday, officials said the more than 100 missiles fired by the United States and its allies appeared to have got through to their targets and destroyed them. But they could not say exactly how much of Syria's chemical-weapons stockpile had been eliminated.

Rex Brynen, a Middle East expert at McGill University, said the highly targeted strikes likely will not have much effect on the Syrian regime's ability to use gas again. For one, he said, the Syrian army probably has chemical weapons in other locations. For another, it is not entirely clear that Mr. al-Assad even makes decisions on the use of such weapons personally: In the chaotic country, it is probable that regional commanders have their own supplies of gas and deploy them at will.

Given this, Mr. Trump's triumphalism risks backfiring catastrophically.

"It's almost an invitation to the Syrians to do this again," Mr. Brynen said. "They know the media would hang it around his neck."

In a tense confrontation at the Security Council Saturday, U.S. Ambassador Haley pushed back against accusations from Russian envoy Vassily Nebenzia that "foreign intelligence services" had somehow faked the Douma attack.

"The pictures of dead children were not fake news," shot back Ms. Haley, who emphasized that the United States would hit Mr. alAssad again in the event of another chemical attack: "I spoke to the President this morning and he said, 'If the Syrian regime uses this poisonous gas again, the United States is locked and loaded."

The Pentagon also warned of Russian efforts to spread false stories about the Douma attack or U.S. air strikes online, saying there had been a "2,000-per-cent increase in Russian trolls." It was unclear exactly how the U.S. measured this. Moscow has been accused of employing "troll farms" - companies where people set up fake Twitter, Facebook and Instagram accounts to push out proRussia propaganda.

The trolls are central to special counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian efforts to tip the 2016 U.S. presidential election in Mr. Trump's favour. His probe has zeroed in on several Trump campaign officials with ties to Moscow - and Mr. Trump has been criticized for expressing admiration for Russian President Vladimir Putin - but Mr. Trump denied any collusion between his circle and the Kremlin.

Moscow on Sunday said Mr. Putin had spoken with his counterpart in Iran, Hassan Rouhani, who is also a Syrian ally. "Vladimir Putin, in particular, stressed that if such actions committed in violation of the UN Charter continue, then it will inevitably lead to chaos in international relations," a Kremlin statement said.

British Prime Minister Theresa May, meanwhile, will address the House of Commons Monday to defend the attack and fend off critics who have argued she should have sought parliamentary approval for military action.

Ms. May will argue that the U.K. and its allies are confident in their assessment that Syrian forces carried out the chemical attack and that failing to take action would have caused further suffering.

UN inspectors "have investigated previous attacks and on four occasions decided that the regime was indeed responsible," Ms. May will tell MPs on Monday, according to officials in her office.

"We are confident in our own assessment that the Syrian regime was highly likely responsible for this attack and that its persistent pattern of behaviour meant that it was highly likely to continue using chemical weapons. Furthermore, there were clearly attempts to block any proper investigation, as we saw with the Russian veto at the UN earlier in the week."

Ms. May will also list the world leaders who have offered support, including Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

French President Emmanuel Macron said Sunday he convinced Mr. Trump to stay in Syria and to limit military strikes to chemical facilities.

"Ten days ago, Donald Trump said that the United States wanted to disengage and we convinced him it was important to stay for the long term," Mr. Macron said in a television interview. "We also convinced him to limit the strikes to the chemical capacities while there was a media uproar by way of tweets."

The French leader also argued that there was "complete international legitimacy" for the bombing because three of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council agreed.

Former U.S. secretary of state Madeleine Albright said Mr. Trump's efforts to stand up to Mr. Putin are encouraging. But she worried that there isn't a larger plan for what the White House is hoping to achieve in Syria.

"I am pleased now that Trump, who seemed to be entranced by the way that Putin behaved ... has now recognized the fact that he is using his influence to support the criminal acts of Bashar al-Assad," she said in an interview before the air strikes. "But we can't just do one-off things without thinking through what the political settlement might look like, what are the various steps that have to be taken."

Even if the bombing campaign does not achieve its mission of destroying Mr. al-Assad's chemical weapons, Mr. Brynen said, it serves a larger purpose: Letting the world know that the use of chemical weapons will not go unchallenged, and telling other military leaders that they cannot follow the example of Damascus without repercussions.

"Normalizing the use of chemical weapons in insurgencies is not a good thing. This doesn't really have to do with Syria specifically," he said. "This has to do with spelling out to anyone who would use gas that there's a cost."

Associated Graphic

Missiles streak across the Damascus skyline as the United States,

Above: Syrians smoke water pipes at a coffee shop at the Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus on Sunday.

Above right: Two men wave the Syrian flag as they ride a motorcycle in a street in the Eastern Ghouta town of Douma after Syrian government forces entered the last rebel bastion on Saturday.

Right: An internally displaced woman from Eastern Ghouta holds a cooking pot as she queues for food in a shelter in the Damascus countryside on Sunday.

ABOVE: HASSAN AMMAR/ASSOCIATED PRESS; ABOVE RIGHT: GETTY IMAGES; RIGHT: ALI HASHISHO/REUTERS

Britain and France launch an attack targeting different parts of the capital early Saturday.

HASSAN AMMAR/ASSOCIATED PRESS

A gold rush for Montreal luxe properties
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A boom in luxury condos is centred in the city's legendary Golden Square Mile
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By BERTRAND MAROTTE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H4


MONTREAL -- Montreal's iconic Golden Square Mile is at the heart of a gold rush of residential and hotel real estate investment that is helping burnish the city's status as a luxe international destination.

Developers are upping the ante in the prestige-building stakes with several amenity-rich condo towers and hotel/residences in the downtown area, including high-profile projects in the Golden Square Mile district, where the city's 19th-century barons of commerce and finance built their opulent Victorian mansions and houses of worship.

The hotel-residence concept - a combination of hotel and condominium units - is gathering momentum, with the marquee project being the Four Seasons Hotel and Private Residences Montreal. It is set to open in two phases: end of the year for the condos and first quarter of 2019 for the hotel.

Toronto-based Four Seasons has partnered with Quebec real estate developer and property manager Carbonleo Real Estate Inc. on the $250-million hotelcondo building on de la Montagne and Ste. Catherine streets; it is integrated with luxury shopping and dining facilities as well as the storied Ogilvy high-end department store being revamped and rebranded as Holt Renfrew Ogilvy.

The 18-storey tower will include 147 rooms, 19 suites and 18 residences whose prices range from $3.5-million to more than $15-million, currently the top end of the luxury condo market in Montreal. The $15.435-million price tag for the 6,910-square-foot penthouse palace at the very top represents the highest MLS listing price to date for a condo in Montreal, said Murielle Zagury, vicepresident of marketing at Carbonleo.

Among features touted by the promoter are the 12-and-a-halffoot-high penthouse ceilings; gas fireplaces on the south-facing private terraces; 6,000-square-foot ballroom in the hotel; direct indoor access to the various bars, restaurants and shopping venues; grey-tinted glass curtain wall incorporating gold mullion inlay; and 24-hour concierge service.

The Four Seasons' hotel-condo formula follows similar ventures over the past several years in Montreal, notably the venerable Ritz-Carlton Hotel on Sherbrooke Street and Hôtel Le Crystal on de la Montagne. New projects are also on the drawing boards or have broken ground, such as the fourstar Humaniti Hotel at the corner of Viger and de Bleury streets.

Some observers say hotel residences can play a role in rejuvenating downtown districts, help attract foreign investment while also doing their bit to add muchdesired residential density to the downtown.

"The hotel-residence model - linked to luxury brands - is the logical development of the growth in the Montreal condominium market," said Mark Conway, president and senior partner at Toronto real estate consultants NBLC. "It's not surprising to see both Ritz-Carlton and the Four Seasons investing in Montreal given its international profile.

"Getting five-star brands is very important to the city in terms of attracting and retaining international investment."

The Four Seasons venture actually marks a return to Montreal of the global luxury hospitality chain after an absence of about 20 years.

Hotel residences and condos in the downtown are proving attractive to foreigners looking for a pied-à-terre in the city, to downsizing empty-nesters and to young professionals, observers say. A robust economy, still relatively low interest rates and political stability in the province have helped.

"I think that a variety of factors are at play [in Montreal's downtown condo boom]; for example, higher incomes thanks to the stronger economy, more foreign buyers who are discovering Montreal, especially after British Columbia and Ontario imposed taxes on foreign buyers, but I don't know in what proportion they are acting," said Raphaël Fischler, associate professor at McGill University's School of Urban Planning.

There were 389 condos sold in the Ville-Marie borough - which takes in the downtown - in the $500,000-and-up category for the 12 months ended February, 2018, said Paul Cardinal, head of market analysis at the Québec Federation of Real Estate Boards. That's up 46 per cent from the year-earlier period. The figure covers resales only but is still a good indicator of the overall excellent health of the high-end condo market, he said.

Eve Paré, president and chief executive officer of the Association des hôtels du Grand Montréal, says there has definitely been a change in the perception of Montreal.

"What's been really noticeable in the past four or so years is a shift in how we position Montreal as a destination," she said. "We used to sell ourselves very cheap."

When you purchase a condo at the Ritz or the Four Seasons, "you're buying a brand. Owning a Four Seasons or a Ritz property is something that is glamorous," she said.

Incorporating private residences in the hotel also allows the developer to charge a premium for the branded property, which comes with unlimited access to hotel services and amenities.

"It's the way you finance the renovation or the development of the hotel," said Andrew Torriani, the CEO and general manager of the Ritz-Carlton Montreal, which reopened in 2012 after a major renovation that reduced the number of rooms, enlarged many of them and added 45 condo units. People who buy hotel residences are attracted to the "carefree lifestyle" of being able to amble down to the on-site restaurant for dinner or staying in and ordering room service, he added.

Andrew Lutfy, chairman of Carbonleo, says the Four Seasons mixed-use luxury project will reinject life and energy into Montreal's downtown. "What it does is reinforce the desirability, the credibility of that area. It's probably the fastest growing area on the Island of Montreal in terms of density today.

"The downtown has been neglected for a long, long time."

Ms. Zagury of Carbonleo describes the interconnected cluster comprising the Four Seasons hotel, condos, restaurants, lounges, bars and shopping as "a very unique type of luxury eco-system." Total cost of the mixed-use development is about $500-million.

Just a bit farther south is another branded residential concept: Phase 3 of the Tour des Canadiens condo project, across from the Bell Centre entertainment venue and home of the storied Montreal Canadiens NHL hockey team. The Tour, and the two other condo towers in the same area built earlier, sport the iconic redand-white CH logo and have tieins and special access to Habs games, events and promotions.

Ground was recently broken on Phase 3 sooner than originally planned because of the greaterthan-anticipated presales strength, according to the partners, Toronto-based Cadillac Fairview Corp., Canderel Group of Montreal and Club de hockey Canadien. The $150-million, 565unit tower will top out at 55 stories, making it one of the tallest in the city. Towers 1 and 2 are 50 storeys.

The TDC3, as its promoters call it, is publicized as a living space on par with the hotel lifestyle: "TDC3 offers its own distinctive and outstanding indoor facilities that rival those of the most sought after hotels worldwide," the sales website proclaims.

Amenities include party rooms, a state-of-the-art fitness centre, a games space and a 55th floor "skylounge."

Plans also call for 12 townhouses on the south side, facing a new two-acre park being planned by the city.

"The speed at which we are breaking ground, only a few months into sales, is without precedent in the Montreal market," Brian Salpeter, senior VP of development for Eastern Canada at Cadillac Fairview, said in a news release.

The condo prices at TDC3 range from $360,000 to just under $2-million.

The Tours des Canadiens are part of an ambitious $2-billion, 15year development plan - dubbed Quad Windsor - led by Cadillac Fairview, the real estate arm of the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan.

The mixed-use project - office, residential, retail, entertainment - aims to revitalize and extend southward Montreal's downtown and is centred on the area around the Bell Centre and historic Windsor Station; the latter now serves as a venue for public and private events. Quad Windsor is a variation on the mixed-use Maple Leaf Square in Toronto, located next to the Air Canada Centre sportsand-entertainment venue.

Associated Graphic

The Four Seasons Hotel and Private Residences Montreal will open in two phases: end of 2018 for the condos and first quarter of 2019 for the hotel.

RENDERINGS BY CARBONLEO REAL ESTATE

The Four Seasons will have 147 rooms, 19 suites and 18 residences that range from $3.5-million to $15.435-million for the penthouse.

The way of the dinosaurs
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Even in our tech-mad world, the giant reptiles retain their wonder, and offer very real lessons about evolution and our place in the world
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By STEVE BRUSATTE
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O4


Paleontologist at the University of Edinburgh who has excavated dinosaurs around the world and named 15 new species, and author of The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs, which arrives in bookstores this month

When I was nine years old, my brother Chris cleared out his bedroom and turned it into a dinosaur museum.

Sure, it wasn't a "real" museum. Admission was by appointment only. There wasn't a gift shop or an overpriced café.

My brother proclaimed himself curator, but there were no docents or conservators on the non-existent payroll. It didn't even have a lock on its door.

What it did have, though, were exhibits - of a sort. Posters of T.

rex and Triceratops plastered the walls, Jurassic Park toys cluttered the shelves, pieces of real dinosaur bone were given god-like status inside plastic display boxes and a menagerie of stuffed dinosaurs played out a prehistoric scene on top of dinosaur-printed bedsheets.

And then there was the library: more than a hundred books, brimming with every possible factoid about the creatures that so inspired my brother. To flip open one of these books was to enter another world: the incomprehensibly long reach of the Mesozoic Era, which extended roughly 186 million years, from about 252 million to 66 million years ago, when the continents started as one but then drifted apart, climates were boiling, colossal beasts abounded and humans were still tens of millions of years in the future.

Chris was a hoarder of dinosaur gear and dinosaur knowledge. So were many other kids that I grew up with, and although I didn't consider myself one of them, I understood their obsession. We were born and raised in a speck of a town on the Illinois prairie, a place called Ottawa that had nothing else in common with the cosmopolitan Canadian capital. Surrounded by the flattened anonymity of corn and bean fields, it was a safe and pleasant place to live, but not a particularly inspiring one. We needed to find our excitement elsewhere, and for my brother, that was dinosaurs.

Alas, my brother grew out of his "dinosaur phase," as my parents liked to call it. But it turned out that his passion was contagious, and it infected me. As I entered high school, and Chris slowly started to trade his dinosaur toys for sports memorabilia, I got hooked. Clandestine visits to his library did the trick. Something about dinosaurs grabbed me, captured my imagination in a way that nothing else ever had.

They were simply awesome.

Before long, I came out and told my family that I wanted to be a palaeontologist. Having already been through it once before with Chris, my parents were supportive, although I'm sure they thought I was just going through my own weird teenage rebellion phase. But my enthusiasm for dinosaurs lasted, and it became more than an obsession.

I began to understand the importance of dinosaurs, to see dinosaur bones as the clues that resurrect lost worlds, reveal how evolution happens and tell us how the Earth has changed over time.

Two decades later, I am now indeed a palaeontologist. My journey studying dinosaurs has taken me around the world - to the big cities of Chicago to study geology in college and New York to do my PhD, the magisterial Scottish capital of Edinburgh where I now teach on the faculty of the city's namesake university and to countless deserts, streambeds, road cuts, cliffs and rock outcrops across the globe on the hunt for dinosaur bones.

Through my research, I've come to understand the evolutionary story of dinosaurs. They started humbly, as gangly catsized creatures repopulating a world scarred by volcanoes.

After a 50-million-year battle for supremacy, these early dinosaurs finally bested their crocodile cousins as the supercontinent they lived on fractured apart. Over the next 140 million years, they spread around the globe and diversified into longnecked plant-guzzlers the size of Boeing 737s, sharp-toothed carnivores bigger than buses, and a bevy of spiked, plated, armoured, horned, crested and fanged species that lived in almost every conceivable environment on land - from the dense forests to the sea shores. One bizarre subgroup of meat-eaters shrunk in size, lengthened their arms and developed feathers and wings, becoming birds - about 10,000 species of modern dinosaurs! But then, all of the other dinosaurs died suddenly when an enormous asteroid the size of Mount Everest, traveling faster than a jetliner, struck the Earth, unleashing a chain reaction of fires, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes and other catastrophes that reshaped the world in a matter of days.

Surely, in this evolutionary story, there is a lesson for all of us. Dinosaurs were real animals that evolved in concert with real changes in climate and environment. They dealt with warming temperatures and rising sea levels. Although the term "dinosaur" is often used as an insult for out-of-touch politicians or washed-up celebrities, nothing could be more ridiculous when you think about it. I challenge anyone to stand underneath the earth-shaking skeleton of a Brontosaurus or bone-crushing head of a T. rex and consider dinosaurs as failures. No, they were nature's ultimate success stories, the undisputed rulers of the world for more than 100 million years.

Until one day they weren't.

Their shock extinction paved the way for mammals, from which humans evolved. Now, we wear the crown that once belonged to the dinosaurs, but we must do so with caution. If tragedy could happen to them, it could happen to us.

As we keep pumping toxins into the atmosphere and oceans, we seem unwilling or unable to change our ways, despite the best arguments of scientists and environmentalists. The reasons are many, but I think it is largely one of perspective. We have lost respect for the world around us. As technology has brought people closer together through the pull of social media, we seem to be losing a sense of wonder about the planet we call home. More people live in cities than ever before, and many (particularly children) are spending less time immersed in nature. It can be easy to forget that our planet is vast, and old, and fragile, and we are only one small part of a rich legacy of more than four billion years of evolution.

Dinosaurs could still help us.

Yes, they provide lessons from prehistory as we try to forge a society resilient to climate and environmental changes, but it's more than that. Even in our techmad world, dinosaurs retain their awesomeness. They are gateway drugs that get kids interested in science and nature, and make them want to go outside, go to museums (or, sometimes, start their own museums in their bedrooms) and learn about the deep history of our planet.

Children still love dinosaurs. I see it every time I go into a classroom. Just a few weeks ago, I visited a small school in a blighted area of Edinburgh, untouched by gentrification and with a vibe out of one of the Trainspotting films.

About 50 eight-year-olds gathered around, a diversity of working-class children of many nationalities and languages, many of them recent immigrants whose families were drawn from around the world to Scotland's growing capital. They put away their phones and tablets, and for 15 minutes listened slack-jawed as I told them about my job studying dinosaurs.

For the next 45 minutes, they asked question after question, surprising me with how much they knew about dinosaurs - where certain species lived and how old they were, that some dinosaurs had feathers and evolved into birds, and even how to pronounce tongue-twister names indecipherable to most adults. It seems like they would have continued questioning me for hours if given the chance.

This is the sort of wonder that can't be faked. Whatever it is, there is an indescribable essence about dinosaurs. I wish I knew what it was, but it eludes me, even as it has captivated me to spend my life on the trail of these creatures.

Associated Graphic

These remains of the Zhenyuanlong, a raptor, were discovered in northeastern China. Dinosaurs were the undisputed rulers of the world for more than 100 million years, until one day, they weren't. As humans have come to dominate the Earth, we appointed ourselves its curator, and the fate of myriad species must be settled.

JUNCHANG LU/UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

Norman Armour readies himself for one final PuSh
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As the head of Vancouver's 14-year-old festival departs, others take stock of the mark he's left on the city
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R8


VANCOUVER -- A nearly two-hour show. No intermission. A highly avant garde artist pretty much unknown in Vancouver. To say the work did not seem like a surefire sell-out would be an understatement.

And yet, the show, Taiwanese choreographer Lin Lee-chen's Eternal Tides - billed as one of the most ambitious undertakings in the PuSh International Performing Arts Festival's 14-year history - drew an audience of 2,000.

"Even five or eight years ago, [it] would be like: You're ridiculous. That's not going to happen," says Norman Armour, artistic and executive director of the festival. But it was a hit.

That the show, and the festival itself, drew such enthusiastic audiences in 2018 - this year, more than 150 performances and events at 18 venues over 20 days brought in more than 17,500 people - speaks to a development in Vancouver's cultural scene that can be traced back to Armour's own efforts. The city acquired, you could easily argue, a taste for the eclectic because of the offerings PuSh, co-founded by Armour, has presented here since it began in 2003.

"I feel very proud that we've cultivated and tapped into and encouraged a sense of curiosity with our audience," he says.

Now, after making his mark on the city, Armour announced that he will be leaving his role as artistic and executive director. A few weeks after mounting the 2018 festival and putting much of next year's 15th-anniversary festival in place, Armour, 59, is taking on a new role, consulting for the Australia Council for the Arts. His final official day at PuSh is April 27.

It is an opportunity for Vancouverites to take stock of the mark that Armour and PuSh have made on the city.

"I always say that you know an event has been successful when you can't imagine a time that it did not exist. It has become so important to a community it is tightly woven into the collective psyche. Norman has done this with PuSh," says Heather Redfern, executive director of the Cultch, one of several venues that collaborate with PuSh. "And not just here in Vancouver and across Canada, but also internationally. In performing-arts circles, Norman and PuSh are synonymous with Vancouver. He has literally put this city on the international cultural map." The festival began as a presentation series - a collaboration between Armour, who had cofounded what was then Rumble Productions, and Katrina Dunn, who was then with Touchstone Theatre (and who has since left PuSh). The idea was to bring in international artists and present local work as well - interdisciplinary, avant-garde, boundarypushing.

"We wanted to challenge ourselves, we wanted to challenge our colleagues, we wanted to make connections between Vancouver and elsewhere," Armour says. "And then, within the city, we wanted to create a new sense of possibility around what the performing arts were and a new way to frame it.

"And we were also looking to create a new sense of audience that was trying to bring people together in a room who perhaps had up to that point not seen themselves being in the same room; 'I only go to dance, I don't go to music.' " There wasn't a lot going on in the city culture-wise in January and February and the timing worked for shows that might also be staged at the High Performance Rodeo in Calgary or what was then the Six Stages Festival in Toronto, both of which were models for PuSh.

For a theatre community that felt geographically isolated - even more so because funding for touring shows had been reduced so there was even less exposure to what was happening elsewhere in the country - PuSh was an exciting event "from the very beginning," says Kathryn Shaw, artistic director of Studio 58, the theatre program at Vancouver's Langara College. "There was huge buy-in."

There were three shows on the bill that first year; the first was a performance piece by Quebec artist Marie Brassard, Jimmy.

It was mid-January - dark and probably raining, but the performance Armour remembers was sold out, with something like 110 people jammed into a space meant for 90. The performance, by all accounts, was mesmerizing. There would be a talkback session afterward.

"She went backstage to get out of her garb and remove a fair bit of makeup," Armour recalls. "It took about 15 minutes ... not a single person had left.

"And I thought okay, we've got something here."

They initially avoided using the f-word ("festival"), Armour jokes, but the PuSh International Performance Series - "a collection of brave new works from Canada and beyond" presented in three venues over three months - evolved into the PuSh International Performing Arts Festival, which quickly became, thanks to diverse, courageous and sometimes quirky interdisciplinary programming, not just a highlight of Vancouver's cultural scene, but one of the best things about Vancouver, period.

"Getting audiences at times was a challenge for contemporary work. I really knew it was needed and we happily discovered over time that it was also wanted," Armour says.

The festival was instrumental in setting up a new shared arts space in Vancouver, the Post at 750. Co-founded by PuSh, Touchstone Theatre, Music on Main and the organizers of the DOXA Documentary Film Festival, the hub includes office, rehearsal and meeting spaces. Armour considers this a major part of his legacy.

Shaw says seeing the work at PuSh has inspired a number of local companies, enhanced their vision and helped them continue their experiments in theatricality.

Indeed, the presence of PuSh seems essential in creating an environment that has allowed the creation of shows such as Winners and Losers by James Long and Marcus Youssef, which has travelled all over the world, including a month-long run in New York; or Neworld Theatre's King Arthur's Night, which had its world premiere at Luminato last year. Both have also been at PuSh.

"We have been challenged to redefine performance and have been exposed to thought-provoking, edgy work from around the world," says Shaw, who performed in An Oak Tree by Tim Crouch in 2007 - where a different actor performed unrehearsed each night, discovering the story along with the audience; and whose students participated in Mariano Pensotti's sitespecific work La Marea in 2011.

It's fair to say that even a more traditional commercial theatre company such as Vancouver's Arts Club has been pushed by PuSh. They co-produced the musical hit Do You Want What I Have Got: A Craigslist Cantata by Bill Richardson and Veda Hille, which had its world premiere at PuSh in 2012 (after beginning its life as a 20-minute song cycle at Club PuSh) to glowing reviews and has since travelled across Canada.

The exposure has worked both ways: While local companies were able to see international works without travelling to Europe or South America, the festival format meant officials would come to Vancouver to see locally produced work.

"It's hard to get a festival director from Texas or Berlin or Paris to come to Vancouver to see a single show; it's near impossible," Armour says. "And we were creating a kind of critical mass at a certain time that would bring people out."

And through the years, local audiences have learned to expect out-there dance, theatre, music, whatever from PuSh, and have cultivated a taste for it. In 2014, to celebrate PuSh's 10th anniversary, the European company Gob Squad performed a Vancouver version of Super Night Shot - a four-track film shot liveto-tape in the hour leading up to its screening. It was thrilling.

The shows don't always work, but safe, they're not.

"I have seen shows I loved, shows I hated and shows I didn't understand at PuSh," Shaw admits. "Through it all, I have always been thankful Norman Armour had the vision and courage to make me uncomfortable, to challenge me and to stretch my perceptions of what is possible.

He will truly be a hard act to follow."

Associated Graphic

Norman Armour, the artistic and executive director of the PuSh International Performing Arts Festival, sits in his office in Vancouver on April 5. This year, the festival saw more than 150 performances and events at 18 venues over 20 days and brought in more than 17,500 people.

RAFAL GERSZAK/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Here comes turbo
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The newly turbine-powered Honda Civic Si Coupe goes up against an old hand, the VW GTI Autobahn
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By BRENDAN MCALEER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D10


FACEOFF

Who would think that a tiny snail could cause such a ruckus? However, where once performance-oriented Honda products relied on revvy, naturally-aspirated engines, the company has turned to the forced-induction side, embracing turbocharging throughout the range. For the Civic Si, that means a turbo'd, small-displacement four-cylinder engine now goes directly up against the likes of the VW GTI, which has been turbocharged for nearly two decades. Which one does the pocketrocket dance better?

2018 Honda Civic Si Coupe $29,090

Engine: 1.5-litre turbocharged four-cylinder Transmission/Drive: six-speed manual / front-wheel drive Horsepower: 205 hp Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 8.4 city, 6.2 highway

2018 Volkswagen GTI Autobahn $39,045

Engine: 2.0-litre turbocharged four-cylinder Transmission/Drive: six-speed dual-clutch automatic / front-wheel drive Horsepower: 220 hp Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 9.6 city, 7.2 highway

LOOKS

Civic Si: Building on an already very aggressively styled basic car, the Civic Si pumps up the volume with lots of faux aerodynamic bits, a colossal rear wing, and a Lamborghini-sized rear tailpipe that looks like the business end of a vacuum cleaner. It is loud, brash and overexuberant, perhaps better suited to the readers of Sleeve Tattoo And Vape Pen Monthly, rather than The Globe and Mail. Consider this an homage to all those modified Civics inspired by the Fast and the Furious franchise, rather than the descendant of the clean, simple lines of the original Si.

GTI Autobahn: Inoffensively handsome is probably not what you want to have listed on your Tinder profile, but where the GTI is concerned, it works. While this is a sportier version of the buttoned-down Golf, you have to look closely to see the clues: discreet fender badges, twin exhaust pipes out back, a smattering of red lining around the headlights and grille. Where the Civic shouts, the GTI murmurs, and for enthusiast drivers who prefer a little subtlety, that's a good thing.

INTERIOR

Civic Si: If the Honda's exterior is a little juvenile, it's all grown up on the inside.

The Si is a mono-spec car, meaning that just one trim level is available, and it's well sorted. The seats are flat-out excellent, offering a tremendous amount of bolstering without being uncomfortable. There's a tremendous amount of space in the cargo area between the seats, and the carbonfibre-look trim isn't overdone.

This being a coupe, there are some practical drawbacks for rear-seat passengers.

However, the rear seats are big enough to accommodate either a child seat or an adult for a short trip. Fast families should note that the sedan version of the Si doesn't come with much of a weight penalty, and is also a little less expensive.

GTI Autobahn: If you want a little whimsy in your German hot-hatchback, why not find it on the inside? The GTI's tartan seats - a callback to the original 1980s machine - are a no-cost option and look great. The rest of the interior is a mix of nononsense layout and upscale trim that looks more expensive than it actually is. BMWs used to all be like this.

PERFORMANCE

Civic Si: At first, the Honda's new turbocharged engine is a bit of a letdown. While the ferocious Type-R grabs headlines with its 300-plus horsepower 2.0-litre engine, the Si's 205hp rating doesn't really seem to quite bridge the gap. We were expecting a little more.

Further, the 1.5-litre engine isn't a patch on the old Si naturally-aspirated engines in terms of character. It's got plenty of torque now, and rowing through the gears is fun, but you'll run right into the rev-limiter at first since the engine simply doesn't make much sound.

However, consider that most Honda products haven't been about peak power production, but the way they use it. Here's the good news: The Si's chassis and handling are simply excellent, lively, quick and thrilling. The six-speed manual feels notchy at first, then precise. The steering tucks into corners with eager accuracy.

There's a vitality here that's missing from some of Honda's oldest rivals, and if the new turbo engine doesn't demand high rpms any more, its gutsy torque combines with the Si's true limited slip differential to blast out of corners. Add in a proper twomode adjustable damping suspension, and the Si is a real driver's car.

GTI Autobahn: While not really new technology, the GTI's stout 2.0-litre engine has gobs of torque and solid horsepower. It too is more than a few ponies down from the highest-performance variant, the Golf R, but with only the front wheels to drive, acceleration is snappy and instant.

Unlike the Si, which is manual only, Volkswagen offers two transmission choices for the GTI. While the last six-speed manual I sampled wakes the car up a bit in the personality department, the DSG dualclutch is probably better suited to the GTI's temperament. Depending on driving mode selected, it can be either slickly efficient in traffic, or bang through the gears when the road gets twisty.

With that hefty, flat-bottomed steering wheel in your grasp and willing chassis and engine at your command, the GTI is very satisfying to drive. It's the ideal all-rounder, capable of handling pretty much any condition.

However, it's not really joyful. Apart from the tartan seats, this is a pretty clinical car - capable, yet perhaps not charming. It was fun enough to liven up day-today tasks, but never had me dreaming of a weekend adventure.

TECHNOLOGY

Civic Si: Drivers won't love the Si's interface, which can be frustrating to use. Honda has struggled here for a while now, and although the new Accord has an effective and intuitive infotainment system, the Civic still lacks a volume knob and has a couple of odd menu choices. Further, as it's a mono-spec car, there's no upgrade available for onboard navigation.

GTI Autobahn: Most of the gaping price differential between these two cars is down to the trim, and you can get a more basic GTI at a closer price point.

However, if you're looking for a premium experience, VW has you covered with a slick-looking infotainment system, highend Fender audio and a driver-assist package with lane-keeping and automated cruise control. You have to pay for these options, but they're on offer.

CARGO

Civic Si: Again, those needing space for extra passengers should check out the fourdoor Si. However, the Si coupe's 289-litre trunk is fine for the grocery run, though a little smaller than lesser trims.

GTI Autobahn: Being a hatchback, the Golf easily trumps the Civic in capacity, with 646-litres behind the rear seats, or 1,462-litres when they're folded flat.

VERDICTS

Civic Si: As a single trim that mostly gets things right, the Civic Si takes Canada's favourite passenger car and makes it dance.

Trading high-rpm fun for some turbocharged torque makes it more tractable in day-to-day use, and when you get on a twisting backroad, it shines. The Si gets better the more you drive it, and who could ask more than that?

GTI Autobahn: As an all-round proposition, the GTI is hard to beat. The only real issue is the price tag: when you're this close to $40,000, the Golf R's extra power and all-wheel-drive start looking very tempting. Alternatively, you could pare your GTI to a more basic layout, to better the argument against the Civic Si's strong play for value. The brash Civic is more fun to drive, but not as good as a jack of all trades. In a world of turbocharged rivals, the GTI still brings the boost.

Associated Graphic

Honda's Civic Si Coupe pumps up an already aggressive look with lots of faux aerodynamic bits, a colossal rear wing, and a Lamborghini-sized rear tailpipe. It's loud, brash and overexuberant, which is great if Fast and Furious is your style.

Where the Civic shouts, the Volkswagen GTI Autobahn murmurs, and for enthusiast drivers who prefer a little subtlety, that's a good thing.

Jeanine Tesori writes the Broadway Bechdel test
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By J. KELLY NESTRUCK
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


There are still days where American composer Jeanine Tesori wakes up and is glad she's no longer working on Fun Home - her musical about to have its much-anticipated Toronto premiere courtesy of the Musical Stage Company and Mirvish Productions.

Adapted from the celebrated graphic memoir of the same name by cartoonist Alison Bechdel, Fun Home follows Alison, in middle age, as she recalls her life at the age of 10 and in her first year of college when she first came out of the closet - focusing on her difficult relationship with her father, Bruce, who held deep secrets of his own.

"It's a really personal story: Alison's alive, her family's alive and it's based on someone whose death caused years and years of heartache," Tesori says. "So, the stakes were really high."

If the stakes were high, however, the payoff for Tesori's five years of work on the show was, too: Fun Home picked up the Tony Award for Best Musical in 2015 - and, after four earlier nominations for shows as varied as Caroline, or Change and Shrek: The Musical, the composer landed her first Tony for Best Original Score.

While the music Tesori wrote to tell the Bechdel family's complicated history draws from many sources, listeners will particularly detect the influence of the seventies - the time period when much of the musical is set and where Tesori, now one of the most accomplished Broadway composers of her generation, grew up.

Like 10-year-old Alison and her siblings in Fun Home, Tesori - a Long Island native who started playing the piano at 3 - would put on shows at home with her three sisters as a child. She desperately wanted to be part of a family that performed like the Osmonds or the Jackson Five, the (real) King Family or the (fictional) Partridge Family.

"I wanted to be Susan Dey, so badly," she recalls with a laugh, referring to the actor who played Laurie Partridge.

Fun Home's score also takes inspiration from seventies singersongwriters such as Janis Ian, Melissa Manchester, Carole King and some well-known Canadians as well. "Joni Mitchell is a prophet to me," Tesori says. "And the McGarrigle Sisters were deeply, deeply important to me. ... I'm really a crazy Wainwright [family] fan."

While there was that explosion of female songwriters five decades ago, Broadway musical theatre remained a male-dominated entertainment industry much longer - one in which Tesori, even today, stands out.

By one count, only six female composers had ever had a show on Broadway before the 1990s - and New York's internationally influential commercial-theatre district still lags not-for-profit theatre in the United States when it comes to gender equity.

Somehow, Broadway is still a place where, for instance, last season you'd find a musical called War Paint about how the female entrepreneurs Elizabeth Arden and Helena Rubinstein shattered the glass ceiling - created by an all-male team of artists.

That wasn't a one-off irony, either: It'll be the same thing for coming Broadway musicals with female-centric storylines, such as Summer: The Donna Summer Musical and a screen-to-stage adaptation of Pretty Woman.

Broadway may be passing the gender-bias test named after Fun Home creator Alison Bechdel more on stage these days - but behind the scenes, it's a different story.

"I know right now in New York there are many young women who are on the track," Tesori says, name-checking upand-coming composers Shaina Taub and Erin McKeown - but she says she both understands (because of how hard it is to make a living) and doesn't understand why there aren't more female composers in musical theatre.

"I'm not sure what to do other than mentor and make sure that the work gets out there and to be seen in a way that I'm somewhat uncomfortable with - but I know I looked to certain women to see how they were leading and followed that path."

Tesori has carved out many new paths for women in musical theatre with her accomplishments. She was first female composer to have two musicals on Broadway at the same time (when Thoroughly Modern Millie and Caroline, or Change briefly overlapped in 2004). And when she and Fun Home writer Lisa Kron won their Tony for best original score, they were the first all-female team to ever do so.

If Tesori's name doesn't immediately ring a bell in the wider world the way other five-time Tony nominees such as Alan Menken or Stephen Schwartz do, however, it's perhaps in part because of an artistic philosophy that tailors each score for a show's storytelling.

Thoroughly Modern Millie went for a 1920s sound, while Caroline, or Change blended gospel and klezmer - and Shrek was unabashed pop. Tesori likes to "render the writers invisible" in a musical. "I come from a school where I try to make people completely forget that [actors] are singing, in a way," she says.

The big musical-theatre cults usually develop around the singular "genius" (of the Lin-Manuel Miranda or Stephen Sondheim variety) or a songwriting duo (from Rodgers and Hammerstein to Pasek and Paul) - and Tesori does not work in either of those ways.

Instead, she changes partners on almost every show - usually teaming up with a single writer who writes the lyrics and the dialogue, rather than following the old standard musical-theatre configuration of a lyricist and what is called a "book writer."

Tesori also tends to team up with an artist best known as a playwright - often with ones who have never written musical theatre before. (Her advice to composers: Remain "a beginner's mind" and not arrogantly think "I got this.") Currently, she's working with David Henry Hwang (M. Butterfly) on a show called Soft Power that has its premiere in Los Angeles in early May. On Fun Home, she partnered with Kron, best known for her own autobiographical play, Well. On the underrated Shrek, she wrote with David Lindsay-Abaire, at the time, incongruously, best known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning play about a couple coping with the death of a child, Rabbit Hole.

The one collaborator that Tesori has returned to work with multiple times is Tony Kushner of Angels in America fame. The two first partnered on his semiautobiographical 2004 musical Caroline, or Change - memorably produced in Toronto in 2012 by the Musical Stage Company and currently back on the West End in London.

Playwrights are Tesori's preferred partners because, she says, they are "masters of storytelling." "They don't subscribe to the forms or the rules - the negative way would be to say 'the formulas' - of musical theatre," she says. "They come from a place of language and behaviour and psychology as opposed to song structure."

Tesori was set to add Canadian playwright Hannah Moscovitch to her list of collaborators - but she had to drop out of their planned adaptation of Ann-Marie MacDonald's novel Fall on Your Knees last summer. The last time she was in Los Angeles - where she recently spoke to The Globe and Mail over the phone during a break from rehearsal for Soft Power - she had a cerebral hemorrhage, spent 10 days in the hospital and had to reluctantly leave a couple of projects. "I'm completely fine, but it was a really good lesson of looking at life," she says. (Over e-mail, Moscovitch says she's in talks with another composer about continuing the project.)

The world of theatre can often be all-encompassing, as Tesori's college-age daughter, Siena Rafter, is discovering right now, assistant-directing a revival of Children of a Lesser God on Broadway.

"My daughter's in previews right now, and she said, 'I don't know how you did it,' " says Tesori, who used to bring her daughter along when a show of hers was in all-day technical rehearsals. "It's been really great to not be the one in tech in our household." Fun Home runs from April 13 to May 6 at Toronto's CAA Theatre (mirvish.com).

Associated Graphic

Versatile composer Jeanine Tesori, the mind behind the music of Fun Home; Caroline, or Change; and Shrek: The Musical, is among the leading women behind the scenes on Broadway - a place still dominated by men.

RODOLFO MARTINEZ

Toronto condo prices teeter on the precipice
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Condo builders and buyers grapple with rising costs
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By SHANE DINGMAN
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H7


TORONTO -- As Toronto's condo market booms, signs are emerging that a stressed industry is facing rising costs and tax burdens that may mean an even grimmer outlook for buyers.

Observers are still sifting through the wreckage of the Toronto area's latest project cancellation - a sold-out Vaughan project that dumped 1,100 would-be buyers back into the market earlier this month. That collapse is by some counts the 11th residential building project to be cancelled in the last year, and some are pointing to a rapid escalation in builder costs as the primary culprit.

Among developers, architects and construction analysts, there is a feeling that building a new condo in the Greater Toronto Area is not the common impression of assembling a towering pile of guaranteed profit, but taking on a gigantic legal and financial 3-D puzzle that can take seven years to assemble and in which prices can change very late in the game. If just a few of those puzzle pieces no longer fit by the time a project is complete, it can turn success into abject failure.

"The reality is that most projects don't work out," Torontobased high-rise developer Brad Lamb says. "There are all sorts of places where you can get creamed in this business. " Mr.

Lamb had to cancel a condo project in Edmonton last year and is fighting for planning approvals for several projects in Ontario. "If you do 10 projects, you're going to get one absolute home run that's absurdly good, and that pays for all the other nine. Five or six of them are well below expectations, and maybe three are below expectations ... out of 10, you're going to have two disasters."

Any number of factors, from unforced business errors to macroeconomic forces, can derail a project. But in the GTA builders have noticed that critical components such as concrete and glass have been rapidly rising in price since 2015.

"The Toronto market is a very busy market; every asset class is busy," says David Schoonjans, senior director, cost and project management at the property-research firm Altus Group.

Mr. Schoonjans says that while high-rise construction uses a lot of concrete, large-scaled infrastructure - such as subways and the buried Eglinton LRT line - consume even more. "We've got multiple mega-infrastructure projects in the GTA, among the largest in the city's history. When people talk about concrete they are talking about a whole group of things: form work, reinforcing steel and everything that goes into the concrete ... all of those have gone up more than the average trade."

There's no single price for concrete and glass, but some industry insiders describe price hikes greater than 20 per cent from 2016, others suggest quoted prices for windows has been going up every month in 2018.

Mr. Schoonjans says prices began to rise progressively in 2015, and in 2017, overall construction costs went up 6-per-cent to 8-per cent across the region. Worsening the effect of the cost rises is the drop in labour productivity, which Mr. Schoonjans says Altus has anecdotal evidence of. Essentially, as the industry ratchets up capacity and training to meet increased demand, newer inexperienced workers can mean that a contractor is being paid more to do less work than before.

"Construction costs are going up as a result of the demand being quite high; we're the victim of our own success," says Babak Eslahjou, principal with Core Architects, who adds that it's not just raw materials, either. "Labour is in scarce supply; if you had 10 contractors available today to frame up your new house, you'd get a very good deal. If you can't even get a contractor to give you a quote for the things you want to do, then you know the price is up."

Also, even though developers in 2018 can sell new condos in parts of Toronto for more than $1,000 per square foot, that increase doesn't end up as profit in their pocket. "What's followed suit is as soon as the trades understand you're getting $200 more a square foot than you were getting two years ago, they are taking $50 right off the top," Mr. Lamb says. "Margins are generally, pro forma, 15 per cent. Our contingencies are 5 per cent. If you blow your contingencies and make a few more miscalculations your profit could get down to 5 to 8 per cent."

That might seem like a lot of money, but Mr. Lamb points out that the profit from each completed building is needed to fund the next one.

Mr. Schoonjans also notes that finished glass window and window-wall products manufactured in the GTA don't always stay in the region: When the dollar drops they can become very competitive to export into the United States, worsening the supply/price crunch in Canada.

In response, some of the bigger developers now try to prepurchase as much material as they can.

"The market is adapting, you have to do new tricks," Mr. Eslahjou says. "Some clients, they try and get a contract for your phase-one [as in first building of a multitower project] glass, and you also prepurchase your glass for Phase 1, 2 and 3 ... so the guy can give you a better per-squarefoot number."

But that game has gotten harder to play as prices rise and suppliers can trade guarantees from buyers now for higher prices later.

"The guys with the big pockets, the guys with the big projects, have better buying power," Mr. Eslahjou says. "It's really hard being a smaller or an average-sized developer these days."

According to the condo market research firm Urbanation, there were 215 condo projects - totalling 58,900 units - under construction in the GTA at the end of 2017, and there were another 144 in preconstruction, good for another 40,000 units.

Mr. Lamb predicts that many will not be completed.

"Some of those projects will never go ahead," he says. "Projects are going to get cancelled with delays, there's projects that have appealed to the Ontario Municipal Board and if they lose at the OMB, they are not going to happen, period."

Mr. Lamb's Television City project in Hamilton is among those projects that have appealed to the OMB (which is still clearing its docket even though it has been replaced by the Local Planning Appeal Tribunals as of April 3).

Buyers may just now be waking up to the possibility that the presale contract they bought is not the sure thing they believed it was.

The greater Toronto area set new records in 2017 for preselling new unbuilt condominium apartments, more than 36,000 contracts to buy a slice of future real estate were signed according to data from Altus Group.

Altus also records that in 2016, there were 29,132 presale condo contracts signed in the GTA, of which more than 2,500 have already been cancelled by the developers that sold them.

On April 6, Liberty Developments in Vaughan announced that it was cancelling more than 1,100 contracts with buyers of its Cosmos condominium project in the city's Vaughan Metropolitan Centre development area. It was not only one of the largest single projects in recent memory to be cancelled but accounts for about one-fifth of all the broken contracts in the GTA since 2012.

Other recently sold and then cancelled in 2017 projects include more than 600 presold contracts in a troubled Scarborough project called The Kennedy; close to 400 contracts were sold at a cancelled Ajax development called Central Park; more than 200 contracts disappeared in another Scarborough project in receivership called Harmony Village and there were about 168 units in the cancelled Toronto Junction-area Museum FLTS project from Castepoint Numa.

Over the weekend, a group of Cosmos buyers who have been coordinating on a 600-member Facebook group met in person and agreed to move forward with joint litigation in an effort to extract more than just their deposits from Cosmos and Liberty Development Corp.

Associated Graphic

Areas such as Lake Shore Boulevard West in Toronto are continuing to see condominium construction, even as the industry shows signs of rising costs that may negatively affect buyers.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Kurdi reflects on her family life since her nephews' drowning
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Tragedy galvanized public awareness of the plight of Syrian refugees
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By SUNNY DHILLON
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Thursday, April 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A14


VANCOUVER -- In August, 2015, Tima Kurdi and her brother, Abdullah, were constantly in touch. He and his family, including two young boys, had fled war-torn Syria and were planning to cross the Aegean Sea into Greece from Turkey with the aid of smugglers. But the voyage was not going to plan.

On Aug. 21, Abdullah texted to say the waves had been too high to launch. Four days later, he said the boat had been overcrowded.

Two days after that he said a rubber dinghy looked unsafe.

On Aug. 31, Kurdi woke inside her suburban Vancouver home expecting to read that her brother had decided against the crossing, but there were no new messages.

She would learn his phone was at the bottom of the sea - the family had attempted the voyage, but the boat had capsized. Kurdi's darling nephews, two-year-old Alan and four-year-old Ghalib, and their mother, Rehanna, were dead; Abdullah survived and was rescued by a coast guard ship.

A photo of Alan's lifeless body on that Turkish beach would spread around the globe, the image evoking tears and heartbreak wherever it was seen, and spurring calls for action on the Syrian refugee crisis.

In her powerful new book, The Boy on the Beach, Kurdi shares the story of not only the tragic voyage but of the years-long hardship endured by her entire family - and other Syrians - as their homeland descended into civil war. She tells of horrific killings, suicide bombings and torture, and also sheds light on the daily indignities and hopelessness of refugee life. She does this while also expressing hope for the future, for a time when she can again walk down the jasminescented streets of Damascus.

The book traces Kurdi's rise from a self-described nobody - a hairdresser who used to tune out the news - to an advocate who has helped launch a foundation in her nephews' names and given approximately 100 speeches, including to the United Nations Refugee Agency.

She grapples with her guilt for providing the money paid to the smugglers, saying in an interview she will carry that regret to her grave. Kurdi's other brother, Mohammad, arrived in British Columbia with his family in December, 2015, after their refugee application was finally approved by the Canadian government, and the book documents the frustrations of the sponsorship process.

Kurdi recalls a reporter asking if she had gotten her happy ending once Mohammad's family arrived. She replied that her fight was not over.

The Boy on the Beach makes clear how that fight continues.

Kurdi vows to support refugees around the world and implores readers to open their hearts and doors. Her own family's tale remains unfinished. She describes her relatives as "seeds in the wind, scattered across the map," and struggling to survive in unfamiliar lands.

In an interview inside her home, with a large picture of her beaming nephews nearby, Kurdi said that despite the painful events, the book's message is meant to be one of love.

"My family is not different than yours. We are one. Maybe we speak a different language, maybe we have a different religion, but people are people," she said.

Kurdi writes there isn't a day that goes by when she wishes she hadn't paid the smugglers. She said she would never forgive herself.

"Every single moment, everywhere I turn in this house, the minute I wake up. It's always, 'Why, why did I do it?' " The book opens at the family home in Damascus where, Kurdi writes, she had a typical middleclass upbringing. She recalls a steady stream of neighbourhood guests and says the house was always filled with people, music and laughter.

Kurdi would eventually marry a man from Canada who had travelled to Syria to find a wife.

She moved to B.C. in 1992, but regularly returned to visit Damascus, and fondly remembers her first trip back with her son.

Her 2011 visit was different.

Kurdi recalls protests against the Syrian government and says a Canadian official called her and said the consulate was advising people to leave. Kurdi says she then believed everything would be fine.

The book details the brutality her family suffered in the ensuing years. One of Mohammad's sons would see a friend die after being shot and would later be struck by shrapnel in a suicide-bomb attack. Kurdi says rebels at one point ordered the same child to shoot his father, only relenting when Mohammad recited a line from the Koran.

Kurdi writes that Abdullah was once kidnapped by a group of men and taken to a home where he and others were tied up. She says her brother was beaten and had his teeth pulled out with pliers. The captors ultimately concluded they had the wrong man and threw him out.

And Kurdi says 15 of her relatives were killed by Islamic State fighters in attacks in June, 2015, including a cousin and her two sons. All three were beheaded.

In 2014, Kurdi visited her brothers in Turkey, where they'd fled to escape the carnage and gained a deeper understanding of their plight. They worked difficult jobs for very little pay and saw no future for themselves or their children.

"I had come to better understand the difficulties my siblings had endured for years - the feeling of being stuck between a rock and a hard place. The feeling that the war would never end. That they would never be able to return home. That the world was ignoring them," she writes.

It was during that trip, Kurdi says, that she realized being a refugee can feel like "you are a ghost among the living."

She wondered how her family could ever have ended up in such a situation.

"Picture your own city suddenly turning into a deadly war zone.

Imagine being afraid to send your children to school. To go to work and back. To do even the most basic errands. Imagine what it would be like if your friendly neighbourhood suddenly turned hostile," she writes.

After the deaths of the boys and their mother, Kurdi writes, she was regularly invited to meet with politicians to tell her story.

Many, she said, offered to do more for refugees, telling her her family's tragedy would be the last.

But after the events had been held and the pictures taken, Kurdi writes, most did not respond to her follow-up inquiries.

When asked if she had ever felt used, Kurdi replied: "Absolutely."

She described that development as immensely sad.

She said the Kurdi Foundation, which she and Abdullah established, aims to provide refugee children with meals, clothing and medicine. She said it has been difficult getting the foundation off the ground. It held one event last year, which raised approximately $1,000 for children in Erbil, in the Kurdistan region. Kurdi donated an additional $500.

"I'm hoping, really, that we get it started and we have people to volunteer and help us. Because this is really what I want to do, me and my brother," she said of the foundation.

Kurdi describes the boys as "angels watching over us." She remembers Alan as a happy child who would elicit smiles from complete strangers. She tells of Ghalib's fondness for sweets and recalls the boy asking if there would be cookies in Europe.

(Alan and Ghalib have been widely reported as three and five years old respectively, but Kurdi says they were actually two and four, with Alan born in June, 2013, and Ghalib in July, 2011.)

The war has sent the Kurdis in different directions. Mohammad lives near Kurdi's home in Coquitlam, B.C., while Abdullah continues to struggle with the tragedy and lives in Erbil, Iraq.

One of Kurdi's sisters is in Germany, while the other two are in Turkey. Her father remains in Damascus and Kurdi says she hopes to visit him again.

Kurdi said many Syrian families have endured the same experiences, and carry scars in their hearts.

She said all she wants for Syria is peace, and eschewed any discussion of politics.

Associated Graphic

Tima Kurdi has a new book out called The Boy on the Beach about her family's life and fleeing from Syria.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Award winning Chinese signature dishes
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By ALEXANDRA GILL
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, April 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A8


In 2008, when the inaugural Chinese Restaurant Awards (CRA) was launched, a ceremony was held at Edgewater Casino. Drinks were poured, canapés were served, several politicians attended to hand out the plaques - and nobody in the Metro Vancouver Chinese restaurant community gave a hoot.

"The restaurant owners didn't know who we were so they all sent their grandmothers and nannies to pick up the awards," founder Craig Stowe recalls with a laugh.

Now the longest-running Chinese culinary awards in the world with vast global reach (nearly half of the website's 50,000 average monthly hits are from outside Canada), the CRA celebrated its 10th anniversary with a ceremony at the River Rock Casino on Tuesday. To the best of my knowledge, not a single nanny was sent to represent the 44 winners in categories that included Diners' Choice (selected by 36,000 online voters), the Hennessy Elite 10 Awards (for the 10 most outstanding restaurants of the past decade) and the Critics' Choice Signature Dish Awards (for which I was a judge, alongside Lee Man and Brendon Mathews).

I write quite a lot about Chinese restaurants in this column.

That's not just because I'm a judge for these awards. It is because Chinese and Taiwanese cuisine is what Metro Vancouver does best. We are so incredibly lucky to have such a deep pool of outstanding restaurants in our backyard - one that keeps growing larger and stronger every year.

To wit: five of the 10 winning restaurants in this year's Critics' Choice Awards are first-time recipients that have been open less than two years.

Still, many readers tell me that they're intimidated about going to Chinese restaurants; they don't know what to order. This list of Critics' Choice Signature Dishes for 2018 presented by the Alberta Canola Growers is an excellent place to start. We on the judging panel ate far and wide (putting on many pounds since October) to find these 10 must-try dishes that range from elaborate and modern to traditional and comforting, but all wowed us with their precise technique, pristine ingredients, care and creativity. These are the dishes that kept us digging in with our chopsticks and fighting for the last bites, then lingered in our memories long after the meals had finished.

MINCED PRAWN STEAMED WITH FISH MAW KIRIN RESTAURANT (RICHMOND LOCATION) 7900 WESTMINSTER HWY., RICHMOND, B. C. 604-303-8833 KIRINRESTAURANTS.COM

Fish maw is the dried swim bladder of a large fish, which is typically used to bulk up fine soups.

Similar to shark fin, it is relatively tasteless, absorbing the flavour of other ingredients. For this dish (available only at Kirin's Richmond location), it has been cleverly deconstructed into an openface dumpling that swims in a rich bowl of superior broth and is topped with shrimp paste. Wondrously tender, the steamed "dumpling" sheets make excellent use of the maw's thinner pieces, which would normally go to waste.

STEAMED BUN FILLED WITH SALTY EGG YOLK LAVA CHEF TONY SEAFOOD RESTAURANT 101-4600 NO. 3 RD., RICHMOND, B.C.

604-279-0083 CHEFTONYCANADA.COM

As eye-catching as it is addictive, this black (charcoal-powder-infused) bao bun is painted with gold and filled with a creamy salted-egg-yolk custard that oozes out piping-hot like a molten lava cake. While there are many renditions of this trendy dish, Chef Tony's impeccable pastry team steams up the most voluptuous version we tried: one that is soft and buoyant; sweet yet savoury, sandy and at the same time silky.

HONEY GLAZED BBQ IBERICO PORK, STEAMED RICE ROLL MOTT32 1161 WEST GEORGIA ST., VANCOUVER 604- 979-8886 VANCOUVER.MOTT32.COM

Mott 32's signature Iberico pork - double-glazed with Yellow Mountain honey, lightly charred around the edges and melt-inthe-mouth tender - is used in several dishes. But it really shines brightest when wrapped in these house-made cheung fun.

Steamed to order, the lustrous rice rolls are thin enough to reveal the filling inside, yet springy enough that they don't crumble when picked up with chopsticks.

PAN SEARED OYSTERS IN SUPREME SOY SAUCE RED STAR SEAFOOD RESTAURANT 8298 GRANVILLE ST., VANCOUVER, 604-261-8389 2200- 8181 CAMBIE RD., RICHMOND, B. C., 604-270-3003 REDSTARVANCOUVER.COM

An excellent fry is a rare and beautiful thing. These plump oysters, coated in a wafer-thin batter, have a crisply crunchy, frillyedged exterior that yields to a buttery centre. They are glazed in supreme soy sauce (the very best drops from the first brewing extraction) that has been reduced to a gloriously rich stickiness.

Consider it the Korean fried chicken of the ocean.

CHINESE SAUERKRAUT FISH TOO TWO CHINESE S AUERKRAUT FISH RESTAURANT 101-4940 NO.3 RD., RICHMOND, B. C.

604-303-0490

This hot-and-sour hot pot distinguishes itself from other variations around town with its housemade pickled mustard greens, which tame the tingly ma la heat of Szechuan peppercorns and dried chillies. The richly built broth has a luxuriant silkiness and the velveted fish, cut to order, has an exceptionally smooth mouthfeel. Served in large cauldrons, it's a fun dish for sharing.

CLAYPOT CHICKEN WITH TROTTERS GENG SHI JI 1211-8388 CAPSTAN WAY, RICHMOND, B.C.

604-370-6899

This is not a chicken for low-fat diets. Fabulously decadent, the soy-sauce-marinated bird is steamed for two hours then placed over roasted pork trotters and steamed for another two hours.

The chicken itself is incredibly tender and bursting with clean, farm-fresh flavour. But the real treat is when you dig deep into the pot and swipe the juicy chicken morsels in a pool of liquid pork fat warmly spiced with star anise.

SQUID PASTE-STUFFED CHINESE DOUGHNUT WITH MOUNTAIN YAM IN GOLDEN SAUCE THE JADE SEAFOOD RESTAURANT 8511 ALEXANDRA RD., RICHMOND, B. C.

604-249-0082 JADERESTAURANT.CA

I couldn't get enough of this dish, which looks like a junk-food platter elevated from the PNE food fair and tastes unlike anything else I've had in a Chinese restaurant.

A Teochew specialty, it consists of flaky, golden Chinese doughnuts stuffed with chopped squid that has been folded and brightened with green onion. On the side are bright-orange batons of mountain yam that are coated in a chalky, salted-duck-yolk sauce.

A textural delight, they look like powdered Cheetos and crunch like water chestnuts.

(Jade Seafood Restaurant is moving to a new location in June.)

SZECHUAN-STYLE BRAISED B.C. STURGEON IN SPICY CHILI, CLAY POT 1886 39 SMITHE ST., VANCOUVER 778-370-8500 PARQVANCOUVER.COM

What a terrific use of local, sustainable seafood. This Szechuan clay pot is simmered with the meaty loins of white sturgeon that is farmed in land-based tanks at Target Marine Hatcheries in Sechelt, B.C. The firm fish adds textural depth to a rich broth that is remarkably clean (not oilslicked, as many are) and soothingly spiced without tipping too far into tongue-buzzing numbness.

BEEF BRISKET CURRY CHINATOWN BBQ 130 E PENDER ST., VANCOUVER 604-428-2626 CHINATOWNBBQ.COM

Old-fashioned, comforting and creamy, this beef brisket curry is softer than most versions commonly found today. The recipe rises from the ashes of downtown Chinatown's beloved Daisy Garden, which burned down three years ago.

The brisket has a tender bite, the potatoes are partially blended to add homestyle heft and the spicing is gentle. In the words of another judge, "No one else makes it like this any more."

TOFU WITH CRAB CREAM SAUCE DYNASTY SEAFOOD RESTAURANT 108-777 WEST BROADWAY, VANCOUVER 604- 876-8388 DYNASTY-RESTAURANT.CA

An affordable luxury at only $5 a serving, this sumptuous slice of tofu is served in a gold-plated, dome-shaped caviar dish. The showy presentation alone makes it a remarkable dish. But the sauce - luscious, creamy crab roe unadulterated with colouring or spice - is what really impresses.

Add a splash of black vinegar to brighten, tighten and round out the sweetness.

Associated Graphic

Top: The Chinese sauerkraut fish at Too Two Chinese Sauerkraut Fish Restaurant is a luxurious dish for sharing. Above left: The squid-paste stuffed Chinese doughnuts at The Jade Seafood Restaurant are a unique textural delight. Above right: The beef brisket curry at Chinatown BBQ is old fashioned, comforting and creamy.

FOR YOUR EYES ONLY
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It may not be as fast as Porsche's legendary 911 Turbo, but the Vantage is more fun, more exciting and more beautiful
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By MATT BUBBERS
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, April 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D1


FARO, PORTUGAL -- 2019 Aston Martin Vantage

$172,495

Engine: 4.0-litre, twin-turbo V-8

Transmissions: Eight-speed automatic

Fuel economy (litres/100 km): TBD

Drive: Rear-wheel drive

Alternatives: Porsche 911 Turbo, Audi R8 RWS, McLaren 540C, Mercedes-AMG GT

Torrential rain is pounding the Algarve, which shouldn't happen. This part of southern Portugal is supposed to be sunny with blue skies for 360 days a year, but it has been raining for weeks.

High in the hills, fog is settling in, smothering these sinewy roads and killing any hope of making rapid progress in Aston Martin's newest sports car.

The V-8 engine never gets a chance to roar; the traction-control light blinks a hopeless Morse code. The steering goes light for a split-second as the fat Pirellis skate over another puddle.

Emerging from the fog, the Aston looks like a shark swimming out of the murky deep.

The all-new 2019 Vantage is a direct shot at Porsche, at the venerable 911 Turbo, a machine the German company has been steadily honing for 43 years.

By contrast, the Vantage has had a different upbringing. The previous model languished in showrooms for 13 years, nearly double the normal lifespan of a vehicle, because the company didn't have the money to develop a replacement.

Aston Martin's dirty secret is that, for much of its 104-year history, its cars simply weren't that good. Perhaps you've always lusted after one because you saw James Bond drive it or maybe because you appreciate the brand's rich racing history, or maybe it's just that you're shallow and you think Aston makes beautiful cars, which it usually does.

Even its worst cars were pretty: the Lagonda, the parts-bin Virage of the late 1980s, and the 1969 V8, which received only minor updates over its 20-year lifespan. (The Toyota-based Cygnet city car, however, is irredeemable.) Aston Martin has gone bankrupt seven times.

"I'm aware of proper profits being made in only two of those [104] years. There were some breakeven years, but no more than four," says chief executive officer Andy Palmer, who joined the company in 2014.

Last year, Aston Martin's bottom-line profit was US$87-million, by far its highest. "If you add it all together, we made more money last year than in the cumulated best years."

Not only is the company turning a profit, it's doing so while investing heavily in research and development of new models, such as the coming DBX crossover, electric Lagonda sedan and a Ferrari 488-rivalling mid-engine car. None of this surprises Palmer. Soon after joining the company, he laid out this master plan and, piece-by-piece, it's coming to fruition.

"The business model works, assuming of course that each car is successful," he says.

The stakes are always high. The old Vantage was the bestselling model in the company's history, but the design of this new one raised some eyebrows.

The green paint on the launch cars signals Aston's intent to go after younger buyers, says design boss Marek Reichman.

The Vantage is the entry point to Aston ownership; with a base price of $172,495, it will hope to attract buyers away from the Porsche 911, Audi R8 and AMG GT - the car from which the Vantage's V-8 engine is sourced, owing to a partnership with Mercedes.

Unlike the $254,195 flagship DB11 V-12 grand tourer, the Vantage is a straight-up sports car.

In the drizzling rain, the speedometer indicates 245 kilometres an hour on the main straight of the Portimao racetrack. Easing into the Vantage's (optional) carbon-ceramic brakes, there's an unnerving lack of slowing down going on as the first turn approaches.

Standing on the brake pedal, they suddenly work like driving into a tar pit. In these cold, rainy conditions, ceramic brakes struggle to get up to operating temperature.

The whole day is like this.

The car is unable to operate at its best, to show off its full range of ability, but that makes it all the more impressive.

Turning into a double-apex right at more than 140 km/h, there's a reassuring amount of feel. The car communicates clearly - through the steering wheel and seat - that it's not about to spin off like a dreidel into the tire wall.

The steering doesn't have the instant response of more track-focused machinery, but it won't rearrange all your internal organs over a rough road, either.

If you're gentle with the throttle, the rear wheels step out progressively, just enough that you can wind off some steering lock.

With the traction control halfway off, allowing more slip and yaw, the car remains progressive and highly controllable at the limit, proving it's not just clever electronics saving the day. This is a well-sorted chassis.

Even in the rain, this V-8-powered wedge is not as white-knuckle a ride as, say, the twitchier AMG GT or the outgoing Vantage would be.

A new electronically controlled differential - a first for Aston - works in concert with torque vectoring to make this car's performance so accessible. On the track's penultimate corner, a long off-camber right, you can use more and more throttle without fear as the diff manages the power.

In a millisecond, the differential can go from open to 1,800 pounds of locking force.

Open, it allows the rear wheels to spin independently, which aids agility. Fully locked, the wheels rotate at the same speed, aiding stability. Tuning when the diff opens and locks is a dark art, perfected here by Matt Becker, formerly of Lotus Cars.

The Vantage is not without issue. It's not as quick as the all-wheel-drive 911 Turbo from 0-100 km/h (3.6 seconds compared with 3.0 for the German). The Brit is slightly down on power: 503 horsepower compared with 540. The Aston weighs roughly 1,640 kilograms with all lightweight options, compared with 1,595 for the Turbo.

And the Mercedes-sourced infotainment and navigation system is not that company's latest or greatest. But numbers never tell the whole story.

Craig Jamieson, senior vehicle-engineering manager, says the goal was to make a true driver's car. It's worth noting that Jamieson was responsible for the old V-12 Vantage S, a flawed but riotously fun Aston.

"A true driver's car is all about engagement, communication," he says. Attention has been paid to the details, such as the longer shift paddles to control the ZF eightspeed automatic, getting 50/50 front/rear weight distribution, stiffening the chassis, lowering the seating position and getting the cupholders just so.

"I know they're quite important to Americans," he says.

And - purists may now rejoice - the Vantage will eventually be available with a three-pedal stick-shift manual. There will be other Vantage variants after that: a drop-top and likely a more track-focused model. There is room for a V-12 engine under the hood, Palmer says, should Aston choose to make such a monster again.

Pulling into the parking lot of a little restaurant in the hills above the town of Monchique, the rain is pounding harder. It's unusual, agrees the restaurant's owner as he tends to a sizzling pan of chorizo.

For so many years Aston Martin made charitably beautiful messes. The cars were occasionally brilliant, but only because of their peculiar flaws. But the Vantage doesn't need to make any excuses.

The forecast is calling for more rain and thunder in the Algarve. Equally unusually, and perhaps for the first time, the forecast for Aston Martin is sunny.

The writer was a guest of the auto maker.

Content was not subject to approval.

Associated Graphic

With a base price of a bit more than $170,000, the Vantage is the entry point to Aston Martin ownership. The old Vantage was the bestselling model in the maker's history.

ASTON MARTIN

The Vantage isn't as fast as the 911 Turbo and it weighs more.

PHOTOS BY DREW GIBSON/ASTON MARTIN

Saturday, April 14, 2018

What is Marilynne Robinson doing here?
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The self-described Christian humanist's broad appeal, writes Michael Coren, sometimes brings her contempt from those who should be closest
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By MICHAEL COREN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P18


There is something deliciously appropriate about meeting Marilynne Robinson in Toronto's Anglican Church of the Redeemer. Situated within a short walk of the city's biggest university, the province's legislature and Canada's most expensive stores, it's also home to many of the local poor, marginalized and hungry.

The duality doesn't stop there.

This is a church jubilantly faithful in its Christianity, yet also progressive and relevant. That can often be a delicate liturgical dance to perform and requires some intricate theological footwork if it's to be performed properly.

Welcome to the world of 74year-old self-described Christian humanist Marilynne Robinson, who has been perfecting that choreography for years, never backing away from declaring her Christianity to the secular class, but speaking truth to conservative Christian power. "A lot of Christian extremism has done a great deal to discredit religion," she said recently. "The main religious traditions have abandoned their own intellectual cultures so drastically that no one has any sense of it other than the fringe."

Her gifts have made her a worldrenowned novelist and thinker, and attracted an audience that extends far beyond the Christian world. The irony is that such a broad appeal sometimes brings her contempt from those who should be closest.

She's in Canada to speak about her latest book, What Are We Doing Here?, a collection of essays and lectures from the winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 2005, the U.S. National Humanities Medal and, in 2016, the Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction. Arguably bestknown for her 2004 novel, Gilead, she also taught for many years at the Iowa Writers' Workshop and came to particular public attention when then-U.S. president Barack Obama, describing her as a friend, quoted her publicly in 2015 with the words, "that reservoir of goodness, beyond, and of another kind, that we are able to do each other in the ordinary cause of things." It's that association with Obama, and her uncompromising championing of Christianity while rejecting its legalistic, often cruel right wing, that has earned her many critics, even enemies, within the evangelical church.

She's well aware of it of course, and deeply troubled by the political and intellectual environment that creates such a litmus test of purity. In an essay in the new book entitled Our Public Conversation, she warns of the decay of assumed democratic values that we have long taken for granted, describing the new populism as a "sort of utterly corrupted Whitmanism."

It's this sort of contrived hysteria, she points out, that made it so difficult for Obama to govern and engage in the way he wanted. "If you call someone a crypto-Muslim or an atheist often enough, then people come to believe it," she says, shaking her head. "It's horrible, of course, and untrue.

Here's the point about Obama's faith - it develops all the time because it's the mode of his respect for other people. Always respect."

They had numerous conversations, some of them published three years ago in the New York Review of Books. "We had far more contact when he was in office than now, strangely enough.

But I've a feeling that something is happening, that there is a wind at his back. Of course, it's agony to see what is happening now, with our bully in Washington; one thing you have to say about agony though is that when it's evenly shared it does become easier," and she laughs. "Trump is considered a friend of the faith, but that's a farce. It's about branding and Trump knows that so well."

The great lie of branding has resonance internationally, with Brexit in Britain, the rise of xenophobic nationalism in Italy and Eastern Europe, and even in Canada with the success of conservative leaders who splash about in the pool of populism and propaganda, often supported by the Christian right. That alliance is embarrassing to thinking Christians and especially to someone such as Robinson. "Yes, this idea that Christians are under siege, and need help because they are fighting against those who would push abortion and gay marriage on them. It's a kind of cynical appropriation of the posture of authentic minority groups that are under genuine cultural pressure.

Geographically, many of the people who are adopting these postures, if they were actually Christian, would be engaging in self-examination relative to the fact that they oppress minorities. It's very unattractive, very unappealing, very discouraging." A pause, a thought, and then, said with visible regret: "When I was teaching Scripture, many of the students were very appreciative of the class, but they were embarrassed to be seen walking across campus carrying the Bible, nervous to be seen as cruel-minded fanatics.

That's a terrible position for faith to be in."

The hand-in-hand love affair between outreach, social justice, orthodoxy and liberalism isn't in reality a contradiction for the Christian, but the quintessence of a mature faith. Yet, nobody could be blamed if they assumed otherwise. "Of course not," she says, grimacing just a little. "I don't blame anybody for having a critical view of Christianity, but I know that the Bible is a living document. I describe myself as a Christian humanist because I've a classic definition of humanism.

For me, a Christian humanist tries to acquire as broad an understanding of the world as possible, but that proceeds from the confidence that it's not going to offend against religion but will broaden it."

It's a theme she returns to in her writing time and time again, portrayed with a compelling subtlety in her characters, but perhaps more acutely outside of her fiction. To put in bluntly, Christianity is being shamed and libelled by the loudest of its ostensible followers. We both know that. She leans back, considers and then delivers a complete, incisive paragraph of criticism. "To deny marriage equality, for example, is to insult people, but there's more: Those institutions that deny equal marriage, that are hostile, deprive themselves of any realistic understanding of humanity, of people who want acknowledgement and respect. In that sense, it's a systemic rudeness, a kind of self-righteousness. And remember, the Bible is countervailing, telling us that now there is neither male nor female, Greek nor Jew.

"I write because I have a physiological need to write, not because I want to convert or please people," she explains. "Yes, I'm angry at the retrograde business that's associated with Christianity sometimes, the gospel of prosperity and so on. Horrible, horrible."

So, I ask, is that where original sin comes into all this? She pauses, smiles and refers to her beloved John Calvin, the great Protestant reformer whom she argues repeatedly has been unfairly treated by history.

"He said that original sin is flawed consciousness in effect.

Thomas Aquinas felt that baptism rectified all things and enabled reason, but Calvin said it doesn't. He said that people are brilliant and flawed simultaneously. The denial of respect to another person is theft and sin is injury to another person. I think that's perfect." There's that word "respect" again, that she sees in Calvin down the ages through to Obama.

She sips from a plastic cup of water and as she does so, I speak of Donald Trump and his Christian allies as being so lacking in that very respect toward other people. She puts the cup down and says, "Ah, Calvin. Lived 500 years ago, but knew so much."

And then she smiles, and we leave the church. At the narthex, as she's about to walk into the roaring mass of afternoon Toronto, three people who work at the Church of the Redeemer, two of them young women, rush up the stairs to meet her. They're obviously excited and slightly nervous and simply want to shake her hand. That, whatever the fingerpointers will say, is the ultimate good review.

Associated Graphic

Author Marilynne Robinson's championing of Christianity while rejecting its legalistic right wing has earned her many critics among evangelicals.

CHRIS YOUNG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Hybrid engines come in many forms - and with unique drawbacks
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By MARK RICHARDSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, April 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D6


There's a button on the dash of the popular Toyota RAV4 Hybrid marked EV Mode. It switches the compact SUV to "electric vehicle only" operation.

It was welcome this week, approaching the traffic-clogged Lincoln Tunnel here going into New York. I'd driven down from Toronto and - because I was driving quickly to make an appointment - burned much more gasoline than expected. Entering the 2.4-kilometre-long tunnel, the gas gauge said there was only 16 km of gasoline in the tank. I needed to preserve every drop.

A tunnel is an ideal place for a hybrid's allelectric operation. If the vehicle is running only on the electric motor, it creates no noxious emissions into the enclosed air that must be pumped clear, and it makes no noise that resounds off the walls. I'd driven for 500 km almost non-stop, so surely the battery was as charged as it could be. I paid the toll, pressed the button and cruised silently into the stopand-go procession under the Hudson River.

The RAV4's motor lasted just more than halfway before its battery was drained and the gas engine switched itself back on. What's the use in that?

These days, there are many variations of hybrid and electric powertrains. The RAV4 has a "full hybrid" engine, which means it uses a combination of gasoline engine and electric motor to save fuel and can drive - albeit briefly - with just the motor. A dedicated battery is charged through the driving of the vehicle: It takes waste energy primarily from the heat of braking and converts it to stored energy, which can then be used by the electric motor when needed.

Some other vehicles have "mild hybrid" engines, which always need the gasoline engine to drive the vehicle, but use the electric motor to share power, or help it run heat and lights and similar features when stopped. The original Toyota Prius and Honda Insight were mild hybrids; more recently, the previous generation Buick Lacrosse and Regal offered mild hybrids.

Later this year, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA), which owns Ram and Jeep, will be introducing a new, optional 48-volt mild-hybrid system on its Ram 1500 pickup and the new Jeep Wrangler.

The stronger electric motor (compared with current 12-volt systems) will be able to launch the vehicle from standstill so the engine won't need to run until everything is actually moving. This is a fairly inexpensive alternative for any size of vehicle to create extra power when needed under load but also conserve fuel; FCA estimates it can offer twothirds of the fuel savings of a full hybrid at just one-third the cost.

Other manufacturers are also developing mild-hybrid systems that could become commonplace in the next few years. Delphi estimates that one in 10 cars sold in North America by 2025 will be equipped with the 48-volt system.

And then there are plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or PHEVs, which are designed to drive for relatively short distances on purely electric power - usually somewhere between 15 km sand 50 km. They can be physically plugged into a household power supply to replenish their batteries and their electric motors are intended for short-distance commuting or congested city traffic. Outside the city, for extra range, the gas engine offers unlimited distance. The best PHEVs can be set to only switch on their electric motors when you set them to and to recharge them from the engine if desired.

While battery electric vehicles have solely electric motors for their powertrain and can only refuel at a charging station, battery electric vehicles with range extenders have small gasoline engines solely to create electricity.

When the grid-supplied power runs out on a Chevrolet Volt or BMW i3, their electric motors can still be supplied with battery power created by a gas engine. The difference is that they always drive as an electric car, not as an internal-combustion car with a drained electric-motor battery, but they are no longer "zero-emissions" vehicles.

Most attention is currently on battery electric vehicles and they have the most generous government rebates in those provinces and states that subsidize their purchase. But they're not the be-all and end-all of environmental transportation. Inherently, the vehicles are either very small and light (to increase range and power) or very expensive (because they have additional battery power, which is both costly and heavy), so their uses are limited.

The truth is that the small and light batterypowered vehicles are bought as replacements on the road for conventional vehicles that are also small and light, and which are already highly efficient. It's the larger vehicles that need replacing if overall greenhouse gas emissions are to be reduced and if less overall gasoline is to be consumed.

As such, there's a purpose for all the hybrid variants and each has its pros and cons.

"There is no 'one-size-fits-all' approach to meeting Canadian drivers' needs," Toyota Canada president Larry Hutchinson stated recently in a speech to auto-industry stakeholders, "so public policy focusing solely on the sale of zero-emission vehicles may miss the real target of overall greenhouse gas reduction."

All hybrids use less fuel than their conventionally powered equivalents, but they all cost more, because they're packing two separate power sources under their hoods, not just one.

The mild hybrids are the least expensive but there are now very few of them - battery technology has evolved to allow even basic batteries to hold enough power for a short electriconly drive and consumers want this. It helps salve their conscience at the drivethrough.

The RAV4 might as well be a mild hybrid, though.

Accelerate with more than a feather's touch on the throttle and the gas engine will activate; the slightest upgrade will be too burdensome for the electric motor.

Try to drive in EV Mode on the flat and there'll soon be a long line of traffic behind you, growing impatient at your snail's pace.

It would have helped to have had a greater EV-only range to get through the Lincoln Tunnel, but that would need a more costly battery and electric motor that will turn away potential converts. It will also weigh more and so the vehicle will consume more fuel on the highway when it's not in use.

A typical battery electric vehicle with a range of 200 km would need at least three stops to recharge along the way, each taking close to an hour at a fast-charger. But a hybrid SUV such as the RAV4, which doesn't need its owner to have a garage with an electric supply or a charging station, and which saves some fuel by replacing gas with electricity, does just the trick.

My average consumption for the highway drive down was just under 8.0 litres per 100 km and that was driving at the higher end of the accepted speed limit. If I'd driven at the posted speed limit, my consumption would have been much closer to the official combined rating of 7.3 litres/100 km. (When I filled up, the computer estimated my range at 600 km, but the tank of gas actually covered barely more than 500). A conventionally powered RAV4, however, has an official combined rating of no better than 9.0 L/100 km.

Toyota's Hutchinson says that at this earlyadopter phase of electrification, it's essential to offer something to everyone, and that includes drivers of larger vehicles who can't afford expensive Teslas and premium SUVs.

"As an industry - and as a country - our focus should be on overall carbon reduction, not just on selling zero-emissions vehicles," he said. "Getting there will require a comprehensive approach that offers Canadian consumers a choice of technologies and related charging or fuelling infrastructure that meet a broad range of needs and will lead to an overall reduction of greenhouse gasses."

Associated Graphic

The Toyota RAV4's 'full hybrid' engine uses a combination of gasoline engine and electric motor to save fuel and can drive - albeit briefly - with just the motor.

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Thursday, April 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B20


ROMEO DE GASPERIS

It is with deep sorrow that we have to announce the passing of Romeo De Gasperis on Monday, April 16, 2018 at 4:12 p.m. After a long and courageous journey over the past eighteen years, Romeo passed away peacefully surrounded by his caring family at Toronto General Hospital. He is survived by his devoted and loving wife, Marialisa of 25 years; his loving daughter, Natalie; and cherished sons, Justyn and Giordano. He is survived by his adoring parents, Angelo and Lorenza De Gasperis. He will be sadly missed by his brother, Tony and fiancé, Janet; his late brother, Frankie (the late Rosa); with niece, Laura (Mike); with great-nephew, Giuseppe; and nephew, Frankie Jr.; his twin sister, Julie; and brother-in-law, Claudio; with nieces, Jessica and Valerie; and nephews, Marco and Angelo; his sister, Nancy and brother-in-law, Peter; with niece, Nicole; his mother-in-law, Silvana (the late Giovanni); sister-in-law, Enza (Fabien); with nephew, Éli and niece, Léa; brother-inlaw, Giancarmen; (Daniella) with nephew, Gio; and niece, Ariella; his many aunts, uncles and cousins, and several very special friends.

Romeo leaves a legacy of profound kindness, generosity, a great admiration and unwavering devotion to his beautiful family, his parents and loving support to his extended family and simply anyone that he touched. Romeo will always be remembered in the community as an honourable man with such strength and determination in everything that he did and an incredible aptitude for business; all while holding true to his humble self and charismatic personality. He was a very special man and will always be remembered with great pride, true joy and most of all; loving and unforgettable memories. He now joins his beloved brother, Frankie.

Visitation will be held at St. Clare of Assisi Parish, 150 Saint Francis Ave. in Woodbridge on Thursday, April 19th from 2 p.m. - 4 p.m. and 5 p.m. - 8 p.m. Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated at St.

Clare of Assisi Parish on Friday, April 20, 2018 at 10 a.m. Private Entombment to follow at Holy Cross Catholic Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Peter Munk Cardiac Centre at the Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation in honour of Romeo De Gasperis would be appreciated by the family, please call 416-603-5300 or visit http://www.tgwhf.ca/tribute.

God Bless and may Romeo De Gasperis Rest In Eternal Peace.

Funeral arrangements entrusted to Vescio Funeral Home Woodbridge Chapel, (8101 Weston Rd., 905-850-3332).

NEIL SINCLAIR McKECHNIE 1923-2018

Passed away peacefully at North York General Hospital on April 10, 2018 at age 94.

Lovingly remembered by his partner, Vivian Scott. Beloved husband of the late Marguerite McKechnie. Loving father of Jeffrey (Patricia), Burton (Pat), Alison (Randy), Grace (Alex) and the late Rosalie (Richard). Fondly remembered by his 11 grandchildren and 15 greatgrandchildren. Predeceased by his brothers, Duncan and Bill, and sister, Charlotte.

Neil rose to the rank of Lt.

Colonel in the army, and after retirement in 1978 worked for a number of years in the federal government.

According to Neil's wishes there will be no service. Neil will be buried beside his late wife at the Boston Mills Cemetery at a later date.

ELLICE PAMELA MITCHELL

Of London, Ontario died Tuesday, April 17, 2018 at 99 years of age. Her family had hoped for a one hundred year birthday celebration but it was not to be.Pamela Mitchell, nee Daly, was born and raised in London in the family home at 300 Princess Ave., but spent the majority of her adult years in Bermuda.

Pam was engaged twice during the Second World War and both of her fiancés were killed in the war. At war's end, Pam vacationed in Bermuda where she met and married both of her husbands. Pam came back to Canada in her mid sixties and returned to live in London. Pam leaves behind four nieces, Daphne Hood of Guelph, Janice Mollenhaure and Susan Wallace of Toronto, and Virginia Head of Australia.

Pam loved to travel and especially enjoyed her trips to visit her niece, Virginia, in Australia. Pam had grown very close to the family of her niece, Susan Wallace, and at the age of 92, took her last big trip sailing to England with them on the Queen Mary 2 to attend Wimbledon. In her declining years, Pam particularly enjoyed the visits of Susan's granddaughters, Georgia and Ivy Wallace.

Following her wishes Pam's cremation is being handled by the Harris Funeral Home.

There will be no visitation or memorial service.

http://www.HarrisFuneralHome.ca

KEVAN THOMAS O'CONNOR

Funny, irreverent, the purveyor of bad jokes and the life of every party, Kevan passed suddenly, being as spontaneous as ever! Kevan had many names - Honey, Daddio, Kevy, Uncle Kev, UK, gentleman farmer and real estate mogul. Everybody loved his superhero personas and we never knew what to expect next from him. Through his 40 plus years as a realtor, he guided many newcomers to our town, befriending each and every one.

His love for his family shone like a beacon and he was generous to a fault. Kevan's life cannot be described by mere words, but it can be seen in the fabric of Niagara-On-The-Lake, the people that loved him and the way he celebrated life every day.

He leaves his adoring wife, Lynn; sons, Andrew (Nikki) and James.

Predeceased by his parents, Thomas and Ellen O'Connor. Also survived by his siblings, Barry (Deby), Donald (Martha), Carlyn, Edward, Kelly; in-laws, Danny and Nellie Masaro, Larry (Ginette) Masaro, Joanne (Vince) Di Carlo; and many nieces and nephews.

Family will receive friends at Morgan Funeral Home, 415 Regent St., Niagara-On-The-Lake on Friday, April, 20th from 12-3 p.m. and 5-7 p.m. A celebration of life will be held at the NiagaraOn-The-Lake Golf Course, 143 Front St, Niagara-on-the-Lake on Sunday, April 22nd at 2 p.m.

Donations may be made to Lynn and Kevan's Niagara Charities Fund at The Niagara Community Foundation or The Red Roof Retreat. Memories, photos and condolences can be shared online at http://www.morganfuneral.com

RICHARD ANDREW MILES OUTERBRIDGE 1956 - 2018

Richard (RAMO) Outerbridge passed away in Toronto on April 6, 2018. Father of Romana Astra; son of Miles; predeceased by his mother, Christina; partner of Gazelle; nephew of Andrew; cousin of Diana and Suzanne. An accomplished educator, he touched many hearts.

DAVID WEBBER

On Monday, April 16, 2018, at Toronto Grace Hospital. David Webber, loving father of Evan.

Dear brother and brother-in-law of Mark Webber, Debbie and Michael Shapiro and Ellen Webber. Son of the late Murray and Myrna Webber. Loving uncle of Zak and Kyle Shapiro. Shiva at 1603 Bathurst St., #505, beginning Wednesday, April 18, with visits Wednesday and Thursday from 5:00 - 9:00 p.m. and on Friday from 2:00 - 6:00 p.m. Condolences may be sent to 1603 Bathurst St, #505. Donations to support embodied research using the Feldenkrais Method may be made to Benjamin's Foundation, 416-780-0324 or to a charity of choice.

THOMAS EGERTON WEIR

With deep sorrow we announce Tom's passing on Thursday, April 12, 2018, age 49, surrounded by his loved ones at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Mother, Karin; sister, Shanna; brotherin-law, Enzo; nieces, Emma and Isabelle; best friend, Sonya; and family in Hamilton and Ireland, will miss him so very much and forever keep him in our hearts.

Please join us in a celebration of his life. The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from, 4:00 - 6:00 p.m. Sunday, April 22nd. The funeral service will be held on Monday, April 23rd at 1:00 p.m. in St. Clement's Church, 70 St Clement's Avenue, with a reception to follow.

Memorial donations may be made to the Ontario Farmland Trust or Niagara Dog Rescue, http://ontariofarmlandtrust.ca/, http://niagaradogrescue.org/ Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com

WORKING-CLASS, NO MORE
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About 20 per cent of the truck market now falls in the premium bracket, above $55,000, as pickups are increasingly being considered alongside cars from Cadillac, Lexus and Mercedes
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By MATT BUBBERS
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D1


The $100,000 pickup is coming soon to a dealership near you.

In fact, it may already be there.

If you so desire, you can spend Mercedes S-Class money on a half-tonne truck with 22-inch chrome wheels and earth-shaking stereo. No longer just a humble workhorse, pickups are fast becoming luxury commodities.

The price of a Ford Raptor, a strong and sporty F-150 for would-be Baja 1000 racers, can climb north of $90,000 if you tick all the options. A loaded GMC Sierra 1500 can reach $86,000 and the all-new model coming in 2019 will likely raise that figure.

The sky seems to be the limit when it comes to prices of luxury pickups.

They're not exactly a new phenomenon, but the trend has recently found fresh momentum pushing prices to record heights.

"In the last two years, we've actually seen an acceleration in that trend.

All the growth in the [Canadian] truck market in the last 24 months has been at price points above $55,000," said Mark Alger, national marketing manager for GMC trucks.

Roughly 20 per cent of the truck market is in that premium bracket now. "If you go back 10 years ago, it might have been 11 or 12 per cent," Alger said.

Pickup trucks have long been a rugged alternative to minivans or SUVs, but now customers are considering them alongside cars from Cadillac, Lexus or Mercedes.

"If you look at the data, some of these trucks are cross-shopped with high-end luxury vehicles; it's unbelievable," said Mike Szymkiewicz, senior manager of product and volume planning for FCA Canada. "How high can you push that? I don't know, but we haven't gotten there yet."

"I buy a lot of trucks each year," said Martin Barkey, chief executive of MBRP, an aftermarket manufacturer of performance exhausts based in Huntsville, Ont. "It wasn't that long ago a well-equipped dually [two wheels on each side of the rear axle] diesel was in the high-$50,000 range; it seemed to jump into the $80,000 range pretty quickly."

The average transaction price for a full-size truck in Canada is around $38,000. The transaction price for GMC's luxurious Denali pickups are close to double that and account for one-fifth of sales volume, Alger said.

GMC recently added a new top trim, the Denali Ultimate.

"We're seeing growth there at the high-end of the high-end," he added.

We're seeing a similar trend in the luxury SUV space where Bentley, Lamborghini and Rolls-Royce are jumping into the market while the likes of Range Rover, BMW, Mercedes and Audi are rolling out higher-priced models to compete.

Auto makers are further refining their trucks to compete in the luxury segment. Family-friendly features such as prodigious interior storage, spacious crew cabs, motorized stepup running boards, multiple USB plugs and rear-seat entertainment systems are all readily available.

Ride quality - typically hard and harsh on pickup trucks - is getting better, although they're still not as plush as a good crossover SUV. Optional independent air-suspension on the Ram 1500, for example, helps. It allows drivers to lower the truck to make it easier for kids to climb in and out.

Ram claims the all-new 2019 model will be the quietest ever. A cylindrical device called an "active tuned mass module" is meant to cancel out vibration caused by fuel-saving automatic engine stop/start system.

Nissan's Titan has quilted two-tone leather in Platinum Reserve trim, which the company describes as an "executive suite," as well it should be with a starting price of nearly $70,000.

Trucks lag when it comes to technology and advanced safety features, but they're quickly catching up. The Toyota Tundra and Ford F-150 already have lane-keeping assist and automatic emergency braking.

All-new 2019 models from Ram, Chevrolet and GMC will soon add similar features, while huge touch-screen infotainment systems, 360-degree cameras and head-up displays are coming soon, too.

Truck fuel economy, although still not as good as cars, is improving. Lightweight materials are playing an important role.

The next-generation Sierra and Silverado will have an optional CarbonPro pickup box made of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic. The 2019 Ram will have a 48-volt mild-hybrid system.

Meanwhile, Ford is introducing a turbo-diesel V-6 on the F-150 it estimates will return around 7.8 litres per 100 kilometres during highway driving.

"The [fuel-economy] gap has shrunk so I don't think that's a key rejection reason any more," Szymkiewicz of FCA said. "Fuel economy has gone down the list.

It's not a reason not to buy any more and ... it's going to get better."

Alger said the importance of comfort and style is increasing, where trucks were once only about power and utility.

"You're buying an $80,000 truck to stand out a little bit," he said. "There's a certain amount of bling and status that those vehicles have and we're happy to help [customers] with their needs."

It's little wonder; in this rarefied price bracket, luxury trucks generate hefty profits for dealers and auto makers.

What's driving this trend and pushing prices up? If you ask the product planners, they'll say it's these new high-tech, familyfriendly trucks that are more comfortable and luxurious than ever.

Surely, there are other forces at work here, too, though. Readily available credit makes leasing and financing luxury vehicles easier than ever. The ubiquity of big, luxurious SUVs means jumping into a pickup truck is no longer such an alien experience for many drivers.

To most bystanders, even an $80,000 truck has a whiff of working-class style, which is very much on-trend just as beards, plaid shirts and Levi jeans are.

Bay Street cowboys, rejoice! With its two truck lines - Chevy Silverado and GMC Sierra - Chevrolet is going after two distinct groups of buyers. "Chevy goes a little bit more for that western vibe and GMC is a little premium, a little more downtown," said Donnelly Baxter, marketing segment manager for Chevrolet trucks.S Currently, if you want to spend $100,000 before tax on a halftonne truck, it means going to aftermarket suppliers such as MBRP or getting dealer-installed extras.

"In our showrooms you'll be able to go to the GM dealer and take that $85,000 truck and put $15,000 of wheels, exhaust, audio enhancements and get your $100,000 ticket, and some guys will do that, absolutely," GMC's Alger said.

It seems inevitable that halftonne trucks will soon carry MSRPs above the $100,000 mark.

"If you tick the box for everything, you can probably get over $90,000 in a Ram Laramie Limited or Longhorn with the diesel," FCA's Szymkiewicz said. "I don't think you'd crack six figures, but that's an opportunity."

Barkey of MBRP regularly sees customers who spend $140,000 on customized pickup trucks. He thinks it's only a matter of time before we see trucks with sticker prices north of $100,000.

"You're seeing a category of buyer who just wants that latest and greatest," he said.

It's a race to the top, except nobody knows how high the ceiling could be.

Associated Graphic

While the average transaction price for a full-size truck in Canada is around $38,000, the price for GMC's luxurious Denali pickups are close to double that.

CGIBACKGROUNDS.COM

Ride quality - typically hard and harsh in pickup trucks - is getting better in vehicles such as the Ram 1500, above, although they're still not quite as plush as a good crossover SUV.

The sky seems to be the limit when it comes to prices of luxury pickups - and their features, too. Family-friendly additions such as dual-paned sunroofs and heated seats, above and left on the Ram 1500, spacious crew cabs, multiple USB plugs and rear-seat entertainment systems are readily available in some new pickup models.

Kim Nguyen has his eyes on ordinary people
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The filmmaker's drone drama Eye on Juliet sees him zero in on the average - with a timely tech bent
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By SIMON HOUPT
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A16


Filmmakers who bring their movies to the Toronto International Film Festival often try to springboard from the red carpet right into a splashy opening. But the Montreal-based writer-director Kim Nguyen is probably grateful that Eye on Juliet, which played at TIFF last September, waited seven months before opening this weekend in Toronto and Vancouver, because its sharp ambivalence about surveillance and communication technology now seems even more astutely timed to a growing global concern about the tools used to monitor our every move.

The film, set in Detroit and an unidentified North African country, is about a melancholic young man named Gordon (Joe Cole) who works in a windowless office on the edge of town, operating small, six-legged robotic devices known as hexapods or spider drones half a world away.

He's supposed to stay focused on guarding an oil pipeline, but with all of that seductive technology at his fingertips - powerful cameras, microphones, translation software - and a broken heart from a recent breakup, Gordon allows himself to be pulled into a domestic drama beaming live to his desktop screens from the desert hills: Ayusha (Lina El Arabi) is a modern-day Juliet, forbidden to see her lover and promised by her family to another man.

It is rich material, with echoes that stretch from the voyeuristic Rear Window to The Conversation, Snowden (and its real-life whistle-blowing subject) and this month's Mark Zuckerberg testimony before the U.S. Congress.

Still, if you had asked Nguyen during TIFF to articulate what he was trying to express with Eye on Juliet, he might have had some difficulty. That's because: a) His wife had given birth to their second child only eight weeks before, and he was accordingly sleep-deprived; b) He was in the final stages of preproduction on last October's shoot of The Hummingbird Project, a drama about high-frequency trading starring Jesse Eisenberg and Alexander Skarsgard that, at $17-million, was set to be the biggest film he'd ever done; and c) He says he usually discovers what he's trying to say with a film only after it's finished and he's being interviewed about it.

This can be a challenge, especially when he's trying to get a film made.

"There are a lot of things I can't really explain empirically why I did them [in Eye on Juliet]. I wrote the script very much using a kind of instinctual mode of writing," he says, leaning forward in what may be both an expression of interest and an effort to keep himself awake during a run of festival interviews.

"I think we should do films without trying to explain everything. I think that's one of the hardest things to protect, ambiguity. Analysts who fund your film, and producers - they're not comfortable with ambiguity. So, sometimes you're just going to give an answer to something because they need an answer."

In War Witch (a.k.a. Rebelle), for example, his devastating 2012 Oscar-nominated drama about child soldiers in sub-Saharan Africa, Nguyen recalls that he included a scene set in an albino village. "I had to fight for that village to stay in the script for, like, four years. It had no dramatic reason to be there," he says. "It's still one of my favourite scenes."

When War Witch played on the CBC last summer, it was preceded by a discussion that touched on the issue of cultural appropriation and one panelist suggested the film was told "through the lens of Canadian or Quebecois privilege."

When this is raised, Nguyen replies: "I've listened to the arguments. ... I can understand the concerns, but I think what's important is the story that's finished. It's not about who's doing it or not, if it's done with respect."

After War Witch and Two Lovers and a Bear, his 2016 Arctic drama in which Tatiana Maslany and Dane DeHaan play lovers desperate to escape the ghosts of their past, Nguyen says he wanted to make a film about "people who are average."

"With what's happening around the world, we don't talk about average people any more," he offers. "We get a sense that everything is extreme, that everybody is extreme right, or is a terrorist. I thought it was interesting that the main characters of this film are ordinary people in extraordinary situations - the pure Spielbergian approach to characters. I want to get back to that more: Amazing, intense situations where you have normal human beings that have to face that."

In Eye on Juliet, the human beings are exceedingly normal; it's the situations that may seem absurd (even if they, too, are real).

In one early scene, Gordon uses a drone to observe a pair of local bootleggers trying to tap oil from a pipe. After issuing a verbal warning, which the men treat as an empty threat, Gordon picks up a joystick and opens fire, scaring them away.

As Gordon's hexapod turns back to its base, another robot operated by his co-worker, Peter (Brent Skagford), comes into the frame. Peter has been pestering Gordon to download some hookup apps that will help him meet women, and as the two drones scupper through the sand, the voices of their mild locker-room banter plays over the robots on screen.

"One of the concerns I think we all have is the privatization of the military," Nguyen says. "I think about 30 per cent of most states' military are private firms.

So, the right to kill, the right to attack, the right to engage - all of that is something that makes you think a lot. In our case, we decided to do it with an ironic angle, because there's so much depth in that question: You touch it, or you go deep on it, but you can't be in between."

Still, he says, in Eye on Juliet, "the geopolitical elements of the film are really like a distant tapestry, for an intimate story between the two characters."

"Gordon is kind of like a romantic who has the impulses of a hero, but he's locked inside of a prison where he can't break out," Nguyen adds.

"I think he's a flawed human being, just like we all are. And I think one of the themes of the film is, we're kind of isolated, and how do we find a way to be heroic and connect with other human beings?" Eye on Juliet

CLASSIFICATION 14A; 90 MINUTES

Written and directed by Kim Nguyen Starring Joe Cole and Lina El Arabi

"Reach out and touch someone," the long-distance telephone ads used to say.

But Gordon, a morose Detroiter trying to get over a bad breakup, knows technology has its limits. He spends his nights in a windowless office, monitoring video feeds beamed in from a collection of spider drones, crawling robotic devices that he operates as if in a real-life video game, that are guarding an oil pipeline outside a North African village.

During one shiftless shift, Gordon (Peaky Blinders's babyfaced Joe Cole) eavesdrops on a lovers' assignation amid the desert hills. Using the robot's surveillance equipment and translation software, he realizes the couple are a modern-day Romeo and Juliet: Ayusha (Lina El Arabi, a veteran of another forced-marriage drama, A Wedding) has been promised by her parents to an older man.

A true romantic in the swiperight era of dating - albeit one with a creepy, voyeuristic bent - Gordon resolves to help them.

After the magical realism of his Arctic-set Two Lovers and a Bear and the Oscar-nominated child soldier drama Rebelle, Montreal-based writer-director Nguyen opts for a mildly ironic tack - all this communication technology, and we're more disconnected than ever - but his earnestness gets the better of him. Like Gordon, he's a romantic at heart. Though not as creepy, thank goodness.

Associated Graphic

Joe Cole plays a melancholic young drone operator working in a windowless Detroit office in Kim Nguyen's Eye on Juliet.

How a style magazine editor lives
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Owner's goal for Baby Point home's renovation was to incorporate a modern design without gutting the Tudor Revival building
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By CAROLYN IRELAND
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H1


TORONTO -- HOME OF THE WEEK

In the west end of Toronto, a set of stone gates marks the entryway to a quiet enclave known as Baby Point, which hovers above the Humber River on a natural promontory.

At one time, the land below was the site of a Seneca village known as Teiaiagon. The village sat at the south end of Carrying Place, which was a major portage for First Nations people and fur traders travelling between Lake Ontario and waterways in the north. Europeans who arrived in the area in the 1700s took control of trade and the land.

The name Baby Point comes from the settler James Baby, who led a militia in the War of 1812. As a result of his loyalty to the British Crown, in 1816, he was granted - or allowed to purchase - a large swath of land that became his family farm.

The houses that stand in Baby Point today were built mainly in the 1920s and 30s by the developer Robert Home Smith, who went on to develop the Kingsway on the west side of the Humber River.

No. 57 sits near the western end of Baby Point Crescent, where the wooded ravine slopes down to Étienne Brûlé Park.

The house has a large circular drive in front and lawns and tall trees surrounding it.

Behind the Tudor Revival exterior, the interior is a blend of original details and contemporary design. Owner Erin McLaughlin is the editorial director of Style at Home and Canadian Living magazines.

For the past few years, Ms. McLaughlin has been renovating the home to make it more comfortable for the couple and their two daughters.

THE HOUSE TODAY

Ms. McLaughlin moved from a narrow Victorian rowhouse in the centre of Toronto to the 7,000-square-foot home set on two-thirds of an acre.

"To move to a Tudor Revival was a big change for me," she says.

Her goal was to incorporate design that suited her style without completely gutting the building.

Visitors who arrive to the front door step into a vestibule with oak-panelled walls, a stone floor and French doors to the foyer.

In the foyer, Ms. McLaughlin eschewed the modern trend of painting over the original oak.

"I come from an aesthetic where you paint all of your wood white," the design-magazine editor says. "The house had such strong character and I didn't want to mess with that. This area has a legacy."

Two stairs lead to the living room, which has a beamed ceiling and a wood-burning fireplace surrounded by stone.

"It feels even more magnificent when you actually step into it," Ms. McLaughlin says.

She put in a nine-foot sofa to ground the space and hung one large framed photograph over the fireplace.

Ms. McLaughlin says she prefers a minimal look but she thinks the room would be equally suited to bookcases and Persian carpets.

Previous owners added a semi-circular conservatory beside the living room. The onyx floor is heated in winter and the windows open in warm weather.

Vistas from the conservatory stretch beyond the valley to the skyline in the distance.

"You can hear the river," Ms. McLaughlin says of the room's position near the edge of the ravine.

Real estate agent Janet Lindsay of Chestnut Park Real Estate Ltd. points out that the green and brown stone inlay in the floor is rimmed in brass.

"I think the onyx is quite amazing because it picks up the grass and the earth tones outside."

A small study has built-in bookcases and wallpaper in deep charcoal. During the renovation, Ms. McLaughlin found documents from the year the house was built that had been trapped behind the original bookcases.

Now they hang on the wall in the study.

"I found all of this amazing history that had fallen behind," she says. "We reframed them to reflect the history of the house."

The formal dining room has a ceiling with elegant plaster detailing and a bay window overlooking the garden.

"The ceiling is what made me buy the house," Ms. McLaughlin says.

A swing door leads to the new kitchen and casual dining area, which Ms. McLaughlin transformed inside a rear addition built by previous owners.

Today, the kitchen has highgloss cabinets in white and dove grey and a marble waterfall countertop on the large island.

Appliances include a professional-style gas range and griddle, a wine fridge and a built-in espresso machine. There's a gas fireplace set in floor-to-ceiling white marble and a wall of windows and doors leading to an outdoor terrace.

Ms. McLaughlin says the white walls and surfaces in the kitchen maximize the light. Throughout the house, she juxtaposed white with charcoal and wood floors in smoky tones.

"That's why you see a real play of light and dark - to make the small rooms feel more intimate and the large rooms feel light."

Upstairs, a family room has a cathedral ceiling 16 feet high.

Two south-facing windows overlook the gardens and two skylights have automated shades.

Ms. McLaughlin says the room - recently redesigned to be more light and airy - is the new go-to place for the family to gather.

"It has a much more Scandinavian vibe," she says.

Two bedrooms on that floor have ensuite bathrooms and there is a family bath as well.

Down the hall, the master suite has a large bedroom, dressing room, ensuite bathroom and his-and-hers walk-in closets.

Stairs lead to the third floor, which has a bedroom with skylights and a bathroom with a walk-in shower.

Ms. McLaughlin points out that the light-filled space would also make a secluded home office or studio.

"It's a really flexible space."

On the lower level, a large room with an indoor pool is temperature-controlled year-round.

Doors open to the stone patio outside.

The lower level also has hisand-hers change rooms for the pool, and a recreation room with a bar and kitchenette. Ms.

McLaughlin had cabinets custom-built to hold a collection of vinyl LPs.

Ms. McLaughlin says the Baby Point area feels removed from the rush of the city but she can be downtown in 20 minutes.

Hummingbirds, northern cardinals and butterflies visit the garden, and hawks circle above the river valley. Ms. McLaughlin has seen a small group of deer run across the front lawn and into the ravine.

In the centre of the community, the Baby Point Club has outdoor tennis courts. Fitness classes and social events are held in the vintage clubhouse.

"I don't think I've ever felt a sense of community like I feel here but you still have your privacy," she says.

THE BEST FEATURE

The master bedroom suite has a vaulted ceiling in the large bedroom and sitting area overlooking the ravine. A door opens to a private balcony overlooking the garden.

There are his-and-hers walk-in closets and a gallery for art and family photos.

The bathroom was recently renovated with a marble-topped vanity, heated marble floors and a walk-in glass shower with a quartz bench. The stand-alone tub beside the window is weighty cast iron.

"I'm a big fan of cast iron tubs," Ms. McLaughlin says. "The contractor hates me." 57

BABY POINT CRES.

TORONTO

Asking price: $4.25-million

Taxes: $21,637.52 (2017)

Lot size: 100 by 277 feet

Agent: Janet Lindsay (Chestnut Park Real Estate Ltd.)

Associated Graphic

Erin McLaughlin, owner of 57 Baby Point Cres. in Toronto, eschewed the modern trend of painting over the original oak while renovating the house.

MICHAEL PEART/THE PRINT MARKET

Magazine editor Erin McLaughlin has been renovating her Toronto home for the past few years to make it more comfortable for her family.

PHOTOS BY MICHAEL PEART/THE PRINT MARKET

Throughout the house, Ms. McLaughlin juxtaposed white with charcoal and wood floors in smoky tones, 'to make the small rooms feel more intimate and the large rooms feel light.'

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Turning the tables
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In honour of Record Store Day, Canadian musicians discuss their most prized vinyl finds
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By BRAD WHEELER
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R7


He wasn't a musician, but Gary Burden is no doubt a part of many a record collection, particularly the ones belonging to those who dig or dug the Southern California folk-rock scene of the late sixties and seventies. Burden, who died at the age of 84 on March 7 in Los Angeles, designed memorable album covers for Neil Young, Joni Mitchell, the Eagles and Crosby, Stills & Nash.

In a 2015 interview with National Public Radio, Burden described his mission succinctly: "I visualize music."

That same year, he was in Toronto, accompanying his artist wife, Jenice Heo, who had an exhibition at the Struck Contemporary gallery downtown. There, I chatted with him at length about his life and career. He talked about trading in his three-piece suit for whatever the cats in Laurel Canyon were wearing back in the days of Mamas, Papas and CSNYs. I heard his tales of driving fast cars recklessly in the hills and working with the meticulous Neil Young and other rock stars.

Mostly he talked about his craft, and the care that was put into predigital-era designing. For example, the format Burden wanted for the first Crosby, Stills & Nash record would have cost the record company 25 cents an album to produce. At the time, 1969, LPs cost eight cents to make.

The label was deadset against paying for Burden's sophisticated finish and expensive embossing, but the band backed him up and the album was packaged at a high standard.

Burden remembered what the suits at the record label had told him: "You could put a good record in a paper bag and no one would care." But some did care, and many still do.

Taking place on April 21 is Record Store Day, an annual event involving limited-edition vinyl releases available at bricks-and-mortar vinyl shops all over the world. For the occasion, The Globe and Mail asked five musicians about their most prized pieces of vinyl. They talked about a lot of things: the liner notes, the album art, how the record was acquired and how it was played. The one common denominator? None of the records came in a paper bag.

EDMONTON-BORN RAPPER AND FORMER EDMONTON POET LAUREATE CADENCE WEAPON, ON WINTER IN AMERICA (1974) BY GIL SCOTT-HERON AND BRIAN JACKSON:

"Winter in America by vocalist Gil Scott-Heron and keyboardist Brian Jackson is one of my all-time favourite records. I love that I happened upon it at a record show, which is a music-nerd convention where you pay a cover charge to go into a hall and peruse various booths of sellers from far-flung corners of the country and potentially buy their wares. I walk around with a list of records in my phone's notes marked "Buy On Sight."

Winter in America was on it at the time.

Seeing the worn, vaguely psychedelic cover of this soulful seventies jazz-funk classic in person was thrilling. The packaging of a record can tell so much of the story of an album, and I try to keep that tradition alive with my own music. I try to put things in my packaging that could make people as excited as I was when I opened the gatefold of Winter in America and saw a collage of inner-city decay and the following statement: 'In the interest of national security, please help us carry out our constitutional duty to overthrow the king.' "

JAY FERGUSON, SINGER-GUITARIST FROM THE VETERAN POWER-POP QUARTET SLOAN, ON ELVIS COSTELLO'S ARMED FORCES (1979):

"I was 12 years old in 1981, when I met some older guys who worked and hung around a used-record store in Halifax.

When I told them I was heading to Toronto that summer, they gave me directions to Vortex Records on Dundas Street East, then owned and run by their friend and vinyl lifer, Bert Myers.

One of the records I purchased there, and still own, is an original British copy of Elvis Costello's third LP, Armed Forces. While not only musically wonderful, the original artwork and packaging is a graphic designer's tour de force that needs to be held to be appreciated. Designed by the legendary Barney Bubbles, every detail of the record and packaging down to the labels and credits was obviously considered and uncompromised.

Throughout the years playing in Sloan and working on our own LP covers, we may not have created anything as wildly elaborate for a single LP, but the impact of making your record look as good as it sounds has always rung true for me."

BARBARA HANNIGAN, THE GRAMMY-WINNING NOVA SCOTIAN SOPRANO, ON NEIL YOUNG'S COMES A TIME (1978):

"Playing a record is a tactile experience, in a very specific way. It requires such delicacy. So you really feel that you've come of age when you're finally allowed to touch the family record player. You're given a sense of responsibility and care for this precious object of art, a record album. If you're not disciplined and you're not concentrating, you can hurt it. There's a fragility to the album, but a strength as well. Because it has power, that object.

My boyfriend recently gave me the 1978 Neil Young album, Comes A Time. He knew I'd love the music, but also the picture of Neil Young on the cover and the title of the album.

I don't have it with my other albums. I can see it all the time - that faded black-and-white photograph with his goofy grin, holding his guitar. It was very romantic gesture. Much more than buying me a CD or giving me an iTunes gift card."

BRENDAN CANNING, CO-FOUNDER OF TORONTO INDIE ROCKERS BROKEN SOCIAL SCENE, ON THE 1970 CHARLES MINTZ SINGLE GIVE A MAN A BREAK/FINDER'S KEEPER'S:

"I had heard the song on [New Jersey community radio station] WFMU. Ira Kaplan of Yo La Tengo played it. Give A Man A Break is a pretty hard-hitting funk song by Charles Mintz. It became my holy grail to get this song.

But I couldn't find it. I even talked about it in an Australian press interview. A woman heard the interview and reached out on the Broken Social Scene Facebook account and sent me an eBay link to the song. I bid on it, but didn't win. We were on tour. I was on a plane, and the auction still had hours to go.

A year and a half later, the record just showed up at my house. A friend from San Francisco flagged it at Amoeba Music in Los Angeles and had it sent to me when it came in.

I think I like the flip side, Finder's Keeper's, even better than Give A Man A Break. It's kind of like the song Otis Redding never recorded, you know? A real hard-hitting power ballad. It's not the slickest recording. The vocals are a little buried. But there's just something about it."

THE VANCOUVER SINGER-SONGWRITER HANNAH GEORGAS, ON WYE OAK'S SHRIEK (2014):

"A good friend of mine gave me the album Shriek by Wye Oak on vinyl for my birthday a few years back. I fell in love with it and played it constantly. I was looking through the credits one day and noticed the album was mixed by the French record producer and engineer Nicolas Vernhes. I looked him up and found out that he's mixed some of my favourite sounding albums. I reached out, he got back to me and he ended up mixing my last album, For Evelyn. I thought it was pretty special to discover this incredible band through a friend and then find Nicolas through their music."

Deutschland duel
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By MARK RICHARDSON
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D11


FACEOFF

They're both big, powerful, prestigious and German, but each pulls back just a little from being the most capable and expensive in the class. How do the Bimmer and the AMG compare in their fight to park in your driveway?

BMW M550i x-Drive $83,000 (BASE PRICE); $100, 700 (AS TESTED)

Engine: 4.4-litre twin-turbo V-8 Transmission/drive: E-speed automatic, all-wheel

Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 14.3 city/ 9.4 highway Mercedes-AMG E43 4Matic $80,400 (BASE PRICE); $95,200 (AS TESTED)

Engine: 3.0-litre biturbo V-6 Transmission/drive: Nine-speed automatic, all-wheel Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 12.4 city, 9.4 highway

LOOKS

M550i x-Drive: There's no doubt the Bimmer looks the business, with tightly-stretched panels and just enough creases to reflect the sunlight exactly so. This is the performance version of the 5 Series mid-size sedan, stopping just short of the full-on $113,300 M5, so it has large (and very functional) air intakes underneath the front fender to cool both the engine and the front brakes. The tester was also finished in "frozen black," which is BMW's satisfying version of frosty matte black, and comes at extra cost.

AMG E43 4Matic: Not quite so sinister, perhaps slightly less Teutonic in appearance only, the AMG seems a little softer and more rounded. It also has the large air intakes because its engine and brakes have no less work to accomplish, but the panel creases are a little more curved.

It's also a step short of the $115,500 E63, but not quite so brutish to look at as the BMW.

INTERIOR

M550i x-Drive: The Munich designers have come a very long way from the Spartan interiors of a decade ago. It's all about simplicity of the dashboard now, with most of the buttons and switches moved into the central touchscreen. For years, BMW refused to include a touchscreen, insisting that drivers should keep their hands on the wheel, but its designers caved to public demand with the new 7 Series and now all the Bimmers are getting them.

They work well, but it can take a while to figure out the available screens and drop-down menus.

All five potential passengers will be comfortable, however, with plenty of legroom and headroom for full-sized adults.

AMG E43 4Matic: Again, a softer approach to the interior, with curvier swoops to the brushed aluminum dashboard, and a much better integration of the large central display screen. The gauges are fully digital and so more customizable, but the features themselves are no more or less capable. Comfort just isn't an issue at this price level for a premium sedan, and there'll be no complaints from anyone, even with three passengers in the rear seat.

PERFORMANCE

M550i x-Drive: Never lets you forget that it's a sport-oriented sedan. The big V-8 engine makes 455 hp, but even more impressive, it creates 480 lbs.-ft. of torque from just 1,800 rpm. This is enough of a kick to reach 100 km/h from standstill in four seconds flat.

Sure, the M5 will whup this at 3.4 seconds, but the M5 will cost you $30,000 more for the privilege, and how much power do you really need? On the street, the M550i is all about dynamics and doing exactly what you expect in all conditions, and there are no surprises whatsoever on the straights and through the curves.

AMG E43 4Matic: The AMG's smaller, finely tuned V-6 makes 396 hp, with 384 lbs.-ft. of torque that needs at least 2,500 rpm to reach its peak. It's not as quick as the BMW, hitting 100 km/h from stand-still in 4.6 seconds, but again, on the street, it's more about the dynamics than brute power. And again, it has a big brother E63 rocket ship that will shut down all contenders for an extra $35,000. Mercedes' allwheel drive system, called 4Matic, has a rear bias that makes the E43 a little more tail-waggy than the BMW if it's really pushed hard, but it's no less predictable.

TECHNOLOGY

M550i x-Drive: As you'd expect, there's no shortage of technology in the BMW, even if it's not quite the M5 flagship. Yes, it will drive itself for short stretches, and yes, it will hold the road better and shift gears more smoothly than you'd expect. One of its gimmicks is "gesture control," in which you can wave your hand in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction in front of the radio and the volume will increase or decrease (a camera under the mirror picks up the motion); in practice, though, this doesn't work very well and it's far easier and more effective to just turn the volume knob, which is right in front of your rotating hand anyway.

MG E43 4Matic: The AMG is loaded with everything Mercedes can think of, and while it also drives itself for short distances, it goes a step further than the BMW in actually changing lanes (when safe to do so) by just activating the indicator stalk. The system is designed (by Mercedes' lawyers) to demand you put your hands on the wheel at least every 30 seconds, but in practice, the tester car was far more relaxed, allowing fully autonomous driving on the clogged Don Valley Parkway for up to eight minutes at a stretch.

When the remarkable car was returned and Mercedes was informed of this, company representatives were horrified and the errant E43 was presumably hustled off for "re-education" before the lawyers could find out.

CARGO

M550i x-Drive and AMG E43 4Matic: Nobody's going to choose one of these sedans over the other because of its cargo space. The BMW has 530 litres of available cargo capacity in the trunk while the Mercedes has 540 litres. That's enough for several golf bags; if you want more cargo room, buy an SUV. Both BMW and Mercedes will be pleased to sell you one.

VERDICTS

M550i x-Drive: It's the more powerful, more masculine car. It makes no bones about it. It's heavier and thirstier on premium fuel, and more likely to be chosen by Russian mafia bad guys to run you down if you should cross them. Its main challenge will be that it basically tells everyone that you couldn't afford the M5, but since it looks so much like its bigger brother, few people will notice. And besides, you just squint a little at such questions and say that the savings paid for a year of your kid's Ivy League fund, or a new swimming pool. Just try to look convinced when you say this.

AMG E43 4Matic: The E43 AMG is the all-rounder - more a PierceBrosnan Bond than a Daniel-Craig Bond (even though it was Brosnan who escaped from bad guys in a remote-driven 7 Series). Your partner will be as happy as you to drive the E43, and it's far enough behind the 600-hp E63 that you'll never have to justify being the poor relative. It's better on gas too, in the city at least, and its CO2 emissions are a little lower. It's the happier, friendlier, performance sedan, but no less prestigious or impressive to those who don't really care about such stuff.

Associated Graphic

The BMW M550i x-Drive, top, looks all-business, while Mercedes's AMG E43 4Matic looks a little less sinister, with softer, rounder features.

TOP: BMW; ABOVE: DAIMLER AG

Shary Boyle's quest for useful art
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The Toronto sculptor, painter and drawer wants to widen 'the parameters of what art can do,' which is exactly what led her to Earthlings, a new exhibit in Montreal
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By ROBERT EVERETT-GREEN
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R6


MONTREAL -- 'More and more I feel like art has to have some function for the community outside of the art world," says Shary Boyle, who has a position in the art world that many of her peers might envy. The Toronto-based artist was Canada's representative at the Venice Biennale in 2013, and her work is in several major Canadian museums. Her first large-scale public-art commission will be installed this summer in front of Toronto's Gardiner Museum.

Having a place in that world can mean being absorbed into a historical and professional system that assigns an exalted status to art, secretes a learned discourse about it and tends to hive it away from ordinary life. All of that goes against the grain for Boyle, who grew up in a working-class household and cares about social issues.

"We're really in trouble, and it's hard to separate myself from that and just make art for museums," she says. "Meeting people that are also outside of that realm, and working in art, widens the parameters of what art can do for people."

That was part of the appeal, for her, of co-curating an exhibition for Calgary's Esker Foundation that presents her work with that of artists from northern Inuit communities, where art-making has different traditions and social functions than it does in the south. Another draw was the shock of recognition Boyle felt when she first encountered the art of Shuvinai Ashoona, from Kinngait (Cape Dorset).

"It was like an immediate explosion for me," Boyle says of the moment in 2009 when curator Nancy Campbell first put the two women's drawings together at a show at the University of Toronto's Justina M. Barnicke Gallery. "I felt a deep kinship with her work."

You can see the imaginative affinity in Earthlings, the Esker show now on view at the Galerie de l'UQAM in Montreal. Ashoona and Boyle both inhabit a figurative and fantastical world, where beings freely mutate and participate in visual narratives that often look like scenes from creation mythology.

Boyle also found less-visible points of connection with Ashoona, and with five ceramic artists working out of the Matchbox Gallery in Kangiqliniq (Rankin Inlet), whose figurative pots she and cocurator Shauna Thompson also included in Earthlings. Boyle's Inuit collaborators - with whom she produced several pieces jointly - all learned their craft in apprenticeship situations, as Boyle did when she began working in porcelain, which she learned "through basement hobby groups with old ladies." The northerners don't have a curatorial strategy behind what they make, she says, and don't gravitate toward art-history concepts as taught in art schools.

"Their work isn't based in Western principles and the English language. It's very sincere, and it's about the sovereignty of the visual imagination," she says.

When she first went up north to work in a community studio with Ashoona, she says, she was moved by the silence and autonomy that surrounded each person's art practice.

"For me, it reinforced a sense of independence from the art world, into a larger world community," Boyle says. "I want my work to be useful, more than an intellectual or status pursuit."

She realized that bringing Ashoona and the Matchbox ceramicists (Pierre Aupilardjuk, Jessie Kenalogak, John Kurok, Leo Napayok and the late Roger Aksadjuak) to the Esker Foundation, and the other stops on the exhibition tour, could be directly useful to them as northerners who depend on their art to make a living.

They would gain access to different venues and economic situations, beyond the usual system of Inuit artists showing in Inuit galleries, and of often being received, as Boyle says, "more as 'folk art' than 'educated art.'" Earthlings also faithfully portrays the real differences between Boyle and her northern collaborators. Monstrous as some of Ashoona's depicted beings can be, they seem to inhabit a world that is essentially harmonious. In one of her drawings, a human family and several animals float in space, holding hands with each other and the Earth. The bas-relief figures carved into the pots of the Matchbox artists often enact traditional scenes, especially of hunters and their prey.

Boyle's work, by contrast, often seems to register some rupture in the world, or at least a division between imposed social realities and what she personally feels.

There's a darkness that's not so evident in the northerners' work, much as they may have suffered, socially or personally, from dislocations imposed by the south.

There's enough imaginative overlap, however, that the show's collaborations in clay and on paper look unforced, and even revolutionary, in their sincere merging of worlds, traditions and personal histories.

Boyle sees her public-art project at the Gardiner Museum as another kind of conversation, involving many people she doesn't know and may never meet.

"It's like a duet with the collection of the museum, or with the city itself and the people who walk down the street," she says.

"I've never been about pushing a vision regardless of the people receiving it, and I don't want to be one more artist putting up some obscure, inscrutable thing in a public place."

Her design, more or less unchanged since her entry in the museum's open competition, is a large ceramic vase tilted slightly forward on a pair of bronze human legs. "I was really thinking, 'mascot,'" she says. "I also thought a lot about the world legacy of clay that the Gardiner collection holds, and the way that people tend to take ceramics for granted."

Planning the piece has sent her down numerous rabbit holes, in search of information about how to make all her materials - which include clay, foam, resins, bronze and an interior steel armature - work together in all weathers. The multimedia piece will weigh about 450 kilograms, far more than anything she has made before.

"You have to be thinking architecturally," she says, referring both to the demands of a loadbearing structure that must withstand high winds, and to the work's relationship to the building, the street and the other public artwork on the site: Jun Kaneko's giant striped head. Boyle describes herself as the contractor of the piece, the individual pieces of which are being produced by expert fabricators.

It's up to her, however, to piece the whole thing together, including 220 custom tiles being shipped from a specialty studio in Kansas City. She's also carved the legs, before they are cast in bronze.

The assembly is set to take place this month; renovation work on the Gardiner's front entrance may defer the installation of the piece till late summer.

When it's up and engaged with the street, Boyle hopes it will get people to think differently about ceramics, and about that particular spot on the urban landscape.

Perhaps some will see it as their invitation to step inside the museum - a very useful outcome, from the Gardiner's point of view, and from Boyle's as well.

Earthlings continues at Galerie de l'UQAM in Montreal through April 14 (galerie.uqam.ca/en). The show's final tour stop is the Kelowna Art Gallery in Kelowna, B.C.

Associated Graphic

Earthlings, a show now on view at the Galerie de l'UQAM in Montreal, features works such as Universal Cobra Pussy, above, by Shuvinai Ashoona and Shary Boyle; Shaman's Muskox, top right, by Roger Aksadjuak; Sugluk, middle right, by Boyle and John Kurok; and Friends Sharing Gossip, below right, by Pierre Aupilardjuk. The exhibit presents Toronto-based Boyle's work with that of artists from northern Inuit communities.

Two houses sit quietly on the land
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How a pair of homes in rural Ontario became contenders for the Ontario Association of Architects' Design Excellence Award
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By DAVE LEBLANC
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Friday, April 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H1


MULMUR, ONT. -- It matters little that the township of Mulmur, Ont., has boundaries; that it's west of Barrie, south of Collingwood or north of Orangeville is irrelevant.

No, it's the slow rising and dipping of the land, the winding concession roads, the rocky edges of stubborn Niagara Escarpment, the gullies, streams and wildflowers that count. "Unobtainium" in the city, these allow architects to unshackle, slow down and dream.

But with such a gently unfolding landscape, one should use caution: "I've thought about this," award-winning, veteran architect Ian MacDonald says quietly.

"I think it's partly because of the relatively undramatic character of the landscapes that we have to be more careful to understand the subtle nuances." With mountains or seascape backdrops, he continues, "you just put a box and you're done."

For his recently completed House in Mulmur Hills 3, the answer didn't "jump out" at him. Rather, it unravelled over conversations with his clients, over motorbike trips to the 80-hectare site to walk through it and over a friendly debate about the "natural human inclination" to place the dwelling at the highest point: "Every owner I've ever met wanted to put their house there because you'd have a better view," he says with a laugh.

But, in this part of Canada, surrounded by three weatherwhipping Great Lakes, you'd also get blown away. So he suggested the "bottom corner" of a big meadow and his clients agreed.

It's telling that his favourite photograph of the home shows nothing but the line of a flat roof - and a green one at that - just barely visible over tall grasses. What's below?

Who lives in such a place?

This is a house of secrets.

Roll along the long driveway and plantings (which Mr. MacDonald just repurposed from other areas) shield one's view; dip down into the home's courtyard and be greeted by the "sacred" pile of firewood and a hint of escarpment just over yonder; enter into the "elegant mudroom" - the client wanted both an "elegant entrance" and a mudroom - and find a wood stove and an edited view of that escarpment; look up and one spies the hanging pots and pans that reveal the kitchen and suggest a living area just beyond.

"So all of these things are just little opportunities to pause and see things, and have the subtle landscape of the meadow withheld as a view." It is Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's "mystery of the L-shaped room," which engages the imagination by not revealing everything at once, put directly into action.

Walk up into the living room, however, and the long curtain wall finally reveals the breathtaking, rolling meadow where endangered Bobolinks build their nests and the owners wait to trim until the season is over.

Even when tucked into the inglenook beside the Rumford fireplace where "you can spy on a rabbit or deer," there's yet more home hidden away: The cozy master bedroom sits at the home's prow and an entirely separate wing contains the children's bedrooms and noisy TV room.

A contender for a Design Excellence Award from the Ontario Association of Architects (OAA) this year, House in Mulmur Hills 3 is a delightful composition in heavy steel, concrete, big timber beams, and glass that sits as light as a feather on the landscape.

A 20-minute drive north, superkul's Compass House sits almost as lightly on its 80-hectare site. But instead of wearing Mr. MacDonald's suit of corrugated galvalume to reflect the sky, architect Meg Graham has chosen cement panels painted cloud-white for her client's peaked-roof home, which reads as a series of rural outbuildings (main house with bedrooms; separate wing for a family room and utility rooms; and a garage building).

Built in phases since 2010, Ms. Graham says her office was tasked with providing a "warm place" for their clients to land after skiing, hiking and spending quality time together. And the idea of a compass, she adds, was her client's also: "It opens itself up in all directions and really takes advantage of the views and the wind orientation ... in the summer, all of these big glass windows open up and there are insect screens that drop from the ceiling." Indeed, when opened about 20 per cent of the main building disappears, to be replaced by connections to a short patio to the north and a long "dog-run" to the south, which includes a totem-like outdoor fireplace and barbecuing area.

And instead of bringing nature inside via exposed beams, as Mr. MacDonald has done, superkul has given Compass House an interior horizonline of nine feet: everything below is knotty-wood panelling, everything above is creamy drywall. "That's all about the integration with the landscape," Ms. Graham explains. "The wood, especially in summertime, it ties it into the trees ... and above that, it's all about the sky."

Real sky is welcomed in via skylights; one in particular illuminates a cozy loft/office over the master bedroom and would make for a great place to park a telescope.

"For me, it's a kind of spirituality," she says. "That there's this connection to the cosmos and to the landscape within the house and you can enjoy it on your own or with a whole group of people but there are always these expansive and, by turns, these more intimate moments where it's just you and that little skylight and looking up and seeing a bird go by."

Built to LEED Gold standards, the main building "slims itself" at both ends so that it doesn't seem so long and the family room wing tapers at one side. In that family room wing, walls are covered in a riot of heavilypatterned plywood: "They really wanted something that was different from the rest of the house and also something that was fairly robust ... it has the same effect as a figured wallpaper."

Back in the main building, past the glass-doored fireplace - "We don't put in open fireplaces any more" - a long hallway connects together two guest rooms, a washroom, and two rooms with multiple bunk beds.

Set at the end of the old farm lane, Compass House, too, eschews the high ground in order to be nestled into the landscape. Viewed from a distance, the buildings are delicate, dream-like, almost fragile-looking; inside they're hearty, welcoming and familiar. That's why it, too, was a contender for an OAA Award this year. (Neither house won in its catagory at the awards, announced last week.) "The test for a piece of good design to me is a sense of inevitability about its final form," Mr. MacDonald says. "It should look like it was always meant to be there, and it should be there, and there's something right about that."

Associated Graphic

Compass House by architect Meg Graham was designed to take advantage of the views on the 80-hectare site.

Designed by architect Meg Graham, Compass House, features cloud-white cement panels for the roof, which reflects the sky. Ms. Graham aimed for both the exterior and interior of the house to intergrate with the surrounding landscape.

Compass House, built by architectural firm superkul, is located on the Niagara Escarpment in Mulmur, Ont.

For House in Mulmur Hills 3, architect Ian MacDonald suggested setting the main building at bottom of a big meadow, which had the effect of hiding the home.

The interior of House in Mulmur Hills 3 was designed to be subtle and lead to opportunities for people to pause and see things.

The push to get O'Ree into the Hall of Fame
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Scores across Canada and U.S. respond to grassroots initiative to induct first black NHLer
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By JAMIE ROSS
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S5


TORONTO -- As he had done hundreds of times in his career, Bill Hunt sat down at his computer one morning in January and began crafting a weekly sports column for the Fredericton Daily Gleaner. While he typically writes about the wider world of sports, the subject of that week's story hit close to home.

Hunt planned to pen an ode to hometown hero Willie O'Ree, the former Boston Bruins player and Fredericton native who became the first black NHLer in 1958.

Following a Bruins ceremony earlier in the week that celebrated the 60th anniversary of O'Ree's first game, Hunt began drafting his outline by cataloging the awards and accolades bestowed on the man known as the Jackie Robinson of hockey.

But the absence of one special honour fuelled what became a call to action, titled "Time to Put Willie in the Hall of Fame."

"How," Hunt asked in a recent interview, "is Willie O'Ree, a black man who broke into the league when racism was rampant in the United States, five years before Martin Luther King's speech, before the Red Sox had even been integrated yet, not in the Hockey Hall of Fame?" After writing a follow-up story the next day detailing the Hall's process around public submissions for its builder category and how someone could make their own push to get O'Ree elected, Brenda and David Sansom - two long-time friends of O'Ree - put their hands up and offered to prepare a formal bid.

"That's when a snowball turned into a steam roller," Hunt said.

Correspondence began pouring in as word got around a hometown movement was afoot.

First it came from locals - fishing buddies and card-playing pals, Sansom said. They collected signatures at City Hall.

Before long, notes and letters were arriving from across Canada and the United States.

In total, the trio compiled a 70page document and submitted it to the Hall of Fame's 18-member selection committee, which will decide by April 15, confidentially, whether to advance O'Ree's name and formally nominate him. He would then need to be elected with at least 75 per cent of the committee's votes in order to be inducted with the Hall's 2018 class in June.

"This public-submission process has allowed us to learn firsthand about the far reaches of the positive influence of Willie O'Ree," Sansom said. "Through it all our community and our country have come to realize what a priceless gift we have in this man."

Beyond the dozens of letters of support from everyday people and hockey fans, the testimonials about O'Ree's impact came from current and former NHLers; past premiers; a sitting premier; a former lieutenant governor; a Canadian senator and numerous community and advocacy organizations.

Joel Ward, the San Jose Sharks forward, typed a two-page tribute that explained what it was like growing up as a black hockey player and how O'Ree's conquering of racial hurdles inspired his own career.

"What Willie has done for the game cannot be put into words.

But it can be recognized," Ward said. "When you think about 'builders' of the game of hockey, who has sacrificed more and given more of himself to the game of hockey than Willie O'Ree?" Philadelphia Flyers forward Wayne Simmonds added his name to the cause this week with a piece in the Players Tribune.

"Without Willie, there would be no Jarome Iginla. There would be no Grant Fuhr, or P.K. Subban or Ray Emery or Dustin Byfuglien or so many others who have had the honour of playing in this great league," Simmonds wrote.

"There would definitely be no Wayne Simmonds."

O'Ree's date with destiny was Jan. 18, 1958. After beginning the hockey season with the Quebec Aces, he got the call every player dreams about: He's was going to the big leagues, and would join the Bruins in Montreal where they were to face the Canadiens.

He said he was unaware at the time how important that moment would become.

"I became the first black player in the NHL," O'Ree said. "It was a big thrill for me. I didn't realize I had just broken down a barrier for players of colour."

While hiding the fact that he was mostly blind in his right eye, because he worried it might jeopardize his promotion, O'Ree played a pair of games for the Bruins before being sent back to the Aces.

He appeared in 45 games with Boston the next season before going to on to play 15 more minor-league seasons, finally retiring with the San Diego Hawks in 1979, at the age of 44.

A PLACE IN HOCKEY HISTORY

It's not that O'Ree doesn't have a presence at the Hall in Toronto. In an exhibit celebrating milestones, there is a life-sized portrait of a young O'Ree. He's leaning on his stick in a hockeycard stance, the Boston Bruins "B" emblazoned on his chest, his No. 22 patched on his arm.

An accompanying note recounts O'Ree's monumental breakthrough in 1958.

Around the corner, in a glass display case celebrating diversity, rests a scuffed Northwood hockey stick with a nearly straight curve, the blade taped black, the knob white. "O'Ree" is drawn up the handle in permanent marker.

There are other traces of O'Ree throughout the museum, each one acknowledging his place in hockey history.

But for all those nods, O'Ree has yet to be inducted into the Hall of Fame, which would officially enshrine him as an individual among the game's greats.

Should he earn the votes and be elected, O'Ree would be immortalized by a plaque in the Great Hall, which is billed as a cathedral to the icons of hockey.

"It would be absolutely fantastic. What more could a person ask for? It's the ultimate goal," O'Ree said.

Now a diversity ambassador for the NHL, O'Ree travels across the United States and Canada speaking to children to spread a message of inclusivity in hockey.

But no matter how far he travels, O'Ree said visiting Fredericton always feels like going home. He makes the trip at least once a year.

In a manner typical of Maritimers, neither the Sansoms nor Hunt take credit for the bid. Hunt said his colleague Bruce Hallihan, and his editor Andrew Waugh , deserve a nod for their part in staying with the story. He merely "planted the seed," insisting the Sansoms have been the driving force.

The Sansoms, meanwhile, said it was Hunt's writings that helped shine the light on O'Ree's overlooked acknowledgement.

"You wouldn't know it from his personality because he keeps a low profile, but Bill's article started this whole initiative," Brenda Sansom said.

O'Ree, 82, said it's heartwarming to see the size of the homegrown effort on his behalf.

"I've still got many friends back in Fredericton. They followed my career when I left, and all these years later, it nice to know your friends back home still care about you."

Associated Graphic

Willie O'Ree, seen at a youth hockey tournament in Toronto on April 4, broke the NHL colour barrier in 1958. The man known as the Jackie Robinson of hockey would win many awards, but has not yet been inducted to the Hockey Hall of Fame.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Willie O'Ree warms up before a game against the New York Rangers in Madison Square Garden in 1960.

THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

The wild, raw Greek island of your dreams
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Most people who travel to Greece bypass Tinos unless they are on a religious pilgrimage - but as Elizabeth Warkentin writes, that is a serious mistake
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By ELIZABETH WARKENTIN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P16


Most people who travel to Greece bypass Tinos. And had it not been for a one-week photography workshop I did there last summer, I, too, would likely have given it a miss. But that would have been a serious mistake.

Only a 20-minute ferry trip from the glitz and glitter of Mykonos, Tinos is worlds away in attitude and appearance.

Near the fairy-tale hamlet of Koumaros, introduced to us by Greece Photo Workshops leader Maria, the rocky cliffs of Kolibithra form a perfect horseshoe-shaped bay cradling a sandy crescent beach. With its reputation for having the best breaks on the island, Kolibithra has become a popular yet laid-back spot among Greek surfers.

On the beach, a guy with a man bun staffed the bar, a repurposed vintage Volkswagen van, from which emanated the Eagles classic, Hotel California. The surfers hung around hoping for a swell, their boards propped against a thatched roof lean-to. Other beachgoers sipped mojitos by the bar, swam or lounged under quirky mushroom-shaped wicker parasols.

It was not a vibe I expected to encounter after spending three days in the chora, or capital, best known for its religious pilgrimages to the Church of the Panagia Evangelistria. Unlike most other Greek island choras, Tinos Town lacks island charm, possessing a decidedly more urban and chaotic feel. Ferries from Athens drop pilgrims off all day long, some of whom can be seen crawling on their hands and knees for the entire kilometre from the boat all the way up the red-carpeted promenade on Leoforos Megalocharis to the entrance of the church complex.

Since anyone arriving on Tinos has to come through the chora, Tinos is an island whose powers of seduction are not immediately apparent, but venture beyond and you will soon fall under its spell.

As on Amorgos, another island in the Cyclades chain, the mountains here are steep, the distances between villages on the tortuous roads are vast, and nature has largely been left to its own devices. All this gives the island a wild, untamed, uninhabited feel, not least because of the morning cloud cover, even in the summer, and the violent meltemi winds that batter the shore. While the landscape is heart-stopping in its beauty, the villages enchanting and the beaches lovely, Tinos is not an island for people wanting to rub shoulders with flashy yachters or dance at an all-night beach rave.

Perhaps this is why the island attracts sophisticated Athenians looking for tranquility and seclusion, as well as an increasing number of French citizens, many of whom are buying up old homes in the villages.

On the morning of our first workshop, Nikos, the teacher, had us meet him in the leafy, sun-dappled square of Pyrgos, a village celebrated for its marble craftsmen.

It's no wonder, then, that the doorways and windows of many homes are embellished with sculpted bird, flower and sailboat motifs and that even the street signs are works of art: pretty, asymmetrical slabs of marble inscribed with lovely Greek script.

Throughout the week, Maria drove us all over to explore and photograph some of its other mountain villages - 50-odd communities dotting the rocky, thyme-scented hills, each one a contender in the beauty pageant of Tinian towns. It's hard to say which is fairest of them all. Is it Pyrgos, the marble village, with its massive plane tree dominating the square? Kardiani, with its winding, bougainvillea-draped lanes and verdant hills plunging down to the Aegean? How about Volax, where many crumbling homes have been hand-painted with poems, and giant granite boulders - once believed to have been flung from the heavens by the gods - litter the countryside? No one knows how they got there, but today the rocks are thought to be debris from a meteorite or a volcanic explosion.

Apart from its abundance of marble and its draw for Orthodox pilgrims, Tinos is also famous for its distinctive, eye-catching architecture - many old dovecotes adorned with geometric designs still perch on the steep hillsides. The emblematic Tinian towers are a legacy of the Venetians who ruled here from 1204 to 1715. The occupiers were the first to systematically breed pigeons for their meat and the droppings also made for excellent fertilizer. Today, about 600 old dovecotes - distinctive towers that housed the birds - remain scattered across the island. Our group visited Tarabados, where a clutch of dovecotes dot the countryside, and we spent an afternoon working on architectural and landscape photography techniques.

Each afternoon, after our photography lesson, Maria and Nikos would take us to a different beach. The two are especially fond of the secluded, unspoiled variety, the kind that require stamina and strong legs for climbing rocky hills en route - and Tinos is blessed with dozens. Apart from Kolibithra and St. Peter's Beach, one of my favourites was the one in the bay across from Panormos. Viewed from the road above, what you see is a colossal rock, as tall as a building, projecting out from the water, like an island. Fifteen or 20 metres of water separate the giant rock from big humps of flatter rocks that give way to the beach. Locals call it Planitis, or the Planet, because of its lunar landscape and sense of isolation. Indeed, it was at least a 20-minute walk from where we parked the car, hiking past another beach, past a church in the middle of nowhere and traversing a path cut through rocky, shrub-studded terrain to reach our final destination.

While you wouldn't expect it on a rugged, unpretentious island such as Tinos, the island also boasts an exceptional, authentic culinary scene favoured by foodies and cosmopolitan Athenians. On the first night of the workshop, Maria had booked us a table at Thalassaki, a seafront property on Isternia Bay. Ingredients are sourced locally and the original dishes are so exquisitely arranged that they resemble works of art, like the meringues and vanilla ice cream that come in the shape of roses and the hummus dish topped with tiny wild flowers and adorned with onion slices cut in the shape of flower petals. So highly regarded is the taverna that gourmands and A-listers sail over from Mykonos to dine here.

On two occasions, we went to familyowned O Ntinos at Giannaki Bay, a picturesque west-facing location overlooking the water. As a vegan, I revelled in the fresh meze (appetizers) such as chickpea and fava dips, a lentil and tomato salad and the artichokes and capers drizzled in olive oil.

It's not common to see celebrities on Tinos, but on our first visit to O Ntinos, we spotted Michael Stipe of REM. Only Nikos recognized him and no one bothered him.

As we clinked glasses on the terrace at Naftilos, watching the sky metamorphose from burnt orange to watermelon to purple and indigo blue, I felt thankful for my new friends, my new photography skills and to Maria for having brought us here to this magical, unexpected island. But most of all, I felt grateful to the Church of the Panagia Evangelistria. By limiting development and lodging options, the church is essentially ensuring Tinos remains best known as a pilgrimage destination.

With most tourists eschewing Tinos for glam Mykonos, Tinos seems destined to remain an undiscovered bijou isle, untouched by mass tourism - a secret hidden in plain sight.

Associated Graphic

Volax, top, is a village where many crumbling homes have been hand-painted with poems. Kolibithra Beach, above, has become a popular yet laid-back spot among Greek surfers.

PHOTOS BY ELIZABETH WARKENTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Big move puts focus on couple's portfolio mix
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Bill and Hannah are worried uprooting their family from Alberta to Ontario could jeopardize their retirement plans
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By DIANNE MALEY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B13


As their 50th birthdays approach, Bill and Hannah are planning to leave behind their big-earning and bigspending oil patch lifestyle and move back to Ontario to help care for ailing relatives.

"Our world has taken a bit of a crazy turn," Bill writes in an email. "We decided to leave our life here in Alberta this summer and move back to Eastern Ontario." They'll be uprooting their two children, ages 11 and 14.

Bill will be leaving behind a salary of more than $220,000 a year, plus a substantial bonus and company stock. Hannah is not employed at the moment. In Ontario, Bill figures he will be making about $30,000 a year working part time. He hopes to retire fully in 2024, at which point they would downsize again to a condo.

Their lifestyle spending will be "pared down in retirement, and when the kids leave home," Bill writes. They wonder whether their plans pose long-term financial risks. "Can we afford to retire soon?" he wonders. Their retirement spending goal is $80,000 a year after tax.

We asked Matthew Ardrey, a vice-president and financial planner at TriDelta Financial in Toronto, to look at Hannah and Bill's situation.

WHAT THE EXPERT SAYS

Moving across the country will be expensive, Mr. Ardrey says. As well, Bill and Hannah will face selling expenses, legal fees and costs to redecorate their new house. The planner puts these costs at $100,000 on an $800,000 house, or 12.5 per cent of the sale price. He assumes they buy a house in Ontario for $700,000.

After six years, their goal is to net $250,000 from downsizing.

After costs, estimated at 10 per cent of the sale price, they would be able to purchase a home worth $400,000 in today's dollars, the planner says.

Bill and Hannah want to put their children through university. Mr. Ardrey assumes university will cost $20,000 a year for each child, rising at double the rate of inflation, or 4 per cent a year.

They are tucking away $2,500 a year for each child in a registered education savings plan to take advantage of the Canada Education Savings Grant.

"Even with the amount of savings they have accumulated, they will fall slightly short of achieving their [education savings] goal," Mr. Ardrey says. As well, the asset mix of the RESP is almost all in equities. "If markets were to fall in the next few years, it would have a substantial impact on their financial plan - and require a much more significant capital infusion."

Bill and Hannah contribute the maximum to their tax-free savings accounts each year and Mr. Ardrey assumes they continue to do so throughout their retirement years. In drawing up his forecast, he assumes Hannah will get 50 per cent of maximum Canada Pension Plan benefits and Bill will get 70 per cent. They will start drawing government benefits at 65 and the inflation rate will average 2 per cent a year.

As with the RESP, virtually all of their investment portfolio is in stocks. "When markets fall again, this will have a severe impact on their retirement plans," Mr. Ardrey says. He suggests some alternatives.

In the first plan, Bill and Hannah reduce their equity exposure to 60 per cent, with 40 per cent in fixed income. Historically, this balanced mix has returned 4.25 per cent a year net of investing costs. They would still achieve their goal of spending $80,000 a year. At 90, they would have an estate of $4-million, including real estate and personal effects. If they wanted to spend all of their savings instead, they could increase their spending to an inflation-adjusted $99,000 a year.

In the second plan, Bill and Hannah make no changes to their asset mix and suffer a 20per-cent portfolio loss near the beginning of their retirement.

Their asset mix historically has returned 4.75 per cent a year.

"Even with this major loss, they can achieve their retirement goal of spending $80,000 a year, but they are in worse shape than if they took on a more conservative mix," Mr. Ardrey says. At 90, they would have an estate of $3.2-million, or if they wanted to spend all their savings, they could increase their spending to $92,000 a year.

A third scenario has the couple including some alternative investments in their asset mix.

They would shift their portfolio to 50 per cent stocks, 30 per cent fixed income and 20 per cent alternative investments. (Examples of "alternative" investments include global real estate, private debt and private equity.) Their returns would be expected to average 5 per cent a year "while providing additional insulation from a severe market downturn," Mr. Ardrey says. They'd have an estate of $6.8-million. Or they could deplete their savings and not leave an estate, which would increase their spending to $111,000 a year.

Because they are moving from Alberta to Ontario, there are some other financial considerations to consider, the planner says. Taxes in Ontario are higher than Alberta, especially at Bill's income level. Deductions from his employment in 2018 would be based on Alberta rates, but he would be an Ontario resident for tax purposes because he would reside in Ontario on Dec. 31, 2018.

This could result in a larger tax bill than expected next April.

Hannah and Bill should keep a record of all of their moving expenses because they could be deductible against employment income earned in Ontario, the planner says. Because estate planning is a provincial jurisdiction, they should redo their wills and powers of attorney. "Also, they may want to change executors and/or attorneys to someone local."

Ontario has a probate fee of 0.5 per cent of the first $50,000 of an estate and 1.5 per cent on the remainder. "This contrasts sharply to Alberta, where the maximum probate fee is $400," he says. "They should consider putting investment accounts in joint names with the right of survivorship to reduce exposure to these costs." Want a free financial facelift?

E-mail finfacelift@gmail.com Some details may be changed to protect the privacy of the persons profiled.

CLIENT SITUATION

The people: Bill and Hannah, both 49, and their two children.

The problem: Will the big move they are making entail too much long-term financial risk or will they be able to retire comfortably in a few years?

The plan: Shift the asset mix in the children's RESP and their own portfolios to a more balanced approach so they will not be so vulnerable to a market downturn. Seek expert advice about differences in tax and estate planning law between Ontario and Alberta.

The payoff: Much less risk to their financial goals.

Monthly net income: $11,350 (excluding bonus) Assets: Bank accounts $108,500; stocks $950,000; his TFSA $56,000; her TFSA $55,000; his RRSP $290,000; her RRSP $77,000; his defined contribution pension plan $290,000; her defined contribution pension plan $190,000; RESP $116,000; residence $800,000. Total: $2.9million Monthly outlays: Property tax $375; home insurance $100; utilities; $300; maintenance, garden $260; transportation $505; grocery store $1,000; clothing $100; gifts, charity $400; vacation, travel $1,200; dining, drinks, entertainment $660; grooming $25; pets $125; sports, hobbies $50; health care $105; phones, Internet, TV $245; RRSP $200; RESP $500; TFSA $1,000. Total: $7,150. Surplus of $4,200 a month goes to savings.

Liabilities: None

Associated Graphic

CHRIS BOLIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Commonwealth Games medal haul didn't meet Canada's expectations
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Despite sharp drop in the number of golds, team organizers see benefits in preparation for 2020 Olympics
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By NEIL DAVIDSON
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Monday, April 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B17


GOLD COAST, AUSTRALIA -- While Canada fell well short of its goal of 100-plus medals at the Commonwealth Games, team officials say the true test of the Gold Coast Games will come two years from now at the Tokyo Olympics.

Lessons learned here should pay off in 2020, said Canadian chef de mission Claire CarverDias.

"It's intelligence," said CarverDias, a former synchronized swimmer who won medals at the Olympic, Commonwealth and Pan American Games. "You're gathering data.

"And people underestimate the Commonwealth Games," she continued. "We're chronically underfunded. But it is listed as a milestone in the performance pathway and athletes keep saying these games are important. It's a checkpoint ... Olympians are going to benefit from being here."

Carver-Dias' words are undoubtedly true. But like the Commonwealth itself, the question mark over the relevance of the socalled Friendly Games seems to grow every four years.

Supporters point to the games' inclusivity, with gender medal equality and para-events as part of the program. Here they also noted the games' reconciliation action plan with Australia's aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

After some bold talk of a tripledigit medal haul, Canada had to wait until the final day of competition to match its total of 82 from four years ago in Glasgow. A poor finale by the Canadian women's rugby sevens team Sunday meant a possible medal No. 83 - a bronze - now belongs to England.

Thanks to an unexpected men's basketball silver, Canada finished with 15 gold, 40 silver and 27 bronze. While the total number of medals did not change from Glasgow, the number of golds plummeted to 15 from 31.

Canada finished third in total medals behind Australia's 198, including 80 gold, and England's 136, 45 of which were gold. But it was fourth when it came to golds with India, which had 66 total medals, collecting 16.

Track and field, not helped by the late withdrawal of sprinter Andre De Grasse, was down to 13 medals from 17. A young rhythmic gymnastics team won two medals, down from six in 2014.

Wrestling was down to 10 from 12 with head coach Tonya Verbeek seeing the need to revamp some things in the wake of a few spotty performance.

But led by 17-year-old Taylor Ruck's eight medals (1-5-2), swimming won 20 medals compared with 11 in Glasgow. And boxing produced six medals, double the output four years ago.

When Damian Warner stumbled in the decathlon, Pierce LePage stepped up to the podium.

Haley Smith overtook Emily Batty to take mountain bike bronze.

While the peaks seemed to cancel out the valleys, Canadian team officials will be studying the numbers and performances to see why Own The Podium's projection of some 100 medals - the actual number was 112 but they wanted to dampen expectations - wasn't met.

The youth of the Canadian team, the power of Team Australia and a spate of fourth-place finishes - the lawn bowls team had five alone - were cited as some of the reasons.

Nowhere was the strength of the Australia team more evident than in women's basketball. Australia won the women's gold on Saturday, defeating powerhouse England 99-55 to cap an unbeaten run at the tournament. Canada lost 74-58 to New Zealand in the bronze-medal match.

On the plus side, no Canadian athlete got tanked up and borrowed a Hummer, as happened at the Winter Olympics.

And there was plenty to celebrate. Joanna Brown rallied from a fractured shoulder to win triathlon bronze. Maude Charron, a relative newcomer to weightlifting, hoisted gold. Ellie Black, with two gold and a silver, was a class act in gymnastics.

Canada's women ruled the sand in the games debut of beach volleyball, with the men talking silver in a thriller. Backstroker Kylie Masse followed up her 2017 world title with double individual gold and a relay silver. Wrestler Diana Weicker, a mother of two and part-time pediatric nurse, won gold.

Wheelchair racer Diane Roy, at 47, won bronze. And 20-year-old boxer Thomas Blumenfeld, marked by welts, proudly put his body on the line to earn silver.

Diver Jennifer Abel bounced back from a disaster in the synchronized three-metre springboard to win gold in the individual event. And let's not forget 70year-old shooter Robert Pitcairn, the oldest competitor ever at the Commonwealth Games.

But the show belonged to Australia. The home team won 73 medals, including 28 gold, in the swimming pool alone.

Australia soared into top spot in the medal standings with 198 (80-59-59), up from 137 (49-42-46) four years ago when it finished second to England. But it didn't improve its own record at Melbourne in 2006 when the host nation won 221 medals, including 84 gold.

England slipped to second spot at the Gold Coast with 136 (45-4546), down from 174 (58-59-67) in Glasgow.

The heavyweights didn't hog all the medals.

The British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Cook Islands, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands all won medals for the very first time at a Games. But 13 of the 71 nations that competed here will have to wait for more years to hunt for a first-ever medal.

The sports were well-attended, with locals in the majority. The fact that most of the spectators were Australian added to the atmosphere in the venues if not the streets. People went to the venues and they went home.

Other than a transportation glitch for the public at the opening ceremonies, there were few complaints. The games were well organized with an army of cheery volunteers.

"They were incredible games," said Canada's assistant chef de mission Benoît Huot. "The organizing committee delivered. The people from the Gold Coast and Australians were proud to receive those games and we felt it."

Huot, a former elite swimmer, has been to 16 multisports Games, between the Olympics, Paralympics, Pan Ams and Commonwealth Games, "and I can say it's in the top three, easy."

The big winner at the end of the day may be the Gold Coast, with its constant sunshine and beautiful beaches. Queensland's slogan of "Beautiful One Day, Perfect The Next" was well chosen, although the marathoners may have a different take on the heat that left some literally out on their feet.

One month after the chill of the Pyeongchang Games, reporters here were gifted tubes of suncreen by smiling volunteers.

The aptly named Surfers Paradise managed to combine the best and worst of Las Vegas, Florida and Niagara Falls.

"It's hard not to have a good time on The Gold Coast," said Erica Wiebe, champion wrestler and Canadian flag-bearer.

"There's beaches, there's koalas, there's sun. It's absolutely a dream."

Birmingham, England, will be hard-pressed to surpass the scenery Down Under in 2022.

82 Number of medals Canada takes home from the Commonwealth Games (15 gold, 40 silver and 27 bronze), 18 podium appearances shy of the country's 100-medal goal, but enough to finish third in the overall standings.

20 Medals won by the Canadian swim team, nine more than in Glasgow four years ago.

16 Number of multisport Games, including the Olympics, Paralympics, Pan Ams and Commonwealth Games, attended by assistant Canadian chef de mission and former swimmer Benoît Huot.

Associated Graphic

Canada's Sara Kaljuvee dives past England's Natasha Hunt in the women's rugby sevens bronze-medal match at the Gold Coast Commonwealth Games on Sunday. England won.

WILLIAM WEST/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

WHY THE TORONTO RAPTORS ARE BETTER THAN EVER - AND TWO BIG QUESTIONS FOR THE PLAYOFFS
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After a banner regular season, Toronto is looking to shed its reputation as playoff rollovers
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By RACHEL BRADY, MATT LUNDY
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S8


TORONTO -- If there was any time to silence the critics, it's now.

Fresh off the best regular season in franchise history, the Toronto Raptors start their playoff campaign on Saturday (5:30 p.m. ET) as the top seed in the Eastern Conference, although not exactly a popular pick to reach the NBA final.

In the past two seasons, the Raptors expended loads of energy in dispatching early round opponents, before being easily eliminated by LeBron James and the Cleveland Cavaliers. To retool for this season, the Raptors did a complete renovation of their offence, dropping isolation basketball for a system focused on swift ball movement and shooting the three-ball.

The new system suits Toronto.

The biggest proof: its franchisebest 59-23 record. The No. 1 playoff seed lands the Raps home-court advantage through the conference finals, which could be an enormous perk for a team that played to an NBA-leading 34-7 home record this season at the raucous Air Canada Centre.

And yet, the Raptors will need to shed their reputation as playoff rollovers. The playoff draw won't make their task any easier. For Round 1, the Raptors will face the Washington Wizards, who have their own star-studded backcourt, and another bout with the Cavs could come as soon as Round 2.

Does this Raptors squad have a chance? Here's a stat-laden look at four ways Toronto has made dramatic strides, along with two big question marks.

BETTING ON THE BENCH

Every coach who faced the Raptors in the second half of the season fretted about how to deal with Toronto's barnstorming reserves - a unit now called the "Bench Mob" with an uncanny ability to extend leads. This group shatters past notions that Kyle Lowry and DeMar DeRozan must do everything. During the previous two seasons, the Raptors ranked 26th out of 30 teams in bench scoring. But, this season, they skyrocketed to fifth (41.8 points a game), and first since Jan. 1 (44.3 points). The bench played around 44 per cent of all minutes - easily the most of any Raptors team - lightening the load on Toronto's stars. (Some years it hovered around 30 per cent.) Toronto's bench has by far the best plus/minus of any reserve unit in the league (+3.6), and is top two in steals, assists and the momentum-revving category of blocked shots. The numbers speak volumes about bench guys, such as Fred VanVleet, Jakob Poeltl, Pascal Siakam, Delon Wright and C.J. Miles. Most coaches decrease minutes for bench players in the playoffs, so it will be intriguing to see if Dwane Casey continues to use this potent bench talent so liberally.

FOCUS ON THREE-POINTERS

For several years, the prevailing offensive trend in the NBA has been the move toward threepoint shot attempts. The Raptors fully bought in this year. Toronto launched 33 three-pointers a game in the regular season, third in the league and a dramatic improvement from 22nd the previous season. In doing so, the Raptors crushed a previous team record in three-pointers made. The team surpassed 10 made threes in a whopping 60 games this season (something they did just 37 times last year) and won 49 of those games. Lowry set personal records in three-pointers attempted and made, and DeRozan revolutionized his game to make deep shooting a new weapon. Even big man Jonas Valanciunas has got into the action: After making a single three-pointer last season, he made 30 this time around. Better ball movement has been crucial to the offensive overhaul. The Raptors finished the regular season sixth in the NBA in assists per game, compared with dead last in 2016-17.

BETTER BALANCE

The Raptors are the only NBA team that ranks in the top five for both offensive and defensive rating, which marks a steady progression from past Toronto teams. Casey put a 1,300-pound boulder in the Raptor locker room when he arrived as head coach in 2011 and emphasized a "pound the rock," defence-first philosophy. That mindset shifted this year. In fact, the Raps have a better offensive rating this year than every team but the Golden State Warriors and Houston Rockets. Last year, they lagged in sixth spot in that category.

BETTER HEALTH

The Raptors head into the postseason with a stellar run of good health. During the regular season, Toronto's roster lost the third fewest games due to injury, according to injury tracking site ManGamesLost.com. It's a noticeable improvement from past years. Lowry needed wrist surgery last season and missed significant time, returning shortly before the playoffs without sufficient games to establish chemistry with trade-deadline acquisitions Serge Ibaka and P.J. Tucker.

But this season, Lowry missed just three because of injury - a tailbone bruise back in January.

The point guard took a single rest game and made 78 starts, the healthiest he's been since 2013-14.

DeRozan has also fared well, starting 80 games this year, the most he's played since he started a perfect 82 back in 2012-13. The team has been able to shave a few minutes of playing time off both stars' nightly average this season as well, contributing to their freshness.

HOW WILL DEROZAN AND LOWRY PLAY?

While Toronto boasts arguably the best bench in the NBA, to make a deep playoff run, a team's biggest stars must shine. For Toronto, that means big performances from all-star besties Lowry and DeRozan. No doubt, playoff opponents will zero in on Toronto's backcourt standouts, deploying top defenders to snuff out their scoring. It's worked before.

Both DeRozan and Lowry's productivity has dipped from regular season to postseason in each of the past four campaigns. Just look to their PERs - or player-efficiency ratings - a complex all-encompassing stat that rates a player's per-minute productivity, wrapping in positive and negative plays. Their production has typically fallen to average in the postseason, and in some cases, below average. The Raps were able to convince the two established allstars that changing their style would be best for the team this year. Now it's time to see if it works in the playoffs.

CAN THEY BEAT THEIR EASTERN RIVALS?

It's not hard to recall the last time the Raptors met the Wizards in the postseason. In 2015, the fifthseeded Wiz swept the fourthseeded Raps in the first round.

Since then, Toronto is 8-3 versus Washington, and 2-2 this season.

Though it's a small sample size, there are reasons for concern.

This season, the Raptors averaged 9.3 three-pointers a game versus the Wiz, shot 29.6 per cent from three, and had a plus/minus of 0.5 - all their lowest averages against Eastern Conference opponents.

And this week, with a chance to move up in the standings in their last game of the regular season, the Wizards chose to sit stars John Wall and Otto Porter. They lost, which cemented them as the No.

8 seed, prompting many to wonder: Did the Wiz want to face the Raps again?

If the Raptors get past Washington, the No. 4 Cavaliers will likely await in the conference semis, along with the gargantuan task of preventing LeBron James from steamrolling to an eighth consecutive NBA final. The Raps were 1-2 against Cleveland during the regular season, with the most recent loss happening this month on the road, with the Cavs' trade-deadline acquisitions catching steam.

That is where Toronto's mettle will be truly tested.

Single mom facing cash-flow shortfall
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Meredith wonders if she'll be able to fund her kids' postsecondary education and retire
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By DIANNE MALEY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B14


At 51, Meredith is single again with two young children, ages 6 and 9, money in her various accounts that has not yet been invested, a new home in Eastern Ontario and a rental condo in suburban Toronto - her former home - with a big mortgage.

"I plan to return to the city at some point," Meredith writes in an e-mail, explaining why she wants to keep the Toronto condo. "Maybe when the kids go to university. I would never be able to afford a condo there in the future," she adds. "And it seemed like a worthwhile investment. I love the location and amenities."

She works for the government, earning $66,000 a year. If she stays put to the age of 65, she'll be entitled to a pension of $2,038 a month, plus Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security benefits.

Short term, Meredith's goals are to furnish her new home, pay for her children's various lessons, sports and other activities, and save up enough for a nice vacation with them. Longer term, she wants to pay for the children's postsecondary education and save for her eventual retirement.

In the meantime, she wonders how to invest the money she received as part of her settlement with her former partner - she gets no child support - and whether she will ever be able to retire.

"At this point, I can't see retiring since my children are so young," Meredith writes. "I am worried that I won't be able to fund their postsecondary education and will continue working well beyond age 70 to help pay for it." Her goal is to maintain her lifestyle after she quits working.

We asked Heather Franklin, an independent, fee-for-service financial planner based in Toronto, to look at Meredith's situation.

WHAT THE EXPERT SAYS

Meredith is starting out this new phase of her life in a precarious financial position mainly because the income from her rental condo of $1,800 a month is not covering the expenses, Ms. Franklin says. Meredith's principal residence is mortgage-free. The mortgage alone on the rental unit is $1,855 a month; then there are the property taxes, condo fees and maintenance. Interest rates could rise or the tenant could move out, leaving Meredith in a crunch.

As well, her budget for monthly outlays is understated, with no allowance for replacing her car or major appliances, nothing for vacation or travel, and an unrealistically Spartan allowance for dining out, sports and hobbies.

"The biggest issue is the rental property mortgage and associated expenses of this property," Ms.

Franklin says. As well, managing a rental unit in another city can be difficult when maintenance problems arise or tenants move out.

"The ongoing cash-flow shortfall is detrimental to Meredith's financial health now and in the future." She recommends Meredith sell the property and pay off the mortgage. The money she nets could be set aside for other needs as they arise. That way, she will be able to focus on furnishing and maintaining her current residence.

As well, Ms. Franklin suggests Meredith track her spending over time to see what her actual needs are and where she is falling short.

This will help her to better allocate her savings in future.

Next, the planner looks at Meredith's savings. Properly investing the money she has sitting in cash - in her bank account, her tax-free savings account (TFSA), her registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) and the children's registered education savings plan (RESP) - will be critical to Meredith's achieving her goals, the planner says.

If she wishes to manage her own money, Meredith could build a diversified, balanced portfolio of low-cost mutual funds or exchange-traded funds in line with her risk tolerance, Ms. Franklin says. Such a portfolio would include stocks and bonds or other fixed-income securities diversified internationally.

Alternatively, she might want to explore using an online portfolio manager or robo-adviser to draw up an investment policy statement and recommend a suitable portfolio. That way, she would benefit from professional money management, including rebalancing.

Meredith should set aside some readily available money for an emergency fund, the planner says. This could be the proceeds from the rental unit sale or part of the money in her TFSA. The remainder of her TFSA contributions should be invested in longterm growth securities such as dividend-paying blue-chip stocks or exchange-traded funds and low-cost mutual funds, the planner says Because money invested in a TFSA can grow and compound free of tax, "investments that earn income and have growth potential should be held in these plans," Ms. Franklin says.

For the children's RESP, Meredith could look at investments that will grow in value to keep ahead of inflation. Because the savings in this account will not be required for some time, Meredith can include longer-term investments similar to the ones in her TFSA.

As the children get closer to university age, though, Meredith should shift the RESP investments to term deposits or guaranteed investment certificates.

If she continues with her current RESP savings program, and invests with growth in mind, the RESP will grow to about $160,000 or so in eight years, Ms. Franklin says - enough to cover four-year degrees ($20,000 a year) for the two children. That assumes an average annual return of 4 per cent after fees.

In addition to the registered accounts, Meredith might want to set up savings accounts to cover children's activities, the occasional big vacation and the cost of new appliances or a new car.

Because her circumstances have changed, Meredith should update her will and ensure the beneficiary designations on her pension and registered plans are up to date, Ms. Franklin says.

Looking further ahead, Meredith is concerned she might have to work well beyond normal retirement age. While retirement is a long way off, Meredith should have enough income to retire comfortably at the age of 65, Ms.

Franklin says. Meredith is entitled to a pension of $2,038 a month at 65. Her Canada Pension Plan benefit would be $778.23 in today's dollars and her Old Age Security benefit of nearly $600 in today's dollars. Any shortfall could come from her savings and she'd still have her residence to fall back on.

Want a free financial facelift?

E-mail finfacelift@gmail.com.

Some details may be changed to protect the privacy of the persons profiled.

CLIENT SITUATION

The people: Meredith, 51, and her two children.

The problem: Can she afford to help her children with their postsecondary education and still retire at the age of 65?

The plan: Sell the rental condo and pay off the mortgage.

Invest the savings in a balanced and diversified portfolio of stocks and bonds through low-cost funds.

The payoff: A road map to a worry-free future.

Monthly net employment income: $4,380 Assets: Bank deposits $30,000; TFSA $74,215; RRSP $140,608; RESP $74,730; residence $506,400; rental $515,000; estimated present value of defined-benefit pension plan $200,000. Total: $1.5-million Monthly outlays: Condo fees, taxes $400; utilities $190; home insurance $100; transportation $390; grocery store $1,000; child care $350; clothing $100; gifts $30; other discretionary $40; grooming $50; dining out $50; sports, hobbies $100; health care $30; life insurance $250; phones, internet $150; RESP $415; pension plan contributions $400.Total: $4,045 Liabilities: Rental mortgage $412,000 at 3.5 per cent

Associated Graphic

CHAD HIPOLITO/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Then we take Berlin
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How Jordan de Souza went from suburban Toronto to the Komische Oper Berlin
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By CATHERINE KUSTANCZY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


BERLIN -- 'It's just one more flight!"

Jordan de Souza bounces up a steep set of stairs to his office at the Komische Oper Berlin, which overlooks the thoroughfare of Behrenstrasse, not far from the historic Brandenburg Gate. It's a long way from de Souza's home turf of Mississauga, the Toronto suburb where he and his seven siblings were raised by music-loving Indian parents.

De Souza, who turns 30 this year, is a ball of manic energy; he walks quickly and speaks with an unbridled enthusiasm for work and life, both of which have integrated in a way many classical artists can only dream of. He and his wife, soprano Jana Miller, moved to Berlin in 2016, where he is Kapellmeister (leader of orchestra) for the Komische Oper (Comic Opera). His daughter was born in Berlin in early 2017. His German is self-taught - absorbed, he says, mainly from reading. He cycles through the immense Tiergarten (a park running through central Berlin) from his home in Charlottenburg to work almost daily. "I was lucky to feel like I belonged here really quickly," he says, settling into an immense office chair, "and it has a lot to do with this company."

Located in the former East Berlin, the Komische Oper Berlin recently marked its 70th birthday. Under the leadership of Australian director Barrie Kosky since 2012, it is a powerful force in the classical music world, presenting a mix of opera and operetta with frequently bold, unusual productions. The hierarchy within the Berlin opera scene is, as de Souza puts it, "clear - we're the little brother in town" (the other two companies being Deutsche Oper and Staatsoper Berlin), but the company boasts a roster of stellar music figures from its past staff, including Kirill Petrenko, now music director of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich, and Vladimir Jurowski, now chief conductor and artistic director of the Radio Symphony Orchestra Berlin and principal conductor of the London Philharmonic. The incoming general music director for Komische Oper is 39-year-old Ainars Rubikis, winner of the Third International Gustav Mahler conducting competition in 2010 and former musical director of the Novosibirsk State Opera House in Russia. "There's a life to what we're doing," de Souza says of the organization. "It's palpable, you can feel it not only in audience, but people working in the house. We're trying to create something fresh. I feel really at home here."

That sense of home was reinforced last winter, when de Souza was asked to fill in for conductor Henrik Nanasi on the Komische Oper's Eugene Onegin at the last minute. Despite not knowing Russian, and only days into becoming a father, de Souza learned all 484 pages of the score - in a little over a week.

"It's like baptism by fire," he notes of the German opera tradition. "There's inevitably always an opportunity for young conductors to dive in." The production returns to the Komische Oper on March 29, with de Souza on the podium, and runs through mid-May.

The fact de Souza, who has conducted at the Canadian Opera Company, Opéra de Montréal and Houston Grand Opera among others, now holds the title of Kapellmeister is fitting, considering the term originally applied to someone in charge of chapel music; he (along with his six brothers) attended St.

Michael's Choir School, a semi-private institution in Toronto with a core curriculum balanced between academia and music studies. It boasts a number of internationally celebrated classical alumni including tenor Michael Schade and conductor Janko Kastelic. A teacher introduced de Souza to opera, but his passion for the art form truly took flight when he was given the score to Mozart's Cosi fan tutte by a professor at McGill, where he studied organ. "My passion was church music," the prize-winning organist admits. "I loved taking hymns and finding new harmonies, and fresh ways of looking at them."

The job of Kapellmeister has evolved to encompass a range of activities and responsibilities which can vary wildly from house to house.

In more traditional German opera companies, a Kapellmeister might be very much an assistant's position, but not so at the Komische.

"I get to [conduct] 40 to 50 nights a year, I rehearse, I have assistants on every show. I have the chance to develop my vision as a conductor."

"I'm an instinctive person so I knew he would be good," Kosky says of de Souza. "Otherwise, we wouldn't have given him the position of Kapellmeister. When you're starting off as a young conductor you should have a go of everything, and also you can then use it, in lots of ways, later in your career, and Jordan thank goodness is clever enough to realize that."

Kosky happily refers to de Souza's "excited puppy energy" and it was this quality that proved important during preparations for Pelléas et Mélisande, presented last October.

The sole opera by French composer Claude Debussy is a seminal work within the opera repertory, and one of the most musically challenging.

German baritone Dominik Koeninger, who made his debut in the title role, says the conductor arrived for rehearsals "superprepared. He already had built up his whole idea of every word ... every note! It was scary a little bit sometimes, but he still he gave us room. It was a very special atmosphere."

The production marked a trio of premieres - for company, director and conductor.

While Kosky praises de Souza for his willingness to experiment, the conductor, who admits he is "intensely self-critical," was experiencing pangs of selfdoubt over tackling Debussy's dense score, feeling his youth was an impediment to the intense thoughtfulness the work demands. He discussed his concerns with Jurowski, who asked him his age.

"I said 28. He said, 'I was given my first Pelléas when I was 28, too.' To master the elements of that score can take a lifetime. It's not something you learn in two or three months."

What little amount of time de Souza has off is spent with his baby daughter, singing lullabies and pouring over future planned works. "Bea sits with me while I'm studying scores," he says, a proud smile creeping across his face, "she takes her little fake pen, has her finger where I ask her to leave it, waves her hands when the music starts ... every time I hold that little girl in my arms, that's my release."

Despite not listening to music in his spare time ("There's not one piece of music on my phone"), it's never far away from de Souza's thoughts or pursuits, something Koeninger, who's a neighbour, has noticed.

"I was like, 'Do you want to go the gym someday or have a run or play squash?' And he was like, 'I'd love to but ...' - he was just focused on his work. It's so funny, I see that and ask myself, 'Maybe I should be more like this?!' " "I don't work on music; music works on me," de Souza says, as announcements echo across the Komische Oper speakers.

"It's a mystical kind of engagement, but ... when you sit there with this thing you are not the same person having interacted with it. That's the joy of being in music."

Associated Graphic

Jordan de Souza, who turns 30 this year, moved to Berlin in 2016, where he is Kapellmeister (leader of orchestra) for the Komische Oper (Comic Opera).

BRENT CALIS

Nine ways Ontario political parties are using Facebook to micro-target potential voters
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Online messages - in the form of issue-specific petitions, ads from interest groups and more - are helping shape Ontario's spring election
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By ADAM RADWANSKI, TOM CARDOSO
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A10


Even as Progressive Conservative Leader Doug Ford pushes back hard against comparisons to Donald Trump heading into this spring's Ontario election, he has been using Facebook advertising to target Ontarians who are "interested" in the U.S. President.

Meanwhile, local candidates for Kathleen Wynne's Liberals have been highlighting exactly how much their government's last-ditch spending spree will bring to their ridings. Issue-specific petitions are being used by all the province's major political parties to encourage voters to share their data. And an array of outside interest groups - some doing one party's bidding, others trying to drum up cross-partisan support for their issue of choice - are doing their best to shape voters' opinions.

This is the sort of online messaging that will help shape Ontario's spring election - and that tells the story of what a modern political campaign looks like, as digital micro-targeting increasingly replaces mass communication through more traditional advertising.

Much of that story will by its nature fly under most voters' radars, because they will only see the sliver of ads targeted directly to them. But through a partnership with the U.S. investigative journalism non-profit ProPublica, The Globe and Mail is monitoring as many of those ads as possible, to give readers the fullest available picture.

The more Ontarians who install a webbrowser extension designed by ProPublica to capture the Facebook ads in their feeds, the more complete the picture will be. Before the provincial campaign officially begins, it is already starting to take shape - as evidenced by these examples of ads, and their targeting information, captured so far.

PETITIONS

"Make your voice heard," "sign below if you agree," "add your name" - a common prompt from the political messaging seen so far is a request for the reader to sign some form of petition. These petitions, on topics ranging from gun-control legislation to universal basic income, are a tool used by parties to collect data on their potential electors, specifically names and e-mail addresses they can then use for targeting in future Facebook advertisements and e-mail callouts. Given Ontario's nearing provincial election, the petitions are also likely an attempt to build lists and data they can cross-reference with their own voter databases ahead of the official campaign period.

TARGETING THE LIKE-MINDED

One way for parties to identify likely supporters is by trying to reach out to those whose Facebook behaviour suggests ideological symmetry, which is what Mr. Ford appears to be trying to do here. Although Mr.Trump is not generally popular in Ontario, it's a safe bet that those voters who do like him would overwhelmingly support Mr. Ford over Ms. Wynne.

That behaviour can include displaying a strong interest in politicians or policies outside Ontario. Given Mr. Trump's extremely low favourability numbers in Canada, the PCs will clearly need support from many voters who don't like the U.S. President if they're to win.

But it's such a safe bet that most of his fans in Ontario would prefer Mr. Ford to Ms. Wynne that targeting them with ads from the PC Leader's account means going after low-hanging fruit - an advantage the Tories presumably decided was worth the risk of encouraging comparison.

HYPER-LOCAL MESSAGING

In some ways, politics becoming more digital also makes it more local. Among Facebook's advantages to candidates is that it lets them reach voters within a single riding, which in most of Ontario isn't possible through traditional media outlets serving a wider population.

That allows them to take advantage of their parties' spending commitments in ways they couldn't previously, by breaking them down into the specific benefits for their constituents - and, when it's a government MPP such as this one, to imply that her opponents would take away whatever is being offered.

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC-SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS

Government ads, notifying people of things such as tax deadlines, benefits and continuing infrastructure projects, also make an appearance in the database. While not political in the same way a petition or issue advertisement might be, they do sometimes promote topics that could be seen as partisan, such as Ontario infrastructure projects undertaken by the Liberals. Some of these ads also have very specific targeting parameters, such as an Ontario government ad about the tax-filing deadline targeted at people "interested in immigration."

THIRD-PARTY ATTACK ADS

Ontario Proud is the most prevalent example of a time-honoured tradition - outside groups helping one party by attacking another - being practised in a new way. Those attacks used to be on TV, often funded by unions (attacking the right) or corporate groups (attacking the left). Now, partly because of newly restrictive third-party spending limits and also because digital advertising is increasingly more effective, the action is mostly online.

While more traditional interests have struggled to adapt, outfits such as this - essentially a Conservative-aligned consultant's oneman operation - are proving better at serving up images and videos that generate strong reactions among target audiences.

HIGHLIGHTING UNDER-THE-RADAR POLICIES

A pilot project to test a guaranteed income in a few Ontario towns has gotten little media attention recently among the government's far more comprehensive and expensive social-policy commitments. But versions of this ad being displayed on Facebook in many parts of the province - including some locations, such as Kingston, where the pilot project is not running - suggest the Liberals have research showing it plays well with some voters. It goes to show that more traditional media may capture only part of the policy debate playing out during an election, which stands to help define the next government's mandate.

RETARGETING OF PAST SUPPORTERS

If advertisers have the names and e-mail addresses of people they wish to reach, Facebook offers access directly to their profiles. It allows parties to reach out to people whose information they've previously collected through other means - presumably activities such as door-to-door canvassing or volunteer sign-ups, though conceivably it could also include data acquisition from other entities - as the NDP has done here.

AGE-BASED TARGETING

One of Facebook's most basic forms of targeting is age-based. While most of the political ads captured by our tool so far use the default age setting (that is, people aged 18 and above), some are directed much more precisely, such as the ad below for Environmental Defence Canada, an environmental group based out of Toronto. First seen on April 11, the ad features author Margaret Atwood and targets people aged 55 and above who live in or were recently in Ontario, an audience segment that's likely to be familiar with her work. Variations on this ad also targeted broader segments, such as people aged 18 and above, "people who may be similar to their customers" and those "interested in The Handmaid's Tale."

SPECIAL-INTEREST GROUPS

Beyond party and candidate messaging, some of the most surprising ads have come from special-interest groups looking to push their agenda on a particular topic. Canadians for Eyewear Choice, an organization with just more than 3,200 likes on Facebook dedicated to protecting "Ontario consumers' freedom for choice when it comes to ordering eyeglasses and contact lenses online," ran ads featuring Ontario's major party leaders as recently as last week. Other third-party groups, such as the Police Association of Ontario and the Ontario Medical Association, have run issue ads about the use of private-sector security guards and surgery wait times.

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Clarification

A Friday news feature on how Facebook ads are being used in Ontario's election suggested Environmental Defence Canada is a partisan political group. In fact, it is a non-partisan public-interest group.

Li Ka-shing in hunt for Bombardier's Toronto site
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Two Canadian investors also on short list for manufacturer's aerospace plant in city's northwest
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By JEFF GRAY, RACHELLE YOUNGLAI, GREG KEENAN, NICOLAS VAN PRAET
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Wednesday, April 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing and two Canadian investors have made Bombardier's short list of buyers for the manufacturer's aerospace plant and surrounding lands in northwest Toronto, according to sources familiar with the matter.

Bombardier is mulling bids from three frontrunners. Mr. Li's CK Asset Holdings Ltd., a team-up by Torontobased developers Great Gulf and Dream Unlimited Corp., and Montreal-based PSP Investments, the federal public service's pension plan, are all said to be vying for the property.

But whoever wins the competition to buy the sprawling and largely empty 371-acre site could faces huge hurdles. Bombardier is facing off with its union, Unifor, which opposes the sale. And any new landowner will want to win the city's approval to rezone at least some of the site, which is currently reserved only for uses such as factories or offices.

Nevertheless, the site is accessible by Toronto's subway system and is seen as prime real estate in a city grappling with a shortage of land, housing and office space. It became one of the most sought-after potential development sites and attracted the attention of multiple buyers including an unsolicited bid from a startup manufacturer, Avro Bourdeau Aerospace Corp.

The Bombardier Downsview site, which includes the plant, runway and other land, is currently assessed at a value of just $153.16-million for property-tax purposes. However, sources said bids of more than $700million have been offered.

Buyers on the short list are bidding in the belief they will develop the land into so-called mixed use - a combination of office, residential and retail spaces - which would command high prices, the sources said. The next round of bids is due before the end of the month, they said.

Dream president Michael Cooper and PSP separately declined to comment. Great Gulf's commercial arm known as First Gulf did not comment.

CK Asset Holdings could not immediately be reached for comment. Avro Bourdeau said its $800-million bid - the only one that includes preserving the airplane manufacturing business on the site - was rejected.

Bombardier wants to sell the Toronto property as a way to generate cash from an asset that's not being used to its full potential. The company says it only uses about a tenth of the site and shoulders the full cost of using the two-kilometre-long runway.

"It's an amazing piece of land," Bombardier chief executive Alain Bellemare told analysts on the company's earnings call in February. "We can do the same type of work somewhere else and really unlock huge value."

Bombardier currently builds Global luxury jets and Q400 turboprop planes at the Downsview site. The Montreal-based company has raised the option of moving these manufacturing operations to Toronto's Pearson international airport.

Proceeds from a Downsview deal and those of a recent share sale could contribute as much as US$1-billion of cash to shore up Bombardier's balance sheet or to help buy back a minority stake in its train business from the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, JP Morgan analyst Seth Seifman said in an April 13 note.

Although the land is for sale, Bombardier management has never expressed any intention publicly to sell the Q400 business itself. The unit was once considered a shaky part of Bombardier's commercial aircraft lineup, but in recent months it has begun to see the fruits of a bolstered marketing and sales effort implemented two years ago, winning new orders from India's SpiceJet among others.

Still, history suggests Bombardier would entertain offers for the turboprop business if they were reasonable, AltaCorp Capital analyst Chris Murray said. "You have to be realistic and remember Bombardier has sold other programs in the past as they reached maturity," he said, including de Havilland Canada assets now owned by Viking Air Ltd. and its water-bomber business.

Avro Bourdeau also made an offer to purchase Bombardier's regional jet business. The assembly of those jets is now done in Mirabel, Que., but Avro Bourdeau's plan would shift that work to Downsview.

Bombardier's rejection letter said Avro Bourdeau had no experience manufacturing airplanes and questioned the company's ability to obtain financing. But the company's CEO Marc Bourdeau said he interpreted the rejection letter as a negotiating tactic.

"We don't believe that Bombardier is going to send [Q400 production] over to Pearson," said Mr. Bourdeau, citing the costs of purchasing real estate, shifting tooling to another plant and halting production of the planes for up to a year while the assembly line is transferred out of Downsview.

Mr. Bourdeau acknowledged that his plan would require public and government support, but noted that it conforms with Toronto's requirement that the land retain its current industrial zoning.

A Bombardier spokesman declined to answer questions about options for the Downsview site and the company's intentions for the planes built there. "We have nothing to announce," said Simon Letendre.

The sale of the Toronto site will likely be the first stage of a potentially long battle at city hall. The entire area, much of which is taken up by Bombardier's test runway or is vacant, is zoned for employment use: factories or offices.

"The employment lands, once they are gone they are gone forever," long-time local Councillor Maria Augimeri said. "You can't buy them back, you can't manufacture them. And they create the base for Toronto's economy. " In addition to the loss of the 3,600 aerospace manufacturing jobs, a sale could also see a new buyer scrap Bombardier's runway, which would loosen flightpath-related building-height restrictions.

Unifor is in the midst of negotiations on a new contract, but has received no answers to its questions to the company about the future of the site and the Q400 and Global programs, Unifor president Jerry Dias said.

The current contract has a socalled work ownership clause that requires approval of the union before major changes can be made, such as Bombardier's plan two years ago to outsource cockpit and wing assembly of the Q400.

Toronto Mayor John Tory told reporters recently that preserving the employment lands was his "going-in position" in any talks over the property, and that keeping that zoning must be the city's "principle focus."

Mr. Tory also said there was plenty of residential land nearby: "I don't accept the notion that every single piece of land without exception ... should be just allocated because we just decide we are going to have condo towers and apartment buildings everywhere. We need places for people to work."

Employment lands are also taxed at a much higher rate, and they need fewer services than residential zones, making keeping them in the city important to the municipal government's bottom line.

However, lobbying is already under way. Bombardier has hired Toronto-Dominion Bank to handle the sale. Ashley Martis, a director with TD's real estate arm, registered as a lobbyist earlier this month and met with senior officials in the mayor's office, senior city officials and Toronto chief planner Gregg Lintern, according to the city's lobbyist registry.

Mr. Lintern said he outlined in his meeting with TD how complex any potential rezoning would be.

With a file from reporter Jacqueline Nelson.

Associated Graphic

Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing, chair of CK Asset Holdings, peers down at the city during an interview in 2016.

JUSTIN CHIN/BLOOMBERG

A disturbance in suburbia
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In her new novel, Carrianne Leung examines life in a subdivision, where everyone lives in identical homes but still struggles to fit in
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By MARISSA STAPLEY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P20


When I was seven, my family moved out of our quirky Victorian on the main street of a small town and into a house in a brand-new subdivision. The place was so new the yards were mud instead of grass; with the help of my parents, I planted a small vegetable and flower patch in an attempt to brighten things in the front. When the landscapers came to lay the sod they plunked it right on top of my fledgling pansies and hopeful pea pods, all supported by Popsicle sticks licked clean that summer with the help of my new friend next door.

In that moment, I understood something about subdivision life that I could never put a finger on - until I read Toronto author Carrianne Leung's That Time I Loved You, set in a 1970s suburban development in Scarborough, with its matching houses - "three twostoreys and a bungalow, repeated as a pattern" - and careful grid of streets. There were great things there, and terrible things, too.

There had to be with so many people living so close together.

"Between the road tar and the pine boards and the wall-to-wall carpeting, the whole place smelled like a new toy just unwrapped," writes Leung of the home that Chinese-Canadian June moves into with her parents. "The kids liked to guess what the area had been before they bulldozed it and put up our houses: Farmland, cemetery, someone else's neighbourhood? But that was for sport.

It was brand spanking new and made you feel like anything was possible."

The dichotomy between what subdivisions are meant to be - community, togetherness, home, sweet home - and what may lurk in the shadows - monotony, racism, a creeping sense of failure, because if you can't be happy here, where can you be happy? - is laid out by Leung in this compact gem of a collection of linked short stories, with spunky June as the hub and her friends and neighbours the spokes. (If you're imagining the wheels of this story existing on a bike, think of June's "powder blue Schwinn with its banana seat and plastic orange ribbons trailing from the handlebars.") Leung is not the only Canadian author to use fiction to reflect on past versions of Scarborough through the lens of personal experience. Last year, Catherine Hernandez (Scarborough; Arsenal Pulp Press) and David Chariandy (Brother, McLelland & Stewart) did the same, and, as with Leung's, their stories revealed common truths about the desire for community and belonging - and the pain of it being just out of reach.

What sets Leung's book apart is the focus on the subdivision itself, which, when compared with the low-income east-end Toronto neighbourhood in Hernandez's novel and the dilapidated cluster of townhouses in Chariandy's, seems to exist within the upper echelons of society. And yet, these characters still struggle to fit in and face roadblocks because of their perceived ethnicity - no matter that they were born in Canada and live in the exact same house everyone else does; it's what others see on the surface that often charts their course.

Toronto has long had its enclaves: Chinatown, Little Italy, Greektown, Little India, Koreatown, Little Portugal. And Scarborough has long been a blend of all those, and more. It is the place where the hope of cultural diversity has flourished - but also where it has crashed into reality.

Understanding the harshness of that reality comes from reading novels such as these. An understanding of the hope is found here, too.

Reading That Time I Loved You is like peeking through a curtain at the truth behind the lives of people who are neighbours - you see them on the street every day, you say hello - and who are utterly unknown at the same time.

Good novelists are adept at unearthing secrets about the human experience that hide in plain sight, and Leung does this with such care each character is a heartache: There is the young Italian wife who has everything except a baby, which is the one thing she wants; she falls in with the local group of moms and during their coffee dates she is the one who folds their laundry and cleans up for them, since they are busy and her lonely hands are idle. Fragile Mrs. Da Silva, who immigrated from Portugal many years ago with her husband, a man she didn't realize was capable of such cruelty; the terrain of her home country hid it, but here in these repetitive, sanitized streets, there is nowhere for it to be directed at but her. Marilyn, queen of the neighbourhood, organizer of street parties and welcome-to-the-neighbourhood care packages - and compulsive thief. June's best friend Josie, who has a secret so terrible she can't ever tell anyone, not even June; the distance this causes fractures their friendship during the confusion of adolescence.

June's childish honesty combined with glimpses of the woman she will become, a woman shaped by the promising yet unvarying streets she lives on but also by the landscape of a heart containing multitudes (all of our hearts contain multitudes; this is one of the truths Leung reveals), is charming. But it's the way Leung uses this engaging character and a setting that will be familiar to many - it's Scarborough and in some ways uniquely so, but in others could be anywhere and is probably a place we've all been - to expose these characters so thoroughly that makes it such a memorable and bewitching read.

This is a novel that dazzles with its sublety, that befriends its reader in the dead of night, that leaves a lasting impression and a new way of understanding people and the world.

There's a tragic thread of darkness, too, in the form of a rash of suicides in the neighbourhood, suicides June and her friends have no way of understanding except as a potential epidemic: What if their parents are next? The deaths occur across all backgrounds and social statures, revealing to the children that adult life has dangers even the adults themselves might not be aware of. The children begin to look for clues in their own homes, in the words and deeds of their parents, as if suicide is a plague they can head off if they see it coming, as if sadness is a disease and ennui a symptom.

Through the lens of today, a time when we are just beginning to talk about mental illness in an open and sensitive way, a suburban 1970s community is a stifled place indeed. And the idea of suicide as a plague is apt - and so very sad, because it has always been thus. Leung is a writer who understands people, all kinds of people, so she knows that it is the moment when everything is supposed to be perfect when it is least likely to be - and that when beauty comes out of nowhere, when a light is directed at you in the darkness, you have to be ready or you'll miss it altogether.

Marissa Stapley is the bestselling author of the novel Mating for Life and the recently released Things to Do When It's Raining (Simon & Schuster Canada).

That Time I Loved You BY CARRIANNE LEUNG HARPERCOLLINS CANADA, 215 PAGES

Associated Graphic

Carrianne Leung's novel That Time I Loved You is set in 1970s Scarborough, Ont.

SARAH COUTURE MCPHAIL

The palette of Yayoi and Yoko
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Little has been made about the fascinating parallels between two Toronto art shows just blocks apart
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By RUSSELL SMITH
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R6


TORONTO -- Toronto is having an elderly female-Japanese-artist moment, with two museum shows devoted to this demographic - artists from the same place (New York, actually, not Japan) and time (the performance-art explosion of the 1960s) with remarkably similar thematic preoccupations. Both shows are about the infinite. Both involve a degree of group participation. Both are astoundingly popular. Why this aesthetic, this very specific set of intellectual interests, now?

The two shows are Yayoi Kusama's Infinity Mirrors at the Art Gallery of Ontario and Yoko Ono's The Riverbed, at the Gardiner Museum of Ceramic Art.

The timing of the shows is a coincidence, but their popularity means something. Both shows are accessible and optimistic.

Both invite participation. There is a certain amount of socializing over art going on.

It is perhaps a hippie moment - a Love-In, a Be-In, a Happening.

Infinity Mirrors has been on for some months now (it continues until May 27) and most of the press about it has been on its unprecedented success. Getting tickets to see it is as tough as finding NHL playoff seats.

All advance tickets are sold out; queues for same-day tickets form an hour before the gallery opens. Once you do have a ticket, you are assigned a precise viewing time, and your ticket is scanned three separate times - as if in an airport with serious security concerns - before you are allowed 20 to 30 seconds inside each of the magical "pods," the most intriguing part of the show.

The pods are small mirrored rooms with illuminated objects inside them; they give you the impression of floating in an infinitely extending galaxy of these objects. They are immersive and hallucinatory environments and it is no surprise that such aesthetically enveloping art has stirred passionate response in a general public that has become rather weary of dry and cerebral installations.

There are other wonderful works by Kusama on display - paintings and collages of patterns of dots, many photos and a short film documenting trippy performances of the 1960s - and much explanatory text about her life and concerns. The whole thing combines art and history lessons about that crazy New York moment (the time of Happenings and Be-Ins) in a subtle and satisfying way (if you don't mind the sense that you are lining up for entry to an exclusive yet particularly dangerous nightclub).

Little has been made so far, though, about the fascinating parallel to the other show a few blocks away: Ono was born in 1933; Kusama in 1929. They were both born in Japan, yet active in New York at the same time. Both had connections to early conceptualism and hippie avant-gardism. Both organized protests against the Vietnam War.

The Riverbed (on until June 3) has an explicitly meditative aspect. It consists of three elements.

Stone Piece is a river of round stones on the floor, with an inducement to pick one up and hold it until you release your anger and sadness.

Line Piece is a room with string and nails in the walls; visitors are told to "Take me to the farthest place in our planet by extending the line." This has resulted in a web of string like a canopy at about head level.

Mend Piece is a room with tables and broken crockery that attendees may tie and tape together to make their own artworks that are then hung on the walls.

("It will mend the earth at the same time.") Pencils are free to anyone who wants to write messages or poems on the wall as well.

This has also been an unusual success for this quiet little museum. The Gardiner reports that attendance has been more than double what it was at this time last year. It is remarkable how much Ono's river of stones resembles Kusama's early pebble paintings, and echoes Kusama's obsession with polka dots.

Ono's work is not as deep as her older counterpart's.

The early days of conceptualism, even from its origin in Dadaism, had an aversion to obvious content: It had no message; it was about expanding definitions of and control of art. In many ways, it was against meaning, meaning being simple-minded and bourgeois. Ono's groundbreaking early work - such as Cut Piece, in which she sat still while gallery-goers cut her clothes off her body - was steadfastly cryptic.

But as her career progressed, Ono got heavier on the meanings - and what simple meanings.

These pieces have messages like inspirational slogans.

Let go of your anger; be one with the universe; peace and love. The Toronto public has responded with equally enthusiastic sentimentality, writing happy things on the wall like, "We are bound together by our common humanity." This feels not so much like an art exhibition as the result of an underfunded group therapy session, or worse, a corporate team-building exercise.

Inspirational messages - a cranky person might call them platitudes - undermine the cerebral otherness of the conceptual art moment that Ono helped create back in the day.

Meanwhile, Kusama's work - technically accomplished, meticulously beautiful and thoroughly abstract - has a more powerful impact and a more obscure message. It is about experience rather than lesson. When one does read about the artist's complicated and contradictory ideas - ideas that are not at all explicit on the surface of the work - one finds that she did share a lot of Ono's somewhat sentimental optimism about becoming one with nature. Kusama wrote at different points that she aimed for the annihilation of individual self against the backdrop of infinite universe, and the recurring polka dots represent something like universal sameness or repetition.

She also promoted nudity and sexual freedom as both anti-individualistic and anti-war, like many of Ono's contemporaries.

But Kusama also confessed that she was frightened of sex itself - and some of the soft phallic shapes that crowd her landscapes are more nightmarish than sexy. This kind of natural human self-contradiction is so much more intriguing than written instructions to "mend the earth." The weakness of the literal is put in relief by this juxtaposition of artists.

Still, the parallels are just as interesting as this contrast. There is a sense of joy in Kusama's bright colours and endless horizons, as there is in Ono's stress-relieving wrapping-china therapy and in her stream of nice stones. And there is a pleasure in the forced conversation among strangers in the queues at the AGO and in the communal silent meditation at the Gardiner. No one takes their clothes off and dances in the streets in Toronto, but still we like the idea of a Happening.

Associated Graphic

Much of the coverage of Yayoi Kusama's Infinity Mirrors, on now at the Art Gallery of Ontario, has been about its unprecedented success.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Yoko Ono's The Riverbed, at the Gardiner Museum, has an explicitly meditative aspect. The exhibit's Line Piece, left, is a room with string and nails in the walls; visitors are told to 'Take me to the farthest place in our planet by extending the line.' Mend Piece, below, is a room with tables and broken crockery that attendees may tie and tape together to make their own works. Both Ono and Yayoi Kusama were born in Japan, four years apart, and became active in New York in the sixties.

PHOTOS BY TARA FILLION

Notley threatens to restrict oil exports to B.C.
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Alberta Premier says province could use law to restrict fossil-fuel shipments if Kinder Morgan kills plans for Trans Mountain pipeline expansion
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By KELLY CRYDERMAN, IAN BAILEY, JEFF LEWIS
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Tuesday, April 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


CALGARY, VANCOUVER -- Alberta is handing itself the power to restrict fossil-fuel shipments outside the province, a move designed to raise the spectre of soaring fuel prices in British Columbia in an escalating political showdown over the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline to bring oil sands bitumen to the Pacific coast.

Premier Rachel Notley says her province might use the legislation if Kinder Morgan Inc. kills its plans for the $7.4-billion pipeline expansion, a threat that looms larger since the company set a May 31deadline earlier this month to be given legal and financial certainty for the project.

"Every day that goes by without the expansion in place means less revenue for schools, less revenue for hospitals and more dependence on one market for our products - the United States," she told reporters.

On Monday, Alberta's NDP government introduced a bill that will give the Energy Minister the power to require companies to obtain licenses to ship oil and refined products such as gasoline and diesel if and when the government determines it necessary.

The bill - likely to be passed in the weeks ahead - received immediate pushback. B.C. Attorney-General David Eby said if his province determines the bill is unconstitutional, his government could sue Alberta. "If there is anything in this legislation that even suggests the possibility of discrimination against British Columbians, we will take every step necessary to protect the interests of British Columbians because it will be completely illegal," he said.

Chris Bloomer, president and chief executive of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, said "we are concerned that the measures being considered in Bill 12 could have longer-term, unintended consequences for industry and the public at large. We hope that the measures will not need to be implemented and that we are able to find a prompt resolution to the current impasse."

Ottawa and Alberta see the project to twin the existing Trans Mountain pipeline to make room for more diluted bitumen as key to reaching new overseas markets, but environmentalists and some First Nations view it as an unacceptable increase in the risk of oil spills. The Alberta bill comes one day after Prime Minister Justin Trudeau interrupted an international trip to meet with Ms. Notley and British Columbia Premier John Horgan - with Ottawa promising to give financial backing to the project and to introduce legislation to ensure it is completed.

The Alberta government first floated the idea of restrictions on oil shipments last month in its Throne Speech as a means to push back against "extreme and illegal actions on the part of the B.C. government" in efforts to block the expansion. But on Monday, Ms. Notley tried to frame her government's bill as about giving Alberta more strategic control over the shipping of its resources to maximize profits. She said her province is rapidly running out of pipeline space to ship its heavy oil.

She said under the legislation, the province might determine at one point that pipelines do not have enough capacity for bitumen, and therefore more of the 80,000 barrels of refined fuels that go to B.C. every day will need to be shipped by rail. According to the National Energy Board, most of the gasoline consumed in B.C. comes from Alberta, delivered primarily via Trans Mountain.

"And it is true that it going on rail may inadvertently impact the price that people pay for it on the other end of the train track," Ms. Notley told reporters.

Kinder Morgan suspended all "non-essential" spending on Trans Mountain a week ago. On Monday, Ms. Notley said if on May 31 her province is seeing significant investor uncertainty about the prospects of increased pipeline capacity being built, "then that might be the point at which we're going to have to be a lot more strategic around what products get shipped to what markets, by what means."

The new bill would give the province authority to require that companies exporting energy products from Alberta get a licence - including for products such as crude oil and refined fuels, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel - which previously were not needed. The province's Energy Minister could set parameters for how products are transported, be it by pipeline, rail or truck. The province will also be able to take other, broader actions such as setting maximum daily quantities of products that can exported.

Fines for companies in breach of the orders will go to as high as $10-million a day - and for individuals, up to $1-million a day. The issue of compensation for energy, pipeline or other companies that could lose revenues as a result of the legislation is not addressed in the bill, provincial officials said.

Ms. Notley has said in the past there might be short-term pain for the industry, but insisted on Monday there will be no surprises for energy companies.

But the threat to throttle the province's energy shipments could stoke more uncertainty in an industry already struggling with choppy prices and investor apathy. Companies that ship oil and other products on Trans Mountain today include some of the world's largest energy groups, such as BP PLC and PetroChina Co. Ltd. Oil-sands giants Suncor Energy Inc. and Imperial Oil Ltd. also deliver gasoline and diesel on the line from big refineries in the Edmonton region.

The Alberta legislation could be followed quickly by similar action in neighbouring Saskatchewan. Late Monday, Premier Scott Moe told reporters his government will, within days, introduce a bill that will restrict oil shipments to B.C.

"We'd like to pass it as quickly as possible so that in the event that Alberta moves on their legislation, and does turn off the taps - if you will - to British Columbia," Mr. Moe said. "The province of Saskatchewan would be the next logical place for B.C. to look for fuel products." Mr. Moe said Saskatchewan hopes the legislation never has to be used.

On Monday, a spokeswoman for Kinder Morgan Canada had no comment, even though the legislation could directly affect the company's biggest asset and a major source of revenue. However, company president Ian Anderson said earlier this year "it's not feasible" for Alberta to curtail shipments of energy products on its existing pipeline to the West Coast.

The Alberta Premier said Section 92 of Canada's constitution allows the province to regulate exports. Ms. Notley acknowledges the legislation is likely to attract a legal challenge but will withstand objections.

But Mr. Eby said the B.C. government will be assessing the bill carefully to ensure it is not designed to punish British Columbians. "The constitution forbids discrimination around energy, between provinces," he said in Victoria.

Several First Nations challenged Ottawa's approval of the project in federal court, and a decision on whether the Liberal government met its constitutional obligations is expected soon.

Grand Chief Stewart Phillip, president of the Union of BC Indian Chiefs, saisd the Alberta legislation would not deter protesters in opposing the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline.

Mr. Phillip described the legislation as an "absolute act of desperation" by the Alberta government.

With a report from Shawn McCarthy in Ottawa

Associated Graphic

William George, a member of the Tsleil-Waututh First Nation, speaks during a news conference with Indigenous leaders and politicians opposed to Trans Mountain in Vancouver on Monday.

DARRYL DYCK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

THE CAUTIONARY TALE OF ARTISTIC LICENCE
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In Tom Rachman's new novel, The Italian Teacher, the Vancouver-raised writer explores our deification of artists, and whether a devotion to their craft can live in harmony with a loving domestic life
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By DAVID BERRY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


Tom Rachman emerges from the gift shop, into an Art Gallery of Ontario lobby that is downright teeming for a Tuesday afternoon. The masses are gathered, of course, for the Yayoi Kusama exhibition, the long-in-thewaiting blockbuster show that was kept Toronto lined up, physically and digitally, for the past several months.

He studies the scene briefly, but is hardly fazed, weaving this flood of people into the point he was making.

"This show is a perfect example: [Kusama, the octogenarian Japanese artist] is an eccentric, fascinating person," the Vancouver-raised, Londonbased novelist explains. "If her work had been done by a retiring, shy character who dressed in entirely average fashions and had no history of mental troubles and all the rest of this fascinating tale, how would we evaluate her work?

"We have this fantasy that we're looking at the art, but it always gains a certain essence by having an extraordinary life behind it," he continues.

"If you talk to people working in the arts, they'll often say, you know, 'We're telling a story.' They're not selling the painting: They're selling everything wrapped up in it, and the more unorthodox and subversive and sometimes even villainous the character of the person creating it, the more attractive that story." Rachman has taken his own stab at crafting an artist's extraordinary life with his latest novel, The Italian Teacher. Although the title, and ostensibly the focus, of the book belong to Pinch Bavinsky, this main character is one of those classically beset types who is ultimately a supporting character in the story of his own life. The overwhelming force of the novel is Bear Bavinsky, Pinch's father, an unruly, philandering, prickly hurricane of an expressionist painter, who over the course of the novel moves from countercultural genius to overlooked has-been and ultimately finds a place as a rediscovered, underappreciated member of the canon.

Excepting his sexual appetites - it is eventually discovered that he has fathered 17 children - Bear is heedless to more or less anything other than his muse and his assumed legacy. In one of the novel's early scenes, Bear forces Pinch's mother to remain posed at her pottery wheel for hours on end, as Pinch keeps replacing the needle on the jazz record Bear needs to keep him blaring away to complete his artistic zone. As soon as the painting is complete, everyone else's day bent to the whims of the genius, Bear deems it unworthy, shreds it and burns it an oil drum - his way of ensuring that only the best of him will remain, once he's finally gone to that great pantheon in the sky.

The Italian Teacher is to a large degree about what kind of waves a person like that leaves in their wake. It became a particularly poignant question for Rachman as he was considering having his own child, wondering just how compatible a life of creation and a life of domesticity really are.

Although the only thing Rachman really shares with Bear Bavinsky is early success - his debut novel, The Imperfectionists, was a bona fide worldwide bestseller in 2010 - there is nevertheless a deep worry that something that takes so much of your focus and drive can leave little left for others.

"I think, in any circumstances, I would be living the kind of life that Philip Roth described as a writer's life, which is you're in a room with the door closed and - well, he said a typewriter, but I have a computer in front of me.

But in any case, the existence of a writer in terms of their writing life is, and remains, entirely uninteresting.

"But, approaching the prospect of parenthood, I wanted to think hard about whether it was appropriate - whether my work would be destroyed by taking that step or, much more gravely, if a child could thrive in the light of the ferocious devotion of trying to make it in the arts. I wanted to make sure I wasn't perhaps overlooking all of the leads and sacrifice that would be required for decency towards a vulnerable human being."

Bear would then represent an extreme answer to that quandary: He moves through life as though everyone is there to serve him. Rachman does such a powerful job of dramatizing just what effect it can have on the people who surround you, it seems to inevitably tie into bigger questions.

Namely, although it is a decidedly more personal affair, the novel in its way shares some of the concerns of #MeToo-affiliated public debate about what sorts of behaviour we are willing to put up with from people who make art. As Rachman points out, Bear does not belong to the most noxious strain of bad behaviour, those people who are wielding the power of their celebrity to dominate the bodies and minds of those they deem lesser - yet he is undeniably poison to those closest to him.

For instance, not only does Bear succinctly crush Pinch's own dreams of being an artist, he refuses to even remember the incident, and ultimately berates his son as being little more than a caretaker for his legacy. It's analogous to the behaviour of someone such as Picasso - whom Bear claims to have feuded with - in that it's not utterly monstrous, but more than enough to wreck the lives of almost everyone around him, as Rachman poignantly explores.

Although each individual case will shake our perceptions in its own way, for Rachman, one of the more fascinating angles is the fact that we are never actually capable of separating art and artist: "The fact that you suddenly can't appreciate their work as much because it's so tainted just shows how closely connected those two are," he points out.

For him, it's a sign that artists occupy a rarefied, nearly deified place in our world: not just that they produce things that change how we might look at it, but that their existence itself becomes somehow essential to the fabric of our lives. Their biographies, in their way, mean as much to us as anything else they might leave behind.

"In a mostly secular world, there's still an urge to find saints," he explains. We are by now wandering through the AGO's European installations, the crowds crammed away near the elevators, the dark quiet giving way to walls full of beatific revelations, the angels and virgins and biblical scenes that were, after all, the font from which Western art sprung.

"Many of the stories of great artists use the sort of language that would fit with a Catholic saint. They have a vision that in their lifetime, they go through all sorts of suffering, they don't care about worldly concerns - all of that sort of stuff because they're devoted to their calling, and they pursue that notwithstanding the indifference of the world."

Associated Graphic

Author Tom Rachman sits in the Art Gallery of Ontario on March 20. Rachman's latest work is about the waves a driven artist leaves in their wake.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

London-based novelist Tom Rachman is fascinated by our inability to separate art from the artist, a concept he ponders in The Italian Teacher through his character Bear Bavinsky.

FRED LUM/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Westin Bayshore's apathetic resto service a painful ode to its history
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By ALEXANDRA GILL
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, April 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A10


VANCOUVER -- H2 Rotisserie & Bar and H Tasting Lounge

1601 BAYSHORE DR., WESTIN BAYSHORE HOTEL, VANCOUVER

Phone: 604-682-3377 Website: westinbayshore.com Cuisines: rotisserie chicken, bar and afternoon tea Prices: Whole chicken with two sides, $42; afternoon tea, $55 a person Additional Info: H2 open daily from 6:30 a.m. to 11 p.m.; H Tasting Lounge open daily from 11:30 a.m. (noon on Saturday and Sunday) until late. Reservations accepted.

Casual dining Zero stars

On March 14, 1972, Howard Hughes moved into Vancouver's Westin Bayshore hotel (then called the Bayshore Inn) and stayed for six months.

The eccentric recluse took command of the top four floors but was never seen outside his threeroom penthouse suite. He didn't once speak to hotel staff members, who were forbidden from even looking at him.

Perhaps the staff members now working at the Bayshore's new Hughes-inspired H Tasting Lounge have taken a page from that old training manual, because we've been sitting here for 10 minutes and cannot, for the life of us, get anyone's attention.

It's Friday, around 9 p.m. We wandered over to the hotel for cocktails after dinner at a nearby friend's place. It's a swanky artdeco room appointed with goldbrass screens, a central waterfall glass chandelier, marble tables and low-slung cube chairs upholstered in baby blue and dustyrose velvet. There is a live jazz trio playing in the corner. The lights are dim.

It's a big space (155 seats) and about one-third full, but the servers don't seem particularly busy.

So we sit and wait and stare at the servers who are doing absolutely nothing, hoping they might catch our thirsty glances. Finally, my friend walks over and asks for menus. The server takes her sweet time bringing them to the table. A confusing conversation about Clamato ensues. She walks away without taking our order. Fed up, we walk out and go next door to Cardero's.

The hotel's recent food and beverage reboot, which includes H Tasting Lounge and the more casual H2 Rotisserie & Bar (a multipurpose space that also serves as a takeout café), was designed for customers like us - locals, who may have forgotten how beautiful the property is, tucked against the Seawall with stunning views of Coal Harbour.

Come summer, there will also be a new patio attached to the lounge. Both restaurants offer live music every night. Last month, the lounge launched afternoon tea. There are lots of new reasons to visit.

Unfortunately, the service is some of the most apathetic I've ever seen in this city. And until they tighten that up, it really doesn't matter how much gold leaf is applied to $20 cocktails; the Westin Bayshore will remain, in most people's minds, the kind of low-rent hotel that services graduation parties for high schools that have been banned from the Four Seasons.

"You can't drink that here! Get out!"

It's Saturday night, the following weekend, and a flustered concierge is shooing away a gaggle of young guests in cowboy hats and micro-miniskirts who are chugging vodka coolers beside a 1954 Porsche 356 Speedster parked in the lobby.

It's a weird, incongruous scene, the kind that might be expected when classic Hollywood glamour is mixed with wedding parties from Abbotsford - but nothing compared to what happens later.

H2 Rotisserie & Bar is about as plain as H Tasting Lounge is fancy.

It's a standard cafeteria-style hotel restaurant with white tables, a long sideboard for the breakfast buffet, a cluttered service station beside the bar and high chairs for toddlers - of which there are several here tonight.

The dinner menu offers something for everyone - crab cakes, beef carpaccio, braised lamb shanks, maple-glazed salmon.

The signature dish is rotisserie chicken. And it is excellent chicken - darkly spice-rubbed, goldenskinned and juicy throughout.

Roasted fingerling potatoes are crispy yet plush. Fries are thickcut and liberally showered in Maldon salt. Baby carrots glazed with honey are sweet and crunchy. Pan gravy is thick, smooth and deeply layered with good stock.

Our server is friendly and patient. The kitchen expeditor is also very cordial when we amble over to look at the rotisserie, which is actually just a display model. The big one is in the back, where the rest of the kitchen staff must be working, because this guy is all by himself. It actually seems strange that he's not doing anything, but the restaurant isn't very busy, only a quarter-full.

There is, however, a lineup of six people outside.

"Come back in 30 minutes," the manager tells them.

They look confused. "All those seats are empty," one says, pointing to the bar. "Can't we come in for a drink?" "No, if you don't have a reservation, we cannot accommodate you," she says, all sweaty and panicky. "I don't have enough staff. We have too many big parties. The kitchen is overwhelmed.

We have a very nice lobby lounge.

You can go there for a drink."

Is she serious? She is.

Nobody heeds her advice and goes to the lobby lounge except us.

It's just as well they don't bother. In the lounge, it takes us approximately half an hour to get a drink.

There is so much booze in the brandy-flamed crêpes Suzette and baked Alaska that we don't even need the drinks. While the tableside desserts are a nice touch, they don't compensate for the style-over-substance cocktails. The House of Fabergé ($21), served in an ice egg cracked at the table, is watery. The throat-burning Alaska Cocktail No. 2 ($19), served with a hand-carved "iceberg," is clear and obviously missing its dash of Luxardo St. Antonio. It's pure gin.

Afternoon tea is a disaster. The server makes a big to-do about how we shouldn't actually be getting tea at 4 p.m., even though we had a reservation. (When we leave two hours later, she is still serving tea to new customers.)

Most of the food is edible but not great. A kung pao lobster roll has no lobster. Avocado spread and smoked salmon are brown.

The pastries are dry. The bao buns are gummy. The cakes are stale.

And by the time the tiered trays and bento-style boxes arrive, we have already finished a glass of champagne and two glasses of tea.

The tea service itself is a joke.

The measurements are off, and it's served in French presses, which scratch the delicate leaves and scorch the flavour. When we ask for hot water, the server pours it directly into the bitter pots.

Could we just have a Thermos on the side, so we can adjust to our liking? No, we cannot. The silver canisters "don't look very nice on the table."

Uh, and the plastic-handled Bodums are somehow more elegant?

By the end of the afternoon, I want to run out screaming. Maybe Mr. Hughes was on to something: Interaction with service staff, at least at the Westin Bayshore, is painful.

Associated Graphic

Vancouver's Westin Bayshore hotel is a beautiful property with stunning views of Coal Harbour, but afternoon tea at its new H Tasting Lounge is a disaster.

BEN NELMS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

VW ups Jetta's game
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The German auto maker prefers to see the dwindling car market one-third full rather than two-thirds empty, and its latest sedan offers a winning combo of value and family friendliness
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By JEREMY SINEK
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, April 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D8


DURHAM, N.C. -- 2019 Volkswagen Jetta $20,995 TO $30,390

Engine: 1.4-litre turbo four-cylinder

Transmission/drive: 6-speed manual or 8-speed automatic/FWD Fuel consumption (L/100 km): 7.9 city/5.9 hwy (6MT); 7.8 city/5.9 hwy (8AT)

Alternatives: Chevrolet Cruze, Ford Focus, Honda Civic, Hyundai Elantra, Kia Forte, Mazda3, Nissan Sentra, Subaru Impreza, Toyota Corolla

While some car makers have almost given up on being actual, you know, car makers, others are not yet ready to hitch their wagons exclusively to the trucks-and-SUVs, um, bandwagon (mixed metaphor intended).

Sure, the light-truck category now owns about 70 per cent of the North American vehicle market.

But Volkswagen prefers to see the car market as one-third full rather than two-thirds empty.

In Canada alone, total passenger-car sales still run about 640,000 a year, says VW Canada PR manager Thomas Tetzlaff, "and this car is a real opportunity for us."

This car being the latest iteration of the Jetta, VW's compact sedan that competes in what is still the largest segment of the car-only market.

All new for 2019, the seventhgeneration Jetta finally adopts the Volkswagen Group's MQB platform that we first saw on the Audi A3 in 2013 and which migrated to the Golf hatchback in 2015.

Given that the Golf and Jetta are historically sisters under the skin, what took the Jetta so long?

That's because when the siblings were last redesigned for Generation 6, the Jetta shed its previous near-premium persona and chased volume sales with pricing only made possible by downgrading the cabin furnishings and resurrecting ancient mechanical hardware from the long-dead Gen-4 models.

Volkswagen did modernize mechanicals later in the Gen-6 model cycle, which makes it all the more surprising that the 2019, MQB notwithstanding, reverts to the simpler torsion-beam rear suspension of the early Gen-6 (and Gen-4) models.

As of 2017 (VW Canada skipped the 2018 model year), the Jetta lineup still started with a bargainbasement Trendline trim - manual transmission, no air conditioning, starting at $16,395. The new, larger and roomier Jetta starts at $20,995, which seems quite a leap. But that's largely because Volkswagen is now equipping the Jetta the way people actually buy them - no more get'em-in-the-door bare-bones model typically purchased by almost nobody.

Besides, a bare-bones would also have contradicted Volkswagen Group Canada president Daniel Weissland's contention that "the VW brand has more to offer than volume competitors, so we want to position it as near-premium."

That said, while the near-premium strategy may apply to the VW brand, the three key talking points for the Jetta itself are more prosaic: excellent value; low cost of ownership; family-friendly.

Value? At around $21,000, the Jetta Comfortline is indeed priced competitively with similarly equipped alternatives; Highline and Execline trims add progressively more standard kit, and can be had with a $995 driver-assistance package, and/or a sporty RLine package (Highline only).

All three trims share the same carryover 1.4-litre turbocharged engine, with a choice of six-speed manual gearbox (previously fivespeed) or eight-speed automatic (previously six-speed).

The 1.4-litre engine's quoted 147 horsepower is at the low end of the spectrum. But it's a little torque monster - 184 lb.-ft. from 1,500 to 3,500 rpm, compared with, say, 128 lb.-ft. for a Corolla's (non-turbo) 1.8, or 162 for a Civic's optional 1.5 turbo. The result - combined with the ratio-rich eight-speed automatic tested - is zero perceptible turbo lag and effortlessly brisk acceleration; the engine is decently refined to begin with, and seems all the more so because it gets the job done without needing to be worked hard.

Pricing tops out at just over $30,000 for a fully optioned Execline - more than competitors' top trims, many of which include higher-output engines. The Jetta's own hot-shoe option, the GLI, will come later. On the cost side, VW cites a 15,000-km service interval and a four-year/80,000-km warranty versus the segment-norm 3/ 60 coverage. Fair enough.

Family-friendly? The Jetta is roomy, comfortable and has the info-communitainment features today's families expect. As for the driver, there are sportier choices out there, but the Jetta's overall sense of refinement and solidity is easy to like.

Still, if you fancy a new Jetta and your budget can stretch north of $30,000, you might want to wait for the GLI before you commit. Meanwhile, the Comfortline is a thoroughly pleasing package that offers the right features at the right price.

The writer was a guest of the auto maker. Content was not subject to approval.

RATINGS LOOKS

The Jetta is the longest car in its class, which made it easier to design a sleek profile without compromising rear headroom.

Distinctive elements include LED head- and tail-lamps and a sharp body-side crease, while aluminum wheels - 16- or 17-inch - are standard.

INTERIOR

Official stats say the Jetta's interior volume is at the low end of the class, but it sure doesn't feel that way: The rear seat is amply roomy and comfortable for adults. Up front, I could tailor a tolerable driving position with decent visibility, but would have liked more adjustability than the six-way provided (even the Execline's power seat is only six-way). The cockpit is otherwise nicely furnished, with lots of soft-touch materials, clear gauges, user-friendly switchgear and useful storage on the centre console.

PERFORMANCE

A 120-km/h pace needs only 2,100 rpm (although wind noise was rather intrusive) and the impressively subtle stop/start system helped deliver 6.7 litres/100 km over 210 kilometres of mixed driving.

TECHNOLOGY

The available 10.25-inch digital gauge cluster is a standout feature, while over all the Jetta is competitive on the connectivity/ infotainment front - 6.5-inch touch screen with Apple CarPlay, Android Auto, Bluetooth and SD slot on the base model, adding SiriusXM, eight-inch screen and blind-spot/rear cross-traffic alerts on the upper trims. But you'll pay $995 extra for the package of active driver aids (adaptive cruise, autonomous braking etc.) that are standard on some rivals.

CARGO

As in the passenger cabin, the trunk looks bigger than its cited - and par-for-the-class - 399 litres. The 60/40-split seat-backs fold nice and flat to reveal a large pass-through aperture.

THE VERDICT

8.0 Top trims look a little spendy, but the base model is the right car at the right price. Expect Volkswagen to sell a ton of them.

Associated Graphic

Distinctive elements on the 2019 Jetta include LED head- and tail-lamps and a sharp body-side crease, while aluminum wheels are standard.

PHOTOS BY JEREMY SINEK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The 10.25-inch digital gauge cluster is a highlight, but the Jetta manages to stay competitive over all in the software department. However, you'll need to pay nearly $1,000 more for a package of active driver aids, such as adaptive cruise and autonomous braking, that are standard on some rivals.

An exodus of B.C. mayors is in the offing, and some point to social-media nastiness
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'It's going to be a different world' as about half of Lower Mainland's sitting mayors say they won't seek office again
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By FRANCES BULA
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Saturday, April 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A16


VANCOUVER -- he Lower Mainland will unT dergo a massive political upheaval this fall as about half the region's mayors, some of whom have served for multiple terms, decline to seek re-election for a number of reasons.

The departures include mayors from the area's two largest cities: Surrey Mayor Linda Hepner announced this week she would not run again, and Vancouver Mayor Gregor Robertson announced earlier this year that he was leaving.

Those two, along with the departures of nine others - for a total of 11 mayors leaving out of 21 in office - will leave two-thirds of the region's population under new leadership.

"The amount of knowledge we're losing is worrying to me," said Richmond Mayor Malcolm Brodie, now in his 17th year on council. "I really regret that there are so many of the mayors who are leaving. The region is going to be very different politically."

Usually, only about a third of incumbents decline to run again, but mayors say the unusually high proportion this year is a result of a combination of coincidence, generational change, the rise of vitriolic social-media attacks on people in public life, the intense fights and workload resulting from the blistering pace of growth and development, the housing crisis, and the switch to four-year terms from three.

Joining the exodus will be Richard Walton of the District of North Vancouver, Darrell Mussatto in the city of North Vancouver, Lois Jackson in Delta, Greg Moore in Port Coquitlam, Ted Schaffer in the City of Langley, Nicole Read in Maple Ridge, and Wayne Baldwin in White Rock.

The mayors say they believe at least two more of their colleagues will be joining that group in advance of the Oct. 20 civic election.

The change will likely introduce younger and more diverse candidates, some mayors have said. Some community groups would likely add that the older generation of politicians made huge mistakes and needed to go.

But some fear the region could see the emergence of a more populist Rob Ford-style candidate - something Metro Vancouver has not been prone to.

"It's going to be a different world. You get a community that's frustrated for whatever reason and they are going to elect people responding to that," said Mr. Mussatto who is leaving politics at 57 after 25 years on council. "People want simple solutions to complex problems."

Two long-serving mayors, Derek Corrigan in Burnaby and Mr.

Brodie in Richmond, say they will be running again, in part to ensure there are still some veterans in the region.

Mr. Brodie added that there could be a rise of more populist voices because of the new campaign-finance rules that were introduced last year.

Political parties, which by their nature tend to be less radical and more centrist than independent candidates, will have a harder time raising money. According to the new rules, a person donating $1,200 maximum to one candidate in a party won't be able to give money to anyone else in that party. But, independents will be able to raise $1,200 each without worrying about competition from other party candidates for donors.

As a result, "those kinds of populist people could be more dominating than in the past," Mr. Brodie said.

He doesn't have an official challenger yet, but he is likely to see one, given his city's fierce debates over mansions on farmland, empty homes, foreign homebuyers, protests over housing for the homeless, short-term vacation rentals, massive amounts of development, and more.

While Mr. Brodie said the level of unpleasantness in socialmedia debates about civic politics isn't a concern, other mayors did.

"We've heard from some [of those who are leaving] about the rise of social-media viciousness," said Coquitlam Mayor Richard Stewart, who said he is still deciding about whether to run again.

Mr. Stewart himself has performed adroitly on social media, with relatively few attacks. In fact, he has received a lot of favourable or sympathetic attention as he jokes about the fact that, as a man, he could wear the same suit for weeks and no one would notice, or when he speaks openly about the mental-health challenges his daughter is going through.

But other mayors, particularly Mr. Robertson, Ms. Hepner, and Mr. Mussatto, have attracted hugely critical social-media groups. And Ms. Read in Maple Ridge endured among the worst attacks, going into semi-hiding at one point because of the online harassment she was facing, apparently as a result of her support for local homeless people.

Mr. Stewart said current and aspiring politicians say it's a deterrent.

"We've heard from many prospective political candidates about their worry that it's nasty out there," he said. "And when everybody assumes anyone elected is malignant, is useless, it's hard to try to attract people to elected office."

Mr. Stewart said the increasing volume of property development, combined with the new social-media combativeness, has made a local politician's job particularly rough the past few years.

In Coquitlam, for example, a new SkyTrain line has meant the council has had to deal with an unusually high number of development projects as the city has rezoned land around the lines in order to encourage density near transit.

"Our council agendas are full, with hundreds of pages. And even when projects are widely supported, you still get criticism that you don't have enough affordable housing or something else," Mr.

Stewart said.

Those aren't the issues that worry Mr. Walton in North Vancouver, even though he has had his fair share of criticism over the big increase in development that came after his community created a new official plan in 2014.

He believes the intense pressures many councils went through in the past decade as they grappled with demands to create more space for new residents, combined with four-year terms, took a toll.

Many mayors now leaving, including Mr. Robertson, Ms. Hepner, Mr. Moore, and Mr. Mussatto, oversaw significant and frequently controversial changes in the plans for growth in their communities during the past decade.

Mr. Walton said it took almost three terms to do all the work for his city's plan.

"I'm sad to go. But you need a fresh set of heads sometimes," he said. The 67-year-old said he still has one more career in him besides politician, accountant, and teacher.

He might have stayed another term, he said, if the terms were still three years. But the BC Liberal government changed them to four years as of the 2014 election.

That means two terms now means eight years for a prospective mayor, instead of six.

For one ex-politician, the current mayoral exodus is just a natural part of the cycle. The boomers are leaving and there are indications that a whole new crop of young people are interesting in running.

"There is a generational change," said former Vancouver councillor Gordon Price. "The millennials are preparing themselves. That's inevitable and good."

Associated Graphic

Surrey Mayor Linda Hepner has announced she will not be back, one of 11 mayors who are stepping aside.

JEFF VINNICK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Richmond Mayor Malcolm Brodie worries about a loss of experience.

DARRYL DYCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

How to develop your own inner genius
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Although very few of us will become the next Musk or da Vinci, we all have that potential
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By RICK LASH
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Saturday, April 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B10


LEADERSHIP LAB

Senior client partner at Korn Ferry Hay Group ike millions of people L around the world, I couldn't stop smiling while watching the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket lift-off carrying Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster. For an extended moment, I shared the sense of pure awe and youthful exuberance of the SpaceX team, cheering as the massive rocket roared off the launch pad.

Beyond the incredible technical feat, the event provides an important lesson in how genius can drive innovation that will shape how we'll work and live in the 21st century and, most importantly, what future employers will be looking for in the people they hire. Want to work for SpaceX? Consider this job offer on their website: "An unparalleled opportunity to play a direct role in transforming space exploration and helping us realize the next evolution of humanity as a multi-planetary species." Who wouldn't want to work for that kind of company?

Launching an electric car into space, creating the iPod, inventing the parachute - the results of the genius of Mr. Musk, Steve Jobs and Leonardo da Vinci. Although very few of us will become the next Mr. Musk, we all have genius potential. In looking at the minds of great geniuses past and present, certain patterns emerge; what we know is that genius is a discipline that can be learned and harnessed.

Here are a few tips for developing your own inner genius.

BE CURIOUS ABOUT EVERYTHING

Writer Walter Isaacson's recent biography of da Vinci reveals that he taught himself how to be a genius by being curious about everything, from studying the tongue of a hummingbird to the design of war machines and, of course, painting. He was the textbook definition of a polymath - someone who has wide-ranging knowledge and expertise. We see this in other geniuses. Mr. Jobs was a computer geek, but also deeply interested in calligraphy and Buddhism. And Mr. Musk has passions ranging from space to health sciences to farming and the entertainment industry.

Too often, we adopt the mistaken belief that being curious will take away from more important things, such as our careers and ability to earn a living. Instead, think of being curious as a way to enrich who you already are, something that will actually make you better at what you do.

I was recently surprised to learn that a brilliant colleague of mine, an expert in evaluating jobs, had gone back to university several years ago to take a degree in wine-making and went on to run a vineyard, all while being a skilled silversmith. He explained that he sees patterns between these very different disciplines, and the mix helps him bring a more well-rounded approach to his client work. The lesson is: Be curious for the pure joy of curiosity, not because it's simply useful or practical.

Another important habit to fuel your curiosity is to keep a learning journal. A leader I know has kept journals over the past 20 years, filled with quotes, models, personal reflections - almost everything and anything that interested him about his role, his company and his life. He is one of the most curious people I have ever met. So start a journal; be like da Vinci and begin by writing down all the questions you want to answer. Then start the exciting journey of exploring.

MANAGE ENERGY, NOT TIME

Most of us don't have unlimited time to pursue all our passions, but we often allow ourselves to get caught in the No. 1 thinking trap that limits our inner genius - perceived lack of time. Time is a limited resource; you will never have enough. Instead of managing your time, learn how to manage your energy. Great geniuses bring unbounded energy to everything they do, and they had no more time than you or me. In a recent Harvard Business Review article, Catherine McCarthy explains that unlike time, our energy is an unlimited resource that can always be replenished.

She recommends building simple rituals to manage your physical, emotional, mental and spiritual energy, such as getting enough sleep, expressing appreciation to others, reducing interruptions and, most importantly, doing "sweet-spot" activities more often - activities aligned with your passions and values.

All these rituals feed our wellspring of energy, which, over time, can shape our genius.

WORK ACROSS DISCIPLINES

Several years ago, we studied the career progression of leaders at IBM. What we found is that those who progressed to the highest levels had made more career moves across very different types of roles compared with those who remained in one function or specialty.

In our increasingly complex world, specialization is often seen as the key to success. So many of us choose between science, humanities or art, but that leads to a false dichotomy, and great geniuses know that. Einstein was an accomplished violinist, the great film actress Hedy Lamarr invented a radio guidance system that became the basis of Bluetooth technology, and, of course, da Vinci was both an artist and a great scientist.

Learning to read music builds pattern recognition, drawing develops observational and analytical skills, and taking an improv class strengthens your ability to think quickly and laterally. And nowhere is the need to branch into the arts and sciences more obvious than in today's digital economy, which requires a unique mixture of technical ability combined with creativity and a deep understanding of business.

A recent Korn Ferry study of 350 digital leaders showed that the traits they possessed included curiosity, the ability to manage ambiguity, the willingness to take risks, and the ability to engage and inspire others. So sit down at the old piano you haven't played in years or take a painting class at your local art school.

Your inner genius will thank you.

The reflection of the earth in the windshield of a red Tesla Roadster, with a whimsical spaceman mannequin at the wheel, speaks to pure genius and is inspiring a new gene