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ROB TOP 1000 | RANKINGS BY PROFIT
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page P42


The companies listed here are the 1,000 largest publicly traded Canadian corporations, measured by assets. They are ranked according to their after-tax profits in their most recent fiscal year, excluding extraordinary gains or losses. When companies state their results in U.S. dollars, we do the same, but rankings are based on the Canadian dollar equivalents

INDUSTRY GROUPS auto = automotive, banks = banks, bcast = broadcasting, bevg = beverages, bio = biotech & pharmaceuticals, chem = chemicals, consumer = consumer products, dev = real estate developers, eng =engineering & construction, ent = entertainment, env = environmental services, fin = financial services, food = food production or distribution, forest = forest products, homefurn = home furniture & appliances, indust = industrial products, insur = life insurance, metal = metal fabrication, mgt = management companies, mining = mining, oilprd = oil & gas production, oilserv = oil & gas field services, oil = integrated oils, other = other, p&c = property & casualty insurance, paper = paper products & packaging, pipe = pipelines, pmetals = precious metals, pub = publishing and printing, retail = retailers, serv = services, steel = steel, tech = technology, tele = telephone utilities, textile = textiles & apparel, trans = transportation, util = gas & electrical utilities, whole = wholesaler

NOTES For ranking purposes, figures fromcompanies that report in foreign currencies have been converted to Canadian dollars and partial-year results have been annualized. Foreign currencies are converted at the end of the relevant fiscal period for balance sheet items and at the average exchange rate for the relevant period for earnings items. Share-price calculations are based on closing share prices on the companies' balance sheet dates. FOOTNOTES (1) Company reports in U.S. dollars. (2) Revenue includes unrealized gains and losses on bonds and other assets, as required by international accounting standards. These gains and losses are often substantial for insurers, and can vary widely from year to year. (3) Figures have been annualized in latest year. (4) Figures have been annualized in previous year. (5) Figures have been annualized in previous three through five years. ABBREVIATIONS n/a = not available, n/m = not meaningful, n/r = not ranked

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1-110

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 1 | 1 | Royal Bank of Canada(Oc15) ON | 9,925,000 | 11 | 43,279,000 | 3 | 3 | 107,964 | 72,839 | banks |
| 2 | 2 | Toronto-Dominion Bank(Oc15) ON | 7,912,000 | 2 | 37,532,000 | 7 | 3 | 99,582 | 81,483 | banks |
| 3 | 3 | Bank of Nova Scotia(Oc15) ON | 7,014,000 | -1 | 31,244,000 | 12 | 1 | 73,969 | 89,214 | banks |
| 4 | 4 | Bank of Montreal(Oc15) ON | 4,370,000 | 2 | 23,784,000 | 18 | 4 | 53,585 | 47,000 | banks |
| 5 | 10 | Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce(Oc15) ON | 3,576,000 | 11 | 17,424,000 | 23 | 0 | 39,840 | 44,201 | banks |
| 6 | 11 | Canadian National Railway Co.(De15) QC | 3,538,000 | 12 | 12,663,000 | 31 | 3 | 60,998 | 23,172 | trans |
| 7 | 9 | Brookfield Asset Management(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)2,341,000 | -25 | (U.S.)21,753,000 | 14 | 8 | 41,960 | 55,000 | mgt |
| 8 | 13 | Great-West Lifeco(De15) MB (2) | 2,888,000 | 8 | 34,030,000 | 11 | -14 | 34,300 | 22,470 | insur |
| 9 | 14 | BCE Inc.(De15) QC | 2,678,000 | 7 | 21,569,000 | 20 | 2 | 46,276 | 49,968 | tele |
| 10 | 17 | Magna International(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)2,013,000 | 7 | (U.S.)32,545,000 | 4 | -6 | 22,575 | 128,975 | auto |
| 11 | 15 | Power Financial(De15) QC | 2,449,000 | 8 | 36,736,000 | 8 | -13 | 22,688 | 25,720 | fin |
| 12 | 18 | Sun Life Financial(De15) ON (2) | 2,285,000 | 22 | 19,719,000 | 21 | -4 | 26,421 | 18,330 | insur |
| 13 | 8 | Manulife Financial(De15) ON (2) | 2,191,000 | -37 | 35,063,000 | 9 | -36 | 40,899 | 33,000 | insur |
| 14 | 28 | Power Corp. of Canada(De15) QC | 1,786,000 | 40 | 38,478,000 | 6 | -10 | 13,406 | 26,500 | mgt |
| 15 | 21 | Potash Corp. of Saskatchewan(De15) SK (1) | (U.S.)1,270,000 | -17 | (U.S.)6,500,000 | 43 | -12 | 19,826 | 5,395 | chem |
| 16 | 16 | Thomson Reuters Corp.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)1,255,000 | -34 | (U.S.)12,226,000 | 26 | -10 | 40,072 | 52,000 | other |
| 17 | 23 | National Bank of Canada(Oc15) QC | 1,549,000 | 5 | 7,645,000 | 46 | 2 | 14,606 | 19,764 | banks |
| 18 | 24 | Telus Corp.(De15) BC | 1,382,000 | -3 | 12,552,000 | 32 | 5 | 22,738 | 47,600 | tele |
| 19 | 26 | Rogers Communications(De15) ON | 1,381,000 | 3 | 13,446,000 | 29 | 5 | 24,564 | 26,000 | bcast |
| 20 | 22 | Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd.(De15) AB | 1,352,000 | -8 | 6,805,000 | 49 | 3 | 27,040 | 12,899 | trans |
| 21 | 35 | Agrium Inc.(De15) AB(1) | (U.S.)988,000 | 38 | (U.S.)14,914,000 | 22 | -8 | 17,066 | 15,200 | chem |
| 22 | 6 | Imperial Oil(De15) AB | 1,122,000 | -70 | 26,888,000 | 15 | -27 | 38,210 | 5,700 | oils |
| 23 | 32 | Alimentation Couche-Tard(Ap15) QC (1) | (U.S.)932,800 | 15 | (U.S.)34,550,000 | 5 | -9 | 27,438 | 80,000 | food |
| 24 | 33 | CGI Group(Se15) QC | 977,556 | 14 | 10,287,814 | 40 | -2 | 14,942 | 65,000 | tech |
| 25 | 976 | Ivanhoe Mines(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)700,383 | 414 | (U.S.)368,162 | 269 | n/m | 475 | 670 | mining |
| 26 | 34 | Shaw Communications(Au15) AB | 856,000 | 0 | 5,621,000 | 56 | 5 | 12,525 | 14,000 | bcast |
| 27 | 63 | Fortis Inc.(De15) NL | 805,000 | 112 | 6,963,000 | 48 | 28 | 10,533 | 7,700 | util |
| 28 | 37 | IGM Financial(De15) MB | 780,542 | 2 | 3,027,945 | 88 | 3 | 8,651 | 3,028 | fin |
| 29 | 20 | Fairfax Financial Holdings(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)567,700 | -65 | (U.S.)9,580,400 | 35 | -4 | 14,593 | 23,576 | p&c |
| 30 | 36 | Intact Financial(De15) ON | 706,000 | -10 | 8,118,000 | 45 | 2 | 11,665 | 12,000 | p&c |
| 31 | n/r | Hydro One(De15) ON | 692,000 | -8 | 6,534,000 | 50 | 0 | n/a | 5,619 | util |
| 32 | 43 | Canadian Tire Corp.(Ja16) ON | 659,400 | 11 | 12,348,600 | 33 | 1 | 8,751 | 27,772 | retail |
| 33 | 206 | Loblaw Cos.(Ja16) ON | 632,000 | 1,115 | 45,424,000 | 2 | 9 | 26,788 | 196,000 | food |
| 34 | 38 | Cenovus Energy(De15) AB | 618,000 | -17 | 16,088,000 | 25 | -23 | 14,583 | 3,005 | oilprd |
| 35 | 45 | Saputo Inc.(Ma15) QC | 607,608 | 14 | 10,706,036 | 39 | 16 | 13,653 | 11,700 | food |
| 36 | 46 | CI Financial(De15) ON | 553,494 | 5 | 1,997,647 | 121 | 6 | 8,446 | 1,546 | fin |
| 37 | 59 | E-L Financial Corp.(De15) ON | 534,609 | 36 | 1,989,764 | 122 | -17 | 2,812 | 13 | p&c |
| 38 | 126 | George Weston Ltd.(De15) ON | 527,000 | 326 | 46,931,000 | 1 | 9 | 13,679 | 196,000 | food |
| 39 | 52 | Metro Inc.(Se15) QC | 506,100 | 13 | 12,290,300 | 34 | 6 | 8,520 | 65,000 | food |
| 40 | 101 | Restaurant Brands Int'l(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)375,100 | 132 | (U.S.)4,032,100 | 59 | 244 | 11,680 | 4,300 | other |
| 41 | 42 | HSBC Bank Canada(De15) BC | 442,000 | -31 | 2,669,000 | 96 | -7 | 12,531 | 6,150 | banks |
| 42 | 68 | Linamar Corp.(De15) ON | 436,671 | 36 | 5,182,926 | 58 | 24 | 4,870 | 19,600 | indust |
| 43 | 55 | Emera Inc.(De15) NS | 427,500 | -1 | 3,055,600 | 86 | 1 | 6,364 | 3,500 | mgt |
| 44 | 67 | Inter Pipeline(De15) AB | 427,400 | 28 | 1,670,900 | 134 | 7 | 7,471 | 978 | pipe |
| 45 | 81 | Empire Co.(My15) NS | 419,000 | 78 | 24,115,400 | 17 | 14 | 8,075 | 65,000 | food |
| 46 | 61 | Pembina Pipeline Corp.(De15) AB | 406,000 | 6 | 4,670,000 | 60 | -24 | 11,246 | 1,274 | pipe |
| 47 | 27 | SNC-Lavalin Group(De15) QC | 404,336 | -70 | 9,836,150 | 41 | 19 | 6,159 | 36,754 | eng |
| 48 | 238 | Turquoise Hill Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)313,303 | 1,063 | (U.S.)1,629,632 | 115 | -8 | 7,063 | 2,678 | pmetals |
| 49 | 64 | Genworth MI Canada(De15) ON | 398,302 | 6 | 791,482 | 208 | 4 | 2,442 | 290 | p&c |
| 50 | 80 | Hudson's Bay Co.(Ja16) ON | 387,000 | 66 | 11,910,000 | 36 | 40 | 3,150 | 66,000 | retail |
| 51 | 54 | Industrial Alliance Insurance(De15) QC (2) | 386,000 | -11 | 8,300,000 | 44 | 10 | 4,520 | 5,148 | insur |
| 52 | 74 | Dollarama Inc.(Ja16) QC | 385,146 | 30 | 2,650,327 | 97 | 14 | 9,188 | 20,000 | retail |
| 53 | 75 | WestJet Airlines(De15) AB | 367,530 | 29 | 4,043,761 | 65 | 2 | 2,506 | 9,211 | trans |
| 54 | 707 | Chartwell Retirement Residence(De15) ON | 362,233 | 4,475 | 704,590 | 227 | 6 | 2,260 | 13,500 | other |
| 55 | 39 | Canadian Utilities(De15) AB | 352,000 | -50 | 3,315,000 | 80 | -13 | 8,525 | 5,500 | util |
| 56 | 71 | CAP REIT(De15) ON | 345,633 | 9 | 714,401 | 225 | 7 | 3,478 | 937 | dev |
| 57 | 56 | H&R REIT(De15) ON | 340,148 | -20 | 1,086,160 | 179 | -12 | 5,606 | 636 | dev |
| 58 | 83 | Canadian Western Bank(Oc15) AB | 325,201 | 41 | 965,580 | 190 | 4 | 2,024 | 2,062 | banks |
| 59 | 58 | CU Inc.(De15) AB | 312,000 | -23 | 2,385,000 | 105 | 5 | 116 | 4,366 | util |
| 60 | 60 | Gildan Activewear(Ja16) QC (1)(3) | (U.S.)304,914 | 3 | (U.S.)2,959,238 | 89 | -2 | 9,582 | 42,000 | textile |
| 61 | 156 | Air Canada(De15) QC | 303,000 | 203 | 13,914,000 | 28 | 5 | 2,887 | 25,000 | trans |
| 62 | 88 | CCL Industries(De15) ON | 295,078 | 36 | 3,045,124 | 87 | 18 | 7,875 | 9,800 | paper |
| 63 | 109 | Milestone Apartments(De15) TX (1)(5) | (U.S.)227,644 | 70 | (U.S.)221,760 | 346 | 19 | 910 | 1,510 | dev |
| 64 | 72 | Home Capital Group(De15) ON | 287,285 | -8 | 995,767 | 188 | -5 | 1,884 | 877 | fin |
| 65 | 82 | Open Text Corp.(Ju15) ON (1) | (U.S.)234,327 | 7 | (U.S.)1,851,917 | 112 | 14 | 6,204 | 8,500 | tech |
| 66 | 92 | Cominar REIT(De15) QC | 272,434 | 37 | 890,602 | 198 | 19 | 2,514 | 709 | dev |
| 67 | 85 | Smart REIT(De15) ON | 269,167 | 19 | 691,765 | 229 | 11 | 3,885 | 308 | dev |
| 68 | 140 | Transcontinental Inc.(Oc15) QC | 262,600 | 135 | 2,004,900 | 120 | 1 | 1,575 | 8,289 | pub |
| 69 | 89 | Cogeco Communications(Au15) QC | 257,750 | 23 | 2,043,316 | 116 | 5 | 3,251 | 4,500 | bcast |
| 70 | 48 | Methanex Corp.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)200,617 | -56 | (U.S.)2,342,444 | 91 | -28 | 4,098 | 1,295 | chem |
| 71 | 107 | Allied Properties REIT(De15) ON | 254,367 | 68 | 366,676 | 305 | 9 | 2,476 | 247 | dev |
| 72 | 25 | Enbridge Inc.(De15) AB | 251,000 | -82 | 34,451,000 | 10 | -10 | 39,928 | 8,652 | pipe |
| 73 | 53 | Westcoast Energy(De15) AB | 244,000 | -44 | 3,548,000 | 77 | -12 | 3,209 | 3,654 | pipe |
| 74 | 690 | Amaya Inc.(De15) QC | 239,412 | 3,280 | 1,361,632 | 157 | 120 | 2,326 | 1,991 | tech |
| 75 | 816 | Extendicare Inc.(De15) ON | 232,078 | 1,338 | 997,406 | 187 | 22 | 849 | 16,800 | other |
| 76 | 137 | Constellation Software(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)177,248 | 72 | (U.S.)1,859,894 | 106 | 11 | 12,225 | 10,478 | tech |
| 77 | 87 | Jean Coutu Group (PJC)(Fe16) QC | 213,700 | -2 | 2,856,800 | 94 | 1 | 3,811 | 1,229 | retail |
| 78 | 105 | Lions Gate Entertainment(Ma15) BC (1) | (U.S.)181,781 | 20 | (U.S.)2,454,907 | 95 | -8 | (U.S.)4,936 | 719 | ent |
| 79 | 94 | First Capital Realty(De15) ON | 203,865 | 4 | 685,456 | 231 | 2 | 4,139 | 351 | dev |
| 80 | 84 | Keyera Corp.(De15) AB | 201,920 | -12 | 2,521,080 | 101 | -31 | 6,913 | 985 | oilprd |
| 81 | 96 | CAE Inc.(Ma15) QC | 201,800 | 6 | 2,281,300 | 108 | 8 | 3,945 | 8,000 | indust |
| 82 | 115 | Canadian REIT(De15) ON | 198,586 | 44 | 474,341 | 265 | 14 | 3,070 | 158 | dev |
| 83 | 214 | TransAlta Renewables(De15) AB | 194,892 | 301 | 369,157 | 303 | 52 | 1,979 | 0 | util |
| 84 | 180 | Granite REIT(De15) ON | 193,334 | 175 | 286,827 | 344 | 35 | 1,785 | 54 | dev |
| 85 | 193 | WSP Global(De15) QC | 188,800 | 201 | 6,077,600 | 53 | 108 | 4,219 | 34,000 | other |
| 86 | 95 | Union Gas(De15) BC | 188,000 | -4 | 1,940,000 | 124 | -5 | 2,906 | 2,283 | util |
| 87 | 200 | Element Financial(De15) ON | 174,431 | 223 | 1,081,461 | 180 | 113 | 6,448 | 1,700 | fin |
| 88 | 152 | Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)136,214 | 50 | (U.S.)534,446 | 232 | 8 | 3,574 | 1,522 | retail |
| 89 | 125 | TransForce Inc.(De15) QC | 163,437 | 28 | 4,059,244 | 64 | 19 | 2,305 | 16,050 | trans |
| 90 | 116 | Co-operators General Insurance(De15) ON | 162,269 | 18 | 2,505,522 | 103 | 4 | 484 | 2,505 | p&c |
| 91 | 114 | Progressive Waste Solutions(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)123,876 | -2 | (U.S.)1,930,891 | 104 | -4 | 3,531 | 7,900 | env |
| 92 | 103 | Stantec Inc.(De15) AB | 156,378 | -5 | 2,885,199 | 93 | 14 | 3,241 | 15,200 | other |
| 93 | 57 | Atco Ltd.(De15) AB | 154,000 | -63 | 4,201,000 | 62 | -12 | 4,106 | 8,000 | mgt |
| 94 | 122 | Westshore Terminals Investment(De15) BC | 152,931 | 17 | 368,662 | 304 | 13 | 861 | 247 | trans |
| 95 | 151 | Pure Industrial REIT(De15) BC | 152,461 | 50 | 172,137 | 421 | 18 | 821 | 38 | dev |
| 96 | 863 | Quebecor Inc.(De15) QC | 151,800 | 604 | 3,996,400 | 66 | 11 | 4,149 | 10,340 | pub |
| 97 | 168 | Granite Oil(De15) AB | 150,216 | 97 | 135,273 | 453 | -55 | 245 | 16 | oilprd |
| 98 | 119 | Toromont Industries(De15) ON | 145,666 | 9 | 1,805,655 | 128 | 8 | 2,458 | 3,509 | whole |
| 99 | 90 | Dream Global REIT(De15) ON | 144,747 | -30 | 242,969 | 369 | -19 | 979 | 58 | dev |
| 100 | 218 | MDA Ltd.(De15) BC | 142,842 | 203 | 2,117,619 | 114 | 1 | 3,016 | 4,500 | tech |
| 101 | 41 | RioCan REIT(De15) ON | 141,763 | -79 | 1,112,993 | 176 | 4 | 7,640 | 727 | dev |
| 102 | 147 | Stella-Jones Inc.(De15) QC | 141,377 | 36 | 1,557,666 | 141 | 25 | 3,630 | 1,757 | indust |
| 103 | 159 | Enbridge Income Fund Holdings(De15) AB | 138,111 | 48 | 143,006 | 448 | 43 | 2,724 | 0 | pipe |
| 104 | 77 | Peyto Exploration & Development(De15) AB | 137,561 | -47 | 720,411 | 223 | -15 | 3,953 | 51 | oilprd |
| 105 | 167 | Cineplex Inc.(De15) ON | 134,697 | 77 | 1,378,896 | 155 | 12 | 3,013 | 13,000 | ent |
| 106 | 163 | Winpak Ltd.(De15) MB (1) | (U.S.)99,248 | 27 | (U.S.)794,535 | 183 | 1 | 2,939 | 2,200 | paper |
| 107 | 144 | Equitable Group(De15) ON | 125,865 | 18 | 581,994 | 242 | 11 | 800 | 495 | fin |
| 108 | 201 | Dream Unlimited(De15) ON | 121,898 | 126 | 349,611 | 312 | -11 | 570 | 241 | dev |
| 109 | 170 | Algonquin Power & Utilities(De15) ON | 117,480 | 55 | 1,046,879 | 182 | 10 | 2,792 | 1,466 | util |
| 110 | 150 | First National Financial(De15) ON | 107,118 | 5 | 915,315 | 196 | 14 | 1,345 | 915 | fin |

111-250

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 111 | 177 | Martinrea International(De15) ON | 107,030 | 50 | 3,871,556 | 71 | 8 | 908 | 12,000 | metal |
| 112 | 162 | Canfor Pulp Products(De15) BC | 106,600 | 19 | 1,181,100 | 169 | 20 | 933 | 1,278 | forest |
| 113 | 78 | West Fraser Timber Co.(De15) BC | 104,000 | -60 | 4,073,000 | 63 | 5 | 4,331 | 7,900 | forest |
| 114 | 113 | Laurentian Bank of Canada(Oc15) QC | 102,470 | -27 | 1,457,202 | 150 | 1 | 1,534 | 3,600 | banks |
| 115 | 209 | Lucara Diamond(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)77,849 | 65 | (U.S.)240,313 | 332 | -10 | 855 | 200 | mining |
| 116 | 405 | Cara Operations(De15) ON | 99,395 | 1,675 | 327,559 | 322 | 16 | 1,510 | 5,700 | other |
| 117 | 242 | Brookfield Canada Office Properties(De15) ON | 98,600 | 203 | 516,900 | 257 | 0 | 684 | n/a | dev |
| 118 | 157 | ShawCor Ltd.(De15) ON | 98,244 | 4 | 1,820,225 | 127 | -3 | 1,811 | 5,919 | oilserv |
| 119 | 182 | Veresen Inc.(De15) AB | 94,000 | 38 | 425,000 | 280 | -17 | 2,649 | 259 | pipe |
| 120 | 220 | Capital Power(De15) AB | 90,000 | 96 | 1,262,000 | 164 | 3 | 1,730 | 714 | util |
| 121 | 186 | Cogeco Inc.(Au15) QC | 89,627 | 32 | 2,187,163 | 111 | 4 | 925 | 4,500 | bcast |
| 122 | 131 | Celestica Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)66,900 | -38 | (U.S.)5,639,200 | 47 | 0 | 2,194 | 26,700 | tech |
| 123 | 145 | DH Corp.(De15) ON | 84,005 | -21 | 1,534,448 | 143 | 35 | 3,366 | 4,000 | other |
| 124 | 117 | Morguard Corp.(De15) ON | 80,542 | -41 | 803,110 | 207 | 28 | 1,595 | n/a | dev |
| 125 | 49 | Tourmaline Oil(De15) AB | 80,087 | -84 | 1,358,170 | 159 | -18 | 4,947 | 186 | oilprd |
| 126 | 197 | Magellan Aerospace(De15) ON | 79,423 | 40 | 951,466 | 191 | 13 | 937 | 3,800 | indust |
| 127 | 171 | Leon's Furniture(De15) ON | 76,629 | 1 | 2,033,118 | 117 | 1 | 1,005 | 8,380 | retail |
| 128 | 153 | Melcor Developments(De15) AB | 75,958 | -25 | 266,802 | 356 | -16 | 484 | 140 | dev |
| 129 | 166 | Great Canadian Gaming(De15) BC | 74,600 | -5 | 461,000 | 271 | 2 | 996 | 4,900 | ent |
| 130 | 141 | Tricon Capital Group(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)58,180 | -32 | (U.S.)121,267 | 438 | -19 | 1,015 | 230 | dev |
| 131 | 183 | Western Forest Products(De15) BC | 73,700 | 8 | 1,078,300 | 181 | 4 | 893 | 2,230 | forest |
| 132 | 230 | Intertape Polymer Group(De15) FL (1) | (U.S.)56,672 | 58 | (U.S.)783,194 | 184 | -4 | 1,096 | 1,900 | paper |
| 133 | 192 | North West Co.(Ja16) MB | 69,779 | 11 | 1,796,155 | 129 | 11 | 1,481 | 7,378 | food |
| 134 | 253 | New Flyer Industries Inc.(De15) MB (1) | (U.S.)53,894 | 102 | (U.S.)1,539,282 | 123 | 6 | 1,491 | 5,000 | indust |
| 135 | 250 | Aecon Group(De15) ON | 68,677 | 129 | 3,002,587 | 90 | 13 | 874 | 10,600 | eng |
| 136 | 169 | Rona Inc.(De15) QC | 67,929 | -10 | 4,250,427 | 61 | 3 | 1,315 | 22,000 | retail |
| 137 | 129 | OceanaGold Corp.(De15) AUSTRALIA (1) | (U.S.)53,066 | -52 | (U.S.)501,929 | 238 | -11 | 1,594 | 1,551 | pmetals |
| 138 | 176 | Crombie REIT(De15) NS | 65,729 | -8 | 369,889 | 302 | 1 | 1,683 | 332 | dev |
| 139 | 191 | Evertz Technologies(Ap15) ON | 65,500 | 4 | 366,172 | 307 | 9 | 1,228 | 1,400 | tech |
| 140 | 219 | Pure Multi-Family REIT(De15) BC (1)(5) | (U.S.)51,179 | 22 | (U.S.)58,902 | 541 | 22 | 253 | 122 | dev |
| 141 | 98 | Cameco Corp.(De15) SK | 65,286 | -65 | 2,535,424 | 100 | 12 | 6,756 | 4,005 | mining |
| 142 | 386 | Nobilis Health(De15) TX (1) | (U.S.)50,840 | 1,657 | (U.S.)239,934 | 333 | 199 | 288 | 715 | other |
| 143 | 188 | Mainstreet Equity(Se15) AB | 64,708 | -3 | 100,553 | 489 | 11 | 322 | 260 | dev |
| 144 | n/r | PrairieSky Royalty(De15) AB (4) | 63,000 | -72 | 216,900 | 390 | -35 | 5,002 | 70 | oilprd |
| 145 | 226 | Callidus Capital(De15) ON | 61,952 | 48 | 171,896 | 422 | 39 | 434 | 33 | fin |
| 146 | 97 | Yellow Pages(De15) QC | 61,055 | -68 | 830,477 | 203 | -5 | 429 | 3,000 | pub |
| 147 | 263 | Medical Facilities(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)47,127 | 102 | (U.S.)309,105 | 289 | 4 | 448 | 1,254 | other |
| 148 | 174 | Alacer Gold(De15) CO (1) | (U.S.)46,631 | -29 | (U.S.)234,040 | 336 | -20 | 720 | 420 | mining |
| 149 | 208 | Richelieu Hardware(No15) QC | 58,739 | 12 | 749,795 | 215 | 16 | 1,390 | 1,900 | whole |
| 150 | 213 | Alaris Royalty(De15) AB | 57,861 | 18 | 85,639 | 514 | 24 | 853 | 13 | fin |
| 151 | 221 | Lassonde Industries(De15) QC | 56,979 | 26 | 1,452,081 | 151 | 23 | 1,132 | 2,100 | food |
| 152 | n/r | Spin Master(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)43,213 | -17 | (U.S.)894,096 | 172 | 25 | 2,171 | 985 | consumer |
| 153 | 194 | ATS Automation Tooling Systems(Ma15) ON | 54,963 | -12 | 936,226 | 193 | 37 | 1,244 | 3,500 | indust |
| 154 | 146 | Labrador Iron Ore Royalty(De15) ON | 54,658 | -48 | 101,699 | 487 | -13 | 614 | 0 | fin |
| 155 | 901 | Centerra Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)41,629 | 194 | (U.S.)542,871 | 228 | -19 | 1,568 | 2,387 | pmetals |
| 156 | 143 | Gluskin Sheff + Associates(Ju15) ON | 52,311 | -51 | 164,466 | 432 | -34 | 756 | 142 | fin |
| 157 | 267 | Sandvine Corp.(No15) ON (1) | (U.S.)41,278 | 80 | (U.S.)126,467 | 437 | 2 | 397 | 729 | tech |
| 158 | 247 | Clairvest Group(Ma15) ON | 52,005 | 34 | 104,327 | 482 | 37 | 421 | 27 | fin |
| 159 | 181 | BRP Inc.(Ja16) QC | 51,600 | -26 | 3,841,900 | 72 | 8 | 1,783 | 7,900 | auto |
| 160 | 123 | AltaGas Ltd.(De15) AB | 51,100 | -61 | 2,142,100 | 113 | -14 | 4,521 | 1,700 | oilprd |
| 161 | 285 | EnerCare Inc.(De15) ON | 50,955 | 129 | 561,536 | 248 | 59 | 1,404 | 924 | consumer |
| 162 | 276 | InterRent REIT(De15) ON | 49,804 | 108 | 83,132 | 519 | 27 | 466 | 222 | dev |
| 163 | 195 | AGF Management(No15) ON | 48,028 | -22 | 449,600 | 277 | -3 | 406 | 494 | fin |
| 164 | 228 | Valener Inc.(Se15) QC | 47,147 | 15 | 58,743 | 572 | 15 | 639 | 0 | pipe |
| 165 | 254 | Canam Group(De15) QC | 46,765 | 60 | 1,607,843 | 137 | 30 | 656 | 4,269 | metal |
| 166 | 914 | Centric Health(De15) ON | 46,083 | 180 | 168,214 | 427 | 25 | 41 | 501 | other |
| 167 | 179 | Enerflex(De15) AB | 45,746 | -35 | 1,640,004 | 135 | -4 | 1,052 | 2,300 | oilserv |
| 168 | 849 | Novanta Inc.(De15) MA (1) | (U.S.)35,615 | 247 | (U.S.)395,890 | 260 | 7 | 468 | 1,355 | indust |
| 169 | 234 | Guardian Capital Group(De15) ON | 44,105 | 19 | 214,064 | 392 | 11 | 570 | 354 | fin |
| 170 | 282 | Transat A.T.(Oc15) QC | 42,565 | 86 | 3,583,543 | 76 | -5 | 290 | 5,500 | trans |
| 171 | 40 | Maple Leaf Foods(De15) ON | 41,580 | -94 | 3,305,471 | 82 | 4 | 3,207 | 11,500 | food |
| 172 | 215 | BMTC Group(De15) QC | 41,528 | -15 | 719,811 | 224 | 1 | 570 | 2,187 | retail |
| 173 | 308 | Melcor REIT(De15) AB | 41,070 | 124 | 65,718 | 559 | 47 | 80 | n/a | trust |
| 174 | 248 | Exco Technologies(Se15) ON | 40,759 | 33 | 498,188 | 263 | 35 | 616 | 730 | indust |
| 175 | 371 | Exchange Income(De15) MB | 40,234 | 387 | 807,403 | 206 | 49 | 788 | 3,235 | trans |
| 176 | 211 | Parkland Fuel(De15) AB | 39,498 | -21 | 6,304,498 | 51 | -16 | 2,186 | 1,800 | retail |
| 177 | 233 | Morguard North American REIT(De15) ON | 38,784 | 2 | 201,324 | 399 | 14 | 313 | n/a | dev |
| 178 | 205 | Badger Daylighting(De15) AB | 38,488 | -28 | 405,590 | 284 | -4 | 906 | 1,554 | oilserv |
| 179 | 241 | High Liner Foods(Ja16) NS (1) | (U.S.)29,581 | 18 | (U.S.)1,004,504 | 161 | 16 | 480 | 1,413 | food |
| 180 | 164 | Plaza Retail REIT(De15) NB | 38,054 | -55 | 112,488 | 473 | 14 | 436 | 88 | dev |
| 181 | n/r | Founders Advantage Capital Corp.(Se15) AB | 35,709 | 282 | 296 | 878 | 199 | 18 | 8 | fin |
| 182 | 184 | Dream Industrial REIT(De15) ON (5) | 35,189 | -48 | 177,014 | 418 | 6 | 257 | 105 | dev |
| 183 | 251 | Killam Apartment REIT(De15) NS | 34,557 | 16 | 169,001 | 426 | 12 | 661 | 549 | dev |
| 184 | 837 | Dorel Industries(De15) QC (1) | (U.S.)25,704 | 221 | (U.S.)2,683,357 | 79 | 0 | 1,001 | 10,450 | consumer |
| 185 | 265 | MCAN Mortgage(De15) ON | 32,857 | 29 | 94,107 | 500 | 21 | 277 | 64 | fin |
| 186 | 258 | Computer Modelling Group(Ma15) AB | 32,648 | 18 | 88,943 | 507 | 16 | 998 | 213 | tech |
| 187 | 420 | Claude Resources(De15) SK | 32,335 | 610 | 106,975 | 479 | 18 | 152 | 290 | pmetals |
| 188 | 412 | Semafo Inc.(De15) QC (1) | (U.S.)24,910 | 457 | (U.S.)300,877 | 296 | 4 | 1,033 | 993 | pmetals |
| 189 | 172 | Northview Apartment REIT(De15) AB | 31,698 | -57 | 218,718 | 388 | 15 | 780 | 588 | dev |
| 190 | 132 | Franco-Nevada Corp.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)24,600 | -77 | (U.S.)448,900 | 243 | 1 | 10,005 | 29 | pmetals |
| 191 | 161 | Agnico Eagle Mines(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)24,583 | -70 | (U.S.)1,995,152 | 99 | 5 | 7,916 | 7,588 | pmetals |
| 192 | 252 | Enghouse Systems(Oc15) ON | 31,430 | 6 | 279,676 | 349 | 27 | 1,585 | 1,381 | tech |
| 193 | 217 | Colliers International(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)23,347 | -46 | (U.S.)1,723,108 | 110 | 9 | 2,377 | 10,035 | other |
| 194 | 148 | Nevsun Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)22,794 | -76 | (U.S.)407,435 | 256 | -34 | 749 | 1,230 | mining |
| 195 | 244 | Logistec Corp.(De15) QC | 29,142 | -6 | 366,177 | 306 | 11 | 471 | 1,600 | trans |
| 196 | 589 | Pan Orient Energy(De15) AB | 29,053 | 1,268 | 4,597 | 781 | -81 | 66 | n/a | oilprd |
| 197 | 142 | Raging River Exploration(De15) AB (5) | 28,919 | -74 | 259,484 | 362 | -23 | 1,786 | 35 | oilprd |
| 198 | 79 | Boardwalk REIT(De15) AB | 28,848 | -88 | 470,927 | 268 | -1 | 2,435 | 1,400 | dev |
| 199 | 309 | Klondex Mines(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)22,528 | 58 | (U.S.)169,804 | 389 | 62 | 395 | n/a | pmetals |
| 200 | n/r | Osisko Gold Royalties(De15) QC | 28,749 | -98 | 65,022 | 561 | 223 | 1,293 | 62 | mining |
| 201 | 237 | Avigilon(De15) BC | 28,252 | -20 | 376,070 | 300 | 33 | 592 | 1,043 | tech |
| 202 | 322 | Madison Pacific Properties(Au15) BC (5) | 28,143 | 82 | 56,571 | 580 | 41 | 135 | 10 | dev |
| 203 | 259 | Fiera Capital(De15) QC (5) | 27,631 | 1 | 260,990 | 361 | 17 | 809 | 459 | fin |
| 204 | 451 | WPT Industrial REIT(De15) MN (1)(5) | (U.S.)21,560 | 860 | (U.S.)67,423 | 512 | 18 | 221 | 0 | trust |
| 205 | 289 | Smart Technologies(Ma15) AB (1) | (U.S.)24,128 | 17 | (U.S.)493,715 | 247 | -17 | 183 | 795 | consumer |
| 206 | n/r | FirstService Corp.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)21,395 | 65 | (U.S.)1,264,077 | 136 | 12 | 2,009 | 16,000 | dev |
| 207 | 369 | OneREIT(De15) ON | 27,209 | 216 | 124,538 | 463 | 9 | 251 | 100 | dev |
| 208 | 257 | High Arctic Energy Services(De15) AB | 27,100 | -4 | 205,100 | 396 | 19 | 190 | 497 | oilserv |
| 209 | 316 | Descartes Systems Group(Ja16) ON (1) | (U.S.)20,562 | 37 | (U.S.)185,188 | 371 | 8 | 1,889 | 877 | tech |
| 210 | 136 | Morguard REIT(De15) ON | 26,617 | -77 | 215,017 | 391 | -31 | 829 | 12 | dev |
| 211 | 196 | Superior Plus(De15) ON | 26,500 | -53 | 3,284,800 | 83 | -18 | 1,513 | 4,277 | whole |
| 212 | 266 | MTY Food Group(No15) QC | 26,015 | 3 | 147,232 | 443 | 26 | 602 | 435 | other |
| 213 | 207 | Algoma Central(De15) ON | 25,771 | -51 | 423,254 | 281 | -12 | 545 | 2,000 | trans |
| 214 | 762 | Guyana Goldfields(De15) ON (1)(4) | (U.S.)20,063 | 313 | (U.S.)650 | 839 | 84 | 470 | 705 | pmetals |
| 215 | 190 | Chorus Aviation(De15) NS | 25,487 | -61 | 1,548,068 | 142 | -7 | 703 | 4,400 | trans |
| 216 | 270 | Pizza Pizza Royalty(De15) ON | 25,238 | 1 | 34,808 | 631 | 5 | 420 | 0 | other |
| 217 | 897 | Premier Gold Mines(De15) ON | 24,790 | 139 | 59,128 | 571 | 488 | 462 | 17 | pmetals |
| 218 | 100 | Canfor Corp.(De15) BC | 24,700 | -86 | 3,926,800 | 68 | 18 | 2,681 | 6,047 | forest |
| 219 | 255 | Rogers Sugar(Oc15) QC | 24,033 | -18 | 540,377 | 252 | 2 | 379 | 350 | food |
| 220 | 297 | Goeasy Ltd.(De15) ON | 23,728 | 20 | 304,273 | 335 | 17 | 254 | 1,600 | retail |
| 221 | n/r | Alberta Oilsands(De15) AB | 23,686 | 367 | 35,299 | 630 | 2,211 | 22 | 8 | oilprd |
| 222 | 292 | Atrium Mortgage Investment(De15) ON | 23,337 | 11 | 40,206 | 617 | 15 | 306 | 25 | fin |
| 223 | 351 | Newfoundland Capital Corp.(De15) NS | 23,235 | 108 | 164,602 | 431 | 7 | 293 | 1,000 | bcast |
| 224 | 378 | Wall Financial(Ja16) BC | 23,223 | 200 | 133,226 | 455 | 96 | 480 | 502 | dev |
| 225 | 204 | AutoCanada Inc.(De15) AB | 22,821 | -57 | 2,911,939 | 92 | 31 | 661 | 4,000 | retail |
| 226 | 99 | TransAlta Corp.(De15) AB | 22,000 | -88 | 2,622,000 | 98 | -2 | 1,394 | 2,380 | util |
| 227 | 986 | Oando Energy Resources(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)16,966 | 106 | (U.S.)671,025 | 201 | 1 | 1,178 | 90 | oilprd |
| 228 | 235 | Bird Construction(De15) ON | 21,482 | -41 | 1,446,093 | 152 | 6 | 553 | 837 | eng |
| 229 | 321 | Advantage Oil & Gas(De15) AB | 21,378 | 36 | 163,097 | 433 | -32 | 1,201 | 26 | oilprd |
| 230 | 246 | Velan Inc.(Fe15) QC (1) | (U.S.)18,580 | -32 | (U.S.)456,817 | 258 | 7 | 417 | 1,953 | indust |
| 231 | 271 | Corby Spirit and Wine(Ju15) ON | 20,415 | -18 | 133,838 | 454 | -4 | 607 | 172 | bevg |
| 232 | 311 | Whistler Blackcomb Holdings(Se15) BC | 20,375 | 14 | 262,688 | 360 | 2 | 818 | 500 | other |
| 233 | 329 | Hardwoods Distribution(De15) BC | 20,146 | 44 | 573,074 | 244 | 26 | 301 | 494 | whole |
| 234 | 299 | Firm Capital Mortgage Invest.(De15) ON | 20,081 | 3 | 34,005 | 634 | 11 | 257 | 1 | fin |
| 235 | 284 | Gamehost Inc.(De15) AB | 19,800 | -12 | 77,700 | 535 | -7 | 224 | 800 | other |
| 236 | 376 | DHX Media(Ju15) NS | 19,533 | 150 | 272,029 | 354 | 132 | 1,158 | 365 | ent |
| 237 | n/r | Timbercreek Senior Mortgage Invest.(De15) ON | 19,296 | 3 | 32,605 | 638 | 16 | 245 | 0 | fin |
| 238 | 317 | Boston Pizza Royalties Income Fund(De15) BC | 19,154 | 16 | 42,577 | 614 | 29 | 367 | 183 | fin |
| 239 | 824 | Noranda Income Fund(De15) ON | 19,002 | 189 | 777,895 | 209 | 9 | 116 | 574 | mining |
| 240 | 348 | Cott Corp.(Ja16) ON (1) | (U.S.)14,500 | 37 | (U.S.)2,946,600 | 74 | 43 | 1,672 | 9,500 | bevg |
| 241 | 300 | Mandalay Resources(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)14,665 | -17 | (U.S.)200,289 | 363 | 7 | 263 | 764 | mining |
| 242 | 361 | Chesswood Group(De15) ON | 18,038 | 79 | 76,577 | 539 | 53 | 170 | 100 | retail |
| 243 | 349 | Summit Industrial Income REIT(De15) ON | 17,935 | 56 | 40,020 | 618 | 41 | 175 | 0 | retail |
| 244 | 396 | Dirtt Environmental Solutions(De15) AB (5) | 17,892 | 201 | 238,977 | 374 | 27 | 586 | 950 | indust |
| 245 | n/r | Abitibi Royalties(De15) QC | 17,764 | 620 | 823 | 841 | n/m | 37 | n/a | mining |
| 246 | 326 | A&W Revenue Royalties Income Fund(De15) BC | 17,396 | 21 | 31,826 | 643 | 11 | 349 | 0 | fin |
| 247 | 323 | Airboss of America(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)13,325 | -3 | (U.S.)304,909 | 295 | 0 | 402 | 1,037 | indust |
| 248 | 333 | True North Commercial REIT(De15) ON (5) | 16,471 | 27 | 37,118 | 627 | 59 | 88 | 0 | dev |
| 249 | 268 | Morneau Shepell(De15) ON | 16,418 | -35 | 567,286 | 245 | 6 | 699 | 4,000 | other |
| 250 | 319 | Trimac Transportation(De15) AB | 16,389 | 4 | 397,314 | 288 | -12 | 157 | 2,110 | trans |

251-390

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 251 | 511 | Kinaxis Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)12,678 | 5,837 | (U.S.)91,399 | 472 | 44 | 1,146 | 395 | tech |
| 252 | 482 | Tree Island Steel(De15) BC | 16,147 | 1,551 | 232,433 | 378 | 26 | 109 | 600 | metal |
| 253 | 296 | AGT Food and Ingredients(De15) SK | 16,045 | -19 | 1,704,480 | 132 | 26 | 809 | 1,550 | other |
| 254 | 352 | Supremex Inc.(De15) QC | 15,931 | 44 | 142,348 | 449 | 8 | 142 | 650 | paper |
| 255 | 307 | Information Services(De15) SK | 15,917 | -13 | 78,711 | 531 | -3 | 253 | 304 | other |
| 256 | 328 | Andrew Peller Ltd.(Ma15) ON | 15,761 | 12 | 316,139 | 328 | 6 | 229 | 1,121 | bevg |
| 257 | 338 | Mediagrif Interactive Technologies(Ma15) QC | 15,633 | 23 | 71,638 | 549 | 8 | 261 | 400 | tech |
| 258 | 273 | Vecima Networks(Ju15) BC | 15,137 | -38 | 97,177 | 494 | 5 | 240 | 489 | tech |
| 259 | 370 | TerraVest Capital(Se15) AB (5) | 14,964 | 78 | 196,865 | 402 | 49 | 108 | 422 | mgt |
| 260 | 320 | Boyuan Construction Group(Ju15) CHINA (1) | (U.S.)12,429 | 103 | (U.S.)324,533 | 297 | 16 | 16 | 400 | eng |
| 261 | 479 | Carmanah Technologies(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)10,680 | 974 | (U.S.)68,185 | 509 | 56 | 140 | 150 | indust |
| 262 | 223 | Acadian Timber(De15) BC | 13,641 | -68 | 84,722 | 516 | 10 | 336 | 100 | forest |
| 263 | 158 | Mullen Group(De15) AB | 13,366 | -86 | 1,217,389 | 166 | -15 | 1,284 | 6,200 | trans |
| 264 | 594 | Monument Mining(Ju15) BC (1) | (U.S.)11,383 | 533 | (U.S.)44,469 | 592 | -11 | 36 | 260 | pmetals |
| 265 | 318 | ZCL Composites(De15) AB | 12,999 | -20 | 187,816 | 408 | 9 | 219 | 685 | indust |
| 266 | 302 | Agellan Commercial REIT(De15) ON (5) | 12,953 | -33 | 84,574 | 517 | 13 | 207 | 18 | trust |
| 267 | 353 | Wi-LAN Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)10,036 | 3 | (U.S.)103,283 | 456 | 4 | 239 | 47 | tech |
| 268 | 915 | Migao Corp.(Ma15) ON | 12,654 | 122 | 460,982 | 272 | 22 | 44 | 1,290 | other |
| 269 | 343 | CanWel Building Materials Group(De15) BC | 12,295 | 0 | 825,330 | 205 | 9 | 203 | 700 | whole |
| 270 | 345 | K-Bro Linen(De15) AB | 12,068 | -1 | 144,347 | 445 | 6 | 407 | 1,870 | other |
| 271 | 243 | GWR Global Water Resources(De15) AZ (1) | (U.S.)9,310 | -68 | (U.S.)10,259 | 732 | -67 | 66 | 49 | env |
| 272 | 350 | Premium Brands Holdings(De15) BC | 11,694 | 2 | 1,484,737 | 148 | 21 | 1,066 | 4,507 | food |
| 273 | 437 | Leucrotta Exploration Inc.(De15) AB | 11,412 | 269 | 11,533 | 743 | -61 | 135 | 17 | oilprd |
| 274 | 304 | Rocky Mountain Dealerships(De15) AB | 11,293 | -40 | 975,456 | 189 | 1 | 121 | 860 | indust |
| 275 | 383 | Keg Royalties Income Fund(De15) BC | 11,236 | 49 | 27,532 | 664 | 9 | 202 | 8,600 | fin |
| 276 | 773 | Stuart Olson(De15) AB | 11,195 | 186 | 1,152,793 | 171 | -12 | 151 | 3,352 | eng |
| 277 | 410 | Taiga Building Products(Ma15) BC | 11,080 | 118 | 1,349,437 | 160 | 13 | 28 | 501 | whole |
| 278 | 419 | Norsat International(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)8,650 | 106 | (U.S.)36,893 | 605 | 0 | 36 | 178 | tech |
| 279 | 314 | Genesis Land Development(De15) AB | 11,014 | -37 | 123,412 | 466 | -11 | 121 | 80 | dev |
| 280 | 751 | Kirkland Lake Gold(De15) ON (3) | 7,338 | -44 | 153,055 | 382 | 3 | 392 | 1,389 | pmetals |
| 281 | 364 | Solium Capital(De15) AB | 10,686 | 11 | 96,594 | 498 | 20 | 344 | 468 | other |
| 282 | 374 | Richards Packaging Income Fund(De15) ON | 10,505 | 31 | 249,564 | 365 | 18 | 208 | 485 | whole |
| 283 | n/r | DMD Digital Health Connections(De15) QC | 10,162 | 738 | 32,203 | 640 | 55 | 43 | 35 | tech |
| 284 | 399 | Imvescor Restaurant Group(Oc15) NB | 10,139 | 73 | 44,602 | 610 | -4 | 121 | 263 | fin |
| 285 | 295 | Westaim Corp.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)7,640 | -50 | (U.S.)2,335 | 800 | 61 | 391 | 8 | p&c |
| 286 | 356 | Calian Group(Se15) ON | 9,767 | -8 | 242,340 | 370 | 15 | 120 | 2,500 | other |
| 287 | 457 | Firan Technology Group(No15) ON | 9,537 | 335 | 74,099 | 543 | 21 | 44 | 419 | tech |
| 288 | 416 | Firm Capital Property Trust(De15) ON (5) | 9,401 | 99 | 13,082 | 735 | 34 | 66 | 0 | dev |
| 289 | 444 | Atacama Pacific Gold(Ma15) ON | 9,394 | 231 | 10,419 | 751 | 117 | 9 | 17 | mining |
| 290 | 332 | Altus Group(De15) ON | 9,249 | -30 | 392,189 | 291 | 16 | 707 | 2,300 | other |
| 291 | n/r | Photon Control(De15) BC | 9,204 | 83 | 29,360 | 656 | 32 | 72 | 50 | tech |
| 292 | 379 | Macro Enterprises(De15) AB | 9,171 | 19 | 117,316 | 469 | -41 | 59 | 230 | oilserv |
| 293 | 377 | New Look Vision Group(De15) QC | 9,157 | 18 | 174,292 | 419 | 25 | 399 | 1,464 | other |
| 294 | 392 | Savaria Corp.(De15) QC | 8,944 | 40 | 96,865 | 495 | 16 | 180 | 376 | other |
| 295 | 388 | Accord Financial(De15) ON | 8,759 | 27 | 31,577 | 647 | 4 | 80 | 93 | fin |
| 296 | 335 | BTB REIT(De15) QC | 8,669 | -33 | 72,656 | 547 | 8 | 153 | 60 | dev |
| 297 | 203 | Total Energy Services(De15) AB | 8,655 | -84 | 289,666 | 341 | -33 | 420 | 886 | oilserv |
| 298 | 391 | Goodfellow Inc.(No15) QC (4) | 8,622 | 33 | 538,976 | 253 | 10 | 88 | 877 | indust |
| 299 | 372 | SIR Royalty Income Fund(De15) ON | 8,600 | 5 | 12,085 | 739 | 4 | 98 | 5,000 | fin |
| 300 | 239 | Black Diamond Group(De15) AB | 8,400 | -76 | 288,304 | 343 | -25 | 298 | 274 | other |
| 301 | 471 | Atlanta Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)6,537 | 186 | (U.S.)8,664 | 747 | 76 | 2 | 8 | pmetals |
| 302 | 305 | Echelon Financial Holdings(De15) ON | 8,258 | -56 | 327,320 | 323 | 8 | 154 | 169 | p&c |
| 303 | 403 | P&W Bank of Canada(Oc15) ON | 8,218 | 45 | 65,851 | 558 | 8 | 111 | 79 | banks |
| 304 | n/r | 49 North Resources(De15) SK | 7,654 | 148 | 11,730 | 742 | -13 | 4 | n/a | fin |
| 305 | 368 | Pollard Banknote Ltd.(De15) MB | 7,463 | -15 | 221,804 | 386 | 14 | 177 | 1,168 | indust |
| 306 | n/r | Golden Valley Mines(De15) QC | 7,389 | 239 | 827 | 840 | 4,838 | 10 | 2 | pmetals |
| 307 | 587 | IBI Group(De15) ON | 7,381 | 400 | 335,791 | 320 | 5 | 55 | 2,270 | other |
| 308 | 453 | American Hotel Income Pro REIT(De15) BC (1)(5) | (U.S.)5,697 | 168 | (U.S.)143,300 | 415 | 55 | 372 | 9 | dev |
| 309 | 792 | Sienna Senior Living(De15) ON | 7,237 | 146 | 474,174 | 267 | 3 | 589 | 8,170 | other |
| 310 | 555 | Minco Silver(De15) BC | 6,827 | 510 | 5,085 | 777 | 152 | 25 | 37 | pmetals |
| 311 | 373 | Richmont Mines(De15) QC | 6,788 | -17 | 146,752 | 444 | 11 | 259 | 435 | pmetals |
| 312 | 382 | Imperial Equities(Se15) AB | 6,646 | -13 | 89,763 | 505 | 21 | 48 | 11 | dev |
| 313 | 407 | Points International(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)5,165 | 10 | (U.S.)296,507 | 299 | 16 | 207 | 181 | other |
| 314 | 438 | RDM Corp.(Se15) ON (1) | (U.S.)5,326 | 113 | (U.S.)25,795 | 645 | 28 | 89 | 100 | tech |
| 315 | 487 | EXFO Inc.(Au15) QC (1) | (U.S.)5,298 | 577 | (U.S.)229,456 | 350 | -1 | 218 | 1,500 | indust |
| 316 | 448 | Hammond Power Solutions(De15) ON | 6,167 | 143 | 273,791 | 352 | 11 | 75 | 1,300 | tech |
| 317 | 435 | Terra Firma Capital(De15) ON | 6,022 | 87 | 19,522 | 701 | 58 | 46 | 7 | dev |
| 318 | 385 | Diversified Royalty Corp.(De15) BC | 5,972 | -20 | 19,481 | 702 | 386 | 274 | 40 | other |
| 319 | n/r | Changfeng Energy(De15) ON | 5,967 | 58 | 62,156 | 569 | 16 | 22 | n/a | oilprd |
| 320 | 393 | Rifco Inc.(Ma15) AB | 5,928 | -7 | 39,002 | 622 | 29 | 42 | 86 | fin |
| 321 | 423 | Edgefront REIT(De15) AB (5) | 5,804 | -37 | 11,852 | 741 | 38 | 58 | 0 | dev |
| 322 | 428 | Absolute Software(Ju15) BC (1) | (U.S.)4,615 | 42 | (U.S.)93,873 | 477 | 13 | 403 | 444 | tech |
| 323 | 606 | Grenville Strategic Royalty(De15) ON (5) | 5,167 | 249 | 12,127 | 738 | 245 | 80 | 10 | mgt |
| 324 | 408 | Pro REIT(De15) QC (5) | 5,149 | 0 | 18,190 | 705 | 98 | 56 | 5 | dev |
| 325 | 485 | PFB Corp.(De15) AB | 5,088 | 455 | 99,436 | 491 | 10 | 71 | 366 | indust |
| 326 | n/r | Evergreen Gaming(De15) WA (1) | (U.S.)3,934 | 45 | (U.S.)38,176 | 599 | 9 | 9 | 1,600 | other |
| 327 | 375 | AlarmForce Industries(Oc15) ON | 4,976 | -36 | 56,169 | 582 | 7 | 134 | 172 | consumer |
| 328 | n/r | African Gold Group(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)3,860 | 170 | (U.S.)4,760 | 767 | 82 | 8 | 15 | pmetals |
| 329 | 507 | Axia NetMedia(De15) AB (5) | 4,712 | 3,616 | 70,729 | 550 | 26 | 202 | 160 | tech |
| 330 | 779 | Brampton Brick(De15) ON | 4,670 | 133 | 127,048 | 461 | 13 | 82 | 269 | indust |
| 331 | n/r | Allbanc Split Corp. II(Fe15) ON | 4,586 | -44 | 5,783 | 768 | -40 | 30 | n/a | fin |
| 332 | 467 | Student Transportation(Ju15) ON (1) | (U.S.)3,655 | 158 | (U.S.)558,368 | 236 | 13 | 554 | 3,300 | trans |
| 333 | 433 | TWC Enterprises(De15) ON | 4,259 | 23 | 227,788 | 383 | 7 | 285 | 550 | trans |
| 334 | 454 | Reko International Group(Jl15) ON | 4,127 | 80 | 48,479 | 602 | 23 | 20 | 400 | indust |
| 335 | n/r | Imperial Ginseng Products(Ju15) BC | 4,115 | 6 | 13,397 | 731 | 44 | 4 | n/a | other |
| 336 | 417 | Pivot Technology Solutions(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)3,169 | -26 | (U.S.)1,487,989 | 126 | 10 | 92 | n/a | other |
| 337 | n/r | Immunotec Inc.(Oc15) QC | 4,042 | 250 | 84,860 | 515 | 5 | 21 | 135 | bio |
| 338 | 389 | Dynacor Gold Mines(De15) QC (1) | (U.S.)3,158 | -48 | (U.S.)78,868 | 488 | -11 | 71 | 366 | pmetals |
| 339 | 465 | CRH Medical(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)3,076 | 105 | (U.S.)48,786 | 568 | 294 | 292 | 11 | bio |
| 340 | 341 | Mosaic Capital(De15) AB | 3,918 | -69 | 186,026 | 411 | 47 | 53 | 541 | fin |
| 341 | n/r | Northern Vertex Mining(Ju15) BC | 3,815 | 192 | 5,596 | 770 | 1,189 | 15 | 13 | mining |
| 342 | 290 | Performance Sports Group(My15) NH (1) | (U.S.)3,282 | -84 | (U.S.)659,336 | 213 | 45 | 1,115 | 872 | retail |
| 343 | 430 | Hammond Manufacturing Co.(De15) ON | 3,550 | -2 | 117,262 | 470 | 11 | 23 | 659 | tech |
| 344 | 495 | TriMetals Mining Inc.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)2,735 | 756 | (U.S.)113 | 904 | -29 | 10 | 12 | pmetals |
| 345 | 541 | Virginia Energy Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)2,628 | 316 | (U.S.)3,670 | 779 | 2,333 | 3 | n/a | mining |
| 346 | 439 | Urbanfund Corp.(De15) ON | 3,263 | 7 | 5,502 | 771 | 15 | 11 | n/a | dev |
| 347 | 366 | Héroux-Devtek(Ma15) QC | 3,224 | -65 | 365,123 | 308 | 34 | 359 | 1,397 | indust |
| 348 | 700 | Avcorp Industries(De15) BC | 3,208 | 140 | 96,107 | 499 | 43 | 35 | 776 | indust |
| 349 | n/r | Potash Ridge(De15) ON | 3,098 | 263 | 5,131 | 776 | 115 | 6 | 3 | mining |
| 350 | 431 | Sonor Investments(De15) ON | 3,027 | -13 | 3,515 | 794 | -11 | n/m | n/a | fin |
| 351 | n/r | Builders Capital Mortgage(De15) AB (5) | 2,983 | 5 | 3,776 | 789 | 7 | 23 | n/a | fin |
| 352 | 464 | Park Lawn(De15) ON | 2,975 | 66 | 28,325 | 658 | 19 | 70 | 93 | other |
| 353 | n/r | Baja Mining Corp.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)2,196 | 481 | (U.S.)3,504 | 783 | 97 | 5 | n/a | mining |
| 354 | 506 | Village Farms International(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)2,094 | 2,057 | (U.S.)143,878 | 413 | 5 | 33 | 1,200 | other |
| 355 | 440 | Sylogist Inc.(Se15) AB | 2,548 | -17 | 28,377 | 657 | 59 | 156 | n/a | tech |
| 356 | 473 | International Road Dynamics(No15) SK | 2,532 | 85 | 58,604 | 573 | 27 | 19 | 286 | indust |
| 357 | 461 | Pacific Insight Electronics(Ju15) BC | 2,445 | 31 | 82,487 | 520 | 39 | 22 | 900 | indust |
| 358 | 581 | NAPEC Inc.(De15) QC | 2,360 | 201 | 346,914 | 315 | 18 | 58 | 1,169 | auto |
| 359 | 294 | Cipher Pharmaceuticals(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)1,769 | -89 | (U.S.)34,780 | 611 | 36 | 169 | 90 | bio |
| 360 | 899 | Difference Capital Financial(De15) ON | 2,145 | 104 | -21,574 | 999 | -285 | 28 | 7 | mgt |
| 361 | 478 | CanaDream Corp.(Ap15) AB | 2,128 | 88 | 34,720 | 632 | 19 | 15 | n/a | fin |
| 362 | 460 | Caldwell Partners Int'l(Au15) ON | 1,976 | 0 | 54,596 | 588 | 21 | 27 | 117 | other |
| 363 | 468 | Halmont Properties(De15) ON | 1,970 | 33 | 3,890 | 788 | 56 | 35 | 10 | dev |
| 364 | n/r | Sigma Industries(My15) QC | 1,862 | 151 | 65,564 | 560 | 17 | 1 | 475 | metal |
| 365 | n/r | PrimeWest Mortgage Investment(De15) SK | 1,843 | -2 | 3,591 | 791 | 3 | n/a | n/a | fin |
| 366 | 501 | Becker Milk Co.(Ap15) ON | 1,834 | 1,065 | 4,280 | 785 | 71 | 33 | 5 | dev |
| 367 | 509 | AQM Copper(De15) ON (5) | 1,765 | 407 | 3,256 | 797 | 181 | 6 | n/a | pmetals |
| 368 | n/r | New Pacific Metals(Ju15) BC | 1,739 | 104 | 3,352 | 796 | 765 | 11 | 1 | mining |
| 369 | 552 | ADF Group(Ja16) QC | 1,699 | 208 | 98,821 | 493 | 30 | 102 | 571 | metal |
| 370 | 472 | Brick Brewing Co.(Ja16) ON | 1,594 | 14 | 73,828 | 544 | 0 | 70 | 115 | bevg |
| 371 | 739 | Theratechnologies Inc.(No15) QC | 1,571 | 115 | 30,156 | 654 | 327 | 107 | 19 | bio |
| 372 | 463 | Tecsys Inc.(Ap15) QC | 1,515 | -16 | 57,305 | 576 | 23 | 108 | 350 | other |
| 373 | 781 | Kingsway Financial Services(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)1,107 | 109 | (U.S.)159,637 | 397 | 1 | 123 | 305 | p&c |
| 374 | 466 | People Corp.(Au15) MB | 1,394 | -10 | 49,293 | 598 | 16 | 144 | 363 | p&c |
| 375 | 395 | Empire Industries(De15) MB | 1,370 | -77 | 151,429 | 441 | 7 | 21 | 400 | eng |
| 376 | 508 | Consolidated HCI Holdings(Se15) ON | 1,363 | 911 | 2,784 | 803 | 136 | 50 | 5 | dev |
| 377 | 427 | Brookfield Real Estate Services(De15) ON | 1,324 | -66 | 32,881 | 637 | -14 | 139 | 0 | other |
| 378 | 442 | Ten Peaks Coffee Co.(De15) BC | 1,312 | -57 | 86,838 | 510 | 34 | 107 | 55 | food |
| 379 | 823 | Vista Gold(De15) CO (1) | (U.S.)1,011 | 105 | (U.S.)10,628 | 730 | n/m | 32 | 13 | pmetals |
| 380 | n/r | Espial Group(De15) ON | 1,272 | 9 | 25,792 | 675 | 27 | 87 | 122 | tech |
| 381 | n/r | Fronsac REIT(De15) QC | 1,261 | 273 | 2,569 | 805 | 71 | 14 | n/a | dev |
| 382 | 551 | Brightpath Early Learning(De15) AB | 1,224 | 178 | 56,066 | 583 | 11 | 39 | 1,400 | other |
| 383 | 488 | Bevo Agro(Ju15) BC | 1,198 | 62 | 26,222 | 673 | 12 | 9 | 60 | other |
| 384 | n/r | Titanium Transportation Group(De15) ON | 1,195 | -39 | 112,382 | 474 | 56 | 94 | 535 | trans |
| 385 | 943 | Northland Power(De15) ON | 1,143 | 101 | 748,142 | 216 | -5 | 3,166 | 300 | util |
| 386 | n/r | Omni-Lite Industries Canada(De15) CA (1) | (U.S.)885 | 89 | (U.S.)7,575 | 755 | 30 | 21 | n/a | metal |
| 387 | 740 | Robex Resources(De15) QC | 1,131 | 111 | 179 | 896 | 4,817 | 38 | 50 | pmetals |
| 388 | 409 | CIBT Education Group(Au15) BC | 1,040 | -80 | 32,436 | 639 | 4 | 21 | 311 | other |
| 389 | n/r | Pearl River Holdings(De15) ON | 1,016 | 82 | 51,873 | 593 | 10 | 11 | n/a | indust |
| 390 | 504 | Imaflex Inc.(De15) QC | 813 | n/m | 70,447 | 552 | 14 | 19 | n/a | indust |

391-530

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 391 | 687 | Polaris Materials(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)491 | 107 | (U.S.)45,575 | 574 | -1 | 136 | 58 | mining |
| 392 | 269 | Slate Retail REIT(De15) ON (1)(5) | (U.S.)465 | -98 | (U.S.)80,988 | 483 | 68 | 423 | n/a | dev |
| 393 | 449 | Avino Silver & Gold Mines(De15) BC | 483 | -81 | 19,142 | 703 | -2 | 46 | 443 | pmetals |
| 394 | 481 | Tellza Communications(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)283 | -70 | (U.S.)305,941 | 292 | 26 | 17 | 50 | tech |
| 395 | 283 | Prism Medical(No15) ON | 334 | -99 | 56,541 | 581 | -21 | 81 | 125 | consumer |
| 396 | 545 | H2O Innovation(Ju15) QC | 272 | 119 | 48,768 | 600 | 40 | 35 | n/a | indust |
| 397 | n/r | Sangoma Technologies(Ju15) ON | 253 | -66 | 16,604 | 710 | 19 | 9 | n/a | tech |
| 398 | 493 | GobiMin Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)185 | -64 | (U.S.)456 | 851 | -91 | 18 | 60 | mining |
| 399 | 554 | Castle Resources(Se15) ON | 210 | 113 | -251 | 988 | -187 | 5 | n/a | mining |
| 400 | 443 | Starcore International Mines(Jl15) BC | 210 | -93 | 30,220 | 652 | -10 | 17 | 313 | pmetals |
| 401 | n/r | BioNeutra Global(De15) AB (4) | 179 | -96 | 16,543 | 711 | 3 | 28 | n/a | indust |
| 402 | 640 | US Oil Sands Inc.(De15) AB | 168 | 103 | 7,607 | 761 | 113 | 68 | 34 | oilprd |
| 403 | 577 | ZoomerMedia Ltd.(Au15) ON (4) | 137 | 106 | 54,390 | 589 | 0 | 15 | n/a | other |
| 404 | 365 | Capstone Infrastructure(De15) ON | 135 | -99 | 345,301 | 316 | -22 | 343 | 640 | mgt |
| 405 | 888 | Aimia(De15) QC | 100 | 100 | 2,512,400 | 102 | 2 | 1,455 | n/a | other |
| 406 | 520 | Tio Networks(Jl15) BC | 41 | 107 | 62,686 | 567 | 23 | 66 | 137 | tech |
| 407 | 497 | BSM Technologies Inc.(Se15) ON | 17 | -95 | 31,745 | 644 | 4 | 81 | 255 | tech |
| 408 | 627 | Input Capital(Ma15) SK | -25 | 99 | 20,030 | 699 | 296 | 269 | 14 | other |
| 409 | n/r | Atico Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-24 | 99 | (U.S.)36,723 | 606 | 67 | 27 | n/a | mining |
| 410 | 629 | Balmoral Resources(De15) BC | -123 | 97 | 88 | 919 | 113 | 51 | 8 | mining |
| 411 | 621 | Pure Technologies(De15) AB | -134 | 97 | 106,915 | 481 | 34 | 249 | 500 | indust |
| 412 | n/r | Bellhaven Copper & Gold(Ap15) BC | -149 | 98 | 35 | 936 | 743 | 6 | n/a | pmetals |
| 413 | 703 | Merus Labs International(Se15) ON | -238 | 97 | 48,717 | 601 | 78 | 176 | 10 | bio |
| 414 | 880 | Falcon Oil & Gas(De15) CO (1) | (U.S.)-193 | 99 | (U.S.)3,679 | 778 | 561 | 115 | 7 | oilprd |
| 415 | 902 | Lumenpulse Inc.(Ap15) QC | -365 | 99 | 102,020 | 485 | 64 | 339 | 446 | indust |
| 416 | 496 | Spanish Mountain Gold(De15) BC | -370 | -211 | 2 | 969 | -94 | 7 | 6 | pmetals |
| 417 | n/r | D-Box Technologies(Ma15) QC | -478 | 70 | 21,773 | 692 | 19 | 39 | 86 | consumer |
| 418 | n/r | Alexandria Minerals(Ap15) ON | -488 | -149 | 23 | 947 | -57 | 12 | n/a | pmetals |
| 419 | n/r | Unisync Corp.(Se15) BC (4) | -496 | -81 | 44,812 | 609 | 67 | 30 | n/a | auto |
| 420 | n/r | Innova Gaming Group(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-395 | -106 | (U.S.)21,191 | 667 | 14 | 36 | 97 | ent |
| 421 | 767 | Pretium Resources(De15) BC | -534 | 96 | 761 | 844 | 2 | 1,010 | 112 | mining |
| 422 | 514 | Synex International(Ju15) BC | -545 | -63 | 4,193 | 786 | -23 | 14 | 14 | util |
| 423 | 474 | Valeura Energy(De15) AB | -562 | -141 | 22,374 | 690 | -12 | 38 | 17 | oilprd |
| 424 | n/r | Midland Exploration(Se15) QC | -629 | 68 | 423 | 867 | 84 | 29 | n/a | mining |
| 425 | 330 | Lynden Energy(Ju15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-565 | -104 | (U.S.)21,721 | 677 | -40 | 61 | n/a | oilprd |
| 426 | 736 | Junex Inc.(De15) QC | -725 | 93 | 941 | 835 | 5 | 29 | n/a | oilprd |
| 427 | 526 | Archon Minerals(My15) BC | -760 | -14 | 0 | 974 | -98 | 87 | n/a | mining |
| 428 | 455 | Gulf & Pacific Equities(De15) ON | -764 | -134 | 3,957 | 787 | 31 | 6 | n/a | dev |
| 429 | n/r | Teras Resources(My15) AB | -787 | 27 | 52 | 930 | 1,001 | 13 | n/a | mining |
| 430 | 575 | Unigold Inc.(De15) ON | -792 | 62 | 16 | 953 | -70 | 4 | n/a | pmetals |
| 431 | n/r | Goldrock Mines(De15) BC (4) | -796 | 74 | 834 | 838 | 130 | 18 | n/a | pmetals |
| 431 | n/r | Geologix Explorations(De15) BC | -796 | 57 | 99 | 913 | 2,160 | 4 | 7 | pmetals |
| 433 | n/r | Excelsior Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-624 | 87 | (U.S.)23 | 941 | -94 | 29 | 14 | mining |
| 434 | n/r | Golden Reign Resources(Ap15) BC | -815 | 13 | 5 | 964 | 44 | 10 | n/a | mining |
| 435 | n/r | Merrex Gold(Au15) NS | -824 | 83 | 125 | 908 | n/m | 29 | n/a | mining |
| 436 | 278 | Horizon North Logistics(De15) AB | -832 | -104 | 369,899 | 301 | -22 | 300 | 1,402 | oilserv |
| 437 | 523 | Lexam VG Gold(De15) ON | -844 | -31 | 34 | 937 | -22 | 15 | n/a | pmetals |
| 438 | 722 | Eastmain Resources(Oc15) ON | -853 | 91 | 1,180 | 830 | -41 | 49 | 10 | pmetals |
| 439 | 695 | Freegold Ventures(De15) BC | -961 | 88 | 7 | 960 | -94 | 7 | 3 | pmetals |
| 440 | 521 | North Country Gold(Fe15) BC | -968 | -55 | 134 | 906 | 121 | 9 | n/a | pmetals |
| 441 | 730 | Ur-Energy Inc.(De15) CO (1) | (U.S.)-795 | 89 | (U.S.)41,874 | 590 | 65 | 116 | 81 | mining |
| 442 | n/r | ExactEarth Ltd.(Oc15) ON | -1,055 | 72 | 26,600 | 672 | 67 | n/a | 65 | tech |
| 443 | 515 | Nighthawk Gold(Jl15) ON | -1,069 | -183 | 91 | 917 | 65 | 5 | n/a | mining |
| 444 | 572 | Kincora Copper(De15) BC | -1,070 | 46 | 2 | 968 | -97 | 6 | n/a | pmetals |
| 445 | 491 | Big Rock Brewery(De15) AB | -1,075 | -272 | 52,309 | 591 | 11 | 34 | 133 | bevg |
| 446 | 593 | Kivalliq Energy(Se15) BC | -1,090 | 58 | 51 | 931 | -37 | 14 | n/a | mining |
| 447 | 684 | West Kirkland Mining(De15) BC | -1,139 | 84 | 13 | 956 | -72 | 12 | 5 | mining |
| 448 | 786 | Almaden Minerals(De15) BC | -1,145 | 92 | 314 | 873 | 311 | 74 | 9 | pmetals |
| 449 | 852 | Second Cup(De15) ON | -1,153 | 96 | 37,485 | 625 | 34 | 45 | 370 | retail |
| 450 | 518 | Dalmac Energy(Ap15) AB | -1,161 | -123 | 32,062 | 642 | -14 | 5 | 160 | oilserv |
| 451 | 584 | Forsys Metals(De15) ON | -1,193 | 50 | 16 | 954 | -58 | 11 | n/a | pmetals |
| 452 | 600 | Stonegate Agricom(De15) ON | -1,256 | 60 | 89 | 918 | 78 | 5 | 7 | mining |
| 453 | 456 | Range Energy Resources(De15) BC | -1,309 | -159 | 56 | 927 | -98 | 17 | n/a | oilprd |
| 454 | 525 | Copper Fox Metals(Oc15) AB | -1,335 | -23 | 122 | 909 | 115 | 63 | n/a | pmetals |
| 455 | 490 | Grand Power Logistics Group(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-1,051 | -271 | (U.S.)52,132 | 557 | -30 | 4 | n/a | trans |
| 456 | 819 | Ceres Global Ag(Ma15) MN | -1,385 | 93 | 192,902 | 405 | -16 | 162 | 120 | other |
| 457 | 608 | Impact Silver(De15) BC | -1,428 | 59 | 15,256 | 722 | 25 | 8 | 275 | pmetals |
| 458 | n/r | Ecuador Gold and Copper(Oc15) ON | -1,485 | 11 | 1,130 | 833 | n/a | 4 | n/a | mining |
| 459 | 625 | Diamond Estates Wines & Spirit(Ma15) ON | -1,504 | 63 | 25,645 | 676 | 24 | 7 | 113 | other |
| 460 | 655 | Wilmington Capital Management(De15) AB | -1,512 | 73 | 4,507 | 782 | 41 | 33 | 69 | dev |
| 461 | n/r | Harte Gold(De15) ON | -1,521 | -52 | 6 | 961 | -42 | 28 | 10 | pmetals |
| 462 | 312 | Petrolia Inc.(De15) QC (5) | -1,553 | -109 | 177 | 897 | -99 | 26 | n/a | oilprd |
| 463 | n/r | Meadow Bay Gold(Ma15) BC | -1,568 | -2 | 0 | 972 | -99 | 18 | 4 | mining |
| 464 | n/r | Foran Mining(De15) BC (5) | -1,576 | -8 | 36 | 935 | -39 | 7 | n/a | mining |
| 465 | 755 | Acasti Pharma(Fe15) QC | -1,655 | 86 | 2,190 | 812 | 67 | 72 | 11 | bio |
| 466 | 522 | Midas Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-1,300 | -127 | (U.S.)23 | 940 | -59 | 50 | 31 | oilprd |
| 467 | n/r | Terraco Gold(Jl15) BC | -1,669 | -85 | 79 | 921 | 348 | 11 | n/a | pmetals |
| 468 | n/r | Tinka Resources(Se15) BC | -1,691 | 56 | 274 | 881 | 46 | 30 | n/a | mining |
| 469 | n/r | Pacific Booker Minerals(Ja15) BC | -1,714 | 59 | 1 | 970 | 261 | 70 | n/a | pmetals |
| 470 | 563 | Amarillo Gold(De15) BC | -1,738 | 3 | 777 | 843 | 206 | 4 | n/a | pmetals |
| 471 | 590 | ATAC Resources(De15) BC | -1,791 | 28 | 210 | 888 | -43 | 35 | 0 | pmetals |
| 472 | 653 | Marathon Gold(De15) ON | -1,835 | 66 | 25 | 943 | 41 | 14 | n/a | mining |
| 473 | n/r | Crosswinds Holdings(De15) ON | -1,907 | -533 | 614 | 847 | -53 | 29 | 3 | fin |
| 474 | 579 | Canada Zinc Metals(Ju15) BC | -1,920 | 17 | 167 | 900 | 10 | 34 | 6 | pmetals |
| 475 | 562 | Arizona Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-1,535 | 4 | (U.S.)110 | 905 | 6,556 | 53 | 16 | mining |
| 476 | 650 | Lion One Metals Ltd.(Ju15) BC | -1,986 | 62 | 75 | 922 | -51 | 30 | n/a | mining |
| 477 | 548 | Candente Copper(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-1,569 | -16 | (U.S.)19 | 945 | -92 | 5 | 24 | pmetals |
| 478 | n/r | Nemaska Lithium(Ju15) QC | -2,042 | 29 | 20 | 949 | 14 | 32 | 11 | mining |
| 479 | 566 | Western Copper and Gold(De15) BC | -2,118 | -11 | 481 | 862 | -23 | 36 | n/a | mining |
| 480 | n/r | Northcliff Resources(Oc15) BC | -2,141 | 42 | 30 | 939 | -63 | 9 | 4 | mining |
| 481 | 725 | UEX Corp.(De15) BC | -2,149 | 77 | 80 | 920 | -37 | 37 | 6 | mining |
| 482 | 598 | Equity Financial Holdings(De15) ON | -2,157 | 26 | 17,849 | 706 | -17 | 77 | 65 | other |
| 483 | 569 | Rainmaker Entertainment(De15) BC | -2,200 | -12 | 15,411 | 719 | 51 | 5 | 238 | ent |
| 484 | n/r | HTC Purenergy(De15) SK | -2,226 | -492 | 39,502 | 620 | 15 | 4 | n/a | indust |
| 485 | 436 | Sportscene Group(Au15) QC | -2,227 | -173 | 77,590 | 537 | 4 | 23 | 2,500 | other |
| 486 | 446 | Redline Communications Group(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-1,750 | -171 | (U.S.)30,519 | 621 | -17 | 32 | 118 | tech |
| 487 | 607 | Canadian Spirit Resources(De15) AB | -2,247 | 35 | 515 | 859 | -65 | 24 | n/a | oilprd |
| 488 | 585 | Oceanic Iron Ore(Ma15) BC | -2,301 | 4 | 19 | 950 | -78 | 7 | n/a | mining |
| 489 | 771 | Ceiba Energy Services(De15) AB | -2,313 | 82 | 7,825 | 760 | 14 | 24 | 27 | mining |
| 490 | n/r | North American Nickel(De15) BC | -2,389 | 36 | 37 | 934 | -54 | 21 | 11 | mining |
| 491 | 545 | Commerce Resources(Oc15) BC | -2,487 | -71 | -260 | 989 | -390 | 19 | n/a | mining |
| 492 | n/r | Advantaged Preferred Share Trust(De15) ON | -2,587 | -157 | -208 | 987 | n/m | 30 | n/a | fin |
| 493 | 516 | Mustang Minerals(De15) ON | -2,601 | -581 | 66 | 926 | 62 | 1 | n/a | mining |
| 494 | 534 | Muskrat Minerals Inc.(Ju15) ON (5) | -2,687 | -135 | 0 | 975 | n/a | 10 | n/a | mining |
| 495 | n/r | Bacanora Minerals(Ju15) AB | -2,740 | -37 | 300 | 876 | 2,697 | 136 | n/a | mining |
| 496 | 634 | Traverse Energy(De15) AB | -2,762 | 40 | 21,679 | 693 | 11 | 29 | 13 | oilprd |
| 497 | 422 | Anaconda Mining(My15) ON | -2,775 | -165 | 22,420 | 689 | -8 | 8 | 69 | pmetals |
| 498 | 623 | TeraGo Inc.(De15) ON | -2,810 | 28 | 57,757 | 575 | 13 | 73 | 188 | tech |
| 499 | 565 | Treasury Metals(De15) ON | -2,856 | -51 | 8 | 958 | -95 | 41 | 11 | mining |
| 500 | 505 | Kobex Capital(De15) BC | -2,899 | n/m | 299 | 877 | -58 | 24 | n/a | fin |
| 501 | 705 | PWC Capital(Oc15) ON | -2,934 | 64 | 67,644 | 556 | 11 | 9 | 79 | fin |
| 502 | n/r | Melior Resources(Ju15) ON | -2,935 | 8 | 272 | 882 | -3 | 17 | n/a | mining |
| 503 | 848 | BIOX Corp.(Se15) ON | -3,041 | 89 | 75,658 | 540 | 12 | 42 | 42 | other |
| 504 | 603 | Loncor Resources(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-2,417 | 17 | (U.S.)315 | 868 | 303 | 3 | 8 | mining |
| 505 | 560 | Atlantic Gold(De15) BC | -3,125 | -80 | 129 | 907 | -72 | 37 | 9 | mining |
| 506 | 605 | Highland Copper Co.(Ju15) QC (5) | -3,143 | 8 | 44 | 932 | -9 | 19 | n/a | pmetals |
| 507 | n/r | Gordon Creek Energy(Ja15) AB | -3,153 | -10 | 368 | 872 | -85 | 0 | n/a | oilprd |
| 508 | 502 | Bengal Energy(Ma15) AB | -3,172 | -2,215 | 21,540 | 695 | 8 | 13 | 9 | oilprd |
| 509 | 661 | Avalon Advanced Materials(Au15) ON | -3,176 | 45 | 91 | 916 | -84 | 26 | 13 | mining |
| 510 | 557 | Plateau Uranium(Se15) ON | -3,221 | -93 | 0 | 973 | -94 | 13 | n/a | mining |
| 511 | n/r | Petrocapita Income Trust(De15) AB | -3,299 | 16 | 3,673 | 790 | -65 | 6 | n/a | oilserv |
| 512 | 280 | Condor Petroleum(De15) AB | -3,318 | -114 | 10,744 | 749 | 49 | 28 | 59 | oilprd |
| 513 | 561 | Los Andes Copper(Se15) BC | -3,322 | -90 | 1 | 971 | 110 | 23 | n/a | mining |
| 514 | n/r | Regulus Resources(Se15) AB | -3,371 | 93 | 2,153 | 813 | 99 | 13 | n/a | mining |
| 515 | 814 | Sierra Wireless(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-2,674 | 84 | (U.S.)608,067 | 210 | 11 | 699 | 1,089 | tech |
| 516 | 537 | Critical Control Energy Services(De15) AB | -3,523 | -188 | 40,918 | 616 | 16 | 14 | 245 | tech |
| 517 | 838 | Northfield Capital(De15) ON | -3,525 | 86 | -331 | 990 | 88 | 41 | 10 | fin |
| 518 | 663 | Kootenay Silver(De15) BC | -3,528 | 40 | 145 | 903 | 41 | 15 | n/a | mining |
| 519 | 865 | Indigo Books & Music(Ma15) ON | -3,534 | 89 | 897,937 | 197 | 3 | 296 | 6,200 | retail |
| 520 | 287 | Newmarket Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-2,788 | -114 | (U.S.)258,199 | 321 | -9 | 184 | 562 | pmetals |
| 521 | 486 | Canlan Ice Sports(De15) BC | -3,602 | -502 | 79,495 | 527 | 5 | 43 | 1,100 | ent |
| 522 | n/r | Mason Graphite(Ju15) ON (5) | -3,653 | 31 | 644 | 846 | 98 | 39 | n/a | mining |
| 523 | n/r | IOU Financial(De15) QC | -3,658 | -177 | 11,971 | 740 | 37 | 35 | 77 | trust |
| 524 | 614 | Crystal Peak Minerals Inc.(De15) UT (1) | (U.S.)-2,868 | 12 | (U.S.)18 | 946 | 217 | 31 | n/a | mining |
| 525 | 553 | True North Gems(De15) BC | -3,679 | -129 | 511 | 860 | 483 | 52 | n/a | pmetals |
| 526 | n/r | King George Financial(No15) BC | -3,706 | -279 | 186 | 895 | -93 | 10 | n/a | dev |
| 527 | n/r | Poydras Gaming Finance(De15) BC (1)(5) | (U.S.)-2,912 | 72 | (U.S.)9,008 | 744 | 553 | 17 | n/a | consumer |
| 528 | 517 | Gold Mountain Mining(De15) BC | -3,748 | -786 | 11 | 957 | 7 | 2 | n/a | pmetals |
| 529 | n/r | Nightingale Informatix(Ma15) ON | -3,752 | -26 | 13,792 | 729 | -10 | 7 | n/a | tech |
| 530 | 611 | Ascot Resources(Ma15) BC | -3,793 | -7 | 219 | 887 | 614 | 157 | n/a | mining |

531-650

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 531 | 737 | Platinum Group Metals(Au15) BC | -3,798 | 64 | 15,312 | 721 | 216 | 261 | 279 | pmetals |
| 532 | 635 | Lupaka Gold(De15) BC | -3,800 | 18 | 5 | 965 | -97 | 4 | 17 | pmetals |
| 533 | n/r | Altura Energy(De15) AB | -3,810 | -207 | 5,637 | 769 | -12 | 42 | 5 | oilprd |
| 534 | 260 | Holloway Lodging(De15) NS | -3,811 | -114 | 119,519 | 468 | 22 | 98 | 1,350 | other |
| 535 | 533 | Abacus Mining & Exploration(De15) BC | -3,872 | -294 | 614 | 848 | 64 | 12 | 4 | mining |
| 536 | n/r | Electrovaya Inc.(Se15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-3,193 | 7 | (U.S.)17,141 | 697 | 113 | 56 | 200 | indust |
| 537 | 588 | Quaterra Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-3,104 | -68 | (U.S.)53 | 924 | -98 | 16 | n/a | mining |
| 538 | 660 | Arianne Phosphate(De15) QC | -3,978 | 30 | 18 | 952 | -93 | 97 | 15 | mining |
| 539 | 843 | Cub Energy(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-3,141 | 84 | (U.S.)5,816 | 762 | -50 | 6 | 56 | mining |
| 540 | 189 | Freehold Royalties(De15) AB | -4,080 | -106 | 160,760 | 436 | -20 | 1,074 | 0 | oilprd |
| 541 | n/r | Aurico Metals Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-3,280 | 83 | (U.S.)10,240 | 733 | 317 | 79 | 20 | mining |
| 542 | 658 | Wellgreen Platinum(De15) BC (5) | -4,264 | 24 | 1,748 | 818 | 174 | 26 | 7 | mining |
| 543 | 802 | Rock Energy(De15) AB | -4,517 | 74 | 63,248 | 565 | -44 | 69 | 21 | oilprd |
| 544 | 622 | Ucore Rare Metals(De15) NS | -4,525 | -16 | 6 | 963 | -90 | 46 | 8 | mining |
| 545 | n/r | StorageVault Canada(De15) SK | -4,575 | -271 | 11,141 | 746 | 113 | 136 | n/a | other |
| 546 | 731 | INV Metals(De15) ON | -4,585 | 53 | 109 | 911 | -51 | 5 | 4 | mining |
| 547 | 602 | Panoro Minerals(De15) BC | -4,617 | -45 | 42 | 933 | 46 | 25 | 7 | pmetals |
| 548 | 112 | Bankers Petroleum(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-3,614 | -103 | (U.S.)323,746 | 282 | -49 | 267 | 580 | oilprd |
| 549 | 544 | Azarga Uranium(De15) CO (1) | (U.S.)-3,625 | -184 | (U.S.)-9 | 980 | -100 | 17 | 13 | mining |
| 550 | 708 | Nexgen Energy(De15) BC | -4,647 | 44 | 292 | 880 | 82 | 207 | 15 | other |
| 551 | n/r | Nanotech Security(Se15) BC | -4,671 | -1,119 | 5,427 | 773 | 133 | 66 | 65 | indust |
| 552 | 347 | Wesdome Gold Mines(De15) ON | -4,701 | -139 | 73,465 | 545 | -11 | 150 | 243 | pmetals |
| 553 | 274 | Yangarra Resources(De15) AB | -4,781 | -120 | 28,244 | 659 | -58 | 37 | 19 | oilprd |
| 554 | 671 | Explor Resources(Ap15) QC | -4,878 | 23 | 2 | 966 | -87 | 5 | 8 | mining |
| 555 | n/r | Cordoba Minerals(De15) BC (4) | -4,918 | 47 | 55 | 928 | -83 | 13 | n/a | mining |
| 556 | 458 | Lakeview Hotel Investment(De15) MB | -4,980 | -327 | 30,296 | 651 | -23 | 2 | n/a | dev |
| 557 | 664 | Focus Graphite(Se15) ON | -5,015 | 17 | 54 | 929 | -95 | 15 | 11 | mining |
| 558 | 628 | Columbus Gold(Se15) BC | -5,053 | -23 | 236 | 885 | -25 | 54 | 1 | pmetals |
| 559 | 789 | Painted Pony Petroleum(De15) AB | -5,210 | 67 | 88,496 | 508 | -23 | 348 | 48 | oilprd |
| 560 | 432 | Pulse Seismic(De15) AB | -5,308 | -253 | 24,435 | 679 | -32 | 123 | 18 | other |
| 561 | 342 | Buhler Industries(Se15) MB | -5,316 | -143 | 246,839 | 367 | -25 | 143 | 1,100 | indust |
| 562 | 733 | Royal Nickel(De15) ON | -5,322 | 46 | 238 | 884 | -24 | 24 | 19 | mining |
| 563 | 732 | Laramide Resources(De15) ON | -5,409 | 45 | 565 | 853 | 367 | 27 | 9 | pmetals |
| 564 | 765 | Stornoway Diamond(De15) BC (3) | -3,656 | -754 | 9,602 | 727 | -13 | 527 | 320 | pmetals |
| 565 | 873 | Alexco Resource(De15) BC | -5,509 | 83 | 15,831 | 716 | -1 | 36 | 60 | mining |
| 566 | 677 | Caza Oil & Gas(De15) TX (1) | (U.S.)-4,338 | 31 | (U.S.)10,233 | 734 | -55 | 97 | 5 | oilprd |
| 567 | 698 | Alderon Iron Ore(De15) BC | -5,614 | 28 | 511 | 861 | -41 | 12 | 1 | mining |
| 568 | n/r | Eco Oro Minerals(De15) BC | -5,652 | 45 | 2,374 | 808 | 53 | 32 | 66 | pmetals |
| 569 | 726 | Chieftain Metals(Se15) ON | -5,655 | 40 | 28 | 942 | -29 | 1 | n/a | mining |
| 570 | 450 | Divestco Inc.(De15) AB | -5,729 | -329 | 23,831 | 683 | -34 | 3 | n/a | oilserv |
| 571 | 675 | Majestic Gold(Se15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-4,856 | 13 | (U.S.)22,902 | 661 | 9 | 42 | 8 | pmetals |
| 572 | 631 | Chesapeake Gold(De15) BC | -5,973 | -35 | 1,161 | 831 | 47 | 78 | n/a | pmetals |
| 573 | 668 | Western Potash(Se15) BC | -6,008 | 4 | 266 | 883 | -34 | 121 | 2 | mining |
| 574 | n/r | Integra Gold(My15) BC | -6,041 | -237 | 164 | 901 | 98 | 98 | 55 | pmetals |
| 575 | 530 | Symbility Solutions(De15) ON | -6,063 | -628 | 26,846 | 670 | -4 | 67 | 141 | tech |
| 576 | 712 | International Tower Hill Mines(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-4,813 | 28 | (U.S.)1,857 | 807 | 253 | 31 | 10 | pmetals |
| 577 | 596 | Metanor Resources(Ju15) QC | -6,265 | -118 | 55,143 | 587 | 43 | 23 | 250 | pmetals |
| 578 | 756 | Gold Standard Ventures(De15) BC | -6,288 | 46 | 294 | 879 | 2,655 | 159 | 14 | pmetals |
| 579 | 489 | Hanwei Energy Services(Ma15) BC | -6,316 | -959 | 21,457 | 696 | 1 | 18 | 210 | oilserv |
| 580 | 480 | Lonestar West(De15) AB (5) | -6,372 | -694 | 50,304 | 597 | 6 | 21 | 327 | oilserv |
| 581 | 817 | Nevada Copper(De15) BC (1)(5) | (U.S.)-4,998 | 71 | (U.S.)148 | 894 | 104 | 53 | 13 | mining |
| 582 | 718 | Hyduke Energy Services(De15) AB | -6,396 | 28 | 23,887 | 682 | -48 | 11 | 121 | oilserv |
| 583 | 825 | Excellon Resources(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-5,040 | 74 | (U.S.)16,893 | 694 | -45 | 17 | 254 | pmetals |
| 584 | n/r | DealNet Capital(De15) ON (5) | -6,497 | -42 | 15,994 | 714 | 62 | 111 | 600 | ent |
| 585 | n/r | Sutter Gold Mining(De15) CO (1) | (U.S.)-5,082 | 0 | (U.S.)19 | 944 | 7 | 5 | n/a | pmetals |
| 586 | 586 | Victory Nickel(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-5,112 | -145 | (U.S.)1,962 | 806 | -84 | 1 | 10 | mining |
| 587 | 647 | Tuscany Energy(De15) AB | -6,574 | -29 | 10,254 | 752 | -42 | 4 | n/a | oilprd |
| 588 | 681 | Enhanced Oil Resources(De15) TX (1) | (U.S.)-5,178 | 20 | (U.S.)1,325 | 820 | -84 | 0 | 6 | oilprd |
| 589 | 878 | Goviex Uranium(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-5,254 | 83 | (U.S.)6 | 959 | -33 | 8 | 60 | mining |
| 590 | 710 | Kazax Minerals(De15) BC (1)(5) | (U.S.)-5,270 | -131 | (U.S.)1,803 | 810 | n/m | 2 | n/a | mining |
| 591 | 384 | Sirius XM Canada Holdings(Au15) ON | -6,748 | -190 | 326,162 | 325 | 7 | 737 | 155 | bcast |
| 592 | 609 | Aldridge Minerals(De15) ON (1)(5) | (U.S.)-5,280 | -92 | (U.S.)173 | 886 | -75 | 14 | n/a | pmetals |
| 593 | 643 | Cabo Drilling(Ju15) BC | -6,772 | -35 | 14,751 | 726 | -35 | 1 | n/a | mining |
| 594 | 414 | Storm Resources(De15) AB | -6,867 | -241 | 81,235 | 524 | -13 | 432 | 27 | oilprd |
| 595 | 806 | Eurasian Minerals(De15) BC | -6,876 | 61 | 2,830 | 802 | 21 | 42 | 38 | pmetals |
| 596 | 477 | Ergoresearch Ltd.(Ju15) QC | -6,981 | -665 | 15,648 | 717 | -12 | 40 | n/a | other |
| 597 | 724 | Golden Queen Mining Co.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-5,461 | 36 | (U.S.)53 | 925 | -59 | 70 | 130 | pmetals |
| 598 | 532 | QHR Corp.(De15) BC | -7,085 | -675 | 28,094 | 662 | 12 | 67 | 200 | tech |
| 599 | n/r | DXI Energy(De15) BC | -7,108 | 1 | 8,576 | 757 | -20 | 8 | 10 | oilprd |
| 600 | 232 | Nuvo Pharmaceuticals(De15) ON | -7,120 | -118 | 22,827 | 686 | -66 | 58 | 74 | bio |
| 601 | 500 | Hawk Exploration(De15) AB | -7,134 | -3,463 | 10,093 | 753 | -47 | 3 | 6 | oilprd |
| 602 | 761 | NexJ Systems(De15) ON | -7,140 | 40 | 29,643 | 655 | 20 | 36 | 182 | tech |
| 603 | n/r | Pure Gold Mining(Ma15) BC | -7,155 | -552 | 92 | 915 | 70 | 32 | 10 | mining |
| 604 | 429 | DirectCash Payments(De15) AB | -7,269 | -298 | 284,728 | 345 | 1 | 218 | 392 | other |
| 605 | 528 | Athabasca Minerals(De15) AB (4) | -7,314 | -853 | 24,095 | 681 | -12 | 10 | n/a | mining |
| 606 | 483 | Strongco Corp.(De15) ON | -7,368 | -892 | 474,285 | 266 | -6 | 21 | 697 | whole |
| 607 | 670 | Orbit Garant Drilling(Ju15) QC | -7,387 | -17 | 79,080 | 530 | 10 | 34 | 850 | mining |
| 608 | 618 | KWG Resources(De15) ON | -7,429 | -102 | 15 | 955 | -67 | 13 | n/a | pmetals |
| 609 | 864 | Ballard Power Systems(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-5,815 | 79 | (U.S.)77,371 | 492 | 12 | 337 | 410 | indust |
| 610 | 604 | Victoria Gold(Fe15) ON | -7,453 | -124 | 1,224 | 828 | -12 | 61 | 20 | pmetals |
| 611 | 676 | Dalradian Resources(De15) ON | -7,464 | -9 | 1,140 | 832 | 197 | 170 | 51 | mining |
| 612 | 535 | North American Energy Partners(De15) AB | -7,470 | -539 | 280,694 | 348 | -40 | 79 | 983 | oilserv |
| 613 | 682 | GoGold Resources(Se15) NS (1) | (U.S.)-6,082 | -5 | (U.S.)12,521 | 720 | n/a | 203 | 95 | pmetals |
| 614 | n/r | Canopy Growth(Ma15) ON (3) | -9,346 | -701 | 2,422 | 815 | n/m | 107 | 75 | other |
| 615 | 639 | GB Minerals(Ju15) BC | -7,554 | -55 | 0 | 978 | -100 | 9 | 4 | mining |
| 616 | n/r | Blackbird Energy(Jl15) BC | -7,579 | -115 | 3,208 | 798 | 890 | 48 | 6 | oilprd |
| 617 | 578 | Sarama Resources(De15) AUSTRALIA (1) | (U.S.)-5,995 | -186 | (U.S.)89 | 910 | -85 | 6 | 13 | mining |
| 618 | n/r | Prophecy Development(De15) BC | -7,823 | 47 | 0 | 977 | -100 | 12 | 21 | mining |
| 619 | 657 | Roxgold Inc.(De15) ON (5) | -7,835 | 63 | 2,280 | 811 | 135 | 227 | 171 | pmetals |
| 620 | 764 | Mirasol Resources(Ju15) BC | -7,919 | 35 | 3,566 | 793 | 276 | 38 | 1 | pmetals |
| 621 | n/r | China Keli Electric Co.(Ap15) BC | -8,000 | -4,420 | 19,916 | 700 | -16 | 5 | n/a | tech |
| 622 | n/r | Aquila Resources(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-6,270 | 2 | (U.S.)853 | 834 | 60 | 38 | 5 | pmetals |
| 623 | 738 | East Africa Metals(De15) BC (5) | -8,051 | 23 | 532 | 857 | 1 | 5 | n/a | mining |
| 624 | 735 | Encanto Potash(De15) BC | -8,089 | 20 | 6 | 962 | 158 | 24 | n/a | mining |
| 625 | n/r | TSO3 Inc.(De15) QC | -8,133 | -37 | 1,852 | 816 | 237 | 186 | 49 | other |
| 626 | n/r | Renaissance Oil(De15) BC | -8,245 | -316 | -86 | 984 | -153 | 36 | n/a | pmetals |
| 627 | n/r | Sandspring Resources(De15) AB | -8,268 | 47 | 199 | 890 | -64 | 12 | n/a | mining |
| 628 | 723 | Alphamin Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-6,468 | 10 | (U.S.)2 | 967 | -98 | 68 | 7 | pmetals |
| 629 | 475 | Dundee Energy(De15) ON | -8,281 | -714 | 32,071 | 641 | -34 | 6 | 33 | oilprd |
| 630 | 556 | Hemisphere Energy(De15) BC (5) | -8,311 | -398 | 9,749 | 754 | -41 | 6 | 9 | oilprd |
| 631 | 921 | BNK Petroleum(De15) CA (1) | (U.S.)-6,569 | 89 | (U.S.)26,144 | 635 | -9 | 34 | 31 | oilprd |
| 632 | n/r | Canadian Overseas Petroleum(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-6,685 | -18 | (U.S.)1,138 | 822 | 11 | 19 | 12 | oilprd |
| 633 | 706 | Themac Resources Group(Ju15) BC | -8,603 | -5 | 0 | 975 | -100 | 1 | n/a | pmetals |
| 634 | n/r | Maya Gold & Silver(De15) QC | -8,656 | 42 | 1,227 | 827 | n/a | 19 | n/a | mining |
| 635 | 720 | Reservoir Minerals(No15) BC | -8,835 | 3 | 758 | 845 | 18 | 199 | n/a | mining |
| 636 | n/r | Niocorp Developments(Ju15) BC | -8,836 | -429 | 19 | 951 | -93 | 113 | 9 | pmetals |
| 637 | 571 | Tanzanian Royalty Exploration(Au15) BC | -8,875 | -349 | 390 | 870 | 19 | 45 | 43 | pmetals |
| 638 | 757 | Mega Uranium(Se15) ON | -8,882 | 24 | -9,522 | 998 | -431 | 23 | 2 | mining |
| 639 | 688 | Pilot Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-6,975 | -4 | (U.S.)423 | 856 | 33 | 33 | 16 | mining |
| 640 | 645 | Petroshale Inc.(De15) ON (5) | -8,947 | -77 | 24,181 | 680 | 163 | 24 | 11 | oilprd |
| 641 | 772 | Seabridge Gold(De15) ON | -9,066 | 30 | 4,305 | 784 | -47 | 597 | n/a | pmetals |
| 642 | 231 | Bonterra Energy(De15) AB | -9,080 | -123 | 197,567 | 401 | -42 | 570 | 38 | oilprd |
| 643 | n/r | Axios Mobile Assets(De15) ON | -9,083 | -193 | 1,528 | 821 | 142 | 36 | n/a | indust |
| 644 | n/r | Western Lithium USA(Se15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-7,555 | -560 | (U.S.)80 | 914 | -98 | 80 | 56 | mining |
| 645 | 777 | Formation Metals(Fe15) BC | -9,305 | 33 | 555 | 855 | -41 | 14 | 7 | mining |
| 646 | 874 | Great Panther Silver(De15) BC | -9,341 | 72 | 77,772 | 533 | 41 | 99 | 331 | pmetals |
| 647 | 648 | Sabina Gold & Silver(De15) BC | -9,517 | -85 | -1,580 | 993 | -371 | 146 | 18 | pmetals |
| 648 | n/r | TMAC Resources Inc.(De15) ON (5) | -9,565 | -1 | 198 | 891 | -54 | n/a | 62 | mining |
| 649 | 778 | Aberdeen International(Ja16) ON | -9,715 | 30 | -5,720 | 995 | -106 | 11 | 18 | pmetals |
| 650 | 734 | ONEnergy(De15) ON (5) | -9,773 | 2 | 23,109 | 684 | 225 | 7 | n/a | oilserv |

651-750

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 651 | 665 | Birks Group Inc.(Ma15) QC (1) | (U.S.)-8,632 | -49 | (U.S.)301,637 | 317 | 7 | 21 | n/a | retail |
| 652 | 638 | Fission Uranium(Ju15) BC | -9,875 | -108 | 4,600 | 780 | -67 | 382 | 39 | mining |
| 653 | 424 | Mongolia Growth Group(De15) ON | -9,931 | -339 | 1,978 | 814 | 0 | 12 | n/a | dev |
| 654 | n/r | CHC Student Housing(De15) ON | -9,946 | -272 | 5,197 | 774 | 413 | 7 | n/a | dev |
| 655 | 728 | Entree Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-7,831 | 10 | (U.S.)2,801 | 792 | -78 | 43 | 18 | pmetals |
| 656 | 938 | New Zealand Energy(De15) BC | -10,059 | 88 | 5,138 | 775 | -64 | 6 | n/a | oilprd |
| 657 | 641 | Noble Iron(De15) ON | -10,232 | -28 | 26,906 | 669 | 27 | 19 | 75 | tech |
| 658 | 272 | Questfire Energy(De15) AB | -10,387 | -142 | 39,951 | 619 | -45 | 10 | 23 | oilprd |
| 659 | 222 | China Gold Int'l Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-8,188 | -121 | (U.S.)352,505 | 276 | 21 | 825 | 1,664 | pmetals |
| 660 | 840 | Asanko Gold(De15) BC (1)(5) | (U.S.)-8,306 | 63 | (U.S.)1,015 | 824 | -19 | 400 | 380 | pmetals |
| 661 | 758 | Boralex Inc.(De15) QC | -10,835 | 8 | 271,228 | 355 | 40 | 937 | 250 | util |
| 662 | 909 | Gravitas Financial(De15) ON | -10,910 | 79 | 2,940 | 801 | -39 | 2 | n/a | pmetals |
| 663 | 310 | McCoy Global(De15) AB | -10,977 | -161 | 86,345 | 511 | -28 | 59 | 220 | indust |
| 664 | 227 | Wajax Corp.(De15) ON | -11,015 | -127 | 1,273,308 | 162 | -12 | 336 | 2,609 | whole |
| 665 | 149 | Clarke Inc.(De15) NS | -11,069 | -111 | -91 | 985 | -100 | 13 | 66 | mgt |
| 666 | 459 | Galane Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-8,693 | -563 | (U.S.)29,274 | 626 | -28 | 2 | 168 | mining |
| 667 | 612 | Strategic Metals(De15) BC | -11,233 | -214 | 307 | 875 | -45 | 25 | n/a | mining |
| 668 | 689 | Africo Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-8,860 | -30 | (U.S.)465 | 849 | -33 | 35 | 12 | mining |
| 669 | 559 | Edge Resources(Ma15) AB | -11,458 | -573 | 10,853 | 748 | 15 | 10 | n/a | oilprd |
| 670 | 841 | Acerus Pharmaceuticals(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-9,031 | 60 | (U.S.)21,236 | 666 | 243 | 24 | 16 | bio |
| 671 | 836 | Toro Oil & Gas(De15) AB | -11,589 | 51 | 16,204 | 712 | 226 | 17 | 13 | oilprd |
| 672 | n/r | DataWind Inc.(Ma15) ON | -11,597 | -158 | 31,667 | 646 | 35 | 52 | 500 | other |
| 673 | 812 | AgJunction(De15) KS (1) | (U.S.)-9,139 | 45 | (U.S.)40,563 | 594 | -10 | 81 | 167 | tech |
| 674 | 716 | Colt Resources(De15) QC | -11,797 | -34 | -184 | 986 | 27 | 34 | n/a | mining |
| 675 | 743 | Novacopper(No15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-9,532 | -14 | (U.S.)24 | 938 | 1,280 | 48 | 14 | pmetals |
| 676 | 704 | Polymet Mining(Ja16) ON (1) | (U.S.)-9,346 | -28 | (U.S.)53 | 923 | -42 | 289 | 21 | mining |
| 677 | 135 | Birchcliff Energy(De15) AB | -12,160 | -111 | 324,643 | 326 | -32 | 615 | 162 | oilprd |
| 678 | 925 | Petrodorado Energy(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-9,527 | 84 | (U.S.)2,339 | 799 | 154 | 17 | 5 | oilprd |
| 679 | 894 | Redknee Solutions(Se15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-10,007 | 72 | (U.S.)222,772 | 353 | -3 | 420 | 1,896 | tech |
| 680 | 754 | QMX Gold Corp.(De15) ON | -12,512 | -9 | 17,083 | 708 | -44 | 1 | 131 | pmetals |
| 681 | n/r | Oban Mining(De15) ON | -13,003 | 33 | 2,364 | 809 | 2,454 | 70 | 5 | mining |
| 682 | 680 | Inscape Corp.(Ap15) ON | -13,076 | -84 | 70,366 | 553 | 10 | 45 | 385 | indust |
| 683 | 673 | IC Potash(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-10,276 | -103 | (U.S.)-16 | 981 | -112 | 10 | 9 | mining |
| 684 | 210 | Canaccord Genuity Group(Ma15) BC | -13,184 | -126 | 880,763 | 199 | 3 | 669 | 1,928 | fin |
| 685 | 745 | TheScore Inc.(Au15) ON | -13,469 | -26 | 12,688 | 737 | 60 | 134 | 210 | bcast |
| 686 | 783 | InnVest REIT(De15) ON | -13,541 | 8 | 560,160 | 249 | 0 | 686 | 8,100 | other |
| 687 | 315 | Fortuna Silver(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-10,608 | -168 | (U.S.)155,145 | 400 | -11 | 402 | 686 | pmetals |
| 688 | n/r | Oncolytics Biotech(De15) AB | -13,723 | 26 | 198 | 892 | -6 | 45 | 22 | bio |
| 689 | 344 | HNZ Group(De15) QC | -13,766 | -212 | 188,798 | 406 | -9 | 151 | 628 | trans |
| 690 | 744 | Rockwell Diamonds(Fe15) S AFRICA | -13,980 | -32 | 70,029 | 554 | 48 | 13 | 528 | pmetals |
| 691 | 678 | Trevali Mining(De15) BC | -14,299 | -104 | 106,942 | 480 | 17 | 167 | 626 | mining |
| 692 | 110 | Jaguar Mining(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-11,212 | -109 | (U.S.)112,418 | 446 | -71 | 18 | 1,124 | pmetals |
| 693 | 709 | Bri-Chem Corp.(De15) AB | -14,357 | -71 | 96,822 | 496 | -48 | 4 | 75 | tech |
| 694 | 651 | Pershimco Resources(Ma15) QC | -14,511 | -175 | 101 | 912 | -66 | 48 | 13 | mining |
| 695 | 927 | Karnalyte Resources(De15) SK | -14,536 | 78 | 193 | 893 | -72 | 19 | 10 | mining |
| 696 | 854 | Partners REIT(De15) ON | -14,556 | 46 | 57,089 | 579 | -6 | 109 | 18 | dev |
| 697 | 139 | Pason Systems(De15) AB | -14,612 | -113 | 290,542 | 340 | -42 | 1,630 | 707 | oilserv |
| 698 | 642 | Hydrogenics Corp.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-11,442 | -153 | (U.S.)35,824 | 608 | -21 | 155 | 93 | indust |
| 699 | 934 | Entrec(De15) AB | -14,634 | 81 | 164,952 | 430 | -30 | 31 | 550 | trans |
| 700 | n/r | Trillium Therapeutics(De15) ON | -14,734 | -14 | 6,595 | 765 | 1,642 | 135 | 28 | bio |
| 701 | 469 | Aston Hill Financial(De15) ON | -14,976 | -1,112 | 43,544 | 613 | -7 | 29 | 54 | fin |
| 702 | 803 | ViXS Systems Inc.(Ja16) ON (1) | (U.S.)-11,634 | 25 | (U.S.)26,343 | 633 | -32 | 21 | 127 | dev |
| 703 | 766 | Orbite Technologies(De15) QC | -15,369 | -24 | 462 | 864 | 13 | 170 | 59 | mining |
| 704 | 543 | Toscana Energy Income(De15) AB | -15,475 | -1,000 | 28,179 | 660 | -48 | 39 | 0 | oilprd |
| 705 | n/r | Alvopetro Energy(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-12,424 | 61 | (U.S.)987 | 826 | -34 | 22 | 42 | oilprd |
| 706 | 818 | Discovery Air(Ja16) ON | -16,011 | 15 | 185,468 | 412 | 12 | 22 | n/a | trans |
| 707 | n/r | Frankly Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-12,903 | 22 | (U.S.)6,991 | 756 | 4,023 | 17 | 28 | other |
| 708 | 949 | LeadFX Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-12,917 | 88 | (U.S.)30,278 | 623 | -81 | 7 | 0 | mining |
| 709 | 617 | Gran Colombia Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-13,020 | -293 | (U.S.)160,988 | 394 | 26 | 3 | 2,098 | pmetals |
| 710 | 547 | Gendis Inc.(Ja16) MB | -16,977 | -1,046 | 5,429 | 772 | -7 | 32 | 6 | dev |
| 711 | 441 | Gemini Corp.(De15) AB | -17,141 | -665 | 169,160 | 424 | 18 | 10 | 650 | oilserv |
| 712 | 800 | Halogen Software(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-13,475 | 12 | (U.S.)65,773 | 518 | 16 | 156 | 450 | tech |
| 713 | 418 | Conifex Timber(De15) BC | -17,321 | -473 | 356,315 | 310 | 1 | 49 | 560 | forest |
| 714 | 842 | Tamarack Valley Energy(De15) AB | -17,328 | 31 | 123,437 | 465 | -2 | 299 | 23 | oilprd |
| 715 | 882 | Madalena Energy Inc.(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-13,705 | 50 | (U.S.)101,427 | 458 | 74 | 157 | 88 | oilprd |
| 716 | 968 | Virginia Hills Oil(De15) AB | -17,914 | 90 | 47,378 | 603 | -26 | 2 | n/a | oilprd |
| 717 | 911 | Anderson Energy(De15) AB | -17,924 | 68 | 57,164 | 578 | 6 | 3 | 26 | oilprd |
| 718 | 727 | Cargojet Inc.(De15) ON | -18,042 | -89 | 295,452 | 337 | 54 | 261 | 667 | trans |
| 719 | 793 | EcoSynthetix Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-14,420 | 1 | (U.S.)14,878 | 704 | -22 | 76 | 48 | indust |
| 720 | 965 | Aura Minerals(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-14,479 | 90 | (U.S.)175,036 | 384 | -35 | 24 | 1,268 | pmetals |
| 721 | n/r | Baylin Technologies(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-14,670 | -4 | (U.S.)43,576 | 584 | -5 | 41 | 801 | indust |
| 722 | n/r | VBI Vaccines(De15) MA (1) | (U.S.)-14,755 | 77 | (U.S.)999 | 825 | -13 | 125 | 55 | bio |
| 723 | 815 | Bear Creek Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-14,829 | -2 | (U.S.)115 | 902 | -29 | 54 | 40 | pmetals |
| 724 | 421 | Data Group(De15) ON | -19,172 | -528 | 304,586 | 334 | -3 | 20 | 1,400 | paper |
| 725 | 666 | Century Global Commodities(Ma15) ON | -19,343 | -212 | 1,445 | 823 | -39 | 31 | 27 | mining |
| 726 | 748 | WesternOne(De15) BC | -19,535 | -80 | 275,391 | 351 | -30 | 12 | 487 | mgt |
| 727 | 357 | Almonty Industries(Se15) ON | -19,545 | -288 | 36,142 | 628 | 22 | 50 | 132 | mining |
| 728 | 809 | Etrion Corp.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-15,317 | 7 | (U.S.)57,368 | 546 | 10 | 107 | 32 | indust |
| 729 | 567 | Redhawk Resources(Ma15) BC | -19,649 | -926 | 170 | 899 | 478 | 7 | n/a | mining |
| 730 | 801 | Crown Point Energy(De15) AB (1)(5) | (U.S.)-15,373 | -15 | (U.S.)16,123 | 698 | 34 | 11 | 20 | oilprd |
| 731 | 693 | Danier Leather(Ju15) ON | -19,869 | -159 | 128,784 | 459 | -9 | 13 | 1,191 | retail |
| 732 | 401 | Enterprise Group(De15) AB | -20,307 | -454 | 60,978 | 570 | -24 | 14 | 300 | oilserv |
| 733 | 620 | Jura Energy(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-15,969 | -363 | (U.S.)11,563 | 725 | 259 | 9 | 45 | oilprd |
| 734 | 870 | Orvana Minerals(Se15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-16,733 | 44 | (U.S.)121,443 | 442 | -16 | 25 | 575 | pmetals |
| 735 | 649 | Petrowest Corp.(De15) AB | -20,668 | -301 | 187,218 | 409 | -31 | 92 | 534 | oilserv |
| 736 | n/r | Resverlogix Corp.(Ap15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-18,323 | -136 | (U.S.)2,355 | 804 | 29 | 226 | 22 | bio |
| 737 | 827 | Scorpio Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-16,604 | 4 | (U.S.)44,732 | 577 | -2 | 8 | 120 | mining |
| 738 | 769 | Barkerville Gold Mines(Fe15) BC | -21,308 | -68 | 31,035 | 649 | n/m | 30 | 30 | pmetals |
| 739 | 887 | Alterra Power(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-16,717 | 54 | (U.S.)83,695 | 478 | -3 | 216 | 126 | oilprd |
| 740 | 808 | MAG Silver Corp.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-16,829 | -21 | (U.S.)-1,077 | 992 | n/m | 678 | 8 | pmetals |
| 741 | 759 | Amerigo Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-16,933 | -58 | (U.S.)80,342 | 484 | -40 | 36 | 315 | mining |
| 742 | 599 | Dynasty Metals & Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-16,996 | -621 | (U.S.)21,130 | 668 | -34 | 10 | 513 | pmetals |
| 743 | n/r | Mogo Finance Technology Inc.(De15) BC | -21,351 | -63 | 43,532 | 613 | 86 | 71 | 332 | trust |
| 744 | 788 | Boyd Group Income Fund(De15) MB | -21,962 | -43 | 1,174,077 | 170 | 39 | 1,110 | 5,922 | other |
| 745 | 912 | Touchstone Exploration(De15) AB | -22,147 | 61 | 50,495 | 596 | 3 | 12 | 156 | oilprd |
| 746 | 262 | Partners Value Investments(De15) ON | -22,209 | -183 | 70,528 | 551 | 13 | 2,464 | 0 | fin |
| 747 | 832 | Essential Energy Services(De15) AB | -22,485 | 1 | 183,906 | 414 | -48 | 69 | 588 | oilserv |
| 748 | 780 | Mountain China Resorts(De15) | -23,355 | -66 | 15,066 | 723 | 15 | 2 | 11 | dev |
| 749 | 776 | Energold Drilling(De15) BC | -23,623 | -74 | 82,215 | 522 | -18 | 16 | 550 | mining |
| 750 | n/r | Aurinia Pharmaceuticals Inc.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-18,607 | -11 | (U.S.)444 | 852 | 48 | 112 | 16 | bio |

751-850

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 751 | 957 | Luna Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-18,710 | 85 | (U.S.)60,687 | 536 | -28 | 13 | 174 | pmetals |
| 752 | n/r | Shopify Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-18,790 | 16 | (U.S.)205,433 | 359 | 96 | 2,851 | 1,395 | tech |
| 753 | 881 | DragonWave Inc.(Fe15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-21,520 | 37 | (U.S.)158,612 | 417 | 76 | 84 | 268 | tech |
| 754 | 568 | Pine Cliff Energy(De15) AB | -24,257 | -1,149 | 79,250 | 528 | 0 | 284 | 91 | oilprd |
| 755 | 121 | Manitoba Telecom Services(De15) MB | -24,400 | -119 | 999,200 | 185 | 1 | 2,360 | 2,803 | tele |
| 756 | 747 | Rooster Energy(De15) TX (1) | (U.S.)-19,185 | -128 | (U.S.)73,291 | 501 | -12 | 8 | 14 | oilprd |
| 757 | 550 | Patient Home Monitoring(Se15) BC | -24,600 | -1,473 | 71,848 | 548 | 239 | 205 | 450 | other |
| 758 | 331 | Reitmans (Canada)(Ja16) QC | -24,703 | -284 | 945,153 | 192 | 0 | 253 | 8,800 | retail |
| 759 | 939 | Americas Silver Corp.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-19,386 | 71 | (U.S.)54,330 | 555 | 99 | 35 | 503 | pmetals |
| 760 | 960 | Eastern Platinum Ltd.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-19,615 | 84 | (U.S.)6,662 | 758 | 35 | 78 | 1,805 | pmetals |
| 761 | 108 | Corus Entertainment(Au15) ON | -25,154 | -117 | 830,466 | 204 | -13 | 1,246 | 1,900 | ent |
| 762 | 425 | AG Growth International(De15) MB | -25,229 | -715 | 449,446 | 278 | 12 | 485 | 1,667 | indust |
| 763 | n/r | Delavaco Residential Properties(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-20,001 | -150 | (U.S.)8,188 | 750 | -2 | 16 | n/a | other |
| 764 | 871 | GLG Life Tech(De15) BC | -25,709 | 27 | 30,400 | 650 | 52 | 7 | 299 | food |
| 765 | 702 | Mitel Networks(De15) ON (1)(5) | (U.S.)-20,700 | -184 | (U.S.)1,178,600 | 144 | 6 | 1,289 | 4,500 | tech |
| 766 | 452 | Aveda Transportation & Energy(De15) AB | -26,541 | -1,175 | 101,734 | 486 | -35 | 14 | 433 | oilserv |
| 767 | n/r | Kaminak Gold(De15) BC (4) | -26,885 | -19 | 175 | 898 | -33 | 147 | 13 | mining |
| 768 | 613 | Manitok Energy(De15) AB | -27,195 | -658 | 79,171 | 529 | -40 | 22 | 45 | oilprd |
| 769 | 805 | Feronia Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-21,383 | -37 | (U.S.)10,936 | 728 | 1 | 9 | 3,853 | other |
| 770 | n/r | Terrace Energy(Ja15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-24,514 | -300 | (U.S.)6,082 | 764 | 3 | 32 | 9 | oilprd |
| 771 | 306 | Cervus Equipment(De15) AB | -27,421 | -249 | 1,137,591 | 175 | 15 | 207 | 1,646 | consumer |
| 772 | n/r | Cynapsus Therapeutics(De15) ON | -27,470 | -154 | 12,808 | 736 | 1,632 | 264 | 28 | bio |
| 773 | 797 | Neptune Tech. & Bioressources(Fe15) QC | -27,961 | -68 | 27,595 | 663 | -27 | 176 | 123 | bio |
| 774 | 324 | GMP Capital(De15) ON | -28,064 | -288 | 235,177 | 377 | -11 | 319 | 313 | fin |
| 775 | 796 | Striker Exploration(De15) AB | -28,471 | -74 | 35,712 | 629 | 303 | 39 | 15 | oilprd |
| 776 | 719 | Ikkuma Resources(De15) AB | -28,770 | -222 | 47,305 | 604 | 94 | 44 | 23 | oilprd |
| 777 | 775 | CWC Energy Services(De15) AB | -29,106 | -116 | 81,045 | 525 | -44 | 34 | 366 | oilserv |
| 778 | 327 | SunOpta Inc.(Ja16) ON (1) | (U.S.)-22,471 | -275 | (U.S.)1,146,854 | 147 | 6 | 808 | 1,754 | indust |
| 779 | 633 | QLT Inc.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-23,009 | -465 | (U.S.)358 | 865 | 57 | 143 | 23 | bio |
| 780 | 334 | Street Capital Group(De15) ON | -30,035 | -332 | 169,136 | 425 | 16 | 162 | 213 | mgt |
| 781 | 411 | Cerf(De15) AB | -30,052 | -692 | 46,484 | 607 | -20 | 27 | 182 | fin |
| 782 | 831 | Altius Minerals(Ap15) NL | -30,211 | -34 | -9,407 | 997 | 43 | 412 | 15 | pmetals |
| 783 | 908 | Innergex Renewable Energy(De15) QC | -30,301 | 45 | 249,441 | 366 | 6 | 1,178 | 145 | util |
| 784 | 281 | Strad Energy Services(De15) AB | -30,361 | -232 | 111,802 | 475 | -49 | 61 | 139 | oilserv |
| 785 | 229 | Interfor Corp.(De15) BC | -30,386 | -175 | 1,688,132 | 133 | 17 | 983 | 1,162 | forest |
| 786 | 833 | Aurcana Corp.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-23,765 | -13 | (U.S.)-18 | 982 | -792 | 11 | n/a | pmetals |
| 787 | 729 | Santacruz Silver Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-24,232 | -178 | (U.S.)11,595 | 724 | 0 | 10 | 12 | mining |
| 788 | 746 | New Millennium Iron(De15) QC | -31,273 | -192 | 559 | 854 | -34 | 13 | 22 | mining |
| 789 | 822 | Cardiome Pharma(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-24,462 | -34 | (U.S.)20,953 | 671 | -30 | 224 | 85 | bio |
| 790 | 591 | KP Tissue(De15) ON (5) | -31,344 | -1,145 | -5,410 | 994 | -138 | 104 | 2,500 | consumer |
| 791 | 859 | Torex Gold Resources(De15) ON (1)(5) | (U.S.)-24,574 | -8 | (U.S.)17,604 | 687 | 1,059 | 990 | 520 | pmetals |
| 792 | 787 | Nautilus Minerals(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-24,882 | -81 | (U.S.)460 | 850 | -97 | 125 | 77 | mining |
| 793 | 807 | Corridor Resources(De15) NS | -31,879 | -80 | 17,606 | 707 | -48 | 40 | 12 | oilprd |
| 794 | 931 | Pinetree Capital(De15) ON | -32,215 | 54 | -22,084 | 1,000 | 95 | 8 | 4 | mgt |
| 795 | 387 | Epsilon Energy(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-25,524 | -486 | (U.S.)24,331 | 648 | -54 | 106 | 6 | oilprd |
| 796 | 920 | Goldgroup Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-26,130 | 54 | (U.S.)-472 | 991 | -108 | 17 | 77 | mining |
| 797 | 903 | CGX Energy(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-26,277 | 42 | (U.S.)637 | 842 | 1,688 | 17 | 63 | oilprd |
| 798 | 929 | Colabor Group(De15) QC (5) | -33,764 | 50 | 1,506,280 | 145 | 5 | 25 | 1,598 | whole |
| 799 | 866 | Northern Dynasty Minerals(De15) BC | -33,829 | -8 | 313 | 874 | -38 | 93 | 50 | pmetals |
| 800 | 291 | Akita Drilling(De15) AB | -33,965 | -261 | 123,687 | 464 | -34 | 122 | 648 | oilserv |
| 801 | n/r | Neovasc Inc.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-26,730 | -80 | (U.S.)12,128 | 718 | -3 | 417 | 206 | bio |
| 802 | 922 | Fortress Paper(De15) BC | -34,314 | 46 | 310,237 | 330 | 8 | 74 | 585 | paper |
| 803 | 662 | UrtheCast(De15) BC | -34,900 | -502 | 41,299 | 615 | 242 | 155 | 225 | other |
| 804 | 358 | Cathedral Energy Services(De15) AB | -35,342 | -444 | 139,898 | 450 | -50 | 17 | 356 | oilserv |
| 805 | 884 | Estrella Int'l Energy Services(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-27,721 | 19 | (U.S.)145,942 | 410 | -43 | 1 | n/a | oilserv |
| 806 | 893 | LGX Oil + Gas(De15) AB | -35,655 | 17 | 11,171 | 745 | -52 | 2 | 1 | oilprd |
| 807 | 886 | Le Château(Ja16) QC | -35,745 | 6 | 236,886 | 375 | -4 | 8 | 2,418 | retail |
| 808 | 597 | Clearwater Seafoods(De15) NS | -37,608 | -1,195 | 508,200 | 259 | 13 | 719 | 1,400 | food |
| 809 | n/r | Boulder Energy(De15) AB | -37,611 | -180 | 127,210 | 460 | -35 | 78 | 24 | oilprd |
| 810 | 851 | Novadaq Technologies(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-30,830 | -27 | (U.S.)64,062 | 523 | 37 | 998 | 215 | other |
| 811 | 301 | Sprott Inc.(De15) ON | -39,631 | -304 | 126,007 | 462 | 1 | 581 | 194 | fin |
| 812 | 750 | Fortune Minerals(De15) ON | -39,812 | -261 | 466 | 863 | -16 | 5 | 7 | pmetals |
| 813 | 896 | NovaGold Resources(No15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-31,952 | 9 | (U.S.)-5,897 | 996 | 40 | 1,596 | 13 | pmetals |
| 814 | 336 | Concordia Healthcare(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-31,568 | -416 | (U.S.)394,224 | 261 | 335 | 2,883 | 476 | bio |
| 815 | 906 | Americas Petrogas(De15) AB | -40,451 | 23 | 25,242 | 678 | -20 | 49 | n/a | oilprd |
| 816 | 972 | Connacher Oil and Gas(De15) AB | -42,295 | 80 | 222,896 | 385 | -48 | 4 | 124 | oilprd |
| 817 | 288 | PHX Energy Services(De15) AB | -42,489 | -293 | 283,183 | 347 | -46 | 98 | 906 | oilserv |
| 818 | 683 | Delphi Energy(De15) AB | -42,525 | -486 | 116,898 | 471 | -28 | 138 | 24 | oilprd |
| 819 | 359 | Sierra Metals(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-33,302 | -515 | (U.S.)136,168 | 420 | -9 | 168 | 1,026 | mining |
| 820 | n/r | OneRoof Energy Group(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-33,337 | -21 | (U.S.)4,952 | 766 | -46 | 5 | n/a | other |
| 821 | 499 | Logan International(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-33,349 | n/m | (U.S.)77,958 | 490 | -47 | 54 | 361 | oilserv |
| 822 | 402 | Asian Mineral Resources(De15) ON | -42,827 | -1726 | 74,817 | 542 | -15 | 19 | 406 | mining |
| 823 | 630 | Mountain Province Diamonds(De15) ON | -43,169 | -882 | 1,220 | 829 | 122 | 632 | 187 | pmetals |
| 824 | 829 | Ovivo Inc.(Ma15) QC | -43,678 | -95 | 315,230 | 329 | -4 | 65 | 800 | indust |
| 825 | 264 | Arsenal Energy(De15) AB | -43,980 | -272 | 62,772 | 566 | -48 | 24 | 25 | oilprd |
| 826 | 173 | Dominion Diamond(Ja16) ON (1) | (U.S.)-33,956 | -151 | (U.S.)720,724 | 194 | -22 | 1,275 | 1,631 | pmetals |
| 827 | 261 | BlackPearl Resources(De15) AB | -46,793 | -274 | 122,389 | 467 | -51 | 258 | 35 | oilprd |
| 828 | n/r | Sleep Country Canada Holdings(De15) ON | -46,879 | -67 | 456,185 | 274 | 15 | 648 | 1,169 | homefurn |
| 829 | 293 | Chemtrade Logistics Income Fund(De15) ON | -47,590 | -326 | 1,364,902 | 156 | 13 | 1,234 | 1,200 | chem |
| 830 | 846 | MDC Partners(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-37,357 | -55 | (U.S.)1,333,961 | 131 | 9 | 1,086 | 5,690 | other |
| 831 | 845 | Polaris Infrastructure(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-37,494 | -52 | (U.S.)50,831 | 562 | -7 | 125 | 118 | pmetals |
| 832 | 933 | Catalyst Paper(De15) BC (5) | -49,400 | 32 | 2,028,300 | 118 | 83 | 35 | 2,625 | paper |
| 833 | 910 | Major Drilling Group Int'l(Ap15) NB | -49,565 | 10 | 307,458 | 331 | -13 | 518 | n/a | mining |
| 834 | 624 | Adriana Resources(De15) ON | -49,796 | -1,146 | 438 | 866 | -32 | 17 | 3 | mining |
| 835 | 398 | ProMetic Life Sciences(De15) QC | -50,961 | -958 | 27,398 | 665 | -28 | 1,955 | 276 | bio |
| 836 | 826 | Transition Therapeutics(Ju15) ON | -51,340 | -136 | 3,450 | 795 | 595 | 99 | 18 | bio |
| 837 | 199 | Uni-Select Inc.(De15) QC (1) | (U.S.)-40,221 | -193 | (U.S.)1,355,379 | 130 | -12 | 1,478 | 2,700 | whole |
| 838 | 753 | Tesla Exploration(De15) AB | -51,676 | -351 | 90,683 | 504 | -31 | 12 | 200 | oilserv |
| 839 | 154 | TMX Group Ltd.(De15) ON | -52,300 | -152 | 768,900 | 212 | -4 | 1,947 | 1,187 | other |
| 840 | 770 | Marquee Energy(De15) AB | -53,419 | -317 | 63,251 | 564 | -16 | 47 | 38 | oilprd |
| 841 | 106 | Dream Office REIT(De15) ON | -55,039 | -135 | 750,163 | 214 | 17 | 1,874 | 602 | dev |
| 842 | 339 | Sandstorm Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-43,056 | -474 | (U.S.)60,771 | 534 | -3 | 464 | 18 | mining |
| 843 | 890 | TVA Group(De15) QC | -55,226 | -34 | 589,890 | 241 | 34 | 173 | 1,793 | bcast |
| 844 | 987 | Crew Energy(De15) AB | -55,355 | 84 | 162,274 | 434 | -64 | 571 | 70 | oilprd |
| 845 | 697 | Temple Hotels(De15) ON | -55,456 | -608 | 188,229 | 407 | -1 | 78 | n/a | dev |
| 846 | 951 | Parex Resources(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-44,621 | 59 | (U.S.)530,390 | 233 | -31 | 1,539 | 279 | oilprd |
| 847 | 529 | Lundin Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-45,324 | -6,916 | (U.S.)5,300 | 763 | 34 | 385 | 173 | mining |
| 848 | 924 | Dundee Precious Metals(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-46,989 | 20 | (U.S.)305,716 | 294 | -16 | 180 | 2,694 | pmetals |
| 849 | 768 | Marlin Gold Mining(De15) BC (5) | -60,948 | -383 | 22,870 | 685 | 702 | 21 | 148 | pmetals |
| 850 | 212 | Canyon Services Group(De15) AB | -62,063 | -226 | 404,956 | 285 | -32 | 281 | 990 | oilserv |

851-950

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 851 | 907 | Taseko Mines(De15) BC | -62,352 | -16 | 339,427 | 318 | -8 | 108 | 172 | pmetals |
| 852 | 224 | Yoho Resources(Se15) AB | -62,564 | -245 | 15,868 | 715 | -80 | 21 | 10 | oilprd |
| 853 | 877 | Serinus Energy(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-49,104 | -61 | (U.S.)25,914 | 636 | -45 | 35 | 27 | oilprd |
| 854 | 406 | Orosur Mining(My15) CHILE (1) | (U.S.)-54,376 | -1,161 | (U.S.)66,759 | 538 | -18 | 15 | 426 | pmetals |
| 855 | 811 | AEterna Zentaris(De15) SC (1) | (U.S.)-50,143 | -203 | (U.S.)688 | 836 | -49 | 3,048 | 48 | bio |
| 856 | 298 | Teranga Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-50,543 | -384 | (U.S.)229,875 | 338 | -12 | 192 | 1,194 | mining |
| 857 | 963 | Cascades Inc.(De15) QC | -65,000 | 56 | 3,881,000 | 70 | 9 | 1,211 | 10,700 | paper |
| 858 | 879 | Denison Mines(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-51,560 | -63 | (U.S.)12,608 | 713 | 19 | 363 | 93 | mining |
| 859 | 984 | Sears Canada(Ja16) ON | -67,900 | 80 | 3,215,200 | 84 | -7 | 627 | n/a | retail |
| 860 | 492 | Xtreme Drilling and Coil Services(De15) AB | -68,344 | n/m | 220,693 | 387 | -16 | 142 | 269 | oilserv |
| 861 | 380 | TAG Oil(Ma15) BC | -68,907 | -995 | 55,336 | 586 | -6 | 83 | 21 | oilprd |
| 862 | n/r | Petrus Resources(De15) AB | -69,031 | -45 | 111,291 | 476 | -15 | n/a | 27 | oilserv |
| 863 | 256 | Norbord Inc.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-56,000 | -44 | (U.S.)1,513,000 | 125 | -5 | 2,302 | 2,600 | forest |
| 864 | 889 | Questerre Energy(De15) AB | -73,534 | -100 | 22,483 | 688 | -16 | 48 | 13 | oilprd |
| 865 | 124 | Uranium Participation(Fe16) ON | -75,072 | -158 | 1,715 | 819 | 379 | 586 | n/a | indust |
| 866 | 898 | Eagle Energy(De15) AB | -76,046 | -58 | 91,384 | 503 | -21 | 40 | 40 | oilprd |
| 867 | 721 | Maxim Power(De15) AB | -77,418 | -750 | 138,903 | 451 | -4 | 160 | 94 | util |
| 868 | 275 | Spartan Energy(De15) AB | -77,778 | -420 | 154,686 | 439 | -14 | 626 | 51 | oilprd |
| 869 | 619 | Aureus Mining(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-61,338 | -1,686 | (U.S.)1,368 | 817 | -43 | 70 | 108 | mining |
| 870 | 810 | Copper Mountain Mining(De15) BC | -78,451 | -331 | 289,025 | 342 | -5 | 53 | 425 | mining |
| 871 | 872 | Alloycorp Mining(De15) ON | -78,931 | -1 | 22 | 948 | -53 | 10 | n/a | mining |
| 872 | 971 | Atlantic Power Corp.(De15) MA (1) | (U.S.)-62,400 | 65 | (U.S.)537,700 | 230 | -6 | 335 | 285 | util |
| 873 | 646 | Levon Resources(Ma15) BC | -83,578 | -1,546 | 387 | 871 | -50 | 107 | n/a | pmetals |
| 874 | 885 | Chinook Energy(De15) AB | -83,606 | -118 | 80,879 | 526 | -49 | 125 | 55 | oilprd |
| 875 | 216 | RMP Energy(De15) AB | -84,795 | -277 | 161,633 | 435 | -39 | 194 | 24 | oilprd |
| 876 | 936 | Golden Star Resources(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-67,681 | 7 | (U.S.)263,391 | 319 | -21 | 61 | 1,257 | pmetals |
| 877 | 128 | Russel Metals(De15) ON | -87,600 | -171 | 3,138,300 | 85 | -19 | 992 | 3,000 | metals |
| 878 | 434 | Perpetual Energy(De15) AB | -89,274 | -2,752 | 292,445 | 339 | -6 | 382 | 210 | oilprd |
| 879 | 155 | Tahoe Resources(De15) NV (1) | (U.S.)-71,911 | -179 | (U.S.)519,721 | 235 | 48 | 2,722 | 2,025 | mining |
| 880 | 185 | Canadian Energy Services & Tech.(De15) AB | -92,276 | -236 | 768,901 | 211 | -21 | 855 | 1,417 | oilserv |
| 881 | 494 | Banro Corp.(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-73,543 | n/m | (U.S.)151,883 | 403 | 21 | 71 | 1,496 | pmetals |
| 882 | 975 | Carpathian Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-73,630 | 66 | (U.S.)13,278 | 709 | 97 | 7 | 4 | pmetals |
| 883 | 774 | Gear Energy(De15) AB | -96,519 | -638 | 91,480 | 502 | -49 | 224 | 22 | oilprd |
| 884 | 883 | Imperial Metals(De15) BC | -96,961 | -160 | 166,512 | 429 | 14 | 545 | 733 | mining |
| 885 | 828 | Lanesborough REIT(De15) MB | -98,766 | -344 | 30,202 | 653 | -23 | 3 | n/a | dev |
| 886 | 337 | Liquor Stores N.A.(De15) AB | -99,587 | -883 | 746,384 | 217 | 8 | 230 | 2,250 | retail |
| 887 | 133 | Senvest Capital(De15) QC | -99,826 | -185 | 51,369 | 595 | -17 | 437 | 28 | mgt |
| 888 | 940 | Mood Media(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-80,022 | 3 | (U.S.)475,116 | 240 | -5 | 24 | 2,000 | other |
| 889 | 178 | Ensign Energy Services(De15) AB | -104,049 | -246 | 1,391,398 | 154 | -40 | 1,124 | 4,404 | oilserv |
| 890 | 900 | Energy Fuels(De15) ON (1)(5) | (U.S.)-82,217 | -10 | (U.S.)60,938 | 532 | 48 | 191 | 194 | mining |
| 891 | 397 | Zargon Oil & Gas(De15) AB | -106,140 | -1,884 | 85,927 | 513 | -45 | 26 | 39 | oilprd |
| 892 | 954 | Strategic Oil & Gas(De15) AB | -110,115 | 15 | 38,475 | 624 | -56 | 46 | 30 | oilprd |
| 893 | n/r | Journey Energy(De15) AB | -111,337 | -23 | 131,540 | 457 | -41 | 61 | 74 | oilprd |
| 894 | 950 | Africa Oil(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-87,190 | 18 | (U.S.)415 | 858 | -67 | 917 | n/a | oilprd |
| 895 | 895 | Silvercorp Metals(Ma15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-103,109 | -151 | (U.S.)135,340 | 440 | 24 | 253 | 826 | pmetals |
| 896 | 958 | Sprott Resource(De15) ON | -119,494 | 12 | 402 | 869 | -97 | 45 | 10 | indust |
| 897 | 355 | Canacol Energy(Ju15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-106,022 | -1,264 | (U.S.)176,328 | 395 | -12 | 350 | 246 | oilprd |
| 898 | 583 | Northern Blizzard Resources(De15) AB | -124,171 | -5,191 | 527,834 | 255 | -31 | 446 | 260 | oilprd |
| 899 | 346 | 5N Plus Inc.(De15) QC (1) | (U.S.)-97,198 | -999 | (U.S.)314,972 | 286 | -39 | 102 | 691 | indust |
| 900 | 804 | Tuckamore Capital Management(De15) ON | -124,887 | -624 | 409,235 | 283 | -27 | 16 | 75 | mgt |
| 901 | 967 | Westport Innovations(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-98,388 | 34 | (U.S.)133,414 | 423 | -10 | 179 | 725 | indust |
| 902 | 236 | Western Energy Services(De15) AB | -129,417 | -458 | 229,748 | 381 | -55 | 286 | 632 | oilserv |
| 903 | 905 | Largo Resources(De15) ON | -129,960 | -147 | 7,916 | 759 | n/a | 60 | 309 | mining |
| 904 | 340 | TransGlobe Energy(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-105,600 | -1,020 | (U.S.)192,406 | 368 | -64 | 181 | 81 | oilprd |
| 905 | 977 | Primero Mining(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-106,910 | 52 | (U.S.)305,828 | 293 | 10 | 512 | 1,817 | mining |
| 906 | 919 | Trilogy Energy(De15) AB | -137,658 | -126 | 380,837 | 298 | -40 | 461 | 220 | oilprd |
| 907 | 928 | First Majestic Silver(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-108,424 | -76 | (U.S.)251,883 | 327 | -9 | 702 | 3,738 | pmetals |
| 908 | 354 | Kelt Exploration(De15) AB | -140,175 | -1,419 | 183,080 | 416 | -17 | 715 | 64 | oilprd |
| 909 | 367 | Tembec Inc.(Se15) QC | -150,000 | -1,767 | 1,428,000 | 153 | -7 | 149 | 3,250 | forest |
| 910 | 867 | MBAC Fertilizer(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-117,617 | -312 | (U.S.)-45 | 983 | -101 | 8 | 48 | other |
| 911 | 512 | Glacier Media(De15) BC | -152,813 | n/m | 231,931 | 379 | -10 | 66 | 479 | pub |
| 912 | 853 | Ithaca Energy(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-121,005 | -393 | (U.S.)388,975 | 264 | -31 | 234 | 36 | oilprd |
| 913 | 91 | Choice Properties REIT(De15) ON (5) | -155,276 | -178 | 745,222 | 219 | 9 | 1,073 | 115 | trust |
| 914 | 961 | Silver Standard Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-124,302 | 2 | (U.S.)360,035 | 273 | 21 | 579 | 1,139 | pmetals |
| 915 | 524 | GVIC Communications(De15) BC | -159,213 | n/m | 231,931 | 379 | -10 | 60 | 479 | pub |
| 916 | 249 | Secure Energy Services(De15) AB | -159,870 | -622 | 1,358,705 | 158 | -40 | 1,151 | 1,250 | oilserv |
| 917 | 70 | Finning International(De15) BC | -161,000 | -151 | 6,203,000 | 52 | -11 | 3,139 | 13,000 | whole |
| 918 | 839 | Atlatsa Resources(De15) BC | -167,069 | -579 | 205,948 | 393 | -13 | 16 | 15 | mining |
| 919 | 277 | Tesco Corp.(De15) TX (1) | (U.S.)-133,754 | -724 | (U.S.)280,471 | 309 | -48 | 284 | 1,594 | oilserv |
| 920 | 978 | Savanna Energy Services(De15) AB | -171,836 | 31 | 452,897 | 275 | -43 | 111 | 1,433 | oilserv |
| 921 | 959 | Thompson Creek Metals(De15) CO (1) | (U.S.)-134,900 | -9 | (U.S.)499,200 | 239 | -39 | 63 | 700 | mining |
| 922 | 394 | TORC Oil & Gas(De15) AB | -172,655 | -2,859 | 263,955 | 358 | -24 | 830 | 80 | oilprd |
| 923 | 916 | NuVista Energy(De15) AB | -172,925 | -194 | 265,484 | 357 | -13 | 624 | 75 | oilprd |
| 924 | 93 | Artis REIT(De15) MB | -175,699 | -189 | 533,646 | 254 | 9 | 1,777 | n/a | dev |
| 925 | 918 | Corsa Coal(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-139,589 | -226 | (U.S.)131,406 | 428 | -9 | 34 | 418 | mining |
| 926 | 962 | Newalta Corp.(De15) AB | -183,056 | -28 | 327,192 | 324 | -32 | 196 | 900 | env |
| 927 | 111 | Seven Generations Energy(De15) AB | -187,296 | -230 | 737,209 | 220 | 5 | 3,430 | 48 | oilprd |
| 928 | 937 | Endeavour Silver(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-149,941 | -101 | (U.S.)184,109 | 376 | -6 | 203 | 1,697 | pmetals |
| 929 | 993 | B2Gold Corp.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-149,946 | 77 | (U.S.)527,817 | 234 | 8 | 1,298 | 2,719 | pmetals |
| 930 | 86 | Silver Wheaton(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-162,042 | -181 | (U.S.)650,311 | 202 | 5 | 6,949 | 35 | pmetals |
| 931 | 966 | Detour Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-163,596 | -9 | (U.S.)563,724 | 222 | 8 | 2,465 | 830 | pmetals |
| 932 | 875 | Surge Energy(De15) AB | -213,891 | -545 | 238,984 | 373 | -58 | 466 | 65 | oilprd |
| 933 | 926 | North American Palladium(De15) ON | -216,400 | -224 | 193,800 | 404 | -11 | 233 | 447 | pmetals |
| 934 | 76 | Vermilion Energy(De15) AB | -217,302 | -181 | 998,624 | 186 | -31 | 4,212 | 516 | oilprd |
| 935 | 979 | Canexus(De15) AB | -217,312 | 13 | 551,246 | 251 | 3 | 252 | 405 | chem |
| 936 | 390 | Trinidad Drilling(De15) AB | -218,350 | -3,410 | 551,940 | 250 | -42 | 481 | 1,599 | oilserv |
| 937 | 187 | Calfrac Well Services(De15) AB | -221,594 | -431 | 1,497,462 | 146 | -40 | 265 | 2,600 | oilserv |
| 938 | 844 | Intertain Group Ltd.(De15) ON | -226,873 | -770 | 393,752 | 290 | 862 | 702 | 182 | tech |
| 939 | 948 | SouthGobi Resources(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-186,765 | -80 | (U.S.)17,176 | 691 | -29 | 100 | 354 | pmetals |
| 940 | 360 | Timmins Gold(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-190,311 | -2,172 | (U.S.)111,954 | 447 | -27 | 60 | 96 | pmetals |
| 941 | 165 | Cequence Energy(De15) AB | -250,072 | -415 | 82,478 | 521 | -67 | 63 | 32 | oilprd |
| 942 | 989 | New Gold Inc.(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-201,400 | 58 | (U.S.)729,100 | 195 | 0 | 1,640 | 1,623 | pmetals |
| 943 | 834 | Capstone Mining(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-202,653 | -858 | (U.S.)510,232 | 237 | -31 | 168 | 1,658 | pmetals |
| 944 | 637 | Argonaut Gold(De15) ON (1) | (U.S.)-202,713 | -4,738 | (U.S.)159,424 | 398 | -4 | 185 | 638 | pmetals |
| 945 | 944 | Postmedia Network Canada(Au15) ON | -263,405 | -145 | 733,051 | 221 | 8 | 103 | 4,733 | pub |
| 946 | 130 | Sterling Resources(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-206,909 | -316 | (U.S.)70,115 | 506 | 18 | 13 | 40 | oilprd |
| 947 | 985 | BlackBerry(Fe16) ON (1) | (U.S.)-208,000 | 32 | (U.S.)2,531,000 | 81 | -23 | 5,504 | 4,534 | tech |
| 948 | 160 | Gibson Energy(De15) AB | -280,656 | -405 | 5,614,566 | 57 | -35 | 1,743 | 2,700 | oilserv |
| 949 | 991 | Pan American Silver(De15) BC (1) | (U.S.)-226,650 | 58 | (U.S.)677,636 | 200 | -11 | 1,368 | 4,100 | pmetals |
| 950 | 856 | WesternZagros Resources(De15) AB (1) | (U.S.)-236,145 | -830 | (U.S.)34,541 | 612 | 547 | 49 | 147 | oilprd |

951-1000

| PROFIT | PROFIT | COMPANY AND YEAR END | PROFIT | PROFIT | REVENUE | REVENUE | REVENUE | MARKET CAP | NUMBER OF | INDUSTRY |
| RANK 2015 | RANK 2014 | | $000 | % CHANGE | $000 | RANK | % CHANGE | $MIL | EMPLOYEES | |
| 951 | 69 | InterOil Corp.(De15) NY1 | (U.S.)-241,956 | -184 | (U.S.)50,100 | 563 | 107 | 1,558 | 220 | oil |
| 952 | 694 | ShaMaran Petroleum(De15) BC1 | (U.S.)-252,883 | -3,513 | (U.S.)681 | 837 | 531 | 87 | 9 | oilprd |
| 953 | 913 | Twin Butte Energy(De15) AB | -336,932 | -488 | 254,644 | 364 | -61 | 32 | 91 | oilprd |
| 954 | 62 | ARC Resources(De15) AB | -342,700 | -190 | 1,562,900 | 140 | -32 | 5,796 | 560 | oilprd |
| 955 | 752 | Rubicon Minerals(De15) ON | -355,816 | -3,090 | 0 | 976 | -100 | 47 | 25 | pmetals |
| 956 | 240 | Precision Drilling(De15) AB | -363,436 | -1,196 | 1,606,736 | 138 | -32 | 1,602 | 4,337 | oilserv |
| 957 | 30 | Valeant Pharmaceuticals Int'l(De15) QC1 | (U.S.)-291,700 | -133 | (U.S.)10,449,800 | 30 | 19 | 48,202 | 22,000 | bio |
| 958 | 127 | Lundin Mining(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-294,084 | -361 | (U.S.)1,751,714 | 109 | 64 | 2,735 | 7,900 | mining |
| 959 | 102 | Torstar Corp.(De15) ON | -403,966 | -334 | 745,856 | 218 | -13 | 224 | 4,600 | pub |
| 960 | 175 | HudBay Minerals(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-331,428 | -688 | (U.S.)893,272 | 173 | 84 | 1,249 | 1,797 | mining |
| 961 | 104 | Bellatrix Exploration(De15) AB | -444,208 | -372 | 353,443 | 311 | -38 | 315 | 188 | oilprd |
| 962 | 118 | Just Energy Group(Ma15) ON | -446,785 | -429 | 3,895,940 | 69 | 10 | 868 | 1,220 | util |
| 963 | 983 | Dundee Corp.(De15) ON | -459,118 | -44 | 348,000 | 314 | 9 | 267 | 108 | fin |
| 964 | 484 | MFC Bancorp Ltd.(De15) BC | -487,630 | n/m | 1,584,778 | 139 | 22 | 123 | 651 | mining |
| 965 | 51 | Whitecap Resources(De15) AB | -500,713 | -210 | 564,295 | 246 | -51 | 2,727 | 107 | oilprd |
| 966 | 820 | Oryx Petroleum Corp.(De15) AB1 | (U.S.)-415,235 | -2,199 | (U.S.)20,486 | 674 | -2 | 73 | 169 | oilprd |
| 967 | 198 | Gastar Exploration(De15) TX1 | (U.S.)-459,507 | -1,002 | (U.S.)107,307 | 452 | -37 | 105 | 22 | oilprd |
| 968 | 672 | Gabriel Resources(De15) UK | -627,832 | -9,831 | 207 | 889 | -43 | 54 | 40 | pmetals |
| 969 | 31 | First Quantum Minerals(De15) BC1 | (U.S.)-496,000 | -159 | (U.S.)2,771,000 | 78 | -24 | 3,571 | 14,600 | mining |
| 970 | 5 | Canadian Natural Resources(De15) AB | -637,000 | -116 | 14,378,000 | 27 | -35 | 33,081 | 7,568 | oilprd |
| 971 | 970 | Long Run Exploration(De15) AB | -645,032 | -239 | 349,242 | 313 | -49 | 70 | 227 | oilprd |
| 972 | 582 | Alamos Gold(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-508,900 | -200 | (U.S.)362,000 | 270 | 19 | 1,170 | 37 | mining |
| 973 | 973 | Athabasca Oil Corp.(De15) AB | -696,771 | -206 | 96,684 | 497 | -6 | 623 | 167 | oilprd |
| 974 | 952 | Onex Corp.(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-573,000 | -398 | (U.S.)19,945,000 | 16 | 17 | 8,990 | 144,000 | mgt |
| 975 | 415 | Bonavista Energy(De15) AB | -751,545 | n/m | 710,262 | 226 | -45 | 398 | 296 | oilprd |
| 976 | 992 | Niko Resources(Ma15) AB1 | (U.S.)-672,914 | -2 | (U.S.)210,352 | 372 | 31 | 47 | 128 | oilprd |
| 977 | 644 | Trican Well Service(De15) AB | -822,414 | n/m | 1,227,285 | 165 | -49 | 95 | 2,454 | oilserv |
| 978 | 47 | Crescent Point Energy(De15) AB | -870,200 | -271 | 3,678,800 | 75 | -26 | 8,140 | 491 | oilprd |
| 979 | 932 | Paramount Resources(De15) AB | -901,301 | -1,157 | 400,878 | 287 | -11 | 650 | 196 | oilprd |
| 980 | 988 | Lightstream Resources(De15) AB | -946,015 | -112 | 499,464 | 262 | -58 | 52 | 301 | oilprd |
| 981 | 974 | Iamgold Corp.(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-755,300 | -265 | (U.S.)929,400 | 168 | 1 | 775 | 4,900 | pmetals |
| 982 | 990 | Pengrowth Energy(De15) AB | -1,093,100 | -89 | 1,103,000 | 178 | -43 | 554 | 449 | oilprd |
| 983 | 956 | Baytex Energy(De15) AB | -1,133,651 | -754 | 1,271,082 | 163 | -43 | 943 | 270 | oilprd |
| 984 | 19 | TransCanada Corp.(De15) AB | -1,146,000 | -162 | 11,778,000 | 38 | 8 | 31,751 | 5,512 | mgt |
| 985 | 942 | MEG Energy(De15) AB | -1,169,671 | -1,008 | 2,012,093 | 119 | -32 | 1,804 | 627 | oilprd |
| 986 | 994 | Kinross Gold(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-984,500 | 16 | (U.S.)3,081,600 | 67 | -11 | 2,878 | 9,170 | pmetals |
| 987 | 73 | Enerplus Corp.(De15) AB | -1,523,403 | -609 | 1,195,106 | 167 | -43 | 981 | 588 | oilprd |
| 988 | 138 | Eldorado Gold(De15) BC1 | (U.S.)-1,540,895 | -1,602 | (U.S.)868,794 | 177 | -19 | 2,938 | 7,300 | pmetals |
| 989 | 12 | Suncor Energy(De15) AB | -1,995,000 | -174 | 30,171,000 | 13 | -29 | 51,652 | 13,190 | oil |
| 990 | 980 | Sherritt International(De15) ON | -2,076,700 | -616 | 432,000 | 279 | -20 | 215 | 6,372 | mining |
| 991 | 65 | Teck Resources(De15) BC | -2,474,000 | -783 | 8,369,000 | 42 | -3 | 4,772 | 10,000 | mining |
| 992 | 998 | Penn West Petroleum(De15) AB | -2,646,000 | -53 | 1,478,000 | 149 | -36 | 588 | 718 | oilprd |
| 993 | 997 | Yamana Gold(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-2,114,800 | -53 | (U.S.)1,835,400 | 107 | -2 | 2,434 | 6,845 | pmetals |
| 994 | 1000 | Barrick Gold(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-2,838,000 | 2 | (U.S.)9,272,000 | 37 | -9 | 11,930 | 21,135 | pmetals |
| 995 | 29 | Husky Energy(De15) AB | -3,850,000 | -406 | 17,183,000 | 24 | -32 | 14,086 | 5,552 | oil |
| 996 | 44 | Ultra Petroleum(De15) TX1 | (U.S.)-3,207,220 | -691 | (U.S.)892,275 | 174 | -33 | 383 | 167 | oilprd |
| 997 | 999 | Goldcorp Inc.(De15) BC1 | (U.S.)-4,158,000 | -92 | (U.S.)4,734,000 | 54 | 32 | 13,277 | 10,652 | pmetals |
| 998 | 7 | Encana Corp.(De15) AB1 | (U.S.)-5,165,000 | -252 | (U.S.)4,436,000 | 55 | -61 | 5,974 | 2,726 | oilprd |
| 999 | 995 | Bombardier Inc.(De15) QC1 | (U.S.)-5,347,000 | -324 | (U.S.)18,364,000 | 19 | -9 | 2,975 | 70,900 | indust |
| 1000 | 996 | Pacific Exploration & Production(De15) ON1 | (U.S.)-5,461,859 | -317 | (U.S.)2,996,427 | 73 | -39 | 539 | 2,525 | oilprd |

This is Sabrina
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She has 134,000 followers on her own YouTube channel. But as she tells Erin Anderssen, she'd 'rather talk to a person than a screen,' and dreams of one day earning a steady paycheque working in finance. She and her peers - Generation Z - are the future of our country
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By ERIN ANDERSSEN
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page F1


To get to know them, The Globe partnered with youth-marketing agency Yconic to survey 886 Grade 12 students across Canada, and conducted interviews and roundtables on issues that included the environment and social media, life and love. The result: an intriguing look at a generation set to make its mark in an increasingly uncertain world.

On Sunday, June 12, Emily DePaoli was between lifeguard shifts in High River, Alta., when, scrolling through Instagram, she saw #Pray for Orlando. She follows several drag queens, who were suddenly urging people to give blood. The Grade 12 student immediately went to news sites and learned that a lone gunman in Florida had killed people in a nightclub popular with the LGBT community, and that the death toll was rising.

For the rest of the afternoon, and then when she returned home, she followed the chatter on Twitter and Tumblr, as well as Instagram, as people discussed homophobia and terrorism - conflicting fact and opinion rushing like water from a broken dam. She saw the better parts of humanity also playing out, as hundreds answered the call to donate blood. "In times like this," she says, "we need to feel that connection." But she couldn't stop crying. She couldn't concentrate on her exams.

Eventually, she had to log off. It was all too much.

Emily belongs to Generation Z. Too young to have a clear memory of 9/11, they know just where they were when Osama bin Laden was killed, when a gunman dressed as the Joker opened fire on people watching a Batman movie in Colorado, when the Boston Marathon blew up, when Paris was bombed.

Now, the older members of Gen Z will remember Orlando, in the final days of their Grade 12 years. And theirs are memories sharpened by real-time video, desperate texts from those trapped inside the Pulse nightclub, photos of bodies on the ground - not how their parents absorbed tragedy, through three minutes on the nightly news, but immersed and up close. One way, among many, in which this generation is different.

Social scientists have made hay slicing humanity into cohorts of common values and outcomes, so that old and young can squabble at the dinner table about who's smarter, who's luckier, who's harder-working. (Place yourself accordingly; generations can get a little blurry around the edges.) In 1998, the year Emily and her peers arrived on the scene, this would have included the surviving members of the GI Generation - called "matures" in Canada - who lay claim to the title "greatest" for both surviving the Depression and winning a world war. The matures' boomer children - born between the mid-1940s and the early-to-mid-1960s - were laying claim to middle age, and the rise of the millennials into adulthood was just around the corner.

Squeezed in between the boomers and the millennials was my tiny, loser generation, born in the sixties and seventies, and dubbed the unlucky "13th" in a bestselling book by generational experts William Strauss and Neil Howe that contained the inspiring chapters: "We trust ourselves and money - period" and "Room to move as a fry cook." (The book came out in 1993, two years before Douglas Coupland's Generation X - his name for my generation - started the alphabetical trend.)

If other generations began life slated for greatness, Gen X, the cynical, slacker children of divorce - born too late for flower power, too early for the Internet, and in too small numbers to matter much to marketers - were destined to disappoint.

It hardly matters. We were quickly eclipsed by those bright, dreamy millennials (a.k.a. Generation Y), still in their pre-stumble glory, and soon to get their own Strauss and Howe book, which declared them the Next Great Generation. Sample chapters: "The happiness business" and "A capacity for greatness." In the words of Valley Girls everywhere, gag me.

But sooner or later, every generation gets its time in the sun, and it appears that we Gen X Breakfast Clubbers have done something right after all: We eventually got our act together, and had kids, and they are, totally, like, the Next Best Thing. As the current narrative goes, Generation Z (trademark pending) comprise the antimillennials: solid, serious, pragmatic, savers. They "matter more" than their immediate predecessors, Goldman Sachs has declared. "Make way for Generation Z," The New York Times has trumpeted. Could they truly be, the Financial Times has breathlessly asked, "the world's saviours?" Those are lofty expectations for a generation barely out of high school. And, as their predecessor millennials can attest: One day you're saving the world; the next, you're whiny, spoiled and sucking your thumb in your parents' basement. But there is something about these kids, this Class of 2016, the senior members of Generation Z. Nora Spinks, chief executive officer of the Vanier Institute for the Family in Ottawa, says generations are most influenced by three factors: their parents, their teachers, and the culture and world events of their adolescence.

On all three counts, Gen Z has a fresh narrative. Their parents, today mostly in their 40s, were launched into the world during a recession, made their way - and were then handed, in their peak earning years, a Wall Street meltdown: Their kids grew up listening to disillusioned, hard-knocks money talk at the kitchen table.

"Gen X has created a sense of self-reliance with their kids," says Jason Dorsey, co-founder of the Austin, Tex.-based Center for Generational Kinetics, whose high-energy TEDx Talk boasts of Gen Z's attributes: "Rather than, 'My mom is going to show up to help me with my essay,' Gen X parents said, 'You better figure it out.' " In today's high schools, Ms.

Spinks points out, technology is wiping out note-taking, rote learning and textbooks; instead, students have to learn to navigate massive amounts of information and data.

When it comes to culture, Gen Z considers same-sex marriage a done deal, a black American president reality, and working mothers normal. Its members have grown up in the most diverse classrooms in Canadian history - learning beside fellow Gen Zers of diverse races and religions, and those who face challenges ranging from dyslexia to autism.

But what really defines this generation is technology. Gen Z - or iGen, as it is sometimes called - has never known a phone that wasn't smart, or a fact it couldn't Google. They spend their days as confident citizens of a digital world that exists mostly apart from the adults in their lives.

This generation also will inherit a world with monumental problems: climate change, terrorism, the gap between the rich and the poor. By the time the first wave of Gen Zers have graduated from university, says Ms. Spinks, one of them will be entering the work force for roughly every three baby boomers retiring.

How does all that change them?

What characterizes the psyche of a generation that grows up never knowing a world without lonewolf terrorist attacks? What's the effect of seeing those just ahead of you stumble financially, burdened by university debt? What does it mean that your life - your brand - plays out on Instagram and Facebook and Twitter, with the expectation, and the responsibility, of being both the watched and the watcher?

So, The Globe and Mail put some of these questions directly to the Class of 2016, through a national online survey of 886 students conducted with Yconic, the Toronto-based youth-marketing agency, as well as e-mail questionnaires, round-table conversations and interviews. Along the way, we met, among others, Kakeka Thundersky, an activistminded indigenous student in Winnipeg growing up with a foster dad, and headed for a teaching degree; Muhammad Hussain - Muslim, feminist, class president and power-lifter in Cambridge, Ont.; thoughtful and articulate Jake Paterson in Ottawa, who sees his future working outdoors on power lines; Abena Miller, fiercely religious, and growing up as a proud JamaicanCanadian in Edmonton; Mahima Mishra, an accomplished athlete of South Asian descent in St.

John's, determined to find her own path; and Sabrina Cruz, a math-loving YouTuber in Ajax, Ont. They all refuse to be put into tidy boxes, let alone to be stereotyped.

It's hard to define the narrative of any generation, composed, as it is, of individuals, all with their own stories to tell. But this isn't intended to be definitive; it's a snapshot in time. Some day, these young people may look back at what they said, and smile at their foresight. Or they may laugh at themselves. Or wonder wistfully where that person went.

But for now, we wanted to ask them, where might they go?

They worry - a lot "I get very stressed out about money," says Chelsea Knuth, in Ottawa. "I can't sleep too well worrying about it."

For her, debt is weight that will drag down her future, limiting her choices. She doesn't want to be trapped, for instance, in a job she doesn't like just to be able to pay the bills. "I have a picture of what I want my life to be." And she doesn't want carelessness with money to be the reason it doesn't happen.

This early cohort of Gen Z has watched many of the millennials crash and burn, and is trying to dodge the wreckage. They universally want to avoid major tuition debt. Some can cite the employment rate of graduates from their chosen university or college programs, and say they wouldn't even consider a degree that didn't look like it tracks to a job. Their parents come up a lot: They mention hearing at home about layoffs, pensions and escalating housing prices. They describe their parents sitting down to calculate budgets with them. (Chelsea's helped her lay out the cost of university on an Excel spreadsheet.)

They tend to suffer from performance anxiety. In the GlobeYconic survey, 68 per cent agreed that they feel overwhelmed by everything they need to do each week. Almost half, like Chelsea, said that stress makes it hard to sleep through the night; more than half said they worry about meeting their parents' expectations. As for the future, only 27 per cent agreed with the statement "My generation will be better off financially than my parents'," and 80 per cent were worried about one day making enough money to support themselves.

Being careful about money, some students said, has led them to take a gap year, or choose alternate postsecondary programs.

Chelsea, for instance, has deferred her acceptance by St. Francis Xavier University, in Antigonish, N.S., to work to save money. (She also hopes to fundraise for a trip to Africa to volunteer for several weeks next winter.)

Matt Small, 17, in Coquitlam, B.C., says his parents were keen to have him attend Simon Fraser University, but he chose Douglas College, where, for less tuition and while living at home and working part-time, he can testdrive criminology courses without investing big bucks in a degree he may not like. "It's my personality," he says. "I don't like to be owing people money."

Success, suggests Kakeka Thundersky in Winnipeg, is "being comfortable with what you have."

As for debt, she says, "I want to give back, and you can't do that if you are struggling to look after yourself."

MacKenzie: I would take being comfortable, and being able to spend time with my friends and family and doing what I want, over making a lot of money.

Paige: Definitely.

Chelsea: For me, the money is a factor, but I just want to have a job where there is something different every day.

Paige: I don't think I could see myself working in a government cubicle every single day for the rest of my life.

Tess: That scares me.

- Conversation at John McCrae Secondary School, Ottawa, June 13, 2016

More pragmatists than entrepreneurs In Grade 7, Sabrina Cruz posted her first YouTube video - two minutes of herself eating a cookie. (She has since deleted it.) It was the beginning of what has become a promising YouTube career, with 226 videos of the Ajax resident riffing on feminism, movie heroines, and crying in public. Her NerdyAndQuirky channel now has 134,000 followers - and, in a world where YouTube can be a star-making machine, you'd think Sabrina would have stars in her eyes.

Instead, she is heading to the University of Toronto, to study math.

Her dream: a finance job in a big company, with a steady paycheque, maybe doing her own thing on the side. "I have always wanted a 9-to-5," she says Some marketers suggest that Gen Z has a make-your-own-job approach to work, but there isn't much evidence among the students we met. The Class of 2016 talks about earning a stable income and working their way up in a company. Or they're interested in traditional jobs such as teaching, and medicine.

"I think being successful at all in the future would be a dream come true," says Morgan Burton, 17, in Black Diamond, Alta. "It's a really daunting feeling, knowing that you might not be."

She wants to become a teacher: "While I would love to be innovative enough to do something important and groundbreaking, having a steady paycheque seems a bit more reasonable."

When asked, in the Globe-Yconic survey, what the key is to getting ahead, 96 per cent chose hard work - something that researchers suggest their Gen X managers will especially appreciate.

"You have to prove yourself," explains Jake Paterson, leaning on the table in the boardroom at Ottawa's John McCrae Secondary, where he and three friends have gathered to talk about work, life and social media. He expects latenight shifts and on-call weekends in his early years on the job. "You don't just start 8 to 5, when there are guys who have already paid their dues," he says.

Nick Anagnostopoulos, who wants to "get his foot in the door" with a company, agrees: "At the start, you will be more consumed with work, because you want to get a good reputation with your employer. But eventually, hopefully, you can find a proper balance."

The goal, says Mack Mercier, is for each generation to improve upon the last. But he says, "you don't want to work so much, to make so much money, that you don't have any time - you have to do something for yourself as well."

At the same time, the job had better not be boring. In another conversation at John McCrae, some female students discuss an article in a morning newspaper in which employers complained that young workers are unreliable and suffer from a lousy work ethic. They reject the generalization.

"I am an excellent employee," says Paige Dalley, who works part-time at a Freshly Squeezed juice bar. "I take on all kinds of extra duties."

But Tess Durham concedes the employers' point: "If it's a career and it's the same job every day, I can see how that would be a little bit true, because we aren't a generation who can sit there doing the same thing every day.

We need change."

Not all sold on love, marriage, baby carriage Most students in our sample see long-term commitment and kids in their future - two-thirds expect to be either married or in a permanent relationship by the time they are 30, and the majority figure they'll have kids some time between the ages of 25 and 35. But in the survey, 20 per cent of the girls and 15 per cent of the boys say they have no plans for kids at all. "I understand planning out your career. I have never understood girls that plan their wedding," says High River's Emily DePaoli, who plans to become a veterinarian but currently has no vision for the wife or mother role.

"I want to make sure I can make myself happy and I can live a comfortable life by myself."

Mahima Mishra in St. John's says that, over the last few years, her priorities for the future have shifted. "It's not so much that having a family has become less appealing; it's that independence has gotten more interesting to me now.

"I think it has a lot to do with how society has changed. That was the conventional thing to do - you go to school, find a job, get married, and have a family - and I now see more women not doing that, and living their own lives."

Her idea of happiness is focused on "knowing for myself that I am a good person," and her future - whether it includes a family, or "just doing my own thing" - is what she will make it. One thing for sure, she says, "I won't settle."

Their constant companion

Tess: If I am feeling awkward on the bus, I will just take out my phone right away. You really notice when you are not looking at your phone how many people are. Like, is this weird to be just looking around?

Brooklyn: Adults can sit on a bus, and they don't have to look at their phones, because they grew up without them.

Tess: It's a support system. You have your own little life on your phone. You can go on Twitter and you know these people. Instead of sitting with strangers.

- Conversation at John McCrae Secondary, June 9th , 2016 They wake up in the morning, and check their phones. There are selfies to like, and selfies to post, and tweets to read - the socialmedia housekeeping of the modern teenager. "Likes" are the new currency, evidence of wit or popularity; one student admitted to removing a picture that didn't collect enough likes, and reposting it later in the evening when more people would be online to see it. Failing to like a friend's selfies fast enough often leads to an urgent text, asking why.

In the Globe-Yconic survey, one-third of students said they receive or send more than 50 texts a day; 12 per cent put the number above 200. (Many parents might guess a number closer to a thousand.) They are heavily dependent on the Internet - 40 per cent said they are using it almost constantly. In interviews, students talked about "craving" notifications, and compared social media to a drug.

"My phone," says Lisa Martell, in Red Deer, Alta, "is only off when it's dead."

Jenna Viscount in Halifax says she spends up to 90 minutes a day on social media, and sends about 150 text messages a day.

"I do not eat, do homework, shower, fold laundry, without social media, Netflix or listening to music."

Social media have created a shared experience, and a common language (Damn Daniel!) from one side of the country to the other. But students also acknowledge being exhausted by the need to keep up with multiple social-media sites. "It takes up a lot of energy," says Noah Hollis, another Haligonian. "A lot of people are really tired because they are always on their phones, always thinking about what they are going to post next, who they are going to talk to, what kind of lie they can make up to avoid doing something ... It's tiring. It's really tiring."

Facebook, students explain, is where they post pictures and news for their parents and extended family. Twitter is a place for witty non sequiturs directed at friends, and for thinly veiled, passive-aggressive sub-tweets fired at frenemies. On Instagram, they catalogue their favourite selfies. Snapchat streaks require two participants to send at least one picture every day. And then there are the late-night group chats where gossip is exchanged and plans are made. "Never go to bed early," says Ottawa's Chelsea Knuth. "You could miss so much."

Text, they say, is how they stay in touch with friends en masse, especially when life is busy, and when they feel overscheduled. "I think adults look at us and see us always on our phones, but we are doing so much with school, extracurricular activities and jobs, there is hardly any time to have conversations," says Mahima, in St. John's.

Not all text chats are superficial.

"At night, when I am relaxing, I really start having deep conversations with my friends."

In Ottawa, Tess Durham offers this observation: "What bugs me about our parents saying, 'You're always on your phone,' is that that's how society is: Everything is online.

But many students also recognize that social media can be a toxic space. (Several report taking mental-health breathers, particularly when the real world got busy, or when conversation had turned negative.) In the GlobeYconic survey, 43 per cent of students said they have witnessed cyberbullying, 64 per cent have read racist comments, and more than one-quarter have logged off because someone's behaviour made them nervous.

Social media is where people say things they'd never say in person - for better as well as worse, sometimes opening a door to difficult topics. It's also a space where young people have become more careful, cloaking insults with coded language, in order not to incur the wrath of the majority in a generation raised to be sensitive to bullying.

"It can be like psychological warfare," says Sabrina Cruz, "like watching reality TV."

Where they build their brand Abena: It's marketing - social media has become a business.

Sabrina: Your stats are like a designer outfit.

Noah: Each person has their own brand that they have to perpetuate every single day in the online word.

Abena: True.

Sabrina: Like, you become less yourself to get more people to "like" you.

- Online roundtable via Slack, May 23, 2016 And yet members of Gen Z are also sensitive about privacy and maintaining control over their digital identities. They will periodically scrub their sites of unflattering pictures and will carefully script tweets to be funny, but not too controversial.

(They are also not shy about culling their friend groups of negative voices.) They're critical of the way millennials have dumped their entire lives onto Facebook.

"I am really cautious about what I post," says Kakeka, in Winnipeg. "I don't want it to come back to haunt me." The stories of politicians whose early Internet activity derailed their careers has left an impression. "I want to keep my options open."

"Why risk it?" asks Jake Paterson in Ottawa. "Why throw something up there that you are going to regret? Once it's there, it's there. You aren't removing it.

Even if you do, tons of people have seen it. Somebody probably screen-shot it. So you have to be smart about it."

But they'd rather talk in person?

Mack: If it's urgent, a call is way better than texting.

Ryan: And it's stressful if you think something is wrong. I have been in a situation where someone texts, "Omigod I have to tell you something ..." Just tell me - so I am not stressing waiting for you to text me back 10 minutes later.

Jake: It's like my dad, the one time he will text me, he will be "Call Me Now, period." So, it's like, whoa, what's going on?

Mack: Like, who died?

Jake: So I will call him back quickly, and he'll say, "We're going to Grandma's for dinner." And it's like, why don't you just say that?

Ryan: People just assume we don't like face-to-face interaction. I like that a lot more. I hate texting.

- Conversation at John McCrae Secondary, June 9, 2016 Although they concede that texting is useful for making plans, and sometimes better for handling complicated conversation when you want time to think your answers through, students readily acknowledge that face-toface has clear advantages. "Sometimes you can hide your emotions over a screen," says Paige.

But, as Tess points out, "Sometimes, it escalates things. Especially if people don't know your tone or reaction."

Morgan Burton, of Black Diamond, explains: "I'd always rather have a meaningful conversation with someone in person. But communicating online does have its benefits; it takes away uncomfortable barriers, makes it easier to be eloquent and gets one's point across."

Says Sabrina Cruz, "I would rather talk to a person than a screen. If it's something that is important, there is nothing more vital than looking into a person's eyes."

Except, of course, that the phone has become a social crutch to avoid doing just that.

"We use them as excuses in awkward situations," says Halifax's Jenna Viscount. "Don't know anyone at a party? Pull out your phone. Standing at a bus stop with someone you don't know? Pull out your phone. At school and eating lunch alone?

Pull out your phone."

Alexandra Fabugais-Inaba, in Oakville, pines for an earlier time: "I wish that we didn't have millions of apps that hoard our lives," and instead "actually had face-to-face conversations with people. I wish that boys would ask girls out in front of their face, not be sliding into her DMs to finally work up the courage to type 'Do you want to go out?' " Even Lisa Martell, who never turns off her phone, is conflicted.

"Social media is an incredible thing - I will always stick to that," she says. "But I believe more than anything that our generation also needs to learn to look up and see life through our own eyes rather than someone else's camera lens."

Terrorism and tragedy - the world they know Noah: We can't stay focused ... We have good intentions and we want to help, but there's too much in too many places for people to choose one thing. Like walking into a vault and seeing gold and money everywhere, and you don't know where to begin.

Sabrina: Yeah, but the gold and money is like terrorism and starvation and poverty.

Abena: But should we stay goldstruck, and do absolutely nothing?

- Online roundtable, May 23, 2016 On June 12, Noah Hollis woke up in the Halifax suburb of Hammonds Plains to a Twitter feed flowing with news about Orlando. Like Emily DiPaoli in High River, he watched the discussion unfold. People were quick to link the shooter to Islamic State rather than homophobia, the kind stirred up by the same conservative politicians now calling for prayers. "To call him an ISIS fighter distances him from everyone," he says. "People want a simple conclusion, so they can wrap it up and move on."

But events like the Florida shooting highlight the strengths and weaknesses of social media - its ability to organize people into concrete acts, such as donating blood or giving money, and, Emily says, "to open up doorways for conversations that need to happen." But the whirlwind of fact and conjecture also "makes it difficult to focus on one solution to stop this from happening," suggests Noah.

Does this make them feel the world is unsafe? Mostly, they shrug off the question: "We are so used to it by now," Noah says.

"This has always been happening since we were born," says Jake.

Canada still feels like a country apart from the conflict, a place, they repeatedly noted, where you can't buy an assault rifle at a store on the corner. "I feel pretty safe in Newfoundland," says Mahima.

"What scares me is travelling. You always have it on your mind.

Even though there's not a big chance of anything happening, it's unsettling."

In the Globe-Yconic survey, students weren't exactly brimming with youthful optimism. Nearly three-quarters believe the gap between rich and poor will widen over the next decade. And 55 per cent believe incidents of terrorism will increase. Roughly the same number say that terrorist attacks make them more fearful for their personal safety.

"We aren't going [to the movies] with the mindset that we need to be ducking if someone walks in," says Jake.

"But," says Chelsea, "maybe eventually we will."

Better behaved than their parents were ... As a group, teenagers today actually drink and do drugs less often than their parents did at the same age. And it's no surprise that smoking is way less common now. Perhaps more surprising, in a wide range of large-scale surveys in both Canada and the United States, binge-drinking and drug use have declined among high-school students since the 1990s. Even marijuana use is down. (In fact, when it comes to legalizing pot, students in the Globe-Yconic survey are evenly divided - one-third say yes to the idea, one-third say no, and one third aren't sure.)

It's not that drinking and drug use aren't common at parties, as they pretty much all make clear.

But their lives are busy, and they socialize differently - you're not likely to be drinking beer alone in the family room while playing Halo with friends online, or while texting from your bedroom.

Culture can also play a role: Muhammad Hussain, the president of his student council, doesn't drink, both for his own health and fitness, and because of his Muslim background. "I respect the choices of others," he says. "But it is a personal preference for me not to."

Gen Z has also got the message about drunk driving: In our survey, while the majority agreed that skipping class and "getting really drunk" is okay once in a while, 97 per cent say they "never" drink and drive.

... and no more sexually active MacKenzie: A boy can go to a party and hook up with 10 girls, and he is congratulated, and a girl would do the same thing, and she's a slut.

Tess: And girls [say it] too. It's just as much girls as it is guys.

Brooklyn: We're all hypocrites.

- Conversation at John McCrae Secondary, June 13, 2016 In a boardroom off the principal's office at John McCrae, some senior students are explaining the term "wheeling," as in "I wheeled five guys at Saturday's party." It translates to making out, usually random one-offs to be boasted about later - especially, they say, among the younger students.

"The Grade 9s will go to two parties in one weekend," says Chelsea, in Ottawa, "and if they haven't done something with a guy at one of those parties, they will be down on themselves.

They're like, it was an unsuccessful weekend."

MacKenzie Corrigan insists, "We were never like that."

Certainly many Grade 9's won't be, either. (But isn't this the parlour game: world-weary seniors tsk-tsking about those wild and crazy kids?) At the same time, here's a generation with easy online access to hard-core pornography.

Twerking is a thing, and song lyrics don't even bother with euphemisms for oral sex any more.

And yet, while Canada doesn't have great current stats on sexual activity among teens, Statistics Canada data from 2010 showed that 30 per cent of teenagers reported having sex before the age of 17 - roughly the same percentage revealed in Canadian surveys in the 1990s. (It's also similar to the findings of the Globe-Yconic survey.) The incidence of teenage pregnancy and abortion has also fallen significantly in Canada since the 1990s. Over all, the world that teenagers describe isn't that different from the one their parents may recall: Some kids have sex, some don't.

"It still happens," female students say that girls perform oral sex just so guys will like them.

And girls, they admit, aren't as often on the receiving side - especially if it's a one-off hookup at a party. But relationships - and age - are perspective changers, they say. It's no longer about "checking something off the list"

- because everyone is supposedly doing it - but deciding whether you really want to do it in the first place.

As for porn, it's being watched plenty. Does that create unrealistic, potentially negative expectations, as some experts fear?

"I think guys know it's staged," says Chelsea, "But for you to actually sit and watch it, and think that's all fake, I don't think they do that." Says her friend Mack Mercier, "If you have never done it before and just watch it, maybe you would think that's what it's like, but ..." and then Jake finishes his thought, "I don't think it stays with you, as they get older, they realize it's not."

And then there's sexting. For a supposedly pragmatic generation sensitive about privacy, many of its members have a relatively relaxed attitude about clicking "send" on naked selfies. Students insist they would send such pictures only to those they trust - and when the exchange is mutual. If they knew of cases when photos had leaked online, it was usually at a distance, or in the news. "It wouldn't be just anybody who would do that," explains Black Diamond's Morgan Burton. "It would have to be someone intent on hurting that person, someone pretty nasty."

Jenna Viscount recalls being at a party where a boy she didn't know well was showing off a collection of photos on his phone to anyone who asked. "He was bragging about it," she says. "It never even crossed my mind that people would do that, until I saw that."

Social media didn't invent that kind of jerk, but gave him a new tool to use. And the damage is still higher for girls than for boys, however equal they may feel in other areas of life. In the GlobeYconic survey, 49 per cent of students said that, when it comes to sex, the rules are different for boys than for girls, and 70 per cent said that "slut shaming" targets girls who have sex more than it does boys.

Even for a generation that talks large about busting stereotypes, some traditions are hard to shake.

Minds that are open, and can be changed So maybe they haven't made as much progress on sexual politics.

This is still a generation that leans solidly left; that is relaxed in a diverse world, accepting of the kind of issues that still get adults in a lather, such as gender identity. They walk hallways with gender-neutral washrooms and with posters urging openness and tolerance. Jason Dorsey, of Generational Kinetics, suggests what will be strange to them is "walking into a boardroom full of a bunch of white people."

"In previous generations, it was always black-and-white," says Kate Turner, in Osoyoos, B.C., "and for us, we started asking questions - why does it have to be like that? Maybe there are other options."

And as was often pointed out by these teenagers, Gen Z doesn't have to rely on parents or teachers any more. "We have access to so much information," says Mahima, in St. John's. "We have a chance to make our own opinions about how we see the world and how we see ourselves."

"It's all about exposure," says Morgan. "People tend to be afraid of what they don't know or understand. As more brave people share their stories, the more we see, the more accepting we become." For the Alberta teenager, who identifies as pansexual, this was especially true of her questions about gender identity, which she explored online.

"That has to do with how easy it is for us to see what's going on in the world," says Mahima, suggesting that her generation isn't as fixated on putting boxes around religion and gender identity as older Canadians might be. "We are really good at pulling out the best of everything," she insists, and creating a life philosophy.

"We go with the flow more than other generations."

Maybe it's part of their reluctance to wear a label from another generation, but Gen Zers are divided on feminism. In the Globe-Yconic survey, 66 per cent of girls identified as feminists.

But in Ottawa, none of the female participants said that they see themselves that way. They feel the term has become too controversial and been taken too far, "as if women wanted to be above men," Chelsea Knuth explains. "I wouldn't call myself a feminist, just because of what the idea has surrounding it now."

But feminist is a title claimed by 32 per cent of the survey's male students. "I imagine people like my mother, or my little sister, when it comes to matters like these, and it sincerely hurts me to think that they are at a disadvantage in society simply based on their gender," explains Muhammad Hussain, who calls himself a feminist and says he is proud that Prime Minister Justin Trudeau does the same. But he also feels that the view of feminists as manhating has persisted. His male peers, he says, need to understand "that true feminists are not psychotic females out to hunt every man on Earth down, but instead are just normal women who want all human beings to be equal."

Does fear of offending people stifle debate?

As a group, the members of Generation Z speak about the diversity of opinions they can find online, and how that has helped them shape their own views.

They also happen to be entering university when trigger warnings - cautions about presentations, speeches or even required reading that may be upsetting to certain groups of people - have become more common. Some students wonder if it has gone too far.

"Making jokes out of incredibly serious issues in front of someone who has suffered through that is unacceptable," Morgan says. "But to avoid serious topics at all for fear of upsetting someone means that important issues are often not discussed. The need for trigger warnings and the demand for the utmost political correctness at all times has seemingly only caused more problems, because it leads people to believe that life should always be as gentle, which just isn't the case."

Abena Miller, in Edmonton, points out that when people don't agree online, what starts as debate can quickly disintegrate into insults. "I feel like censorship is increasing so much [because of] fear of offence. It might be [rapper Azealia Banks] today for her racism - which is inexcusable - and me tomorrow for my religious beliefs," she says. "I'm not really free if I can't have an opinion."

"Political correctness is very trendy nowadays," observes Noah, "and if there's one thing this generation is good at, it's following trends and attacking those who don't." At university, he says, he wants to experience a broad range of debate. "The online world makes it too easy for people to feel they are right 100 per cent of the time."

They get it: The planet is in trouble In the Globe and Mail-Yconic survey, 88 per cent of Grade 12 respondents said they worry about the condition of the planet, and 61 per cent said they believe that climate change will get worse in the next 10 years. To solve it, 85 per cent say that people will have to make lifestyle changes. Roughly half think their generation will figure out a solution eventually.

"You see predictions," says Morgan, "that this is how long water is going to be available, and how long the polar ice caps will exist, and it feels like a time limit for us to figure it out, and this is a huge weight on our shoulders."

And it is wearing them down.

Mahima recalls an English class this spring, when the teacher gave out yet another assignment on global warming. "As soon as we opened the page and saw what it was about, there were a bunch of groans," she says. "This problem is just being thrown at us. We are not in a position where we can make major decisions. It is almost too much. It doesn't even seem like the generation before us is doing a lot about it, and they are the ones who caused the problem."

They all teach (and have done so for years) Brooklyn: When you have to explain the same thing every day, that's when some days I kind of get annoyed. You don't understand why they can't get it, when you show them something 30 times ... It's just that we grew up with it, and they're trying to learn.

Tess: And then they're, like, 'Oh, thank you,' and they're kind of proud of you, because you know so much.

- Conversation at John McCrae, June 13, 2016 Here's a surefire trick to get teenagers talking: Ask them about their parents' attempts to navigate social media.

"No matter how many times I tell my mom you cannot zoom in on Instagram, she will still do it," says Mack.

"Last month, I had to show my dad how to find a website on Google," says Jake.

"My mom's phone started playing music in a meeting," Tess says, "and she couldn't figure out where the app was to turn it off. So she had to leave the meeting, go into her office - and call me."

For this generation, knowledge is no longer hierarchical, and information doesn't travel one way. It comes from multiple sources - their peers, their parents and teachers, their favourite YouTube channels, bloggers - and when news breaks, the mainstream media, more often than not. The Vanier Centre's Nora Spinks predicts that this early pattern of being both learners and teachers will make them valued employees. (For this story, they patiently explained slang or memes or social-media behaviour, with barely a hint of adolescent condescension.)

As Mack observes, his generation has developed the art of giving directions. "You're learning how to communicate," he says, so you don't get asked over and over again."

But if anything, they feel these teaching moments bring them closer to their parents. "It creates a different bond," Tess says. "You are on a level playing field."

"My dad knows nothing about technology when I try to show him," says Jake. "But then, when it comes to working on a car, he knows way more than I do. You show them what you know, they show you what they know."

Still, quips Chelsea, "It's much easier to teach kids things than adults. So they have the easy job."

What the world needs now?

At some point, nearly every generation gets told they're going to save the world (even mine, whom some eventually tagged the boomer cleanup crew). But, let's suppose the early indicators hold, that Gen Z leans on the sensible side, trends toward financial frugality while possessing an open-minded approach to diversity and a serious disposition. They may not be rebels. But says Ms.

Spinks, "maybe pragmatism is what the world needs now."

There will soon be five generations in the work force - one with the clear technological advantage, setting the digital path for everyone else to follow.

In the all-encompassing culture of the Internet, "We are going to look more like them," predicts Jason Dorsey, "than they will look like us."

"I wouldn't call us saviours of the world just yet," cautions Noah Hollis, offering a voice of reason on behalf of his peers.

"We need a bit more time."

Still, fingers crossed.

Erin Anderssen is a senior feature writer with The Globe and Mail.

KAKEKA THUNDERSKY 17, Winnipeg, burgeoning indigenous activist, will study at the University of Manitoba to become a teacher.

'I am in a position where I can work toward change. I am not really struggling, so I don't have an excuse.'

NOAH HOLLIS 17, Hammonds Plains (Halifax), N.S., bound for Carleton University (international studies), has his eye on politics.

'People do stand together, but we need to make that happen ... when there isn't a crisis.'

MUHAMMAD (MOE) HUSSAIN 17, Cambridge, Ont., aspiring doctor, will take kinesiology at McMaster University.

'Social [media] definitely makes the world feel like it's all going downhill, but I always feel optimistic that there's a lot of great things happening to be hopeful about.'

SABRINA CRUZ 18, Ajax, Ont., YouTuber, will study mathematical applications in economics at the University of Toronto, hopes to work in finance. 'Discussion is the only way you learn.'

ABENA MILLER 17, Edmonton, to take psychology and Latin American studies at the University of Alberta, wants to become a lawyer one day.

'The most important lesson my parents taught me was that it's okay to be different. If I know myself, I don't have to worry about other people's opinions.'

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY BEN BARRETT-FORREST/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

'People want to go backward'
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Stoked by anti-immigrant fear and fury, the Brexit campaign to pull Britain out of Europe, writes Mark MacKinnon, is just one symptom of an angry nationalism baring its teeth across the continent
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By MARK MACKINNON
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page F1


Peterborough, in middle England, and Styria, in lower Austria, sit 1,500 kilometres apart on a map of Europe. The former is a fast-growing city a short train ride north of London, the latter a region of laid-back villages set among the vineyard-covered hills near the Slovenian border.

The down-at-heel backstreets of Peterborough would seem to have little in common with the small and neatly maintained villages of Styria. But the people of middle England and lower Austria agree on two major points these days: Things aren't going well where they live - and people from other places are to blame.

That irritation, seized on and moulded by populist politicians offering questionable salves, is on the verge of redrawing the political map of Europe.

Middle England is the heartland of the Vote Leave campaign as the United Kingdom hurtles toward Thursday's referendum on whether the country should quit the European Union. The pro-EU Remain campaign has accused those pushing for a "Brexit" of being motivated by xenophobia.

The bitter argument seemed to tip into violence this week when Jo Cox, a Labour MP and outspoken Remain supporter, was shot and killed by a gunman who reportedly shouted "Britain first" before the attack. It was an event that some attributed to the increasingly sour and divided atmosphere that the referendum has created.

"When you present politics as a matter of life and death, as a question of national survival, don't be surprised if someone takes you at your word," wrote Alex Massie, of The Spectator magazine, taking aim at the Leave campaign's tactic of whipping up anti-immigrant sentiment. "I cannot recall ever feeling worse about this country and its politics than is the case right now."

Still, a series of recent opinion polls have shown the Leave campaign pulling ahead in the last days before the crucial ballot, as voters apparently coalesce around its easy-to-understand message of "taking back control" of the U.K.'s borders.

"It's a popular movement," Lisa Duffy, an organizer for Vote Leave in Peterborough, says with a smile. She thinks her side will win Thursday's referendum.

Ms. Duffy, who is also a veteran activist in the U.K.

Independence Party, a radical right-wing movement better known as UKIP, says a desire to control immigration - something that's near-impossible while Britain is a member of the EU, which considers the free movement of citizens a core principle - is what's driving Vote Leave's surge in the polls. "We want to know who's here, why they're here, and when they're going back, if necessary."

Styria, meanwhile, was an electoral fortress for Norbert Hofer as the Freedom Party candidate came within 31,000 votes last month of becoming Europe's first far-right head of state since the end of the Second World War. Mr. Hofer, who warned against a "Muslim invasion" while campaigning with a Glock pistol on his belt, capitalized on concerns that many of the 90,000 people who arrived and applied for asylum in the country last year aren't integrating well into Austrian society.

"There is a direct connection between the fears of the people and the vote for Mr. Hofer," says Andreas Gerhold, a pastor in the Styrian town of Stainz. "The arguments of Donald Trump are the same as the arguments of the Freedom Party here in Austria."

The Freedom Party - founded 60 years ago by former Nazi officers - is now challenging the presidential election result in court, hoping to force a re-run before the winner, independent left-of-centre candidate Alexander Van der Bellen, is sworn in on July 8. Some Vienna-based analysts think the Freedom Party could indeed force, and win, a new vote; Mr. Hofer had looked on course for victory until postal ballots tipped the result in Mr. Van der Bellen's favour.

The Brexit referendum and the Austrian election drama are likely harbingers of what's to come in other parts of Europe. Across the continent, populist movements that have been kept on the fringes for decades are suddenly closing in on the corridors of power.

In Italy, Virginia Raggi of the Five Star Movement looks set to win a second-round run-off in Rome's mayoral election on Sunday after topping the first ballot by a wide margin earlier this month. Euroskeptic and anti-establishment, Five Star has allied itself with UKIP at the European Parliament.

In France, Marine Le Pen of the far-right Front National has a wide lead in opinion polls ahead of presidential elections next year. Polls in the Netherlands show the country's Party for Freedom, headed by Geert Wilders - who is currently on trial for inciting hatred against the country's Moroccan community - would win an election if one were called today.

Far-right parties are also gaining in opinion polls in Germany and Scandinavia, while governments in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic have soothed public opinion by vowing to ignore an EU quota system that would see all member countries absorb a share of the more than one million asylumseekers who arrived on the continent in 2015.

After a decades-long lull during which things like borders and ethnicity seemed to matter less than in the past, angry nationalism is back - no longer as a bit player, but as a mainstream force in European politics.

Raw emotions and English flags To walk south down Peterborough's Lincoln Road is to take a miniature tour of our globalized world. A Turkish bar is followed by a Polish food store, an Afghan grocery by a Latvian café.

It's only when you get closer to the centre of town, where a portrait of the Queen keeps watch over ancient Cathedral Square, that the English flags - not the Union Jack of the United Kingdom - start to appear. White-andred crosses bulge from T-shirts and hang from windows. So do the similarly coloured Vote Leave stickers encouraging a Brexit.

They look like stop signs: "Little England," as the more nationalistminded regions of this country are somewhat derisively known, pushing back against immigration and cultural changes that many in Peterborough say have gone too far.

One of the first symbols of the backlash you encounter near the south end of Lincoln Road are a pair of English flags sticking out from a table of bric-a-brac in front of a pawn shop.

"On this part of the road, it's necessary to show that you're English," explains Chris, the 69year-old owner. Despite his desire to make a statement, he asked that his last name not be published, fearing that his business might be affected if his political opinions were made public.

He said he will vote on June 23 in favour of a Brexit, ending more than 20 years of non-participation in politics. It's too late to turn back the clock, and he doesn't want to see the immigrants already here forced to leave, but he says the U.K. needs to start curbing immigration, and soon. "There are lots of people who were born here - or who came here long ago - who like what we have and want it to stay that way."

The June 23 referendum wasn't expected to be this dramatic.

That the U.K. should remain in the EU is a rare point on which the leaders of the four biggest political parties - the Conservatives, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Scottish National Party - all agree.

U.S. President Barack Obama has also weighed in to encourage Britons to vote Remain. So have the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Bank of England's own Mark Carney, all of whom piled on warnings of the economic risks the U.K. would be taking if it chose to leave the 28nation bloc that is also the world's largest free-trade zone.

But advice and threats from the establishment are ignored in Little England these days. Politicians and economists are the ones who told them the EU - and, more broadly, globalization - would make everyone wealthier.

Earlier this year, the YouGov polling agency identified Peterborough as one of the most proBrexit places in the U.K., and campaigners say they expect at least 60 per cent of residents to vote Leave.

Lifelong residents of the city, especially older ones, say they no longer recognize some of the streets they grew up on. And they want the change to stop.

There are indeed parts of this city of 190,000 (up from 156,000 in 2001) where Polish and Russian are almost as common on street signs as English. That's nothing new in such cosmopolitan cities as London, New York and Toronto, but it's not a course Peterborough residents feel they had a hand in setting.

The rapid influx of people drawn to the region's low-skill agricultural and food-packing sectors has also put a strain on social services. "My constituents are in a situation where 68 per cent of primary-school children don't speak English as their first language, school places are at a premium, health services are under huge pressure. Crime and policing is a problem. And housing is at a pressure point," says Stewart Jackson, the Conservative MP for Peterborough, who has gone against his party's leader, Prime Minister David Cameron, to join the Vote Leave campaign.

While some might pin those troubles on cost-cutting carried out by six years of Conservativeled governments, many in Peterborough believe it's immigrants from Eastern Europe who are to blame.

Emotions are raw. "The English people who live on this street are not polite to anybody from any country. If you say, 'Hello, good morning' to them, they just go like this," says Giana Honika, a 53-year-old Lithuanian, jamming her middle finger upward in the universal gesture of insult. "Really, they do. They say, 'Go back to your country.' " Ms. Honika, who moved to Peterborough 13 years ago and found work in a factory, now owns a café and an adjacent grocery store near the city centre, both of which offer Eastern European cuisine. She says she can understand her neighbours' anxiety over the pace of change.

"When I started this business, all these houses across the street were owned by English people.

Now, all [the inhabitants] are from Bulgaria, Romania. There is just that one door over there that is still English people," she says.

John Curtice, Britain's top expert on polling and public opinion, says the split between the pro-Remain and pro-Leave camps is "between the winners and losers of globalization."

Those in the Remain camp are younger and more cosmopolitan, and often have the education and the skill sets to compete in a borderless world - people who don't need to worry about losing their jobs to someone willing to work for less. The Leave camp, meanwhile, is older, less educated and more worried by the changes they see happening in British society.

Mr. Jackson, the MP, agrees with the analysis, but puts it more simply. Peterborough, he says, "is a microcosm of the people-versus-the-establishment battle that the referendum is.

"Essentially, the people are saying, 'Look, we were never consulted about mass immigration.' " 800,000 refugees in six tumultuous months Judith Koller, who runs a popular wine restaurant in the town of Vogau, a short drive from Austria's newly fenced border with fellow EU member Slovenia, has always known which of her patrons voted "red" (for the Social Democratic Party) and which voted "black" (for the conservative Austrian People's Party).

But those lines were erased during the 2016 presidential election campaign.

"Now, the majority voted blue," she says - meaning they supported the Freedom Party, a movement that has long been controversial in a country that counts Adolf Hitler as its most notorious son.

Ms. Koller has been voting for the Freedom Party since the days of Jorg Haider, the charismatic populist who rattled Europe as far back as 2000, when he led the Freedom Party into a shortlived coalition government with the People's Party. (Mr. Haider, who resigned as leader of the Freedom Party shortly after the formation of the coalition government, died in a 2008 car accident.) As a small-business owner, Ms. Koller says she was drawn to the Freedom Party's economic platform of lower taxes and less bureaucracy.

What convinced many of Ms. Koller's patrons to switch their vote to the Freedom Party this time was 2015's refugee crisis in Europe, which saw nearly 800,000 people - most of them Muslims from such war-torn countries as Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan - pass through Austria over just six tumultuous months last summer and fall. Thousands streamed every day through the streets of Vogau and other Styrian towns.

"People were afraid. We weren't used to this," the 53-year-old Ms. Koller recalls. "They were walking through the middle of our streets - thousands of them - and the military were making loudspeaker announcements in Arabic. It was terrifying."

A year later, the fear has scarcely subsided. Tales abound over how much financial support the refugees - who can be seen lingering in Styria's towns during breaks in their German lessons - are getting while they, in the words of Ms. Koller, "do nothing."

A series of disturbing sexual assaults involving immigrants, including that of a 10-year-old boy assaulted in a public pool and a 21-year-old student gang-raped in a Vienna park, has fed the paranoia. Parents who once let their daughters walk home from school in sparsely populated Styria now insist on picking them up in their cars.

Ms. Koller feels it necessary to clarify that she's "not a Hitler fan." She just thinks the new arrivals from the Middle East can't fit in to Austrian society.

"We just want Austria to stay Austrian," she says, a comment that draws no reaction from patrons in her packed restaurant.

"We're afraid that in 50 years we'll all be forced to wear head scarves."

Even before the Freedom Party's surge, Austria's government, a coalition between the Social Democrats and the People's Party, was trying hard to appear that it was responding to such fears. A two-metre-high fence was erected in December and January along the country's border with Slovenia, which like Austria is part of both the EU and the visa-free Schengen Area.

The latter zone no longer seems to exist in practice, as every vehicle entering Austria from Slovenia is now meticulously checked.

While few refugees have made their way this far north since Balkan governments began shutting their borders earlier this year, something like a state of emergency persists in Styria, with military and police vehicles seemingly on constant patrol in towns around the Slovenian border.

"People in Vienna or Graz don't know how bad [the refugee crisis] was," says Vanja, a 35year-old waitress in the border town of Spielfeld. "But nobody here voted for Van der Bellen.

Anyone who was here doesn't want to see it happen again."

A continent long plagued by identity politics Few believe Europe's surge to the right will stop soon. A vote for a Brexit on Thursday would almost certainly presage the end of Mr. Cameron's premiership, likely ushering in a government headed by Conservative rebel Boris Johnson, whom many in the British press - and some cabinet colleagues - have labelled a better-educated version of Mr. Trump.

Mr. Johnson's populist instincts have been on display since he took over de facto leadership of the Vote Leave campaign. The pro-Brexiters deftly switched from arguing with the Remain side over the economic benefits and drawbacks of the EU, to hammering home a message that Britain needs to leave the 28-member bloc in order to curb immigration.

More significantly, a vote for Brexit would add resonance to Ms. Le Pen's message that France - traumatized by last year's terrorist attacks in Paris - also needs to quit the EU. (A Pew Research Center survey published earlier this month found anti-EU sentiment was even higher in France - where 61 per cent had negative views of the bloc - than in the UK, where 48 per cent were negative versus 44 per cent positive.)

A strong showing for Ms. Le Pen, who is expected to make it into a second round run-off in next year's presidential election, though no further, would in turn inspire other far-right parties around the continent.

"I do not see this as a blip.

The Austrian election will probably, in a couple of decades, be seen as the election where it all started. It is very likely that, in the near future, we will have here in Europe - among [the EU's] 28 heads of state and government - at least a couple of right-wing populists," says Christoph Hofinger, director of the Institute for Social Research and Consulting, a polling firm in Vienna.

Mr. Hofinger sees similar conditions aiding the rise of the populists both in Europe and an ocean away in the United States.

"There is a growing number of voters with declining economic prospects and optimism. That is the soil where populist movements may grow."

Donald Trump, of course, has become the modern face of the populist demagogue, a title he has earned with his calls for a wall along America's southern border in order to keep out Mexicans - whom he has derided as "in many cases criminals, drug dealers, rapists" - and a ban on Muslim immigration to the U.S.

(as well as immigration from countries "with a proven history of terrorism against the United States").

But Ian Bremmer of the Eurasia Group, a New York-based political consultancy, says Mr. Trump's unexpected rise to become the Republican Party's presumptive presidential nominee is in some ways less worrying than what's happening in Europe.

Mr. Bremmer believes Mr. Trump's stab at the presidency will likely prove a high-water mark for his brand of politics: Mr. Trump's message appeals to older white Americans, a group that is a slowly shrinking part of the electorate; few younger Americans are receptive to Mr. Trump's ideas.

Demographics, Mr. Bremmer says, play a less obvious role in the nationalism flaring up across Europe, a continent long plagued by identity politics and quests for ethnic homogeneity.

"Anti-immigrant sentiment is not just a dog whistle [in Europe]. There's something very real there, and it's bound up in European nationalism, which has been a problem for a long time."

'So much anger against each other' Among the eclectic addresses that line Lincoln Road is the U.K. headquarters of Radio Star, which broadcasts Polish news and music aimed at the 550,000 Polish speakers who live in Britain.

The staff of Radio Star are an example of the EU at its best - young and multilingual, and believers in a Europe of free movement and free speech.

But the Brexit debate, and the growing possibility of a Leaveside win, have rattled Radio Star's broadcasters, who find themselves wondering if they'll soon need to be applying for work visas to stay in the U.K.

Inviting parents or friends to visit them in Peterborough would suddenly become more complicated after a Brexit, and the idea of living and working in the U.K. would be far less attractive.

Britain's debate is very much about Radio Star and its audience. But while Commonwealth citizens, including Canadians living in the U.K., can vote on Thursday, Poles and other EU citizens have no right to a ballot.

They'll be watching and waiting as the country effectively votes on whether they can keep living and working as they have been.

It creates an uncomfortable feeling. "We're the subjects of the conversation without being participants in the conversation," says Gosia Prochal, a 24-year-old host at the station. The narrative that Eastern European migrants are somehow to blame for all Little England's woes clearly annoys her. "We're outsiders.

People are talking about us like we're sitting here not working at all. We're a contributing part of British society, but we are voiceless."

Her boss, 34-year-old Radek Stawiarski - who also runs a recruiting agency that brings Polish workers to Peterborough - chuckles when asked what Peterborough would be like if all the immigrants from EU countries suddenly had to go home. "Everything would stop," he says.

As Ms. Prochal and Mr. Stawiarski chat about the referendum, and their concern over the anti-immigrant language used by UKIP and the Leave campaign, the conversation turns to politics in their home country. The Polish government declared in March, after bombers attacked the airport and metro system in Brussels, that it was no longer willing to accept refugees.

Mr. Stawiarski confesses he has no sympathy for the Muslims seeking asylum in Europe. "To be honest, I'm not really happy about all these Syrians," he says, sounding not unlike the Freedom Party supporters in Styria.

"We have a different culture from them."

Ms. Prochal recoils slightly.

"There's so much anger against each other, it's horrible," she says, speaking of both England and Poland. "People want to go backward."

Mark MacKinnon is The Globe and Mail's senior international correspondent, based in London.

@markmackinnon

Associated Graphic

U.S. presumptive Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump cozies up to Leave supporter Boris Johnson on a mural in Bristol, England.

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Police on horseback escort scores of migrants after they crossed from Croatia into Slovenia in October.

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British newspapers enter the fray (left) and the German newsmagazine Der Spiegel beseeches Britons: 'Please don't go!'

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Nigel Farage, leader of the anti-immigrant United Kingdom Independence Party, wants the country out of the European Union.

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Euroskeptic Virginia Raggi of the Five Star Movement in Italy.

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Norbert Hofer, leader of the right-wing Austrian Freedom Party.

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A visitor places a candle by a photo of slain Labour MP Jo Cox, who wanted Britain to remain in the EU.

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Chop Suey Nation
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From Victoria to Fogo Island and every province in between: Ann Hui drives across the country to uncover the immigrant origins - and vibrant present - of small-town Chinese-Canadian food
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By ANN HUI
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Wednesday, June 22, 2016 – Print Edition, Page L1


PART ONE OF TWO: Victoria to the Prairies A bout an hour-long ferry ride off the northeast coast of Newfoundland, where the frigid waters of the Atlantic Ocean crash onto a jutting granite shoreline, is the tiny island of Fogo - a place so remote that conspiracy theorists believe it to be one of the four corners of the Earth.

And in a small village on this island - where wooden houses and clapboard sheds dot the shore like Monopoly pieces - is Kwang Tung Restaurant, Fogo Island's very own Chinese café.

I first learned of Kwang Tung after stumbling across it in a food blog post titled "I can't believe there's a Chinese restaurant in Fogo." Like the author, I was bewildered. How did the restaurant wind up there? Why would someone decide to open a Chinese restaurant on Fogo Island? The post included a photo of a plate of food: a deep-fried egg roll, its blistered surface laid atop brown fried rice.

There was also a photo of the Kwang Tung menu, an inventory of Chinese-Canadian classics: sweet and sour won tons, moo goo guy pan and a long list of dishes dredged in batter, deep-fried and coated in sweet, sticky, vaguely spicy sauces.

"Chinese Canadian food," the writer proclaimed. "Good in that guilty pleasure kind of way."

This was "chop suey" cuisine, which is distinct from "authentic" Chinese food.

The name "chop suey" translates more or less into "assorted mix," and refers to a repertoire of dishes mostly developed in North America in the mid-20th century. A mix of ideas both East and West and, to my eyes, frozen in time.

For my family, and every other Chinese family I knew growing up in Vancouver, food was an obsession. I would listen as relatives argued about which dim sum restaurant's har gow wrapper was the thinnest, or whose xiao long bao the juiciest. Now living in Toronto, I've witnessed first-hand the rapid development of very diverse Chinese cuisines in this city, too.

I had assumed the small-town Chinese restaurant was a fading piece of the country's history, a relic of the past. But, at least on Fogo Island, that didn't seem to be the case. I wanted to know more.

"They are, in very much a weird way, a Canadian thing," said Lily Cho, a York University professor who has written a book on Chinese restaurants. Of course there are Chinese-American restaurants in the United States, but the story up here - from the way the restaurants spread across the country along with the railroad, to the invention of dishes like Alberta ginger beef and Thunder Bay Bon Bon ribs - is uniquely Canadian.

These restaurants serve many purposes, said Cho. They create jobs and opportunities for newcomers and they fill a void for the entire community, often providing services and infrastructure that don't otherwise exist. For a century and a half, they have been quintessential small-town Canadian institutions.

And, she said, they aren't disappearing. Newcomers are still arriving in Canada and still moving to small towns to open Chinese restaurants. Just about every town across the country, I learned, has its own Chinese restaurant - according to some estimates, more Chinese restaurants than all fast-food restaurants combined.

I had so many questions: Why would these restaurant owners take the gamble to leave everything behind for this new place?

Why open a Chinese restaurant, and why in a small town? And why does just about every Canadian town have its own Chinese restaurant? I was especially intrigued by Kwang Tung: Fogo Island was probably the most isolated place I could imagine - and one of the least diverse. I scoured the Internet for more information.

An image search revealed one last clue. A photographer from Montreal had visited the restaurant a few years ago, capturing an image of a faded white building. Above the door hung a Pepsi sign, with the restaurant's name etched in Charlie Chan-style lettering.

In front of the restaurant stood a woman with short black hair.

She looked to be in her 50s, dressed simply in a T-shirt, dark slacks and grey sneakers. Her lips curved upwards. According to the caption, her name was Huang Feng Zhu. She ran the restaurant seven days a week, by herself: "She lives upstairs so basically she never leaves."

I became determined to find Huang, to understand how she ended up running a Chinese restaurant on Fogo Island. I wanted to know how she wound up there alone. So I set out a plan: to drive across the country, visiting as many small-town Chinese restaurants as possible. I'd start on the West Coast, where the earliest wave of Chinese settlers began arriving in 1858. From there, I would make my way east across a 21/2-week period, roughly tracing the path of the railway.

The last stop would be Fogo Island, where I hoped to visit Huang at the mysterious Kwang Tung Restaurant.

Guests of Gold Mountain The first Chinese workers arrived on Vancouver Island in the mid-19th century. As they stepped off their ships from their long journey, Victoria was their first glimpse of this new country and their first step in their search for gold. A few decades later, between 1881 and 1885, thousands more would land here, for the promise of $1 a day, working to build the railway.

An entire infrastructure sprang up around these men, creating Canada's first Chinatown along a four-block stretch of the city's downtown. Some of them opened cafés and shops where labourers could stock up on supplies, have a meal or spend the night before the final leg of their journey to the Cariboo in search of gold, or to find back-breaking work on the railway that would eventually unify this country.

On a grey, rainy morning in mid-March, I flew from Toronto to Victoria, picked up a tiny rental car and drove straight toward this Chinatown. But if I had hoped to gain insight into the experiences of early settlers, I was out of luck. Chinatown's labyrinth of brick buildings and narrow alleyways - once crowded with tenements and brothels - is now the site of coffee shops and office space for tech startups.

By the mid-20th century, many of the city's Chinese had moved to Vancouver and across the country, essentially leaving Victoria as a museum, a Chinatown for tourists with street fixtures decorated in red and gold dragons. Only a few hints of the original Chinese remain, like the Chinese public school that was built in 1909 after locals complained that the Chinese children enrolled in regular public schools didn't belong.

On the second day of my trip, in Vancouver, I sat with history professor Henry Yu in a cafeteria on the lush green University of British Columbia campus. "Nobody goes halfway around the world on a whim," he said. He explained that before anything else, I'd first have to understand Gold Mountain.

Gum san, or Gold Mountain, was the nickname the first Chinese workers - the gold-rushseekers and the railway builders - gave to this place. Up until the mid-20th century almost all of Canada's Chinese immigrants came from the southern Guangdong province, an area clustered around the Pearl River delta and prone to floods, earthquakes and drought. The vast majority came from the same four povertystricken counties: Toisan, Hoyping, Yinping and Sunwui.

What these early settlers had in common was a wealthy relative who had gone abroad. Known as the "guests of Gold Mountain," these first adventurers had returned to China with unthinkable luxuries, like Singer sewing machines. They built houses for their families and schools where their children could study.

Their younger relatives all heard the same story: that if they left behind their lives in China for Gold Mountain, they, too, could bring back riches. The young men watched their heroes with stars in their eyes, said Yu.

"They thought to themselves: 'I want to be that guy. Wherever he went, I want to go."

What many people still don't understand, Yu said, is that Gold Mountain wasn't simply a place.

The Chinese called the mountains surrounding the Fraser Valley Gold Mountain. But they also called the golden wheat fields of the Prairies and the lush green forests of Northern Ontario Gold Mountain. The United States was Gold Mountain, too. So was Australia.

To them, Gold Mountain was the whole idea - a life cycle where young men from poor families could go abroad and strike it rich enough to change their family's destiny. But that required an initial cash investment, which was generally borrowed from a relative who had already made it in Gold Mountain.

The loan would normally take a few years to pay off, especially because of anti-Chinese laws that prevented these early immigrants from working in all but a few businesses: laundries, convenience stores or restaurants.

Early cafés were Chinese only by virtue of their owners - the menus generally listed Western dishes, like hot turkey sandwiches and fried veal cutlets.

Once the loans were paid off, these men were free to set up their own business. To avoid competition, they would often start it in the next town or railway stop over. Slowly and gradually, these restaurants multiplied, appearing first in major cities, and then spreading outward, like spiderwebs. Anywhere the railway stopped - through the Rockies, the Prairies, out east - the restaurants would also travel, until they were all across the country.

As I drove around Vancouver, I saw few signs of the original Chinese cafés. Chinese food in the city today reflects the many waves of immigrants that have come since. My own parents moved from Hong Kong and Guangdong to Canada in the 1970s. They weren't alone. After Canada liberalized its immigration policy in the late 1960s, massive numbers of Hong Kongers and Taiwanese came to Vancouver, among them highly skilled, mostly Cantonese-trained chefs.

Recently, the Chinese food has gotten even better. Newcomers from all over mainland China have brought with them wealth - as evidenced by gilded seafood restaurants serving $100-a-plate fried rice - and a rich diversity of regional cuisines. Driving past Richmond, the Vancouver suburb where many recent immigrants have settled, I passed crowded strip malls selling everything from mala Sichuanese, Shanghai crab dumplings, to fragrant Hainanese chicken rice.

I wondered what this dizzying mix had in common with Huang, her fried egg rolls and her little restaurant in Fogo. At every step, I was putting together more pieces of her puzzle. The name of her restaurant, Kwang Tung, was just another way to spell Guangdong.

Canton, Kwang Tung, Guangdong - they all refer to the same southern province from where the Gold Mountain men had originally come. It was likely, I thought, that Huang had already been here for some time.

I remembered Yu's last words before he dashed off. "What connects it all is family," he said. Chinese newcomers rarely still refer to this place as Gold Mountain, he said. But their motivation for coming here - and for immigrants from all over the world since - is often still the same: a promise of a better future for the next generation.

"The restaurants are just the vehicles. It's all about the families."

The community living room The next leg of my trip was the long drive out of Vancouver and into Alberta. For days, the mountains had gawked down at me, like giants at a parade. Now, as I inched further east, the mountains gave way to massive plains and wide, open road. The sky felt bigger. Bluer.

This was where, in the latter half of the 19th century, the Canadian government offered cheap and free land to European, American and eastern Canadian settlers, in an attempt to encourage mass settlement: Promising a better life to those willing to take on a rugged space with harsh climates and long, lonely winters. As I drove, I wondered about these settlers and what they had in common with Huang. I wondered what feelings they all shared about leaving behind their homes to come to this new, hostile place. Was it desperation? Ambition? Hope?

In the Prairies, I would find all three.

About a 40-minute drive west of Edmonton, beyond the industrial sprawl of the city and amid long stretches of farmland, is the 15,000-person town of Stony Plain, Alta. On most weekends, you can find William Choy cooking in the kitchen at Bing's #1 Restaurant.

It shouldn't be unusual that Choy works in the kitchen. After all, the mild-mannered, bespectacled 42-year-old owns the restaurant and grew up in it, too. As a child, he watched as his grandfather Bing Choy, who opened the place in 1970, worked in the same crowded kitchen. And by the time his own father Fon Choy took over, Choy himself was old enough to help out - wiping down the red formica tables, topping up cups with coffee, and whatever else needed doing.

But what makes it unusual is Choy's part-time job: He's also the mayor of the town.

Like most of the Gold Mountain men, Bing Choy left his wife and children behind when he came to Canada in the mid-1960s. That's in part because it was cheaper for the families to stay in China, but also because of restrictions on immigration. To protect jobs for non-Chinese Canadians, the government imposed a head tax in the late 19th century on Chinese entering the country. This was followed in 1923 by the Chinese Immigration Act, which closed off Chinese immigration almost entirely until 1947.

This legalized discrimination set the tone for anti-Chinese sentiments across the country - including in cities like Vancouver and Toronto, where Chinese restaurant owners were subject to police harassment, as well as violence and vandalism. It wasn't until 1967 that Chinese were allowed to enter this country based on the same criteria as others. The rest of the Choy family came over in 1980, including six-year-old William, the future mayor.

Many of his childhood memories revolve around the restaurant. He raced home from school at midday to help out with the lunch rush, and did his homework in the basement storage room. "Free time" on weekends was spent helping out at the restaurant, too. It was only natural, then, that after graduating university with a teaching degree in an economic downturn, he returned to the restaurant. In 1997, he officially took over, though his parents continue to help out.

Choy calls Bing's the "community living room" and driving from town to town showed that it's not alone in serving this purpose. In Vulcan, Alta. - an 1,800person town decked out in Star Trek paraphernalia - Lin Qin's restaurant, Amy's, is where seniors' groups gather for lunch.

And in Grenfell, Sask., Moon's Cafe is owned by 46-year-old recent immigrant Moon Wei who, like Huang in Fogo, runs the restaurant alone. Moon's is where elderly men spend their afternoons, nursing cups of coffee while leafing through newspapers.

A few years ago, Linda Tzang, a curator at the Royal Alberta Museum, put together an exhibition on how small-town Chinese restaurants have historically served as Canada's mail-sorting facilities, child-care centres and even fire stations. "It was just whatever they could do to keep their businesses afloat," she said. She even came across one Alberta town where the restaurant was so crucial to the community that when the owners retired, locals recruited a new family from China to take over.

Many of Canada's small-town Chinese restaurant owners spoke to me about loneliness, and feeling alienated. But for the Choy family, living in a small town made things easier, he said. Regulars would offer English lessons and other help to his parents.

They'd point to their coffee cups as they were drinking, mouthing slowly the words: "Coffee. Cup."

"You're not lost in the whole mass of things," Choy said.

"They're more willing to give a hand." Choy and his siblings now all have houses and families of their own. "I'm the mayor of the community we grew up in," says Choy. "Things like that couldn't happen in China, right?" Since Choy was first elected in 2012, he has worked both jobs, running back and forth, often pulling off a grease-splattered apron midday to attend a town meeting. "This is my business, where we came from," Choy told me in his kitchen, as he fried a large platter of rice. He covered his wok with a lid, then shuffled out to the dining room. Hanging on the back wall were four blackand-white photographs: pictures of the Guangdong village where Choy was born.

Behind him in the kitchen, his mother Jean beamed. I asked if this is what she had imagined for her son.

"No," the 65-year-old said in the Toisan dialect. Running for mayor was entirely his idea - entirely outside of her comprehension, and the life she knew growing up in a village in Guangdong. "How could I even have imagined it?" Ms. Choy said, grinning her gap-toothed grin. "How could I have imagined it?" .

Chop suey in the age of oil shock It's not just the Chinese who came looking for Gold Mountain.

It's a journey many continue to make today.

The past few decades have seen tens of thousands of young men and women - many of them immigrants from Somalia, Jamaica and the Middle East - flock to the Prairie oil sands seeking black gold. Using pumps and shovels to extract the liquid from deep beneath the earth, they hope to fund their own version of a better life, their own Gold Mountain.

But just as gold in the Cariboo didn't last, fortunes here have also changed. As common as the sight of oil rigs and cattle ranches along the highway, was the sight of pickup trucks carrying mattresses and furniture, entire lives, as young men head east and out of the prairies.

As I walked into the empty dining room of Thai Woks N'go in Glendon, Alta., a Buddha-faced boy lay napping in a sunny spot across two dining chairs. At the sound of the door opening, he leaped up, eyes wide. "Customer!" he shouted.

Lan Huynh, the boy's mother, said her restaurant used to be busy. Local oil workers were making $60 an hour (to her, an unimaginable sum) and a steady stream of customers would come in, ordering the "Chinese pierogis." Glendon has a large Ukranian population, and a sculpture across the street from the restaurant is labelled the "world's largest pierogi" - Lan serves a Chinese version, similar to regular Chinese dumplings, stuffed with meat and vegetables and deep-fried until crispy. She also serves Ukrainian ones, light and fluffy, with fried sausage, onions and sour cream.

Now many workers have been laid off. The restaurant depends on the 480 people who live here year-round, most of them also feeling the oil shock.

Even with business slowing down, Lan isn't convinced moving is the solution. She believes, as do many others I spoke with, that small towns are better places for raising children. Plus, she said, the restaurant industry in cities like Edmonton is too competitive and the cost of living too high.

In Drumheller, Alta., Peter Li told me that business has dropped by about 30 per cent at Diana, his restaurant with redvinyl booths and decorated with dragons hanging from the ceiling. In the same period, food costs have risen. "A case of broccoli is $90," he says. "Before, it was $30."

One of the most popular items at Diana is uniquely Chinese-Canadian: Ginger beef. The dish, first created in Calgary in the 1970s, was a loose interpretation of a northern Chinese beef dish with tangerine and chilis, but sweetened and mellowed to suit Western palates. Despite its name, it has almost no ginger in it. "The Alberta palate was so behind that they didn't recognize sweet chili sauce," explained Tzang, the museum curator.

"They started asking for beef with 'that ginger stuff.' " Li is a trained chef who has worked in some of the biggest restaurants around Beijing, but when he first arrived in Drumheller he had to learn a new repertoire of chop-suey dishes: "Egg foo young," and "lemon chicken." Compared to the food Li trained to cook - delicate Cantonese dishes, or the fiery spice mix of mapo tofu - this food is much simpler to make. "For me, it's very easy," he said. He's tried a few times to cook here the way he'd cooked back home, but "the people here didn't really like it."

Sitting at the front counter was a jar of Lao Gan Ma chili oil - often referred to as "angry lady sauce," owing to the stern expression of the woman on the label. Li looked longingly at the jar of sauce, made of dried red chilis and numbing peppercorns steeped in oil. Here, it was just for display.

Li has just returned from a trip back to China, where many of his former colleagues have been promoted to prestigious kitchens.

He sighed. "Before, I think Canada is pretty good, right? But it's hard to make money here," he said.

Alberta isn't the only province that's struggled from oil shock, and economic downturn. So too, has Newfoundland - where I was headed in search of Huang. Like the men in their pickup trucks, why hadn't Huang driven to another town, to the possibility of an easier life?

Part two of this story can be found at tgam.ca/chopsuey.

Associated Graphic

This photo of the Kwang Tung Restaurant in Fogo Island, Nfld. inspired the writer's journey.

COURTESY RICHMOND LAM

Chinese immigrants have been restaurateurs in Canada since 1858. Ann Hui visited these spots on her trip: From left, Bing's #1 Restaurant in Stony Plain, Alta., Panda Garden in Bonnyville, Atla., and Thai Woks N'go in Glendon, Alta.

PHOTOS BY ANN HUI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

THE GOOD DIVORCE
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Divorce doulas, seamless co-parenting, even time-sharing the family home - these are the hallmarks of the amicable divorce and, as Zosia Bielski reports, they're gaining ground and radically changing the way we live apart
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By ZOSIA BIELSKI
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page L1


Max Quijano was over at his ex-wife's house in Toronto the other day doing laundry for their two children. While he was at it, he did his ex-wife's laundry, too. A friend of his called to ask what Quijano was up to. When he found out he was aghast.

"Yes, I do her laundry but she does amazing things for me, too," Quijano, a 45-year-old computer security analyst, said of his exwife Kristin Taylor, a 39-year-old manager. "It's both ways."

The exes had an enviably amicable divorce. They separated in 2008 after five years of marriage: The fighting (plus having little in common) was making them profoundly unhappy. Taylor resisted the split initially, clinging to "some imaginary perfect life." A stint in therapy helped her understand they'd survive a divorce: "He's a good dad. I'm a good mom. We make a terrible couple."

Quijano moved out but returned to the family home every morning to see his son and daughter off to daycare, picking them up in the afternoons. Four years later, Quijano was missing his kids badly and battling severe depression after losing a job. And so his ex-wife generously invited him to move back in for a while, into their son's room. The divorcees lived like this for three years before Quijano moved out, but only 150 metres away. "It's like it's the same house, just separated by a few blocks," he says.

For the Toronto exes, the guiding principles were to put their kids first and not forget what it was that brought them together in the first place. "From the very beginning since we met and got married, we just always agreed on being good people, regardless of anything," said Quijano, who, incidentally, invited his ex-wife and ex-in-laws to his wedding when he remarried last summer.

The exes are two in a legion re-envisioning divorce in hopes of splitting with dignity.

These husbands and wives want what's best for their kids, which is family, and they want to salvage their own sanity. Many are doing things differently because they saw the carnage of their parents' divorces, with mom and dad not speaking or badmouthing each other in front of the kids. There are good reasons why some divorces go very badly: chronic infidelity, abuse, mental illness and addiction can make separating traumatic. But for others parting under less extenuating circumstances, divorce can be an awakening: Some people find they are better ex-spouses than they were spouses.

Some 41 per cent of marriages will dissolve before the 30th anniversary, according to Statistics Canada data from 2008, the last year the agency collected divorce information. Even as Canadians live longer and struggle to maintain long-term monogamous unions, many have been rethinking how they want to end those unions.

The advent of no-fault divorce in this country in 1968 brought the first pivotal shift: Canadians could divorce simply for falling out of love following a separation period; no longer was cruelty or adultery - polarizing good-guy/ bad-guy scenarios - the prerequisite for splitting up. Shared parenting also became the norm, with fathers increasingly involved in raising kids after a divorce.

Today, many of these exes are actively trying to drop the antagonistic timbre of separation.

They're choosing collaborative divorce and hiring mediators to avoid adversarial litigation and high court costs. They're seeking out specialized therapists, divorce coaches and "divorce doulas" to calm the waters. Technology is also stepping in, with websites such as Positive Co-Parenting After Divorce and apps such as 2Houses and OurFamilyWizard helping exes parent more seamlessly with forums, resources, shared calendars and contacts lists.

These are some of the cultural shifts surveyed in U.S. journalist Wendy Paris's new book Splitopia: Dispatches from Today's Good Divorce and How to Part Well.

Through a rigorous review of the existing research literature on divorce, plus interviews with more than 200 exes, as well as lawyers, therapists and coaches, Paris offers a new mindset around separation. She examines why divorce has remained so shrouded in ignorance, why we fear bad splits but fail to recognize bad marriages, and why "horror stories suck up the airtime," even as many couples are taking a more civilized way forward - leaving the old-style, coldturkey divorce behind. She believes the good divorce will eventually become the norm.

"People are going to partner up and hope it lasts forever. Those relationships are going to continually break up. The law and research is pushing us toward shared parenting. This is a shift in doctrine that forces people to remain involved with each other.

It has to go this way," the author said in an interview from Los Angeles.

Paris and her husband separated in 2012 after six years of marriage. Soon, she found that her ex's flat emotional affect - a trait that had so irked her in their marriage - was no longer getting to her: He wasn't her husband any more. As it turns out, his cool rationality came in handy as they co-parented their son. Slowly, Paris's expectations lowered: "Whose ex-husband takes out the trash?!" she boasts in the book (her ex would also move her car on street-cleaning days to spare her a parking ticket).

Unlike their marriage, the exspouses' vision for their separation was a unified one. They would share their old friends and attend the same parties but also made a pact to avoid conversations about dating. Living three blocks apart for the sake of their son, they continued with their family tradition of Sunday dinners and beach walks for the boy's benefit. "I'd married the ideal ex-husband," Paris writes.

She found many exes who, too, were overhauling conventional arrangements after divorce. Paris traces the rise of bird nesting, where parents rotate in and out of a matrimonial home while children stay put. Others choose to live a few blocks away, directly next door or even temporarily on different floors of one family home, so kids get a softer landing and nobody is relegated to "weekend parent" status. These families will often vacation together, share major holidays and maintain old weekend rituals.

"Divorce isn't any more rigid an institution than marriage," observes Paris in Splitopia. "Divorce is an entirely new relationship.

Your old interactions do not have to carry over like frequent-flier miles from your former flights.

You can change the terms."

So how do you change the terms? What is the roadmap from fiery rage to a reasonably calm divorce?

Lisa MacMartin, a couples and family therapist with Montreal's Argyle Institute, says an unwillingness to grieve is at the centre of most nasty splits. Many exes are reluctant to really dig in and acknowledge the loss, meaning they can't let it go. "We humans try very hard not to feel sad and we'll do anything to avoid that," MacMartin said. "That's at the core of a lot of conflictual divorces: They're avoiding really painful feelings. It's much easier to be angry."

Paris agrees, adding that "emotional regulation" lies at the heart of most good divorces: getting those hot feelings of anger, insecurity and unfairness under control. Instead of dumping every emotional ripple on your ex, take responsibility for how you feel.

Drop the old marital expectations, build some healthy distance and "re-volumize" your own life, Paris advises. The endpoint of these divorces, she says, isn't cozy chuminess with your ex but "benign disinterest."

Rebecca Lander describes it as "being your best professional self." Three years after divorcing, the Toronto gift-store owner is on good terms with her ex-husband, who lives 10 minutes away.

"I carry no anger or disappointment," says Lander, 42. "You can spend time together and enjoy the children and each other's company without being disappointed in how that person behaves or doesn't behave because of your set expectations of them as a husband or as a wife."

With their daughter, 7, and son, 11, the exes celebrate birthdays and Jewish holidays and keep family traditions such as apple picking alive. "We take part in the joy of our children. It's not really about us at that point," she says.

Good vibes were fairly easy to cultivate because the two hadn't faced undue hardship in their marriage. "We had a fell-out-oflove-and-decided-to-move-on situation," Lander said. "We both had the same mindset from the get-go, which is that we were going to do this with as much kindness to each other as possible, and that if we did it that way then we would impart some really critical gifts to our kids along the way."

Still, for all its benefits, the good divorce is a tall order. For exes who are separating under more trying circumstances, hearing about civil divorces such as these can make people feel even crappier about their own less-thanrosy splits.

"The bar is set high," says Marni Sky, co-founder of Divorce Angels, a new Canadian website that connects people with divorce coaches, lawyers, therapists and others going through marital strife.

Sky says she's had exes reach out to her who feel pressure to "do amicable." It seems a year is now the sought-after time frame to have the kids readjusted, and bounce back yourself. "They want to get to the other side with as little pain as possible, move on and get another date," says Sky, warning, "It might take you longer than that and it's okay."

It hasn't helped that celebrities promptly co-opted the good divorce. Gwyneth Paltrow popularized "conscious uncoupling" after separating from Coldplay singer Chris Martin in 2014. The actress, who peddles aspirational living with her much-maligned website, Goop, was seen by many to be putting more pressure on mere mortals to do their lives better (not only do you have to raise beautiful, oversubscribed children while subsisting on moondust smoothies, you have to be friends with your ex now, too).

Other celebs soon joined the friendly fray: After Ben Affleck's split from Jennifer Garner, we heard about the actors bedding down in adjoining rooms in the family's Pacific Palisades mansion, before Affleck moved into his own mansion next door this past spring. More recently, court documents revealed that Mad Men's Anne Dudek was pushing for a bird-nesting arrangement in which she and her ex would rotate through the family home every three days, this to give their two young children stability ("NEW AGE CUSTODY PLAN," screamed the TMZ headline).

Even the Kardashians have gotten on board: "I believe in caring for my partner - past or present - in sickness and in health," Khloe Kardashian wrote about her separation from former Los Angeles Lakers forward Lamar Odom in Lenny Letter, Lena Dunham's e-mail newsletter for women.

Although Paris has gotten flak that the good divorce is a utopian idea reserved for celebrities and those with highly angelic exes, she doesn't buy it: More couples are more open-minded than we might assume, she said, recalling a truck driver who called into a radio show she was hosting to discuss his amicable splits from two ex-wives. "I resist the idea of, 'You can do this because your husband is reasonable,' or 'Gwyneth Paltrow can do this because she has money.' I just do not see this as a class thing or an education thing or a financial thing," she said.

That said, whether you are Hollywood royalty or the average Joe, good divorces don't come without their own set of challenges. The logistics of sharing a home or bird nesting with an ex can be daunting. How do you divvy up the space? What happens with cleaning, groceries or during vacations and dates? With such unconventional living setups, rules "are not legally enforceable, so it all has to be an honour system," says Micheline Maes, a senior negotiator at Calgary's Fairway Divorce Solutions, which specializes in mediation.

Maes will often draw up "lifestyle agreements" to avoid potential conflict or misunderstanding.

A more complicated issue is codependence: If you remain too close to an ex, do you really move on emotionally? Paris hears this criticism a lot. Her retort? "It's funny, because couples who hate each other after divorce aren't moving on emotionally either." Still, the author acknowledges the downsides of remaining too enmeshed with a good ex: "You don't have someone to sleep with and you don't have a residential partner but you're also not mentally clear enough to meet someone new."

Then there is the very real risk of reconciliation. Paris's experts estimate that one-third of people who divorce continue having sex.

When this happens, the good divorce suddenly morphs into a "marriage sabbatical," even though ex-sex often only fans the flames of acrimony again.

Experts agree that the toughest challenge in "splitopias" is when a new girlfriend or boyfriend parachutes in. "Everyone's getting along great, the kids seem to be okay because you seem to be focused on them and then all of a sudden one partner gets a new partner. Everything breaks loose at that point," Divorce Angels's Sky says. This is why she's heard another term floating around for these good divorces: the honeymoon phase, before reality sets in.

Paris admits she struggles with this one herself; her ex found someone new fairly quickly after the split while she did not.

Nevertheless, she stresses, "I would rather a little discomfort or the occasional zing and have my son feel that he has two parents who really care about each other - that he has a family."

Even here though, critics worry that chummy exes may be setting up false hopes for their children, who may assume their parents are getting back together.

It seems good exes have heard it all from the adults in their lives, adults who remain skeptical that divorce can ever be an opportunity and not just a crisis.

"It's always been complicated," Max Quijano says about family and friends who have been wary of the super-friendly dynamics between him and his ex-wife. A few months ago an acquaintance of Quijano's blurted out that it was "a time bomb." And when Quijano wed his high-school sweetheart in Colombia last year and invited his ex-wife and her parents along, "the Colombians thought we were nuts," Taylor recalls. "People are like, 'What are you crazy people doing?' But most who are mature just give us credit for putting the kids first.

It's all one big, weird, wacky family."

To avoid upsetting their children - a son who is now 9 and a daughter, 11 - the pair was direct.

"We've been extremely clear that we are not a couple," Quijano says. "We are their parents and we love them [but] we date other people and have other lives. We have different futures, together."

Lander has fended off similar concerns from her own friends.

"Sometimes there's still shock, as if they're waiting for the ball to drop, that we might falter in this direction. My friends were also worried that the kids might be confused. But they don't live in our homes and know the conversations that we have with our kids. Everyone's got a stereotypical view of how families should separate. We don't subscribe to it at all."

When Lander posts family photos on social media, she now uses the hashtag #DivorceParadigmShift.

"There can be other ways to do this that are more meaningful for the children and less harmful for the adults," she says. "I don't have any fear that I'm doing it wrong. I feel that we're doing it the best that we know."

Follow me on Twitter: @ZosiaBielski

A CANADIAN SNAPSHOT

70,226 Number of Canadians divorced in one year.

41.9 Average age women divorce.

44.5 Average age men divorce.

43 Percentage of marriages that will dissolve before the 50th anniversary.

13.7 Average number of years of marriage before divorce.

8.2 Divorces in Nunavut, per 10,000 people, the lowest rate in Canada.

32.6 Divorces in Yukon, per 10,000 people, the highest rate in Canada.

Source: Statistics Canada, 2008

Associated Graphic

Kristin Taylor and her ex-husband Max Quijano spend a lot of evenings together at a Toronto park with their children Kalden, 9, and India, 11.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

OLIN YOUNG-WOLFF/INVISION/AP

Top: Gwyneth Paltrow and then-husband Chris Martin attend an event in Beverly Hills, Calif., in January, 2014. Left: Ben Affleck and Jennifer Garner arrive at an Oscars party in West Hollywood, Calif., in March, 2014. Above: Wendy Paris's Splitopia: Dispatches from Today's Good Divorce and How to Part Well offers a new mindset around separation.

CHRIS PIZZELLO/AP

Although some family and friends have been skeptical of the friendly dynamics between Kristin Taylor her ex-husband Max Quijano, Quijano maintains that most give them credit for putting their children first. 'It's all one big, weird, wacky family,' Quijano says.

CHRISTOPHER KATSARO FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The wizard of Ozzie Ice
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Auston Matthews has followed a road not travelled - from the Sun Belt, to skipping elite development programs and major junior and U.S. college hockey - to likely first overall pick, superstardom and even the role as presumed saviour of the lowly Maple Leafs
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By JAMES MIRTLE
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S11


It's an origin story that makes little sense. An 18-year-old kid from Scottsdale, Ariz. - a place known for its cacti, golf courses and desert nightlife - is the best prospect in hockey and the projected saviour of the Toronto Maple Leafs.

But to fully understand how Auston Matthews got to where he is, you need to know that when he was a boy, he spent thousands of hours on tiny rinks - not much larger than an end zone - fighting off two or three other kids, stickhandling in and around masses of skates and sticks to score a half-dozen goals every game.

You need to learn about his skating coach, an eccentric Ukrainian named Boris who made players leap, pirouette and balance on their heels for so long they sometimes couldn't walk the next day.

You have to recognize Matthews as one-of-a-kind.

That the next star of one of the NHL's historic franchises will probably come from the U.S. Sun Belt has made headlines ever since the Leafs won the draft lottery in April to get the top pick. A No. 1 has never come from a warm-weather city.

But what makes Matthews's story exceptional is that growing up in a city with few rinks and little hockey history never held him back. He took a road never travelled, learning the game in creative, new ways. And it paid off.

"It's a pretty amazing story," said Mike DeAngelis, director of hockey for Arizona's Junior Coyotes program. "How does a kid become that good, the best teenager in the world, and ready to step into the NHL, coming out of that type of development schedule? The word outlier comes to mind."

The beginning It started at Ozzie Ice.

Built by wealthy oil-pipeline entrepreneur Dwayne Osadchuk, Ozzie Ice was created to showcase a type of cutting-edge synthetic ice that he had patented.

The facility had two small rinks - one synthetic and one real ice - with regulation nets and boards.

Auston Matthews was its best customer.

"Auston would just be hanging around, waiting for a team to be short players so he could play," said Sean Whyte, a retired Los Angeles Kings player who ran the facility. "He had every colour of Ozzie Ice jersey we had. He had 10 or 12. As soon as teams said, 'We need somebody!' he'd be looking at me."

Matthews played with everyone. Kids his age. Kids far older - he could rack up five or six goals a game as a 10-year-old against bantams (13-14 years old). Every game was 3-on-3, which meant more time with the puck. The smaller rink meant more time in close quarters and a need to find a way through a tight spot.

He loved it.

It helped that the family lived a 10-minute drive away. While other parents were skeptical of the small sheets (which eventually both had real ice when the synthetic version didn't catch on) Auston's father wasn't.

Brian Matthews grew up in Scottsdale playing competitive baseball, a pitcher at a top junior college. He blew out his shoulder early on, but he knew how important development is.

What he didn't know was the typical development path for NHL prospects. He saw other parents in Arizona paying more than $20,000 a year for their kids to travel across the country on AAA teams at nine and 10 years old and he figured that there had to be a better way.

Or, at the very least, a more affordable one.

Having his son play on the smaller sheet, for hours on end against all kinds of competition, made sense to the new hockey dad. He thought that it was similar to how so many soccer greats started in the slums and gyms of Brazil with their own makeshift games of futsal, the 5-on-5 version of soccer.

"The score was always like 4542 or 31-30," Brian Matthews said of Ozzie Ice. "You couldn't go anywhere on the ice where someone wasn't within 20 feet of you.

You had to learn how to use your hands, how to think ahead, where the puck was going to go, who was coming, how to turn, how to get away from traffic, create space - all of that stuff - in such a small little window of ice.

A lot of kids here developed a lot of really good skills there. They were forced to."

"People thought it was a joke," Whyte said. "They said, 'How do you teach kids hockey without going the full length of the ice?

This is ridiculous.' "Then Auston Matthews began showing up at tournaments as a fill-in player and filling the net.

Ozzie Ice started to catch on with parents desperate to find ice time in the desert.

The facility shut down years ago, but Whyte believes that some of the magic Matthews displays on the ice today came from those thousands of 3-on-3 games.

"He learned how to stickhandle in a phone booth, then all of a sudden he was put out in a full sheet of ice," he explained.

"You've just got that much more time to react and execute."

Matthews's coaches can see that influence too.

"His puckhandling skills are off the charts," said former NHL coach Marc Crawford, who coached Matthews last season in Switzerland's top pro league. "I'm always amazed at the things he can do. And it really translates in a game. His short-area game is at an NHL level for sure - and it's at an NHL elite level. I believe that's a lot of what the game is becoming. Those little plays that you make when you're getting checked. People are pinching up so much more now and there's so much confrontation at the bluelines that you've got to be able to make plays in that fivefoot area. You've got to be able to protect the puck and get by people. He does those things exceptionally well."

Meet Boris When Matthews wasn't playing 3-on-3, he was with Boris.

When the Soviet Union was collapsing in the early 1990s, Boris Dorozhenko fled Ukraine in search of a place where he could teach power skating and hockey skills. He wound up in Mexico, where he was tasked with helping build a nascent national program.

In the summer of 2005, while running a skating camp in Arizona, he met Brian Matthews, who had enrolled his seven-year-old son.

Dorozhenko spoke almost no English, but he became fast friends with the good-natured hockey dad, who was fluent in Spanish thanks to his wife, Ema.

Within a year, the quirky coach had left Mexico and moved into the family's home after taking a job with an elite local team run by former NHLer Claude Lemieux.

Dorozhenko's methods were unheard of. To the uninitiated, the Boris brand of power skating appeared to consist of players running in their skates and stomping on the ice, sometimes while spinning in circles. He describes it as a focus on edge control, aimed at teaching elite players to balance and manoeuvre under duress.

Arena operators hated the large holes it left in the ice.

"Boris is completely different than anything you have ever seen with power skating," DeAngelis said. "To be honest with you, it hasn't really grabbed on.

Some of the parents don't really know if that's the way you should be teaching power skating. But I've got my kid working with him."

"Brian found something offthe-beaten path, investigated it and brought Auston to it," Whyte said. "He wasn't born and raised in hockey so he was a little more open-minded. He said to me, 'You've got to watch this guy; he does some really funky stuff.' " Auston became Dorozhenko's most diligent student, someone who never said no to any drill - no matter how bizarre. He travelled around the world with him to various camps. He even played for Ukrainian teams, through some of the coach's old-world connections.

"People will say, 'Wow, this kid is coming from Arizona - this is just a miracle,' " Dorozhenko said. "But he was an absolutely normal kid. Athletic. Co-ordinated. He always had a little bit better hands and could surprise everybody with a little bit of puckhandling. But every year his talent was increasing by hard work. He put in very hard work to increase his talent."

"The kid's just got tremendous drive," Crawford added.

Meet the Matthews Many believe that determination came from his parents.

Brian Matthews met his wife in college while working for an airline in Los Angeles. He didn't want the assignment that day - a Mexican airline needed a hand with something - but then the plane door opened and there she was.

"She spoke no English," Brian Matthews said of his wife, who grew up in a family of nine on a ranch in Hermosilla, Mexico, before becoming a flight attendant. "I spoke no Spanish. I got fluent in about six months."

The Matthews have three children: Auston - or "Papi," as everyone calls him - is the precocious middle child wedged between sisters Alexandria and Breyana. They live not far from TPC Scottsdale, the long-time home of the PGA's Phoenix Open, and Breyana is one of the top 14-year-old golfers in the state.

For years, Brian Matthews tried to keep his son interested in baseball, his sporting love. But after attending a Phoenix Coyotes game as a toddler, Auston fell for a different sport - one that was completely foreign to his family.

"He couldn't stand waiting around," Brian Matthews said of Auston's short-lived baseball career. "If he could bat every two minutes, he would have been in high heaven."

On the ice, Auston Matthews realized that he would have a scoring chance every two minutes. He enjoyed the constant action and quickly earned a reputation as a frequent, deadly shooter. (Crawford predicts that he will lead all NHL rookies in shots on goal next season, comparing his release to that of Hall of Famer Joe Sakic.)

When it became clear that his son was smitten, Brian Matthews tried to pick up as much as he could about hockey. He started taking skating lessons in his late 30s, learning how to stop and turn. "He was so into mastering all of these skills," Whyte said, "because it would help him with his son. I loved teaching him."

However, the financial burden of raising a hockey player in Arizona was a constant. Matthews has a good job - as the chief technology officer with a manufacturing firm - but because ice time is expensive in Arizona, there were sacrifices.

At one point, Ema Matthews worked two jobs - at Starbucks and as a waitress at a high-end restaurant - to help pay for Auston's hockey.

There were two years where he didn't join a travel team and instead skated with Boris or on his own. Explaining to him that he couldn't play the game he loved, the way his friends were, wasn't always easy.

"It was difficult," Brian Matthews said of making the costs work. "... There were times where it was like, 'How are we going to do this?' But you find a way. Our son had a passion and one way or another we found a way to get things done."

An incredible rise Everyone in Arizona's tiny hockey community always knew Auston Matthews had talent. But because he bounced from team to team, and wasn't always in the high-profile programs, few had him pegged as a potential NHL star.

That began to change when he turned 15. Matthews exploded for 55 goals and 100 points in 48 games with the AAA Arizona Bobcats, gaining the attention of the U.S. National Team Development Program in Ann Arbour, Mich.

Coach Don Granato invited him for a tryout that summer and realized Matthews's potential right away. He became the first player from Arizona to join the program.

A few months later, Granato felt compelled to call Brian Matthews. To warn him.

"Brian, I've never done this before, but I'm going to give you a heads-up here," the coach said.

"I've been around hockey a long, long time, and you've got to start preparing for your life to be pretty chaotic."

"What are you talking about?" the alarmed father asked.

Auston Matthews had blown expectations away. Being on the ice every day against elite competition had kindled his competitive nature, and he was getting better and better.

At 16, Matthews played with the under-18 team and produced nearly a point a game. He was doing things with the puck Granato hadn't seen from a player that young. The veteran coach began to believe he had one of the best American players - ever - under his watch.

"Every time Auston touched the puck, the entire bench stood up and leaned over the boards to watch," Granato said. "He has uncanny ability."

The top U.S. college programs began lining up, hoping they could get Matthews to commit.

The WHL's Everett Silvertips, who had drafted him, were pressing for him to play his draft year there.

Matthews once again took a path less travelled by signing in Switzerland in order to play at a level as close to the NHL as possible. He turned pro and earned one of the higher salaries in the Swiss league - rumoured to be $400,000 (U.S.) - despite being only 17 when the season started.

Again, he shone. Matthews scored 24 goals and 46 points in 36 games for Zurich - the highest totals in league history for a player under 20 years old.

The future face of the Leafs?

Those who know Matthews well don't worry that the limelight in Toronto - with the expectations that would come with being the franchise's first No. 1 pick since Wendel Clark in 1985 - will overwhelm him. They believe that he has the right disposition - humble, hard-working and disciplined - to excel under that pressure.

"Without a doubt in my mind, he can handle it," Granato said.

"Whatever's thrust on him, he'll always expect more of himself."

As for going to Toronto, a hockey hotbed, that's something Matthews welcomes. "He was excited about how the lottery went," Crawford said. "Trust me. He was very excited."

Back in Arizona, Matthews's former coaches and teammates are rooting for him. If he succeeds the way they expect, it will send a message that kids from the Southwestern United States deserve more attention from the development program and top colleges.

But what Matthews also proves, they argue, is that there is more than one way to become an NHL superstar. It's not all about spending hundreds of thousands of dollars on equipment and travel teams.

There is something to be said for taking the road less travelled, for focusing on skills development and having fun instead of short bursts of ice time in game after meaningless game.

There is something to be said for what Matthews has become, when where he is from and the resources he had were supposedly stacked against him.

"This kid grew up in a non-traditional southern market and really had a non-traditional development path," DeAngelis said.

"It basically flies in the face of any parent who's spending $150,000 on their child's development to play AAA all over the world. He's really turning it upside-down."

Follow me on Twitter: @mirtle

Associated Graphic

Auston Matthews with his mother, Ema, in Zurich, where he went to play pro as a teen rather than try the junior or college hockey route.

PASCAL MORA/NYT

Portrait of an artist dying intestate
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How a Toronto gallery owner is negotiating the delicate matter of who owns Vivian Maier's iconic art
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By JAMES ADAMS
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page R3


Under other circumstances, the exhibition of about 40 photographs by the late Vivian Maier, opening Saturday at Toronto's Stephen Bulger Gallery, would be as close to a slam-dunk in terms of public appeal, critical approbation and commercial success as you can get in the art world.

After all, there's arguably been no bigger photographer on the planet in the past four or five years than Maier. In part, this has been due to the excellence (and variety) of the photos themselves, only a small fraction of which have been displayed to the public; they include self-portraits, portraits of children, street scenes, domestic scenes, beach scenes, studies of buildings and shadows and light, and depictions of the working world. Then, there's the drama of Maier's life and the myths encrusted around that life - Vivian Dorothy the reclusive, faintly mysterious spinster genius who earned her daily keep as a nanny in New York and Chicago, who died poor and lonely at 83 in 2009 just when - oh, cruel fate! - she seemed primed to slip the surly bonds of obscurity to join Helen Levitt, Mary Ellen Mark, Garry Winogrand and Canada's Fred Herzog in the ranks of the great documentary photographers of the past 80 years.

Bulger's most recent Maier show, held two years ago and titled Vivian Maier: Photographs of Children, was both an all-around success on its own terms and a seeming harbinger of greater triumphs. Fifty-three pictures, including 15 vintage prints, priced between $2,000 (U.S.) and $5,000 each, were displayed for sale; by the end of the exhibition's twomonth run, in mid-September, the sell-through was 94 per cent.

Another show at Bulger in 2013, called Out of the Shadows and generally acknowledged as the first major Maier exhibition in Canada, had been similarly successful. In both instances, the photos had been consigned to Bulger by Jeffrey Goldstein, the Chicago artist and collector who at the time was, with another Chicago collector, John Maloof, one of the two biggest owners of Maier negatives, prints, unprocessed film and other material in the world.

This time, though, the exhibition Bulger is calling Vivian Maier: Meaning Without Context isn't going to earn the highly respected commercial gallery the proverbial one thin dime, even as its proprietor/founder, Stephen Bulger, 52, has been fielding calls from dozens of collectors eager to buy. In fact, while Meaning Without Context is going to be Bulger's longest-running exhibition of 2016 (it closes Sept. 10), none of its photographs, which span the years 1949 through 1974, is for sale - a first in the gallery's 22year history.

Crazy, you say? Bulger uses the word himself to describe the situation. But he believes it's the only rational response to a tangled continuing legal dispute over copyright that, since its origin two years ago in the United States, has severely curtailed the distribution of Maier photographs worldwide.

"I organized and scheduled [Meaning Without Context] 18 months ago, fully expecting that it would be resolved by now," Bulger said in a recent interview, "but it hasn't." And because Bulger wants to be able to mount another nine, 10, 11 commercially viable Maier shows over the next 13 or 15 years, "I just don't want to make any wrong steps."

(Generally, in copyright law, ownership of an actual photographic negative and/or print is distinct from ownership of copyright. It's the owner of copyright who has the legal authority to decide what can be reproduced and sold.)

Bulger has been deeply implicated in the Maier morass since December, 2014. That's when he announced he had purchased, for an unspecified sum, all 15,000 or so black-and-white negatives in the Goldstein collection, almost all of them processed by Maier herself. Indeed, all the photographs in Meaning Without Context are printed from the negatives Bulger bought.

Goldstein's decision to sell was prompted by a court action initiated in June that year by a Virginia-based lawyer and one-time commercial photographer, David C. Deal. Maier had died without a will, childless and with seemingly no living heirs in sight. A hoarder, she dumped many of her possessions in at least a half-dozen large storage lockers around Chicago. A couple of years before her death, Maier defaulted on the rent for four or five of those units whereupon their contents became the property of the locker company.

These contents, in turn, were sold to an auctioneer who, after paying $250, promptly put most of Maier's possessions in the trash.

Luckily, he refrained from purging her photographic wares, including an estimated 150,000 negatives. These he divided into as many as 50 large bunches which he auctioned over three weeks. It's been estimated anywhere from five to 12 people placed successful bids, earning the auctioneer a total of about $7,500.

One of the bidders was Maloof, a former real estate agent, who, among other purchases, acquired about 30,000 negatives for about $400. (Maloof eventually came to own an estimated 90 per cent of the Maier collection, including as many as 3,500 vintage prints, more than 100,000 black-andwhite and colour negatives and, according to Bulger, "hundreds and hundreds of rolls of unprocessed film" that had been in a storage unit maintained by a family for whom Maier had been a nanny.)

Goldstein didn't participate in the 2007 auctions but as an avid, in-the-know collector of what Bulger calls "fascinating objects," the Maier photos soon came to his attention. Liking what he saw, he eventually purchased almost 20,000 negatives, vintage prints, colour slides, 8-mm movies and the like, mostly from two collectors, unrelated to Maloof, who'd also attended the auctions.

It's been Goldstein and Maloof who, through books, travelling exhibitions, print sales and their respective websites, have propelled Maier to near-universal recognition. Maloof in 2013 even co-produced, co-wrote, co-directed, shot and narrated a documentary film, Finding Vivian Maier, that earned an Oscar nomination.

All this attention, in turn, has sparked considerable research that, particularly in the past two years, has greatly clarified the dark glass of the Maier biography.

We now know, for instance, that Maier was born in New York in 1926 to a French mother and Austrian father who divorced within a year of her birth and that she spent the next roughly 25 years shunting between France and the U.S., taking up photography likely as a teen and buying her first camera at 22.

Goldstein's and Maloof's labours haven't been without controversy - a controversy that David C. Deal crystallized when he decided to do his own research into Maier's past and that of her family. He reportedly was perturbed that individuals with no family connection to the photographer were making money - potentially millions of dollars - from prints struck from the negatives bought in 2007. Concerned, too, about copyright clearance, Maloof, collaborating with Goldstein, had himself earlier hired genealogists to scour the records.

Their research revealed that Vivian had an older brother, born in New York in 1920, called, variously, Charles, Karl and Carl, who'd changed his last name on at least one occasion. His whereabouts by this time were unknown, however, as were any possible next-of-kin.

Eventually, the genealogists determined that a first cousin once removed, living in southeastern France, was the late photographer's closest living relative.

In 2013, Maloof inked a $5,000 copyright clearance agreement with the relative, Sylvain Jaussaud. Deal, however, disagreed with this determination, claiming to have discovered another, even closer relative, also living in southeastern France, named Francis Baille. Deal then proceeded to file an application in probate court to have Baille recognized as Maier's heir.

By summer 2014, the dispute had come to the attention of the public administration office of Cook County, which, with Chicago in its borders, is the secondmost populous state jurisdiction in the United States. Deciding to set up an estate for Maier, overseen by its public administrator, the county began to send letters to those selling Maier's work. One recipient was the Stephen Bulger Gallery, which, at the time, was halfway through hosting its twomonth exhibition of Maier's photographs of children. The Aug. 19 letter advised Bulger to hold onto all documents relating to Maier.

"We are investigating the potential misuses and infringement of copyrighted works whose rights are held by the estate," the letter read, while predicting Cook County would be "filing litigation against the responsible parties upon completion of the investigation."

By fall 2014, Cook County appears to have determined that the evidence in support of both the Maloof heir and the Deal heir were insufficient.

Instead, the county cast its lot with Maier's older brother and instituted a waiting period wherein Charles, if he were still alive, or his family would be given until his 100th birthday to make a claim as rightful heir.

Goldstein, meanwhile, fearing seemingly unending negotiations, ruinously expensive legal difficulties as well as the threat that his trove might be seized by authorities, decided he would sell his negatives to Bulger but hold onto his 2,000 Maier prints and related paraphernalia.

Getting the negatives to another country, it was hoped, would add an extra layer of protection or at least dissuasion.

Said Goldstein in a recent interview: "I have a great personal and professional affection for Stephen Bulger. He has a tremendous moral compass as a human being and for art, and I felt he'd be the best caretaker."

In the meantime, no one's waiting on Charles or Carl or Karl Maier's 100th birthday, which falls on March 3, 2020.

Recent research shows that Maier's brother died in a New Jersey rest home in April, 1977.

His 57 years were largely unhappy, it seems, marked by prolonged estrangement from his younger sister, alcoholism, addictions to gambling and morphine, stints in jail and a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. It seems, too, that he never married nor fathered children.

Under New Jersey law, a death certificate and related records are sealed for 40 years after a person dies. But it appears when Charles Maier's are unsealed next spring they'll contain no great revelations.

"There's like maybe a half a per cent of a chance that he had a child," said Ann Marks, the retired New York businesswoman who's uncovered much of the Vivian Maier story in recent years.

Marks added she's heard "someone saw the death certificate, someone associated with the Maier matter in Chicago, and they said it said no next-ofkin." Yet, even without the death certificate, her research has found "no documents that indicate he did [marry and have children] and most indicate that he didn't."

Unlike Goldstein, Maloof opted to try to negotiate with Cook County, starting in late 2014.

The result was an accord announced last month and subsequently approved by a county probate court judge. However, details of this ostensibly public document have not been released, apparently to protect "ongoing negotiations" with other owners of Maier's work - a category that presumably would include Bulger. While the county did contact Bulger by e-mail on Thursday, the dealer described "the last-minute proposal" as being, on initial inspection, "not much different from what was proposed last September ... I also want some proof that they're actually representing the family of Vivian Maier."

However, as Marks observed: "Cook County didn't seem interested in pursuing any of the out-of-the-country relatives on either side of Vivian's family.

And they haven't been keen on that for a long time ... They were interested in making the agreement locally and that's what they did."

Bulger was offered a contract, by e-mail, with Cook County's public administrator last September. He was reluctant to discuss details, however, saying only that he quickly rejected the contract because, to his mind, "they wanted me to assume all costs and risks while [they would be] keeping the lion's share of profit."

Earlier this month, the dealer was contacted by a Canadian lawyer representing Cook County who warned him about his then-upcoming Maier exhibition, saying how Cook County "owns everything I own and that I can't do anything with it until I work out an arrangement with them." Bulger assured the lawyer that, to avoid any taint of copyright infringement, he had no intention of selling the photographs he would be displaying.

"I told him ... I've commissioned someone to make 'personal use' photographs and I am going to display them at my gallery free of charge, with no admission. I don't even have any more Maier books to sell. I won't be making anything out of this."

Bulger also won't be taking any orders, accepting deposits or writing invoices in the eventuality of a future sale. The only thing he would be "stupid not to do is if someone says, 'Wow, I really like that picture,' to say, 'Well, what's your name and number and hopefully before I die I can talk to you.' " Like many observers of things Maier, Bulger remains keen to see the details of the MaloofCook County deal, if only to have a sort of benchmark for how his own negotiations might unfold. Maloof and Cook County continue to stay mum.

However, it's clear from the statements each released after the accord was reached that the county intends to stay very much in the bullish Maier market. It will eschew sussing out potential heirs - for the time being at least - while licensing Maloof to process and catalogue those "hundreds upon hundreds" of 35-mm rolls, mostly colour, he was given after Maier's death by the Chicago family that had employed her as a nanny. Said the Cook County public administrator: "[We] look forward to a continuing collaboration with Mr. Maloof in promoting Ms. Maier's remarkable work."

For his part, Bulger is striving to ride the up-beat. He's pleased, for example, that the growing body of Maier scholarship is helping dispel earlier characterizations of her as this almost mentally unstable, nearotherworldly creature. Today, she's being seen increasingly as this dedicated artist, expert and exceptional, no more eccentric than any other artist, who arranged her life in such a way as to best pursue that art.

"Twenty years from now, Vivian's work is still going to be around," said Bulger, "and none of us are going to be remembered. It's just going to be Vivian and really, who's going to care about all this stuff?" .

Vivian Maier: Meaning Without Context is at the Stephen Bulger Gallery, Toronto through Sept. 10 (bulgergallery.com).

Associated Graphic

That's Vivian Maier's shoes on the slide in a playground in Chicago's northern suburbs. Below, a slice of sixties Americana as children gather around a lemonade stand.

VIVIAN MAIER/COLLECTION OF STEPHEN BULGER GALLERY

Stephen Bulger acquired 15,000 Vivian Maier negatives, including Washing Car, shot near Chicago, circa 1960.

VIVIAN MAIER/COLLECTION OF STEPHEN BULGER GALLERY

Vivian Maier - a nanny who left behind at least 150,000 images of street scenes, mostly from New York and Chicago through the fifties and sixties - is proving as mysterious and captivating as some of the subjects she captured on film. Top left, Man and Woman Talking, New York, 1959; above, Woman in Floral Hat on Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 1961; and left, Workmen with Woolworth's Sign, Chicago, 1968.

PHOTOS: VIVIAN MAIER/COLLECTION OF STEPHEN BULGER GALLERY

THE NORMALCY IN A TRAGEDY
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Omar Mateen's expressions of intolerance, like his penchant for violence, made him a well-integrated member in a part of Fort Pierce's community, Doug Saunders writes
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By DOUG SAUNDERS
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A12


For people in this Florida town, he was a familiar sort of figure: a young man with a troubled background and a short temper who held intolerant and hateful views, often spoke loudly of violent and vengeful plans, and made no secret of possessing an arsenal of firearms.

That describes Omar Mateen, the 29-yearold Fort Pierce man who made the twohour drive north to Orlando last Saturday night to open fire in a gay nightclub in a targeted slaughter that cost 50 lives, including his own.

But it also describes a lot of guys in Fort Pierce, where far too many young men, especially those from minority backgrounds, are drawn into lives of violence and anger and where divisive attitudes and powerful firearms are not only acceptable in some circles, but are hotly defended by Republican politicians.

That, some residents say, may be why his volatile temperament failed to set off enough alarm bells: He did not lose his security-guard job (but was moved away from courthouse-guard duty) after the Federal Bureau of Investigation looked into extremist comments he made to colleagues.

"Mostly, people in this county are nice people, really decent people, but you do come across a type of guy working in security and policing, maybe one in 20, who has a real chip on his shoulder," says Tobias Pierre, 51, who has worked for security firms in this region during the past 20 years.

"Putting up with guys like that is just part of the job."

Fort Pierce is a politically divided town in a deeply divided swing state - and the issues that divide it are the very ones that drove Omar Mateen: racial and sexual tolerance, violence and firearms.

That is not to say his transformation into a mass killer was the fault of Fort Pierce.

The town is not itself a hateful or extremist place. It's an often-warm-hearted beachside community whose long history of official racial segregation gave way by the 1990s to a more tolerant multiethnic identity. It was around then that the orangepacking industry vanished, causing many residents to lose their homes in the 2008 crash. It hosts a Navy SEALS base and a major nature-conservation area, but sees little of the tourism or industrial success that fill the rest of the Treasure Coast.

But that economic vacuum left some young men here vulnerable to the attractions of violence, intolerance and criminality. And, far from being an outsider, Omar Mateen found himself becoming more and more like many of the young men around him.

Betty Bradwell steps back from a big aluminum mixing bowl and shakes her head.

"I worry about what's happened to our young people - it really does feel like this community has dropped the ball on them," the 63-year-old great-grandmother says as she helps volunteers prepare lunch for hundreds at a soup kitchen - one of four she oversees - inside an old evangelical church in a boarded-up stretch of this solidly African-American part of northern Fort Pierce.

Her church is a five-minute drive from the media mob around the apartment that had once been Mr. Mateen's.

Ms. Bradwell and her co-congregants have devoted decades of strenuous volunteer work to make up for the lack of useful social services in Florida. In her view, the cultures of violence and criminality have flourished in districts like hers in good part because Florida has, under successive Republican governments, changed the education, social-assistance and penal systems so that they offer only punishment and strict discipline, with nothing to pull failing kids out of a cycle of violence.

"When the jobs were gone, we didn't have anything for them," Ms. Bradwell says, "and if they couldn't manage to stay in school, if they were kicked out or dropped out, the only thing left was crime and gangs. For some of our young people, violence and crime are the only way to make a living."

Fort Pierce is an exceptionally violent place. Crime-rate indexes list it as having the second- or third- highest rate of violent crime in Florida, itself an unusually violent state.

In 2014, Fort Pierce suffered 12 gun murders, extraordinary for a town of 46,000 (by comparison, Toronto, with almost three million people, has about 20 gun murders a year). That number fell to nine in 2015, but the violent-crime rate - 11 violent incidents every 1,000 people - remains three times higher than the U.S. average.

It is also a place with a lot of poverty: About one in five residents of St. Lucie County, whose seat is Fort Pierce, lives in poverty, which is defined as a combined annual income, for a family of four, of less than $23,550 (U.S.).

Betty Bradwell knows about this from experience. Her grandson Carlos, who had lived in her home, had learning disabilities and disciplinary problems at their local school. He was expelled for misbehaviour, but won admission to a special school for kids with behavioural problems. After three weeks, though, she got a phone call asking her to come pick up Carlos at noon: The school didn't have the resources to handle a kid like him and he would have to leave, for good.

"I knew at that moment that he was lost," she says. "I knew the system had failed him and there was nothing for him here."

Within a year, 19-year-old Carlos had killed another young man with a .45-calibre pistol, allegedly for a $2,000 fee. He spent 10 years in state prison. After his release last year, he realized that he was utterly unemployable and quickly turned back to crime. Less than three weeks after his release, he had been shot dead, making him one of those nine people murdered last year. His killer, caught within 24 hours, was a teenager. "I felt no anger at that boy or his mother," Ms. Bradwell says. "We were both suffering from the same thing."

The arrest had been made by a new reform-minded Fort Pierce police chief, Diane Hobley-Burney, who has spent the past year shifting the police to the sort of socialwork, community-building model meant to keep kids out of crime rather than simply imprison them (and, in the process, she has reduced the crime rate), but it was too late for Carlos and his killer.

At first, you might not see the similarities between Carlos, a poor African-American kid, and Omar Mateen, whose parents were among the thousands of members of the Afghan middle class who had been airlifted to the United States by the Reagan administration after the Soviets invaded their country and who moved from New York to Florida in 1991.

But Mr. Mateen's school records, in the same part of town, show him following a strikingly similar path.

Almost as soon as he finished kindergarten, he was facing suspensions for behaviour described at the time as "verbally abusive," "rude," "aggressive" with "much talk about violence" and 31 reported incidents of hitting other students and bullying, school documents obtained by Florida newspapers show. In his first two years of high school, he faced 48 days of suspension, as well as a juvenile-court conviction for assault, until he was expelled for fighting.

He then attended an alternative school for behavioural problems - probably the same one Carlos did - until he was also expelled for misbehaviour. Eventually readmitted to another school, he graduated with mediocre grades, leaving to study at a prison-guard training academy, where further incidents of anger and violence were reported. (He did not seem to identify as Muslim or religious during these years; his violence to that point was pathological rather than ideological.)

What is striking is that all Mr. Mateen's interactions with the school were disciplinary: There was an evident lack of effort, or resources, to put him on a better psychological or behavioural path. Instead, he was allowed to drift into a violent netherworld - a place that may actually have made him fit in better in his northern Fort Pierce neighbourhood, where loud, violent men are a familiar fixture.

The addition of firearms to this anger was the natural next step. Mr. Mateen's acquisition of extremely lethal weapons and his outspoken enthusiasm for firearms, was probably the least controversial thing he did: As a security guard, but even as a Floridian of conservative views, it would have seemed strange if he didn't.

When he sought to buy the powerful rifle, pistol, multiple magazines and clips he used in the Orlando attack, he was turned down by the first gun store he visited (its owner said he "looked strange"), but he attracted no attention at all in the second.

And this is a town with many gun stores.

In fact, his weapon obsession put him strongly in line with the state's Republican mainstream. Florida Governor Rick Scott's signature act has been the elimination of most of the state's few firearms restrictions and limitation: From 2011 to 2014, he passed 12 pro-gun laws that made the acquisition of powerful weapons easier, quicker and cheaper and voided all local firearms restrictions; in 2016, he has passed a bill allowing Floridians to build legal gun ranges in their backyards.

That violence, however, would become truly menacing only after it mixed with another force that was heavy in the Florida air: easy bigotry and discrimination.

At first, it was hard to notice currents of intolerance in coastal Florida this week - in large part because of Mr. Mateen's act of terrorism. Vigils up and down the coast brought together the county's gay and lesbian communities, politicians and clergy from Christian, Jewish and Muslim houses of worship.

At one vigil just outside Fort Pierce on Wednesday night, a young crowd applauded as a Lutheran reverend apologized for centuries of Christian discrimination against gays and clapped even louder as Muslim leader Victor Ghalib Begg declared that "Allah made us men and women - and also gay." There was hardly a dry eye in the crowd. But long-term residents did raise an eyebrow at this spectacle.

"This is something that you just do not normally see here, different religions working together, and acknowledging the gay community," said Milt Thomas, a photographer and city council figure famous for leading a 2014 campaign to overturn neighbouring Vero Beach's ban on opening prayers from faiths other than Christianity.

"What you're seeing here is the smaller liberal Protestant churches, the Lutherans and so on. The big evangelical congregations that most people attend are staying silent. They won't acknowledge gays."

Slightly more than half of the people of Fort Pierce have voted in recent state and national elections for Democratic politicians who favour same-sex rights. But, this being a swing county in America's definitive swing state, they face a tight race this year against a population, almost as large in this town, of very conservative Republicans, a majority of whom polls show to be backers of Donald Trump's candidacy.

Socially conservative Republicans have controlled the Florida's governor's office since 1999 and have made the state among the least receptive to same-sex rights. The state's Trump-financed Attorney-General, Pam Bondi, made headlines this week after being attacked by CNN anchor Anderson Cooper for becoming pro-gay in wake of the Orlando massacre despite having fought same-sex marriage rights aggressively even after the Supreme Court last year made it a constitutional right.

But Florida has also fought hard legislatively to ban gay adoption, to protect the right of businesses to discriminate on the basis of sexuality and to forbid people of insufficiently masculine or feminine gender access to public facilities (the so-called "bathroom bill").

So when Omar Mateen started being aggressively anti-gay in his language and behaviour after entering community college, he offended some classmates and officials, but was also expressing a set of views that would have seemed utterly commonsensical and uncontroversial to half the people around him. For almost a decade, his angry words about gays and women failed to attract any undue attention - it was not until he began combining them with a new language of Islamic extremism, around 2012, that anyone raised serious complaint.

In other words, his expressions of intolerance, like his penchant for violence, did not make him stand out; rather, they made him a well-integrated part of one part of this town's community - not its majority, but a big and influential bloc.

"This is a very welcoming town where you can be comfortable living as a gay or lesbian, but it is also a very conservative county, very religious, and we've had to come together and find those places where people are tolerant," says Michael Wickham, an elder-care worker and well-regarded activist in the county's gay community.

"I know plenty of people who are out in Fort Pierce, but some of them feel they have to keep their heads down a bit. We've heard a lot of good and compassionate words from the politicians and religious leaders this week, but we're going to have to fight for them to be turned into acts."

For Omar Mateen, the embrace of antigay, angry, weapons-heavy attitudes was by one measure a successful form of integration. After all, the combination of divisive cultural attitudes and armed violence has become a cornerstone of mainstream conservative politics in Florida.

The 2013 acquittal of George Zimmerman for his killing of black teenager Trayvon Martin - an act that occurred just north of the scene of the Orlando massacre - remains overwhelmingly popular among Floridians. Most want to keep the "stand your ground" law that allowed Mr. Zimmerman to kill without penalty, and among state Republicans he remains more popular than President Barack Obama.

Whatever Omar Mateen's psychological or ideological motives, whatever mix of homophobia, self-hating homosexuality, Islamic extremism and ego-driving braggadocio he had adopted, he was becoming a more normal member of his community - or at least of a certain very masculine, very conservative corner of it.

Only in the wake of the horror he unleashed is it becoming apparent to people here, and their leaders, that Mr. Mateen got away with it because his views and his utterances were so completely, frighteningly normal.

Associated Graphic

Omar Mateen's volatile temperament, exhibited in the mass shooting in Orlando, failed to set off alarm bells in his hometown of Fort Pierce, Fla., where divisive attitudes and powerful firearms are defended by Republican politicians. In the days that followed the massacre, investigations were being carried out while friends and family mourned all over the world and paid tribute to the victims, including U.S. President Barack Obama and Vice-President Joe Biden, seen in the second left photo visiting a makeshift memorial on Thursday.

ADREES LATIF/REUTERS; CARLOS BARRIA//REUTERS; DAVID GOLDMAN/AP; ALVIN BAEZ/REUTERS

Ernesto Vergne prays on Friday, honouring his friend Xavier Emmanuel Serrano Rosado, who was killed by Omar Mateen in the Orlando attack. It took a visit to two stores for Mr. Mateen to successfully buy the lethal weapons used in the shooting.

DAVID GOLDMAN/AP

Alberta child's death becomes lightning rod
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Echinacea tincture bought from a naturopath by his parents ignites debate on alternative medicine, complaint from 43 MDs
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By WENDY STUECK
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S1


VANCOUVER -- It was an echinacea tincture, bought by worried parents for an ailing child at a naturopathic clinic in Lethbridge.

But that product, called Blast and taken home by the parents of little Ezekiel Stephan, became a symbol of much more. The trial of the parents, David and Collet Stephan, revolved around parental responsibility. It also became a lightning rod for debate about alternative medicine, triggering a barrage of mostly negative coverage that focused on the dubious science behind some naturopathic treatments.

And the case triggered an investigation by the College of Naturopathic Doctors of Alberta of naturopath Tracey Tannis after 43 medical doctors signed a letter of complaint to the college alleging - based on testimony during the trial - that she failed to meet the standard of care.

Typically, such an investigation would remain confidential unless and until it resulted in disciplinary action. It became public after the letter of complaint, and the college's response, were released to the media.

It is not known whether that complaint will result in any sanctions against Dr. Tannis. Under Alberta's Health Professions Act, the status of complaints or investigations is confidential until the matter is referred to a hearing.

And reviewing a complaint "may take several months to years," depending on the complexity of the complaint and the length of the investigation, CNDA assistant registrar Kristen Tanaka told The Globe and Mail.

Relatively few naturopaths in Canada have faced disciplinary sanctions.

Manitoba, where naturopaths have been regulated since 1946, has had no disciplinary proceedings, and the registrar for the Manitoba Naturopathic Association - the province is moving to a self-regulating college for naturopaths - "respectfully declined any comment" on whether the association has received complaints in recent years.

Naturopaths in Alberta have been regulated for nearly four years, and the self-regulating college has received a small number of complaints, but none have been referred to a public hearing, meaning they remain confidential, a process in line with other self-regulating professions.

British Columbia, which has had a college since 2000, has the most extensive regulatory track record, and has sanctioned several registrants with fines and temporary suspensions.

Last October, the college suspended naturopath Jonas LaForge for a year for several infractions, including providing cash-only Botox services in and around the Lower Mainland, and providing Skype consultations to marijuana dispensaries.

Dr. LaForge also failed to disclose to the college that he had a criminal record in the United States, the college said in a public notification.

In April, however, Dr. LaForge's photograph and professional qualifications were listed prominently on the website of The Coliseum Medical Spa, a West Vancouver business that advertises naturopathic services including "cleansing and detoxing" and vitamin injections.

The website was revised after inquiries from The Globe and a recent CBC story that included details of Dr. LaForge's suspension and criminal record in the United States.

As well, an advertisement in a May supplement to the North Shore News included "anti-aging with Dr. LaForge ND."

Asked about the website and the advertisement, Dr. LaForge said the website entry was an oversight and that he was unaware of the advertisement until learning of it from The Globe.

"I am currently under suspension," he said in a telephone interview. "I am not practising as a naturopathic doctor."

The College of Naturopathic Physicians of B.C. would not say whether the advertisement or the online information violated the terms of Dr. LaForge's suspension.

"Because of the confidentiality requirements in the [B.C.] Health Professions Act, the College cannot confirm or deny the existence of an investigation regarding this matter," Sarah Pivnick, the college's manager of investigation and regulatory compliance, said in an e-mail.

Naturopathic practitioners and colleges point out that they operate under the same rules that govern other health professionals, including doctors, dentists and pharmacists.

They argue the low number of regulatory hearings is unsurprising. Naturopaths number in the dozens or hundreds, compared with thousands of nurses, doctors and pharmacists. And the type of care they provide, such as dietary advice, is typically less risky than, say, extracting a tooth or a tumour.

But the death of a child has pushed naturopathic medicine into the spotlight, and with it, the question of whether the current regulatory regime does enough to protect the public.

"I am absolutely appalled that, in four years, the [College of Naturopathic Doctors of Alberta] has not required even a single naturopath to undergo discipline of any kind," said Michelle Cohen, an Ontario general physician who spearheaded the complaint to the CNDA stemming from the Stephan trial.

CNDA president Beverly Huang said all complaints received by the college have been handled in accordance with Alberta's Health Professions Act. The act includes provisions for confidential settlements through an alternative complaint-resolution process.

Dr. Tannis was thrust into the spotlight because of her interactions with the Stephan family.

According to a June 8 finding of fact by Justice Rodney Jerke of the Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta, the couple obtained an echinacea tincture for Ezekiel - who by then was too stiff to sit in his car seat - at a naturopathic clinic in Lethbridge in March, 2012, after the boy had been sick for days with symptoms that included a fever.

The trial heard conflicting evidence about whether Dr. Tannis had actually met Ms. Stephan before Ms. Stephan left the clinic with the echinacea tincture.

And the judge zeroed in on March 12, 2012 - the day before Ms. Stephan visited the naturopath - as the time when the Stephans failed in their duty to their son by not taking him to a doctor.

The parents were sentenced on Friday, David Stephan to four months in jail and Ms. Stephan to three months of house arrest.

Both are to be on probation for two years after completing their sentences.

The case raised concerns about the naturopathic doctor's own practice and about broader regulatory issues in Alberta and elsewhere in Canada.

"If patients are drawn to buying treatments from a clinic rather than a health food store, it is because they have a greater sense of security in doing so," the 43 medical doctors said in their letter of complaint to the CNDA.

"That security comes with an attendant responsibility on the part of the clinic."

The concern echoes critics' complaints that regulating naturopathy opens the door to suspect and potentially harmful treatment, including homeopathy, a naturopathic mainstay that involves using massively diluted solutions and has been debunked in studies.

Even some naturopathic doctors do not use homeopathy.

Chris Spooner is among them.

The licenced naturopathic doctor and CNPBC board member does not use homeopathy in his practice in Vernon, B.C. As a selfdescribed science-based practitioner, he said he cannot "wrap my head around it." He has been dismayed by recent media coverage of naturopathy, saying it has overlooked regulatory and educational developments and the distinction between licenced naturopathic doctors and unregulated practitioners.

"There's no doubt there is a changing of the guard happening.

... We recognize there is a need for evidence," he said.

Dr. Spooner - under provincial legislation in B.C. and other provinces, naturopathic physicians are allowed to use that title - is among practitioners pushing boundaries between conventional and alternative medicine. He works with agencies such as the Ottawa Integrative Cancer Centre, one of a growing number of centres across the country melding different health-care disciplines, including naturopathy and traditional Chinese medicine.

Sometimes those disciplines and outlooks collide: the University of Alberta in June withdrew a workshop billed as spoon-bending and the power of the mind for doctors after a public outcry. The workshop was to have been offered through the university's Complementary and Alternative Research and Education Program, or CARE.

A similar outcry erupted last year over a University of Toronto researcher's plans to conduct a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study - the gold standard in clinical research - of homeopathic treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Critics view such incidents as part of a worrying slide by governments and universities away from evidence-based regimes. And as more Canadian naturopaths come under the umbrella of regulated health professions, there are questions from the medical community about the long-term impact.

Naturopathic physicians maintain they can help people live healthier lives and avoid chronic pain and disease - which implies savings to the health-care system.

Skeptics say there is little proof of that.

"Is this really how the government proposes to bring down disease rates - by giving people sugar and water pills?" said Lloyd Oppel, an emergency medicine doctor and a member of Doctors of B.C.'s Council on Health Economics and Policy. "Because they [government] have told the public that a profession that does so is a bona fide health profession."

Heidi Rootes, a naturopathic doctor in Vancouver, defends the existing regulatory regime, saying it requires practitioners to have a specified level of education and includes a clear scope of practice.

"And part of our continuing education is our jurisprudence and what we can and can't do," she said. "There's no excuse for saying, 'I didn't know.' You're responsible to know."

Dr. Rootes, who, like Dr. Spooner, does not practice homeopathy, runs a vitamin injection and wellness boutique in the Yaletown neighbourhood.

The clinic is outfitted with plush massage chairs, soothing purple walls and private treatment rooms with big-screen televisions.

The clinic, opened two years ago, proved so popular that Dr. Rootes and her partner recently launched a mobile service, which they run out of a refurbished ambulance that has been painted purple and decked out with the company's logo.

Some people seek vitamin treatments to boost their energy or get over a hangover. Others may be battling an illness, such as cancer, and see vitamin injections as a way to help immune systems weakened by chemotherapy or radiation.

In all of those instances, Dr. Rootes tells patients to disclose and discuss any complementary treatment they are getting with their other physicians.

She maintains she has seen patients' health improve from vitamin treatments and that the public is well-served by the existing regulatory system, saying licenced naturopaths can work with conventional medical practitioners to enhance patient health.

"If I have a broken leg, I'm not going to go to a naturopath. I'm going to go to the emergency room," she said.

Tracey Tremayne-Lloyd, a Toronto-based health lawyer, believes the number of complaints and disciplinary sanctions related to naturopaths will increase.

"As [naturopaths] have become regulated health professionals, they will be subject to the same type of scrutiny as nurses and doctors and dentists and pharmacists," she says. "People know where to send their complaints ... they'll look up the college and they'll start bringing scrutiny to [practitioners]."

NATUROPATHS BY NUMBERS BRITISH COLUMBIA

Regulation: Under provincial legislation since 1936. Brought under B.C.'s Health Professions Act and college created in 2000 Registered practitioners: 485 Discipline: Over the past three years: 70 investigations. Of those, 21 resolved by consent order; 22 through "other appropriate action"; 21 discontinued after registrant was found to have met the standard of care; three closed because of insufficient evidence; three ongoing.

No formal discipline hearings over the same time period. Under provincial legislation, hearings are not required if the college can address concerns through other means, such as a consent order. Such orders can include fines, suspensions and conditions.

SASKATCHEWAN

Regulation: Under provincial legislation since 1954. College to be formed under the Naturopathic Medicine Act, which was passed in 2015 but is not yet in force.

Registered practitioners: 40 Discipline: Over past two years: three investigations. Of those, two were found to involve no misconduct; one is ongoing. One formal disciplinary action since regulation began in 1954.

ALBERTA

Regulation: Under the Health Professions Act, with a self-regulating college, since July 25, 2012. Previously unregulated.

Registered practitioners: 254 Discipline: Over past two years: four complaints. None resulted in a hearing or disciplinary action. An investigation of naturopath Tracey Tannis - which became public after a letter of complaint and the college's response to that letter were released to the media - is ongoing. Typically, subjects of complaints are not identified unless, and until, an investigation results in disciplinary action.

MANITOBA

Regulation: Under provincial legislation since 1946. One of 22 health professions expected to be brought under Manitoba's Regulated Health Professions Act, umbrella legislation that took effect in 2014.

Registered practitioners: 36 Discipline: None.

ONTARIO

Regulation: Regulated since 1925. Brought under the Regulated Health Professions Act and college created in 2015.

Registered practitioners: 1,290 Discipline: From July, 2015, to May 31, 2016: 11 new complaints, plus 8 inherited from the former regulatory body.

Seventeen registrar investigations, of which 15 are still in progress. Two referrals for discipline, one of which has been resolved and one in progress.

Associated Graphic

Alaina Overton from the the IV Wellness Boutique in Vancouver administers a vitamin C drip to a patient earlier this month.

JOHN LEHMANN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

David and Collet Stephan speak to supporters at the courthouse with their children in Lethbridge, Alta., on Friday. The judge found they failed in their duty by not taking their ailing son to a doctor.

JEFF MCINTOSH/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Child's death ignites debate on alternative medicine
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Echinacea treatment purchased from naturopath for ailing boy prompts complaint from 43 MDs
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By WENDY STUECK
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S1


VANCOUVER -- It was an echinacea tincture, bought by worried parents for an ailing child at a naturopathic clinic in Lethbridge.

But that product, called Blast and taken home by the parents of little Ezekiel Stephan, became a symbol of much more. The trial of the parents, David and Collet Stephan, revolved around parental responsibility. It also became a lightning rod for debate about alternative medicine, triggering a barrage of mostly negative coverage that focused on the dubious science behind some naturopathic treatments.

And the case triggered an investigation by the College of Naturopathic Doctors of Alberta of naturopath Tracey Tannis after 43 medical doctors signed a letter of complaint to the college alleging - based on testimony during the trial - that she failed to meet the standard of care.

Typically, such an investigation would remain confidential unless and until it resulted in disciplinary action. It became public after the letter of complaint, and the college's response, were released to the media.

It is not known whether that complaint will result in any sanctions against Dr. Tannis. Under Alberta's Health Professions Act, the status of complaints or investigations is confidential until the matter is referred to a hearing.

And reviewing a complaint "may take several months to years," depending on the complexity of the complaint and the length of the investigation, CNDA assistant registrar Kristen Tanaka told The Globe and Mail.

Relatively few naturopaths in Canada have faced disciplinary sanctions.

Manitoba, where naturopaths have been regulated since 1946, has had no disciplinary proceedings, and the registrar for the Manitoba Naturopathic Association - the province is moving to a self-regulating college for naturopaths - "respectfully declined any comment" on whether the association has received complaints in recent years.

Naturopaths in Alberta have been regulated for nearly four years, and the self-regulating college has received a small number of complaints, but none have been referred to a public hearing, meaning they remain confidential, a process in line with other self-regulating professions.

British Columbia, which has had a college since 2000, has the most extensive regulatory track record, and has sanctioned several registrants with fines and temporary suspensions.

Last October, the college suspended naturopath Jonas LaForge for a year for several infractions, including providing cash-only Botox services in and around the Lower Mainland, and providing Skype consultations to marijuana dispensaries.

Dr. LaForge also failed to disclose to the college that he had a criminal record in the United States, the college said in a public notification.

In April, however, Dr. LaForge's photograph and professional qualifications were listed prominently on the web site of The Coliseum Medical Spa, a West Vancouver business that advertises naturopathic services including "cleansing and detoxing" and vitamin injections.

The website was revised after inquiries from The Globe and a recent CBC story that included details of Dr. LaForge's suspension and criminal record in the United States.

As well, an advertisement in a May supplement to the North Shore News included "anti-aging with Dr. LaForge ND."

Asked about the website and the advertisement, Dr. LaForge said the website entry was an oversight and that he was unaware of the advertisement until learning of it from The Globe.

"I am currently under suspension," he said in a telephone interview. "I am not practising as a naturopathic doctor."

The College of Naturopathic Physicians of B.C. would not say whether the advertisement or the online information violated the terms of Dr. LaForge's suspension.

"Because of the confidentiality requirements in the [B.C.] Health Professions Act, the College cannot confirm or deny the existence of an investigation regarding this matter," Sarah Pivnick, the college's manager of investigation and regulatory compliance, said in an e-mail.

Naturopathic practitioners and colleges point out that they operate under the same rules that govern other health professionals, including doctors, dentists and pharmacists.

They argue the low number of regulatory hearings is unsurprising. Naturopaths number in the dozens or hundreds, compared with thousands of nurses, doctors and pharmacists. And the type of care they provide, such as dietary advice, is typically less risky than, say, extracting a tooth or a tumour.

But the death of a child has pushed naturopathic medicine into the spotlight, and with it, the question of whether the current regulatory regime does enough to protect the public.

"I am absolutely appalled that, in four years, the [College of Naturopathic Doctors of Alberta] has not required even a single naturopath to undergo discipline of any kind," said Michelle Cohen, an Ontario general physician who spearheaded the complaint to the CNDA stemming from the Stephan trial.

CNDA president Beverly Huang said all complaints received by the college have been handled in accordance with Alberta's Health Professions Act. The act includes provisions for confidential settlements through an alternative complaint-resolution process.

Dr. Tannis was thrust into the spotlight because of her interactions with the Stephan family.

According to a June 8 finding of fact by Justice Rodney Jerke of the Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta, the couple obtained an echinacea tincture for Ezekiel - who by then was too stiff to sit in his car seat - at a naturopathic clinic in Lethbridge in March, 2012, after the boy had been sick for days with symptoms that included a fever.

The trial heard conflicting evidence about whether Dr. Tannis had actually met Ms. Stephan before Ms. Stephan left the clinic with the echinacea tincture.

And the judge zeroed in on March 12, 2012 - the day before Ms. Stephan visited the naturopath - as the time when the Stephans failed in their duty to their son by not taking him to a doctor.

The parents were sentenced on Friday, David Stephan to four months in jail and Ms. Stephan to three months of house arrest.

Both are to be on probation for two years after completing their sentences.

The case raised concerns about the naturopathic doctor's own practice and about broader regulatory issues in Alberta and elsewhere in Canada.

"If patients are drawn to buying treatments from a clinic rather than a health food store, it is because they have a greater sense of security in doing so," the 43 medical doctors said in their letter of complaint to the CNDA. "That security comes with an attendant responsibility on the part of the clinic."

The concern echoes critics' complaints that regulating naturopathy opens the door to suspect and potentially harmful treatment, including homeopathy, a naturopathic mainstay that involves using massively diluted solutions and has been debunked in studies.

Even some naturopathic doctors do not use homeopathy.

Chris Spooner is among them.

The licenced naturopathic doctor and CNPBC board member does not use homeopathy in his practice in Vernon, B.C. As a selfdescribed science-based practitioner, he said he cannot "wrap my head around it." He has been dismayed by recent media coverage of naturopathy, saying it has overlooked regulatory and educational developments and the distinction between licenced naturopathic doctors and unregulated practitioners.

"There's no doubt there is a changing of the guard happening. ... We recognize there is a need for evidence," he said.

Dr. Spooner - under provincial legislation in B.C. and other provinces, naturopathic physicians are allowed to use that title - is among practitioners pushing boundaries between conventional and alternative medicine. He works with agencies such as the Ottawa Integrative Cancer Centre, one of a growing number of centres across the country melding different health-care disciplines, including naturopathy and traditional Chinese medicine.

Sometimes those disciplines and outlooks collide: the University of Alberta in June withdrew a workshop billed as spoonbending and the power of the mind for doctors after a public outcry. The workshop was to have been offered through the university's Complementary and Alternative Research and Education Program, or CARE.

A similar outcry erupted last year over a University of Toronto researcher's plans to conduct a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study - the gold standard in clinical research - of homeopathic treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Critics view such incidents as part of a worrying slide by governments and universities away from evidence-based regimes. And as more Canadian naturopaths come under the umbrella of regulated health professions, there are questions from the medical community about the long-term impact.

Naturopathic physicians maintain they can help people live healthier lives and avoid chronic pain and disease - which implies savings to the healthcare system. Skeptics say there is little proof of that.

"Is this really how the government proposes to bring down disease rates - by giving people sugar and water pills?" said Lloyd Oppel, an emergency medicine doctor and a member of Doctors of B.C.'s Council on Health Economics and Policy.

"Because they [government] have told the public that a profession that does so is a bona fide health profession."

Heidi Rootes, a naturopathic doctor in Vancouver, defends the existing regulatory regime, saying it requires practitioners to have a specified level of education and includes a clear scope of practice.

"And part of our continuing education is our jurisprudence and what we can and can't do," she said. "There's no excuse for saying, 'I didn't know.' You're responsible to know."

Dr. Rootes, who, like Dr. Spooner, does not practice homeopathy, runs a vitamin injection and wellness boutique in the Yaletown neighbourhood.

The clinic is outfitted with plush massage chairs, soothing purple walls and private treatment rooms with big-screen televisions.

The clinic, opened two years ago, proved so popular that Dr. Rootes and her partner recently launched a mobile service, which they run out of a refurbished ambulance that has been painted purple and decked out with the company's logo.

Some people seek vitamin treatments to boost their energy or get over a hangover. Others may be battling an illness, such as cancer, and see vitamin injections as a way to help immune systems weakened by chemotherapy or radiation.

In all of those instances, Dr. Rootes tells patients to disclose and discuss any complementary treatment they are getting with their other physicians.

She maintains she has seen patients' health improve from vitamin treatments and that the public is well-served by the existing regulatory system, saying licenced naturopaths can work with conventional medical practitioners to enhance patient health.

"If I have a broken leg, I'm not going to go to a naturopath. I'm going to go to the emergency room," she said.

Tracey Tremayne-Lloyd, a Toronto-based health lawyer, believes the number of complaints and disciplinary sanctions related to naturopaths will increase.

"As [naturopaths] have become regulated health professionals, they will be subject to the same type of scrutiny as nurses and doctors and dentists and pharmacists," she says.

"People know where to send their complaints ... they'll look up the college and they'll start bringing scrutiny to [practitioners]."

Investigative timelines for health colleges are "extremely variable" and a year or more to resolve complaints is not unusual, she said.

NATUROPATHS BY NUMBERS

BRITISH COLUMBIA

Regulation: Under provincial legislation since 1936. Brought under B.C.'s Health Professions Act and college created in 2000.

Registered practitioners: 485 Discipline: Over the past three years: 70 investigations. Of those, 21 resolved by consent order; 22 through "other appropriate action"; 21 discontinued after registrant was found to have met the standard of care; three closed because of insufficient evidence; three ongoing.

No formal discipline hearings over the same time period. Under provincial legislation, hearings are not required if the college can address concerns through other means, such as a consent order. Such orders can include fines, suspensions and conditions.

SASKATCHEWAN

Regulation: Under provincial legislation since 1954. College to be formed under the Naturopathic Medicine Act, which was passed in 2015 but is not yet in force.

Registered practitioners: 40 Discipline: Over past two years: three investigations. Of those, two were found to involve no misconduct; one is ongoing. One formal disciplinary action since regulation began in 1954.

ALBERTA

Regulation: Under the Health Professions Act, with a selfregulating college, since July 25, 2012. Previously unregulated.

Registered practitioners: 254 Discipline: Over past two years: four complaints. None resulted in a hearing or disciplinary action. An investigation of naturopath Tracey Tannis - which became public after a letter of complaint and the college's response to that letter were released to the media - is ongoing. Typically, subjects of complaints are not identified unless, and until, an investigation results in disciplinary action.

MANITOBA

Regulation: Under provincial legislation since 1946. One of 22 health professions expected to be brought under Manitoba's Regulated Health Professions Act, umbrella legislation that took effect in 2014.

Registered practitioners: 36 Discipline: None.

ONTARIO

Regulation: Regulated since 1925. Brought under the Regulated Health Professions Act and college created in 2015.

Registered practitioners: 1,290 Discipline: From July, 2015, to May 31, 2016: 11 new complaints, plus 8 inherited from the former regulatory body.

Seventeen registrar investigations, of which 15 are still in progress. Two referrals for discipline, one of which has been resolved and one in progress.

Associated Graphic

David and Collet Stephan speak to supporters after arriving at the courthouse with their children in Lethbridge, Alta., Friday.

JEFF MCINTOSH/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Alaina Overton from the IV Wellness Boutique in Vancouver administers a vitamin C drip earlier this month.

JOHN LEHMANN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

'Why wouldn't I resemble him? He was my father'
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Globe writers and editors reflect on the many ways - big and small, physical and intangible - they're becoming the man who raised them
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Friday, June 17, 2016 – Print Edition, Page L1


I now resemble my late father so closely that my wife jumped out of her skin a few months ago when she walked into the den and found me napping with my mouth agape in a rocking chair. It was a chair my father once owned, the same chair he used all his domesticated life to watch "the golf" and "the tennis," a chair in which he too napped, mouth open, and I guess the resemblance, given that he died four years ago at the age of 98, when I was 58, was a little too close for my spouse's comfort.

"It was a glimpse of my life to come," she said, "a reminder that we too are going to get old."

I suppose the balding doesn't help, and neither does the fact that both his and my nose have been broken and bent.

We have the same eyes, the same coloring, the same terror of personal finance. Why wouldn't I resemble him? He was my father. I would like to have inherited his patience and selfcontrol and decency as well, but that part didn't stick so firmly.

So there is a part of me that feels proud and lucky when someone tells me how much I am like my father. I feel kinder and cleaner and more content with the silent, subterranean sacrifices being a father entails.

But another part of me wants to run screaming from the room, because of the parts of him I disdained when I was younger: his passivity, his self-defeating caution where all risk was concerned - the very domesticity that made me and my siblings possible. This is what is supposed to happen, of course. A good father teaches his kids to be independent, whereupon they don't need him anymore and leave him.

(Which is why "Happy Father's Day!" is an oxymoron.) With any luck he forgives them, and himself. Mine did, I think. I won't be unhappy if I come to resemble him that way.

Ian Brown

My dad used to love chasing me and my sister around the house with whatever our cat dragged in (one time it was a dead bat with only one wing). He would make insane noises and play act as if the poor creature was going to get us. I had the dual feeling of incredible exhilaration and revulsion as a kid as I ran screaming. Now, whenever I find a headless rodent or fallen bird (we have neighbourhood cats and birds of prey nearby) I feel this welling desire to torture my boys in the same way. Admittedly, this is the worst, but I love it when they collapse helplessly laughing and yelling. To date, my wife has vetoed this urge.

Shane Dingman

I was an only child and my parents separated when I was 10.

Until I was 14, I would go back and forth each week between their apartments. I had a close relationship with my father, a philosophy professor who was born in France during the Second World War.

A lot of our time together was spent eating. My father has an intense relationship with food. He's a tall, slender man with a big appetite and he eats faster than anyone I know. This might have something to do with his being born on the run.

His parents were Hungarian Jews who lived in Paris in the 1920s and 30s. When my father came along, in December of 1941, the family had fled the Nazi occupation in Paris and was hiding in Cassis, a small town in southern France, surviving on sardines and condensed milk. After two years, they walked through barbed wire to Switzerland, where my grandparents were separated into refugee camps while the children lived with friends. Eventually the war ended and the family was reunited.

In 1950 they moved to New York City. My father tells the story of eating his first hamburger sitting on a curb in Brooklyn, grease running down his arms. In Toronto, my father and I lived together in a second-storey apartment in a house on Walmer Road. In the evenings he would cook cheese omelettes or linguine with canned clams. While we ate, I was struck by a habit of his: parting his lips to mimic mine as I lifted forkfuls of food to my mouth. It seemed strange. What was he doing?

I have three boys now and we eat together all the time and sometimes I catch myself doing the same thing.

Gabe Gonda

My father had been dead just over 40 years the morning I walked into my sister-in-law's bathroom and saw his face in the mirror.

This was summer, a couple of years ago, while holidaying with my wife in Surrey, B.C. I'd just bowed my head to turn on the taps in preparation for a facial splash. But before I did, I stole a quick upward glance in the mirror and there I wasn't. Instead, there was the face of my father where mine used to be.

Of course, it was my face, just not the face I'd grown accustomed to seeing day after wearing day in the morning mirror. The sensation probably lasted no more than three admittedly disconcerting seconds before habit had me scooping the water running from the tap into my hands and onto my face. My father's face dissolved from mine and down the drain it went - a second dying to follow the first that had claimed him at 54 in 1974. Had the veils of vanity and familiarity, the delusions that make up selfimage, I wondered, been permitted to slip somehow, allowing me to see myself as I really was - the double of my father?

A few minutes later I was in the kitchen mentioning the moment to my wife and her sister. "I saw my father's face on someone else today," I said. "Mine."

There was general agreement something weird had happened, then the conversation moved on.

The experience, though, stayed with me. It seemed, well . Freudian somehow. (My wife likes to say everything's Freudian to me.)

And, sure enough, I remembered reading many years earlier an episode Freud recounted of being on an overnight train trip. He was getting ready to sleep when he noticed an individual in a dressing-gown and nightcap coming towards him. Freud didn't like the man's appearance nor the fact he seemed on the verge of entering his compartment. Within seconds, however, the father of psychoanalysis recognized the figure he was about to repel was none other than himself, reflected in a full-length mirror.

What, I wonder, will this Father's Day bring? The return of the masque of my father? Or my familiar face turned suddenly strange?

James Adams

When we first got to know one another's parents, my husband and I often joked that the worst-case scenario is that, over time, he turns into his mum and I turn into my dad.

At least part of that is happening.

As a kid, I always wanted to be like my dad. He joined the foreign service after taking an exam that hundreds of thousands of Indians take every year. His rank? No. 1.

His memory is extraordinary.

He is loud and funny: I realized only after growing up that our family has more "in jokes" (all created by Dad) than any other I know, rituals that bind us and remind us of what we share. He is a warm, generous host and holds court as the centre of attention at every single party.

But once I had children of my own, I realised that it is my mom I want to be like - gentle, calm, forgiving, thoughtful, beautiful, gracious and unendingly patient.

And yet, I inevitably find myself walking at a brisk 6 kilometres an hour and having my companions wonder why I am impatient and always rushing (Dad walks like that). I find myself thinking uncharitable thoughts about people I don't like and imputing petty motives to their behaviour and then thinking up retorts that could hurt them in the worst way possible, like he does. And after spending years listening to Dad parse pieces of music on the radio, I now find myself holding forth on music theory while listening to classic rock and pop music with our boys.

What I really want to do is to be able to adopt his outwardly insouciant attitude towards children doing risky things. My dad brought up three daughters in India. And yet, he encouraged us to do things that young women never did - like taking the car to the mechanic - because he never wanted us to have to depend on a man.

When I went to university at 17, I used to ride 45 minutes in Delhi traffic hanging on to the bumper of an overcrowded public bus - and then often walk back part of the way alone, after dark. Never once he did he suggest any of this could be unsafe, though, as a parent myself, I now realise the thought must have crossed his mind. Unlike many Indian fathers, he spoke to me openly about relationships and sex and alcohol, and never with a trace of judgment. When I was a teenager, he encouraged me to study and work abroad, without a word about how hard it would be to find "a suitable boy" for me. The real gift my father gave me was confidence.

Despite some nasty fights, he always believed in me and always went out of his way to ensure that I knew I had his support. Probably because I really am just like him.

Sonali Verma

I'm pretty sure I was once the youngest bank teller in New Brunswick. It was my first summer job, and I had to tuck in my shirt and never wear jeans and I hated it. As if that wasn't awkward enough, as I walked one day from my wicket to the lunchroom, a man hollered at me from across the branch.

"Hey Mick!," he shouted, his face contorting in surprise as I turned around. Mick is my dad. I was profoundly embarrassed, not because of who my father is but because that mix-up seemed impossible. He was, in my teenage mind, old. I had neither attuned my eyes to nor accepted the inevitability of genetics. It was more than the grown-up costume I was wearing that made my dad's friend confuse us. It was the barrel chest, the giant head, the splayed shoulderblades, a stride more waddle than walk.

It was a long time before I acknowledged just how much I was transforming into Cool Mick. (His friends once revealed his 1970s nickname, earned with a popped collar, at a family reunion.) And a funny thing happened as we both got older. The old-dude seriousness I'd attributed to him as a kid melted away as I, too, became a functional adult. We even thought the same way.

When I went away to university, all I wanted to do was live on my own and party and write sarcastic stories for the student newspaper - but also get a job and make lots of money. During our annual drives to campus, the man who once seemed like a serious adult started revealing his real character, cheering me on with a caveat: his catchphrase, repeated ad nauseam, was "work hard, play hard."

(This had already been used as the motto for the gay steel mill on The Simpsons, but I never brought that up.)

Cool Mick's maxim played out for both of us: we take our work, but not ourselves, seriously. We have become the same stupid goof. Rather, I became the goof I never realized he was.

Last year, he told me how excited he was at work, managing a growing team he gets to infuse with his work-hard-play-hard spirit. So, after years of him exclaiming, "You the man!" when he was proud of someone, I got him a Yoda bobblehead inscribed with the words "YODA MAN."

Now he leaves the bobblehead on the desk of his co-workers whenever they do a good job. And when he wants to congratulate a family member, we get a oneword e-mail: "YODAAA!!!" It's a simple, absurd gesture that distills the lesson Cool Mick wants to impart to everyone: you should strive to be your best self and a complete idiot at the same time.

Josh O'Kane

Associated Graphic

Ian Brown with his father, Peter.

Sonali Verma, second from top right in white, with her father, Rajanikanta Verma, bottom right.

Gabe Gonda with his father, Joseph Gonda.

Josh O'Kane with his father, Mick O'Kane.

Shane Dingman with his children.

J. Gilbert (Gib) Adams, father of James Adams.

A pension plan for the next generation
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By IAN MCGUGAN
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page B8


Let's admit it: Pension reform sounds like a deadly dull topic, the sort of thing only geezers could possibly give a hoot about.

So let's relabel the issue. A better name would be "the mission to save Gen Y."

That is an entirely accurate description of what federal and provincial finance ministers will be discussing in Vancouver on Monday. Their talks about overhauling the Canada Pension Plan are really a debate about building a better way for Canadians under the age of 45 to amass wealth. At issue is whether Canada's current retirement system is falling short in a world in which traditional corporate pensions are under threat.

The Vancouver meeting may well strike a deal to supersize CPP in some way. But "Big CPP" - whatever form it might take - won't be a money grab by today's seniors.

The last reform of the CPP system, in 1997, stipulated that one generation can no longer leave a big tab on the table for future generations to pick up. Any expansion to benefits must now be fully prefunded by additional contributions. As a result, a change to CPP today will take years to ripple through the system before it builds up to the point where it could result in significantly higher benefits to retiring workers.

"Any conversation about expanding CPP today is really about future retirees, not current retirees," said Tammy Schirle, associate professor of economics at Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Ont.

"The target is people under 45."

"This is about the middle-income, private-sector workers of the future," concurred Keith Ambachtsheer, director emeritus of the Rotman International Centre for Pension Management in Toronto. "It's about people who are now in their 20s and 30s."

The question is how best to help those younger workers. Ontario is already intent on launching its own supplementary pension plan in 2018. Other reform proposals abound.

What these proposals share is a desire to tackle some common problems.

The best-known challenge is the endangered status of traditional corporate pensions. Many of our parents had defined-benefit plans - the type of sweet deal, once common at big companies, that guaranteed retired workers a regular monthly cheque for a clearly defined amount.

Over the past few years, a multitude of companies have slammed the door shut on defined-benefit plans as managers shy away from the cost of ensuring future payouts. With interest rates at historic lows, and highly uncertain returns on stocks, the price of guaranteeing a retiree's income five or six decades from now has become prohibitively expensive.

Defined-benefit plans are fading fast, especially in heavy industry and other traditionally male industries. Between 1971 and 2011, the proportion of men with defined-benefit retirement plans fell nearly in half, according to Statistics Canada.

The slide, from 48 per cent of men in 1971 to 25 per cent a generation later, highlights companies' increasing desire to push financial responsibility onto workers' shoulders. (Definedbenefit coverage is also falling among women, but the magnitude of the decline has been much smaller because women are more likely to be employed in schools, hospitals and governments - public-service sectors where defined-benefit pensions are still common.)

Across the private sector, employees are now expected to take charge of building their own financial safety net. Many are required to plot their own investing strategies through "defined-contribution" pension plans that set out how much an employer will contribute, but leave it up to the employee to pick investments with no guarantee of the final result.

In addition, individuals are supposed to save diligently in RRSPs and TFSAs. On top of that, they must navigate the complex maze of government programs and tax shelters aimed at the elderly.

It's an infernally complicated system, but, over all, it functions pretty well and earns above-average grades in international comparisons. Exactly how well it works, though, tends to depend on how much you make.

The current bundle of government programs does a reasonable job of looking after Canadians who earn low incomes during their working lives, according to a 2014 study by Prof. Schirle and Kevin Milligan of the University of British Columbia.

In retirement, various programs combine to replace a large portion of those workers' previous paycheques. There are still pockets of poverty - notably among single women - but the level of financial distress among seniors has faded to a fraction of its level in the 1970s.

At the other end of the income scale, affluent families have few worries. Even if their income declines in retirement, they still live well in absolute terms.

The pain falls mainly on families who earn modest to middling incomes during their working lives - households with, say, $50,000 to $80,000 of annual income. If they're not fortunate enough to be covered by a workplace pension, they face a sharp drop in their standard of living when they retire.

"The vast majority of those Canadians retiring without an employer pension plan have totally inadequate retirement savings," according to statistician Richard Shillington of Tristat Resources, who earlier this year wrote a paper on the topic for the Broadbent Institute.

Mr. Shillington calculated that a family headed by someone 55 to 64 who has no employer pension plan typically has retirement assets of just over $3,000 - a thin cushion indeed on which to rest anyone's golden years.

This lack of retirement preparation reflects a couple of stubborn problems.

There is, for starters, the inherent difficulty in saving. "Most of us want to save, but it's tough," Prof. Schirle said. "If you're a middle-income family and something comes up with the kids - they need braces, they have camp, they require daycare - you may decide that your money should go there instead of into an RRSP."

Of course, some frugal souls do zealously stash away their cash. But that's when they run into the system's other big challenge - the lack of efficient ways for the average, financially unsophisticated person to invest cheaply and wisely.

Canada's mutual funds are among the world's most expensive, often dinging investors for 2 per cent or more of their assets each year. Those charges carve a big chunk out of a portfolio over the course of several decades.

In comparison, most large pension plans are run far more efficiently. For instance, the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (CPPIB), the investing arm of the CPP, says it has annual operating expenses of about 0.34 per cent of its assets.

"The impact of charges on retirement cannot be stressed enough," wrote Edward Whitehouse, an international pension expert who reviewed Canada's pension apparatus for the Department of Finance in 2010.

While giving high marks in general to the Canadian retirement system, he pointed to high investing fees as one of its flaws.

He pointed out that a simple reduction in fees could lead to major gains in retirement benefits. "Moving from a levy of 2 per cent of assets per year to 0.5 per cent would increase net benefits by more than 40 per cent," he calculated.

Most plans to reform CPP aim to address both the savings problem (by requiring expanded contributions) and the efficiency problem (by sweeping those savings into investments that would be managed by the CPPIB). The devil, though, is in the details.

Some CPP proposals, such as one put forward by the Canadian Labour Congress, suggest increasing the current contribution rate and doubling current benefits, but leaving everything else unchanged. The average new 65-year-old retiree now collects about $8,000 a year in CPP benefits; Big CPP would eventually boost that to more than $16,000 a year, everything else being equal. (Most retirees also receive Old Age Security, which can be worth more than $6,800 a year.)

One objection to the Canadian Labour Congress idea is that it doesn't work particularly well without accompanying changes to the Guaranteed Income Supplement, a program designed to aid low-income seniors.

Under current rules, every dollar extra in CPP payout would result in 50 cents or so less in GIS benefits. So if this version of Big CPP were implemented, many low-income couples would find themselves contributing more to CPP during their working years, but losing a large chunk of their GIS payout as a result, with no great increase to their overall retirement income.

Some competing reform proposals address this difficulty by focusing on the middle-income workers who appear most at risk under the current system.

Economist Michael Wolfson has suggested keeping things as they are now for those with low incomes, but boosting both contribution rates and payouts for those making more than a certain threshold.

The "Wolfson wedge" proposal gets its name because it creates a wedge payment for middle-income workers. Your first $27,500 or so in annual earnings would be eligible for a 25-per-cent pension, as under the current system. However, contribution rates would rise after that point, allowing additional earnings to qualify for a 40-per-cent pension.

To make this even more effective, Mr. Wolfson also suggests raising the limit on the earnings that CPP will cover. Instead of the current $54,900 earnings cap, he would double the ceiling to more than $100,000. Result: No more worries about middleincome folks entering retirement with next-to-no resources.

Under this scenario, a person who has consistently earned a six-figure salary could receive slightly more than $35,000 a year in CPP benefits once the system was fully mature.

The wedge proposal is a favourite of policy wonks, but it might be more complicated than strictly necessary. Prof.

Schirle and Prof. Milligan compared various reform proposals in their 2014 paper and concluded that simply doubling the earnings cap on CPP would yield many of the same benefits.

Some experts would also prefer to see more freedom of choice. Mr. Ambachtsheer, for instance, has proposed a supplementary CPP that would help middle-income earners, but also allow workers to opt out. Canadians would be able to contribute more of their working income to CPP in exchange for a higher pension upon retirement, but no one would be forced to do so.

With so many alternatives on the table, the finance ministers' meeting in Vancouver will have no end of options. It's still unclear, however, if they'll choose any of them.

CPP reform proposals foundered in recent years, most notably when former finance minister Jim Flaherty rejected the supplementary CPP notion as unworkable back in 2010.

Employer groups, such as the Canadian Federation of Independent Business, continue to argue that CPP expansion would endanger profits and jobs because of the higher contributions that would be required from both workers and employers.

However, the new government of Justin Trudeau is far more receptive to CPP reform than its Conservative predecessor.

Federal Finance Minister Bill Morneau has vowed to reach a deal on expanding CPP by December. To do so, he must win the support of seven provinces representing two-thirds of Canada's population.

His strongest talking point is Ontario's move to launch its own supplementary pension plan, the Ontario Retirement Pension Plan, in 2018.

With more than a third of Canada's population, Ontario effectively has veto power over national pension reform. Its model - which essentially aims to provide another level of pension benefits on top of the existing CPP, either through ORPP or comparable workplace pensions - could provide the template for action.

"Ontario really has drawn a line with the ORPP," Mr. Ambachtsheer said. "They would love for it to go national, but if they don't get agreement on something that's fairly close to what's already in motion, they'll go it alone."

Could the roll-out of an ORPPlike system slow the economy?

It seems unlikely. Between 1997 and 2003, significant hikes in CPP premiums coincided with a falling unemployment rate.

Policy makers must keep in mind that retirement issues will persist far longer than any blip in the economy, Prof. Schirle said. The goal of the current talks is to create a system that can withstand the challenges of the coming decades.

"Baby boomers are one of the wealthiest generations moving into retirement in Canadian history," she said. "They have lots of wealth and good coverage with defined-benefit plans. The real target for concern now is people under 45. We have to think about what will happen to them 25 or 30 years from now."

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

NOTE: DATA FROM 2012 OR LATEST AVAILABLE

THE GLOBE AND MAIL SOURCES: STATSCAN; BROADBENT INSTITUTE; OECD

AFTER SHOCK
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The early repercussions of the British referendum vote portend a gathering storm, Mark MacKinnon writes, and the political and economic fallout may have consequences far beyond the EU
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By MARK MACKINNON
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A12


The first tremors of Britain's politi-cal earthquake emanated from aplace called Sunderland, in England'seconomically stagnant northeast, aplace that 60 years ago prided itself as"the biggest shipbuilding town in the world."

Today, its shipyards are deserted and the city is more often referred to as the Detroit of Britain.Sunderland's 275,000 residents had been expected to vote Leave in Thursday's referendum on Britain's mem-bership in the European Union. Thelong-time Labour Party stronghold had seen a sevenfold rise in support for the radical U.K. Independence Party during general elections a year earlier, although Labour held onto the seat. The referendum day forecast was that Sunderland would vote 54 per cent in favour of quitting the EU.When the official count came in - atalmost precisely midnight local time -the room fell silent at the London School of Economics, where minutesearlier a trio of political scientists hadbeen cheerfully offering views on what would happen next if the polls, which forecast Britain would narrowly vote to stay in the EU, were indeed correct. Sunderland's result - 61.3 per cent for Leave to just 38.7 per cent for Remain - was the first clear sign that the pollsters, the analysts, the politi-cians, the markets and, most remarkably, the betting houses had all gotten it wrong.The tremors quickly multiplied. Jolt-ed by the Sunderland result, currency traders drove the value of the Britishpound down 5 per cent in a matter of minutes. The free fall in the markets would continue as results from acrossthe north of England confirmed thepattern set by Sunderland - Britain was voting to quit the EU.

Within a few hours, television commentators were calling the referendum results "seismic." And the aftershocks continued to rattle much thatEurope's establishment held dear.

The repercussions will be felt far beyond Britain, or even the EU. Political careers will be ended, markets have crashed and borders may change.But the biggest impact will be the impetus and inspiration the Brexit vote gives to populist politicians and other forces seeking to challenge the status quo worldwide.

With an anti-establishment moodrising on both sides of the Atlantic,it's unclear how long Canada - immune so far - can remain unaffected. British Prime Minister David Cameron announced on Friday that hewould stay in his job for the summer, and then step aside. As the man who had called a referendum many viewed as unnecessary, then lead the Remain side in defeat, he had no choice. Someone else, presumably his longtime Conservative Party rival Boris Johnson, will take over and lead Britain's thorny negotiations over its withdrawal from the EU.

The aftershocks kept coming. Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon saidon Friday that a second independencereferendum was now "highly likely" within the next two years, since Scotland had voted overwhelmingly to remain in the EU, and would not allow itself to be pulled out of the common market by English votes alone.In Northern Ireland, Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness said the government in London "had forfeited any mandate to represent the economic or political interests of the people." With Mr. McGuinness's Sinn Fein movement calling for a vote on uniting with the rest of Ireland, predicting the future of that island is perhaps the most difficult of all.European leaders looked stunned as they stood before the microphones intheir capital cities. Their faces said itall. The nationalist right had scored a huge, unexpected and irreversible victor y in England and Wales. And the populist revolution could be coming their way next.

Marine Le Pen of France's Front National and Geert Wilders of the Netherlands' Party for Freedom were first off the mark, calling for their countries to hold referendums on exiting the EU.

To complete the scene, Donald Trump arrived in Britain on Friday - to visit the two golf courses he owns in Scotland - smiling and hailing the vote for Brexit as soon as he stepped out of his helicopter.

"I think it's a great thing that's happened," he said. "It's an amazing vote, very historic."

Sense of instability Is this what the 1930s felt like?

It's a question that bounced around social media sites in recent days, even before the Brexit result became clear.

The rise of Mr. Trump, the wars and refugee crises of the Middle East, and the West's sanctions war with Russia have all fed a sense of dangerous instability on the international stage. A gunman killed Jo Cox, a pro-Remain MP. Another would-be assassin tried to grab a police officer's gun to shoot Mr. Trump.

The EU was created to cement peace in Europe, to keep the countries of the continent from trying to tear each other apart as they had so often in the century and a half before the creation of the forerunner European Economic Community in 1957. The first six members included France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg - four countries that had been occupied during the Second World War - as well as Italy and West Germany, two defeated countries that had begun the war as aggressors.

When the EU, which had by then expanded to its current 28 members, was awarded the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize, the Norwegian Nobel Committee said it wanted to recognize "six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."

Unwinding the EU is not just an economic decision, then. It's a fundamental shift in the world order, one that leaves the planet a fundamentally less stable place.

"It is clear that this political earthquake will have aftershocks throughout the world," said Iain Begg, a senior fellow at the UK in a Changing Europe think tank. "Perhaps the biggest uncertainty will be what happens next in the rest of the EU where the fundamental question will be whether an evidently successful 20th-century project remains valid for the 21st century."

The list of losers from Thursday's result is long: Mr. Cameron, most obviously, and perhaps Labour Party Leader Jeremy Corbyn, too, as senior party members were reportedly preparing a putsch on Friday against a leader seen as having offered only lacklustre support to the Remain side.

The global authority of U.S. President Barack Obama, who advised British voters to stay in the EU, was further dimmed. So, too, was the clout of institutions, including the Bank of England, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, all of which warned of dire economic consequences - some of which appeared to be coming to pass on Friday - only to see those warnings ignored by voters.

The establishment, both in Britain and around the world, took a kick in the teeth from those who feel the world had been spinning too long in the wrong direction.

The winners from Brexit are the usurpers, the rebels: Mr. Johnson and UKIP Leader Nigel Farage in England; Ms. Le Pen, Mr. Wilders and their ilk on the continent.

The Kremlin - which has been accused of providing financial aid to Euroskeptic movements - was celebrating the result, too. Any cracks in EU unity would benefit Russia in its standoff with Washington and Brussels over Ukraine. Speaking Friday, President Vladimir Putin said the vote for a Brexit was caused by "nothing more than overconfidence of the U.K. leadership and its causal attitude to the settlement of the questions momentous for the country and Europe as a whole."

China's Communist Party rulers could also be forgiven for smiling in private. "The West" - which has dominated global politics since 1945 - is a little less whole and strong the day after Britain's populist uprising. Trouble elsewhere means less opposition as Beijing expands its claim to the South China Sea. Chaos in London and Brussels means European politicians won't have time to worry so much about how China treats its subjects in Tibet or Hong Kong.

Another group of losers are young British voters, who cast their ballots overwhelmingly in favour of Remain.

A clear majority of voters under the age of 45 - and almost three-quarters of those between 18 and 24 - were in favour of staying in the EU. They're the generation who see, or had seen, the future as almost borderless. They could work or study wherever interest and opportunity took them.

They were trumped on referendum day by older generations of English voters, who told the politicians - as well as their own children and grandchildren - that they're fed up with rapid mass immigration, and all its accompanying social and economic change.

"They want to go backwards," Ben Mellish, a 21-year-old history graduate, said of older Brits after casting his own vote for Remain on Thursday.

They're about to get their wish.

The next big shocks The gathering storm first looked to be a U.S.-only problem. Just a few months ago, Brits and Europeans were smirking at an increasingly backwardslooking America, and wondering how the world's greatest democracy could allow the advance of someone like Mr. Trump.

Then came the shocking result in last month's presidential elections in Austria. Norbert Hofer, the candidate of the far-right Freedom Party, came within 31,000 votes of winning the job after campaigning - sometimes with a gun on his hip - against a supposed "Muslim invasion" of his country. It was a clear reference to last year's influx of hundreds of thousands of asylum seekers, many of them from the war-torn countries of the Middle East. (The Freedom Party is now challenging the election result in court, hoping to force a rerun.)

It wasn't just Austria. Last Sunday, Virginia Raggi of the anti-establishment Five Star Movement was elected mayor of Rome in a landslide. Opinion polls in France and the Netherlands, which are both due to hold elections in the next year, suggest Ms. Le Pen and Mr. Wilders could provide the next big shocks to the status quo.

Brexit is Britain's version of a Trump presidency. "Dare to dream that the dawn is on an independent United Kingdom," Mr. Farage celebrated as the results became clear Thursday night. "This will be a victory for real people, a victory for ordinary people, a victory for decent people. We have fought against the multinationals, we have fought against the big merchant banks, we have fought against big politics, we have fought against lies, corruption and deceit."

A few hours before, Mr. Farage looked likely to be the scapegoat if - as the opinion polls were suggesting - the Leave side had fallen just short of winning.

He had stepped beyond the fringe of civilized debate, the political and media establishment said, by posing in front of a poster that read "Breaking Point" over a photograph of a long line of Middle Eastern refugees marching into central Europe.

That was too far, pundits expected.

British voters would be repelled by such dog-whistle politics. Mr. Johnson, who took pains not to appear beside Mr. Farage during the campaign, criticized the poster as "not my politics."

When Ms. Cox was murdered a few hours later by a far-right gunman, some predicted a disgusted stampede away from a Brexit and the brand of politics swirling around it.

But the pundits underestimated the depth of the anger in working-class England. The Breaking Point poster, rather than offending voters there, captured the zeitgeist.

Mr. Trump had no trouble seeing the parallels between Brexit's surprise win and his own unexpected rise.

"People are angry all over the world.

They're angry over borders, they're angry over people coming into the country and taking over and nobody even knows who they are," he said in Scotland.

"They're angry about many, many things in the U.K., the U.S. and many other places. This will not be the last."

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LASZLO BALOGH/REUTERS

MATTHIEU ALEXANDRE/GETTY IMAGES

MIKHAIL KLIMENTYEV/AP

REUTERS TV/REUTERS

CHARLES MCQUILLAN/GETTY IMAGES

CLODAGH KILCOYNE/REUTERS

For Kenney, a surprising path beckons
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Despite talk that the politician has been positioning himself as a worthy Harper successor, he's now faced with an unexpected decision
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By ADAM RADWANSKI
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A20


Jason Kenney was surprised and annoyed, last December, to read that he was planning to ditch national politics for a bid to unite Alberta's fractured right.

The prospect wasn't even really on his radar, then; nothing much was, because he was so burnt out after the federal Conservatives' election loss. That didn't stop leadership backers of his erstwhile cabinet colleague Tony Clement from feeding the Kenneyto-Alberta story to the Toronto Star, an obvious attempt to cause trouble for the potential frontrunner for Stephen Harper's old job. To his irritation, friends who talked to him around that time recall, Mr. Kenney had to get on the phone with Wildrose and Progressive Conservative friends in his home province and assure them he had not been secretly plotting to take over and merge their respective parties.

Then a funny thing happened: After Mr. Kenney awoke from his postelection hibernation, and started to consider what came next for him, the mischief-making by the Clement people began to look prescient. Publicly, he is now saying that he will decide by summer's end whether to seek the federal leadership or try to forge a "united alternative" to Alberta's governing NDP (or do neither). Privately, according to several sources close to him, he is leaning toward the provincial option and may move quicker than he has let on.

If he indeed makes that decision, it stands to affect the dynamics of the next elections both nationally and in Alberta. It would also go to show what makes him one of this country's most intriguing politicians - an unusual combination of selfawareness and missionary zeal that bucks typical assumptions about the ambitions of people in his line of work.

A common perception, including among many Tories, is that Mr. Kenney spent most of Mr. Harper's reign successfully positioning himself as the favourite to succeed Mr. Harper as Conservative leader. He tirelessly traversed the country as the Tories' ambassador to immigrant communities, was endlessly available to caucus mates and candidates for fundraisers and built a database that would be the envy of any leadership aspirant. You could watch him at his party's national convention a few weeks ago, cheerily hosting a well-attended hospitality suite, and figure he long waited for this moment.

On the contrary, as one former senior staffer for him puts it, "Jason's been dreading this decision for the last five years or so."

He knew people would expect him to make a run. As arguably the single most important frontline builder of the modern Conservative Party other than Mr. Harper, he would surely be tempted at some level to have his turn at the helm. As a true movement conservative - someone who has been steadfastly trying to shift the country rightward since his days with the Canadian Taxpayers Federation attacking Ralph Klein for being too squishy - he might feel some responsibility to prevent the party from falling into the hands of relative centrists who make apologies for people like him.

But he does not need this, the way many politicians do. He is the rare public office holder who, while certainly confident about his intellect and political skills, does not easily rationalize to himself that he is the best person to front whatever cause he believes in. He also recognizes that being able to win the job does not necessarily make you the right person for it. And based on recent conversations with close allies who have worked for or alongside him, a few considerations seemingly lead him to believe he might not be.

One of those is his energy level for what could be a very long haul. The next Conservative leader has to be willing to endure a lengthy opposition stint, given the decent possibility of Justin Trudeau's Liberals being re-elected at least once, and ideally then serve a couple of terms in government. Mr. Kenney, who claims to have spent roughly 2,000 nights in hotel rooms during the Harper era and all but collapsed when it ended, knows he might struggle to maintain such a pace.

Another is whether he is the best possible candidate to put a fresh face on a party that looked tired by the time it lost power.

Even though he is a very different person from the former prime minister - more approachable, less disciplined, more respectful of Parliament and its institutions, more ideologically dogmatic - he knows his opponents would seek to brand him as Stephen Harper 2.0. With another white, middleaged, not wildly charismatic Albertan, it might not be that difficult to do so.

Related to this is the question of how Mr. Kenney would compete with Mr. Trudeau, on the personality side of politics. Unlike the telegenic Prime Minister with the beautiful family and pop-culture savvy, Mr. Kenney is a workaholic who does not appear to have much of a personal life outside politics, and who turns to a playlist of classical music and Gregorian chants when looking for relaxation. He's a little more relatable than that might suggest, more able than many politicians to have a relaxed conversation in a pub over beers, but that might not easily come across.

And on top of that, there may also be the matter of his social conservatism. It's debatable whether his strong views on abortion and other such issues are as toxic to voters as tends to be believed in Ottawa. But there is no question he would have to spend a lot of time answering questions about them. Although he now accepts same-sex marriage, he would also have to explain himself when opponents dredged up very strident past quotes on matters such as gay rights. Unlike Mr. Harper, Mr. Kenney - a religious Catholic - feels strongly enough about social issues that he is unlikely to want to completely set aside this aspect of his conservatism. That doesn't necessarily mean he's interested in spending half his life defending it.

It's still possible Mr. Kenney will overcome these causes for hesitation and any others besides, and make a federal run. He made a noticeable effort this past winter, after the postelection period in which he went dark, to re-establish public profile and reach out directly to potential backers, presumably to ensure they didn't line up behind someone else yet.

Some of his former staffers, along with other admirers in Ottawa, are still telling him the federal party needs him. His absence from the race potentially contributing to front-runner status for Peter MacKay - a relatively pragmatic Nova Scotian with Progressive Conservative roots, which is to say not a movement Conservative like him - might yet convince him they're right.

But maybe he's willing to take his chances on the next federal leader, comfortable that the foundations of the party he helped build are strong enough not to crumble, whoever is at the helm.

Maybe he can throw his support behind a fellow traveller - someone like Andrew Scheer, the former House of Commons Speaker attracting leadership buzz lately, another arch-conservative (socially and otherwise) but one with more everyman charm.

Maybe Mr. Kenney is more needed somewhere else.

There was a telling moment at that recent Conservative convention, when he appeared on a panel meant to showcase visions for the party's future. Alone among the dozen prospective leadership candidates and up-and-coming caucus members featured on it, he opted not to talk about federal politics at all in his first turn with the microphone. Instead, he pivoted to an impassioned pitch for re-establishing his province as the country's economic engine and conservative ideas factory.

"To my Alberta colleagues here," he concluded, "let's make Alberta again the free-enterprise capital of Canada by working together to defeat the socialists in 2019."

Away from the spotlight, he has been talking in more detail with confidants about what uniting the provincial right would involve. Sources who acknowledged such conversations were circumspect about the details, but hinted at the possibility of Mr. Kenney seeking the leadership of the once-mighty (now thirdplace) Progressive Conservatives, then pursuing a merger with the Official Opposition Wildrose.

By most normal political calculations, this would seem a less inviting prospect than taking a straightforward shot at moving into Stornoway. Provincial opposition can be unglamorous work at the best of times. There are no guarantees, when trying to get politicians to set aside egos and genuine differences in the name of unity; it's conceivable, for instance, that Mr. Kenney could wind up marooned as the leader of the more centrist of Alberta's conservative parties, which would be an odd turn of events.

And that presumes he can at least wind up at one party's helm, which is no sure thing. After the Jim Prentice experience, another federal Conservative coming home to cast himself as saviour couldn't expect all arms to be open.

The uncertain path to leading a single Alberta party of the right, in particular, was enough for even Mr. Kenney to initially be dismissive of the undertaking.

But it's precisely the troubled nature of what he'd be walking into, more than anything else, that seems to be drawing him closer to it.

Mr. Kenney likes to throw himself into a cause and sees himself as a "problem-solver," as a couple of his friends put it. The federal Conservatives, despite last fall's disappointment, are actually in pretty decent shape; as Mr. Harper pointed out during his farewell speech at their convention, this is the least divided their side of the spectrum has been after losing power since John A. Macdonald's day. Their support base is reasonably firm, fundraising strong, grassroots less demoralized than might reasonably be expected. The wrong leader could undo much of that, of course, but his or her job will be as much fronting as fixing.

Alberta's right, on the other hand, needs a big fix to bridge its divide, and if that's achieved, there will be much building required. If Mr. Kenney truly believes Alberta's very identity is at risk, as he implied in Vancouver, then he surely sees urgency to move swiftly before the NDP is up for re-election in three years. And if there is anyone else who has the gravitas and single-mindedness to achieve that swiftness, he or she has yet to materialize.

It might be of added appeal to Mr. Kenney that he would have less need to introduce himself, deal with the Harper 2.0 thing, and have regional resentments or suspicion layered on top of concerns about his social conservatism (which would still be a potential challenge in much of Edmonton and Calgary). And he would certainly enjoy the chance to sleep in his own bed most nights.

That fatigue that set in only a few months ago could yet persuade him to take a pass on trying to lead any party at all. Many of his former cabinet colleagues have gone off to make more money working fewer hours; he could, too, or settle into being an éminence grise.

But whereas he was once reluctant to get into electoral politics at all, preferred loudly advocating from the outside, one gets the sense he has decided he can have the most impact from the front lines. He's getting close to figuring out which front lines those will be.

Follow me on Twitter: @aradwanski

Associated Graphic

Jason Kenney speaks in the House of Commons on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, in January, 2015. The Tory MP, among the most important builders of the modern Conservative Party, says he will decide soon whether to seek the federal leadership or focus more specifically on Alberta.

CHRIS WATTIE/REUTERS

BOOMTOWN
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As Netflix and other networks rush to create series to lure content-hungry markets, Vancouver finds itself at the heart of a television gold rush. Ian Bailey reports on the big business of Peak TV
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By IAN BAILEY
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page R1


VANCOUVER -- When Kendall Green wanted to get ahead in the film and television production industry, she came home to Vancouver.

The 29-year-old B.C. native had spent seven years in Montreal, first as a university photography and design student, then working with "low-budget" TV Web series, including the reality cooking show Bitchin' Kitchen. Then Green checked out what was going on back home, west of the Rockies. "I heard it was hot," she says. "Hot" as in jobs in film and TV were abundant for anyone who wanted them. "The word was, 'There's so much work out here.' " Within a week of her March return to Vancouver, Green had an art-department assistant's job on a major U.S. TV series. "I am 100-per-cent confident I am going to be able to move forward from this job, pretty much immediately, to another," Green says after a long day on set. She adds she is "far better compensated" in Vancouver than she was in Montreal. "I am definitely going to dig in my heels in Vancouver and get some experience and build a résumé and attempt to climb the ladder, while the opportunity is here."

Those opportunities could be available to Green for quite some time.

Business is booming in British Columbia, largely because of foreign - a.k.a. Hollywood - productions. The City of Vancouver is touting a 40-per-cent increase in film and TV production activity in 2015 over 2014, and projects are routinely under way across the Lower Mainland - the slick new city hall in Surrey is an especially popular shooting location - and elsewhere in the province.Why the sudden spike? For starters, Hollywood values Vancouver for its trained crews, studio space and a record for handling such major productions as next month's feature Star Trek Beyond, or the Ryan Reynolds blockbuster Deadpool, which hired more than 2,000 local cast, crew and extras.

Geography gives B.C. another upside. It is closer to Los Angeles than such other production hot spots as Toronto and Atlanta, making it more accessible to U.S. talent and decision-makers.

"They're here in the morning, with no jet lag," says industry veteran Charles Lyall, who just finished a gig as production manager on TV's The Flash, one of seven Warner Bros. series shot in the region. "And they're home for the weekend. Back on Monday.

Back on Sunday night."

The province also provides tax credits, though it has recently trimmed them in consultation with the industry because they were deemed to be costing the province too much. (A production-services tax credit for film and television was forecast to cost B.C. about $500-million in 2015-16, an increase from an average $313-million over the past three years.) A strong U.S. dollar helps, too.

And while TV has long been a major piece of B.C.'s production action - this is the province where the reimagined Battlestar Galactica, Da Vinci's Inquest and The X-Files were made; the Warner Bros series Supernatural has been shot in the province since 2005, generating an estimated $509.2 million in direct expenditure in B.C., according to one study - a major new sustaining force is "Peak TV," the so-called wave of projects from both traditional networks and streaming services hungry for binge-viewing-primed audiences. Original series for Netflix, Amazon and Hulu, for instance, are produced in a season-wide block without the risk of abrupt cancellation, which means guaranteed jobs for B.C. crews - and a crunch to find the most talented workers.

Creative BC, the provincial agency that works with creative sectors, notes that there are 12 ongoing streaming productions, up from just three last year. Some say the hunger for streaming material could even create a kind of perpetual-motion machine for the B.C. production sector - especially given a growing middleclass audience in foreign markets looking, on their smartphones and other devices, for constant entertainment. In April, for example, Netflix CEO Reed Hastings said his company is hoping to surpass 100 million subscribers next year in 190 countries, up from a worldwide audience of 81.5 million. (Netflix, which only started producing original material in 2013, now turns out more new programming than HBO - 450 hours' worth last year alone.)

In B.C., Netflix had five TV series and two feature films in production as of June 7, including the much-anticipated A Series of Unfortunate Events, based on the Lemony Snicket novels of Daniel Handler. Altered Carbon, a science-fiction series for Netflix, will be filmed in a former newspaper plant in Surrey tasked for the effort by Skydance Media, the Hollywood company responsible for the Star Trek and Mission: Impossible franchises. Amazon, meanwhile, has a second season of the alternate-history series The Man in the High Castle, and Hulu has the supernatural series Shut Eye.

"I think everyone's mind is blown right now with the things that Amazon and Netflix and those producers are doing and bringing to the city. There's a huge volume," says location manager Hans Dayal, who's working on locations for the Netflix feature Death Note. "How long that continues depends on how long they think they have got the money to spend."

Asked what front-line workers make of the boom - and any possible end date - and Dayal says, "I'm sure that nobody is really thinking about it other than that they're going to make the most of a good time at the moment."

And while big films are appreciated, it's TV that reliably employs workers. "That's where mortgages are financed," says Pete Mitchell, president and chief executive officer of Vancouver Film Studios, which has 12 purpose-built sound stages in East Vancouver and is home to Arrow and The Flash. Producers of the two superhero shows are, this summer, shifting production on yet another series, Supergirl, from L.A. to Vancouver. (The move, reportedly part of a cost-cutting effort from U.S. network The CW, prompted B.C. Jobs Minister Shirley Bond to post an effusive tweet, surely the first time a provincial cabinet minister has tweeted about Kara Zor-El. "Any time we can bring a popular series like that to film in British Coloumbia, it means we have an advantage," Bond explained later.)

In the 2014-15 fiscal year - the last year for which statistics are available - foreign-made series accounted for $874.6-million in spending in B.C. out of a total $2-billion in production spending.That compares to $658-million for feature films.

Dayal has been in Vancouver for 21 years. He moved west from Brantford, Ont., because he thought opportunities in the production sector would be more accessible on the West Coast. It has worked out and then some, with gigs on more than 25 productions including X2, Watchmen and Steven Spielberg's new film, The BFG. While Dayal sees upsides in the ongoing prosperity, he says there are challenges in the Peak TV boom. "There's a lot of people that work in the business, but not a lot of very experienced people that work in the business. It's hard to tap experienced crew."

Industry vet Lyall agrees that it's all very striking. "It's unbelievable. It's unprecedented. You just show up and you have a job, a full-time job. And you might have a little bit of skill - or no skill - and you can get in by doing."

And there are challenges with locations. "There's a lot of productions in town that are working on top of each other, where you're co-ordinating with other productions all the time for space and locations," says Dayal.

Unlike Toronto or Montreal, large cities with varied streetscapes, both modern and vintage, there are limits in the Vancouver region. "We don't have like 40 blocks of downtown that you can drive through," says Dayal.

"When you're doing a downtown, urban scene, you're battling with other productions to get into spaces."

For example, the same downtown area of the city around Burrard, West Hastings and West Pender Streets has shown up again and again in series ranging from The Flash to Arrow to The 100. "There's only so much downtown," says Dayal. Other cities such as Burnaby and Surrey are building up new streetscapes - Surrey's stylish city hall framed by an aerial SkyTrain track and with a large public square is especially popular. "The looks will be there, but there will still only be a certain kind of look. It's never going to look like Chicago where you have got skyscrapers that have been around for 40 or 50 years or longer," Dayal adds. "It's pretty limited. But it's not undoable."

Efforts to elicit comment from U.S. producers on the B.C. gold rush came to little more than terse statements, or less. But some homegrown experts spoke of a particularly Canadian challenge amid all the blockbuster Hollywood films and series dominating the landscape.

Last year, B.C.-based producer Dylan Jenkinson presided over the production of his first feature film, a thriller entitled Numb, about a couple whose search for treasure in the wilderness takes a sinister turn. It took five years to develop the script for a shoot in the Vernon, B.C., area in 2015. Jenkinson declined to disclose the budget, but says it was about the cost of an episode of a typical Canadian TV program and was financed by a mix of provincial tax credits, Telefilm Canada support, presales and private investors.

The good news, says Jenkinson, is that he was able to negotiate deals on equipment rentals because suppliers are doing well on the production boom and could give him a break. However, he says the film was also made in a lull when crews were available.

"If I tried to shoot something now, it would be incredibly difficult. It's 100-per-cent more busy than when we were shooting," says Jenkinson. "I'd have a hard time finding a film-school student to work with me."

Dayal also says it's tough to make homegrown films because crews and resources are committed to larger, non-Canadian productions. "I know that when it has been slow times and I've said, 'Let's do something, let's make a film,' there's really not that many ways we can get money easily, even though the people that are making the film might have the best résumés or crew," he says.

"Even though we have learned from these geniuses and masters of filmmaking, there's nowhere for us to go if the business falls apart."

While Kendall Green has thought about making her own projects, too, she says she does not know enough about how to get a film or series off the ground.

"It's not why I am interested in working in the industry."

Despite his concerns about the issue, though, Dayal says his run in B.C. production has all been worthwhile. "I'm a sci-fi geek, a little bit of a child of the seventies and eighties. I worked with Spielberg last year. When I left Ontario, I never thought, for a second, that in Vancouver I'd get a chance to work with the maestro," he says.

"If I finished the business today and I was done, I'd say I had the best run. I couldn't ask for more."

DANCE FEVER
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Learning to waltz in Vienna isn't just about the steps, it's a glimpse into the city's history and its future. Catherine Dawson March slips on her dancing shoes and falls in love with ¾ time
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By CATHERINE DAWSON MARCH
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page T1


VIENNA -- I don't think I've been held by a man quite like this before. I can feel his body heat through the thin white gloves as he bows low over my right hand, then steps forward to firmly cup my left shoulder blade. I'm nervous.

He smiles down at me. Timidly, I place my left hand on his shoulder just so - my arm rests on his, while my thumb nestles into the crook of his shoulder joint.

"That way you can read his muscles, sense where Alexander is going to lead you," Aga Chochorek, my instructor, murmurs, and with a swish of her fulllength ball gown, she moves back to the sound system.

As we wait for the music to begin, I giggle, and almost sigh.

I'm in a Viennese ballroom inside a 19th-century palais, arm in arm with a man dressed in tails, shiny black shoes and crisp white bow tie. Alexander is an incredible dancer, and he is 19.

I'm old enough to be his mother. Johann Strauss's Roses from the South waltz begins, and we're off. This is the best vacation I've had in years.

Coming to Vienna to learn the waltz may not be the most original of ideas, but it's the best place to learn. Dance, music, art, architecture - the city thrives on the court ceremony and traditions of the Habsburg monarchy, one of Europe's long-reigning empires.

At times, wandering around Vienna, it can feel like you're living in a Habsburg hangover - the Viennese waltz is living, cultural heritage here. Such a part of everyday life that 15- and 16year-olds take weekly lessons without a fuss. So entrenched that every year 450 balls (a couple attract up to 6,000 dancers), from high-society galas to hiphop-themed events, all move to the waltz at some point. Such a tradition that on New Year's Eve, everyone stops - in the streets, at parties - to waltz to The Blue Danube.

The love affair with 3/4 time probably stems from the Congress of Vienna, when, in 181415, the most important statesmen of Europe - and the dukes, lords and ladies who travelled with them - descended on the capital to reorganize Europe after the Napoleonic wars. It was as much a social event as it was a border-establishing peace agreement.

The parties were legendary and the Viennese waltz - with its genre-bashing, titillating close hold - played a big part. Aristocratic dancing in those days had groups of men and women moving separately with elaborate, complicated steps and little touching. By contrast, the Viennese waltz was a simple, moving box step that brought dancers close and paired them off as they twirled about the floor.

There are more than 30 dance schools in the city, some with a weekly drop-in class, but I found one that not only taught me the steps, but introduced me to the culture. Waltz in Vienna is a boutique dance academy downtown on the edge of the Ringstrasse where students are welcomed into the parlour of a 19th-century palais that overlooks the leafy Beethovenplatz.

(It also has a gorgeous 17th-century ballroom for larger groups in the heart of the Old Town.)

"It's not just about the steps, it's about the history and tradition," said Chochorek, who is also a co-owner of the private studio. "This is not like going to a dance school. ... We want to create an experience where guests can dive into the culture."

Here in the bel étage, I chat with my instructors (who teach in full white-tie regalia) over Viennese coffee about the traditions of the dance, the etiquette and the city's thriving ball season. This informative icebreaker helps calm my pre-dancing nerves. Now intrigued, and perhaps even a little awed, I was led into the ballroom next door.

We started slowly with a Schubert serenade and then a Mozart minuet, and I worked my way up to what really makes the Viennese version stand out from other waltzes - the constant turning (clockwise or counterclockwise) in quick 3/4 time.

I'm almost panting after Alexander and I whirl about to Tales from the Vienna Woods by Strauss.

Sensing when I need a breather - or to protect those shiny black shoes from being stepped on - he leads me into a schunkelling, a strictly Viennese move that lets us (well, me) recalibrate to the beat, before we're off again. Later, Alexander tells me that he danced four balls a week in the main January-to-February season, spending all night - they don't end until 5 a.m. - on the dance floor before heading home.

The aesthetic precision of the Viennese waltz - how you hold your upper body, the deceptively simple, quick-footed box step - really gets your heart pumping.

But I can't figure out if my face is flushed from the workout or because I am living out my princess fantasies. Being led onto a dance floor in a swirl of traditional ballroom etiquette followed by a hand kiss and curtsey will do that to a girl.

Later that day, I drop in on the dance classes at the Elmayer school in the centre of Vienna's Old Town; it has been teaching locals since 1919. Standing on the herringbone-wood dance floor of this small, historic studio, owner Thomas Schafer-Elmayer tells me that between 300 to 600 young dancers trod these floors every day in the busy season.

Three generations of his family have run the school, and after a business career that took him all over the world, he succumbed and joined the family business, still teaching the odd group at the age of 70. He is a celebrity in these parts - he's a judge in Austria's Dancing Stars, he has written five books on etiquette and he runs the opening dance at several of the city's top balls. Lately, SchaferElmayer said, his school held waltz classes for Syrian refugees even though only the boys showed up to learn.

It's an example of how the waltz continues to play a big role in the city's culture, even as it changes.

Conservative traditions are also tweaked by Viennese who find their fun outside the traditional boy-girl constraints. LGBT dancers flock to the annual Rainbow Ball and the HIV/AIDS fundraiser that has turned into Europe's biggest charity: the Life Ball.

Since I showed up at the Elmayer school in a small group without dance partners, SchaferElmayer has us block out the waltz steps individually, over and over again until he thinks we might have it.

"As an Austrian gentleman," he tells us, "you are not allowed to turn down a lady who wants to dance." When no one takes the bait, Schafer-Elmayer simply holds out his palm for a partner.

Confident, I raise mine into his for the hand kiss as I curtsey. But when I raise my arms into position, he pulls me in tight - waaaay closer than Alexander dared - and off we go. So this is what got the aristocrats all excited, I realized as we took off to The Blue Danube. Until, inevitably, I stumble and happily hand him off to the next student.

On our way out, we need to pass through one of Elmayer's classes.

About 50 teens pair off around the long, rectangular, slightly musty studio to prepare for the coming season when, as debutantes, they will be invited to open balls all over the city. The cool kids, the nerds, the pimply, the fashionistas - all are dressed in their Sunday best on a Tuesday afternoon. The boys wear white gloves, the girls are in small heels, some are bored, some embarrassed, a few look thrilled to be holding each other so close.

Their instructor stops and starts them often - correcting steps or posture or etiquette - and as I watch I can see how their bodies move like the pieces of a puzzle coming together in time to the music.

Standing in this old ballroom filled with young kids learning a 200-year-old dance, I'm mesmerized. Next season, I'm coming back with my own ball gown.

Maybe I'll run into Alexander.

The writer was a guest of Austrian Airlines and Vienna Tourism. They did not review or approve this article.

IF YOU GO

Pack your leather-soled shoes and book one of the daily direct flights into Vienna on Austrian Airlines; more daily stopover flights are found on Lufthansa and Air Canada.

(Book on Austrian and you can also bid on a first-class seat through their website - it's called a "Smart Upgrade" - and works like an auction. The effort may just be worth it to try out the flat-bed seats and Viennese meals, including 10 types of Viennese coffee concoctions after dinner.)

WHERE TO LEARN

Waltz classes aren't hard to find, but if you attend a bespoke lesson at Waltz in Vienna, you'll also be schooled in the history, culture and etiquette of the dance in a private palais. Private and small group lessons (no more than 10 couples) should be booked online and run twice daily Monday through Saturday. You'll pay extra if you leave your partner back at the hotel, but it may be worth it to be paired up with a local expert. From 38 for group and 45 for private lesson. 3 Kantgasse; waltzvienna.com.

Viennese families have been sending their teenagers to Elmayer Dance School since 1919. Located in the midst of the 1st district, right across the street from the Lipizzaner Spanish Riding School, visitors can book into a dance class in one of two vintage studios, or head over on a whim: drop-in hour-long lessons are held every Saturday at 4 p.m. (but you must bring a partner).

45/couple drop-in; 62/couple or single for private lesson. 13 Braeunerstrasse, elmayer.at/en.

WHERE TO STAY

If you really want to do it right, spend a night in the summer home of Emperor Franz Joseph, one suite in the Schonbrunn Palace can be booked as a hotel room. Inside the UNESCO palace, the guest suite features Imperial-style furnishings with a view over the gloriette and palace park. From 1,400 a night. 47 Schonbrunner Schlossstrasse; thesuite.at/en.

Right in the historic 1st ditrict, Ritz Carlton Vienna is a fine five-star located right beside Waltz in Vienna. (Excursions into the world of waltzing can be arranged by the hotel.) Four connected 19thcentury palaces house 202 rooms. Make sure you take a drink (or a yoga class) on the rooftop bar for the view over Vienna. Rooms from 390. 5 Schubertring, ritzcarlton.com/ vienna.

Associated Graphic

The Opera Ball, held inside the Vienna State Opera, is one of the city's top social events of the season.

WIENTOURISMUS

Top, couples waltz across the studio floor at Elmayer Dance School in Vienna. The waltz contniues to play a big role in the city's culture, even as it changes. TOP: SUSAN PORTNOY; CENTRE LEFT: CATHERINE DAWSON MARCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; CENTRE RIGHT: NICOLE PREUSS/RITZ CARLTON VIENNA; BOTTOM RIGHT: CATHERINE DAWSON MARCH/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

'Playing on the edge of laws'
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Ed Waitzer Partner, Stikeman Elliott LLP
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By TIM KILADZE
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page B2


TORONTO -- During my first year at The Globe and Mail, a senior colleague suggested I sit in on a class she taught with a top corporate lawyer. Her fellow instructor, Ed Waitzer, had managed Stikeman Elliott, one of Bay Street's most prestigious corporate law firms, and she swore the law school students and I would learn a lot.

She wasn't lying. Canadian corporate and securities law can be mind numbing; there's a dearth of salacious insider-trading scandals and the trials for high-profile cases often take years to start. But Mr. Waitzer had a way of approaching it from fascinating prisms, making you care more than you thought you ever could.

"I want to have sex with his brain," one former student once told me.

Five years later, that brilliant mind, and the man attached to it, is sitting in front of me at Mercatto in downtown Toronto on one of those glorious late-spring Fridays. Mr. Waitzer's attire matches the mood: Blue jeans, navy loafers, dark blazer - and dress shirt unbuttoned at the top, letting his copious chest hair flow.

We've talked many times over the years, yet the lawyer-turnedacademic has remained somewhat of an enigma. He climbed to the highest echelons of corporate law, despite progressive political views that had his early colleagues calling him a "Commie".

He served as the chief watchdog at the Ontario Securities Commission, Canada's leading securities regulator, but also gave legal advice to Conrad Black.

He is also one of the few successful Bay Street types to break norms. For most advisers, legal or financial, the firm always comes first. Mr. Waitzer, meanwhile, took a year-long sabbatical in Chile while still technically running the law firm, moving his young kids with him to boot.

His approach to law is rather unconventional. "You make it up," he says.

"I spent my legal career playing on the edge of laws to see how you can change systems," he explains. In 2008, he served as a top legal adviser to BCE Inc. during its proposed $35-billion leveraged buyout. What started as a traditional takeover grew to be so contentious that the Supreme Court eventually had to step in. At the heart of that case: whether the buyer, a group led by the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, was slapping on so much debt that it made existing BCE bondholders suffer.

The Supreme Court ruled in BCE's favour and its lengthy decision laid out ground rules for the way to conduct future transactions. The ruling "helped shift more responsibility to directors, and made it clear that acting in the best interests of the corporation allows directors to consider the interests of a broader range of stakeholders," Mr. Waitzer argues - not just short-term-oriented shareholders.

He has also, in some ways, made up his own career path. Most advisers are confined to a single sector, such as mining, or to a certain type of expertise, such as mergers and acquisitions; Mr. Waitzer has been peripatetic. His latest project is pension reform from the private sector. His mission, if you can call it that, is to persuade Canada's largest financial institutions to offer low-cost pension products that meet the needs of 85 per cent of the population - akin to exchange-traded funds for retirement savings.

"There are just so many interesting things to do in life. So many kids think there's a straight path and they lose all that peripheral vision," he says of his restlessness. Let loose. Go for it. "It's a very liberating way to think about your life."

Over purple kale salad with a truffle vinaigrette, followed by seafood linguine, Mr. Waitzer, who was raised in Toronto, explains he was always drawn to counterculture. In high school, he helped start an alternative school in the basement of a Jewish community centre, got it accredited, then failed Grades 12 and 13 because he was so busy running it, among other things. The only reason he got into the University of Toronto was because the registrar served on the committee that approved the experiment. (The school, which is called SEED, still exists.)

He lasted only two years at U of T. Inspired by Pierre Trudeau's call for citizen participation to help build Canada, he spent minimal time in class. One of his ideas: to take some of the newly created Canadian cable licences that were dedicated as community channels and use them for community organizing, borrowing from Brazilian educator Paulo Freire's then-progressive idea to use video to teach adult literacy - something that produced astonishing results.

"I never intended to practise law," he explains, saying he weighed it against becoming a rabbi. Law won, partly "because it was a three-year degree." But he had a big problem: writing the LSATs, the universal admissions test. He hadn't studied math since Grade 11. "All I had going into the math part was, 'Your first guess is your best guess,' " he explains.

Going on hunches, he finished the exam in no time. When he got the results, he scored among the highest percentiles for the English portion, but horribly in math. Yet the invigilator had marked down that he was sick when he walked out, "so they let me into law school."

After graduating at 22 and articling with Ian Scott, who ran a boutique litigation firm and was doing work for the Mackenzie Valley pipeline, he moved to a job with the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1978, where he dug into policy.

From there he went to Stikeman Elliott, which involved spending three years in New York, and later jumped to the OSC in the mid-90s.

Then, he thought about giving it all up. "When I left the securities commission, I had severed all ties with Stikeman," he says. "I didn't think I'd go back to the law firm."

Feeling a little lost, he borrowed an office from a friend and spent his days talking to people - even a psychologist. Some of the feedback was startling. "Whatever you do, don't go back to the law firm," said John Tory Sr., co-founder of Torys LLP and later the Thomson family's consigliere. (The Thomsons own The Globe and Mail.)

This was all very strange advice, considering Mr. Tory had started one of the country's top firms with his brother. "The more different things you've done in life, the fuller and richer life will seem to you," Mr. Waitzer recalls being told.

Mr. Waitzer explored a few entrepreneurial ideas, but he kept getting calls from law firms and investment banks. "As I got those approaches, I sort of asked myself why would I go somewhere where I don't know the people and the culture," he says. So he went back to Stikeman Elliott, but laid down some new rules - one of which was that he would have no managerial responsibility. That didn't last long. In 1999, he was named chair for the entire firm, a position he held until 2006.

Now 62, he appreciates his profession in ways he never imagined. "If I was starting all over again, law would be even more attractive ... because political markets have become so thin," he says.

Politicians rarely show the grit necessary to shake up systems, while courts have been become much more active. "The way you end up changing things is in private law."

Technically, he's become a fulltime academic with a few side gigs, such as his chairmanship of the LCBO, Ontario's liquor distribution monopoly, but he still practises law and keeps an office at Stikeman Elliott. When he vaulted into academia, he thought he'd be absorbed in deep conversations about business and law.

The reality was much different.

"You walk up and down the hall at the law school or the business school and no one's there," he says. At the firm, "I can test my thinking against people who are way smarter than me."

As we wind down, I ask about the future of Big Law. He doesn't hold back. "Eighty per cent of what you do in a law firm ... is stuff that can be commoditized in one way or another, so the cost structure is going to change," he argues. "But the actual practice of law at the high end, where you're doing stuff that actually makes a difference, is going to be a lot more accessible and a lot more exciting."

He knows that sounds rather rose-coloured, so he acknowledges disruption is never easy. Law school students are paying tens of thousands in tuition to get highpaying jobs that may not be there in a few years. But he strongly believes everyone needs to let go a little - particularly senior lawyers who have been practising for years.

"I saw it at the law firm," Mr. Waitzer says, recalling his days running Stikeman Elliott. So many partners were making more money than they could almost anywhere else, and they'd ratcheted up their lifestyles. Feeling trapped, "they just couldn't imagine doing anything else.

"You make money. You lose money. You have divorces," he says matter-of-factly. Explore.

"Life happens and you have very little control over the timing, so you go for things when they present themselves."

CURRICULUM VITAE

Age: 62

Raised in: Toronto

Education: Law degree, University of Toronto

Family: Twice married, currently in a long-term relationship. Five kids, all boys: "In the list of things I've done in my life, by far the most rewarding."

Reads: Five to six newspapers daily, all at the end of the day.

Includes The Globe and Mail, which he reads in a steam bath "until it wilts."

Current jobs: Jarislowsky Dimma Mooney chair in corporate governance; joint appointment between Osgoode Hall Law School and Schulich School of Business; chair of the LCBO; vice-chair of a Chilean public company Sociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile SA (SQM); partner, Stikeman Elliott LLP

Lives: In Toronto, but has a place in Santiago, where he spends a few days a month.

Unique experiences: Recently spent five years on the committee that selected Rhodes Scholars from Ontario.

What he's learned about policy: While running the OSC, "I realized the media was my most effective instrument.

I was supposed to be a regulator, but my real instrument was that I had a soapbox, and what I said in the media had a huge impact on what I was doing."

Why law firms have been so slow to change: "Law firms are incredibly conservative because they're structured as partnerships. ... The way you become a manager in a law firm is you be a good lawyer, and that gives you internal credibility" - but that may not make you the best manager.

Associated Graphic

RACHEL IDZERDA FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A taste of home
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Project brings women together where they can cook, make money and regain a sense of community
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By MAHNOOR YAWAR
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page M1


Sinaa Fakhereddin does not like eggs. She makes that clear to a kitchen full of strangers when she is asked to add an egg to the pot on the stove. Never in her life has she made sauce with eggs and she's not about to start now. The other women are tense, not willing to argue with a 67-year-old woman who has seen more and done more than any of them.

"Mom, just add the egg. It doesn't matter," mutters 27-yearold Muhammed Aboura, laughing.

Ms. Fakhereddin arrived in Toronto just a week ago to join her son, who has been here a year.

The two are Syrian refugees sponsored by members of the United Church of Canada, and they are keenly aware that they haven't gone through the hardships that many others in the kitchen have, most of whom are on government assistance.

Mr. Aboura is just relieved to have his mother here, safe and protected from the Syrian regime.

"I got to eat my mother's cooking for the first time in three years last week. I couldn't stop crying," he says.

He watches her carefully, ready to jump in and help communicate if necessary. He spent time researching how to help newly arrived women adjust to life in Canada, and it led him to the Newcomer Kitchen.

Len Senater runs the Depanneur, an informal kitchen in Toronto's Dufferin Grove area hosting culinary experiments of all kind. His newest project was founded on a simple idea: bringing Syrian women into a large, shared kitchen so that they could cook meals for their families while they were stuck in hotels on arrival.

In the few weeks since it began, the idea has expanded into a weekly pop-up event, made open to the public.

"By leveraging the popularity of pop-up dining, we're clearing the path to the amazing latent talent that is in this community, so they can find a way to monetize their skills in a way that is dignified and equitable," Mr. Senater says.

Every Thursday, the Newcomer Kitchen hosts 10 to 12 women, sometimes with children in tow, to cook a set amount of meals that are put up for sale and to socialize. The 48 or so meals have sold out in less than three hours.

Each cook takes home about $15 an hour for her hard work, as well as a portion of the food to feed her family.

Mr. Senater even sells a weekly "guest chef" ticket for people who want to work alongside the women and learn from them.

"The Syrian cultural tradition is among the oldest in the history of the world. This is the cradle of civilization, the birthplace of agriculture, the foundational cuisine of the Western world," he says. "This incredible wealth of heritage and knowledge and skill is not owned by chefs or restaurants. It's owned by mothers and grandmothers and their mothers and generations of women who make these dishes."

The project is especially poignant as many Syrians celebrate their first Ramadan in Canada this month. The hours are gruelling - adults don't eat or drink for almost 17 hours a day - and for many of them, the isolation is the hardest part.

The kitchen usually rings with Syrian music, but in respect for those observing Ramadan, it echoes only with the sounds of clanking pots and loud chatter this week. The only external interruptions come from trucks loudly turning the corner outside the open door, or from someone's cellphone ringing out the call to prayer.

The menu for this particular day includes shishbarak, crunchy meat and onion dumplings in a creamy yogurt-based sauce, and fasolia bel zait, green beans slowcooked in a flavourful tomato sauce. Both are served with a side of rice and vermicelli, and a traditional light potato salad. Dessert is nammoura, a semolina cake carefully massaged with lemoninfused sugar syrup and garnished with almonds.

Volunteer Roula Ajib is tasked with the challenge of gathering these women from around the city, crowdsourcing a menu and getting them to cook in the standard Syrian manner.

Ms. Ajib facilitates communication between the women, who don't speak any English, and volunteers, who don't speak any Arabic. She is everywhere at once - a pot passed this way, an ingredient found in this cabinet, a pie lifter switched out for a serving spoon - with a loving, understanding smile.

Mrs. Ajib has lived in Canada for three years, and she remembers well how hard her first Ramadan here was.

"Fasting itself isn't hard. After the second day, you get used to it," she says. "Ramadan is nicer in [the Middle Eastern] community.

All of your country is celebrating, even Christians. There are lights on all the houses, mosques, churches. People go to the stone ovens to make their own bread."

"The most magical thing is gathering friends and family. The sound of the adhan [call to worship]. People waiting on their balconies to hear the sound of the cannon [signalling Maghrib, when they can break the fast]. I miss those things."

Her reminiscence is cut short when she quickly asks someone to add an egg here, chop the green beans this way. This is her Everest, trying to gently coax the women out of their comfort zone, the recipes ingrained in them, into a more democratically chosen set of instructions.

"It's what food and religion have in common," Mr. Senater says. "Every village, every valley, every province has a different way of doing things, and everyone has the only right way."

The day's cooks handle unfamiliar tools with the confidence of warriors. Older women shove the younger ones aside to show them how to knead the dough, how to throw your body into the rolling pin, how to stuff dumplings generously and evenly.

They delicately carve green beans in half with wieldy butcher knives. As pounds and pounds of onions are chopped and the men have to leave the kitchen to avoid the sting, their eyes barely water.

Some of them break into nervous giggles as a plastic tray, mistakenly placed in the oven, emerges a melted mess. There were at least 50 fresh dumplings on there, now gone to waste. No matter. Everyone moves on quickly, making more.

The women, ranging in age from 25 to 72, come from every corner of Syria and every camp outside it. Some have never heard of each other's home villages, but know exactly which intersection of Toronto they live near now.

They talk about their lives, argue intensely about ingredients, trade survival tips to hack the lives they've been given into something resembling the lives they miss.

One explains how to make cheap laban, a Middle Eastern form of strained yogurt that is more tangy than the variety found in the market. Another quietly talks about how frustrating her husband's inactivity makes her, while her companion sympathetically clicks her tongue and talks about her husband leaving her after they moved to Toronto. "Problems," she says by way of explanation. "Too much problems."

The women don't have very much in common, but some things they all agree on. Such as eating meat-based dishes for two days, followed by a day of being vegetarian to cleanse the system, in the Levantine tradition. They all know that Ramadan is about family. They smile wistfully when they talk about theirs, left behind in fragments all over the Middle East.

"My sister loves me so much," says Mayada Alzaal, 34, who moved here with her husband and five children in January. "She knew I couldn't cook very well, so she would bring all my favourite foods to me, precooked, whenever we had iftar [a meal served at the end of the day during Ramadan, to break the day's fast]."

Ms. Alzaal's days are different now. Neither she nor her husband, both former teachers, has a job yet. Their two-bedroom apartment in Etobicoke is far too tight for a family of their size, and she says her neighbour has been complaining about the noise since the day they moved in.

She feels that she has more dignity here than at her camp in Jordan, but only barely.

The Newcomer Kitchen project came to fruition thanks to Esmaeel Aboufakher, 28, and his wife of just a year, Rahaf Alakbani, 25, who met Mr. Senater at a fundraiser.

The two were the last to be matched with a residential space in the wave of government-sponsored refugees brought to Toronto, as preference was given to people with more children. They created a small ad hoc community of everyone they met in the first hotel they stayed at, and the next, and stayed in touch with everyone. It was easy to pull together women with that kind of link, sidestepping the bureaucracy that often holds such projects back.

Mr. Senater believes that the project is much bigger than the Depanneur itself. The Newcomer Kitchen catered at the Luminato festival last weekend, an opportunity to kickstart a FundRazr campaign to establish a standalone kitchen for these women.

Mr. Senater wants the success of his initiative to serve as a playbook, capable of being replicated in any kitchen willing to open its doors to migrant women around the country and the rest of the world.

For now, it helps new Toronto residents such as Ms. Fakhereddin, who discreetly tastes the fare to make sure that the seasoning is up to par with her own standards. She prays five times a day, but her age prevents her from being able to fast, much as she wants to.

She already speaks quite a bit of English, even as she complains that her son, the former English instructor, won't teach her to speak more.

Is it tough to adjust to the new lifestyle?

"My mom was a rebel. She was the only woman who didn't wear the hijab in her little town, and I'm openly gay, so I was a rebel too," says Mr. Aboura, who is no longer supervising his mom so he can roll some dough himself.

"She'll get there. She's a tough woman."

Associated Graphic

Four-year-old Jore Almasri poses outside the Depanneur, where her mom is inside taking cooking with other Syrian women.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Members of the Syrian refugee community gather at the Depanneur to prepare and cook traditional Syrian meals on June 9. This is the first Ramadan for those who have settled in Canada, so they won't be able to partake in what they cooked that day.

PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A housing reno job like no other
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Evan Siddall, President and CEO, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp.
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By TAMSIN MCMAHON
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page B4


TORONTO -- Midway through lunch in downtown Toronto, Evan Siddall offers up an unexpected insight coming from someone who runs a housing regulator.

"Houses are a hassle," says the president and chief executive of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. over mushroom pizza and decaf Americano. Then, catching himself, he demurs: "The head of CMHC shouldn't say that."

Years before finding his way into the public sector, Mr. Siddall was a rising star in the investment banking world with a large home in Toronto, a Muskoka cottage and a winter cabin.

These days, the head of Canada's housing agency owns little in the way of real estate. He and his wife sold their Toronto laneway house last year. Mr. Siddall, 51, rents in Ottawa and usually commutes to meetings in Toronto from his home in Collingwood, Ont., where his wife, Garnet Pratt Siddall, now heads craft brewery Side Launch Brewing Co. In fact, Mr. Siddall has chosen the restaurant, Pizzeria Libretto, in part because it serves his wife's beer.

I ask the man in charge of steering Canada's uneven housing market through turbulent economic waters whether he thinks houses are a good investment.

"You know, I'm not sure they are now in Canada," he replies.

"I've never made a lot of money in the housing market, strangely enough, even though my generation has, and I've lived in New York and I've lived in Toronto."

His opinion seems less surprising if you consider that, since being hired in 2014 to run CMHC, he has been tasked with pouring buckets of ice water on housing markets in B.C.'s Lower Mainland and Southern Ontario that refuse to cool down amid historically low interest rates.

Once an organization that largely toiled in obscurity, CMHC has been thrust into the spotlight by a global financial crisis precipitated in part by "irrational exuberance" about the infallibility of residential real estate prices.

Canada managed to avoid the worst of the meltdown, but now there are mounting concerns that the country is in the midst of its own housing bubble, prompting questions about whether taxpayers are shouldering too much of the risk by backstopping CMHC's mortgage insurance and securitization businesses.

Mr. Siddall is not indifferent to those concerns. "There are things that keep me up at night all the time," he says. "We run a half-trillion dollars of risk, and I don't want to be the [first] CEO of CMHC who experiences a loss."

Mr. Siddall arrived at CMHC after a two-year stint at the Bank of Canada as a special adviser to Mark Carney, a long-time friend.

He says he came to the agency without any preconceived notions, although he was attracted by former Conservative finance minister Jim Flaherty's comments that the Crown corporation had grown too grand and needed to be refocused.

While much of the reform work predates Mr. Siddall, under his watch the CMHC has scaled back its mortgage-default insurance business and curbed risks in the housing market, recently tightening rules by raising minimum down payments.

He has continued to shrink CMHC's share of the mortgage insurance market, from as high as 90 per cent during the depths of the financial crisis to slightly above 50 per cent today. Two successive hikes in CMHC's mortgage-insurance premiums were aimed at giving s private-sector competitors an advantage.

Mr. Siddall envisions CMHC's market share falling no lower than 40 per cent: Too large a share, he says, and CMHC would have trouble scaling up in a crisis; too small and it might struggle to fulfill its mandate to be a truly national insurer and remain profitable. It makes between $1.5-billion and $2-billion a year in profit.

He has also sought to make CMHC more transparent, publishing housing market research and updates of its mortgage insurance and securitization businesses.

But of all the changes, Mr. Siddall seems most enthusiastic about orchestrating a major internal shakeup of the organization that he says had become overly bureaucratic and reflexively defensive to criticism. Since 2014, CMHC has laid off 200 employees, reassigned 500 others and added staff on its research, policy and risk-management side.

The moves were not driven by government cost-cutting, he says, but by a need to reassert CMHC's central role in shaping Canada's housing-market strategy.

"We had lost our seat at that table from a policy-making point of view. By thinking more profoundly and deeply about the role we could play as a public-policy tool, we've regained the credibility of having a seat at the table."

Still, he sees more work to be done. He has been a proponent of "risk-sharing" for lenders who rely on CMHC's mortgage insurance. He also thinks the agency may need to do more to reform its portfolio insurance business, which allows lenders to insure "low-ratio" mortgages, those with at least 20 per cent equity.

This year, he is spearheading what is likely to be CMHC's most politically sensitive exercise: tackling the issue of foreign investment in the housing market.

Mr. Siddall admits he hasn't worked out his own stance on the issue. On the one hand, he's worried an influx of foreign cash could distort CMHC's economic models, which are premised on the idea that housing markets have historically responded to changes in the local employment, not distant economies. On the other hand, he considers some of the dialogue around foreign buyers to have elements of xenophobia and nationalism.

Mr. Siddall himself is the child of an immigrant - his father came to Canada from England in 1957.

Born in Toronto, he was one of three boys raised in Georgetown, Ont. "My life is full of dumb luck, lots of dumb luck. Look, I was born white, male, Canadian, ablebodied and in full possession of my mental faculties. I could only screw it up."

He attended the University of Guelph, playing football and studying management economics, and later getting a law degree.

After school, he joined brokerage Burns Fry, which eventually became BMO Nesbitt Burns, getting his first taste of public-sector life as an adviser on CN Rail's privatization in the early 1990s.

When he joined CMHC nearly 20 years later, he worried his work on a high-profile government privatization might affect his reputation at a time when politicians were musing about privatizing the housing agency itself.

"First of all, I was an investment banker. Secondly, if people saw I'd been involved in the privatization of a major Crown corporation, the employees would say: 'Oh, here he comes.' " His work on CN's public offering got Mr. Siddall noticed by Goldman Sachs, which also worked on the deal. He took a job with the bank in New York, where he met his wife and first crossed paths with Mr. Carney. As fellow Canadians, they socialized, chatted policy and briefly shared a client, Ballard Power Systems.

Mr. Siddall returned to Canada in 2002, recruited as managing director of the Canadian arm of investment bank Lazard. In yet another instance of impeccable timing, he resigned from Lazard the Friday before Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy in 2008, and took a job as a senior executive at Irving Oil, until his departure in 2010.

It was around that time that he met up with Mr. Carney for a chat at Balzac's, a coffee shop in Toronto's Distillery District. By then, Mr. Carney was Canada's rock-star central banker and was heading up the international Financial Stability Board.

"I said to him, 'So, two years on, what have you big brains done to solve the financial crisis and prevent it happening again?' " he recalls. "And Mark, in his classic way, leans across the table to me and he says: 'We're working on it.

What have you done?' "Mr. Siddall joined the Bank of Canada in early 2012 as a special adviser to Mr. Carney, working on a "bail-in" proposal for major banks. When Mr. Carney left to run the Bank of England, Mr. Siddall planned to return to finance, but Mr. Carney again intervened.

"He says 'not so fast, you kind of like this public-sector stuff.' And truthfully, I did. Funny, I didn't even realize then how much."

His CMHC appointment runs for another two years, although Mr. Siddall is already in talks with the board about a possible extension.

That conversation continues despite a rare setback in Mr. Siddall's lucky streak. Two years ago, he began to notice that his left hand would shake when he yawned and left leg began to flex when he was cycling. He was diagnosed with early-onset Parkinson's disease and is now on medication to control his symptoms. An avid cyclist, he began a charity bike ride in Collingwood that last year raised $200,000 for Parkinson's research.

"It's been kind of a dose of perspective," he says. "I do reflect on how lucky I am. If this is the worst thing that happens to me, life's pretty good." CURRICULUM VITAE

Age: 51

Place of Birth: Toronto

Education: BA in management economics from the University of Guelph; LLB from Osgoode Hall Law School

Family: Married to Garnet Pratt Siddall; two children from a previous marriage: Zach, 25, and Zoe, 18

On his bookshelf right now: Originals by Adam Grant; Mindset by Carol Dweck; Infinite Jest by David Foster Wallace

Sports: Skiing, cycling

Drives: A Tesla

Leadership lessons from his daughter: "My daughter is one of these beautiful people who just makes people feel great.

You know [when] you bump into those people and you just feel great in their presence? If we as leaders can do that to people we work with, then we build great companies - because they're motivated.

But think of what we can do for their lives."

Lesson from being married to a craft beer entrepreneur: "I've learned that the flavour range associated with beer is so wide, way wider than wine.

A dirty little secret about wine is if you serve red and white wine at the same temperature, most people can't tell the difference."

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RACHEL IDZERDA FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Victims of Burnaby's boom
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Rapid growth is displacing many in a city that now provides the lower mainland's second-largest stock of rental housing
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By KERRY GOLD
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S6


BURNABY, B.C. -- Martin Lenin Fernandez's property manager has stopped by again to make sure that he and his family are out of their apartment by the end of the month.

I've come by to interview Mr. Fernandez, and the property manager, who's all business, has shown up at the same time.

Mr. Fernandez pulls notes from his backpack to show his landlord that he's been looking in vain for an affordable apartment.

With a vacancy rate of less than 1 per cent, he's up against fierce competition for units that are renting for around $1,400 to $1,800 a month.

Mr. Fernandez makes $2,500 to $3,000 a month as a tiler and granite installer. He is currently on disability as a result of surgery for a hernia.

"I don't want you to think I'm not looking," Mr. Fernandez tells the property manager. "But it's been a bit of a problem."

Amacon Developments took over management of the threestorey building at 5025 Imperial St. when it bought it a year ago, with plans to redevelop.

In the spring, the tenants were given eviction notices, and most have already moved out of the building. There is a pile of discarded books by the front entrance. The building feels empty. The developer needs the remaining 10 tenants out by June 30, so they can keep on schedule with plans to launch presales for a 26-storey condo tower.

The developer also purchased nearby 6729 and 6789 Marlborough Ave., and tenants in those buildings have also received eviction notices.

All around Mr. Fernandez's apartment block are buildings under construction or "Coming Soon."

Developers are lured by Burnaby, B.C.'s development process, which, compared with Vancouver's, is a streamlined one. And while the displacement of hundreds of low-income people has generated some community pushback, critics say the city has not taken meaningful steps to protect its most vulnerable citizenry.

In fact, the City of Burnaby is looking at officially rezoning the entire Metrotown area for buildings of 12 storeys and taller - a plan that goes to council in August and could displace hundreds more. Public consultation is under way.

Inside his cluttered apartment, Mr. Fernandez tells me it's the third or fourth time the manager has come by to ensure they'll be out. He needs a large onebedroom or small two-bedroom apartment that he will share with his mother and two sons, ages five and six. He does not own a car, so he'd prefer to be near transit, schools and shopping, as he is now.

Mr. Fernandez has been living at the three-storey building on Imperial Street for eight years. He pays $725 a month for the one bedroom, plus utilities.

His mother, who also came to Canada years ago as a refugee from Nicaragua, sits at the kitchen table. She has a bad cough, and he believes it is the result of a bathroom leak and possible mould.

The only other resident remaining on their floor is a woman in her 90s, who's in frail health, Mr. Fernandez says. A few days ago, a war veteran moved out of his apartment and in with a friend.

Burnaby has the second-biggest rental market in the region, with one-third of its housing stock used for rental.

People such as Mr. Fernandez are wondering: Why would council consider a plan to rezone the area for more development when so many people are being displaced?

Councillor Colleen Jordan, who's in charge of housing, did not return my calls. On Wednesday, I was told that Mayor Derek Corrigan was not available for an interview.

Mr. Corrigan has argued that the buildings are at the end of their life span. He's also blamed the provincial and federal governments for not providing more social housing. And he's cited the city's growth.

Growth is the oft-used rationale for rezoning. It's forecasted 125,000 more people will move into Burnaby within the next two decades. More supply, the argument goes, will solve the affordability crisis. But from the viewpoint of those at the low end of the pay scale, it is exacerbating it.

There is a segment of the population that is paying dearly for the money-making machine that is Vancouver's real estate market.

University of British Columbia academics Craig Jones and David Ley released an article in the spring edition of The Canadian Geographer about Burnaby's rampant demolitions along the SkyTrain corridor, causing the displacement of low-income workers, many of them immigrants and refugees.

Because transit-oriented development is a policy embraced by many as the panacea for affordability, those older apartment blocks are now seen as acceptable targets for gentrification.

For example, in 2011, Burnaby introduced "S" zoning around its SkyTrain stations to target lowrise rental housing. The new zoning opened the doors for developers to negotiate for maximum density - in exchange for amenity contributions to the community, or cash in lieu, or non-market housing. That one move changed everything, according to Mr. Jones.

In the decade prior to "S" zoning, there had only been 50 apartment units demolished.

Following the zoning change, between 2012 and 2014, demolitions rose to about 300 units, and they are rising each year.

Mr. Jones has followed the Burnaby situation closely. He says the "S" zoning basically doubled Metrotown's redevelopment potential, which was the rocket fuel for land prices.

"One of the things I have found frustrating about Burnaby's response to criticism is that Colleen Jordan is on record saying the city can't say no to demolitions under the existing zoning. And Mayor Corrigan also says land around transit stations is very valuable and landlords realize this, and they want to sell. But all of that is ignoring the fact that in 2011, through 'S' zoning, they fundamentally changed the nature of the land market in Metrotown.

"They created the conditions to which they are now saying they are helpless to do anything about."

A non-profit housing group argues that Burnaby could, at the very least, implement Vancouverstyle policies to replace its rental stock.

A group called Stop Demovictions In Burnaby Campaign released a report last month called A Community Under Attack. It says the 234 units demolished on Mr. Fernandez's block represent about one-third of total units to be demolished in Metrotown. If we assume an average of two people per unit, that totals a potential 1,400 people looking at eviction. But that's just the start, they say, especially if council approves the update to rezone the entire area for midrise development.

Housing activist Ivan Drury says the "demovictions" are driving a form of homelessness, which is the growing group of displaced people that is sleeping on the couches of friends and family. Those who are depending on others this way often overstay their welcome and eventually turn to shelters. Burnaby doesn't have a permanent shelter.

"We're asking for them to just refuse to consider rezonings for density bonuses on any rental residential property until there is a community planning process that will plan development, without displacing the existing community," Mr. Drury says.

Another argument for redevelopment has been the old buildings are not safe, which in some cases is true. There have been fires. Maintaining the old buildings has not been a priority.

Mr. Fernandez's walls need a coat of paint and the carpets cleaning. But the apartment is a five-minute walk to the SkyTrain and within walking distance of shops - a major benefit when you're pulling in $2,500 to $3,000 a month for a family of four. Mr. Fernandez's mother brings in about $1,300 with her pension.

The family has had to rely occasionally on the Food Bank for help.

Mr. Fernandez says he will be back at work again soon.

"Then I won't feel bad getting this allowance because I will be working and contributing to Canadian society and I will feel good and give my two sons an example," says Mr. Fernandez, who dropped out of school because of his former country's political strife. He suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder.

"I tell my sons every day, 'Go to school, learn English, because I don't want you to experience what I am experiencing. I want you to become somebody in this country. I want you to become professionals, lawyers, doctors.' " His mother interjects: "They have a dream. They say, 'Oh grandma, when I am big, I will be a builder.' I said, 'You have to study first. After that, you have to work. They say to me, 'I want a car.' I say, 'You have to study and work first.' " Mr. Fernandez considered applying for one of BC Housing's social-housing units, but he was told the wait is long. Mr. Drury says there are around 10,000 people on the list for housing. He is helping Mr. Fernandez apply for a rental subsidy program, which could reduce his rent by around $200 or $300.

With the increased evictions, more people are seeking rental assistance. And that means the taxpayer is subsidizing housing for people that have been displaced by development.

"In my opinion, this is a complete disaster because government pours money into landlord pockets and we end up with nothing out of it," Mr. Drury says.

"That money goes into landlord pockets and there is no public good coming out of it. Purposebuilt social housing is a long term investment."

Acting director of Simon Fraser University's City Program Andy Yan says the displacements speak to us as a society.

"Those who've counted on the Canadian dream of economic and social mobility are now at risk of experiencing a housing nightmare.

"In a society built upon immigrants, if they are stuck at the bottom rung, what does that mean for our future? Housing and access to transit plays a huge part in that."

Associated Graphic

Martin Fernandez and his two sons, Isaias, 6, left, and Samuel, 5, must vacate their apartment by June 30.

BEN NELMS FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The original Canadian idol
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With hits such as Fortune Teller and Aladdin in the 1960s, the young heartthrob gave rise to 'Curtolamania'
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By RON CSILLAG
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 17, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S6


'I was Justin Bieber before Justin Bieber," Bobby Curtola observed not long ago. Aside from the younger pop singer's bad-boy behaviour, it was true.

At the height of his popularity, Mr. Curtola, too, was a freshfaced, young heartthrob with mobs of screaming fans. "It was wonderful because the girls just wanted to get close to you," Mr. Curtola told an interviewer last November before performing in Peterborough, Ont. "The back of the line wanted to be [at] the front of the line. For a young guy like me, that was like a dream come true. But sometimes it gets pretty scary when it starts to happen and you don't know what to do."

What Mr. Curtola did know was how to make hit records.

His biggest chart topper, Fortune Teller, sold 2.5 million copies internationally.

Three days after Mr. Curtola died on June 4 at the age of 73 while visiting Edmonton, Canadian singer/songwriter Ron Sexsmith paid tribute with his own soulful rendition of Fortune Teller, released on YouTube.

Mr. Curtola dominated the Canadian pop charts in the 1960s with a string of hit singles, including Aladdin, Three Rows Over, Corine-Corrina, Hitchhiker and Indian Giver.

In the 1960s, he released six albums in as many years and, according to one archive, was apparently so busy touring, he didn't realize he was wearing the same sweater on the jacket covers of three of them.

And except for a five-year interregnum performing in Las Vegas, he did it all without leaving the country. As his 1998 Order of Canada citation stated, Mr. Curtola "proved to Canadian artists that it was possible to pursue a career in the recording industry without leaving Canada and still enjoy international success."

With his clean-cut, boy-nextdoor looks, enhanced by that sweater or a cardigan, and a bouncy voice that slid effortlessly from a silky tenor to falsetto and back again, Mr. Curtola was part of the early wave of domestic teen idols: Paul Anka had huge hits, but south of the border, with Diana in 1957, followed by 1959's Lonely Boy; the Diamonds' Little Darlin' had reached No. 3 on the U.S. charts in 1957; while The Four Lads and the Crew-Cuts (whose cover of ShBoom was a huge hit stateside in 1954) owed their origins to Toronto.

But it was Mr. Curtola who "became Canada's first homegrown national rock 'n' roll star," proclaimed arts critic Bob Mersereau in his History of Canadian Rock 'n' Roll.

Nevertheless, some stern words from his father stopped Mr. Curtola from letting his star status go to his head. "My father said to me, 'Remember, Bobby, don't you ever embarrass your family.' That stuck with me. I was more afraid of my father than the police. I still had fun, but I never really got crazy."

The squeaky clean star was "a terrific role model and fans and parents alike adored him," noted one fan's website. Indeed, he was met by screaming fans mobbing him everywhere. Local papers called it "Curtolamania."

Robert Allen Curtola was born on April 17, 1943, in Port Arthur, Ont., which later merged into Thunder Bay.

His father, John Curtola, owned local auto-body shops and car washes, and his mother, the former Mary Franchie, was a homemaker. Their son sang in a choir, took a music course and, while pumping gas at his father's garage, performed at high school sock hops with his group, Bobby and the Bobcats.

"He was singing from a very young age," said his son Chris, who managed his father's later career. "He was all about the sock hops, the crooning, just that teenaged, teen idol, teenlove style."

A classmate told his father and uncle of young Bobby's talents, and soon the singer came to the attention of brothers Basil and Dyer Hurdon, local songwriters who penned Mr.

Curtola's first hit single, Hand In Hand With You, in late 1959 for their Tartan label. The record sold 20,000 copies within eight months, and by the following spring, the 16-year-old embarked on a tour of Western Canada, including opening for a Bob Hope show in Winnipeg. By 1961, he was recording for RCA in Nashville with the likes of guitarist Chet Atkins and sax player Boots Randolph. He never looked back.

The Hurdons "were thorough in their marketing of Bobby as the sweet, sincere, ideal sixties beau," reported the Port Arthur News-Chronicle at the time.

"Bobby's popularity and the fan craze that surrounded him came about due to strategizing on the part of his management team. It was Basil and Dyer Hurdon who got the first chapter of the Bobby Curtola fan club off the ground."

The Hurdons wrote all but one of Mr. Curtola's hits and made him a partner in the record, publishing and touring companies. Members of the Hurdon family became Mr. Curtola's first backup singers.

Toronto arts writer Sid Adilman took notice in the summer of 1960, describing the teen's style as "rock-a-ballad - midway between fast tempo and sweet pops."

His career soared after the release of the melodic Fortune Teller, but it needed a boost to enter U.S. airwaves. Recognizing the song's potential, Vancouver disc jockey Red Robinson sent it to colleagues in Seattle and Hawaii, and it peaked at number 41 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1962. Mr. Curtola signed a U.S. distribution deal with Del-Fi Records and was invited to tour with Dick Clark and his Cavalcade of Stars. He also popped up on radio shows across the continent, including Wolfman Jack's and Kasey Kasem's.

"He was a staple, absolutely a Top 40 staple," recalled Duff Roman, a top DJ at Toronto stations CKEY and CHUM in the early 1960s. "He was absolutely on par with all the Bobbys of the era. Canada had its own Bobby."

While touring England in 1962, Mr. Curtola appeared on the popular UK pop show Thank Your Lucky Stars. When security tried to sneak him out of the studios, he and his manager were mobbed, as they had been in Canada.

"Out of nowhere, all these fans showed up and they were all over us, trying to tear pieces of our suits off," he recalled in an interview last fall with kawarthanow.com. "It was like in a movie. It was unbelievable.

As you can imagine, that was a highlight of my career."

As a pitchman for Coca-Cola, he was among the biggest names in pop music to record the Things Go Better with Coke jingle in 1964, which the company included as a single with purchases of the soft drink. It was good experience: In the late 1980s, he composed an election jingle for his friend Ralph Klein when the then-Calgary mayor took his first crack at provincial politics.

Mr. Curtola never achieved huge stardom in the United States because he came along at a lull between 1950s teen idols such as Frankie Avalon, Fabian and a brace of other Bobbys (Rydell, Vinton, Vee, Darin), and the British Invasion bands, according to veteran Canadian music writer Larry LeBlanc.

"He came out kind of late. It was hard to figure out where he fit in. By the time his career got going, he looked out of place in the United States," said Mr. Leblanc, who, in his speech accepting a special Juno Award in 2013, said it was a shame Mr. Curtola had never been inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame.

Even so, Mr. Curtola parlayed appearances on the U.S. TV shows Hullabaloo and American Bandstand into hosting two TV programs in Canada: The After Four Show on Toronto's CFTO, and Shake, Rock and Roll on CTV. He also hosted Miss Canada and Miss Teen Canada pageants.

Shedding his teen image in 1972, he signed a five-year contract to perform in Las Vegas, and he continued his Vegas gigs for years after that, rubbing shoulders with such club regulars as Frank Sinatra and Elvis Presley.

Mr. Curtola also raised millions of dollars for charities through telethons and started his own foundation for children in Ecuador.

The one-time teen idol never let up, entertaining greying, nostalgic fans well into their advanced years at concert halls in North America and Europe and on cruise ships. In 1996, Toronto City Council proclaimed April 26 as Bobby Curtola Day, and he's been awarded the keys to the city in Edmonton, Brandon, Calgary and Hamilton. In 2003, the city of Thunder Bay unveiled Bobby Curtola Drive.

A year ago, he received the first ever Cashbox Canada Legacy Award. And just last month, he attended Canadian Music Week in Toronto.

"I believe that dreams come true," Mr. Curtola said last year, sounding very much like one of his songs of yearning.

In December, Mr. Curtola considered cancelling a show in Peterborough, Ont., after his fiancée, Karyn Rochford, was killed in a car crash in Nova Scotia. Four days after the accident, however, he took to the stage and dedicated his performance to her.

Mr. Curtola leaves his sons, Chris and Michael; brother, Gary; and two grandchildren.

His marriage ended in divorce.

When Elvis Presley died in 1977, Mr. Curtola acquired a ring Elvis used to wear while performing at the Las Vegas Hilton.

"I don't wear it often," Mr. Curtola told the National Music Centre in 2014, "but I like to look at it on stage to remind me of how unreal my life has been.

"How does this happen to a guy from Thunder Bay?" .

To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page. Please include I Remember in the subject field.

Associated Graphic

Bobby Curtola, seen on stage in 1964, was described as 'a terrific role model' adored by 'fans and parents alike.' His clean-cut, boy-next-door looks and bouncy voice helped him become a teen idol, who encountered screaming fans everywhere he went.

Bobby Curtola

White-hot American rage
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Two new books on class and racism in the United States undermine the Trump-ed up myth of American exceptionalism
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By JOHN SEMLEY
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page R14


White Rage: The Unspoken Truth of Our Racial Divide By Carol Anderson Bloomsbury, 246 pages, $31

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America By Nancy Isenberg Viking, 460 pages, $36

The key piece of propaganda in the current U.S. presidential race appeared not in the form of some duplicitous ad or a disingenuous policy plank. It came as a baseball cap. You know the one: bright red, with a functionally pointless length of rope drawn across the brim. The one that bleats, in all-caps, serif font, "MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN."

Donald Trump's trademark piece of mock-proletarian headgear is brilliant.

(Albeit in that same nefarious, sinister, but utterly effective way that, say, marketing nicotine to children can be considered "brilliant.") In its simple, shout-y messaging, it achieves a dazzling semiotic trick, convincing anyone who reads it that the United States of America, that plucky little colony that cast off the yoke of its British masters, hucked some tea into Boston Harbor and embarked on its noble democratic experiment, has fallen from grace, and that Donald Trump, a wealthy realestate impresario and reality-TV star who once publicly expressed a desire to date his own daughter, can restore it to its former place in the sun.

Whether or not Trump can do this, the hat can't say. But what the hat can say is that America was - for sure - great, once upon a time. And so, it follows, America can be made great again. Somehow.

What the hat strategically sidesteps is the most galling, unaskable question of all: What if there's no past glory to restore? What if America always was, from its very inception, a rank bog of structural inequality, racial and social divide, and arrogant, undeserved exceptionalism?

Big questions for a hat to ask. Granted.

But they're at the centre of two weighty, bracing new books: Carol Anderson's White Rage: The Unspoken Truth of Our Racial Divide and Nancy Isenberg's White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America.

Both set out, in different ways, to dismantle the grand myths of America.

These are myths in both the traditional, classical way (i.e., a foundational narrative or story) and the thornier, ideological way.

Myths, the French theorist Roland Barthes noted, make the particularities of history seem like natural laws: "It abolishes the complexity of human acts ... it organizes a world which is without contradictions, because it is without depth, a world wide open and wallowing in the evident." Myth is a way of understanding the world. As Nancy Isenberg puts it in White Trash, in a nice, Howard Zinn-ish turn, "The compression of history, the winnowing of history, may seem natural and neutral, but it is decidedly not."

Isenberg is chiefly interested in America's myth of classlessness: the idea of social and economic mobility that distinguished the American experiment from the social and political orthodoxies (monarchy, nobility etc.) of its colonial forefathers. And yet, as she notes, "brutal exploitation was the modus operandi of the English projectors who conceived of the American colonial system."

The American colonies were viewed by European social planners as a kind of continental garbage heap, where "waste people" (criminals, vagrants, debtors and other social detritus) could be transported and put to use "fertilizing wasteland with their labour." To wit: The English referred to the early settlers, unabashedly, as "manure." (This is something I've always loved about the depiction of the Jamestown colony in Terrence Malick's 2005 film The New World, a film recently rereleased on home video, as if to coincide with timely reconsiderations of America's foundational myths: Its depiction of the early colonists is, by and large, unflinching.

Excepting Colin Farrell's Hollywood-handsome John Smith, they are tatty, ignoble, slouched, dirty - not Europe's brave conquerers, but its dregs and castoffs.)

That North America was, by Europe's estimation, a wasteland to be seeded with the manure of human life doesn't damn America itself. After all, the story goes that it was by sheer industry and determination that such waste people were able to ennoble themselves, cast off the shackles of colonial rule and create just about the best gosh-darn democracy the world has ever seen! Right? Not quite. As Isenberg writes, "Independence did not magically erase the British class system, nor did it root out long-entrenched beliefs about poverty and the willful exploitation of human labour."

Nothing so critically undermines the U.S.'s foundational myth of "all men are created equal" shtick as the horrific fact that it was, until the mid-19th century, a nation of slaves and slave owners. The bulk of America's fabulous wealth was built on the back of exploitation, free labour and forced servitude. In White Rage, Carol Anderson figures that, in 1860, just before the U.S. Civil War, "80 per cent of the nation's gross national product was tied to slavery." And it wasn't just a southern problem. While the hundreds of years of torture, subjugation, rape and bondage that defined the plantation slave system were unspeakably awful in a way that can't be underestimated, such blatant violence, Anderson writes, "was simply the most overt, virulent expression of a stream of anti-black sentiment that conscribed the lives of both the free and enslaved."

Ideology can be a tricky thing. Thinkers like Louis Althusser and Noam Chomsky make ideology seem almost supernatural, a kind of magic that binds citizens to political realities; "not just as a set of values espoused by a dominant group, but as a fact of our shared existence, like gravity," as it was described, by me, here in Globe Books a few years back in a review of Althusser's On the Reproduction of Capitalism. But the thing is, ideology is also a set of values not only espoused by a dominant group, but systematically codified and institutionalized.

This is what Anderson, a professor of African-American studies at Emory University, means by "white rage," which she distinguishes from depictions of "black rage" that circulate in the media: protesting in Ferguson, rioting, looting and other, more conspicuously explosive manifestations of anger. White rage, she writes, "works its way through the courts, the legislatures, and a range of government bureaucracies. It wreaks havoc subtly, almost imperceptibly. Too imperceptibly, certainly, for a nation consistently drawn to the spectacular; to what it can see."

An expansion of a 2014 Washington Post op-ed titled, "Ferguson Isn't About Black Rage Against Cops. It's White Rage Against Progress," White Rage is a short, but incredibly dense and detailed book - boasting nearly 700 notes and citations in less than 200 pages.

Instead of making the heady, conceptual case for the institutionalization of racism and indignity in America, Anderson makes a material case. She spends chapters detailing precisely how antebellum laws essentially equipped black Americans for failure. She pays particular attention to disparities in funding for Jim Crow-era segregated schools. "The U.S. educational system," she writes, "despite demands from parents and students craving high-quality schools, had deliberately produced a sprawling uneducated population that would bedevil the nation well into the 21st century."

White Rage collects a number of case studies illustrating America's race divide: from Richard Nixon's "strategic dog-whistle appeals" to Southern racists, to the Reagan administration essentially okaying the inner-city crack "epidemic" in order to funnel drug money to anti-Sandinista guerrillas in Nicaragua, deviating urban black communities to prop up a puppet regime some 3,000 kilometres away. It might all seem very conspiratorial and cloak-and-dagger, were it not also true.

Reading through all the frightfully inventive ways in which America makes racial inequality a matter of law (and order) has a dizzying effect: like watching a quick-cut montage of social injustice spanning nearly half a millennium.

White Trash, by contrast, offers an extended view. It spans from pre-colonial plots to relocate Britain's human rubbish, to Thomas Jefferson's notion of "whiteness as an automatic badge of superiority," to modern depictions of the "redneck," "cracker" and "country boy," such as Elvis Presley, Tammy Faye Bakker, Deliverance and Duck Dynasty. Isenberg's greatest historical and sociological intervention is not just the idea that divide and stratification exist between races. Or that such divisions exist within them. It's that it has always been this way. "American democracy," she insists, "has never accorded all the people a meaningful voice. The masses have been given symbols instead, and they are often empty symbols."

Empty symbols. Convenient fictions. The baseless myths of a world drained of depth. Like a billowy baseball cap, clownnose-red, filigreed with a superfluous piece of rope, barking MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN, covering up a frankly confounding coiffure which may or may not be a $60,000 weave, sported by a Cheetotinted racist. Lies piled on top of lies piled on top of lies. Reading both Anderson and Isenberg's books proves utterly infuriating, precisely because their deep dive beneath the structuring fables, myths and lies of the American consciousness is meant to afflict - not to comfort.

Sometimes the seething undercurrents of racial rage and class antagonism bubble up and boil over. As they did earlier this year, when a 22-year-old black woman from Staten Island, N.Y., was met with assault and death threats. All for wearing a baseball cap to her job at a local Home Depot: one emblazoned with the bold, bracing, inciting, all-caps message, bellowing back at the Trump propagandists, "AMERICA WAS NEVER GREAT."

Simple, self-evident, convenient and uncomplicated in its own way. And certainly spectacular. But as hats go? It's something to get behind - a simple, unadorned ball cap that, like these two acutely topical new books, dares to read against myth.

John Semley is a Globe Books columnist. His first book, This Is a Book About the Kids in the Hall, will be published this fall.

Associated Graphic

CARLO ALLEGRI/REUTERS

Searching for a Canada of the soul, not the census
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The essence of our country, writes Charles Foran, lies in a readiness to have our minds changed and our hearts opened
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By CHARLES FORAN
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page F3


At a recent event in Vancouver an Irish immigrant asked me why Canada doesn't have a foundational story for its artists to tell. We don't have a statue-worthy heroine with a baby in each arm or a ripped warrior hero with a hound by his side. We don't have a national unifying myth.

The Irishman had a modest proposal. He suggested the Institute for Canadian Citizenship get to work putting that story together. He wasn't calling for a retooling of a narrative from Europe or Asia; he thought the organization should create something born of the country in 2016.

The project would yield all kinds of benefits - including, he believed, for citizenship. Culturewise, newcomers don't have much they can identify as being the obvious local equivalent of what they left behind. No Canadian Monkey King or Ramayana.

No Robin Hood or, indeed, the Cuchulainn of Celtic lore.

As a result, the Irishman said, new citizens don't see Canada as a vibrant cultural entity, one worthy of their already culturally divided attention. Give them the right story for this place and they'll become engaged with it.

Give better-framed Canadian culture, and you'll get more active citizenship in return.

I thanked him for his thoughts.

To myself, I thought: Here we go again.

Can a vague societal anxiety thrive for a lifetime? In English Canada it sure can. That anxiety - Do we have much of a culture?

Do we much care if we don't? - has underwritten our public conversations for 70-plus years. That the root of it may be based on an inadequate conception of the collective space we inhabit is only now starting to be discussed.

The inadequate conception is of Canada as a 19th-century nation-state like so many others, with its artists proclaiming "its" poetry and singing "its" songs.

Most of these other states house a dominant ethnic identity, good for the production of a dominant artistic project and, to an extent, character.

Such countries - the majority on the planet, for sure - often do possess a strong cultural identity.

They do have a few fabulous stories to tell, ones they've been refining for centuries, and believe capture their essence.

But English Canada, at least, never really found its footing as one of those nations. (French Canada did, an essential point of difference.) Lucky for us, it is now too late, and we have no choice but to establish ourselves as something different - a culture that is many cultures, many stories, in a place that stretches across a continent and is richly occupied.

How far have we come in our awareness of ourselves as an experimental nation? Last October, just a few weeks into his tenure, Justin Trudeau issued a mild identity shock by telling The New York Times Magazine that he was now prime minister of the "first postnational state." Our PM also said: "There is no core identity, no mainstream in Canada."

Mr. Trudeau's remarks are not without precedent in our intellectual history. A half-century ago, Marshall McLuhan made a typically playful and elusive observation about his homeland.

"Canada is the only country in the world that knows how to live without an identity," he said.

What Mr. McLuhan meant was far from clear to most people at the time, but he did want it known that the condition wasn't a negative. He added an intriguing follow-up: "Any sense of identity we have is our sense of density."

Regardless, the majority of thinkers and artists have struggled with our seeming underperformance as a "people." In 1942 Bruce Hutchison published The Unknown Country, now considered the pioneering foray into the Whither-the-Canadian-Identity book trade. A bulging shelf of titles have followed in its wake.

Those titles alone have often been self-explanatory: What is a Canadian? and The Unfinished Canadian come readily to mind. Our cultural identity has usually come under the greatest scrutiny, and been found the most anxiety-producing. Laments have included a tendency to be too small, too regional, too marginal, too easily overlooked, or simply dismissed.

Those anxieties make sense.

After all, the arts - theatre, film, music, dance, books - are meant to tell you where you really live.

Here is the country of the soul, not the census: Shouldn't every citizen wish to belong there?

Apparently not. Mordecai Richler, firing daggers from his 1960s exile in London, declared Canada to be "here a professor, there a poet, and in between thousands of miles of wheat and indifference." (He was being negative.) In their 1992 song Courage, the Tragically Hip celebrated artists like the novelist Hugh MacLennan who tried surviving in that unknown country.

And piss on all of your background, Gord Downie sang of the bad Canadian habit of denigrating our own. And piss on all your surroundings.

It has certainly been a slow awakening. In 1972, a young Margaret Atwood willed a unity onto the then-nascent notion of a Canadian literature with her influential thematic study, Survival.

"When I discovered the shape of the national tradition I was depressed," she admitted. The immigrant "is confronted only by a nebulosity, a blank: no readymade ideology is provided for him."

Ms. Atwood famously declared the act of cultural, political and, yes, meteorological "survival" in such an environment to be our determining narrative. Not long afterward, the journalist June Callwood wondered if the actual daily practice of civility - in part, our overpraised politeness - might be the Canadian unifier.

Truth be told, neither concept goes far enough toward the territory of heroic statuary or stirring legend.

Here we are in 2016, when few dispute any longer the unseemly length of English Canada's colonial hangover. For the first century of nationhood, we didn't bother moving away from imported and inherited customs and thinking, a stark disavowal of lived history and geography.

Canada in the 21st century is certainly an energized place by comparison. Our cultural industries are big businesses and our artists are reasonably supported.

Audiences for most of the arts are on a steady rise.

Even so, we continue to export much of our acting and musical talent, ignore our films, keep Canadian theatre largely in the commercial margins, and at the moment appear destined to outlast the era of brilliant long-form television without making a significant contribution to it - unlike, say, tiny Norway or Denmark.

The senior film producer Robert Lantos fumed in this newspaper at the CRTC's rejection of an all-Canadian movie channel under the "mandatory carriage" category, calling the chairman "utterly blind to the cultural imperatives of what it takes to be a nation." That was last weekend.

Mr. Lantos also lamented the modest Canadian box office for Remember, the latest film by Atom Egoyan. Add Paul Gross's impressive Hyena Road to the predictable list of the predictably neglected.

Given these ongoing challenges for Canadian arts and artists, why then would anyone think it lucky for English Canada to be too late to create an old-fashioned cultural nation? Consider the Prime Minister's comments again, especially his calling us the "first postnational state."

Like so much of the focus of the new government, the words seem calculated to change the direction of public thought. In the months since the election, the Liberals have proposed lots of new words for fresh thinking: reconciliation, diversity, inclusion, to name a few.

If this was Justin Trudeau's intent, it is worthy. We do need new language to describe this vast, improbable country called 21stcentury Canada. We do need to find a way to inhabit our entire cultural space.

To do so, we must get past one easy misconception - the outdated nation-state model - and one harder reality: the historic comfort level among Canadians with conceiving of themselves as parts of smaller, cozier selfdefinitions, as well an attendant incuriosity about who else lives reasonably nearby.

The launching point for this project is obvious. Indigenous Canada is where we all live, in terms of geography, spirit, and history. In order for that to be real and meaningful, we must start with the stark: that a cultural genocide occurred, and most of us were unaware or, perhaps, just not concerned enough. Artistic expressions of these truths are necessary, and can only help.

Overall, Canada as an experimental cultural space requires the right spirit in order to take shape. That spirit, simply, is an openness to having your history unsettled and your mind changed. As well, a certain comfort level with complexity and irresolution is probably good. In her forthcoming book, The Promise of Canada, Charlotte Gray calls us an "unfinished and perhaps unfinishable project."

That sounds about right.

At the Vancouver Olympics in 2010, the spoken-word artist Shane Koyczan gained national attention with his poem We Are More. Canadians thrilled to lines such as "We are an idea in the process of being realized" and "We are an experiment going right for a change."

But as noteworthy as the poem itself was Mr. Koyczan's decision in the summer of 2015 to not perform We Are More on Canada Day. On Facebook he cited the "dark path" the country had gone down in the subsequent years, citing among other concerns the Harper government's attempt to create two categories of citizens, as well as its refusal to investigate missing indigenous Canadians seriously.

That was a long 11 months - and one government - ago, but I hope Shane Koyczan continues to have high expectations for our unfolding experiment. I hope, too, he writes more poems about Canada in the process of being realized.

Charles Foran is the CEO of the Institute for Canadian Citizenship.

He is the author of 11 books.

6 Six Degrees: Experiments in Pluralism is an essay series devoted to exploring Canada's emerging identity as an experimental society.

The inaugural Degrees "citizen space," presented by the Institute for Canadian Citizenship, will take place in Toronto from Sept. 19 to 21. 6degreescanada.com

Alberta child's death becomes lightning rod
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Echinacea tincture bought by his parents from naturopath ignites debate on alternative medicine
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By WENDY STUECK
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A14


VANCOUVER -- It was an echinacea tincture, bought by worried parents for an ailing child at a naturopathic clinic in Lethbridge, Alta.

But that product, called Blast and taken home by the parents of little Ezekiel Stephan, became a symbol of much more. The trial of the parents, David and Collet Stephan, revolved around parental responsibility. It also became a lightning rod for debate about alternative medicine, triggering a barrage of mostly negative coverage that focused on the dubious science behind some naturopathic treatments.

And the case triggered an investigation by the College of Naturopathic Doctors of Alberta of naturopath Tracey Tannis after 43 medical doctors signed a letter of complaint to the college alleging - based on testimony during the trial - that she failed to meet the standard of care.

Typically, such an investigation would remain confidential unless and until it resulted in disciplinary action. It became public after the letter of complaint, and the college's response, were released to the media.

It is not known whether that complaint will result in any sanctions against Dr. Tannis. Under Alberta's Health Professions Act, the status of complaints or investigations is confidential until the matter is referred to a hearing.

And reviewing a complaint "may take several months to years," depending on the complexity of the complaint and the length of the investigation, CNDA assistant registrar Kristen Tanaka told The Globe and Mail.

Relatively few naturopaths in Canada have faced disciplinary sanctions.

Manitoba, where naturopaths have been regulated since 1946, has had no disciplinary proceedings, and the registrar for the Manitoba Naturopathic Association - the province is moving to a self-regulating college for naturopaths - "respectfully declined any comment" on whether the association has received complaints in recent years.

Naturopaths in Alberta have been regulated for nearly four years, and the self-regulating college has received a small number of complaints, but none has been referred to a public hearing, meaning they remain confidential, a process in line with other self-regulating professions.

British Columbia, which has had a college since 2000, has the most extensive regulatory track record, and has sanctioned several registrants with fines and temporary suspensions.

Last October, the college suspended naturopath Jonas LaForge for a year for several infractions, including providing cash-only Botox services in and around the Lower Mainland, and providing Skype consultations to marijuana dispensaries. Dr. LaForge also failed to disclose to the college that he had a criminal record in the United States, the college said in a public notification.

In April, however, Dr. LaForge's photograph and professional qualifications were listed prominently on the website of the Coliseum Medical Spa, a West Vancouver business that advertises naturopathic services including "cleansing and detoxing" and vitamin injections.

The website was revised after inquiries from The Globe and a recent CBC story that included details of Dr. LaForge's suspension and criminal record in the United States. As well, an advertisement in a May supplement to the North Shore News included "anti-aging with Dr. LaForge ND."

Asked about the website and the advertisement, Dr. LaForge said the website entry was an oversight and that he was unaware of the advertisement until learning of it from The Globe. "I am currently under suspension," he said in a telephone interview.

"I am not practising as a naturopathic doctor."

The College of Naturopathic Physicians of B.C. would not say whether the advertisement or the online information violated the terms of Dr. LaForge's suspension.

Naturopathic practitioners and colleges point out that they operate under the same rules that govern other health professionals, including doctors, dentists and pharmacists.

They argue the low number of regulatory hearings is unsurprising. Naturopaths number in the dozens or hundreds, compared with thousands of nurses, doctors and pharmacists. And the type of care they provide, such as dietary advice, is typically less risky than, say, extracting a tooth or a tumour.

But the death of a child has pushed naturopathic medicine into the spotlight, and with it, the question of whether the current regulatory regime does enough to protect the public.

"I am absolutely appalled that, in four years, the [College of Naturopathic Doctors of Alberta] has not required even a single naturopath to undergo discipline of any kind," says Michelle Cohen, an Ontario general physician who spearheaded the complaint to the CNDA stemming from the Stephan trial.

CNDA president Beverly Huang said all complaints received by the college have been handled in accordance with Alberta's Health Professions Act. The act includes provisions for confidential settlements through an alternative complaint-resolution process.

Dr. Tannis was thrust into the spotlight because of her interactions with the Stephan family.

According to a June 8 finding of fact by Justice Rodney Jerke of the Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta, the couple obtained an echinacea tincture for Ezekiel - who by then was too stiff to sit in his car seat - at a naturopathic clinic in Lethbridge in March, 2012, after the boy had been sick for days with symptoms that included a fever.

The trial heard conflicting evidence about whether Dr. Tannis had actually met Ms. Stephan before Ms. Stephan left the clinic with the echinacea tincture. And the judge zeroed in on March 12, 2012 - the day before Ms. Stephan visited the naturopath - as the time when the Stephans failed in their duty to their son by not taking him to a doctor.

The parents were sentenced on Friday, David Stephan to four months in jail and Ms. Stephan to three months of house arrest.

Both are to be on probation for two years after completing their sentences.

The case raised concerns about broader regulatory issues in Alberta and elsewhere in Canada.

"If patients are drawn to buying treatments from a clinic rather than a health food store, it is because they have a greater sense of security in doing so," the 43 medical doctors said in their letter of complaint to the CNDA.

"That security comes with an attendant responsibility on the part of the clinic."

The concern echoes critics' complaints that regulating naturopathy opens the door to potentially harmful treatment, including homeopathy, a naturopathic mainstay that involves using massively diluted solutions and has been debunked in studies.

Even some naturopathic doctors do not use homeopathy.

Chris Spooner is among them.

The licenced naturopathic doctor and CNPBC board member does not use homeopathy in his practice in Vernon, B.C. As a selfdescribed science-based practitioner, he said he cannot "wrap my head around it." He has been dismayed by recent media coverage of naturopathy, saying it has overlooked regulatory and educational developments and the distinction between licenced naturopathic doctors and unregulated practitioners.

"There's no doubt there is a changing of the guard happening. ... We recognize there is a need for evidence," he said.

Dr. Spooner - under provincial legislation in B.C. and other provinces, naturopathic physicians are allowed to use that title - is among practitioners pushing boundaries between conventional and alternative medicine. He works with agencies such as the Ottawa Integrative Cancer Centre, one of a growing number of centres across the country melding different health-care disciplines, including naturopathy and traditional Chinese medicine.

Sometimes, those disciplines and outlooks collide: the University of Alberta in June withdrew a workshop billed as spoon-bending and the power of the mind for doctors after a public outcry. The workshop was to have been offered through the university's Complementary and Alternative Research and Education Program.

A similar outcry erupted last year over a University of Toronto researcher's plans to conduct a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study - the gold standard in clinical research - of homeopathic treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Critics view such incidents as part of a worrying slide by governments and universities away from evidence-based regimes. And as more Canadian naturopaths come under the umbrella of regulated health professions, there are questions from the medical community about the long-term impact.

Naturopathic physicians maintain they can help people live healthier lives and avoid chronic pain and disease - which implies savings to the health-care system.

Skeptics say there is little proof of that.

"Is this really how the government proposes to bring down disease rates - by giving people sugar and water pills?" said Lloyd Oppel, an emergency medicine doctor and a member of Doctors of B.C.'s Council on Health Economics and Policy. "Because they [government] have told the public that a profession that does so is a bona fide health profession."

Heidi Rootes, a naturopathic doctor in Vancouver, defends the existing regulatory regime, saying it requires practitioners to have a specified level of education and includes a clear scope of practice.

"And part of our continuing education is our jurisprudence and what we can and can't do," she said. "There's no excuse for saying, 'I didn't know.' You're responsible to know."

Dr. Rootes, who, like Dr. Spooner, does not practise homeopathy, runs a vitamin injection and wellness boutique in the Yaletown neighbourhood.

Some people seek vitamin treatments to boost their energy or get over a hangover. Others may be battling an illness, such as cancer, and see vitamin injections as a way to help immune systems weakened by chemotherapy or radiation.

In all of those instances, Dr. Rootes tells patients to discuss any complementary treatment they are getting with their other physicians. She maintains she has seen patients' health improve from vitamin treatments and that the public is well-served by the existing regulatory system, saying licenced naturopaths can work with conventional medical practitioners to enhance patient health.

Tracey Tremayne-Lloyd, a Toronto-based health lawyer, believes the number of complaints and disciplinary sanctions related to naturopaths will increase.

"As [naturopaths] have become regulated health professionals, they will be subject to the same type of scrutiny as nurses and doctors and dentists and pharmacists," she says.

Associated Graphic

Dr. Alaina Overton administers a vitamin C drip at Vancouver's IV Wellness Boutique.

JOHN LEHMANN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A NEW PREMIUM ON RETIREMENT
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Federal, provincial and territorial finance ministers reached an agreement to expand the Canada Pension Plan, but what will the changes mean to you? Janet McFarland and Ian McGugan explain
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By JANET MCFARLAND, IAN MCGUGAN
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Wednesday, June 22, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A8


What drove this expansion of the CPP?

The biggest single factor was the dire state of the traditional company pension. For decades after the Second World War, workers at most large businesses could look forward to retiring with a regular monthly cheque for a clearly defined amount, fully backed by their employer.

Those defined-benefit pension plans are rapidly disappearing, especially among big industrial employers such as car manufacturers, steelmakers and the like.

Back in 1971, about 48 per cent of men were covered by defined-benefit plans, according to Statistics Canada. By 2011, the portion had fallen nearly by half, to 25 per cent. (Women have also been hit by declining coverage, but more of them work in the public sector, where defined-benefit plans are still the norm, so their slide has been less severe.)

An expanded CPP is designed to address the shortfall in middle-income retirement planning that is opening up as a result of disappearing corporate pensions.

Most at risk are workers under the age of 45 with middling incomes - say, families earning about $50,000 to $80,000 a year.

Without the defined-benefit pensions that their parents enjoyed, many could hit retirement with little in savings.

Pension experts have warned about the middle-income retirement gap for years, and CPP reform has been on the national agenda since at least 2009. However, expansion proposals always fell short of the necessary level of support. Approval from Ottawa and at least seven provinces with at least twothirds of the country's population was required to make a deal.

One factor that shook the never-ending talks out of their lethargy was Ontario's determination to go out on its own and launch a supplementary pension plan in 2018. That put an effective deadline on discussions.

Add in a new Liberal government that has made CPP expansion a priority, and this week's meeting finally achieved the necessary consensus. Ontario now says it will fold its own plan in favour of the supersized CPP. The new regime will begin to be implemented in 2019.

What are the major changes?

The deal negotiated between Ottawa and eight of 10 provinces will expand the Canada Pension Plan in two significant ways.

Currently, workers and employers in Canada pay 4.95 per cent of salaries into the CPP, up to a maximum income level of $54,900 a year. When people retire at the age of 65, they are paid a maximum annual pension of $13,110 under the program. People earning more than $54,900 do not contribute to CPP above that level, and do not earn any additional pension benefit.

The first major change announced on Monday will increase the annual payout target from about 25 per cent of preretirement earnings to 33 per cent.

That means workers who earn $54,900 a year would receive a maximum annual pension of about $17,500 in 2016 dollars by the time they retire, an increase of $4,390 a year, according to federal finance department estimates.

The second change will increase the maximum amount of income covered by the CPP from $54,900 to about $82,700 when the program is fully phased in by 2025, which means higher-income workers will be eligible to earn CPP benefits on a larger portion of their income.

For a worker at the $82,700 income level, CPP benefits will rise to a maximum of about $19,900 a year in current 2016 dollars.

How will higher benefits be funded?

Contributions to CPP from workers and companies will increase by one percentage point to 5.95 per cent of wages, phased in slowly between 2019 and 2025 to ease the impact.

People earning $54,900 a year will see premiums increase by about $9 a month in 2019, rising to $43 a month when fully phased in.

To ease the hit, the federal government is introducing a tax deduction for worker contributions. When fully phased in, the monthly increased premium cost of $43 will be reduced by $9 by the income-tax adjustments, leaving an after-tax monthly cost increase of $34.

The federal finance department said the portion of earnings between $54,900 and $82,700 will have a different contribution rate for workers and employers, expected to be set at 4 per cent.

Who benefits?

The main beneficiaries will be young employees, who are less likely to have workplace pension plans than older workers.

To earn the full CPP enhancement, a person needs to contribute for 40 years at the new levels once the program is fully phased in by 2025.

That means people in their teens today will be the first generation to receive the full increase by 2065.

Others will benefit to a lesser extent on a sliding scale depending on their age, so the amount of pension increase will fall significantly for those closer to retirement today. Details have not been announced yet about how much more people will earn if they have less time before retirement.

Workers will also benefit from the relative simplicity of expanding the CPP compared with alternative solutions, notably Ontario's proposal for an allnew Ontario pension plan. The CPP already exists, so enhancing it will require minimal new infrastructure. The proposed Ontario Retirement Pension Plan would require a new system to collect and invest the funds. The Ontario program will be abandoned if the CPP expansion proceeds as planned.

While CPP expansion is easier to understand than introducing a whole new program, workers who qualify for only a portion of the new enhancement will have many questions during the phase-in period.

Who does not benefit?

Expanded CPP does not do much to help people who do not collect CPP in the first place.

That describes many senior women who spent most of their lives as homemakers and so earned little or nothing in CPP benefits. About 28 per cent of single senior women over 65 live in poverty, according to a study this spring for the Broadbent Institute by statistician Richard Shillington of Tristat Resources.

Expanded CPP also will not do much to help other seniors currently living in poverty, even if they collect some CPP benefits already.

As part of the most recent CPP reform, in 1997, it was agreed than any future expansion in benefits would have to be fully prefunded. As a result, it will take many years before expanded contributions work their way through the system to bring significantly higher benefits to tomorrow's retirees.

Finally, expanded CPP does only a limited amount to help affluent savers.

This week's agreement will boost the maximum amount of income covered by the plan to about $82,700 by 2025, a significant increase from the current ceiling of $54,900. But those with six-figure incomes will still have to save on their own if they want a retirement income that will replace a considerable portion of their incomes above the expanded limit.

Will this expansion crash the economy?

It seems highly unlikely higher CPP contributions will stunt our national growth.

The boost in contribution rates will proceed at a glacial pace, beginning in 2019 and taking seven years to complete.

Workers and businesses will have plenty of time to adjust. In addition, tax breaks will cushion the impact of the higher contributions on employees.

"This is very, very mild stuff," says Keith Ambachtsheer, director emeritus of the Rotman International Centre for Pension Management.

History suggests the economy will fare just fine. Between 1997 and 2003, CPP contribution rates rose from 6 per cent of pensionable earnings to 9.9 per cent.

Despite the increase, unemployment rates actually fell during that time.

What questions remain?

One big issue is how expanded CPP contributions will interact with the Guaranteed Income Supplement, a government stipend aimed at low-income seniors. It is not clear if more generous CPP payments could result in greater clawbacks of GIS.

"It's an issue that needs to be addressed as part of this reform," Mr. Ambachtsheer says.

"This cannot lead to low-income workers paying extra contributions now only to lose their GIS later on."

Other questions also linger. It is not certain, for instance, what returns are being assumed on CPP contributions. It is also unclear how the system will ensure fairness between young and old workers.

"We now understand the intent behind CPP reform," Mr. Ambachtsheer says. "To make the intent a reality is going to require a lot of details that have to be sorted out now that the initial euphoria of reaching a deal is over."

The current CPP system covers earnings up to $54,900. It aims to replace a quarter of your typical preretirement earnings up to that cap, which amounts to a maximum of $13,110. Under the new system, the replacement rate will eventually rise from a quarter to a third, meaning higher payouts to a maximum of $17,500.

Just don't count on a whopping increase to CPP cheques any time soon. To earn the maximum benefit, a worker will have to contribute the maximum amount for 40 years once the system is fully phased in after 2025. Today's teenagers will be the first people to enjoy maximum benefits. Older workers will also benefit, of course, but to a lesser extent.

$34 According to one hypothetical example, a worker making $54,900 would, by 2025, contribute $34 more a month in CPP payments after income-tax adjustments.

33% Currently, CPP pays retired Canadians 25 per cent of their typical preretirement earnings. Under the new plan, CPP will pay Canadians 33 per cent of their typical earnings.

But there's more: Expanded CPP will also raise the earnings cap. By 2025, the system will cover up to $82,700 in annual earnings. The combination of a higher replacement rate and a higher earnings cap will eventually result in a higher maximum CPP payout of $19,900 for middle-income workers.

A taste of Trinidad in Toronto
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Two suburban spots are serving up authentic, spicy, saucy and delicious Trini fare
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By CHRIS NUTTALL-SMITH
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page M2


Anyone who admires the bubbled cornicione on a great wood-fired pizza, or marvels at the skill underlying French puff pastry should install themselves in the lineup outside Mona's, the most famous Trinidadian roti and doubles shop in Scarborough. From the outside looking in, through the gaps that briefly open between the queuing patrons, you see a blur of busy hands and all-purpose flour, and behind glass, a steam table filled with curried pumpkin, spinach, chickpeas and meat. Once you cross Mona's threshold, though, the blur begins to mesmerize.

At the tables in the centre of the shop, and over the flat, round, stovetop roti pans called tawas, you see a dozen-odd women forming, filling, rolling, flouring, flipping, cooking, cooling, stacking and bagging the restaurant's flatbreads - a process the restaurant calls "openconcept roti theatre." They make paratha, which are flaky and good, but taste relatively plain, because that is paratha's nature.

But those Mona's women make dhalpuri, also. It's the dhalpuri that come to occupy so many bread and pastry lovers' dreams.

Dhalpuri are perhaps Trinidad's most beloved food: crêpethin, tender, pliable bread rounds stuffed with a layer of ground, sandy-textured split yellow peas (called dhal in Hindi) that are seasoned with garlic and cumin. That room full of workers makes more than 1,000 dhalpuri daily, by hand, with painstaking expertise. But unlike puff pastry and pizza crusts or even crêpes, dhalpuri sell for almost nothing. You can buy Mona's dhalpuri for $2 each, or have them wrapped around a good half-kilo of meat or vegetable curry for between $5 and $10, depending which you choose.

As an envelope for the restaurant's stewed pumpkin curry, they make a sweet, savoury, satisfying dinner; with bone-in chicken that's been cooked up with peas, potatoes, Madras curry and Trinidad's herb-based "green seasoning," they're one of the greatest sub-$10 meals I know.

Mona's first opened not in Scarborough, but in South Trinidad. Mona Khan, a homemaker, and her husband Cyrus Khan had lived in Edmonton, Calgary, Inuvik and Whitehorse; Cyrus installed microwave telecommunications systems for Northwestel and CN Telecom. Over time, the couple had three children.

And then in the early 1980s, when they'd had enough of the cold, they moved the family back to Trinidad. In 1983, in a neighbourhood of San Fernando, Mona opened her first restaurant. Their first day open, they sold out of roti, said Sasha Khan, who is the couple's eldest child.

They came back to Canada in 1987, and word soon got out among Trini expats. Before long, Sasha said, Mona, Cyrus, Sasha, his sisters Melissa and Reesa, as well as a few of their aunties, were making hundreds of paratha and dhalpuri every morning out of their little home kitchen, to fill a flood of private orders.

In 2003, they finally opened the Scarborough shop. Today the entire family pitches in. They've been trying to help Mona and Cyrus pull back from daily service, said Sasha, but to no avail.

Mona's oxtail curry is rich and meaty, with hunks of cubed potato and peas; the spicing here is light; if you like some kick they keep Scotch bonnet sauce on hand. (That's by design, Sasha said; his mother's curries are lighter and less pepper-forward than you'll find in most Trini homes, which helps the place appeal to an international crowd.)

The goat roti is also a go-to, though it's sometimes served without enough gravy for my taste; you might want to ask for extra. As a snack, it's always worth ordering doubles - the classic Trini street-food sandwich made from a couple of rounds of deep-fried, turmeric-scented dough, and filled with stewed chickpeas and a touch of tamarind chutney.

And plenty of the customers here, who are just as likely to have grown up eating Tamil, Filipino, Jamaican, Guyanese, South Indian, Punjabi, regional Chinese, Malay or whitebread food as Trini, order just those terrific flatbreads, which they take home to slather with butter and cheese, or fill with their own creations.

Across town in Brampton, Lena's Roti & Doubles has operated for the past seven years from a run-down plaza just northwest of Pearson Airport, selling Trini food that's in many ways the opposite of what's on offer at Mona's. Where Mona's menus and seasonings are built on crowd-pleasing restraint, Lena's, which is run by Kish and Lena Ramlakhan and their daughter Amrita, doesn't hold much back. (Daughter Nalini pitches in on weekends, but spends her weekdays in Ottawa, where she's completing a PhD in cognitive science.) And Lena's fillings are just as interesting as the excellent breads.

The goat roti here is loose and saucy, with a big and gently gamey flavour backed by thyme and black pepper. A great way to eat it is with an accompanying mango curry roti. Kish, who does the cooking, slices green mangos, pit, skin and all, and then cooks them down with Trinidadian curry powder, onions, garlic and herbs until the pieces are sour-sweet and the onions are richly caramelized, and so it's almost like hot mango jam, with an undercurrent of ginger and Scotch bonnet heat.

The duck curry at Lena's was very good when I tried it, though by the time it's been piled into a dhalpuri wrapper over curried mashed potato, you might struggle to identify its meaty main ingredient. The pumpkin curry was round-flavoured and soft.

You might consider ordering a couple of roti as well as Lena's veggie platter, which comes piled with those mango and pumpkin curries, with soft, smoky grilled eggplant, stewed chickpeas and a mound of callaloo, the exquisite Caribbean mix of taro leaves (called dasheen around the islands), that are softened with coconut milk, pumpkin, okra, herbs and spice.

You eat that vegetable curry platter with paratha or dhalpuri, your choice. The paratha typically comes torn a little; the proper term for torn paratha is buss up shut.

The menu at Lena's is enormous, though. You might also want that callaloo on rice, with sticky stewed chicken (this is excellent), or perhaps you're interested in trying goat tripe, which when stewed to softness and folded into a deep-fried, samosa-like wrapper, becomes pachownie pie. I loved Lena's pachownie pie, particularly smothered with pepper sauce, though the flavour leaves little to the imagination: It's gutsy all right.

(As for Lena's saheena, which in Trinidad is a sliced, battered, deep-fried, vegetable Swiss roll, effectively, but made from fresh, spinach-like taro leaves and laden with chickpeas and chutney, don't bother. The one at ACR Hot Roti and Doubles, at 2680 Lawrence Ave. East, in Scarborough, is many times better.

It's crunchy, greasy, rich and savoury from chickpeas and its gravy, tart from tamarind, jarringly hot from pepper sauce and fresh with the caramelized chlorophyll and mineral taste of those deep-fried greens. I'm not crazy about the rest of the cooking at ACR, but their saheena are some of the best deep-fried snacks I've ever tried.)

And do not neglect to order a few of the superb doubles when at Lena's, whether at the Brampton location or at the newer one in Mississauga, at 6990 Financial Dr.; it's some of the best around town. The dough is soft and sweet, a little like savoury beaver tails, and provided that you ask for pepper, which you ought to, the channa, or chickpea curry, carries a beautiful thread of heat. But it's the chutneys here that get me: Lena's kitchen piles on Scotch bonnet sauce, tamarind chutney, green mango chutney and green seasoning, which all combine to top those doubles' usual low, savoury, stewy and sweet notes with exhilarating hots and brights.

DISHING IT

MONA'S ROTI F

4810 Sheppard Ave. E.

(at Shorting Road), 416-4121200; monasroti.com

Atmosphere: A take-out only Trini restaurant, with an open kitchen at its heart. Lineups are typical, but they move quickly.

Wine and drinks: Ting, Peardrax and other Caribbean sodas, cane juice, coconut water and Mauby Fizz, which is an acquired taste.

Best bets: Get the bone-in chicken roti, in dhalpuri, plus a few doubles with extra sauce.

Prices: Stuffed roti, $6 to $10; doubles for $1.50; breads are $2 each, by order only, minimum of 6.

LENA'S ROTI & DOUBLES F

2565 Steeles Ave. E.

(deep in the plaza, at Torbram Road), 905-497-6800, lenasrotianddoubles.ca

Atmosphere: A friendly eat-in/ take-out shop in a well-travelled plaza, filled with homesick Trinidadians, food-loving locals and church ladies reading the Indo Caribbean World.

Wine and drinks: The usual Caribbean and North American sodas.

Best bets: Get the veg platter with buss up shut, the mango and goat roti in dhalpuri and definitely the doubles. If you like spice, ask for it.

Prices: Stuffed roti, $7 to $13, doubles for $2, plus many other dishes.

F A Cheap Eats pick, where you can dine well for under $30, before alcohol, tax and tip.

Associated Graphic

Kish Ramlakhan, left, with his wife, Lena, cook beans and rice at Lena's Roti & Doubles on June 16. Both were born in Trinidad and Tobago and own the popular Brampton restaurant.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A PICTURE'S WORTH
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This year is shaping up to be a huge one for weddings in China and that means a windfall for photographers. As Nathan VanderKlippe reports, for many Chinese couples, their love for wedding photos goes far beyond preserving the special day
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A6


BEIJING -- The video opens with a drawn-out violin note, its sound cascading over an oldfashioned telephone on a desk beside a stack of books. Most prominent among them is The 10Ks of Personal Branding, a selfhelp tome that promises to teach "how to focus your life's goals with your life's actions to create a powerful package called 'you.' " In this pitch for Chinese wedding photographers, the camera then cuts away to show what "your" life might look like. A feathered pen, ready to ink a massive deal. Gleaming marble floors. Whisky swirling in a crystal glass, gems sparkling in jewelled necklaces. A series of rooms that evoke, respectively, French monarchy, Greek aristocracy and the wood-beam luxury of a billionaire's Montana ranch.

In the gilded Beijing studios of Golden Ladies Photo, any of these can be the place where couples consummate what is, for many, the most important part of the wedding: the photos.

With a day in front of a camera and a series of costume changes, even the lowest on the economic ladder can be transformed into a member of the private jet set.

Their home apartments may be tiny, their bank accounts slim.

But the photos on their walls - and, sometimes, ceilings - will be magnificent.

And this year, couples are commissioning them far more than usual. Chinese numerology suggests 2013 (with a three that sounds like "breakup), 2014 (with a four that sounds like "death") and 2015 (with a five that sounds like "nothing") were all inauspicious years to get married.

Sixteen, on the other hand, sounds like "lucky and smooth" - and so customers are flooding into the country's estimated 400,000 wedding-photography shops.

At certain 24-hour shoots, couples pose for images that staff will then heavily Photoshop and print in sizes large enough to stretch across the headboard of a marital bed. Other lovebirds pay for a full photographic team - including a makeup artist, videographer and wardrobe manager - to fly with them to a Scottish castle, a South African game park or a New Zealand mountain vista, where they can snap pictures in a distant idyll before returning to their smoggy homes.

The Bentleys and Ferraris that roar down big-city streets in China provide some of the most obvious evidence that growing numbers of Chinese have become fabulously rich. Even moderate wealth, however, remains far beyond the grasp of most.

In China, "life, in fact, is quite mediocre," said Li Yinhe, a prominent Chinese sociologist and sexologist. Wedding photos offer a chance for "ordinary people to look like princesses and princes - to let them experience that nobility and beauty."

It's just a part of the enormous Chinese wedding industry, now worth an estimated $170-billion a year, roughly equivalent to the entire Canadian energy sector.

The industry has grown fast. In the 1950s, under Mao Zedong, couples might have given each other books containing the Chairman's writings and celebrated with a modest feast of candies, sunflower seeds and peanuts. As China opened in the 1970s, couples came to expect watches, bicycles and sewing machines, according to a recent report in Time Weekly, a Guangzhou newspaper. By the 1980s, they wanted rental cars, pictures and furniture. In the 1990s and 2000s, demands expanded to include far more, including electronics, cars and, of course, elaborate photo sessions.

With most photographers, wedding-photo-package prices today range from $1,000 to almost $100,000 - the latter nearly enough to hire Annie Leibovitz for a day.

Most wedding photos are taken months in advance, producing images that can be printed on invitations, displayed at the ceremony and plastered around a newlywed's house. One couple "painted a giant picture onto the ceiling of their bedroom, like wallpaper, so they could see it when they lay down," said Han Yufeng, an assistant general manager in Beijing at one of the busiest offices for Golden Ladies Photo, which has 470 locations around the world - including one in Toronto.

Last year, 13,000 couples came to Ms. Han's office for photos; this year, the tally has risen dramatically.

She admits that for some grooms, who spend most of the day waiting for their brides to switch makeup and costumes, "it's quite torturous." For men, the company has special waiting rooms equipped with magazines, movies and drinks - although "we definitely don't provide alcohol," she said.

On their busiest day so far, 157 couples took pictures in one of several 50,000-square-foot studios whose interiors outdo all but the poshest of hotels or luxury homes, and are refreshed every few months in keeping with the most current fashions. The company operates 24 hours a day on weekends, with a separate office for the Photoshop artists, who spend hours digitally polishing each image.

Wedding-photo one-upmanship has led to a litany of bizarre choices: Growing numbers of couples are getting married in Antarctica. One groom dressed up in Nazi gear, complete with a bright red swastika armband and, in one picture, a German shepherd. One couple was photographed with the husband-tobe in SWAT gear, brandishing an assault rifle. An octogenarian couple dressed up in costumes ripped from a movie poster for the 2015 Disney film Cinderella.

"To some Chinese, wedding photos are meant to show their love - but they are more the epitome of wealth and mianzi," the maintenance of face and social prestige, said Ji Yuting and He Tao, a couple who are midway through a year-long wedding photo trip around China.

Ms. Ji and Mr. He are taking photos dressed as each of the country's 55 officially recognized minority groups. They see their country-spanning photo trip as the expression of a new generation embracing new freedoms.

"We are more interested in figuring out what kind of life we want to live, what dreams we have and how to make them real," the couple wrote by e-mail.

"That's not like our parents' generation, whose primary goal was a stable lifestyle just like everybody else."

James Poborsa, a University of Toronto lecturer, sees something else: The modern incarnation of the "staged scene," a defining feature of Communist Chinese photography.

Under Mao, state-sponsored photographers "produced more politicized or propagandizing images. All of them were more or less staged scenes," said Mr. Poborsa, who is writing a PhD dissertation titled Staging the Future: The Politics of Photographic Representation in Postsocialist China.

The idea was to "create an image foreshadowing an idealized future" - which sounds a lot like how most couples see their wedding photos.

"People who see my photos really want to get married," said Lin Song, a Beijing-based wedding photographer.

Ms. Lin's wedding photography has taken her around the world and across China. In South Africa, she photographed a couple standing beside a giraffe and, in another frame, petting a leopard. In Tibet, she worked at an altitude so high she was on oxygen while she snapped. Many couples travel to places to which they have no connection - crossing the planet solely to take photos.

"It's all about beauty," Ms. Lin said. "We Chinese have seen too much of the Great Wall in Beijing. People want to choose something special for themselves that they do not often see."

One of her clients, Peng Yuqi, flew her to New Zealand. "I heard its landscapes were beautiful, and many movies were filmed there," said Ms. Peng, who lives in Melbourne. "I've always wanted to take pictures in such a beautiful place."

The cost: $6,000 for a singleday shoot, not including travel costs for the couple or Ms. Lin's four-person team.

For Ms. Peng, it was a chance to capture not just herself and fiancé in the beauty of youth, but also the feelings of young love. In one of her favourite photos, they are jogging down an empty asphalt road, in front of a horizon ringed with mountains that plunge to turquoise waters.

"In his eyes, he has so much love for me. You can see it," Ms. Peng said. "I really love that photo."

With reporting by Yu Mei

$580-billion: The projected worth of China's wedding industry by 2020.

$77-million: The amount invested by property developer Qixi Group in a 30,000-square-metre 'love manor' in Beijing's suburban Tongzhou District. The site is often used for wedding photo shoots and banquets.

10 million: The estimated number of weddings in China each year.

$15,000: The average cost of a Chinese wedding, a reasonable sum in other developed markets but remarkably high for the average Chinese urbanite, who earns $11,300 yearly.

$600: The fee instituted by fashion designer Vera Wang for brides to try on gowns at her first China store in Shanghai in 2013. The brand said it was meant to prevent counterfeiting, but dropped the fee in 2014.

5: The number of dresses some Chinese brides wear on their wedding day.

Compiled by Alex Migdal. Sources include Chinese Wedding Industry Development Report and AskCI Consulting Co.

Associated Graphic

Bride Peng Yuqi and her betrothed, Wang Yuchen, travelled to New Zealand to take wedding photos in beautiful landscapes. For some Chinese couples, wedding photos are meant to show social prestige as much as their love for each other.

LIN SONG

Ji Yuting, left, and He Tao are midway through a cross-China trip to take wedding photos dressed up like each of China's 55 officially recognized minorities.

INTO THE WOODS
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With Barkskins, Annie Proulx has written an epic - and a lament for humanity's inability to stop its own destruction
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By JARED BLAND
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page R1


Like the enormous white pines whose deforestation serves as the subject of her magisterial new novel, Barkskins, Annie Proulx is something of a giant in her field: a winner of countless prizes, among them the Pulitzer and the National Book Award, and the author of many novels - including Accordion Crimes, The Shipping News and That Old Ace in the Hole - and many indelible short stories, among them one called Brokeback Mountain, which inspired an Oscar-winning film and, more recently, an opera, for which Proulx wrote the libretto. She is, in other words, a titan, one of the great living English-language writers. Her latest novel is an enormous book that spans more than 300 years and documents the stories of two families, largely set in Canada and the United States. It is perhaps the most ambitious work of her remarkable career. The Globe and Mail's Jared Bland spoke with Proulx this month on stage in Toronto.

How did this book begin for you? I understand you were in Michigan years ago?

That was a long time ago. Maybe 30 years ago. I used to drive across the country, across the continent, up and down, cross ways, every way. By myself, for a long time. Seeing what I could see. I was in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and came one afternoon to a crossroad or a T - I don't remember which. It was just scrubby bushes and a laundromat that looked like no one had visited it for a while. And a little sign that said, "This is the town of Alma." And a big sign, a billboard, very weathered. Someone had painted it to say something like, "In this place in eighteen something something grew the finest white pine forest in the world." And I looked around and there wasn't a single white pine anywhere. Not one. Not even a six-inch white pine. Just birch and other scrubby-looking trees. Bushes. So that stuck in my mind. I hung around in that area for a couple of days, went hiking, dragging up muddy back roads. And I came to a place where there was an extremely steep hill with a brook running down at the bottom. And at the top of that hill were eight, 10, 30 white pines.

Obviously they'd never been cut because they were in an extremely awkward place - no way to get them out. I also found several headstones made of pine not far away. Just four or five of them, standing all by themselves. If there had ever been inscriptions or writing on them, it was no longer visible.

They were just as anonymous as anonymous could be. But they were there, and there were bones underneath them, I'm sure. I did not dig to find out.

That stuck in my mind. And it stayed there without taking any shape as a book or a story or anything I might do - it just stayed there loose, bumping around. What really made me start getting serious about the story was when the lodgepole pine forests where I lived, in the Rockies, began to die, about 15 years ago. They were all the same tree - there was absolutely nothing growing there but lodgepole pine. They were all mature and they were all dying. Nobody was particularly interested. People just feared fire, and outsiders weren't interested. The rest of the world was completely unconcerned with what happened with lodgepole pines, but I was concerned. I began to think seriously about climate change and global warming and all of those things that were words that had been floating around. After a while I started to get serious about finding out, and that was how the book started.

It's also a trip into your own family history. I understand that your ancestor, one Jean Prou, came to a similar place to those your characters arrive at in the beginning of this book, working while indentured in New France in the 17th century.

Yes, he was indentured to a seigneur, around Montmagny. Probably still have lots of relatives there. He didn't have very good luck with his life.

He changed masters - he traded in his indenture, which I didn't know you could do. He became indentured to someone else and married that man's 14-year-old daughter. Had many children with her, and then, suddenly, there's a blank in the record for about 20 years. It's supposed that he might have gone off and been involved with the fur trade in some way. He got here in about 1666. Died in 1703. But he disappeared for 20 years, came back, owed a lot of money to somebody, couldn't pay it, died, left a big debt, wife had to sell the farm. And that was all I know.

The reviews for this book have been glowing - lots of "great American novel" type of talk. But we here view it quiet differently, because half of it is set in Canada ... kidding! No No kidding! Tell me about your research for this book, your trips to Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick.

I didn't have to go back.

I'd been to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and of course Newfoundland many many times.

I remembered it pretty well. The first time I was in New Brunswick, probably on the same trip when I saw the sign in Michigan, I was coming from the west and came upon another sign in New Brunswick that said, "Welcome to the Emerald Kingdom." There were plenty of very green, small trees growing there. It was a planted area. I was very pleased. I saw good signs on that trip. Those are the kinds of things that stick in my mind.

You also set part of the book in China. One character there comes across these beautiful small gardens that he feels contain the essence of forest and mountain in miniature.

I must confess that Chinese gardens are one of my loves. I am very, very attracted to them.

When I was in graduate school, one of my minors was traditional China, so I'm interested in the Chinese and interested in the gardens - and also the Dutch, I like the Dutch. It was a fun book for me to work on because all of the things that I like secretly, that I never could write about before, somehow found their way in there, including Chinese gardens.

I was talking to a colleague about the book and I said that it was almost a cosmic novel, because it does this incredible thing: It looks at this paradox where we are all in this continuum of history, our lives connected to each other's, and yet, as you remind us many dozens of times throughout the book, we're ultimately quite insignificant and will meet some merciless end I want to say a word or two about the deaths. A lot of the American reviewers have picked up on them as though they were put in there to startle, amaze and shock - as titillating bits. And that's not why they were there. They were put in to illustrate the lack of safety of work that was done in the past. Almost all of the deaths are work-related. It was a different world. People die because they do dangerous things. They're not there as nougats in the dessert.

Throughout the book, people keep making the same mistake - thinking the forest is inexhaustible. "It is infinite," one character says, "it twists around as a snake swallows its own tail and has no end and no beginning." And this is the mistake that dozens and dozens of people make, assuming this endlessness ... That it can last forever. But all of the characters - you know, we can't blame them for taking down the forests. They had no way of looking into the future and knowing the forests would disappear.

They believed in infinity for forests and trees - they regrew, they were there, they were huge. But along about the middle of the 19th century, people began to think and observe. A man named Marsh in Vermont wrote a book about the human effect on the natural world. And at that point, we knew. We knew what we were doing. And it didn't make any difference.

It's impossible to imagine a world, humans being humans, where this wouldn't happen.

I know. There's a horrible sense of inevitability about it, and that rolls through the whole thing - and through my thinking. I don't know about you, but that sense of "Can we stop?" Maybe not.

Maybe it's too late.

Not so much it's too late, but more: Even if everyone knew it was too late, we'd still keep on.

There seems to be something in the human psyche that is unable to stop and step back and repair and fix things. It's not willing to.

It's like we can't shift easily.

There's just something in people.

It's the fatal flaw in humanity, I think. Once we start doing something, we keep on. ... I don't know. I'm still thinking about this. I probably will forever.

This conversation was edited and condensed.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION MING WONG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

EAST SIDE STORY
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Portugal's Algarve is almost too popular, so why not head to its little-visited eastern end? Here the long white beaches are secluded and the port towns are sleepier, but there's no shortage of gelato and pastry shops. On a road trip, Doug Wallace learns to slow down and live the good life
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By DOUG WALLACE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page T1


THE ALGARVE, PORTUGAL -- Portugal's beach-filled southern coastline has long been considered the country's summer playground. And while the west side has enjoyed the lion's share of the tourist trade since the 1970s, the east side, stretching from the central city of Faro to the Spanish border, is far more relaxing and infinitely more cool.

This is where the smarter Europeans are buying (and renting out) their summer properties, and where hip expats are opening boutique hotels and hot restaurants.

The sleepiness of the tiny towns and empty beaches weeds out the people who can't sit in a chair for more than 10 minutes.

The common denominator here, for both locals and tourists, is an innate ability to appreciate life.

It's easy to see why. Secluded beaches can stretch for many kilometres with no one in sight. Centuries-old towns - with their winding narrow walkways, whitewashed markets and village square cafés - are beyond quaint. Exquisite mosaic tile work is everywhere you look. Ditto ice cream shops. Traditional salt-cod fritters, octopus salad, seafood rice and the freshest bread are plentiful, tasty and inexpensive. Each bakery has its own unique recipe for the ubiquitous pastel de nata, or egg-custart tart, which makes repeat taste tests essential. And the wine is not only sublime, it can be had for as little as 2 a glass. Clearly, these people know how to live.

The hub city of Faro separates the Eastern and Western Algarve. Travellers fly into its small but busy international airport - and then promptly leave town. As a result, Faro's pretty spots seldom make it into the guidebooks. There's a lot of history here, and a visit to the Arco da Vila Interpretation Centre, built within one of the city's oldest Moorish gates dating from the 11th century, provides visitors with the basics. This national monument also fully documents the devastating 1755 earthquake and its aftermath, and the rebuilding of the city.

From there, you can pop into nearby Faro Cathedral, but perhaps more intriguing is the Church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo. It is noteworthy for its remarkable gilded interior and for the chilling chapel in the rear, its walls and ceilings lined with the skulls and bones of more than 1,000 monks who once served there.

The town of Olhao, just a 20-minute drive east, is the hip part of the region, more of a suburb really, and technically a municipality. This busy fishing port has slowly been adopted by artists and creative people over the years, drawn to its nononsense grittiness, and to the mix of old and new. Boutique hotel developments mingle with mom-and-pop restaurants on intricately tiled pedestrian streets. Look up and you'll see huge white storks from the nearby salt marshes nesting on the tops of church towers; great big lumbering things like something out of The Flintstones.

Here, as you'll find throughout the Algarve, smart, renovated buildings border total derelict properties, either abandoned or waiting for some longlost cousin to reclaim them. This juxtaposition creates a sort of romantic, tumbledown-chic that underscores Olhao's history, linking past to present.

A short ferry ride from Olhao to the marshes directly south of town will land you at Culatra Island, the first of the beachy sandbar islands that stretch eastward, all the way to the Spanish border and beyond.

Once you get hooked on these incredible beaches, you'll need a daily fix, and there is ample opportunity to beach hop to a different one every day.

Take a 15-minute drive a little further up the coast for a stop at Barril Beach on Tavira Island. It's a former tuna fishermen's camp, reached by walking from the mainland (where you'll leave your car) across a pontoon bridge, then hopping on a small train that wends its way through marshland and sand dunes to the Atlantic. You will have no problem finding solitude here: This beach is 11 kilometres long.

A cluster of bars and restaurants provides a bit of a respite from the surf and sun tanning, and a photogenic anchor graveyard commemorates the region's fishing history. Keep your camera ready for the city of Tavira itself, one of the Eastern Algarve's prettiest spots and a popular home base for visitors.

White stone-tiled streets, worn smooth by centuries of feet, line the narrow pathways, grand boulevards and picturesque church squares. Happily, it feels like there's a gelato shop every 10 metres.

One of the many day trips to slot in while you're in or around Tavira is the ancient Moorish fishing village of Cacela Velha just a few minutes' drive further east.

There's a favourite local beach here where bathers walk or wade out to the sand bars, keeping an eye on the time so they don't get stranded when the tide comes in. There are no public amenities on the beach but there are a couple of really good restaurants in the tiny town itself, including a fresh oyster café.

Keep in mind that, throughout the Algarve, lunch is sacrosanct, and always served between 1 and 3. (Many of the smaller shops close during this time as well.) If you try and eat later or earlier, you will be met with a shrug.

If you head further east and reach the town of Vila Real de Santo Antonio you're at the Guadiana River, with Spain on the other side. Built in less than six months in 1774 as a centre for tuna fishing, it is now filled with travellers, its streets lined with tranquil cafés and craft-filled markets. Steer clear of the fridge magnets and the beach towels sporting the mug of soccer star Cristiano Ronaldo, it's the local specialities such as cork home furnishings, ceramic bowls and tiles, terra cotta cookware, wool rugs and fine-milled soaps you should bring home.

(Golfers should also head for the nearby Monte Rei Golf and Country Club just north of Vila Real. It was ranked earlier this year by Golf Digest magazine as the No. 1 course in the country.

Designed by Jack Nicklaus, it blends into the landscape, with views of the Serra do Caldeirao mountains to the north and the ocean to the south.)

And since your quest on this trip is to learn how to fully appreciate the good life, why not head into Spain for a bite? Just hop on the 20-minute ferry across the Guadiana to Ayamonte for a tapas lunch and a jug of sangria.

Just remember there is a onehour time difference, and a similar outlook on respecting lunch times.

Before heading back to your home base in Tavira, take a quick detour into the tiny town of Castro Marim to wander through the 12th-century castle ruins.

Chances are good you will be the only one there. And as this is the centre of sea-salt production in the Eastern Algarve, see if the open-air mud bath is open. Nestled right in the salt pans, it's more of a wallow than a bath, but a great chance to "take the waters."

Salt, sand and sitting around eating custard tarts: in the Eastern Algarve I found myself exhausted by doing absolutely nothing. Not a bad way to appreciate the good life.

IF YOU GO

Lufthansa and Air Canada Rouge have non-stop flights from Toronto to Lisbon, and Air Transat flies non-stop from Toronto and Montreal. From there, TAP Portugal will get you down to Faro in 45 minutes for about $275. The train is also an option. Driving from Lisbon on the toll highways is easy and less crowded than the regular highways. Rentals come fitted with e-toll transponders.

WHERE TO STAY

In Olhao's Ria Formosa National Park, the modest but modern Casa Modesta sports a spartan architectural theme, designed more like a traditional family home than an inn. It has nine rooms, a garden pool and amazing views from the rooftop terrace. Rooms from $130; casamodesta.pt Convento is a whitewashed haven in the centre of Olhao, a former convent where dorms have been converted into airy bedrooms with marble-finished bathrooms. Rooms from $165; conventoolhao.com The same owners also operate White Terraces, a townhouse of chic apartments.

Rooms from $75; whiteterraces.com The 77-room Ozadi Tavira Hotel was built in the 1970s and renovated in 2014 to maintain the original character. Ontrend colours, cork design details and local traditional homeware blend perfectly into the mod vibe. Rooms from $80; ozaditavirahotel.com Further out in the countryside near Tavira sits Pensao Agricola. This six-room, allwhite rural retreat has a quirky farmhouse feel, filled with gorgeous vintage finds that you will want to take home. Rooms from $190; pensaoagricola.com

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Tavira is one of the Eastern Algarve's prettiest spots - and packed with gelato shops.

RONISARIN/GETTY IMAGES/ISTOCKPHOTO

Barril Beach's Anchor Graveyard, above, dining between 1 and 3 p.m. (including such dishes as fried mackerel, bottom right) and the Church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo in Lagoa, bottom left, are among the draws of Portugal's quiet, beachy Eastern Algarve.

ALL PHOTOS: TIM STEWART

A master craftsman of stage spectacle
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He was in demand in New York and London, but Canada was the Stratford Festival designer's 'spiritual home'
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By DIANE PETERS
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S12


Glittering at the centre of the Stratford Festival's 2009 production of The Importance of Being Earnest was a light-reflecting chandelier fashioned with plastic wine glasses and utensils - the kind you buy at the dollar store and use at a picnic. The internationally renowned theatre, opera and ballet designer Desmond Heeley, who died on June 10 at the age of 85, conceptualized the elaborate stage accoutrement and crafted most of it himself, in spite of having a team to do such work.

"He could make anything out of anything," says costume designer Molly Harris Campbell, a former assistant and long-time friend.

The production subsequently went on to the Roundabout Theatre in New York, where it won Mr. Heeley his third and final Tony award, for costume design.

Known for his gorgeous props, costumes and sets, Mr. Heeley was exceptionally inventive and thrived on tight budgets, often making his most striking creations with everyday objects. His designs were in demand on both sides of the Atlantic. In Canada, he designed 40 Stratford Festival productions and worked for the National Ballet of Canada, the Canadian Opera Company and the Royal Winnipeg Ballet. In the United States, he designed productions for New York's Metropolitan Opera, the American Ballet Theatre, the Guthrie Theater and more. He also designed productions at London's Royal Opera House and National Theatre, and at La Scala, the illustrious Milan opera house.

"He had such a huge influence on design and designers around the world," says Doug Paraschuk, a set designer at Stratford who worked as Mr. Heeley's assistant for many years and was also a good friend.

Macaroni, cork balls, swimming pool noodles and tape of all sorts found their way into his creations. He would make Christmas wrapping paper look like gold leaf. Ornate tassels on a curtain were actually made of plastic spoons. He covered the stage at the Festival Theatre in Stratford with crushed red velvet.

For a production of Molière's The School for Wives, he made faux tiles out of pieces of carpet that cushioned the actors through the French farce. A going-out-of-business sale in New York yielded mounds of exquisite silk fabric samples that he transformed into costumes for a lush production of The Three Musketeers at Stratford.

He personally painted the skirts used in La Sylphide, which the National Ballet of Canada reprised a few months ago.

Many of his creations looked raw and unfinished to the naked eye. "You'd see his work up close and you'd think, 'This is crazy. It's goofy,'" says Antoni Cimolino, artistic director of the Stratford Festival, who has been with the festival since 1988 as an actor, director and administrator. "Then you sat in the audience and it looked better than real."

"He was a master at finding light," Mr. Paraschuk says. Even the simplest table was painted with some kind of patina to reflect light. With costumes, he'd often create multiple layers, and paint directly on the fabric, all to give the piece more texture.

In 1968, Mr. Heeley became the first person to win Tony Awards for both scenic and costume design for the same production, for his work in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead.

British-born Mr. Heeley first came to North America to work in Stratford. While he lived in New York for most of his life, he spent numerous springs and summers in Stratford working on productions. "Canada was his spiritual home," says Mr. Paraschuk. "Des would not mind me saying that."

Desmond Heeley was born on June 1, 1931. Little is known of his early life, but friends say he had been adopted by a family living in West Bromwich, a small town outside Birmingham, England.

The family owned a store and Mr. Heeley decorated the store's windows when he was a child.

Mr. Heeley often shared the story of how, at the age of five, he was taken to see a pantomime version of Goldilocks and the Three Bears. He was enamoured of the production. But even at that age, he was critical of the design work, in particular a skeleton prop.

"That's not very good. It's just an old cardboard thing," he told Playbill in 2011.

A schoolteacher noticed his design talent and arranged a scholarship for young Mr. Heeley to apprentice at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in nearby Stratford-upon-Avon. He learned quickly and trained to be a milliner and prop builder. He then did work at places such as the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. Mr. Paraschuk says one of the first plays Mr. Heeley ever designed was The Lark by Jean Anouilh - he would have been in his early 20s.

In 1955, at age 24, Mr. Heeley designed the costumes for Titus Andronicus in Stratford-uponAvon for director Peter Brook, with actors Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh.

Designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch and directors Tyrone Guthrie and Michael Langham all worked with him in England and encouraged him to come to Canada. All three did pivotal work in the early days of the Stratford Festival (Ms. Moiseiwitsch, Mr. Heeley's mentor, designed the stage at the Festival Theatre).

He referred to leaving England and his family there as "going off and joining the circus." In 1957, he worked on his first Stratford play, Hamlet, which starred Christopher Plummer. He worked consistently at Stratford and later began branching out, doing work for opera and ballet.

Mr. Cimolino recalls a dark and powerful set for the 1992 Measure for Measure, directed by Mr. Langham, in which Mr. Heeley created an effective prison upstage. Also in Earnest, he put together a fireplace mantel, adorned with a clock and what looked like a mirror above it. But the mirror was actually a painting that showed the back of the clock on the mantel.

Mr. Paraschuk has strong memories of the "magical production" of Amadeus they worked on together in 1995 and 1996. Mr. Heeley had personal reasons for immersing himself in the play's subject matter - the death of an artist. His partner of about 20 years, the Australian-born composer Lance Mulcahy, died in early 1995.

Mr. Heeley also became a professor of design at the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University. Outside of the performing arts, he did design work for Tiffany & Co. Mr. Paraschuk says his mentor also drew in his free time, and he recalls a series of drawings of animals dressed in fanciful clothing. "He often said if he had not worked in theatre, he would have loved to work for Walt Disney."

For his work, Mr. Heeley received numerous awards, including the TDF/Irene Sharaff Lifetime Achievement Award in 1994, the Allan Jones Memorial Award in 1995, the Institute for Theatre Technology Award in 1997 and the Robert L.B. Tobin Award for Sustained Excellence in Theatrical Design in 2013.

Mr. Heeley was a tall man with a low, mumbly voice. Combined with his English accent, people often struggled to understand him at first. He had a bit of an ego, and certainly a temper. "He wanted things to happen the way in which he wanted them to happen," says Mr. Paraschuk. He recalls a heated conversation between Mr. Heeley and the architect renovating the Festival Theatre in the mid-1990s. Mr. Paraschuk had to put a hand on Mr. Heeley's leg to calm him down and prevent a fiery outburst.

He was such a hands-on perfectionist that his assistants would often arrive at work in the morning to find their latest project had been finished by Mr. Heeley. He loved to do the final painting or put the ribbons on a hat. His team didn't mind - he always had a strong vision, but was easy to work with. "He was so loved by the people here," says Mr. Cimolino. Ms. Harris Campbell says he was a generous mentor, "He was incredibly encouraging to young people."

Above all, he was an artist who never lost his passion for design.

(He also loved travel and food, particularly Italian food.) Even in 2009, when he was already suffering from the rare cancer that took his life, he worked while in pain to create Earnest, his final production.

Mr. Paraschuk recalls just how much the work affected Mr. Heeley. One morning, they entered the scenic shop at Stratford and could see the faux tile floor - assembled with a complex recipe of reflective mylar, epoxy and other materials - that one of the scenic artists had been working on, from above, nearly finished. "Oh, Doug," he said, simply, while powerfully clasping onto his assistant's arm. "When he grabbed onto you with those big hands, it meant something." To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page. Please include I Remember in the subject field.

Associated Graphic

Costume and set designer Desmond Heeley surveys a set in March, 1967. He worked on plays such as The Importance of Being Earnest, left, and Amadeus, bottom. He also worked on ballets such as La Sylphide, right.

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP: ERIK CHRISTENSEN FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL; DAVID HOU; CYLLA VON TIEDEMANN; ALEKSANDAR ANTONIJEVIC

The joy of parenthood
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Yes, the CX-9 is a practical family hauler, but it's a fun driver's car, too
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By BRENDAN MCALEER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, June 23, 2016 – Print Edition, Page D9


SQUAMISH, B.C. -- TECH SPECS

Base Price: $35,300

Engine: Turbocharged 2.5-litre

Transmission/Drive: Six-speed automatic; front-wheel-drive or all-wheel-drive

Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 11.2 city, 8.8 highway.

Alternatives: Toyota Highlander, Honda Pilot, Ford Edge 'M iata" is an old High German word meaning "reward." "Mid-sized crossover" is certainly not an old High German phrase but, if it were, it might translate to "the work that precedes the reward." There will be time enough for open-topped roadsters when four becomes two, but in the meantime, you're going to need room for that stroller.

But hang on, says Mazda: We engineer a little fun-to-drive character into all our cars. Our new CX-9 might have three rows, but it's still a driver's car.

To test this theory, I first planted the kids with the grandparents to flee north in a Soul Red MX-5, then ran essentially the same route with the rug rats.

The question: Can you still have that horse-and-rider-as-one feeling when you've hitched your Mazda up to the wagon of everyday family needs?

First, the MX-5 needs no introduction. This particular version was the Sport Package, equipped with BBS alloys and Recaro seats.

What a wonderful little car: Stir up the fizzy 155-horsepower 2.0litre and hammer it right through the gears on the road to bliss. The Sea-to-Sky highway has more than its fair share of speed traps, so it's a joy to drive something modern that's not wildly overpowered.

Now, meet the new CX-9. Allnew from the ground up, this is the last Mazda to receive the full suite of modern styling and engineering changes. It is the largest and most expensive Mazda in the lineup, but is also slightly smaller than last year and loses the old V-6 for a smaller displacement four-cylinder engine.

Remember how outraged people were when the MX-5 lost 12 horsepower in the name of efficiency? Some 46 horses have fled the new CX-9's barn, leaving it with around the same power rating as an early Subaru WRX. If you fill it with premium fuel, something the old 3.7-litre V-6 did not require, it'll make 250 horsepower. Otherwise, it's a modestsounding 227 horses at 6,000 rpm.

However, just as with the MX-5, there's more here than just numbers. First, the CX-9's 2.5-litre turbocharged four-cylinder makes a stout 310-lb-ft of torque at 2,000 rpm, regardless whether running premium or regular. It's also a lighter vehicle than the previous model, with much of the weight coming off the nose thanks to the lighter four. The all-wheeldrive version is 148 kilograms lighter than the old CX-9 AWD.

Before delving into the performance, it's time to load up both vehicles for their respective trips. The MX-5 suits a suddenlycarefree couple, and with a bit of creative packing, the trunk swallows enough for a weekend getaway. The CX-9 needs to haul considerably more stuff, not least of which is a pair of modern child seats, each about the same size as a first-generation Miata.

Funnily enough, the CX-9 doesn't feel like car seats were really part of the plan. Unlike the Nissan Pathfinder, which has a sliding middle row that works even if there's a seat strapped in, the CX-9's second row stays put.

It's also harder for little hands to move than the middle-row of a Honda Pilot.

However, it is roomy, with excellent middle-seat legroom.

This is a vehicle for older families, with kids long past their booster seats and eager to sprawl out. The third-row seats are tighter than the old CX-9, and when they're deployed, cargo room out back is pretty tight.

This is worse than a Highlander, but better than a Lexus RX350 or Acura MDX.

And it's the latter two that the CX-9 is really taking aim at. If you thought Mazda's three-row looked well-proportioned on the outside, it's the inside that really impresses, with details such as genuine matte wood around the shifter. The MX-5 gives Mazda an identity as a driver-focused company, and the CX-9 pushes the bar higher as a semi-premium brand: not quite an Acura, but nicer than a Honda.

You can't drive two kids along a twisty road in a crossover in the same way you can bomb along in a two-seater droptop. At least I can't, but then again, I have an aversion to cleaning vomit out of the headliner. However, the CX-9 is a surprising charmer.

First, that low-end torque is perfectly paired to the mundane six-speed automatic. Where other manufacturers have gone to eight, nine and even 10-speed gearboxes - like they were trying to build bicycles - Mazda's conventional solution shifts quickly without hunting around. The low-end torque makes for a loping gallop, and provides solid shove up to speed when we run into stoplights near Squamish, B.C.

Even better, there's also a lightness and deftness of feel here that mimics the MX-5 on a bigger scale. Just as with the rest of the Mazda range, the CX-9 does drive like people who care about driving built it. Unlike its stablemates, however, the turbocharged four actually brings some guts to the table. Mazda needs to get a higher-horsepower variant of this engine into the Mazda6 pronto. Actually, they should stuff it into the CX-3 cute-ute and make a rallycrossready Mazdaspeed.

However, all is not sweetness and light. While almost every other Mazda easily hits fueleconomy targets no matter how enthusiastically you drive it, the CX-9 suffers from the curse of turbocharging in the real world.

Mixed use over the week with an emphasis on highway driving saw values a little above the city rating for fuel economy. Turbocharged engines can often skew thirstier than naturally-aspirated offerings. Additionally, Mazda's previous turbocharged offerings haven't been without flaws. The old Mazdaspeed3 ate motor mounts like they were Doritos.

With those caveats in place, the CX-9 offers a strong play for your dollar. At $52,295, the price of this loaded-to-the-gills Signature edition is made more palatable by Mazda's typically aggressive leasing rates and stellar unlimited mileage warranty.

It is excellent to drive, feels a cut above the mainline brands, and looks sharp.

Regrettably, they can't all be sunny days with a canvas roof that drops in seconds. The weekend away evaporated all too quickly. And yet, the CX-9 promises that the day-to-day won't be without a grin or two. I'm not sure what the ancient High Germans would have made of it, but it's pretty darn good.

YOU'LL LIKE THIS CAR IF ...

You're a parent and a grown-up, but maybe not all-the-waygrown-up.

RATINGS

LOOKS

Imbued with Mazda's new design language, the CX-9's dominant feature is its massive front grille and long nose. The 20-inch alloys on the GT model look to be sized right, while the 18s on the volume-selling GS-L look a bit stunted; with tires to fit 20-inch alloys being a bit expensive, maybe they should have split the difference at 19s.

INTERIOR

Like the Mazda6 sedan, there's an upscale driver-focused feel to the CX-9's cockpit. Cabin storage is adequate, though I'd like to have seen USB ports in the handy smartphone storage bin ahead of the shifter.

PERFORMANCE

Ample turbocharged torque is the takeaway impression of the CX-9. Plenty of grunt lets it shake off its curb weight, and passing power is plenty for real-world applications. Like any Mazda, the real charm is in lightness of handling, impressive for such a large machine.

TECHNOLOGY

The adaptive cruise control makes highway commuting that much easier, and the simple rotary-dial and touchscreen infotainment control is as easy to use here as on the CX-5. The proper heads-up display is a nice touch as well.

CARGO

With all three rows deployed, the CX-9's remaining cargo area is pipped by competitors such as the Ford Edge. Better to think of the third row as jump seats, as the second-row legroom is spacious enough for adults and older kids to spread out.

THE VERDICT

8.5 If the MX-5 has to wait until the kids leave the nest, the CX-9 will still put a grin on your face.

Associated Graphic

The CX-9 is the largest and most expensive vehicle in Mazda's lineup. Despite having three rows of seats, the Japanese auto maker says it's still a driver's car.

BRENDAN McALEER FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mazda engineers took the lightness and deftness of feel of the MX-5 and translated it into a crossover.

BRENDAN McALEER FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Profiling Picasso's women
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A new exhibit at the Vancouver Art Gallery examines the lives and influence of the artist's lovers
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page R3


VANCOUVER -- Although excited to see the artwork, I felt somewhat uneasy walking into an exhibition about Picasso's women.

Picasso was notoriously cruel to his partners - a serial philanderer, a womanizer. He got older but his conquests did not. He was in his 70s when he met his second wife, who was in her 20s. He was also a fiery, jealous and even violent partner.

Consider Femme au collier jaune (Woman with a Yellow Necklace), 1946 - a portrait of one of his great loves, Françoise Gilot - mother of two of his children. In this colourful geometric oil, Gilot is depicted with a beauty mark on her cheek. But Gilot did not have a beauty mark. The blemish is in fact a cigarette burn - the result of an argument between the couple.

How is one to tour through an exhibit about Picasso's romantic and artistic inspirations and reconcile the ugliness of the man's behaviour with the beauty of his art?

But Picasso: The Artist and His Muses, which opened last week at the Vancouver Art Gallery, is not merely a celebration of Picasso's reclining, weeping and other painted women; it is a celebration of the women themselves - and an examination of his work through that lens. These women weren't simply models or even muses, this exhibition posits, but partners and collaborators whose influence on his work far surpassed that of just subjects.

Curator Katharina Beisiegel, who views these relationships as a sort of "creative osmosis," has taken great care to give the women if not quite equal billing - the real stars of this show are, of course, Picasso's paintings - then a large spotlight. Picasso's art drives the show, but the six women who are considered his most prominent muses - major figures in his personal life and his art - were integral to its creation.

"I would be very happy if you take away from this exhibition that these women were truly part of the creative process," Beisiegel told The Globe and Mail. "That their lives and what they experienced and their stories ... mattered to the way that we see the paintings and the way they were painted."

The exhibition is an enormous undertaking. With more than 60 works sourced from more than 35 international lenders, it's been a six-year endeavour for Beisiegel (it's not always easy to convince an institution or collector to part with their Picassos). It is divided into six sections, one for each of the women, each beginning with a large photograph of the woman and her story.

"I wanted to shift the focus away from Picasso, this artist on a pedestal," said Beisiegel, deputy director of Art Centre Basel.

"There were these great women ... who brought something to the creative process and who were so influential on his art. And that's what I wanted to focus on. When you're in an exhibition, of course you're surrounded by his gaze on the female body, and I wanted to balance the male gaze that Picasso has by bringing these women in. That's one of the reasons why we enlarged the photographs, to really have them as a presence in the exhibition. So that we don't forget this is not just some rendition of a female body - this is a portrait of a woman, and of a very specific woman."

The exhibition begins with Fernande Olivier (1881-1966), widely regarded as Picasso's first great love. They met in Paris in 1904; both were very poor and living a bohemian life. Olivier had escaped an abusive marriage and was working as a model for artists.

Their relationship marked a major shift in Picasso's work: from his melancholic Blue Period to his warmer, more cheerful Rose Period - as well as his dive into cubism. Olivier's almondshaped eyes are clearly visible in this exhibition in Woman Combing Her Hair, 1905, and Nude Standing in Profile, 1906, as well as his 1909 bronze, Head of a Woman (Fernande), considered one of the iconic cubist works.

Picasso grew successful during this period but the relationship crumbled under the weight of their mutual infidelities, the exhibition explains, and they separated in 1912.

The show's second section examines Olga Khokhlova (18911955), a Russian ballet star whom Picasso met in Rome in 1917 and married the following year. This period marks a fascination with neoclassicism, with classicist and even sculptural elements injected into paintings of Khokhlova, including Head of a Woman (Olga), 1917, a small, realist oil on canvas that Picasso painted to make a good impression on Olga's family; and Seated Nude, 1922 - with clearly visible GrecoRoman influences.

While Picasso was still with Khokhlova, with whom he had a son, he met Marie-Thérèse Walter (1909-1977) outside a Paris department store and was captivated by her beauty. She was 17.

Thus began a long affair that was very fruitful for his art. The affair was kept secret initially - but Picasso needed to honour this new love with his work. Guitar Hung on a Wall with Profile, 1927, is an encrypted portrait; he uses code to secretly declare his love: an "M" and "T" for his new lover and a more prominent "P" for himself.

The final work in the Walter section of the show is a stunner: Reclining Woman Reading, 1939, depicts his mistress (with whom Picasso by now had a daughter) as restful, comfortable. Her sexuality is toned down as she is curled up, quite literally, with a book.

Amazingly, that same day, Picasso painted a portrait of his next great love, Dora Maar. Maar (1907-1997) may be the best known of Picasso's lovers, a Surrealist photographer who had an enormous impact on his work.

The oil Bust of a Woman (Dora Maar), 1938, is one of the highlights of this exhibition. Weeping Woman, 1937, an etching on paper, is another.

Their most celebrated collaboration was the 1937 political masterpiece Guernica: Maar was an inspiration, his weeping woman, and she in turn famously documented the mural's creation process. Some of this photography is shown in this exhibition, along with a reproduction of the mural.

Surrounded by dark world events - and a stormy relationship - Picasso's portraits of Maar become increasingly more violent and disturbing. In angular paintings such as Portrait of Dora Maar, 1939, her nose becomes a snout, blood spurts from her eyes - this is the trauma of war represented in a woman's face.

That relationship crumbled - as did Maar, who had a nervous breakdown - as Picasso took up with a new love, Françoise Gilot (b. 1921), a painter herself who would have two children with Picasso. Gilot and Picasso did not marry (he was still married to Khoklova) but they lived together until 1953, when Gilot left him - the only one of these women who did, driven away by his abuse, control and infidelities - as well as her desire to explore her own artistic practice.

Approaching the age of 95, Gilot still paints every day.

The final section of the exhibition is devoted to Picasso's second wife, Jacqueline Roque (1927-1986). They met in a pottery gallery in the south of France in 1953 and were together until his death in 1973. With Roque, Picasso was very prolific, creating hundreds of portraits, including the striking Nu assis dans un fauteuil (II), 1963 and Reclining Nude, 1964. Also during this period, he includes his own figure in some of his work, as in Le peintre et son modèle, 1963.

The show is sure to be a summer blockbuster for the VAG. It is the largest Picasso exhibition ever mounted in Western Canada, he is arguably the most influential artist of the 20th century and Beisiegel's take is smart - giving the women huge prominence.

Still, misogyny hangs in the air, as does tragedy: in addition to Maar, Khokhlova also suffered terrible psychological effects from Picasso's treatment, Olivier was left destitute, Walter and Roque killed themselves after Picasso's death and one of Picasso's grandchildren, Pablito (grandson to Khokhlova), barred from attending the artist's funeral by Roque, drank bleach - and later died as a result.

"He was a great, great artist," says Beisiegel, "but maybe that did come with a price."

Picasso: The Artist and His Muses is at the Vancouver Art Gallery until Oct 2.

Associated Graphic

Top: Reclining Woman Reading, 1939. A portrait of Marie-Thérèse Walter, who began an affair with Pablo Picasso when she was just 17 after they met outside a department store.

PICASSO ESTATE/SODRAC

Above, left: Bust of a Woman, 1938. This piece of Dora Maar is one of the highlights of the exhibition. Maar may be the best known of Picasso's lovers, a Surrealist photographer who had an enormous impact on his work.

PICASSO ESTATE/SODRAC

Above, right: Femme au collier jaune, (Woman with a Yellow Necklace), 1946. This portrait of Françoise Gilot - the mother of two of Picasso's children, shows her with a cigarette burn on her cheek - the result of an argument between the couple.

PICASSO ESTATE/SODRAC Left: Weeping Woman, 1937, is another portrait of Maar.

NATIONAL GALLERY OF CANADA

Defuse your children's worst behaviour
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Dr. Stuart Shanker's new book Self-Reg offers insight on how to get to the bottom of a range of issues, from sleep troubles to apathy
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By WENCY LEUNG
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Tuesday, June 21, 2016 – Print Edition, Page L6


Your child is cranky, defiant and driving you up the wall.

What's a parent to do?

If you've read or received any parenting advice in recent years, you'll have encountered the notion that children and teens can't help it when they throw tantrums and lash out; chances are they're tired, hungry, scared, frustrated or otherwise overwhelmed. Increasingly, the accepted wisdom is that rather than a scolding or punishment, kids need help cooling down when they're acting up.

Dr. Stuart Shanker, a distinguished research professor of philosophy and psychology at Toronto's York University, has come up with a five-step process and a name for this approach.

He calls it "Self-Reg," which is also the title of his new book, written with Teresa Barker, SelfReg: How to Help Your Child (and You) Break the Stress Cycle and Successfully Engage with Life.

His five steps - reading signs and understanding the meanings of difficult behaviours, identifying sources of stress, reducing stress, recognizing the feeling of excessive stress and determining how to regain calmness - draw on the current understanding of how developing young brains work, rather than break any new ground. But that doesn't mean they aren't powerful. In his book, Shanker, who is also the chief executive of the MEHRIT Centre, an organization that provides training to school boards, offers plenty of anecdotes of how his process has transformed parents' and teachers' perspectives and improved families' lives.

If you can get past the name, Self-Reg can provide some helpful insight on how to get to the bottom of a range of issues, from babies' sleep troubles to teen apathy.

We reached Shanker, who is a father of two, ages 14 and 11, at his home in Eastern Ontario and asked him how he deals with his own children's worst behaviour.

You mention when your kids were younger, you used to explode at them when they acted up. How has your work affected your parenting?

Enormously. I always now stand back and say, "Well, what was that all about? What's going on in them? What's going on in me?" I had an interesting situation just this morning with my son.

He missed the school bus and was just being a 14-year-old pain-in-the-whatever. I got angry, but then sort of stood back and got a chance to talk to him quietly. By lowering my voice and slowing everything down, I asked if there was a reason why he didn't want to take the bus. He kind of broke down and I learned he was getting bullied on the bus. Here I was, my initial thought was that he was being lazy or oppositional, but in fact, it was avoidance behaviour.

By having the chance to talk to me about it, he went to school happy, and I think he's going to have a good day.

Whereas if I had forced him to catch the bus, he would have had a lousy day.

What is the difference between misbehaviour and stress behaviour?

Misbehaviour is when the child is fully aware of what he was doing and that he should not have been doing it. And it means it was within the child's capacity to have acted differently. With stress behaviour, he really doesn't have those capacities.

The reasons are a function of how the brain works under extreme stress. When the child is overstressed, the front part of his brain that he would use to think about his actions to restrain himself goes offline. The more primitive part of his brain takes over and it acts on impulses and very strong negative emotion. In stress behaviour, the child is not actually choosing anything. He's probably not even conscious of what he's doing.

In that kind of situation, we have to get them back into a calmly focused and alert state.

We have to turn off the alarm.

When we've done that, now the child can process whatever we're trying to teach, provided that we don't turn the alarm back on, don't threaten, don't shout.

You suggest in the book that children, and even adults, have difficulty experiencing what calm feels like. Why so?

It's one of the big problems we're facing today. What's happened in our culture is we have a lot of evidence now that stress levels are extremely high. What I'm concerned with especially are hidden stressors, stressors that people are not aware of. I explain stress as a depletion of energy. What happens when you're overstressed, because you are energy-deprived, basically your gas tank is empty, you resort to doing things that will give you that instant shot of adrenalin.

Because of constant stress, we're seeing a generation of kids now who are constantly craving things that will give them that shot of adrenalin and they don't know what calmness actually feels like. They very rarely experience that state of pronounced awareness of what's going on inside yourself and around you.

And all too often, we tell our children to calm down. Well, that's utterly useless. What we need to do is to help them experience calm. We have to help them recognize when they're overstressed, what the signs are, what the stressors are and to learn how to reduce those stressors. And they have to learn how to do all these things by themselves.

How did previous generations compare when facing stress?

It's next to impossible to compare stress today to, say, stress 20 years ago. But what we can talk about is how high is stress today. And we have all kinds of indicators that the stress is too high today. The big challenge that we face is so many stressors are hidden stressors. And what we're seeing is a very worrying increase across the board in physical and mental health problems, which we can directly tie to excessive stress.

What are hidden stressors?

Let me give you an example.

There was a very interesting study last summer, showing that if a child plays a violent video game before he goes to sleep, the violent video game triggers the limbic alarm, which raises your heart rate and it raises your blood pressure and breathing rate so you can cope with danger. And of course the limbic system is a very primitive system and it doesn't recognize this is just a game.

So when the child falls asleep, that limbic alarm does not turn off. It stays on for good evolutionary reason, in case that danger comes back. So here's a child who might be sleeping, yet his heart rate is racing, his breathing is very fast, he's burning through enormous amounts of energy. That's what we mean by hidden stressors. They're things that burn our energy without promoting growth and we're not aware of it.

So if an increase in physical and mental problems is related to heightened stress, what happens when kids reduce their stress levels?

What we can say is we can significantly mitigate the severity of the symptoms. Self-Reg is not a way we can cure any of these problems. But what we find is with every one of these problems, the child's stress level, for many kinds of different reasons, is very high. And when we can figure them out and reduce it, what we see is a very dramatic improvement in quality of life and self-management.

During the summer months, the phrase "I'm bored" is something parents will likely hear a lot. But you say overstimulation actually produces boredom.

How so?

This is fascinating research that a colleague at York has been doing. What we find is that the complaint "I'm bored" is actually what's called an avowal. What it really means is "I feel yucky."

It's an expression of "I've got way too much [of the stress hormone] cortisol in my system and I'm really stressed."

It's important to understand this because we tend to think the solution is to engage our child in some sort of very stimulus-rich activity to counteract the boredom. But the problem with stimulus-rich activity is it's very stressful.

So what are we supposed to do? Well, there are all sorts of self-regulating activities - in other words, activities that actually replenish energy, like playing in nature, or just playing, sports and music. There's a long list.

What parents have to ask themselves is whether an activity actually reduces stress or increases stress. For my sons, the effect of physical exercise is transformative. But there's no one-size-fits-all. Parents have to find out through experimenting what works for their kids. But if you understand the signs of what activities are regulating, you won't hear "I'm bored" any more.

This interview has been condensed and edited.

Associated Graphic

Apparent bad behaviour in children may just be a stress reaction, York University professor Stuart Shanker says.

SIPHOTOGRAPHY/GETTY IMAGES/ISTOCKPHOTO

Into the great unknown
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By ERIC REGULY
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page B6


ROME -- At about midnight, London time, all seemed well in Britain and the other bits of the European Union. The early polls put the pro-EU side of the inout referendum in the lead.

Nigel Farage, the head of the UK Independence Party and one of the chief EU haters, went on TV and effectively gave a concession speech.

The pound soared and David Cameron, the British Prime Minister, was no doubt congratulating himself for a job well done.

Having called the referendum on EU membership, he had emerged as the EU's main cheerleader. It appeared Britain would stay in the EU and the world's largest, and most democratic, open-market region would remain intact.

Two or three hours later, the worlds of Mr. Cameron, Britain and the EU were turned upside down and shaken violently. As the poll counts rolled in, a strong pro-exit - Brexit - trend emerged. Even before all the votes were tallied, Mr. Farage blustered his way back onto TV to declare the grand EU integration process, which began in 1957 and accelerated with Britain's membership in 1973, all but dead. "I hope this victory brings down this vile project," he said, beaming as the markets crashed around him.

He may get his wish. In an instant, two ambitious, powerful and wealthy unions - the United Kingdom and the EU - faced existential crises that could well ensure their destruction. Mr. Cameron resigned and Nicola Sturgeon, the Scottish First Minister, was quick to announce that Scotland, which heavily endorsed EU membership in the referendum, would put a second independence referendum "on the table" (the first referendum, in 2014, was narrowly lost by the Scottish nationalists). It Scotland goes, Northern Ireland, which also went pro-EU, might not be far behind.

The bigger question is what will happen to the EU, the world's greatest economic and geopolitical project since the Second World War and perhaps the most ambitious union since the Roman era. The question is not whether the EU will suffer economic and political damage - like a battle cruiser under sustained fire, it's a matter of how much damage, and all bets are off.

Shorn of Britain, which is roughly tied with France as the EU's second-biggest economy, and riddled with rising anti-EU parties, the union's future looks grim. The economic damage caused by debt-soaked Greece and its endless flirtation with exit from the euro zone and the EU was extensive enough. Imagine what the exit of an economy 10 times the size of Greece might inflict.

"The Leave victory is a huge blow to the process of European integration and is incomparably more than the threat of a Greek exit from the euro zone," said Nicholas Spiro, a partner at London's Lauressa Advisory. "For the first time since the European Central Bank stemmed the panic in the single currency area in 2012, the governance and the singleness of the euro zone is being called into question again."

The 28-country EU and the 19 countries within it that share the euro were in trouble well before the Brexit vote. You name it, the EU and the euro zone had it: soaring unemployment, recession followed by anemic growth, a banking crisis, three sovereign bailouts in 2010 and 2011, de-industrialization and negative inflation. The ECB and its increasingly desperate and expensive fire-fighting campaigns kept the euro zone, and the EU by extension, intact.

The worst was over by 2014, but by then, European integration had stalled. The weak countries were weary of German-inspired austerity and severe budget controls. A year later, the immigration crisis erupted and populist, and occasionally xenophobic, anti-EU parties gained momentum, including France's Front National and Germany's Alternative fuer Deutschland.

Even before the Brexit vote, Wolfgang Schaeuble, the powerful, pro-integration German Finance Minister, admitted the EU project was not going well.

Were Britain to stay or go, he warned that the EU "could not continue with business as usual." Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, and Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, essentially agreed with Mr. Schaeuble's analysis.

So did the polls. An extensive survey released early this month by the Pew Research Center revealed that Euroskepticism was on the rise throughout the EU - Britain's waning love affair with the region was far from unique.

Most French and Greeks held "unfavourable" views of the EU.

In Spain, Germany and Britain, about half of respondents held unfavourable views. Pew found little enthusiasm for transferring more powers to Brussels and general disapproval of the EU's handling of the economy. The disapproval ratings in the economy category captured majorities in Greece, Italy, France, Spain, Sweden and Britain.

On Friday, as Mr. Cameron's miscalculation became shockingly apparent, EU leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Martin

Schulz, President of the European Parliament, admitted that Britain's exodus was a huge blow to the EU. Ms. Merkel called it a "watershed moment for Europe and European unity" and vowed to find ways to keep the rump EU together. Mr. Schulz said he and Ms. Merkel would have to figure out ways to "avoid a chain reaction," with other EU countries demanding me-too referendums.

In theory, pushing the EU countries closer together might be simpler now that Britain is gone. Britain had always resisted the "ever closer" union principle embedded in the EU treaties.

The EU open market could be preserved and the banking union completed. EU bonds could be launched, also an EU army.

But it may be too late for this utopian federal state vision. The EU could get ripped apart by centrifugal forces. Recently, governments in the Netherlands and Denmark lost referendums on EU matters. Well before Brexit, anti-EU parties were on the rise and some of them now are demanding referendums.

Shortly after the Brexit vote, Geert Wilders, leader of the Dutch Party of Freedom, a populist, right-wing, anti-EU party, demanded that the Netherlands hold its own referendum on EU membership. So did Marine Le Pen, leader of France's stridently anti-EU and xenophobic Front National. Support for a referendum is growing in Italy, which has been trapped in negative or low growth since it adopted the euro in 1999.

The EU is already gravely weakened without Britain at its side. The embedded anti-EU forces could force it to break into pieces. An irreversible EU is no longer unthinkable. "Brexit poses not only an existential threat to the U.K., but to the rest of the EU as well," said Megan Greene, chief economist in Boston for Manulife and John Hancock Asset Management. "If other European countries chose to leave the EU ... the contagion to the global economy will be significantly amplified."

In spite of its well-advertised problems, the EU as an open market has worked fairly well.

Britain was an economic laggard before it joined the EU in 1973.

Since then, it has been its fastest-growing large economy, even outpacing mighty Germany. If countries bolt, and the borders go back up, growth could suffer greatly. Protectionism could resurface.

As if to prove the point, Brexit on Friday rattled the European bond markets. Although the flight to safety sent Germany's 20-year bond yields deeper into negative territory, Greek, Spanish and Italian yields rose, considerably widening the gap (or spread) over German bonds.

Clearly, the threat of waning EU integration is doing no favours for the weakest EU countries.

With Britain out the door, the rump EU will have to reinvent itself. But how, and how fast?

There is plenty of skepticism that the EU can use reforms that make the EU newly attractive to the remaining 27 member states. "Given the endemic inertia of the EU, the ramifications of the current euro zone crisis and the surge of Euroskeptic movements, this sounds at the moment as mission impossible," said Nikos Skoutaris of the University of East Anglia's European Law School.

Brexit has launched the EU into the great unknown.

EUROPE MAPPED

EUROZONE Also known as the euro area, the territory of the 19 European Union countries that use the euro currency.

Britain uses the British pound.

EUROPEAN UNION

Created by the Treaty on European Union, which took effect Nov. 1, 1993.

Its executive body is the 28-member European Commission, which runs the EU's day-to-day affairs, drafts European laws and, after their adoption by governments, ensures their enforcement across the bloc. It also represents the EU in international trade negotiations and conducts antitrust investigations.

SCHENGEN AREA

The territory of 26 European countries, including 22 EU nations and four others, that have agreed to abolish passport and custom controls among one another.

Britain and Ireland are not part of the Schengen Zone.

Associated Graphic

JOHN SOPINSKI AND MURAT YÜKSELIR/THE GLOBE AND MAIL SOURCES: ASSOCIATED PRESS; BBC

A taxi driver in central London holds a Union flag as he celebrates the result of the EU referendum on Friday.

TOBY MELVILLE/REUTERS

A young couple painted as EU flags protest on Friday outside Downing Street against Britain's decision to leave the EU.

MARY TURNER/GETTY IMAGES

One of the city's roughest bars is born again
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Chef Jesse Vallins helps breathe new life into the Maple Leaf Tavern, with a team of cooks determined to shift every notion of pub food
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By CHRIS NUTTALL-SMITH
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page M3


Todd Morgan bought the Maple Leaf Tavern on Gerrard Street in the summer of 2013 and soon announced, as a short entry on BlogTO put it, that he hoped to "recreate the feel of the era when the space was in its prime."

This was no small goal; he could nearly as easily have pledged to remake Road to Zanzibar, the 1941 Bob Hope and Bing Crosby comedy, using only its original cast.

The building, which dates to before the First World War, had become known in recent decades as one of the roughest bars on the city's east side. In 1996, a customer stabbed a young Maple Leaf Tavern server in the stomach. No big deal, really. A few years earlier, a different customer had died from a brain hemorrhage after a Maple Leaf Tavern brawl.

Mr. Morgan, who owns and operates Port Restaurant in Pickering, at least had a key advantage: When he's not running eateries, he is the project coordinator at R B Morgan, a general contracting company his family owns. He spent 21/2years gutting the building and then remaking its main floor as a remarkably elegant and comfortable bar and dining room.

Did the Maple Leaf Tavern in its prime have a gleaming open kitchen and adjustable cast-steel grill fuelled by split white oak logs? I rather doubt it. Neither, one presumes, did it serve wine from the likes of Arianna Occhipinti, the cult Sicilian producer, or whole Ontario burrata dressed tableside with cold-pressed canola oil and balsamic vinegar made from local baco noir. Yet I will happily take the Maple Leaf Tavern's present incarnation over historical accuracy. In the two months since it opened, the place has become a terrific restaurant, and possibly the very best tavern in town.

This is thanks in large part to general manager Robin Kemp (Momofuku Daisho, Colborne Lane, The Spoke Club), who runs a smart floor crew and drinks list, and especially to 36-year-old chef Jesse Vallins (The Saint Tavern, Trevor Kitchen & Bar), whose cooks seem bent on rehabilitating their customers' notion of tavern food.

The genre, in near-constant flux through the past century or so, includes everything from French bistro standards (see The Minetta Tavern in New York) to freshmarket cooking (The Gramercy Tavern) to steaks (the name painted on the glass at Barberian's Steakhouse, downtown, is Barberian's Tavern) to modern farmhouse fare (The Farmhouse Tavern) to pub fare (The Queen and Beaver; The Spotted Pig). At the Maple Leaf Tavern, it's a bit of all of this, made from scratch, with integrity.

They're doing a far better job at everything they touch than they strictly need to do.

Earlier this month, Mr. Vallins had a spring turnip consommé on his menu: a clear, peppery broth that tasted as though it had gathered all the flavour from an entire case of vegetables. It had been finished at service with a concentrated reduction of turnip and rutabaga juice. There were two rounds of mild, deliciously fatty Italian cotechino sausage - made in-house, of course - at the bottom of the bowl, as well as an accompanying side of pickled turnip, cut like perfect dominoes. It was the sort of soup you'd expect to eat at the weather-beaten table outside a farmhouse somewhere far away, with a jug of cold, cloudy cider and a hunk of crusty bread. I absolutely loved it. (Also, they serve cold, cloudy, assertively tasty hard cider here, from Empire, near Prince Edward County.)

I felt just as strongly about Mr. Vallins's vegetable salad, which combined raw, shaved squash strips with a soft, sweet, darkroasted squash wedge, with jiggly poached and grilled leek, crisp fried shallots, bright dill-based pesto and beautifully briny cubes of deep-fried halloumi cheese. It's hard to think of a vegetarian restaurant that coaxes this sort of deliciousness from humble vegetables and roots.

More typical tavern foods also get star treatment. The Maple Leaf Tavern's Caesar salad, dressed with gleeful abandon in thickly creamy, anchovy-forward dressing and topped with a slab of grilled, single-smoked German bacon, is the rare city rendition that exceeds your hopes rather than merely meeting (or, more typically, crushing) them.

Grilled sausages are a specialty of Mr. Vallins's; the weisswurst, a Bavarian standard made from veal and pork, spices and cream, was the best I've had outside Munich. Better still, you don't even need to consume it in the presence of actual Bavarians.

The bread basket costs $5 here, a fact that has scandalized many an east-side churl gone wild. It is worth double that, crammed as it is with the likes of potato focaccia, red fife soda bread and porkstuffed sesame buns (the bread selection changes constantly), all made in-house.

The $20 cheeseburger is excellent, and the $25 special one night recently, of soft beef shoulder cooked for 72 hours in beef fat and sluiced, like meatloaf, with sweet-sour-sticky tomato-based sauce, was brilliant. It was made all the more brilliant by the pickled watermelon salad, sweet potatoes and sour cream and roasted pearl onions it came with. It tasted like church supper food from the 1970s, but executed by a very good chef.

Tavern food's great rehabilitation began more than a decade ago; earlier still, depending how the genre is defined. Historically, taverns in Upper Canada were the same as pubs - to run either, you had to have at least four beds available for travellers. But tavern cooking shouldn't be underestimated: It was often great. Julia Roberts, a social historian at the University of Waterloo, wrote recently of a tavern in Kingston, Ont., called Alexander Smith's British North American, which in the mid-1800s became known for its "'fruits and rarities,' 'fresh oysters,' 'superior spiced oysters,' 'choicest wines and liquors,' 'excellent pastry cook,' 'assiduous' service, and its snipe." Other taverns of the time served lobster and mutton chops.

Though his menu has plenty of familiar staples - steaks, that burger, pickled eggs - Mr. Vallins also does a very good halibut fillet crusted in fennel fronds, served with snow crab, ricotta gnocchi and lovage broth. (A drop more of lemon might have made the rendition I had a perfect dish.) He makes his own fermented dill pickles, and the Hasselback potatoes come with thick truffle butter sauce, and a garnish of frozen foie gras chunks that melt, like cold butter, into the tubers' flesh.

The carrots here are roasted dark and sweet and glazed with cumin and honey, over parsleyfreshened yogurt; the cauliflower is served with a whipped sauce made from long-aged cheddar. I can name a few high-end, supposedly well-reputed kitchens downtown - anyone else struggled to find their pulse at Nota Bene lately? - that don't hold a candle.

And in a delicious nod to history, Mr. Vallins has mutton chops on his menu, a meat so far out of fashion that, until having it at Maple Leaf Tavern the other week, I'd never seen it on a nonSouth Asian menu around town.

They're quickly brined first, then let to dry in the fridge before a hot, fast turn on that wood-burning grill.

The Ontario mutton is like great lamb crossed with a dry-aged ribeye: it comes sliced thickly, pink-rare and tender, with richly grassy flavour underscored by hard threads of iodine, smokeimbued fat and animal funk. It's a meat-lover's meat.

If that sounds like too much, try the superbly juicy roast chicken for two, or maybe a whole-roasted fish.

Mr. Vallins's desserts are excellent, none more than the pineapple carpaccio, which is fancy menu-speak for thin-sliced, staranise-marinated pineapple with ginger crumble, lime curd and decadent coconut ice cream.

Whether that's traditional tavern food I can't say, but I'll bet that it's one in the making for sure.

DISHING IT

MAPLE LEAF TAVERN 3

955 Gerrard St. E. (at Pape Avenue), 416-465-0955, mapleleaftavern.ca

Atmosphere: One of the city's roughest historic taverns, restored to elegant, fresh-faced glory. Kind, professional service, reasonable volumes.

Wine and drinks: Good cocktails, an extensive spirits list, lots of great craft beers and ciders and a wine list to appeal to grape geeks and greenhorns alike.

Best bets: Caesar salad, bread & butter, roast veg salad, sausages, a soup, the carrots, the mutton, the burger, pineapple carpaccio. Menu changes semi-regularly.

Prices: Appetizers, $6 to $18; mains $20 to $29; grilled meats from $24 to $48 (for two), served à la carte.

Associated Graphic

Chef Jesse Vallins is photographed at the Maple Leaf Tavern in Toronto on Thursday. Grilled sausages, a $20 cheeseburger and a vegetable salad are among the best items on his menu.

Mr. Vallins's mutton chops, which come sliced thickly, pink-rare and tender, are a meat-lover's meat.

PHOTOS BY JENNIFER ROBERTS FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A modernist dream home
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Restoration of mid-century house preserved the fundamentals of British-born architect Basil Capes's design
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By CAROLYN IRELAND
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page G7


THE LISTING

Asking price: $2.2-million

Taxes: $7,739.70 (2016)

Lot size: 97 feet by 139 feet

Agent: Paul Johnston, Right at Home Realty Inc.

The Back Story F or decades, people driving along Royal York Road in Etobicoke have pointed out the landmark house on the edge of Mimico Creek.

"I remember this house from my childhood," owner Anda Kubis says. "My father was a furniture designer and this was his dream home."

Ms. Kubis, a painter, always retained that love of the modernist tradition passed on by her father. Her husband, Dean Martin, is a creative director at an advertising agency and equally passionate about mid-century design. They were already living nearby when the house came up for sale in 2007.

The three-bedroom sidesplit was modest by modern standards, and a bit timeworn, and there was talk it could be razed to make way for a row of townhouses or a monster home.

"There were two developers walking the property and talking on the phone," says Ms. Kubis of the day she visited the house.

She could hear them talking to associates about the lot size and how they could redevelop it.

She and Mr. Martin quickly decided that they didn't want to pass up the opportunity to shepherd such a singular house into the current era.

The circa 1955 residence with a single pitched roof and carport was designed by the British-born architect Basil Capes. Mr. Capes had a strong love of the natural environment, and he set the house atop a ravine lot that slopes down to the creek. Conservation land on the opposite side creates a wall of greenery.

Ms. Kubis would later learn from the late architect's family that he often worked on hotel projects. He designed quite a few residences in Etobicoke and eventually moved to British Columbia.

"You can see his love of West Coast architecture," says Ms. Kubis, pointing to the Douglas fir, vaulted ceiling and a wall of windows overlooking the creek.

"The relationship of the house to the natural environment is huge."

Ms. Kubis and Mr. Martin bought the house from a young couple who had purchased it in 2005 with plans to renovate.

At the time, it had such vintage details as patterned linoleum, gold carpeting and a bathroom fitted with a turquoise tub.

The young couple also loved the mid-century style but updating the house while conserving the architecture proved too complex. Ms. Kubis points out that the ravine system in Toronto is protected and any plans for construction have to pass through a strict approval process.

"They just realized it was way over their heads."

Before that, Lily and Harvey Bowman lived in the house for close to 40 years.

The residence is included in the John Blumenson tome Ontario Architecture: A Guide to Styles and Building Terms 1784 to the Present.

Mr. Blumenson presents the house as a fine example of the "Contempo" style.

As for the architect, he had such an abiding interest in nature and the welfare of living creatures that he often devoted his time to designing shelters for humane societies. He gave up his architectural practice in the 1980s in order to dedicate more of his energy to animal protection.

He was president of the Animal Welfare Foundation of Canada and, after his death, a memorial lecture series was established in his name at the University of Guelph.

Mr. Capes' vision of a house that blends into its surroundings seems to have endured: On a recent evening Ms. Kubis watched a doe making her way through the creek with her fawn.

The House Today When Ms. Kubis and Mr. Martin moved in with their young son Benet, they knew they wanted to strip away anachronistic details such as the patio doors from a big box store, the colonial-style spindles on the stairs, and a western-themed bar on the lower level.

Behind those non-period fixes, the fundamentals remained, including the slanted cedar ceiling in the living room, a massive brick fireplace and exposed Douglas fir beams.

"A lot of the original character is still here," Mr. Martin says.

The couple knew that restoring the building to its original condition would be expensive and wouldn't provide the flow that they wanted.

They brought in Janna Levitt of LGA Architectural Partners to redesign the interior within the existing footprint. A detached garage added in the 1970s was located behind the carport. They decided to join the former garage to the house and create a spacious master suite.

First, the interior of the house was gutted to the exterior walls and all of the mechanical and electrical systems were upgraded.

Three small bedrooms with dropped ceilings seemed closedin and uninviting; the new floorplan replaced the diminutive bedrooms with a large kitchen and dining area.

The former galley kitchen became a study. Now the mainfloor living spaces flow from one into the other.

"It's open concept but there are all of these defined spaces," Mr. Martin says.

Now residents and visitors enter through the carport. Once they step inside, one set of stairs leads to the upper level and another leads to the lower level.

Because of the slope of the lot, a family room on the lower level has a full wall of windows.

A bedroom on that level was originally planned as the master suite. But when the couple decided to build on the foundation of the former garage, Benet took over the downstairs bedroom with a vast window looking into the ravine and ensuite bathroom.

"He has quite a distance from his parents," Ms. Kubis says.

The couple took out the vintage bar that looked like a Western saloon, with swiveling bar stools and replaced it with a bathroom. A room that can be used as another bedroom serves as Ms. Kubis' office.

A few years after that phase of the renovation was finished, the family decided they wanted more room to display their collection of art and furniture. At the same time, Ms. Kubis, an associate dean in the faculty of art at OCAD University, needed a studio.

They came up with a plan for extending the front of the house, but when they showed it to Brian Kikstra, who was part of the design team from the previous renovation, he had a vision of his own.

"We had ideas but he refined it beautifully," Ms. Kubis says.

The solution was an extension to the main living area, with an art studio below.

Instead of brick and Douglas fir, they chose steel and mullionless glazing.

"We wanted to introduce forms and materials that resonated with the original mid-century structure but that would also clearly differentiate the old from the new," Mr. Kikstra said.

The couple now has 2,700 feet of living space and more wall space on which to hang their art.

The new windows have brought more light and airiness to the interior.

"It's not a pastiche. It's something you've reinvented," says real estate agent Paul Johnston of Right at Home Realty Inc.

"We did do a lot, but we preserved it in many respects," says Mr. Martin of the original architecture. "The DNA is not changed. What people like about it is, there is an authenticity to it.

There's a patina to the place and a history that's inherent."

A new owner will soon take over the stewardship: The house sold within one week of arriving on the market.

The Best Feature The front of the house, facing Royal York Road, was intentionally understated. All agreed they wanted to maintain that subtlety created by Mr. Capes, but Mr. Kikstra suggested adding something new that would be intriguing and inviting to visitors. He was looking for "a simple gesture that would set the tone for the rest of the house by offering glimpses of the light, colour and volumes within."

Instead of load-bearing brick walls, they created the appearance of a glass-and-wood box cantilevered above the sloping landscape. It's topped by a light steel structure with clerestory windows.

Mr. Kikstra points out that the steel almost disappears, giving the box and the roof a sense of levity.

Sidney, the family's part-Australian Shepherd dog, now likes to nestle into the glass box and survey the street from her vantage point over the front garden.

"She thinks it was was made for her," Ms. Kubis says.

Associated Graphic

The Etobicoke house was built in the 1950s with a single pitched roof.

PHOTOS BY THE PRINT MARKET

The house was designed to blend into its natural surroundings similar to West Coast architecture styles.

PHOTOS BY THE PRINT MARKET

The current owners gutted the interior and upgraded all of the house's mechanical and electrical systems.

PHOTOS BY THE PRINT MARKET

Sides make final pitch as Brexit campaign goes down to the wire
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Decision to leave would not only fracture EU, but could lead to the breakup of United Kingdom itself
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By MARK MACKINNON
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Thursday, June 23, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A1


BELFAST -- The ballot papers for Thursday's referendum in the United Kingdom ask only whether the country's future lies inside or outside the European Union. But if voters choose a so-called "Brexit" from the EU, many say it's the integrity of the U.K. itself that would be called into question next.

The U.K. as a whole is deeply divided on whether to leave or remain a part of the EU. But there are very different debates - and stakes - in the constituent parts of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, as well as the tiny British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

A result that sees English voters, who make up about 85 per cent of the total electorate, choose a Brexit while other nationalities make clear their preference to remain part of the EU could set in motion a second independence vote in Scotland, and throw back into question whether Gibraltar's future is as part of the U.K., or neighbouring Spain.

But it's Northern Ireland, where peace is still settling in after decades of sectarian conflict, where the risks are arguably highest.

The referendum campaign has made for strange alliances, such as Sinn Fein, long seen as the political wing of the Irish Republican Army, arguing on the same side of a referendum question as Prime Minister David Cameron, an English Conservative.

It has also highlighted old divisions here, with most republicans, and therefore many Catholics, favouring the Remain camp since they view the EU as guarantor of close ties with the rest of Ireland. Meanwhile, the main unionist party, and thus many Protestants, back the Vote Leave campaign.

At a joint appearance earlier this month at Ulster University alongside his long-time rival Tony Blair, former British prime minister John Major warned that "the unity of the United Kingdom itself is on the ballot paper."

In contrast with the angry argument raging in England, the EU debate has been low-key and respectful in Northern Ireland. Posters for both sides hang from lamp posts and telephone poles around the centre of this city that was a de facto war zone for much of the 1970s and 80s. But suggestions that a Brexit might be followed by a tightened border and restricted travel between Northern Ireland and the rest of the island are followed by warnings that the 18-year-old peace agreement here could also be at stake.

"The Good Friday Agreement itself would be challenged," Sinn Fein parliamentarian Declan Kearney said in an interview, referring to the 1998 power-sharing deal between republicans and unionists that laid the foundation for Northern Ireland's subsequent peace. "Anything that has the effect of putting divisions between the north and the south of Ireland ... clearly throws up major, major difficulties for how we do politics and how we move forward as a society."

Mr. Kearney, who served as Sinn Fein's national chairman until his election last month to the Northern Ireland Assembly, said an English-led vote for a Brexit "will once more demonstrate the consequences of [Ireland's] partition."

David Phinnemore, a professor of European politics at Queen's University Belfast, said roughly 80 per cent of Irish nationalists were expected to support the Remain side, while about 65 per cent of unionists were likely to vote Leave. "It shows the split within Northern Ireland society," he said.

Nobody's talking about a return to the bad old days of "the Troubles," though much of Northern Ireland remains worryingly split along sectarian lines. So-called "peace walls" - concrete walls topped with metal fencing meant to prevent projectiles from being thrown over the top - still divide Catholic neighbourhoods from Protestant ones in Belfast and other cities, and children walk past elaborate murals honouring their side's "martyrs" on their way to school each morning.

Lee Reynolds, a Democratic Unionist Party member of Belfast City Council and Northern Ireland co-ordinator for the Vote Leave campaign, said quitting the EU made sense for Northern Ireland because it would mean increased powers for the local parliament, while reducing the regulatory burden on local farms and businesses.

Mr. Reynolds called talk of a new border being erected on the island "scaremongering." Increased border control could be achieved electronically, he said, without affecting crossings to Ireland. "I've lived through the peace process for more than 20 years and many supposed threats to it, and here we are two decades later still going strong."

But Remain side campaigners have questioned how a government led by pro-Brexit politicians (Mr. Cameron is expected to resign in the event of a Leave win) could deliver on their stated goal of curbing immigration from the EU while leaving open the land border between the two sides of Ireland. There are plentiful flights and ferries every day between Northern Ireland and the main island of Britain.

Irish Prime Minister Enda Kenny wrote in The Guardian newspaper this week that "the re-establishment of a hard border on the island of Ireland would be a step backward, and present an opportunity for others, with malign agendas, to exploit for destructive purposes."

The most recent Britain-wide "poll of polls" carried out by the What UK Thinks, a website run by part of the Natcen social research agency, suggests the Remain side is narrowly in front - after briefly falling behind - with average support of 51 per cent among decided voters, versus 49 per cent who were expected to vote Leave.

The same polls show a slight majority of English voters, and a bigger share of those who live outside of cosmopolitan London, are expected to vote on Thursday in favour of a Brexit. Welsh voters, meanwhile, are almost evenly split on the issue.

But two-thirds of Scots and a clear majority in Northern Ireland have told pollsters they would prefer to stay in the EU. A whopping 90 per cent or more of Gibraltar voters are also expected to support the Remain side, which is unsurprising given the territory's 32,000 residents share their only land border with EU member Spain.

With much of the referendum debate focused on immigration, as well as the potential economic consequences of a Brexit - which most economists believe will be substantial and negative for both Britain and the EU - there has been little discussion of the potential implications for national unity.

A win for Vote Leave would immediately start the clock on a two-year period during which the terms of Britain's withdrawal from the EU would be negotiated in Brussels.

Senior officials in the Scottish National Party, which controls Scotland's devolved Parliament, have told The Globe and Mail that they would use that same twoyear period to prepare the ground for a second referendum on Scotland's independence from the U.K. The previous referendum, held in 2014, saw the Scottish voters reject independence by a 55-to-45-per-cent margin, though Brexit wasn't considered a serious possibility when that decision was made.

Gibraltarian First Minister Fabian Picardo has said a Brexit would give fresh impetus to Spanish efforts to reclaim the outpost - which was ceded to England following an 18th-century war - since Gibraltar's economy would be hard-hit by sudden exclusion from the 28-country bloc, which is also the world's largest freetrade area.

Mr. Kearney of Sinn Fein said his party would demand that Northern Ireland follow Scotland's lead and pursue a referendum on union with the rest of Ireland in order to avoid being pulled out of the EU over the expressed desire of the local population. The 1998 Good Friday Agreement that solidified the peace in Northern Ireland commits the U.K. to respect the results of such a "border poll," which can only be called by the British government's Northern Ireland Secretary.

"If a majority of the citizens here in the north of Ireland vote to remain and they find their democratic wish being overturned as a result of an electoral romp, probably largely concentrated in the southeast of England, then that creates a fundamental democratic deficit," Mr. Kearney said. "In those circumstances, Sinn Fein will be calling very vigorously for the invoking of a border poll consistent with the terms of Good Friday Agreement."

The Brexit referendum presents a double-edged sword to both Scottish and Irish nationalists.

While voters in Scotland and Northern Ireland are broadly supportive of the EU, and thus likely to vote for the Remain side on Thursday, a Brexit would arguably boost the nationalist cause in both Scotland and Ireland.

Dr. Phinnemore said that a backslide into violence was unthinkable for most in Northern Ireland. "But there is certainly the argument that the Good Friday Agreement was written on the assumption that both parts of the island are in the European Union."

For Toronto, faster is better this season
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Team is averaging shortest games in the majors so far this year, and starting rotation is tops in AL in both wins and pace of pitching
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By ROBERT MACLEOD
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S2


There is a good chance that if you are watching a Major League Baseball game involving the Toronto Blue Jays this season, you will be in and out of the stadium in less than three hours.

In an era in which both pitchers and batters are on the clock in order to try to speed up play, a sub-three-hour game is considered downright brisk.

And if R.A. Dickey is the starting pitcher for Toronto on that particular day, the chances for a quicker game are that much better.

The American League club may not be lording it over the competition as many had hoped this season, but the Blue Jays remain in the thick of a playoff hunt.

Heading into Friday's game in Chicago against the White Sox, the 40-34 Blue Jays were in third place in the AL East, 21/2 games back of the front-running Baltimore Orioles as they approach the midway point of the season.

The club's starting pitching has played a large role in Toronto's success this season, where a philosophy of working fast is viewed as a key component of the rotation's solid delivery.

"During the game, less is more," Pete Walker, the Blue Jays pitching coach, said earlier this week in an interview. "Just being free on the mound and not overanalyzing and overthinking is very important. And working at a fast pace lessens the time to think."

Clearly, the Blue Jay starters have not had that much time to think this season.

Heading into the weekend, the rotation of Dickey, Marco Estrada, Marcus Stroman, J.A. Happ and Aaron Sanchez was the AL's quickest group, averaging 19.8 seconds between pitches, according to data collected by FanGraphs.com.

The Texas Rangers ranked No. 2 at 20.9 seconds, with the Minnesota Twins No. 3 at 21.3.

The New York Yankees are at the other end of that spectrum, ranking 15th and dead last in the AL, with their starters averaging a lethargic 24 seconds between pitches.

For the Blue Jays, it is clearly a group effort.

All five of the Toronto starters fall within the top 10 in terms of pitching tempo among those pitchers who have thrown at least 90 innings this season.

No other team except for the Texas Rangers (Colby Lewis and Cole Hamels) has more than one player on that list.

Dickey, a perennial front-runner when it comes to working fast, sets the pace with an average of 18.2 seconds between pitches.

That's the quickest draw in all of the majors.

For the sake of comparison, Zack Greinke of the Arizona Diamondbacks is the turtle among major-league starting pitchers (minimum 90 innings), averaging 24.5 seconds between tosses.

"Pitching fast has always been easy for me, like a deep breath and here we go," said Dickey, the 2012 Cy Young Award winner in the National League when he played for the New York Mets.

Stroman, at 19.4 seconds, clocks in at No. 3 in the AL as far as pitching pace is concerned, followed by No. 5 Estrada (20.1 seconds), No. 6 Sanchez (20.5) and No. 9 Happ (20.8).

And the quick work clearly seems to be paying off.

Heading into this weekend's series in Chicago, Toronto starters lead the AL with 32 wins and are third over all with a 3.76 earned run average. The starters are No. 1 in innings pitched (471.2) and opponent's batting average (.236).

And all that speedy pitching is also paying off on shortening game times, something MLB has made its primary concern the past couple of years.

According to MLB, the Blue Jays were averaging just over two hours 52 minutes for their nineinning games this season, the fastest in the majors.

The Elias Sports Bureau reports that of the top 21 fastest nineinning games in the AL this year, Toronto has been involved in six of them, more than any other team. The Blue Jays' fastest game this year was on May 21 against the Minnesota Twins when they breezed through nine innings in 2:19.

Not only does working faster help a pitcher repeat his delivery, which in turn helps promote better control, but it also livens things up for the defensive players who hate nothing more than just standing around.

"I remember, when I was playing, Chris Woodward telling me how much he enjoyed playing behind me because I worked fast," said Walker, who pitched eight seasons in the majors before stepping down after the 2006 season. "And I think that's big. You don't want your defence on the field any longer than they need to be.

"Obviously you don't want to rush as a pitcher but you certainly want to have a good pace. It's more or less get the ball, get the sign and attack the glove. I just think that philosophy is a very integral part of this staff."

A key component to a fastworking staff is the catcher, who relays the signs to the pitchers.

And in Russell Martin, Toronto has one of the best.

He said the defence can become bogged down when a pitcher is pitching at a snail's pace.

"The one that comes to mind is Josh Beckett," Martin said. "I felt like he was a human rain delay out there. And I've had my fair share in my career where it's just like slower than normal."

At the same time, Martin said he remains a baseball purist and isn't really in favour of all the clocks MLB has put into place to try to speed up pace of play.

"It's like the beauty of baseball is the fact that there is no time," Martin said. "So if you don't like it, go to the restroom."

Martin said pitchers in particular should not have to feel overly rushed when they are out on the mound.

"Pitching is a freaking art, man," he said. "You're not going to tell a painter, 'Hey man, I think you should paint quicker.' I should be able to take the time that I need to paint what I want to paint. Period. I'm not going to tell Jackson Pollock, 'Hey, I don't like what you're doing with your style. You need to be quicker.' " Martin likes to point back to a pitching speed demon such as Mark Buehrle, who finished up his distinguished 16-year career with the Blue Jays after last season. Since the pace of pitching first started being tracked at the beginning of the 2007 season, Buehrle was the perennial fastpitch champion, ranked No. 1 in seven of the next eight seasons.

A 214-game winner in his career, Buehrle set the pace once again last year in his final season, with a 15.9-second average.

Buehrle "didn't have tremendous stuff," Martin noted. "But he found a way to compete and win games. What's the recipe behind that?

"Maybe he's not giving the hitter enough time to think, to get his thoughts together to have an approach after he's made a pitch.

Like, 'Oh he's just thrown me a cutter, what's he going to do now?' "He's on the mound ready to make a pitch right away." PACE OF PITCHERS IN THE AMERICAN LEAGUE, AS OF JUNE 24 Quickest rotations in AL 1. Toronto Blue Jays, 19.8 seconds (between pitches) 2. Texas Rangers, 20.9 3. Minnesota Twins, 21.3 4. Chicago White Sox, 21.5 5. Seattle Mariners, 21.7 .

Slowest rotations in AL 1. New York Yankees, 24 2. Boston Red Sox, 23.3 3. Oakland Athletics, 22.5 4. Detroit Tigers, 22.4 5. Kansas City Royals, 22.2 Quickest starters in AL (minimum 90 innings pitched) 1. R.A. Dickey, Toronto Blue Jays, 18.2 seconds 2. Chris Sale, Chicago White Sox, 18.9 3. Marcus Stroman, Blue Jays, 19.4 4. Colby Lewis, Texas Rangers, 19.7 5. Marco Estrada, Blue Jays, 20.1 Slowest starters in AL (minimum 90 innings pitched) 1. Masahiro Tanaka, New York Yankees, 26 seconds 2. David Price, Boston Red Sox, 25.6 3. Hisashi Iwakuma, Seattle Mariners, 25.2 4. Edinson Volquez, K.C. Royals, 24.7 5. Justin Verlander, Detroit Tigers, 24 .

Compiled by Robert MacLeod

Associated Graphic

Toronto knuckleballer R.A. Dickey, pitching against the Baltimore Orioles at Camden Yards on June 18, is taking an average of 18.2 seconds between pitches this season, fastest pace in the major leagues.

MITCHELL LAYTON/GETTY IMAGES

U.K. VOTES TO LEAVE
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British television forecasts thin margin of victory as ballots still being counted into Friday morning Result a devastating blow to PM Cameron, who is expected to come under pressure to step down
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By MARK MACKINNON, PAUL WALDIE
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A1


LONDON -- Britain appears to have voted to leave the European Union in a referendum that looked set to reshape a continent and rattle markets around the world.

Though official results were still being counted Friday morning, both BBC and ITV said they were forecasting a razor-thin win for the Vote Leave campaign, which captured 52 per cent of ballots cast - and had a lead of nearly 900,000 votes - with almost twothirds of constituencies reporting.

Prime Minister David Cameron, who called the in-or-out referendum to deliver on a re-election promise he made, was expected to come under intense pressure to resign - and perhaps call a fresh election - if the Leave win is confirmed.

The result would be the biggest political upset in a generation, part of what is now a global wave of populist movements challenging and defeating establishment politicians.

As the Leave side's lead grew, Nigel Farage, the leader of the U.K.

Independence Party, gave what amounted to a victory speech to his supporters.

"The dawn is breaking on an independent United Kingdom," he said to lusty cheers. Adding the caveat "if these predictions are right," he said: "I hope this victory leads to the end of this failed project. Let's get rid of the flag, the anthem, Brussels, and all that has gone wrong." The results revealed a United Kingdom deeply divided between a pro-EU, more cosmopolitan half - and a working class that feels globalization and unchecked immigration from the EU haven't worked in its interest. The latter half voted in favour of a so-called "Brexit" over the advice of the leaders of all four main British political parties, as well as U.S. President Barack Obama, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, among others.

Markets had surged in relief after the end of voting when a telephone poll, carried out by the YouGov agency, showed the pro-EU Remain camp with a 52 to 48 edge over the Vote Leave campaign. But the British pound crashed once the official vote count started, as a series of early results suggested the pollsters had gotten it wrong. The pound dropped from $1.50 (U.S.) to $1.37, its lowest level since 1985, in a matter of hours.

The shocks began in the industrial northeast of England, where Sunderland - a former shipbuilding town - voted 61.3 per cent in favour of Leave, a far bigger pro-"Brexit" vote than experts had forecast. Nearby Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, which had been expected to vote solidly in favour of Remain, provided another surprise when the proEU camp captured just 50.7 per cent.

Those results were subsequently mirrored in dozens of working-class towns and cities across the north of England where the Leave side did substantially better than pollsters had forecast.

Meanwhile, the pro-Remain margin in London was also bigger than expected - over 75 per cent in some boroughs - though it was unclear whether it would be enough to close the nationwide gap.

Turnout across Britain was on pace for 72 per cent, according to the BBC. Participation was lower than expected in London, which was battered by thunderstorms that wreaked havoc on transportation Thursday, including a prolonged closing of Waterloo Station, a hub for both the rail and subway networks. Two polling stations had to be relocated on short notice due to flooding as some areas in and around the capital received almost a month's worth of rain in a single day.

Early results from Scotland - another bastion of pro-EU sentiment - also showed turnout lagging that in pro-Brexit areas.

The voting patterns prompted John Curtice, the country's top elections expert, to tell the BBC that the Leave side were "favourites" for a victory based on early returns. The ITV network put the odds of a Brexit vote at 85 per cent by early Friday morning.

There were divisions in the vote along national lines that could portend more instability ahead. England, which accounts for 85 per cent of the total vote, was leaning 55 per cent for Leave, as was Wales. Scotland voted more than 60 per cent in favour of Remain - every Scotttish constituency voted Remain - and Northern Ireland was 56 per cent pro-Remain.

The separatist Scottish National Party, which controls Scotland's devolved parliament, has said it would begin preparing for another referendum on independence if the U.K. chose to Leave while Scotland voted heavily in favour of Remain.

Similarly, Sinn Fein - considered the political arm of the Irish Republican Army - warned that a Brexit, and the possibility of new border controls between Northern Ireland and EU member Ireland, would destabilize the peace process there.

Mr. Cameron, who headed the Remain side, tried to emphasize the economic risks the country would take if it quit the EU, which is the world's largest trading area. But many voters - particularly in smaller English cities that have been challenged by mass immigration from the continent - were drawn to Vote Leave's argument that Britain needed to control its own borders in order to curb immigration.

"So far, the smaller towns that have been impacted heavily by large-scale migration, the pushing down of wages, the fact that the EU hasn't helped them economically, are coming out en masse for the Leave campaign.

You saw that in Sunderland," Steven Woolfe, a member of European Parliament for the U.K. Independence Party, said as early results suggested voters might indeed have opted for a Brexit.

A few hours earlier, Mr. Farage had seemed to concede defeat after the release of the YouGov poll, telling Sky News that it appeared the Remain side had won.

A so-called "Brexit" from the EU would jolt financial markets, and call Mr. Cameron's job into immediate question. It would also raise enormous questions about the future of the rest of the 28-country bloc, with Euroskeptic movements on the rise in several other countries.

A Leave vote would kick-start a two-year period during which Britain and the EU would negotiate their terms of divorce.

While the pro-Brexit campaign insists the EU would not be able to shun the British market, Brussels would be expected to adopt a tough negotiating stand in order to dissuade Euroskeptic movements around the content from trying to follow Britain's lead.

Even a close vote to Remain will create questions about whether Mr. Cameron can manage his 12-seat majority in the House of Commons after 138 of his 330 Conservative MPs, including several prominent members of cabinet, revolted to join Vote Leave.

Nor would a narrow Remain win do anything to salve the wounds opened by the campaign.

Voters on both sides of the argument bemoaned the vitriolic tenor the debate took on, particularly in the final week of the campaign, which saw Labour MP Jo Cox murdered in her constituency by a far-right gunman.

While the killing had no apparent direct connection to the EU referendum, there is a broad sense that the charged atmosphere in the country played a role. The murder came hours after Mr. Farage posed in front of a controversial poster of a long line of Middle Eastern refugees headed for central Europe, featuring the slogan "Breaking Point."

"What's playing out in this referendum is a very real, very persistent and very sharp divide within Britain and within British society ... separating social groups that have fundamentally different sets of values," said Matthew Goodwin, a professor of politics at the University of Kent.

He said the large pro-Brexit vote would represent "a very loud and very clear message from particular sectors of Britain who feel the EU is not working out for them, who feel globalization is not benefiting them, who feel the Westminster elites are not listening."

Follow us on Twitter: @markmackinnon @PWaldieGlobe

Associated Graphic

The future of British Prime Minister David Cameron, shown with his wife Samantha after voting in the referendum in London on Thursday, is in doubt after U.K. voters opted to leave the European Union.

SIMON DAWSON/BLOOMBERG

Supporters of the Remain campaign react as results of the eferendum are announced at the Royal Festival Hall, in London.

ROB STOTHARD/POOL/REUTERS

Saturday, June 25, 2016

U.K. VOTES TO LEAVE
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British television forecasts thin margin of victory as ballots still being counted into Friday morning Result a devastating blow to PM Cameron, who is expected to come under pressure to step down
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By MARK MACKINNON, PAUL WALDIE
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A1


LONDON, MANCHESTER -- Britain appears to have voted to leave the European Union in a referendum that looked set to reshape a continent and rattle markets around the world.

Though official results were still being counted Friday morning, both BBC and ITV said they were forecasting a razor-thin win for the Vote Leave campaign, which captured 52 per cent of ballots cast - and had a lead of nearly 900,000 votes - with almost twothirds of constituencies reporting.

Prime Minister David Cameron, who called the in-or-out referendum to deliver on a re-election promise he made, was expected to come under intense pressure to resign - and perhaps call a fresh election - if the Leave win is confirmed.

The result would be the biggest political upset in a generation, part of what is now a global wave of populist movements challenging and defeating establishment politicians.

As the Leave side's lead grew, Nigel Farage, the leader of the U.K. Independence Party, gave what amounted to a victory speech to his supporters.

"The dawn is breaking on an independent United Kingdom," he said to lusty cheers. Adding the caveat "if these predictions are right," he said: "I hope this victory leads to the end of this failed project. Let's get rid of the flag, the anthem, Brussels, and all that has gone wrong." The results revealed a United Kingdom deeply divided between a pro-EU, more cosmopolitan half - and a working class that feels globalization and unchecked immigration from the EU haven't worked in its interest. The latter half voted in favour of a so-called "Brexit" over the advice of the leaders of all four main British political parties, as well as U.S. President Barack Obama, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, among others.

Markets had surged in relief after the end of voting when a telephone poll, carried out by the YouGov agency, showed the pro-EU Remain camp with a 52 to 48 edge over the Vote Leave campaign. But the British pound crashed once the official vote count started, as a series of early results suggested the pollsters had gotten it wrong. The pound dropped from $1.50 (U.S.) to $1.37, its lowest level since 1985, in a matter of hours.

The shocks began in the industrial northeast of England, where Sunderland - a former shipbuilding town - voted 61.3 per cent in favour of Leave, a far bigger pro-"Brexit" vote than experts had forecast. Nearby Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, which had been expected to vote solidly in favour of Remain, provided another surprise when the proEU camp captured just 50.7 per cent.

Those results were subsequently mirrored in dozens of working-class towns and cities across the north of England where the Leave side did substantially better than pollsters had forecast.

Meanwhile, the pro-Remain margin in London was also bigger than expected - over 75 per cent in some boroughs - though it was unclear whether it would be enough to close the nationwide gap.

Turnout across Britain was on pace for 72 per cent, according to the BBC. Participation was lower than expected in London, which was battered by thunderstorms that wreaked havoc on transportation Thursday, including a prolonged closing of Waterloo Station, a hub for both the rail and subway networks. Two polling stations had to be relocated on short notice due to flooding as some areas in and around the capital received almost a month's worth of rain in a single day.

Early results from Scotland - another bastion of pro-EU sentiment - also showed turnout lagging that in pro-Brexit areas.

The voting patterns prompted John Curtice, the country's top elections expert, to tell the BBC that the Leave side were "favourites" for a victory based on early returns. The ITV network put the odds of a Brexit vote at 85 per cent by early Friday morning.

There were divisions in the vote along national lines that could portend more instability ahead. England, which accounts for 85 per cent of the total vote, was leaning 55 per cent for Leave, as was Wales. Scotland voted more than 60 per cent in favour of Remain - every Scotttish constituency voted Remain - and Northern Ireland was 56 per cent pro-Remain.

The separatist Scottish National Party, which controls Scotland's devolved parliament, has said it would begin preparing for another referendum on independence if the U.K. chose to Leave while Scotland voted heavily in favour of Remain.

Similarly, Sinn Fein - considered the political arm of the Irish Republican Army - warned that a Brexit, and the possibility of new border controls between Northern Ireland and EU member Ireland, would destabilize the peace process there.

Mr. Cameron, who headed the Remain side, tried to emphasize the economic risks the country would take if it quit the EU, which is the world's largest trading area. But many voters - particularly in smaller English cities that have been challenged by mass immigration from the continent - were drawn to Vote Leave's argument that Britain needed to control its own borders in order to curb immigration.

"So far, the smaller towns that have been impacted heavily by large-scale migration, the pushing down of wages, the fact that the EU hasn't helped them economically, are coming out en masse for the Leave campaign.

You saw that in Sunderland," Steven Woolfe, a member of European Parliament for the U.K. Independence Party, said as early results suggested voters might indeed have opted for a Brexit.

A few hours earlier, Mr. Farage had seemed to concede defeat after the release of the YouGov poll, telling Sky News that it appeared the Remain side had won.

A so-called "Brexit" from the EU would jolt financial markets, and call Mr. Cameron's job into immediate question. It would also raise enormous questions about the future of the rest of the 28-country bloc, with Euroskeptic movements on the rise in several other countries.

A Leave vote would kick-start a two-year period during which Britain and the EU would negotiate their terms of divorce.

While the pro-Brexit campaign insists the EU would not be able to shun the British market, Brussels would be expected to adopt a tough negotiating stand in order to dissuade Euroskeptic movements around the content from trying to follow Britain's lead.

Even a close vote to Remain will create questions about whether Mr. Cameron can manage his 12-seat majority in the House of Commons after 138 of his 330 Conservative MPs, including several prominent members of cabinet, revolted to join Vote Leave.

Nor would a narrow Remain win do anything to salve the wounds opened by the campaign.

Voters on both sides of the argument bemoaned the vitriolic tenor the debate took on, particularly in the final week of the campaign, which saw Labour MP Jo Cox murdered in her constituency by a far-right gunman.

While the killing had no apparent direct connection to the EU referendum, there is a broad sense that the charged atmosphere in the country played a role. The murder came hours after Mr. Farage posed in front of a controversial poster of a long line of Middle Eastern refugees headed for central Europe, featuring the slogan "Breaking Point."

"What's playing out in this referendum is a very real, very persistent and very sharp divide within Britain and within British society ... separating social groups that have fundamentally different sets of values," said Matthew Goodwin, a professor of politics at the University of Kent.

He said the large pro-Brexit vote would represent "a very loud and very clear message from particular sectors of Britain who feel the EU is not working out for them, who feel globalization is not benefiting them, who feel the Westminster elites are not listening."

Follow us on Twitter: @markmackinnon @PWaldieGlobe

Associated Graphic

The future of British Prime Minister David Cameron, shown with his wife Samantha after voting in the referendum in London on Thursday, is in doubt after U.K. voters opted to leave the European Union.

SIMON DAWSON/BLOOMBERG

Supporters of the Remain campaign react as results of the eferendum are announced at the Royal Festival Hall, in London.

ROB STOTHARD/POOL/REUTERS

50 Biggest PRIVATE COMPANIES
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page P60


Companies that do not issue publicly traded shares in Canada are a huge part of the economy. Many are subsidiaries of multinationals, or are family-owned or co-ops. We rank them by revenue, the one significant financial measure they all disclose

Find our interactive Top 1000 tool at tgam.ca/top1000

| REVENUE | COMPANY & YEAR-END | GROUP | REVENUE | RETURN ON | PROFIT | ASSETS | MAJOR SHAREHOLDER(S) |
| RANK | | | $000 | CAPITAL % | $000 | $000 | |
| 1 | Wal-Mart Canada(Ja16) (1) | retail | (U.S.)25,400,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Wal-Mart Stores (U.S.) 100% |
| 2 | Costco Wholesale Canada(Au15) (1) | retail | (U.S.)17,341,000 | n/a | n/a | (U.S.)3,608,000 | Costco Wholesale (U.S.) 100% |
| 3 | Direct Energy Marketing Ltd.(De15) | util | 20,687,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Centrica PLC (U.K.) 100% |
| 4 | Desjardins Group(De15) | fin | 17,080,000 | n/a | 1,674,000 | 248,128,000 | Members 100% |
| 5 | Honda Canada(Ma15) | auto | 15,990,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (U.S.) 100% |
| 6 | FCA Canada Inc.(De15) (1) | auto | (U.S.)11,845,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | FCA US LLC (U.S.) 100% |
| 7 | Ultramar Ltd.(De15) (1) | oil | (U.S.)11,232,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | CST Brands Inc. (U.S.) 100% |
| 8 | McKesson Canada(Ma15) (1) | whole | (U.S.)12,425,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | McKesson Corp. (U.S.) 100% |
| 9 | James Richardson & Sons(De15) | whole | 10,417,279 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Richardson family 100% |
| 10 | Rio Tinto Alcan Inc.(De15) (1) | mining | (U.S.)10,117,000 | n/a | (U.S.)1,118,000 | (U.S.)14,396,000 | Rio Tinto Group (U.K., Australia) 100% |
| 11 | Ford Motor Co. of Canada(De15) (1) | auto | (U.S.)8,978,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Ford Motor (U.S.) 100% |
| 12 | General Motors of Canada(De15) | auto | 9,271,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | General Motors (U.S.) 100% |
| 13 | Federated Co-operatives(Oc15) | food | 9,122,000 | n/a | 539,000 | 6,687,000 | Retail co-operatives in Western Canada 100% |
| 14 | Jim Pattison Group(De15) | mgt | 9,100,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Jim Pattison 100% |
| 15 | Home Depot of Canada(Ja16) (1) | retail | (U.S.)6,800,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Home Depot (U.S.) 100% |
| 16 | PCL Construction Holdings(Oc15) | eng | 8,365,040 | n/a | n/a | 920,315 | Employees 100% |
| 17 | McCain Foods(Ju15) | food | 7,787,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | McCain family 100% |
| 18 | Apple Canada(Se15) | tech | 6,729,822 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Apple Inc. (U.S.) 100% |
| 19 | IBM Canada(De15) | tech | 6,432,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | IBM (U.S.) 100% |
| 20 | La Coop fédérée de Québec(Oc15) | food | 6,033,003 | n/a | 44,489 | 2,298,308 | Members 100% |
| 21 | Vale Canada(De15) | mining | 5,991,000 | n/a | n/a | 29,513,000 | Vale SA (Brazil) 100% |
| 22 | Agropur Cooperative(Oc15) | food | 5,870,985 | n/a | 47,500 | 4,085,200 | Members 100% |
| 23 | Home Hardware Stores(De15) | retail | 5,800,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Dealer owned 100% |
| 24 | Nova Chemicals(De15) (1) | chem | (U.S.)3,580,000 | 13.3 | (U.S.)532,000 | (U.S.)6,387,000 | Int'l Petroleum Investment Co. (UAE) 100% |
| 25 | Dow Chemical Canada(De15) | chem | 4,221,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | The Dow Chemical Co. (U.S.) 100% |
| 26 | Quebecor Media(De15) | bcast | 3,992,900 | 8.5 | 207,600 | 9,229,900 | Quebecor Inc. 81.1%, CDPQ 18.9% |
| 27 | Aviva Canada(De15) | p&c | 3,975,254 | 20.3 | 227,984 | 9,305,511 | Aviva Insurance Ltd. (U.K.) 100% |
| 28 | Hyundai Auto Canada(De15) | auto | 3,888,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Hyundai Motor America (U.S.) 100% |
| 29 | The Co-operators(De15) | fin | 3,595,801 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Members 100% |
| 30 | Best Buy Canada(Ja16) (1)(5) | retail | (U.S.)2,917,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Best Buy Co. Inc. (U.S.) 100% |
| 31 | ArcelorMittal Dofasco(De15) (1) | steel | (U.S.)2,913,000 | n/a | n/a | (U.S.)5,274,000 | ArcelorMittal SA (Luxembourg) 100% |
| 32 | Siemens Canada(Se15) | tech | 3,605,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Siemens AG (Germany) 100% |
| 33 | EllisDon Inc.(Fe16) | eng | 3,375,889 | n/a | n/a | 1,610,327 | Employees 100% |
| 34 | Lloyd's Underwriters (Canada)(De15) | p&c | 3,265,942 | 36.0 | 842,525 | 8,943,285 | Lloyd's underwriters (U.K.) 100% |
| 35 | Randstad Canada(De15) | other | 3,238,597 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Randstad Holding (Netherlands) 100% |
| 36 | Fluor Canada(De15) (1) | eng | (U.S.)2,459,300 | n/a | n/a | (U.S.)800,900 | Fluor Corp. (U.S.) 100% |
| 37 | Wawanesa Mutual Insurance Co.(De15) | p&c | 3,098,519 | 13.6 | 287,383 | 7,775,300 | Policyholders 100% |
| 38 | Ledcor Group of Cos.(Au15) | eng | 3,000,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Employees 100% |
| 39 | Ivanhoe Cambridge(De15) | dev | 2,900,000 | n/a | n/a | 55,000,000 | CDPQ (QC) 93.7% |
| 40 | Royal & Sun Alliance Canada Group(De15) | p&c | 2,881,621 | 11.1 | 173,434 | 7,913,097 | RSA Insurance Group PLC (U.K.) 100% |
| 41 | Gaz Métro Inc.(Se15) | util | 2,836,493 | 6.8 | 80,760 | 7,717,033 | Noverco (QC) 100% |
| 42 | Parmalat Canada(De15) | food | 2,719,438 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Parmalat S.P.A. (Italy) 100% |
| 43 | John Deere Ltd.(Oc15) (1) | whole | (U.S.)2,077,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Deere & Co. (U.S.) 100% |
| 44 | 3M Canada(De15) | consumer | 2,565,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | 3M Co. (U.S.) 100% |
| 45 | Nestlé Canada(De15) | food | 2,454,000 | n/a | n/a | n/a | Nestlé SA (Switzerland) 100% |
| 46 | Masonite Canada Corp.(Ja16) (1) | consumer | (U.S.)1,873,722 | 0.0 | (U.S.)-47,111 | (U.S.)1,499,149 | Masonite International Corp. (U.S.) 100% |
| 47 | Garda World Security(Ja16) | services | 2,135,563 | -7.5 | -142,789 | 1,982,603 | Crepax Acquisition Corp. (QC) 100% |
| 48 | Economical Mutual Insurance(De15) | p&c | 2,117,553 | 13.3 | 175,954 | 5,353,026 | Policyholders 100% |
| 49 | SSQ Life Insurance Co.(De15) | insur | 2,073,200 | 9.8 | 64,800 | 11,183,300 | Fonds de solidarité FTQ |
| 50 | Capitale Civil Service Mutual(De15) | insur | 2,024,973 | 4.5 | 31,126 | 5,839,844 | Policyholders 100% |

***

INDUSTRY GROUPS auto = automotive, banks = banks, bcast = broadcasting, bevg = beverages, bio = biotech & pharmaceuticals, cement = cement, chem = chemicals, consumer = consumer products, dev = real estate developers, eng = engineering & construction, ent = entertainment, env = environmental services, fin = financial services, food = food production or distribution, forest = forest products, homefurn = home furniture & appliances, indust = industrial products, insur = life insurance, media = media, metal = metal fabrication, mgt = management companies, mining = mining, oil = integrated oils, oilprd = oil & gas production, oilserv = oil & gas field services, other = other, p&c = property & casualty insurance, paper = paper products & packaging, pipe = pipelines, pmetals = precious metals, pub = publishing & printing, retail = retailers, serv = services, steel = steel, tech = technology, tele = telephone utilities, textile = textiles & apparel, trans = transportation, trust = trust company, util = gas & electrical utilities, whole = wholesaler

NOTES For ranking purposes, figures from companies that report in foreign currencies have been converted to Canadian dollars and partial-year results have been annualized. Foreign currencies are converted at the end of the relevant fiscal period for balance sheet items and at the average exchange rate for the relevant period for earnings items. Returns have been rounded to one decimal place.

FOOTNOTES (1). Company reports in U.S. dollars. (2). Revenue includes unrealized gains and losses on bonds and other assets, as required by international accounting standards. These gains and losses are often substantial for insurers, and can vary widely from year to year. (5). Figures have been annualized in previous three through five years.

ABBREVIATIONS n/a = not available

VISION QUEST
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Clearly, once known solely as an online destination for affordable contact lenses, has become one of the eyewear industry's major players. Sabrina Maddeaux travels with the brand to Milan and learns that the company is betting its future on fashionable frames
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By SABRINA MADDEAUX
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 25, 2016 – Print Edition, Page L5


The MIDO Eyewear Show, which takes place every February in Milan, is the world's largest eyewear exhibition. Much like the high-end labels that show during the city's fashion week, optical brands go all-out to make an impression on MIDO's expo floor. This year, California's Oakley showed around a massive branded military truck, while Austria's Andy Wolf eyewear stocked its space with two surfer-boy DJs and freeflowing liquor. More than 1,000 exhibitors - from lens manufacturers to designer brands and idealistic startups - took up over 3.7 million square feet of exhibition space. There were six-foot-something leggy models at every turn sporting skinny jeans and designer frames.

In the midst of the bright lights and fanciful designs at the 2016 edition, Canada's Clearly stood out. Formerly known as Clearly Contacts, the Vancouver-based brand is now the world's largest online retailer of eyeglasses. While most Canadians recognize the company from its omnipresent online ads, it's aiming to be much more than a transactional destination for cheap glasses. Clearly is a major player in the $112-billion global eyewear industry, which sees e-commerce surging at a rate of 25 per cent every year, compared to the five-to-six per cent growth in online shopping overall. "Eyewear is at a transformation point," says Roy Hessel, Clearly's CEO. "Currently only 4 per cent of consumers buy their vision correction needs online. We want to convert the remaining 96 per cent."

To accomplish this, Clearly doesn't just want to transform the retail experience; it wants to revolutionize the product. "It's an industry in need of disruption," says chief marketing officer Nancy Richardson. "And I would love to be known as the brand that reinvents optical."

Clearly was launched in 2000 by Canadian entrepreneur Roger Hardy, who also owned the key words "contact lens" on the search engine Alta Vista. This meant that anyone who scoured the Internet for contact lenses saw Clearly's banner ads. Within its first month, the company had $68,000 in sales. As of 2013, Clearly had served over 5.3 million customers with sales of almost $60-million a year. It was sold to the French optical equipment company Essilor International in 2014 for $430-million and, as a private company, no longer publicly releases financial data, but says it has customers from Canada to Australia and everywhere in between.

In the beginning, it wasn't easy to convince shoppers to buy eyewear online without trying it on first. So to make customers feel more comfortable, Clearly put a huge emphasis on product education and creating technological substitutes for the in-store experience of shopping for frames.

Today, those looking for a new pair of glasses can load a photo of their face into Clearly's system to virtually try on options.

The company also offers personal consultations with "Vision Advisors" via phone or e-mail and produces a blog that breaks down everything from the design process to insurance advice.

"We aim to highlight and romanticize the product so it feels like you're actually holding the glasses in your hand instead of on your mobile phone," says Richardson.

"Every interaction with us is aimed at building trust." Clearly also offers free returns and has three brick-and-mortar stores in Toronto and Vancouver.

Clearly isn't the only company targeting glasses-wearers with these sales methods. New York City-based Warby Parker and California's Zenni Optical are two of the company's main competitors. Warby Parker made Fortune's "unicorn" list of startups valued at over $1-billion (U.S.) in 2015 and Zenni Optical offers some of the cheapest eyewear in the business, with prices starting at just $6.95 (U.S.). Warby Parker also has brick-and-mortar locations, while Zenni has kept costs low by investing in its own 248,000-square-foot manufacturing facility in China. To add an extra personal touch in a sometimes impersonal online word, Zenni allows its customers to add custom text to the arms on frames. Clearly claims its sales continue to outpace both Warby Parker and Zenni.

Clearly's next grand plan is to become a design powerhouse. The new fashion focus is part of why Clearly changed its name from the transactional-sounding ClearlyContacts.ca in May 2015. While Clearly sells third-party lines like Calvin Klein and Hugo Boss, it has 10 in-house brands, including the retro Joseph Marc, geek-chic Derek Cardigan and fashion-focused Kam Dhillon. Their frames have been spotted on the likes of Taylor Swift and Ty Burrell.

Claire Foster, accessories director at global trend forecaster WGSN, says Clearly's focus on in-house designs is an important competitive advantage in the vast eyewear industry. "Customers are far more likely to be loyal to eyewear brands once they find one that works for them," she says. "So, especially when it comes to e-commerce, defining a brand and having in-house signature details is important to help build trust and recognition with consumers."

Designing a great pair of glasses isn't as easy as simply choosing shape and colour.

Clearly's two-person design team spends a lot of time tinkering with the ergonomics of matching frames to faces. It can take between six months to a year for a design concept to go live, and what looks great on screen doesn't necessary translate well to the human face. They begin by sketching silhouettes and selecting elements such as hinges, screws and acetates. Several weeks later, the team receives a prototype of the frames for quality testing and trials before the final product run is made.

Clearly launches new collections of at least a dozen frames for each of its 10 inhouse brands annually. That number will grow as Clearly aims to launch up to five other house labels in the next two years.

While its own brands don't outsell thirdparty styles yet, Richardson reports they are outpacing them in terms of growth.

Over the course of a weekend at MIDO, the Clearly team met with various manufacturers and suppliers to discuss how they can push the design envelope. There was talk of colours, prints and frame shapes, but also a lot of time spent on details few consumers think about. Should frames be cut out of acetate or injection-moulded?

Can spring hinges be more low profile?

What sort of wires should go in the frames?

These small parts all affect the look, feel and quality of a pair of glasses. "In eyewear, a tenth of a millimeter makes a huge difference," says senior creative director Nate McAnally, who was previously the creative director at Lululemon.

For Richardson and McAnally, the show was a chance to better learn about what other companies are offering, build relationships and see how the back end of the business functions. "I've never seen anything like MIDO," says Richardson. "What really stood out to me is how much art and design there is in the eyewear world. It's endless. It makes me realize we're just at the tip of the iceberg."

According to a recent study published in the Journal of Ophthalmology, half the world's population - nearly five billion people - will be shortsighted by 2050. This gives companies like Clearly, Warby Parker and Zenni Optical plenty of room to grow over the next few decades. The key to tapping into that potential will be making eyeglasses fashionable rather than utilitarian. Clearly's goal is to forge a connection between customers and their eyewear - the way people feel about their favourite pair of heels or designer bag. They figure if fashionistas have closets full of stilettos, why not drawers full of glasses?

Sabrina Maddeaux travelled to Milan as a guest of Clearly. The company did not approve or review this article prior to publication.

Associated Graphic

EYES ON THE PRIZE Clearly's chief marketing officer Nancy Richardson (left), CEO Roy Hessel (centre) and senior creative director Nate McAnally (right) want to place more focus on glasses as a fashion accessory, rather than a necessity.

PHOTOS BY BEN NELMS FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL.

100 Biggest BY REVENUE
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Friday, June 24, 2016 – Print Edition, Page P61


Which companies are really the largest ones in Canada? If you want to compare every breed of corporation--publicly traded, privately owned, government owned, subsidiaries of multinationals and more--start by looking at the top line of the income statement

Find our interactive Top 1000 tool at tgam.ca/top1000

| REVENUE | COMPANY AND YEAR-END | 2015 REVENUE | REVENUE |
| RANK | | $000 | 1-Yr% CHANGE |
| 1 | George Weston Ltd.(De15) | 46,931,000 | 8.8 |
| 2 | Loblaw Cos.(Ja16) | 45,424,000 | 8.6 |
| 3 | Royal Bank of Canada(Oc15) | 43,279,000 | 3.0 |
| 4 | Magna International(De15) (1) | (U.S.)32,545,000 | -6.0 |
| 5 | Alimentation Couche-Tard(Ap15) (1) | (U.S.)34,550,000 | -9.1 |
| 6 | Power Corp. of Canada(De15) | 38,478,000 | -10.2 |
| 7 | Toronto-Dominion Bank(Oc15) | 37,532,000 | 3.4 |
| 8 | Power Financial(De15) | 36,736,000 | -12.5 |
| 9 | Manulife Financial(De15) (2) | 35,063,000 | -35.7 |
| 10 | Enbridge Inc.(De15) | 34,451,000 | -9.7 |
| 11 | Great-West Lifeco(De15) (2) | 34,030,000 | -13.6 |
| 12 | Wal-Mart Canada(Ja16) (1) | (U.S.)25,400,000 | 3.3 |
| 13 | Bank of Nova Scotia(Oc15) | 31,244,000 | 1.3 |
| 14 | Suncor Energy(De15) | 30,171,000 | -28.6 |
| 15 | Brookfield Asset Management(De15) (1) | (U.S.)21,753,000 | 8.0 |
| 16 | Imperial Oil(De15) | 26,888,000 | -27.3 |
| 17 | Onex Corp.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)19,945,000 | 17.2 |
| 18 | Empire Co.(My15) | 24,115,400 | 14.5 |
| 19 | Bank of Montreal(Oc15) | 23,784,000 | 4.3 |
| 20 | Bombardier Inc.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)18,364,000 | -9.2 |
| 21 | BCE Inc.(De15) | 21,569,000 | 1.7 |
| 22 | Caisse de dépôt et placement(De15) | 21,132,000 | -15.2 |
| 23 | Costco Wholesale Canada(Au15) (1) | (U.S.)17,341,000 | 8.7 |
| 24 | Direct Energy Marketing Ltd.(De15) | 20,687,000 | -3.7 |
| 25 | Sun Life Financial(De15) (2) | 19,719,000 | -3.7 |
| 26 | Agrium Inc.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)14,914,000 | -8.3 |
| 27 | Cdn. Imperial Bank of Commerce(Oc15) | 17,424,000 | 0.3 |
| 28 | Husky Energy(De15) | 17,183,000 | -32.0 |
| 29 | Desjardins Group(De15) | 17,080,000 | -0.3 |
| 30 | Cenovus Energy(De15) | 16,088,000 | -23.3 |
| 31 | Honda Canada(Ma15) | 15,990,000 | 9.4 |
| 32 | Thomson Reuters Corp.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)12,226,000 | -10.0 |
| 33 | FCA Canada Inc.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)11,845,000 | 54.7 |
| 34 | Canadian Natural Resources(De15) | 14,378,000 | -35.4 |
| 35 | Ultramar Ltd.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)11,232,000 | 25.1 |
| 36 | McKesson Canada(Ma15) (1) | (U.S.)12,425,000 | 16.0 |
| 37 | Air Canada(De15) | 13,914,000 | 4.5 |
| 38 | Hydro-Québec(De15) | 13,851,000 | 1.0 |
| 39 | Rogers Communications(De15) | 13,446,000 | 4.7 |
| 40 | Valeant Pharmaceuticals Int'l(De15) (1) | (U.S.)10,449,800 | 19.1 |
| 41 | Rio Tinto Alcan Inc.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)10,117,000 | -16.6 |
| 42 | Canadian National Railway Co.(De15) | 12,663,000 | 3.3 |
| 43 | Telus Corp.(De15) | 12,552,000 | 4.5 |
| 44 | Canadian Tire Corp.(Ja16) | 12,348,600 | 0.8 |
| 45 | Metro Inc.(Se15) | 12,290,300 | 5.6 |
| 46 | Fairfax Financial Holdings(De15) (1) | (U.S.)9,580,400 | -4.4 |
| 47 | Telus Communications(De15) | 12,082,000 | 3.0 |
| 48 | Hudson's Bay Co.(Ja16) | 11,910,000 | 40.5 |
| 49 | Barrick Gold(De15) (1) | (U.S.)9,272,000 | -8.7 |
| 50 | TransCanada Corp.(De15) | 11,778,000 | 7.9 |
| REVENUE | COMPANY AND YEAR-END | 2015 REVENUE | REVENUE |
| RANK | | $000 | 1-Yr% CHANGE |
| 51 | Ford Motor Co. of Canada(De15) (1) | (U.S.)8,978,000 | -4.6 |
| 52 | Saputo Inc.(Ma15) | 10,706,036 | 15.9 |
| 53 | James Richardson & Sons(De15) | 10,417,279 | n/a |
| 54 | CGI Group(Se15) | 10,287,814 | -2.0 |
| 55 | SNC-Lavalin Group(De15) | 9,836,150 | 18.5 |
| 56 | Canada Mortgage and Housing(De15) | 9,442,000 | -18.7 |
| 57 | General Motors of Canada(De15) | 9,271,000 | 5.4 |
| 58 | Federated Co-operatives(Oc15) | 9,122,000 | -16.4 |
| 59 | Jim Pattison Group(De15) | 9,100,000 | 8.3 |
| 60 | Home Depot of Canada(Ja16) (1) | (U.S.)6,800,000 | -5.9 |
| 61 | Teck Resources(De15) | 8,369,000 | -2.6 |
| 62 | PCL Construction Holdings(Oc15) | 8,365,040 | 4.0 |
| 63 | Potash Corp. of Saskatchewan(De15) (1) | (U.S.)6,500,000 | -11.7 |
| 64 | Industrial Alliance Insurance(De15) (2) | 8,300,000 | 10.4 |
| 65 | Intact Financial(De15) | 8,118,000 | 1.7 |
| 66 | Canada Post(De15) | 8,023,000 | 0.2 |
| 67 | McCain Foods(Ju15) | 7,787,000 | 2.6 |
| 68 | National Bank of Canada(Oc15) | 7,645,000 | 1.7 |
| 69 | Celestica Inc.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)5,639,200 | 0.1 |
| 70 | Fortis Inc.(De15) | 6,963,000 | 27.5 |
| 71 | Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd.(De15) | 6,805,000 | 2.7 |
| 72 | Apple Canada(Se15) (1) | (U.S.)6,729,822 | 17.2 |
| 73 | Hydro One(De15) | 6,534,000 | -0.5 |
| 74 | IBM Canada(De15) | 6,432,000 | -14.6 |
| 75 | Parkland Fuel(De15) | 6,304,498 | -16.4 |
| 76 | Ontario Power Generation(De15) | 6,216,000 | 7.1 |
| 77 | Finning International(De15) | 6,203,000 | -10.5 |
| 78 | WSP Global(De15) | 6,077,600 | 108.3 |
| 79 | Goldcorp Inc.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)4,734,000 | 32.0 |
| 80 | La Coop fédérée de Québec(Oc15) | 6,033,003 | 11.6 |
| 81 | Vale Canada(De15) | 5,991,000 | -13.1 |
| 82 | Agropur Cooperative(Oc15) | 5,870,985 | 26.3 |
| 83 | BC Hydro & Power(Ma15) | 5,812,000 | 6.1 |
| 84 | Home Hardware Stores(De15) | 5,800,000 | 1.8 |
| 85 | Encana Corp.(De15) (1) | (U.S.)4,436,000 | -61.2 |
| 86 | Shaw Communications(Au15) | 5,621,000 | 4.8 |
| 87 | Gibson Energy(De15) | 5,614,566 | -34.5 |
| 88 | Linamar Corp.(De15) | 5,182,926 | 24.1 |
| 89 | Restaurant Brands Int'l(De15) (1) | (U.S.)4,032,100 | 244.2 |
| 90 | Pembina Pipeline Corp.(De15) | 4,670,000 | -23.5 |
| 91 | Nova Chemicals(De15) (1) | (U.S.)3,580,000 | -30.6 |
| 92 | Rona Inc.(De15) | 4,250,427 | 3.1 |
| 93 | Dow Chemical Canada(De15) | 4,221,000 | -12.5 |
| 94 | Atco Ltd.(De15) | 4,201,000 | -11.7 |
| 95 | West Fraser Timber Co.(De15) | 4,073,000 | 5.5 |
| 96 | TransForce Inc.(De15) | 4,059,244 | 18.8 |
| 97 | WestJet Airlines(De15) | 4,043,761 | 2.5 |
| 98 | Quebecor Inc.(De15) | 3,996,400 | 10.6 |
| 99 | Aviva Canada(De15) | 3,975,254 | -0.9 |
| 100 | Kinross Gold(De15) | 3,081,600 | -11.05 |

***

INDUSTRY GROUPS auto = automotive, banks = banks, bcast = broadcasting, bevg = beverages, bio = biotech & pharmaceuticals, cement = cement, chem = chemicals, consumer = consumer products, dev = real estate developers, eng = engineering & construction, ent = entertainment, env = environmental services, fin = financial services, food = food production or distribution, forest = forest products, homefurn = home furniture & appliances, indust = industrial products, insur = life insurance, media = media, metal = metal fabrication, mgt = management companies, mining = mining, oil = integrated oils, oilprd = oil & gas production, oilserv = oil & gas field services, other = other, p&c = property & casualty insurance, paper = paper products & packaging, pipe = pipelines, pmetals = precious metals, pub = publishing & printing, retail = retailers, serv = services, steel = steel, tech = technology, tele = telephone utilities, textile = textiles & apparel, trans = transportation, trust = trust company, util = gas & electrical utilities, whole = wholesaler

NOTES For ranking purposes, figures from companies that report in foreign currencies have been converted to Canadian dollars and partial-year results have been annualized. Foreign currencies are converted at the end of the relevant fiscal period for balance sheet items and at the average exchange rate for the relevant period for earnings items. Returns have been rounded to one decimal place.

FOOTNOTES (1). Company reports in U.S. dollars. (2). Revenue includes unrealized gains and losses on bonds and other assets, as required by international accounting standards. These gains and losses are often substantial for insurers, and can vary widely from year to year. (5). Figures have been annualized in previous three through five years.

ABBREVIATIONS n/a = not available

How many gays must die before we target homophobia?
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By TABATHA SOUTHEY
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page F2


I imagine it's odd to wake up and discover your previously mocked, reviled, marginalized, often persecuted, within-recentmemory prosecuted sexuality has been adopted as a symbol of Western superiority. But suddenly, in some unexpected quarters, being gay is as American as apple pie.

The horrific news that 49 people had been gunned down at Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, was met with a now-predictable response from many pundits, politicians and pipers-in. An unsurprising number of people were quick to say that the premeditated attack on gay people at a business explicitly operated to provide a safe haven for LGBT patrons was not an attack on the gay community in particular.

Consult your American Encyclopedia of Mass Shootings, leaf back a couple of years, a few dozen pages perhaps - so, 12,000 or so innocent victims' names previous - and you'll find the Isla Vista killings of 2014. That was the California mass shooting now lost in the mists of American mass shootings, in which six people were killed and 14 more were injured by a man who left a video manifesto in which he explained that the shootings were one stage of his "War on Women."

He originally targeted a sorority, having said "I will attack the very girls who represent everything I hate in the female gender." He said he dreamt of seeing all women starve to death in a concentration camp because, he complained, they wouldn't have sex with him, and sex with hot girls was his gender-given right.

Yet many people insisted that the misogyny the killer spouted, opinions validated on the men'srights websites and Web forums on which he lurked and from which he cribbed portions of his manifesto, had little or nothing to do with the killings.

Similarly, in June of 2015, when a young man who got his kicks posing with neo-Nazi and whitesupremacist symbols shot nine African-Americans at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, S.C., Fox News worked overtime and many others volunteered to try to frame his actions as a secular attack on Christians.

The killer readily admitted that he'd carried out the shootings in the hopes of starting a race war because "blacks were taking over the world," but people were warned not to jump to conclusions regarding his motivation.

It was "time to have a conversation about ..." something, anything other than the issues faced by the actual targeted group then, just as it is now, apparently.

Gay people had every right in the wake of the Pulse killings to expect to be swept under the narrative rug in this manner, and indeed they often were. They were thrown on the pile of vulnerable groups who insist on making being killed for being themselves all about themselves.

"It's something that's carried out against human beings, isn't it, no matter what ..." Sky News host Mark Longhurst had the temerity to say, expressing a sentiment that was making the rounds.

He said it to a guest on his show, Owen Jones, an out gay journalist, who'd stated the obvious, which is that "At the end of the day, [the Pulse massacre] was a homophobic hate crime, as well as terrorism."

No, according to Mr. Longhurst, the killing of lots of gay people was an assault on "the freedom of all people to try to enjoy themselves," and he was backed by his other guest, Julia HartleyBrewer, who accused Mr. Jones of feeling he had "ownership" over the killings because he's gay.

God forbid.

Mr. Jones rolled his eyes and eventually just got up and rolled off the set, God bless him.

It's possible that LGBT people recognize in these killings a grotesque manifestation of a lesser hostility that they encounter constantly. Perhaps the hate from that night in Pulse is something they feel around them to a lesser degree all the time. Sure, conditions change depending on the day and where they are, but for the gay community, one way or another, that atmosphere is always there.

Maybe homophobia exists for LGBT people like another weather system; if you're gay, there's a whole other set of elements at play for you that the rest of us don't have to take into account, and seldom notice.

Careful observation, quiet listening suggests that to be LGBT is to be forever at the mercy of this secondary set of variables. To be gay means eyeing another sky, reading a further forecast, one that, if you're prudent, you consider carefully, you dress for and you calculate into every journey you make.

Even being in your own home has traditionally offered little protection from these metaphorical meteorological conditions.

Legislatures will come in from time to time and open all your windows.

Sure, the Pulse murders were a deadly weather event but it didn't come from nowhere and it didn't come from afar, which is how this thing is being spun.

Throw a Muslim into the mix (the shooter was born of Afghan parents and pledged himself to Islamic State prior to the attack) and suddenly the same people who have happily spent years claiming, subtly or not so subtly, that granting equal rights and security of the person to gay people will be the downfall of Western civilization are suddenly claiming gay rights as part of the American brand.

The Pulse killings offered social conservatives a definition of homophobia with which they're comfortable. This they can (mostly but not entirely) condemn.

They totally see it now: Homophobia is when a Muslim man shoots 49 people he believes to be gay. Class dismissed.

Homophobia only becomes bad once it's identified as a foreign import. It turns out LGBT people can be embraced (but not in a gay way!) provided they're being used as ammunition against Muslims.

Presumptive Republican nominee Donald Trump has promised to repeal marriage equality. His "liaison for Christian policy," Frank Amedia, has said AIDS is a consequence of "unnatural sex."

This month, Mr. Trump will be attending a meeting co-hosted by (among other similar organizations) the anti-gay lobby group the Family Research Council, in the company of a number of social-conservative activists, including Pat Robertson - of gaypeople-are-using-special-sharprings-to-infect-people-with-HIV fame. But Mr. Trump has been gleefully congratulating himself on being a gay ally all week.

Mr. Trump's pledge to, if elected, ban all Muslims from entering the U.S. is being waved about like a rainbow flag, because the killer was Muslim, as are, you know, a lot of gay people.

When it was pointed out that the killer was American-born, Mr. Trump jumped in to say "but his parents weren't. And his ideas weren't born here. His ideas were born from someplace else."

Oscar Wilde rolls over in his grave, mutters something pithy.

Last November, while they were all competing for the position Mr. Trump now holds, Senator Ted Cruz, Mike Huckabee, and thengovernor of Louisiana Bobby Jindal attended a conference headed by Colorado pastor Kevin Swanson. Mr. Swanson is a man who supports the death penalty for gays, and to me hanging out with a man like that looks bad, but then of course those wouldbe would-be presidents didn't actually shoot 49 people in a gay bar and apparently, when viewed like that, they're practically three bags of Harvey Milk.

That's what makes America special, you see, that generouslynot-shooting-people level of tolerance, and that's also what makes America vulnerable, it's being said in some corners.

I hope you appreciate that, my good gays, you newly minted icons of American exceptionalism.

Having been threatened for years, shot at, deprived of their natural habitat, forced against incredible odds to make a comeback from the brink of extinction, gay people may be surprised to find they've been coopted as the very symbol of all those United States.

This is something they might want to take up with the bald eagles.

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ILLUSTRATION : THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Compensation cheques give thalidomide victims a new lease on life
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By INGRID PERITZ
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Friday, June 17, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A1


MONTREAL -- On a bright April morning, Daniel Scheidt awoke in the shadowy darkness of his mobile home and decided to do something he had not done in over three years. He asked his wife to open the curtains, then told her he wanted to go out.

"What?" Carollyne Scheidt said, barely believing her ears.

For over three years, Mr. Scheidt had lived as a near recluse, seeing no one, venturing nowhere. Laid off from his electrical engineering job, he sank into a depression and cursed the pain that came from being born maimed by the drug thalidomide.

But that morning last year in West Kelowna, B.C., something transformative was under way.

A day earlier, Mr. Scheidt received a $125,000 cheque from the federal government as part of its historic settlement with the country's nearly 100 thalidomide survivors.

With a single gesture, Mr. Scheidt felt his country was recognizing him, and he was ready to face his country again.

"I was dragged out from a very deep, dark hole I was going into," the 54-year-old said. "I'd been worried about how we were going to survive. [The settlement] brought me back to do things, enjoy things again."

The turnaround illustrates the life-altering impact of Ottawa's $180-million agreement with members of the Thalidomide Victims Association of Canada, who gather in the National Capital region starting Friday to mark the success of the group's compensation campaign.

Before the federal deal was announced, Mr. Scheidt had cashed in his savings and was so worried about his financial future, he believed he'd soon be "living under a bridge somewhere." But as the curtains of his home parted, Mr. Scheidt looked out at the birdbath in the yard and the cottonwood trees and Mount Boucherie beyond, and saw possibilities again.

"It was like a rebirth. His whole life opened up," Ms. Scheidt said.

"Before, he had shut the door on the world. He fell through the cracks and felt nobody cared.

When the [cheque] arrived, he could see the light at the end of the tunnel. Now, he laughs every day. He's got a future. The government gave him his life back."

The effect of Ottawa's package is being felt across Canada, where survivors are investing in everything from home care to new houses. In La Pocatière, Que., the deal let Nelson Emond dream about a life beyond the walls of his semi-basement apartment that had limited him for eight years.

Mr. Emond's mother took thalidomide after Ottawa approved the drug in 1961 on the faith of the manufacturer's pitch that it was safe for pregnant women.

Mr. Emond was among the babies born with rare and severe deformities, including missing limbs and internal organ damage. It was Canada's most notorious drug scandal, and last year, Ottawa agreed to pay its victims single lump-sum payments of $125,000, along with pensions of $25,000 to $100,000 a year.

Mr. Emond, born with most of his legs missing, had been living in a 41/2-room rental apartment too cramped to accommodate his wheelchair. A positive, amiable man who worked in various jobs as long as he was able, had to manoeuvre around his apartment on his leg stumps, so worn that their tips had become dark and calloused. Every time Mr. Emond wanted to go outside - even to take out the garbage or pick up his mail - he had to pull on his artificial legs to climb the five steps out of his apartment.

In mid-May, Mr. Emond left the semi-basement for the last time.

With the help of friends and family, he moved his belongings into a new single-family house a short drive away. It has a garage so Mr.

Emond won't have to depend on the goodwill of a stranger to dig out his car in winter, and a deck where he can breathe the outdoor air. Mr. Emond could not hide his excitement.

"I had always dreamed of having a house," said Mr. Emond, who has also suffered thalidomide-induced damage to his eyes and partial paralysis to his face that gives it a mask-like appearance. "But if I could buy one now, it's because of the federal funds.

It's changed the stakes completely. It's giving me the freedom to do things I couldn't before."

His father, Albert, watched his son in the kitchen of the new home with a pinch of emotion.

The parents of thalidomide babies saw their children overcome obstacle after obstacle through the years. Aging themselves, the parents view the settlement with a sense of deep relief.

"I'm 72 years old. Maybe I won't have many years left to live," the elder Mr. Emond said as a contractor took measurements of the bathtub to adapt it to his son's needs. "I won't die worrying whether or not he'll have the money to look after himself. I know he'll be protected for the rest of his life."

The pain and confusion of the birth of Canada's thalidomide babies in the early 1960s remains vivid for their parents, who had little support or information about what was, then, a shocking event. Until then, many never imagined that medicine could cause so much harm to an unborn child.

Mr. Emond gets tears in his eyes recalling the sacrifices to get his son cared for, how he sold his car to buy him prosthetics in the days before Medicare. In 1963, Canada's Health Minister, Jay Waldo Monteith, vowed that Ottawa would care for the country's thalidomide victims "in the best possible manner." That promise was unfulfilled until last year. "Why did it take 50 years to recognize their mistakes?" Albert Emond asked.

In 1961, Paula Finlayson was a nurse in her early 20s working the night shift in an Edmonton hospital when, exhausted, she felt desperate to get some sleep. An intern offered her a new drug.

"Take this, it's a good sedative," he said. Ms. Finlayson took a single tablet of thalidomide on each of the two nights remaining in her shift. She had no idea she was pregnant.

Her son, Brian, was born with shortened arms. "If I hadn't done it, Brian would still have arms," Ms. Finlayson, 76, said recently from Edmonton. "I still take personal responsibility for swallowing those two pills." Like many other parents, she, too, survived the thalidomide tragedy in history's shadow, carrying a lifelong burden for a fiasco caused by drug makers and government.

She plans to travel to the Ottawa-area gathering to meet other families touched by the tragedy, and mark the milestone of the government settlement, which she admits she never thought would come to pass. "It's going to make such a difference in their lives," she said.

No amount of compensation will rewrite the years of neglect for Canadians such as Mr. Scheidt or Mr. Emond, but the new funds have offered a measure of comfort as they face an uncertain medical future. "It gave people peace of mind, a sense of security," said Mercédes Benegbi, head of TVAC.

Nowadays, the Scheidts allow themselves occasional luxuries, such as ice cream or Genoa sausage, that they had denied themselves for years. They bought a second-hand camper, leaving their mobile-home enclave to travel again. Earlier this month, after they realized that Mr.

Scheidt could no longer manage getting in and out of the bathtub in their mobile home, they put a down-payment on a new house with walk-in showers. It's in the town of Hope, B.C.

The couple has made one other, permanent, change to their home. They keep the curtains open, every day.

Associated Graphic

Thalidomide survivor Daniel Scheidt with his wife, Carollyne, outside their trailer in West Kelowna, B.C. on Tuesday. Mr. Scheidt has seen a turnaround in his life ever since the federal government delivered on its financial support package last year.

JEFF BASSETT FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Gen Y savings: Let the juggling begin
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Experts look at different ways millennials can build wealth for retirement
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By ROB CARRICK
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page B10


Advice for the millennial who has begun saving for retirement: Don't get ahead of yourself.

Financial planning for today's young adults requires what could be an unprecedented level of balancing between short- and long-term goals. Without question, millennials need to save with machine-like discipline for retirement. But money put away for retirement in your 20s might be needed for a house down payment, or to cover expenses between employment contracts.

For some ideas on how millennials can juggle all these financial goals, let's consult with a pair of advisers who are part of this demographic group. Ben Felix is an investment adviser with PWL Capital in Ottawa, and Shannon Lee Simmons is a financial planner in Toronto who calls her firm The New School of Finance.

Both were asked to address three millennial profiles:

1. The wealth-building renter This person is either priced out of the housing market or chooses not to buy. To build comparable wealth to the home owner who gradually pays off his mortgage, this individual will need to invest aggressively. To add to the realism of this profile, we'll assume this person does not have a company pension.

Ms. Simmons said a first step should be to build up an emergency fund in a high-interest savings account to cover three to four months' worth of expenses. Some good news here is that a renter may not need to put away quite as much as an owner because there's no risk of surprise household maintenance emergencies.

Once the emergency fund is topped up, millennials can start investing. Ms. Simmons suggests building a portfolio using a mix of 75 per cent stocks and 25 per cent bonds or guaranteed investment certificates. "If you don't have a pension and you don't have an asset that is building equity like a house, you need to take a little more risk," Ms. Simmons said.

"You don't want to see something like 60 per cent in bonds."

With up to as many as 40 to 45 years to go until retirement, there's a case to be made that millennials can forgo the comparative security of bonds entirely and embrace the greater risk-return potential of stocks. But Ms. Simmons believes in having at least 10 per cent in bonds or GICs.

"Maybe I'm a typical millennial who was burned in the 2008 financial crisis, but I believe that some padding of volatility is important."

Mr. Felix suggests wealth-building renters use a registered retirement savings plan for their investing. The reason is purely behavioural - it's harder to impulsively withdraw money from an RRSP than it is from a tax-free savings account.

"The biggest thing here is discipline," Mr. Felix said. "One challenge that I've seen in dealing with people of my own age is that they don't have a ton of discipline and they change their minds really quickly. For that reason, when someone decides with conviction that they're going to rent and invest, I think that using the RRSP as a savings vehicle can be helpful."

Mr. Felix said a rough rule for the wealth-building renter is to invest as much as possible of the savings realized by renting, specifically money that owners would pay for property taxes and home maintenance. These monthly costs vary according to city and house size - a rough guide would be $400 a month in property taxes and, for maintenance/upkeep, 1 per cent of a home's value divided by 12.

2. The contract worker With no employment insurance, Ms. Simmons says people jumping between temporary jobs should have enough saved to cover six months of expenses. "This person needs a hefty, hefty emergency fund," she said.

Investing can begin once the emergency fund is topped up. But if money is taken out of the emergency fund, replacing it takes temporary precedence over making regular monthly investments.

If you miss an investment contribution one month, try to make it up later in the year.

"A strategy I suggest here is to make annual savings targets for long-term investing instead of monthly targets," Ms. Simmons said. "So instead of saying $300 per month, we say, "you're going to try and hit $3,600 a year."

For a further margin of safety, Ms. Simmons suggests temporarily parking your periodic investment contributions in a high interest account. "At the end of the year, you take from that account and you put in an RRSP or a TFSA - whatever. The point is that you've had access to it all year. You're not making a decision to invest for the long term until you're secure."

Ms. Simmons suggests filling up the TFSA first - the annual limit this year is $5,500 - and then putting additional savings into RRSPs. While Mr. Felix sees the easy accessibility of money in a TFSA as a potential risk for millennials, Ms. Simmons views it as an advantage in that it provides flexibility for people whose financial goals suddenly change.

3. The undecided millennial Mr. Felix well knows how millennials can change their minds about their financial goals. "I've had a handful of people tell me I'm ready to start investing, I'm really excited about it. Six months later, I get a phone call or e-mail saying, 'I just closed on a house, I need to cash out my RRSP, what do I do?' I've learned my lesson now and I'm very careful about how I approach those people."

This means questioning clients closely about their goals and plans. If there's any indication of uncertainty about home buying, weddings and such, he suggests keeping all funds in a high interest savings account and ignoring stocks entirely.

On our new Gen Y Money Facebook page (see sidebar for more details), a group member recently posted a question about the best way to store money that will be used in two years for a house down payment. A few people said they were investing their down payment money in stocks and claimed to be making much higher returns than high interest accounts.

Mr. Felix said the risks of investing in stocks are not worth the potential upside when saving for a house. For example, the stock market could fall 20 per cent in the months before you plan to buy a home.

Eventually, undecided millennials have to make up their minds about their financial goals. Ms. Simmons pegs age 35 as the upper limit. "You can still have a really good effect on your long-term retirement portfolio with a normal amount of saving from 35 on."

Follow me on Twitter: @rcarrick

THREE MILLENNIAL FINANCIAL-PLANNING PROFILES

1 THE WEALTH-BUILDING RENTER

has decided to rent indefinitely, not own a house wants to build comparable wealth to home owners by investing money not spent on ownership costs like property taxes, maintenance, etc.

no company pension Comment: "If you make the decision to rent and invest and you use a portfolio with 50 per cent stocks and 50 per cent bonds, then you're probably not going to end up with comparable wealth to someone who owns a home." - Ben Felix 2.)2

2 THE CONTRACT WORKER

saving and investing for the long term, specifically for retirement, but might need money in the short or medium term to cover costs between gigs no company pension Comment: If you draw down on your emergency fund, replenishing it takes precedence over investing. "Your No. 1 priority is to get back up to where you were. Then, you can invest." - Shannon Lee Simmons

3 THE UNDECIDED MILLENNIAL

starting to save and invest, but unsure about what the goals are goals within the next 10 years may include the cost of a wedding + honeymoon, travel, buying a house Comment: "If someone is truly undecided, I tell them to stay in cash.

Keep everything in a high interest savings account." - Ben Felix

Associated Graphic

CARRIE COCKBURN / THE GLOBE AND MAIL SOURCES: ROB CARRICK; SHANNON LEE SIMMONS; BEN FELIX

The climate conundrum
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Despite the rapid adoption of renewable power, a robust low-carbon economy is still decades away. It would be better, Luc Vallée and Jean Michaud say, to reduce fossil-fuel consumption by improving energy efficiency
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By LUC VALLéE, JEAN MICHAUD
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page B6


There are risks to waiting for absolute and definitive answers on climate change. Equally counterproductive are calls to divest from fossil fuels immediately. Unfortunately, fossil fuels are still indispensable. Yet, we could significantly reduce harmful emissions without curbing global growth by increasing energy efficiency. However, this requires accepting certain hard facts about energy and adapting to the constraints.

Weaning ourselves from fossil fuels will be difficult. Although technologies are evolving rapidly, a low-carbon economy is still a distant reality. The concept of energy return on investment (EROI) - how much energy is produced by "investing" a unit of energy - can help explain why.

In theory, a utility with an EROI only slightly greater than "one" produces an energy surplus. In practice, however, a much higher threshold is required. This is because employees at your local power plant need energy to drive to work. They, in turn, inhabit homes requiring energy and shop at stores employing workers who also drive and shop. And as we get richer, we want more schools and hospitals, and the demand for energy grows further, increasing the required EROI threshold.

A low EROI in our rich and complex world would require that most resources be devoted to producing energy to meet our needs - a contradiction. In a low EROI world, we would more likely be poorer and our energy demand would hence be much lower.

Efficient energy generation has been the source of our prosperity.

Increases in EROI, by lowering the cost of energy, explain accelerating world growth during the Industrial Revolution. Lately, however, as innovation has lagged growth in global energy demand, energy costs have increased, curbing productivity growth - a dangerous trend if it were to persist.

Alternative energies might offer some answers but are not yet stand-alone sustainable solutions. Because of their intermittence, for the sun and the wind to permanently and reliably replace fossil fuels we would have to significantly multiply their capacity and link them in an extensive energy grid. Unfortunately, such an infrastructure would reduce the efficiency of our power generation.

The sun and the wind are free and solar panels are getting cheaper, but these energy sources are ill-suited to respond to peaks in demand and their integration into existing power grids is challenging. For example, during peak hours or when the wind or the sun are in short supply, coal or nuclear plants are often used as backups. However, although coal power-plant outputs can be somewhat modulated, neither has the flexibility to be stopped and restarted according to demand. By the time the cost of renewables is added to that of their 24/7 backup facilities, total costs are up significantly while harmful emissions remain virtually flat.

Moreover, without storage (batteries), our capacity to deploy more renewables may be peaking as many utilities now sell their surplus at subsidized prices or even pay customers to absorb the excess. Storage of solar and wind energy might one day alleviate the problem. However, large-scale lithium batteries are still uneconomical today.

Natural gas, a hydrocarbon abundant and cleaner than both oil and coal, presents an opportunity. Gas-fuelled utilities can be turned on and off and, as such, are better suited to manage peaks and complement renewables. Yet, it is imperative that methane leaks - more damaging to the climate than CO2 - be controlled as gas usage spreads.

On the other hand, hydroelectricity has a good EROI and is storable (using dams or water pumping). However, its scalability is limited. Nuclear (high EROI and emission-free) and geothermal (available 24/7 and emissionfree) energies have many of the desired attributes of energy production. But while nuclear will remain part of the solution to limit emissions, it faces its own challenges. As for geothermal power, experts estimate it will fulfill less than 1 per cent of our energy needs in 2040. Fusion is promising but probably still decades away.

Such constraints are currently limiting the potential of renewable energy. Thus, unless the world population stops growing, the use of fossil fuels will continue increasing for the foreseeable future.

At this point, it's a question of how fast both energy generation and consumption efficiency can evolve relative to energy demand.

Our growing appetite for energy dictates that maintaining the EROI of our energy infrastructure is a minimal condition to sustain economic growth. Yet, the current pace of innovation is too slow to meet the emission-reduction targets of the Paris Agreement on climate change signed in April.

In a 2008 study, McKinsey & Co. estimated that to meet similar objectives by 2050 with current technologies, the then-nine billion inhabitants of this planet would be limited to riding their cars for 30 kilometres or eating two meals a day, but could not do both, nor anything else. In other words, in a few decades, we could be facing severe austerity or the wrath of the climate.

Much better would be to reduce our energy consumption by improving energy efficiency. While the best energy sources have already been exploited, improving energy efficiency has not been sufficiently emphasized.

According to McKinsey, better building insulation, more efficient lighting and the retrofitting of industrial equipment are very cost-effective, energy-saving initiatives. Adopting efficient building codes could thus go a long way to limit emissions, and allowing for accelerated depreciation on energy-efficient equipment and furnaces would help provide incentives. Limiting urban sprawl and the sharing economy also have the potential to reduce our consumption of energy, as many assets could be used more efficiently.

Electric vehicles also make sense where the carbon intensity of electricity generation is low, as does using natural gas for trucks and ships, especially as it produces less CO2 than oil.

Another avenue would be to focus on employing energy sources for their optimal use.

Using electricity for heating is generally wasteful. While the efficiency of generating electricity with natural-gas turbines does not exceed 60 per cent owing to heat loss, the efficiency of a gas furnace can reach 96 per cent. We should thus envision redesigning our power grids to deliver more hydroelectricity and nuclear power and use more gas for heating.

Yet, nuclear - reliable but nonflexible - should not be used in conjunction with intermittent sources.

Moreover, as approximately 45 per cent of CO2 emissions from fossils fuels come from coal, replacing coal by abundant and cleaner natural gas would deliver substantial emission reductions.

Replacing coal power plants with wind and solar, and using gas turbines as backup, would further reduce emissions. It is estimated that operating wind or solar in tandem with gas would reduce emissions by approximately 60 per cent relative to producing power from a stand-alone coalfired power plant.

Providing incentives to tilt consumption away from energy-intensive goods and services is also promising. This would shift consumption habits and businesses would likely adapt. As such, economists generally support taxing carbon. Yet, there might be a better way to achieve our objectives by targeting all energies, not just fossil fuels. For instance, why encourage excessive local consumption of Quebec's inexpensive hydroelectricity when excess energy could displace coalgenerated electricity elsewhere?

Taxing energy production is also inefficient. A Canadian manufacturer could move its plant to China, where energy is not taxed and its goods, often produced there using more energy, may eventually be transported and sold back to Canadians, creating even more waste. To streamline energy consumption, it would be better to target consumption based on the total energy intensity of the finished goods and services. Similarly, subsidizing renewables can backfire by encouraging energy consumption. As suggested in The Economist recently, resources should rather be invested in R&D to develop battery technology, carbon capture and storage, etc.

Denying the problem, wishing that it will go away or waiting for everyone to agree won't lead us anywhere. While reducing our carbon footprint by 80 per cent by the middle of the century might be unrealistic, that should not stop us from implementing readily available solutions.

Luc Vallée is chief strategist at Laurentian Bank Securities.

Jean Michaud is managing director and senior commodity strategist at CoreCommodity Management

Argos going long with makeover attempt
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To stand out in a saturated market, Toronto's CFL franchise is borrowing from college football to remake its game-day experience
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By RACHEL BRADY
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Wednesday, June 22, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S3


In recent years, Toronto Argonauts home games have been synonymous with sparse attendance and underwhelming fan experiences inside the cavernous Rogers Centre. Now, with new ownership, a new home and the ability to tailgate, the club is attempting to give its reputation an extreme makeover.

The team's sagging popularity in Toronto's bustling sports market has been among the Canadian Football League's most vexing problems. But since May 2015, when absentee owner David Braley sold the Argonauts to Bell Canada and Larry Tanenbaum's Kilmer Group, the mood around the team has improved: The Argos have moved out of the gloomy, oversized dome and into the newly renovated, 26,000-seat BMO Field, to play outdoors on natural grass.

Starting with the home-opener this Thursday, the Argos are transforming their game-day experience as they try to grow and diversify a fan base currently relying on 55-and-older males. To do so, the team is borrowing some elements from game-days at Michigan Stadium, one of the most storied venues in U.S. college football.

The move to BMO takes the Argos back to Exhibition Place, the same lakefront grounds where they thrived in the 1960s and 1970s before moving to Rogers Centre - then SkyDome - in 1989. At that location, they can introduce tailgating - the kind more commonly seen outside U.S. stadiums, when people park their vehicles and set up tables and grills, serving burgers and cherished family recipe potato salads. One catch - it won't be BYOB. Fans must buy $4 beers from the team, a requirement of Ontario liquor laws.

The Argos have studied games at Michigan's Big House in Ann Arbor - Toronto's new president and CEO Michael Copeland has been tailgating there for 20 years. He says "that's the blueprint."

The long-time pep band, the 50-member Argonotes, will march through the tailgate area and lead fans over to the stadium (just like UM's 400-person marching band does). In addition to the Argos' dance team, they've added a crew of acrobatic collegiate-style cheerleaders.

The UM Wolverines have a ritual when players run out of their tunnel - they leap up to touch the famous "Go Blue M Club Supports You" banner as they enter the stadium. Already in the Argos' solo preseason game at BMO, fans gravitated to line the players' entryway, pounding their shoulder pads and high-fiving them as they ran through.

"If we become like Toronto's college football team, it will differentiate the Argos from every other team in the city," said Copeland. "I have 100-per-cent confidence that we're going to be wildly successful and before long, you'll see people wearing our merchandise on the streets.

We're going to knock down all the old barriers that people had about calling themselves Argos fans. Everything we're doing now is going to be professional, fun, exciting and done the right way."

Copeland had been the CFL's chief operating officer since 2006, when he orchestrated plans to improve the financial footing of a league that had lacklustre branding and several failing franchises. Sara Moore, who had been the CFL's vice-president of marketing and events since 2011, also joined the new Argos executive group, taking a post as the team's senior VP of business operations.

"A smaller stadium has created a big opportunity, but someone had to put the strategy in place and make the team relevant," Moore said. "The team has 143 years of history, and the brand meant something at one point, but it languished. I used to go to Argos games as a kid, but I had never taken my own kids because no one was giving families like mine a reason to go watch them. So this opportunity to work with Mr. Tanenbaum and Bell - it's a pretty awesome sports business challenge to be handed."

The Argos suffered tremendously with fans last season. Braley had already struck the deal of sale, but the team had yet to change hands, so the owner stopped investing in it.

The team was thrown scraps for home dates at Rogers Centre, a venue heavily booked for Pan American Games and the Toronto Blue Jays' playoffs. The Argos played one "home" game out in Fort McMurray, Alta., and, when dates conflicted with the Blue Jays, other games were played at the stadiums of rival CFL teams.

In the five games the Argos did play at the 50,000-seat Rogers Centre, they averaged just 16,966 fans.

"We always felt like renters in the Blue Jays' home," said Argos defensive lineman Ricky Foley.

"This home is ours and walking in there is incredible. Sure, we share with TFC, but we feel welcome, and we have a beautiful new locker room with our logo on it for the first time. In Rogers Centre, it felt like the fans were miles away. Now they're on top of us. How do you achieve home-field advantage when you don't have a real home? We've got that now, and we want to make BMO a hard place to play.

This is our house - that's so crucial in football."

A new stadium alone isn't enough. The Argos must attract the attention - and disposable cash - of families, students, and young professionals living in nearby Liberty Village. The Argos must battle the perception of being a minor-league ticket in a major-league market dominated by the Maple Leafs, Blue Jays and Raptors.

The Argonauts hired advertising agency Bensimon Byrne, the same people behind the CFL's "This is What We're Made Of" campaign. They have blitzed the city with ads on TV, radio, bus shelters and subway wraps, and taken to social media. The ads centre largely on taking it outside - images of attractive 20somethings tailgating and Argo players running past recognizable parts of Toronto.

The franchise is attempting a big splash in the opener. A 300person marching band will play in the stadium. There will be a free pregame concert in a licensed outside gathering spot named The Shipyard, and a free concert featuring Canadian artists The Strumbellas and Kardinal Offishall. Argo legends Joe Theismann, Rocket Ismail, Pinball Clemons and Damon Allen will take part in the tailgating and attend the game.

It may take time to turn Torontonians on to the old Double Blue.

"The tailgating will resonate, but some of the college elements are more traditional, and they may not be familiar or appealing to Toronto's millennials or new Canadians," said Vijay Setlur, a sports marketing professor at York University's Schulich School of Business, but also an Argos season-ticket holder for 23 years.

"Fans will need a reason to care. The Jays have Josh Donaldson or Jose Bautista, the Raptors have guys like DeMar DeRozan or Kyle Lowry, and people care about them. Name some Argos that people care about or even recognize? Football can often be too technical for new fans. They need to teach people about it, and do a better job of profiling the players."

The Argos say it's realistic to sell out all nine home games, plus possible playoffs. They expect a boost during the Canadian National Exhibition, when there will home games on Aug.

20 and Aug. 31, and those tickets will double as admission to the CNE.

"We know there are about 35,000 people between the ages of 20 and 30 living within a kilometre of the stadium," Copeland said. "We can never replicate what takes place at Michigan, but we can take the guts of what they do there and let fans take it where they want to. We want to create a social experience that's affordable and fun, so people get outside their condos for an afternoon and connect with their city."

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The Toronto Argonauts are hoping their move to BMO Field - as well as a few other changes - will help renew interest in the struggling franchise.

GLENN LOWSON FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

COMMERCIAL FICTION
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By MARISSA STAPLEY
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Saturday, June 18, 2016 – Print Edition, Page R18


Modern Lovers By Emma Straub Riverhead, 368 pages, $35

Emma Straub is at her best when exploring the trials and disappointments of modern family life. Is she poking fun at our obsession with property values, freerange beef and children and avocado on toast - or does she feel our existential, First World pain? Perhaps a bit of both. College friends Elizabeth, Zoe and Andrew used to be in a band together.

After they disbanded, the fourth member, Lydia, took their one good song and ran with it. The song became a hit before Lydia flamed out. A lifetime later, the friends live in Brooklyn and a biopic of Lydia is in the works. This stirs up memories they didn't realize they had. Zoe wonders how it's possible that she was once the toast of the town. These days, she feels like anything but. Elizabeth knows she's the one who really wrote that song. But these days she's a real estate agent and the mother of a boy on the cusp of becoming a man.

Meanwhile, her husband, Andrew, is experiencing a midlife crisis. The weak link that is Andrew is more than made up for by the chapters from the perspectives of their children. Parents, Straub shows, are keenly observed through the eyes of their kids. But they could also care less about our problems and pasts, and this presents a fascinating dichotomy that dances on the page.

Girls On Fire By Robin Wasserman HarperCollins Canada, 368 pages, $25.99

Full disclosure: I had to take this book out of my bedroom so I could sleep at night. It's dark and horrifying - but also beautiful. It made me remember what was so wonderful about being a teenaged girl, but it also made me recall what a thin knife edge I was walking on, and I didn't realize it or even care. I couldn't put Girls On Fire down (except when I was sleeping and having those strange, intense dreams that come when you're reading a book like this).

It's the nineties, and Kurt Cobain's tortured voice is the soundtrack to the obsessive friendship between outcast Hannah Dexter and powerful, damaged Lacey Champlain.

Lacey remakes Hannah into Dex, a fearless new version of the obedient wallflower she used to be, but the excitement of new friendship soon morphs into a disturbing reality. There's a secret at the epicentre of this book to do with the apparent suicide of a high school basketball star.

The truth is unimaginable, and the journey to get to it is haunting. Wasserman, who is already a successful youngadult author, delivers a brilliant, thrilling shocker with this first adult novel. Buy it, read it, become immersed and enthralled and distressed by it - just don't call me when you can't sleep.

Happy Family By Tracy Barone Lee Boudreaux Books, 400 pages, $31.50

"All happy families are alike.

Each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way."

That line from Anna Karenina trembles at the core of this exquisite debut by screenwriter and playwright turned author Tracy Barone.

The fact that Barone has worked in movies is apparent from the opening pages of Happy Family, when a pregnant drug addict staggers into a health clinic, shoots herself up with morphine, gives birth and flees. What follows this scene is a careful uncoiling of the effects of a single moment on many different lives. Cheri is the child left behind. She's adopted by a family who just lost a child. They haven't healed and their wounds become part of the fabric of her existence.

Forty years later, Cheri, a cop turned academic, is stuck in a life that isn't going as planned. She bears the scars of abandonment, but also of being raised by a woman who clung too tightly and still does. Barone does not stumble once, not in plotting or dialogue, and especially not in character development. There are many strings, but they all tie together in a novel about an unconventional family with much to teach about parenthood, childhood and the experience of growing up - something that takes longer, I'm sure, than many adults ever imagined it would.

The A to Z of You and Me By James Hannah Sourcebooks, 336 pages, $22.99

This book is about the sharp sting of regret. It's painful to read, but also deeply touching. Ivo is barely middleaged, but he's already in hospice care because of choices he made when he believed youth was an ally that would never abandon him. Now it's too late and all that is left is for him to catalogue the most meaningful moments of his life, from A to Z, at the suggestion of Shelia, the nurse who cares for him so gently and feels so real to the reader. In fact, each character feels authentic, from Ivo's mother, who was shattered by loss but still cared for her son with everything she had, to his lost love, Mia, whom we learn about in carefully paced doses. Each heartache feels earned, and each memory revealed is so poignant, I felt at moments that they belonged to me too. With tender prose, and very little mincing of words - because indeed this is a story that could easily turn maudlin - Hannah offers a profound story of life, death, and love. You'll need to break out the tissues for this one, but you'll find redemption and inspiration in among the tragedies. Every moment you spend with this book will be worth it.

Not Working By Lisa Owens Doubleday Canada, 243 pages, $29.95

I've always had a soft spot for Bridget Jones and will accept no substitutes or cheap imitations. And while Lisa Owens's Claire does bear a whole lot of resemblance to Bridget - the career frustration, the emotionally aloof boyfriend with the mystifying grown-up job, the tendency to guzzle wine and behave inappropriately, the kooky mother - she also has a contemporary voice and a quest all her own. Claire has just quit her job as a creative communications specialist, a job in which she found no meaning.

But what is the meaning of life, and specifically, what is the meaning of hers? Through a series of breezy vignettes filled with witty reflections that made me laugh out loud ("More than forty years since man walked on the moon, and yet still no truly viable alternative to bread."), Claire attempts to climb her way out of a life that doesn't make her happy and into one that does. On the way, she learns that fulfilment isn't quite as elusive as she believes it to be. We could all benefit from the takeaway here. Pop this one into your beach bag this summer and prepare to be utterly charmed.

The After Party By Anton DiSclafani Riverhead, 384 pages, $34

Anton DiSclafani's sophomore effort takes a look at female friendship through the lens of privilege. It has her trademark polished writing and cool, affecting gaze - she's basically the authorial equivalent of the smart, rich, sophisticated girl at your high school whom you always felt like such a dolt around (okay, maybe that was just me). This book is about two 1950s Texas socialites, one who lives in the shadow of the other, the dynamic of so many friendships. Joan and Cece's story sings out from the salons and bedrooms of the uberaffluent River Oaks community in Houston, as they travel from childhood into their mid-20s, with all the drama and angst that comes in between those days. Reading about women in the 1950s and the lengths they needed to go to in order to get what they wanted - even if what they wanted wasn't anywhere close to what they needed - reminded me of how far we've come. This is an ultimately satisfying read that paints a vivid portrait of a time, a place and an unusual friendship.

To stay or to go is Britain's question
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On Thursday, people in Britain will be asked to vote on a simple question: Should Britain remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union? Paul Waldie explains the referendum
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By PAUL WALDIE
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Monday, June 20, 2016 – Print Edition, Page A6


What's the background?

Britain has been a member of the EU, and its predecessor, since a referendum in 1975, when 67 per cent of Britons voted to join what was then called the European Economic Community. That evolved into the EU in 1993. British governments, particularly those led by Conservatives, have balked at what they see as the transformation of the EU into a political union, and the country has opted out of several EU programs, including use of the euro.

What's the EU?

The EU has 28 member states that send members to the European parliament and abide by the European Court of Justice, among other institutions.

Many members of the EU also belong to the euro zone and/or the Schengen Area.

The euro zone is a group of 19 EU states that use the euro and fall under the European Central Bank.

The Schengen Area is named after the town in Luxembourg where the agreement was signed in 1985. It provides the passportfree movement of people.

Of the EU states, 26 belong to Schengen in one way or another.

Three other non-EU countries - Iceland, Norway and Switzerland - are associated members. Britain and Ireland do not belong.

Why a referendum now?

Prime Minister David Cameron promised in 2013 to hold a referendum on the EU if his party won the election in 2015, to quell growing dissension within the Conservative Party and the rise in popularity of the Euro-skeptic UK Independence Party (UKIP).

The Tories won and he called the vote.

What it means for Canada and the markets If Britain leaves the EU, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the EU could be in trouble. That agreement has already been seven years in the works and has yet to be ratified by the EU or its member states. Brexit would probably distract the EU for years and put CETA on hold even longer.

The Bank of England, the International Monetary Fund and others have warned that the fallout from a British vote to leave the EU could harm the global economy. Bank of England Governor Mark Carney has suggested that Britain could face a recession if it pulled out of the EU.

A Brexit would likely also cause big headaches for Canadian companies. Canadian firms choose to do business in Britain because it's a "beachhead" to launch into the EU, but it still shares a language and similar laws with Canada.

One thing is clear: The debate about Britain's potential departure also recalls when Quebeckers voted twice in referendums in which hard economics yielded to emotion and nearly broke up Canada, The Globe and Mail's Jeffrey Simpson writes.

Who supports remaining in the EU?

Mr. Cameron, 23 senior cabinet ministers, the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats, most economists, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Monetary Fund, most of Britain's allies, including Canada and the United States, most large employers, most trade unions, 13 Nobel laureates.

What are their arguments?

The Remain side believes that it would be an economic disaster for Britain to pull out. Roughly 40 per cent of British trade is with the EU, and the London financial district has become a world leader because of its unfettered access to the EU. Leaving would mean slower economic growth, job losses, higher prices and potentially a recession. The Remain side says Britain should reform the EU from within and that Britain's influence globally would be reduced outside the EU.

Who supports leaving the EU?

Seven senior cabinet ministers, including Boris Johnson, who is seen as a future prime minister, roughly half of the Conservative caucus, several large businesses, UKIP, several Labour MPs and the country's largest-selling newspaper, the Sun.

What are their arguments?

The Leave side says unrestricted immigration from the EU, particularly Eastern Europeans, has hurt the housing market and employment. It says that leaving the EU would give Britain control over its borders and free the country from mountains of EU red tape. Cutting payments to the EU would also save the British government billions of dollars and allow for more spending on health care and other priorities.

Britain could negotiate its own trade deals with the EU and other countries, much like Canada does.

What do the polls say?

For weeks, Remain held a slight lead, then Leave pulled ahead last week and now the race is about evenly split, based on a comprehensive poll of polls.

Remain support is strongest among young people, professionals and those with a postsecondary education. Leave is popular among older people, low-income workers and voters with a high school education.

What do the experts say?

Economics tends to trump other issues in voters' minds, but the problem for Remain is that many voters, 45 per cent, do not believe that leaving the EU would make them personally worse off. That's a sign that the Remain side's message is not getting through.

Leave's problem is that voting patterns in other referendums, including in Canada, show that there is a late surge in support

for the status quo. That happened in the Scottish referendum in 2014. Despite polls showing majority support for independence, 55 per cent of voters opted to stay in the United Kingdom.

What's really going on?

Polling shows a deep divide in the country along socioeconomic lines. As one polling expert put it, this is a struggle between the winners of globalization and those who feel left behind. There is also a growing backlash against elites. And there is trouble for Mr. Cameron, as cabinet ministers trade insults and a growing number of MPs call for him to resign regardless of the result.

What's the reaction globally?

Financial markets in Europe have swung wildly lately as support for Leave has increased. Investors have also been snapping up 10year German and British bonds, or gilts, a sure sign that many are looking for a safe harbour. Yields on German bonds went negative for the first time recently and British gilts touched record lows.

The pound has also been on a roller coaster and some say its value could fall by as much as 20 per cent if Brits vote to leave.

What about the regions?

Polls show that Scotland, Northern Ireland and Gibraltar are overwhelmingly in favour of Remain. Londoners also support Remain, but by a lower margin.

The rest of England and Wales are divided. Experts say that for the Leave side to win, it must win England, including London, by at least four percentage points.

What happens if the Leave side wins?

Under Article 50 of the EU treaty, a member choosing to leave has two years to negotiate a new arrangement with the EU (the deadline can be extended with unanimous consent). Any new deal would have to be ratified by each EU member. During that period, Britain would remain a full EU member.

What about Scotland?

If Leave wins and Scots voted overwhelmingly for Remain, Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon, who heads the Scottish National Party, has suggested that the country could hold another referendum on independence.

When will the results be known?

The polls close at 10 p.m. There are no exit polls and the results will trickle in from regional counts across the country. A clear picture should emerge by about 3 a.m., London time.

Associated Graphic

Clockwise from far left: Stanley Johnson, father of former London mayor and 'Vote Leave' campaigner Boris Johnson, speaks at a London rally for Britain Stronger in Europe; a campaigner for Vote Leave hoists a placard during a rally for Britain Stronger in Europe; former London mayor Boris Johnson prepares to speak Sunday at a Vote Leave campaign event at Old Billingsgate market, London; supporters of the Remain campaign rally in London's Hyde Park Sunday.

PHOTOS BY BEN STANSALL/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; DOMINIC LIPINSKI/ ASSOCIATED PRESS; MATT CARDY/GETTY IMAGES

Trade rumours fly as busiest stretch of NHL off-season begins
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By JAMES MIRTLE
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Monday, June 20, 2016 – Print Edition, Page S1


TORONTO -- The NHL's silly season will begin in earnest this week, and there are some extra wrinkles this year. The league's 31st team, in Las Vegas, is expected to be approved on Wednesday, followed by the NHL awards, followed by the first round of the entry draft on Friday in Buffalo.

The interview period for unrestricted free agents opens a day later, giving teams six days to speak with players leading up to when they can sign them at noon on July 1.

According to several executives on the weekend, three things are conspiring to make this one of the busiest two-week periods in history for NHL player movement: 1. The salary cap isn't expected to rise much at all. Even if the NHL Players' Association greenlights the 5-per-cent growth factor, the cap will go up only about $1.5-million to just shy of $73-million. The final cap number is expected to be announced within the next few days. It won't give teams a lot of flexibility.

2. The expansion draft in 2017.

General managers are already fretting about losing a good player to Vegas for nothing and will be recalibrating their rosters all season in preparation. The guidelines for the draft are designed to give teams difficult choices in terms of who to protect, but some will be affected much more than others.

3. Steven Stamkos, potentially one of the most coveted free agents in league history, still doesn't have a contract with the Tampa Bay Lightning.

Throw into that mix a group of desperate teams trying to improve, and you have a lot of trade talk percolating around the NHL.

No team is talking more than the New York Rangers. Anxious to become competitive again right away after an embarrassing early exit from the playoffs, GM Jeff Gorton is looking at major changes.

The most intriguing name in conversations right now is centre Derek Stepan, who is signed for another five years at $6.5-million a season. There could be a fit with a team with cap space such as the Arizona Coyotes, which would free up money for the Rangers to enter the Stamkos sweepstakes on the weekend.

The Coyotes are another key player in the trade market. John Chayka, the franchise's new 27year-old GM, has been busy, and it's clear to other teams that Arizona wants a quick turnaround after missing the playoffs four years in a row.

One asset they have to dangle is Martin Hanzal, who has one year left on a $3.1-million deal and won't be cheap to re-sign. He may be moved in order to accommodate a big contract such as Stepan's.

The Coyotes, who acquired the rights to Stars defenceman Alex Goligoski last week, are also the most likely destination for the now-retired Pavel Datsyuk's contract via Detroit. But Chayka will want a prime asset in return for taking that burden.

Again, Stamkos is likely a factor, as the Red Wings - like the Rangers - could be one of several desperate bidders hoping that adding a superstar will allow them to become competitive right away.

The position to watch in the coming weeks, however, is the blueline. A lot of teams want to reconfigure their back end after watching the Penguins win the Stanley Cup with speed and skill and that means the few defencemen available who can move the puck are going to be well compensated.

Dallas, for example, is being priced out of bringing back Jason Demers, as he wants something in the $5.5-million-a-season range. Florida is locked in difficult negotiations with Brian Campbell, another pending unrestricted free agent. And Keith Yandle is expected to be made a very wealthy man - with the soon-tobe 30-year-old likely to get a seven-year deal from someone.

The Colorado Avalanche, uneasy about their defence, could be a landing spot for Yandle, while Boston and Buffalo are possible players for Blues defenceman Kevin Shattenkirk via trade. St. Louis has a cap crunch and wants to send him to the Eastern Conference and both teams are trying to get fleeter on D. (It's possible the Sabres move Zach Bogosian.)

Teams still believe, meanwhile, that the Jacob Trouba saga in Winnipeg isn't over, despite pledges from the Jets to re-sign him. The Capitals also have a tough call to make with Dmitry Orlov, who is outside their top four and a prime candidate to be lost in the expansion draft.

What may happen with Trouba and other high-profile restricted free agents - including Hampus Lindholm in Anaheim and Tyson Barrie in Colorado - is a hardball approach from teams looking to keep costs down. More and more young players have been getting huge dollars right out of their entry-level contracts, but that's not a dynamic every GM wants to embrace.

Not signing them early in the summer, however, opens the door to an offer sheet - which is a key concern for a team like Columbus, which has Seth Jones as an RFA and an ugly cap situation.

(David Clarkson being one reason.)

The Blue Jackets would love to offload Scott Hartnell and Fedor Tyutin but finding takers in a market crowded with crappy contracts has been difficult. Just ask the Chicago Blackhawks, who had to include Teuvo Teravainen in a deal with Carolina last week in order to get them to take Bryan Bickell's $4-million cap hit.

That hurts.

How the expansion draft affects the market How worried NHL executives are about the expansion draft next summer depends who you talk to.

Teams with a lot of young players or without much veteran depth are almost in the clear, as they won't have to expose players of tremendous value. That's a big boost to rebuilding teams such as the Maple Leafs, who at most stand to lose either a depth defenceman such as Martin Marincin or a middling prospect such as Josh Leivo.

But other teams are in a very tough spot. The Ducks, Wild and Predators all have at least four quality defencemen they would like to protect, but doing so would mean that they have to expose good young forwards.

(Expansion-draft rules stipulate teams can protect one goalie and either seven forwards and three defencemen or four forwards and four defencemen.) A team deep on forwards like the Lightning, meanwhile, could easily lose someone such as Alex Killorn or Vladislav Namestnikov.

Then there are all the teams with two quality goaltenders, including the Penguins, who may be forced to trade Marc-André Fleury in order to protect playoff hero Matt Murray.

GMs are already well aware of the ramifications of expansion - even with the official announcement on Vegas pending - and it will start to affect how trades are being made.

Young players are even more valuable, for one. Florida, for example