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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B18


DAVID AGG November 29, 1944- February 10, 2018

Modernity inserts itself into all things, even grieving and how we announce our grief. A few hours after my father died, I posted some of my favourite recent pictures of him and a couple of older ones on Instagram. I thought about writing seven or eight elegant sentences in an attempt to highlight how much I loved him and what a huge influence he'd been on me, and y'know, maybe a little bit about him, but just couldn't find the words, so I chose the broken-hearted emoji for a caption, which didn't even feel cheap.

It took a while for the callbacks to morph from the mirror responses of hearts and roses into words of support, which is really what we want and need in times of mourning, the acknowledgment from friends and family that we are loved, that our pain is theirs too.

I've been mourning my dad since his diagnosis of Alzheimer's six years ago.

My mother called me and even though I knew it was true--there'd been signs--she'd had to insist, and I still refused to accept it. I cried every day for a week. As his disease worsened, with long plateaus in between descents, my mother acted as his primary caregiver with a dug-in stubbornness, at first politely declining help and later outright refusing it. Perhaps it was an attempt to sustain an illusion that nothing much had changed, though my brother and I could see what a strain it was on her, eventually contributing to her death from kidney failure (and a broken heart) three years ago.

So even though I've felt orphaned for some time, now it's official, and I'm not sure how to feel, because when someone you love is slowly having their tremendous mind snatched from them in scraps, it is difficult not to feel some sense of relief when they no longer have to suffer so assaulting an indignity (even if contracting pneumonia in an Alzheimer's ward is another, equally awful indignity--but at least one you can quiet with morphine).

My dad built his own life. One of my favourite stories is how he put himself through Western University by working whatever jobs he could, one of which was peeling potatoes in the school's cafeteria. He'd play games with himself, "How many can I peel in ten minutes.in thirty minutes.in an hour?" and then try to best his records while peering out at a sea of hyperprivileged young men, thinking all the while "I'm gonna leave you bastards in the dust."

When he met my mother, Phyllis, he was teaching business at Birchmount Collegiate, where she taught French. She'd find excuses to visit his classroom and all the kids would file out, giggling. Their love was truly something to behold and set a standard for how important a great partner is. They married in 1969 and renewed their vows in a beautiful ceremony 40 years later. They were a perfect match, and brought out the best in each other. In 1975, after a very reasonable six years of childless bliss, they had me, were probably horrified at my insolence, and waited seven years to have my brother, Jonathan, who is a carbon copy of my mother, while I am basically a (slightly) more social version of my dad.

I grew up around a dinner table that was vibrant with conversations about politics and life, and after dinner, my dad and I would play chess. He never let me win, so the one time I did, I knew it meant something. He taught me how to think, and, through osmosis, he taught me that even though the world might not always be fair, working hard was its own reward--my god, that man had a strong work ethic. He was such a boot-strapper that, to be honest, it always surprised and delighted me that his inherent conservatism was mostly fiscal. That doesn't mean we didn't disagree about social issues--we did--but I can't help but think most of the time he was just trying to teach me to better articulate my ideas, and that he enjoyed being my foil.

He was always a bit of a loner who found solace in nature, so much so that he purchased a hundred acre farm a decade ago with the sole purpose of planting it with as many trees as possible. He'd get me to help and tell me we were just doing one row, then laugh and laugh as the row twisted and turned so that every time I'd think we'd reached the end there was, somehow, a new horizon around the corner.

After those long days, we'd sit on the porch, wrapped in blankets, and watch the sun set while we sipped rosé and talked. Sometimes he'd say something so precise, I'd forget his neural pathways were being clear cut with abandon. Occasionally, in the later years, I'd record our conversations -- which felt weird at the time, but has turned out to be a great comfort, just hearing the sound of his voice, knowing it lives in my phone.

We (my brother, Jonathan; his wife, Suzanne; my husband, Roland; and David's siblings, Joe, Peter and Stephanie, and their families) will miss him terribly. If you feel the urge to do something, and have the means, please donate to an Alzheimer's charity.

Written in grief by David's adoring daughter, Jen Agg.

DEATHS DAVID B. ANISMAN

On Wednesday, February 14, 2018 at his home in King City.

David Anisman, beloved husband of the late Sandra Anisman. Loving father and father-in-law of Paul F.

Anisman, Lorne and Mimi Anisman, Sharan Anisman and Brad Warner, and the late Elliott Anisman. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Molly and Arnold Shear, the late Yettie and Ben Goldhar, Frandel Leah Anisman, Louis and Mary Anisman, Sam and Eva Anisman, Sally and Morris Myers, Esther and Irving Pearl, Rose and Rudy Adler, Arthur and Sonia Anisman, and Toby and Bill Greenspoon.

Cherished grandfather of Eric and Alana, Erin, Morgan, and Sheridan. Great-grandfather of Josh, and Sarah. Very special thank you to Mona Florian for her care and devotion to David.

Funeral services will be held at Beth Emeth Synagogue, 100 Elder St. on Thursday, February 15, 2018 at 1:00 p.m.

Interment: Beth Emeth Synagogue section of Bathurst Lawn memorial Park.

Shiva: 110 Calvin Chambers, Thornhill, ON. Shiva visits Thursday following the interment up to 9:00 p.m., Saturday 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., Sunday through Tuesday 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. Evening services Thursday and Sunday through Tuesday at 7:30 p.m.

Memorial donations may be made to the Canadian Friends of the Jerusalem College of Technology 416-787-7565.

JANET CASSILS BLACHFORD (nee Savage)

1938-2018 Janet died peacefully from leukemia at the Royal Victoria Hospital, on February 12, 2018.

She was the dear wife of John Blachford for over 56 years; beloved mother of Erik, Leith and Ian; affectionate mother-in-law of Maryam Mohit, Kingston Ip, and Laura Ierfino; and granny to Jake, Sedi-Anne, and Theo Blachford, Zander Ip, and Madeline and Lucas Blachford. She is survived also by her brother, John; her sister, Nancy; and nieces, nephews, and cousins galore.

A lifelong Montrealer, Janet graduated from The Study and spent many happy summers at Camp Ouareau in the Laurentians, first as a camper and later as staff. She received a BA and an MA in English Literature from McGill University, where she taught Advanced Composition and The Faculty Course in the 1960s. Later, she was a keen volunteer at McGill for many years, as Board Member and President of The Friends of the Library. She was also a Board Member of the Quebec Writers' Federation.

Her greatest loves outside her family were choral singing in different choirs, principally at the Church of St. Andrew and St. Paul, gardening and writing fiction, which resulted in two published novels, Rehearsal and Blue Lake, finished in the months following her diagnosis.

She loved the life of the mind, coming back time and again to the words of John Milton, inscribed on the exterior wall of McGill's Redpath Library: Beholding the bright countenance of truth in the quiet and still air of delightful studies.

And though she'd have thought it the height of impertinence for us to include a quote here from her own novel Blue Lake, it seems only fitting that she gets the last word: Her own version of the Blue Lake island looked like a ship, the pines her sails, green wings in a high wind. That island had always been able to fly.

The family wishes to thank Wendy Wray of Women's Healthy Heart Initiative, Dr. Chaim Shustik, Dr.

Allan Sniderman, Dr. Kelly Davison, Dr. Michael Thirlwell, and all the exceptional nurses and staff of the Cedars Cancer Centre of the Royal Victoria Hospital for their compassion and kindness to all concerned, throughout Janet's illness.

A Celebration of Life will be held at the Mount Royal Funeral Complex, 1297 Chemin de la Forêt, Outremont H2V 2P9 on Friday, February 23 at 11:00 a.m. As Janet loved colours, please do not limit your attire to black.

In lieu of flowers, please consider sending a donation to Fiat Lux at McGill University, or the department of Oncology-Haematology at the Royal Victoria Hospital.

MAVIS ELIZABETH BONHAM (Paton)

Passed away peacefully at the Village of Tansley Woods in Burlington on Friday, February 9, 2018 at the age of 97.

Predeceased by loving husband of almost 70 years, Eric Ellis Bonham (2013).

Cherished mother of Catherine Bonham and David Bonham (Colleen). Devoted grandmother of Matthew Kisly. Loving sister to Weldon Paton (Margaret).

Private Cremation has taken place. A Service of Remembrance will be held at Smith's Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stoplight north of QEW), Burlington, 905-632-3333, on Saturday February 24, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. (with a Reception to follow). If desired, donations in memory of Mavis may be made to the charity of your choice. http://www.smithsfh.com

GEORGE BOUGADIS

Peacefully, on Thursday, February 15, 2018, at the age of 88. Many thanks to the dedicated doctors, nurses, and staff at the Jewish General Hospital.

Born in Tripi (Sparti), Greece, "Mr. George" or "General George" of George General Auto Repairs (corner Marie Anne E. and St.

Laurent Blvd; Plateau) since the 1950's, arrived in Montreal shortly after his WWII military and resistance service as a truck and tank engine mechanic. Like so many veterans of "The Greatest Generation," he embodied the idea of the Canadian immigration dream in what he always called "the greatest country in the world." After decades of hard work, sacrifice, great success, and even a few spectacular failures, by any measure, he lived a life fulfilled.

He is survived by his wife of 52 years, Anna (nee Kiorpelidis); his son, George Andrew (Cheryl); his daughter, Lea Olga Stamatikia; grandson, Joshua Andrew; his three surviving brothers, Tony (Eleni), John (Sophia), and Peter (Soula); his sisters, Tasia (John) and Leta (the late, Thano); sisterin-law, Thalia (the late, George; the late, Mike); brother-in-law, George (Carmen); along with many nieces, nephews, and their extensive families. He will be sadly missed by his family, many friends, generations of clients, and apprentice/master bodymen, painters, and engine mechanics.

Visitation will take place at Urgel Bourgie - Athos, 1255 Beaumont, Mont-Royal, (514) 735-2025 from 3 to 8 p.m., Monday, February 19, 2018. A funeral ceremony will take place at Saint George's Greek Orthodox Cathedral, 2455 Cote Ste Catherine Road, Outremont, QC H3T 1A8 (514) 738-3202 at 10 a.m., Tuesday, February 20, 2018.

Final resting place, Urgel Bourgie Cemetery in TMR. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Jewish General Hospital Charitable Trust in memory of George Bougadis would be appreciated.

HENDRIK BRES

October20, 1932 February14, 2018

We sadly announce the death of our dear father, Hendrik Bres at age 85 on February 14, 2018 at the Sarcee Carewest Hospice, Calgary Alberta. He died surrounded by family after a brief illness after several years with cancer.

Dad was born in 1932 in The Hague, the Netherlands. He moved to Canada in 1959 with his wife, raising three children, becoming a Canadian citizen and working his trade as a printer. He later devoted his full energies to his artistic career as a painter and an active member of the Alberta art world. He was an influential member and annual contributor to the Edmonton Contemporary Artists Society. He had several solo art exhibits in commercial galleries and the Edmonton Art Gallery. He lived in Calgary in his later years.

He is survived by his loving children, Odd (Barb), Karin (Mark) and Faye (Lawrence); and grandchildren, Alexander, Margo, Erika, Shayne, William, Simon, and Devon. We are forever thankful for him and will miss him.

We especially thank the caring staff at the Rockyview Hospital and the Sarcee Carewest Hospice.

A celebration and memorial will be held this spring. We invite you to leave memories and messages with Elegant Tributes Funeral Chapel, Calgary, Alberta.

http://www.Eleganttributes.com

WILLIAM GEORGE CHIPMAN "Bill" Q.C. June 11, 1923 February 9, 2018

It is with a heavy heart that we announce the passing of our dear husband and father, Bill Chipman.

Born in Bridgetown, Nova Scotia, Bill graduated from Acadia University with his Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy and English in 1943 and enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force, attaining the rank of Flying Officer, 1943 - 1945. In 1948, he received his LL.B. degree from Dalhousie University and was admitted to the Nova Scotia Barristers' Society. After just one year, he relocated to Alberta to practice Law first in Calgary and then Edmonton, where he lived for the rest of his life. He remained active in the legal profession into his 90s, maintaining his membership in the Law Society of Alberta and serving as a senior advisor with Gunn Law Group. In 2016, Canadian Lawyer magazine named him "the oldest practicing lawyer on the Prairies." He was appointed Queen's Council in 1962.

Bill is survived by his dear wife, Ann; his children, June Elizabeth (Robert Dickenson), Susan Ann, and James Richard; his grandchildren, Carrie Anne, Christin Nancy, Cayley Janet, Jack William Herbert, and Rachel Ann Dickenson; and his greatgranddaughters, Morgan Ida Marcus and Breda Mae Campbell.

He is predeceased by his parents, Timothy Brooks Chipman and Ethel Maude Chipman (Hayward); his sister, Olive Alice Chipman; and his son, Timothy William George Chipman.

We would like to extend our gratitude to Bill's caregivers and friends: Dr. Fraser Armstrong, Susan and Ed Major, Rose Piotrkowski, Laurie Tate and everyone at Southwest Homecare and Bayshore Home Health for supporting Bill in his wish to live at home for as long as possible while battling cancer. Special thanks to Meirav Or and all the nurses and caregivers at Capital Care Lynwood, where our parents lived together over the past four months.

Family and friends are invited to gather on Saturday, February 17 at 2:00 p.m. at Westlawn Funeral Home and Cemetery, 16310 Stony Plain Road in Edmonton.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Alberta SPCA or the Alberta Cancer Foundation.

WILLIAM HENRY COCKSHUTT

With heavy hearts we announce the gentle passing of William Henry (Bill) Cockshutt on Wednesday, February 14, 2018, at the age of 89. Bill leaves behind an adoring wife, Helen; his four married sons, Tony (Jane), Dean (Connie), Franklin (Upama), Neal (Tania); and their families. He was an attentive husband and wonderful father and grandfather to Roger, Jan, Evan, Lisa, Bailey and April. He is also survived by his three sisters, Janice (Graham, deceased) Kneale, Barbara (Ken) Harper and Bette Ross.

Bill was a warm and thoughtful gentleman who treated those around him with respect. He was easily approachable and left a lasting impression on people of being "a great guy". Bill came from the family that developed Cockshutt Farm Equipment. He worked for the company, and in later years spent his time researching and writing several books about both the company and his family heritage. He found strength, support and companionship through the International Cockshutt Club which evolved from a club into something more like an extended family.

Visitation will begin at 10:00 a.m.

on Tuesday, February 20, 2018 at Westview Funeral Chapel, 709 Wonderland Road North, London, with the service beginning at 11:00 a.m., followed by a reception. In lieu of flowers or gifts, donations to the Parkinson Society Southwestern Ontario (http://www.parkinsonsociety.ca) would be greatly appreciated.

For information and online condolences, please visit http://www.westviewfuneralchapel.com

NINA COTE (nee McNamara)

Of Catalina, Newfoundland.

Wife of Marc Cote of Brighton, Ontario, died at their home holding his hand on Monday, February 12, 2018. She was recovering from heart surgery. Nina was a renowned breeder of Newfoundland dogs for almost 50 years. She was 80.

Missed by her husband and their children Marc Andre, Sonya and Richard.

Celebration of Life Thursday, February 22nd, Brighton Funeral Home.

EILEEN FLEMING COULTON (née Athersmith)

It is with sadness that we announce the death of Eileen Coulton (Athersmith) on February 11, 2018 at the age of 98. Beloved wife of the late James Lloyd Coulton. Most cherished mother of James William (Judith Kashul) and John David; Grama to Ruth Ann Elizabeth (Eric Lemke) and to James Michael Athersmith; and Great- Grama to Lily Ruth and Ella Ann. Born June 24, 1919 in Goderich, Ontario, the second daughter of Elizabeth McCann and William Fleming Athersmith, both from the UK.

Predeceased by her sister Norah.

Eileen attended schools in Stratford, Ontario, Ulverston, Lancs, UK, and then Stratford Normal School where she met Jim Coulton. Eileen and Jim married on June 3, 1944 in Stratford. They located to St-Hyacinthe, Quebec where Jim served as officer in the Royal Canadian Navy Volunteer Reserve during World War II. In 1945, they returned to Toronto where their sons were born. They had a wonderful marriage together, she a stalwart supporter of Jim's professional responsibilities at Upper Canada College and at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (TEMC). Together in retirement, they travelled the world before Jim died in 2000.

Eileen was a volunteer extraordinaire: Fred Victor Mission; Church School, Community Service Group, and Food Bank, all at TEMC; Ontario Welcome House; teaching English as a Second Language; Later Life Learning at the University of Toronto.

And, with Jim, she founded Inasmuch, a charitable foundation supporting specific projects led by individuals in South Africa, Guatemala, Peru, Vietnam, and Toronto.

Eileen was a role model: in her early years, for lending a helping hand and for her strong leadership; in her later years, for her gracious, constantly positive manner, cheerfulness and heartfelt greetings. Her life- long volunteerism was recognized with the Community Service Award (2003) from The Empire Club of Canada; the Citizenship Award (2010) from the St. George's Society of Toronto; and the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal (2012).

Eileen remained in her own home and her family is grateful for the dedicated care of Majien Dela Concha, Majielen Lalas, Adel Cho, and Maribel David.

Family flowers only.

Donations in Eileen's memory may be made to Inasmuch (51 Caribou Road, Toronto, M5N 2A6); or to the Minister's Discretionary Fund at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (temc.ca); or to The James L.

Coulton Scholarship Fund (ucc.on.ca). A Service of Celebration of Eileen's life will be held at TEMC on April 6, 2018, 2:00 p.m. She will remain in our hearts forever.

ANDREW MACPHERSON CRAWFORD "Sandy" April17, 1954 February11, 2018

Peacefully and surrounded by his family, Sandy passed away after a hard fought and brave battle with Huntington's Disease.

Predeceased by his parents, Donald and Joan; Sandy is survived by his wife, Kathleen (Fitzgibbons); his children, Ryan, Andrew, and Megan (Matthew McGuinness); and siblings, Judy Rawley (Kim), Donald (Shelley), Cameron (Dijana) and Angus (Laurel). He will be sadly missed by his many cousins, nieces, nephews and friends.

Visitation will be held at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. West on Tuesday, February 20th from 5-8 p.m.

Funeral Services to be held at Rosedale United Church, 159 Roxborough Drive, on Wednesday, February 21st at 11 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, a donation to the Huntington's Society of Canada would be greatly appreciated.

JAMES PETER FERGUSON

Passed away peacefully, in his sleep on February 7, 2018 at the age of 80 years. Adored husband of Patricia Rose (nee Woodruff) for 57 years. Loving father of Jim Ferguson and wife, Catherine of London; Carolyn Laton and husband, Dan of Petrolia. Loving and proud papa of Mikaela, Ross, Chantal, and Julia. Dear brother of Trudy Chaika and husband, John; Linda Ferguson and Jim; and his late brother, Ed Ferguson; and surviving wife, Ann. Missed by his eight nieces and nephews.

James was born and grew up on a farm in Landis, Saskatchewan and often recounted stories of the challenges and rewards of growing up in mid-20th century rural Saskatchewan. Leaving the farm to see the world, he joined the RCAF as a navigator and was stationed in France, where he met and married Patricia. After he left the RCAF, James joined the Montreal office of Clarkson Gordon in 1965 as a tax manager, becoming a Chartered Accountant in 1970. Later in 1974, the family moved to the Windsor area when he joined Hiram Walker and Sons as a tax manager, eventually rising through the corporate ranks to become Senior VP, Treasurer and CFO. After Allied Lyons (later Allied Domecq) acquired Hiram Walker, he worked from the UK offices of Allied Domecq as VP Corporate Strategy, circling the globe for business opportunities and acquisitions. His travels took him frequently to all continents except Antarctica. He made a point to learn and respect local customs and cultures of the places he visited, although karaoke in Asia was a definite challenge for him. Ultimately, however, he was happy to leave the airports and jetlag behind when he retired in 1998.

Throughout and despite his busy career, James was devoted to his family and fully involved in the lives of his children and later his grandchildren, and in his last years, to caring for Patricia.

Both before and after retirement, James and Patricia travelled extensively, with many trips to Europe and special memories of cruises, particularly to Alaska and the Baltic. He became a keen gardener (with a special love for Delphiniums and Dahlias) and woodworker. James loved puttering around his home on the Detroit River or reading his favourite books under the maple tree by the river. He also enjoyed driving around Windsor in Jennie, his 1948 International pick-up truck.

If you so wish, donations made to the Salvation Army or the Windsor Downtown Mission in James' memory would be welcome.

Arrangements entrusted to Families First, 1065 Lauzon Rd., East Windsor, 519-969-5841. He will be interred at Woodland Cemetery, London on a later date. Please share memories, photos or make a donation online at http://www.FamiliesFirst.ca

MARDI JANE FALCONER (nee Saunders )B.A.,M.S.W. 1933-2018

passed away peacefully in the early hours of Tuesday, February 13, 2018, 27 months after the death of her much-loved husband, Bob.

The two had met at the University of Toronto in the early 1950s and began, soon after, a marriage of more than 60 years.

Born to Marjorie and Robert Hood Saunders, Mardi came from a privileged background her father, a prominent criminal lawyer was mayor of Toronto from 1945 to 1948, then Chairman of Ontario Hydro and the St Lawrence Seaway.

Mardi went to Bishop Strachan School and Lawrence Park Collegiate. As a 20-year-old student at U of T's Victoria College, she attended with her parents the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and cherished the velvet stools the three were given as seats in the choir loft -- "the best seats in the house," Mardi always said.

Newly married, Mardi taught at a primary school in North York when first she graduated, but wanted to do more. She got her Masters of Social Work from U of T and took on some hard cases, first in Warrendale, an experimental facility for troubled teens, then at the Children's Aid Society in downtown Toronto. It wasn't easy. More than once she came home shaken at the end of the day after someone had pulled a knife or otherwise threatened her.

Mardi and Bob lived most of their lives in the confines of the genteel Lawrence Park neighbourhood in Toronto, a city she never stopped loving and, to the very end, marveled at its tall buildings and the diversity of new arrivals.

Mardi and Bob never had children. Her great loves were her husband, their dogs - three Labrador Retrievers that spanned a period of almost 50 years --their cottage on Lake Joseph next to the Crawfords and her goddaughter, Mardi Witzel, their numerous and exotic travels to more than 50 countries about which she compiled enormous photo albums, her school friends Denyse Crawford, Marg Perkins and Pat Dalton with whom she stayed close all her life, and quiet holiday celebrations with family members Mardi and Bob were inspirations to more than two generations of Falconer descendants. She leaves behind Bob's two sisters, Adele Martin and June Polack; as well as their seven children, Patrick Martin and Mardi Wheeler, David Polack, Brenda Jenkins, Robert (Polack) Falconer, Russell Polack and Andrew Polack.

Then a host of great-nieces and nephews, Gabriel, Samuel, Ella, Eden, Meaghan, Christopher, Amanda, Emily, Meaghan, Nicole, Braighton, Kenzi, Rory, and their young children.

Mardi received wonderful care from people at the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Special thanks go to Dr. Andrea David and the team of doctors and nurses in Sunnybrook's family medical practice, as well as to Dr. Dov Gandell, her geriatrician and Dr. Robert Maggisano, her cardiologist. With their guidance Mardi was able to live out her last months at home, thanks also to the fine care provided by her caregivers Aida Asuncion, Carmelita Audencial, Remy Matias, and palliative-care nurse Beth and Dr. Jennifer Arvanitis.

Friends may visit at the Humphrey Miles Funeral Home, 1403 Bayview Avenue, on Tuesday, February 20th, from 12:00 p.m., followed by a memorial service at 1:00 p.m. in the funeral home chapel, with interment at Mt.

Pleasant Cemetery.

It would make Mardi enormously happy if contributions could be made in her memory to the Children's Aid Society of Toronto or to the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care.

JAMES DAVID FLOYD 1933 - 2018

After a long illness, Jim passed away peacefully in Toronto on February 7, 2018.

Born in Toronto, Jim was the cherished only child of George and Mary "Pat" Floyd (nee Kirkpatrick) both of whom came from a long line of proud Nova Scotians.

Predeceased in 2014 by the love of his life Frances (nee Frey) after 59 years of marriage.

Survived by his loving daughters Karen, Heather (Mark Noskiewicz) and Frances (Denis Feltrin).

Beloved Poppa to James, Andrew and Trevor Noskiewicz and Claire and Eric Feltrin. He also leaves dear sisters-in-law Shirley Feeley (James, predeceased) of Pleasanton, California and Jane Frey (Ernie, predeceased) of Smith Falls, Ontario. Jim will be missed by nieces and nephews Gregory, Rosemary and Michael Feeley, Ernie, Eric, Martha, Brenda and Andrea Frey, and their families and by Cynthia Kirkpatrick (Stuart, predeceased) and cousins Jean and Helen Kirkpatrick of Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia.

Jim attended Oriole Park Public School, University of Toronto Schools (UTS) and the University of Toronto where, following in his father's and grandfather's footsteps, he graduated with a degree in Applied Science and Engineering (class of 5T6). Highlights of his school years include playing varsity basketball and football, sailing to England as a naval cadet for the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, and enjoying the camaraderie of his fraternity brothers at U of T.

Jim enjoyed a long and successful career with Shell Canada. Starting in southwestern Ontario, he rose steadily in the company, ultimately retiring as a senior executive. While spending the majority of his career in Toronto, Jim also enjoyed three years heading up the western region in Vancouver and considerable international travel.

Jim and Frances led a very active and social life. They took great pleasure in hosting many memorable parties with family and friends at their homes in Toronto and Mulmur as well as at the family cottage on beautiful Kahshe Lake. In his later years, after hanging up his skis, golf clubs and tennis racket, Jim loved playing bridge at the Granite Club and especially with his dear bridge friends at their weekly game nights. Throughout his life, and particularly in his retirement years, Jim delighted in many travel adventures to destinations all over the world. Closer to home, Jim spent many winters skiing with his children and later his grandchildren at Beaver Valley Ski Club.

Jim was proud of his family. A firm believer in education, he supported his daughters' and grandchildren's studies at universities across Canada. He could often be found cheering on the sidelines as they pursued various athletic and artistic endeavours.

Affable, loyal and true, Jim was a gentleman who had a kind word for all. Jim appreciated the many happy moments he shared with his lifelong friends as well as their unfailing support. They enriched his life immeasurably.

A celebration of life will be held Monday February 26th, 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto. Private cremation. If you wish, donations in memory of Jim may be made to the UTS building fund at https:// btf.utschools.ca.

EVA VAN GEYN December 2 1923 February 12, 2018

Eva Van Geyn crossed her bridge to heaven, when she passed away peacefully on February 12, 2018 in Burlington, Ontario, three years after her husband Jaap.

Our sweet great-grandmother, grandmother, aunt, mother-inlaw and mother was an inspiration to all of us, Kaelyn, Liam, Michael, Gillian, Christine, Evan, David, Karen, Jordan, Tiffany, Elizabeth, Suzen, Barbara, Alan and Gerrit.

This granddaughter of Yorkshire coal miners and 19 year old war bride, met Dutch Queens Juliana and Wilhelmina in Guelph, charmed the McKinsey stars reorganizing Royal Dutch Shell in Venezuela, dined with the wife of J. Paul Getty on Cunard liners, hob knobbed with Oxbridge grads and was equally adored by people of all stations in life. She lived in five countries, spoke four languages, fit in and contributed anywhere, everywhere, all due to her remarkable sweetness, kindness and insight into people. She charmed, amused and disarmed all who engaged with her.

We are overwhelmed with appreciation for the kind and attentive care of the caregivers at Comfort Keepers and Sunrise, as well as the tender and capable care at Joseph Brant Hospital.

You will always be in our hearts.

Hasta Mañana Iguana

RHODA GLADYS GILLESPIE

Peacefully passed away in her sleep on Wednesday, February 14, 2018 at her home, in her 96th year.

Predeceased by her beloved husband, Wallace; and son, Mark. Loving mother of Tara (Charles) Nassar. Devoted grandmother of Nada (Robert) and Aftim; and greatgrandmother of Anna-Sophie and Abigail. Dear sister of Sally Campbell; and aunt of Fiona, Gay, John, Fred, David, Patty, and Peter. Rhoda will be fondly remembered by Richard.

Curious about the world and always looking forward, she was devoted to her family and friends and gave so much joy, support, and wisdom.

Visitation will be held on Sunday, February 18, 2018 from2-4 p.m. and 6-8 p.m. at the R.S. Kane Funeral Home (6150 Yonge St., at Goulding, southof Steeles). A Funeral Service will be held on Monday, February 19, 2018 at 11 a.m. at St. George on Yonge (5350 Yonge St.). In lieu of flowers, donations maybe made to the Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation.

Condolences http://www.rskane.ca R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

ROBERT ALLAN HAMILTON

Peacefully went to be with the Lord, at the Veterans Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital on Friday, February 9, 2018, three days before his 97th birthday. Predeceased in 1999 by his wife of 53 years Annettie (Reid), for whom he cared daily through her long journey with early-onset Alzheimer's, and in 2014 by his wife of twelve years Loreen (Wilson).

Allan has left a legacy of faith for his family to follow and has modeled a character of faithfulness in support of his family, friends and church.

Loving father of Anne Crawford (Robert) and Robert Hamilton (Cathy). Proud grandfather of Andrea Bax (Timothy), Jonathan Crawford (Candace), Austin Hamilton (Marianne), and Catherine Gillis (David). Great-grandfather of Riley, Ethan, Jackson, Ayden, Lachlan, Adelaide, Niall, Harriet, and Mae.

Predeceased by his four sisters, Ruby White (Herb), Elsie Rickard (Les), Winnie Peat (Alec), Evelyn Miller (Bill); and by his five brothers-in-law, Jim (Gladys), Ted (Ruth), Bill (Audrey), Art (Doris), and Ken (Doreen).

He studied Engineering at the University of Toronto, served in the Navy until the end of World War II, and spent the majority of his career with Bell Canada, living and working for many years in Montreal.

A special thank-you to all of the caregivers at the Veterans Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital who were so helpful to him over the final years of his life.

As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations to Alzheimer's Association of Canada and the Veterans Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital would be appreciated by the family.

A private service to honour Allan's memory is being held by the family at a later date.

HOWARD LYNN JACKMAN

Passed away peacefully at St. Michael's Hospital on Friday, February 9, 2018.

Survived by Marlene, his loving wife of 56 years; sons, Steven (Sherri), and Peter; grandchildren, Kaitlyn, Gregory and Sierra; sister, Barbara; sisters-in-law, Margery and Nancy; special niece, Suzanne; and extended family.

A private Celebration of Life will be held in memory of Howard Lynn.

ELLEN PATRICIA JOHN (nee Roberts)

August 9, 1924 February 11, 2018 It is with profound sorrow that we announce the peaceful passing of our beloved mother, Patricia John, in her home surrounded by family on February 11, 2018 in her 94th year.

Beloved wife of the late Edwin Paul John, cherished mother of Sunit (Lyn), Prakash (Gail), Ajit (Margaret), Nirmala (Richard), Edwina (Don), adored "Grandma John" to 12 grandchildren and 13 great-grandchildren, loved by her sole surviving sister, Mavis Vats.

With an unwavering faith in God, Patricia lived a life of selfless devotion to her family and friends who will miss her grace, gentleness, humour and infinite kindness.

Deepest gratitude to Petra, Jordie and all the staff at St Matthew's Bracondale House for their incomparable care. "Rest eternal grant unto her O Lord, and may light perpetual shine upon her."

Visitation on Monday, February 19, 2:00 p.m.- 4:00 p.m. at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave W, Toronto, 416-489-8733. Funeral service on Tuesday, February 20 at 11:00 a.m. at St. Paul's Bloor Street Anglican Church, 227 Bloor St E, Toronto. Private interment at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Canadian Bible Society: biblescanada.com, World Vision Canada: worldvision.ca or St Matthew's Bracondale House: http://www.smbh.ca would be appreciated.

MAXIMILIAN HEINZ KOENIG July14, 1999-Calgary, Alberta February12, 2018-Calgary,Alberta

On a snowy night, in the middle of Stampede Week in Calgary, Alberta, Maximilian (Max) Heinz Koenig was born on July 14, 1999. Lynn (McKenzie) and Markus Koenig were the proud parents of "Cowboy Koenig" - Max's official nametag from the Rockyview General Hospital. Although Max's will to stay here with us was strong, it is with profound sadness that we announce the passing of our beloved Max on Monday, February 12, 2018.

Max will be missed every day by his mother, Lynn; his father, Markus; and his sister and confidante, Stephanie. Max was much loved by his grandmother, Anne McKenzie ("Nee") of Calgary, Alberta; and his grandparents, Agnes ("Oma") and Heinz ("Opa") Koenig of Wyhl, Germany. Max was predeceased by his grandfather, Hugh McKenzie. Max will be forever missed by his aunts, his uncles, his 12 cousins in Canada, and his four cousins in Germany. Cousin Max had a nickname for everyone in the family (whether they liked it or not) and the unique ability to "photo bomb" every family photo. Once in awhile though, Max would let his mother, Lynn, capture him in all his glowing, golden perfection as only she could.

Max will be missed by his friends and teachers from Elbow Park School, Rideau Park School, Connect Charter School, Bishop Carroll High School and most recently the University of Calgary, Faculty of Engineering. Max greatly enjoyed science and math. At Connect Charter School, Max's scientific bent was revealed at a Grade nine science fair competition.

Max will be especially missed by his friends and coaches at the Calgary Canoe Club (the "CCC"). Besides his official family, Max's real home was the CCC, where he spent most of his summers (the official family was occasionally granted a visit). Max was a good mentor for younger paddlers at the CCC and many happy hours were spent there working and training.

Max taught himself to play the guitar and had written some of his own songs. Max was also willing to teach others to play the guitar but the results of this were mixed at best.

Max and his father, Markus, shared a love of flying. This passion started with Markus flying baby Max in his arms through the air over everyone's heads (and sometimes coming pretty close to landing). No bigger smile was ever seen on a boy's face. Markus and Max continued their aeronautical studies with books on planes, remote-controlled planes and eventually flying actual planes together.

We will miss the years that were to come with Max, but we cherish every memory we have of the sweet, gentle boy and the man he became intelligent, creative, handsome, thoughtful and so very funny. While these are fine qualities, it was Max's love for his family, his friends and his black lab Tina that truly made him great.

He was a truly beautiful person.

We love you, Max and we miss you.

Reception will be at the Calgary Golf and Country Club, 900 - 50th Avenue S.W. at 5:00 p.m on Sunday, February 18th. Please join us to celebrate Max's life. No denim please. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Calgary Canoe Club.

If you cannot attend, please spend some time by or on the water.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doSUVja8ojQ Spend some time with him and Tina https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XHsrPWcQecc&t=73s In living memory of Max Koenig, a tree will be planted at Fish Creek Provincial Park by McInnis & Holloway Funeral Homes, Park Memorial, 5008 Elbow Drive S.W. Calgary, AB, T2S 2L5, Telephone: 403-243-8200.

GORDON M. KROLMAN M.D., F.R.C.S. (Edin.), F.R.C.S. (Canada) Born Winnipeg, 1929 died on February 9, 2018 at home in Liverpool, NS.

BRUCE ARTHUR LaROCHELLE

Died in Ottawa on February 15, 2018, at the age of 65, of smoking-related pancreatic cancer.

Predeceased by parents Arthur and Margaret. Survived by cherished daughters Ashley and Sonja, and caring ex-wife Celestine (Sally) Usselman. Also survived by dear sister Judith Sutherland (Alan) and brother Mark.

Cremation.

Condolences/Tributes/ DonationsHulse, Playfair & McGarryhttp://www.hpmcgarry.ca

DR. EMMANUEL S. LILKER

On Thursday February 15, 2018 at his home. Beloved husband of Harriet Lilker.

Loving father and father-inlaw of Barbara and Jordan Oelbaum, Dr. Suzanne Lilker and David Sigal, Amy Lilker and Bradley Einarsen.

Devoted grandfather of Phillip, Emily, Julia, Simone, Zoe, and Coco.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, February 18, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 19 Ava Road, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to St. Joseph's Health Centre Foundation 416-530-6704 or Philip and Freda Lilker Foundation at The Canadian Friends of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 416-485-8000

LAWRENCE KEITH LYNCH "Larry"

80, of Wolfville, N.S passed away on Sunday, February 11, 2018. Born 1937 in Greenhill, N.S, he attended Windsor Academy, hitchhiking the 10 miles to and fro each week.

After graduating in 1954, he joined the Bank of Nova Scotia, starting a career of 40 years. He first worked in Windsor, N.S., with short assignments in several Maritime branches, followed by a move to Toronto. Over the next few years he worked at Yonge & St. Clair, Lawrence & Birchmount, then in Hamilton, Belleville, Galt and Kitchener branches.

In 1970, he became Senior Assistant Manager in Nassau, Bahamas. In 1972, he was offered the post of Manager in Piraeus, Greece. It was there he met his future wife, an Immigration Officer at the Canadian Embassy in Athens.

A posting to Dublin, Ireland (and marriage) followed and 2 years later, a posting to Port of Spain, Trinidad. Returning to Canada, he worked in various positions in Ontario; in Regional office for Eastern Canada, as Area Manager of about 30 branches, and in head office in Toronto.

Another international assignment followed as Managing Director in Scotiabank affiliate Maduro and Curiel's Bank, Curacao, where he served until his retirement in 1995. While in Curacao, he also served as Honorary Canadian Consul.

Upon retirement, he took a keen interest in Wolfville town affairs and followed his interests in a number of community groups.

He will be terribly missed by his wife, Christine; daughter, Carol Millman of Port Moody B.C; grandchildren, William and Charlotte; brother, Darryl (Debbie), of Inisfil, ON.; and many other relations and friends. Cremation has taken place according to his wishes.

Family and friends will gather to celebrate Larry's life at a future date. Memorial donations may be directed to the Alzheimer Society or the Valley Hospice Foundation.

Online inquiries and condolences may be directed to http://www.whitefamilyfuneralhome.com

MONICA MARGARET MACIVER (nee Foley)

Born in Carlisle, England in 1925.

Passed away peacefully at West Park Healthcare Centre, Toronto on February 6, 2018 with her daughter and caring staff by her side. Monica was a trained nurse who worked in England during World War 2 and was a devoted Military wife to Mac, Surgeon Commodore Donald Maciver and followed him wherever his career or their adventures took them.

During Dad's career they lived in England, Halifax, Zweibrucken, Ottawa and Port Lambton. In retirement they moved to Cyprus from where they enjoyed much exploration of the world. On returning to Canada they lived in Kingston before their final years in Toronto. She had a wonderful life. Monica was a loving mother and taught her children about the love of family and God. She loved her grandchildren, always enjoying their visits. Monica doted on all her pets.

Monica was an incredible baker and cook who has passed her recipes down the generations.

Monica is predeceased by her husband, Donald (Mac); her "favorite" son, Donald; and her brother-in-law, John. She is survived by her "favorite" daughter, Margaret Pace (Michael) of Toronto; her daughter-in-law, Jeanine (Donald) of Vancouver; four grandchildren, (Jaclyn, Cheryl, Heather and Colin); and her nephew, Iain (Marg); his son, Rob (Hannah); and his daughter, Beth (Thom).

The family is extremely grateful for the care and love provided by the staff of 3WD at West Park Healthcare Centre where she resided for over 10 years. A special thanks is extended to Kingsway Lambton United Church, especially Reverend David Winsor, who brought her great comfort. The family also greatly appreciates the care given to Monica for many years by Home Instead Senior Care.

A private family service will be held at Kingsway Lambton United Church with interment at a later date at the National Military Cemetery at Beechwood in Ottawa. In lieu of flowers donations may be made to Kingsway Lambton United Church or the West Park Health Centre Foundation. Monica is entrusted to our Lord's loving care. The family takes great comfort in knowing Monica is re-united with her husband and son. Rest in peace.

Nunquam Obliviscar

D'ARCY MACKENZIE BA, CA

With great sadness we announce the passing of D'Arcy Adam Gordon Mackenzie, not unexpectedly, but still too soon.

D'Arcy remained his enchanting self, surrounded by family, until the early hours of February 12, 2018. His father accompanied him to the hereafter a day later. Born in Toronto on April 30, 1960 to Michael and Sheila Mackenzie.

He is survived by his mother and step-mother June.

Loved husband of Leslie Chambers. Devoted and much adored father of Molly and Isobel.

Cherished brother to Landon (Donald), Annabel (Douglas) and Hugh (Paula). Faithful uncle to Cluny, Meghan, Jeffryn, Georgia, Michael, Blair, and Madeline.

Dearly missed by mother-in-law, Wendy Chambers; sisters-in-law, Tanya (Sean) and Jenn (Mike); and their children, Lucy, Hannah, Ethan and Madeline.

His life was a blessing to us all.

Service to be held Wednesday, February 21 at 5:00 p.m. at the Church of the Holy Trinity, 19 Trinity Square (Queen and Bay) Toronto. In lieu of flowers, donations gratefully accepted to Anthroposophical Society in Canada Inc. (specify Economic Conference-Goetheanum fund) Charity #135250298RR0001.

MICHAEL ALEXANDER MACKENZIE BA, FCA, MBA

Died on February 13, 2018 leaving behind his lovely and much loved wife, June; and his children, Landon (Donald), Annabel (Douglas), Hugh (Paula) and D'Arcy (deceased) (Leslie); his grandchildren, Cluny, Meghan, Jeffryn, Georgia, Michael, Blair, Madeline, Molly and Isobel; his brother, Hugh; his sister, Landon; his stepdaughters, Cheryll (Carol) and Pamela, their daughters, Allison, Jennifer and Julie; and numerous nieces and nephews.

His first marriage to Sheila Higgins ended in divorce and his second marriage to Marnie Laidlaw ended with her death in 1982. Michael was born in Toronto on October 18, 1926 to Hugh Alexander and Alice (Sawtelle) Mackenzie. He grew up in London, Ontario and was educated at Lakefield Preparatory School and London South Collegiate Institute.

Following his high school, he tutored for a year at Pickering College before attending the University of Toronto (Trinity College) graduating with BA in Honours History in 1948. In 1953, he became a CA after studying at Clarkson Gordon then on to the Harvard Business School as a Baker Scholar earning an MBA with distinction in 1955. Michael was named a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in 1965.

Most of Michael's distinguished professional career was spent with Clarkson Gordon (now Ernst & Young) in Toronto and Montreal.

His unusual competence led to his appointment as the first federal Superintendent of Financial Institutions in 1987, a position he occupied with skill and intelligence until 1994. The regulatory approaches taken under his direction have lasted serving the country well in the financial market turmoil following 2008.

After retirement, he took up a number of positions: executive in residence at the Schulich School of Business at York University; consultant to the World Bank in the area of financial supervision; co-founder of the Toronto International Centre for Financial Sector Supervision which continues to provide leadership training programs for public sector individuals from countries all around the world. He was also a member of the board of ING Canada, the country's largest property and casualty insurance company and a member of the Actuarial Standards Council.

Michael's other interests were broad, notably public affairs, the arts and health care. He was a member of the board of the Canadian Institute on Public Affairs, active on the board of the Art Gallery of Ontario as well as a trustee of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. In 1984 he became president of the Palliative Care Foundation, served on the boards of Cancer Care Ontario and the Princess Margaret Hospital.

When Michael and June moved to Cobourg after Michael's retirement they both became very active in the community, greatly appreciated by all. Before he died Michael said that he had been blessed with more than his fair share of good luck enabling him to lead a rich and rewarding life.

A celebration of Michael's life will be held on Saturday, February 24th at 2:00 p.m. in Victoria Hall in Cobourg. Doors will be open at 1:00 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations gratefully accepted to Northumberland Hills Hospital.

Condolences received at http://www.MacCoubrey.com.

CAROLYN ANN MCCREARY July 13, 1941 February 10, 2018

Carolyn Ann McCreary (née Ward) passed away at Kingston General Hospital on February 10, 2018.

She was 76.

Carolyn was born in Stratford and raised in Lindsay, Ontario.

A nursing placement in Kingston led to meeting her husband, Dr. Bruce McCreary. Carolyn dedicated her full time to raising their four children while Bruce worked at his psychiatric practice across Eastern Ontario.

Carolyn had bipolar disorder, a condition she battled with courage and strength. It did not shake her love for her family.

It did not keep her from raising her children and encouraging them to find their places in wide ranging careers.

Carolyn had a sharp wit and little patience for pretence. She sought to have real and meaningful conversations with everyone she met. Carolyn was predeceased by her husband, Bruce, by just a few months. She is survived and missed by her children, Rick (Lois), Janet (Bernard), Alison (Martin) and Andrew (Paula). Loving Nan to Alison, Kevin, Liam, Jacob and Ruby. Carolyn is also survived by her brother, Robert; and many nieces and nephews.

A memorial to celebrate Carolyn was held. In lieu of flowers, donations to the charity of your choice would be appreciated by Carolyn's family.

ROBERT JOHN McKNIGHT November 17, 1951February 9, 2018

Rob passed away peacefully in Kingston surrounded by his family. Beloved husband of Margaret Betts. Loving son of Winn McKnight and the late Russell McKnight (1974). He will be missed by his sisters, Lynn Koroniak (Maurice), Laurie McKnight (Grant Gilliland); and his brother Doug McKnight (Jill); by his nieces, Stephanie McKnight (Travis Cooper) and Ben and Spencer, Jessica Garten (Micah) and Winn; and nephew, Luke Walker; and by brother-in-law, Jim Betts (Kate Barris); and nieces, Courtenay and Emilie Betts.

Rob had many loyal friendships that he developed through his love and passion for skiing, golfing, hockey, cards, and regular "business" breakfasts and dinners. Rob put his keen mind to work as an entrepreneur in the area of real estate development and financial investment, and was dedicated to the wise management of the properties left in his father Russ McKnight's estate.

Although Rob was a reserved person he was known for his quick wit, his storytelling, his integrity, honesty and loyalty.

In his quiet way he was very generous in supporting and advising many people including his friends, tenants, Hospice Kingston, Almost Home, business colleagues and his family, especially his spouse Margaret and his mother Winn. His academic studies at Queen's University prepared him for his chosen career as an entrepreneur.

Rob was in the classes of B.Sc.'73 (Civil) and MBA '75.

We all have deep respect for the way Rob faced his cancer diagnosis and lived a rich and engaged life until the end.

A Celebration of Life will be held at James Reid Funeral Home, 1900 John Counter Blvd., Kingston on Saturday February 24th, at 2:00 p.m., with a reception to follow.

Visitation will be February 24th from 12:00 p.m. to 1:45 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations in Rob's name can be made to the Canadian Cancer Society. Condolences may be left online at http://www.jamesreidfuneralhome.com

H. GERALDINE POTTER (née Bain) April29, 1911 February11, 2018

Although Geraldine was born while her family was temporarily in British Columbia, her roots and upbringing were Nova Scotian, and she proudly regarded herself as a Bluenoser, raised in Liverpool, on Nova Scotia's South Shore. Born when Laurier was in office, she lived through the prime ministerships of 16 men and one woman.

The daughter of Irving Bain and Florence (Zwicker) Bain (the Bains originally hailed from Yarmouth and the Zwickers from Lunenburg); Gerry was predeceased by her sister, Marjorie; brother, Lewis; and in 1996, by her husband, Frank Potter. She is survived by her son, Richard (married for 50 years to Anne Baldwin, who died in 2012 in Prince Edward County, Ontario, now with his partner, Joan Somerville, in Cambridge, Ontario); her grandson, David (Deb) of Calgary and their four children, Nicholas, Ridley, Emmett and Waverly; and her granddaughter, Carolyn (Lori) of Vancouver, and their daughter, Annie.

Geraldine's passion for music and the piano was lifelong. As a teenager in Liverpool, she was a pioneer solo accompanist to silent movies in the local theatre, and for several years she was the pianist in a dance band that played along Nova Scotia's South Shore.

The skill most highly prized to accompany a silent movie was supreme versatility - before the screening, the pianist knew little about the movie except its title and genre: love story, Western, drama, comedy, etc. But once the movie was projected, the pianist had to react immediately to what she saw on the screen, for the first time, and quickly construct a musical line to complement the action.

As the country was emerging from the Depression, in 1938 a handsome young salesman from Upper Canada, Frank Potter (born and raised on a dairy farm near Ancaster, Ontario), appeared in Liverpool and captured her attention and her heart. During their long marriage, Frank and Gerry lived in both Ottawa and Toronto more than once, finally settling in Toronto in 1951.

Since moving to Christie Gardens several years ago, Gerry often played the piano for her fellow residents, and in 2007 she had the pleasure of being the warm-up artist for the late Peter Appleyard when he was the headline entertainment. The other activity that kept Geraldine mentally sharp was bridge and, although she was skilled, she had the great good sense to be quite philosophical about the cards she was dealt.

Having passed away at the grand old age of 106, Geraldine will be missed by both her family and by Christie Gardens residents and staff, where she was fondly regarded as its oldest current resident. Following cremation, her ashes will be placed next to those of her late husband in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto (The Simple Alternative). At a later date, a musical tribute will be held at Christie Gardens.

KATHERINE MARGARET REED 1949 - 2018

With heavy sadness we announce the passing of Katherine at the age of 68 on February 1, 2018 in Comox, BC, five difficult years after the death of our beautiful daughter and sister, Emma.

Katherine will be greatly missed by her husband, Christopher Hinton; and two sons, Max and Paul Hinton.

Also mourning her passing are her brother, David Reed; and sister, Christine Reed.

Please consider a donation to Indspire, supporting First Nations children's education programs in memory of Katherine. http://indspire.ca/ donate-now/

DAPHNE SCHIFF

Pilot, professor, adventurer, staunch family supporter, lady. Daphne Fane Dorothy Line Schiff lived a fortunate and adventuresome life. Born in Edmonton on her mother's birthday but raised in Toronto, Daphne majored in Physics and Chemistry at the University of Toronto, completing a masters degree in an era when few women dared to venture into science.

There she met her future husband, Harold Schiff.

Daphne worked at National Research Council in Chalk River before taking time off to raise a family to school age.

Daphne next accepted a position as Assistant Professor in Natural Sciences at Glendon College of York University in Toronto, developing skills in writing and directing movies aimed at delivering the excitement of science to students.

Mid-career, she developed a passion for flying, earning her twin and commercial pilot licenses and completing the challenging "Round the World" race (1994) and the "Race of the Americas" (Alaska, USA to Ushuaia, Argentina to Alaska, 1997). In later years, Daphne flew in western Africa with the humanitarian organization, Air Solidarité, raising funds for community projects. She was recognized with an honourary degree from York University.

Daphne slipped the "surly bonds of earth" on 15 December 2017 leaving her children, Michael Schiff and Sherry Schiff English (Michael); four grandchildren (James (Shavone), Kyla (Justin), Emmaline and Jaslyn English)); sister, Kathryn (John); sister-in-law, Sandra Landau; and many nieces and nephews who remember her generosity of spirit and her commitment to her extended family.

A celebration of her life will be held in late April. In lieu of flowers, a donation to the "Daphne Schiff Fund" to establish a scholarship at Glendon College of York University would be very much appreciated.

THOMAS HOLT SCHUTTE

Born January 24, 1931, passed away peacefully in Collingwood surrounded by his loving family at Campbell House Hospice, on February 9, 2018. Leaving behind wife, Ann nee Chisholm; daughters, Heather Ann Callahan (George) and Brenda Holt Hardie (Peter); son, Thomas Grattan Schutte (Maggie); and grandchildren, Daryl, Alexander (Claudia), Graeme and Bryson; and great-grandchild, Ryan (Meech).

Predeceased by brother Paul.

Off exploring new horizons, Tom arrived in Labrador where he accepted a job to prepare the area for the building of the railway to the huge iron ore deposit in Shefferville. Upon his return to Toronto Tom and Ann were married. For the first 43 years they lived in Toronto raising three children, making a happy home with Tom having a successful business career as Managing Director of Newage Canada. Over time Tom encouraged the family to ski and eventually they joined Alpine ski club. When Tom retired they moved to Collingwood.

He now had all the time that retirement gave him to pursue his passions. Spending a day on the hills teaching his grandchildren how to ski was a huge thrill for him. He got involved in the men's seniors downhill racing Fun & Glory group and loved hitting the slopes with his buddies.

For years a green '66 MGB had been on blocks in the garage.

Now he had time to restore and enjoy his vintage car. He joined the Georgian Bay British Car Club and spent many days with Ann cruising with the roof down to many different locales and events. These last few summers Tom enjoyed creating beautiful flower and vegetable gardens at their house near the base of Blue Mountain. This passion continued when Tom and Ann moved to their most recent home closer to town.

The family would like to sincerely thank the staff on the 2nd floor of Collingwood General Marine Hospital for their kindness and support. They were outstanding.

Tom's stay at the Campbell house Hospice, though short, was calming and very caring. Words can't express our gratitude to them. Thank you.

A celebration of his life will be held at the Collingwood Curling Club, 250 Hume Street, at 12 p.m.

on April 30, 2018.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Parkinson's research http:// http://www.parkinson.ca/getinvolved/ waystogive/ or Track 3 https:// http://www.track3.org/ or a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

Arrangements entrusted to Fawcett Funeral Home - Collingwood.

JAMES CAMERON SHORTT July 1, 1926 February 15, 2018

Passed away peacefully at Bridgepoint Health Centre.

Survived by his loving wife of 68 years, Martha, and his five children, Christopher (Floreen), Catherine, Barbara Lounsbery (Phipps), Jacqueline Jones and Deborah. Grandfather to twelve and great-grandfather to five.

Predeceased by his sister Audrey Quinn.

For forty-four years he was the owner of James McTamney and Company Inc. He will be remembered for his compassion and sense of humour.

If desired, donations may be made to St. Bonaventure's Church. Service to be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street on Tuesday, February 20, 2018 at 11:00 a.m.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through: http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

JOHN FRANCIS SMITH "Gripper"

Died peacefully in Perth Ontario on February 10, 2018 at the age of 89 years. John was an extraordinary man, highly intelligent, energetic, principled, and devoted to his family, as they were to him. He was a great athlete and loved sports of all kinds. John was born in Jamaica and spent a very happy early childhood there. He went to boarding school in England at the tender age of seven, as was the custom in those days, but during WWII he was sent to Ashbury College, Ottawa, and made Canada his home from that time forward. The Barclay family of Montreal became his much loved second family.

He received his engineering degree from McGill University and worked his whole career in the aeronautical and aerospace industries, including at Canadair, De Havilland, Spar Aerospace and Bombardier. His retirement years were spent travelling the world, riding and swearing at his somewhat unreliable tractor at his beloved retirement property," the Farm", golfing, watching sports and trying to teach his grandchildren manners. John is pre-deceased by his dear wife of 52 years, Bette-Anne Kniewasser. He is survived by his loving partner of 14 years, Betty Welsford; his brother, Peter; his children, Jennifer (Todd), Wendy (Craig), Michael (Mira) and Jamie (Carolyn); his nine grandchildren, Stephanie, Geoffrey, Jonathan, Taylor, Chelsea, Peter, Samantha, Scott and Jack; and his Labradoodle, Buddy.

He will be greatly missed by all of us. Special thanks are due to Cathy Lapointe, Dr. Alan Drummond and the Perth Hospital staff for their tremendous attention to John and their support for the whole family. Funeral at St.

James Anglican Church, 12 Harvey St, Perth Ontario, 2:00 p.m., Saturday, February 24, 2018, with a reception to follow at "The Farm". Donations in memory of John may be sent to the Great War Memorial Hospital Foundation, 33 Drummond St. W., Perth ON K7H 2K1. Arrangements are in the care of Blair & Son Funeral Directors, Perth. http://www.blairandson.com

JAMES GORDON SPENCE

With sadness Jim's family announces his passing on Wednesday, February 14, 2018.

Born in Ottawa in 1930 to Howard Nathanial and Sidney Gordon, Jim is survived by his wife, Wilma; his brother, David; son, Robert (Gaye Spence); daughters, Lori (Ken Shaw) and Joanne (Rick Arseneau); and his grandchildren, Toby, Tim, Claire, Zoe, Gillian and Michael.

Jim grew up in Ottawa South and attended Glebe Collegiate, Carleton and Queen's Universities, where he earned an engineering degree and met the love of his life, Wilma White. Jim spent his career with CIL, working at several locations in Ontario and Quebec as well as Liberia in West Africa. Upon his retirement in 1991, Jim pursued several pastimes and involved himself in community organizations, but the primary focus of his attention was his family. There were regular gatherings of the family at the cottage at Lake of Bays, the condo in Long Boat Key and several trips to exotic locations. Friends, too, were always an important part of Jim's life; the steady stream of visitors that came through Jim's hospital room in Runnymede Healthcare Centre after his stroke in 2011 is a testament to how beloved he was.

A celebration of Jim's life will be held on Tuesday, February 20 at 1:00 p.m. in Rosedale United Church, 159 Roxborough Drive.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 2:00 4:00 and 7:00 - 9:00 p.m. on Monday, February 19, 2018. If desired, a donation to Runnymede Healthcare Centre's Nursing and Staff Education Fund or the Massey Centre's Maternal Infant Mental Health program would be appreciated. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

ANTHONY EUGENE ST.MARIE September19, 1922 February12, 2018

Gene (age 95), passed away peacefully, at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre. Predeceased by his parents, John and Mary (Armstrong) St. Marie; his sister, Helen Enright (Jack); and his third daughter, Dawn St. Marie. Left to mourn his passing are his loving wife of 70 years, Kathleen (Kay Tomlinson); his daughters, Judy Keefe (Michael, deceased), Patty Sloggett (Paul), and Michelle Ste Marie; and his son, Stephen (Keiko) St. Marie. Gene also leaves his grandchildren, Cassandra and Alexis Keefe, Andrea Sloggett (Ryan Glenn), Aimee Roy (Brendan), Nicolas, James and Thomas St. Marie; and greatgrandsons, Jack and Sam Glenn.

Gene joined the RCAF and was stationed in England during WWII. Upon his return home, he wasted no time in marrying his sweetheart, Kay, and starting a family. He joined the CIBC and then worked for many of the firms on Bay St. as a bond trader. On his retirement, Gene did not slow down, working for many more years selling Canada Savings Bonds and playing badminton and tennis.

Gene was a devout Catholic, and long-time member at St. John's Church, serving as a lector and usher. He was also a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre.

The family would like to thank the wonderful staff at the Veterans Centre for their loving care of Gene. If desired, in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Sunnybrook Foundation (Veterans Care) or St. John's Catholic Church.

Family and friends will be received at McDougall and Brown Funeral Home, 2900 Kingston Rd., M1M 1N5 on Friday, February 23 from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. Mass will be held at St. John's Church, 794 Kingston Rd., Toronto, M4E 1R7, at 11 a.m. on Saturday, February 24. Interment to follow at Mount Hope Cemetery.

JOHN THORNTON "Thunder"

John passed away peacefully amongst his family on Tuesday, February 13, 2018 in Toronto. Born October 31, 1930 in Montreal, John grew up in Westmount before attending St. Lawrence University in Canton New York. He started his career in the investment business in Montreal before moving to Toronto in 1965 to continue his career with Harris and Partners, Pitfield Mackay and LOM. In 1967 he would meet his beloved wife Diane with whom he would spend the next 50 wonderful years. John always looked forward to his summer months in Kennebunk, Maine, where he enjoyed his happiest days with friends and family at the cottage on the beach.

John was well known for his sense of humour, quick wit and joie de vie. He loved spending time with friends and family playing golf, tennis, skiing, having a glass of wine, listening to jazz, and travelling the world.

John's greatest passion later in life was spending quality time with his 6 grandchildren. He was a devoted father to Tara (Turnbull) and Matthew; fatherin-law to Jonathan Turnbull and Katie Shaw; and "Big John" to grandchildren, Ryan, Nicholas, Oliver, Max, Charlie and Honor.

He is survived by his sister, Margo Savard; niece, Diana Tabak; and nephew, John Savard.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 to 8:00 p.m. on Tuesday, February 20th. A celebration of John's life will be held in St. John's York Mills Anglican Church, 19 Don Ridge Drive, Toronto, on Wednesday, February 21st at 11:00 a.m. Donations in John's name would be gratefully accepted by his favorite charity, The Salvation Army. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

DONALD HALLIWELL TOMES

Passed away peacefully, on February 15, 2018 at Oakville Trafalgar Hospital in his 81st year. Beloved husband of Sandy Wright; father of Vicki (David Thomson), Patti (Howard Gwin), Peter Tomes (Janice), Lisa (Frank Cicero), Jill Hand (Jeff Wimsatt); and proud grandfather of Ryan, Kayla, Sophie, Emily, Brady, Ryder, Rose, Brendan and Alex.

Talented athlete, challenging conversationalist, his favourite place was sitting on the deck enjoying the sunset with Sandy at the cottage in Oliphant.

A celebration of Don's life to be held at Tansley United Churchon Tuesday, February 27th at 11 a.m., visitation at 10 a.m. Donations in memory of Don may be made toTansley United Church or the CNIB.

http://www.smithsfh.com

JONATHAN WOLFE

On Wednesday, February 14,2018 at his home. Beloved husband of Amal. Loving father of Rachel and Michael. Dear brother of Elizabeth Wolfe; and brother-in-law of Maria and Steve Dawson, Katia Andary, Liliane and David Glass, Sila and Pierre Bou-Mansour, and Juliana and Steve Morris. Loving uncle of Ryan, Jaimie, Zac, and Niki.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Park, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, February 18, 2018 at 11:30 a.m. Memorial donations may be made to The Heart and Stroke Foundation, (416) 489-7100.

LILIT ZEKULIN (nee Jelinek) November 21, 1920 February 15, 2018

Lilit departed this world to be reunited with her husband, Gleb, who predeceased her in 2004 in the 60th year of their marriage.

She was also predeceased by her daughter, Xenia (Richard Hartley). She leaves behind four children, Nicholas (Marian), Anthony (Margaret), Lilit (Tim Thwaites) and Gleba Deacon.

She will be fondly remembered by her 14 grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren.

Family and friends may gather at the Andrews Community Funeral Centre - 8190 Dixie Road, Brampton (North of Steeles Avenue) 905-456-8190, on Monday, February 19, 2018 from 3 p.m. - 7 p.m. A funeral mass will be held on Tuesday, February 20, 2018 at St. Anthony of Padua Catholic Church, 940 N. Park Dr., Brampton, ON. at 10:30 a.m. Interment at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto, ON.

In lieu of flowers, a donation to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

To quote her husband, "We have had a life full of adventures and this will be the last".

Moc Pus, Meme! Rest in Peace!

VAL ROSS October 17, 1950 February 17, 2008

"I will be the marsh grass, or experience it in a new way different from seeing.

I just don't know it yet."

WILEY - MCEWEN With Gratitude On our wedding day we remember, with love, our Grandparents, Joe and Eugenie (Jane) Wiley (Michael), Helen and Charlie Burns (Anne), Clarence and Vera McEwen (Brian), and George Leadbitter (Wendy) as well as Joe's Uncle Michael Burns and His Aunt and Uncle Pat and Bob Beattie.

Our hearts are also with those family members who could not join us today, especially Gramma Rose Leadbitter (Wendy) and Sarah's Auntie and Uncle Doreen and Don Harris.

Today, as we begin our lives together, we remember them and the indelible fingerprints they have left on us that have helped to shape who we are.

The love and support of our friends and family have helped guide us here today.

With Love and Joy - Sarah and Joe

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B18


DONALD MILLER AMOS August 2, 1944 February 8, 2018

Passed away peacefully, at the Sheridan Villa in Mississauga on Thursday, February 8, 2018, surrounded by his family.

Loving husband of JoAnne; and much loved father of Darren and Laura, and son-in-law, Jason. Sadly missed by his grandchildren, Siena and Hayden; and his sister, Dianne Rogers (Ken) of Port Carling.

Born and raised in Barrie, Ontario, Don was well known for his athletic ability. In his younger days, he played tennis, soccer, baseball, and football and golf. He was a member of Barrie Country Club for several years. An avid competitor, his favourite sport was hockey which he played continuously from a young boy into his golden years in the Old Timer's League.

Don was a graduate of Wilfrid Laurier University in Honours Business Administration (1968).

He had a long and distinguished career beginning at Bell Canada and transitioning to the Ontario Jockey Club as Vice President of Woodbine Sales where he led the thoroughbred horse sales program. He joined Magna International in 1984 progressing through various executive positions. He was later appointed as Chief Operating Officer of Magna Entertainment before retiring in 2006.

Don was able to fulfil his lifelong dream by becoming an owner and breeder of standardbred and thoroughbred horses garnering wins across Canada and the United States.

His family wishes to extend their heartfelt thanks to the caring staff of the 4th floor at Sheridan Villa for their support and special care provided to Don.

Private funeral and celebration of life will be held at a later date.

Memorial donations to Sheridan Villa on Truscott Rd. (Mississauga), the Long Run Thoroughbred Adoption Society, or the Alzheimer Society would be appreciated.

Expressions of sympathy may be sent to the family at http://www.lynnstonefuneralhome.com.

DAVE BARRETT February 2, 2018

It is with great sadness we share the passing of Dave Barrett, a much loved husband and father.

He will be greatly missed. Dave had a tremendous life beyond his profession in social work and his many years as a provincial and federal politician. At home Dave's quick wit and zany sense of humour kept Shirley and the kids in stitches. His personal interests included the reading of history, he was an expert on the battles of the Second World War.

Dave loved classical music, opera, Asian art and antiques.

A sports enthusiast, he played rugby, billiards and ping pong.

He was a lifelong fan of baseball's St. Louis Cardinals and closely followed professional football, hockey and basketball. Dave loved family dinners. There were many happy dinners in Victoria's Chinatown and pubs with a burger and chips or fish and chips.

Take-out was a highlight to any week. Dad often dreamed of his next fishing trip. The smaller the fish the bigger the story! Dave spoke of his gratitude to teachers and mentors and was happy to give back as a visiting teacher at Harvard, McGill, Western Washington and Simon Fraser universities.

Although his achievements were many, his greatest devotion and love were for his family, wife, Shirley; children, Dan (Mary), Joe, Jane (Wayne); grandchildren, Andrew, Hannah, Jacob and Noah; and his extended family. During his long battle with Alzheimer's, he found comfort in listening to his favourite symphonies on his iPod, walks in the Cedar Hill neighbourhood and later, when confined to a wheelchair, strolls through the parks.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to The Alzheimer Society of B.C, the Oak Bay Kiwanis Pavilion which cared for him with grace and compassion or the New Democratic Party. A memorial service announcement will be made soon and posted on the Earth's Option website. Tributes and memorials can be shared by visiting http://www.earthsoption.com

LORRAINE HELENE MARIE GOUGEON AYKROYD

Peacefully, at home in Railton, Ontario, surrounded by the love of family, on February 8, 2018, in her 100th year. Lorraine (nee Gougeon) beloved wife of 63 years to Peter H. Aykroyd. Dear mother of Daniel Edward (Donna Dixon) and Peter Jonathan. Lovingly remembered by her grandchildren, Danielle, Belle, and Stella. Survived by her brother, Andy; and sister-inlaw, Judy Harvie (late Eric). Predeceased by her sister, Helen; and brothers, Claude and Peter.

Lorraine's ancestors arrived in Canada with Samuel Champlain in 1610. She was secretary of the delegation to Geneva, Switzerland, which engaged in exploration of the concept of "the law of the sea," laterally confirmed as the United Nations entity with jurisdiction in maritime matters. She was for a long time a senior public servant, being secretary to Lionel Chevrier, Minister of Transport, and laterally one of the highest paid women in government service when she was Secretary of the Canadian Maritime Commission.

Family and friends will be received at the Trousdale Funeral Home, in Sydenham, on Wednesday, February 14, 2018 between the hours of 1-3 p.m.

and 6-8 p.m., to remember and celebrate Lorraine's life. Mass of Christian Burial on Thursday, February 15th, at 11:00 a.m. at St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church. Rite of Committal with prayer will follow at the Latimer Cemetery. Followed by a reception at the Royal Canadian Legion #496 in Sydenham. In memory of Lorraine, donations may be made to St. Patrick's Church in Railton.

"A Proud French Canadian" In the care of Trousdale Funeral Home, 4374 Mill Street, Sydenham, Ontario, (613)376-3022 http://www.trousdalefuneralhome.com

ARNOLD JOHN BAUER ("A J ")

"Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of Earth...

Put out my hand and touched the face of God."

It is with deep sadness that we announce the death of Group Captain (Ret'd) Arnold John ("AJ") Bauer, BA, CD, on February 1, 2018 at the age of 93 in Hamilton General Hospital.

Born in Morse, Saskatchewan on December 13, 1924, the only son of the late Rev. Walter Daniel Bauer and Ora Bertha (née Ehling) Bauer, AJ is survived by his loving wife of 71 years, Elizabeth ("Bette") Frame Bruce (née Harris) Bauer; by his three devoted daughters, Susan (Michael) Newman, Nancy Blair and Shirley (Bill) Hearn; by six grandchildren; by five greatgrandchildren; and by his sisters, Elda Gordon-Matthews, Shirley (Bob) Otterman, Ruth Smith, and Catherine Mattson; he is also survived by many nieces, nephews and countless friends. Besides his parents, AJ was predeceased by his sister, Isabel Cornell.

AJ was fascinated by flying from the time he was 9 years old, when he witnessed the Italian Formation Flight of 24 "flying boats" flying over Desboro, Ontario, enroute to the 1933 Chicago World Fair and thought to himself, "That's the life for me!" At 18 in December 1942, he submitted his military enlistment papers in Hamilton.

On January 6, 1943, he officially became a member of the Royal Canadian Air Force.

Successfully completing his flight training courses in April 1943, AJ was pinned with his pilot training "wings" and assigned as a flight instructor for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

When that ended in 1945, he was transferred to Summerside, PEI where he met Bette Harris, his "Elizabeth, my Queen".

AJ and Bette were married in Hamilton, then settled in London, Ontario where their three daughters were born.

His RCAF service took him to Ontario, New Brunswick, Resolute Bay as well as to such incredible places abroad as Germany, France, and the Sinai, culminating in London, England as Canada's Air Defence Attaché.

Having settled in his beloved cottage, "Roundel", near Owen Sound, he chaired a committee dedicated to restoring First World War Flying Ace Billy Bishop's family home. As well, he served as Vice President, then President, of the RCAF Association.

Along with being a staunch Hamilton Tiger Cats supporter, AJ was a lifelong Toronto Maple Leafs fan and a die-hard Toronto Blue Jays fan.

AJ's family would like to thank all staff at Macassa Lodge for their constant, outstanding care, their heartfelt compassion and their generous support.

As AJ donated his body to McMaster for medical research, there will be no funeral.

A celebration of his life will be held later at 447 Wing in Mount Hope. To honour his memory, donations may be made to the Billy Bishop Home and Museum or to the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.

RONALD WILLIAM BROWN

Passed away suddenly on December 30, 2017 at home at the age of 78. Born October 24, 1939 in Montréal, Québec, to the late Phyllis Gordon (Fahrni) Brown and the late Ronald Murdoch Brown.

Predeceased by his step-mother, Norma (Gee) Brown; and younger brother, Gordon Fahrni Brown; Ron is survived by his sisters, Susan Kett and Karen Rydant (Al); sisters-in-law, Orshy Mulqueen Brown and Louise (Lavallée) Brown; nieces, Angela, Alanna, Kimberly (Romeo), Erin (Dave) and Tara (Ron); and nephew, Richard (Terrie). Grand-nephews, Daniel, Mathieu, Jesse and Calvin; and grand-nieces, Jaelyn and Abigail.

Ron was a spiritual man with a great love of music, travel and languages. He took piano from an early age. Ron attended St.

George's School and played the organ daily for morning chapel.

He spent hours gardening and taking care of the grounds at First Baptist Church for many years.

A kind, generous and caring man, he was an inspiration to his family and to his many friends.

He spent summers in Ontario, visiting family and teaching ESL to new Canadians.

A memorial service will be held on Sunday, February 18, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. at First Baptist Church, 969 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y1. In lieu of flowers, donations in his memory may be made to the Canadian Diabetes Association or to a charity of your choice.

DONALD MURDOCK CAMPBELL

Peacefully at the Northumberland Hills Hospital in Cobourg on Monday, February 5, 2018, Donald Campbell at 82 years of age. Dear husband of Fran Campbell (nee O'Hara). Loving father of Brent Devitt (Lisa), Heather Winters (Ray), Doug Devitt and second father to Ben Veenhof, Peter Veenhof (Karen). Cherished grandfather of Alexandra, Ryan, Jessie, Kyle, Kalyn (Jesse), Genevieve, Dorion, Juliana, Solomon, and great grandfather of Finnick and Bennett. Dear brother of Jean McLean, Christine Kramarczyk (Mike), and the late Malcolm Campbell. Uncle of Bonnie, Mary Beth, Scott, Kent, Ruth Ann, Debbie, Sandy, Jill and James.

After his degree in electrical engineering from Acadia University and Nova Scotia Technical College, Don's career included military service as an officer in Kingston and in Whitehorse, systems engineering with IBM in Vancouver, systems consulting and project management with AGT/DCF in Toronto, management with Toronto Stamp, and, latterly, direction of management information systems projects for the Ontario Ministry of Health.

Don was respected and admired for his integrity and attention to detail. He was a loyal and devoted friend who will be deeply missed and affectionately remembered.

Cremation with a Celebration of Life gathering at the MacCoubrey Funeral Home Reception Centre, 30 King St. E., Cobourg, on Saturday, May 19, from 1 to 4 p.m.

Family and friends' memories will be shared at 2 p.m. Those wishing may make a memorial donation to the Robert S. Scott Charitable Trust (Rotary Club of Cobourg).

Condolences received at http://www.MacCoubrey.com.

JUNE ANNA CURRIE (née McMullen) June 10, 1923 - February 2, 2018

June passed away peacefully, in the early morning hours of February 2, 2018, in her 95th year. Never shy to follow her convictions, she had reached the point where her quality of life had deteriorated to such a degree that it was her time to pass on to a better place and join her beloved husband, Doug. And that's what she did.

Predeceased by Doug ten years ago, June carried on as a loving mother to Mary (Peter McBride) of Montréal, Andrew (Susan Crocker) of West Brooklyn, Nova Scotia, and Gigi (David Moore) of Toronto. Much-loved granny to Meghan McBride (Gary Courchaine), R.D. McBride (Audray Lemieux), Dustin Currie (Jen Mirosevic), Sarah Currie (Jeff and Wyatt Peterson), Lindsay Moore and Stephanie Moore; and a very proud G.G. to her latest family members, Edie and Adèle.

Born into the McMullen family of Windsor, Ontario, June was one of seven children who tragically lost their mother at a young age. Undaunted, and after skipping two grades in public school, June set out to make a life for herself by studying history at University of Toronto. It was there that she caught the affectionate eye of a handsome young engineering student, Doug Currie. They were married on Grey Cup Day, December 1, 1945. A few years later, June and Doug packed their bags for Montréal, where Doug had accepted a position with the Aluminum Company of Canada. The young couple soon settled in suburban Baie d'Urfé to raise their family.

While Doug pursued his career in Montréal with engineering positions at Dominion Bridge and Pratt & Whitney, June ran the household. She proved to be a mother "extraordinaire," bringing up three very active children in the suburbs with all that entailed at the time - from Brownie badges and cub leader, to school assignments, to hockey practice, to bites by neighbourhood dogs and skinned knees. June managed it all. When there was time, her personal interests included painting, bridge and a song and dance group (the June Currie Dancers) that performed locally and at Expo 67! Through those years. June lived for her children and began a tradition of Sunday night roast beef dinners for family and friends that are remembered and talked about to this day. As her children grew older and things started to slow down a little, June entered the work force as the librarian at Fisheries Research Board of Canada. There, she held her ground against a coterie of brilliant, but often eccentric, scientists. She enjoyed the challenge and earned immeasurable respect from her colleagues.

Retirement saw June and Doug return to Toronto and settle in Port Credit, often spending summer weekends on Windlark, the family sailboat, in the Kingston area. June also became active in the University Club, and local book and gardening clubs but all with a watchful eye and love for her growing family.

June had a remarkable and wonderful life. She died peacefully at home in the presence of family members. Although she had become exceedingly tired over the past several weeks, thankfully she did not suffer from pain.

She retained her spirit, dignity and her sense of humour until the end.

June and her family were and are very appreciative of all the care and attention that she received from so many in the health care system - from her family physician, to the physicians and staff at Toronto Western where she was first admitted, to everyone at the Princess Margaret Myeloma Clinic, to the palliative caregivers assigned to help her over the past seven months and last, but certainly not least, to Bernadeth, Cynthia, Marissa, Shirley, Sonia and Gemma, June's "Dream Team" of in-home caregivers. It is a very long list! A celebration of June's life, for family members and friends, will be held in Toronto on March 31, 2018. Donations in June's memory to the Arthritis Society, or to the charity of your choice, would be most appreciated.

PETER PANAYOTIS DIMITRIOU

Passed away peacefully on Wednesday, February 7, 2018 at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto. Devoted husband of 53 years to Carol (nee Britton).

Loving father of Paul and Richard.

Proud grandfather of Nico and Emilia. Brother of Dimi (Haroula) of Athens. Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W. (East of the Jane subway) on Monday from 2-4 and 6-9p.m. Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel on Tuesday, February 13, 2018 at 11a.m. If friends so desire memorial donations made to the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre - Odette Cancer Centre would be appreciated.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca "We are what we repeatedly do.

Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit." -Aristotle

ELEANOR ALBERTA FINDLAY

Passed away peacefully, on February 7, 2018 at the age of 91.

Much loved by Barb, Brian, Scott, Guia, Paul, Krista, Jessica, Breanna, Alex, Sean, Georgie and Jonno.

Predeceased by her husband, Ian. Ellie will be fondly remembered by her many nieces, nephews and friends.

A celebration of life will take place at Barb and Brian's home in Oakville on Saturday, February 17th from 2-4 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Wellspring Cancer Support Foundation would be greatly appreciated https:// wellspring.ca/westerkirk/getinvolved/make-a-donation/

JEAN GIBB "Jeannie" (nee Graham)

On February 6, 2018, in Toronto. Jeannie was born in Ballymena, N. Ireland on the 10th day of September 1920.

Predeceased by her parents, Francis and Isabella Graham; and by her siblings, Agnes, Isabella, Sadie, Robert, May, Frances and William. She was the widow of the late William Keppel R.N. (1972) and Jonathan (Jon) M. Gibb B.E.M., 48th Highlanders of Canada 1980.

Jeannie came to Canada in 1956 and became a Canadian Citizen in 1977. She was a proud member of the 48th Highlanders Ladies Auxiliary and a member of the Thorncliffe United Church.

She was a going concern, even to the end, and had a great love for life.

Jeannie is fondly remembered by her nieces, Patricia "Paddy" Duncan (Clifford) and Yvonne Methren in Ballymena; her many relatives in N. Ireland; and her many friends in Toronto and the Thorncliffe Mall. She especially wanted to thank the nurses and staff at the Leaside Retirement Residence and the Rekai Centre 4th floor, and her dear friend Manny Madres-Lesic for the kind care she has received in her waning years.

LORNA LESLIE ELLISON (nee Duxbury)

They must have called one hell of a party in heaven for Lorna to decide to leave us on Sunday, February 4, 2018.

Parties, big and small, family dinners at Wendy's, quiet conversations with family or friends, the anticipation of a new great-grandchild - this was the stuff that brought happiness to the last quarter century of Lorna's 103-year journey. She was not the party sparkplug but always a quiet contributor, if not by word then by lack thereof. Was it a gift or the result of years of classroom study that gave her instant empathy with a precocious greatgrandchild or understated guidance for a 70+ year old infant?

On October 12, 1914 Lorna was born in Elkhorn, Manitoba and grew up on her parents, Thomas and Ethel Duxbury's, farm nearby. Grade I through VIII were spent at a one room schoolhouse accessed by horse cart and IX thru XI at Elkhorn High School. She was fortunate to be able to attend Virden Collegiate for Grade XII and from there Winnipeg Normal School which along with University of Manitoba summer courses allowed the obtaining of her Permanent Teaching Certificate.

Lorna's first teaching job was at a one room brick schoolhouse just west of Elkhorn where she taught the first eight grades to 42 pupils. Her second teaching job saw her move from the prairies to the bush of Bird River, a settlement in north east Manitoba with access by bush plane or boat. Her third move was to Winnipeg where she married William (Bill) A. Ellison on May 21, 1938.

Bill Ellison was the Principal of the seven teacher Grandin School and a Justice of the Peace in the Winnipeg community of Fort Garry. The newly married couple moved into a home on the banks of the Red River near the school. Rumor has it that a tunnel discovered in the basement of the home once gave access to a speakeasy on Pembina Highway. Lorna gave birth to the couple's three children in this house and once Wendy, the youngest, started school in the fall of 1949, Lorna returned to her teaching career. The record Red River Flood in the spring of 1950 forced the family to seek shelter with their good friends, the Cairns family in Oak Lake, Manitoba. In 1951 the family moved to Lockport, Manitoba where Bill became Principal of the three classroom Lockport School. He taught grades 6 thru 8 while Lorna taught 3 thru 5. Bill died suddenly on January 19, 1952 and the family moved to Winnipeg in the summer of 1952. Lorna completed a 33-year teaching career at Winnipeg Elementary schools (Lord Roberts, LaVerendrye and Greenway).

Retirement, the final 38-year stage of Lorna's life included travel around Canada and to the Arctic, USA, South Africa, UK and Australia. To keep sharp, she attended University of Winnipeg Senior Classes, the Winnipeg Symphony and Pops, played Bridge and was a superlative Scrabble master.

St. James Anglican Church (ACW) activities and numerous charities were other interests. Her greatest contribution was, however, as a friend, confident, guide and supporter to her friends and family.

Lorna is survived by her three children, daughter, Moira (Donald) Drybrough; and four grandchildren, Catherine (Mark) Graham, Cynthia (Dave) Jamieson, Donald (Benda) Drybrough and Christina; son, Walter Thomas (Ellen Mary Mills); and three grandchildren, Walter (Rebecca) Mark, Susan (Harvey) Sefton and Cherie (Jim) Cathcart; and daughter, Wendy (Douglas) Scott; and three grandchildren, Nancy Scott (Shane Hopkie, Diane Scott (Pat Lonsdale) and Sharon Scott (Steve Lougheed). (Lorna was especially appreciative of the Scott's family care and commitment to her wellbeing in the last 15 years). She is also survived by 21 great-grandchildren, special friends, Wendy Ellison and Enid Lorna Dorward; and daughter, Melanie and Helen de Pava. She was predeceased by her husband, William Alexander Ellison, brothers, Lloyd George, William Bruce (Anne) and Flight Lieutenant Thomas (RCAF) who was shot down over Belgium as well as by lifelong friends Janet Duxbury and Phillis Cairns.

Lorna's Funeral Service will be held on Thursday, February 15, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. in St. James Anglican Church, 195 Collegiate Street, Winnipeg, MB.

Our family is very grateful for the wonderful care Mom received at Golden West Centennial Lodge.

If desired, donations in Lorna's name may be made to St. James Anglican Church, 195 Collegiate Street, Winnipeg, MB R3J 1T9 or The Salvation Army, Golden West Centennial Lodge, 811 School Road, Winnipeg, MB R2Y 0S8.

Wojcik's Funeral Chapels & Crematoriums, Winnipeg, 2157 Portage Avenue, 204.897.4665 http://www.wojciksfuneralchapel.com.

ISSIE GLASSMAN

On Thursday, February 8, 2018, at Toronto Western Hospital.

Beloved husband of Pauline (Drimer). Loving father and fatherin-law of Irwin and Michele Glassman, Rhonda Polansky, Donna and Allen Welman, Lynn Kreaden, and Michael and Usha Kreaden. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Bella and Sidney Itzkowitz of Montreal. Devoted grandfather of Jennifer, Oona and Avi, Shira and Koby, Anapurna, and Siddartha.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, February 11, 2018 at10:00 a.m. Interment Beth Sholom Synagogue Section of Mt.

Sinai Memorial Park. Shiva 56 Laurelcrest Avenue. Memorial donations may be made to Beit Halochem Canada, 905-695-0611.

JAROLD RAE HAMILTON April 7, 1937 February 3, 2018

Born in Glenboro, Manitoba, Rae passed away peacefully while on vacation.

Rae, the second-youngest of eight siblings, grew up on the family farm near Glenboro. He began his education at the Hawkins school, a one-room schoolhouse on a corner of the family's property. He later attended the Glenboro School before moving to Winnipeg to complete high school at United College. Rae graduated from the University of Manitoba in 1960 with a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, with a major in agricultural economics.

Rae worked for thirty years in sales and marketing in the petroleum industry at British American, Gulf, and later Petro-Canada, retiring in 1992. During that time he went from managing a single gas station to overseeing all of Western Canada retail for Petro-Canada.

A son of the prairie, Rae was an avid curler, and an enthusiastic (though occasionally wayward) golfer. A life-time baseball fan, he attended the very first Blue Jays game on his 40th birthday and was in the stands during the improbable Texas playoff game.

Rae was a devoted husband to Glen for 55 years. He leaves three sons, Sheldon (Andrea), Dean (Deborah), and Devon (Erin); grandchildren, Patrick, Megan, Zachery, Sean, Alex, and Grace; his sisters, Janice and Betty; and brother, Dwayne; his many nieces and nephews; and too many friends to name. He was predeceased by his mother, Elizabeth; father, James; brothers, Mervyn and Jack; and sisters, Isobel and Joyce.

A service remembering Rae's life will be held on Tuesday, February 13th at 1 p.m. at Thompson Funeral Home, 530 Industrial Parkway South, Aurora with a reception to follow. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Heart and Stroke Foundation would be appreciated.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.thompsonfh-aurora.com

EILEEN MARY HAWRYLIW

When Eileen Mary Bandurka (October 21, 1926 - January 29, 2018) married Bohdan Hawryliw in Wolia, Saskatchewan in 1953, she did so not only because of their similar ancestral roots in Western Ukraine, but because of their shared, unadvertised passion for an open road, an open mind and a house with an open door.

Her parents, Frederick and Katie (Kay, nee Feduniak) Bandurka, raised their five children (Eileen, Margaret, Don, Dorothy, Ruth) on the family farm in Canyon District, central Saskatchewan, a sweeping landscape of countless rural villages and hamlets shaped by the broad community of Ukrainian immigrants. These new families toiled indefatigably and productively, their success reflecting old-world tradition and heritage experience. The Bandurkas were no exception, and their farming and financial achievements stood as proof that hard-work and teamwork were a child's best education.

It was education that nurtured and developed Eileen; she had an enquiring and nimble mind whose appetite for challenge and accomplishment never occluded her unpretentious nature. Curious, compassionate and capable, she was a veritable lifelong learner who could master flamboyant French desserts, coach women's softball, critique the Hawaii Opera Theater, sell real estate and open her home to foster children. The readiness to help was a Bandurka family value, and young Eileen with sister Margaret would often stay overnight in the teacherage, providing reassurance to the single Miss responsible for the local children's academic success. By grade 8 and barely an adolescent, Eileen was already "apprenticing" as a teacher, instinctively noting that the successful trick to running a one-room schoolhouse was to connect eye-to-eye and heart-to-heart with the children and their parents; and by 1945, after attending Normal School, she began doing her remarkable teaching of Grades 1 and 2 in what might seem like unremarkable places in Saskatchewan as Blaine Lake, Fielding, and, her adored Maymont. Yet the perception that these outposts and whistle-stops lacked significance or value belonged to outsiders and bureaucrats alone for Eileen loved these communities and the people loved her back.

Teaching wasn't just a job; it was a calling and she gave as much interest, help and energy as was needed. Field trips, spontaneous learning tangents, and, a friendly disregard for authority characterized her inimitable, enriched teaching style, one that both enamoured and dismayed her colleagues and University of Saskatchewan professors. She loved to recall her elementaryclass trip to a Japanese restaurant to watch and then sample the quickfrying of succulent chicken livers; or the rehearsing and travelling with her young students to Prince Albert for the local TV station's Amateur Hour.

Eileen often took her own sons through the open doors of opportunity, and she treasured these shared experiences more dearly than any purchased keepsake. Her sincere interest in the minutiae of peoples' lives, in local and world events, and in provocative art forms made her a welcome guest, for she brought warmth and energy to any gathering, informal or formal.

Eileen's tireless, exuberant nature complemented and contrasted with the quiet, steady demeanour of her beloved Bohdan. She gave freedom and space to his own personality, and to those of her sons, Fred of Toronto and Neil (Joni and son, Nigel), of Muskegon, Michigan. Her steadfast encouragement to sense new opportunities, to accomplish meaningful and rewarding goals applied to them and to herself: her transition in 1985 from rural teaching to urban landlording was seamless. While Bohdan managed maintenance and repairs, Eileen blossomed as the friendly face on the grapevine, always ready with a sympathetic ear and foolproof advice. Her fondness for conversation was irrepressible and she eagerly opened the Hawryliw home offering their myriad tenants coffee, cookies and a good catch-up in exchange for next month's rent.

No matter the location or duration, whether dressed in her favourite black suit from Paris or wearing a plastic necklace from a holiday souvenir shop, she never failed to put others at ease with her affable nature and pleasant countenance. Her sincerity was rewarded with lifelong relationships and spontaneous connections that, despite their brevity, left rich impressions on both partakers. Tastefully and strikingly attired for some picture-taking in EILEEN HOUSE, a property project to honour her, Eileen stood with an open innocence and humility, astounding the practiced photographer. Moved by her natural openness and candour, he placed her and this experience above many of his international photo shoots. Their memory of this magical connection lasted a lifetime.

A quiet service for Eileen Hawryliw will be held Wednesday, February 14 at 11 a.m. at the Saskatoon Funeral Home, 388 4th Avenue North, Saskatoon. In lieu of flowers, please consider donations to an organization supporting children's music education. Condolences may be left at http://www.saskatoonfuneralhome.com. Arrangements entrusted to Saskatoon Funeral Home (306-244-5577).

MARY HELEN HOWARD (nee McGillis) June 12, 1935 - February 4, 2018

Mary Helen (McGillis) Howard passed away peacefully, on Sunday, February 4, 2018. Her warm smile and joyous spirit will be remembered by her children, Rob (Lisa) Howard, Susan Howard (Neil Ward), Leslie Howard (Jim Stevenson) and James (Jing) Howard; and her grandchildren, Jack, Sam, Dominick and Sarah.

She will also be missed by her sister, Sally (Ralph) Warren, and numerous nieces and nephews.

Mary was preceded in death by the love of her life, Keith Howard, to whom she was married for 54 years; her sister, Joan McGillis; and her parents, Robert (Bob) and Helen McGillis.

After graduating from Leaside High School and Toronto Teachers' College, Mary worked with young immigrant children at Clinton Street Junior Public School where she ran the Primary Department.

Long after she started her family, Mary continued to be actively involved in education, helping to create City Alternative School in the late 1970's.

Mary loved nature and her beloved family cottage, "The Hideaway," where she would take long walks followed by swims in the Credit River. To Mary, experiences were priceless and travelling the world became a life-long passion. It was her firm belief that diverse cultures should be bridged through sharing and she made sure that everyone she knew felt welcome in her home.

Mary's Labyrinth, the first Legacy Labyrinth in Canada, has been built in her honour next to Grasslands National Park in SW Saskatchewan.

Memorial donations in Mary's name may be made to The Alzheimer Society (alzheimer.ca). Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com

ROLAND DAVID JAMIESON "Rolly"

August 16, 1941 February 2, 2018

Peacefully, passed away surrounded by family. Rolly is now free from the severe restraints and complications of late stage Parkinson's Disease. He leaves his loving wife of 53 years, Dagmara (Mary); beloved sons, Marc (Lorena) and Justin (Inga); and his three granddaughters, Isabella, Camilla, and Liva, who were his pride and joy.

Born in Iroquois Falls, ON, it was in Toronto that he met Dagmara, married, started a family, and began a 34 year career with Statistics Canada, later transferring to Ottawa.

As a Director for the Census he led projects across Canada, the US, and as far away as Colombia and China. In his retirement, he and "Mary" moved back to Southern ON to be closer to family.

We will do our best to honour his legacy of family first, kindness and integrity. Thanks to the team at St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton for their compassionate and excellent care.

Family and friends will celebrate his life in the coming days. Please consider sending condolences and memories to jamiesoncondolences@gmail .com. Donations in Rolly's memory may be made to the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research

CYNTHIA MARGARET JEFFREY

Peacefully on February 7, 2018 at the age of 90. Beloved wife of the late Donald. Loving mother of John (Elizabeth), David, Stacey (Warren Leslie) and Kevin (Nancy Sawler). Cherished grandma of Ian (Laura Chatelain), Brad (Jules Cowan-Dewar), Laura (Brad Patzer), Kaitlyn (Matt McMulkin), Sarah and Brian. Devoted greatgrandma of Isla, Karis, George, Nora and Lucy. Daughter of the late Simon Creet and Victoria Ringham. Predeceased by her siblings, Nina Creet, Sylvia Creet, Norman Creet, Vera Cooper, Patricia Loggie and Zia Pollack.

Cynthia will be sadly missed and fondly remembered by her family and friends.

Friends may visit St. Cyprian's Anglican Church, 1080 Finch Avenue East, Toronto on Monday, February 12, 2018 from 1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. A funeral service will commence at 2:00 p.m. at the church, followed by an onsite reception for all guests.

Private cremation.

In lieu of flowers, donations to charity of your choice would be appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.jerrettfuneralhometoronto.ca/

RUTH OLIVET KEYS (née Harris)

December 9, 1920 February 7, 2018

Peacefully in her sleep, and with her family around her, our dear Mum and Nanny passed away at home at age 97. She is predeceased since 2004 by her loving husband John. She is survived by two children, Susan Otto (Terry) and David Keys (Mary); two granddaughters, Christina (Kelsey Wagner) and Alexandra (Shawn McCallum); two great-grandsons, Louis and Bennett; and Nancy Maitland, the family's life-long closest friend. She leaves her brother, Rupert Harris and his wife, Gwen (Marler), of Montreal and their family.

Ruth grew up in Montreal where she graduated from McGill University in 1943. She and John were married in 1945 after John served in the Royal Canadian Navy. After John completed his Ph.D. at McGill in 1951, they moved their young family to Victoria where John took a position as a professor at Royal Roads Military College. The family moved to Ottawa where Ruth became very active in the University Women's Club and the Rideau Lawn Tennis Club.

She took inspiration from life and will be remembered for her love of family, art, opera, travel, tennis, and the stock market. She loved to be with her family, visit Susan's farm, and, in her later years, enjoyed her friends at the New Edinburgh Square, dining at the local restaurants on Beechwood Ave., and strolling along the river with Nancy.

A private service for family will be held. Donations in her memory can be made to the Canadian Red Cross and McGill University.

Condolences/Tributes/ Donations: Hulse, Playfair & McGarryhttp://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233- 1143

GEORGE MARTIN LUXTON QC, LLD

On February 4, 2018, Martin passed away peacefully at his home in Belmont House, Toronto at age 86.

Martin will be deeply missed by his loving wife, Patricia (Woollcombe) of 59 years; and by his four children, George, Tony (Sarah Eliot), Sarah (Colin Bugler) Diana (Ian Sansom); and six grandchildren, Jack and Harry, Colin and Daphne, Hamilton and Hudson; and many nieces and nephews. He is survived by his brothers David (Mag) and D'Arcy (Anne).

Martin was born in Calgary in 1931 and was predeceased by his parents, The Right Reverend George Nasmith Luxton (Bishop of Huron) and Dorothy Catherine Martin of Hamilton.

Martin graduated from Trinity College School in Port Hope (TCS), The University of Western Ontario (BA) and Osgoode Hall. Martin was called to the Ontario Bar in 1958. He was presented with an Honorary Doctorate of Laws degree from McMaster University in 1998. Martin learned at an early age that service to the community was important and he volunteered extensively for many Hamilton area organizations.

Martin's community leadership roles included, but are not limited to: Warden, Christ's Church Cathedral, President of Hamilton Community Foundation, President of Opera Hamilton, President of the Art Gallery of Hamilton, President of The Tamahaac Club, Chairman of the Board of Governors of McMaster University, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Hamilton Place, Chairman of The Hamilton Club, President of the Hamilton Law Association, and a Director of National Trust Company Ltd.

Martin practised corporate law as a senior partner at Martin & Martin (Martin's) in Hamilton which was founded in 1895 by his greatgrandfather Edward Martin and grandfather D'Arcy Martin. The majority of his fifty year legal career was with Martin & Martin. Following the closure of Martins, Martin joined Ross McBride LLP where he practised law until he retired.

Martin followed in his two uncles' footsteps (Argue and Hubert Martin) in squash and became an Ontario junior squash champion. He was a voracious reader and actively read a wide variety of North American newspapers and magazines. Martin was a loving and generous person who gave considerable time in support of family, friends and the community. Martin and Patricia enjoyed spending time with family and hosting friends on Home Island, Lake Joseph, Muskoka and on Gasparilla Island, Florida.

The family is grateful for the care given by Dr. Bradley Birmingham and all the very caring staff on Two West at Belmont House. In lieu of flowers, donations made to the Alzheimer Society or Christ's Church Cathedral Hamilton would be greatly appreciated.

A service of Thanksgiving will be held at 11:00 a.m. on Monday, February 12, 2018 at Christ's Church Cathedral, 252 James Street North, Hamilton, Ontario. A reception will be held at the Tamahaac Club in Ancaster.

PERUMPRAL MATHEW MATHEW

Mathew, as he liked to be called, was born on May 28, 1928 and died sometime in the early hours of February 7, at his home in Port Hope, Ontario.

He was the very proud grandfather of Creston and Kieran, loving father of Himal and the most devoted husband to Rachel who died 10 years ago.

His life began on a simple hillside in South India, took him to the Himalayas, and then to Africa where the family survived and escaped the Biafran War. It's a good story.

Life in Canada began on a snowy December 1st in 1967 at Dorval Airport in Montreal, where Mathew, Rachel and Himal started over.

Mathew, like Rachel, was a dedicated high school teacher until his retirement. Former students still talk about the difference he made in their lives, indeed that both of them made.

After Rachel died Mathew lived with Himal and his family in Port Hope until his passing.

He was a gentle man, who loved a good conversation and cup of tea.

He was unfailingly kind. He loved his family and felt it was his duty to look after us right until the end.

A memorial service will take place at St. Mark's Anglican Church in Port Hope at 11 a.m. on Tuesday, February 13, with a reception to follow in the church hall.

BURNS MCKENZIE

Passed away on Monday, February 5, 2018 at age of 84.

Best friend and loving husband to Betty McKenzie.

Devoted father to Jim McKenzie (Sylwia). Proud grandfather to Adam McKenzie.

Family will receive friends at the Ogden Funeral Home, 4164 Sheppard Ave. E., (East of Kennedy Rd.) Scarborough, on Saturday, February 17th between 3 - 5 p.m. Burns will always be lovingly remembered by many family and friends.

CATHERINE JOHNSON MCQUIRTER (nee Burt)

Of Gravenhurst (Muskoka) Ontario, passed away on Tuesday, January 9, 2018.

Cathy died peacefully, surrounded by her children in White Rock, BC. She is survived by her brother, James C. Burt of Winnipeg, Manitoba; her five children, Sandy, Elizabeth, Susan, Timothy, Margaret; and many grandchildren and greatgrandchildren.

Cathy loved Muskoka, travelling to exotic lands, Bridge and helping the many members of her family. She developed a love for the stock market, volunteering, and was entertained by the US news. Her ashes will be buried in her beloved Ontario.

She will be greatly missed by her family and friends.

DANIEL ALLISON MENELEY

Passed away on February 6, 2018 at Kingston General Hospital.

Daniel Meneley in his 83rd year.

Husband of Mildred (nee Wiley) of 58 years. Beloved father of Grant (Teresa), the late Laird (Angela), Conrad (Sharon), and the late Shannon (Ruben). Remembered fondly by his grandchildren, Daniel (Priscilla), Matthew, David (Ricki), Chris (Amanda), Katie, Hannah, Julia and Lidia; and by his great-grandchildren, Isabella, Cameron, and Paige. Dear brother of Nelson (Joan), and Robert (the late Rose). Predeceased by his siblings, Patricia Drew (Edgar), Howard, and William. Daniel will also be remembered by his many nieces and nephews.

Friends and relatives are invited to call at the Lakefield United Church on Wednesday, February 14, 2018 from 7:00 - 9:00 PM. A funeral service will take place at the Lakefield United Church on Thursday, February 15, 2018 at 11:00 AM. Reception to follow in the Church Hall. Cremation and Interment at Lakefield Cemetery.

As expressions of sympathy memorial donations may be made to Habitat for Humanity Lakefield Project 2018 and may be made by contacting The Hendren Funeral Homes, Lakefield Chapel at http://www.hendrenfuenralhome.com or by calling 705-652-3355.

EARL EDWARD PALMER

Taken from us suddenly, in bed at his beloved home, on Wednesday, February 7, 2018, in his 87th year.

Earl, a graduate of William & Mary College, Yale University, and the University of Toronto, enjoyed a long and successful career teaching law at Western University. He was also a highly respected labour arbitrator for close to half a century.

"The Duke," son of Dorothy and Edward Palmer, is survived by his beloved wife, Sally; and treasured sister, Jane. He was predeceased by his brother, Barry; and his son, Barry. He will be dearly missed by his daughter, Ellen; son, Bruce; niece, Jennie; and grandsons, Oscar and Archer. He leaves a great hole in the hearts of a host of friends and extended family.

Bon vivant, raconteur and accomplished chef, Earl was also given to using French words when English would have been equally appropriate. He loved to cook, drink wine, collect stamps and talk football or politics, and he indulged these passions with uncommon vigour.

As per Earl's wishes, there will be no formal funeral ceremonies.

There will be a celebration of life on Saturday, March 31st. Donations to the Good Food Box Program c/o Grace Lutheran Church Hamilton or The Heart and Stroke Foundation would be appreciated.

Please check the website: http://www.circleoflifecbc.com for further details and updates.

JOHN ALBERT PEDLER B.D.S. (U. Lond.), L.R.C.P. (Lond.), M.R.C.S. (Eng.), M.D.S. (U. Lond.), F.D.S.R.C.S. (Eng.), F.R.C.D. (C.), Oral Pathology R.C.D.S. (On.) December 30, 1920 - February 2, 2018

Peacefully, in his 98th year at Sunnybrook Hospital.

John began his medical training in 1937 at age 16 and remained totally dedicated to his profession throughout his distinguished career.

At the age of 21, following his graduation from the University of London in 1941, he was appointed house surgeon at the London Hospital. From 1942-1947 he was on war service with the R.A.F. by which time he passed all exams for his degree in dentistry and his pre-clinical for his medical degree.

Upon discharge he returned to medical school to complete the clinical years.

In the R.A.F., he was a dental officer and was promoted to the rank of Flight Lieutenant. From 1950, he was senior registrar, London Hospital Dental School and since 1951 senior lecturer in Dental Pathology at the London Hospital Medical College.

In 1961, John moved his family to Toronto to take up his new appointment as Professor of Oral Medicine and Pathology and Head of the Department of Oral Diagnosis in the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Toronto. He was also Dental-Surgeon-in-Chief at Toronto General Hospital where he was described as "the architect of hospital dentistry in Toronto and at Toronto General Hospital in particular."

Working with the department of cardiac surgery and cardiology he arranged for all surgery patients to be referred for dental examinations to identify incidence of bacteria and gingivitis which could enter the blood stream and consequently the heart, causing fatalities. With this screening he successfully reduced deaths, due to these infections, to zero.

In his private practice he generously gave free services to the financially insecure and also provided unique and necessary procedures to patients with hemophilia, many of whom attended his retirement dinner in 1986.

John leaves behind his son, Trevor (Shelagh); and daughter, Carole; his four grandchildren, Shauna (Rob), Jessica, Michael and Christine; and two greatgrandchildren, Luke and James.

He was predeceased by his wife, Joan (nee Steedman); his eldest daughter, Trisha; and his twin sisters, Joyce and Audrey.

Cremation has taken place with interment beside his wife, Joan. A private memorial service will take place at a later date.

KEVIN JAMES PULCINE

Died peacefully, at the Carpenter Hospice in Burlington on Wednesday, February 7, 2018, at the age of 55. Loving son of James "Jim" (Veronica Onyskiw) and the late Kay Elizabeth.

Beloved brother of Donna Toth (Ron Robinson), Sandee Tatham and stepbrother of Cynthia Mudd. Cherished uncle of Katie and Andrew Toth and Charlie and Will Tatham.

Kevin graduated from the University of Guelph with a BSc (Hons) in 1987. Over the past decade, he was proud to be employed by Zeton Inc., most recently as a mechanical technician. He was never afraid to put in extra hours when needed and was always a true team player. Kevin was generous and thoughtful. He always put others before himself. Kevin's favourite place was the family cottage at Norway Lake. He loved being outdoors - especially swimming, fishing and boating across the lake. He had fond memories of visiting his cousins in Glengarry and going to the Highland Games.

Taking after his late mother, Kevin was an excellent cook.

Visitation at Smith's Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Thursday, February 15, 2018 from 3-5 p.m. and 7-9 p.m. A Funeral Service will be held at Kingsway Lambton United Church (85 The Kingsway, Toronto) on Friday February 16, 2018 at 1 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations in memory of Kevin can be made to Carpenter Hospice or Juravinski Cancer Centre. Special thanks to the medical staff and volunteers at both; he received excellent care. Very special thanks to the palliative care team at Joseph Brant Hospital who were most supportive.

http://www.smithsfh.com

JOSEPH TIMOTHY RYAN

Tim passed away Saturday, February 3, 2018 at home after a long battle with cancer.

He was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1939 and raised in Regina, Saskatchewan. Tim's entrepreneurial life began in high school when he started Ryan Swim Equipment Co. In later years, he raised financing for or launched companies involved in everything from cattle feed to dentistry equipment and high technology. Over the last 40 years, Tim focused primarily on mining exploration and development. Tim's vast experience, energy and integrity were valued by the boards of public companies and crown corporations on which he served. Business and pleasure took Tim to many countries. He enjoyed skiing and was an avid golfer.

He was a member of Capilano Golf Club where he contributed to a number of committees.

Tim's favorite places included the family cabin in Whistler, Tofino and Palm Desert. He was happiest with family and friends, entertaining us with stories of past exploits and misadventures. Papa loved spending time with his grandkids. He was a generous friend and passionate in his beliefs. Tim will be remembered for his sense of humour and drive for excellence.

He is survived by his wife, Joan; children, Megan (Neal), Joe (Anita), Jennifer (Greg); and grandchildren, Cliff, Cameron, Jessica, Caitlin, Ella and Jake. A celebration of life will be held at a future date. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Tim's name to the BC Cancer Foundation.

http://www.hollyburnfunerals.com

MICHAEL CRAY SCARLETT 1930 - 2018

It is with deep sadness that we announce the passing of Michael Cray Scarlett on Friday, February 2, 2018 in his 88th year. Born and raised in Toronto, Michael later lived in Schomberg and most recently made his home in Uxbridge; however his favorite place was dockside at the family cottage in Honey Harbour.

A man of wide activities and interests, he was an avid sailor, swimmer, curler and skier, and enjoyed genealogy, nature, lively conversation, great music, art, history, travel and books.

Michael was an educated, proud, intelligent, sophisticated gentleman who lived a full life and will always be remembered for his hospitality at welcoming numerous guests over many years to enjoy their time at the cottage.

Predeceased by his parents, Harry and Kate; younger brother, James Cray; and survived by his sister, Susan Kokott. He will be greatly missed by his loving wife, Wendy Dutton. Michael will also be missed by his children, Robert (Lynne), Cray, Michelle, Christine O'Neill (Dan) and James (Tanya); and grandchildren, Kendra (Derek), Katherine, John (Erin), Sean, Shannon and Kyle; and fondly remembered by former wife, Roberta Stillman Scarlett.

Keeping with Michael's wishes, cremation has taken place.

Friends and family may gather for visitation at the Low & Low Funeral Home, 23 Main Street South, Uxbridge (905-852-3073) on Saturday, March 24, 2018 at 1 p.m., with a time of sharing beginning at 3 p.m. A reception will follow on the lower level. In memory of Michael, donations may be made to the SickKids Foundation or a charity important to you. For online condolences, please visit http://www.lowandlow.ca

DAVID CHARLES SHANNON March 11, 1962 February 2, 2018

David was a unique and bright shining light who left us much too soon after a challenging illness.

He dedicated his life to social justice through his activism, unyielding courage and willingness to flout convention. For decades, he advocated for LGBTQ rights and worked as a journalist at the CBC, the Montreal Mirror (columnist of "Out in the City") and hosted the ground-breaking "Homo Show" at CKUT Radio. He was a co-founder of ACCM (AIDS Community Care Montreal) and ACT UP Montreal (AIDS Coalition to unleash Power).

He essentially lived his life as a man for others. Most only aspire to see change; David made it happen. People from all walks of life sought David's insightful writing, observations and commentary. Favourite topics included popular culture, social trends, fashion, politics, and gender issues. He possessed style, a deep appreciation for the arts, a penchant for detail, and a memory that could alarm. He had a wonderful sense of humour and loved to tell stories.

David was deeply loved by his four brothers, Craig (Kristin), Donnie (Celia), Christopher (Hilary), and John (Christine). He was the beloved uncle to Trevor, Hayley (Scott), Thor, Leah (Christopher), Big Matthew, Jack, Callie and Little Matthew; great-uncle to Leif. He had many close friends and admirers and all will miss his special wit, passion, and the spark of engagement that defined his spirit and sense of humanity.

In lieu of flowers, please consider honouring David with a donation to one of the following: Casey House in Toronto (https://www.caseyhouse.com), CAMH (http://camh.ca) or ACCM (https://accmontreal.org).

A celebration of his life will occur in Toronto at the Tranzac Club at 292 Brunswick Ave. at 7 p.m. on Thursday, February 15, 2018. At David's request, it will be a party, so please bring your dancing shoes!

STRATTON DENIS STEVENS CM April 15, 1932 - February 8, 2018

It is with sadness that we announce the peaceful passing of Stratton at home surrounded by members of his family. He was the son of the late Denis Skafidas-Stevens and the late Eugenia Poulos Stevens.

He will be sorely missed by his siblings, Harry (Margareta), Adrienne, George (Dina) and Helen; his nephews, Peter, Denis, Dennis and Eric; his niece, Jean; and his many great-nieces, great-nephews, godchildren, relatives and friends.

Warmest thanks to his personal assistant Nicole and his caregivers Socorro, Lourdes and Sonia for their kindness and support to Stratton these past months.

Montreal has lost one of its prominent citizens, recipient of the Order of Canada for entrepreneurship and philanthropy. He was an engaging, generous-spirited gentleman, who loved life, and whose heart and home were always open to all.

Visitation will take place on Thursday and Friday, February 15th and 16th, 2018 from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. at the Mount Royal Funeral Complex, 1297 Chemin de la Forêt, Outremont, Quebec H2V 2P9 (514) 279-6540 (http://www.mountroyalcem.com) Funeral services and reception will be held at the Mount Royal Complex on Saturday, February 17th at 9 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, contributions in his memory to the Montreal General Hospital Foundation or the McCord Museum of Canadian History will be gratefully acknowledged.

FRANK MICHAEL TABONE

It is with extreme sadness that we announce the passing of Frank Michael Tabone, born at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto.

Died suddenly Friday, January 12, 2018 in Fergus, Ontario. He was born to parents, the late Charles Tabone of Marsa, Malta and the late Sarah Piggott of Greenock, Scotland. He was the husband of Victoria; father of Patty (Manuel and Simon), Randy (Mikki), and David (Dianne). He was the brother of Mary of Australia, Agnes (and the late Ed), Robert, and sister-in-law Consuella. He was Grandfather of Michael, Ashley (Adam), Peter and Randall.

He was Great-Grandfather to Aiden, Ava, Damien and Adrien.

He was brother-in-law of the late Olga and Joe, the late Alex and Laddie and the late George and wife, Marguerite of Nevada. He was Uncle to six nephews and eight nieces throughout Ontario, Nevada and Australia.

When he was three years old, the family left Toronto and travelled to Scotland. They lived there a short time and eventually made their way to the Mediterranean island of Malta. His family lived there during the bombing and Siege of Malta. They were there when the citizens of Malta were awarded the George Cross Medal for their heroism and devotion.

Living in Malta left a profound effect on his life. Besides his family, he was close to his cousins in Malta and later in Toronto.

In 1950, he was Toronto bound.

In 1951 while roller skating at the Mutual Street Arena, later called the Terrace, he met our mother, Vicky. She fell. He asked her to skate and the rest is history. They later married.

In the sixties, he worked for Lucas Rotax where they did work for the Avro Arrow. During the seventies, eighties and nineties, our parents were also actively involved with many associations and committees. He made many friendships from his time at Lucas, Disco Ltd. and at Honeywell.

For almost 60 years, his life including our mom's, was spent in Agincourt, Apsley and Arthur.

He was much loved and will be forever missed. People always commented that Frankie was quite a character. He also leaves cousins in Scotland and friends in Canada, the US and the UK.

Cremation has taken place. A celebration of his life will be held at a later date. Venue and location to be announced.

BARBARA ELIZABETH THOM (nee Donovan) May 13, 1947 - February 2, 2018

Departed this life peacefully, with family by her side.

Beloved wife to Robert for 41 years; devoted mother to Scot (Toronto) and Adam (Dawson City). Predeceased by her parents Margaret and Gerald Donovan. Loving sister to Harmony Aitken (Gary), Gerald Donovan (Patti), Jane McCarter and Sheila Dulmage.

In 1968 she graduated from the Peterborough Civic Hospital School of Nursing and dedicated many years to the care of others. In her retirement she continued giving to her community by volunteering with the Arthritis Society, Canadian Cancer Society and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Barb had a great affinity for reading, researching family genealogy, and watching birds that visited Barb's diner daily. Barb derived her greatest joy from the love she shared with her family, close friends and the beauty of her garden.

The family will receive friends on Friday, February 9, 2018 from 7-9 p.m. at the Rod Abrams Funeral Home, 1666 Tottenham Rd., Tottenham 905-936-3477. An Honouring of Barb's life will be held on Saturday, February 10, 2018 in the chapel at 11 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation.

http://www.RodAbrams FuneralHome.com

ALAN GEORGE THOMPSON November 23, 1927 - January 30, 2018

Alan George Thompson was born at home, in the village of Brooklands on the North West corner of Winnipeg to Henry and Gladys (Holland) Thompson.

He was predeceased by Doreen, beloved wife of 63 years (Alzheimer's) and by his sons, Randall and Derek, both of whom died of Intestinal Cancer. He is survived by his two grandsons, Benjamin and Lucas; and his two sisters, June (Tom) and Barbara; and by many nieces, nephews and cousins.

He cherished the many friends he had; in business, in the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club and in the Terminal City Club where he was President in 1973 and was mainly responsible in positioning the club to be redeveloped by its members into the modern business and social club it is today.

His best times were summers at LacLu and Lake of the Woods, Ontario.

Doreen was an excellent pianist and dinners were usually followed by an old fashioned sing along and guess who was the lead and loudest singer.

During the business week he could often be found, before or after work on Winnipeg's Red River, rowing in the 4 and 8 racing shells, preparing for a regatta somewhere in the mid-west.

During the winters in Vancouver, he looked forward to meeting for lunch with the Birthday Group at the T C C. On Thursdays, with other ex-Winnipeggers, and on weekends, dinners out with special friends. Spring brought along the Guys annual salmon fishing trip (FISH) on the West Coast, mostly made up of Lake of the Woods cottagers. In summer, a trip back to the Lake of the Woods for pickerel fishing and eating.

His early exposure to business was as a teenage newspaper carrier for the Winnipeg Free Press. One day, as he delivered to one of the customer's home, he found two young children in the house surrounded by fire consuming the living room. The children were frightened and helpless.

He took the children outside to safety, then rapidly biked to the nearest telephone to report the fire. He was commended and honoured by the City of Winnipeg and by the Winnipeg Free Press for saving two lives.

At age 16 he travelled to Victoria, BC and joined the Merchant Marine. He went to sea off the west coast working on the deep sea tug Snohomish and others. The war ended just as Al was old enough to join the Navy.

He returned to Winnipeg where he joined the Richardson Securities organization as a Messenger and Quotation Board Marker and progressed from there. Positions he held in Winnipeg were Bond Salesman and Bond Department Manager; In Toronto, Manager of the Retail Branch, and then Manager of Vancouver Branch. He returned to Winnipeg as General Sales Manager, Partner in charge of Sales, and subsequently was appointed to Managing Partner.

In 1977 he joined J. Henry Schroder & Company, a subsidiary of a British merchant bank, as President of their Canadian firm, based in Calgary.

In 1979 Al moved to Vancouver and purchased a controlling interest in local investment house Brink, Hudson & Lefever Ltd., from which he retired in 1989.

He was regularly invited to join the Board of Directors of local and international companies. He joined the Boards of Bethlehem Copper, Crestbrook Forest Industries, Western Star Trucks, Liberian Iron Ore, and many others.

He purchased the controlling interest in Liberian Iron Ore and sought new opportunities for the company. The name was changed to Lionore, and largely by the guidance of his associates it became one of the ten largest producers of nickel in the world.

His investment industry service included President and Chairman of Investment Dealers Association of Canada; Chairman, Vancouver Stock Exchange; Chairman of Midwestern District IDA and Chairman of Pacific District IDA.

He was a generous supporter of various charities during his life, and before his passing, he established The Alan and Doreen Thompson Charitable Foundation, which will largely be funded from his estate. It will support Medical Research and Development mostly in the areas of medicine that affected his family such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Intestinal Cancer as well as other causes.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Alan and Doreen Thompson Charitable Foundation, c/o Scotia Trust Company, 650 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, BC, V6B 4N7, to help continue medical research.

A Memorial wake will be held on Thursday, February 15, 2018 at 4:00 p.m. at the Terminal City Club, 837 West Hasting Street, Vancouver, BC.

DAVID K. WHISH November 24, 1924 January 30, 2018

Peacefully, after a brief illness at age 93. He had a good long run and will be greatly missed. As always, he "didn't want to be a bother" and never really was.

He'll be missed by John (Mary) and Marg (Warren); grandsons, William, (Shawna), Peter, (Julie), Rob Warren, (Martha) and Michael Warren (Theresa); and dancing partner, Jean Watson.

Born in Cardiff, Wales, he served with the Royal Engineers and supported Cardiff City F.C. all his life.

After a long successful career as a P. Eng, Dave retired to Heritage Village in Vineland, Ontario.

As per his Whish's, cremation has taken place. Never one to make a fuss, we'll return his ashes to the U.K. along with the ashes of his beloved wife of 58 years, Patricia.

We may have Cardiff City F.C. bury his ashes, just so they could let him down one more time.

STEPHEN ALLAN WILGAR April 25, 1938 February 7, 2018

A.k.a. "Boom Boom" by his grandchildren, Campbell, Grant, Oxford and Ashley.

Steve was an MBA grad from Western on the Dean's List. He had a long, successful career as President of Warner Lambert.

Afterward, he went on to run various new companies while serving on several boards.

He was an avid reader who enjoyed golf, bridge and time with friends.

A loving, devoted husband to wife, Judy Wilgar, to whom he was married 56 years; and proud father of children, Mike and Tory.

He will be remembered for his cheerful disposition, witty comebacks, wealth of knowledge and positive outlook on life.

Celebration March 11, Turtle Creek Club, Tequesta, FL. Please visit Wilgar.com.

JOHN HENRY DAVID WILTSHIRE

John passed away February 5, 2018 after a short illness.

Beloved husband of Shannon Kelly Shields; precious son of Dorothy and Owen Wiltshire; loving brother of Catherine Margaret Jane; proud uncle of Gareth Owen Henry Diamond and Abigale Claire Bugbee; committed stepfather to Daniel Robert Omond Doherty; delighted grandfather to Raurie Mae, Teagan Jane, and Jared Wayne Cordner; cherished brother-in-law to Michael Diamond; and affectionate exhusband to Beverley Wiltshire.

John was born in Glasgow March 1, 1957, and immigrated to Canada in his youth. His career as an electrical and software engineer was starred with stints in the recording industry and Teklogix. In the 90's he began partnering with Jim Darling at various companies, most recently Optys Corporation, where he worked until his death.

John was an avid sailor and racer at Lakeshore Yacht Club.

He was a very involved and much-loved member of the LSYC community.

A memorial service will be held Saturday, March 10, 1:00 - 4:00 p.m., at Lake Shore Yacht Club, Etobicoke.

Details/changes will be posted at http://www.ridleyfuneralhome.com If desired, donations may be made in John's name to the Disabled Sailing Association of Ontario (http://www.disabledsailing ontario.com).

CLANELL TERESA ARCHER (nee Groeneman) October 16, 1930 - February 8, 2017

Wife, mother, grandmother and friend. Clanell was born in Colorado Springs, and grew up in Kansas City, MO. After losing her mother, Clanell relocated to Colombia to teach at the American School in Barranquilla where, in 1953, she met her future husband, Jack. Thereafter, she gave birth to her only son, Christopher.

The family eventually relocated to Libya, before finally settling in Calgary, AB. Clanell and Jack retired happily in Victoria, B.C.

She loved family, friends, dogs, gardening, reading, and cooking.

She was compassionate, elegant, creative, and outspoken. She was the moral and intellectual compass for her family, and fiercely loyal to her friends. She was passionate about public education, and gave generously to those less fortunate.

She is survived by her husband of 65 years, Jack; her son, Christopher; her three grandchildren, Mary, Ellen and Paul; numerous nieces and nephews; and friends.

Her passing one year ago left a huge hole in our hearts and she is forever missed.

Memorial donations may be made to the Calgary Public Library, or the Salvation Army.

L. MARSHALL WRIGHT

It is with great sadness that the family of Marshall announces his death in his 93rd year, on Monday, February 5, 2018, in Dundas, Ontario. He is predeceased by the love of his life and wife of 70 years, Audrey (nee Headley) and by his precious granddaughter, Leah MacAdam. He is the deeply cherished father of Sandy DeVoe (Phil), Jan Burke-Gaffney (Mike), Wendy-Marsha MacAdam (David) and Jennifer Wright. Adored Grandfather to Wendy, P.J., Marshall (Erin), Joe, Andrew, Jesse, Emily and Hayley. Adoring Great-Grandfather to Gavin, Alex, Connor, Ali and Wolf. Born in Ottawa in 1925, he is predeceased by his parents Margaret (Trodden) and Leithwold Wright, his brother and sister-in-law Garn and Eileen (Dunn) Wright, brother-in-law, Ron Armstrong and survived by his sister, Lois Armstrong and many nieces and nephews.

At age 17, Marshall became a sergeant pilot flying Tiger Moths but was too young to see action. He married his high school sweetheart, a love story that never ended, and graduated Queen's University. He entered a distinguished career in the Canadian Armed Forces that included postings around the world and service in Korea in 1952-53 with his regiment Lord Strathcona's Horse. He went on to command two helicopter squadrons, 403, Gagetown, New Brunswick, and 444 in Lahr, Germany. He lectured at the Canadian Staff College in Toronto and piloted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau before retirement as a Lt.

Colonel. He and Audrey fulfilled a dream to retire in the British Virgin Islands where they spent 17 years sailing, swimming and scuba diving. They returned to Canada in their 70's to be closer to their children and grandchildren.

Marshall will be missed for his fantastic sense of humour, his adventurous spirit and his loving heart. Special gratitude to the staff at Wentworth Lodge whose tender concern for Marshall's comfort was greatly valued by his family.

Cremation has taken place. A private family gathering will be held. Donations to the Salvation Army would be greatly appreciated by Marshall and his family. Please sign Marshall's online book of condolence at http://www.turnerfamilyfuneralhome.ca.

Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of Earth And danced the skies on laughtersilvered wings; John Gillespie Magee

BRYAN DANIEL WYLIE

Following a brief illness, Bryan passed away January 30, 2018 at the Juravinski Hospital in Hamilton. Son of the late Earl and Muriel; he is survived by brothers, Conway (Linda), James (Kim), and their families.

A master teacher and man of faith, Bryan spent his teaching career at Hillfield Strathallan College where he taught English, Latin, and Drama and served as Head of Senior School and Senior Master before retiring in 2002. In 1989, Bryan was awarded the Marshall McLuhan Distinguished Teacher Award, a deserving honour for this innovative educator of the arts. After his retirement, Bryan continued to serve his faith and pursue his passions through his work at Philpott Memorial Church where he established an Arts bridge-building ministry and acted as the Resource Centre coordinator. A consummate teacher even in retirement, Bryan gained a large following for his arts and culture lecture series.

He will be missed by his family, friends and the many whose lives he touched. Bryan was truly blessed with a wonderfully full and productive life and had faith in the promise of John 3:16.

Prior to his passing, he had been actively planning a celebration of his life, highlighting his passion for education, the arts and his faith.

Bryan's final production, All Good Gifts, will be held Saturday, April 21, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. at Hillfield Strathallan College, Hamilton.

In lieu of flowers, it was Bryan's request that donations be made to the Endowment Fund at HSC or to Philpott Memorial Church.

DR. JERRY ROMAN ZOWNIR

Passed away peacefully on Tuesday, February 6, 2018 at age 82 years. Loving father of Mark (Kristin), Jeff (Laura) and Chris.

Proud grandfather of Sofia and Viktorija. Brother of the late Stefania and late Jane (late Stan).

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W. (East of the Jane subway) on Sunday from 1 until 6 p.m. Funeral Mass will be held at Church of the Resurrection, 1 Resurrection Road on Monday, February 12, 2018 at 11 a.m. Private interment Glendale Memorial Gardens.

If friends so desire memorial donations may be made to the St. Michael's Hospital Foundation.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

THE GREAT DISCONNECT
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By JIM BALSILLIE, NORMAN DOIDGE
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


Digital technology is changing almost every facet of our lives, from the way we work to the way we parent. Our brains are changing, too. What does it say when we can't go more than a few minutes without reaching for our phones, or give our private information to faceless corporations without a second thought? In the latest instalment of Discuss, tech titan Jim Balsillie and renowned psychiatrist Norman Doidge wonder whether we'll ever kick this addiction

Norman Doidge, M.D., is a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and author of The Brain That Changes Itself and The Brain's Way of Healing. He is on the Research Faculty at Columbia University's Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research and on the faculty at the University of Toronto's Department of Psychiatry.

Jim Balsillie is former chairman and co-CEO of Research in Motion (now known as BlackBerry Ltd.) and co-founder of the Institute for New Economic Thinking.

They held their discussion, by phone and over e-mail, in January and February.

JIM BALSILLIE: Will we ever kick our smartphone addiction?

NORMAN DOIDGE: Kick it? We're just getting started. Google's Project Loon is working on bringing wireless to the four billion people not yet online by using balloons in the stratosphere to carry signals to the remotest parts of the planet. And unlike other addictions that are opposed by mainstream institutions, screen time is being pushed by educators, governments and businesses. Not a chance we can kick it the way things are currently organized.

BALSILLIE: What's causing this addiction?

DOIDGE: Simply put, the chemistry and the wiring of the brain can be manipulated. There are all sorts of behavioural addictions - gambling, online porn, shopping - that take hold because they trigger the same areas of the brain as drugs. People are unsuspecting of digital addiction. That's because each addiction - cocaine, heroin, alcohol, video games - has a slightly different form and effect, so it takes a while to recognize any new addiction as such.

BALSILLIE: I recently experienced something fascinating that made me see smartphone addiction in a different light: I attended a dinner that included a young teenager. He was constantly engaging with his smartphone. His parents saw that it was poor table manners, so they took it away. The teenager then started to fidget.

His eyes darted everywhere. He couldn't calm down and was visibly uncomfortable for the next 45 minutes. I could see the kid was in pain and was manifesting it physically. I know there is always moral panic about technology, but this incident told me that, in the case of smartphones, it might be coming too late. Seeing this kid suffer and not say a word to anyone stayed with me. People now spend on average more than 10 hours a day on their screens.

This is no longer an attention economy, but an addiction economy.

DOIDGE: Digital tech is especially good at changing our brains without our awareness. The brain is neuroplastic, meaning it has a property that allows it to change its structure and function in response to mental experience. Digital technologies are uniquely "compatible" with the brain, because both are electric and also work at high speeds. Marshall McLuhan figured this out. He argued that all media extend us - the microphone extends the voice, the radio the ear, the computer the brain's processing power. In 1969, he said, "Now man is beginning to wear his brain outside his skull, and his nerves outside his skin." At the time it seemed like one of his more bizarre aphorisms. Few believed the brain was plastic and that the media could work by, in some way, connecting to and rewiring our neurons.

BALSILLIE: Are you saying that by using screens 10 hours a day we are, by definition, addicted?

DOIDGE: For some, "addiction" is just a metaphor meaning "too dependent on" or "a compulsion."

But for many, it is literally true, and they show all the signs of addiction: compulsivity, loss of control of the activity, craving, psychological dependence, using even when harmful. Everywhere we see people who must check their phones every few moments - according to Adam Alter's book Irresistible, the average office e-mail goes unanswered for only six seconds. That's compulsive! They check while driving - that's harmful - and feel agitation when they can't. They stay up late, stuck on their computers, and then can't sleep. In online-porn addictions, people develop tolerance and need ever more stimulation for excitement, start to crave the porn, without liking it, and feel withdrawal when they try to stop.

Addicts always underestimate the time spent on the activity because they're under a spell.

If you think of addiction only in quantitative terms, you worry about, "Am I spending too much time online?" But our brain is sculpted by whatever we do repeatedly, and 10 hours a day also drives huge qualitative changes. The most important factor in any technology is what it does to our brains. In this case, it's plummeting attention spans, patience, memories or how social media is creating insecurity. So there are significant mentalhealth issues involved.

BALSILLIE: What do you think about personal responsibility?

Have we alone made ourselves addicted? Because I definitely don't think the blame should rest solely on users, especially since big tech companies now hire teams of hundreds of neuroscientists to teach what applications will have the "stickiest" effect on the brain, so they become deliberately addictive to their users. As a brain guy, does that make you feel guilty?

DOIDGE: Is it guilt we feel when we find out our relative is a snake?

These people are behavioural psychologists and behavioural neuroscientists whose focus is not therapeutic, but on manipulating behaviour to create craving and anxiety if we try to resist it.

BALSILLIE: So we should believe James Williams, the former Google strategist, when he said in The Guardian: "The dynamics of the attention economy are structurally set up to undermine human will." What are the techniques these behaviourists use?

DOIDGE: Originally, they mastered moulding complex behaviours incrementally by giving animals rewards. Doing so, they discovered important things about learning and even how to treat phobias and aspects of anxiety.

Now, they guide software engineers to layer each new pop-up or message or interaction with "juice" and clickbait - colour or novel stimuli - that connect to the brain's "orienting reflex" so that we involuntarily turn our attention to that thing. It also triggers chemicals that put the brain in a state that maximizes our readiness to attend to that thing. So, when something novel appears, it's pure neural "bling." You can't not look at it. These scientists are the true masters of the art of distraction. We look because this brain circuitry evolved over millions of years to make us reorient our interest to something novel, because it might be a predator or prey - our next meal - or a mate.

Then, if a quick reward is attached - such as buying a product with a click, a seductive image, a "like" or reading that some rival has just been humiliated - dopamine, another chemical, is released, consolidating that circuit. Our brain reward centre lights up and we feel a thrill. These behaviourists carefully engineer the timing of the stimuli they present. Neurons that fire together wire together, so that over time, links are moulded and we form new circuits and get addicted. Data gathered from our keystrokes can be used to further addict us, in a tailor-made way, and sold to advertisers and even to politicians, who use it to personalize their message to us, to get us to buy what they are selling.

BALSILLIE: But why would behaviourists do this?

DOIDGE: Not all do, but those who do would probably say, "For the reward." That's a joke, by the way. I would say that as their science became an "ism" - behaviourism, in this case - many leading behaviourists concluded that human beings are little more than a suite of reflexes and conditioned responses, determined by previous stimuli. And therefore we lack free will. And when you have such an impoverished view of people, what is to restrain you from doing what you did in the lab every day to those habit machines also known as human beings?

BALSILLIE: CEOs of big tech companies are simply capitalists doing what capitalists are supposed to do: maximize profit within the rules set by legislators.

And of course if you lobby those legislators, you get rules and regulations that help you increase profit. In an economy of intangibles, the marketplace frameworks are everything - absolutely everything. These companies benefit enormously from addiction so they build it into their products wherever possible.

DOIDGE: I have a colleague, perhaps the best known psychiatrist in the United States, who went to work for Google, to help them analyze all their data in terms of what it reveals about mental illness. I asked him what he thought about the industry leaders and their motivations. One of Google's founders told him, "I'm 40 years old and I'm worth $40-billion, and believe me, I really don't need more money. I want to make the world a better place." Perhaps they both wanted to believe that.

BALSILLIE: Don't ever believe a rapacious capitalist when they tell you they are not a rapacious capitalist. The joke is on those who take these "noble" pronouncements to heart. Global tech is a predatory, vicious game that very few people are built to play. It's a lot easier to virtue signal and say things such as "Money isn't that important to me" when you've got billions in your pockets. If you want to figure out the motivations of tech capitalists, look at the outcomes and infer from there.

DOIDGE: How did these companies position themselves so we can't do without them?

BALSILLIE: These companies are called "multisided platform businesses" because they bring together different groups of customers and suppliers in a way that would not be efficiently possible without the internet platform in the middle. Think eBay, Airbnb and Uber. Without any additional production costs, they attract more participants and become exponentially more valuable and entrenched. This is called "Metcalfe's Law of Network Economics." There was a common misconception that RIM's business was smartphones, but we made virtually all of our money - more than $1-billion profit per quarter - on our multisided service platform that made the whole BlackBerry system work.

We enabled mobile users to seamlessly connect to their chosen application using 600 carriers globally. But there's an important twist when services are free: Without paying anything, you're not really a customer any more - you are now the product being sold. These compelling free apps you're addicted to? They're what's needed to bait you in order to generate valuable data for an internet company.

DOIDGE: Well, how do you feel about this, as the rapacious capitalist who was there at the start?

You ran the company that created the BlackBerry, often called the CrackBerry. I am a shrink. Help me to help you deal with all the guilt you must feel.

BALSILLIE: No guilt here! Our specialty was security and protecting individual privacy. We didn't take people's private data and sell it to advertisers so that they could then target them. And we certainly didn't have any professional behaviourists on staff or on retainer.

This is a totally, totally different realm. Today's smartphones are designed to be highly addictive and extract whatever information they can. I am still troubled by the sight of that vulnerable teenager I told you about.

DOIDGE: It's sad. He probably had FOMO - the fear of missing out - if not constantly connected to social media. Hooray for us - we've created a new social-anxiety neurosis! But, to be fair to you, you are not in that "we." The fact that there were no brain scientists at RIM explains why I was never really "addicted" to my BlackBerry any more than to a landline. Some people were perhaps co-dependent-lite on them, but not like on today's smartphones. I think that's because the original BlackBerry wasn't a fullblown computer. It was truly a "smart" phone, so I, like most, used mine to connect with people of my own choosing.

BALSILLIE: People are paying such a heavy price for their screentime addictions, with all the attendant issues: anxiety, depression, envy, etc. And everyone is losing their privacy, too. Because I've never used social media and am not addicted to my phone, I have very little understanding of why people are exposing their lives and their kids' lives online.

DOIDGE: Privacy and mental health are inextricably linked, especially for young people. You need periods of privacy to form a self and an identity, a task not completed until at least the late teens. Having an autonomous, spontaneous self is the result of a long psychological process where you have time to "step back" from the crowd, and from your parents, to reflect. It requires time to let that self - your true feelings, your own quirky, uncurated reactions - emerge, spontaneously. The new phones foster enmeshment with parents, and the world, and hamper individuation, the process of becoming a unique individual, because kids are overconnected. And peer groups at that age can be Lord of the Flies cruel - and often love to mercilessly hunt down, expose and denounce the eccentricities of emerging individuals.

The "wisdom of crowds" is overrated; many crowds are far more regressive mentally and emotionally - and stupider - than the individuals who make them up. Kids know this, but lacking a solid sense of self, still long for the mob's approbation and are terrified of its censure.

And so they keep checking for and fishing for "likes" and now are compulsively virtue signalling to avoid being disliked, instead of developing actual virtue. Fear is one reason that virtue signalling is our chief vice. Social media is a 24/7 hall of mirrors, with everyone watching themselves - and everyone else - and making comparisons, all the time. This hugely exacerbates the ordinary painful self-consciousness, insecurity, narcissistic vulnerability and drama of young people's lives. How can anyone not become thin-skinned living in a round-the-clock panopticon of peers, all competing with each other for attention in an electronic colosseum? Depression has increased since 2005, most rapidly among people 12 to 17. That's not all caused by screens, but if we're spending 10 hours a day looking at screens, it's definitely a factor. Leaked documents show that Facebook told advertisers it can now track teenagers who feel "insecure," "anxious," "nervous," "worthless," "stupid" and "useless." Great. Now we have people exploiting a kid's "confidential" data by selling it to businesses that will further exploit the kid's depression. Everyone knows that social media is a world of show: masks and advertisements for yourself. It develops what psychoanalysts call the persona, a false self or facade in which one is just playing a role to impress others. But kids know they can't live up to that role and therefore fear they are imposters. It also teaches kids precisely the wrong way out of the mess: grow your vanity.

Post selfies of your best underwear pic on Snapchat; airbrush your opinions to get likes. JeanJacques Rousseau, the French philosopher, pondered the soul of the modern bourgeois as affected by social life. He observed - as beautifully summarized by Allan Bloom - that the bourgeois "is the man who when dealing with others thinks only of himself and in his understanding of himself thinks only of others."

That is many kids today.

BALSILLIE: But if it's unpleasant, why do kids keep coming back?

DOIDGE: Because that is the world they know - and because it has a shiny surface. But you see what it hides when you take it away. Kids become insanely anxious when they don't have their phones, like that teenager you mentioned.

They freak out if they go on a camping trip: Not bears, but wilderness without wireless is their nightmare. Parents increasingly discipline kids by taking away the phones, because that's the best way to get their attention. Then the kids have a meltdown and feel they've just had a part of themselves amputated. They have a point, in a cyborgian kind of way.

BALSILLIE: Actually, I know many people in Silicon Valley who deliberately constrain their children's use of the social-media applications that they, as parents, created at their companies. They send their kids to low-tech, or notech, Waldorf-like schools, complete with rolling hills and wildlife. They know smartphone addiction is a problem - they intended it just as it's playing out, but protect their families from it.

The Silicon Valley elites deeply value their privacy. Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook, bought four houses around his home because he wants to ensure he and his family have privacy.

It's not a trivial matter to be the pioneer of surveillance capitalism as he is and still maintain his family's total privacy. As I said earlier, the joke is on the users ... But why do people sell their privacy so cheaply?

DOIDGE: I think one of the problems in a mass communicationsbased society is that we develop mass tastes, and then the meat grinder of globalization further homogenizes us, and the more similar we become, the more interchangeable and expendable we feel. We don't feel we matter as individuals. So, for the insecure, it's nice to know someone is watching, someone is taking notes, tracking my irrelevant existence online! But what terrifies me, Jim, is that this generation, which has never known much privacy, is understandingly indifferent to its loss. They don't understand that there can be no liberal democracy without privacy.

The whole idea of liberal democracy, going back to John Stuart Mill, is that the liberty of the individual is our best bulwark against authoritarianism and the tyranny of the democratic majority, or government, or the powerful, because they have the numbers, or wherewithal, and historically seek to dominate others and determine how they must live.

Liberal democracy is thus the form of government that is expressly designed to protect the individual's liberty against that authoritarianism. It does so by dividing life into a limited public sphere, for government, and a private sphere, where government cannot infringe and which it is also duty bound to protect. It is the idea of the private sphere that made us into a free people.

But these new technologies, as currently organized, are creating a generation indifferent to privacy, and giving governments, business and others tools to monitor it. And privacy monitored is privacy destroyed.

BALSILLIE: One of the things I've learned from you is that, in medicine, when you use drugs, there are no "side effects," only "effects." Drugs go everywhere in the body. While they might target an organ and do some good there, they also affect other areas. What we call "side effects" are just the drug doing what it does in places we don't want that to happen.

The designers of digital devices set out to addict users and there has certainly been more and more publicity on this lately. But are we fully aware of the consequences that they didn't intend?

DOIDGE: No, because they unfold incrementally, beyond awareness, and sometimes involve losing awareness, as the "specs" of our brains change. For example, our brain maps in relation to our bodies in space seem to be changing. Because we spend all day staring 18 inches ahead, we are losing bodily and peripheral visual awareness. People are walking down the street in a more disembodied, ungrounded way, bumping into others. Body therapists tell me they are seeing 20year-olds with the posture of 75year-olds now, stooped, with heads way forward, from screen time.

BALSILLIE: You've also talked about how exposure to screens affects infants and toddlers - how digital technologies that claim to be connecting people are also disconnecting us in important ways.

DOIDGE: They overenmesh and disconnect at the same time. A few years ago, I was at a lecture with clinicians, discussing visual changes, and a preschool teacher there observed that, increasingly, kids weren't looking at other people when speaking with them.

Another teacher there reported the same loss of eye contact. At first it seemed to them like these kids might have Asperger's, which is on the rise, and involves a discomfort with eye contact.

But as the teachers watched the parents picking those kids up, they saw they were constantly on their smartphones, not looking at their kids - or the teachers, either, for that matter. As cute as these people's own kids were, in the moment, the kids couldn't compete with an entire virtual reality engineered to keep their parents distracted.

BALSILLIE: Were they imitating their parents' bad manners, or is it something deeper?

DOIDGE: Possibly deeper. A big brain task of the first two years of life is wiring up the right hemisphere modules that allow us to read other people's faces to learn about their emotions and, in turn, about our own. This is learned by the rapid-fire exchange of glances between infant and mother when there is so much holding and leisurely gazing into each other's eyes. You know, baby swallows milk, grimaces, mother sees it and unconsciously makes the same face back - she mirrors the baby - showing the baby the distress it is expressing, then sweetly says, "There, there, honey, the milk went down the wrong passage, you're upset in your tummy, let me burp you.

You'll feel better." Now, that feeding interaction does more than soothe the baby. It actually teaches the baby about emotions, and that facial expressions show emotions, and ultimately that you can read the internal states of others. That is how we learn about other minds. The same happens when a baby smiles: A healthy adult can't not smile back. You need thousands of those exchanges to develop that emotion-reading right hemisphere, and these exchanges, when they happen, occur very fast. If you are not paying close attention, you miss the baby's smile, or grimace, and your face won't mirror the right emotion back. Good studies show that when the parent doesn't mirror in real time, the baby gets extremely anxious, and if the face is "still" when it should move, babies actually freak out.

BALSILLIE: So, if parents are distracted, either by a screen or even waiting for a message - i.e., they are multitasking - and not giving the undivided attention required to wire up the brain in this period, you can't do it to your full potential. Because humans are born without a fully developed right hemisphere and we need parents to complete our development, right?

DOIDGE: Exactly. In brain terms, infants need people bonded to them so closely that they make the requisite sacrifices of attention. My fear is that we are slipping into a new kind of split-attentional-neglect, in a critical period of brain development, because increasingly parents, although physically present, are psychologically online. A large University of Texas at Austin study shows that even having a phone that is off within reach lowers your cognitive capacity, because it still steals your attention. You're so wired into it. If living in virtual reality means living in something that is a simulacrum of reality, we might say that we, by being psychologically online, are making ourselves into virtual parents.

BALSILLIE: Being mindful of these effects and limiting screen time definitely helps.

DOIDGE: Definitely, but only partially. Even if you limit your child's screen time to what you think is high-level educational television, if their school is pushing computers and pushing down attention spans, that is way more important than a hundred hours of Sesame Street. McLuhan's whole point was the medium is the message, meaning it isn't the content of the medium - Sesame Street - or even the time spent on it, but the way the medium sculpts the brains of an entire society, and now, the planet. Media gurus in our time are merely mouthfuls of praise for what high tech will do for you - and silent on what they will take away.

BALSILLIE: So when it comes to the brain, it's basically use-it-or-loseit?

DOIDGE: Correct. McLuhan said that each medium can "step up" one sense and step down another.

This has huge consequences.

Reading books stepped up sight and created a linear habit of mind that valued logic: You go down the page line by line, then turn to the next. This gave rise to a habit of thinking in terms of logical progression of argument. The logician asks of any statement in an argument or conversation, "Does this follow?" But in the digital age, linearity is stepped down. We now ask, "Does it grab you?" Because now information comes at us from many competing directions all at once. Our so-called "great communicators" are those who can best distract us from all the other distractions. When you leave linearity and logic behind, life becomes a Twitter feed: a series of hyper-emotional non sequiturs. That's manifest in our deteriorating, increasingly ignorant public discourse. It's no accident that our education system - itself desperately FOMO - is both computer-crazy and in favour of dropping history, a linear discipline par excellence. That is exactly the wrong move. What we need are schools that teach what screens can't do - to immunize students from the medium's faults. They should get back to teaching the most important books ever written. But that's not enough, Jim. Where are the various levels of government on all these issues?

BALSILLIE: Canada lacks leadership on these issues. We need more people stepping up and engaging intelligently, with integrity and public-mindedness. For goodness sake, we have all three layers of government closely partnering with all of these companies, even at the expense of domestic firms and our national prosperity. They are all advancing foreign tech on a daily basis. So let's not confuse moralizing with either intelligence or commitment.

Just look at the recent "deals" our government made with Facebook, Google and, maybe soon, Amazon. I've never seen anything like this in all my business career by any developed nation. When that leaked memo showed Facebook pitching companies their ability to target kids with ads when they are feeling insecure, depressed or worthless, Australians freaked out. For the issues of data collecting and selling, privacy and transparency breaches, Germans investigated and litigated, the EU started regulating in earnest, and the United States began holding Senate committee hearings. And Canada? We rush to partner with them! Our public officials have to stop sucking up to big foreign tech and start regulating them. Who is governing who here?

DOIDGE: What are the governance tools policy-makers can use to address this?

BALSILLIE: First, we must begin regulating the dominant internet companies in areas such as transparency of their advertisers, the ethics embedded in their algorithms and anti-competitive practices. This is what responsible governments do.

DOIDGE: And then?

BALSILLIE: We must create sovereign laws regarding data ownership, which is a defining issue of our time. More than six years ago, the European Union presented detailed proposals in this realm called GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), which becomes law in May, 2018. European policy-makers have been working on this for almost 10 years. In Canada, all of our political parties and policy-makers have let Canadians down with their inaction on this issue. Like the citizens of the EU, Canadians could exercise our sovereign right to ensure we own our personal data, set clear rules on the collection of personal data and for governing how the rights to our personal data are transferred to others. Big foreign tech companies will lobby hard against these measures, but I would argue our governments have the duty and the power to protect Canadians, especially our young. Canada would be in a much better place than where we are today if we copied what the EU policy leaders are doing.

DOIDGE: I'd vote for a politician who would support this, because it would actually be getting a liberal democratic government to enhance liberty by protecting the private sphere. What else?

BALSILLIE: We can support an alternative technology architecture. Much of the root problem with these apps is their centralized corporate control, where company profit is based on selling more ads to addicted eyeballs. We can lessen this dominance by supporting emerging rival applications that use blockchain. Blockchain is a new kind of transparent and incorruptible internet system that allows you to better control your own content because it's designed in a way where there's no centralized database or point of control. No one individual or one company can control it. The trust is built within the system architecture.

And trust in the system matters especially now, when there is so much mistrust in centralized power structures. If Canada strategically embraces blockchain for social media and other important applications, we can address issues of privacy and manipulation. Plus, this creates an opportunity for our domestic innovators to generate inclusive prosperity. It sounds like a complicated thing to do but it's not. It's actually very feasible.

DOIDGE: We may be the last generation that understands that privacy is worth defending. But how will we know when we are on the right track?

BALSILLIE: People won't just click "like" when they read this. They will call their MPs, too.

Associated Graphic

PORTRAITS OF JIM BALSILLIE AND NORMAN DOIDGE BY LAUREN TAMAKI

ILLUSTRATION BY LAUREN TAMAKI

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, February 9, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B19


JOSEPH BOGOROCH

On Wednesday, February 7, beloved husband of 46 years to the late Anne Bogoroch. And, of the late Sarah. Devoted brother of Dr. Rita Bogoroch. Loving father of Maureen and Jack Ditkofsky, Richard and Melanie Bogoroch, Janice and Murray Tkatch and the late Fran and Jack Katari.

Cherished Zaidie of Dr. Noah and Laura Ditkofsky, Ari and Jenna Ditkofsky, Mark and Lindsay Ditkofsky, J.J. and Adena Ditkofsky, Adam, Samantha, Matthew Bogoroch, Jonathan and Cara Tkatch, Robbie and Brooke Tkatch, Ryan and Jodi Tkatch, Melissa and Brian Gladman, and Brian and Karen Brody. Adored great-grandfather of Jacob, Dayna, Rylan, Allison, Jonah, Parker, Hannah and Harry.

Brother-in-law of Issie and Jenny Shiroky of Montreal.

The family wishes to acknowledge the kindness and support of the staff of 147 Elder Street, (Sage) and especially Olga, Nikki and Joe's caregiver, Rosella.

Funeral at Adath Israel Synagogue 37 Southbourne Avenue (1 street north of Wilson, east of Bathurst) for service on Friday, February 9, 2018 at 12:00 p.m. Interment in the Moldaver Synagogue section of Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park.

Shiva to be held at 11 Sandfield Road, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to the Israel Cancer Research Fund 416-487-5246 and to The Joseph Bogoroch Memorial Fund c/o Benjamin Foundation416- 780-0324 http://www.benjamins.ca.

RONALD WILLIAM BROWN

Passed away suddenly on December 30, 2017 at home at the age of 78. Born October 24, 1939 in Montréal, Québec, to the late Phyllis Gordon (Fahrni) Brown and the late Ronald Murdoch Brown.

Predeceased by his step-mother, Norma (Gee) Brown; and younger brother, Gordon Fahrni Brown; Ron is survived by his sisters, Susan Kett and Karen Rydant (Al); sisters-in-law, Orshy Mulqueen Brown and Louise (Lavallée) Brown; nieces, Angela, Alanna, Kimberly (Romeo), Erin (Dave) and Tara (Ron); and nephew, Richard (Terrie). Grand-nephews, Daniel, Mathieu, Jesse and Calvin; and grand-nieces, Jaelyn and Abigail.

Ron was a spiritual man with a great love of music, travel and languages. He took piano from an early age. Ron attended St.

George's School and played the organ daily for morning chapel.

He spent hours gardening and taking care of the grounds at First Baptist Church for many years.

A kind, generous and caring man, he was an inspiration to his family and to his many friends.

He spent summers in Ontario, visiting family and teaching ESL to new Canadians.

A memorial service will be held on Sunday, February 18, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. at First Baptist Church, 969 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y1. In lieu of flowers, donations in his memory may be made to the Canadian Diabetes Association or to a charity of your choice.

BERNICE CERESNE

Peacefully in her 103rd year on Wednesday, February 7, 2018.

Bernice Ceresne, beloved wife of the late Moe Ceresne. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Susan Smith and Jeff Gustin, and Janie and Harvey Wortsman. Dear sister of the late Billy Rotenberg.

Devoted grandmother of Shawn and Charene, Tricia and Judson, Kathryn and Daniel, Peter and Michelle, and great-grandmother of Owen, Jasper, Ben, Lily, Isaiah, Serena, Annabelle, Lizzie, and Oliver. Special thanks to Maria, Gladys, Daniella and the staff at Kensington Gardens.

At Beth Tzedec Synagogue, 1700 Bathurst Street for service on Friday, February 9, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 88 Davenport Road, Unit 604, Toronto. Donations may be made to the Canadian Cancer Society 416-961-7223.

WILLIAM LESLIE CLEGHORN

"Bill" PhD P. Eng.

Passed away peacefully at the North York General Hospital in Toronto, on Thursday, February 1, 2018 at the age of 64 years. Sadly missed by his brother, John Cleghorn of Sechelt, B.C. Bill was an Emeritus Professor with the University of Toronto, and began his career there on July 1, 1986 until his retirement on June 30, 2014. Bill received his PhD in Kinetoelastodynamics and is the author of "Mechanics of Machines." He was highly respected by the faculty and liked by his many students.

Cremation has taken place. A funeral service will take place at the family plot in Winnipeg at a later date. To leave your personal condolences, please visit the web site at mountpleasantgroup.com.

RICHARD ROBINSON PRESCOTT COURT August 21, 1931 February 5, 2018

It is with profound sadness that we announce the peaceful passing of Richard (Dick, to friends and loved ones) Court in St. Catharines on the evening of Monday, February 5, 2018.

Dick was born and raised in St. Catharines, Ontario. He was proud and grateful to have attended and graduated from Ridley College and Princeton University. He was passionate about hockey and football during his school years and excelled at both.

Dick began his exemplary career in the automotive and metal finishing businesses as an Owner and President of Court Holdings Limited (Court Industries) in 1956. He was an avid supporter of the St. Catharines community which included many St. Catharines Minor Hockey programs, Ridley College, the YMCA, Brock University and St George's Anglican Church. During his business career Dick was a member of the Young Presidents Organization, The Rotary Club and served on the Board of Directors of his businesses as well as the Board of Directors of Ridley College and The Rodman Hall Arts Centre. After retirement in 2003, Dick served for many years as a Board of Director of The Court Group of Companies and Court Holdings Limited.

Dick will be missed as best friend and beloved husband of June; loving father of Bill (Cindy), and Suzanne; proud Papa of Richard, Andrew, Nicklaus and Jack; brother and friend of Dave and Doug (Nancy) Court; fond uncle of many nephews and nieces. He was predeceased by his parents, William (Bill) and Bessie (nee Robinson); and his sister, Mary Swabey, her husband, Tom; and sister-in-law, Marjorie Court and will be missed and remembered by his many dear friends and colleagues.

The Court family would like to thank the caregivers who provided Dick with exceptional care and compassion.

Visitation will take place at 10:00 a.m. on Monday, February 12, 2018 at St. George's Anglican Church, 83 Church Street, St.

Catharines; a celebration of Dick's life will follow at the church at 11:00 a.m. Following the service you are invited to a reception at The St Catharines Club, 77 Ontario Street. Dick will be laid to rest at The Victoria Lawn Cemetery in a private family interment.

In lieu of flowers, memorial donations in Dick's memory may be made to St. George's Anglican Church or the Canadian Tire Jumpstart charity in the name of Richard Court.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.hulseandenglish.com.

ELEANOR ALBERTA FINDLAY

Passed away peacefully, on February 7, 2018 at the age of 91.

Much loved by Barb, Brian, Scott, Guia, Paul, Krista, Jessica, Breanna, Alex, Sean, Georgie and Jonno.

Predeceased by her husband, Ian. Ellie will be fondly remembered by her many nieces, nephews and friends.

A celebration of life will take place at Barb and Brian's home in Oakville on Saturday, February 17th from 2-4 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Wellspring Cancer Support Foundation would be greatly appreciated https:// wellspring.ca/westerkirk/getinvolved/make-a-donation/

JUNE ANNA CURRIE (née McMullen) June 10, 1923 - February 2, 2018

June passed away peacefully, in the early morning hours of February 2, 2018, in her 95th year. Never shy to follow her convictions, she had reached the point where her quality of life had deteriorated to such a degree that it was her time to pass on to a better place and join her beloved husband, Doug. And that's what she did.

Predeceased by Doug ten years ago, June carried on as a loving mother to Mary (Peter McBride) of Montréal, Andrew (Susan Crocker) of West Brooklyn, Nova Scotia, and Gigi (David Moore) of Toronto. Much-loved granny to Meghan McBride (Gary Courchaine), R.D. McBride (Audray Lemieux), Dustin Currie (Jen Mirosevic), Sarah Currie (Jeff and Wyatt Peterson), Lindsay Moore and Stephanie Moore; and a very proud G.G. to her latest family members, Edie and Adèle.

Born into the McMullen family of Windsor, Ontario, June was one of seven children who tragically lost their mother at a young age. Undaunted, and after skipping two grades in public school, June set out to make a life for herself by studying history at University of Toronto. It was there that she caught the affectionate eye of a handsome young engineering student, Doug Currie. They were married on Grey Cup Day, December 1, 1945. A few years later, June and Doug packed their bags for Montréal, where Doug had accepted a position with the Aluminum Company of Canada. The young couple soon settled in suburban Baie d'Urfé to raise their family.

While Doug pursued his career in Montréal with engineering positions at Dominion Bridge and Pratt & Whitney, June ran the household. She proved to be a mother "extraordinaire," bringing up three very active children in the suburbs with all that entailed at the time - from Brownie badges and cub leader, to school assignments, to hockey practice, to bites by neighbourhood dogs and skinned knees. June managed it all. When there was time, her personal interests included painting, bridge and a song and dance group (the June Currie Dancers) that performed locally and at Expo 67! Through those years. June lived for her children and began a tradition of Sunday night roast beef dinners for family and friends that are remembered and talked about to this day. As her children grew older and things started to slow down a little, June entered the work force as the librarian at Fisheries Research Board of Canada. There, she held her ground against a coterie of brilliant, but often eccentric, scientists. She enjoyed the challenge and earned immeasurable respect from her colleagues.

Retirement saw June and Doug return to Toronto and settle in Port Credit, often spending summer weekends on Windlark, the family sailboat, in the Kingston area. June also became active in the University Club, and local book and gardening clubs but all with a watchful eye and love for her growing family.

June had a remarkable and wonderful life. She died peacefully at home in the presence of family members. Although she had become exceedingly tired over the past several weeks, thankfully she did not suffer from pain.

She retained her spirit, dignity and her sense of humour until the end.

June and her family were and are very appreciative of all the care and attention that she received from so many in the health care system - from her family physician, to the physicians and staff at Toronto Western where she was first admitted, to everyone at the Princess Margaret Myeloma Clinic, to the palliative caregivers assigned to help her over the past seven months and last, but certainly not least, to Bernadeth, Cynthia, Marissa, Shirley, Sonia and Gemma, June's "Dream Team" of in-home caregivers. It is a very long list! A celebration of June's life, for family members and friends, will be held in Toronto on March 30, 2018. Donations in June's memory to the Arthritis Society, or to the charity of your choice, would be most appreciated.

DORA MARIE HANSEN

Passed away peacefully on Sunday, February 4, 2018.

Beloved wife of the late Leif Hansen. Loving mother of Karin, Michael (Cindy) and the late Brian. Cherished grandmother of Tina, Chris, Rob, Rachel, Holly; and 4 great-grandchildren.

Dora was born November 22, 1928 in Denmark and came to Canada with her husband Leif in 1957. They resided in Oakville, Clarkson, Scarborough and Toronto.

Together they created L.

Hansen's Forwarding, an industry leader in automotive transportation. Dora enjoyed ballroom dancing, relaxing at her cottage in Lagoon City and time spent with family and friends.

A family service will be held at Pine Hills Cemetery & Funeral Centre, 625 Birchmount Rd., Scarborough (north of St. Clair Ave. E., 416-267-8229) on Saturday, February 10th at 10 a.m. with a visitation beginning at 9:30 a.m.

Friends and acquaintances of the Hansen family are invited to celebrate the life of Dora Hansen at a reception following services from 12 p.m. - 3 p.m. at the Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Ave., Toronto. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made in Dora's memory to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or Sunnybrook Hospital Foundation.

MARY KALANDA

Mary Elizabeth Kalanda (nee MacVicar) passed away on February 4, 2018. Mary was the loving wife to Brian Kalanda; doting mother to Robert and Kevin; supportive mother-in-law to Kristen Oliver; and devoted friend to many others.

Mary fought a very courageous battle from postsurgical complications. Mary was family first, but always found time to be an active member at Jubilee United Church and Delta Gamma, along with many other charitable organizations.

The visitation and memorial services will be at Jubilee United Church, at 40 Underhill Drive. The visitation services will be on Saturday, February 10th from 7 p.m. - 9:30 p.m. and Sunday, February 11th from 1 p.m. - 4 p.m., followed by the memorial service to be held on Monday, February 12th at 1 p.m. Memorial donations in lieu of flowers may be made to Crohn's and Colitis Canada.

ROBERT KILBORN

Robert McClure Kilborn died peacefully at Sunnyside Home on February 6, 2018 at the age of 94.

Bob (Killy) was born in Chengdu, China and was the son of medical missionaries of the United Church of Canada. He spent much of his childhood in China, moving back to Canada at the age of 18. He served in the Canadian Air Force in Brandon, Manitoba during WWII and then graduated from medical school at University of Toronto. Bob began his career as a family physician in North Bay and later practiced as an anesthetist in Kitchener. He served as the Medical Director of KW Hospital, and also ran a clinic for chronic pain. He was married to Lois Simpson (mother of Ian) who was lost to cancer in 1980. When grief began to recede, a new partnership with Mary Glen Calder Bender brought a beauty to living and loving for the maturing years.

Bob enjoyed spending time on Joe Island, Trout Lake, North Bay; and on the Flying Chief (Mary's boat) on Georgian Bay.

He is survived by his sisters, Francis and Jean; partner, Mary Bender; son, Ian (partner Robin); and grandchildren, Amber and Mia. Predeceased by his sister, Mary Eleanor. We thank the staff at Sunnyside Home, Briarfield Gardens, and Home Care Assistance for their kindness and compassion.

A celebration of life will be held in the spring.

Please contact iank@kos.net for details.

ROMAN MALINOWSKI

On Wednesday, February 7, 2018 at North York General Hospital.

Beloved son of Etia and the late Leon Malinowski. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Henryk Malinowski and Arina Malukova.

Loving uncle of Simon, and Victor.

A graveside service will take at the Community Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery, 11818 Bathurst Street on Friday, February 9, 2018 at 12:00 noon. Memorial donations may be made to the charity of your choice.

PERUMPRAL MATHEW MATHEW

Mathew, as he liked to be called, was born on May 28, 1928 and died sometime in the early hours of February 7, at his home in Port Hope, Ontario.

He was the very proud grandfather of Creston and Kieran, loving father of Himal and the most devoted husband to Rachel who died 10 years ago.

His life began on a simple hillside in South India, took him to the Himalayas, and then to Africa where the family survived and escaped the Biafran War. It's a good story.

Life in Canada began on a snowy December 1st in 1967 at Dorval Airport in Montreal, where Mathew, Rachel and Himal started over.

Mathew, like Rachel, was a dedicated high school teacher until his retirement. Former students still talk about the difference he made in their lives, indeed that both of them made.

After Rachel died Mathew lived with Himal and his family in Port Hope until his passing.

He was a gentle man, who loved a good conversation and cup of tea.

He was unfailingly kind. He loved his family and felt it was his duty to look after us right until the end.

A memorial service will take place at St. Mark's Anglican Church in Port Hope at 11 a.m. on Tuesday, February 13, with a reception to follow in the church hall.

EARL EDWARD PALMER

Taken from us suddenly, in bed at his beloved home, on Wednesday, February 7, 2018, in his 87th year.

Earl, a graduate of William & Mary College, Yale University, and the University of Toronto, enjoyed a long and successful career teaching law at Western University. He was also a highly respected labour arbitrator for close to half a century.

"The Duke," son of Dorothy and Edward Palmer, is survived by his beloved wife, Sally; and treasured sister, Jane. He was predeceased by his brother, Barry; and his son, Barry. He will be dearly missed by his daughter, Ellen; son, Bruce; niece, Jennie; and grandsons, Oscar and Archer. He leaves a great hole in the hearts of a host of friends and extended family.

Bon vivant, raconteur and accomplished chef, Earl was also given to using French words when English would have been equally appropriate. He loved to cook, drink wine, collect stamps and talk football or politics, and he indulged these passions with uncommon vigour.

As per Earl's wishes, there will be no formal funeral ceremonies.

There will be a celebration of life on Saturday, March 31st.

Donations to the Good Fox Program c/o Grace Lutheran Church Hamilton or The Heart and Stroke Foundation would be appreciated.

Please check the website: www.

circleoflifecbc.com for further details and updates.

ALAN THOMAS PEARSON

Alan, beloved husband and dearest friend of Chaviva Hosek for 37 years. Born Birmingham, England, April 27, 1939, died Toronto, Ontario, Canada, February 5, 2018.

Son of a sheet metal worker, an industrial designer by temperament, meticulous user of language and logic, honest to a fault with an overdeveloped sense of fairness, snappy dresser, obsessive and strategic shopper.

He lived his life honestly, compassionately and on his terms.

Son of Thomas Joseph Pearson, died in 1998, and, Jessie Wright, died in 1956. Educated at King Edward VI School, Birmingham; the University of Birmingham, B.Comm. Married Gloria Ifill, who died in 1981; son, Graham Calvin Pearson who died in 2013.

Lieutenant Royal Warwickshire Regiment, UK, seconded to the Ghana Army, 1959-1962. Senior Research Consultant to The Economist Intelligence Unit, London, UK, 1962-1966. Federal Public Servant Canada, 1966-1981.

President of the Couchiching Institute on Public Affairs, 19841986. President of the Stafford Beer Foundation, 1986-1999.

President of Alan Pearson Associates, 1981-2004.

Shiva visits will take place on Thursday, February 8th from 4:00 - 8:00 p.m. and on Sunday, February 11th from 4:00 - 8:00 p.m.

There will be a reception in Alan's honour to be held at The York Club, 135 St. George Street, Toronto, on Monday, February 12th from 5:00 - 8:00 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Pathways to Education, Toronto http://www.pathwaystoeducation.ca.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

JOAN HELEN SKELTON

Born March 30, 1924 in Kingston and died peacefully at home in Collingwood on Tuesday, February 6, 2018 at age 93.

Joan, beloved wife of Clifford Winston, loved her family, son, Paul (Nancy); grandchildren, Michael (Lila) and Christopher; and daughter, Penny. Her life was made complete by her love of the succession of Afghan Hounds that trooped through her home.

She is the last of the Nicklin clan, she was predeceased by her brother, Jim (1995); and sister, Rev. Canon Elizabeth Nicklin (Sister Benedetta CSC) (2012) Her life was packed with family, friends and business.

As co-owner of Skelton Galleries/Crow's Nest Books & Gifts she worked side by side with her husband, Cliff, and daughter, Penny.

Raised in Toronto, she attended Normal Model School and began her business career at Proctor & Gamble. Later when working at General Foods she met Cliff and married in 1951.

In 1957 a decision was made to "escape the city", the family moved to Collingwood where Cliff worked at Kaufman Furniture and she was busy raising two active and precocious children.

One day in 1967 the opportunity to open their own business came along, they bought a building and began to create a retail business based on their passions - books, imported gifts, stationery and original art. Following Cliff's death in 1996 Joan continued to work until she semi-retired in 2012.

The family would like to thank Dr. Mark Enright, Tracy and Amanda (St. Elizabeth's Nurses), Molly and Mary Jane (PSW's with CBI) for their care and attention. We would like to share a special thank you with the Bakery Department of our local Sobey's accomodating Mom's passion for lemon danishes by the dozen! Donations in memory of Joan may be made to the Georgian Triangle Humane Society.

Funeral Service will be held at All Saint's Anglican Church, 32 Elgin Street, Collingwood on Saturday, February 10, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Reception to follow in Harrison Hall.

Arrangements entrusted to Fawcett Funeral Home Collingwood.

WILLIAM DRAPER WILKEY MD MSc FRCP(Canada) MRCP(Edinburgh) June 16, 1924 - February 7, 2018

Passed peacefully at Chartwell LTC in London on the 7th of February at the age of 93. Much loved by his children, Cynthia Wilkey (Ron Wintrobe), Jennifer Wilkey, John Wilkey (Christine); his grandchildren, Curtis (Lisa), Patrick, Byron (Julia), Deirdre, Gillian; great-grandchildren, Simon, Shaela, Emilia, and Brennon; and his sister and brother-in-law, Chik and Dick Mair.

Predeceased by Noreen, his beloved wife of 56 years; his infant son, William Patrick; and his brother, Jack (Rose) Wilkey. Born in London, Ontario in 1924 to Cecile and Wilbert Wilkey, Bill lost his father at a young age and was raised by his mother Cecile through the depression years.

A gifted student, he graduated from Western University's medical school in 1946 at the age of 22. He interned at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver and, as newlyweds, he and Noreen took up positions at the hospital in Whitehorse, Noreen as a nurse and William as the only doctor in the Western Arctic. Post Graduate work and specialty training continued in Montreal and London, UK. He returned to Canada and settled in Woodstock, Ontario as the city's first Specialist in Internal Medicine. Pioneering that specialty included establishing the first Coronary Care Unit at the Woodstock General Hospital.

An old school physician, Bill was on call 24/7 for many years of his practice and continued to make house calls until he retired. Bill and Noreen enjoyed a lively social life in Woodstock centered around the Curling Club and the Golf club. But Bill's particular love was the beauty and challenge of sailing The Georgian Bay in Foxy Lady, their 27-foot sail boat. It was there that he could get respite from the demands of his medical practice and be nurtured by the water, wind, loons and serenity of hidden coves and passageways.

He and Noreen were avid travelers, open to what the world had to offer, excited to experience new cultures and travelled to many places with their children and grandchildren including Italy, Africa, Machu Picchu and the Galapagos. An enduring gift to his children has been his example of a life of service, compassion, integrity, respect for education, openness and his belief in the importance of family, friends and fun.

Friends and relatives are invited to join the family at the Brock and Visser Funeral Home, 845 Devonshire Ave., Woodstock, 519-539-0004 on Thursday, February 15, 2018 from 1:00 p.m. - 2:00 p.m., where the memorial service will be held on Thursday at 2:00 p.m. Cremation has taken place. If desired, memorial contributions may be considered to Médecins Sans Frontières/ Doctors Without Borders or the World Wildlife Fund. Online condolences at http://www.brockandvisser.com Many thanks to the wonderful staff of Chartwell London LTC, who cared for Bill during his last two years - a vulnerable and difficult time for him - and to the staff of the Woodstock General Hospital for their care while he was still in Woodstock.

RUTH JANET WILSON (née Ruste) November 15, 1920 - February 4, 2018

Beloved wife of the Reverend Leonard Wilson (1915-1995) of Bowmanville. Loving mother of Mel, Ronna (Jack), Janet, John, and Margaret (Murray). Bestemor to James (Jaclyn), Kathleen (Kale), Ian, Atticus, Dieter, and Haley; and great-grandmother to Garrett and Aaron. Fondly remembered by Mildred MacDougal, Ian Shaw, Maurice Pompey, and by her many other dear relatives and friends in Ontario, Alberta, and Norway.

A gentle end to a life lived "in spirit and in truth". John 4:24

DR. JERRY ROMAN ZOWNIR

Passed away peacefully on Tuesday, February 6, 2018 at age 82 years. Loving father of Mark (Kristin), Jeff (Laura) and Chris.

Proud grandfather of Sofia and Viktorija. Brother of the late Stefania and late Jane (late Stan).

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W. (East of the Jane subway) on Sunday from 1 until 6 p.m. Funeral Mass will be held at Church of the Resurrection, 1 Resurrection Road on Monday, February 12, 2018 at 11 a.m. Private interment Glendale Memorial Gardens.

If friends so desire memorial donations may be made to the St. Michael's Hospital Foundation.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

CLANELL TERESA ARCHER (nee Groeneman) October 16, 1930 - February 8, 2017

Wife, mother, grandmother and friend. Clanell was born in Colorado Springs, and grew up in Kansas City, MO. After losing her mother, Clanell relocated to Colombia to teach at the American School in Barranquilla where, in 1953, she met her future husband, Jack. Thereafter, she gave birth to her only son, Christopher.

The family eventually relocated to Libya, before finally settling in Calgary, AB. Clanell and Jack retired happily in Victoria, B.C.

She loved family, friends, dogs, gardening, reading, and cooking.

She was compassionate, elegant, creative, and outspoken. She was the moral and intellectual compass for her family, and fiercely loyal to her friends. She was passionate about public education, and gave generously to those less fortunate.

She is survived by her husband of 65 years, Jack; her son, Christopher; her three grandchildren, Mary, Ellen and Paul; numerous nieces and nephews; and friends.

Her passing one year ago left a huge hole in our hearts and she is forever missed.

Memorial donations may be made to the Calgary Public Library, or the Salvation Army.

Wireless wave: The information superhighway is about to get a whole lot faster
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Canadian telcos are starting to test the latest leap in wireless technology, called 5G. It has the potential to dramatically change communications, Christine Dobby reports, connecting devices at extraordinary speeds to make our cities run better. But Canada has some catching up to do
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By CHRISTINE DOBBY
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B12


Abobsled pilot grips the handle, coils into a squat and then springs forward with her teammate, hurtling her body into the sled as it takes off down the icy track. Watching the event live on your smartphone, you see what she sees as a tiny camera captures the view from her helmet while the crew navigates twists and turns at speeds of up to 150 kilometres an hour.

That sort of in-the-moment perspective isn't available to most Olympic fans yet, but a South Korean company has been testing its potential at this month's Pyeongchang Games, using next-generation wireless technology to take viewers on a ride down ice-covered courses and give them jawdropping glimpses of every rotation in a figure skater's triple Axel.

KT Corp., the country's second largest wireless carrier, is using the Olympic backdrop to demonstrate the world's first large-scale trial deployment of 5G technology, the latest iteration of wireless networking that will support uploads of real-time high-definition video, instantly responsive remote control and a vast increase in the number of devices and sensors that can be connected.

Working with partners Intel, Samsung and Ericsson, KT has installed 5G-connected cameras in the ice arena, on the cross country ski track and on athletes' helmets, giving spectators at the Olympic venues the chance to follow the bobsled track in real time or view skating replays from every angle on 5G-enabled tablets.

The demonstration won't last beyond the Games - 5G isn't ready for permanent deployment yet - but wireless carriers, equipment makers and governments around the world are pushing hard to prepare for it.

Back home in Canada, Alexander Brock, Rogers Communications Inc.'s senior vice-president of network technology and IT, is visibly excited as he describes the benefits of the groundbreaking technology. Standing in Rogers Centre in downtown Toronto, where the stadium is playing host to a 5G field test, Mr. Brock conjures a world with no limit to what innovators can create with lightning-fast speeds, almost zero lag time and vast data capacity.

Baseball fans at the concrete dome where the Blue Jays play could one day experience the game from the point of view of the batter, as minicameras beam a live shot of his view up to their smartphones. They could also get instant data on the speed of a pitch or a hit, watch the game from a different angle using interactive controls and see an athlete's stats superimposed on a handset's display. And that's on top of simply uploading videos, tweets and Facebook photos in the middle of a massive crowd all trying to do the same, without overloading the network.

"Think of whatever you could do in your home or the office over a wired connection: The wires are gone," Mr. Brock said in an interview from the 200-level of the Rogers Centre. "5G opens up all sorts of possibilities for applications and services we can't even dream of today because of the fact that you've essentially taken all the connectivity in a place and put it in your pocket.

"I think that opens up an enormous amount of innovation capability."

But before the 5G revolution gets under way, Canada's wireless companies have a lot of work to do. Wireless speeds in a 5G world are expected to be remarkably fast - with download rates of up to 10 gigabits a second, 10 times faster than current top-of-the-line home internet service - and the lag time between sending a message and its arrival should be reduced to almost nothing at less than one millisecond. (Such speeds would allow a consumer to download a high-definition movie in less than a second.)

To deliver that high-speed connectivity, the next generation of cellular networks will use new types of airwaves that don't travel far, meaning carriers will need to build dense webs of small cell towers - on the sides of buildings, on lampposts, even on newspaper boxes - to carry signals. The cells are about the size of a laptop.

Rogers has installed 88 small cells at the Rogers Centre to boost its current LTE (long-term evolution or 4G) coverage, but that, along with others it has installed elsewhere, represents only a small fraction of the extensive network it will need to support 5G service. National rivals Telus Corp. and BCE Inc. have already invested more in thousands of small cells, new radio equipment and fibre-optic networks.

All three of the big telecoms want to win this high-stakes competition for Canadian smartphone subscribers and the burgeoning Internet of Things (IoT) market. While they're tightlipped about how much they're spending specifically on 5G, it's clear that the costs will be extensive: A Morgan Stanley Research report last fall predicted carriers around the world will spend a projected US$225-billion on the 5G rollout by 2040. Over the next four years alone, the countries leading the way on 5G - China, Japan, South Korea and the United States - will spend a combined US$8-billion, according to another report by U.S. consulting firm Technology Business Research.

It's a high-stakes undertaking but the Canadian telecoms have to seize it. As cable television and home phone subscribers decline, they're counting on data-based services - wireless and home internet - for growth. And 5G technology is important because it will let carriers tap into new markets for business customers, with features that will support a vast increase in the number of connected devices and sensors.

To win the race here and remain competitive with international leaders, Canadian carriers need to build more cell sites, put new antenna and radio technology to work and redesign their core networks. They'll also need to persuade the federal government to move fast to free up the airwaves needed for 5G. All three are running tests and hitting eye-popping speeds in controlled environments and right now, it's anyone's guess who will come out ahead. The only thing that's certain is the promise of 5G and the conviction that Canada doesn't want to fall behind.

THE BIG BUILD: SPECTRUM, SMALL CELLS AND FIBRE

Cell service works by sending radio signals from your smartphone - over frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum - to the antenna on a nearby cell tower. Those signals are then sent back into your wireless carrier's core network, which may be connected to the tower by a fibreoptic cable in the ground or by an over-the-air transmission to another nearby tower.

Today's networks were built using low- and medium-frequency spectrum, prized for its ability to travel long distances and penetrate into buildings. Future networks will still use those bands but they will also rely on new, much higher-frequency bands known as "millimetre-wave" spectrum.

Millimetre waves can carry huge amounts of data but they don't travel far, so 5G networks will rely on a mix of large cell towers for broad coverage as well as a web of small cell sites. These lowpowered radio access nodes will be placed close together to provide speed and capacity in hightraffic areas and you'll find them both inside and on the side of buildings, on hydro poles and streetlights. With this type of spectrum, "you may need sites every 300 metres or so," says Bruce Rodin, vice-president of wireless technologies at BCE.

"The key ingredients for 5G are going to be spectrum and cell sites," Chris Pearson, president of 5G America, said in early February at an industry conference in Ottawa, adding operators will need a mix of low-, medium- and highfrequency spectrum.

With the Toronto Blue Jays' home opener around the corner, Rogers Centre is the perfect place to put small-cell technology to work. "You've got 50,000 people - on a good day - a lot of concrete, lots of things that can interfere and multiple frequencies, so we actually use this as a test bed for things," Mr. Brock says.

Those 88 small cells that Rogers installed at its stadium not only provide more capacity for its LTE network - the company is also running a 5G test there through a partnership with Ericsson, Qualcomm and Samsung.

"5G is as much about real estate as it is about technology," Mr. Brock says, adding that it won't all be as simple as the Rogers Centre, which the company owns. "Just finding the right locations for small cells and getting to them - that's going to be the challenge."

Canadian carriers say they will begin deploying 5G mobile services around 2020, but they are already aggressively improving their current networks with advances that will help lay the groundwork for the next generation. So-called "LTE advanced" technology uses new radio techniques (with dozens of tiny antennas), straps different bands of spectrum together to improve efficiency and also relies on small cells to increase speed and fill in capacity in high-traffic areas where customers experience poor service.

"We're already cell-splitting and subdividing to really, really small sites that give such incredible coverage," said BCE chief executive officer George Cope in an interview. His company recently revealed plans to install 4,000 more small cell sites in its network this year, to have 10,000 by the end of the year. In November, the company announced an agreement with Metro News to install mini wireless towers on newspaper boxes, calling it a costeffective way to use existing real estate. "Those small cells really are for our LTE-advanced service, but it sets us up for 5G," Mr. Cope said.

But even those webs of small cells running new bands of spectrum won't work without a strong core network to back them up. To deliver on the promises of 5G, Canadian carriers are largely counting on fibre-optic networks for "backhaul," or the connection between the cell site and the broader network.

Fibre-optic cables send signals along strands of glass at the speed of light and those tiny strands can carry huge amounts of data.

"Think about the capacity in a single fibre: it's terabits per second," Damian Plotz, vice-president of technology strategy and networks at Shaw Communications Inc., said at the Ottawa conference. One terabit per second is about 1,000 times faster than one gigabit per second, which in itself is about the download speed of top home internet services. "Fibre is absolutely critical to 5G."

(Shaw is still working on its LTE network and has not shared its plans for 5G. The company did not agree to an interview.) Canada already has far more fibre in its wireless networks than many parts of the world. That's due in part to a battle for market share among the country's biggest telecom companies, which offer both residential and wireless services. To compete with each other, that's meant they've had to invest in wiring up neighbourhoods to sell faster internet and TV services as well as building cell towers for good wireless coverage.

BCE and Telus were originally telephone utilities, which had slower copper wiring than their cable rivals Rogers and Shaw, who gained an edge in home broadband service. Over the past several years, the two telcos have both spent billions extending fibre-optic service directly to customers' homes to catch up.

The main goal of those labourintensive fibre builds - tearing up city streets and trampling through gardens - was to keep residential TV and internet subscribers away from their rivals.

But both BCE and Telus say their wireless operations have also benefited from more fibre throughout the networks. They expect that to continue.

"Without that fibre, the concept of 5G just doesn't work," BCE's Mr. Cope said.

"Whether it's LTE or 5G, you still have to have fibre deployed deep, deep, deep into your access network, and that's where the big costs are," said Telus CEO Darren Entwistle on an investor call in early February.

Telus built its first small cell in 2012 and now has more small cell sites than the traditional "macro" sites you would find on towers or rooftops, says Eros Spadotto, executive vice-president of technology strategy. "We recognized that's where the technology is heading."

Rogers, meanwhile, had been Canada's leader on LTE, but in recent years, the company pulled back on network investments. It relied more on microwave transmission than fibre and built fewer small cells than its rivals. Thirdparty tests over the past year have shown that Telus and Bell regularly rank well ahead of Rogers on maximum and average download speeds as well as latency.

When Joe Natale became CEO last April and took stock of the situation, he began ramping up technology spending in the second half of the year (while trimming expenses elsewhere in the company). Rogers spent almost $200-million more on its wireless and cable networks in 2017 than it did in 2016. And the company plans to spend between $214-million and $414-million more on overall capital expenditures this year compared with last.

Speaking with investors in January, Mr. Natale says the company has now, "accelerated the move to 4.5G LTE-advanced technology while setting the stage for a smooth evolution to 5G." He said Rogers was able to buy the latest equipment at better prices, is building more small cell sites and, on its cable network side, is "driving fibre deeper into our access network."

Telus appears to be most prepared for 5G thanks to the work it has already put in on building small cells and improving its core network. "Telus management had the foresight to embark on its generational fibre and small cell investment even before 2015," Scotia's Mr. Fan wrote in a report and RBC Securities analyst Drew McReynolds says the company now has less spending ahead of it, thanks to its "industry-leading 5G preparation."

BCE and Telus also have the advantage of a network sharing agreement - they share the radio access portion of their networks and each one is responsible for roughly half the country - and the cost efficiencies that brings will help them even more in the shift to 5G, says Scotia Capital analyst Jeff Fan. They have also been more public than Rogers about the results of their 5G tests and have started to talk about industries they hope to target with the service, with Telus pursuing the health care business and BCE looking at agriculture and smart city applications.

But there is still time for Rogers to catch up, says Desjardins Securities' Maher Yaghi: The company is using strong profit growth to "make added investments in its networks in order to be well positioned for the upcoming 5G rollout in two years."

HOW WILL 5G CHANGE THE WORLD AT LARGE?

As Canadian carriers battle to roll out 5G networks, the new technology has the potential to dramatically change our world, going far beyond streaming YouTube videos faster or posting concert selfies in a flash.

"I'm just not sure consumers are going to pay extra for 5G," says Mr. Fan, adding smartphone subscribers already get good speeds on LTE networks. "I think 5G will be more about vertical solutions and business applications," he said, pointing to agriculture, the health care industry and smart cities as potential clients.

"When I talk to people actually developing 5G, the stuff that they are most excited about is not phones. It's things like autonomous vehicles - self-driving cars and trucks - smart cities and sensors," said Sascha Segan, lead mobile analyst for PCMag. "5G is going to be able to connect a lot more tiny devices to the network more cheaply and easily, so you're going to be able to put more sensors on things around a city and be able to have the city's services respond more intelligently."

By 2023, Ericsson predicts, there will be 20 billion IoT-connected devices, up from about seven billion in 2017.

Take cycling to work, for example. A long commute becomes a lot easier with heated bike paths to keep your route clear of snow.

Add retractable, all-weather canopies that glide out to cover the path when it rains and you're more likely to stick with your ride instead of taking the car or cramming into a crowded bus.

That vision of urban living - one that entices people to spend time outside - could become reality for a dilapidated section of Toronto's Port Lands if Alphabet Inc.'s plans for "Sidewalk Toronto" come to pass. Google Inc.'s parent company wants to install sensors on just about everything in its Quayside development, which is starting with a US$50-million investment in planning for a 12acre district along the waterfront and could expand to a much larger project in the surrounding 750 acres.

Beyond an easier bike ride to work, smart cities will also use sensors to monitor traffic flow and adjust signals as needed, help drivers find vacant parking spots instead of burning gas circling around and turn streetlights on only when needed to save energy.

Sidewalk Labs says it will use WiFi and LTE cellular networks for its smart neighbourhood, but as 5G networks develop, they will play a key role in the expansion of IoT. Today's network connections "are often not reliable or fast enough or drain too much power," according to a Morgan Stanley Research report, but 5G technology is expected to improve that.

As the number of connected devices balloons, it will be an important business opportunity for wireless carriers looking for new growth amid a maturing smartphone market. The number of IoT devices connected over cellular networks is still relatively small but Ericsson projects it will increase at a compound annual rate of 26 per cent by 2023, compared with just 3 per cent for the growth in mobile phones.

Carriers are already tapping into that market, with BCE, for example, supporting an IoT pilot project with the Henry of Pelham vineyard in Ontario's Niagara region. Sensors connected to BCE's wireless network will allow the winery to remotely monitor temperature and moisture levels, with the goal of healthier plants, lower operating costs and better wine.

For the Henry of Pelham pilot, BCE had to customize part of its LTE network to provide low-speed data over wide areas with high power efficiency. In a 5G world, that will become easier and more common thanks to "network slicing" - carriers will build one main network and use software to create virtual "slices" dedicated to supporting specific use cases. "In some ways it's a precursor to 5G," BCE's Mr. Rodin said of the wine country trial.

Many IoT sensors don't need to send much data but they do depend on long battery life. That means that part of a 5G network can be dedicated to wide-coverage, low-bandwidth connections - just enough to send small pieces of information - and use less complicated computing equipment to lower the battery demands.

But other applications in a 5G world will depend far more on increased speed and data capacity as well as virtually instantaneous real-time responses. Remote control drones could begin doing the dangerous work of monitoring hard-to-reach parts of the power grid, for example, taking the place of workers flying in helicopters.

To transmit high-def video, a drone will need a high-capacity network and to respond to controls in real time, it will depend on ultra-low latency and reliability.

Network slicing will let 5G operators create dedicated channels with those specific functions.

Low latency and super-high capacity networks will also enable futuristic technology, such as remote surgery, remote-controlled robots for mines and factories and, yes, driverless cars and trucks. Today's autonomous vehicles operate using internal sensors to detect what's happening around the car. But once connected to 5G networks - with latency low enough to support instantaneous decisions - they'll be able to react to road conditions as a whole, not just what their own vehicle detects. "When they drop off that larger 5G network, autonomous vehicles will be back to using their own eyes and ears, but when they're on the larger network, it will be like they have superpowers," Mr. Segan said.

Architects and engineers could use augmented reality applications to project previously twodimensional drawings onto a wall in 3-D. Businesses outside of urban centres that struggle to get reliable broadband could some day rely on 5G networks. It will "change the way businesses work.

Because essentially we're removing all of the impediments," Rogers's Mr. Brock said.

CANADA'S VUE D'ENSEMBLE FOR 5G

South Korea already has the fastest LTE networks worldwide, so its Olympic-sized push to get to 5G first makes sense. Japan and China are also working hard to be 5G pioneers and on this side of the world, the two biggest U.S. carriers, AT&T and Verizon, plan to roll out fixed wireless 5G - which is used for home internet service - later this year. Canadian carriers, which already have fast, fibrebased or cable home broadband networks, are more interested in 5G for mobile service.

Canada's own LTE networks are the fastest of the G8 countries, close to the top of world speed rankings, and also offer broad coverage - independent testing agency OpenSignal recently called the country an "LTE powerhouse - and the industry is well positioned to be competitive in the race for 5G. The world's biggest equipment vendors are testing their equipment here - Huawei, Ericsson and Nokia all have offices clustered near the federal government's own Communications Research Centre in Ottawa.

Canadians also pay among the highest rates in the world for cell service, leaving Bell, Rogers and Telus with healthy balance sheets and the three have shown their willingness to invest in big, sometimes risky capital projects. But their ability to move fast on 5G will be contingent on getting their hands on the airwaves to make it work and some are concerned the federal government is not moving quickly enough to release crucial bands of spectrum.

"I think the Canadian carriers are a little behind the leaders when it comes to 5G, because your regulators have been slow to make important spectrum available to them," said PCMag's Mr.

Segan, who has conducted annual tests on Canadian networks, tracking speed and latency.

The government is close to releasing final rules on an auction for radio waves in the 600-megahertz frequency, which is lowband spectrum that will help provide wide coverage in 5G networks, and it has an active consultation under way on millimetre-wave spectrum. But spectrum consultations can take months or years to wrap up and there still is no firm timeline of when auctions will be held or even in which order the spectrum will be released or reassessed.

Critics says Canada is not moving quickly enough on one particular band that is emerging as key for 5G deployments. Spectrum in the range of 3.5 gigahertz is crucial for making the service work properly, as it offers a blend of capacity and reach.

"The rest of the world is focused on 3.5 gig. It will be the primary 5G band around the planet," says Telus's Mr. Spadotto said.

"When is 5G meaningful? It's only meaningful when it's widespread and the tool to deploy it on a widespread basis is 3.5 gig spectrum."

He worries the speed of "technology adoption is now greater than the bureaucracy can actually maintain."

The federal government referenced the band (as well as nearby frequencies) in an October "spectrum outlook," and bureaucrats at Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, the department responsible for regulating the airwaves, are well aware of the intense interest in it. However, ISED has yet to launch a formal consultation with a specific proposal on how to use the 3.5 GHz band. A recent Qualcomm report showed out of 11 of the world's most developed countries, only Canada is not at least consulting on a plan for spectrum in this range.

"3.5 is probably going to be the workhorse for 5G and nothing has started," said Johanne Lemay, copresident of telecom consultancy Lemay-Yates Associates Inc. "It does seem that we do not have a real vue d'ensemble, if you want, as to how we will use spectrum to deploy 5G," she added, referencing a French expression for "big picture."

"On the technology front, I think Canadian carriers have what it takes to deploy this.

They're not lacking in skills and resources," Ms. Lemay said, adding, "it's not clear at all that when the technology is available - let's say we're talking 2020 - that there will be spectrum available for this in Canada."

But Innovation Minister Navdeep Bains says he understands that the 3.5-GHz band "will be crucial" - ISED included it in the 2018 to 2022 spectrum outlook to get feedback "from all parties on the potential of this" and wants to get it right. "We're actively engaged and we think we're headed in the right direction."

The minister adds that while certain 5G bands of spectrum may not be commercially available yet, the government has a shortterm deployment licence model that allows temporary access to spectrum to run tests. "We're providing innovators with the ability to access 5G spectrum. ... There's actually quite a bit of activity and initiative by companies coming to Canada."

As carriers build thousands of new cell sites to put new spectrum to work, they say they also need municipalities and utility companies to clear a path to placing antennas and radio equipment on buildings and hydro poles.

"Today, there's really a patchwork of regulatory requirements and restrictions," David Watt, senior vice-president of regulatory affairs at Rogers said at the Ottawa conference. "A lot of people look at our industry as a very wealthy industry and would like to charge us very significant fees. That's really not going to work due to the number of sites that have to be deployed.

"Municipalities need to view us as infrastructure partners, not as a cash cow."

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Monday, February 5, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B16


CAROL AUSTIN

On Friday, February 2, 2018 at home with her family.

Beloved wife of the late Fred Austin. Cherished mother and mother-in-law of Shawn Austin and Lianne Singer, and Lesley and Sheldon Clark. Dear sister and sister-in-law of Norman and Anita Cohen. Devoted daughter of the late Ben and Esther Cohen. Carol will be fondly remembered by her many close friends and Temple Har Zion sisters.

She was an avid traveller, sports fan, cook, and lover of music and the arts. She loved a great conversation, especially about politics, literature, and world affairs. Her passion for life was undimmed by adversity and loss, and will inspire all those who knew and loved her.

At Temple Har Zion, 7360 Bayview Avenue, Thornhill (north of Steeles) for service on Monday, February 5, 2018 at 11:00 a.m.

Interment Temple Har Zion Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 86 Belmont Street, Toronto.

Donations in Carol's memory may be made to the Temple Har Zion Sisterhood Fund, 905-889-2252.

PETER DAVID BALLANTYNE

We are very sad to let everyone know that Peter died on February 2, 2018. His death, although expected, leaves us all with a huge hole in our lives -- one that friends and family will understand and help to fill in the years ahead.

Peter is survived by his wife, Margot Howard; and their two children, Jake and Annie; and Peter's sister and brothers and their families, Susan Ballantyne and Ken Bird and son, Sam Ballantyne; James and Vicky Ballantyne and their sons, Will, Hamish and Finley and Jeff; and Trish Ballantyne and their daughter, Rose, and son, Lucas Davies. Margot's family, Nancy, Gillian, Peter and Leslie, Ian and Robin and their sons, Chris, Daniel, and daughter, Rachael, will always miss him. Peter's parents, Ann Ballantyne (nee Gerow) and David Ballantyne, passed away many years ago.

Peter was born on June 3, 1956 in Fredericton, New Brunswick and, while Toronto became home during law school, New Brunswick and the family cottage at Robertson Point continued to be a very special place for Peter, Margot, Jake and Annie.

Peter graduated from Ridley College in 1975, the Ivey Business School in 1979, and University of Toronto's Law School in 1983 after a summer as Frank Iacobucci's student in 1982, or as Frank is delighted to remember, the summer Italy won the World Cup.

Later, Frank was to marry Peter and Margot in a family ceremony in their backyard. Something greatly appreciated by Peter who had a gift for maintaining friendships throughout his life.

The family truly appreciates the care and support that they have received from their friends and family over the years - the connections run deep.

Following graduation from law school, Peter began his career in 1983 at Torys LLP, a firm that became his professional home for life. He has described Torys as a remarkable place to practice with his colleagues and friends at Torys giving him huge support throughout the course of his illness. Peter became a partner in 1991 and really believed that there is no better partnership. Peter was one of the first (if not the first) lawyer in Canada to focus on the private equity funds formation space, a step he at one point feared might be too specialized but which proved, through great colleagues and amazing clients, to be an area that continues to thrive.

Peter's diagnosis of cancer came in 2006 and both he and Margot want to recognize the extraordinary care he received from his entire care team throughout the next 11 years at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Toronto General Hospital. Drs. Neil Fleshner, Gary Rodin, Pauline Pariser and Denny DePetrillo were with Peter and Margot throughout.

He would also like to recognize the whole chemotherapy and radiation therapy teams at Princess Margaret as well as the Toronto General Emergency Department.

Peter viewed the 11 years from diagnosis to now as a time to live life to the fullest and spend as much time with his family as he could. This wouldn't have been possible without the medical care that he received.

The palliative team, led by Dr. Breffni Hannon, made sure that Peter was able to live the last year of his life with as little pain as possible and to do most things he wished to do. There really aren't words to express how much we appreciate the palliative care we received and how they have made the unbearable bearable.

Peter also wanted to acknowledge the transfusion team at Princess Margaret and the blood donors who took the time to give the gift of life and made it possible for him to live a high quality and engaged life in his final year. It was important to Peter and to Margot that he was able to take Jake to university for first year and be there to make sure that Annie had someone at the finish line of most of her races and to support her many accomplishments at school.

No person could be a prouder Dad than Peter of his two kids.

A service of remembrance will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Friday, February 9, 2018 at the Rosedale United Church with a reception to follow at the church. An online guestbook is available at http://www.etouch.ca.

Peter has asked that if you wish to make a donation in his memory he would greatly appreciate support for Princess Margaret Cancer Centre or the Emergency Department at Toronto General Hospital. He would also hope that you consider becoming a blood donor to the Canadian Blood Services.

OLGA BURMAN 1919-2018

Died peacefully in her sleep during the early morning of January 31, 2018 in Toronto Ontario.

Predeceased by her husband, Eric Burman and survived by her daughters, Suzanne (Chris) and Michele (Steve).

Also survived by nieces and nephews, Elizabeth (predeceased by Chuck), Robert (Lyndell) and Kathleen (Pierre).

Many thanks to the staff at Belmont House especially Gail Walker who always treated her with respect and care.

Special thanks to her devoted caregivers, Sheila, Carmen and Olga.

A memorial service will be held at a future date in Montreal.

JULIA ELIZABETH CAMERON (nee Beatty)

Died in her home on her own terms, February 1, 2018 in Peterborough, Ontario, she lived with Kidney Disease. She was 80.

Julia was born in Toronto on February 6, 1937 to Elizabeth (Betty) Breymann Beatty (nee Smith) and William Lee Beatty.

She grew up in Toronto, attending Brown Public School and North Toronto Collegiate. She spent all her summers as a child and as an adult on her beloved Stony Lake. She married a Stony Laker and her life partner Donald in 1957.

After a move to Peterborough, Julia discovered her tremendous skills at Real Estate. She was able to combine her loves, Stony Lake and Real Estate, and was very successful selling and listing on the lake from her cottage 'Greyrocks' for over 20 years. She loved her career in-a-boat, and was often heard to say "You've got to know where the rocks aren't!!"

Getting her hands into the black earth of her garden, travelling with her husband, Donald, as well as deeply instilling love of travel and exploration with both her granddaughters were everyday activities for Julia. She was creative in everything she did and in her retirement took to oil painting and graphite drawing with great passion.

Julia is survived by her daughter, Breymann; and son-in-law, Mark Russell; granddaughters, Celine and Sally Russell; kid sister, Angela McCumber (nee Beatty); brother-in-law, David McCumber; twin brother, Sandy Beatty; sisterin-law, Margaret Beatty (nee Stewart); cousin, David Dodge (Chris); and nieces and nephews, Alex (Joanna), Jennifer (Tim), Susan and Jamie McKay (Cindy).

She was predeceased by her husband, Donald John Vansittart Cameron; and her son, Michael Livingstone Cameron.

Before Julia's passing, a request was made for those who wished to send her tulips. The response was overwhelming! Both Julia and the family would like to extend a heartfelt thanks to the many who contributed. A friend described it as "our plan to catapult Julia into an early spring," and it really worked!! Julia and her family would like to thank the multitude of caregivers and doctors who have been so supportive on her journey.

There will be a celebration of life for Julia at her home in East City on Sunday, February 11 at 2 p.m. All are welcome to attend. In lieu of flowers, Julia requested donation to the Canadian Kidney Foundation or Peterborough Regional Health Centre. Online condolences may be expressed http://www.highlandparkfuneralcentre.com.

WILLIAM JAMES DESLAURIERS

Peacefully, with family, on Saturday, February 3, 2018, at Sunnybrook Hospital, age 89.

Bill grew up in North Toronto and studied at the University of Toronto where he obtained both his undergraduate and his law degrees.

It was there he met Doreen, to whom he was a wonderful husband until her passing in 2005.

Bill was the Gold Medalist in his graduating year at U of T Law School, and joined the practice of John S.D. Tory in 1954. In 1963, Bill joined forces with his U of T classmates John and Jim Tory, and Art Binnington, to found Tory, Tory, DesLauriers & Binnington. Subsequently renamed Torys LLP, the firm grew to become one of Canada's largest and preeminent law firms.

In the early part of his career, Bill was a busy corporate lawyer with a practice that focused on securities and mergers and acquisitions.

He found his true calling as an international tax lawyer, travelling extensively in support of his clients. He became a trusted adviser to the Thomson family and The Thomson Corporation with their extensive business holdings around the world.

Bill loved the law and he loved his clients, many of whom were or became his close friends. He particularly enjoyed collaborating with colleagues in solving the most complex legal problems.

In more recent years, Bill continued his work as senior counsel at the firm performing pro bono work and serving on the boards of a number of charities or institutions, including St. Michael's College, Henry Carr Farms St. Lucia Missions and the Mediaeval Studies Foundation.

Bill was a dedicated family man, and he was happiest spending time with his five children and seven grandchildren. A gentleman farmer, he loved working and entertaining at his farm north of Toronto near the Hockley Valley and, more recently, angling and playing cards with family and friends at the family fishing camp in Sioux Lookout, Ontario.

Bill leaves behind his children, Mark (Wendy), Rick (Deb), David (Nicolas), Cathy (David Merry) and Jamie; his seven grandchildren, Jay and Matt; Alexander and Danielle; and Adam, Brian and Michael; and his loving sisterin-law, Beverley. He was predeceased by his two brothers, Gerry and David.

Visitation will be held at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Avenue West, on Wednesday, February 7, 4:00-7:00 p.m. A mass of Christian burial will be held in Blessed Sacrament Church, 24 Cheritan Avenue, on Thursday, February 8, at 10:30 a.m. Reception to follow the mass with details to be provided.

The family would like to thank Dr. Sheldon and the wonderful staff at Sunnybrook Hospital, including Dr. Ko. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Odette Cancer Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital or a Catholic charity of your choice.

MARY KEENAN (nee BRENNAN) May 22, 1925 January 28, 2018

Born in St. John New Brunswick, Mary was an intrepid selfstarter who ran away from the orphanage at age 13. An eternal optimist, who always brought out the best in others. A natural beauty who dressed in style.

Mary will be remembered for her irresistible charm, joie de vivre, contemporary attitude, equanimity, and her dynamic personality. She was a sungoddess till the very last. She worked as a highly progressive office manager for the National Hockey League (NHL) in Officiating and later Central Scouting. She took great pride in the publication of her creative memoir, 'Molly: Child Number 583'.

She leaves her adoring children, Mary Corey (Paul), Frank Keenan (Donna), Patrick Keenan, and Molly Malone (Michael); grandchildren, Julie (Tim), Tom (Marty), Brennan (Christine), Katie (Josh), Marion (Grayson) and Jack; and great-grandchildren, Genny, Liam, Nicholas, Fiona, Bella and Fergus. Her devoted partner, WWII navy veteran, Jim Hull.

Loved daughter-in-law, Sharon.

Her loving brother, Larry O'Toole in Alabama. Long found Brennan cousins in Ireland and England are mourning her loss. Predeceased by her granddaughter, Jennifer Marie Corey; and by her former husband, Frank Keenan.

As she has always declared, her legacy is her family. We will keep her forever in our hearts and she will continue to dazzle us from beyond.

The family gathered privately for an Irish wake to pay tribute to this marvelous woman. Cremation will take place with interment at Park Lawn Cemetery. A celebration of life is planned for the Spring.

Donations in Mary's memory may be made to the International Festival of Authors (IFOA), with a focus on supporting fledgling Irish-Canadian writers, by calling or emailing Madeline McCaffrey (416-973-4147 or giving@ifoa.org).

LUCIANA ELISABETTA LARNER (neé Urettini) March 8, 1926 - February 2, 2018

Peacefully at home, surrounded by family.

Coming of age in war torn Treviso, Italy, Luciana, met her husband Lt. Gordon Larner. They married in 1948 in Birmingham, England, where their first child Anthony was born. The family immigrated to Toronto in 1951, and soon expanded to include Erika, Moira and Steven. As well as being a full-time mother, Luciana enjoyed a lengthy career as an Executive Secretary at Douglas Aircraft/ McDonnell Douglas.

Luciana will be remembered by many for her fabulous sense of style, and her exceptionally creative nature. Her many talents included knitting, sewing, cooking, reading in several languages and gardening.

Luciana was predeceased by her beloved husband of 60 years, Gordon. Loving mother to Tony and his wife, Barbara, Erika, Moira Sauvé and her husband, Brad, and Steven. Wonderful Nana to Jamie Larner and his wife, Ming, Jennifer Patterson and her husband, Mark, Patrick Larner-Corbett, Erin, Nick and Dana Sauvé, and greatgrandmother to Audrey Larner.

A Celebration of Life will be held at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy. 10, N. of QEW), on Wednesday, February 7, 2018 from 2-4 and 6-9 p.m., with the Eulogy at 7:00 p.m.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

FRANCES BARBARA JEAN LYONS

82 Years, Saturday, February 3, 2018 at Extendicare York, Sudbury.

Beloved daughter of George Hamilton and Anne Barbara (Crilly) Lyons, predeceased.

Loving godmother to Mark (Sylvia) Galbraith, Catherine (Hans) Buhrmester, Linda (David) Kearney, Susan Lane, Jennifer (Bob) Panek, and Christine Leblanc.

Sadly missed by many cousins and good friends.

Special thanks for the care of Frances to the staff at Extendicare York. Frances was a dedicated and inspiring educator for many years in Toronto, Ottawa, Kitchener and Gatineau, Quebec.

Resting at the Jackson and Barnard Funeral Home, 233 Larch Street, Sudbury (Friends may call after 11:30 a.m. Thursday, February 8, 2018) Funeral Service in the R.J. Barnard Chapel, Thursday, February 8, 2018 at 1 p.m. Interment in the family plot at Beechwood Cemetery, Ottawa.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Salvation Army would be appreciated.

HATTIE LEE MILNE 1933-2018

Hattie passed away peacefully at Trillium Hospital, Mississauga, Ontario, on Friday, February 2, 2018, after a brief illness.

Hattie Lee Cunningham, Peters, Shea, Milne was a force of nature.

Born and raised in Paris, Texas, daughter of a Methodist circuit minister, Hattie graced this world as a trail-blazing, establishment challenging, advocate of justness, fairness, equality and tolerance.

Hattie will be greatly missed by her daughter, Kathleen, and husband, Kirk; son, David, and wife, Kammy; stepdaughter, Catherine, and husband, Stephen; stepson, Doug, and wife, Janice. Hattie was the proud grandmother of David Michael, Steven, PJ; step-grandmother of MacGregor, Reaghan, Sarah; great-grandmother of Luke, Abigail, Blake and Riley. Hattie was predeceased by loving husband, Donald Milne; her parents, Hubert Thompson and Erma Lee Cunningham; and brother, Joseph Clifton Cunningham.

Hattie left home at 16 to pursue her nursing career. Hattie would tell you that it was in nursing school that she acquired one of her most significant principals: the absolute majesty of the human being - mind, body and soul. Hattie's profound respect guided her into a fruitful teaching career. Hattie earned her RN at the University of Texas at Galveston and her Masters at the University of Texas at Austin.

She was published many times and parts of her Master's thesis grace clinical surgical university textbooks. Hattie was passionate about responsible health care and advocated for Orem's self-care nursing deficit theory.

Hattie was tenured at three Canadian universities: University of Western Ontario, London, Dalhousie University, Halifax and University of Toronto, Toronto.

A highlight of her career was when she found herself teaching with a former student (from UWO) at U of T.

Moving to Canada in 1970 and becoming a Canadian citizen on December 10, 1975 was a highlight of her life. Though she gave her heart to the red maple leaf, Hattie's drawl remained southern.

Hattie believed that cherishing life, love, respect, honour and trust is the path to a rewarding, successful life. A matter-of-fact optimist Hattie's belief that any one of us makes the best possible decision at any given time given a set of circumstances was reflected in her tolerance and empathy.

The family would like to thank Trillium Hospital. Doctors, nurses and staff, particularly Dr. Kwan, Dr. Chopra, Dr. Fenty, Ann, Karen, Tiffany, Laura, Deepa, Kathleen, Wanda and Srdjian for their kind, respectful and gentle care.

A Celebration of Life will be held at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy. 10, N. of QEW), on Tuesday, February 6, 2018 at 3 p.m. with visitation at 2 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations will be gratefully received by the Canadian Lung Association.

JOAN DUVERNET PRINGLE (nee Machell)

Passed away peacefully on February 1, 2018 in her 88th year. Joan was the beloved wife of Geoffrey Pringle, with whom she celebrated 60 years of marriage in 2016; and mother to Leslie (Don Wright), Gill (Geoffrey Hendrie), Eric (Linda Johns) and Ian (Phuntsok Wangdi). Known to her eight grandchildren as the (Busy) Bee, she will be deeply missed by Jamie, Jesse and Ali Wright, Emma and Chloe Hendrie, Schuyler and Liam Pringle, and Taiyo Lunny; along with Joan's twelve nieces and nephews and their families. Joan is survived by her sister-in-law, Phyllis Pringle; and was predeceased by her sisters, Sydney Woollcombe, Ebie Dunbar and Margaret Machell; and her brother, Murray Snively.

Joan lived an active and rewarding life filled with family and friends, Grace Church on-the-Hill, the arts, the outdoors, and many volunteer efforts.

An alumna of St. Clements School, she went on to graduate from Trinity College, University of Toronto. Joan was employed by Dominion Securities until her marriage. Joan was a volunteer driver with the Red Cross and will be remembered for driving an ambulance during Hurricane Hazel.

Joan was a longtime member of the Cariboo Group at Grace Church on-the-Hill, which also kindled her passion for the arts, in particular quilting and liturgical textiles. Joan is the co-author of Art of the Spirit: Contemporary Canadian Fabric Art and was co-curator of exhibitions at Grace Church and St. James Cathedral.

Joan's compassion and strong sense of community service saw her active in the Junior Committee of the AGO and the Junior League and as a volunteer English-as-a-Second-Language teacher. Joan volunteered for Moorelands and for many years at the Churches on-the-Hill Foodbank.

Joan had many lifelong friends, some from her school days and many from Grace Church with whom she enjoyed skiing, golfing, swimming and bridge.

Joan was devoted to her large family, especially her husband and four children. She and her sister Sydney spent dozens of summers at neighboring cottages in Muskoka with their husbands, children and grandchildren.

Joan's family is deeply grateful for the exceptional care and friendship that Joan and her family received from the wonderful staff at Belmont House, including the nurses, caregivers, activity, kitchen and other staff.

A funeral service and celebration of Joan's life will be held at Grace Church on-the-Hill (300 Lonsdale Rd, Toronto), Friday, February 9 at 11 a.m. to be followed by a reception in the parish hall. A visitation with Joan's family will be held on Thursday, February 8, 5-8 p.m. at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home (159 Eglinton Ave. W.).

PETER WILTON MORSE

We are very sad to announce that Peter passed away peacefully, at home, surrounded by his family on February 1, 2018, at the age of 84.

He was born in Port Hope on June 20, 1933 to Eric and Tena Morse. Peter is survived by his wife, Daphne of 56 years; his son, Craig (Lori); daughter, Deborah; grandsons, Braydon, Tanner and Morgan; and sister, Wendy (Don).

Peter loved his work with Industry Canada, for which he worked in excess of 28 years. His love of tennis, golf, music and family were a large part of his life. He will be remembered for his kindness, generosity, and gentle soul, and will be missed dearly.

The family will receive friends on Friday, February 9th from 2:00 to 4:00 and 7:00 to 9:00 p.m., and a Celebration of Life will be held on Saturday, February 10th at 2:00 p.m. Both events with be held at Capital Funeral Home and Cemetery, 3700 Prince of Wales Drive, Ottawa, 613-692-1211.

MARY BALFOUR RICHARDSON "Granny Fox" (nee Campbell)

Our beautiful Mom passed away peacefully in her sleep on Wednesday, January 31, 2018, in her 88th year. Born February 7, 1930, she was predeceased by her husband of 60 years, Bradley; and her parents, Senator G. Peter Campbell and Mary Campbell (nee Garrow). Mom was the heart of our family and will be so missed by all of us - Campbell (Debbie Crossman), Elinor, Stephen, Louise (Doug Wilkins) and Jason (Emily Rogers). Granny Fox loved, and was much loved by her five grandchildren, Harry, Savannah, Christina, Maxwell, and Kieran.

She will be missed by her sister, Joyce Morden (John); brother, Peter Campbell (Cathy); her sister-in-law, Elizabeth Whealy; and their families.

Mom was born in Toronto and was educated at the Bishop Strachan School and the University of Toronto. She loved spending summers at Pointe au Baril, sailing, swimming, picnicking and feeling the warmth of the rocks on her bare feet. Winter weekends on the slopes of Blue Mountain were a treasured family time. Mom will be remembered as the consummate mom and the tireless supporter of family and friends. She was involved in many fundraising activities over the years for those groups for which she felt an affinity. Closest to her heart was L'Arche, where she was on the board for many years.

She loved life and had the innate ability to put a smile on your face no matter what. Her signature send-off "have a happy day"will resonate in our hearts.

A celebration of her life will be held in St. Leonard's Church, 25 Wanless Avenue, on Tuesday, February 6th at 2:00 p.m. A reception will follow at the church.

In lieu of flowers, donations to L'Arche Toronto would be greatly appreciated.

MICHAEL SELFE

Michael Selfe passed away peacefully on February 2, 2018 at the age of 78 with his loving family by his side. He leaves his wife of 54 years, Janet, who he loved immensely; and his three boys, Neil (Chrisula), Daren (Nicole) and Gareth (Anna).

Fondly remembered Grandad to Michael, Eric, Nicole, Natalie, Caroline, Julia, Jamie and Devon.

He is also survived by his sisters, Sheila (Bob) and Pat; and brother-in-law, Kenneth (Jean); and their families, who he recently visited in England.

Predeceased by his parents, Basil and Alice; and his siblings, Roy, Barbara and David.

Michael was born in Bury St. Edmunds, England where he met and married Janet. In 1976 he immigrated to Canada, settling in Newmarket, Ontario. He loved being with his close family and friends in Canada and also in England, where he maintained a home. Michael enjoyed cottage life and travelling and was always proud to call Canada his home.

He was immensely proud of his boys and they of him.

Michael never missed his boys' soccer or hockey games. He was their backbone, always offering words of encouragement and advice at exactly the right time. He was a man of few words but what he said was impactful.

We will continue to do our best to honour his legacy of family first, kindness and integrity. He was much loved and will be missed.

Visitation at St. Paul's Anglican Church in Newmarket on Tuesday February 6, 2018 from 10:00 a.m., immediately followed by a funeral service at 11:00 a.m. and a reception at the Taylor Funeral Home in Newmarket. Memorial donations in Michael's name to the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital would be appreciated. Cremation and private interment to follow at a later date.

WESLEY STRACHAN TERRYBERRY

Passed away peacefully at Bluewater Health in Sarnia on Friday, February 2, 2018. Born July 29, 1941 in Niagara Falls, Ontario.

Beloved husband, proud father and grandfather. Survived by his wife, Anna; son, Daniel, and his wife, Laura, and grandson, Spencer; son, Edward, and his wife, Kim, and grandson, Steven.

His successful professional career began in engineering for Westinghouse, and TPR (Thompson products), followed by Human Resources at CIL, Polysar (Sarnia and Europe), Mitel and retiring as Vice President of Human Resources, Spar Aerospace.

He enjoyed and excelled at many hobbies through his life and into retirement; painting, woodworking, stained glass, photography and adventure travelling.

Sympathy may be expressed through a donation to Bluewater Health Sarnia or London Health Science Hospitals.

Messages of condolence may be sent to http://www.lifetransitions.ca

The long road ahead for the electric-vehicle revolution
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By GREG KEENAN, SHAWN MCCARTHY
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


DETROIT, OTTAWA -- The electric vehicle capital of Canada is a small town in Quebec cottage country, some 95 kilometres northeast of Montreal.

The family-owned dealership of Bourgeois Chevrolet Buick GMC, located in Rawdon, Que., consistently ranks as the top seller of electric vehicles (EVs) in the country - both new and used versions of battery-only models such as the new Chevrolet Bolt and plug-in hybrids such as the Volt, which has a backup gasoline motor.

Last year, fully half the 1,000 cars and trucks that Bourgeois sold were EVs, whereas most Chevy dealerships around the country sell a couple each month on average.

To boost those sales, Bourgeois general manager and part-owner Hugo Jeanson makes sure he has a steady stream of inventory from the manufacturer, but also imports used models from the United States.

Mr. Jeanson has also trained his sales representatives to know the vehicles and be able to answer customers' concerns about price, range and performance. A key marketing feature: Operating costs for EVs are considerably lower than for gas-powered vehicles, both in terms of fuelling and servicing.

The dealership keeps electric vehicles as loaners for customers when their cars are being serviced.

And it has invested in public chargers - 25 slow chargers, which take several hours, and one fast charging station that can power up a vehicle in an hour.

This year, Mr. Jeanson plans to add three fast chargers powered by solar panels.

"It's really a shift that we're doing it," Mr. Jeanson said in an interview. "We're doing it because there are a lot of advantages for the customer but it is also very good for the planet - it's very green."

Mr. Jeanson's effort is part of a worldwide drive to boost the market for electric vehicles in order to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions that cause climate change. The goal is to phase out the gasoline-powered internal combustion engine [ICE], which has provided affordable, long-range mobility for the past century.

Quebec is leading that push in Canada.

The provincial government offers generous rebates to buyers but also requires auto makers to sell a growing number of EVs and plug-in hybrids, or face fines.

The federal government is crafting its own zero-emission vehicle [ZEV] strategy, which will not include mandates for auto makers but will support the building of charging infrastructure and the R&D required to mass-market electric vehicles.

Quebec and California have ambitious policies to encourage the adoption of battery-only EVs and plug-in hybrids. Ontario has stopped short of requiring auto makers to sell a certain number of such vehicles but has a target of an EV in every multivehicle driveway in the province by 2026. Internationally, governments in France and Britain have upped the ante, announcing that they would ban the sale of new cars with internal combustion engines by 2030, while China is pursuing an aggressive policy to boost EV sales and dominate the global market for the related battery technology.

Car companies, of course, have ratcheted up expectations over the past year with announcements about their plans to introduce new EV models. General Motors Corp. announced last year that it would add 20 new EV models to complement its plug-in hybrid Volt and battery-only Bolt.

Volvo Car Group said last July that it would offer electrified engines on all its vehicles starting in 2019, although it will continue to sell ICE-powered cars. Still, president Hakan Samuelsson declared: "This announcement marks the end of the solely combustion-engine-powered car."

That same month, Tesla Inc. founder Elon Musk piled on by telling U.S. governors that, by 2027, more than half the vehicles produced in the United States would be battery-only electric vehicles.

With all this government and industry action, consumers can be forgiven for thinking that Mr. Jeanson is in the vanguard of a movement that will change what people drive overnight. Politicians and industry leaders have created the impression that EVs are on the verge of relegating the internal combustion engine to the museum of industrial history.

There is no doubt that EVs will eventually displace the reigning champion, but this will not occur overnight or even by the end of the 2020s. EV sales are growing rapidly and topped one million worldwide for the first time, but that represents just 1 per cent of the global vehicle market. In Canada, sales of electric vehicles represented 1.4 per cent of the market in 2017, with Quebec leading the way at 2.2 per cent, according to figures released Friday by FleetCarma, a Waterloo, Ont.-based firm that tracks the market. All told, some 18,560 EVs were sold in the country last year, including 7,477 in Ontario and 7,194 in Quebec.

There are billions of dollars to be spent on charging infrastructure, vast improvements in batteries to be made and massive doubts in consumer attitudes to be overcome before EVs are close enough in cost and performance to traditional vehicles.

And at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit last month, GM, Ford Motor Co. and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV all showcased pickup trucks, the least fuel-efficient vehicles in their lineups.

Those trucks generate a substantial chunk of their profits and are coveted by American consumers.

Fiat Chrysler CEO Sergio Marchionne told a Toronto audience last year that his company loses US$20,000 on every battery-powered version of the Fiat 500 subcompact it sells. At the Detroit auto show last month, Mr. Marchionne told reporters: "I don't know a guy or a person or an entity or an economic organization that is making money on selling electric vehicles unless you're selling at the very, very high end of the spectrum." And Moody's Investor Service said in a report last month that it estimates auto makers lose between US$7,000 and US$10,000 on each EV in the North American market.

"I LOVE NOT BUYING GAS"

Julia Schindeler loves her battery-only electric car.

Her white 2017 Nissan Leaf is quiet, peppy, handles well and flits past gas stations without ever needing to pull in for a fill-up.

"I love not buying gas," Ms. Schindeler said. "I can't believe how much money we've saved not buying gas."

Ms. Schindeler's husband, Ben Chan, charges the car at a lot in downtown Toronto for a small fee and estimates that every hour of charging restores 35 kilometres of driving range. He also notes that, during the summer months, the fully charged battery will last for about 220 kilometres if they don't drive on the highway.

It has its downsides. The battery takes longer to charge in cold weather, drains more quickly when the car has to climb the two-kilometre hill from the Don River Valley to their home in the Leaside neighbourhood, and long trips during the winter are non-starters.

None of that diminishes Ms. Schindeler's enthusiasm.

"This Leaf is an ideal urban car for the summer," she gushes.

And there's the problem for auto makers, politicians and anyone who wants the roads cleared of traditional vehicles as soon as possible in favour of cars that run solely on electricity: For the almost 20 million Canadians and Americans who buy new vehicles annually, the fully electric car just doesn't fill the needs of drivers who want the liberty of virtually endless mobility.

For the moment, the electric vehicle's shortcomings are mainly in the battery.

The issues are relatively simple to identify: The cost of batteries needs to come down; the range of the vehicles must be vastly improved; charging systems must be quicker; and the recharging infrastructure has to be expanded.

Range is one of Ms. Schindeler's concerns about her Leaf and is cited as a key reason why others are reluctant to buy the vehicles.

She won't drive the car from her home in Toronto to visit family in Ottawa or North Bay, Ont. - in part because the battery drains quickly in the winter and she hasn't taken the time yet to plan a route that would allow her to recharge along the way.

According to a Canadian Automobile Association map of charging stations, the route to North Bay along highways 400 and 11 is not a recharging wasteland, but there aren't a lot of stations and some are at private locations such as car dealerships for other auto makers. Stopping at some sites along the way would require a drive of a few kilometres off the main highways.

Even where chargers are available, there is still the issue of waiting 30 minutes to an hour for a vehicle to juice up.

"If I want to go to North Bay, I'll just rent a car," Ms. Schindeler said.

Her 2017 Leaf has a range of 172 kilometres. That's the last year of the original model, which made its debut in 2011. Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. has spent the intervening time improving the battery performance and redesigning the car for 2018. The newer model's range is listed at 241 km.

Increased battery performance is the holy grail of the EV industry. Traditional batteries simply can't store enough power in a cell small enough to be practical. The use of lithium has led to a dramatic increase in energy density - the amount of energy that can be stored for every unit of mass. But researchers need to go further and find the right mix of alloys for the electrodes and electrolyte material to maximize energy density and avoid unwanted reactions, which degrade a battery's performance and lifespan.

The U.S. Department of Energy has set some clear goals that are broadly acknowledged by industry to be the key to greater consumer acceptance: a range of 300 miles (480 km) and a charging time of 30 minutes or less.

Those improvements need to come at the same time that battery costs are lowered. Industry expects to cut battery costs by half over the next decade - to US$100 per kilowatt hour, the point at which an EV would be roughly comparable in price to a traditional car.

Tesla - the EV maker and stock-market darling - and GM, which has put Detroit's best-selling electric vehicle on the road, say battery costs are falling.

GM said in a presentation to investors in December that the cell cost for its Bolt is US$145 per kilowatt hour, but it's working on a new system that will cost less than US$100.

Companies working on batteries have cut costs dramatically, said Brett Smith, assistant director of the manufacturing, engineering and technology group of the Center for Automotive Research, an industry think tank in Ann Arbor, Mich.

"That's an important part," Mr. Smith said. "The question to me is: Do you also have the other aspects of performance in line that make a gasoline car much more simple for a consumer to own?" Tesla appears to have gone a long way to answering that question with its Supercharger system. It says the system needs just one minute to recharge its Model X SUV for a 413-kilometre highway trip and about two minutes for a 100-kilometre stop-and-go commute in the city, which drains the battery faster.

Investors appear to believe that Tesla is the future, bidding up its market capitalization to about US$50-billion , more than Ford and close to GM's $58-billion. That's despite the US$3.5-billion in losses that Tesla has racked up since 2014 and the recent announcement that full production of its cheapest vehicle, the Model 3 sedan, will be delayed for a second time.

FINDING TRACTION IN A WARY MARKET

One key barrier to consumer acceptance is the availability of charging stations.

Drivers who own a single-family home can install their own for $1,000, with government programs defraying that cost.

But it gets complicated for renters or those who live in multiunit buildings. Governments are financing the expansion of a public charging network, but that still pales in comparison with the ubiquity of gas stations.

Public charging networks that charge by the hour are expanding. Ontario has financed their construction along its 400series highways, while many retailers and other commercial outlets provide them on a fee-for-use basis.

What Ms. Schindeler calls her perfect urban car for the summer is effectively a niche vehicle at the moment and won't cause the transformation of the North American fleet that environmentalists and many scientists believe is essential to combat global warming.

The pace of the transition will depend on how aggressively governments will regulate auto makers - effectively forcing them to include mass-market-ready EVs in their lineups - as well as the industry's success in driving down the costs and improving the range of all-electric models.

The most stringent regulations introduced so far are in China, which has set the goal that 20 per cent of new vehicle sales by 2025 consist of so-called "new energy vehicles" - EVs or plug-in hybrids.

In the land of the pickup truck and sportutility vehicle - Canada and the United States - the appetite for EVs is weak at best.

In the third quarter of 2017, worldwide sales of plug-in hybrids and battery-only EVs rose 63 per cent in key markets compared with the same period in 2016, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF).

Growth was driven mainly by China, where sales last year doubled to more than 520,000 vehicles and accounted for half the total sales in major markets that BNEF tracks, including China, Europe, North America, Japan and South Korea.

Falling battery costs will bring EV prices down to traditional vehicle price points between 2025 and 2029, BNEF believes, and the firm forecasts that there will be more than 100 million electric vehicles on the road in the early 2030s.

"The single biggest reason we're optimistic on long-term EV adoption is that we think batteries are going to keep getting better and we think they keep getting cheaper," BNEF analyst Colin McKerracher said. "But prior to that, the market is still regulatory-driven because batteries, even as far as they have fallen, are still not cheap enough to make EVs competitive on a standalone basis."

Consider, however, that the 100 million EV vehicles in the BNEF forecast is roughly the number of all vehicles sold around the world every year. So even by 2030, EVs and plug-ins will represent a maximum of 29 per cent of new vehicles, according to a forecast by Canadian auto parts giant Magna International Inc.

"We try to take a realistic view of everything we see," Magna CEO Don Walker said. "I don't think you can take any government or any industry participant as saying necessarily what they believe."

He wonders, also, whether governments will be keen to set aggressive targets when they discover that, as the size of the electric fleet increases, revenue from gasoline taxes will drop. (Federal and provincial governments took in $22-billion in gasoline and diesel fuel taxes in 2016.) The regulatory landscape remains uncertain, too, particularly in the United States, where President Donald Trump has been rolling back the climate-change policies of his predecessor while raising doubts about the science of global warming.

Still, there are signs of support for electric vehicles: Even in a Washington where a Republican President and his party control both houses of Congress, the tax bill passed in December maintained the US$7,500 tax credit for consumers who purchase alternate-fuel cars and trucks.

The key test will come when the Environmental Protection Agency and the Transportation Department conclude their review of the planned fuel emission standards for cars and light trucks for 2022-25, which were finalized by the Obama administration just prior to leaving office.

Those regulations - known as CAFE standards (corporate average fuel economy) - would increase average fuel economy to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. Because they are based on an auto maker's entire fleet of cars, they provide an incentive for companies to market EVs in order to offset the more profitable gas guzzlers they sell.

The manufacturers have been lobbying Washington to ease the standards, which EPA administrator Scott Pruitt described as "costly for auto makers and the American people."

The administration's decision on the CAFE standards could spark a battle with California, which has the right to set its own fuel regulations and is determined to maintain the Obama administration's stringency. California is leading the way on electric vehicles in the United States with a myriad of programs, including a target that would require 8 per cent of new vehicles sold to be either battery-only or plugin hybrids by 2025.

The Canadian government is watching from the sidelines with its own climatechange plan at stake. In order to maintain a consistent approach to the cross-border industry, Ottawa has moved in lockstep with the United States on fuel-efficiency standards. Should Washington and California diverge, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau will have to decide whether to harmonize with the weaker U.S. federal standards or the tougher state ones.

Regulatory policy in many states, meanwhile, seems designed to discourage EV sales.

Georgia, for example, eliminated a US$5,000 credit for EV buyers in 2015, and EV registrations in the state slumped to 2,549 in 2016 from 10,540 in 2010. The state also introduced an EV fee - which now stands at US$208 - to replace the revenue it was losing because EV owners weren't paying gas taxes.

"It is extremely punitive and particularly impacts lower- and middle-income drivers who want to drive electric," said Anne Blair, clean fuels director of the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy.

Sixteen U.S. states now have such EV registration fees, including Tennessee, where Nissan assembles the Leaf.

Such taxes will only depress sales in a market already plagued by sticker shock.

As an example, the two-seater electric Smart car sold by Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc. went on sale at the beginning of October. It offers a pure comparison of sales of an EV model versus a gasoline-powered one. The EV version of the Smart coupe carries a suggested price of $29,050, compared with $18,700 for the 2017 gas model.

The Ontario rebate of $13,000 eliminates the price gap, but Quebec and B.C. slash just $8,000 and $5,000 respectively from the price of the car. Between Oct. 1 and Dec. 31, Mercedes-Benz dealers in Canada sold just 93 electric Smart cars, compared to 540 gas-powered versions in the same period in 2016.

Ottawa is now developing its own policies to encourage the adoption of EVs. As part of its international commitments on climate change, the government is targeting transportation, which contributed 24 per cent of the country's greenhouse-gas emissions in 2015. Under the 2015 Paris climate accord, governments pledged to put policies in place that will drive a long-term transition away from fossil fuels, a process known as decarbonization.

Ottawa has several overlapping strategies that are expected to reduce emissions in the auto sector and provide incentives for consumers and auto makers to opt for electric vehicles. They include carbon pricing, which will drive up the cost of gasoline and diesel, and fuel efficiency standards that require auto makers to improve fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The government is also due to roll out a clean fuel standard that could encourage replacing gasoline-powered vehicles with low-carbon options such as EVs.

In the past two budgets, Finance Minister Bill Morneau allocated $182.5-million over four years for R&D and to build charging and refuelling stations for EVs and other lower-carbon vehicles, such as those that run on hydrogen or natural gas.

However, Ottawa is unlikely to provide direct subsidies to consumers who purchase electric vehicles. Faced with heavy lobbying by the auto industry, Transport Minister Marc Garneau ruled out a ZEV mandate that would require auto makers to sell a certain percentage of EVs or plugins. "A ZEV mandate is not the approach he wants to pursue," spokesman Marc Roy said in an e-mail.

Clean-energy proponents worry the lack of a mandate will relegate Canada to laggard status, well behind the leaders in EV deployment - California, China and Norway, which led the world with a whopping 29 per cent of vehicle sales in 2016.

Norway has vowed to ban sales of new vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines by 2025. The EV advocates warn that auto makers will allocate their limited production of electric vehicles to markets where they face penalties if they underperform.

"It would send a much-needed market signal to the industry that it needs to produce the vehicles the market is demanding," said Dan Woynillowicz, policy director for Clean Energy Canada, an advocacy group based at Simon Fraser Univeristy.

Mr. Woynillowicz notes that Canadians who want to purchase an EV often have to wait many months for delivery.

Meanwhile, Ontario and Quebec have a missionary's zeal for EVs.

Ontario's target of one EV or plug-in hybrid in every multivehicle driveway by 2026 would mean sales of 1.7 million by that year, an unlikely target.

Quebec is mandating that 10 per cent of new vehicle sales be either battery-only EVs or plug-in hybrids by 2025, with its climate plan forecasting 100,000 EVs on the road by 2020.

The province's powerful, state-owned Hydro-Québec plays a major role in promoting the nascent industry. Hydro-Québec is also a major backer of Circuit Electrique, the province's EV-charging network, which boasts almost 1,300 stations and 252 partners, from municipalities to private companies.

THE ROAD AHEAD For now, several auto makers are banking on an "if you build it, they will come" strategy. They're also using the word "electrification," which includes hybrids and plug-in hybrids - not just battery-only EVs - as a way of demonstrating how environmentally friendly they are, even though hybrids and plug-ins burn gasoline.

"We're all expecting there to be more and more acceptance of electrification by the consumers over time because clearly there are going to be more offerings," said Joe Hinrichs, Ford's executive vice-president and president of global operations.

Mr. Hinrichs said at the Detroit auto show that Ford will spend US$11-billion between 2017 and 2022 to develop and start producing 40 electrified vehicles - 16 battery-only EV models and 24 hybrids or plug-ins.

GM and other auto makers are focusing on China, in part because it is the world's largest market but also because of China's stringent regulations.

But regulators and environmentalists hoping to change the world will need more drivers like Ms. Schindeler if their billion-dollar bets are going to succeed.

"We say we are not going back to the ICE age," Ms. Schindeler vows. "We are totally committed to doing what we can as a family to minimize our carbon footprint."

Associated Graphic

Julia Schindeler, seen charging her 2017 Nissan Leaf at a charging station in Toronto on Jan. 19, says she loves her battery-only electric car. 'I can't believe how much money we've saved not buying gas,' she says. 'This Leaf is an ideal urban car for the summer.'

GALIT RODAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Hugo Jeanson, seen in Rawdon, Que., on Thursday, is general manager and co-owner of Bourgeois Chevrolet Buick GMC, a family-owned dealership that consistently ranks as the top seller of electric vehicles in Canada.

DARIO AYALA/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tesla charging stations are seen in Wittenburg, Germany, in 2016. Investors appear to believe that the auto maker is the future, raising its market capitalzation to roughly US$50-billion, a figure rivalling other giants of the industry.

JENS BUTTNER/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

How shady lenders with drug-crime connections are using B.C. real estate to clean dirty money
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Through millions of dollars in private lending and mortgages, people connected to the fentanyl trade are parking their illicit gains in the Vancouver-area property market - and using alleged threats, extortion and deception against homeowners to make sure they get their money back. Kathy Tomlinson and Xiao Xu investigate
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By KATHY TOMLINSON, XIAO XU
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A14


It was dirty money - stuffed in the trunk of their Mercedes and behind a seat in their Range Rover. The rest was squirrelled away in a safe and a night table, at a condo they were using.

Small bills - $660,970 in all - covered with traces of deadly fentanyl and other street drugs. Police seized the cash in the spring of 2016, when they arrested Ying Zhang, Zhi Guang Zhang and Wei Zhang, after putting them under surveillance and watching them conduct business in parking lots in and around Vancouver.

They weren't charged with any crimes, despite the evidence that they were peddling opioids that kill people. It's not unusual in B.C.

for police to forgo pursuing charges when they find dealers in possession of drug money, but not holding actual drugs. The Zhangs did lose their cash, though, for good: A judge ordered it forfeited to the provincial government as "proceeds of crime."

It's a big headache for any drug trafficker: trying to protect illicit profits from being stolen or confiscated. They can't walk into a bank with bags of cash, because staff would be required to report that to authorities as suspicious.

And so the money piles up. Until they find a way to launder it.

A Globe and Mail investigation has discovered that the Zhangs and other local residents associated with drug-related crime are effectively parking their riches in Vancouver-area real estate, where it is rendered clean and secure, without actually owning any of the properties. They call themselves private lenders - issuing millions of dollars in registered mortgages and short-term loans.

Just as a bank does, they grant a loan, then register a land-title charge against the borrower's real estate, equal to the value of the debt, plus interest. The charge, which gives them a stake in the real estate, remains in place until the debt is cleared. If the property is sold, the loan gets paid out from the sale proceeds, in clean money, all seemingly legal.

Except these financiers are unregulated and unlicensed and the loans they grant are in cash, which is likely dirty money derived from drug deals or other crimes. The Zhangs charge interest rates of up to 39.6 per cent, with some private lenders demanding up to 120 per cent.

Court records show that one of the Zhangs' associates is among those allegedly charging that extortionate level of interest, which is double the maximum legal rate.

By combing through hundreds of lawsuits, foreclosures and property records, The Globe identified 17 such lenders, who have collectively claimed a $47-million stake, plus interest, in 45 Vancouver-area properties in recent years. The three Zhangs alone laid claim to at least $20.7-million of that, individually or through numbered companies.

As dramatic as those numbers may appear, they represent just a small sample of loans and mortgages that such private lenders have bankrolled.

Their target customers are wealthy Chinese newcomers or tourists - and their grown children - who've bought property in Canada and who want to use it as leverage to borrow large amounts of cash, as they might with a home-equity line of credit, for gambling or other extravagances.

Some borrowers appear to use the loans to pay down other debts.

Typically, their wealth is in China - money that can't easily be wired to B.C., because the Chinese government forbids its citizens from taking more than US$50,000 per year abroad. Most of the homeowners already have at least one mortgage with a Canadian bank, and may have maxed out their legitimate borrowing power in this country.

Enter the private lenders, offering quick, easy money - by word of mouth - through social and business circles.

One of the Zhangs' customers was a real estate developer, based in China, who has a gambling habit. Jia Gui Gao borrowed tens of millions of dollars - more than his B.C. properties were worth - from several private lenders.

Then he simply walked away from $58-million worth of empty Vancouver-area mansions and vacant land he owned, leaving it all to his creditors.

When one of the properties sold for $8.7million in a foreclosure last year, mortgage holders and suspected drug dealers Ying Zhang and Wei Zhang received court-approved payouts totalling $2.18-million.

That money constitutes another source of credit churning through the real estate market, that financial regulators aren't monitoring. The private lending is also yet another scheme that may well be inflating sale prices, in a city where real estate speculation has already pushed prices well beyond the reach of middle-class citizens and has ignited a national debate and a raft of responses from policymakers.

Many of the properties The Globe looked at sold, after the private loans were taken out, for much more than the owners had paid for them. Each time a realestate investor cashes out like that, it sets the market price higher for all houses in the neighbourhood.

"The borrowers are using their homes as collateral, so I would think there is an incentive to sell your house at a higher price later, speculating on the hot real estate market, to cover the costs incurred to pay off extremely high interest payments," said Denis Meunier, former deputy director of FinTRAC, the federal agency that analyzes money laundering.

Richmond lawyer David Chen, who has represented some of the borrowers, agrees. "It could be one of the reasons we have such a jacked-up real estate market in Vancouver," he said. "If today our regulators had a way of managing and minimizing these transactions ... you would have the money going somewhere else, not secured through real estate."

Beyond the Zhangs, such private moneylenders in B.C. include Xun Chuang, who has a record of drug crimes; Vinh-Loc Chung, convicted for carrying a restricted firearm; Xiao Ju Guan, found storing ecstasy and other drugs; Ye Jin Li, convicted on drug charges; and Kwok Chung Tam, a longtime Vancouver lender who's been convicted of drug crimes.

Mr. Guan also ran a business wiring cash overseas.

The $47-million in private lending unearthed by The Globe is a just a fraction of the questionable lending: Only debts in dispute or serious default end up in court, generating a paper trail.

THE FENTANYL CONNECTION

Most of the loans get paid back privately, and no one is the wiser.

Once a loan is secured, with real estate as collateral, paying it back, under the radar, is simple. One long-time customer told The Globe that he and most other borrowers make their payments via electronic transfer from their bank accounts in China to accounts that the lenders hold, also in China.

"I can pay the money online on my phone," said the customer, whom The Globe agreed not to name, because he fears repercussions. He added that the lenders work in tandem with people who operate underground banks in China. "We all use our money in China to pay back ... We don't have money here."

Those offshore payments are thus delivered to the lenders as clean money - beyond the reach of Canadian law enforcement.

The dubious transactions don't stop there. According to a recent operational alert from FinTRAC, Canadian-based drug-trafficking rings are using money laundered through China to buy fentanyl there. "Financial intelligence suggests that traffickers procure fentanyl, and its analogues and precursors, from overseas sources, mainly in China," said the bulletin. "Traffickers most often pay for these materials with wire transfers and money orders processed by money-services businesses."

Apply that scenario to the private lending operation, and you get the potential for a clean circle of dirty money. Traffickers can import the fentanyl to Canada, where they can sell it on the street. They can then lend the cash to borrowers, collect clean repayments on those proceeds in China, and use that money to buy more product.

And on it goes.

The borrower who spoke to The Globe said that the loans he takes out are almost always in cash. "The money is probably not obtained through legitimate channels," he admitted, before adding an obvious disclaimer.

"But I also don't want to delve too deeply."

While The Globe was interviewing him at his spacious and secluded $3.8-million Vancouver home, he received a text message from a lender offering $50,000.

"They always look for us," he said. "They will ask us to take care of their business and borrow money from them ... They have a social network in mainland China, and they will know the situation of your assets both in China and Vancouver."

He calls himself a "VIP gambler" and estimates he's borrowed $13-million from lenders in recent years, using his family's two B.C. mansions as collateral.

He says he pays interest at a rate of five per cent every two weeks.

That amounts to 130 per cent annually, more than twice the legal limit.

He reluctantly accepts such an outrageous rate - it's the only way he can get his hands on major cash. "The money in China cannot be gotten out," he says, adding that some borrowers plunge so deeply into debt that they themselves go underground. "It's true that many people went broke after borrowing that money ... then ran away and never come back. They ditched their properties and cars." Some, he says, even gave up their permanent residency or a shot at Canadian citizenship.

Case in point: At one of the 45 properties The Globe looked into, a lender registered a $660,000 stake in a Vancouver home five years ago. Court filings say the borrower left for China and isn't coming back. The lender, meanwhile, stands to get much more out of the loan than he put in: The home has doubled in value, and interest on the debt - all payable to the financier, when the house is eventually sold - keeps growing.

In another property in which the same lender has a claim, the house is sitting vacant and, although there is a Bentley still parked in the garage, neighbours say the owners haven't been seen in almost a year. That home is worth twice what it was when the loan was issued.

Because the properties are not in the lenders' names, their investments can't be seized as proceeds of crime, even if police could prove a connection between the money they lent and the opioids they were allegedly peddling. Most of the homes the Zhangs had stakes in were sold just months after they filed their claims on the properties.

As lenders, the Zhangs were then paid out by cheques from lawyers, the same way a bank gets paid when it holds a mortgage.

"These people have taken advantage of quite a few tactics here. These are people with a vast money-lending enterprise," said Ron Usher, a Vancouver lawyer who teaches real estate law to B.C. notaries, and who reviewed The Globe's data. "I have some faith in our courts to sort these things out. But if [a borrower] doesn't respond and just isn't [in Canada], and the lenders get a court judgment, then things flow from there. And if these are the ones that ended in court, you know there are many, many more."

BUILDING DECEPTION

Unregulated lending networks are familiar to Chinese citizens. Similar enterprises are part of that country's so-called shadow-banking system: a huge web of operators who peddle high-interest loans, outside the banking system, through electronic messages and personal connections.

Beyond the questionable sources of cash, another dark side to these practices in Canada - in plain view, within court records - involves allegations of threats and extortion by lenders, and deception on both sides of the money-lending equation.

The Zhangs have made some of the most brazenly dubious claims, as a way to force collection on debts, claims which have gone undetected and unchallenged in the courts. In four cases, lenders Ying and Zhi Guang Zhang posed as builders, claiming they did socalled "construction" and "renovations," none of which were done, let alone by them.

They were able to pull off that masquerade by filing what's called a "builders lien" against each house - a simple, one-page form, designed to be used by real builders who haven't been paid.

The lien gives its holder an immediate legal stake in the real estate - without the owners having to be informed. A builders lien is easier to register than a mortgage, which a borrower must agree to.

When the house is sold, if the owner doesn't challenge the claim, the builder automatically gets the money he says he is owed. "These guys are pretty clever to use the builders lien," said Lawrence Wong, another lawyer who has represented borrowers.

"People pay no attention to a builders lien. They say, 'Okay, here's a builders lien. Let's pay it out.' " The Zhangs are not registered builders. In one case, they claimed they "built the whole house" for $2-million. In fact, it had been built three years earlier by a registered builder. In the other cases, the Zhangs said they did major renovations or, again, built an entire house. Sales listings and property records prove those claims to be untrue.

The four properties in question have since sold for significant profits. It appears the Zhangs were paid out each time, as "builders." That allowed them to rake in a total of more than $3-million, in perfectly clean money.

"Loan sharking usually only works with threats ... so using the property is new and smart if you think about it," Mr. Wong said.

"You force the [owner] to have to go to court. It's not an easy task to get [a lien] removed," he says, adding that it's especially difficult "when people are not living here."

WARNINGS, AND DEFIANCE

The most enterprising private lenders The Globe looked into are Paul King Pao Jin and his wife, Xiaoqi Wei. They've staked claims against 28 Vancouver-area properties since 2012, for loans and mortgages totalling $16.6-million.

The RCMP raided the couple's Richmond home two years ago, while investigating international drug trafficking and money-laundering operations, and found $4-million in cash. Neither Mr. Jin nor Ms. Wei has been charged with any crimes.

To high rollers at Richmond's River Rock Casino looking for quick cash, Mr. Jin is known as one of the more sophisticated lenders. In court documents, Ms. Wei is referred to as his "assistant." They hold mortgages on some of their debtors' properties.

But they've also filed lawsuits against borrowers who didn't sign mortgage agreements, but who, according to the couple, took short-term loans and didn't pay them back.

Regardless, in almost every case, Mr. Jin and Ms. Wei claimed the loans were for construction, renovations or mortgage payments for borrowers' homes. That is the only way a lender who doesn't hold a mortgage can make a legal claim against a property. "You have to claim some interest in the home," said Mr. Usher, the Vancouver real estate lawyer.

"If I lend you some money, I have no right to go after your house. My claim has to involve some claim that relates it to the land ... If you are successful, you can force a sale."

In a third of those cases, the borrowers either didn't respond to lawsuits filed by the couple, or they settled, and Mr. Jin and Ms.

Wei got all or some of their money out of the property, sometimes by court judgment.

Some of the people they've pursued over unpaid debts, however, fought back in court - and accused Mr. Jin of a variety of things, including fraud, forgery and coercion. Most were wives whose names were on a property's title but who claimed they knew nothing about loans made to their husbands.

Ru Bing Shen was one of them.

"I never had any dealings with [Mr. Jin]. I never hired him to do renovations," Ms. Shen swore in a 2015 affidavit, after Mr. Jin and another lender filed $1.1-million in charges against her $2.64-million home in Vancouver's pricey west side.

She'd just been divorced and wanted to sell, but couldn't - unless she got the court to remove those claims from the title.

According to Ms. Shen's affidavit, she came home one day, after picking her child up at school, and was confronted by Mr. Jin and four other men "waiting outside, all with shaved heads." She said she told her child to "rush inside."

Mr. Jin said he was looking for her husband, "then told me that he would return whenever he wished." She said she feared "what Mr. Jin could do to me or to my family" and didn't feel safe in her home.

Ms. Wei responded in court filings, saying that she and Mr. Jin had given Ms. Shen's husband $405,000 worth of loans, all in cash. She claimed that Ms. Shen had admitted owing the couple money, when they visited her home. The judge sided with Ms.

Shen and dismissed the couple's claims against the property.

Hers is not the only case in which Mr. Jin is accused of dragging other people into disputes he has with his borrowers.

Chujun Xiang is a student from a wealthy family, who claimed in a 2014 lawsuit that Mr. Jin threatened her with violence from "Vietnamese gang members."

Unlike Ms. Shen, she didn't plead ignorance about the loan in question. In fact, she had pledged the condo she owned as collateral for money that Mr. Jin had loaned to a friend of hers, who didn't pay him back. The short-term loans totalled $70,000, a debt that was growing at 40-per-cent annual interest.

Ms. Xiang's lawsuit claims that Mr. Jin forced her "under duress arising from threats" to sign over full title to her $320,000 condo, at his lawyer's office, giving her no time to get the debt repaid another way. Mr. Jin and his wife sold the home immediately and pocketed more than $100,000 after the bank mortgage was paid. Mr. Jin didn't respond to Ms. Xiang's lawsuit, which hasn't gone to trial.

Given that the various private lenders stand accused of making threats, trafficking in deadly drugs and laundering money, The Globe asked the RCMP for an interview for this story, but didn't hear back. The Globe also tried to get in touch with the biggest lenders named here, but received no response.

THE LAWYERS' ROLE

It would be impossible for the shady operators to obtain their stakes in millions of dollars' worth of real estate if it weren't for Canadian lawyers willing to give them an air of legitimacy, by writing up mortgage agreements and filing lawsuits on their behalf.

Several experts suggested to The Globe that serious questions should be raised about solicitors who engage in these transactions.

Lawyer Hong Guo drew up the paperwork that paved the way for Ms. Xiang to sign over her property. Perhaps more disturbingly, land-titles records show that she has facilitated numerous deals for Mr. Jin and at least one other lender with possible connections to drug crime. The rules of the Law Society of British Columbia stipulate that any member who "knows or ought to know" that they would be assisting in illegal activity must drop the client involved.

Denis Meunier, formerly of FinTRAC, believes that such restrictions don't carry much weight in the current system, where lawyers police themselves. "The rules are weak for lawyers and there is very little enforcement," he said.

"There are questions that all lawyers should be asking. Among them: Where is the money coming from? Am I being used to facilitate money laundering?" The B.C. law society has been investigating Ms. Guo for months, ever since $7.5-million she was holding in trust for clients went missing. She insists the clients' money was stolen by two of her employees who fled to China. The regulator says its probe is not yet finished.

As for her lender clients, in an interview with The Globe Ms. Guo said that she had "no clue" that Ms. Wei and Mr. Jin - whom she called "a bit rough" - were potentially laundering drug money.

"They came here as regular clients," Ms. Guo said. "I have never seen anything in cash. They always say they will pass on the money [to the borrower] by themselves. It never goes through me."

Lawyers don't have to report suspicious transactions to FinTRAC, regardless, because the Federation of Law Societies of Canada fought that requirement in the Supreme Court of Canada and won. The lawyers had argued that reporting on their clients would violate a solicitors' obligation to keep matters confidential.

Ms. Guo insists that she asks all her lender clients where they get their money from - and that she takes what they say at face value: "We are not the police and we are not FinTRAC and we have no way of doing an investigation. We ask, 'What is the source of the funds?' and normally they say that is their savings."

"I am the biggest Chinese lawyer in the Chinese community. We do 600 million [dollars] a year in transactions. Maybe that is why we are a target for criminal activities. They know we are doing lots of work."

Even lawyers who steer clear of shady lender clients can find themselves in hot water over these deals. David Chen is being sued by one of his clients, over an $800,000 mortgage, from suspected drug dealer Zhi Guang Zhang, for which Mr. Chen did the paperwork. The borrower client claims that Mr. Chen didn't do enough to help him understand what he was getting into.

"We have a lot of newcomers, and they bring a different way of doing business and dealing with money," said Mr. Chen, referring to clients from China whom he represents. "They like to have cash here ... If they don't know about interest rates [charged by legitimate lenders] in Canada and they have no idea of the norm here, then they are getting taken advantage of."

ktomlinson@globeandmail.com Kathy Tomlinson is a reporter on The Globe's national investigative team. In 2016, she won a National Newspaper Award, and earned a Michener Award nomination, for her investigation into questionable conduct in Vancouver's real estate market.

Associated Graphic

A Globe and Mail investigation identified 17 unregulated, cash-only lenders, who collectively claimed a $47-million stake in Vancouver-area properties.

PHOTOS: BEN NELMS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In 2015, suspected money launderers and drug dealers were involved in multimillion-dollar loans and mortgages to the owner of these five Vancouver properties. By 2016, all the properties were sold, with debts to the lenders exceeding the sale prices.

To raise a child
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Over 10 months of paternity leave, Tim Kiladze discovered that being a primary caregiver is It is the bedrock of our society, allowing the world as we know it to function, but the job's va is largely invisible to those who haven't been immersed in it often an onerous, thankless task. alue, and its complexity,
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By TIM KILADZE
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O6


Business reporter with The Globe and Mail

I tried my very best to be calm, convincing myself that everything before this, all the agony and the ecstasy in my life, had been preparation for this moment.

In the hospital waiting for our daughter's birth, my husband and I cycled through sitting and standing at the end of our surrogate's bed. Labour was induced at 11:30 p.m., and through the dead of the night we watched a team of nurses, a midwife and a doctor check the progress, trying hard not to interfere, but also wondering what every update meant, because this was our first child.

I felt a particular burden. As part of our birth plan, we'd collectively decided that after the baby's umbilical cord got cut, she would rest on me - the way a newborn normally would on a mother's chest. The heartbeat she'd hear would be mine.

Under the night's tranquil darkness, a piece of advice I'd once heard floated back into my consciousness: that a kid's demeanour tends to resemble its parents'.

Remembering that, I wanted to be calm for my new daughter, Eva, when she was first handed to me, helping her feed off my emotional stability.

It was a stretch to get there. I could remember holding exactly one baby - my nephew, a few times - before this moment.

I'd never even changed a diaper. Being a dad was foreign territory.

This would be a sudden adjustment. Eva always felt very much like our child, and I went to nearly every doctor's appointment during the pregnancy, but she wasn't part of our everyday lives the way she was for our surrogate. Neither Matt nor I got tired from carrying her, and neither of us had to deal with the health issues that come with pregnancy, or the hormonal swings.

But then, after only a few hours of labour, she emerged. Needing me. Needing us.

The midwife placed her on my bare chest and a natural instinct took over.

Time slowed. For those 20 minutes when she nuzzled into me, I felt like I was made for this.

The serenity was short-lived. Serving as Eva's primary caregiver in the chaotic year since, I was exposed to a realm most men never see. The experience was so earth shattering that my worldview is permanently altered.

Some realizations came quickly, and will be appreciated by any new parent.

After the initial adrenaline rush ebbed, I started to grasp just how precious sleep had become. Eva arrived at 5:01 a.m., the morning after a snowfall, and there was no time to make up for the all-nighter we'd just pulled. There wouldn't be for months.

Other, deeper issues presented themselves as more time passed. Over 10 months of paternity leave, I discovered that being a primary caregiver is often an onerous, thankless task. It is the bedrock of our society, allowing the world as we know it to function, but the job's value, and its complexity, is largely invisible to those who haven't been immersed in it.

I started to feel a deep connection with other women, particularly my mum - something rooted in a sense of shared experience, as if we fought the war together, and hardly anyone else knew what the trenches were like.

The more distance I get from those chaotic first months, the more epiphanies I have. Eva turned one year old this week, and I understand, now, just how lucky Matt and I are to even have a child, and I've grown ever more grateful to the women who participated in her creation. I've also learned the power of social norms, having personally experienced how painful it is to free yourself from gendered roles - or the expectation that a man does this, a woman does that. This socialization toys with you no matter your sexual orientation, or how open-minded you are.

And I've realized that even in a supposedly progressive country such as ours, we truly do not value what it takes to raise a child, no matter the sex of the parent.

This journey began a little more than three years ago, starting with our struggle to conceive as a gay couple. Surrogacy is well known, but it's still a grey area in Canada - it isn't illegal, but it isn't fully legal, either.

All the steps are siloed, for legal protection, and prospective parents must figure out how to connect the dots themselves.

It all felt very daunting, a silent battle we endured in private before Eva was even born. Hardly anyone knew how many hurdles we had to clear - drafting legal contracts, creating embryos, social-worker screenings - or how much mental energy it consumed.

The first major step was to find an egg donor. Using the surrogate's own eggs is not advised because, under Canadian law, she'd have more right to claim the child should she try.

Settling on the donor is, quite possibly, the marital negotiation most fraught with risk. And it is arguably the most important.

It is the donor's genes our child would share - not the surrogate's. The best piece of advice provided to us, by our beloved lawyer, was to choose someone that resembled the friends we cherish most, not the profile with the pictures best suited for a dating app.

Matt and I spent a weekend each scouring a donor agency's database. In the end, I chose five profiles I'd be happy to explore; Matt chose only one. By some divine intervention, that one profile was in my five.

We ended up with roughly 20 of the donor's eggs. Matt and I divided them equally between us, inseminated them, then waited to see how many survived after five days before freezing them. In the end, three of mine remained, and four of Matt's.

Then we waited, and prayed that a surrogate would choose us.

We got lucky seven months later. While I was at a working lunch, our agency, Canadian Surrogacy Options (CSO), e-mailed to say there was a match. Ayesha had everything we were looking for: She was married, which meant her family wasn't solely dependent on her income should she need bed rest; she had five of her own kids and had been a surrogate before; and she was a nurse.

The agency told us to send her an e-mail, suggesting we "ask about the weather, her children, her job, then get into things like why she wants to do this again." I handled the correspondence because I'm the social butterfly in our marriage, and Ayesha and I e-mailed back and forth for a few weeks. Eventually, the three of us met for lunch at a Jack Astor's in the Toronto suburbs.

We clicked. Which was crucial, because in Canada, surrogacy is mostly a charitable act. (It's more of a business in the United States.) Scores of people have asked me how much Ayesha got paid for helping us, with an underlying suggestion that she must be a gold digger. Yet, under an informal Canadian rule, the majority of surrogacy expenses, everything from maternity clothes to cellphone bills - because they need a way to talk to the intended parents - can only be reimbursed up to $25,000.

Surrogates, meanwhile, must take a number of drugs daily, including injections of progesterone, to simulate the conditions of being naturally pregnant, as well as vaginal suppositories of the same hormone for the first three months - all while bearing the risks that come with any pregnancy, usually for a couple they just met. If anyone's money-hungry, it's the IVF clinics. Their costs are astronomical, and they're mostly kept unchecked by any regulators or governments.

The three of us committed to each other. Three months later, we transferred some embryos into Ayesha, watching them fly like shooting stars on the ultrasound screen.

A few days after the procedure, Ayesha texted me while I getting ready for work.

She'd done an over-the-counter pregnancy test, and she sent me a pic that showed two faint, but noticeable, pink lines. I sat on the edge of my bed, half-dressed, grinning.

From our first meeting with CSO to Eva's birth, the whole process took 26 months.

The worst part was waiting for a surrogate, because you have no control, but in hindsight it proved to be a bit of a blessing, giving us time to think through most of the crucial issues. Whose sperm would we use?

(We transferred one embryo each.) Whose last name would the baby get? (We compromised: If she had my genes, she'd get Matt's last name, and vice versa.) Would we stay friends with the surrogate after the birth? (We hoped to, and we have.)

Matt and I first met on Bay Street as junior investment bankers. While I left to become a reporter, he stayed. These roots proved to be both a gift and a curse.

Had Matt changed industries, we probably couldn't have afforded the costly surrogacy process. But it had its disadvantages, too. Finance is traditionally one of the most male-dominated industries and the common expectation is that a wife or a nanny will handle child-rearing issues - which may be one of the reasons why women fill only 13 per cent of the executive roles at Canada's six largest investment banks. The sector also breeds a culture that expects employees to work long hours and prioritize the client, or the quarterly profit, over personal lives.

And yet, I told Matt early in our relationship that I wouldn't be the proverbial banker's wife - meaning I wasn't willing to be saddled with all of the family and house duties while he focused on work. He and I are both type-A professionals, and a good story matters just as much to me as advising on a major merger or acquisition.

Then reality hit. Initially, we had talked about splitting parental leave in some fashion. But the closer we got to Eva's birth, the more hesitant he became. I started to argue that he was acting scared, and suggested he take some time off, if only to stand with the women he works with; he said he was just being practical because of our incomes.

In the end I took the sole leave - 10 months in total. Looking back on those early discussions, I'd say we were both a little unfair to each other. I ended up enjoying a longer leave, especially because the first few months are so brutal, and his hesitancy wasn't personal; it stemmed from a stigma that still runs rampant in the corporate world.

Right before Eva was born, I had lunch with a source who worked on Bay Street.

He congratulated me for the pregnancy, then asked if I was taking time off. I said yes, then he replied: "If I took leave, it'd have to be in January, because I know they'd find a way to screw me." Translation: His bank's bonuses get paid in December, and taking leave in January meant he'd still be in the office, showing face, during the months when annual compensation was negotiated. In other words, he'd stay top of mind to his bosses.

The stigma spreads far beyond Bay Street. A friend works in sales for a large, reputable company, and one day he texted me to ask if The Globe had any issue with me taking a substantial chunk of time off.

It didn't, at all, but I asked why he was inquiring. He said pat leave wouldn't even be thinkable at his shop. Intrigued, I ran this by another friend who works in a different industry. He said the same. His reasoning: "It's auto manufacturing, man."

Even bringing the issue up could hurt your career. In 2018.

I've been back at work for two months and it's pretty clear the sacrifices won't be confined to pat leave. Already, it feels nearly impossible for both Matt and I to work at full tilt. In her first four weeks at daycare, I received three calls to pick Eva up midday because she had a fever - and the rules dictate she can't go back for 24 hours after each episode. The first two times, I was the one who worked from home the next day, handling some major breaking news while Eva munched on Mum-mums beside me. I was set to do the third, too, but a sympathetic friend stepped in and suggested to Matt that I was probably ready to lose it. (I was.)

In her essay, Why Women Still Can't Have It All, which went viral a few years ago, Anne-Marie Slaughter, a tenured professor at Princeton who took a top foreignpolicy job in the State Department under Hillary Clinton, said it best: There is something about skipping out of work early for a kid, or even stepping away from your career, that is seen as "soft," or inferior, to the rigours of a professional job. There remains an unspoken hierarchy for personal worth, and family duties rarely top those from the workplace.

Before Eva was born, I was already sympathetic to her argument. My mum was a professional woman and had been the breadwinner in our family. Even then, I hardly had any idea of just how little society values child rearing, and how exhausting it is.

About a month after Eva was born, she wailed for three consecutive hours one afternoon. By 6 p.m., I had to put her on the floor beside me, while I lay on my back with my arms spreads out, like Jesus on the cross, repeating to myself, "I surrender."

This from someone who graduated on the dean's list at McGill and earned a graduate degree from an Ivy League university, achievements that signify resolve in the upper echelons of business.

Last August, a Google engineer named James Damore, who had studied at Harvard University, circulated a memo to his colleagues that cited studies suggesting women score higher on neuroticism, which means they can't handle stress and are therefore less likely to become successful leaders. He was fired, and ridiculed, but he hasn't seemed to change his mind. I suggest Mr. Damore try being at home with a raging newborn.

Yet in my own way, I've helped shape this narrative. As a business reporter, I've written scores of stories and profiles about business leaders and politicians, most of which have focused on men, because they still dominate executive ranks and boards of directors. I used to be fascinated by how they rose through their careers. I still am.

But now, I'm equally interested in how much support they provide to the spouses, nannies and daycare workers around them, none of whom get the glory.

Putting a public spotlight on these issues is bound to help, but it will likely take millions of smaller conversations - amongst friends, in the workplace, at home - for society to evolve.

What's been eye-opening for me is that they rarely happen. At least not with men.

Many parents, and particularly moms, in my experience, are reluctant to talk openly about their hardships.

A personal example: At our first ultrasound, Matt and I saw two bright lights on the screen, which meant both of our embryos had caught. It was the perfect scenario - twins, one from each father. A few weeks later, Ayesha texted early in the morning to say she had some bleeding.

She went in for a screen later that day, and while Matt and I sat in the waiting room of the IVF clinic, she messaged me to say there was only one heartbeat.

After the appointment, the three of us split up, and Matt and I both went back to work; we'd made plans to meet up at 4 p.m. for my mum's retirement party that evening. As I was leaving for it, he e-mailed to ask it if was okay if he passed on the event. He was tearing up in his office.

I often share this story, and when I tell women, they sometimes blurt out, "I lost one, too." As if there hadn't been permission to talk about a miscarriage with me, a man, until I brought it up. It's happened so many times, including with close friends, that I started to wonder how many of these stories we never hear.

I came to believe some of this reticence is socialized, possibly by small slights over so many years, all of which send subliminal signals about what makes a "good" mom and what men will tolerate. Early on, Eva had an almost unfathomable diaper rash, and about six maddening weeks into it, she and I had a midday appointment with a pediatrics specialist. While I was in the examination room waiting for the doctor, a nurse walked in and asked me if the mom was coming. I explained the surrogacy situation, and she said that made sense, because "Moms usually come to these." I was so tired, and so flustered, that I barely spoke up. But I wish I'd said, "What if Mom had a board meeting?" I make it a point now to be candid, especially about how I struggled. Because I did, and my body showed it. My circadian rhythms were shot and my face broke out with acne. When I was on leave, I started seeing a pattern when chatting with women, especially mothers: We'd often small talk for a bit, then once I got frank, the floodgates flew open. It even happened with my own sister, with whom I'm rather tight. One morning, after a rather exhausting night, I texted her to vent because she'd been through this with my nephew.

She replied: "I used to scream into the dark." I'd never heard her say that before.

As it stands, money and power often accumulate to those who aren't saddled with these duties, and who aren't burdened by the emotional stress they create.

Speaking candidly should start to change the way we work, which is in serious need of a fix.

There are now more seniors in Canada than there are people entering the work force, which means we will need younger people to stay employed as the baby boomers retire, so that the economy grows and offsets the budget effects of soaring health-care costs and the like. But at the moment, it still feels like a struggle for both parents to engage in work they find meaningful.

The federal government has tried to make life easier for parents, by boosting child benefits for many families and extending parental leave to 18 months.

These approaches serve a purpose, but I happen to believe real change comes from shared experiences.

I've come to support the Swedish model for parental leave. There, the government offers fathers money to take time off; if they don't go on leave, men forfeit the free money and the mother can't take their time in lieu. In economics, this is known as a "nudge," and this year's recipient for the Nobel Prize won for studying this very phenomenon. A little nudge, often a financial incentive, can cascade into huge systemic benefits.

I'm convinced that giving more men a taste of just how tricky raising children can be would not only help women advance in the workplace, but also provide more appreciation for different forms of caregiving, professions such as teaching and nursing and hospice work, where women predominate. Friends of mine work with autistic children and I'm horrified to hear how little aides in this line of work can get paid. Meanwhile, a man who manages underperforming mutual funds can still make boatloads.

For the men who need a little coaxing to take leave, I promise it proved to be one of the best things I've done, not just for my family, but for my career. I hope to do it again. The journey was a reminder that none of us are the centre of the world, and that stepping away doesn't mean you disappear; actually, it gives you time to flex a different muscle and return to work even stronger.

Sadly, the past year was also a harsh lesson in how much we still must evolve to accommodate parents - of either sex. The honest truth is that, when it comes to valuing family matters, we're still decades behind - and we shouldn't have to wait for change.

Associated Graphic

Top row: Family photos of Tim Kiladze, seen on the right in the top far-right image, with husband Matt and daughter Eva, also pictured below.

PHOTOS COURTESY OF THE AUTHOR

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Thursday, February 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B17


EDITH ADELINE BRAITHWAITE "Peter" (Mitchell)

Direct descendant of Canadian heroine Laura Secord dies at 105 years old.

Peter (her preferred name) was born in Clarksburg, Ontario on November 27, 1912, and passed away peacefully in her home in Brampton, Ontario on January 20, 2018. Peter was the daughter of George Herbert McCarroll Mitchell and Caroline Cartwright Carthew of Clarksburg, Ontario. Her sister, Carroll (Mitchell) Davidson, 104 years old, is now the oldest living direct descendant of Laura Secord.

Peter attended MacDonald Institute at the University of Guelph and later worked as a dietician at Eaton's College Street.

She married William Kenneth Braithwaite of Meaford, Ontario on July 29, 1939, raised 2 daughters, and became a lifelong volunteer.

She offered her time for many years with veterans at Sunnybrook Hospital, volunteered for over 50 years at Peel Memorial Hospital, and was also involved with the chancel guild at Christ Church after moving to Brampton in 1964.

She was always active in the community, enjoyed playing bridge with her friends, and remained capable and independent throughout her life - still driving her Cadillac and mowing her own lawn until she was 102.

Peter was loving, kind, and generous to her family, friends and associates and will be fondly remembered by all. She will be sadly missed by her two daughters, Suzanne (Braithwaite) Wylie and Dianne (Braithwaite) Shackel; her grandchildren, Cesilee Thompson, Lanny Wylie, Daniel Burrows, Michael Burrows and Angela Shackel; her 8 greatgrandchildren; and several nieces and nephews - all of whom she inspired with her great spirit.

MARGARET RUTH CAROTHERS

Passed away peacefully at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre on Saturday, February 3, 2018 at the age of 93 years.

Beloved wife of the late William (Curly) Wakely Carothers. Loving mother of Craig and his wife Tara. Proud Nanny of Samantha and Rebecca. Dear sister of Claire.

Predeceased by her sisters Evelyn, Georgina, Barbara and Susan. Margaret will be fondly remembered by her many nieces, nephews, relatives, neighbours and friends.

A funeral service will be held at the R. S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge Street (at Goulding, south of Steeles), on Monday, February 12, 2018 at 11:00 a.m., with visitation one hour prior. Cremation to follow. Condolences may be forwarded to the family through http://www.rskane.ca R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

ROBERT DUDLEY "Bob"

Robert "Bob" Dudley passed away peacefully at home on Sunday, February 4, 2018 at 92 years of age.

Born in Shanghai, China to Richard Dudley and Mona Edwards, Bob was predeceased by his beloved wife, Mary Stewart, in 1994; and by siblings, Agnes, James, Frank, Eileen, Molly, Margaret, John and Elizabeth.

He was the proud and loving father of Jane, Moira, James (Jim) and Shelagh Dudley; and the adoring grandfather of Eric Aubry, Kristen and Nathan Kitamura, Thomas and Evan Dudley, and Alexander and Jamie Lambkin. He was the great-grandfather of Emma Aubry. He will also be missed by sons-in-law, Pierre Aubry and Martin Kitamura; by Jim's partner, Elizabeth Dawson; and by Eric's wife, Jessica Menard. He leaves many nieces and nephews.

After obtaining his school-leaving certificate from the school he established at the Chapei Civil Assembly Centre, Bob immigrated with three siblings to Canada to join two other sisters in their one bedroom apartment in Vancouver.

Bob received his bachelor's and master's degrees in chemical engineering from the University of British Columbia. In 1951, he joined Polymer Corporation Limited (later Polysar Ltd.) in Sarnia, Ontario. He remained with the company for the duration of his career retiring in 1988 after having served as its President and Chief Executive Officer in the final five years. Toward the end of his career, he received an honorary doctorate in Engineering from the University of Waterloo.

Bob's family and friends will deeply miss his lively intellect, his dry wit, his enduring patience and his unconditional love and support. A celebration of his life will take place at 1:00 p.m. on Saturday, February 10, 2018, at Smith Funeral Home, 1576 London Line, Sarnia, Ontario. Family will receive visitors beginning at noon. A reception at the Sarnia Riding Club will follow the celebration. Sympathy may be expressed through donations to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or St. Joseph's Hospice (cheques only at the funeral home please).

DORA MARIE HANSEN

Passed away peacefully on Sunday, February 4, 2018.

Beloved wife of the late Leif Hansen. Loving mother of Karin, Michael (Cindy) and the late Brian. Cherished grandmother of Tina, Chris, Rob, Rachel, Holly; and 4 great-grandchildren.

Dora was born November 22, 1928 in Denmark and came to Canada with her husband Leif in 1957. They resided in Oakville, Clarkson, Scarborough and Toronto.

Together they created L.

Hansen's Forwarding, an industry leader in automotive transportation. Dora enjoyed ballroom dancing, relaxing at her cottage in Lagoon City and time spent with family and friends.

A family service will be held at Pine Hills Cemetery & Funeral Centre, 625 Birchmount Rd., Scarborough (north of St. Clair Ave. E., 416-267-8229) on Saturday, February 10th at 10 a.m. with a visitation beginning at 9:30 a.m.

Friends and acquaintances of the Hansen family are invited to celebrate the life of Dora Hansen at a reception following services from 12 p.m. - 3 p.m. at the Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Ave., Toronto. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made in Dora's memory to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or Sunnybrook Hospital Foundation.

MARY KALANDA

Mary Elizabeth Kalanda (nee MacVicar) passed away on February 4, 2018. Mary was the loving wife to Brian Kalanda; doting mother to Robert and Kevin; supportive mother-in-law to Kristen Oliver; and devoted friend to many others.

Mary fought a very courageous battle from postsurgical complications. Mary was family first, but always found time to be an active member at Jubilee United Church and Delta Gamma, along with many other charitable organizations.

The visitation and memorial services will be at Jubilee United Church, at 40 Underhill Drive. The visitation services will be on Saturday, February 10th from 7 p.m. - 9:30 p.m.

and Sunday, February 11th from 1 p.m. - 4 p.m., followed by the memorial service to be held on Monday, February 12th at 1 p.m. Memorial donations in lieu of flowers may be made to Crohn's and Colitis Canada.

GUNVOR LEYNER

Gun passed away peacefully on February 4, 2018 at Southlake Regional Health Centre.

Gun was born in Stockholm, Sweden on March 27, 1925 and moved to Canada in 1954 with her husband, Bjorn; and two small children.

Gun was the ultimate stay-athome Mom and completely devoted to her family. She made everything look easy - from hosting formal business dinners to whipping up amazing Halloween and figure skating costumes. She was creative, accomplished and clever - a whiz at math and an excellent bridge and chess player.

She loved animals, nature and the outdoors. She was happiest at her beloved cottage in Haliburton where she would take her two swims a day wearing her flowered bathing cap and paddle her canoe in the summer. In the winter, she thought nothing of spending two weeks at the cottage over Christmas break with no running water. How she loved to cross country ski across the frozen lake with the sun shining down from a bright blue sky.

She had a passionate love for her art and her painting and was always most comfortable in her old blue jeans and painting shirt.

Gun was predeceased by her husband, Bjorn, in 2003; and son, Ulf, in 2006. She will be lovingly remembered by her two daughters, Monika Preston (John) of Palm Beach and Barbara Gaic of Aurora. Forever adored by her three grandchildren, Steve and Jeff Preston and Megan Gaic; and five special great-grandchildren on the Preston side.

At the family's request, no service will be held.

Condolences can be received on the Guestbook at Thompson Funeral Home (dignitymemorial.ca.)

GLORIA MACKENZIE

Passed away peacefully, in Brockville on Friday, February 2, 2018. Gloria MacKenzie (Vaughan), at the age of 96 years. Born in Toronto to Robert Charles Vaughan C.M.G. and Henrietta Cheadle Vaughan. Raised and educated in Montreal.

Attended Trafalgar School for girls and Elmwood in Ottawa, as well as McGill, Montreal Repertory Theatre, and O'Sullivan Business School.

Gloria married her childhood sweetheart, John MacKenzie.

They lived in Halifax for four years during the war when John was serving in the Navy.

In 1945, they returned to Montreal where they resided for 52 years until retiring to Brockville in 1997.

Gloria worked voluntarily for the Montreal Association for Retarded Children, serving two years as president of the Mount Royal Chapter. She was athletic and enjoyed her golf at Beaconsfield and Royal Montreal as well as badminton at Atwater Club.

John predeceased her after 67 years of marriage.

Together they loved entertaining and were blessed with a host of friends from coast to coast. Surviving, are their two dearly loved children, Kenneth MacKenzie (Wendy) of Calgary and Jill Russell (Alan) of Brockville.

Also surviving are their five grandsons and two greatgranddaughters. She was predeceased by two brothers, Robert Vaughan and Dr. Peter Vaughan; and by her sister, Elizabeth Arnold. She leaves many nieces and nephews.

A memorial service will be held at a later date at Irvine Funeral Home and Chapel, 4 James St. E., Brockville.

Interment will take place at Mount Royal Cemetery, Montreal. As expressions of sympathy, donations to the Salvation Army or Red Cross will be gratefully acknowledged. Condolences, donations, and special thoughts of Gloria may be left online at http://www.irvinememorial.com.

ALAN THOMAS PEARSON

Alan, beloved husband and dearest friend of Chaviva Hosek for 37 years. Born Birmingham, England, April 27, 1939, died Toronto, Ontario, Canada, February 5, 2018.

Son of a sheet metal worker, an industrial designer by temperament, meticulous user of language and logic, honest to a fault with an overdeveloped sense of fairness, snappy dresser, obsessive and strategic shopper.

He lived his life honestly, compassionately and on his terms.

Son of Thomas Joseph Pearson, died in 1998, and, Jessie Wright, died in 1956. Educated at King Edward VI School, Birmingham; the University of Birmingham, B.Comm. Married Gloria Ifill, who died in 1981; son, Graham Calvin Pearson who died in 2013.

Lieutenant Royal Warwickshire Regiment, UK, seconded to the Ghana Army, 1959-1962. Senior Research Consultant to The Economist Intelligence Unit, London, UK, 1962-1966. Federal Public Servant Canada, 1966-1981.

President of the Couchiching Institute on Public Affairs, 19841986. President of the Stafford Beer Foundation, 1986-1999.

President of Alan Pearson Associates, 1981-2004.

Shiva visits will take place on Thursday, February 8th from 4:00 - 8:00 p.m. and on Sunday, February 11th from 4:00 - 8:00 p.m.

There will be a reception in Alan's honour to be held at The York Club, 135 St. George Street, Toronto, on Monday, February 12th from 5:00 - 8:00 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Pathways to Education, Toronto http://www.pathwaystoeducation.ca.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

EVERETT ROBERT RUSSELL SAINT September 11, 1924 January 30, 2018

"Dad's Favourite Chair" Though its cushions are lumpy and frayed here and there, no King's throne is finer than Dad's favourite chair.

Where Dad has relaxed with his family for years and joined in their laughter and hugged away tearsthe chair where he listens with love in his eyes to jokes and excuses and, yes, a few lies...

Where sometimes he sits while the rest are in bed, with worries and hopes spinning around in his head, and at times stays awake till the wee hours at night to be certain some traveller arrives home at night.

The change from his pockets found under the seat can purchase an ice cream or other fun treat.

If someone needs help with a problem they've got, right next to Dad's chair is a very good spot...

It's a chair built for comfort - not stylish or grandit's arms hold the warmth and the shape of his hands...

the springs sag a little, the seams need repair, but the love lasts forever in Dad's favourite chair.

Dedicated to my Dad now sitting eternally in his favourite chair.

It is with great sadness that I announce the passing of my father, Everett who went peacefully at Oak Terrace in Orillia in his 94th year on January 30, 2018. He was born and raised in the Toronto and Bradford areas. He served in World War II but missed the last boat to head over seas. He has been a member of the Royal Canadian Legion in Victoria Harbour since 2007.

Everett attended the University of Toronto and graduated in the Class of 1951 with a Bachelor of Applied Science in Civil Engineering, which led to his joining of the Association of Professional Engineers in the Province of Ontario in July of 1952. He then worked for the Department of Highways, Manager of the Concrete Division, in North Bay and Kingston, which was then renamed The Ministry of Transportation and Communications where he retired in Toronto at the end of December of 1983. At this time, Everett was acknowledged with a certificate of faithful service for his 32 years from the Ministry of Transportation and Communication, along with 32 years of public service from the Government of Ontario.

While living in Kingston, he went to Queen's University and obtained a Masters of Science in Civil Engineering in November of 1974. After his retirement, he discovered his passion for small engine repair which was shown strongly in his collection of sewing machines.

Everett is survived by his daughter, Anne Maureen; and will be sadly missed by his "grandkitten," Kiki; and "granddoggers," Dallas and Liberty. He was predeceased by his wife, Marion Wilma (nee Ellis); and his parents, Russell Edmond Saint and Minnie Louisa (nee Firth).

The world has lost a very resourceful, passionate gentleman. Cremation has taken place. Funeral arrangements entrusted to Carson Funeral Homes - JH Lynn Chapel, 290 First Street, Midland (705) 526-6551.

Online Messages of Condolence are welcome at http://www.CarsonFuneralHomes.com His daughter would like to say thank you to the Staff at Oak Terrace in Orillia for his brief visit; the Staff, past and present, over the past 5 years at King Place in Midland; and Dr. Gary Magee of Thornhill. Memorial donations to the Salvation Army Church in Midland, Ontario would be greatly appreciated by the family.

ALEX TAYLOR

In short, it was a life well-lived.

Alex passed away peacefully on February 6, 2018 in his 85th year.

Alex is the beloved husband of Maris, with whom he celebrated 60 years of marriage in 2016.

Maris and Alex have four sons: Alexander "Sandy" (Chantal), Keith (Beth), Jon (Ginny) and Rodney (Darci), and a fifth son counting 'Uncle Dougie'. He was affectionately known as "Noddy" to his eleven grandchildren and their respective spouses: Alexander "Doug" (Natalie), Sheena (Joe), Jennee (Mike), Meg, Rachel, Charlie, Alec, Gabrielle, Rosanne, Fiona and Griffin. Alex was further blessed with two beautiful great-grandsons in Alexander "Zac" and Luke. Alex is survived by his two brothers, Arthur and David.

Alex was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He earned a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of London. His early career took him and his family to multiple locations in Scotland and England. He and Maris and the four boys moved to Canada in 1966. Alex enjoyed a highly successful career as a senior executive of some of Canada's leading engineering firms.

Outside his work and family, Alex's passions were sports and his friends. He collected many over four decades spent in Montreal, Toronto, North Hatley, the Cayman Islands and Florida.

The love and support of those friends, and Alex's healthcare professionals, was and continues to be appreciated. If you ever wanted to see the definition of true love, you only had to watch Maris as she doted on and cared for Alex in his last couple of years.

A celebration of Alex's life will be held at the Mississaugua Golf and Country Club (1725 Mississauga Road) on Saturday, February 10th at 3 p.m. - 5 p.m.

PAMELA WILTON (nee Bristow)

Passed away peacefully, surrounded by her family on February 1, 2018. Pam was born May 12, 1929 in London, England to Alfred and Mary Bristow. She was the much-loved mother of Donna; proud and devoted grandmother to Megan Rhind, Tyler and Andrew Curtis; and a greatgrandmother to baby Charles Rhind. She was predeceased by her husband Arthur Wilton; and her four siblings, Molly, Rex, Patricia and Joy.

Pam came to Canada in 1952 where she lived in Toronto and Huntsville, Ontario.

She enjoyed a long career with Imperial Oil, loved reading, long walks and golf.

The family would like to express their sincere gratitude to the many, many people who gave her such great care over the past eight years: Dr. Robert Whaley in Huntsville, and the wonderful staff at Chartwell Retirement Home in Huntsville, The Huntsville Hospital and True Davidson Acres in Toronto.

In keeping with her wishes a cremation has occurred and a private family gathering will be held in England.

CLANELL TERESA ARCHER (nee Groeneman) October 16, 1930 - February 8, 2017

Wife, mother, grandmother and friend. Clanell was born in Colorado Springs, and grew up in Kansas City, MO. After losing her mother, Clanell relocated to Colombia to teach at the American School in Barranquilla where, in 1953, she met her future husband, Jack. Thereafter, she gave birth to her only son, Christopher.

The family eventually relocated to Libya, before finally settling in Calgary, AB. Clanell and Jack retired happily in Victoria, B.C.

She loved family, friends, dogs, gardening, reading, and cooking.

She was compassionate, elegant, creative, and outspoken. She was the moral and intellectual compass for her family, and fiercely loyal to her friends. She was passionate about public education, and gave generously to those less fortunate.

She is survived by her husband of 65 years, Jack; her son, Christopher; her three grandchildren, Mary, Ellen and Paul; numerous nieces and nephews; and friends.

Her passing one year ago left a huge hole in our hearts and she is forever missed.

Memorial donations may be made to the Calgary Public Library, or the Salvation Army.

AGNES RAVINSKY

February 8, 1994 Her strength, love of life and sparkling smile will inspire us for all time. Love as always, Manny, Adrian and Sam.

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Monday, February 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B17


JEAN MARGARET WILMOT BOULBY (née Saxby) July 24, 1931- February 8, 2018

Beloved wife of the late Mark Boulby; mother of Marion, Sarah (and Perry); grandmother to Thomas; sister of Gillian (and Keith); aunt to Anna, Helen and Neil; great-aunt to Ella, Tia, Siara and Inigo; and sister of Eunice (and family).

Jean was educated at the Maynard School in Exeter and studied for a year at St. Hilda's College, Oxford. Jean left Oxford (after an adventure) and joined the Royal Air Force. She served as an officer in the RAF until her marriage to Mark. Jean then worked for the Inland Revenue until Marion was born. Jean immigrated with her family to the United States where she lived in New York and Ohio. She immigrated again with the family to Canada, initially living in Vancouver. Jean studied history at the University of British Columbia and obtained a B.A.. Her M.A. thesis on fish markets must remain a work in progress. Jean worked in credit at a department store in Vancouver and later in a diamond business in Toronto. Jean was always young at heart. She had a wide circle of friends. She made art and great food. She was the centre of our family and we shall miss her.

Visitation at the Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre - 375 Mount Pleasant Road on Tuesday, February 13 at 2 p.m. with service in our Chapel at 3 p.m. Cremation. In lieu of flowers, donation can be made to Doctors Without Borders or the Temmy Latner Centre. For online condolences please visit http://www.etouch.ca.

DOROTHY ELEANOR DRAKE

Passed away with family by her side on Saturday, February 10, 2018 at Bridgepoint Active Healthcare in Toronto, Dorothy Eleanor Drake (nee Knapman). Dorothy was born in Picton, Ontario, on December 31, 1926, the daughter of Harold Knapman and Bernice Clapp. She attended Queen's University in Kingston, from which she graduated with a degree in biochemistry. In 1950 she married Hugh Drake, with whom, over the course of many years, she travelled widely, sharing her passion for the fine arts and a mutual love of sailing and skiing. She spent nearly every summer of her ninety-one years at her beloved family cottage on Stoney Lake, Ontario.

Dorothy was the mother of four much loved daughters, Susan (Ian Masters), Julia (John Reardon), Christine and Sarah (Bill Tinney); grandmother to Kiva Reardon, Ella and Angus Wright and Rebecca and Keltie Wellwood; greatgrandmother to Olive Wright and Skylar and Frances Docherty; and the sister of Harice Parkinson. She was predeceased by her husband, Hugh; and daughter, Susan. A memorial service will be held at a later date to celebrate Dorothy's long, rich and love-filled life. If desired, donations can be made to Bridgepoint Health Foundation (14 St. Matthew's Road, Toronto, Ontario M4M 2B5). Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through www. humphreymilesnewbigging.com. When the voices of children are heard on the green And laughter is heard on the hill, My heart is at rest within my breast And everything else is still.

SIMON RITCHIE FODDEN March 24, 1944 - February 10, 2018

Simon Ritchie Fodden ended his four-year battle with cancer in the early hours of February 10, 2018. He was surrounded by loving family, and the tender care of staff at Kensington Hospice in Toronto. Simon was a proud and loving father to his two daughters, Rebecca and Jennifer; and grandfather to Jack, Asha, Mia and Josephine. Simon is survived by wife and best friend, Christine Hawkes; her children, Alexandra and Martin; and her grandchildren, Kate, Tomas, Kristine and Elsa. Simon was born in Leeds, England on March 24, 1944. He was the eldest of six children born to Jean and John Henry Fodden. He is survived by siblings, Digby, Joy, Paul, Tony and Liz. Graduate of Princeton University, Johns Hopkins, and Osgoode Hall, law professor and associate dean of law, author, blogger, founder/publisher of slaw.ca, lifelong learner, ecclectic collector of interests and curiosities, aesthete, fashion plate, craft beer lover, foodie, charming conversationalist, music lover, technophile, web designer and all-around early adopter of innovation. Online before online was a place to be.

Friends, family, colleagues and followers of Simon's work are invited to come together to remember him at 1:00 p.m. on Tuesday, February 13th at the I-Zone Lofts, 326 Carlaw Avenue, in Toronto. A celebration of Simon's life will follow, from 3:00- 5:00 p.m. at Allen's Restaurant and Pub, 143 Danforth Avenue. All are welcome to join in one or both events.

In lieu of flowers, please join us is supporting the wonderful work of the Daily Bread Food Bank, where Simon volunteered over many years, or Kensington Hospice.

BERNICE BOOTHE MALLORY February 7, 2018

The family members of Lillian Bernice "Bernie" Mallory (née Boothe) express their gratitude for having shared the life of a woman whose kindness, graciousness, and impish sense of humour will be missed by all who knew her.

Born in 1920 in Vancouver, Bernie was the daughter of the late Howard and Mabel Boothe, wellknown theatre owners. She was also predeceased by brothers, Jack and Frank Boothe; and sister, Audrey Fletcher.

Bernie was married for 68 years to Malcolm (Mike) Mallory, who passed away in 2012. Their lives took them to various locations throughout Ontario and France, where Bernie became known by friends and colleagues as a warm and generous hostess with a sparkling wit and a universal graciousness. She was quick to make friends and slow to lose them.

Bernie was a past member of the Ontario Film Review Board and an active community volunteer, donating her time to multiple charities, including Hope Air and the Cancer and Arthritis Societies.

She will be remembered by the staff and members of Lambton Golf Club, where she participated in golf, bridge and social events into her 90th year.

She is survived by her three children, Michael Mallory (Norah) of Fredericton, NB, Ginny Tullis (Blair) of Stouffville ON, and Stephen Mallory (Jill) of Toronto.

She took great pride in her nine grandchildren, Mara Mallory (Patrick Parent), Bridget Tutschka (Mark) of Saint John, Michael "Butch" Mallory (Courtney Steeves) of Fredericton, Annie Mallory, of Orlando, Cam Tullis (Lise), Alison Dwoskin (Dan) of Toronto, Michelle Lomano (Mathew), Susan Mallory (Paul Santacroce) of Stouffville, and Graham Mallory of Toronto.

Bernie's children would like to give special thanks to the Parkview Nursing Home staff for the care they extended their mother. Very special thanks to Maria Johnson for many years of thoughtful and compassionate care to both their parents.

At Bernie's request, there is no visitation or funeral. The family plans to hold a celebration of this special life at a later date.

For those who wish, memorial donations may be made to organizations that benefitted from Bernie's volunteer efforts, including Hope Air, the Arthritis Foundation and/or the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

RALPH DUNCAN MATHIESON

It is with sorrow we announce the death of Ralph Duncan Mathieson on February 10, 2018 of Parkinson's Disease.

He was in his 87th year.

Beloved husband of sixty-two years of Beverley Jeannette Mathieson (Baxter). Dear father of Tanya (David Lonsdale) of Guelph, Kimberley (Paul Bradley) of Toronto, Duncan (Susan Pychyl) of Pickering, and Jamie (Michele Schneider) of Charlottesville, Virginia.

Loving grandfather of Michael (Katie Golding) Lonsdale; Charlotte and Georgia Bradley; Ian (Julia Winters), Andrea, Tori, and Emily Mathieson; and Jesse and Maggie Mathieson. Greatgrandfather of William Lonsdale and Elise Mathieson.

Survived by brother, George (Bernice Oliver) Mathieson, of Sarnia; and sister, Elizabeth Driscoll, of St John's, NL.

Cremation has taken place.

The family would like to thank Cathy Crane for her hours of dedicated nursing, she surely was a guardian angel. Also sincere thanks to the staff of Winbourne Park for their care and professionalism. A memorial gathering will be held at a later date.

CAROLYN ANN MCCREARY July 13, 1941 - February 10, 2018

Carolyn Ann McCreary (née Ward) passed away at Kingston General Hospital on February 10, 2018.

She was 76.

Carolyn was born in Stratford and raised in Lindsay, Ontario.

A nursing placement in Kingston led to meeting her husband, Dr. Bruce McCreary. Carolyn dedicated her full time to raising their four children while Bruce worked at his psychiatric practice across Eastern Ontario.

Carolyn had bipolar disorder, a condition she battled with courage and strength. It did not shake her love for her family. It did not keep her from raising her children and encouraging them to find their places in wide ranging careers.

Carolyn had a sharp wit and little patience for pretence. She sought to have real and meaningful conversations with everyone she met. Carolyn was predeceased by her husband, Bruce, by just a few months. She is survived and missed by her children, Rick (Lois), Janet (Bernard), Alison (Martin) and Andrew (Paula). Loving Nan to Alison, Kevin, Liam, Jacob and Ruby. Carolyn is also survived by her brother, Robert; and many nieces and nephews.

A memorial to celebrate Carolyn will be held at 2:00 p.m. on Thursday, February 15th at the James Reid Funeral Home, 1900 John Counter Blvd., Kingston. In lieu of flowers, donations to the charity of your choice would be appreciated by Carolyn's family.

ARTHUR MORRIS

It is with immense sadness that we announce that Arthur Morris passed away suddenly in his home near Elmsdale, NS on February 7, 2018.

Born to Thomas and Rachie Morris (Pulsford), he was predeceased by his wife of 66 years, Dorothy Morris (Ronald); and his younger sister, Eleanor Williams. He is survived by his youngest sister, Margaret Evans and her family. He is also survived by his children, Wendy, Brian (Stephanie), Susan (Brian), and Andrew; grandchildren, Cori, Ruth, Erik (Alicia), Tegan; and great-grandchild, Ray. Born in Toronto to Welsh immigrants, the family returned to England in 1938 to Chingford, just in time for World War II where they all survived the Blitz.

Arthur left school at 15 and joined Reuters but quickly decided it did not suit his thirst for knowledge or adventure. At age 17, he threatened he would run away to sea if his parents didn't sign the papers for him to join the Royal Navy. He joined the Royal Navy where he quickly caught the attention of his senior officers and was one of only three men in the Royal Navy at that time to follow the path to commission.

He graduated from the Institute of Mechanical Engineers and also became a Diving Officer.

Arthur met the love of his life, Dorothy, in 1947, when he bumped into her at a skating rink in Dunfermline, Scotland, and they were married on April 30, 1949 in Scotland.

Arthur always wanted to return to Canada, and the young family settled here in 1961 as Arthur had transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy. He retired in 1974 as a Commander, having served on different ships including HMCS Bonaventure and HMCS Nipigon.

He was cited for bravery for taking charge and saving lives during the fire at sea on board HMCS Nipigon. He was the Commander of NETE (Naval Engineering Test Establishment) in Lasalle, Quebec and oversaw the design of the Tribal class destroyers.

After his retirement from the CAF (now RCN), he joined with his good friend, Lucien Ledaire, and formed the company Ledaire, Morris and Associates, Architects and Engineers. They designed or redesigned many office, commercial, industrial and apartment buildings including Scotia Stadium at Cole Harbour Place, Pope John XXIII Church, as well as the bandstand at Sullivan's Pond.

Upon retiring for the second time in 1986, he and Dorothy sailed the high seas for 13 years on their boat Cabot's Mathew. They visited over 40 countries from South America to Norway, Turkey and the Black Sea, including spending six months in Paris. They had many adventures and side trips including climbing one of the pyramids at Giza, Petra in Jordan and trekking in Nepal.

The stories Arthur told captivated people wherever he went. He continued to learn, travel and make new friends right till the end, having been on safari in Kenya in November 2017. Anyone that had the incredible pleasure to meet him would attest to the amazing soul that he was. He had many interests including ham radio (VE0FC and VE1FCA) and spent many happy hours chatting with and supporting a large network of friends that were very dear to him. Arthur and Dorothy were avid skiers and Scottish Country Dancers in their younger years and were members of the Halifax Field Naturalists. They both loved to read and Arthur had an insatiable thirst for knowledge that continued right to the end. He loved to share his stories and experience with those who needed help or advice, whether it be family or friend. Arthur met many strangers but he always left the encounter with a friend.

Arthur has been cremated as per his wishes. Celebration of Life to be held at Brightwood Golf and Country Club, 227 School Street in Dartmouth, Sunday, February 25th from 1 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friends of Arthur and family are all welcome at the gathering to share memories and stories. Please email to: ettingerfuneralhome@hotmail. com or phone 902-435-2608 if you will be attending. Donations in Arthur's memory can be made to the Salvation Army.

Condolences, words of comfort and memories of Arthur may be shared with the family at: http://www.ettingerfuneralhome.com

ALAN THOMAS PEARSON

Alan, beloved husband and dearest friend of Chaviva Hosek for 37 years. Born Birmingham, England, April 27, 1939, died Toronto, Ontario, Canada, February 5, 2018.

Son of a sheet metal worker, an industrial designer by temperament, meticulous user of language and logic, honest to a fault with an overdeveloped sense of fairness, snappy dresser, obsessive and strategic shopper.

He lived his life honestly, compassionately and on his terms.

Son of Thomas Joseph Pearson, died in 1998, and, Jessie Wright, died in 1956. Educated at King Edward VI School, Birmingham; the University of Birmingham, B.Comm. Married Gloria Ifill, who died in 1981; son, Graham Calvin Pearson who died in 2013.

Lieutenant Royal Warwickshire Regiment, UK, seconded to the Ghana Army, 1959-1962. Senior Research Consultant to The Economist Intelligence Unit, London, UK, 1962-1966. Federal Public Servant Canada, 1966-1981.

President of the Couchiching Institute on Public Affairs, 19841986. President of the Stafford Beer Foundation, 1986-1999.

President of Alan Pearson Associates, 1981-2004.

Shiva visits will take place on Thursday, February 8th from 4:00 - 8:00 p.m. and on Sunday, February 11th from 4:00 - 8:00 p.m.

There will be a reception in Alan's honour to be held at The York Club, 135 St. George Street, Toronto, on Monday, February 12th from 5:00 - 8:00 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Pathways to Education, Toronto http://www.pathwaystoeducation.ca.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

ROB SWINSON August 8, 1965 February 12, 1993

It is 25 years since your life was cut short by someone who chose to drink and then get behind the wheel of a car.

You are still missed every single day. Our love for you will go on forever.

Mom, Dad, Ian and Lucy, Emma and Chris, Matthew and Maggie "Please stay safe, drive sober"

BILL RATTNER

On Friday, February 9, 2018 at Sunnybrook Hospital. Bill Rattner, beloved husband of Hedy. Loving father and father-in-law of Genna and Virg Colucci, and Jodi Rattner.

Loved son of Sherrie and the late Jack Rattner; and loved son-in-law of Jean and the late Bill Chase.

Dear brother and brother-in-law of Terry and Alan Lustig, Robert and Jan Rattner, and Shirley Chase and Jimmy Gladstone.

Devoted grandfather of Daniel, and Alessia.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (three lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, February 12, 2018 at 1:00 p.m.

Interment Temple Har Zion Section at Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 171 Corner Ridge Road, Aurora. Memorial donations may be made to the SunnybrookHospital Foundation, Attention: Dr. Bjarnason Kidney Cancer Research, 416-480-4483.

PEGGY MARGARET ELIZABETH SUCKLING (nee Newton)

Born October 5, 1927. Passed away peacefully in the early morning hours of February 9, 2018, surrounded by her devoted family at Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket in her 91st year.

Predeceased by her much beloved husband, John, in 1991. Mom was the spirited instigator and planner of countless family gatherings.

There was nothing she loved more than to be surrounded by the conversation and laughter of her children, Mark (Patty), David (Sandy), Wendy (Michael), Peter (Jennifer) and Cynthia (Mark); and her grandchildren, Anna (Jason), Erin (Marc), Lindsay (Keith), Emily, Stephen, James, Meagan (Alex), Jonathan, John, Sophie and Madison.

She was so delighted to become great-grandmother to Brooks. Dear sister of Ron Newton (Marj) and Roy (and the late Ruth) Newton.

Funeral service to be held at St. John's York Mills Anglican Church, 19 Don Ridge Dr., Toronto on Wednesday, February 14th at 2 p.m.

Reception to follow in the Garnsworthy Room. If desired, memorial donations can be made to the Hospital for Sick Children or the charity of your choice.

JANE PATRICIA CAMKEN TIBERGHIEN ("TITIA")

Passed away on February 7, 2018 at the age of 75. Mother of Emily and Nicolas; motherin-law of Julian; sister of Deborah; sister-in-law of Jack; and grandmother of Charles.

Sympathy may be expressed through donations to the Alzheimer Society of Canada.

DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, February 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B22


DEATHS

DR. JUDY BEN-ISRAEL

We are saddened to announce the passing of Dr. Judy Ben-Israel on Tuesday, February 13, 2018 at the age of 62. Judy was a cherished wife and mother of four, beloved doctor, and world traveler. Judy's was a story of overcoming adversity.

She is survived by husband, Yaacov; daughter, Karen; son, David; son, Jonathan and his wife Mengru; son, Michael; and brother and sister in-law, Itzhak and Inbal.

Funeral service at Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) on Friday, February 16, 2018 at 2:30 p.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec memorial Park. Shiva at 125 Stathearn Road.

Memorial donations may be made to United Jewish Appeal, (416) 631-5685.

ANDREW MacPHERSON CRAWFORD "Sandy" April 17, 1954 February 11, 2018

Peacefully and surrounded by his family, Sandy passed away after a hard fought and brave battle with Huntington's Disease.

Predeceased by his parents, Donald and Joan; Sandy is survived by his wife, Kathleen (Fitzgibbons); his children, Ryan, Andrew, and Megan (Matthew McGuinness); and siblings, Judy Rawley (Kim), Donald (Shelley), Cameron (Dijana) and Angus (Laurel).

He will be sadly missed by his many cousins, nieces, nephews and friends.

Visitation will be held at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. West on Tuesday, February 20th from 5-8 p.m.

Funeral Services to be held at Rosedale United Church, 159 Roxborough Drive, on Wednesday, February 21st at 11 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, a donation to the Huntington's Society of Canada would be greatly appreciated.

MARDI JANE FALCONER (nee Saunders) B.A.,M.S.W. 1933-2018 This feisty and lively woman passed away peacefully in the early hours of Tuesday, February 13, 2018, 27 months after the death of her much-loved husband, Bob.

The two had met at the University of Toronto in the early 1950s and began, soon after, a marriage of more than 60 years.

Born to Marjorie and Robert Hood Saunders, Mardi came from a privileged background her father, a prominent criminal lawyer was mayor of Toronto from 1945 to 1948, then Chairman of Ontario Hydro and the St Lawrence Seaway.

Mardi went to Bishop Strachan School and Lawrence Park Collegiate. As a 20-year-old student at U of T's Victoria College, she attended with her parents the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and cherished the velvet stools the three were given as seats in the choir loft -- "the best seats in the house," Mardi always said.

Newly married, Mardi taught at a primary school in North York when first she graduated, but wanted to do more. She got her Masters of Social Work from U of T and took on some hard cases, first in Warrendale, an experimental facility for troubled teens, then at the Children's Aid Society in downtown Toronto. It wasn't easy. More than once she came home shaken at the end of the day after someone had pulled a knife or otherwise threatened her.

Mardi and Bob lived most of their lives in the confines of the genteel Lawrence Park neighbourhood in Toronto, a city she never stopped loving and, to the very end, marveled at its tall buildings and the diversity of new arrivals.

Mardi and Bob never had children. Her great loves were her husband, their dogs - three Labrador Retrievers that spanned a period of almost 50 years --their cottage on Lake Joseph next to the Crawfords and her goddaughter, Mardi Witzel, their numerous and exotic travels to more than 50 countries about which she compiled enormous photo albums, her school friends Denyse Crawford, Marg Perkins and Pat Dalton with whom she stayed close all her life, and quiet holiday celebrations with family members Mardi and Bob were inspirations to more than two generations of Falconer descendants. She leaves behind Bob's two sisters, Adele Martin and June Polack; as well as their seven children, Patrick Martin and Mardi Wheeler, David Polack, Brenda Jenkins, Robert (Polack) Falconer, Russell Polack and Andrew Polack.

Then a host of great-nieces and nephews, Gabriel, Samuel, Ella, Eden, Meaghan, Christopher, Amanda, Emily, Meaghan, Nicole, Braighton, Kenzi, Rory, and their young children.

Mardi received wonderful care from people at the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Special thanks go to Dr. Andrea David and the team of doctors and nurses in Sunnybrook's family medical practice, as well as to Dr. Dov Gandell, her geriatrician and Dr. Robert Maggisano, her cardiologist. With their guidance Mardi was able to live out her last months at home, thanks also to the fine care provided by her caregivers Aida Asuncion, Carmelita Audencial, Remy Matias, and palliative-care nurse Beth and Dr. Jennifer Arvanitis.

Friends may visit at the Humphrey Miles Funeral Home, 1403 Bayview Avenue, on Tuesday, February 20th, from 12:00 p.m., followed by a memorial service at 1:00 p.m. in the funeral home chapel, with interment at Mt.

Pleasant Cemetery.

It would make Mardi enormously happy if contributions could be made in her memory to the Children's Aid Society of Toronto or to the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care.

BETTY FINER

On Wednesday, February 14, 2018 at her home. Beloved wife of Nathan Finer.Loving mother and mother-in-law of Brian and Laurie.

Dear sister and sister-in-law of the late Shirley and Harold Gladstone, and Gordon and the late Lea Levy. Devoted grandmother of David, and Marissa.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Friday, February 16, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Interment in the Temple Sinai section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 4 Hammok Crescent, Thornhill.

Memorial donations may be made to Canadian Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation 905-294-7645, http://www.cpff.ca or Temmy Latner Centre, 416-586-8203.

ROBERT ALLAN HAMILTON

Peacefully went to be with the Lord, at the Veterans Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital on Friday, February 9, 2018, three days before his 97th birthday. Predeceased in 1999 by his wife of 53 years Annettie (Reid), for whom he cared daily through her long journey with early-onset Alzheimer's, and in 2014 by his wife of twelve years Loreen (Wilson).

Allan has left a legacy of faith for his family to follow and has modeled a character of faithfulness in support of his family, friends and church.

Loving father of Anne Crawford (Robert) and Robert Hamilton (Cathy). Proud grandfather of Andrea Bax (Timothy), Jonathan Crawford (Candace), Austin Hamilton (Marianne), and Catherine Gillis (David). Great-grandfather of Riley, Ethan, Jackson, Ayden, Lachlan, Adelaide, Niall, Harriet, and Mae.

Predeceased by his four sisters, Ruby White (Herb), Elsie Rickard (Les), Winnie Peat (Alec), Evelyn Miller (Bill); and by his five brothers-in-law, Jim (Gladys), Ted (Ruth), Bill (Audrey), Art (Doris), and Ken (Doreen).

He studied Engineering at the University of Toronto, served in the Navy until the end of World War II, and spent the majority of his career with Bell Canada, living and working for many years in Montreal.

A special thank-you to all of the caregivers at the Veterans Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital who were so helpful to him over the final years of his life.

As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations to Alzheimer's Association of Canada and the Veterans Centre - Sunnybrook Hospital would be appreciated by the family.

A private service to honour Allan's memory is being held by the family at a later date.

ELLEN PATRICIA JOHN (nee Roberts) August 9, 1924 February 11, 2018

It is with profound sorrow that we announce the peaceful passing of our beloved mother, Patricia John, in her home surrounded by family on February 11, 2018 in her 94th year.

Beloved wife of the late Edwin Paul John, cherished mother of Sunit (Lyn), Prakash (Gail), Ajit (Margaret), Nirmala (Richard), Edwina (Don), adored "Grandma John" to 12 grandchildren and 13 great-grandchildren, loved by her sole surviving sister, Mavis Vats.

With an unwavering faith in God, Patricia lived a life of selfless devotion to her family and friends who will miss her grace, gentleness, humour and infinite kindness.

Deepest gratitude to Petra, Jordie and all the staff at St Matthew's Bracondale House for their incomparable care. "Rest eternal grant unto her O Lord, and may light perpetual shine upon her."

Visitation on Monday, February 19, 2:00 p.m.- 4:00 p.m. at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave W, Toronto, 416-489-8733. Funeral service on Tuesday, February 20 at 11:00 a.m. at St. Paul's Bloor Street Anglican Church, 227 Bloor St E, Toronto. Private interment at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Canadian Bible Society: biblescanada.com, World Vision Canada: worldvision.ca or St Matthew's Bracondale House: http://www.smbh.ca would be appreciated.

ANTHONY EUGENE ST. MARIE September 19, 1922 February 12, 2018

Gene (age 95), passed away peacefully, at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre. Predeceased by his parents, John and Mary (Armstrong) St. Marie; his sister, Helen Enright (Jack); and his third daughter, Dawn St. Marie. Left to mourn his passing are his loving wife of 70 years, Kathleen (Kay Tomlinson); his daughters, Judy Keefe (Michael, deceased), Patty Sloggett (Paul), and Michelle Ste Marie; and his son, Stephen (Keiko) St. Marie. Gene also leaves his grandchildren, Cassandra and Alexis Keefe, Andrea Sloggett (Ryan Glenn), Aimee Roy (Brendan), Nicolas, James and Thomas St. Marie; and greatgrandsons, Jack and Sam Glenn.

Gene joined the RCAF and was stationed in England during WWII. Upon his return home, he wasted no time in marrying his sweetheart, Kay, and starting a family. He joined the CIBC and then worked for many of the firms on Bay St. as a bond trader. On his retirement, Gene did not slow down, working for many more years selling Canada Savings Bonds and playing badminton and tennis.

Gene was a devout Catholic, and long-time member at St. John's Church, serving as a lector and usher. He was also a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre.

The family would like to thank the wonderful staff at the Veterans Centre for their loving care of Gene. If desired, in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Sunnybrook Foundation (Veterans Care) or St. John's Catholic Church.

Family and friends will be received at McDougall and Brown Funeral Home, 2900 Kingston Rd., M1M 1N5 on Friday, February 23 from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. Mass will be held at St. John's Church, 794 Kingston Rd., Toronto, M4E 1R7, at 11 a.m. on Saturday, February 24. Interment to follow at Mount Hope Cemetery.

MARY STRANGWAYS

Passed away at Joseph Brant Hospital, on February 10, 2018, at the age of 82. Beloved wife of William "Bill". Loving mother of Paul (Roberta Grosland), Chris (Yumiko Huang) and Anne (Cade Thomson). Doting grandmother to Megan (Carlos) Ribeiro, Adrienne (Kevin Innes), Patrick and Ava Lovell. Greatgrandmother to Devin Ribeiro.

Loving Aunt to Brad, Jeff and Terry Anthony.

Mary cherished her family and friends more than anything else.

She also was passionate about education: she graduated from Victoria College, University of Toronto and then went on to teach high school, elementary school, adult education and even continued this passion in retirement by being a Docent at the Royal Ontario Museum.

The family would like to thank Heidi from Nurse Next Door for her care in mom's last year and Dr. Harpal Singh and his staff for all of the superb care they have provided my mom over the last several years.

Visitation at Smith's Funereal Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Saturday, February 17, 2018 from 12 p.m.

until the start of the Celebration of Life Service in the Chapel at 1 p.m.

Reception to follow. Cremation has taken place. For those who wish, donations in memory of Mary to the Canadian Cancer Society or the Heart & Stroke Foundation would be sincerely appreciated by the family. http://www.smithsfh.com

JOHN THORNTON

"Thunder" John passed away peacefully amongst his family on Tuesday, February 13, 2018 in Toronto. Born October 31, 1930 in Montreal, John grew up in Westmount before attending St. Lawrence University in Canton New York. He started his career in the investment business in Montreal before moving to Toronto in 1965 to continue his career with Harris and Partners, Pitfield Mackay and LOM. In 1967 he would meet his beloved wife Diane with whom he would spend the next 50 wonderful years. John always looked forward to his summer months in Kennebunk, Maine, where he enjoyed his happiest days with friends and family at the cottage on the beach.

John was well known for his sense of humour, quick wit and joie de vie. He loved spending time with friends and family playing golf, tennis, skiing, having a glass of wine, listening to jazz, and travelling the world.

John's greatest passion later in life was spending quality time with his 6 grandchildren. He was a devoted father to Tara (Turnbull) and Matthew; fatherin-law to Jonathan Turnbull and Katie Shaw; and "Big John" to grandchildren, Ryan, Nicholas, Oliver, Max, Charlie and Honor.

He is survived by his sister, Margo Savard; niece, Diana Tabak; and nephew, John Savard.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 to 8:00 p.m. on Tuesday, February 20th. A celebration of John's life will be held in St. John's York Mills Anglican Church, 19 Don Ridge Drive, Toronto, on Wednesday, February 21st at 11:00 a.m. Donations in John's name would be gratefully accepted by his favorite charity, The Salvation Army. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

JONATHAN WOLFE

On Wednesday, February 14,2018 at his home. Beloved husband of Amal. Loving father of Rachel and Michael. Dear brother of Elizabeth Wolfe; and brother-in-law of Maria and Steve Dawson, Katia Andary, Liliane and David Glass, Sila and Pierre Bou-Mansour, and Juliana and Steve Morris. Loving uncle of Ryan, Jaimie, Zac, and Niki.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Park, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, February 18, 2018 at 11:30 a.m. Memorial donations may be made to The Heart and Stroke Foundation, (416) 489-7100.

South Korea chases its own miracle on ice
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From speed skating success to a surprising hockey surge, the Olympic host country dreams of podium glory
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S8


SEOUL -- When South Korea's Olympic planners pledged that the Pyeongchang Games would draw Asia into winter sports, they may have had someone like Bae Minseok in mind.

A 17-year-old high-school student, Bae arrives at the Mokdong Ice Rink in Seoul every weekday at 6 a.m. for speed skating practice.

He warms up for one hour, skates for two, then completes a lengthy cool-down routine before going to school.

By 5 p.m., he's back at the rink for another few hours. He puts in a further eight hours of training on Saturdays.

Bae is in many ways a product of South Korea's remarkable success in short-track speed skating.

He began competing in tournaments organized by his elementary school and, later, watched footage of South Korean skaters taking gold in the 1,000 metres at the Nagano Games, a competition held before he was born.

"It was so cool, it made me want to get into the sport," he said.

Olympic gold medalist Lee Seung-hoon attended Bae's high school. Sung Si-bak, a winner of numerous World Cup races, became his idol. He was surrounded by greatness - and expects the same of himself.

"I'd like to be on the national team for the next Olympics," he said.

Those Games won't be far away.

They will be held in Beijing, two years after the 2020 Summer Games in Tokyo - three consecutive Olympics in a region the leaders of global sport see as the most important frontier for new athletes and viewers.

"The Pyeongchang Winter Olympics will open the door to the Olympics Asia era," said Roh Tae-kang, South Korea's second vice-minister of culture, sports and tourism, at a recent academic conference in Seoul.

And South Korea would, its Olympic planners said, stand at the vanguard, a country where winter sports would undergo an awakening.

It hasn't worked out that way.

The number of local registered participants in most winter sports is actually down by almost 5 per cent in the half-decade leading up to the Pyeongchang Games, according to numbers maintained by the Korean Sport & Olympic Committee. The number of skiers at local resorts has fallen 28 per cent over roughly the same period. Even in skating sports, where South Korea has excelled, numbers are down: There were fewer registered figure and speed skaters in 2017 than in 2012.

"I don't think Korea really cares about this Olympics," said Laurent Vanat, whose annual report on snow and mountain tourism is the standard for measuring global participation. "They haven't done anything to use the Olympics opportunity to promote the sports."

Now, as the Pyeongchang Olympics begin, people in South Korea are trying to sort out what has gone wrong - and what they can learn from hockey.

A few days before the South Korean men's hockey team suited up for its first Olympic exhibition game, coach Jim Paek was on the ice, trying to wring the best from his players.

"Speed, speed, I need speed! I need speed! Attack!" he yelled.

The players responded, sending pucks ricocheting around the arena.

"Who needs coffee when you got adrenaline?" yelled Eric Regan, a former Oshawa Generals player who began playing hockey in Asia in 2013.

He had reason to be excited.

Hockey has bucked the trend: Unlike other sports, its registered numbers in South Korea are up more than 50 per cent since 2012.

The men's hockey team - comprised of players born in South Korea, Canada and the United States, although they now all hold South Korean passports - can take some of the credit. The team has played together for more than three years under the instruction of two former NHL players, Paek and assistant coach Richard Park.

They began with what "back in North America would be considered basic fundamentals," Park said. "That's really what we were dealt with. South Korea is not a very big hockey nation. ... And the way they've been taught is not necessarily wrong or right, but it's not what we believe and how we believe the game should be played."

The coaches introduced Western systems of play, and players learned from each other.

And they started winning games. In 2017, the men's team entered the International Ice Hockey Federation Division I championship ranked 23rd in the world. Three regulation wins and a shootout victory were enough for a second-place finish, earning the team a promotion to the IIHF's top tier and a ticket to the Olympics.

"To jump up that quickly is pretty amazing in hockey," said Matt Dalton, the team's Ontarioborn goalie. A few years ago "we were playing against countries like Estonia and Lithuania. And now to be playing Canada - it's pretty special."

In Pyeongchang, the men's team is scheduled to play the Czech Republic, Switzerland and Canada. And while they have sought to keep expectations low - "in sports, success is measured by results, and that's going to be a challenge for us," Park said - the mere fact they'll be squaring off against those teams is an accomplishment.

"It's a very important start for Korean hockey," Paek said.

He accepted the job as coach, he said, to help South Korea "prepare for the Olympics, but also to develop some sustainability afterward - for 10 years, 20 years after."

There are, of course, obstacles.

As with most sports, South Korean children start hockey in school. Often, the coaching is poor, practice time is insufficient, the teams are tiny, and "they don't play any games," said Patrik Martinec, a Czech forward who played in Asia League Ice Hockey. As a result, "it's not fun." Hockey for many South Korean kids is the equivalent of "going to an English academy."

The total number of registered hockey players remains small: 3,052 in a country of 51 million.

Which is why Martinec is thrilled about Paek's team and the women's hockey squad, which has itself attracted huge attention by inserting North Korean women onto the bench.

The players on those teams "have the potential to be role models for kids who are not yet attracted to hockey," said Martinec, who coaches Anyang Halla, a professional club in a small South Korean city. "This is the way to show the public that Koreans can play hockey."

It's working. The women's team has been featured in a film, and thousands crowded into the arena to watch its pre-Olympics warm-up game, even though few had ever watched hockey. At the men's first exhibition game, businessman Justin Na came with nine family members after his brother-in-law bought tickets.

"I asked him, 'Do you like hockey?' He said no. But because this is the Winter Olympics, I guess he wants to have a special experience."

How high are South Korea's hopes for winter sports? It has predicted a fourth-place finish in the Pyeongchang Games medal standings, which would constitute a huge leap from its 12thplace finish in Sochi. Accomplish that, and the arenas will fill, the country's top sports figures believe.

"With a huge international competition like the Olympic Games, and the fact it's happening in our country rather than abroad, it's natural that more Korean people would become more interested in winter sports," said Kim Ki-hoon, South Korea's first gold medalist in short-track speed skating and an icon of winter sports in the country.

Kim can turn to his own career for proof.

He began skating at the age of six, a sickly boy sent to the ice by a father who thought he could benefit from developing his lowerbody strength. The family happened to live beside an arena at Dongdaemun, which Kim believes was the only indoor ice rink in South Korea at the time. But "there were no athletes specialized in short-track speed skating in the country," he said.

That changed as South Korea prepared to participate in the inaugural Asian Winter Games in Sapporo, Japan, in 1986. Kim was still a high-school student when he tried out for the new shorttrack team - clad in long-track skates.

South Korean speed skaters won medals at those games, then set out to improve, travelling to Toronto and Ottawa to compete against Canadians, all the while collecting video so they could study their top rivals.

In 1988, at the Calgary Olympics, with short-track speed skating still a demonstration sport, Kim came first in the 1,500 metres.

Afterward, young South Koreans started showing up at arenas to strap on skates. "This was the case at ice rinks around the country. The country also started to build ice rinks," said Kim, who went on to win two golds in Albertville, France - including South Korea's first ever at a Winter Games, a seminal moment for the country - five at the 1992 World Short Track Speed Skating Championships and another gold in Lillehammer, Norway.

In his wake have come many others. South Korea is No. 1 in Olympic short-track medals by a good margin. Kim's effect on South Korean sport was so profound that he was named mayor of the athletes village in Pyeongchang.

"Our athletes perform very well at competitions, and the public recognizes that and has really grown to love and support the sport," he said.

So why is the number of South Korean skaters declining?

One reason is facilities. The International Ice Hockey Federation counts 30 ice rinks in South Korea, a quarter of the number in Japan and not much more than in Australia.

"We have a real dearth of ice rinks in Korea," said Jung Hyunwoo, a researcher at the Korea Institute of Sport Science.

He blames a lack of government financial support. "You can't make money with ice rinks.

That's the biggest reason. Because winter sports are not that popular in Korea."

An aging population hasn't helped, either.

Nor has the continuing niche status of winter sports.

Take Kim Byeong-chan, 18, a curler who practises at least four times a week, studies YouTube videos of Canadian John Morris and has his sights set on competing on the world stage.

"I want to go to the Olympics," he said. It is, he believes, a realistic goal.

Local curling officials aren't so sure.

Kim is both dedicated and talented, said Park Geon-woo, director-general of the Incheon Curling Federation. But he can't get to the Olympics "on his own. ... It's a team competition. He has to find other friends as passionate about the game" - a difficult challenge in a country that counts fewer than 1,000 curlers.

Then there are the ills of elite sport in a country that tends to see gruelling work as the surest path to success.

The Korea Skating Union has been mired in so many controversies that South Koreans now substitute similar-sounding curse words when they refer to it. The latest came in January, when it imposed a lifetime ban on a national team coach who admitted to beating short-track speed skater Shim Suk-hee, a 2014 gold medalist, "to help enhance her performance," said Kim Sangkyum, who chaired an independent disciplinary committee convened by the Korea Skating Union, in late January.

Other athletes have just left - none more prominently than Ahn Hyun-soo, the skater who competed for Russia under the name Viktor Ahn in Sochi. When he won three golds there, he received plaudits in his birth country for rejecting a sports program rife with allegations of powerful coaches engaged in physical assault, favouritism and matchfixing.

"You can actually describe some of the people in South Korean sport as 'gangsters,' " Chung Hee-joon a physical education scholar at Dong-a University in Busan, told Reuters in January.

Then there's the workload.

When Bae, the speed skater, looks at others his age, what he envies "the most is sleep." He gets about five hours a night and has kept a similar schedule since the age of nine. "I want to make more friends but I can't," he said.

"Of course I have some regrets.

If I were better at other things, I would have done them. But I'm good at this and I want to do this, so I keep doing it."

But is it still enjoyable?

He paused for a few seconds before answering.

"Fun? It's tough to enjoy training. But during competitions, when you earn good results, you feel a sense of pleasure in triumph."

And South Korea as a country continues to triumph in speed skating, a discipline in which its Olympic gold medal count is more than four times higher than all other Winter Olympic sports combined.

Some South Korean scholars, however, have grown convinced that a better way lies in hockey - and the Canadians promoting it.

Indeed, the men's team has already become the subject of academic study. Song Hong-sun, a senior researcher at the Korea Institute of Sport Science, shared a PowerPoint presentation breaking down Paek's style to explain what he means.

At the top of the list: "team toughness, family, fight for each other, selflessness."

Song enthuses about Paek's ability to instill a spirit of co-operation and to instruct clearly.

The difficulty attracting sports participants in South Korea, Song said, is a "problem of Korean culture." But Korean-born Paek, who grew up in Canada, has "a teaching philosophy that informs his leadership."

"He knows the Korean culture and he combines Korean culture into great leadership. We have to open up to that," Song said. "He's an example of how Korean coaching can develop."

With reporting from Cynthia Yoo

Associated Graphic

In just a few decades, South Korea's speed skaters have achieved remarkable success. Bae Min-seok, seen in the red helmet at top, hopes to compete in the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing. He practises for hours every day before and after class at Seoul's Mokdong Ice Rink.

PHOTOS BY NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In push for funding, Ontario Catholic boards look beyond faith to enroll more students
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By CAROLINE ALPHONSO
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Tuesday, February 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


Catholic school boards in Ontario are increasingly enrolling non-Catholic children and siphoning elementary students from the public stream as the two systems vie for provincial funding, a Globe and Mail analysis has found.

According to figures obtained through Freedom of Information requests, last year the number of documented non-Catholic students reached almost 11,000, an 18-per-cent increase in the past four years.

As a percentage of the total student population in the separate system, non-Catholics accounted for more than 8 per cent in 2016-17. The province's three largest boards in the Greater Toronto Area stand alone among 29 English Catholic school boards as the only ones with policies that deny enrolment to students without a Catholic baptismal certificate.

In some boards, upward of a quarter of elementary school students and their parents or guardians did not have a baptismal certificate.

The data, which are not monitored by the province, was collected for the first time for all English Catholic boards in Ontario. It sheds light on the extent to which publicly funded separate schools are admitting students regardless of faith and reveals vastly different entrance criteria among those boards.

And with funding tied to student numbers, The Globe's analysis raises questions about provincial funding Catholic boards receive to maintain a system that was set up to protect a distinct religious identity.

Three provinces - Saskatchewan, Ontario and Alberta - still constitutionally require funding for Catholic schools. Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec obtained constitutional amendments to replace their faith-based school boards with linguistic, secular ones in the 1990s.

But concerns about the overlap of the public and Catholic school systems follow a Saskatchewan judge's ruling in April that the province does not have the right to fund non-denominational students at Catholic schools.

"Are the rules being followed?

And if there are no rules and differences, then what's the difference between the school boards?" asked David Thompson, chair of the Near North District School Board in North Bay. "The taxpayer is going to question the difference between the school boards."

A spokesman for Ontario's new Education Minister, Indira Naidoo-Harris, said her office was unable to accommodate an interview. In an e-mailed statement, Ms. Naidoo-Harris said "school boards are ... able to establish their own policies regarding enrolment in their schools, within the bounds of the Education Act."

Catholic high schools have had to admit all students since the province began funding them in the late 1980s, but elementary schools can still turn non-Catholics away. On this matter, the Education Act is not straightforward: It states that students can qualify to attend an English-language elementary separate school if their parents or guardians are separate school supporters - ie., property owners who direct their taxes to the Catholic school system.

Traditionally, separate schools required evidence of a family's faith before a child was enrolled.

This has quietly changed in recent years as school boards compete to maintain their student populations. While counter to the separate board's founding principles, the shift is not a violation of the Education Act as the act is silent about extending rights to non-Catholics.

But the separate system is keenly aware that the shift could be viewed poorly and has sought legal advice to determine if it could prevent the release of data about the shifting demographics of Catholic schools.

In the minutes of a November, 2014, meeting of the Ontario Catholic School Trustees' Association (OCSTA) - a copy of which was obtained by The Globe - the association said it was up to local boards to decide to accept nonCatholic students.

But, the minutes add, "emphasize caution in how this issue is communicated across the province."

(A spokeswoman for the OCSTA said in an e-mail that the committee meeting minutes "reflect the discussion of the committee and their direction to OCSTA to exercise caution in communicating to members so that the Association not only recognizes but also respects the local autonomy of boards and their differing approaches and policies on this matter.") In an e-mail marked "Confidential" and sent to directors of education and chairs just days after The Globe sent its FOI requests to the 29 school boards, OCSTA president Patrick Daly said the association was in "the process of obtaining a legal opinion on the obligations of school boards to disclose this information to the media," he said in the letter, obtained through a subsequent FOI request.

The Globe found that only three boards - the Toronto, York and Dufferin-Peel Catholic district school boards - maintain policies that require children or their parents or guardians to have a baptismal certificate in order to register with an elementary school. (Of those three, only the Toronto Catholic board saw its enrolment increase in recent years.)

In an e-mail, a spokesperson for the Dufferin-Peel Catholic board said: "DPCDSB's admission policy is rooted in the Education Act and is designed to admit eligible resident pupils. We have never extended admission to non-eligible students. Our policy is in alignment with our mission to educate Catholic students in our Catholic faith tradition."

Six districts said they did not collect or track data centrally on non-Catholic families in their schools.

But according to the analysis of the school districts which provided full data for the past four academic years, Catholic boards had a gradual increase year over year of students who were nonCatholic or of an unknown religious identity attending their schools.

At the Northeastern Catholic District School Board, where the religion of 47 per cent of its 1,813 elementary students was not known, the director said school staff were unable to reach parents or that parents were not willing to disclose their faith. The Catholic District School Board of Eastern Ontario, in Kemptville, said 27 per cent of its 7,669 elementary students were not Catholic in the 2016-17 school year, but it also indicated it did not know the religion of another 15 per cent of its students.

The Ottawa Catholic board says on its website that non-Catholic children "will be welcomed on a space availability basis" - but also noted that space is available in all its elementary schools. Data obtained by The Globe shows that 26 per cent of its students (7,382 out of 28,128) were "not flagged as Catholic" in the 2016-17 academic year.

The Windsor-Essex Catholic board changed its procedures in 2014 to allow non-Catholics. The data shows that 217 applications were received from non-Catholics and 203 registered in 2014-15. That number almost doubled to some 400 students in the last school year, even as the board with 13,055 elementary students has seen an overall decline in enrolment.

"We were getting a lot of requests and felt that it didn't make sense to turn people away who wanted faith-based education for their children," said spokesman Stephen Fields. "We are still very much a Catholic school system and we believe that allowing people who wanted to participate in our unique brand of education was more in keeping with the essential teachings of our faith."

Mr. Fields said the board still requires families to participate in all faith-based activities, which has been a subject of controversy in several districts. Some families of high-school students have been trying to get exemptions from religion classes, largely because they want their teens to spend more time on other subjects. A panel of three Ontario judges ruled in 2014 that students have a right to be exempted from religious programs. More recently, a settlement reached in a human rights tribunal complaint means that students at the Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District School Board have more flexibility to opt out of religious courses and programs.

Andrew Bienhaus, who lives in the Hamilton area, put his two children in the separate system because he believed it was a better fit - even though his family is not Catholic. He moved his older son from the public system around Grade 5 because he felt the boy wasn't being challenged.

"There's an overarching caring that seems to be [in the Catholic system], a sense of inclusion, a sense that everybody's important," Mr. Bienhaus said. "We don't care that it's Catholic school. We just embrace the fact that ... having a school that accepts faith and morals being a part of life is important."

Ontario has four publicly funded systems: francophone public, francophone Catholic, English Catholic and English public.

About 27 per cent of elementary school-age children attend English Catholic schools. Faced with declining overall enrolment, all boards, not just the Catholic ones, are pouring millions of dollars into recruiting drives to lure more students. Each student enrolled in an English Catholic elementary school comes with about $12,000 in annual government funding.

After learning of the data gathered by The Globe, Laurie French, president of the Ontario Public School Boards' Association, said she was concerned, noting that funding is largely tied to enrolment and that the viability of schools in small communities is at stake when both systems are jockeying for students.

"It's a government issue. We need clarity and we need consistency around how non-Catholic students are admitted or denied entry to Catholic schools across the province," she said.

Leonard Baak, a Stittsville father who heads the lobby group OneSchoolSystem.org, described it as a "parasitic advertising behaviour between all boards fighting for market share." He said the province would be better served by merging the systems.

"Without those non-Catholic kids, those schools would be seriously under-enrolled and under threat of closure," Mr. Baak said.

"The only time non-Catholic kids are welcome is when they need a few more warm, grant-generating bodies to boost the enrolment of a school to make it more costeffective so that it won't close.

They do not do this out of the goodness of their heart."

But the OCSTA's Mr. Daly dismissed suggestions that Catholic districts are opening their doors because of declining enrolment.

He said families may be choosing a Catholic education because of its quality and the faith-based values it teaches.

Mr. Daly is a trustee at the Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic board, where non-Catholics make up almost 10 per cent of the student population of 18,541.

He said families without a baptismal certificate are interviewed by school staff and admitted subject to space availability at the school.

"If there was a keen interest on the part of the parent and a commitment and respect for the mission of our system, then in most cases they would be permitted," he said.

Many in Ontario and Alberta are closely watching a challenge to Saskatchewan's separate school boards. Justice Donald Layh of the Saskatchewan Court of Queen's Bench ruled in April that the province does not have the right to fund non-Catholic students at Catholic schools.

A spokeswoman for the Alberta government said school choice is protected in Alberta, given there is sufficient space for students. The Public School Boards' Association of Alberta has applied for intervenor status in the court case. President Cathy Hogg said her association believes a single school system could avoid the costly duplication of services.

The Saskatchewan case has been playing out for about a decade. When a small elementary school in the village of Theodore closed because of declining enrolment, children were bused to another community. Then a Catholic school opened in Theodore, but only about a third of its students were Catholic.

A public board went to court to challenge the government's policy of funding non-Catholic students at Catholic schools, which resulted in Justice Layh's ruling.

The Saskatchewan government has appealed the decision and has said it will override it using the Constitution's notwithstanding clause.

Eric Adams, an associate professor in constitutional law at the University of Alberta, said Justice Layh's decision caught many off guard and could become binding in Alberta and Ontario if the decision is ultimately upheld at the Supreme Court. It could also affect other provinces if similar litigation is launched by school districts.

Prof. Adams says the poaching of students from public schools has prompted grassroots campaigns and even some public school associations to openly question the need for a publicly funded separate school system.

However, the political conditions are not "ripe," he said, pointing to former Ontario Progressive Conservative leader John Tory, who is now mayor of Toronto. His is a "cautionary tale" about tinkering with the status quo: Mr. Tory promised to extend public funding to all religious schools about a decade ago and was rejected by voters.

For now, politicians are looking to the courts, Prof. Adams said: "We're in the early days of this issue. A politician can simply say: There's a judicial process, let it play out."

Mr. Daly said: "Our hope is that [the Saskatchewan court case] would have no impact. But, obviously, we watch very, very closely any legal matter that could impact Catholic education throughout Canada."

DATA ANALYSIS AND GRAPHIC BY TOM CARDOSO

Associated Graphic

Andrew Bienhaus, right, and his two children are not Catholic, but he says he feels the faith-based system is a better fit for their family.

GLENN LOWSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Birth and death notices
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Wednesday, February 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B20


ETHEL ELIZABETH EDWARDS "Liz"

Peacefully on February 9, 2018, after a long life that was anything but boring. She is survived by her four daughters, Lisa Cogan (Fred), Penny Hopkins (Doug), Cathy Lofgreen (Hans), Vicki Edwards (Bob Dawson, deceased); nine grandchildren; and ten great-grandchildren.

Ethel (Liz) was born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, on December 14, 1920. Her family moved to Montreal in the early 1920s where she grew up in N.D.G. and St. Lambert.

She loved her summers on Lake Memphramagog, at Well's Beach in Maine and at her family's farmhouse in the Eastern Townships. She married (Major General) Gerry Edwards on January 27, 1943 and supported him in a successful 36 year career in the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). She loved air force life which took her to the Canadian West, Washington, D.C., England and many communities in Ontario and Quebec. She introduced Gerry and her daughters to cottage life on Lake Papineau (Ontario) where the family spent many long and happy summer holidays.

After Gerry retired, they moved to Sydney, near Victoria on Vancouver Island, where they reconnected with many RCAF friends who had also retired there. In her latter years she lived in Ottawa, enjoying her friends and family, the Ottawa Little Theatre and her volunteer work at the Queensway Carleton Hospital.

She moved to Trenton in 2016 and Belleville in 2017. She will be remembered for her quick wit and ready laugh, her lively air force parties and her afghans.

The family is thankful for the kind and thoughtful care of Dr. Pahrbaker in Ottawa, Dr. Martin in Trenton and Dr. MacLeod in Belleville, and for the ongoing support from staff at Lynwood Park Lodge, Seasons Dufferin Centre and Hastings Manor.

The family also thanks Joan Grayer, Christina Hewitt and Leah Valiquette for the personal care they provided.

Friends and family are invited to celebrate Ethel's life on Saturday, February 17th at Beechwood Funeral Cemetery and Cremation Services, 280 Beechwood Ave.

(east of Vanier Parkway) from 3 to 5 p.m. A private family gravesite service will be held at another time. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Ottawa Humane Society, Christie Lake Kids (Ottawa) or a charity of your choice.

JAMES DAVID FLOYD 1933 - 2018

After a long illness, Jim passed away peacefully in Toronto on February 7, 2018.

Born in Toronto, Jim was the cherished only child of George and Mary "Pat" Floyd (nee Kirkpatrick) both of whom came from a long line of proud Nova Scotians.

Predeceased in 2014 by the love of his life Frances (nee Frey) after 59 years of marriage.

Survived by his loving daughters Karen, Heather (Mark Noskiewicz) and Frances (Denis Feltrin).

Beloved Poppa to James, Andrew and Trevor Noskiewicz and Claire and Eric Feltrin. He also leaves dear sisters-in-law Shirley Feeley (James, predeceased) of Pleasanton, California and Jane Frey (Ernie, predeceased) of Smith Falls, Ontario. Jim will be missed by nieces and nephews Gregory, Rosemary and Michael Feeley, Ernie, Eric, Martha, Brenda and Andrea Frey, and their families and by Cynthia Kirkpatrick (Stuart, predeceased) and cousins Jean and Helen Kirkpatrick of Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia.

Jim attended Oriole Park Public School, University of Toronto Schools (UTS) and the University of Toronto where, following in his father's and grandfather's footsteps, he graduated with a degree in Applied Science and Engineering (class of 5T6). Highlights of his school years include playing varsity basketball and football, sailing to England as a naval cadet for the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, and enjoying the camaraderie of his fraternity brothers at U of T.

Jim enjoyed a long and successful career with Shell Canada. Starting in southwestern Ontario, he rose steadily in the company, ultimately retiring as a senior executive. While spending the majority of his career in Toronto, Jim also enjoyed three years heading up the western region in Vancouver and considerable international travel.

Jim and Frances led a very active and social life. They took great pleasure in hosting many memorable parties with family and friends at their homes in Toronto and Mulmur as well as at the family cottage on beautiful Kahshe Lake. In his later years, after hanging up his skis, golf clubs and tennis racket, Jim loved playing bridge at the Granite Club and especially with his dear bridge friends at their weekly game nights. Throughout his life, and particularly in his retirement years, Jim delighted in many travel adventures to destinations all over the world. Closer to home, Jim spent many winters skiing with his children and later his grandchildren at Beaver Valley Ski Club.

Jim was proud of his family. A firm believer in education, he supported his daughters' and grandchildren's studies at universities across Canada. He could often be found cheering on the sidelines as they pursued various athletic and artistic endeavours.

Affable, loyal and true, Jim was a gentleman who had a kind word for all. Jim appreciated the many happy moments he shared with his lifelong friends as well as their unfailing support. They enriched his life immeasurably.

A celebration of life will be held Monday February 26th, 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto. Private cremation. If you wish, donations in memory of Jim may be made to the UTS building fund at https:// btf.utschools.ca.

DR. WENTWORTH JONES June 10, 1931 - February 13, 2018

We are sad to announce the passing of Dr. Wentworth William Thomas Jones, loving husband of Shirley; father of Laurie (Martin), Sara (David), Susan (Douglas), Heather (Toby), Tom (Jessica), Lily (Gerard); and grandfather of Claire, Tony and Erik Earle, Patrick, Shannon, Melissa Doyle and their father Maurice, Adi, Liam and Danielle Underwood, Jasmine, Katarina and Dylan Young, Desmond and Maeve Jones and Kyle Perraton, Raina, Thalia and Niall Bergasse; and a special brother and uncle to Roberta Patterson (deceased), Susanne Giles and Kaaren Norris and their families.

Dr. Jones (Skip), University of Toronto Meds 5T6, was a family doctor in the Beach for over 50 years. He is remembered for his devotion to patient care and kindness to all. Skip joined the Balmy Beach Club in his youth where paddling became his lifelong passion. In 1959, he became a sailor at Ashbridges Bay Yacht Club where he was a lifetime member. Many glorious days on the water were shared with family and friends.

Skip passed away peacefully, at home amidst a sea of love.

He was a good man. If you wish to honour his memory, do something good.

Condolences, words of comfort, and memories of Skip may be shared with the family on Friday, February 16, 2018 from 1:00 p.m. 8:00 p.m. at Giffen-Mack Funeral Home, 2570 Danforth Avenue.

JACK LUDWIG

Born in Winnipeg on 30 August 1922, Jack Ludwig died on Long Island 12 February 2018.

Jack leaves his sister, Esther Karwandy of White Rock, BC; his wife, Lucia Zoercher; daughters, Danielle McLaughlin (Hooley), Brina Ludwig Prout (Jim), and Emmy Ludwig Miller (Andy).

He also leaves McLaughlin grandchildren, Levi (Lauren), Reuben (Petra), and Gabrielle, Prout grandchildren Benjamin (Hannah), Maggie (Nicholas); Miller grandchildren, Zoe and Stella; and greatgranddaughters, Na'ama, Chavva-Tal and Delphinium.

Jack is predeceased by his brother, Bobby (Ethel); and first wife, Leya (Lauer) Ludwig.

Jack received his B.A. in 1944 from the University of Manitoba and his Ph.D in 1953 from UCLA. He was Professor of English at several universities in the US, including SUNY Stony Brook from the 1960s through the 1990s, and Writer-inResidence at Massey College at the U of Toronto in 1968-69. Jack was the author of four novels, and numbers of essays and books about Canadian sports, including Hockey Night in Moscow, in 1972. He also was a regular columnist for Saturday Night Magazine, and the co-editor of The Noble Savage, and Soundings: New Canadian Poets. A celebration of Jack's life will be held at a later date TBA.

STANLEY EUGENE SIMSON BSc, M.D. , FRCP (C) Emeritus

Died at Renfrew Victoria Hospital on Saturday, February 10, 2018 at the age of 85. Son of the late Frederick Simson and Mary Stewart. Survived by his wife, Carol Ann Cotnam; his sons, David and Richard (Paula).

Predeceased by his first wife, Mary Kedrosky. Beloved "second Dad" to the Mulvihill children, John (Celso), late Mary (Steve Jolicouer), Louis (Salwa), Timothy (Deborah), Andrew, Barbara (Marshall Netherwood), Shelagh (Peter Korth), and Michael. Brother of Robert Stewart Simson (Sharon) and Freda (Edward Barakett). He will be lovingly remembered by his several grandchildren, great-grandchildren, nieces, nephews, the Simson, Kedrosky, Mulvihill and Cotnam families.

Stan attended Westdale High School in Hamilton and then received his Bachelor of Science in 1954 at McMaster University. In 1958 he received his M.D. at Western University and CRPC Psychiatry at the University of Toronto in 1968 and his FRCP (C) in 1988. Prior to studying Psychiatry, Stan was in general practice in Ancaster, ON for five years.

Stan will be remembered as a kind and gentle man who was well respected in his community by his vocation of medicine and in particular psychiatry. He always worked to eradicate the stigma of mental illness.

His practice ended in 2013 after 55 years of service. He spent 42 years in private practice in Renfrew and was a member of the medical staff at Renfrew Victoria Hospital. In his time away from work he enjoyed the outdoors, golf, hockey, baseball and the arts.

A special thank you to Dr. John Matosh and Dr. Robert Duggan and the staff of the third floor of the Renfrew Victoria Hospital for the exemplary care given to Stan during his hospital stay.

Visitation will be held at the Goulet Funeral Home, 310 Argyle St., S., Renfrew on Friday, February 16th from 2-4, 7-9 p.m. and after 9:30 a.m.

Saturday. Funeral services will be held at the Renfrew Presbyterian Church on Saturday, February 17th at 11:00 a.m. Spring Interment St. Francis Xavier Cemetery. Donations in Stan's memory may be made to Renfrew Victoria Hospital Foundation. Online condolences/donations may be made at http://www.gouletfuneralhome.com

STRATTON DENIS STEVENS CM April 15, 1932 - February 8, 2018

It is with sadness that we announce the peaceful passing of Stratton at home surrounded by members of his family. He was the son of the late Denis Skafidas-Stevens and the late Eugenia Poulos Stevens.

He will be sorely missed by his siblings, Harry (Margareta), Adrienne, George (Dina) and Helen; his nephews, Peter, Denis, Dennis and Eric; his niece, Jean; and his many great-nieces, great-nephews, godchildren, relatives and friends.

Warmest thanks to his personal assistant Nicole and his caregivers Socorro, Lourdes and Sonia for their kindness and support to Stratton these past months.

Montreal has lost one of its prominent citizens, recipient of the Order of Canada for entrepreneurship and philanthropy. He was an engaging, generous-spirited gentleman, who loved life, and whose heart and home were always open to all.

Visitation will take place on Thursday and Friday, February 15th and 16th, 2018 from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. at the Mount Royal Funeral Complex, 1297 Chemin de la Forêt, Outremont, Quebec H2V 2P9 (514) 279-6540 (http://www.mountroyalcem.com) Funeral services and reception will be held at the Mount Royal Complex on Saturday, February 17th at 9 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, contributions in his memory to the Montreal General Hospital Foundation or the McCord Museum of Canadian History will be gratefully acknowledged.

MARY STRANGWAYS

Passed away at Joseph Brant Hospital, on February 10, 2018, at the age of 82. Beloved wife of William "Bill". Loving mother of Paul (Roberta Grosland), Chris (Yumiko Huang) and Anne (Cade Thomson). Doting grandmother to Megan (Carlos) Ribeiro, Adrienne (Kevin Innes), Patrick and Ava Lovell. Greatgrandmother to Devin Ribeiro.

Loving Aunt to Brad, Jeff and Terry Anthony.

Mary cherished her family and friends more than anything else.

She also was passionate about education: she graduated from Victoria College, University of Toronto and then went on to teach high school, elementary school, adult education and even continued this passion in retirement by being a Docent at the Royal Ontario Museum.

The family would like to thank Heidi from Nurse Next Door for her care in mom's last year and Dr. Harpal Singh and his staff for all of the superb care they have provided my mom over the last several years.

Visitation at Smith's Funereal Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Saturday, February 17, 2018 from 12 p.m. until the start of the Celebration of Life Service in the Chapel at 1 p.m.

Reception to follow. Cremation has taken place. For those who wish, donations in memory of Mary to the Canadian Cancer Society or the Heart & Stroke Foundation would be sincerely appreciated by the family. http://www.smithsfh.com

GENALYN ENCARNACION February 1, 1975 - February 14, 2012

Our deeply beloved and eternally loyal friend, whose beauty, kindness and sweet smile will never be extinguished from our minds. We love you! John, Tina, Leanne & Sue.

Every meal has a story
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A new guard of Indigenous chefs want to share their food traditions with a broader audience. Julie Van Rosendaal explains why all Canadians should be dining with them
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By JULIE VAN ROSENDAAL
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P12


Shantel Tallow pulls a batch of golden bannock out of the oven. Made with a traditional formula of flour, baking powder and water, it's baked in a 9-inchby-13-inch pan, the way her grandfather made it.

In the next room, strips of thinly sliced beef flank are draped over a wire rack.

They've spent four days there, dehydrating easily in Calgary's dry climate, and will be finished off with a day in the smoker out back. "It would be nice if we could build a smokehouse in the backyard like my grandma's," Tallow says. "They aren't allowed in the city."

Tallow and her partner, Paul Conley, cook at home for their three children, but also rent a commercial kitchen to cook for parties and special events through their catering company, Aahksoyo'p Indigenous Comfort Food. With the help of friends and community members, they serve up the dishes of Tallow's youth - she grew up on the Blood Reserve in Stand Off, Alta. - to groups of up to 1,500. Theirs is the only Indigenous catering company registered to do business in the city of 1.3 million, and business is good. Facebook reviewers are elated with their food, and the couple dream of opening a small café some day.

The couple chose to live and run the business off reserve so they could share the cooking, and traditions tied to it, with more people. "That's been our goal," Tallow says, "to reach as many as we can - Indigenous and non-Indigenous."

Tallow and Conley are part of a new guard of Indigenous cooks and chefs hoping to share their food traditions with a broader audience. The dishes and the stories around them reveal a cuisine that the country - one that despite taking pride in its multiculturalism - has a limited understanding of.

The Blood Tribe First Nation, located between Fort MacLeod and Cardston in southern Alberta, is one of three Indigenous nations in the Blackfoot Confederacy.

Aahksoyo'p (aah-k-soy-op) means "we're going to eat" in Blackfoot. As Tallow returns to the stove and flips the bannock whole, she tells me that she doesn't speak the language, but she does understand it.

Bannock, a quick bread fried on the stove top, baked in the oven or turned on a stick over an open fire, is among the most recognizable Indigenous dishes. As with most recipes, there are variations from nation to nation and family to family. Tallow follows her grandfather's technique of baking the mixture in one piece and flipping it to make it crispier on both sides.

The next morning, she says, she'll slice it and brown the pieces in a skillet to make Indian toast. Most of her dried meat is destined to be ground, along with dried Saskatoon berries, into pemmican - a blend of meat, fat and berries.

Many of Tallow's recipes are based on dishes she prepared with relatives as an only child. "In my house, laughter was always medicine, and food is a big part of our family," she says. "I learned how to dry meat from my grandparents and greatgrandma, how to make pemmican and Indian popcorn [the crispy bits left over after rendering beef or bison fat they get from the butcher], and my auntie taught me how to make fry bread and pies."

Dishes such as these are turning up on restaurant menus, too. Indigenous eateries have been popping up across Canada, including NishDish and the Pow Wow Cafe in Toronto, Kekuli Cafe in Kelowna, B.C., Little Chief Restaurant in the Grey Eagle Resort and Casino in Calgary, and Feast Cafe Bistro in Winnipeg. Vancouver's first Indigenous food truck, Mr. Bannock, opened at the end of January, with three generations of chefs from the Squamish Nation combining traditional ingredients and methods with new food trends.

Beyond the restaurant scene, others in the food world are finding ways to explore and promote Indigenous cuisine as well.

An outdoor school affiliated with the University of Alberta provides an opportunity to earn credits out on the land, learning traditional skills with elders. Chef David Wolfman, well-known host of Cooking with the Wolfman on APTN, released a debut cookbook, Cooking with the Wolfman: Indigenous Fusion, which he co-authored with his wife, Marlene Flinn. And later this spring, a new documentary series called Red Chef Revival brings Top Chef Canada finalist Rich Francis to three First Nation communities across Canada - Mackenzie Valley in the Northwest Territories, Haida Gwaii in British Columbia and Six Nations in Ontario - to give viewers a better understanding of pre-colonial Indigenous cuisine and the impact of colonization on First Nation traditions and their relationship with the land.

These chefs and many others are sharing their culinary traditions with a growing audience. Some have credited the controversy surrounding Canada 150 with directing more attention to the country's deeper history. But others talk of a broader cultural shift: After all, food is a door-opening mechanism, a common ground we can all relate to and express our personal histories through.

"For Canada, it's such an important part of our collective history," says Anita Stewart, food laureate at the University of Guelph and the author of several books dedicated to the history of food in Canada.

A variety of factors have sparked interest in Indigenous culture, she says, including efforts towards reconciliation, additional CBC funding (or at least a shift in focus), Gord Downie's strident support and more First Nations representation in government. Social media and a generation of image and thought sharing has also helped spread information while traditional languages are simultaneously being relearned.

In many ways, it's about preservation. "In order to protect their ingredients, they're serving them forth," she says.

And while some chefs who focus on Indigenous cuisine stick to tradition - with hunted, fished and foraged ingredients that are prepared using traditional techniques - others embrace more current food trends. Tallow, for example, incorporates dishes such as bannock pizza and Indian tacos, which have become popular with younger generations, particularly at festivals and pow wows.

Shane Chartrand of the River Cree Resort and Casino in Enoch, Alta., is another chef eager to spread the message: In fact, he's been vocal about Indigenous cuisine for more than decade. He's interested in not only the food of his childhood in central Alberta, but the broader range of culinary traditions and protocol of other First Nations communities across Canada.

As much as he cooks, speaks and encourages others to do the same, he travels to learn more, generating and collecting shared experiences.

"First Nations cuisine is something we overlook. It's something we need to dig further into," says Chartrand, who was born on the Enoch Cree nation and, after spending his early years in foster care, adopted at 7 by a Métis family who taught him to hunt and fish and never forget his roots. "Why is it important? Food is culture. It's us, it's who we are."

One of the obstacles, Chartrand says, is a lack of information in print. In the process of writing his first book, Marrow: Progressive Indigenous Cuisine with co-author Jennifer Cockrall-King, he has tried to seek out published recipes and resources, but knew there were few to find. "There's nothing written down. There's no going out and learning about Indigenous techniques," he says. "You learn by stories. That makes it even more exciting." But now, as Chartrand and others are writing books, teaching courses and appearing on cooking shows, the stories, customs and methods are being documented for others to find and reference.

Non-Indigenous Canadians still have a long way to go to understand and accept some of these ingredients. For instance, when Toronto's Kukum Kitchen served a seal tartare last year, some diners found the idea of seal meat objectionable because of controversies around the hunt.

But chef Joseph Shawana, of Manitoulin Island's Wikwemikong Unceded Reserve and other Indigenous activists defended the hunt, calling it economically important to Inuit communities. The criticisms left Shawana feeling let down, he said, by a society that wasn't as culturally educated about the issues around Indigenous food as he had hoped.

For Chartrand, the tradition and history behind food should also be shared. He tells the story of how, at a recent event, he was given 50 pounds of chum salmon from the Haida Gwaii to prepare for dinner guests.

"It has a big jaw, they fight the through the rivers, they battle," he explains.

"The Haida Gwaii believe that if you ingest chum salmon, the strength of the fish is in your body and in your mind. These are the kinds of stories I share when I cook Indigenous dinners for people. Those are the things we'll remember. That's what matters to me."

As people pay more attention to the sources and cultural relevance of the food they eat, it will undoubtedly lead to deeper conversations about the Indigenous experience. "I believe in the next five to 10 years there will be young chefs, aboriginal and non-aboriginal, who make a big stand for the spirituality of eating," Chartrand said at a talk last year, referring to the understanding and preservation of traditions. "In the First Nations world, we have a massive responsibility to take those traditions and carry them on. The more we talk about it, the more exciting it gets."

Art Napoleon, a Cree bushman and former chief of the Saulteau First Nation in northeastern B.C., also focuses on the Indigenous food sovereignty movement, advocating for land rights and the ability to pursue traditional cultural livelihoods.

"There's a resurgence happening," Napoleon says. "A lot of young people are interested now. It's great to see young people saying show me a moose hide, I want to learn how to tan. They're doing demonstrations in big cities where anyone can go watch, and forming little non-profit societies all centred around cultural resurgence."

Napoleon is co-host, with British chef Dan Hayes, of Moosemeat & Marmalade, a food documentary series airs on the Aboriginal People's Television Network.

Moosemeat & Marmalade brings the Victoria-based chefs from different cultural backgrounds together; Napoleon introduces Hayes to the back country to hunt, forage and cook wild game, and the London chef brings his classical French training to the table. It's all unscripted, allowing each host's personality and humour to draw the viewer in to unfamiliar territory.

Growing up, Napoleon got a taste of the old way of life by following the cycle of the land. "We had to follow the seasons - berry season, bear season, moose season," he says. "The forest is our supermarket, it's our drugstore, it's our church."

Considered one of the traditional knowledge keepers in his community, Napoleon has been teaching and speaking about Indigenous culture since he was a teenager. He now helps newer generations connect with their roots by participating in workshops and real-life culture camps.

"You'll see an entire village out in the woods," he says. "Teepees and trapper tents, people setting up smoking racks to dry out their meat, cooks sitting around the fire, kids being sent out on berry picking expeditions. It's coming back."

Although Napoleon still hunts, it's not a practice he expects to become mainstream. "You don't need to be a hunter to try some of these recipes," he says of the dishes he shares on Moosemeat & Marmalade. "Grass-fed local meat is a good substitute." Farm-raised elk is becoming easier to find, and he suggests undulates like deer or moose can be replaced with beef or bison, lamb or goat.

Later this month, he'll head up to the Yukon to talk about food sovereignty and to cook with local youth and elders. "Life is a collection of stories," he says. "Food is a common denominator. Sitting around the table, conversations are taking place. It breaks down barriers. It's always a potential act of reconciliation, just sitting around the table and eating together."

Back near Edmonton, Chartrand feels the same. "We are a multicultural country," he says. "Aboriginal cuisine is a big part of who we are. I keep thinking of what the value of First Nations cuisine means to me, and ultimately it's Canadian cuisine. I believe that Canadian food is aboriginal food and the spirituality that follows it - which means it's about following the trends of the food and the terroir we live in, and respecting it with all our hearts."

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Art Napoleon and Dan Hayes, far left, Shantal Tallow and Paul Conley, left, and Shane Chartrand, below left, are leading initiatives across the country to spread the word and traditions of Indigenous cuisine.

CHRIS BOLIN (TALLOW AND CONLEY), AMBER BRACKEN (CHARTRAND)/THE GLOBE AND MAIL.

It isn't the economy, stupid
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Countries around the world have been gripped by an incoherent, rage-fuelled nihilism that rejects elites on both the left and the right. What explains this populist uprising? It's not income inequality, as many think, but a fear of immigrants undermining both culture and a way of life
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By DARRELL BRICKER, JOHN IBBITSON
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


Darrell Bricker and John Ibbitson are the authors of The Big Shift: The Seismic Change in Canadian Politics, Business, and Culture and What It Means for Our Future and the forthcoming book Empty Planet: The Shock of Global Population Decline

In November of last year, at the Halifax International Security Forum - the gathering of about 300 politicians, military leaders, diplomats and other experts that has emerged as perhaps the most influential annual conference on global security - a single, oppressive topic dominated the talk in the hallways and over drinks in the bars: the rise of populism.

The finest minds in the fields of defence and foreign affairs from around the world grappled with the alarming reality of populations gripped by an incoherent, rage-fuelled nihilism that rejected elites on both the left and the right. A whole lot of people simply want to blow it all up, sink it, drain it, be done with it and be done with them - them being the people at the forum.

The smart minds that gathered in Halifax believed they knew the cause of the rage that threatens to undermine the architecture of the Western alliance: economic inequality. Lower-middle-class white men and women in Rust Belt states who voted for Donald Trump or unemployed industrial workers in the English Midlands who voted for Brexit or workingclass Poles who voted for the Law and Justice party wanted to get back at the people in the corner offices who had sacrificed their welfare by offshoring their jobs to cheap foreign labour.

These assessments were all more wrong than right. Yes, there is some correlation between the economic insecurities of voters in economically depressed regions and support for populist causes.

But the greater source of combustion is nativism: a fear of foreigners coming into your community and undermining your culture and way of life.

Populist reaction "is about ethnic shifts," said Eric Kaufmann, the B.C.-raised political scientist at the University of London and the author of the forthcoming book Whiteshift: Immigration, Populism and the Myth of Majority Decline. He believes cultural, not economic, insecurity is the driving force behind populism. He does not view people worried about immigration as white supremacists or ethnic nationalists.

"But they are looking to slow down the rate of ethnic shifting."

Peter Loewen agrees. The director of the School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Toronto has been researching the drivers of populist sentiment in nine countries.

The dominant driver? "It's the perception of immigrants taking away jobs, it's not about economic uncertainty, rising inequality, whatever." And not just jobs. "It's about threatening a way of life. In a word, it is nativism."

Some people believe Canada is more enlightened than other countries, more accepting of new arrivals, and, in the main, we are.

But this country, too, remains vulnerable to a demagogic politician who ignites nativist resentment for his own political gain.

To douse the kindling that could feed such a flame, Canadian elites need to address fears of cultural dilution by nativists.

And although this may seem counterintuitive, conservatives may be better able to make the case than progressives.

An analysis conducted by Emily Ekins for the non-partisan Democratic Fund Voter Study Group found that, of the five voting types who cast a ballot for Mr.

Trump, the two groups who were his most loyal supporters - American preservationists and staunch conservatives, representing half of all Trump voters - disagreed on economic issues but shared their dislike for high levels of immigration.

Similarly, numerous studies show that resentment toward immigrants, not simply economic insecurity, fuelled the vote to take Britain out of the European Union.

"Immigration unified traditional and more affluent social conservatives on the right with blue-collar, left-behind workers on the left, and in 2016 this ... found its full expression in the vote for Brexit," wrote Matthew Goodwin, a political scientist at the University of Kent and author of Brexit: Why Britain Voted to Leave the European Union.

And since the referendum, he added, "voters have been subjected to an almost daily avalanche of economic forecasts of the kind that appeared to make no real difference to public opinion ... and yet we have not had a comparable discussion about what a future immigration policy might look like and how this could be built around a public consensus."

Opposition to immigration is a constant in developed countries.

Forty-eight per cent of Americans agree with the statement "there are too many immigrants in our country," according to Ipsos Public Affairs polls. Forty-five per cent of Britons agree, as do a majority - 53 per cent - of the French and 50 per cent of Germans.

Canadian governments have been able to promote robust immigration with minimal social disruption because successive federal governments over the past three decades always made sure that our immigrant selection process favoured candidates who are poised for successful integration. They have also embraced multiculturalism as a national project.

Nonetheless, about 35 per cent of Canadians say Canada is letting in too many immigrants. If one Canadian in 10 switched to that view, we would be no more tolerant than Americans on immigration issues.

Our political elites play with fire when they argue in vague terms that high levels of immigration promote economic growth or when they appeal to personal compassion or speak of a prosperous nation's duty to help the less fortunate. Such messaging will be taken by those who are concerned about immigration as self-serving and hypocritical. Telling immigration opponents - and we confess that we have done this ourselves in the past - that they don't understand economic realities or are simply bigots is just asking for trouble. All you need is one populist demagogue with a match.

Politicians and political analysts who dismiss or discount opposition to immigration place their societies in jeopardy in two different ways. First, smart people who refuse to acknowledge the depth of anti-immigrant sentiment are not looking for solutions, and we need to find those solutions.

Second, by dismissing nativist concerns, they are proving the argument of local demagogues who claim that the elites are out of touch and only they understand the grievances of "real" Americans/Britons/Canadians, etc.

To be clear: We are fervent proponents of immigration and multiculturalism and have said so separately and together many times in books and columns. But we are forced to confront a difficult truth: Many of our fellow citizens don't agree with us.

Today's populist rebellions are nothing more than the exploitation of gullible voters by politicians who are willing to stoke nativist resentment that other elites ignore and who couldn't care less about how badly they damage their societies in the process. They are the enablers.

But it took years of neglect by more conventional politicians, academics, journalists and other thought leaders to create the conditions that allowed populist politicians to emerge. And still these mainstream elites are in denial.

It's time they faced the truth: It isn't the economy, stupid.

Beyond promoting immigration for economic and compassionate reasons, Canadian politicians like to maintain that, as Prime Minister Justin Trudeau puts it, "diversity is strength." The presumption is that a society composed of different languages, cultures, faiths and traditions is stronger for the synergies created by these diverse streams. This may be true when it comes to cultural creativity or business innovation. But it doesn't play out on the street.

In 2007, Harvard University political scientist Robert Putnam published a landmark study, based on a survey of 30,000 Americans, that concluded people living in diverse neighbourhoods had lower levels of trust in their neighbours than people living in homogeneous neighbourhoods and were less interested in voting, volunteering and donating to charities.

Nine years later, two other researchers, Maria Abascal, then of Princeton University, and Delia Baldassarri of New York University, sought to disprove Prof. Putnam's study. Using the same data, they concluded that this lack of comfort with diversity only applied to one group. As Scientific American described their findings, "when it comes to distrust and diversity, most of the distrust is expressed by whites who feel uncomfortable living amongst racial minorities."

Diversity, whatever its other strengths, weakens social cohesion. In the United States, it led to endless white discrimination against African-Americans that continues to this day, abetted by resentment toward Latino immigrants - legal and illegal.

In Canada, linguistic and cultural divisions led to two referenda on sovereignty for Quebec that could have wrecked the country.

The Western alienation that stoked the Reform Party in the 1990s had an anti-immigrant component that its leadership only partly managed to suppress.

And lest we forget, Canada produced Toronto mayor Rob Ford long before the United States elected Mr. Trump or the antiimmigrant Nigel Farage helped lead the Leave side in Britain to victory.

Refusing to acknowledge the cultural fears of many voters can lead "to worse rationalization - terrorism, crime," Prof. Kaufmann said. Practically the first words out Mr. Trump's mouth, when he announced his bid for the presidency in 2015, was a warning that immigrants from Mexico were dangerous. "They're bringing drugs. They're bringing crime. They're rapists."

"Surely it's better just to say you want to preserve your culture," Prof. Kaufmann said.

So what is a better approach than simply dismissing the cultural insecurities of voters? First, leaders in politics and journalism and the academy and other fields need to respect where people are coming from - even when they profoundly disagree with where people are coming from.

"If people have concerns, and their concerns are being expressed in anti-immigration sentiment, then you've got to ask: Are these people just straight-out opposed to immigrants or do they have something else they're fearful of or concerned about?" Prof. Loewen said. "And you've got to speak to those concerns in an even-handed and honest fashion."

Second, play down the grand theories about the advantages of immigration, globalization and economic diversification. It'll all be labelled fake news. And do not appeal to people's compassion.

There is little of it about. Instead, show - don't tell, show - how immigration is making things better on your street, in your neighbourhood. Make it positive and make it personal. Micromessage.

In these conversations, conservatives have one advantage over progressives. Conservatives share the same attitude toward economic issues as most middleclass immigrants from places such as the Philippines, India and China, Canada's three top source countries.

Conservatives and many immigrants favour business over government, the private sector over the public sector. They want fewer regulations and less bureaucracy, more freedom and greater personal responsibility, including responsibility for protecting the family and community.

Stephen Harper's decade-long tenure as a Conservative prime minister depended in part on his party's ability to coalesce immigrant voters in suburban ridings in greater Toronto and Vancouver with traditional rural and Prairie conservatives.

Not only can that coalition be politically advantageous, it creates a space where people who might be tempted to embrace nativist sentiments can find themselves talking and agreeing with like-minded new arrivals.

For social cohesion, such conversations are precious.

Some would say the best way to address concerns over immigration would be to scale back the number of people coming in, especially from countries whose cultures are far removed from Canada's Christian, European settler heritage. We can't endorse that view. We know how important immigration is to smoothing the curve of an aging society with low fertility rates. And personally, we adore the multicultural ferment of our big cities.

But we must understand and accept that cultural insecurity affects millions of our fellow citizens. We must address those concerns by celebrating the best of what they cherish and by showing how immigrants cherish the same things - perhaps even more than some of the more progressive of their fellow citizens.

We need to remind ourselves that we are all in this together, old stock as well as new, and we all need to listen to each other with respect.

Otherwise, the next Donald Trump, the next noxious referendum, the next wall of exclusion await us all.

Associated Graphic

SUPPORTERS OF DONALD TRUMP IN NEW YORK ON ELECTION NIGHT, NOV. 8, 2016. AP PHOTO

A police officer dons a gas mask during a demonstration where antifacists and the extreme-right group clashed in Quebec City on Nov. 25, 2017.

JACQUES BOISSINOT/THE CANADIAN PRESS

How Zuma's double life caught up with him
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Once an uneducated Zulu traditionalist living in poverty, the former South African leader was known for his smiling image during his time in power - but behind the shiny surface lay a ruthless master tactician who demolished his foes, Geoffrey York writes
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By GEOFFREY YORK
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Thursday, February 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A12


JOHANNESBURG -- To understand the rise and fall of Jacob Zuma, begin with his middle name: Gedleyihlekisa. In the Zulu language, it can be roughly translated as: "The one who hurts you while smiling with you."

As the name suggests, Mr. Zuma has always led a double life.

His public persona was humble and good-humoured: He portrayed himself as a simple man of the people, an uneducated Zulu traditionalist who grew up in rural poverty and somehow charmed his way into South Africa's highest office for the past nine years. He ridiculed the urban intellectuals who looked down on him - the "clever blacks," as he mockingly called them.

Behind this smiling image, however, was a shrewd and ruthless man who demolished his enemies. He loved to play chess - another key to his personality. He kept confidential dossiers on his rivals. He courted friendships with powerful businessmen. He was a master tactician, a veteran of the secret worlds of intelligence and counterintelligence.

The double identity drove his political career. It meant that he was always underestimated by his rivals. With supreme confidence, he laughed at his critics and rebounded from disastrous setbacks that would have destroyed a lesser politician. He chuckled gleefully at the insults that his foes hurled at him in Parliament, then had them violently evicted by thuggish bouncers.

In the end, the double life caught up with him. Leaked e-mails and whistle-blowing insiders revealed high-level corruption scandals that left him dangerously exposed. Investigators uncovered the networks of secret financiers and business partners around him. His popularity sank and public outrage grew. His challenger, Cyril Ramaphosa, exploited the mood by campaigning on an anti-corruption pledge. He rose to the top of the ruling party - and has now pushed Mr. Zuma out of office.

As the scandals grew worse, South Africans finally saw beneath the modest façade of their president. They saw a politician who could not resist the temptations of power and money. They grew weary of the corruption of his government. And they gave Mr. Ramaphosa the political support that he needed to boot him out.

Jacob Zuma was born in 1942 in the village of Nkandla in what is now KwaZulu-Natal province. His father was a policeman who died when Jacob was four years old. His mother left him with his grandparents and moved to the port city of Durban, where she found jobs as a domestic worker.

As with many rural children under apartheid, he was obliged to leave school after Grade 5 because he was needed on the farm. He herded his grandfather's cattle and goats, while excelling at stick-fighting, a traditional Zulu game. He taught himself to read by borrowing the textbooks of other children in the evenings. As an adolescent, he visited his mother in Durban, and then roamed around the city streets, searching for odd jobs to support his mother.

Inspired by childhood stories of Zulu rebellions, he became more aware of the apartheid injustices around him. He was influenced by an older brother who was active in trade unions and the African National Congress, the biggest anti-apartheid organization. He joined the ANC at the age of 17, and then became a fighter in its military wing after the ANC was banned. He was arrested in 1963 and spent the next 10 years at the notorious Robben Island prison, where Nelson Mandela was also jailed.

After his release, Mr. Zuma went into exile in 1975. For the next 15 years, he was based in Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia, where he worked in the ANC's exiled underground organization to support its secret operations inside South Africa, including the training of recruits and the planning of armed incursions against the apartheid state.

This was where he developed the penchant for secret dossiers and covert activities that marked the rest of his political career. In 1978, he journeyed to the Soviet Union for three months of military training. In the 1980s, he became a top leader of the ANC's intelligence department, where he specialized in counterintelligence against suspected spies and infiltrators. He was also a member of the Central Committee of the banned South African Communist Party, using the alias "Pedro."

Little is known about this mysterious period in his career, but historians believe Mr. Zuma was heavily involved in the ANC's dreaded security department, popularly known as Mbokodo - "the stone that crushes."

In a bestselling book last year, South African author Jacques Pauw cited evidence that two members of the ANC's armed wing were tortured and murdered after being imprisoned in the ANC security department in Zambia while it was under Mr. Zuma's command.

"Zuma illustrated that, if necessary, he is prepared to trample on the blood and bones of his own to achieve his goals," Mr. Pauw wrote in his book, The President's Keepers. "The skills and skulduggery Zuma learned as ANC intelligence chief have helped him to endure as president. As the head of intelligence, Zuma became skilled in the art of neutralizing traitors and incapacitating opponents."

When the apartheid government finally ended its banning of the ANC in 1990 and its imprisoned leader Mr. Mandela was freed, Mr. Zuma was one of the first exiled ANC leaders to return to South Africa to participate in negotiations on the end of apartheid. In the early 1990s, he used his Zulu connections and negotiating skills to ease the violent clashes between Zulu factions. It became clear that he was moving fast up the ANC hierarchy.

Ronnie Kasrils, an anti-apartheid activist who went on covert missions with Mr. Zuma in exile in the 1980s and later became a cabinet minister, remembers how Mr. Mandela asked him for his opinion of Mr. Zuma in 1991. In a book last year, he recalls that he told the ANC leader that Mr. Zuma was "too ethnically inclined and conservative, and ultra-suspicious in security matters."

But his warning did not derail Mr. Zuma's ascent. In 1991, the ANC chose him as its deputy secretary-general. Three years later, he became a minister in the provincial government in KwaZuluNatal.

In the meantime, an ANC commission was investigating the abuses that occurred in its detention camps in exile. It concluded in 1993 that the ANC had committed torture in these camps, and it criticized Mr. Zuma for failing to prevent the abuses.

He remained popular in the party, however, and became its deputy leader in 1997. Two years later, he was appointed as the country's deputy president.

By that time, he had perfected his political formula. As a Zulu traditionalist who practised polygamy and Zulu tribal dancing in leopard-pelt warrior gear, he appealed to many South Africans who felt that their culture had been suppressed by apartheid. As an ally of trade unions and the Communist Party, he persuaded others that he would introduce radical policies to bring economic justice to the impoverished black majority.

He was a popular and charismatic figure at ANC rallies, dancing and singing liberation songs.

Some of his followers called him "Black Jesus." His unofficial theme song was the guerrilla anthem Umshini Wami (Bring Me My Machine Gun), which he sang enthusiastically at rallies. It helped him remind voters of his long years in the liberation movement.

But as always, there was a dark reality beneath this image. After his many years of frugal life in exile, he needed money for an extravagant new life in South Africa, and he was secretly becoming dependent on financial sponsors, who often had their own interests in government business.

"He had returned to South Africa with nothing; had not had the opportunity to cash in, as many others in the movement had; had numerous wives and children to take care of; and had to start upgrading his 'lifestyle' in all ways - as had become de rigeur for the new leaders to do in the new South Africa," his biographer Jeremy Gordin wrote.

In a corruption case that emerged years later, evidence showed that Mr. Zuma had accepted hundreds of payments from a long-time friend, businessman Schabir Shaik, from 1999 to 2005, at a time when a company founded by Mr. Shaik was winning a share of business in a multibillion-dollar government weapons deal. In 2005, Mr. Shaik was sentenced to 15 years in prison for soliciting bribes and other payments for Mr. Zuma from an arms contractor. Corruption charges were filed against Mr. Zuma, too.

A few days after the Shaik conviction, president Thabo Mbeki fired Mr. Zuma from the position of deputy president. And a few months after that, Mr. Zuma was charged with rape. He was accused of a sexual attack on the 31-year-old daughter of one of his comrades. Many people assumed his career was over.

Astonishingly, he bounced back. His supporters were more fervent than ever. They saw him as a victim of unfair persecution by the political establishment.

Even the rape charge was seen as part of a grand conspiracy against him. His youthful supporters vowed to "kill for Zuma."

Casting doubt on the character of the complainant, Mr. Zuma and his lawyers were able to beat the rape charge. After his acquittal, he turned his attention to Mr. Mbeki, portraying him as an aloof intellectual who had lost touch with the country. By the end of 2007, he had defeated Mr. Mbeki for the ANC leadership. By 2009, he managed to get the corruption charges dropped, and he was elected as South Africa's president.

His first term as president included some achievements. He authorized, for example, a huge expansion in the supply of lifesaving anti-retroviral medicine for the millions of South Africans with HIV. But again, there was a covert side to his life. While he ran the country and travelled to international summits, his family was increasingly becoming entangled with a new financial sponsor: the Gupta family.

The Guptas were three brothers from India who were rapidly building a business empire in South Africa, with help from their political connections. South African media later uncovered the fact that Mr. Zuma's son, Duduzane, had begun gaining shares and directorships in Gupta companies in 2008. Over the following two years, he was appointed a director of a dozen Gupta-owned companies, and the connections between the two families deepened.

The Guptas prospered and expanded, and Mr. Zuma won a second term in office in 2014. But in the end, his secrets were exposed.

Investigations uncovered his relationship with the Guptas, including their influence on his cabinet appointments. There was also a scandal over his use of state funds to pay for upgrades at his village home. The courts ruled that he had violated the Constitution. And after a lengthy court battle, the weapons-deal corruption charges from 2005 were revived against him, leaving him more isolated than ever.

By 2016, Mr. Zuma was leading the ANC to disaster. The party suffered an embarrassing defeat in three of South Africa's biggest cities in the 2016 local elections.

Eighteen months later, when his term as ANC leader ended, he was unable to orchestrate a victory for his chosen successor.

On Wednesday, after the ANC ordered him to resign as president, Mr. Zuma tried the same tactic that had worked in 2005. "I'm being victimized here," he said.

This time, nobody bought it.

On Wednesday night, less than 24 hours before Parliament was set to pass a no-confidence motion to force him out, he announced his resignation.

Associated Graphic

Former South African leader Jacob Zuma leaves the room after announcing his resignation in Pretoria on Wednesday. The African National Congress pushed Mr. Zuma out of office after nearly a decade as president.

SIPHIWE SIBEKO/REUTERS

Former South African president Thabo Mbeki, left, shares a laugh with his then-deputy Jacob Zuma in Cape Town, South Africa, in 1999.

ANNA ZIEMINSKI/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Jacob Zuma sings to supporters in Soweto, South Africa, in 2006.

SIPHIWE SIBEKO/REUTERS

Former South African president Nelson Mandela, left, celebrates his 91st birthday alongside long-time friend Jacob Zuma in Johannesburg in 2009.

REUTERS

ANC supporters rally in support of ANC president Jacob Zuma during an event in Khayelitsha, South Africa, in 2009.

SCHALK VAN ZUYDAM/AP

A run for their money
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In an effort to give an elite few Canadian Olympians a chance against better-funded competition, B2ten, a Montreal-based outfit backed by a small clique of philanthropists, is pumping millions of dollars into some of the country's most talented athletes
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S1


PYEONGCHANG, SOUTH KOREA -- The annual budget for the Norwegian cross-country ski team is in the neighbourhood of $3-million.

For the waxing.

When Norway stumbled at the discipline in Sochi in 2014, it was referred to back home as smoerebom - "wax disaster."

They're not making that mistake twice.

That $3-million includes wax technicians, logistics, equipment, transport and, of course, wax. That's got to be close to the price tag of the entire Canadian crosscountry ski team.

"Equal or even bigger," said Canada's brightest hope in the sport, Alex Harvey, on Friday. "Even here, [the Norwegians] are not staying in the village. They're renting their own hotel. It's just under a million dollars because they got it for a month. A whole hotel. With food and everything.

Just for the Olympic Games."

Harvey finished seventh in Friday's 15kilometre free race. After more than a halfhour on the course, he was within a few seconds of Norway's top three.

Given where he comes from and how the sport is financed there, it may be a more remarkable feat than some of our golds in Pyeongchang.

Talent got Harvey into the world's elite, but private money funding an organization called B2ten helped.

"They built the best team possible around me, especially on the equipment side of things," Harvey said.

B2ten got Harvey a waxing truck, a tour bus, technicians and physical therapists. "That's been the big, big difference since Sochi," he said. "It's put me on the same level as the Norwegians."

B2ten is a caffeinated Own the Podium working without government oversight. The Montreal-based outfit is backed by a small clique of Canadian philanthropists who pump millions of dollars into an elite few of our most talented amateur athletes.

If the Pyeongchang Games are shaping up as a historic success for Canada, B2ten's quiet work in the background supports a great deal of it.

It started in the early 2000s with moguls skier Jennifer Heil and her then-coach, now husband, Dominick Gauthier.

Heil missed the podium in 2002 at Salt Lake City by 1/100th of a point. Afterward, Gauthier put the failure down to a flaw in the system.

"It was the realization that Canada wasn't doing it right," he said this week in Pyeongchang, where he is working for RadioCanada as a commentator. "We were trying to treat every athlete the same. ... Basically, my speech was that, as we get closer to a Games, we have to tailor our approach to those who have a chance for a medal."

How'd that go?

"It didn't resonate."

So Gauthier phoned a friend who phoned some friends and suddenly 10 Albertan business people had each pledged $5,000 to bolster Heil's governmentsponsored training. In Montreal, a Westmount cocktail party raised another recurring $30,000.

Heil hired top contractors to assist in her training, won gold in Turin in 2006 and an idea began coming together.

This was B2ten initially: Heil as the face, Gauthier with the connections and a business adviser to get things rolling. The timing - in the lead-up to the 2010 Vancouver Games - was propitious. People were looking to spend.

The initial efforts were sporadic - many people giving small sums. They've coalesced since.

B2ten is now sponsored by 13 individuals Gauthier calls "members." Together, they've contributed $30-million to augment the development of a few Olympians.

There are no strings here. No one has to sing for their supper.

The money is given freely, though spent extremely selectively.

The closest analogy would be alumni boosters at top NCAA schools. As far as Gauthier knows, there is no similar group working so directly with Olympians elsewhere in the world.

Though most remain anonymous, the B2ten members who will talk about their involvement have some of the most familiar family names in the country.

"To me, this is all about Canadian pride and elevating the Canadian brand," said Stephen Bronfman, an heir to the Seagram fortune, via e-mail.

"I've grown up around sport and great leadership. I view this program as a way to groom Canadian heroes."

In a phone call, André Desmarais, president of Power Corp., uses the same formulation - "Canadian pride."

"I know people might think it's something about us wanting to hang around with athletes, but it isn't that," Desmarais said.

"I just want them to do well."

Does he feel a special gratification in seeing, say, a B2ten client such as Mikaël Kingsbury take gold in Pyeongchang?

"It makes me happy, for sure. I was worried like hell that he wouldn't win. But I don't want any of the credit. That would be taking away from Mikaël's talents. He's the one who did it."

B2ten currently has eight winter athletes on its full-time roster.

Five of them - Kingsbury, luger Alex Gough, snowboarder Max Parrot and ice dancers Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir - have already won medals here.

By the end, B2ten clients might represent as much as a third of Canada's total haul. A particular example is Virtue and Moir. They worked with B2ten before the Vancouver Games and won gold. They drifted away afterward, then disappointed in Sochi and became professionals.

When the pair decided to reenter the Olympic program ahead of Pyeongchang, their coaches reached out to Gauthier.

"I was suspicious," Gauthier said. He told the coaches that the pair would have to ask him themselves. Three quasi-job interviews were held.

"It would have been a shame if they came back, because they were bored doing shows. Or wanted to come back to make more money - not that they would have told me that - but I would have read it in their hearts," he said. "I wanted to give them a performance they would be proud of forever. They were not that proud after Sochi."

Having been convinced, Gauthier assembled a team of more than a dozen to service the skaters. It includes an osteopath, a physiologist, a nutritionist, a Pilates instructor, a masseur, a mental-prep consultant, two distinct strength advisers (power and micro-movement), the two skating coaches they already had and Gauthier as director.

The final two members of the team were Virtue and Moir themselves. The entire group met every six weeks to discuss the pair's development as if it were an infrastructure project.

Unusually, the athletes were in the room and expected to account for their progress.

Given the potential reward, the cost is relatively small. B2ten supplemented Virtue and Moir with $85,000 a year, paying for the additional expertise. There are limits to the largesse - "... costuming is ridiculously expensive. We're not touching that." But even the basics have a trickle-down effect. While Virtue and Moir are the priority, the B2ten physio sent to South Korea treats any Canadian figure skater who'd like the help.

"We're not a sponsor. We're not just giving you money," Gauthier said, then deploys a Québécois idiom. "We might not go to the grocery store with you, but we'll be in the kitchen."

Virtue and Moir's B2ten funds combine with government money to reach a total Gauthier ballparks in the region of $150,000 to $175,000 a year. Down the street from the figure-skating rink in Montreal, Shea Weber is making nearly twice that much every week to lose hockey games with the Canadiens.

Virtue and Moir already have another gold here in the figure skating team event and are favoured for Sunday's ice-dancing final. They speak of B2ten in evangelical terms.

"They've taken our training and our lives to a completely different level. They're just in it for sport, for the people," Moir said this week. "You don't see that in the world as much as we would like to."

There is a tendency to be cynical about everything to do with elite sport, but it's hard to find a paranoid wedge in here. None of the donating "members" is in Pyeongchang looking for a pat on the back. Desmarais is watching highlights on YouTube while he travels through Europe on business.

Apparently, these people just want to do something cool because they can.

B2ten itself has no full-time staff. Though he is the chief executive, Gauthier is paid as a consultant. The whole thing is audited once a year and has a board of oversight. The operation has no office, no computers and no landlines.

Gauthier points to his knapsack - "That's my office."

At first, this guerrilla sporting outfit rattled some individual sports federations. But after the float-all-boats success of Vancouver, that territorial friction eased.

Now Gauthier says that a few federations - Skate Canada, notably - funnel some of their own money through B2ten, trusting that it will be well-spent.

"We're not claiming we're building athletes from scratch," Gauthier said. "We're a conversion organization. Take top athletes, find what's missing and convert that to medals. Because that's what Canada is really bad at."

Like a Skull and Bones of Olympic sports, B2ten has a nebulous induction process. Athletes don't apply. They are found.

Oddly, Gauthier says "very few" try to get in the front door.

The large majority of those who do are rejected because they are not developed enough.

They're provided with contacts, but no funding.

A few others expected to be given monthly stipends.

"They thought we were a luxury organization," Gauthier said.

"Which pissed me off. Absolutely not. We don't care about the quality of your lodging."

The long-term goal remains gauzy. B2ten is funded until 2020. It would like to make a breakthrough in a Summer Games. The secret is keeping the focus tight and having tangible results to show for it.

"We need to be progressive," Gauthier said. "Let's not settle into our comfortable Olympic seat because it's kind of working.

Let's get ahead of the curve."

Harvey didn't seem upset by his placing on Friday.

He breezed into the mixed zone and said to his coach, "We did everything we could. It was a real good race. Just missing a little spark to get on the podium. ... There's no regrets."

Gauthier had some regrets.

"That should've been a medal," he said.

Harvey's last, best chance is in the 50 kilometres in a week's time. He won the event at the world championships last year, the first North American to do so. It was like winning the Norwegian Super Bowl.

Harvey is in tough against a group of Scandinavians raised to venerate the sport. That and money are their advantage.

Harvey's edge is physical and metaphysical. On the one hand, he's in the form of his life. And on the other, he may be the first cross-country skier in Canadian history with no excuses.

Associated Graphic

Canadian cross-country skier Alex Harvey slogs out the men's 15-kilometre free event at Alpensia Cross-Country Skiing Centre in Pyeongchang, South Korea, on Friday. After more than half an hour on the course, he had pulled within a few seconds of ski-powerhouse Norway's top three competitors. Harvey finished seventh overall.

MATTHIAS HANGST/GETTY IMAGES

B2ten, a caffeinated Own the Podium working without government oversight, funds some of Canada's most promising Winter Olympians, including freestyle skier Mikaël Kingsbury, seen in the men's moguls final at Phoenix Snow Park in Pyeongchang, South Korea, on Monday.

ISSEI KATO/REUTERS

*AS OF NOON, EASTERN TIME ON FEB. 16 TRISH McALASTER / THE GLOBE AND MAIL; SOURCES: OLYMPICS.COM, AP

King Street pilot initially had broader scope than transit
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City planners had planned to transform crucial roadway in the core, but their ideas were shelved for being too radical
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By OLIVER MOORE
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A16


When the King Street pilot was first envisioned, it was about more than speeding up streetcars. City planners dreamed of transforming the crucial roadway, discouraging drivers in favour of transit and adding dynamic public space that would reshape the corridor.

Instead, the city "shelved" broader plans to improve the look and feel of King Street, nervous that being too radical would bring political and public opposition. The project was launched as a transit initiative that did little to improve what planners call the public realm.

The city then found itself on the defensive as business opposition mounted, forcing staff and politicians to scramble for ways to head off critics and add elements that would bring life to the street.

Observers say the response - including escalating offers of free parking and a restaurant promotion announced, then discarded - could have been avoided if the city had started with more comprehensive changes.

"There are components of the public-realm plan that were sort of shelved, and very clearly those components of the public-realm plan are a critical part of the success," said former chief planner Jennifer Keesmaat, who left the role two months before the project launched.

"I think that there was some fear about taking the pilot too far too quickly, but it's kind of like one of those situations where you can't just dip your toe in the water.

You're either in the water or you're out of the water, but you can't be halfway in."

In November, the city eliminated street parking and prohibited continuous vehicle traffic on King Street from Bathurst to Jarvis. Transit ridership is up, but some businesses complain of a big loss of clientele.

Now, after three months, the year-long project is entering a pivotal period.

The worst of winter should end soon, likely bringing more people outside to use the street. The financial district's business improvement area (BIA) has been surveying its members before it takes a public position on the pilot. A coalition of civic and residents' groups has begun promoting King Street.

The popular musical Come From Away returns to a King Street theatre next week, and is expected to draw thousands.

Around the same time, the city is planning to release credit card sales data that will help show whether businesses are, in fact, suffering.

The Globe and Mail canvassed more than 140 businesses throughout the pilot area and the responses did not suggest the street is deserted, as some opponents insist. But impacts vary widely. While most respondents said business dropped after the pilot launched, around one-third reported it being flat or improved.

LIFE IN THE CURB LANE

The King Street pilot was born of the "TOcore" planning exercise to re-imagine how people live in and use the city's downtown. And as the idea of having fewer cars on King took shape, there were plenty of examples for using the space that would be freed up.

When New York prepared to turn Times Square over to pedestrians, the city put out chairs for passers-by. In Australia, a multibillion-dollar light-rail project in Sydney includes prioritizing pedestrians and transit on a key downtown road, with broader sidewalks and places for people to linger.

Cities have created mini-parks in road space, or installed patios, workout areas or art.

Good amenities can attract people even to unlikely spaces, as Toronto showed when it opened a skating venue under the Gardiner Expressway. On King Street, though, high-quality public-realm improvements were absent when the pilot project started.

Three sources at city hall said a transportation improvement alone was seen as easier to get through council, where many were unsure about the project, than changes to make King nicer. Another said this approach was about winning public acceptance.

"The fact that the public realm was not delivered at the same time is acknowledged by everyone to be a mistake, and the city is struggling to catch up," said Ken Greenberg, an urban designer and principal of Greenberg Consultants, which was not part of the project.

Planters were placed in what had been King's curb lane and picnic tables were put out only later, by which time the city was in a deep freeze. A design contest on how best to use the new road-space was not launched until January - two months after the pilot began.

"This is actually about city-building, it's about creating a place and a destination right in the heart of the city, and that piece has been stumbling along," Ms. Keesmaat said. "That piece needs to be brought to the fore. It's the piece that, of course, you hear the businesses along the corridor shouting about and it's the piece that can actually be fixed with some city-building moves."

Even as the pilot began, there were highlevel doubts at city hall about whether it would work, a concern that was reflected in the lack of hoopla around the launch.

Dan Gunam, CEO of Calii Love, which has a restaurant in the area, said the city should have gone the other way.

"When they kicked off the pilot, they should have celebrated by having a street festival with the businesses on King, instead of just ... [starting] to give tickets to drivers," he said in an e-mail.

'GHOST AREA'

There's a recognition at city hall that this could have been done better.

"If we were to do this again ... it would be in everybody's interest to roll it out in the spring, as opposed to the late fall," said councillor Joe Cressy, whose ward includes the pilot project area. "I think it would be in everybody's interest to roll it out with the public realm improvements ... ready to go on Day 1 ."

The city has struggled to fix the situation.

A one-time-only parking discount was offered and then boosted to two hours of free parking, available every day until the pilot ends.

In January, politicians including Mayor John Tory announced plans for a Winterlicious-style dining promotion and shortterm street animations, including ice sculptures and fire-performers. The promotion idea was then dropped and sources say it will be replaced by a partnership with the order-ahead app Ritual. The animations were put on hold because of cold and then cancelled when business owners said they wanted more focus on marketing, a city spokesman said.

The project was not helped by launching just before an unusually cold spell of winter. Also, the main theatres on King were on a reduced schedule, compared to the previous year. Even worse, the notion began to spread that King Street was closed to cars.

Some opponents of the project encouraged that perception. Politicians Doug Ford and Giorgio Mammoliti said cars had been banned. Angry local business owners said King Street was deserted and unwelcoming. Al Carbone, the owner of Kit Kat Italian Bar & Grill, put up a large ice sculpture of a middle finger, stressing that it was aimed at the city and not transit riders.

"I think [the city] screwed up when they launched it, because the perception the public had is that it's inaccessible," said Bronwen Clark, owner of Rodney's Oyster House. "I'm hoping the public ... realize you can drive down and there's plenty of places to park."

How all these factors combined with the new driving restrictions remains unclear.

What is known is that many businesses say the pilot's launch coincided with sharp declines in revenue.

This was reflected in The Globe's research of commercial enterprises along King. More than one-fifth of the businesses participated in a survey or did an interview, although some would do so only anonymously, fearing backlash. Respondents were under no obligation to open their books, making it impossible to verify their responses.

Their data show revenues were down an average of about 13 per cent in December from the previous year, a figure that obscures a substantial amount of variation.

Retailers and service-providers generally did better than restaurants and bars - a sector that typically has tight margins and reported being down an average of 16.7 per cent. Bars and restaurants west of Spadina Avenue did better than those to the east.

Those between Spadina and John Street reported the biggest drops, an average of nearly 23 per cent. Dhaba Indian Excellence, a restaurant opposite the TIFF Bell Lightbox, reported the worst results, saying revenues were down 80 per cent.

"It is not a transit project, but rather a bully project to make businesses suffer, residents suffer and tourism suffer," Dhaba executive chef PK Ahluwalia said in an e-mail. "No one wants to be here in the ghost area of the city."

THE RIDERS' VIEW

Amid such complaints, the pilot's saving grace has been its transit improvements.

King is already the city's busiest surface transit corridor, and ridership is climbing.

The Toronto Transit Commission added larger vehicles when the pilot began and deployed new streetcars there as they arrived. The agency says it is "consistently delivering above our scheduled capacity," although getting aboard remains an issue at the busiest times.

Although average streetcar speeds haven't improved dramatically, many passengers say the changes are saving them meaningful amounts of time, including through shorter waits.

Transit blogger Steve Munro crunched January data for westbound trips in the early evening and found greatly improved reliability. The extreme variations in travel time had vanished, making the streetcar more predictable.

"I've actually started moving from taking the Queen streetcar to taking the King instead, because it moves faster and has a little bit less people on it," said Erin Lambert, who lives around Queen and Bathurst. "From the improvements I've seen as a transit rider, I think it should stay."

Opponents have been shopping around city hall a proposal for a radical roll-back of the pilot. But Mayor Tory on Thursday poured cold water on the idea of relaxing the restrictions.

"We do not believe there is adequate evidence that an evening or weekend exemption would offer any access that is not already available to drivers wishing to reach the King Street area," he wrote in a letter to area stakeholders.

Councillor Cressy, noting that 43 per cent of Toronto's nonresidential development is slated for the core, said debate about the pilot must include the broader economic value.

"Being able to ensure that we don't have a financial core for the country that is caught in a constant state of gridlock is about general economic prosperity, and for the city, that prosperity is important," he said And the stakes are higher than just this area. As the TTC considers how to create priority routes elsewhere, it is looking at King as an example of how to make surface transit work better.

"For more customers to choose transit, it must be faster and more reliable than if they took a car," TTC deputy CEO and chief customer officer Kirsten Watson recently told the agency's board. "We're seeing that right now with the King Street pilot."

Associated Graphic

Pedestrians walk along King Street West on Thursday. In November, the city eliminated street parking and prohibited continuous vehicle traffic from Bathurst to Jarvis. Transit ridership is up, but some businesses are saying they've lost significant revenue as a result of the pilot project.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Passengers prepare to board a westbound streetcar on King St. West near John St. on Thursday.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A new wave of African-Canadian pop
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Emerging artists seek to push past traditional genre boundaries, aiming for pop charts and dance clubs
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By MICHAEL BARCLAY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R8


Talk to most Canadians about African music and - if they have anything to say at all - they'll more often than not reference something at least 30 years old: the sound of Paul Simon's 1986 album Graceland, the fiery seventies funk of Fela Kuti, sixties pop hits by Miriam Makeba and Hugh Masekela, or the percussionist Olatunji, who sold millions of records in the 1950s and launched an amorphous industry dedicated to "world music."

Only recently, on Drake's 2016 smash single One Dance, featuring Nigerian rapper Wizkid, did North American ears perk to the idea that African music might sound remarkably similar to modern pop and R&B - and is, in many ways, pushing it forward.

Back in 2011, the British DJ Abrantee called this new sound Afrobeats (plural) - not to be confused with Afrobeat (singular), the genre defined by Fela Kuti and practised today by Brooklyn's Antibalas or Ottawa's Souljazz Orchestra. Afrobeats (plural) simply refers to modern African pop music from anywhere on the continent, music of the digital age that wouldn't fly at most folk festivals or with self-appointed purists snapping up seventies reissues in Western record shops. In the past five years, it's become the new sound of the London underground and bubbling up to the pop charts there.

A new wave of African-Canadian musicians doesn't necessarily fit under the purposely ambiguous Afrobeats label, but neither do these artists want to play only "world music" festivals: They want to play around the world, aiming for pop charts and dance clubs. That seemed briefly possible in 2009, when K'naan had an international hit with Wavin' Flag, which proved to be a fluke rather than the beginning of a trend here. That might change with a series of strong new releases.

Leading the pack is Kae Sun, who already has a leg up: His 2013 song Ship and the Globe racked up more than four million YouTube views after it was featured on the soundtrack to a popular Korean TV drama. (How much money did that net him? "Not a whole lot!"

he says with a laugh.) Although his music nods to reggae and the occasional influence from his Ghanaian heritage, Kae Sun's music is pure pop: There's no reason this melodic singer with an angelic voice shouldn't be on the radio next to Tegan and Sara or Ariane Moffatt - the latter being one of Quebec's biggest stars, who appears on his new album, Whoever Comes Knocking (out March 2). Kae Sun used to write primarily on guitar, but this time out, he was working primarily with software and synthesizers. Despite his music's obvious mainstream potential, the first-generation Canadian feels musically pigeonholed as an African-Canadian.

"It's a frustrating thing," he says, a day after returning from a trip to Namibia where he screened his short-film installation Oceans Apart. "Not because I'm of African descent - I'm very proud of that. But for African artists, people often don't even call the music R&B or hip hop; they want it to fit into a 'world music' category.

"None of the records I've ever done come from that framework; if they did, I'd embrace that, but that's not my experience. I find it very challenging, particularly in the Canadian context, because some of these [pop] artists I listen to and enjoy greatly, and I want there to be more of an exchange; we operate in the same language, the same textures, the same approaches. So why are we separated? It's tricky to navigate."

Kae Sun moved from Ghana to Hamilton when he was 18; he now lives in Montreal, where he hangs out with the artists who run the Moonshine label, which is releasing Whoever Comes Knocking.

Moonshine is also the name of a monthly Montreal club night - held on the full moon - started by friends who wanted to dance to pan-African sounds. One of those is Pierre Kwenders, who left a career in accounting behind to make an innovative electronic take on Congolese rumba; his most recent album, Makanda (released in September), was produced by Tendai Maraire of psychedelic hip-hop duo Shabazz Palaces. "I wanted to build this bridge between Congolese rumba and the music I learned here," he says. "I want people who listen to my music to also be curious to search and go listen to the stuff from where I'm from."

Kwenders came to Montreal from Kinshasa; he sings in English, French, Lingala and Tshiluba. His new album features a Zimbabwean-American singing in Shona. Kwenders is less likely than Kae Sun to make a pop crossover, because his music is just as eclectic as his linguistic choices.

"It's not really Congolese music," he says. "It's not really North American music. It's not really Afrobeats. Whenever there's something that sounds a bit Afro, people say it's Afrobeats - it's not.

There is house music in Africa, there is dance music, disco. It doesn't make sense. That's the world we live in. We like to put things in categories to make it easier for some people."

That's not unique to Afrobeats, of course - the term "rock music" could mean anything from Chuck Berry to Bon Jovi. At one point, it could even refer to Cold Specks, the project for Somali-Canadian artist Ladan Hussein, whose 2012 debut was centred around haunting electric-guitar lines and her soulful voice; on her 2017 album, Fool's Paradise, however, she, as with Kae Sun, goes a more electronic route, eschewing guitars entirely - and she also sings in Somali for the first time.

Electronics are the great equalizer in global music: Traditional arrangements and rhythms from any culture don't sound as alien to ears anywhere else in the world, ironically enough, when they're set to completely synthetic soundtracks. Some electronic artists tap into the Afrofuturist movement, a larger utopian philosophy in science fiction that also encompasses the music of Sun Ra, George Clinton, Detroit techno and Flying Lotus.

In Canada, few tap into Afrofuturism more explicitly than AfrotroniX, a.k.a. Caleb Rimtobaye, a Chadian Montrealer who has played with his two brothers in H'Sao, a harmony-rich band who have toured every continent since their inception in 2001. In his more recent solo work as AfrotroniX, Rimtobaye dons a Daft Punkish helmet that looks like sculpted Venetian blinds, and sets his stirring Tuareg-inspired electricguitar lines to thoroughly modern beats and AutoTune vocals.

"We can and we must redefine the future of Africa and push the African music scene," he told the website OkayAfrica. "[We must] aspire to a more futuristic view - which is to me the idea of emancipation."

Also on the futurist tip is Zaki Ibrahim: born in Nanaimo, B.C., now of Toronto, with a lot of time in Cape Town - her father's hometown - in between. Ibrahim's new album is called The Secret Life of Planets, released on Jan. 31: the date of the "super blue blood moon." She's been hanging out with astrophysicists at the University of Toronto and discussing the Pythagorean concept of "music of the spheres," connecting astronomy and the physics of music - the latter came into play as she and producer Alister Johnson worked with an array of analog synths. She's into what she refers to as "vibrational energy work," infusing her work with a decidedly spiritual bent. The album title nods to the 1979 album Journey Through the Secret Life of Plants by Stevie Wonder, an artist whose influence is obvious on Ibrahim's work, along with other polymaths such as Prince, Joni Mitchell and Kate Bush. Yet there's nothing remotely retro about her sound, which draws from hip hop, house music and the most progressive strands of modern R&B. Although it has elements of pop and dance music, The Secret Life of Planets is as hefty as its title, with plenty of layers for deep listening.

Does she hear South Africa in her new record? "Every time I went there as a child," she says, "it was like entering a new space - it felt like different musical eras, from house music in the nineties to stuff my aunts and uncles listened to: contemporary soul and guilty-pleasure, baby-making music from the late seventies, early eighties. Alister loves boogie and disco, a lot of Gap Band. The South African influence for me is all of those sounds. There are songs on the album that would definitely be more appreciated by South Africans rather than Torontonians or New Yorkers."

Ibrahim lived in Cape Town for much of the past eight years. Although she had been there often to visit family before that, it was a 2009 tour with Toronto house DJ Nick Holder that tapped her into South Africa's huge electronicmusic scene. To both of their surprise, Holder was practically a household name there, mobbed on the street for selfies and playing sold-out shows in big cities and small towns everywhere.

Ibrahim was unhappy with her career in Toronto, feeling misunderstood by the major label she'd just signed to. Holder told her, "Toronto doesn't deserve you.

You should stay here." Ibrahim thought about it for a brief second, then said, "I think you're right." So she did, working on the material that would become the 2012 album, Every Opposite, which vaulted her from obscurity onto the Polaris Music Prize shortlist - without a label or publicist behind her, and while living on the other side of the world.

Most diaspora artists don't go back to Africa to tour, Kae Sun says. "The ones I know that do go back just settle: They move their career there," he says. "You can't make very much money playing shows there, unless you're really well known." Kae Sun has made a couple of visits to the continent, but hasn't been back to Ghana since 2012, before his career took off - although he's headed there later this year. Kwenders, 32, regrets that he hasn't been back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo since he first moved to Canada at 16, half a lifetime ago; he vows that will change in 2018.

Ibrahim, however, still considers herself a nomad, recently adding Ethiopia to her list of frequent stopovers, while working on a film soundtrack there.

Africa is alone among the continents in that it's often referred to as a monolith: No one ever identifies as a fan of North American or Asian music. But African music is assumed to be a singular genre - hence Afrobeats, though the use of the plural at least implies diversity. The Canadians now cross-pollinating with various points on the continent push those cultural boundaries even further.

Kae Sun plays Quebec City on Feb. 21, Montreal on March 2 and Toronto on March 8; Pierre Kwenders plays Victoria on March 6, Vancouver on March 7, Calgary on March 9, Edmonton on March 10; Caleb Rimtobaye will be performing with H'Sao on a tour of the Maritimes starting Feb. 21 in Charlottetown.

Associated Graphic

African-Canadian artists such as Pierre Kwenders, AfrotroniX, Zaki Ibrahim and Kae Sun don't necessarily fit into typical labels such as Afrobeats or 'world music' - a distinction they seek intentionally. Kae Sun says it's 'very challenging' to bridge different genres.

FROM LEFT: PHILIPPE RICHELET; GEORGE FOK AND VINCENT TOI; GILLIAN MAPP; PHILIPPE RICHELET

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Thursday, February 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B22


FLORENCE LOUISE ALLEN

Florie passed away peacefully, at Hospice Wellington, Guelph on Tuesday, February 13, 2018, at the age of 92. She was the much loved mother of Elliott (Fernande) and the late Louise (Steve). Cherished grandmother of Emily (Matt), Clarissa (David), Jess (Andrew), and Christine (Sean). Dear sister of Joan and Jean. She will also be missed by many nieces, nephews, and extended family and friends.

The family will announce a celebration of Florie's life at a later date. Cremation has taken place. In lieu of flowers, memorial contributions to Hospice Wellington or the Foundation of Guelph General Hospital would be appreciated. For more information, please contact Gilchrist Chapel - McIntyre & Wilkie Funeral Home, One Delhi Street, Guelph, (519-824-0031).

We invite you to leave your memories and donations online at: http://www.gilchristchapel.com and they will forward them to the family.

DAVID B. ANISMAN

On Wednesday, February 14, 2018 at his home in King City.

David Anisman, beloved husband of the late Sandra Anisman. Loving father and father-in-law of Paul F.

Anisman, Lorne and Mimi Anisman, Sharan Anisman and Brad Warner, and the late Elliott Anisman. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Molly and Arnold Shear, the late Yettie and Ben Goldhar, Frandel Leah Anisman, Louis and Mary Anisman, Sam and Eva Anisman, Sally and Morris Myers, Esther and Irving Pearl, Rose and Rudy Adler, Arthur and Sonia Anisman, and Toby and Bill Greenspoon.

Cherished grandfather of Eric and Alana, Erin, Morgan, and Sheridan. Great-grandfather of Josh, and Sarah. Very special thank you to Mona Florian for her care and devotion to David.

Funeral services will be held at Beth Emeth Synagogue, 100 Elder St. on Thursday, February 15, 2018 at 1:00 p.m.

Interment: Beth Emeth Synagogue section of Bathurst Lawn memorial Park.

Shiva: 110 Calvin Chambers, Thornhill, ON. Shiva visits Thursday following the interment up to 9:00 p.m., Saturday 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., Sunday through Tuesday 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. Evening services Thursday and Sunday through Tuesday at 7:30 p.m.

Memorial donations may be made to the Canadian Friends of the Jerusalem College of Technology 416-787-7565.

ANDREW MacPHERSON CRAWFORD "Sandy"

April 17, 1954 February 11, 2018

Peacefully and surrounded by his family, Sandy passed away after a hard fought and brave battle with Huntington's Disease.

Predeceased by his parents, Donald and Joan; Sandy is survived by his wife, Kathleen (Fitzgibbons); his children, Ryan, Andrew, and Megan (Matthew McGuinness); and siblings, Judy Rawley (Kim), Donald (Shelley), Cameron (Dijana) and Angus (Laurel).

He will be sadly missed by his many cousins, nieces, nephews and friends.

Visitation will be held at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. West on Tuesday, February 20th from 5-8 p.m.

Funeral Services to be held at Rosedale United Church, 159 Roxborough Drive, on Wednesday, February 21st at 11 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, a donation to the Huntington's Society of Canada would be greatly appreciated.

MARDI JANE FALCONER (nee Saunders) B.A., M.S.W. 1933 - 2018

This feisty and lively woman passed away peacefully in the early hours of Tuesday, February 13, 2018, 27 months after the death of her much-loved husband, Bob.

The two had met at the University of Toronto in the early 1950s and began, soon after, a marriage of more than 60 years.

Born to Marjorie and Robert Hood Saunders, Mardi came from a privileged background her father, a prominent criminal lawyer was mayor of Toronto from 1945 to 1948, then Chairman of Ontario Hydro and the St Lawrence Seaway.

Mardi went to Bishop Strachan School and Lawrence Park Collegiate. As a 20-year-old student at U of T's Victoria College, she attended with her parents the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and cherished the velvet stools the three were given as seats in the choir loft -- "the best seats in the house," Mardi always said.

Newly married, Mardi taught at a primary school in North York when first she graduated, but wanted to do more. She got her Masters of Social Work from U of T and took on some hard cases, first in Warrendale, an experimental facility for troubled teens, then at the Children's Aid Society in downtown Toronto. It wasn't easy. More than once she came home shaken at the end of the day after someone had pulled a knife or otherwise threatened her.

Mardi and Bob lived most of their lives in the confines of the genteel Lawrence Park neighbourhood in Toronto, a city she never stopped loving and, to the very end, marveled at its tall buildings and the diversity of new arrivals.

Mardi and Bob never had children. Her great loves were her husband, their dogs - three Labrador Retrievers that spanned a period of almost 50 years --their cottage on Lake Joseph next to the Crawfords and her goddaughter, Mardi Witzel, their numerous and exotic travels to more than 50 countries about which she compiled enormous photo albums, her school friends Denyse Crawford, Marg Perkins and Pat Dalton with whom she stayed close all her life, and quiet holiday celebrations with family members Mardi and Bob were inspirations to more than two generations of Falconer descendants. She leaves behind Bob's two sisters, Adele Martin and June Polack; as well as their seven children, Patrick Martin and Mardi Wheeler, David Polack, Brenda Jenkins, Robert (Polack) Falconer, Russell Polack and Andrew Polack.

Then a host of great-nieces and nephews, Gabriel, Samuel, Ella, Eden, Meaghan, Christopher, Amanda, Emily, Meaghan, Nicole, Braighton, Kenzi, Rory, and their young children.

Mardi received wonderful care from people at the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Special thanks go to Dr. Andrea David and the team of doctors and nurses in Sunnybrook's family medical practice, as well as to Dr. Dov Gandell, her geriatrician and Dr. Robert Maggisano, her cardiologist. With their guidance Mardi was able to live out her last months at home, thanks also to the fine care provided by her caregivers Aida Asuncion, Carmelita Audencial, Remy Matias, and palliative-care nurse Beth and Dr. Jennifer Arvanitis.

Friends may visit at the Humphrey Miles Funeral Home, 1403 Bayview Avenue, on Tuesday, February 20th, from 12:00 p.m., followed by a memorial service at 1:00 p.m. in the funeral home chapel, with interment at Mt.

Pleasant Cemetery.

It would make Mardi enormously happy if contributions could be made in her memory to the Children's Aid Society of Toronto or to the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care.

HAROLD FROMSTEIN

Yesterday, February 14, 2018, friends and family mourned the passing of Harold (Red) Fromstein. Born May 29, 1923, he volunteered for the Canadian Armed Forces as a teenager in World War II. He survived multiple military actions and a serious wound and came home from the war a decorated soldier and a peaceful soul. Red quietly passed away at his beloved home of the past ten years with friends, family and the staff at the wonderful Sunnybrook Veterans Wing (K).

He leaves behind a large and loving family legacy including dear loved ones, Judy Neinstein, Bernie Fromstein, Stan Fromstein, and Sharon Crisp.

Funeral services to be held at Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park, 6033 Bathurst St, at 11:00 a.m.

Thursday, February 15. In lieu of flowers, donations are welcome in his honour at the Veterans Wing of Sunnybrook Hospital, 416-480- 6100.

DR. WENTWORTH JONES June 10, 1931 - February 13, 2018

We are sad to announce the passing of Dr. Wentworth William Thomas Jones, loving husband of Shirley; father of Laurie (Martin), Sara (David), Susan (Douglas), Heather (Toby), Tom (Jessica), Lily (Gerard); and grandfather of Claire, Tony and Erik Earle, Patrick, Shannon, Melissa Doyle and their father Maurice, Adi, Liam and Danielle Underwood, Jasmine, Katarina and Dylan Young, Desmond and Maeve Jones and Kyle Perraton, Raina, Thalia and Niall Bergasse; and a special brother and uncle to Roberta Patterson (deceased), Susanne Giles and Kaaren Norris and their families.

Dr. Jones (Skip), University of Toronto Meds 5T6, was a family doctor in the Beach for over 50 years. He is remembered for his devotion to patient care and kindness to all. Skip joined the Balmy Beach Club in his youth where paddling became his lifelong passion. In 1959, he became a sailor at Ashbridges Bay Yacht Club where he was a lifetime member. Many glorious days on the water were shared with family and friends.

Skip passed away peacefully, at home amidst a sea of love.

He was a good man. If you wish to honour his memory, do something good.

Condolences, words of comfort, and memories of Skip may be shared with the family on Friday, February 16, 2018 from 1:00 p.m. 8:00 p.m. at Giffen-Mack Funeral Home, 2570 Danforth Avenue.

MARIANNE ROSS

Peacefully, on Tuesday, February 13, 2018, surrounded by family. Marianne Ross, beloved wife of the late Nathan Ross. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Jim and Marilyn Dixon, Rob and Deborah, Larry and Suzanne, and predeceased by Billy and Cheryl. Cherished sister of June and the late John, George, William, and Robert.

Devoted grandmother of Ryan and Sue, Stephanie and Eric, David, Brendan, Noah, and Jamie. The family would like to express their gratitude to Marjorie, Flora, and Meredith for their loving care and devotion.

A funeral service will take place at Steeles Memorial Chapel, 350 Steeles Ave.

West, on Thursday, February 15, 2018. Interment will follow at Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park, 6033 Bathurst St. Shiva will be observed at 490 Cranbrooke Ave., visiting immediately following the interment until 9:00 p.m, on Friday from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., and on Sunday from 2:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m.

Evening services will be held Thursday and Sunday at 5:30 p.m. Shiva concludes Sunday evening, February 18th.

Memorial donations may be made to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (647) 789-2000 and to Na'amat (Pioneer Women) (416) 636-5425.

MARY STRANGWAYS

Passed away at Joseph Brant Hospital, on February 10, 2018, at the age of 82. Beloved wife of William "Bill". Loving mother of Paul (Roberta Grosland), Chris (Yumiko Huang) and Anne (Cade Thomson). Doting grandmother to Megan (Carlos) Ribeiro, Adrienne (Kevin Innes), Patrick and Ava Lovell. Greatgrandmother to Devin Ribeiro.

Loving Aunt to Brad, Jeff and Terry Anthony.

Mary cherished her family and friends more than anything else.

She also was passionate about education: she graduated from Victoria College, University of Toronto and then went on to teach high school, elementary school, adult education and even continued this passion in retirement by being a Docent at the Royal Ontario Museum.

The family would like to thank Heidi from Nurse Next Door for her care in mom's last year and Dr. Harpal Singh and his staff for all of the superb care they have provided my mom over the last several years.

Visitation at Smith's Funereal Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Saturday, February 17, 2018 from 12 p.m. until the start of the Celebration of Life Service in the Chapel at 1 p.m.

Reception to follow. Cremation has taken place. For those who wish, donations in memory of Mary to the Canadian Cancer Society or the Heart & Stroke Foundation would be sincerely appreciated by the family. http://www.smithsfh.com

Steady push for a foreign-buyers' ban
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Despite the NDP's rejection, limits on offshore purchasers still an option, Green Party Leader says
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, February 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H11


VANCOUVER -- Vancouver's in the midst of a serious housing crisis, that much is clear.

What's less clear is what, exactly should be done about it. The voices calling for drastic action are growing louder.

For many, the idea of a ban on foreign buying of real estate is no longer considered a radical idea - neither is revolutionizing property taxes, or joining forces with Beijing tax collectors. The cry is to simply do something big enough that it will turn this runaway train around.

BC Green Party Leader Andrew Weaver released a document last month that outlined a host of housing measures, including a ban on foreign buyers purchasing existing housing in B.C. The idea is that foreigners can continue to purchase new builds, pumping money into the economy by investing in new supply. But existing homes would be off limits.

Australia and New Zealand have introduced that type of foreignbuying restriction. The Green Party, which holds the balance of power in B.C. Legislature, also wants restrictions on foreign purchases of Agricultural Land Reserve. Mr. Weaver said he's received data that thousands of hectares of B.C. farmland have been purchased by China buyers in order to grow hay for shipment to China. Attorney-General David Eby raised that issue as well, when he was Opposition housing critic.

"Our focus has been on the demand side, because there's been far too much pivoting to the supply side when we know supply side is not the problem," Mr. Weaver said in a recent interview.

A ban on foreign capital is the centrepiece of the Greens' Affordable Homes Strategy. However, Mr. Weaver doesn't expect it to be in the Feb. 20 budget announcement. Premier John Horgan and Finance Minister Carole James have publicly rejected the idea.

But Mr. Weaver expects the idea to take hold over time, much the way that the idea of eliminating Medical Services Plan premiums in B.C. took several years to become a reality.

"I don't expect to see [the ban] in the budget honestly, because [the NDP] came out and said they weren't going to do it," Mr. Weaver said. "But I will be conveying to Mr. Horgan ... that the level of support for dealing with this is overwhelming."

"The foreign-buyers ban takes that to a whole new level in terms of the public support, and the most passionate cries for it are coming from first-generation Canadians who came to Canada for a better life," he said.

Mr. Weaver is not certain that the budget will take the drastic measures he believes are necessary. He's concerned that the government may be taking housing advice from its new chief of staff, former Vision Vancouver councillor Geoff Meggs.

"I don't think the BC NDP realizes the scale of concern. I think [David] Eby might, the AttorneyGeneral. But I don't think others do at this stage.

"Mayor Robertson came out and said he didn't support this [ban] either. Look, Mr. Meggs being from Vision Vancouver and the fact it got out of control on their watch is slightly troubling to me in terms of the advice that might be given. I don't know what that advice is, but I would suggest that the advice should not be to continue doing what we were doing in Vancouver because it clearly did not work in Vancouver.

"Crises need bold action, they don't need tinkering around the edges. So I expect we will see the BC NDP tinker around the edges with some tax measures, here, but not really going directly for the problem, which is the offshore money coming in."

(A spokeswoman for Ms. James said she couldn't comment on government's plans until after the budget announcement on Feb. 20.)

Mr. Weaver's idea of a ban has the qualified support of citizen group Housing Action for Local Taxpayers (HALT), a diverse nonpartisan group that wants government to take action on speculative and investor demand for Vancouver housing.

"This is not based on nationality," said HALT spokesman Raza Mirza, a tech worker who leases a home in Vancouver with his wife and children. "I'm an immigrant.

We are all either immigrants or descendants of immigrants. So we have to be open to newcomers, but we want to make sure people who come here are starting a new life here.

"It's to address where they are earning their income. It's a ban on foreign capital that is distorting our housing market, and there are many ways of doing it.

Weaver's announcement is one way of doing it - it's a good start.

Does it go far enough? If you look at the New Zealand model, it bans them from buying existing homes, but they can still buy new homes and land to build new homes."

The risk with that model is that it could add more competition to the new-home market, and in the short term make housing even more unaffordable, Mr. Mirza said. "But it's still better than the Wild West that we currently have."

Mr. Weaver said the ban would only be one of a host of measures.

"The foreign buyers ban coupled with the speculative tax actually works quite well," he said. "You could start to phase things in. A speculation tax is also important, because that deals with existing stock, and you can increase and decrease the level of the tax. That's why it's critical to have a whole suite of policy measures. You don't just want one."

A foreign-buying ban is really just a foreign investment rule, University of Sydney housing expert Dallas Rogers said.

"At least in Australia, the federal government is still pro-foreign investment, but they want the foreign capital to be directed into new housing supply because they believe that increasing supply will help with the housing affordability problem," Dr. Rogers said.

But the impact of such a rule, he adds, has been difficult for Australian housing experts to pinpoint. Affordability continues to be a major issue.

"The idea of a ban on foreign investors buying established homes is a powerful political narrative. But as Australia shows, it might not be the silver bullet that will address the housing affordability problem."

Others have floated equally drastic measures, such as the government union employees' proposal for a land-value tax, which is used in other countries.

Harpinder Sandhu has been an appraiser for B.C. Assessments for nine years, valuating residential, commercial and industrial properties. As vice-president of Canadian Union of Public Employees 1767, he worked on a housing report with the B.C. Government and Service Employees' Union.

They represent B.C. property assessment workers, and they came up with the report because of their expertise on valuations, to help address out-of-control prices.

The total value of assessed properties in B.C. for 2017 was $1.86-trillion, according to Mr. Sandhu. Real estate has clearly become lucrative business in B.C.

"It's kind of insane," he said.

Mr. Sandhu is not keen on the idea of a foreign-buyer ban because he says it could burst the bubble. The extent of foreignowned real estate is much higher than government has indicated, he said. In 2017, a year after announcing a foreign-buyers tax in August, 2016, the then-government said transactions involving foreign nationals represented about 5 per cent of the Vancouver market.

Any appraiser will tell you foreign buying is much higher, Mr. Sandhu said.

"It's probably closer to 25 per cent in Vancouver, Burnaby and Richmond, even."

Because the share of the foreign-owned market is so high, Mr.

Sandhu fears a restriction would pose the danger of an immediate deflation. If a neighbourhood has 100 homes in it, it only takes the sale of four or five homes in a year to value that neighbourhood. If those four or five homes are determining the market, and you remove foreign money, it could change rapidly.

"We don't think the government would even take the risk of cutting off the money and imploding the market and trying to fix that after," Mr. Sandhu said.

"Our plan is so a bubble doesn't burst, because that could be way more detrimental. It's better to signal to the market, and slowly it comes down."

The unions' idea is multipronged, but a major aspect of it is involves reforming property taxes by taxing the land instead of the improvements on it. It's an old idea that's been used in jurisdictions around the world.

Government could then offer development incentives to build affordable homes. The union group presents their idea at an affordability forum Feb. 26 at the Vancouver Public Library.

"So long as you are building something of value, it wouldn't cost you anything, as municipalities can boost the percentage of density required to avoid the tax, thereby incentivizing the development of affordable housing," Mr. Sandhu said. "But if you are just squatting on it or hoarding it, like many investors are doing, and speculating, then you pay tax on the increase of the land value when you sell it."

Mr. Sandhu, who's met with the government, said he doubts that their ideas will be included in the budget.

"We have the expertise, so we've been promoting that. We've been saying, 'Come use us, come talk to us, we are in the government, we know what we are doing.' But our hunch is that it's the government bureaucracy that has been entrenched there a long time that can't really handle or even model these changes. They don't have the capacity to impose or create models on this kind of stuff, and they haven't reached out to our workers, not that I've heard of."

Immigration lawyer Richard Kurland said a ban wouldn't do anything to control the flow of foreign money into the market. It will find a place to hide, he says.

Instead, he'd like to see drastic action such as Canada Revenue Agency collaborate with their Beijing cohort to audit local real estate agents who sell to China.

"Raise the stakes," he said. "Get Beijing tax collectors to participate in CRA audits of real estate agents, when B.C. transactions have mainland connections. People who properly pay their taxes in both China and Canada have nothing to fear.

"Real estate agent businesses are the easiest way to connect the dots between Canada and foreign countries. Those transactions can be nests of loose hanging threads that can put a smile on the face of any tax collector around the world."

In other words, we need to make Vancouver less of an easy mark for the rich speculators. As Mr. Weaver puts it, if we don't do something now, we'll collectively lose in the long term because there's no end in sight.

"There are 7.5 billion people in the world and only 4.5 million in B.C.," Mr. Weaver said. "Think about it. It's not rocket science."

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Harpinder Sandhu, an appraiser with B.C. Assessments, seen in Vancouver on Feb. 10, is not keen on a foreign-buyer ban because he says it could burst Vancouver's housing bubble.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The view from Singapore
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For a Vancouver local, a visit to an overseas sales centre leaves a wistful feeling
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, February 9, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H4


Paul Robinson was visiting Singapore for business in mid-January and decided to drop by a sales and marketing "road show" for the opulent new condo tower, the Butterfly, to be built in downtown Vancouver.

The Butterfly is one of the last designs by Vancouver's legendary architect Bing Thom, who died last year. When the 57-storey skyscraper is completed by 2022, it will be one of Vancouver's iconic structures, centrally located at 969 Burrard St., with the city's best views. It will also be one of the city's most expensive. To live in one of the units on the upper floors of the beautiful building will cost a buyer millions of dollars.

Mr. Robinson, a 36-year-old engineer from Ohio, has been renting an apartment in the West End for eight years with his fiancée. He can't afford to buy in Vancouver and even if he could, he doesn't trust the market. He wanted to see first-hand what it's like to be a foreign buyer purchasing a Vancouver condo.

He had to be in Singapore anyway, so he set up an appointment and went to the sales presentation at the Four Seasons Hotel there, which was entirely devoted to sales of the Butterfly.

In the hallway, Mr. Robinson saw a poster advertising Vancouver as having "a low vacancy of 0.9 per cent" and "capital appreciation of 13.5 per cent," selling points for investors. Another poster titled Why Vancouver cited the city as one of the top five most livable cities in the world, because of quality of life, infrastructure and livability. It cited a strong economy, migration, "supply of homes below required inventory" and "rapid increase in home prices."

He also spotted a poster for Westbank Corp.'s Vancouver House, another striking condo building under construction down the street from his apartment in Vancouver.

"I'm sure it's going to be a really nice building. I wouldn't mind living there," he says. "But what's hilarious is, I'm seeing it on a poster in Singapore."

Mr. Robinson told the salespeople he was an American who wanted to invest in a condo in Vancouver. He was told that there were one-, two- and threebedroom apartments available at the Butterfly, as well as subpenthouse and penthouse units, starting at $1.22-million.

Mr. Robinson spent about an hour talking to a salesperson and watching other interested investors stream in. While there, he began to see the appeal of Vancouver through their eyes.

Mr. Robinson was shown the floor plan for a two-bedroom unit on the 21st floor of the Butterfly for $3,029,900. He also looked at a unit on the 29th floor for $4,039,900. He was told the building would include an Olympic-size swimming pool and fleet of BMWs for resident use. He showed me a work sheet that broke down the fees, including a refundable "booking fee" of $5,000, a 10-per-cent deposit due within seven days and a second deposit of 15 per cent within six months.

"These are just folks looking at investment property," he says.

"It's similar to [Canadians] buying a timeshare in Florida - there's nothing inherently wrong with any of this," he says.

"Everything there was above board. I could totally understand why everybody would want to buy property in Vancouver. It's not weird to me at all."

However, Mr. Robinson says he was encouraged by the salesman - who worked for a global real estate marketing company - to purchase a unit as a speculative investment, flipping the property before the building completes, thereby dodging taxes, which only kick in at completion. (He was told Westbank takes a 3-per-cent fee when presale owners assign contracts.

Charging a fee for assignments is a fairly standard practice in the development community. Westbank confirmed the fee.) The work sheet shows that if he did take possession of the unit, he'd owe 5 per cent for GST, a 3-percent property-transfer tax and the 15-per-cent foreign-buyers tax. CIBC offered loans of up to 65 per cent of the value. He was told he could rent the unit for about $8,000 a month.

"The guy definitely stated that the purpose of the investment, as he saw it, was capital appreciation and not to hold onto it and rent it out. Clearly, that is the way it was being pitched," Mr. Robinson says. "Although he talked a lot about how nice the building is going to be, he wasn't even pitching it as a pied-à-terre - although maybe he would pitch that angle more to wealthy jetsetters."

He takes issue with speculative purchases that he sees as driving up prices for permanent residents such as himself and other working locals who want to live and work within the Vancouver region, put down roots and raise families. The West End has long been a highly livable neighbourhood - dense, with the city's largest stock of rental.

The area is transforming owing to skyrocketing real estate prices.

Mr. Robinson doesn't blame developers, but he blames government policies that have allowed speculation to run rampant.

"I really take offence to the fact that I have to learn about global flows of capital and I have to read Wall Street Journal articles just to find out if I can afford a home in my own town.

It should be a reasonable expectation that if you want a home, you can go buy one and you should be competing with other people who live in that city and who pay taxes there and have a job there."

Local marketing for the project began in November, as part of developer Westbank's Local First program. Last fall, the City of Vancouver approved a new policy that locals should get the first 30 days of a presales marketing campaign to buy into a property. Developers can voluntarily include the condition when they apply for a rezoning.

A few developers have responded by making it part of their own marketing policy.

Local residents, as defined by the city policy, "are residents who live or work in Metro Vancouver." However, the definition can vary from project to project, as long as it meets the intent, according to the city.

Westbank publicist Jill Killeen says the company voluntarily created its own Local First program when it officially launched presales of the Butterfly in Vancouver on Dec. 14. According to Ms. Killeen, 90 per cent of the units in the Butterfly sold to locals within the first 30 days of sales. Ms. Killeen said of the 331 homes, only 30 units remain for sale. They extended availability to international buyers in midJanuary at sales centres in Singapore and Hong Kong.

"We anticipate the majority of those 30 remaining homes to be sold locally," she wrote in an e-mail.

As well, she dismissed recent media reports about purchases by "shell companies."

"The vast majority of buyers purchase in their real names," she said. "If a buyer does purchase in the name of a corporation then Westbank verifies they are dealing with the director of that corporation."

Sales of the Butterfly are just one example of Vancouver's globalized housing market.

Many Vancouver developers - and developers in other gateway cities - are selling units overseas, including units in projects that are mid-market in their pricing. Sales and marketing company SQFT Global Properties, specialists in overseas property marketing in the Asia-Pacific, shows nine Vancouver projects on its website. Onni Group's the Mark is one of them, with prices starting at $299,900.

The remaining eight are Westbank projects that are mid-range to expensive on the price spectrum, including Horseshoe Bay, Joyce, Alberni by Kengo Kuma, 188 Keefer, Vancouver House, Kensington Gardens and Granville at 70th.

Ms. Killeen says the company did not sell any units in Westbank's Granville at 70th, 188 Keefer, Horseshoe Bay or Joyce projects. "Westbank did not know those projects were on the SQFT website and has requested them to be removed," she said in an e-mail.

Hong Kong company Savills advertises 2 River Green in Richmond, by Aspac Developments, as well as Concord Pacific's Concord Brentwood in Burnaby on its website, directing buyers to a Hong Kong-based realtor.

Dallas Rogers, urban studies professor at the University of Sydney in Australia, wrote The Geopolitics of Real Estate and studies housing poverty in relationship to global wealth. He is familiar with the weekend condo presentations held at fivestar hotels in Singapore. Singaporeans, as with the Chinese, have an appetite for presales in Australia, he says. According to a recent report by Hong Kongbased international real estate marketers Juwai.com, 19 per cent of Chinese buyers surveyed had plans to purchase property in Australia this year. Twenty six per cent were going to look at U.S. properties and 14 per cent of buyers had plans to purchase in Canada. The top Canadian cities for investment are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa and Calgary, in that order, Juwai.com chief executive Carrie Law said.

"People approach you with 'off the plan' sales propositions for real estate developments in Vancouver, London and Sydney," Dr. Rogers wrote in an e-mail.

Off-the-plan is better known in Canada as a presale.

"Our Global Real Estate Project research shows that the sales staff in places like Singapore have a very good working knowledge of the taxation, foreign investment, visa, immigration and education rules. The sales staff use this information in their sales pitch to potential foreign buyers; playing off one set of rules against another.

"Much will depend on what the investor is looking for in a foreign property investment.

This could range from a potential long-term retirement property, a place for their kids to live in while they study at a foreign university or a place to park their capital for short-term speculation.

"If it is capital for short-term speculation that the investors are looking for, then yes, Vancouver might be more appealing than Sydney when you have the option of shopping around at a real estate fair in Singapore."

Many argue the new city policy to prioritize locals at the start of a presales launch won't return the housing stock to local income-earners because it's a question of money earned elsewhere. The percentage of homes in the new buildings that are purchased with foreign money is, of course, an unknown. But the source of the money is, to Mr. Robinson, the crux of the problem. People working at local jobs can't compete.

"Let's be real, this is what's going on: For the last 30 years properties in Vancouver have been bought up by people who don't earn money in Vancouver and don't pay taxes in Canada - that's how you can have the average home price get to 25 times the average income," Mr. Robinson says.

Associated Graphic

Paul Robinson, seen in downtown Vancouver on Feb. 2, wanted to see first-hand what it's like to be a foreign buyer purchasing a condo in the city, so he attended a sales presentation in Singapore, where he saw posters for Vancouver condo projects by developer Westbank.

TOP: RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL/PAUL ROBINSON

Saturday, February 10, 2018

Correction

A Friday Real Estate article on Vancouver housing included an incorrect description of taxes paid by foreign buyers. In fact, the foreign buyers of Vancouver condominiums who purchase a unit as a speculative investment and who reassign the property before the building is complete can avoid paying the 5 per cent GST, 3 per cent property transfer tax and 15 per cent foreign-buyers tax. Capital gains taxes would still be applicable.

A daring endeavour
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In the era of #MeToo, Harlequin's new, explicit romance line focuses on strong heroines and female desire. Zosia Bielski reports that the effort is laudable, if a little late to the game
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By ZOSIA BIELSKI
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P19


Pink fluorescent tubing, the kind you might imagine buzzing in a red-light district, spells out the logo for Dare, a new line of Harlequin romance novels branded as the publisher's most sexually explicit books to date. On the covers, no beefcake Fabios or ripped bodices. Instead, toned women straddle men and push them up against brick walls, staring them straight in the eye.

The forward heroines are a new look for Harlequin, which has been peddling women's fantasies for nearly 70 years.

Launching this month, Dare has been marketed as a modernization of the way Harlequin treats sex. Female agency and pleasure are at the forefront, euphemisms have been ditched for graphic terms and rose petals and candlelight have been replaced by blow jobs in moving cars.

"With Dare, we've taken it to the sexiest place we've ever been," said Joanne Grant, editorial director of Harlequin Series.

She heard from women who wanted more direct depictions of sex, and listened: "It doesn't hurt to call it what it is."

For Harlequin, which is based in Toronto, the shift to more explicit sex is long overdue: The literary blockbuster Fifty Shades of Grey came and went half a decade ago, blasting past sales of 125 million copies in 2015. With Dare, Harlequin is following a raunchy (and highly lucrative) indie romance market.

The publisher hopes to attract new readers, younger readers and existing Harlequin fans who might want a saccharine romance on Monday and something racier by Friday.

Limited to 50,000 words and printed in digital format only in North America, the Dare e-books are quick reads women can whip through in relative privacy on their commutes.

Harlequin will churn out four new titles for them every month.

Anne Marsh wrote one of the first Dare titles, Ruled, about an unlikely liaison between a children's-party planner and a biker-gang member.

Marsh said the new line allowed her to deepen her characters' relationships with more intense sex scenes.

"You have really big, tough alpha guys who don't hold back in bed but who also end up having these marshmallow insides and hearts for their heroine," Marsh said from the San Francisco Bay Area, where she works as a professional technical writer by day and pumps out romance novels by night.

Since the Dare books are shorter than other Harlequin titles, the characters need to fall into bed faster. Sex acts that were once verboten are no longer off-limits. "You can have people role-playing in the bedroom," Marsh said. "You can have butt sex. You can have toys. The hero and the heroine can do what feels right for them."

But not everyone is excited about Harlequin's dirty turn.

Sisters Bea and Leah Koch, who own the Ripped Bodice, a romance-only bookstore in Culver City, Calif., say Harlequin is sorely late to the game with its explicit romance line. "The independent market has been putting out these books for a long time," Bea Koch said. "The publishers are catching up and wanting to get some of that money."

The Koch sisters see another trend emerging in the romance genre: feminism. "Our customer base is interested in stories about empowered women and men who find that sexy and not threatening," Leah Koch said.

Late as Harlequin may be to modern sexual mores, the publisher appears to have gotten a whiff of feminism with Dare.

Damsels in distress have been traded in for careerist heroines, "fearless women who choose to make [men] part of their lives," according to the publisher. Says Marsh, "Women don't want to read about weak women."

Lisa Childs, a retired Grand Rapids, Mich., insurance agent who has written a mind-boggling 70 Harlequin romances, sees Dare's female characters as evolved, sexually and otherwise. Childs wrote the Dare title Legal Seduction, which centres on a torrid affair at a law firm involving espionage and the protagonists shagging on every surface of a wellappointed corporate office. Heroine Bette Monroe is a "challenging" executive assistant with a "deep and husky" laugh who likes to toy with her boss.

"It's not your grandma's romance with the timid virgin," Childs said. "She's an equal partner in the sexual relationship." In other words, Bette Monroe has a lot of orgasms.

In the era of #MeToo, Dare's focus on strong heroines and female desire is laudable. And so it's doubly disappointing, then, that retrograde tropes emerge on the page.

In several of Dare's inaugural titles, heroines are saddled with strikingly feminized careers.

One protagonist is a matchmaker, another designs bowfestooned lingerie and another plans pink and frilly "princess parties." Hard pass.

Then there's Harlequin's female orgasm to contend with.

Climaxes are instant, with heroines screaming in ecstasy at the slightest touch of a man, much like they do in mainstream, male-directed porn. The romance genre is fantastical, but these female writers should know better.

More problematic is that two of the initial Dare titles feature scenarios that could be read as workplace sexual harassment - a turnoff if ever there was one, but especially in the wake of #MeToo. Bette Monroe's affair with her boss starts when he gets grabby with her in his office (granted, she doesn't seem to mind). In another Dare offering, Off Limits by Clare Connelly, billionaire investor Jack Grant lolls around naked in bed in front of Gemma Picton, his in-house counsel, while she tries to read him his itinerary for the day. "In the two years since I started working for Jack I've probably seen him naked on average once per week," Picton says.

The scene sharply calls to mind the behaviour of disgraced Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein and former PBS host Charlie Rose, who are both facing accusations of workplace sexual harassment, including getting naked in front of horrified female staff.

The key difference, we are told, is that Dare heroines are very into their bosses, often initiating the sex. Harlequin's Grant has this to say about the boss-assistant relationships: "This has been a popular romance trope for many years ... tapping into the 'forbidden' relationship fantasy. We did give careful consideration at the time of acquiring these Dare titles - long before the Weinstein story hit, due to our publishing lead-in times - as to whether the dynamic was portrayed appropriately, in a way that is empowering for the heroine."

Grant said conversations about sexual consent have been ratcheting up at Harlequin, where staff consider the issue as they review, acquire and edit manuscripts. "Our copy editors will and do flag anything that may be interpreted as a little grey on the issue of consent, for further consideration by the editor and author," Grant said.

Evidence of these editorial discussions is sprinkled throughout the new novels. As lecherous protagonist Simon Kramer eyes Bette Monroe, his executive assistant in Legal Seduction, his inner monologue reads, "He didn't want to take advantage if she'd had too much to drink."

Marsh stresses that consent is non-negotiable in the romance genre. "These are fantasies written by women for women. We want our heroes to be 100-per-cent invested in the heroine and focused on her pleasure and what she needs. If he's ignoring a 'no,' he's not a hero at that point. He's an asshole."

There is a fine tightrope to be walked here. Harlequin doesn't want to thought-police women's fantasies. At the same time, it wants to give them a "safe read" in which heroines call the shots and endings are happy. "It's consenting, it's positive and the women are in control," Grant said. "It's a positive experience of sex."

Beyond consent, the editorial director feels Harlequin should take responsibility for the sex it depicts because some young readers treat their romance novels as de facto sex manuals.

"If you snuck your book from your mum growing up," Grant says with a laugh, "you learned about sex."

In a New York Times op-ed published last month and headlined We Need Bodice-Ripper Sex Ed, bestselling author Jennifer Weiner wrote, "[Romance novels] taught readers that sexual pleasure was something women could not just hope for but insist upon. They shaped my interactions with boys and men. They helped make me a feminist."

Marsh, who devours four romance novels a week, remembers drawing up a "wish list" when she read the books at 18. "It was a safe space to try on what I might find appealing and what I might not."

Even as literary critics dismiss the romance genre, these books can serve as potent window shopping for women.

"Romance has always been the literature that allows women to explore their sexuality and desires in a very unencumbered way," the Ripped Bodice's Bea Koch said. "Women's emotions and sexuality are centred.

That's important when a lot of pornography centres on the male gaze."

The Ripped Bodice doesn't carry Harlequin, focusing instead on diverse titles from the indie romance genre. Big stars in this world include Kit Rocha and the sci-fi romance series Beyond Shame; historical romance writer Courtney Milan and her contemporary novel Trade Me and Rebekah Weatherspoon and her bondage fantasy Haven, which features a rugged mountain-man hero.

"Women read romance because it makes them happy," Leah Koch said.

The genre is escapist and inherently idealistic, a world of women writing for women about the men (and the lives) they want.

"It's a very powerful escape from their lives and so many women need that," said Angela Miles, a professor of global feminist movements at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education who has researched the romance genre.

"Women read them when they're under pressure. They read them when they've just had a baby, which is why they give them out free at hospitals," Miles said. "If you have no time to yourself, if you can't go out, if you're totally stuck, you can read them."

Staggering romance sales make clear that women need an escape hatch: 25 per cent of Canadian women age 18 to 64 are romance readers, according to Harlequin market research.

Since launching in 1949, Harlequin has sold approximately 6.7 billion books.

Like many other romance fans, Sarah Phalen tears through three books a week.

"They're my favourite thing to read," said the 38-year-old Toronto customer-service rep.

Phalen got into Harlequin one summer when she was 13.

Her aunt worked for the Toronto Public Library and had romance novels lying around the cottage. "It was very scandalous," Phalen said.

She preordered the first Dare books ahead of the line's launch. Amid the deadening news cycle of #MeToo, Phalen said she found solace in heroines who get to own their sexuality. Her only complaint is that Harlequin's foray into raw female sexuality came so late.

"This is overdue," she said.

"We can handle it."

Associated Graphic

Limited to 50,000 words and printed in digital format only in North America, the Dare e-books are quick reads women can whip through in relative privacy on their commutes. Harlequin will publish four new titles for them every month.

TOP: JOSEPH SARACENO

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, February 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B22


LUBO CIPIN

Suddenly on Friday, February 9, 2018 while on business in New York City.

Beloved husband of Carmit Kordov. Loving son of Jozef and the late Helena Cipin; and stepson of Brenda. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Daniela Estair and David Kaufman. Uncle of Yehuda, Shalom and Deena, Tiferet and Atara. Great-uncle of Moshe Aryeh, Sara and Noach.

Son-in-law of Ester and Sami Kordov. Brother-in-law of Tamir and Kim Kordov and Yuval and Frances Kordov. Friend to many others.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Ave. West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, February 14, 20 18 . Pleasesee http://www.benjamins.ca for funeral time or call 416-663-9060.

Interment Beth David Synagogue Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Shiva 75 Willowbank Blvd. In lieu of gifts, donations may be made to EDS Clinic at Toronto General and Western Hospital Foundation would be appreciated 416-340-4430 http://www.tgwhf.ca/tribute

DOROTHY ELEANOR DRAKE

Passed away with family by her side on Saturday, February 10, 2018 at Bridgepoint Active Healthcare in Toronto, Dorothy Eleanor Drake (nee Knapman).

Dorothy was born in Picton, Ontario, on December 31, 1926, the daughter of Harold Knapman and Bernice Clapp. She attended Queen's University in Kingston, from which she graduated with a degree in biochemistry. In 1950 she married Hugh Drake, with whom, over the course of many years, she travelled widely, sharing her passion for the fine arts and a mutual love of sailing and skiing. She spent nearly every summer of her ninety-one years at her beloved family cottage on Stoney Lake, Ontario.

Dorothy was the mother of four much loved daughters, Susan (Ian Masters), Julia (John Reardon), Christine and Sarah (Bill Tinney); grandmother to Kiva Reardon, Ella and Angus Wright and Rebecca and Keltie Wellwood; greatgrandmother to Olive Wright and Skylar and Frances Docherty; and the sister of Harice Parkinson. She was predeceased by her husband, Hugh; and daughter, Susan.

A memorial service will be held at a later date to celebrate Dorothy's long, rich and love-filled life. If desired, donations can be made to Bridgepoint Health Foundation (14 St. Matthew's Road, Toronto, Ontario M4M 2B5). Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

When the voices of children are heard on the green And laughter is heard on the hill, My heart is at rest within my breast And everything else is still.

JAMES CLAYTON HOWARTH "Jim" Born January 22, 1928 Died February 10, 2018

Jim, son of the late Robert and Kathleen (nee Ward) Howarth, passed away quietly with his beloved wife of 64 years, Joyce, at his side. He was predeceased by his brother, Jack. He will be missed by his children, Laura, Bob (Barbie) and Gord (Anne); as well as grandchildren, Jamie, Megan, Kiera, Erika (Brad); and greatgrandchildren, Emmett and Theodore. Jim will be fondly remembered by sister-in-law, Kitty; and extended family.

Jim spent 38 years in the road construction business, primarily with Chevron Asphalt, where he and Joyce developed many lifelong friendships across the country. Jim was past president of the John Howard Society of Ontario. Jim loved his 1944 North Toronto Collegiate Football Championship annual reunions that continue to this day and his many summers at Honey Harbour, with cocktails on the deck.

There will be a Memorial Service at the Dodsworth & Brown Funeral HomeBurlington Chapel (2241 New Street at Drury Lane, 905-637-5233) at 11:00 a.m.

on Thursday, February 15, followed by a reception in the Southall Suite. In lieu of flowers, donations to the John Howard Society of Ontario or a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

Online condolences may be m a d e a t http://www.dbburlington.ca

ROBERT JOSEPH LAWN May 21, 1934 February 10, 2018

Robert Lawn passed away after a brief illness. He is survived by his wife, Sandra (née Graham) of Prescott, Ontario; three daughters and their families, Andrea (Bruce Anderson), Erika Nielsen (Graham Smith), and Peter Nielsen (Rebecca Rodley), Kerrie (Rodney Henderson, Owen and Simon), and Julia (David Crerar, Harry, Philippa, Isla, and Angus); siblings, Eleanor (Colin) Pottie, Barbara (the late Roger) Carr, Sharon (the late Tim) Douglas, Nancy (Will) Leach, and Peter (Judy); as well as aunts, cousins, nieces, and nephews. He was predeceased by his brother, Doug; and parents, Clarence and Vivian Lawn of Cornwall, Ontario.

Dedicating his life to serving his community, Robert taught in Carleton Place, Smiths Falls, Ottawa, and Prescott Ontario, and was principal of South Grenville District High School, and of Brockville Collegiate Institute, retiring in 1991.

In retirement, he served variously as Chair of Board of the Brockville General Hospital; Chair of the Human Resources Committee of the Ontario Association of Midwives; and President of the Prescott and District Chamber of Commerce. Robert served two consecutive terms as Prescott Mayor and one as Councilor.

A funeral Mass will be held at 11:00 a.m. on Thursday, February 15th, at St. Mark's Roman Catholic Church in Prescott, Ontario, with reception to follow in the Parish Centre. Arrangements are entrusted with the Irvine Funeral Home and Chapel in Brockville, Ontario. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation in Robert's memory to the St. Lawrence Shakespeare Festival, Connect Youth, the Brockville and District Hospital Foundation, or to a charity of your choice. Condolences and donations may be left online at http://www.irvinememorial.com.

GITTA QUIGLEY (nee Ritter)

Gitta passed away peacefully on February 10, 2018 at home with her family after fighting a courageous battle against metastasized breast cancer.

Born July 23, 1952 in Neuss, West Germany, Gitta worked with the German government on WWII reparations before immigrating to Canada in 1972 as an au pair.

Finding love in the dashing architect Garnet Quigley, they were happily married for 40 years.

Bon vivant, badminton enthusiast and hobby chef, Gitta was a glamour queen, daring wisecracker, and social snowbird.

She loved to dine al fresco, drink wine, garden, travel to sunny locales, and walk with her rescue dogs. Gitta was a caring mother to Jennifer (Pascal) and Kyla (Scott); spirited stepmother to Christopher and Angela; Nitta to Tyler; Nana to Collin; magnetic friend; the life of every party; and pal to many furry and feathered creatures.

The memorial service will be held at St. Augustine of Canterbury Anglican Church, 1847 Bayview Avenue, on Saturday, February 17 at 2 p.m. Donations in her name may be made to the Toronto Humane Society. Condolences may be left at http://www.aftercare.org.

ROBERT EMERSON QUINSEY

On February 9, 2018, Robert "Bob" Emerson Quinsey passed away peacefully in Oakville with family by his side. Bob is survived by his loving wife, Gwendolyn (Ruth). His first wife, June Louise Rebstock, predeceased him in 1982. Bob was the beloved father of Bill (Yvette), Cathy (Ian), John, Jim, and Beth; cherished grandfather to Melissa, Cameron, Heather, Nathan, David, Geoff, Kira and Brianna; and great-grandfather to Ella, Keiran, Fisher and Sawyer.

Bob lovingly embraced Ruth's children, Jim (Helen), Sandy (Sam), David (Laurie) and Bunny (Geoff); and her 11 grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren. He is survived by his brother, Ronald; and predeceased by his sister, Elizabeth; and brother, John.

Bob was born in Ridgeway, Ontario, on July 1, 1928 to William and Marjorie (nee West).

He graduated from McMaster University in 1949 with a Bachelor of Arts and went on to study Social Work at the University of Toronto, retuning to earn a Master's degree in 1963. He worked in this field throughout his career, retiring in 1989 from his position of Chief Social Worker with Queen Street Mental Health Centre (CAMH).

Bob was a gentle, honest man who enjoyed playing bridge and reading but time spent with his family was most important to him. Sincere thanks to the staff at Post Inn Village for their caring and kindness over the past 8 months.

An interment will take place in the spring at Cayuga Cemetery. Please email cathy.quinsey@gmail.com if you would like to be updated on the timing of the interment. In memory of Bob, donations can be made to the Christian Children's Fund of Canada or the charity of your choice.

KATHLEEN JOAN REID 'Kathi' June 23, 1949 February 10, 2018

After a courageous battle with cancer and kidney disease, Kathi passed away peacefully, surrounded by the love of her family at Campbell House Hospice, Collingwood.

Beloved wife and best friend for over 47 years of Larry; proud mother of Ryan (Heather) and Jonathan (Tristana); will be forever cherished by her grandchildren, Emma, Ivy and Leo.

Kathi was a graduate of the University of Windsor and Toronto General Hospital Nursing program; she had a 20-year career in Public Health Nursing and was a business woman/partner with husband Larry at the Gateway Restuarant and Tavern. She was dedicated to her community and served as a volunteer with Georgian Triangle Humane Society, as Board Member and President; awarded for excellence and distinction with appointment of Director Emeritus. As an avid family boater, summers would find Kathi at Beckwith, Honey Harbour or Killarney and winters would take her with her family skiing to Vermont, Colorado and Blue Mountain/Toronto Ski Club.

Kathi's, determination, kindness and gentle spirit will be remembered by all who knew her.

Visitation will be held at Fawcett Funeral Home, 82 Pine St. Collingwood on Thursday, February 15, 2018 from 7-9 p.m. Funeral Mass will take place at St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, 63 Elgin St. Collingwood at 1 p.m. on Friday, February 16, 2018. In lieu of flowers, donations to Hospice Georgian Triangle - Campbell House, Georgian Triangle Humane Society or Collingwood General & Marine Hospital - Dialysis Unit would be appreciated. Friends may visit Kathi's online Book of Memories at fawcettfuneralhomes.com

MARY STRANGWAYS

Passed away at Joseph Brant Hospital, on February 10, 2018, at the age of 82. Beloved wife of William "Bill". Loving mother of Paul (Roberta Grosland), Chris (Yumiko Huang) and Anne (Cade Thomson). Doting grandmother to Megan (Carlos) Ribeiro, Adrienne (Kevin Innes), Patrick and Ava Lovell. Greatgrandmother to Devin Ribeiro.

Loving Aunt to Brad, Jeff and Terry Anthony.

Mary cherished her family and friends more than anything else.

She also was passionate about education: she graduated from Victoria College, University of Toronto and then went on to teach high school, elementary school, adult education and even continued this passion in retirement by being a Docent at the Royal Ontario Museum.

The family would like to thank Heidi from Nurse Next Door for her care in mom's last year and Dr. Harpal Singh and his staff for all of the superb care they have provided my mom over the last several years.

Visitation at Smith's Funereal Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Saturday, February 17, 2018 from 12 p.m. until the start of the Celebration of Life Service in the Chapel at 1 p.m.

Reception to follow. Cremation has taken place. For those who wish, donations in memory of Mary to the Canadian Cancer Society or the Heart & Stroke Foundation would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

http://www.smithsfh.com

JAZZ VIRTUOSO BECAME A SENATOR
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Throughout his life, whether hosting a TV show, playing music or starting a new business, he was a staunch supporter of Edmonton
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By SUSAN FERRIER MACKAY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B23


Pop and jazz giant Tommy Banks, who died last month at the age of 81, had the musical chops, credentials and connections to wow crowds anywhere in the world, but his heart belonged to Edmonton. He worked tirelessly to establish his city as a cultural hub within his many capacities as a pianist of international renown, conductor, arranger, composer, band leader, TV personality and politician.

In the late sixties, he got his first taste of television when CBC Edmonton was looking for someone to host a half-hour talk show out of Edmonton called Around Town. The host had to be knowledgeable, charismatic, eloquent and comfortable interviewing guests. With only 24 hours before going to air, production executives turned to Mr. Banks, who agreed to fill the position temporarily until a permanent host could be found. But it soon became apparent that Mr. Banks was the man for the job, so he kept doing it.

A year later, it was renamed The Tommy Banks Show and extended to a full hour. Seeing the show's success, the CBC brass wanted to broadcast it nationally and relocate the production to Toronto. But Mr. Banks remained adamant that moving was a no-go, insisting that the Edmonton crew had everything they needed to broadcast the show from there. So that is what they did. The Tommy Banks Show aired from Edmonton for several years and won a Gemini award.

In the late 1970s, Mr. Banks pitched an original concept to CITV (now Global): live performances with big-name stars would be televised to give home audiences the sense of being in a nightclub. Originally a hard sell, the pilot became In Concert, a series that was syndicated in 100 countries. He also hosted a show out of Vancouver, called Celebrity Revue.

During this period, when Edmonton was little more than a backwater, Mr. Banks imported a formidable array of talent. Ray Charles, Tony Bennett, Aretha Franklin, Tom Jones and Tina Turner performed on his show, sometimes accompanied by the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra (ESO). Under Mr. Banks's leadership, the ESO bloomed into an ensemble that easily embraced contemporary music, as well as classical.

The publicity put Edmonton in the spotlight and, perhaps more importantly, attracted investment. Mr. Banks and his wife decided they, too, would put money into their city. At various times they owned a booking agency, a fine-dining restaurant with entertainment and, briefly, a discount bookstore.

In the early 1980s, he went back to hosting a CBC variety show, now called Tommy Banks Live, which was on the air for three years.

In 1999, the city acknowledged Mr. Banks's boosterism by naming a street after him. Fittingly, the Yardbird Suite, a renowned jazz club he helped start and where he frequently performed, is now situated at 11 Tommy Banks Way.

The musical virtuoso sat on numerous boards, received honorary degrees galore, won a Juno for the recording of his big band performance at the Montreux Jazz Festival in 1978 and, in 1991, he was named an officer of the Order of Canada. If there was one thing he wasn't good at, it was retirement. Up until last year, he was still performing.

Upon learning of Mr. Banks's death, from leukemia, on Jan. 25 at the Grey Nuns palliative care facility in Edmonton, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau tweeted that Canada had lost a cultural icon.

Music producer David Foster tweeted from Los Angeles: "The world has lost one of the true musical greats, my mentor and dear friend. A gentleman and a gentle man." Ottawa's National Arts Centre lowered its flag. Mr. Banks had produced several concerts with its orchestra, including a 2009 tribute to another masterful pianist and composer, Oscar Peterson.

Always on the move, Mr. Banks and his quintet toured continental China in 1983, the first jazz group to do so since the beginning of the cultural revolution in 1949. Mr. Banks conducted symphonies around the world, directed musical ceremonies at international events, such as Expo 86 in Vancouver, and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, and produced or conducted command performances for Queen Elizabeth, Pope John Paul II, and U.S. president Ronald Reagan. He didn't sleep much.

"He was a cat-napper who lived around the clock," said long-time friend Ray Baril, a saxophonist and assistant professor of music at Edmonton's MacEwan University (formerly Grant MacEwan Community College). "We'd be in the CBC studio and wouldn't know where Tommy was. He'd be lying under a riser grabbing himself 10 minutes shuteye so he could get ready for the next thing," Mr. Baril said. "He was a man of cold coffee and cold pizza."

"I don't know how he did it," his friend Colin MacLean, a former CBC on-air personality said during an interview with CBC news. "He was a restless and creative spirit. He was many things.

He lived many lives."

Maclean's magazine observed that it was easier to list the things Mr. Banks hadn't achieved than those he had.

Two projects Mr. Banks cherished were helping form the Alberta Foundation for the Arts and the acoustically magnificent Francis Winspear Centre for Music.

The central message of Mr. Banks's life was the importance of music to the human spirit, particularly children. Music, he believed, enriched the brain of children, enabling them to excel in other disciplines. As a tribute to his passion and dedication, in 2013, the Winspear Centre and the ESO launched the Tommy Banks Institute for Musical Creativity.

According to his daughter Jill, Mr. Banks didn't recognize obstacles. Problems were simply solutions waiting to be found. Known for being a good-humoured man, the band leader paid his musicians promptly and fairly and made sure their travel accommodations were decent.

While a student at MacEwan, music professor Dean McNeill came to know Mr. Banks, who was then-chair of the music program. Always humble, Mr. Banks gave credit to his predecessor for creating the program, saying he was "merely a caretaker." Prof. McNeill said he learned simply by being in the company of Mr.

Banks. He remarked on his mentor's generosity. "As adjudicators at a music festival, we all received a per diem for food," Mr. McNeill said.

"A group of us met for breakfast. Tommy told me I should pick up the cheque. I was young and nervous so I did what he said. The bill came to $30. That night he said, 'My turn to get the tab.' It was $300."

As his reputation grew, Mr. Banks was often asked to relocate to Los Angeles or elsewhere.

His attitude was always, "We can do it here."

Thomas Benjamin Banks, the first of five Banks children, was born in Calgary on Dec. 17, 1936. His father, Ben Banks, a semi-professional musician, played at a radio station during an era when radio stations had their own orchestras. One of Thomas's earliest memories was accompanying his father to the job. His mother, Laura Banks, known to the public as Laura Lindsay, was a gourmet cook who hosted a homemaker's show during the fledgling days of television.

Music and entertainers filled the Banks home. In an Ottawa Citizen profile, Mr. Banks said he took obligatory piano lessons up to Grade 4, but stopped after the family moved to Edmonton in the late 1940s. He did, however, continue to play and learn on his own.

At the age of 14, Tommy dropped out of school to go on the road with a band fronted by tenor sax player Don (D.T.) Thompson. Reflecting on those early years, he said, "I learned how to handle myself on the road and be professional. I also learned about the music business.

There's music. And there's business. You have to know about both."

While many parents would have been concerned about their son dropping out of school at such a young age to pursue a fragile dream, his parents were willing to go along with it largely because the band's gigs were on holidays and not too far from home. It was only when she learned that her eldest son was on his way to Toronto with the group that Laura Banks called the RCMP. They stopped the van and sent Tommy home. The band continued without him.

At 18, he was hired as musical director at Edmonton's Orion Musical Theatre. There, he met Ida Heller, a model and singer from Medicine Hat.

They married in October, 1969, and had three children. Despite a demanding professional life that included jingle writing, and acting in minor dramatic roles with the National Film Board and feature film productions, Mr. Banks always managed to set aside time for his family. He cheered on a grandson at hockey games and accompanied a granddaughter on piano while she sang at the Kiwanis Festival.

Helping his community by giving back was simply part of Mr. Banks's DNA and the reason he accepted Jean Chrétien's offer to become a senator. At first, he thought the telephone call from the Prime Minister's Office was a prank.

When he recognized Mr. Chrétien's voice he accepted the position immediately, without hesitation. It was one of the few times he undertook a major decision without first consulting his wife.

Mr. Banks served as a senator and sat on numerous parliamentary committees from 2000 until 2011. His colleagues in government were astonished at how easily he navigated an unfamiliar field. Two bills passed with his name on them. He said he enjoyed the Senate because he liked politics, as had his parents and grandparents. He left when he reached the mandatory retirement age of 75. As far as choosing between music or the Senate, he told a newspaper interviewer he preferred the freedom of music: "Writing a piece of music, you can write what you want and you alone are responsible for it."

As an homage to Mr. Banks, musicians travelled from as far away as Poland to take part in a 90-minute tribute at the Winspear Centre on Valentine's Day. A thousand people, representing Mr. Banks's multifaceted life, gathered at the venue to pay their respects. Mr. Baril, who organized the event, said Mr. Banks preferred to deflect attention from himself, but he would have thoroughly enjoyed the two-hour jam that took place afterward in the lobby.

Mr. Banks leaves his wife, Ida; daughter Jill Chipman; son, Tom; and four grandchildren. A daughter, Toby, predeceased him in 2000.

Prof. McNeill said Mr. Banks forever changed Edmonton's music scene for the better. "Everywhere you go in the city, Tommy's fingerprints are all over it." To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

Upon learning of the death of Tommy Banks, pictured in 2016, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau tweeted that Canada had lost a cultural icon. Mr. Banks was a pianist, conductor, composer, TV personality and politician - and loyal to Edmonton to the end.

ED KAISER /EDMONTON SUN

THE STUBBORN ARCHITECT AND HIS SEARCHING SON
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For one Canadian, the winter Olympics and ski slopes of Yongpyong are layered with memories of his late father - and with regret. Taehoon Kim writes
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By TAEHOON KIM
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, February 9, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A12


Walking around Yongpyong Ski Resort for the first time, I couldn't believe I was actually there.

For two decades, my dad - Kwahn W.

Kim - had worked as the resort's chief architect. Though I had never been there, I had seen photographs of the resort my entire life, and now, I was part of the scenery.

Families rolled suitcases from their cars. A chime played in the distance, preluding an announcement for the skiers on a nearby hill.

I stood among the buildings that my dad had designed and built. The Dragon Valley Hotel, the condominiums, the golf course clubhouses: They were all here, and they were real.

My dad wasn't with me. He died in 2005 after a short but vicious battle with cancer, weeks before my high-school graduation. But I pictured us there together, walking the same meandering paths and breathing the same brisk air. We watched the snow gently dust the trees.

I felt closer to him than I had in years.

NO LOOKING BACK

I grew up knowing Yongpyong Ski Resort was one of my dad's great accomplishments. I also knew that the resort had arguably set the course for our family's story - during one of his many business trips to study other ski resorts, my dad visited Vancouver and fell in love with the West Coast of Canada.

When my dad retired, my parents decided to move to Vancouver. They believed my sister and I would find more equality and opportunity here. We never looked back. After immigrating when I was six years old, we rarely returned to Korea, let alone the resort.

His work at Yongpyong became history. My dad didn't talk about it, and I didn't ask him about it either.

We lived the story many first-generation immigrants know too well - with fewer and fewer places to find common ground, we drifted apart in our new home country. I was embarrassed he didn't speak English well. I was angry he didn't show affection like the parents of my Canadian friends. We argued about what it meant to be successful and happy, and how to get there.

As I tried my best to blend into my new life, the more I pulled away from him. Silent dinners and drives to school became our norm.

The day before he died, my dad held my hand and told me he loved me. It's the one time I can remember him saying those words. I remember wishing, in that moment, that instead of disagreeing with him at every turn, I had instead spent that time asking him about his work, his dreams and his regrets.

The hardest part of mourning was realizing I had barely known him.

WITH DEDICATION COMES SACRIFICES

When Pyeongchang won the bid to host the Olympics, and Yongpyong Ski Resort was named one of the host sites, I knew I had to visit. My dad didn't live to see his resort get the Olympics - the closest he got was back in 2003 when Pyeongchang had made its first bid and lost to Vancouver.

When I told my mom about my plans, she searched her house and found family photos, magazine articles and blueprints I had never seen before.

Poring over these documents, I learned about my dad's work and philosophy. He was only 28 when his company, Dae-Ho, started work on the resort. Yongpyong became the first ski resort in South Korea, marking a turning point in history when everyday Koreans could afford leisure activities - a remarkable feat considering the country was one of the world's poorest following the Korean War.

While he worked on many significant projects during his career, including university buildings, research centres and corporate headquarters, Yongpyong was where he poured his heart and soul okver the span of his 20-year career. He once claimed that his love for the resort was equal to his love for his children.

His dedication to the project came with sacrifices. Mom described his long trips away from home; with no trains or highways, a typical drive to the resort took my dad 13 hours (now, a journey from Seoul via the Korea Train Express takes about 90 minutes). When he was home, my parents rarely spent time alone - Dad and his employees would spend late nights working in their cramped apartment, while Mom cooked meals for everyone.

He gave his life to work and expected the same level of commitment from others. He could never relax for a moment at the resort, even on family trips. My aunts described him worrying about how the table settings looked in the Dragon Valley Hotel, the first building he designed for Yongpyong. He never, in all his years building a ski resort, learned to ski. He spent weekends doing personal inspections and battling construction crews - if something wasn't done to his liking, he ordered crews to demolish and start over. His demands for perfection earned my dad the nickname "the Stubborn Architect."

CONVERSATIONS WITH MY FATHER

I decided to visit Yongpyong to do a photo project about my dad and the work that had defined his career. I wanted to feel and, if possible, capture his presence at the resort. But in the weeks leading up to my trip, I agonized whether it was too soon - I didn't feel ready or mature enough to do my dad's story justice.

Then I read an article featuring my dad, written near the 10th anniversary of the resort's opening. His designs had won a prestigious award from the Korean Architects Association, earning him some minor fame. In the article he lamented he had been recognized too soon and that he considered his first works at the resort as embarrassing early failures.

I could only laugh - I tried for so long to be different from him and it was a reminder that in many ways, I am his son. No amount of preparation would be enough. I just had to go.

Thirteen years after his death, I still daydream about having conversations with my dad. Walking around the resort, seeing the physical manifestations of his creativity and hard work, made me think about what our relationship might have been like if he were still alive.

We had disagreed the most on what it meant to achieve success and happiness. After he died, Mom told me Dad saw himself as an artist who never enjoyed the business aspect of his company. I had an inkling - after his retirement, he had devoted himself to watercolour painting. Dad was most at peace sitting in his office in front of a canvas, sketching and painting scenes.

As a father, however, he had pushed strict and traditional definitions of success. Everything, like his work, was to be done to perfection. I was encouraged to dabble in arts and sports, but never too much, as it would distract from school. I needed to go to an Ivy League university, nothing less, so I could study the "right" major and work in the "right" career.

For some time, I was angry. I found it hypocritical he had pushed these ideas when he had found his own happiness in creativity. Of course, now I know why he pushed so hard - no parent wishes a life of risk and uncertainty for their kids.

But I wish it wasn't his absence that finally made me feel free to pursue what I wanted.

Instead, I hope that we would have grown to understand each other. Maybe we would have opened up to each other about what drove and frustrated us.

Maybe we would have bonded over our mutual love for photography. Maybe we could have even created something together.

A THANK YOU

The mountains at Yongpyong reminded me of home, and parts of the resort felt like the neighbourhood where I grew up after we immigrated. I understood why he might have felt a connection to Vancouver when he first visited, and how that might have informed his work.

I thought about how hard it must have been for my parents during their early years of marriage, and I was sad knowing I wouldn't get to see them grow together through our family's milestones. I thought about how hard it must have been for my dad to leave it all behind - his comforts, his friends and his legacy - for a place where no one knew who he was or what he had done.

I climbed to the top of the Villa Condominiums, a complex that was completed in 1989. Cleaners got apartments ready for the next guests. Over the trees, I watched skiers make wide turns down a hill.

I thanked my dad. I told him I was sorry I hadn't asked him about his stories. I told him I hoped he was proud of me, and that I was proud of him.

Later, I met a father and daughter who were skiing together. I told them about my dad and showed them his photographs, which I carried with me during the trip. The father was impressed.

"You must come from a good family," he said. "Not just anyone gets to build something like this."

He was right. It wasn't just anyone. It was my dad.

Associated Graphic

Taehoon with his father, Kwahn, in 1989. Kwahn died in 2005, weeks before Taehoon's high-school graduation, after a short battle with cancer.

COURTESY OF THE KIM FAMILY

Equipment is left outside while skiers take a break at Yongpyong. Yongpyong was the first ski resort in South Korea, marking a turning point in his story when everyday Koreans could afford leisure activities.

TAEHOON KIM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Taehoon's sister, Minjae, right, skis with an aunt and cousin on a family trip to Yongpyong in 1990. After Taehoon's father retired, the family immigrated to Vancouver when Taehoon was six years old; after that, they rarely returned to Korea, let alone the resort.

COURTESY OF THE KIM FAMILY

Taehoon as a toddler at the resort.

COURTESY OF THE KIM FAMILY

Taehoon Kim stands at the top of Balwangsan mountain at Yongpyong. Taehoon decided to visit the resort to do a photo project about his dad and the work that had defined his father's career.

ABIGAIL SAXTON

Kwahn in the mountains of Pyeongchang during a survey visit while designing Yongpyong. Kwahn was only 28 when his company, Dae-Ho, started work on the resort.

COURTESY OF THE KIM FAMILY

A view of the Dragon Valley Hotel from the Tower Condominium at Yongpyong Ski Resort. The hotel was the first building Taehoon Kim's father, Kwahn W. Kim, designed for Yongpyong.

TAEHOON KIM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

That's show business
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A year after its Broadway premiere, the Toronto-born musical Come from Away is a runaway theatrical triumph. Here's how its earliest champions have been rewarded and encouraged
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By J. KELLY NESTRUCK
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R3


When Come from Away opened on Broadway one year ago this month, the show seemed anything but a sure investment.

A one-act musical, set in Gander, Nfld., about the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 - written by an unknown Torontonian composer/lyricist team and without a star in the cast?

Twelve months later, however, Irene Sankoff and David Hein's moving musical about a community opening its arms, homes and liquor cabinets to strangers in need is shaping up to be the biggest financial success story in Canadian theatre history.

Come from Away has grossed more than US$60-million on Broadway to date - and has been turning a profit for investors since it earned back its original US$12-million investment in October.

Meanwhile, a second production of the show that American producers Junkyard Dog and Canada's Mirvish Productions are opening at Toronto's Royal Alexandra Theatre this week looks set to be the first blockbuster musical that the city has seen in some time.

Toronto ticket sales already sit in the vicinity of $25-million - an advance not far off from what Mirvish saw for Miss Saigon, the megamusical that the Princess of Wales Theatre was built to house in 1993 - and The Lion King, which opened in the same theatre in 2000 and ran for 1,560 performances. It's expected to be in profit by June. (Both the New York and Toronto productions are currently booking to September.)

Musical theatre is a highly risky business - as the old adage goes, you can't make a living in it, but you can make a killing. In the New York commercial theatre district known as Broadway, it is said that as few as one in six productions even recoup.

Indeed, if you look at the four other Canadian-written musicals that went to Broadway, only one made any money, The Drowsy Chaperone - and Come from Away's worldwide grosses look set to far surpass those of that earlier hit.

In Canada, meanwhile, commercial musical theatre is largely a case of touring shows and the occasional local production of an American or British hit.

But what few know is that many Canadians did, in fact, open their pocketbooks and take the risk on Come from Away.

Junkyard Dog's Sue Frost estimates that up to 15 per cent of the money invested in the show has come from north of the 49th parallel.

If you look above the title in the Broadway program, you'll find the names of more than 40 producers on the show - listed in order of who raised or supplied the most cash.

David Mirvish, Canada's bestknown commercial theatre producer, is the first Canadian on the list. Right after comes Michael Rubinoff, producing artistic director of the Canadian Music Theatre Project at Sheridan College, where Come from Away was first developed in 2012.

"I began my producing career breaking Max Bialystock's two cardinal rules of producing, multiple times," Rubinoff said in an e-mail. Those rules of the fictional Bialystock created by Mel Brooks were: "One: Never put your own money in the show.

And two: Never put your own money in the show!"

"I learned my lessons," Rubinoff continued. "However, I am glad to have been able to bring the opportunity to financially invest in this incredible show and journey to others."

Further down the list, you'll find other Canadian groups or individuals such as Yonge Street Theatricals, a Toronto company run by Natalie Bartello and Linda Barnett that is also developing Sankoff and Hein's next show, on the subject of autism; Sheridan College, which now uses the success of Come from Away as a selling point for student recruitment; and Allan Detsky and Rena Mendelson, a Toronto married couple who have invested in Broadway since 2012.

Those who put money into the Broadway production had the first opportunity to invest in future productions - such as the one opening in Toronto this week, and the touring production that will launch in Seattle in the fall and will visit Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton and Ottawa.

(Other productions are in London's West End, perhaps via Ireland; Australia; Korea and Japan are under discussion.)

Here's a closer look at the Canadian institutions and individuals who are doing what was at one point deemed impossible - making money off a Canadian musical.

THE CANADIANS CASHING IN ON COME FROM AWAY

The upstart producers: Yonge Street Theatricals INVESTMENT: US$500,000 IN THE BROADWAY PRODUCTION

Producers Linda Barnett and Natalie Bartello formed this Toronto company in 2013 with an eye to developing and producing new musicals with Canadian connections.

Their roster of projects includes Life After, Stratford native Britta Johnson's musical about grief that received great reviews in Toronto this fall; Something Wicked This Way Comes, a musical adaptation of the Ray Bradbury novel by Canadians Brian Hill and Neil Bartram that premiered in Delaware at the same time; and Half Time, a new project co-created by The Drowsy Chaperone's Bob Martin about senior-citizen cheerleaders that premieres in New Jersey this spring.

Barnett and Bartello joined Come from Away's team of producers after seeing the musical in a pre-Broadway run at La Jolla Playhouse in California. They find investors for shows by, for instance, hosting salons in Toronto living rooms with performances from work they have in development.

"In Canada, it's a slow sell," Barnett says. "Obviously, now with Come from Away, it's going to be easier to ask [investors] for money."

"I hope because of Come from Away, there will be able to be world premieres in Toronto of new Canadian projects commercially that can have a financial success," Bartello adds. "If you asked me two years ago, I'd say you have to go to the United States first."

The educational institution: Sheridan College

INVESTMENT: US$425,000 IN THE BROADWAY PRODUCTION; $138,000 IN THE TORONTO PRODUCTION

As Come from Away was the very first show developed through Sheridan College's Canadian Music Theatre Project, its Broadway production was seen as a great marketing opportunity for the Oakville, Ont., postsecondary institution and its Music Theatre Performance Program. In return for its investment (which came out of the marketing budget and from revenue generated by an affinity program for alumni), Sheridan has received its abovethe-title billing, a bio in the program seen by 400,000 people in New York and ample media attention.

"We believe we're the first postsecondary institution in the history of the Tony Awards (and certainly the only Canadian one) to have a Tony Award nomination for best musical, to our name," Mary Preece, president and vice-chancellor at Sheridan, said in a statement.

With Sheridan recouping its investment in the Broadway production of Come from Away (minus a small part that's being held for U.S. tax purposes), the college was able to put $138,000 into the Toronto production; and from now on, profits will go toward the Canadian Music Theatre Project, which brings in professional composers, lyricists and directors to develop new musicals with fourth-year students.

The individuals: Allan Detsky and Rena Mendelson

INVESTMENT: "SIX FIGURES" ON BROADWAY

Detsky, an academic internist who is former chief of medicine at Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital, and Mendelson, a professor of nutrition at Ryerson University, got involved in Broadway after they befriended an actor named Josh Young at the Stratford Festival.

Detsky produced Young's first album - and when Stratford's production of Jesus Christ Superstar starring Young went to New York in 2012, he and his wife invested in it.

Despite losing money on that venture, Detsky and Mendelson had fun - they got to go to the Tony Awards and made new connections to other producers.

The couple, who have been married for 43 years, have since put money into Hedwig and the Angry Inch ("very successful financially"); Matilda the Musical ("we made money"); a revival of Annie ("close enough"); and Eugene O'Neill's Hughie starring Forest Whitaker (it closed early).

"You can't expect to make money," Detsky says of investing on Broadway, which he and his wife did in Come from Away with the help of a couple of silent partners.

"There has to be some hook in the venture, either supporting an artist or artist group."

The artists: Irene Sankoff and David Hein

INVESTMENT: SIX YEARS OF HARD WORK, WHILE JUGGLING DAY JOBS AND HAVING A DAUGHTER

Sankoff and Hein, who married in 2001 and are the sole creators of Come from Away, pull in all the author royalties for the musical. What that translates to in terms of household income is difficult to calculate: There's a very complicated formula for how Broadway composers, lyricists and book writers earn money from successful shows - and it varies from show to show.

Under a typical production contract, the show's authors would get a share of the weekly operating profits that would have gone up after the show recouped. If Come from Away costs around US$600,000 to run each week on Broadway, as has been estimated, Hein and Sankoff's share could be as high as US$100,000 in a really great week. (The show's still pulling in over a million dollars a week on Broadway.)

Hein and Sankoff are already investing some of their profits back into Canadian musical theatre: When a London, Ont., school board pulled funding for another musical developed at Sheridan called Prom Queen last month, the two sent in a cheque to help the Grand Theatre make up the difference.

"We'd rather not comment on what we make, but we don't want to underplay how well Come from Away is doing, especially compared to where we've been over the past six years of writing it (very thankful for Canadian grants, health care, subsidized daycare etc.)," Sankoff and Hein wrote in an e-mail.

"And yes - we definitely try to follow the spirit of the show in giving back and paying it forward with our money and our time as much as we can - and supporting Prom Queen was a no-brainer."

Come from Away runs at Toronto's Royal Alexandra Theatre from Feb. 13 to Sept. 2 (mirvish.com).

Associated Graphic

The cast of Come From Away perform on Broadway in 2017. The musical is shaping up to be the biggest financial success story in Canadian theatre history.

PHOTOS BY MATTHEW MURPHY

Kendra Kassebeam, centre, performs in the play. Those who put money into the New York production had the first opportunity to invest in future productions, such as the one opening in Toronto this week.

DEFENDING THE CASTLE
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The trial of Gerald Stanley became recast as the story of a knight protecting his fortress, yet missing from the coverage - and absent in much of the discussion - are ways in which the case is intimately tied to the histories and present-day settlement of this country
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By GINA STARBLANKET, DALLAS HUNT
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O9


Gina Starblanket is an assistant professor with a joint position in the Native Studies Department and the Women's and Gender Studies program at the University of Manitoba.

She is Cree/Saulteaux and a member of the Star Blanket Cree Nation in Treaty 4 territory in Saskatchewan.

Dallas Hunt is a full-time lecturer in the Native Studies Department at the University of Manitoba. He is Cree and a member of Wapisewsipi (Swan River First Nation) in Treaty 8 territory in Northern Alberta.

During his opening statements in the trial of Gerald Stanley, the Saskatchewan farmer who on Feb. 9 was found not guilty in the murder of young Cree man Colten Boushie, defence lawyer Scott Spencer told the jury that, "For farm people, your yard is your castle. That's part of the story here."

In the days that followed, some of the media coverage of the trial focused on the question of whether the notion of "defending one's castle" justifies the use of force resulting in injury or death to those who enter spaces they are seen as not belonging to.

Yet missing from the coverage, and absent in much of the discussion surrounding the trial, are the ways in which this sequence of events is intimately tied to the histories and present-day settlement of the country currently called Canada.

As the story goes, the Crown negotiated peaceful and consensual treaties with Indigenous populations that allowed for the settlement of the Prairies in exchange for the promise of civilization and protection.

Early immigration posters and handbooks described the region as a vast, unoccupied, fertile hinterland, with little, if any, mention of Indigenous peoples. Colonial settlements offered newcomers property, independence, industry and, most of all, opportunities for wealth and bounty that would vastly exceed those available in their countries of origin.

The imagery shown on these advertisements and immigration materials, geared toward encouraging rapid settlement in the Prairies, idealized a patriarchal, nuclear family and an agrarian lifestyle.

The central figure was typically an ablebodied, middle-aged farmer, often with his beautiful young wife by his side and a child cradled in his arms. In the background was often an image of the wideopen Prairies upon which his property - his "castle" - lies.

These images help illustrate the intent behind the process of settler colonialism - not just its foundations, but the norms, values, expectations and aspirations that were held by individual settlers and inherited by many descendants.

These images are noteworthy for the highly gendered, whitewashed, capitalist ideologies that they signify; namely, normative ideas of the family, home and domestic life.

They simultaneously appeal to, and uphold, the institution of masculinity: the ability to build a home, provide for and protect one's family, and - most importantly - to exercise control over one's private domain.

This domain purportedly exists and is bound within a lawless land, with the farmer serving as king of this realm - and of his castle - whose responsibility it then becomes to protect against intrusions or disruptions of this narrative.

However, as with any story, this isn't the only version. For even more telling than the stories that are represented in these images are the stories that aren't shown at all. When we show these depictions in our classrooms, the immediate response from most of our students, when asked to reflect upon what is absent from these images, is the clear erasure of Indigenous presence. Colonial settlement narratives either absented Indigenous peoples entirely from their portrayals of Prairie life, or when they did appear, they were described as occupying a role that would not interfere with the agrarian settler lifestyle.

These images help to historicize the contemporary hyper-racialization and gendering of space in the Prairies. For it is not only Indigenous peoples' physical bodies that are under assault in processes of colonial dispossession, but also our long-standing relationships to our ancestral lands.

These images speak not only to the absence of Indigenous bodies from colonial spaces as a past phenomenon, but also to the continuing violence and dispossession that is necessary to create, maintain and "secure" these idealized colonial settlements. After all, Indigenous removal and erasure aren't just historical events; rather, our attempted eradication has to be actively carried out in perpetuity.

The dispossession and assault on continuing Indigenous presence has assumed a variety of forms over the years: from one-sided and false interpretations of treaties as land transactions, to forced removal and imprisonment on reserves, to the residential-school system, to the legislated removal of Indigenous identity through policies of enfranchisement, among many other things. The drive to eliminate Indigenous peoples is - quite literally - part of the foundational structure of this country.

Of course, this eliminatory logic targets Indigenous bodies not just because of their physical presence, but because of their difference.

Under the Indian Act, for many years, it was illegal for Indigenous peoples to even protest the conditions of our oppression, as raising money to fund court cases in the interest of protecting our basic human rights rendered us as criminals in our own homelands.

In other words, when we attempted to address colonial intrusions, our efforts were criminalized. As was our very presence outside of reserve lands.

For its part, Canada sought to achieve this by presenting Indigenous lands as lawless spaces absent legal order, and continually crafting and revising the judicial narratives that gave settler legality to these spaces, as critics such as Anishinaabe scholar Heidi Stark have argued.

The colonial formation of Canada's legal and political institutions is also reflected in the enduring relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in these geographies. Thus, we should not lose sight of the continuing link between trading forts and individual farmers' "castles" and the fraught histories of these spaces on the Prairies. Indeed, after the North-West Rebellion in the area of Fort Battleford in 1885, and the subsequent hanging of those who took part, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald remarked in a letter to Indian Commissioner Edgar Dewdney that "the executions ... ought to convince the Red Man that the White Man governs."

Given this history, it should come as no surprise, then, that Gerald Stanley's defence lawyer Scott Spencer argued that for farmers, "your yard is your castle."

What should not be lost here is how castles (and now farms) have served as sites of capitalist accumulation and protectionism, as romanticized spaces wherein white knights protect against incursion from hostile outside forces.

Like a modern-day Lancelot, the castle narrative draws on the need for a farmer not only to protect his kingdom, but also the need to save his "maiden" from the inevitable threat posed by racialized outsiders. (It should be noted that Mr. Stanley claimed one of the reasons he approached the SUV in which Mr. Boushie was sitting was because "I thought the car had run over my wife.") Indeed, media coverage of this trial - and discussion in the days after the verdict - was rife with outspoken farmers in the Saskatchewan farming community advocating for violence, having viewed themselves historically, and in the present day, as heroic frontiersmen taming the wild and cultivating their little outposts of empire.

But here we ask the following question: How is it that the death of a young Cree man becomes recast as the story of a knight protecting his castle? What of the untold stories of those whose lives and homelands are continually subjugated in order for this imagery of "the castle" to be sustained? Castles evoke mental portraits of fortresses besieged, of hordes of enemies attempting to crash the gates of the wealthy, aristocratic and armed gentry defending themselves against the bloodthirsty intruders outside their walls and beyond their moats. These, no doubt, are the images and representations that the castle narrative intends to cultivate in the minds of those sympathetic to or willing to entertain the idea that the use of deadly force is justified to defend colonial settlements.

But what if we invert the intruder narrative? What if we bear in mind that the continuity of settler presence on Indigenous lands is itself premised on intrusion, a constant structure of intrusion dependent upon Indigenous disappearance? How can we reconcile the inhospitable notion of "intrusion" that then rationalizes settler violence with the nearly inconceivable acts of generosity that Indigenous peoples have extended and continue to extend in agreeing to share the land through treaty?

Viewed from this perspective, the settler imagery of a constant threat of Indigenous violence appears as a perverse reversal of the actual colonial reality: that Indigenous existence itself is understood by settlers as a threat that always already rationalizes the use of violence. The outpouring of extreme racism following the jury's decision is only further evidence of the ways in which the legal entrenchment of the "castle" narrative functions to enhance settler entitlement to enact violence to protect their claims to land and property.

Erica Violet Lee, an Indigenous community organizer from Saskatchewan, spoke out about the violence perpetrated against Colten Boushie and what she saw during the pretrial for Gerald Stanley. She remarked that regardless of the story the defence provided, "The reality is that Gerald Stanley left that farm alive, and Colten Boushie did not."

The journalist who interviewed her provided the following description of Ms.

Lee's presence at the pretrial: "[Ms. Lee] sat on a small uncomfortable chair in the chamber, the size and structure of which made it difficult for people in the courtroom to physically comfort one another.

The court proceeding took place under a looming portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, whose royal officers were positioned outside the courtroom, monitoring the crowd outside who had come to grieve."

The castle and its attendant imagery is alive and well even in the spaces that absolved Gerald Stanley of being responsible for the death of Mr. Boushie, in a site that was supposed to deliver justice. Yet this narrative is intimately linked to Indigenous peoples' common stories as well - that is, the historical and contemporary forms of sexism, racism, violence and oppression upon which colonial castles are built.

Associated Graphic

Early immigration posters, such as the two above, both from the 1920s, described Western Canada as a vast, unoccupied, fertile hinterland, with little, if any, mention of the Indigenous peoples that inhabited it.

LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA

I HAVE FORGOTTEN HOW TO READ
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For a long time Michael Harris convinced himself that a childhood spent immersed in old-fashioned books would insulate him from our new media climate - that he could keep on reading in the old way because his mind was formed in pre-internet days. He was wrong
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By MICHAEL HARRIS
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


Author of Solitude: A Singular Life in a Crowded World and The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in an Age of Constant Connection

Turning, one evening, from my phone to a book, I set myself the task of reading a single chapter in one sitting. Simple. But I couldn't. There was nothing wrong with my eyes. No stroke or disease clouded my way. Yet - if I'm being honest - the failure was also not a surprise.

Paragraphs swirled; sentences snapped like twigs; and sentiments bled out. The usual, these days. I drag my vision across the page and process little. Half an hour later, I throw down the book and watch some Netflix.

Out for dinner with another writer, I said, "I think I've forgotten how to read."

"Yes!" he replied, pointing his knife. "Everybody has."

"No, really," I said. "I mean I actually can't do it any more."

He nodded: "Nobody can read like they used to. But nobody wants to talk about it."

For good reason. It's embarrassing. Especially for someone like me. I'm supposed to be an author - words are kind of my job.

Without reading, I'm not sure who I am. So, it's been unnerving to realize: I have forgotten how to read - really read - and I've been refusing to talk about it out of pride.

Books were once my refuge. To be in bed with a Highsmith novel was a salve. To read was to disappear, become enrobed in something beyond my own jittery ego.

To read was to shutter myself and, in so doing, discover a larger experience. I do think old, book-oriented styles of reading opened the world to me - by closing it.

And new, screen-oriented styles of reading seem to have the opposite effect: They close the world to me, by opening it.

In a very real way, to lose old styles of reading is to lose a part of ourselves.

For most of modern life, printed matter was, as the media critic Neil Postman put it, "the model, the metaphor, and the measure of all discourse." The resonance of printed books - their lineal structure, the demands they make on our attention - touches every corner of the world we've inherited. But online life makes me into a different kind of reader - a cynical one. I scrounge, now, for the useful fact; I zero in on the shareable link. My attention - and thus my experience - fractures. Online reading is about clicks, and comments, and points. When I take that mindset and try to apply it to a beaten-up paperback, my mind bucks.

Author Nicholas Carr (The Shallows) writes that, "digital technologies are training us to be more conscious of and more antagonistic toward delays of all sorts." We become, "more intolerant of moments of time that pass without the arrival of new stimuli."

So, I throw down the old book, craving mental Tabasco sauce. And yet not every emotion can be reduced to an emoji, and not every thought can be conveyed via tweet.

Even Eric Schmidt, the erstwhile chief executive of Google, was anxious about the mental landscape he was helping to cultivate. He once told Charlie Rose: "I worry that the level of interrupt, the sort of overwhelming rapidity of information ... is in fact affecting cognition. It is affecting deeper thinking. I still believe that sitting down and reading a book is the best way to really learn something. And I worry that we're losing that." In fact, there's a great deal of reporting now - from neuroscientists such as Susan Greenfield and Gary Small - to show that digital native brains do engage in concretely different ways from those of previous generations. Spend 10 hours a day staring at screens and - yes - your synapses will adapt.

For a long time, I convinced myself that a childhood spent immersed in old-fashioned books would insulate me somehow from our new media climate - that I could keep on reading and writing in the old way because my mind was formed in preinternet days. But the mind is plastic - and I have changed. I'm not the reader I was.

When we become cynical readers - when we read in the disjointed, goal-oriented way that online life encourages - we stop exercising our attention. We stop reading with a sense of faith that some larger purpose may be served. This doesn't mean we're reading less - not at all. In fact, we live in a textgorged society in which the most fleeting thought is a thumb-dash away from posterity. What's at stake is not whether we read. It's how we read. And that's something we'll have to each judge for ourselves; it can't be tallied by Statistics Canada. For myself: I know I'm not reading less, but I also know I'm reading worse.

It's no wonder why. Spend your life flashing between points of transitory data and a dog-eared novel begins to feel interminable.

Our sense of time has always been warped by our technologies. Church bells segmented the day into intervals. Factory whistles ushered workers. But the current barrage of alerts and pings leaves us more warped than ever. I've been trained not just to expect disruption, but to demand it. Back in 1890, William James wrote in The Principles of Psychology that "our sense of time seems subject to the law of contrast." No kidding.

Marshall McLuhan believed that every technology "has the power to numb human awareness during the period of its first interiorization." And it seems we have digested our devices; they can numb us, now, to the pleasure of patience. They can numb our enjoyment of that older literary experience.

The other day, I was spending time with a young niece - still a toddler - while she watched videos on her iPad. She was working her way through a YouTube playlist - in each video, a pair of hands opened a Kinder Surprise and assembled the toy inside.

Thinking I was doing her a favour, I made the video full-screen. But this sent my niece into a panic. "Little TV!" she insisted. "Not big TV!" She needed the smaller screen format so as to monitor the lineup of videos still to come. Focusing, even for a minute, on a single video was no good. She needed the panoply, the stream, the comfort of attending entertainments.

The suggestion that, in a few generations, our experience of media will be reinvented shouldn't surprise us. We should, instead, marvel at the fact we ever read books at all. Great researchers such as Maryanne Wolf and Alison Gopnik remind us that the human brain was never designed to read. Rather, elements of the visual cortex - which evolved for other purposes - were hijacked in order to pull off the trick. The deep reading that a novel demands doesn't come easy and it was never "natural." Our default state is, if anything, one of distractedness.

The gaze shifts, the attention flits; we scour the environment for clues. (Otherwise, that predator in the shadows might eat us.) How primed are we for distraction? One famous study found humans would rather give themselves electric shocks than sit alone with their thoughts for 10 minutes. We disobey those instincts every time we get lost in a book.

Literacy has only been common (outside the elite) since the 19th century. And it's hardly been crystallized since then. Our habits of reading could easily become antiquated. The writer Clay Shirky even suggests that we've lately been "emptily praising" Tolstoy and Proust. Those old, solitary experiences with literature were "just a side-effect of living in an environment of impoverished access." In our online world, we can move on. And our brains - only temporarily hijacked by books - will now be hijacked by whatever comes next.

Victor Hugo once wrote that the book replaced architecture as "the great handwriting of the human race." Is it so unreasonable to assume that our "great handwriting" will be scrawled by some other means tomorrow? How could it not?

What we'll have to look out for is how cynical - how efficient and ruthlessly algorithmic - that next thing is going to be. "A book," one author told me, "is really just a reverse-engineered TED Talk, right?

It's a platform that lets you do a speaking tour."

For many writers, this is the new wisdom. A cynical style of reading gives way to a cynical style of writing. I've watched my own books become "useful" as they made their way into public conversation. I never meant them to be useful - in a self-help sense - but that was how they were often read. I say this with less reproach than surprise: Almost every interviewer has asked me for tips and practical life advice, despite the fact my books offer neither.

Meanwhile, I admit it: The words I write now filter through a new set of criteria. Do they grab; do they anger? Can this be read without care? Are the sentences brief enough? And the thoughts? It's tempting to let myself become so cynical a writer because I'm already such a cynical reader. I am giving what I get.

In Silicon Valley, they have a saying that explains why an algorithm starts producing unwanted results: Garbage in, garbage out. The idea is that an algorithm can only work with the information you feed it. Aren't writers - all creators - algorithmic in that way? Our job is to process what we consume.

Beauty in, beauty out. Garbage in, garbage out.

So maybe that change into a cynical writer can be forestalled - if I can first correct my reading diet, remember how to read the way I once did. Not scan, not share, not excerpt - but read. Patiently, slowly, uselessly.

Books have always been time machines, in a sense. Today, their time-machine powers are even more obvious - and even more inspiring. They can transport us to a pre-internet frame of mind. Those solitary journeys are all the more rich for their sudden strangeness.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY WINNIE T. FRICK

MASS SHOOTING MASS MEDIA
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In the wake of the Florida high-school shooting, we must recognize that horrible events such as these are contagious. Our malady and our unique brand of violence stem, at least in part, from the meteoric rise in 24-hour news coverage
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By JENNIFER JOHNSTON
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O3


Assistant professor of psychology at Western New Mexico University

The coverage of the shooting in Florida has been particularly egregious: Interviews with students just as they're exiting the school; reporters tweeting at students in a lock-down situation; CNN broadcasting cellphone video footage that had been recorded from inside the school, warning viewers of its graphic and disturbing nature.

CNN posts the footage online too, and if you click through, they will count all those views and decide that they should continue broadcasting live film of the next mass shooting, because we "like" it.

Although the victims of shootings are random, the occurrence of shootings is not random throughout the year. National news on one shooting seems to trigger the next shooter who was contemplating doing something similar. Then we often see a latent period for a month or two before another rash of shootings occurs.

That was not always how it used to be. And I am talking five years ago and 10 years ago. The shootings clustered, yes, but less frequently. Around 2012, the average number of incidents a year was about 15. Around 2003, there were about seven incidents a year. From 1950 to 2000, only about three incidents or less occurred a year. The past three years, we have had 20 or more incidents each year. The number of fatalities has also tripled.

I might have written a few years ago that there is something wrong with some of us, but not all of us. Now, I am more inclined to agree with NBC's Megyn Kelly, a statement I never thought I would make, when she said, "something in our culture is off ... something is just wrong," after the mass shooting in Texas last November. It looked like mathematician Sherry Towers's contagion model was correct. Prof.

Towers, an Arizona State University researcher, determined that mass shootings over the past 15 years cluster in time: For every three, a fourth is nearly guaranteed within 13 days.

In 2017, the church shooting in Nashville, on Sept. 24 was followed by the Las Vegas massacre, and then a church shooting in Sutherland Springs, Tex. There was, actually, another mass shooting near Edgewood, Md., on Oct. 18 where three people died and three were injured, but it was not well covered in the media.

Nine days after Sutherland Springs, almost like clockwork, people were murdered in Corning, Calif. Then, there was a merciful reprieve, as the model predicts, for a couple of months. But, by mid-January, the United States saw a spate of school shootings ending with Florida.

Mass shooting is contagious - it spreads - but who is spreading it? You do. The media do.

Violent crime, except for mass shootings, has slowly but steadily declined in the United States since the 1990s. Of course, the United States still tops other developed countries, often many times over, in murder. Only Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia, South Africa, Mexico and Russia, all of which could conceivably be considered "developed nations," have more per-capita homicides than we do (according to the United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, International Homicide Statistics, 2015).

I am a media psychologist. I study the effects media have on us and also how we affect media. I asked the question: What could be causing this swift increase?

Starting with the so-called "usual suspects": gun laws, mental-illness identification and media violence. Although all are mentioned by the media in an attempt to provide answers in the midst of the "senselessness" of it all, I wondered which of these has really changed since about 2000.

What I concluded is that U.S. gun laws and mental-illness identification systems have not appreciably loosened over the past 20 years. Actually, the argument can be made that in a number of our states, both have tightened up in recent years.

So, that leaves media violence.

We know that people's time spent watching screens has increased a great deal since the advent of the internet and social media. Whereas time spent watching TV is largely unchanged in 20 years (it's gone from 3 to 3.5 hours a day), people now spend an estimated four more hours surfing the internet for fun or work, engaging with social media and playing games.

But what do we mean by media violence? Violence in entertainment, such as movies and TV?

Violent video games? Violence on YouTube or Facebook? Violence on the news?

To arrive at a definitive conclusion, we would have to first figure out if all this content is more violent now than it was before, as well as determining whether seeing mediated violence, real or scripted, leads to more aggressive acting-out. Yes, many researchers would argue that content has gradually included more and more graphic depictions of violence, and yes, viewing violent content does increase aggression, though usually temporarily, and not as much as people worry about.

Basically, there are other, more insidious problems, harder-to-intervene-in problems, that explain most of people's aggression. Family and neighbourhood violence, desperate social conditions and biological factors such as high testosterone are big causes of aggression. Now, if someone with all those risk factors continually watches violent content, will they be more likely to aggress? Yes.

Definitely.

Media psychologists also find that the more "real" content appears, especially if part of reality TV or news programs, the more impact it is likely to have. Even though we know that entertainment violence and video-game violence is not real and just for "fun," researchers from Stanford University, Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass, present copious evidence in the book The Media Equation that our base physiology still reacts as though it is real; we cannot stop the brain stem's quick reaction with our slower logical minds. So what about actual violent imagery or reports, such as in the news or on Twitter?

If you are not feeling aggressive and aggrieved, like most of us, the acts elicit a sad and compassionate response, or perhaps an angry response. But if you do feel aggressive and aggrieved, the acts may stimulate a feeling of solidarity, of a call to action, because in the killer, you find a real-life ally.

Someone just like you.

I believe that we have found at least one major culprit in the rise in mass shootings. Our malady, and our unique brand of violence, stems at least in part from the meteoric rise in 24-hour news media coverage. This is one of the few variables that has truly changed over the past 20 years.

Fox News and CNN both found intense ratings increases the more they covered the O.J. Simpson trial and the Columbine highschool shooting in the late nineties. Other news organizations followed suit and even the mature broadcast giants maximize their impact using internet, social media and round-the-clock coverage techniques.

The content of their coverage matters, too. At least half of all the news coverage in the United States focuses on violent crime, despite the fact that violent crime is actually only a small percentage of total crime. Furthermore, there is a great deal more happening in the world than crime, but for financial reasons, crime is considered extremely "newsworthy" here. We have moved in the United States from investigative journalism as the bedrock of any network's news division (a very expensive paradigm), to surface retellings of only the most emotion-laden facts (a very cheap paradigm that actually makes networks money).

I argue that without the new news media as a carrier, mass homicide would have remained an obscure back-shelf disease that almost no one had heard of and no one was scared of. For example, before 1999, the only mass shooting anyone in the United States could think of was the 1966 University of Texas tower shooting that, by the way, when I googled the shooting to clarify the date, the image I see, front and centre, is the shooter's. As though he is worth remembering in place of Thomas Frederick Eckman and his unborn child, a boy (the baby's mother, Claire, survived), and Billy Paul Speed, an officer who tried to help, plus 12 others. And 28 were wounded, including Robert Heard who was a journalist on campus. It is not 1998 any more. Twenty years later, if you ask anyone about mass shootings, they can probably name at least five, including, no doubt, the names, backgrounds and supposed motives of the killers.

What can Canada and other developed countries do to prevent the spread of media-homicide contagion before it reaches their country? It will sound radical, but I suggest a return to using news programs to inform only, not make money. I and other journalism scholars recommend toning down the emotional content of programming and spending more time on in-depth, multidimensional stories, which is what the complexity of most newsworthy issues demand anyway. If news is "boring" and a bit complicated, journalists are probably doing their jobs right.

We all need to recognize that mass homicide is contagious, just as suicide has been proven to be contagious. News organizations should follow the same protocol they do with reporting suicide: restraint; delay, to respect victims and their families; no names, no faces of shooters. Doing this, we can also deny mass shooters one of their primary motivations: fame. Journalists need to leave the profiling to police and investigators. All the media's digging into the supposed "critical" backgrounds, stories, thoughts, feelings and weapon choices of shooters have not saved one life, has not prevented any shooting.

I believe the media have specifically contributed to the threefold rise in mass shootings this century. Inadvertently, or not, there is blood on the media's hands, and on ours, for devouring their content.

Associated Graphic

A negative version of the news photo taken after the shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School on February 14, 2018 in Parkland, Florida.

JOE RAEDLE, GETTY IMAGES/PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY THE GLOBE AND MAIL.

The Black Panther revolution is here
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To understand the cultural weight of Marvel's latest superhero saga, look at its place in Hollywood's history of representation
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By ANDRAY DOMISE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


In October, 2014, Marvel Studios's surprise hit, Guardians of the Galaxy, was wrapping up its theatrical run with more than US$700-million in worldwide box-office receipts. On the heels of that blockbuster summer, a slate of new films was announced for the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Tucked in with the addition of Captain Marvel and Captain America: Civil War was possibly the most unlikely comic-book-to-film adaptation to make the cut: Black Panther.

To truly understand the impact of that announcement, it's necessary to remember where we were at the time as a culture.

Black community activism (catalyzed in part by the Black Lives Matter movement) was experiencing a renaissance and bringing with it the potential for global transformation.

Along with it, the conversations on "race" began to swell outside of the borders drawn by a mass media whose body politic, mostly white and male, had years ago announced we were living in a postracial period.

The conversation on reparations to black Americans, for white America's centuries of subjugation and plunder, surged once again into popular dialogue with The Atlantic's publication of Ta-Nehisi Coates's essay The Case for Reparations.

The conversation on police profiling, which barely registered mention in nightly news, became a semi-permanent fixture in the news cycle with waves of protest marches that accompanied the killing of unarmed black people.

And then there was the conversation about representation. In mainstream film, even as years of published studies showed a direct correlation between box-office returns and diversity on both sides of the camera, black representation in Hollywood remained abysmal. Outside of biopics and slavery films (as well as the occasional big-budget film starring Will Smith or Samuel L. Jackson), it seemed there was neither a place for black characters that didn't involve subordination to white leads nor for black creatives to be trusted with studio tent poles.

There was, of course, the exception in 1998, when Wesley Snipes cut a gory swath across theatres as Blade. Although Snipes's fierce charisma and martial-arts prowess made an icon of a once-obscure relic from Marvel Comics' 1970s foray into the occult, the Blade franchise ultimately guttered out with 2004's Blade: Trinity. From that point through the announcement of Black Panther, only one superhero film starring a black lead made it to theatres: 2008's Hancock, a deeply flawed film that even Will Smith couldn't save.

All of this is to say, I was deeply skeptical back in 2014, when Black Panther was announced. And I couldn't have been more wrong.

Black Panther is, taken at face value, everything that's been absent from the superhero genre.

An all-too-human hero, capable of ripping the wheels off a moving vehicle with little effort, but struggling with the responsibility of ruling the secretive yet technologically advanced kingdom of Wakanda. A tragic villain who, behind the scars covering his body and psyche, carries motives deeper and more virtuous than simple dominion. And, of course, black women. Beautiful, powerful and self-actualized black women. Dark of skin, kinky of hair, capable of kicking ass in heels, yet fully existing outside the needs and failures of the film's male leads.

Speaking with some of Black Panther's biggest boosters in the social-media spheres, the opinion is unanimous. This is the Star Wars of our generation.

"The fact that it's actually happening now is amazing," says Jamie Broadnax, founder of the BlackGirlNerds blog and podcast.

In the lead-up to the film's release this weekend, the BlackGirlNerds team created the #WhatBlackPantherMeansToMe social-media hashtag, which became a globally trending conversation.

Broadnax says that a favourite pastime of hers, along with other black comic-book fans on Twitter, had been to imagine a dream casting for a hypothetical Black Panther film. Attending the film's L.A. premiere in January, Broadnax says, was earth-shattering.

"Seeing this vast array of the African diaspora represented in just this one film is a great place for other studios to follow Marvel's lead," Broadnax says. "I hope that this will create a space for more stories to be told." The diaspora Broadnax refers to is more than the broad array of fully fleshed-out black characters featured in the film. Black Panther's cultural subtext, hidden in the folds of Wakanda's Afrofuturistic aesthetic, is where the film truly flourishes. Through a fictional hidden country, technologically ahead of the rest of the world by light years, director Ryan Coogler manages to subvert and mock just about every Hollywood trope about Africa.

For example, in the film, Chief M'Baku (known in the comics as Man-Ape, a problematic and generally reviled character) threatens to mutilate and eat a white foreigner. After a tense beat, he quips, "Just kidding, we're vegetarians." In that moment, his character exudes a humanity that flings Hollywood's trope of the warlord African in the rubbish bin. Another Wakandan's clothing, a simple patterned cloak often worn by herders and nomads, later transforms into a panel within the impenetrable shield wall of a phalanx in formation. During the most spectacular car chase since The Matrix Reloaded, Wakandan General Okoye (played by The Walking Dead's Danai Gurira) scoffs at the "primitive" guns firing on her vibranium-laced and, therefore, bulletproof vehicle. Moments later, she annihilates a truckload of goons by chucking a spear.

But Black Panther is a film that does more than break away from Hollywood's shallow conception of black culture, black people and Africa itself. Through Coogler's vision, supported by co-writer Joe Robert Cole (American Crime Story), cinematographer Rachel Morrison (Mudbound), costume designer Ruth E. Carter (Selma, Marshall) and a diverse production team never before seen on a film of this size, Black Panther expands the popular conception of African cultures with wideeyed wonder.

The aesthetic alone stole the breath from DJ BenHaMeen, cohost of the popular FanBros podcast and organizer for Crown Wakanda, a Black Panther community screening for the Alamo Drafthouse Cinema in Brooklyn.

"People are buying up more clothing and multiple outfits, just to wear when they see this movie over and over again," BenHaMeen says. "For our event, everyone's coming dressed up in Afrofuturistic clothing. When they actually see people wearing the same clothing in this film, in full pride, that's going to influence young designers to incorporate these fabrics and these designs.

They're going to keep pushing that aesthetic."

"I truly believe that Black Panther is a watershed moment for film," says April Reign, senior director of U.S. arts consulting group Fractured Atlas, and the black woman whose #OscarsSoWhite hashtag spurred the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to make fundamental changes in its leadership and nomination processes. "This is a moment when black people, especially African-Americans, are going to be able to celebrate their culture in a way Hollywood hasn't seen before. It shows we are not a monolith."

That message - that black people are as diverse in our cultures, politics and traditions within our communities as the world outside, yet exist within the white imagination as a resource to be mined or a threat to be put down - is one that Black Panther effortlessly communicates with subtext that resonates across the diaspora.

King T'Challa, the film's lead (played by Chadwick Boseman), and would-be usurper Killmonger (played by the ever-incandescent Michael B. Jordan) both wrestle with the historical weight of what it means for a futuristic country like Wakanda to have stood aside for centuries while other African nations fell to the predation of European colonizers and slavers. One of the film's villains, white South African arms dealer Ulysses Klaue (Andy Serkis), refers to Wakandans as "savages" even as he covets their treasures and weaponizes the technology they created. There are even multiple times when characters in the film deceive each other (and the audience) with "code-switching" - adopting accents, vocal tone and even body posture of the dominant culture to hide the true nature of their own.

There are entire book volumes that could be written about the film's purposeful strides in lighting black skin, showcasing black hair and unapologetically capturing the depth of African languages and traditions. Where black power and authority have been dignified in film through suits, ties and affected Midwestern accents, Ruth E. Carter casts aside these vestiges of Western colonialism, choosing instead to outfit the cast in regal attire influenced by cultures from the Masai of South Sudan to the Zulus of South Africa. In one pivotal scene, King T'Challa addresses the United Nations wearing a natty black suit and, rather than a tie, his outfit is adorned with a decorative sash.

As a black man about to become a father to two black girls, I'm almost envious of my babies. They're going to grow up in a world where films such as Black Panther and Ava DuVernay's forthcoming A Wrinkle in Time have already opened the door to genres of black storytelling that, to date, have largely been absent from the mainstream. This is Black Panther's greatest triumph - if a blockbuster film can turn a hardened cynic like me into a true believer, I can hardly wait to see what a world full of unsung black creatives comes up with next.

Wakanda Forever, indeed.

Andray Domise is a Toronto journalist and communications co-chair of the Black Business and Professionals Association. The BBPA will, with community partners, be hosting more than 300 black youth at a free screening of Black Panther this month.

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Marvel's Black Panther follows a hero who is capable of ripping the wheels off a moving vehicle, but struggles with the responsibility of ruling his home country.

Danai Gurira also stars in the film, in which black women are shown as beautiful, powerful and self-actualized - fully existing outside the needs and failures of the male leads.

Canadian justice, in an Indigenous context
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Stanley murder trial the latest to test First Nations peoples' faith in the country's courts
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By JOE FRIESEN, SEAN FINE
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A4


Before people took to the streets in protest, before the Prime Minister met with Colten Boushie's family, the Battleford courtroom where the trial of Gerald Stanley concluded last week was deathly quiet.

The jury foreman who said "not guilty" spoke so softly that for a moment the silence held, as the members of Mr. Boushie's family struggled to grasp what they heard. The first reply from the gallery - a sharp "What?" - cut through the confusion with loud, uncomprehending reproach.

A sobbing aunt, shouting through her tears at a fleeing judge and jury, captured in a moment of raw emotion what many were feeling: "The system is cruel. You don't even care about First Nations."

Mr. Boushie's family had long prepared for an acquittal. They predicted it several times in interviews. At the preliminary inquiry, Alvin Baptiste, Mr.

Boushie's uncle, said the trial would test First Nations peoples' faith in the justice system.

But he could not have predicted how widely the verdict would resonate. First Nations people across the country, some carrying signs that proclaimed a lack of faith in the justice system, rallied under the banner of "Justice for Colten." In so doing, they shed light on the cultural circumstances that fed the widespread anger.

In August, 2016, Mr. Boushie, 22, was fatally shot at close range after his friends drove onto Mr.

Stanley's property and tried to start his ATV. Mr. Stanley, a 56year-old white farmer, acknowledged holding the gun that killed Mr. Boushie, but testified that he believed it was disabled and "just went off." From the beginning, when Saskatchewan's Indigenous leaders attacked the RCMP for issuing a press release that suggested the shooting was justified, the case inflamed racial tensions.

Mr. Stanley's lawyer, who has not spoken publicly since the trial, said before proceedings began that Mr. Boushie's death was a tragedy, but had nothing to do with race. Last Friday, Mr.

Stanley was acquitted of seconddegree murder and the lesser offence of manslaughter.

The killing and verdict made clear that a deep and enduring racial divide exists in Saskatchewan, largely visible in social media chatter. Politicians and police have called on the public to be calm and consider their words, issuing reminders that hate speech is a crime.

Two weeks before the trial began, Mr. Boushie's mother, Debbie Baptiste, said she worried that First Nations people would be excluded from the jury. That is exactly what happened, as Mr.

Stanley's lawyers used peremptory challenges, which do not have to be explained or justified, to reject potential jurors who appeared to be Indigenous. It was perfectly legal, but left many outraged. This week, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said he would bring forward legislation to change how juries are selected.

Mr. Boushie's family members are pleased that in just one week, they have secured a promise of reform to one aspect of the justice system. But they brought a long list of issues to Ottawa. For example, they felt police treated the Indigenous witnesses like suspects, which may have contributed to the changing stories that undermined their testimony. RCMP surrounded and searched Ms. Baptiste's home as she was notified of her son's death, which she called callous.

The force cleared itself of wrongdoing, saying it was a unique and volatile situation, but that finding is being reviewed by the Civilian Review and Complaints Commission.

The family found that the federal Victims Bill of Rights did not give them the voice they expected to have in the court process.

The family's lawyers, Chris Murphy and Eleanore Sunchild, said they received little information from the Crown. The Saskatchewan Ministry of Justice declined to comment because it has not yet determined whether the case will be appealed.

Also raised in Ottawa this week was an issue Mr. Murphy described as a systemic problem: Many Indigenous people accused of crimes plead guilty and accumulate convictions who could be successfully defended if Legal Aid received more government financing.

"There is a meat grinder that catches many Indigenous people and before you know it, you're on bail conditions that shouldn't have been imposed in the first place, you're pleading guilty to charges that could have been challenged in court if you had proper representation," Mr. Murphy said. "It's a cycle that keeps on happening."

In 2015-16, 76 per cent of people admitted to provincial jails in Saskatchewan were Indigenous, the highest rate in the country, according to Statistics Canada.

First Nations people have interpretted the killing of Mr.

Boushie in a specific historical context: The hanging of eight First Nations men at Fort Battleford in 1885, the shooting of trapper Leo Lachance by a white supremacist named Carney Nerland in Prince Albert in 1991, the slaying of Pamela George in 1995 and the freezing death of Neil Stonechild in 1990 were all often mentioned by family members.

"There's one justice for white people and one justice for First Nations people," Mr. Baptiste said. "They told me to have faith in their system. Now I feel like they stabbed me in the back. I have lost faith."

THE SENTENCING PROBLEM If the mistrust has a long history, it is still viscerally felt. Three years ago, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established with a mandate to repair the harm done by the residential schools, issued 94 calls to action.

Eighteen involved the justice system (including prisons). The disproportionate number of Indigenous people in custody - 27 per cent of federal prisoners, although the Indigenous make up just 5 per cent of the population - figured prominently.

The commission wanted Ottawa and the provinces to commit to fixing that over the next decade and to report annually on their progress.

It called for stable funding to create community-based sanctions as "realistic alternatives to imprisonment" for aboriginal offenders. It called for legislation to allow trial judges to depart from mandatory minimum sentences. It called for aboriginalspecific victim services, and recognition and implementation of aboriginal justice systems.

Actions from the Liberals thus far? "None identified," according to the website of a federally funded centre tracking the 94 calls.

In 1996, the federal Liberals created a sentencing law that gives special consideration to aboriginal offenders. It says jail is a last resort for all Canadians - "with particular attention to the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders." At that time, Indigenous people made up about 12 per cent of federal prisoners and 3 per cent of the population.

"Parliament said very clearly that over-representation of aboriginal peoples in jail is a serious problem in this country," Doug White, a lawyer who cochairs the British Columbia Aboriginal Justice Council, said in an interview.

In 1999, the Supreme Court gave its first interpretation of the law in a case called R v Gladue. A 19-year-old Indigenous woman, Jamie Gladue, pleaded guilty to manslaughter for stabbing her husband, Reuben Beaver, also Indigenous, to death because she believed he was cheating on her.

A trial judge sentenced her to three years in jail. She appealed the sentence, saying the judge had not accounted for her aboriginal background.

The Supreme Court said a whole new way of looking at the sentencing of Indigenous peoples was needed, because their circumstances are unique. (The federal justice department argued that the new sentencing law merely codified existing law.) Judges, it said, need to consider what supports and programs are available locally for Indigenous offenders as alternatives to custody. But it said that, in more serious offences, custody might still be appropriate. It upheld the three-year sentence.

What followed was the creation of "Gladue reports" - individualized histories of offenders, their families and communities, to help judges craft appropriate sentences. Some jurisdictions, such as Toronto, have courtrooms known as "Gladue courts."

All courts, though, are expected to function as Gladue courts.

Even so, the proportion of Indigenous offenders in provincial and federal custody has risen.

Much of the country has few resources to prepare Gladue reports and most Indigenous offenders do without, Mr. White said.

"What is missing is any kind of a coherent national strategy to implement Gladue in a systemic way," Mr. White said.

But the mistrust of the justice system is not the whole story. Mr.

White is a believer in the power of law to help shape the political agenda. He became a lawyer "to be productive for my people."

Indigenous peoples have used the courts to create social, economic and political change.

When residential-school survivors wanted to fight the system, they went to court. Their classaction and individual lawsuits begat, in 2007, a court-supervised settlement with the federal government in which they received billions of dollars in compensation and an apology.

The settlement also begat the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Part of its mandate was to educate Canadians about the residential schools. Even the children of survivors learned something.

When Mr. White was growing up in Nanaimo, B.C., his mother, Joyce White, didn't speak much about the residential school she attended, Port Alberni. One of the few things she told him was that the children were so hungry they created a black-market trade in orange peels.

It emerged at the commission that medical experiments had been conducted at the school for 10 years to measure the effect of a lack of nutrients on children's well-being.

"Having learned that fact I didn't know before certainly does not get me in the mood for reconciliation," Mr. White said.

"This is the context in which the Gerald Stanley verdict plays out," he said. "It's the reason it's such an alarming outcome. What the verdict amounts to is confirmation that the Canadian criminal justice system does not provide justice for aboriginal people."

Associated Graphic

A protester cries during a Feb. 10 rally in Edmonton, in response to Gerald Stanley's acquittal in the shooting death of Colten Boushie.

JASON FRANSON/THE CANADIAN PRESS

A different way to powder your nose
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The opportunity to ski the backcountry trails should not be passed up, Carrie Tait writes, even if you do a faceplant or two
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By CARRIE TAIT
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P14


Ladies, I said, you can do this. Go cat skiing. Don't be intimidated by all the men on heli trips. Trust your snowboarding ability. You're stronger than you think. I promise.

Ladies, I'm sorry. I know I've been saying this for years, but I've been drawing on a lifetime of snowboarding experience. The idea of being ferried from one untouched backcountry powder field to another in helicopters or cats - essentially snowplows with a cab on the back for skiers - doesn't scare me on a snowboard. I've been on heli trips with my snowboard. But I traded my board for skis three years ago - to see if I could pick up the skills again, to tackle terrain differently and because I was bored of boarding. Now, my bravery - on resorts - exceeds my skiing ability and that's fine because I go at my own pace. I'm confident skiing steeps and powder - love it! - but that's different than skiing steeps and powder well.

And so, when a pal asked if I wanted to go cat skiing at Chatter Creek, I said no. Sorry. Those trips are dominated by men. I'm not good enough. Too much powder. I won't be able to keep up.

Hypocrite, I know. And so I said yes.

Then tried to get out of it. Then yes, ok, FINE, I'll go. I pack lightly, leaving my confidence at home.

Chatter Creek is one of British Columbia's 40 backcountry heli and cat ski companies.

Heli and cat skiers want exclusive access to endless powder and paying big bucks is the way to get it. They want that magical feeling of floating on snow. They want fine dining. They want views few get to take in.

Collectively, B.C.'s heli and cat skiers put in about 120,000 days a year, according to the HeliCat Canada Association. The industry generates about $160-million in direct revenue and most of it comes from men.

But the industry is changing. Ten years ago, for example, roughly 90 per cent of Chatter's customers were men. Now, roughly 80 per cent of its guests are men, consistent with others in the business. Women can do this.

"They are just as strong skiers, if not stronger," Jennifer Salvador, the assistant lodge manager, says of the women who come to Chatter. "I wouldn't that say the women are a weak link."

Chatter's visitors gravitate to the lodge's lounge after the heli ride from Donald, a blip of a town near Golden. They wear flipflops, slippers and sneakers. Irish iced coffee is the featured drink when we arrive.

Chatter hosts 36 guests at a time and there are three women, plus me, on this threeday trip.

Annette Mahoney is wearing slippers, earrings and her blonde hair in a clip. She's solids at the pool table. She's drinking red wine. Melissa Jack is playing foosball with three men. Prism Schneider wanders over to watch. There are three groups - Mahoney is in one, Schneider and Jack another, and the third is an annual all-boys trip - and constituents cross-contaminate over pints of Guinness and Moscow mules in copper mugs.

The bar is like a rumpus room: There's a dart board, a trunk filled with superhero costumes - because Chatter is the kind of place where you would correctly think dressing up as the Hulk while skiing is a good idea - 14 bar stools, six couches and a dog named Bruno. The lodges are built out of giant logs that were milled on site.

Guests share bedrooms and the washrooms are simple. Chatter's comfortable accommodations are not the most luxurious in the industry, but if that's your main concern, get your priorities straight.

Chatter shuttles skiers around its 23,800 hectares in snowcats - machines with plows in front, treads underneath and cabs above that keep 12 guests and two guides warm. The soft seats are similar to those in a charter bus, but with more leg room and views of the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains.

This outfit has three cats: Pirate Ship, Viking Ship and Bluenose. I'm in Bluenose, along with Schneider and Jack, on the first day. Schneider, who is on skis, and Jack, who is on a snowboard, have nothing to fear: They are experienced in powder.

Bluenose's crew members came on this trip together, adding another layer of fear.

My day goes as expected.

I fall during the second series of turns. I glide easily on a wide-open expanse, until I don't. The light is flat - imagine skiing through fog, unable to see undulations, wind lips, tracks and hazards. I tip over when going too slow. I wipeout at high speeds. Digging for lost skis after falls is exhausting. I struggle building platforms in the snow necessary to click back in. Skiing in the forest provides reprieve from the flat light, but the trees get in the way. I'm slow.

Two things make me feel slightly less terrible: There's another straggler aboard Bluenose and the skier is neither Schneider nor Jack; and I spot a team member in a tree well - a dangerous place to spend anywhere between a few minutes and the rest of your life, depending on your luck. Our tail guide Rachel Brown digs him out.

I can't keep up, sit out more runs than I ski and apologize to whoever happens to be near. Schneider tells me not to worry. It is fine. No need to say sorry. She is the sweetest liar I've ever met. I do the only thing a skier can to try to make up for it: buy the Bluenose crew a bag of cat-beers for the next day.

I join the Pirate Ship on the second day. It has a sprinkling of less experienced powder skiers, which lessens the intimidation factor. The sun is out.

On this day, I fall during the third series of turns, but once I settle down, I glide easily.

The pink Salomon Rockette skis, at 156 centimetres in length and 115 millimetres wide at the waist, stay attached to my boots and float on the snow. I leave pretty (and not so pretty) squiggles behind me. I bounce off poofs kicks and navigate hazards with purpose. I regain my balance when deep snow and gravity conspire to take me out.

Dave Pearson is our tail guide and, while we occasionally hold hands as he helps me up after spills, I don't feel like we're spending so much time together that we're bordering on dating. The sun, rather than gender, is the day's most influential factor.

Rich Ingraham, from Syracuse, N.Y., is part of the Pirate pack. He says he is an intermediate skier with about 20 days of skiing experience. He is a rookie backcountry adventurer.

"The first day was exhausting and a little frustrating and it just wasn't the fun that everybody said powder skiing is," he says.

"I thought: 'Wow, am I either this bad that I can't get through it or is it really just not fun?' " But he re-evaluates after the first run on the second day.

"That was the best run of my life," he says in the cat. Ingraham has a short memory; he repeats that line a few times as he puts down more tracks. "When the sun was out and we went way up high and the views were amazing, I'd say it might be the best ski day that I've ever had."

I sit out a few runs, along with some of the men. I ski some they don't. Ingraham skips about half the runs on Day 3, happily.

We eat Chatter's homemade cookies and drink water in the cat. Paul Lanyi is a snowboarder with about 25 years of experience.

He has been on one heli trip and four cat trips around the world prior to Chatter.

Lanyi is one of three fellows who pass on a tree run with me. This reflects strategy, not strength.

"I was a little bit tired and just needed a break," Lanyi, who is from El Segundo, Calif., says. "This is about a marathon, not a sprint. Better to sit inside, regroup a little bit, have my energy spin back up and then go excel on the next run.

"I got more than my money's worth," he says. "The snow was not the best of the snow I've ever been on in the backcountry, but the experience was by far the best. It is a combination of the quality of the guides, the vastness and sheer beauty of the terrain, the snow quality and the safety."

My final run at Chatter Creek starts the same as the first: with a faceplant. This time, it isn't because I can't ski powder. It's because I skied so much of it (relative to my ability) I'm exhausted. I leave with two souvenirs: a Chatter Creek water bottle and my confidence back.

Ladies, you can do this. I promise.

The writer travelled courtesy of Chatter Creek.

The company neither approved nor reviewed this article.

YOUR TURN

For the 2018-2019 season, prices range between $2,000 for two days and $5,000 for four days. For more information visit chattercreek.ca.

HOW TO GET THERE

The heli-port is at Donald, B.C., which about 30 kilometres from Golden, B.C., which is about 260 kilometres west of Calgary. Best to stay in Golden the night before lift off because driving conditions can be spotty.

Associated Graphic

Chatter Creek, near Golden, B.C., offers heli and cat skiing tours to backcountry fields on its 23,800-hectare property.

DYLAN STEWART PAGE

TOP AND BOTTOM: DYLAN STEWART PAGE; SECOND FROM TOP: CHATTER CREEK; THIRD FROM TOP: JEFF PATTERSON

As Gerry Adams steps down, Sinn Fein confronts radical transition
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The next party leader, Mary Lou McDonald, faces huge challenges - not least being distancing it from violent IRA legacy known as N. Ireland's Troubles
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By PAUL WALDIE
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A15


He's been vilified as a terrorist, hailed as a peacemaker and long considered one of the defining figures in Northern Ireland's troubled history. And now, after 35 years in the limelight, Gerry Adams is stepping aside and giving up the leadership of the republican movement at a critical juncture.

Mr. Adams, 69, will formally resign as the national leader of Sinn Fein on Saturday, ending a remarkable career that began as a barman serving drinks in a Belfast pub and saw him become one of the best known politicians in Northern Ireland, feted by presidents, prime ministers and royalty. Along the way, he's been shot five times, had his house blown up and built Sinn Fein into a political force encompassing Northern Ireland and Ireland. All while being equally loved and loathed by millions.

His departure marks a radical transition for the party and a huge challenge for new leader Mary Lou McDonald, a long-time deputy leader of Sinn Fein and a member of the Irish parliament, or Dail. And yet, there are many within the party who will quietly celebrate Mr. Adams's resignation, believing he has become too divisive and outdated, and that Sinn Fein needs to move away from its roots in the militant Irish Republican Army to broaden its appeal. The party's popularity has largely stalled and none of the other major parties in Ireland will form a coalition with Sinn Fein because of Mr. Adams's IRA baggage.

Mr. Adams has always denied being a member of the IRA, but under his leadership Sinn Fein has been seen as the IRA's political arm and the party has drawn sharp criticism for being terrorist sympathizers. "I will never disassociate myself from the IRA," he said last year in announcing his retirement. "I've condemned the IRA on many occasions and I particularly regret the fact that ordinary people - citizens, civilians - were killed or injured at the hands of the IRA."

Mr. Adams won accolades for bringing the IRA into talks that led to the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, ending decades of sectarian violence known as the Troubles that killed more than 3,500 people. But in recent years, he has become a symbol of the past and has run into trouble for failing to report allegations of sexual assault by his brother and confronting new questions about his role in the murder of an IRA informant in 1972. Many Sinn Fein insiders see Ms. McDonald, 48, as the face of a new generation that has little interest in the old battles of the Troubles. Unlike Mr.

Adams, who grew up in a workingclass Belfast family steeped in IRA loyalty, Ms. McDonald hails from a middle-class part of Dublin and has no ties to the IRA.

"His retirement will be a really, really radical change for Sinn Fein because he has been the Leader for over 30 years and he's the one defining celebrity of the party," said Malachi O'Doherty, a Belfast-based journalist who has written a biography of Mr. Adams. "If what we are seeing is the beginning of a progressive evolution away from their militaristic past, that would be quite remarkable."

There's no doubt that Mr. Adams leaves big shoes to fill and that Sinn Fein will be hard pressed to find anyone who can match his charisma and ruthless leadership style.

He was born into the nationalist struggle, learning the ways of armed conflict from his father Gerry, an IRA member who served eight years in prison for taking part in an ambush on a police patrol in Belfast. Home life wasn't easy and Mr. Adams later talked about his father's sexual and physical abuse of family members, saying his dad died "a very lonely man where he should have been surrounded by loving family members." Mr. Adams quit school as a teenager, taking a job at the Duke of York pub in Belfast and lapping up the political conversation and simmering Catholic anger. He soon became a fixture in Catholic civil-rights marches, joining the movement to end discrimination against Catholics by the Protestant majority. His protesting landed him in jail in the early 1970s when he was swept up without charge under special powers the police used to round up suspected IRA members. He was eventually acquitted of being an IRA member but questions have always persisted about his role in the organization.

In the early 1980s he turned his attention to politics, becoming leader of Sinn Fein and winning a seat in the British parliament, although he refused to set foot in Westminster as a protest over Britain's rule in Northern Ireland. He gained national prominence in the 1980s, when then-prime minister Margaret Thatcher banned radio and television channels from broadcasting his voice. Suddenly, Mr. Adams was the undisputed leader of republicanism and one of the country's most recognizable figures. The public attention also made him a target of Protestant paramilitaries who once sprayed his car with bullets hitting his arm, shoulder and neck but failing to kill him.

As his popularity grew, Mr. Adams refashioned Sinn Fein and expanded it into Ireland. He eventually gave up his parliamentary seat in Belfast and won election to the Irish Dail, further proof of his determination to make Sinn Fein an all-island party. By 1994, he had the political clout to push the IRA into a ceasefire, setting the stage for the 1998 Good Friday Agreement.

That eventually led Sinn Fein into a power-sharing government in Northern Ireland with the main Protestant party, the Democratic Unionists.

"History worked in Gerry's favour," said Mr. O'Doherty.

"He knew the drift of things. He knew the way things were going." Mr. O'Doherty pointed out that Mr. Adams benefited from changing demographics. The Catholic population in Northern Ireland soared in the 1990s and 2000s, rising from about onethird of the total population to nearly one half. "In a sense, whoever was leader of the nationalist movement was going to get the feeling that history was moving in that direction," he said.

Mr. Adams has also shifted his political views to suit the changing times, dropping his hardline socialist rhetoric and embracing the capitalism and free market of the European Union. He's also become a supporter of greater access to abortion and same-sex marriage, putting a strain on the party's Catholic base. And for all his political success, Mr. Adams has run a tightly controlled organization, pulling virtually all the strings and leaving little room for dissent. Ms. McDonald faced no challengers for the leadership, a sign that Mr. Adams had anointed her as his successor.

For Ms. McDonald, the challenge now is to move out from Mr. Adams's shadow and pull the party into the future on both sides of the border.

That won't be easy. Sinn Fein is deeply divided between its northern and southern branches and the IRA affiliation won't fade quickly.

Last month, Barry McElduff, a Sinn Fein member of Parliament, resigned after appearing to mock the anniversary of an IRA massacre in 1976 that killed 10 Protestants. But it took days for Mr. Adams and other Sinn Fein leaders to respond to the growing outcry over Mr. McElduff's actions, raising questions about their judgment.

The party's leader in Northern Ireland, Michelle O'Neill, also has close ties to the IRA and regularly attends commemorations that infuriate unionists.

As leader of both branches of the party, Ms. McDonald will have to tread a fine line between distancing herself from Ms. O'Neill's overt displays of IRA solidarity, which are popular among republicans, and setting Sinn Fein apart. And even more concerning is the political stalemate in Northern Ireland that has left the province without a functioning parliament for more than a year because of a dispute between Sinn Fein and the DUP, something that Ms. McDonald will now have to resolve.

"Mary Lou McDonald's job is not easy in that she is being asked to keep a party together that has quite different bases on either side of the border.

In Ireland it is a radical, left-leaning, anti-establishment party, but more mainstream and conservative in Northern Ireland," said Eoin O'Malley, director of the School of Law and Government at Dublin City University. "She's also had to deal with a lot of accusations of bullying in the organization. It will be hard to present the party as modern, liberal and in favour of equality, when so many members complain that the organization is hierarchical and with a culture of violence."

Ms. McDonald has promised to cut her own path as leader and she'll be hoping that her track record and experience will translate into gains in the Irish republic, where Sinn Fein is running a close third behind the governing Fine Gael and opposition Fianna Fail. Last month she told the party faithful: "I won't fill Gerry's shoes. But the news is that I brought my own. So I will fill my shoes, I will walk in my shoes."

She may not be walking alone. Mr. Adams has already hinted that he isn't fading away. "In their rush to write my political obituary some in the media have concluded that I'm now to retire," he wrote in a recent blog post. "Well, they're wrong. I will continue to serve the republican struggle and Sinn Fein, if and when I can."

Associated Graphic

Gerry Adams is to resign as national leader of Sinn Fein on Saturday, having been loved and loathed by millions in Northern Ireland and Ireland over three decades. He did, however, lay the groundwork for the 1998 Good Friday accord, ending sectarian violence that killed more than 3,500 people.

CHARLES MCQUILLAN/GETTY IMAGES

Six projects reshaping downtown Edmonton
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Several major renovations and brand-new buildings are set for completion in the coming years, each promising to bring life back to the Alberta capital's core
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By ROBERT EVERETT-GREEN
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R3


EDMONTON -- For a couple of decades leading up to the mid-1990s, Edmonton seemed to be a living laboratory for everything you could do to kill downtown.

Poor zoning decisions, protracted chaos during light-rail construction and the rise of the West Edmonton Mall sucked the life out of the area around the Jasper Avenue core.

Signs of a new orientation were visible by 2008, when a citycommissioned cultural plan pushed a vision of social renewal through building for the arts.

That was knit two years later into a broader civic blueprint intended to repopulate the core and enforce design standards famously summarized by thenmayor Stephen Mandel: "Our tolerance for crap is now zero."

A decade later, several new cultural facilities are under construction, in late planning stages or about to open. Some will add to the cultural district around Sir Winston Churchill Square (already home to the Citadel Theatre, Alberta Art Gallery and Francis Winspear Centre for Music), while others promise to bring new life to formerly depressed neighbourhoods.

Most were funded and approved before oil prices went soft, and before a previous provincial government's long-established position on cultural building was upended by the NDP victory three years ago. The Globe and Mail recently took the measure of six projects in the city's cultural building boom, and the effects they're having on the town.

ROYAL ALBERTA MUSEUM

Executive director Chris Robinson says his main concerns for the newly finished limestone and glass structure near Churchill Square were that it should be better able to display and maintain objects that couldn't be housed in the old museum and that it should entice people to come in and look at them.

"It never made sense for us to expand at Glenora," he said, referring to the museum's former site, "and we all agreed that being downtown conveyed definite advantages."

The main entrance of the sleek, $375.5-million building is within sight of the Alberta Art Gallery, and will have direct underground access to the LRT. The museum's opposite end, two blocks away, looks out over the pawn shops of the Boyle Street neighbourhood, which is itself the focus of an ambitious renewal plan called The Quarters.

Much of the street-level exterior is glass, intended to make interior activity visible in lanternlike spaces. Sculptural sheets of anodized aluminum near the front door and inside the expansive lobby are perforated with imagery specific to Edmonton and its natural environment.

The total exhibition area is 9,000 square metres, more than double that of the old building, with another 4,300 square metres for research, collections and curatorial work. There are two small theatres and a lightfilled gallery for kids, which includes an interactive digital sandbox.

The museum may need another year or more to finish transferring its treasures to the new facility, which will have room for more than 90 per cent of its collection. Robinson said the move coincides with a thorough revamping of the museum's way of telling some stories, especially those to do with Indigenous peoples.

"You won't find a master narrative in the museum voice," he said of the Indigenous portions of the six linked areas of the new Hall of Human History. All will be revealed when the museum, designed by DIALOG and built by Ledcor, opens to the public later this year.

STANLEY A. MILNER LIBRARY

The Centennial Library built on Churchill Square in the golden year of 1967 had not aged well by the time thoughts turned to creating a central library more in tune with the 21st century. A modest plan to update and replace the façade of the renamed Milner Library quickly grew into a more ambitious renovation that will add space and give the formerly boxy exterior a dramatic new look.

"The bones of the old building are fine," Edmonton Public Library chief executive Pilar Martinez says. "The renovated spaces will be substantially larger and much better configured." Steel girders jutting out at angles from the building's skeleton show Toronto architect Stephen Teeple's determination to make an impact equivalent to that of the neighbouring Alberta Art Gallery's curvy metallic exterior and City Hall's glowing glass pyramid.

Inside the glass and metal shell, the interior levels will open to one another visually in an atrium-like design, Martinez says, with up-to-date digital systems and a culinary centre to promote nutritional literacy. A video "simulation wall" inside the foyer will display creative visual content from around the city.

All the central library's books have been temporarily crammed into EPL branches, and at a popup branch in a former Hudson's Bay Co. building on Jasper Avenue. Martinez expects that the turnout after the renewed facility opens in early 2020 will at least meet the 1.2-million visits recorded annually before work began.

ALLARD HALL, MACEWAN UNIVERSITY

Allard Hall, which opened to arts students in September, is the last stage of the provincial university's decade-long move from its campus in the city's west end to the former CN rail lands downtown. Allan Gilliland, dean of fine arts and communications, says the $180-million building, designed by the late Bing Thom, was planned for the institution's future.

"We built it for the curriculum we want to do," Gilliland said.

MacEwan is gradually adding undergraduate-degree programs, he says, in its continuing transformation from the community college it once was.

Two theatres and an art gallery, all on the first floor of the five-level structure, are available for work by 1,200 enrolled students, but also open to performers and artists from outside. Gilliland is already using the spaces to leverage in-kind transactions with professionals who may get access to the rooms - and a pair of basement recording studios - in exchange for leading workshops or mentoring students.

Upper levels are filled with classrooms, studios and offices, as well as display spaces for art and terraced hang-out areas overlooking the large rentable atrium in the centre.

Gilliland expects Allard will have a positive impact on enrolment, and also on the integration of students into the creative life of the city. There's room for expansion, he said, in the top floor that has been built but won't be opened for use until needed.

The old arts building in the west end was purchased by the city last summer and is being retooled as an arts hub that will make use of spaces already designed for performing and visual arts.

ARTS HABITAT EDMONTON: ARTSCOMMON AND ARTISTS QUARTERS

Julian Mayne has a simple way of explaining what role his small, city-funded office plays in downtown regeneration: "We want to get artists in there, and we want them to stay." Too often, he says, artists occupy and enliven rundown areas that consequently become too expensive for them to remain.

In 2011, Arts Habitat opened 16 rent-subsidized co-op apartments for artists in the Alberta Avenue neighbourhood in north Edmonton, which has become a lively hub of cultural and storefront activity. Mayne is in advanced planning mode for a live-work artists' development nearby, called ArtsCommon, with a $4-million capital commitment from the city government.

The city has also put up $6-million and land for Artists Quarters, a live-work facility that will be part of a larger renewal plan for The Quarters, a 40-hectare area adjacent to the new Royal Alberta Museum. The city expects that within 20 years, the area's population will rise from 2,400 to at least 18,000.

"Artists Quarters would be the catalyst to get things moving," Mayne says. "I've spoken to developers who are just waiting for this to happen."

EDMONTON OPERA CENTRE

Edmonton Opera's recently completed production and office complex won't win any architectural awards: It's a no-frills industrial building in the city's northwest. But the smartly configured interior spaces, all designed in-house, make the company more integrated and self-reliant, production and technical director Clayton Rodney says. The building includes setconstruction and painting facilities that other arts groups are lining up to rent.

The Opera's scenic shop relocated to the leased space near the Yellowhead Highway in 2012, from five separate locations, followed by administrative offices in 2014. Last summer, the company finished a sky-lit rehearsal hall big enough to accommodate a full opera set - something not found at the Jubilee Auditorium, where the company performs.

The centre is having an impact far beyond Edmonton.

One of its current projects is construction of a set for a new fivecompany production of La Traviata that will premiere in performances by Manitoba Opera in April.

WINSPEAR CENTRE FOR MUSIC

The Winspear, home of the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra, is inching toward a longplanned, $53-million expansion that would replace an adjacent parking lot with a building that would include a 600-seat theatre. There would also be a community-oriented centre for creativity to be named after Tommy Banks, the Edmonton musician and former Liberal senator who died on Jan. 25. The Winspear would like to put shovels in the ground later this year, but is still waiting for provincial and federal governments to match a $13-million commitment by the city.

Associated Graphic

Top: The new limestone and glass Royal Alberta Museum facility will have room for more than 90 per cent of the museum's collection.

Above: With the Milner Library's ambitious renovation, Toronto architect Stephen Teeple is determined to make an impact equivalent to that of the neighbouring Alberta Art Gallery's curvy metallic exterior and City Hall's glowing glass pyramid.

Left: Allard Hall, which opened to arts students in September, is the last stage of MacEwan University's decade-long move to the former CN rail lands downtown.

Aloette is a downmarket eatery as serious as its upscale sister
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By JASON CHOW
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, February 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A8


RESTAURANT REVIEW

Aloette 163 SPADINA AVE.

416-260-3444 ALOETTERESTAURANT.COM

Atmosphere: A narrow room that feels like a luxurious but relaxed dining car with an all-ages crowd.

Service by bow-tied servers is smart and efficient; music plays at a reasonable volume.; Wine and drinks: Five featured house cocktails ($12) and a short wine list with nine offered by the glass ($11-$15); Best bets: Wedge salad, burger, steak, brussels sprouts; Dinner for two with a cocktail and a glass of wine, including taxes and tip, for $150.

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OUR STAR SYSTEM

No stars: Not recommended.

One star: Good, but won't blow a lot of minds.

Two stars: Very good, with some standout qualities.

Three stars: Excellent, with few caveats, if any.

Four stars: Extraordinary, with near-perfect execution.

With the opening of Aloette, the new sister restaurant to the celebrated, high-end Alo, chef Patrick Kriss is staking claims on opposite ends of the culinary spectrum. Alo, with its carefully plated, critically acclaimed $155 tasting menu, represents fine dining at its peak. The decidedly more downscale Aloette, meanwhile, aims to be Toronto's finest diner.

Located on the ground floor of the historic building at Queen and Spadina that's also home to Alo, Mr. Kriss's new venture marks his first step toward a restaurant empire. He's leveraging his haute-cuisine stardom to branch into the quotidian fare of burgers and sundaes.

Mr. Kriss, who launched the ambitious and expensive Alo in 2015, has long coveted the streetlevel space beneath it, which was formerly a nail salon. Initially, he envisioned turning the room into a classic French bistro. But the idea died on the stove as the dishes he and his team conceived failed to meet his standards. "We trashed that idea," he admits.

The concept he ultimately unveiled marries American classic with urban cool. In Mr. Kriss's words, "big portions, and play the music a bit loud."

Already, Aloette is drawing crowds. On two recent visits outside of peak lunch and dinner hours - expect to be on a waiting list if you arrive at noon or 7 p.m. - I saw a full dining room with a broad audience. There were tables of lunching ladies, corporate suits, millennial first dates and single tech dudes, sitting alone at the counter for a late burger and glass of red.

For the most part, Aloette succeeds. To begin, it's an impressive space - the small, narrow room that seats just 38 has been meticulously renovated with an arched, padded ceiling.

It looks like the interior of a mid-century industrialist's private dining car - inviting, casual and slightly luxurious all at once - accompanied by a hip-hopand-indie-rock playlist to keep the atmosphere lively without being too loud. Here, the neodiner has achieved something that few Toronto eateries have been able to pull off: Millennials and baby boomers happily and comfortably co-exist.

The new spot bears no relation to the restaurant upstairs, and that's the point, Mr. Kriss says. "I wanted people to have a completely different experience." But he's aiming to maintain the same high levels of service and hospitality. The washrooms are stocked with linen hand towels. Servers wear bow ties and matching denim shirts and, unlike wait staff at most restaurants with hip-hop playing on the stereo, Aloette's staff provide service that's formal and swift.

Yet the dishes at the heart of the menu plant Aloette firmly in the diner genre - mac n' cheese, burger, steak - and they arrive with surprisingly few technical flourishes. Upstairs at Alo, complex plates often require long descriptions to explain miscellaneous powders and sauces. At Aloette, Mr. Kriss stays true to the classics as we've always known them, with subtle tweaks.

Take the burger ($18) as an example. It looks very similar to what you'd get at a highway truck stop, but rest assured Mr. Kriss has thought this one through: The patty, cooked medium, is topped with Beaufort cheese - earthier and more aromatic than your regular Cheddar - melted and browned under a salamander grill.

The burger arrives like an open sandwich, with the top half of the soft bun adorned with fine julienned lettuce and a mayonnaise sauce that's spiked with diced gherkins. Under the meat on the bottom half are pickled onions for crunch and a hint of acidity. The sum of these small but very deliberate decisions amounts to a tasty result.

The steak ($28), a thin wetaged rib-eye imported from Missouri, is cooked on a griddle and came that night with a few charred enoki mushrooms and drizzled with beef jus. Thick-asyour-finger steaks typically come out overcooked and devoid of flavour. Not this one.

The well-marbled beef bursts with umami, even when cooked several seconds longer than my desired medium-rare. It's a testament to Mr. Kriss's fastidious commitment to serving quality ingredients and a good sign that he takes the downmarket eatery as seriously as the upscale one.

Rest assured, Alo fans, there are more conceptually daring dishes. The iceberg wedge ($16) is a brilliant mash-up of last century's salad and the kalebased fare that dominates today's food courts in the financial district. A halved iceberg lettuce is dressed with a chive cream that's reminiscent of ranch. But atop the lettuce, Mr. Kriss sprinkles a cover of toasted soybeans, crispy wild rice and pumpkin seeds - ingredients you'd find at a nearby salad chain. This cross-generational idea is playful and so substantial that the dish that was once listed as a starter is now under the mains section as the lone vegetarian option.

The appetizers are where Mr. Kriss really shows off some virtuosity with premium ingredients (with prices to match).

Fresh, creamy sea urchin from B.C. is carefully placed on fingers of toasted bread laden with a mayo improved by scallions and yuzu kosho - a Japanese blend of citrus and spice. At $22, the tiny dish costs more than the burger, but it's also like treating your palate for a fun whirlwind tour of Paris and Tokyo.

The house-made burrata dish ($16) is fussy food at its best and the total antithesis of typical diner fare. Slices of the mild, chewy white cheese are buried under orange wedges, julienned fresh fennel, tiny pickled fennel cubes and roasted pistachios, all of which are bound together in perfect harmony by a green herb-infused olive oil.

The scallop sashimi appetizer ($14) isn't as successful. The raw Japanese scallops are sliced and dressed with a fine-dice of granny smith apple, coriander, pickled onions and a slice of jalapeno. If only Mr. Kriss stopped there. Instead, this ensemble is served atop three tostadas - one pander too many to current dining trends - which makes for easy sharing but the tortilla's flavour blasts the subtleties of scallop.

There are only three desserts on the current menu: A black forest sundae, pecan pie and a lemon meringue pie (all $10 each). The latter is generous in size and sugar, as sweet as one would expect at a roadside eatery. It's delicious, even if wholly unoriginal.

The wine and cocktail list is short but thoughtful and changes often. On one night earlier in the winter, Aloette poured an obscure red blend from Lebanon; this past week, it was a fantastic Pinot Noir from little-known Reuilly in France's Loire Valley. The cocktails are fresh takes of lesser-known regional favourites, such as the English classic King's Cup (here, reinterpreted with bourbon, Scotch and ginger ale) and Brittany's Kir Breton (cider and cassis).

Service is smooth, polished and unobtrusive, although one hiccup came at dinner when our two side dishes - a bowl of nutty-tasting charred Brussels sprouts and a dish of fries in sausage gravy (both $9 each) - arrived almost 10 minutes before our mains. With a packed house, these misfires happen, but they shouldn't at a place with Mr. Kriss' standards.

As diners, we expect a lot from Mr. Kriss, and here lies the central issue as he tries to cross over to the mid-market mainstream: Does cheaper Aloette show the full creative range and technical wizardry of a talented chef such as Mr. Kriss? No, it doesn't. But it's also foolish of us to expect the same level of accomplished cooking at onethird of the price.

Aloette is still a delicious execution of Mr. Kriss's vision of a diner and worthy of embrace.

The genre has long been a glaring weak spot in Toronto's restaurant scene. We've lacked the casual options that are so common in cities such as New York and Montreal, where numerous street corners are home to counters that serve club sandwiches and milkshakes at any hour.

Mr. Kriss says he hopes to replicate his Aloette model in other locations around the city.

We should hope he does. The handful of diners we have downtown, such as Fran's and Patrician Grill, are nostalgia trips rather than places for decent food.

Aloette, with its handsome room and haute-cuisine pedigree, doesn't dish out retro sentimentality. But it does share one essential characteristic with the diners of past: versatility.

Those old places served as convenient spots for a range of dining options, from a quick bite, solo, to a lingering, chatty meal for four. In that respect, Aloette is as diner as they come.

Associated Graphic

Chef Patrick Kriss's Aloette is already drawing crowds in the city, top, serving up diner fare such as, clockwise from above left, burgers and fries, an iceberg Wedge salad, Scallop Tostada, and ribeye steak.

PHOTOS BY MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Doom and gloom looms at the outset of the Games
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The days leading into the Olympics are often fraught with fears of the worst-case scenario
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S1


PYEONGCHANG, SOUTH KOREA -- In considering this week the I way politics have wedged their way into the conversation about the now officially under way Winter Games, Canadian Olympic Committee president Tricia Smith went as dark as it possible to go.

"People will always use sports for other means," she said. "We saw that in Germany in the thirties."

That's how tumultuous this has become - a variation of Godwin's Law (all arguments eventually result in a Hitler analogy) is in operation at the Olympics.

We've reached a point where the happiest event on Earth has become the place the world gets together to feel bad about itself.

It is ever the case that the days leading into a Games are a time in which the world lights its own hair on fire and runs around screaming for a while. Something will almost certainly blow up, or fall down, or the mosquitoes will kill you.

I know of someone scared away from attending a Games because they'd read one too many panting news reports about black-widow suicide bombers headed to Sochi.

Usually, it's all nonsense and nothing comes of it. But since we have not yet succumbed to the pleasures of ice dancing, we amuse ourselves instead with the proximity of death. For some North Americans, it may be the closest they ever get to developing a keen interest in international affairs.

This time, that tendency toward catastrophism feels different. People aren't worried about the Olympics being a disaster.

They see the Olympics as symbolic of a disaster that's already happened.

Populism is on the march, old alliances are falling apart, everyone's cheating and Mike Pence is here. The North Koreans are hoodwinking us all, the Russians won't take a hint and the Canadians are reminding them in the lunch canteen about the hint they won't take.

The world is becoming a scarier place for the lucky few in it who are not used to feeling afraid, and that angst is infecting the Games.

What's to celebrate?

This is where we would normally insert some nonsense about the triumph of the human spirit after watching some guy luge one-tenth of a second faster than anyone's ever luged before.

That's all great, of course, but competition is not the real heart of the Olympics. Empathy is.

What the Olympics do better than anything else is create a basis for human understanding and mutual sympathy.

The world is very like the internet - we talk about, around and over each other without ever having to go to the trouble of being together in a room.

That's what the Olympics do - force representatives of all the world's fractious nations to interact like actual humans. The result is always better than you'd expected.

Canada won 25 medals in Sochi, all of them remarkable achievements. Our best collective moment in Russia had nothing to do with them.

It happened during a crosscountry ski final in which no Canadian was competing.

After a miserable day for the national team, one of Canada's coaches, Justin Wadsworth, wandered over to the finish line to watch other athletes come across.

He spotted a Russian skier, Anton Gafarov, crawling over a rise. Gafarov had fallen twice, skinning a layer of P-Tex off his ski. It eventually wound around his ankle, hobbling him. He could no longer ski, as such, but he wanted to complete the race anyway.

No one did anything. Not even Gafarov's own coaches, who stood there staring.

Wadsworth did not know Gafarov other than to see him around.

But he was the one who did something.

Wadsworth ran out onto the course with one of his own charge's spare skis. He knelt down beside Gafarov. Neither of them said anything. Like a pliant animal, Gafarov allowed Wadsworth to tend to him. Wadsworth switched the broken ski for a new one and Gafarov lept away.

"I wanted him to have dignity as he crossed the finish line," Wadsworth said later. When I called him to ask about it, Wadsworth couldn't figure out why I needed to speak to him. His Canadians hadn't won anything that day.

"Because of the thing with Gafarov," I said.

"Oh," Wadsworth said. "That."

He didn't understand why a journalist would care. It seemed obvious - a stranger needed help, so he helped him.

I've been lucky enough to be there for a lot of big sports moments in my career, but none give me the same chill I get when I recall that one.

Every country in the world has some version of this story, and it probably happened at the Olympics. Few of them are famous moments because they weren't followed by the glow of a podium.

They don't get replayed years later. But these are the gestures that matter. They're the ones that result in collective pride.

Because in a world where everyone has a shrieking opinion on what ought to be done, it is a small revelation to see someone wearing your national colours actually doing it. For no other reason than it's the right thing to do.

Something about the Olympics amplifies their meaning. It's one of the rare times everyone is paying attention and primed to be inspired. We very badly want the athletes at these Games to show us all at our best. And that does not only happen on the field of play.

It is difficult for most of us to understand how someone can throw themselves off a ski jump or do a triple Salchow. We can admire the skill, but we can't empathize with the athlete in that instance because we can't do what they do.

But simple kindness? That resonates wholly and completely. It's inspiring because it is an Olympic virtue we are all capable of.

Who are the stars of these Games? Right now, Pence, Kim Yo-jong, North Korea's eerie "Army of Beauties."

Those are the people who represent the ugly creep of politics into the Olympics. This is not a new phenomenon, but since most of us have forgotten what the Cold War felt like, it feels strange and alarming.

The 30 years between then and now have allowed us to forget how corrosive the Us vs. Them narrative is when it involves real consequences rather than hockey rivalries. We've spent a week here bathing ourselves in it and it has not washed a one of us clean.

Who will be the stars be in a week or two week's time? Somebody who's won in some spectacular fashion.

In that, we are generally alone together. Each country celebrates its own achievements on the medal table and no other. Our star is not anyone else's star. Everyone else is the backdrop that allowed "us" to succeed.

A few athletes will push through to generalized global fame - a Usain Bolt type - but that produces in their home country a pride in dominance rather than anything generous. It's the same urge that always underlies those deeply irritating "U-S-A" chants that foul arenas at international events.

You cannot count on the star that really matters being celebrated, because they do things that often escape notice. They are the man or woman who performs a gesture of genuine grace - helping a fallen competitor, showing kindness where none was expected, being a recognizable human being when they thought no one was looking.

All the athletes here can be that star, given the opportunity.

At recent Olympics, the politics have fallen away once the Games start, crowded out by more interesting storylines. It may not work that way this time around.

For many in the West, politics have become a more interesting sport than anything competed at for fun.

The ersatz tribalism of fandom pales when compared to the narcotic hit of the real thing. We've all got hooked on it recently.

So that makes this Olympics a test of sorts. Just for a moment, can we get back to the feeling that we all have something in common, and make a connection with each other? One that has nothing to do with our opinions, but instead with a shared sense of joy in competition? Can we allow the frivolity of the Olympics - riven though it always is with national interest - allow us to temporarily let go of our differences?

That's for the athletes to decide. Their responsibility has not recently been so great. It's hard to say if they're ready for it.

In her remarks, Smith touched the debate at either extreme.

On the topic of why this all matters, she was eloquent.

"[The Olympics] is an expression of who we are as humans, the best expression," she said. "It's about play."

That last bit is an important distinction.

It is easy to hate someone you've beaten, or who's beaten you. Winning and losing are concepts best suited to the real world, the one the Olympics is meant as a respite from. But you will always see a friend in someone with whom you've played.

Associated Graphic

Evgenia Tarasova and Vladimir Morozov of Russia perform in the pairs skating short program in the team event at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Gangneung, South Korea, on Friday.

MORRY GASH/AP

Impersonators of Kim Jong-un and Donald Trump are seen at PyeongChang Olympic Stadium on Friday. The ugly creep of politics into the Games is not a new phenomenon, Cathal Kelly writes.

RYAN PIERSE/GETTY IMAGES

Call Me by Your Name, again and again
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Author Andre Aciman dives deep into the challenges, and unique rewards, of watching your novel take on a second life
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By DURGA CHEW-BOSE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, February 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A15


Desire is unsustainable. It shrinks. Dims. Collapses. It renders us extremely observant, yet somehow undiscerning. In Marguerite Duras's The Lover, her unnamed narrator characterizes herself as being totally "worn out" by the strong feeling.

At its most basic construction, desire is the fear of acquisition.

Its end is predated and anyone in its throes, like Duras's heroine or like Elio in Andre Aciman's Italy-set 2007 novel Call Me by Your Name - which is experiencing something of a revival thanks to Luca Guadagnino's Oscar-nominated adaptation - can confirm, one becomes incapable of simplifying even the slightest gesture. That's because the desirous first-person narrator sleuths immoderate meaning from anything: half-glances, "that tan along [an] exposed shoulder" or the colours of a first love's swimming trunks. In this case, Oliver, the American graduate student staying with Elio's family for the summer. Those wet swimming trunks lying around the house belong to him.

While the ending of Guadagnino's version (written by James Ivory) is different, the movie - its mood - is faithfully scripted.

In the book, as in the film, Elio is desperate for whatever acknowledgments might, at any moment, be tossed his way. Like an apricot picked fresh from its tree, accompanied by Oliver's casually uttered Yours. Elio appears menaced by his desire. He's unprotected from it and it plunges him into a state of full swoon.

He never knows what to do with his hands. He's prone to roundness, the most worshipful shape.

Oliver's Oliverness becomes a mechanism for Elio to turn inward - he talks to himself in order to talk to Oliver.

In the film, as it was originally portrayed in the novel, Elio and Oliver often feel inseparable, and not because of their closeness, but because Elio sees the world only as it applies to Oliver.

During a recent visit to Toronto to discuss Guadagnino's adaptation, Aciman talked with The Globe and Mail about the power of desire and the challenges of handing over your work to someone else.

Let's talk about the first person, since your novel is written from Elio's point of view. What was it like experiencing Luca's adaptation of Elio's interiority?

Every time I've tried writing in the third person, it just falls flat.

Because when you're writing from a first-person perspective, there's always room for high anxiety, high obsession and, at the same time, misreading. In other words, Elio in the book is constantly misreading what's around him. He mistakes a gaze from Oliver as being hostile when in fact it might not have been, and I think the reader is kind of inducted into experiencing the fact that Elio may not always be right. He's a narrator aware of his own foibles and exaggerations. When you want to portray this on the screen, you have two choices. One is voiceover, which can become extremely intrusive and heavyhanded. Or you can have fantastic actors who will, in essence, on their faces alone and in their silence, suggest to the viewer what's really going on inside their hearts.

A word that comes up when I think about the film and about your novel is "conjuring." What the story does so well is summon not just Elio's summer with Oliver, but the movement of light, the sounds, touch, memory's insistence and what's inexpressible but felt. Did you talk to Luca at all about his vision?

Luca and I got along very, very well. But I decided from the getgo that I would not intrude on the picture. I was not proprietary in any sense. I wasn't going to meddle; what I am, stupid? I was extremely happy that it was he and no one else that was going to do the film. When he told me about his ending, I thought it might be a little bit schmaltzy but I didn't say anything. But when I saw the film, I turned to him and said, "You know what, your ending is better than mine."

Audiences are seeing the film multiple times. Or reopening the book immediately after finishing it.

There's something compulsive about people's reactions. They're hooked.

Either this kind of love is something you've had and long lost, or it's something you've never had but have always wanted. It's very much like myths. That unreal zone that the book and the film explore is riveting, because it tells you something that you understand perfectly, even if it never happened.

Can we talk about a bit about memory and your relationship to it with regards to your writing, and how, in some ways, it seems to be the novel's agitating force?

When I was 15 and I read The Waste Land for the first time, and there was one line that knocked me over.

I never made the association, or I had made it but never thought of it, which is where poetry comes in: It tells you things we've always known. Desire and memory are almost the same organ, just different facets of the same organ. You don't know where memory begins and where desire ends, and they feed on each other. As a writer, it's essential that I move in both fields at the same time.

You write about "ghost spots" in your novel. Those spaces that feel forever haunted by you or a person, a lover. I kept feeling like "ghost spots" was another way of characterizing memory. As if "ghost spots" were a translation of the word memory from another language.

The idea of "ghost spot" came to me when I was writing a piece about Rome for a magazine. It's precisely what Wordsworth used to call "spots of time." In other words, certain areas and corners have you in it. Except you have to go back there to find where a birth of you really happened.

And you have to revisit it because it is nowhere else and yet, nothing is there.

Do you ever experience the opposite, where you encounter a new place, or read a passage from a book you've never read, or experience a new film that feels oddly familiar? Like you've been previously acquainted with it - even if that's impossible. Like the opposite of a "ghost spot."

Well, that's what recovery is.

That's the magic of anything artistic. It gives you back something that you thought you possessed. If you think of soundtracks, the great, magnificent movie soundtracks, sometimes you hear the soundtrack before you see the film and you feel as though you've heard this before.

It just enters your system. So many things we experience fall flat or don't move us. But that's what we want. In the book, or with the film, you wake up the next morning and you still want to be woven into it. The movie does that: It keeps you in its spell for days afterward. And that's why you go and see it again. Part of it is that you want to prove to yourself that you're no longer under the spell. But guess what: You've just recommitted yourself.

I was speaking to a friend about the film and about swimming trunks.

Their dopey, baggy fit. The way they cling to wet legs. Finding hooks or doorknobs to hang them to dry. Also, the symbolism of swimming trunks, both in the novel and in the film, as these emblems of summer, curiosity and desire.

When you are obsessed or infatuated with someone, everything about them is now charged with signification. It's almost as if they are trying to tell you something about themselves. Or to use another word, you're intercepting something essential about them. In their glasses, in the way they walk, and of course, in their swimming trunks. Elio creates this whole fable of what each colour bathing suit means.

If it's green, it's this. If it's red, it's that. If it's blue or yellow, it's this and that. We do this all the time.

We misread the people we want because we need information about them but don't have any. So we go to their clothes, and to their skin, or the way they brush their hair. Anything will do. And I think the bathing suit became the objective correlative of his desire.

When you're in love with someone, the fetishization of the clothes becomes part of the desire. Elio is becoming Oliver, the closer he gets to his swimming trunks. He's actually coupling with Oliver. And bathing suits don't have meaning! But they reveal something about your perception of a person.

They might not have meaning meaning, but in Call Me by Your Name, they feel like "ghost spots" to me.

That's true. That's true.

James Ivory, screenwriter of Call Me by Your Name, will discuss his Oscar-nominated adaptation of Andre Aciman's novel on March 27 at the TIFF Lightbox (tiff.net). The 90th Academy Awards air live March 4 on ABC and CTV.

Associated Graphic

Armie Hammer, left, plays Oliver opposite Timothée Chalamet as Elio in Luca Guadagnino's adaptation of Andre Aciman's Call Me By Your Name.

Aciman, seen in October, 2017, says he was extremely happy that Guadagnino would be doing the film, and even told the director he preferred the movie's ending to the novel's.

DIA DIPASUPIL/GETTY IMAGES

What the world can learn from the citizen revolt against Zuma
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Grassroots activists used a high-pressure strategy of street protests and judicial activism to end a discredited regime and restore 'the good health and vigour of South African democracy.' Geoffrey York probes this new era of hope
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By GEOFFREY YORK
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A12


JOHANNESBURG -- More than two decades after Nelson Mandela inspired the world by helping liberate his country from apartheid, South Africa's vibrant young democracy is providing another lesson for the world: how citizens can rebel against an entrenched president and push him from office.

On Wednesday night, when Jacob Zuma grudgingly agreed to hand in his resignation more than a year ahead of schedule, it was a victory for grassroots activism. With their court battles and their relentless pressure on high-level corruption cases, citizen groups helped force the ruling party into an unexpectedly swift change of leadership.

"In my experience, civil society in South Africa is the strongest mobilized civil society I've ever seen in my adult life anywhere," says Stephen Lewis, co-founder of advocacy group AIDS-Free World and former United Nations special envoy on HIV/AIDS in Africa.

"I've never seen anything quite like it," he told The Globe and Mail in an interview in Johannesburg on Friday.

"Frankly, it supersedes anything I've seen in developed countries, Canada included."

As they watched Mr. Zuma be replaced by Cyril Ramaphosa in the South African presidency this week, activists suggested that the South African example of successful protest could be an influence on social change movements in many other countries.

"There are so many things that the rest of the world and the United States could learn from South Africa's democracy and civil society at this moment," said Patrick Gaspard, former U.S. ambassador to South Africa and now the president of the Open Society Foundations, which supports democracy and human rights groups around the world.

"At a time when we're seeing in the United States that our institutions are a good deal more fragile than we had imagined, it's inspiring to see just how resilient South African institutions are and how strategic average citizens can be," Mr. Gaspard told The Globe.

"One of the deepest lessons that all civil society should draw from South Africa of the past few years is the example of stamina, resoluteness and a particular kind of stick-to-itiveness.

... Jacob Zuma is leaving the presidency of South Africa as a consequence of the good health and vigour of South African democracy."

While the citizen opposition movement to U.S. President Donald Trump has flourished in the United States, it has sometimes "seemed to be distracted by the next tweet," Mr. Gaspard said. It could learn something from the laser-like focus and persistence of South Africa's citizen activism, he said.

South Africa was once a moral inspiration to the world. But that moment had seemed to be lost in the distant past - until now.

That time was in the mid-1990s.

Nelson Mandela was president, the country was known as the "Rainbow Nation," its leaders were liberation heroes and its citizens were courageous rebels who had defeated the evil system of apartheid.

The heroic era soon faded away.

Mr. Mandela's successor, Thabo Mbeki, rejected the science on the HIV epidemic and delayed the introduction of life-saving medicine. His denialist policies caused an estimated 330,000 deaths, according to a Harvard University study.

Then came Mr. Zuma, whose nineyear rule was riddled with embarrassing scandals over corruption and illegality. By the time of his reluctant resignation on Wednesday night, the country's reputation was in tatters.

But by forcing his early resignation, South Africans may have restored their moral authority on the world stage. In their fearless resistance to the Zuma presidency, in their citizen revolt against corruption and cronyism, they are again becoming a beacon of hope for others.

To persuade the ruling African National Congress to turf out its own president before the end of his term, South Africa's vibrant civil society sector and opposition parties took to the streets - and to the courts.

They mobilized a series of mass demonstrations, including a national anti-Zuma rally with more than 60,000 marchers in major cities last year. But they also launched a tenacious campaign of court action to fight Mr. Zuma on a range of fronts.

They obtained high-level court decisions against Mr. Zuma on corruption cases, on a disastrously expensive nuclear energy plan, on media freedom and on other issues. And they used those cases to taint his legitimacy and galvanize popular action against him.

This intensifying pressure from civil society, combined with the devastating corruption revelations that were dug up by the country's independent media, finally forced the ANC to shorten Mr. Zuma's reign. He had expected to rule until the next national election in mid-2019.

Instead, he was pushed into a hasty and undignified exit, just hours before Parliament planned to vote him out of office.

Activists in other countries are paying attention. Mr. Lewis believes they can learn from the "very careful formula" of South African civil society groups - a strategy that combines mass demonstrations with court challenges and detailed research to forge an effective campaign against government corruption and injustice.

The strategy worked. "Over time, the media joined in, the churches and unions joined in, and gradually the parliamentarians gained more confidence in breaking ranks and taking stands and having their voices heard, particularly in Zuma's downfall," Mr.

Lewis said.

It's a formula that he has witnessed for nearly two decades in South Africa, going back to the fight against Mr.

Mbeki's rejection of a mass program of antiretroviral medicine for people with HIV. A combination of street protests and judicial activism was the successful equation in that battle, too.

"South Africa has taught me that the courts are a tremendous vehicle to be used, that their decisions can animate and legitimize social movements and give them courage and strength," Mr. Lewis said. "This has been the focal point in South Africa.

Does it have application elsewhere? I suspect it does."

In many other countries, in Africa and elsewhere, a powerful president such as Mr. Zuma would have entrenched his rule over time, slowly crushing all independent resistance.

But in South Africa, it was the opposite. The longer that Mr. Zuma remained in power, the more the resistance grew deeper and more effective.

"The Zuma administration accomplished one very critical thing," said Natasha Marrian, political editor of South Africa's Business Day newspaper, in a column on Friday. "It mobilized citizens, churches, labour, opposition parties and civil society in an unprecedented way. Citizens did not just make their voices heard thought the ballot ... but also through taking to the streets."

The citizen victory against Mr. Zuma had many elements. Investigative journalism was among the most crucial of those elements. Five years ago, a series of media reports revealed that an obscure farm project with government financing in Free State province was secretly linked to the Gupta brothers, the wealthy business partners of Mr. Zuma's son. Those reports eventually exposed a widening corruption scandal over the Gupta family's influence on the Zuma government - and that scandal, in turn, helped topple Mr. Zuma this week.

Just hours before Mr. Zuma resigned, police arrested five Gupta family members and Gupta associates on corruption charges in connection with that same Free State farm project.

Another element in the citizen campaign was the South African public service. Many courageous public servants stood up against corruption, becoming whistle-blowers who leaked key documents and other evidence to implicate Zuma government officials.

Another key factor was the South African constitution. Written in the Mandela era of the 1990s in negotiations led by Mr. Ramaphosa, with assistance from - among others - Canadian legal experts, the South African constitution is widely considered one of the most progressive in the world.

Its provisions are what allowed civil society groups and opposition parties to launch their successful court challenges against the Zuma government.

South Africa's courts themselves are fiercely independent, filled with some of the country's brightest minds. In case after case, when civil society or opposition groups challenged the Zuma government, the courts issued eloquent and impeccable judgments that increasingly left Mr. Zuma isolated and badly weakened.

And then there were the South Africans themselves. In the streets, on social media and in citizen networks, they raised their voices against corruption and abuse. When the Guptas and Mr. Zuma's son hired the British publicity firm Bell Pottinger to lead a covert campaign to distract attention from the corruption issue, the campaign was exposed by leaked e-mails - which triggered a furious campaign against Bell Pottinger by South Africans on social media. The British firm was eventually forced out of business.

In his state-of-the-nation speech on Friday night, his first major speech as the country's new president, Mr. Ramaphosa promised to heed the South Africans who had spearheaded the movement against corruption.

"We are determined to build a society defined by decency and integrity that does not tolerate the plunder of public resources, nor the theft by corporate criminals of the hard-earned savings of ordinary people," he said.

And he paid tribute to the ordinary citizens who had pushed for social change.

"We are at a moment in the history of our nation when the people, through their determination, have started to turn the country around."

Associated Graphic

Above: Newly installed President Cyril Ramaphosa arrives at Parliament in Cape Town on Friday to deliver his State of the Nation address.

Right: Mr. Ramaphosa and Speaker Baleka Mbete lead a procession of offcials into Parliament on Friday. The new government is expected to curb corruption that flourished under the Zuma regime.

ABOVE: RUVAN BOSHOFF/REUTERS; RIGHT: NASIEF MANIE/AP

You can't spell 'auto show' without T.O.
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From the practical to the fast and furious, these are some of the vehicles making their public debuts in Canada at the Canadian International Auto Show starting Feb. 16. Look for a special edition of Drive covering the show in the Feb. 17 weekend newspaper
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Friday, February 9, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D8


AUDI A8

The Audi A8 signals the dawning of a new design era for the entire brand. The front end with the wide, upright single-frame grille and the fluid, muscular body symbolize sporty elegance, sophistication and progressive status. The fourth-generation A8 is the first production automobile in the world to have been developed specifically for conditional automated driving at Level 3. The Audi AI traffic jam pilot takes charge of driving in slowmoving traffic at up to 60 kilometres an hour on highways and freeways where a physical barrier separates the two carriageways. The A8 is powered by a 3.0 TFSI engine that produces 340 horsepower. The electronically controlled eight-speed automatic transmission is paired with quattro permanent allwheel drive.

BMW I8 ROADSTER

The 2019 BMW i8 roadster is the first droptop version of the brand's hybrid supercar. Like the coupe, the roadster is powered by a 1.5-litre three-cylinder engine mated to an electric motor and an 9.4-kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery. Total power output is rated at 369 hp that can launch the all-wheel drive i8 roadster to 100 km/h from rest in just 4.6 seconds. The i8 roadster features extensive use of carbon fibre reinforced polymer and aluminum in its chassis and body panels which helps it check in at a rather trim 1,595 kilograms. The launch of the roadster, along with the refreshed 2019 i8 coupe, is slated for spring.

CHEVROLET CORVETTE ZR1

The 2019 ZR1 is the fastest production Corvette ever. It all starts under the hood with a supercharged 6.2-litre LT5 V-8 engine. The LT5 delivers the highest output ever for a Chevrolet production vehicle, thanks in part to a new, more-efficient intercooled supercharger system that offers 52 per cent more displacement than the Z06's LT4 supercharger. GM's first dual fuel-injection system, which employs primary direct injection and supplemental port injection, helps the LT5 achieve its record output. Top speed of the ZR1 is more than 337 km/h.

Seven-speed manual and eightspeed paddle-shift automatic transmissions are available with the LT5. It's the first time an automatic transmission has been offered in a ZR1.

GENESIS GV80 CONCEPT

The GV80 Concept is a hydrogen fuel cell-powered SUV that offers a glimpse into the future of mobility from luxury automaker Genesis. The exterior design features a massive front grille and 23-inch mesh wheels. The interior has a 'bridge' instrument panel that stretches across the cabin from door to door and houses a 22-inch curved OLED touchscreen display that flows into the instrument cluster. The screen displays two distinct zones, with information for both the driver and passenger. A semi-aniline leather interior with diamond stitching on the door panels, seat inserts and centre console side highlight a cabin that also features polished aluminum trim accents and an ash wood centre console and floorboards.

INFINITI PROJECT BLACK S CONCEPT

A collaborative effort with the Renault Sport Formula One Team, the Project Black S Concept features an aerodynamically optimized new design, with deep body stamping from the Q60's manufacturing process, which allows the Project Black S to retain the sports coupe's deep creases and flowing lines. The performance hybrid powertrain being explored through Project Black S features an "energy recovery system" to harvest energy, deploying recovered electric power to boost power and torque. Directly inspired by the dual-hybrid system proven in Formula One, it provides instant, significant lag-free acceleration. This technology does not yet exist in a current road car.

VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT GT

The Passat GT gets a big performance boost thanks to the presence of a 3.6-litre turbocharged VR6 engine that produces 280 hp and is mated to a six-speed double-clutch transmission. A lowered suspension (15.24 mm), along with 19-inch wheels gives it a more aggressive and planted position on the road, while painted red brake calipers, a black honeycomb grille insert and red accent lines are reminiscent of the GTI.

NIRO PLUG-IN HYBRID

As Kia's third plug-in model, the Niro PHEV offers the same crossover utility, fun-driving and winning design of the Niro hybrid, but with an estimated 42 km of all-electric range. And with the total driving range rated at up to an estimated 900 km, it offers fantastic versatility. With Niro Plug-in Hybrid you can have it all - pure EV daily driving and the ability to take long road trips.

RAM 1500 AND 1500 SPORT

Overall weight for the 2019 Ram 1500 has been reduced by 102 kg. An all-new eTorque system delivers improved fuel efficiency in both V-6 and V-8 configurations. The upgraded eTorque version of the Pentastar V-6 is the standard engine in most trim levels, specifically tuned for truck duty and rated at 305 hp and 269 lb.-ft. of torque. The 5.7litre HEMI V-8 combines the muscle of 395 hp and 410 lb.-ft. of torque with performanceenhancing and fuel-saving technologies that include variable valve timing and cylinder deactivation. Every 2019 Ram 1500 is equipped with a fully electronic eight-speed automatic transmission with a wide spread of gear ratios.

SUBARU WRX STI TYPE RA

The 2018 Subaru WRX STI Type RA is aimed at the discerning enthusiast, with increased performance through weight reduction, suspension improvements and engine upgrades. Output from the 2.5-litre turbocharged four-cylinder Boxer engine has been increased to 310 hp through the addition of a new cold-air intake and high-flow performance exhaust. The sixspeed manual transmission has a revised third-gear ratio and a short-throw shifter. Each model comes equipped with a carbonfibre roof panel, removal of the spare tire, a carbon-fibre pedestal wing and lightweight BBS 19inch forged alloy wheels in a brilliant gold.

VOLVO XC40 R DESIGN

Volvo's third SUV offers provides a new expression of Scandinavian design for the brand. In Canada, the XC40 will be equipped with Volvo's T5 Drive-E powertrain and all-wheel-drive capabilities in both Momentum and R-Design vehicle trims.

KOENIGSEGG AGERA RS

In late 2017, on a closed section of highway in Nevada, the Koenigsegg Agera RS was clocked at 457.94 km/h, the fastest speed ever measured on a public road.

Powered by a twin-turbocharged 5.0-litre aluminum V-8, the Agera RS from Sweden produces a staggering 1,160 hp and 944 lb-ft. of maximum torque.

Total production run is limited to 25 units.

LAMBORGHINI URUS

Built on the same platform that underpins the Audi Q7, Bentley Bentayga and Porsche Cayenne, the Urus - the name refers to the Aurochs, one of the wild ancestors of domestic cattle - is powered by a 4.0-litre twin-turbocharged V-8 engine that produces 650 hp and 627 lb-ft. of torque. From a design perspective, the Urus is very much a Lamborghini, and it carries forward the two-thirds body, onethird window ratio of its sports car siblings. Same goes for its aggressive, shark-like nose, slim LED headlights and tail lights and large rear diffuser. The interior evokes a strong feeling of modern Lamborghini design, from the D-shaped steering wheel to the brushed metal accents and squarish lines and contours of the dashboard.

MERCEDES-AMG PROJECT ONE HYPERCAR

Engineers from AMG HQ in Germany, along with the company's Formula One operations in Britain transplanted the high-performance plug-in hybrid drive system from the team's Formula One car. Project ONE uses the same 1.6-litre turbocharged V-6 working in conjunction with four electric motors; the front axle will be powered entirely by two 120kilowatt motors. The midmounted V-6 is capable of reaching engine speeds of 11,000 rpm, unheard of for a production car. Power will be sent to all four wheels via an AMG eight-speed manual transmission. So how fast is it? Blindingly. AMG pegs total system power at 1,000 hp which can rocket the car from zero to 200 km/h in less than six seconds, with a top speed of 350 km/h.

Mercedes-AMG has said production will be limited to 275 units.

PORSCHE 911 CARRERA T

The Porsche 911 Carrera T harks back to the 1968 original both in terms of style and structure.

The Carrera T is lighter, has a manual transmission and comes with a shorter transaxle ratio and a mechanical rear differential lock. Other standard kit includes a sport suspension with a 10 millimetre lower ride height, shorter gear shifter (with a red shift pattern), and optional rear-axle steering. The Carrera T is powered by a 3.0litre twin-turbo flat six-cylinder engine that produces 370 horsepower and 331 lb-ft. of torque, which can produce a zeroto-100 km/h time of 4.3 seconds and a top track speed of 293 km/h. Manual and PDK transmissions are available.

The text, which has been edited for length, is courtesy of the Canadian International Auto Show.

Associated Graphic

The 2019 BMW i8 roadster, above, is the first droptop version of the brand's hybrid supercar.

The new Porsche 911 Carrera T, below, harks back to the 1968 original both in terms of style and structure and is powered by a 3.0-litre twin-turbo flat six-cylinder engine.

The 2018 Subaru WRX STI Type RA, below, is aimed at the discerning enthusiast, with increased performance through weight reduction, suspension improvements and engine upgrades.

It's not a happy birthday for Kosovo
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As Europe's youngest state celebrates its 10th anniversary, the country must come to grips with a decade of poor leadership and a very uncertain future
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By ROBERT AUSTIN
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O8


Associate professor at the Centre for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs

Kosovo, Europe's youngest state, turns 10 on Saturday, but its people have few reasons to celebrate.

Blame for that largely goes to successive lousy governments and a corrupted predatory elite, often enabled by an international community that is more interested in stability than anything else, happy to turn a blind eye to Kosovo's obvious democratic shortcomings.

I was in Kosovo on independence day in 2008. Everybody knew it was coming. The big question was not when it would occur, but what would happen the day after.

Three things were absolutely clear to me.

One was that it was undeniable that Kosovo's independence was just: There were no other alternatives. The series of events inflicted upon the ethnic Albanians in much of the 20th century, especially after Serb leader Slobodan Milosevic entered the scene in the late 1980s, meant that Kosovo could never be part of Serbia or Yugoslavia. This became even more obvious after the forced expulsion of the Albanians in the winter and spring of 1999, just as the NATO intervention began. Plus, in the negotiations for Kosovo's final status, Serbia rarely put anything meaningful on the table, and when it did, it was usually too late to be taken seriously. (Afterward, Serbia refused to recognize Kosovo at the United Nations, where it was backed by Russia.)

Second, the ethnic Albanians wrongly assumed that independence would solve all their problems - as their politicians erroneously suggested - and lead to investment, jobs and economic prosperity.

Finally, and most depressingly, as I listened to the canned speeches of Kosovo's then-rulers, it was obvious that they were simply not up to the job. Nervous as they were, it seemed they, too, knew running a state was just not their thing. After nine years of UN administration and booming profits for politicians through corruption and state capture, independence and the rule of law that ordinary people had hoped for, might be bad for business.

In any case, Kosovo got a new and generic flag that nobody liked, a wordless (so as to avoid controversy) national anthem, a postmodern road map for statehood and a very uncertain future.

Many of Kosovo's founding rules are, regrettably, still around. A decade of on-the-job training has done little to help. Kosovo still languishes somewhere between a normal and abnormal state. Even before the 2018 celebrations began, Kosovo was receiving bad news. In late October, another country (Suriname) revoked its recognition of Kosovo. (Belgrade rejoiced while the Foreign Ministry in Kosovo said the decision was illegal.) In November, several people, including the Leader of the largest opposition party, SelfDetermination, were arrested for their roles in setting off tear gas in parliament while protesting new agreements designed to normalize relations with Serbia. In December, former Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) leader and now Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj more than doubled his salary - a decision he defended by saying he required better clothes: "I am obliged to wear a tie. I cannot go out dressed any old how. I must have a shirt." (Since nobody other than Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama actually invites the Kosovo leadership anywhere, the need for fancy clothes is not clear to me.) And in January, Kosovo's parliament moved to block a special court set up - at the insistence of the European Union and the United States - to try war crimes committed before, and after, the 1999 conflict.

Most worryingly, Oliver Ivanovic, the most prominent leader of the Serb community that lives in the north, was assassinated outside his office in Mitrovica last month. Mr.

Ivanovic's murder, given the sensitive state of talks between Belgrade and Pristina, the capital, and as a key proponent of engagement with the government in Kosovo, will likely spell problems. One thing is clear: The main beneficiaries of Mr. Ivanovic's death are criminals who benefit from maintaining lawlessness in the north.

These recent setbacks are worsened by longer-term problems that have been apparent since 2008. For instance, much of the population is unemployed and living in poverty; youth unemployment is among the highest in the world; foreign direct investment, never stellar, is declining, and there is not much left to sell anyway. Kosovo imports almost everything it consumes. Remittances from an extremely generous diaspora are among the highest in Europe. Successive governments entrenched clientelism by spending money like mad on the civil service and engaging in corrupt infrastructure projects, particularly costly highway projects, that neglected Kosovo's real needs in education and health care. Albanians and Serbs alike could be forgiven for thinking the clocks had really stopped ticking. Civil unrest has only been avoided because so many people left, largely as economic migrants to the EU. A grim report card made worse given that Kosovo gets more cash per capita from the EU than any other Balkan country.

To be fair, while the governing elites are the principal culprits, the international community is not blameless.

Instead of being granted independence in 1999 after the NATO intervention, Kosovo received nine years of United Nations administration. Back then, nobody could have even imagined that an interim administration would last so long, but the perks were too good to give up. The UN failed to instill a sense of accountability or respect for democracy.

The international do-gooders arrived smelling money and an easy gig. The non-stop blame game between local and international officials grew tiring. As a neither-here-northere state - and one with no clear future - Kosovo's people succumbed to a deep existential crisis.

Pushed by the United States, which was growing tired of EU foot-dragging, the EU launched talks on Kosovo's final status (which could only end one way given U.S. insistence on independence as the only solution). In 2007, former Finnish president Martti Ahtisaari presented what was known as the Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement. Although the plan did not formally recommend independence, in a covering letter, Mr. Ahtisaari called for a period of supervised independence under EU, not UN, supervision.

So, 10 years ago, Kosovo went from one kind of protectorate under the UN to another kind of protectorate under the EU in the form of EULEX, a mission aimed at providing assistance in broadly conceived rule of law issues. The Ahtisaari Plan, which more or less became Kosovo's constitution, was hardly understood by anyone and almost impossible to implement given the lofty goals for multi-ethnicity and the arrival of postnationalism. The fact that the Albanian side agreed to it when it was not a particularly good deal rested on the notion that independence must be obtained at any price.

The plan was based on what people expected the world to look like in the years ahead only if liberal cosmopolitanism triumphed. But things changed dramatically - the nation state proved more resilient than some expected, and new and compelling role models emerged in the authoritarian nationalist populism of Viktor Orban in Hungary or Recep Tayyip Erdogan in Turkey.

So, where does that leave Kosovo? The United States continues to have the most influence for obvious reasons - NATO intervention and non-stop support for independence - but never really cared what happened in the longer term.

The often-freewheeling U.S. ambassadors in Pristina convinced locals that Washington was calling the shots. (What the locals failed to realize was that the ambassadors were likely getting no instructions.) The EU's inability to take the lead and really fix Kosovo is the bigger failure, though.

While the United States can simply walk away, the whole idea of the EU as a transformative power is called into doubt, as the EU is on record as promising the remaining Balkan states membership. Sadly, locals have lost faith in the EU's capacity to deliver. They want to see the big fish in jail, not in power.

It seems that hope may lie with what transpires in the special court. The court was an outgrowth of accusations of KLA war crimes and the suggestion of its involvement in organ trafficking. The court is now operational and there is panic among the former warriors who dominate the political scene. Given the legacy of botched trials and widespread witness intimidation in the past, many argue that the court is a required step if Kosovo is ever to become a normal state.

Its critics say it is maligning a just liberation war that seeks only to indict the KLA and is therefore by definition antiAlbanian. If the court delivers, Kosovo's moribund political scene is about to get a major shake-up.

The analytical consensus for the non-EU Balkans is that the quest for stability has taken precedence over democracy. An optimist may say that by getting the geopolitics right by normalizing regional relations first, the door is open for democracy building later. A pessimist sees state capture, massive corruption and brain drain which is very hard to reverse. Finally, the fate of the EU's enlargement policy and indeed its foreign policy does hinge on what happens in the Balkans. Failure in tiny Kosovo calls into question the whole enterprise just as much as Brexit does.

Associated Graphic

A Kosovo flag hangs outside a government building in Pristina on Wednesday. Kosovo, which celebrates the 10th anniversary of its split from Serbia on Saturday, continues to struggle to impose a national identity.

ARMEND NIMANI/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

China's hip-hop uprising, beat by beat
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While rebellious rappers are having a moment in the country, a crackdown by the ruling Communist Party challenges the genre's focus on protest and resistance
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


BEIJING -- When Wang Renzhi first fell in love with hip hop more than a decade ago, he saw a kind of music that could do for his generation what rock 'n' roll did for the 1980s-era students whose grievances eventually brought them to Tiananmen Square.

For a few years at least, Wang, who goes by the stage name Da Wei, had reason to be optimistic: Not only did hip hop have its overseas roots as underground protest music, but Cui Jian, the Chinese rocker whose songs became an anthem for the Tiananmen protests, was himself a fan.

The two met at a hip-hop show.

But a Communist Party-led hip-hop crackdown in 2018 has corroded hopes of a defiant music genre taking root in China, as groups with lyrics deemed questionable are stripped from streaming services, even while groups trading in propagandist "socialist hip hop" receive government support.

"They want to curb hip hop because this culture could inspire people's sense of resistance," Wang said.

"The cultural environment in China today is very complicated - partly North Korea, but with shades of New York," he added.

Under President Xi Jinping, the Communist Party has grown more vigilant in asserting leadership over China's social, cultural, political and religious affairs. The rise of hip hop in China offers a new glimpse of the party's vigilance in neutralizing potential sources of counterculture, even as a generation of plugged-in, cosmopolitan youth embrace Western trends.

Wang, 27, was a hip-hop fan before most in China had even heard of the term.

As a high-school student, he began listening instead to the Notorious B.I.G., Eminem and Wu-Tang Clan, whose CDs he found at vendors outside his school.

The most popular song in China at the time was a Taiwanese tearjerker ("Playing Chopin's nocturne for you, to remember the dead love inside me"). American hip hop was a revelation.

Wang joined his first hip-hop battle at 15.

"The first song I wrote was a protest song. I protested against everything," he said.

"Rebellion is a crucial element of hip-hop music, and this kind of resistance can be against many things: family, social conventions and political regimes."

For the better part of a decade, though, hip hop occupied only a small niche in China.

Then, last year, it broke into the mainstream with The Rap of China, a reality show that garnered more than 2.6 billion online views to its 12 episodes.

Words such as "diss" and "freestyle" entered the broader vocabulary and streetwear brands started to discover a new Chinese appetite for their clothing. Across the country, domestic hip-hop artists began to draw raucous crowds to pulsing shows and big new audiences for their music.

In September, 2017, China Music Business News, an analytical firm, counted 2,830 hip-hop artists and 78 hip-hop labels in China. Top groups are now demanding as much as $77,000 a performance, the firm found in a report titled On the Eve of a FullScale Hip-Hop Breakout.

Among the newcomers is 15 Block, a group formed in 2015. Hip hop "makes me feel real," said Zhang Tao, 22, one its leaders.

15 Block has emerged in a nascent scene in Guizhou, a Chinese province that ranks among the country's poorest. Zhang sees deep roots for the genre, which he says "can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty - the way rappers use rhythm in their lyrics is a lot like Tang poetry."

But Guizhou has also stood at the heart of another trend in Chinese hip hop, the use of a new musical format to praise authorities and, in particular, the Communist Party.

"Hip hop to me is full of positive energy," Zhang said, using a term promoted by the party.

"The core of hip hop is indisputably peace and love."

15 Block's members include a civil servant and two police officers. One of its most popular songs, My City, is an ode to a Guizhou city that has sought to transform itself from a coal centre into a green centre. "The average temperature is 21," the song proclaims. "We don't ever touch the air-conditioner remote."

Another Guizhou hip-hop artist, Sun Bayi, has been more overt. He was catapulted to fame by his appearance on The Rap of China and has used the platform to sing praise to the Communist Party.

His song Brilliant China is jammed with party tropes about the "rejuvenation of the nation" and 100-year goals.

"There won't be hope unless the party and the people can be united," he raps. "Let's stick to the principle and firmness of the party and go forward."

To his critics, Sun has said that's just how he feels. "Isn't that what hip hop is all about? You can sing whatever you want, right?" he wrote in a defensive socialmedia post.

Brilliant China, released in January, remains far from the top of the charts. But trumpeting the party can be lucrative in other ways.

Hip-hop group Tianfu Shibian, which gained prominence for attacking Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen, has received support from the Communist Youth League, which has sought a popculture voice to reach young people. Chinese authorities paid for the group to film a pro-Beijing music video in a disputed area of the South China Sea.

At the same time, the Communist Youth League has taken aim at groups whose lyrics it deems problematic. In early January, it criticized one of the country's top rappers, PG One, for lyrics about women and narcotics it said "may deceive young people into drug addiction."

Public figures should "give young people correct guidance," the Youth League said in a post to its social-media account.

The post has sparked a broad reckoning for hip-hop artists. PG One's group, Red Flower Society, has been expunged from Chinese music-streaming services. Rap of China winner GAI was pulled from The Singer, another music reality show; the director cited "special circumstances" as an explanation to local media.

Other artists have scrambled to dodge similar treatment. Some have deleted the text of lyrics from streaming apps; others have amended the texts, while leaving the songs themselves untouched.

Posted lyrics for one song by rapper Tizzy T have been changed from "I want to buy a house and have sex with my girl" to "I want to buy a house to cook with my kid."

"We have to be careful as artists, because we influence the masses, and the government really sees that," said Al Rocco, a Hong Kong-born artist booted from the first episode of The Rap of China for performing in English.

He nonetheless sees a bright future for Chinese hip hop. Commercial opportunities have begun to rain down - Rocco has relationships with Adidas, Chivas, Tissot and others - while the immense size of the Chinese diaspora virtually guarantees a global audience. Artists such as Canadian-Chinese singer Kris Wu have become worldwide stars.

Liu Mo, the chief editor of review site Nutrition Monster, called China's hip-hop blowback "normal," likening the Communist Party to parents unaccustomed to their kids' new musical tastes.

"It's a phase," he said, one "that all foreign culture must go through when entering China and trying to blend with mainstream culture."

"To me," he added, "music shouldn't be too ideological. It is a channel for young people to enjoy life and release passion."

Chinese hip hop, meanwhile, is moving fast to join with U.S. artists and expand its influence.

Higher Brothers, scheduled to play in Toronto in late February, collaborated with Chicago rapper Famous Dex for its song Made in China - a catchy number that also shows how artists are searching for space between propaganda and protest.

"I head into the studio first thing in the morning filled with power and fighting spirit," Higher Brothers rap in the song. "The responsibility I feel is like the Chinese national team winning respect in swimming."

But midway through the music video, the screen is drenched in bright red and overlaid with the flashing words "Error" and "This video is not available in your country" as the lyrics descend into English-language vulgarity - an unsubtle dig at censorship.

"Though censorship pressure is increasing, clever artists will always find a way," said Sun Quan, who goes by the stage name Falao.

He's cleaning up his own music, scrubbing it of vulgarity "while still telling the story I want to tell," he said.

"The environment is always in flux, but opportunities are there for those flexible enough to adjust. How to safeguard what you want to say while using more decent language and not treading on the 'red line' - that's where the challenge really lies."

With reporting by Alexandra Li

Associated Graphic

Li Yijie, a member of Sichuan-based rap group Tianfu Shibian, poses in Beijing in August, 2017. For the better part of a decade, hip hop occupied only a small niche in China, before breaking into the mainstream last year.

JASON LEE/REUTERS

Wang Renzhi, a hip-hop artist known as Da Wei, says 'the cultural environment in China today is very complicated - partly North Korea, but with shades of New York.'

NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Where the words come from
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Fresh out of the hospital and still heavily medicated, how does one begin to write a chapter when even the smallest pronoun defeats you?
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By PATRICK LANE
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Thursday, February 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A19


Poet and novelist whose latest book, Deep River Night, was published this month.

Fevers, night sweats, headaches, arterial inflammation, a year of utter exhaustion. One year ago this past Christmas, my doctor gave me 10 days to live.

She sent me to an internist and he put me in the hospital. After a month, the six specialists who had kept me alive stood at the end of my bed and said they didn't know what was wrong with me. They said I was a mystery.

They said they talked about me over coffee. Their solution for my many conflicting symptoms was to give me massive daily doses of the steroid prednisone. Two weeks later they sent me home.

I spent my days and nights lying in my bedroom staring through closed eyes at the door, hoping my wife wouldn't come to ask if I was feeling better. I slept inside my fevers. My brain was a raw egg swirling in a mixing bowl.

My language skills had collapsed. Conversations were difficult. The effort to follow words moving through my mind confused me. I couldn't have the radio on; the voices blared, cacophonous. I couldn't read a book. Periods defeated me, commas left me in fear of what came next. My immune system inflammations combined with the steroids to relieve them created a language breakdown, mental panic attacks and cognitive dissonance.

A few days after getting out of the hospital an e-mail arrived reminding me of the novel Random House had accepted a year ago. Deep River Night needed to be revised and edited. I had forgotten about it entirely. Random House kindly gave me an extra three months.

In a state of helplessness I phoned my new editor and told her in a trembling voice I could not complete the task. After a moment of what seemed thoughtful silence, she said she had already spent a hundred hours on my novel while waiting for me to get out of the hospital and she wasn't going to let me quit. You have written a fine novel and you are going to finish it, she told me. Her voice was both friendly and firm. I tried to explain my difficulties, but she just told me in her gentle manner to get over them. She said she would be sending the first editing notes and suggestions to me in the next few days. Everything will be okay, she said. And by the way, she added, I think there are too many characters in the novel.

That and the first chapter has to be taken out and a new one written. What do you think?

Think?

I felt like a child again and my Grade 1 teacher, Miss Irving, was being kind to the little half-blind boy who could not see the blackboard and never learned to read. I told my editor in my medicated delirium that I was fairly sure I could write a sentence if I worked at it. I said, too, that a paragraph might be possible if it was short and without too much description. Dialogue seemed possible, yes, no, hello, goodbye. But a chapter? A new one to be written?

What would it be about? Who would be in it? A chapter? I had no idea how to write a chapter.

What I was feeling wasn't writer's block. It wasn't fear. A chapter was simply beyond my imagination. The complexity of two characters interacting as they walked down a country road or passed between rooms in a house was beyond my ken. My skull was stuffed with a towel full of sand and engine oil. Nothing moved through the morass.

You can edit right on the computer, she said. Try it.

When I didn't respond, she said, Don't despair.

The next day, desperate, I sat down at the kitchen table and tried to print a sentence with a pencil that took me a half hour to find, but the letters came impossibly slow, my mind staggering from a vertical line to a horizontal line, the word taking forever to form, the space following a chasm I didn't know how to cross or fill. I sat there and stared at the word HE for what seemed a long time. The crooked capital letters stared back at me. I thought of trying to print another word such as WILL but it seemed a monumental task. I turned to cursive, thinking letters connected to letters would speed things up, but the pen I chose started to tremble, my grip falter, handwriting something I hadn't done for years other than to sign my name.

I called my editor that evening and told her of the futility of it all.

She suggested again that I take a stab at the computer. Try the keyboard, she said softly, as if speaking to an elderly man in a nursing home who has forgotten where the bathroom is. I didn't say anything. She waited a minute or two and then told me once again not to worry. She said that most chapters begin with the word the. Her voice was soft, kind and encouraging. She suggested I start a sentence with that and move on from there.

Click.

Silence.

I went to bed and woke late in the night thinking of a sentence, any sentence, one I could possibly write. I went down the hall and stared into my dark office. I had not been in the room for months. I took a step inside and looked at my computer. The screen saver writhed across the dark, the loops and streams of colour fuses burning in the ether of elsewhere than the mind.

Where were my words?

Where did they begin?

I remembered long ago sitting down at a rickety kitchen table in a small 40-by-8-foot trailer sticking out from a mountain side. It was 1960. My wife and children had finally gone to sleep. I was tired after my long day working at the sawmill. I sat there and looked at the cheap portable typewriter I had bought for $8 from a man who was moving south and had no need for it.

Eight dollars was a lot of money back then, but I had decided I was going to be a writer.

Why?

I think it was because there were stories in me and they needed telling. I had bought the typewriter because it was the symbol of writing to me. I did not know how to type. I had never learned.

I remember closing the sliding door that led to the narrow hall and the bedroom at the back of the trailer where my family slept.

I sat down at the kitchen table on a rickety metal chair with a torn plastic seat, opened the cover of the machine, inserted a single page of cheap, canary-yellow paper, and rolled it in. I sat and raised my right hand with an extended forefinger, searched among the bright and shining keys and found the letter "T." I struck it with my finger. Clack.

The letter "T" was embedded in ink on the page. I hesitated, searched again and found the "h" and the "e" and typed them in with my finger. I had made the word "The." Was that where writing started? Was that where the story began? Way back there in the north, in the night, with nothing but a deep and terrible need to tell a story? But how was I to do it now, ill and confused as I was?

Could it be possible? Thinking about writing wasn't writing. I had told young writers that for years. Talking about it wasn't writing, either. Did I have to remember the words or were they simply lying in tangled chains in my brain waiting to be unwound?

I struggled at the edge of the swamp that was my brain. I closed my eyes and vaguely remembered my novel had a character. His name was Art. For some reason he had to save a boy who was injured. It was important that the boy be injured, although why it was I didn't know.

In a medicated daze I sat down on my chair in my office, touched the mouse with my left hand and opened a blank page. Its incandescent blankness shocked me. I looked down and stared at the keyboard. It looked almost the same as the one in that typewriter from years ago. Words, I said, words. Where are you?

I raised my right hand and with my extended finger typed the word I'd typed so long ago. A "T" and an "h," an "e," and it happened. Without thought of any kind, my hand did what it had been doing for more than half a century. I did not look up. I kept on going. I touched keys with my solitary finger and other words appeared as if from nowhere: The dark cup of the cat's ear moved.

Associated Graphic

Patrick Lane and his wife, Lorna Crozier, sit in Vancouver in 2012. After a mysterious illness that left his mind in a fog, Lane was tasked with editing his latest novel, Deep River Night.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

An off-the-grid adventure
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From a tiny cabin in British Columbia, first-time Canadian author Kate Harris penned tales of travel along the Silk Road
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P19


ATLIN, B.C. -- Even if the sky isn't pounding non-stop sparkling snow onto the winding highway in the dark, dark evening, Atlin, B.C., isn't the easiest place to reach.

Not that a difficult road has ever stopped Kate Harris from getting anywhere. Growing up in small-town Ontario, she was enchanted with Marco Polo's travels along the fabled ancient network of trade routes known as the Silk Road, linking Asia with the Middle East and Europe.

After completing her undergraduate degree in biology, Harris finally set out on her own adventure across the Silk Road - on a bicycle with a friend, their panniers loaded down with gear, supplies and Moleskine notebooks as they slogged through often punishing conditions.

Harris's new book recounts those travels - first in western China, then their return in 2011 when they rode from Turkey to the Himalayas, over nearly 11 months.

So when I arrived in the northern B.C. village of Atlin, where Harris lives, to meet her, it seemed a little ridiculous to feel any sense of accomplishment about my slower-than-intended, white-knuckle drive south from Whitehorse in my Ford Focus rental. Still, she made me feel like a warrior for the achievement.

"I was going to go out looking for you," she said, in her ducttaped ski jacket. After reading her extraordinary debut book, I believed her. That's the kind of thing she would do. We sat down to dinner and our first of two interviews.

Lands of Lost Borders: Out of Bounds on the Silk Road is rich not only because of the adventures it recounts, but in the telling of them. It isn't so much a travelogue as it is a contemplation of what pushes us out the door and how we change out there in the world before we return to our own little corner of it.

This is not the type of book you want to motor through.

Instead, it slows you down, so you can appreciate what you're experiencing - almost like a trip on a bicycle across an astonishing landscape. You find yourself wanting to linger, rereading passages built of sentences so beautiful they demand to be read out loud - even if no one else is in the room.

"Every tree branch was fisted with buds and the air smelled of freshly chopped pine, earthy and warm, all those rays of sunshine released," Harris writes. "Every time I got on my bicycle after a long hiatus it was like riding back to myself, the only way there."

This book made me want to venture (!) to Atlin to meet Harris; it made me want to be a little like her, to go back and live my life differently - see different things but also see them differently. As she writes: "We're only here by fluke, and only for a little while, so why not run with life as far and wide as you can?" Harris, 35, has always wanted to be an explorer. But for many years, her obsession was Mars.

She built her academic and planned career path on becoming an astronaut, even attending a simulated Mars mission in Utah during her undergrad. There, she discovered an aversion to seeing the world through the Plexiglas of a space helmet. It should have been her first clue.

While at Oxford on a Rhodes Scholarship (an underachiever she is not), she switched from science - why spend your time in Oxford in a lab, she figured - to studying the history of science.

This is where she found her groove, reading the journals of Charles Darwin and other explorers. When she returned to the lab, this time at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she couldn't wait to get out. Instead of pursuing her PhD, she and her friend Mel Yule left for Turkey with their bikes.

They took videos, photos and mailed home their journals - snapping shots of each page for insurance - so they wouldn't have to lug them around. Years later, in her one-room cabin in Atlin, this reference material helped Harris get into the Silk Road headspace, looking out the window at endless trees from her desk, which is planted under a cathedral of built-in bookshelves; she calls it the skybrary.

The cabin is outside of town and off the grid, powered by solar energy and a backup generator.

There's a woodstove, a propane oven and, a short walk away through the snow, an outhouse.

There's no shower, no cell service; she drew a map in my notebook after our dinner so I could find the place again the next morning; a moose-hunting sign was one of the landmarks.

"It's nothing fancy," she said, not apologetically, ahead of my arrival.

So how does someone who has travelled all over the world choose Atlin, population approximately 400?

During her undergraduate years at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Harris could access summer travel grants. This was in part how she became a writer: She realized that words had the power to launch her anywhere.

In summer, 2004, she took part in a glaciology field program, skiing across the Juneau Icefield for six glorious weeks.

The trip ended in Atlin. Harris fell in love with the place and never forgot. In 2012, she moved here with her partner, now wife, Kate Neville, who teaches at the University of Toronto, specializing in global environmental politics.

"I could pretty happily never go anywhere again. Atlin is situated in such a way that radiating out from this little community is wilderness ... where nature is still just doing its thing and wildlife is doing its thing," Harris says.

"I can't see myself actually not travelling anywhere else," she clarifies. "But what interests me about Atlin is it's so easy to be dazzled when you go to a foreign land. Everything's dazzling; everything's new and odd and surprising. Every footstep's kind of like a new frontier. It's new territory. But there's a potential to be dazzled by a place where you live, day in, day out, that is so much deeper. ... It's a much more profound acquaintance with a place than any sort of twoweek flurry through a country on a bike can yield."

Harris compares the lessthan-200-square-foot cabin to a haiku - five by seven by five (though she's not sure those are the exact dimensions). She wrote at the desk while Neville sat on the bench behind her working on her own book, an academic text about community responses to environmental land use, including fracking. They spent mornings writing with their black lab Daniel between them, afternoons out in nature.

"If you can't write a book here, you can't write a book anywhere," Harris says.

Over five years, Harris wrote and rewrote. For instruction, she read other writing that floored her - by Annie Dillard, Pico Iyer, Barry Lopez, Anne Michaels, Wallace Stevens, Virginia Woolf and others.

Their books and many others - including her mother's old copy of Marco Polo's Adventures in China - still line the cabin's ceiling-reaching shelves, the highest of which Harris can only reach by climbing onto her desk and standing on tiptoe (she plans to build a ladder).

What she finally produced is a book so good it drew both Iyer and Lopez out of blurb-retirement.

Iyer, who once wrote an antiblurb essay, "Jacketeering," that Harris had been unaware of, nonetheless provided a glowing blurb, calling her book a modern classic. "Kate Harris packs more exuberant spirit, intrepid charm, wit, poetry and beauty into her every paragraph than most of us can manage in a lifetime," it begins.

"He wrote this gobsmacking blurb that made my life," Harris says, practically glowing next to the wood she earlier chopped.

"Anything could happen with the book from here and it doesn't matter. If Pico Iyer thought it was a meaningful read, yes, that's enough. My life is made."

But what about Mars, I ask - is that still a dream?

"It's hard to convey just how evangelical I was about Mars as a kid. My whole mission in life was qualifying myself to potentially go there some day," she says.

But no more. "I think as the result of my travels I just have this deepening allegiance to the Earth. My loyalties are here," she continues. "It took a pretty naive version of me to prioritize space and Mars exploration above all else."

She thinks her next projects may be book-worthy: learning to fly (there are brick-like flight manuals among the poetry volumes) and learning to build. This summer there are plans to construct a second cabin on the property - for guests, especially writers. It will be lined with shelves, insulated with wall-towall books. What better way to keep a writer warm and inspired in a northern British Columbia forest?

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Kate Harris, author of Lands of Lost Borders, lives in a one-room log cabin outside Atlin, B.C., which has around 400 residents.

PHOTOS BY CRYSTAL SCHICK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Harris, who was a Rhodes Scholar, discovered Atlin while taking part in a glaciology field program, skiing across the Juneau Icefield for six weeks.

DIGGING A HOLE IN THE OCEAN
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The U.S.-led war in Afghanistan is in its 17th year, with no end in sight. We can see now, writes Steve Coll, that the framework of Canadian policy - security, reconstruction and active diplomacy - was the right one
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By STEVE COLL
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O3


Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Ghost Wars, staff writer for The New Yorker and dean of the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University. His new book is Directorate S: The C.I.A. and America's Secret Wars in Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2001-2016

In the tragedy of the American-led war in Afghanistan, a turning point was 2006, the year Canadian forces turned up in Kandahar expecting to keep the peace, only to become embroiled in a bloody fight with the Taliban. Neither NATO nor U.S. intelligence prepared Canadian commanders for what they encountered; if Ottawa had known how far the Taliban's comeback had progressed - and how ambitious its guerrillas had become - the minority government led by Paul Martin, which agreed to the deployment to Kandahar in 2005, might have declined the mission. Intelligence about the Taliban's revival and intentions surfaced too late, and even then, in too many quarters, it wasn't taken seriously enough.

Early in 2006, Amrullah Saleh, then the head of Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security (NDS), the country's principal intelligence service, decided to conduct a formal study of the Taliban's gathering resurgence, to inform Afghan President Hamid Karzai, his cabinet and allies of Afghanistan. He decided to interview active Taliban commanders personally. (There are few impermeable lines in Afghanistan's internal conflicts.) Mr. Saleh travelled to Zabul, Uruzgan, Helmand, Kandahar and other provincial capitals. His colleagues in regional NDS offices negotiated safe-passage agreements with Taliban commanders, who came in to talk to him.

This sometimes involved paying the Taliban for their time and insights. Mr. Saleh's classified paper was completed in May, 2006, the same month Canada's Task Force Orion launched Operation Mountain Thrust, "to defeat the Taliban in their traditional areas." Commanded by Colonel Ian Hope, it was the first of a succession of operations intended to break the back of the Taliban's comeback around Kandahar, the movement's birthplace. Canadian forces fought hard, absorbed unexpected casualties and were often tactically successful, but trying to suppress the Taliban proved to be like "digging a hole in the ocean," as Canadian Major-General David Fraser, the top Canadian commander, put it.

Canada had run into a Pakistani covert operation to bring back the Taliban. In his paper, Mr. Saleh concluded that Pakistan's powerful Inter-Services Intelligence agency, or ISI, had made a decision in 2005 to support the Taliban more actively, with cash and other aid, backed by covert subsidies from Saudi Arabia. The consolidation of Mr. Karzai's government between 2003 and 2005 - a period when a new Afghan constitution was ratified and successful presidential and parliamentary elections were held - explained the timing of this Pakistani turn in policy, Mr. Saleh judged. He regarded Pakistan as an "Indiacentric country." In essence, he concluded, Pakistan's generals feared that Mr. Karzai's legitimacy would steer Afghanistan toward a durable role as an Indian ally, with international backing.

His study predicted that the Taliban mobilization would intensify and that by 2009, the guerrillas would be advancing from rural strongholds to threaten major cities such as Kandahar. The paper forecast that the Taliban would mount a fullfledged insurgency that would bog down Afghan and international troops. This would turn out to be largely accurate, except that the Taliban drive on southern cities occurred even faster than that, at Canada's expense. The "Afghanistan government's legitimacy should not be brought down due to our inefficiency in knowing the enemy, knowing ourselves and applying resources efficiently," Mr. Saleh warned.

He passed his paper to the United States, and it seems likely that Canadian decisionmakers and commanders saw it as well, but by then they were committed to the Kandahar campaign. They had to contend not only with the Taliban but with an Afghan President who discounted the seriousness of the insurgency. Mr. Karzai rejected the study's findings. He ridiculed its predictions and asked Mr. Saleh to never again call the Taliban "an insurgency."

For years, Mr. Karzai clung to the conviction that the Taliban were a problem of international terrorism solely attributable to the ISI and that there was no indigenous cause of the revolt against his rule. He told U.S. General Stanley McChrystal in 2009, as the United States took charge of the war from NATO allies and dispatched tens of thousands of troops to escalate the fight: "An insurgency, as I understand the meaning, suggests there are citizens of a country who are fighting against their government because they think the government is illegitimate. Now, we are a conservative, simple Muslim people. If they are fighting against an illegitimate government, then who are you, the United States? You are propping up an illegitimate government.

No. There is no insurgency."

Mr. Karzai believed, like many other Afghans, that the true story of the war - the essential problem - was not his government's corruption or legitimacy but the mysterious unwillingness of the United States to challenge the ISI and Pakistan. By the end of his time in power, Mr. Karzai had sunk into conspiracy thinking, concluding that the United States must want the ISI to succeed in destabilizing Afghanistan in order to justify maintaining U.S. military bases in his country.

American diplomats tried to dissuade Mr. Karzai of this belief, but until the end, he refused to yield.

During a 2013 meeting, recalled James Dobbins, then the U.S. special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan, he said to Mr. Karzai: "Mr. President, between Edward Snowden and Edward Snowden and WikiLeaks, you have several million documents to examine - can you find any mention of such designs? Do you really think I would lie to you about this?" "Maybe you don't know about the plan," Mr. Karzai replied, suggesting the existence of a "deep state" in America.

The truth was more prosaic. Distracted by the Iraq War and seeking to avoid deep entanglement in Afghanistan, the Bush administration was slow to recognize that it was being deceived by Pakistan's generals and spies. When it finally did wake up, toward the end of 2006, the Taliban had acquired momentum. The Bush administration and then the Obama administration conducted multiple reviews of strategy in Afghanistan but discovered few palatable options. If NATO launched an allout war against the Taliban's sanctuaries in Pakistan, it would further destabilize a country containing dozens of nuclear weapons and at least that many terrorist groups. Instead, George Bush and then Barack Obama were sold on a counterinsurgency war against the Taliban inside Afghanistan, supplemented by a CIA-run drone war against Taliban encampments in Pakistan's western tribal areas.

Canadian forces held the line in Kandahar, of course, until the Americans poured in, in 2009. Some U.S. commanders were disdainful of Canada's "3-D" strategy of defence, diplomacy and development, which had suffered on contact with the Taliban early on, in 2006. Hubristically, the Pentagon believed that only American muscle could clear out Kandahar and other Taliban regions in the south and east.

With greater numbers and a more unified command, the Americans did make some progress, at a high cost in lives and limbs, but gradually they also discovered that they were no better equipped than NATO allies to defeat the ISI's strategy - and that Maj.-Gen. Fraser's metaphor was apt.

Today, in the American-led war's 17th year, U.S. and allied Afghan forces are still digging that hole in the ocean, hoping against all historical evidence that they can make enough progress on the battlefield to force the Taliban into a political settlement acceptable to most Afghans. The Trump administration has suspended aid to Pakistan in the hope that it will pressure the ISI to change course. The reaction in Pakistan since that announcement has been one of deep nationalist defiance.

Afghanistan has been at war for four decades. The only interlude of relative peace - apart from the years of smothering Taliban rule, which quieted many parts of the country - lasted from 2002 to 2006, years when many Afghans in exile came home to reclaim and rebuild their country.

Counterfactual history is a fool's game, but if there ever was a chance to prevent Pakistan from interfering once again in Afghanistan through the ISI, and to incorporate significant numbers of former Taliban into constitutional politics, those were the years when it might have been done. And we can see now, in hindsight, that the framework of Canadian policy - security, reconstruction and active diplomacy to forge stable Afghan politics, backed by regional powers - was the right one.

Instead, NATO failed to see what was coming out of Pakistan until it was too late and succumbed to hubristic American strategy dominated by a Pentagon that repeatedly overestimated its capacity to change the course of the war. In its blindness, the alliance failed the many Afghans who relied on its power and promises.

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Canadian, U.S. and Afghan army officers sit with local elders during a meeting in the village of Small Loi Kola in Kandahar, Afghanistan, in June, 2011.

BAZ RATNER/REUTERS

U.S. soldiers detain an Afghan man in southeastern Afghanistan in November, 2002.

SCOTT NELSON/ASSOCIATED PRESS

At the Korean DMZ, Canadians watch warily and hope for peace
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Decades after Canadian troops saw combat in the Korean War, a small, little-known group of them are still on the frontier, keeping an eye on one of the world's most militarized places. Nathan VanderKlippe looks at the dangers they face
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S9


PANMUNJOM, SOUTH KOREA -- Robert Watt is a naval commander and expert in explosives ordnance disposal who has led forces in Afghanistan, taught others how to defuse homemade bombs and served as a top military diver.

But for most of the past three years, he has taken on what may be the most complex and, occasionally, bizarre role in his career. As chief of staff for the UN Command Military Armistice Commission, Watt has the task of supervising the ceasefire that, for nearly seven decades, has largely put a stop to hostilities between North and South Korea.

"We're just trying to keep a lid on one of the most heavily militarized zones in the world," he said. The 245-kilometre-long demilitarized zone that separates the two countries - which is in reality bristling with weaponry - passes within 100 kilometres of athletic venues at the Pyeongchang Olympics.

But Watt is not among the 28,500 U.S. soldiers stationed in South Korea.

He is, instead, Canadian, part of a sixperson military contingent assigned to the UN Command, the U.S.-led combat force dedicated to defending South Korea (the armistice commission is a semi-autonomous body under the UN Command).

It's a little-known posting that underscores Canada's ongoing involvement in one of the world's most prominent geostrategic hot spots, between a hermetic regime wielding new nuclear power and its neighbour, backed by the world's mightiest military.

Their duties here thrust Canada into a place that is as strange as it is dangerous: where so many of the markers have vanished along the military demarcation line, which serves as an international border, that no one is sure any longer of its exact location; where a DMZ building steps from that line still bears the bullet holes from the violent defection of a North Korean soldier in December; and where a pair of telephones meant to connect the two neighbouring countries have gone unanswered since 2013. (The so-called bat phones at the Joint Security Area, known in South Korea as Panmunjom, are used for military-tomilitary communication; a separate line, cut in 2016 after North Korea's fourth nuclear test, was reactivated last month and has allowed communication around the countries' Olympics rapprochement.)

"We can't even get North Korea to agree to pick up the phone. It's tricky," Watt said.

His tasks include equipping soldiers with bullhorns to notify the North Koreans that a forest fire has broken out in the DMZ and beg them not to shoot helicopters dispatched to quench the flames. "It's a really awkward kind of dance that we do with them," he said.

"There's so many things that we could resolve so much more easily if they would just sit down and talk with us."

Though they are in uniform, the Canadians here say their role is dedicated to averting conflict.

"We're prepared for a fight. But we're not looking for one," said Lieutenant-Colonel Peter Kouri, an international affairs adviser to the top command. "The best fight we're going to have is the one we don't have to have," he added. "We're creating the space for diplomatic resolutions."

The inter-Korean dialogue that has taken place during the runup to the Olympics, he said, is hopefully "a harbinger of things to come."

But if fighting breaks out again, the Canadians in uniform here constitute a tangible connection to the time, nearly 70 years ago, when the Lester Pearson government dispatched troops to the Korean peninsula.

Canada went on to send more than 26,000 soldiers to the Korean War, and has a moral and historical obligation to continue the fight if need be, Marius Grinius, a former Canadian ambassador to South Korea, said.

"Ask any Canadian Korean War veteran," he said. "Seeing what a vibrant democracy South Korea is, they will tell you that all of their sacrifices, including those of their brothers in arms who died, were not in vain. They would also expect future generations of Canadians to help safeguard South Korea's hard-won freedom."

But as threats of a pre-emptive "bloody nose" strike against North Korea drip out of the White House, Ottawa is quick to point out that "Canada's active membership in the United Nations Command does not create a legal obligation to deploy military forces to the Korean peninsula in the event of hostilities," Brianne Maxwell, a spokeswoman with Global Affairs Canada, said in a statement.

Any fresh troop deployment would lie in the hands of politicians, and David Chatterson, another former Canadian ambassador in Seoul, doubts any Canadian leader, nor those in most of the other 17 "sending state" countries that participated in the Korean War, would order armed forces back.

"I don't think there is any interest or any appetite among any of the sending states, apart from the U.S., to re-engage at any significant level before or after a conflict," he said. Ottawa "wouldn't be sending troops again."

Nor is it clear outside help would even be needed.

"With the Republic of Korea and U.S. combined forces, I think we can deal with the North Korean threat without outside assistance," Chun Yungwoo, who was South Korea's top representative at international denuclearization talks a decade ago, said.

"Any full-scale armed conflict with North Korea will be virtually ended before most of the other countries decide whether to send troops. In 72 hours, all known North Korean targets will be destroyed.

What we need is only the foot soldiers who will go into North Korea to stabilize."

And South Korea has plenty of people in uniform.

North Korea, too, has made clear it's not interested in dealing with anyone outside the United States. Watt is the only person to have held a military-to-military meeting with North Korea in the past five years. But the North Koreans, knowing he was Canadian, refused to speak with him. They wanted to talk to an American. The meeting lasted 15 minutes.

So why maintain Canadian troops, even a small contingent, in South Korea? It's all about keeping up relations with the United States, Chatterson says.

"It really doesn't have anything to do with Korea, that's more of an accident of geography and history," he said.

"The Americans are there. So we're there." There's another reason, too: If war breaks out, "there's probably two million people that might need evacuation," said Lt.-Col. James Follwell, commander of the Canadian contingent to the United Nations Command. Of those, at least 27,000 hold Canadian passports.

The Canadians here also occupy a frontrow seat to a country that regularly threatens to rain hellfire on the West.

From the South Korean side of the military demarcation line, Watt can look out on hills that hide North Korean artillery capable of lobbing devastation at Seoul, as well as towers used to conduct electronic warfare (cellphones go dead on the South Korean side; the military says it's to prevent North Korean hacking).

The Canadian contingent includes people involved in intelligence, logistics and providing strategic counsel to the top U.S. military leadership.

Kouri, the lieutenant-colonel, interviews North Korean defectors, whom he calls refugees, probing their attachment to the country's regime. Some, he has discovered, maintain profound loyalty long after they've left. Others "questioned the facade all along," he said.

In North Korea today, "South Korean dramas are very popular, as are Western movies. People are far more aware than would have been the case some time ago."

At the DMZ, Watt has noticed a surprising rise in defections across a zone that is heavily mined. Over his first two years, virtually no one escaped this way. But "we've had in the last six months a dramatic increase," he said. He's not certain why; a South Korean soldier also stationed at the DMZ said international pressure isn't having a visible impact.

"Are the main forces, central powers in the North Korean regime going through a hard time? From what we know, they're really not," the soldier said, speaking on condition of anonymity for fear of being targeted because of his work on the front lines.

"I don't think the sanctions are having as much of an effect as we hoped."

But Watt spoke with a recent defector from an upper-middle-class North Korean family.

"He implied that his wife died, which was the key to them leaving - died just due to lack of access to basic medicine," he said.

"If those kinds of people are starting to depart the regime, there's clearly something afoot, something has changed," he added.

"People are willing to put up with a lot as long as they're getting the basics of life."

Associated Graphic

A barbed-wire fence runs alongside the Han River near the Demilitarized Zone, while South Korean soldiers stand guard in Panmunjom near the DMZ.

CARL COURT/GETTY IMAGES

Robert Watt is the chief of staff for the UN Command Military Armistice Commission, which is charged with defending against North Korea.

NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Correction

A Saturday Sports story on the Korean DMZ incorrectly said the Lester Pearson government dispatched Canadian troops to the Korean Peninsula. In fact, Mr. Pearson was foreign minister and Louis St. Laurent was prime minister.

AIDS ACTIVIST LOST HER SON TO THE DISEASE
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After his death, she devoted 25 years of her life to raising money and awareness about HIV and safe sex
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By RON CSILLAG
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B23


In the Montreal summer of 1993, Evelyn Farha did what no mother should have to do: She watched her only son die.

Two-and-a-half years earlier, Ron Farha had broken the news to his parents and three sisters after he could no longer hide the telltale brown lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma on his face and neck: He had contracted HIV in the mid-1980s but it was now full-blown AIDS - and he didn't have much time left. He tearfully revealed that his mother would not get her oftstated wish that her children would outlive her.

Then 67, Ms. Farha spent her days cooking her son's favourite Lebanese dishes - yabra (stuffed grape leaves), fatayer (meat pie) and koussa (stuffed zucchini) - and delivering them to him at the Montreal General Hospital. She sat with Ron, worried, and wept.

She also threw herself into studying everything she could find about AIDS, a disease that was first described only a dozen years earlier and seemed confined to gay men.

Ron believed a cure was just a few years away.

"It was hell, what we went through," she said.

The year before he died, Ron, who had taken over his father's garment manufacturing business, launched a foundation to raise awareness and money for research into the disease. He had raised about $200,000 for improving outpatient services for those with AIDS and purchased everything from comfortable beds and chairs to intravenous pumps. Evelyn was willing to let that initiative wind down as she witnessed her son die of pneumonia in July, 1993.

He was 36 years old.

"Just before he died, I said to him, 'Let all of this go when you do,' " Ms. Farha told the Montreal Gazette in the autumn of that year. "But he said, 'No, Mom, keep it alive.' So that's what I do."

And that's what she kept doing for the next 25 years, driven by her son's memory - "I just look at his picture and think of his strength," she said. As honorary president of Montreal's Farha Foundation, Ms. Farha picked up the torch and threw herself into speaking at schools and conferences, beating bushes for money, even talking to random young people about safe sex.

Though she had no experience in fundraising and very little in the business world, she and the foundation are credited with distributing more than $10-million to dozens of Quebec organizations that provide care and services to people living with HIV/AIDS, along with prevention and education programs.

"Her goal was to see that no other family suffers the same loss as her by educating the community that the disease is preventable," noted the Fondation québécoise du Sida, which merged with the Farha Foundation last April.

Local reporters took to calling her a "dynamo" and "relentless." She was a fixture in the foundation's annual Ça Marche AIDS walkathon. Though she was battling arthritis in later years, she ditched her wheelchair in favour of her walker for the entire seven-kilometre walk.

Ms. Farha died in Montreal on Jan. 18, also from pneumonia, at the age of 92.

Being a private person, Ms. Farha conceded that she would have preferred to keep her grief to herself. But the more she learned about AIDS, the more she wanted to dispel the myths and stigma surrounding the disease that claimed her boy. She was shocked, in the early 1990s, to learn that some people thought you could get AIDS by touching somebody.

"People were afraid to sit next to someone with AIDS. In many cases, parents rejected their children with AIDS," she told the Gazette in a 2013 interview. "It shows you how ignorant people were about the disease. And they still are."

At the same time, advances in science turned AIDS from a killer disease to "just another chronic illness." That made people complacent, "and that's a shame." It can also strike anyone, she stressed, not just homosexuals.

She expressed amazement when people asked whether she was embarrassed to say her son had died of AIDS. "Unbelievable. I tell them, 'Of course not.' " But had the disease spared her son, "I don't know how I would have accepted AIDS," she confessed to The Gazette. "I probably would have remained ignorant, like a lot of people."

Ms. Farha was "a trailblazer and a very determined woman," said Yves Lafontaine, editor of Fugues, a magazine for Montreal's LGBTQ community. When he first met her, he found "an impressive, strong woman who turned the death of her son into a crusade to help a community which was in much need of outside support."

She "helped change attitudes toward men and women living with HIV/AIDS, when they were usually shunned."

The oldest of five children, Evelyn Farha was born in Montreal on Sept. 14, 1925, to the former Faride Koury, who was born in Beirut, and Joseph Malacket, who came to Canada at age 13 from Damascus, Syria, to join his brother. Evelyn was a baby when the clan decamped for Brownsburg, Que., about 80 kilometres northwest of Montreal, to open a small general store. Despite rationing during the Second World War, workers at a nearby munitions plant were able to snap up radios, dresses and refrigerators there.

Evelyn left school to work in the family business. "She dressed the whole town," her daughter Linda said. She met Joseph Farha, a lingerie manufacturer, on a church trip. Later, she approached him at a fashion show to buy crinoline for the store. The couple married in 1954 and moved to Montreal.

They accepted the fact their son was homosexual and understood that wasn't going to be easy, given the times.

"She was accepting of gays," Linda said. "She was a mother who didn't turn her back on her child because of his lifestyle. A lot of parents did."

Talking about sex was something else.

"In my generation, you would never think of talking to kids about safe sex," Ms. Farha said in 1993. "And even now, a lot of parents think it's never going to happen to their kids. But nobody can afford to ignore AIDS. We need to reach kids and make sure they practise safe sex. And we need to make sure parents keep talking to them about it."

She took her message wherever she went, even to teenage boys on the street. "I tell them, 'You boys are wonderful, such handsome young men. I hope you do use protection if you have sex.' They tell me, 'Oh it's good to remind us. Thank you.' Not one of them said to me, 'Mind your own business.' " Her mother "had some weird conversations for a woman her age," Linda recalled. "She was a mother and grandmother people could talk to.

She was not shy."

The children of Gary Lacasse, executive director of the Canadian AIDS Society in Ottawa, were among the beneficiaries of her advice.

"She even talked to my kids at a benefit about safe sex a few years ago and the joy to be had in living," he recalled. Ms. Farha was "destigmatizing HIV with every person she met, always educating. We have lost a great leader within our HIV community."

Ken Monteith, the director-general of COCQSIDA, echoed the sentiment, noting that Ms. Farha became an ally of the community as soon as she made the choice to embrace her son after his diagnosis rather than rejecting him, which was all too common in that era.

"Even recently, she was happy to overcome social barriers to raise the issue with fellow residents in the retirement community she lived in," he noted.

"Were their grandchildren aware of HIV and protecting themselves in their sex lives?

[It's] not something that most people would bring up in such a setting, but again an excellent example for the rest of us."

Ms. Farha's accolades included the 1999 Governor-General's Caring Canadian Award, which noted that when not working on foundation business, she spent hours each week visiting hospices in the Montreal area, "providing comfort to persons living with and dying of AIDS." A few years later, she received the Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal. And in 2013, she was awarded Quebec's Médaille d'honneur de l'Assemblée nationale.

Her husband died in 1998. Ms. Farha is survived by her daughters, Linda, Nancy and Carolyn, four grandchildren and two sisters.

Like many ordinary people thrust into prominence, she once said, she never thought she would be capable of what she achieved. "It's surprising when you're forced into something what you can do. Maybe my son was right when he asked me to be the mother behind the foundation." To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

Activist Evelyn Farha, centre, was widely regarded by local reporters as a 'dynamo' and 'relentless' in her crusade to raise money for HIV/AIDS research and education.

SEBASTIEN ROY

Ms. Farha and her son, Ron.

GILLER NOMINEE WAS NOTED FOR HER COMPASSION
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The story of The Imposter Bride sprang from an event in her family history, when her grandmother experienced a crushing rejection by a prospective husband
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By SUSAN FERRIER MACKAY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Tuesday, February 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B23


Writer Nancy Richler, busy washing her kitchen floor in the fall of 2012, stopped cleaning to take a call from her literary agent Dean Cooke. He was exuberant. The Imposter Bride, Ms. Richler's third novel, had just been shortlisted for the distinguished Giller Prize. Ms. Richler thanked him politely and said she had to get back to housework.

Several minutes later, the full import of his message sank in. Out of 13 contenders for a prize that was then worth $50,000, her novel had been selected to be among the final five, with a guarantee of $5,000. Being shortlisted placed her in rarefied literary company.

The story of The Imposter Bride, which opens in 1946 at a wedding in Montreal, germinated from an event in Ms. Richler's family history: Her paternal grandmother, immigrating to Canada from Russia for the purpose of marriage, encountered a crushing rejection from her prospective husband. Ms. Richler channelled the pain of the experience into her central character but changed the circumstances. On her website she wrote that The Imposter Bride, as with all her work, explored the slipperiness of morality and identity in the face of extreme loss and threat. In a review, The New York Times discerned another theme: Shared unknowability connects us all. The newspaper praised Ms. Richler's novel for being "beautifully written." Other reviews were equally laudatory.

Ms. Richler and her partner, Vicki Trerise, bought new outfits and travelled from Montreal to attend the glitzy Giller gala in Toronto. Although the prize went to another author, Ms. Richler still felt triumphant. Her Canadian book sales shot up. To date, the novel has sold more than 100,000 copies in Canada alone. It went on to sell in 14 other countries and has been translated into 10 languages. Six years after publication, it continues to generate significant royalties. Ms. Richler was working on a fourth novel but illness prevented its completion. She died of lung cancer on Jan. 18 at Vancouver General Hospital. She was 60.

As a curious, sensitive, book-loving child growing up in Montreal, she soon became attuned to the Jewish community's history of pain and loss. Her Canadian parents, Dianne and Myer Richler, escaped direct involvement with the Holocaust, but many of their Russian and Eastern European ancestors were persecuted.

The Richlers lived in Côte-Saint-Luc, a municipality on Montreal Island where The Imposter Bride is set. Born on May 16, 1957, Nancy Richler was the youngest of three children. The family, with two girls and a boy, was close-knit and distantly related to author Mordecai Richler, although Nancy never met him. Myer Richler, generous and outgoing, owned and ran an aluminum company, Ideal Metals & Alloys of Canada Inc.

His quiet, empathetic wife, Dianne, raised their children in a traditional home. Saturdays were spent at synagogue while wintry Sundays frequently meant skiing in the Laurentians.

Nancy embarked upon her first novel at the age of 7. On a biography page of her website she wrote, "Although the characters and stories I wanted to tell were vivid in my mind, my sentences weren't up to the task so I turned to other pursuits."

At the age of 18, she moved to the United States to attend Brandeis University, near Boston, graduating with a degree in history. She then studied social work and put her compassionate nature to the service of helping children at risk.

In 1986, she completed a master of arts in international studies specializing in the Soviet Union at the University of Denver Graduate School.

During her early 20s, she met and married another student who was studying psychology. The marriage lasted about six years, until it became apparent that Ms. Richler was more drawn to women.

In 1987, Ms. Richler left Colorado to work on pay equity for the Ontario government's Women's Directorate.

Vicki Trerise, a lawyer working on family violence for the same directorate, was asked to give her opinion on a pay equity issue. The attraction between the two was immediate, compelling and lasted 31 years, with a marriage in 2013.

In 1988, the couple moved to Vancouver, where Ms. Richler, then in her mid-30s, began writing fiction. She sent out short story after short story to literary magazines and journals. Ms. Trerise was surprised to discover a dark side in her partner's writing that belied her cheerful, bubbly persona.

She recalled manila envelopes arriving at their home like soldiers returning from war.

As soon as one envelope came back, another was sent out. Eventually, Ms. Richler's persistence paid off. A short story was published then later included in an anthology.

Literary journals and magazines began accepting her work; however, a clear path to novel writing didn't present itself until Ms. Richler read about female sex workers who'd gone missing from Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. She couldn't understand why the story was buried instead of being front-page news. To her, the missing women were throwaway angels. The evocative phrase became the title of her first novel, published by Press Gang Publishers in 1996, six years before an arrest was made in the case of the missing, murdered women.

Throwaway Angels was shortlisted for an Arthur Ellis Award for Best First Crime novel. Ms. Richler had established herself as a writer.

She worked slowly and meticulously, often at a café near her home, or at a cabin she and her partner rented in the woods. Each word in every sentence was painstakingly crafted and hand-written before being edited and transcribed onto a computer.

"There's no work I enjoy more than struggling with words and sentences to tell the story I want to tell and to capture precisely what I want to say," Ms. Richler wrote.

"When I have nothing I feel compelled to write I simply don't, but I'm always happy when a new voice or story comes to me."

According to those close to her, Ms. Richler was endlessly curious about people, giving them the gift of her undivided attention and making them feel as if they were the only person in the room. She liked to extrapolate from their stories, but her own past was a fertile source of inspiration. A second novel, Your Mouth Is Lovely, grew out of the circumstances of her birth: "My paternal grandfather died a few hours before I was born and I often wondered what it was like for my father to experience the joy of my birth at the same moment he was grieving his father's death." Your Mouth Is Lovely begins with a birth accompanied by a death.

Ms. Richler explained that its opening line came to her one morning "seemingly out of nowhere." The line is "Spring has come, even here." Beginnings proved easier for her to manage than endings, which were often a struggle and a source of anxiety. Only halfway through her second novel, perhaps as an impetus to complete it, she set out to find representation with an agent. Several rejected her, telling her to come back when the manuscript was finished. Not so Mr. Cooke, a relative newcomer to the agency business.

"The first half of the novel was so strong. I fell in love with it," Mr. Cooke said. "My response was 'Yes, absolutely.' " He sent it off to scouts (intermediaries between editors and agents) in the United States. A six-figure deal was soon on the table. Although she was delighted, Ms. Richler fretted over the second half of the story, even telling Mr. Cooke at one point that readers would have to figure the ending out for themselves. "I told her if readers were paying $30 for a book they'd expect it to have an ending," Mr. Cooke said with a laugh. "She'd insist she couldn't do it, but then she'd go away and apply her very considerable talent and she'd come through."

Your Mouth is Lovely was published in 2003 by HarperCollins and Ecco Press. Set in Russia between 1890 and 1912, it won the 2003 Canadian Jewish Book Award for fiction and the 2004 Adei-Wizo Award in Italy.

"The trademark of Nancy's work is her deep compassion for the frailties and vulnerabilities of people, whether in a shtetl in pre-revolutionary Russia or the Jewish community in Montreal post war" said Iris Tupholme, senior vice-president and executive producer at HarperCollins. "Nancy was able to conjure up complex, nuanced characters who had complicated motivations.

Most of her characters were haunted in one way or another by personal grief or community loss and yet they all had, as Nancy did, a joy and hope for life."

Ms. Richler leaves her partner, Ms. Trerise; mother, Dianne; sister, Janet; brother, Martin; and a large extended family.

To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

Nancy Richler, seen in Toronto in 2012, embarked upon her first novel at the age of 7. MICHELLE SIU/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The hidden hills and valleys of Madeira
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Package beach resorts aren't this region of Portugal's raison d'être. Ellen Himelfarb heads just a few minutes inland and finds an island rich with forest walks, craft spirits and spectacular views
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By ELLEN HIMELFARB
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P12


I'm walking a long, lonely road edging a 600-metre ridge looking for a drink. In late afternoon, the sun hangs just above the craggy peaks, casting uneven shadows on muddy-green hillsides that stretch into the misty distance. The air is close and so still I perceive an audible swoosh from a soaring falcon. Yet my mind echoes with the whistling theme from The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. My gritty footsteps scratch out a beat while lizards scuttle to the margins.

At Serra de Agua, a village submerged in laurel and eucalyptus, two leathery ranchers stand outside Tasquinha da Poncha, hand-rolled cigarettes smouldering between their lips. A bar. I hesitate, approach, glance toward them and nod. They exhale sedately and flick their chins north. "Olà," they croak.

Madeira, counter to the beachy, package-tour image of the Portuguese satellite island, is not without its drama. Yet, no matter how violently the frothy waves batter the shore, no matter how exquisite the silhouettes of olive-skinned boys diving off the rock face, they will be outperformed by the wild-frontier landscape inland, the smoky sea panoramas framed by jagged, jungly layers of green.

Like so many visitors to Madeira, I was dispatched to the sybaritic seaside: the sultry capital, Funchal, the tawny southern beaches, the coastal lookouts and rock pools. Only by extending my stay and venturing beyond the obvious did I genuinely warm up to the place.

But here's the thing: It's not for everybody. First of all, to explore Madeira à la carte, you need wheels. Finding no affordable automatic vehicles on the entire island - without which I am, admittedly, useless - I balked at hiring a car. This turned out to be a blessing.

Spotting a taxi rank outside a Sixt car-rental outlet in Funchal, I ask the front driver if he'd take me to my mountainside hotel via the scenic route. For less than $100 (below Sixt's daily rental fee), Paolo handles the task with gusto. For four hours we wind our way up hillsides, dodge motorcycles, pull up precariously on precipices and generally test the resilience of my stomach.

Alone at the wheel I would be toast.

At sea level, we plow through plantations of bananas ripened by the thick, sweltering air. You won't have tasted Madeiran bananas. "They're short and fat, below EU standard size," Paolo says, with a flick of his hand. Despite being sweet as Chiquitas and, for some, handily kid-sized, they're exported only to mainland Portugal.

It's enough to give a small island a complex, but Paolo isn't letting on.

Any arable land at 300 metres to 900 metres above sea level, where the air is fresher, belongs to winemaking. North of that and you're into the sour-cherry groves, the source of Portugal's obscure, bitter spirit, ginja. Vineyards bleed westward from Funchal to supply Madeira winemakers such as Blandy's, which owns some 450 acres. "Our island has two religions," Paolo tells me. "Catholics and alcoholics."

Madeira's position on the caravel route to Brazil meant the ships stocked up here. And when the colonists' wine kept going off over the long, hot journey, Madeirans doubled down, concocting a fortified digestive wine that would keep for, it turned out, centuries.

Most Madeiran wineries do business out of Funchal, but Vinhos Barbeito, a 60-year-old boutique vineyard, operates a free tasting room in the cool, damp hills, and Paolo snakes around a yawning gorge to take me there.

Amid the groaning shelves and antique barrel tables, the heavy, fermented air is enough to get you drunk; Paolo steers me to the bar anyway. At $300 a bottle, his personal favourite, Barbeito's 1978 Sercial Frasqueira, is off the table, but there's a 10-year-old dry reserve to taste. A server sidles up and pours us a finger each, nodding to the spit bucket, but we find it too irresistibly velvety and smooth not to gulp it down.

Lolling out the open window as we putter down to Camara de Lobos, I can almost touch the vines. At a pointed white church in the village square, I jump out for a view of the rippling vineyards, straight out to sea.

A few minutes before 4 p.m., locals shuffle in past the palm trees for services and soon a choir of young voices lead them in a hymn, all the evidence you might need that God exists.

From here, Paolo feels duty-bound to wend down toward Ribeira Brava. The cobblestone resort town is blessed with a calm seafront and an enchanting Baroque church bookended by cliffs, but between the concrete hotels and chain bakeries, there's not much to do except dodge Venezuelan tourists on the promenade. So, after a short wander, we blow out of town on skinny roads laced with orange bougainvillea and meander through fields of sugar cane half a millenia old.

Straddling Madeira's central valley, the sugar-cane plantations around Ribeira Brava served as proto-incubators for sugar production and the devastating slave trade that propped it up. Prince Henry the Navigator established the crop to make the island profitable and eventually Madeira grew into the world's leading producer. When Portugal moved production to Brazil in the 1500s, most farmers reinvented themselves.

But a few stayed in sugar, which is what draws me to Tasquinha da Poncha in the mountain village of Serra de Agua, after Paolo drops me at my guesthouse.

Madeirans process their small sugar-cane crop into a sweet distilled liquor called aguardente de cana, then mix it with fresh citrus and honey into a cocktail called poncha. You can order it in most bars or you can climb the island's central spine to the poncha heartland.

Tasquinha da Poncha is barely 15 kilometres from the sugar-cane fields, but so isolated there might as well be tumbleweed bowling down the rural road. So I'm surprised when I swing open the door to a room buzzing with workers, families, little old ladies, all picking through free bowls of peanuts with their happy-hour goblets. As the handsome young bartender muddles lemons, I perch nearby and survey shelves of gum and Kinder eggs, the pool table and pinging arcade games - less saloon than glorified general store.

Poncha socks you with a sour, bitter, saccharine punch. If I still had my wits about me after the first one, I'd abandon it for something less obvious. Instead, encouraged by soccer on the TV and an obliging bartender, I order another hit. Eventually the pinging swirls together with the roar of soccer fans and general swelling of chatter as the alcohol takes hold of the room. I should have eaten more peanuts.

In the morning, to get as far away from poncha as possible, I hike in the opposite direction to the height of the Encumeada Valley. Steps up into the woods mark the start of the Caminho do Pináculo e Folhadal, a path along one of the island's 16th-century acqueducts - levadas, in Portuguese. Levadas are more plentiful than highways in Madeira, gently guiding rainwater over hills and through laurel forest to more parched areas. With a pack of water and pastries from my guesthouse, I turn left and pad toward Bica da Cana, sticking close to a couple who've wisely brought a flashlight as we creep through a mountain tunnel. At 1,500 metres, the breaks in the trees reveal views over grand gorges, before we're swallowed again by jungle and sprayed by rushing waterfalls.

The entire trail would take a full day, but I've called Paolo to collect me a few miles in, on a hill coated with wild parsley and oregano. He gets out to stretch his legs and through a wind farm we can see to both coasts, a spectrum of blues and greens. Some of the bay trees up here, Paolo says, are older than the discovery of Madeira itself, six centuries ago.

Back in the car, he drives me east past Pico Ruivo, the island's highest peak at 1,862 metres, with its own, more strenuous levada walks. We detour along the coastal route, through the town of Sao Jorge, and explore a lesser-known levada called Rei, which runs flat and easy through rainforest to a historic mill.

Following the channel of gently trickling spring water, I pass two, maybe three groups in an hour. Granted, it's a weekday. Madeira's levadas aren't exactly virgin ground. But nor are they anything like the groove-worn boardwalks by the sea, with their whiff of idling tour buses. Up here, you feel as if you can literally walk off into the sunset. That's my kind of drama.

Associated Graphic

Portugal's Madeira region boasts majestic views, such as those atop the Encumeade valley, above, and buzzing coastal towns such as capital city and tourist hub Funchal, left.

TOP: ELLEN HIMELFARB/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; LEFT: FRANCISCO CORREIA/VISIT MADEIRA

LUCKY NO. 7
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Can Audi top its most beautiful, stylish work? With the new Sportback, the German auto maker attempts to redesign the vehicle that came to define the four-door coupe
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By MATT BUBBERS
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, February 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D1


CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA -- AUDI A7 SPORTBACK 2019 $80,000 (EST.) Engine: 3.0-litre turbocharged V-6 Transmissions: Seven-speed dual-clutch automatic Fuel economy: TBD Drive: All-wheel drive Alternatives: BMW 6 Series Gran Coupe, 6 Series Gran Turismo, Audi A6, Mercedes-Benz E-Class wagon

The A7 is Audi and Audi is the A7. No other car so fully exemplifies the brand's vision right now. It aspires to nothing less than Teutonic perfection, wrapped in modernist sheet metal and conspicuously stuffed with technology.

It's a car designed to fit into, and create for you, an Instagram-perfect life. A car to be parked outside architecturally significant homes in a world where nothing gets dirty. It's the automotive equivalent of a white sofa: high style at the expense of a little practicality.

Make no mistake, the all-new 2019 A7 is a good car, but its biggest challenge might be its predecessor. That car still turns heads, despite having been introduced eight years ago. How do you top that seminal design without messing it up?

"We talked about it. It's really hard because the [old] A7 is such a beautiful car," said Andreas-Joachim Koglin, exterior designer at Audi. Between the company's design studios in Germany, the United States and China, 40 designers submitted sketches - proposals for this new A7.

More so than even the A8, the brand's traditional flagship, the mid-size A7 demonstrates the future of Audi design, as defined by Marc Lichte's 2014 Prologue concept. "Marc himself said the essence of the Prologue is in the A7," Koglin explained.

Audi used a new design process to make this car. In the company's new 400,000square-foot studio in Ingolstadt, Germany, are five car-size LED screens run by a computer cluster with the processing power of 4,300 laptops. The screens work like a virtual sketchpad, showing changes to 3-D models in 1:1 scale, in real time and with photorealistic detail. They can show designers what the car would look like under the California sun in July or in Moscow in February. From there, 20 milling machines work day and night to turn the digital models into physical objects, accurate to a tenth of a millimetre.

That it was Koglin sitting down in Cape Town to discuss the new car gives away the fact his design beat out the 40 others. "I got inspired by the Zeppelin," he said, "not because of the Teutonic engineering - Americans made a lot of Zeppelins as well - but the feeling of this pure sculpture. It is above everything else, which is what the driver should feel. We discussed it: This car needs some aloofness."

Cape Town is running out of water because of the worst drought on record. "Let's save water while we still have water to save," the South African Airways pilot said as we landed. The city was pulling together to conserve. A dirty car is, as one local newspaper columnist put it, a "trophy of good citizenry." Needless to say, our spotless new A7 stood out.

From the city we drove southeast, around False Bay toward Kleinmond on the Western Cape. The coastal road, the R44, is spectacular. As it hugs the hillside, it serves up curves and ocean vistas to rival California's famous Route 1.

Our test car's optional air suspension did a good job taking the edge off ruts and manhole covers and some pretty vicious speed bumps. The turbocharged 3.0-litre V-6 is mated to a 48-volt mild-hybrid system said to improve fuel economy by as much as 0.7 litres per 100 kilometres. It powers a stop-start system and harvests energy from braking, feeding it to a lithium-ion battery under the trunk. The motor provides 340 horsepower, which propels the A7 from 0 to 100 kilometres an hour in 5.3 seconds. A little more drama would be nice, though - especially in a car that looks so dramatic. But Audi stresses that the A7 is meant to be a grand tourer.

The inevitable, sportier S and RS models will undoubtedly add the drama - for a price.

In comfort mode, there was a slightly vague softness to the controls, which suited a relaxed pace.

A new seven-speed dual-clutch automatic transmission replaces an eight-speed conventional automatic. Step on the throttle and the gearbox changes down three gears in a split second before hauling ahead. Dynamic mode did away with the softness, holding gears longer and providing less down-shifting-induced delay.

Performance and handling come second to the A7's raison d'être: style. Technically, it's largely the same as the nextgeneration A6 sedan, Audi engineers confirmed. The main reason anyone would spend more for the fastback A7 is its rakish good looks. It's perfectly acceptable to be shallow when it comes to cars.

The stylishness extends to the interior. The new cabin is the best thing about this car and by far the biggest improvement over its predecessor. Most of the technology, including the dual-touchscreen centre console, has trickled down from the A8. The black panels blend neatly into the architecture and don't feel like an afterthought as they do in most cars. There's a lot of screen real estate here: three big displays if you opt for the "virtual cockpit" instrument panel. It can be distracting at times with so many functions and options at your fingertips, but the fact it doesn't feel like you're sitting at a Bloomberg terminal is a minor triumph.

The roof is a tad higher and the wheelbase is 15 millimetres longer, which provides rear passengers with extra head and legroom, thereby addressing the main criticism owners had of the old car, Koglin explained. Of course, the new A6 will likely provide even more interior space, but the A7 has always happily made sacrifices in the name of style.

The four-door coupe is a relatively recent automotive invention.

Audi didn't create this subgenre of sleek fastback sedans; Mercedes did with the CLS, first shown in 2004. But Audi perfected it with the A7. More than 250,000 were sold, making it - according to Audi's figures - the most successful car in its segment.

Today, you'll find a four-door coupe in almost every auto maker's showroom. They combine most of the practicality of a traditional four-door sedan with most of the stylishness of a two-door coupe. Many of them have hatchback trunks, which are useful for strollers and IKEA flat packs.

Other examples include the Kia Stinger, Porsche Panamera, BMW 4 Series Gran Coupe, Jaguar XJ, Aston Martin Rapide and Volkswagen Arteon. Even SUVs are adopting this fastback shape.

Look at the Mercedes GLC and GLE Coupes and the BMW X6, X4 and X2.

The new A7 looks like an evolution of the original. The wheels are bigger. The LED headlights are more intricate. The grille is wider. The wheel arches are more pronounced. The trailing edge of the trunk has been raised 30 millimetres to give the machine a more aggressive, nose-down stance, but also to hide the higher roofline. There are more creases on all surfaces of the sheet metal.

And it looks, perhaps, busier.

The new A7 is a victim of its predecessor's success. It was always going to be impossible to recreate the wow factor of the original design. You had the feeling you were looking at something new and futuristic and maybe even cool. That the A7's silhouette has become ubiquitous is a sign that imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, but it means the wow factor has worn off a little, not just for the A7 but for all four-door coupes. That could be a problem for a group of cars whose primary aim is style.

Or it could mean that the fourdoor coupe is maturing as a product. More examples appear at auto shows every year. The trend shows no sign of slowing.

Besides, even the iPhone X wasn't as spectacular as the original, but it is unquestionably a better product. And so it is with the 2019 Audi A7 Sportback.

It will arrive in Canada this winter. Meantime, it is on display at the Canadian International AutoShow in Toronto, until Feb. 25.

The writer was a guest of the auto maker. Content was not subject to approval.

Associated Graphic

The new cabin is the best thing about the Audi A7 Sportback 2019 - and by far the biggest improvement over its venerable predecessor.

With the A7, performance comes second to style. it's largely the same as the next-generation A6 sedan; the main reason anyone would spend more for the fastback A7 is its appearance.

The new A7 looks like an evolution of the original: The wheels are bigger, the LED headlights more intricate and the grille wider.

19th annual Globe and Mail online broker ranking
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While these services are strictly prevented from providing investment advice, in 2018, the best of them give you the tools you need to make your own smart decisions
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By ROB CARRICK
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B10


The best online brokerage firms are the ones that have travelled the farthest since their early days as order takers for investors who wanted to trade stocks for cut-rate commissions.

With commissions mostly in the $5-to$10 range, cheap stock trading is still a big part of the appeal of investing through an online broker. But the best firms offer much more than that. Think of them as a personal assistant for investments that helps you set goals, choose stocks and funds, monitor performance and make adjustments as required.

Online brokers are strictly prevented from providing advice, but the best of them give you the tools you need to make your own smart decisions. The broker that best exemplifies this is Qtrade Investor, which takes top spot in the 19th annual Globe and Mail ranking of online brokers. The next tier of firms includes Questrade and Scotia iTrade.

The rankings are based on the services brokers provide online for mainstream clients as opposed to heavy traders. Brokers are scored on: The client experience: Among the factors considered are how well a firm reports the performance of client accounts, the availability of paperless account opening and call-centre hours.

Cost: Trading commissions are an important part of this category, but the availability of commission-free ETFs is big, too. Account-maintenance fees are considered, as are fees for sending paper account statements.

The investing experience: A big factor here is the availability of a full range of U.S.dollar registered accounts and a wide range of services for mobile devices.

Tools: What's available to help investors build and monitor portfolios, choose investments and manage their accounts?

Appearance also counts. Clunky old websites - and there are a lot of them in the online brokerage business - tend to prevent investors from getting the most from their broker.

Heavy trading volumes in early 2018 caused some broker websites to slow or bog down entirely. Clients of TD Direct Investing and RBC Direct Investing were particularly affected. For current information on which brokers are having technical problems with their websites, consult CanadianOutages.com.

Here's how the brokers stack up for 2018.

BMO INVESTORLINE

Owner: Bank of Montreal Grade: B Comments: Another year, another failure by this once-dominant firm to upgrade the design of its website. There is a lot of good stuff packed into this firm's online service, including useful tools for both building and rebalancing portfolios. Pricing is competitive and there are U.S.dollar registered accounts of all types. But the dreary-looking website overhangs everything.

CIBC INVESTOR'S EDGE

Owner: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Grade: C Comments: What the onlinebrokerage world could use more of is firms that differentiate themselves from the pack. Investor's Edge is a value leader. Stock trades at a $6.95 flat rate represent a 30-per-cent savings from most other firms. There's also one of the better reservoirs of stock research - the same Morningstar reports pretty much everyone offers, plus CIBC World Markets and more. Most other features at this firm are routine.

CREDENTIAL DIRECT

Owner: Credential Financial Inc., part of the credit-union movement Grade: D Comments: The $8.88 flat-commission rate is the big draw at this increasingly outgunned firm. The website for clients is rudimentary by current standards and offers little to make you feel more in control of your investments. Adding to the sense of a broker falling behind is the lack of any U.S.-dollar registered accounts. Almost everyone has that now.

DESJARDINS ONLINE BROKERAGE

Owner: Desjardins Group Grade: C Comments: Covers all the bases, but with a website from a bygone era. Lots of numbers to look at, but what are they telling you?

The best firms help you make sense of what you're seeing. A good selection of analyst research is a plus.

HSBC INVESTDIRECT

Owner: HSBC Bank Canada Grade: C Comments: It's alive! After a long dormancy, HSBC InvestDirect is refreshed. A clean, new website has much improved the client experience and so has the new flat $6.88 stock-trading commission. No U.S.-dollar registered accounts yet, but they're being reviewed for deployment in 2018.

The differentiation here is online trading on several global stock exchanges.

INTERACTIVE BROKERS

Owner: Interactive Brokers LLC Grade: B+ Comments: New to this ranking, IB is like a pro-grade power tool for serious investors. Why add the firm to this group of firms that cater to mainstream investors? Because readers have asked, because IB reached out to see whether it could be included and because the firm offers strikingly cheap stock trades and foreign-exchange rates. The casual investor who wants a quick and simple trading experience and tools for portfolio planning isn't suited for IB, but serious investors should give it a look.

NATIONAL BANK DIRECT BROKERAGE

Owner: National Bank of Canada Grade: C+ Comments: This firm has a great offer for investors with large accounts who trade exchangetraded funds: Buy or sell an ETF listed on Canadian or U.S. exchanges and pay no commission if your order is for 100 shares or more (and you're signed up for electronic documents instead of paper). Otherwise, NBDB is part of the club of brokers offering all of the key services through a blah website.

QTRADE INVESTOR

Owner: Desjardins Group Grade: A Comments: The way Qtrade designed its landing page for clients who have just logged in helps explain its dominance in this ranking. There's a line graph to show how your portfolio has performed over the past month, quarter or year - you choose the view. There's also an asset-allocation pie chart and a tally of your RRSP and TFSA contributions.

Over all, there's an attention to client-friendly detail at Qtrade that other brokers don't match.

Costs are competitive, but stock research is limited.

QUESTRADE

Owner: Questrade Inc. Grade: B+ Comments: Questrade has become the fastest-growing online-brokerage firm by offering a service with wide appeal for serious, casual and young investors. Costs are among the cheapest - stock trades as low as $4.95 (electronic-communications network fees may bump up the cost), commission-free ETF purchases and easily avoidable maintenance fees on small accounts. The website is sharp and steadily getting better. One drawback is no online bond or GIC trading.

RBC DIRECT INVESTING

Owner: Royal Bank of Canada Grade: B Comments: BMO and RBC are the Blues Brothers of brokers.

Their old-school websites, upholstered liberally in their respective corporate blue colours, do a disservice to some really good tools to help investors manage their accounts. RBC could be the best at helping clients build personalized portfolios (the model ETF portfolios are particularly helpful) and keep them on track, but they're hidden in the thriftshop ambience.

SCOTIA ITRADE

Owner: Bank of Nova Scotia Grade: B+ Comments: How can Scotia score well against its big bank peers when it still - still! - does not offer U.S.-dollar registered accounts and inflicts $24.99 stock-trading commissions on some small-account holders?

The answer is that Scotia has managed more than all but one of its bank competitors (see below) to design a website that helps clients get to where they need to go. To log into your iTrade account is to feel comfortable and in command of your investments. Note: Scotia is targeting 2018 for adding U.S.-dollar registered accounts.

TD DIRECT INVESTING

Owner: Toronto-Dominion Bank Grade: B Comments: TD introduced a thoroughly redesigned website for clients two years ago and not a single competitor has yet caught up. Where TD trails is in providing tools to plan and maintain portfolios. A description of what they're working on in this regard sounds promising - let's see if they can deliver.

While on the subject of delivery, we're still waiting for TD to introduce U.S.-dollar registered retirement-income funds. This feature is now slotted for the second half of 2018.

VIRTUAL BROKERS

Owner: CI Financial Grade: B Comments: Virtual Brokers began life as a punk upstart offering stock trades as low as a penny a share and a nifty website that looked different than everyone else. VB still rocks, but it's starting to slip in this ranking. The guts of the website are looking creaky, and the move to a flat stock-trading commission of $9.99 a couple of years ago killed its strong pricing advantage. You can still buy ETFs with no commissions, however (the usual charge applies when you sell).

Data management for the online brokerage ranking was provided by Megan Marrelli.

RANKING

BREAKDOWN A Qtrade Investor B+ Interactive Brokers Questrade Scotia iTrade B BMO InvestorLine RBC Direct Investing TD Direct Investing Virtual Brokers C+ National Bank Direct Brokerage C CIBC Investor's Edge Desjardins Online Brokerage HSBC InvestDirect D Credential Direct

Canada's lead NAFTA negotiator criticizes U.S. proposal as Freeland heads to Washington
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By STEVEN CHASE, BARRIE MCKENNA, ADRIAN MORROW
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Wednesday, February 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


OTTAWA, WASHINGTON -- Canada's lead NAFTA negotiator is taking public aim at American bargaining positions, saying the proposal for government procurement is the "worst offer ever" made by the United States at the trade table.

In an unusual intervention, Steve Verheul, an assistant deputy minister at the department of Global Affairs, spoke to an Ottawa audience Tuesday about the renegotiation of the North American freetrade agreement that began last August at the request of U.S. President Donald Trump.

"The U.S. offer on government procurement ... is the worst offer ever made by the U.S. in any trade negotiation. It would leave us in a position where the country of Bahrain would have far better access to U.S. government procurement markets than Canada would, or Mexico would," he told a Canadian Global Affairs Institute conference.

Washington has said it wants to cap the amount of work available to Canadian or Mexican companies at the sum total of what their governments make available for U.S. firms to bid upon. This could hurt Canada and Mexico because the U.S. government purchasing market is valued at more than US$500billion while the combined Canadian-Mexican market is about US$90-billion, the Washington-based Information Technology Alliance for the Public Sector has estimated.

International trade lawyer Larry Herman said Mr. Verheul's public comments are not typical for a civil servant and he believes this was designed to send a message. "It is exceptional that a public servant would have been so blunt during the course of negotiations," Mr. Herman said.

He said he expects a senior official such as Mr. Verheul would have cleared such remarks beforehand with the Canadian government "and was intended to deliver a public comment on the difficult state of the negotiations."

Mr. Verheul's remarks came on the eve of Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland's latest trip to Washington where she will meet on trade with members of the Trump administration and Senate - a visit that takes place as the threat persists that Mr. Trump may withdraw from the North American accord.

Ms. Freeland's office said Mr. Verheul's comments echo concerns previously raised publicly by the minister herself. Last October she told Global News the government procurement proposal from the U.S. was "really disappointing."

Potential trouble spots continue to arise in the Canada-U.S. relationship. Mr. Trump has complained about Canadian trade and threatened a tax on foreign imports - he offered no details - and on Tuesday, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer made a point of saying NAFTA talks are going "particularly well with the Mexicans."

A day after complaining that "Canada does not treat us right," Mr. Trump on Tuesday repeated a call to penalize countries he says are mistreating the United States. "I say we should have reciprocal taxes," he told a trade roundtable with members of Congress at the White House.

"We have countries that are taking advantage of us."

Mr. Trump continued: "They're charging us massive tariffs for us to sell our product into those countries. And when they sell to us: zero. We charge them zero.

We're like the stupid people and I don't like to have that any more."

He also criticized Canada over trade disputes involving softwood lumber and ultrafiltered milk. "Canada has treated us very unfairly on timber and lumber," he said. "And not easy on Wisconsin [dairy] farmers."

The White House later played down the remarks, telling The Canadian Press "there is nothing formal in the works right now."

The U.S. President's threats are compounding the unease hanging over Canada's export-dependent economy, adding to the uncertainty over the fate of NAFTA, a new U.S. advantage in business tax rates and much more aggressive enforcement of U.S. trade laws.

The weight of all that uncertainty is causing companies to "sit on their hands" or invest elsewhere, said Dennis Darby, president and chief executive of Canadian Manufacturers & Exporters, a trade association. "We're running our manufacturing output at 85-per-cent capacity, which is the point where you would normally add capacity," Mr. Darby explained.

Toronto-Dominion Bank warned in a report Tuesday that the combination of U.S. tax cuts and uncertainty over NAFTA could lead to a "slow bleed" of investment from Canada to the United States. The marginal effective tax rate on investment in the United States is now 18.8 per cent versus 20.3 per cent in Canada, including federal and local taxes. As recently as 2016, Canada had an eight-percentage-point edge over the United States.

In January, the Bank of Canada warned that trade uncertainty may already be scaring away investment. In its latest Monetary Policy Report, the bank said new foreign direct investment into Canada has declined since mid-2016, especially from Europe but also from the United States - "a possible sign of the effects of the uncertainty around trade policy."

And Bank of Nova Scotia has factored in a penalty of 0.2 of a percentage point into its 2018 growth forecast for Canada owing to "this prolonged period of uncertainty about the future of NAFTA." On Tuesday, the U.S. Commerce Department announced that it has launched an investigation into alleged dumping of large-diameter welded pipe in the U.S.

market by Canada and five other countries. The Trump administration has now launched nearly 100 trade cases since taking office - several of them targeting imports from Canada. The case follows a string of earlier U.S. complaints involving Canadian lumber, newsprint, solar panels and aircraft, and the United States is contemplating duties on imported steel and aluminum.

In his speech, Mr. Verheul said the three NAFTA countries have made "fairly limited progress over all" after six rounds of negotiations - a result that is "less than we might have anticipated."

He said a major factor is the lack of the Americans' willingness to bend during negotiations - a situation he attributed to the Trump administration. Mr. Trump campaigned against NAFTA in the 2016 presidential race, threatening to tear it up if he couldn't extract a better deal for U.S. workers.

"The main issue is we have seen limited U.S. flexibility even on fairly easy issues.

They do not come to the table - our counterparts - with a lot of flexibility. This is being driven to a large extent from the top, from the administration," Mr. Verheul said. "We could close a lot more chapters if the U.S. negotiators had more room to move."

Mr. Verheul recounted how NAFTA countries have closed, or concluded, three chapters that deal with what he called peripheral matters such as small- and medium-sized enterprises, competition policy and anti-corruption. He said countries are "quite close" on other subjects such as telecommunications.

He said Canada and Mexico are facing "even more challenging" problems with what the Canadian government has described as extreme proposals from the Americans, including a "sunset clause" that would terminate the deal in five years unless all three countries agreed to keep it.

Difficult talks remain on auto rules of origin. Washington is proposing all vehicles made in Canada and Mexico contain 50-per-cent U.S. content, on top of boosting the required amount of North American content in NAFTA-zone autos to 85 per cent from 62.5 per cent.

Mr. Verheul said the Canadian government believes this proposal would backfire. "[It] would actually have the opposite effect to what the U.S. is looking to achieve.

We think it would drive production offshore - out of North America - rather than improve it in North America."

Asked how Canada believes it can best respond to U.S. intransigence, the NAFTA negotiator said the answer is to remain at the negotiating table as long as possible and keep pushing for a deal that benefits all countries, not just the United States.

"I don't think we have any choice but continue to stay at the table, continue to put forward Canadian ideas, Canadian paths forward and impress upon the U.S that [it] cannot be a winner-takes-all agreement," Mr. Verheul told reporters.

"There is not going to be a lot in this for Canada or for Mexico if the benefits just go to the U.S."

Mr. Verheul said Tuesday that Canada will take a wait-and-see approach to the tax mentioned by Mr. Trump. "Although the statements were made ... we're not necessarily seeing a lot of concrete action behind that. So we'll wait and see whether there is anything real to that."

Canada, Mexico and the United States will reconvene in Mexico City in late February for a seventh round of NAFTA talks.

Associated Graphic

Steve Verheul, Canada's lead NAFTA negotiator, attends the fifth round of free-trade talks in Mexico last November.

CARLOS JASSO/REUTERS

Hall's fight for nuance in the #TimesUp era
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Actor struggles with the moral dilemma of working for Woody Allen as allegations of sexual assault linger
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By JOHANNA SCHNELLER
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Friday, February 9, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A18


FAME GAME

Rebecca Hall has come to a conclusion about Woody Allen. It's just not the conclusion you might assume.

The British stage and screen actress, 35, has worked with Allen on two of his films: her breakout role, Vicky Cristina Barcelona, and the upcoming A Rainy Day in New York.

In mid-January, she posted the Time's Up Legal Defense Fund logo on her Instagram, with this text: "... Woody Allen gave me one of my first significant roles in film for which I have always been grateful. ... I have, however, subsequently realized there is nothing easy about any of this. In the weeks following I have thought very deeply about this decision [to work with him on Rainy Day], and remain conflicted and saddened.

"After reading and re-reading Dylan Farrow's statements of a few days ago and going back and reading the older ones - I see, not only how complicated this matter is, but that my actions have made another woman feel silenced and dismissed. That is not something that sits easily with me in the current or indeed any moment, and I am profoundly sorry. I regret this decision and wouldn't make the same one today. It's a small gesture and not one intended as close to compensation but I've donated my wage to @timesup."

News reports blasted headlines such as Hall Regrets Working With Allen. But something was missing in that truncated reading - something that's crucial to both Hall's character and her choice of roles: nuance. She's drawn to projects about moral Gordian Knots: In The Town, her lover is a good guy and a vicious bank robber. In The Awakening, she debunks spiritual hoaxes - until she sees a ghost. In Christine, her character becomes unhinged by being marginalized, yet isn't wrong to feel that way.

In The Dinner, her character struggles to reconcile her beloved son with the horrific thing he's done. In Professor Marston and the Wonder Women, she plays an inventor of the lie-detector test who's forced to keep her life a secret. And in the new film Permission, which she also produced, her character Anna, a music student still in a relationship with her childhood sweetheart, confronts a dilemma: How dare you say that your perfectly nice life may not be what you want?

In a phone interview this week, Hall expanded upon - and complicated - her feelings about the Allen situation. (A brief synopsis: Woody Allen's daughter Dylan Farrow accused him of molesting her when she was a child; police investigated twice and brought no charges; Farrow's journalist brother Ronan wrote the pieces that broke the Weinstein scandal; Dylan called out Hollywood for its hypocrisy in continuing to work with Allen in the wake of #TimesUp; many stars, including Timothée Chalamet, have donated their salaries from Allen's films to the cause.)

"I made a personal choice," Hall says now. She has a quick intelligence and usually speaks rapidly and confidently, but here chooses her words carefully. "I've been deliberate in saying that the choice wasn't making a judgment one way or another. I don't believe anyone in the public should be judge and jury on a case that is so complex. I didn't [donate my salary] to make a public judgment. I did it because my conscience was affected when I became aware that a woman felt indirectly invalidated by my decision to work with a man whom she believes assaulted her.

"I wanted to do something," she continues, "that would publicly say, in this moment, that when a woman says something, or a man says something, I think it's really crucial that the message is, 'You will be listened to.' That is as far as I can go. Beyond that, I don't know. I'm not sure we will ever know."

That Hall had positive experiences working with Allen "makes me all the more conflicted about it. And saddened," she says. "To be clear, what I'm saying doesn't affect the work I did with him. It doesn't affect what I think about him, from what I can see of him.

I'm not saying that I know. I'm saying that I'm not sure it's up to any of us to say whether we know or not."

These supercareful conversations are the norm now, when it feels as though half the world is walking on eggshells - when, for example, a lifelong feminist such as Margaret Atwood is publicly castigated for saying that she believes in due process; or when Justin Trudeau corrects a woman who's praising him for being woke to women's issues ("We say 'personkind,' not 'mankind,' " he replied, later explaining it was a "dumb joke").

A plea for nuance can bite you in the ass.

Yet Hall is trying for just that.

Her life has always been attuned to it. Take her position on marriage, for example. Her father, the legendary English theatre director Sir Peter Hall, was already twice divorced when he married Hall's mother, the American opera singer Maria Ewing, in 1982, the year Rebecca was born. They soon separated and later divorced. "So I was always cynical about marriage," Hall says.

But then she co-starred - and fell in love - with Morgan Spector in the 2015 Broadway revival of the play Machinal.

"I got to the point where marriage was the thing I wanted to do most - make a leap of faith," she says. "If you're aware of how absolutely preposterously improbable marriage is, it's the most hopeful thing you can do." The couple are expecting their first child in a few months.

Permission is filled with awkward scenes in which Anna and her childhood sweetheart, Will (Dan Stevens), stumble toward uncomfortable realizations. On the eve of their engagement, they decide they need more sexual experience, and agree to sleep with a few other people. It does not go as planned.

"The big clue of the movie is that it pretends to be about open relationships - and it's not," Hall says. "I know people who have successful open relationships.

There are ethical ways of being non-monogamous that stand you in better stead of it working out. These characters are the textbook examples of how not to do it. They're a disaster. Because actually what the film is about is a woman giving herself permission to work out who she is and what she wants in life. And to grow up."

For Hall, the film asks a question rarely explored in movies, but experienced a lot in real life: "How do you question or release yourself from a relationship where both parties are nice people and everything is essentially fine," she says, "and yet you're plagued by the idea that you want to break out of it?" To further complicate matters - because isn't complication what this is all about? - Hall and Brian Crano, Permission's writer-director, have been friends since they were students at Cambridge. Crano's husband, David Joseph Craig, plays Anna's brother Hale. And Hall's husband, Morgan Spector, plays Hale's partner Reece.

You might think people so entangled wouldn't want to lay bare discomfiting relationship truths, but Hall felt the opposite: "You can't pull the wool over anyone's eyes. We all know each other too well. There's no hiding on set. That can at times be quite confronting. But it's creatively fruitful. And we'd been having these kinds of conversations for years, as our 20s became our 30s.

Things we'd witnessed, people we knew. It's all in there.

"I'm of the mind that you should do the work, have those conversations about what you want and vow to keep having them," she goes on. "Communication has got to be the key, right?" She laughs. "Oh, I don't know, I'm early days with it [marriage]."

As for working with Allen again, "I don't see how I could with a clear conscience if things remain as they are," Hall says.

"But I don't know, I really don't know. You can't put this case into a black-and-white schema. There are complicated aspects on both sides. It is possible to believe that one party is not lying, and also not be convinced of the other party's innocence and/or guilt."

It's possible. But tricky.

Because revolutions, no matter how righteous and necessary, aren't nuance-friendly.

Permission opens Feb. 9 in Toronto, Vancouver and Ottawa.

Associated Graphic

In Permission, Rebecca Hall again portrays a complicated woman: Anna, a music student stuck living a life she doesn't want in a relationship with her childhood sweetheart.

A Jaguar that earns its spots
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We take a spin through Corsica's coiling curves in the luxury auto maker's sporty, slimmed-down new SUV
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By MARK RICHARDSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, February 9, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D1


PORTO-VECCHIO, CORSICA -- 2018 JAGUAR E-PACE $42,700 (BASE); $51,000 (AS TESTED)

Engine: 2.0-litre twin-turbo four-cylinder Transmission/drive: 9-speed automatic/AWD Fuel economy (estimated): P250: 11.2 city / 8.4 hwy P300: 11.2 city/8.7 hwy Alternatives: Audi Q3, Mercedes-Benz GLA, BMW X2 or X3, Porsche Macan

The speed limit on this French Mediterranean island, 90 kilometres an hour, is highly optimistic. It doesn't change between the multilane coastal highway and almost all the narrow roads in the interior, which twist and squirm through the high mountains like a nest of vipers.

When the World Rally Championship comes here each year, it's known as the Race of 10,000 Turns; residents say the longest straight is the airport runway.

At one point, while lightly squealing the tires of the new Jaguar E-Pace around yet another tight hairpin, a police car emerged suddenly from the curve and I thought I was busted. But no - a glance at the speedometer showed there was another 30 km/h to go before hitting the limit.

Make no mistake: The E-Pace enjoys lightly squealing its tires.

There are seven different variations of trim level, based on two different engine outputs, and I was driving the more powerful, "R-Dynamic" 296 horsepower version. All E-Paces have the same twin-turbo, four-cylinder engines and nine-speed automatic transmissions; the less expensive editions are in a lesser state of tune, and their 246 hp output is slightly better with fuel consumption.

The E-Pace is an all-new addition for Jaguar - a smaller SUV to complement the larger F-Pace SUV that was introduced two years ago. The F-Pace was Jaguar's first SUV and it also has sporty aspirations. "For any Jaguar, we always have a sports car in mind," says Adam Hatton, who headed the design team for the E-Pace. "And we aim to be best in class - that's our main philosophy."

This compact premium SUV class is highly competitive, perhaps more than any other segment at the moment, and Jaguar's a little late to join the party. All the German premium manufacturers have been selling small SUVs for several years, with great success, locking down loyal customers who want a more practical but prestigious vehicle. Better late than never, though: When Jaguar introduced the larger F-Pace SUV a year ago, it almost doubled the maker's entire sales overnight.

Now, the smaller E-Pace wants to add to that. (The strange name comes from a comment made years ago by the company's founder, William Lyons, who stated famously that, "All Jaguars must have grace, pace and space.") It's a little larger than the new BMW X2, Audi Q3 and Mercedes-Benz GLA, but a little smaller than the BMW X3.

With a starting price of $42,700, rising up to $59,000, it's more expensive than a Land Rover Discovery Sport, but less costly than a Range Rover Evoque, with which it shares its platform.

None of those alternatives is quite as sporty, though. The E-Pace R-Dynamic S (phew!) that took me through a full day of Corsican curves never put a wheel wrong, even through a very slippery and steep off-road section that should have set the 20-inch Pirelli Scorpion tires skittering in the mud. The R-Dynamic comes equipped with an "Active Driveline allwheel-drive" system that pushes torque between the front and rear axles as needed, and between the left and right rear wheels, taking just a 10th of a second to make the shift.

Climbing slowly and steeply out of a river crossing, I never felt a wheel spin; drifting through a tight, sandy curve in some dunes, the slide was totally predictable. None of this was my own skill as a driver - it was all the car's computer.

There's a limit to everything, though, and my stomach surrendered to the high jinks later in the afternoon, forcing me to trim back the pace and switch the Drive mode from Dynamic to Comfort. Driven more gently, with more of my attention on the interior, this is clearly a premium vehicle and its small size belies its space, like the TARDIS from Doctor Who.

"It's difficult with this compact size of car," Hatton says, "but believe me, we work every millimetre to get the optimum space inside." In the back seats, a 6-foot-2 passenger can sit without touching the roof (actually, in this test car, a wonderful but optional panoramic moonroof that fills almost all the ceiling), and without banging knees against the front seat.

Clearly, the E-Pace has a bright future in Jaguar's lineup.

The maker needs it, because the demand for a small premium SUV is so strong around the world and shows no sign of abating. Last year, the larger F-Pace was named World Car of the Year, and who knows, maybe next year the E-Pace might take the same award. It's certainly deserving enough.

The writer was a guest of the auto maker. Content was not subject to approval.

RATINGS LOOKS

There's nothing wrong with the looks of the E-Pace - it's one of the most attractive SUVs on the road. "We wanted this car to look very chiselled, very tight, with loads of tension in the surfaces," says Adam Hatton, the creative director of Jaguar's exterior design. "We love having pure surfaces. Every line on every Jaguar we design has a sense of purpose. We don't put anything on there that isn't necessary." The base model is fitted with 17-inch wheels, but all other trims are available with wheels up to 21 inches.

INTERIOR

Well thought out and pleasing to the eye, the rear seats are as comfortable as the front. More than half the design team was brought in from outside the automotive world, including a hotel-room designer and a watch designer, and between their mid-20s and mid-30s. "This car will create a younger customer set for Jaguar," Hatton says.

PERFORMANCE

Inspiring when you want it to be, though I didn't drive the 246 hp version that is not equipped with Active Driveline AWD and cannot vouch for it. The lesspowerful "P250" engine claims zero-to-100 km acceleration in less than seven seconds, while the more powerful "P300" claims 6.1 seconds. But it's how the E-Pace uses this power that's important, and probably the only compact SUV that's more agile is the Porsche Macan.

There are four drive modes in all models, for eco, rain and snow, comfort and dynamic, as well as a separate off-road assistance mode. Later this year, there will be an optional "adaptive dynamics" suspension, though it's not yet available for early models.

TECHNOLOGY

This should be excellent, and the E-Pace is fitted with cutting-edge technology and connectivity, but there's no Apple CarPlay or Android Auto. Jaguar's been saying it's working on this pretty much since the cellphone connection systems became available, but there's still nothing to show for it.

As well, another E-Pace on the testing day set off its outside pedestrian protection airbags by mistake, perhaps confusing the driver's hard U-turn braking and a six-foot-tall pole to the side of the SUV for an imminent collision. Jaguar could offer no explanation for the airbags being deployed.

CARGO

Leave the rear seats in place and there's 685 litres of space in the trunk, with more than a metre of width between the wheel arches. Fold down the 60/40 rear seats and that expands to 1,493 litres of room. That's impressive for so compact a vehicle.

THE VERDICT

9 A gorgeous SUV that's sporty and capable when you want it to be, and comfortable and practical when you just need to get somewhere.

Associated Graphic

Top: The Jaguar E-Pace winds through the mountains of Corsica in the Mediterranean Sea. Above: The E-Pace is an all-new addition for Jaguar - an entry in the highly competitive compact premium SUV class to complement the company's larger F-Pace, introduced two years ago.

PHOTOS BY DAVID SHEPHERD/JLR GLOBAL PR

The E-Pace doesn't make any bold steps in technology, but its visually pleasing design could beckon a young new customer set for the brand.

PHOTOS BY DAVID SHEPHERD/JLR GLOBAL PR

The E-Pace is easily one of the most agile compact SUVs on the market - and one of the most attractive. The base model is fitted with 17-inch wheels; all other trims are available with wheels up to 21 inches.

Bringing the underground cannabis trade into the light
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Vancouver won't grant pot-shop licences to people with ties to illegal drugs, but critics urge reconsideration
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By MIKE HAGER
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Wednesday, February 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A11


VANCOUVER -- Rocco Dipopolo is an entrepreneur juggling three businesses - a tattoo parlour, a gym and a boxing clinic - in East Vancouver, an area of hipster coffee shops and chic duplexes that the 46-year-old remembers as gritty during his delinquent adolescence.

Until recently, he also owned an illegal cannabis dispensary in the city's trendy Commercial Drive neighbourhood. He had to step away from that venture in order for it to secure a coveted business licence from the City of Vancouver.

That's because, he says, an official check of his criminal history file by Vancouver police - an extensive search of all available intelligence - indicated he was a "danger to the public."

Mr. Dipopolo has no criminal convictions and no charges show up on the province's public online database, but he says he was acquitted of an assault charge and two charges of obstruction of a peace officer in the early 1990s - when he was a prospect for the Hells Angels. His identical twin brother is still a full-patch member of the gang, but Mr. Dipopolo says he has nothing to hide, including the fact that he and his brother regularly hang out with their families with an explicit agreement to never chat about illegal business.

"I sent [the police] another letter explaining what I've done with myself for the past 20 years - I've made nothing but moves to make myself a better person," he told The Globe and Mail recently.

He says he can't afford to sue the force to appeal the rejection so that he can again work in the dispensary, a move he says a lawyer recently told him could cost tens of thousands of dollars.

Mr. Dipopolo says he, as with thousands of people on the margins of the legal cannabis sector, is watching as the Liberal federal government moves to end nearly a century of prohibition this summer - a key government goal is to stamp out as much of the black market as possible.

Canada's police chiefs say those with ties to organized crime or large networks of illegal cannabis farms shouldn't be allowed to participate in the industry. But they also acknowledge that slamming the door to those with past convictions for possession, smalltime trafficking of the drug or other minor offences could hinder efforts to end the underground sale of the drug.

Lawmakers are still deciding if and how these people, many with expertise in growing and using cannabis products, should enter the legal market.

In 2016, just over half the criminal drug offences across the country - 55,000 - were related to cannabis, with three-quarters of those charges for possessing, not trafficking, the drug. Non-white and low-income Canadians have been disproportionately prosecuted and harmed. Amid sustained public pressure, the Liberals recently signalled they are considering pardoning those convicted of these low-level crimes.

Travis Lane, a Vancouver Island consultant to cannabis growers and dispensaries who once managed a chain of illegal dispensaries on Vancouver Island, said federal and provincial governments should not only expunge all convictions related to possession of the drug, but also give preferential treatment to those in the underground trade who want to go legit.

"If you bring in black-market entrepreneurs then you're taking the best away from that illicit side - so you get to have your cake and eat it, too," said Mr. Lane, director of the non-profit B.C. Independent Cannabis Association.

Mr. Lane, who managed liquor stores before entering the illicit cannabis industry, says it's much easier to get a liquor licence than start a legal cannabis business under the system being recommended by the police chiefs.

That's because, at least in British Columbia, applicants for a liquor licence face a "much less stringent" background check of their criminal record - as Mr. Dipopolo found when applying for a city licence to run a dispensary.

The current law for Canada's commercial medical cannabis producers allows for Health Canada to use a level of discretion similar to the City of Vancouver's process in granting clearance to aspiring growers.

The federal agency can deny a licence to anyone convicted of a criminal drug offence in the past decade or those - such as Mr. Dipopolo - it has a "reasonable grounds to suspect" have been involved with organized crime or drug trafficking in the past or are still associated with people engaged in those illicit activities.

The rules appear looser for people applying to Health Canada for a licence to grow their own medical cannabis or have someone else do it for them, stating that those convicted of drug charges within the past 10 years will be denied. A recent Globe and Mail investigation revealed that an increasing number of these individual medical cannabis patients are using this licensing system to grow hundreds of extra plants, creating a shadow market in Ontario susceptible to armed robberies and abuse by organized crime.

This summer, Health Canada is expected to do background checks on directors of those companies aspiring to grow recreational cannabis. The provinces that will allow private sale of the drug - British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Nova Scotia - will conduct their own screening for retailers.

Neil Dubord, chief of the municipal police force in the Vancouver suburb of Delta, said the B.C. Association of Municipal Police Chiefs, a group of more than dozen chiefs that he heads, is recommending that the province disqualify people who have grown for gangs, but not the hundreds of small-time "mom-andpop" growers that have been doing it for decades.

"Each situation will require discretion and a conversation," he said.

Abbotsford's Deputy Police Chief Mike Serr, a former Vancouver gang officer who helped write a federal brief for the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police on cannabis legalization, agreed that authorities should decide on a case-by-case basis whether to license aspiring cannabis business owners with criminal histories.

"That's where we're going to have to find that line: When there's no longer that relationship and we can't find anything to prove that there is that ongoing relationship, then that's when we're going to take a real hard look at that individual," he said.

"It's a tough one, on the front end it's concerning," he said of Mr. Dipopolo's case. "But, again, there's police officers who have family members [involved in organized crime].

"They're not part of an organized crime family; it's just that they may have that brother or they may have that uncle who has an association or a criminal background and that doesn't preclude them [from becoming an officer] just by that alone." Both Mr. Dubord and Mr. Serr agree that provincial and federal mechanisms should be created for those shut out of the legal industry to appeal that decision.

Akwasi Owusu-Bempah, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Toronto, said the argument for including people with criminal pasts in the new legal market, rather than barring them, is sound.

"People become involved in gangs oftentimes because they face other forms of social exclusion, so we are then seeking to exclude them further from participation in the licit economy, which is going to do nothing to stop them from being involved in violent gangs," he said.

"If anything, we might want to do the opposite: take people who are involved with the criminal underworld and provide them with opportunities for gainful employment."

Prof. Owusu-Bempah said the federal Liberal government has a duty to repair the harm done to Canadians by decades of prohibition, especially minorities who may use the drug as much as white people but are more likely to be charged.

He said Ottawa should also help people with low-level criminal cannabis convictions to enter the legal industry, as the city of Oakland in California, a U.S. state that legalized marijuana Jan. 1 is doing, as well as reinvest some of the tax revenue into those communities hardest hit by the war on drugs.

Mr. Lane, of the B.C. Independent Cannabis Association, said pioneers in the illegal sphere deserve that acknowledgment.

"There should be no doubt that the people who made the point - that cannabis being illegal was unjust in the first place - should not be punished for breaking an unjust law," he said. "If anything, they should be considered the forebearers of the law."

Associated Graphic

Rocco Dipopolo attends to his medical-marijuana shop on Commercial Drive in Vancouver in January, 2016. He has since stepped away from the business, as his criminal background check would prevent the store from getting a business licence.

JOHN LEHMANN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

THE WEIRDER, THE BETTER
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What do Elon Musk, Albert Einstein, Nikola Tesla and Pierre and Marie Curie have in common? They all show that it's okay to be unconventional
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By MELISSA A. SCHILLING
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O4


Professor of management and organizations at New York University's Stern School of Business and author of Quirky: The Remarkable Story of the Traits, Foibles, and Genius of Breakthrough Innovators Who Changed the World

According to his mother, Elon Musk, the man behind SpaceX and Tesla Motors, was the smallest child in his class, a "supernerd" who was often bullied. His compulsion to correct people with his encyclopedic knowledge caused most of his peers to reject him, making him feel isolated. His mother, Maye, noted, "I felt very sad as a mother because I think he wanted friends. But he was awkward, you know." Mr. Musk responded to this sense of separation by escaping into books and computer programming, ultimately writing and selling his first video game at the age of 12. Years later, a former employee would describe him as "able to detach from human connection to a remarkable degree."

I've spent the past six years studying serial breakthrough innovators - people who introduced spectacular innovations over and over again - and one of the strongest and most surprising commonalities was their sense of separateness - a feeling of social detachment, or of not belonging. Albert Einstein articulated it most clearly, noting, "My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced freedom from the need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities.

I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment, of the need for solitude - a feeling which increases with the years."

He wasn't alone in this sentiment.

Nikola Tesla, the brilliant inventor of AC electricity, wireless communication and more, preferred to work alone, and mostly at night. He rarely engaged in social interaction and had few friends. An 1895 New York Times article described him with the following: "He seems to be a man who dwells apart. He has no kith or kin in this country, and only a few friends who share his confidences. Even in moments of closest social intercourse he will become abstracted, and there is never a time when he would not prefer his laboratory to any other spot on earth."

Pierre and Marie Curie, the Nobel Prize-winning chemists who discovered radium, among other things, were extremely attached to each other, but detached from the social world. As Pierre Curie wrote, "We dreamed of living in the world quite removed from human beings." They even relinquished most of the care for their two daughters to Pierre Curie's father. The girls adored their parents, but pined for their attention. Their daughter Ève would later write, "United by their tenderness, united by their intellectual passions, they had, in a wooden shack, the 'anti-natural' existence for which they had both been made, she as well as he."

Of the eight serial breakthrough innovators I studied in a six-year research project, all but one (Benjamin Franklin) exhibited this marked sense of separateness as an integral part of their nature. It wasn't introversion or reserve; to the contrary, many of the innovators were assertive and outspoken, and sometimes even domineering. Their sense of separateness reflected the degree to which they felt they did not belong to, or were not a part of, the social world around them.

I hadn't intentionally tried to find "separate" innovators; was this just a peculiar coincidence? The more I studied their lives, the more convinced I became that it was not. Separateness had helped the innovators be independent thinkers, freeing them to break the rules and ignore the assumptions that constrained others. By not belonging, they were buffered from the norms that help bring groups of people to consensus, and this independence, combined with other important traits and circumstances, helped them to generate and pursue big and unusual ideas.

When an individual is not part of the social fabric around them, they are both less exposed to conventional wisdom, and less apt to bow to it even when they are exposed. Furthermore, because they don't belong, there is less to lose by being unconventional. In fact, being unconventional or iconoclastic can become an important part of an individual's identity. These dynamics are vividly illustrated by the lives of serial breakthrough innovators: Einstein was initially shunned by academia, and was subsequently able to reject established ideas about ether and absolute time that held back Lorentz and Poincaré.

Marie Curie intensely pursued self-education because women were not allowed in universities in Poland, and acquired the habit of independent thinking and resolve that were the wellsprings of her success; Steve Jobs felt "abandoned, but special" because he had been put up for adoption and was smarter than his adoptive parents, and he consequently decided the rules that other people lived by did not apply to him.

Many things can give rise to a sense of separateness, including childhood circumstances, physical disabilities and economic, cultural or language barriers. This offers a partial explanation for why immigrant communities are so often identified as a source of innovation and entrepreneurship: If the typical route to prosperity is not available to an individual or group, they may be more likely to pursue atypical routes. Many studies show that immigrants start up new companies at twice the rate of the native-born, in part because traditional employment opportunities are often not available to them, and in part because of different attitudes about risk that are both cause and consequence of leaving your home country and starting over in a new one.

Time alone can also be both cause and consequence of a sense of separateness. Most of the innovators I studied had childhoods and young adult periods characterized by significant time spent in solitude, pursuing their own interests. This is extremely important - solitude is known to be valuable for creativity. It gives people time to think and pursue those things they find intrinsically interesting. It can help them to develop their own beliefs about how the world works, and to develop a self-concept that is less structured by the interpretations or opinions of others.

The importance of solitude does not mean that the entire creative process is conducted alone. Mr. Jobs could not have built computers without the help of Steve Wozniak, or developed the iPhone, iPod or iPad without Jonathan Ive and others; Einstein sought help from Michele Besso and Marcel Grossmann for some aspects of his work; Mr. Musk and Thomas Edison built laboratories full of technical experts to help them execute their ideas. But if an individual does not have enough solitude, they may not come up with the full range of ideas of which they are capable.

A sense of separateness by itself does not make an innovator; the people I studied had many other important commonalities that combined to help them achieve what others had deemed impossible. However, understanding both the benefits and costs of separateness gives us insight into how we can nurture creativity in individuals, families and organizations. The first implication pertains to time alone: If we are seeking creative ideas, it is very important to give individuals time to work alone, before they engage in collaboration. Individuals should be encouraged to not fear being unorthodox, and they should be asked to write down their ideas before sharing or comparing them with others. Children also benefit from time to think, read and write alone - overscheduling them and turning all activities into collaborative endeavours could prevent them from fully developing their own ideas and discovering those things in which they are intrinsically interested.

The second implication is in the way we teach or emphasize social skills. Social skills such as persuasiveness and the ability to build trust and rapport are, of course, valuable. But we must be careful that in our emphasis on social skills we do not extinguish individualism, or a person's willingness to challenge norms. Rigid adherence to convention and agreeableness is the surest way to prevent independent thinking and innovation.

None of this means that we should actively turn our employees or family members into social pariahs, nor assume that all individuals are unconventional by nature or want to be innovators. It does, however, mean that there are valuable reasons to signal that it is okay to be unconventional. By embracing weirdness, we might better allow the natural creativity of people to flourish.

Associated Graphic

Albert Einstein, seen on his 72nd birthday on March 14, 1951.

GETTY IMAGES

Three kids, two parents, one condo
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Eric Beynon and Leah Andrew's children took the elevator to their neighbourhood
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By MADELEINE WHITE
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Friday, February 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H7


308 PALMERSTON AVE., PENTHOUSE 16 TORONTO

Asking price: $1,229,900 Taxes: $4,841.60 (2017) Unit size: 1290 sq. ft . (interior) + 615 sq. ft . (exterior) Maintenance fee: $995.17 (monthly) Listing agent: Justin Aykler, Sales Representative, Aykler Real Estate Inc. and Dan Chan, real estate sales representative, Right at Home Realty Inc. Brokerage

Nine years ago, Eric Beynon and Leah Andrew were looking to buy their first home. They were armed with a spreadsheet of features they wanted and two clear goals: stay in their neighbourhood - Toronto's Little Italy - and find a place where they could start a family.

Fast-forward nearly a decade and they're sitting in their twostorey, three-bedroom condo at College and Palmerston - managing to have accomplished their goals even without a house.

"We thought for sure we'd have one child here, but we definitely didn't plan on having three," Ms. Andrew said.

THE SEARCH

The search to get to that point was a long one.

"At first, we had looked at solely houses," Mr. Beynon said, adding that the couple saw more than 100 houses during their year-and-a-half search.

"I can remember bidding on houses where we were one of 11," Ms. Andrew said. "It was just ridiculous, but we really wanted a house 'cause we thought we're going to start a family so we need a house."

Then their agent, Justin Aykler, suggested looking at a condo, but there were two problems.

There weren't many condo buildings in the area - only 301 Markham St. and 308 Palmerston Ave.- and Mr. Beynon and Ms. Andrew had to wrap their heads around the idea of family life in a condo.

"On the day that we saw this [condo], we had already seen a fairly well renovated house and a fixer-upper," Mr. Aykler said, adding that it was that moment when they realized they had seen all of their options.

The condominium the couple ultimately opted for was constructed between 2005 and 2007 by developers Graywood and Beaverhall Homes. The building has just over 100 units, with the penthouses on the top floor featuring terraces. Situated at the corner of Palmerston Avenue and College Street, it is right in the midst of Little Italy's restaurants and shops.

Penthouse 16 is a south and east-facing corner unit on the top level with two floors - one for living, and three bedrooms and two bathrooms on the second level - and it has a wraparound 615square-foot terrace.

"It really impressed us because it was essentially a house, seven floors up," Mr. Beynon said. "It was this interesting mental process that we went through in terms of switching our mindsets and saying; 'Hey, maybe we don't actually need a house.' " In terms of crossing off the features on their house-hunting checklist, the condo managed to surprise them. For example, they had listed "outdoor space" on their wish list, thinking that their future home would need a backyard. But once they saw the penthouse terrace, their view expanded.

"The terrace is tons of outdoor space, it just doesn't necessarily have grass," Ms. Andrew said.

In terms of interior space, at 1,290 square feet, their home is the largest of the units in the building and is similar in size to a lot of the semi-detached houses they had been looking at.

Plus, there were features that this condo had that the "regular" houses they were looking at didn't.

"I remember when we first came in [to the unit], the amount of light really struck me," Ms. Andrew said.

The bought the unit in 2007 from someone who hadn't actually lived in the space. The emptiness was a big bonus for the couple. "That really helped us envision what it might be like," she said. "This place was in good shape and it was a blank canvas."

RENOVATIONS

The couple did their first renovation in 2010, deciding to make some "select changes" that made a huge difference to how they lived in the place.

"Everything we did was to try and maximize use of our livable space," Ms. Andrew said.

"It was also to take out the most traditional elements and make them modern," Mr. Beynon added.

The big changes included taking out the small island that was in the kitchen and replacing it with a bigger one with more storage (including a wine fridge) and an overhang counter so it doubles as an eating space.

They also worked with Jill Greaves Design to modernized the look of the staircase. This involved replacing the wood handrail with white powdercoated pipes and transforming the landing space upstairs.

There, they added a storage unit that acts as their linen closet and a sculptural element they call a "bamboo screen" that is made out of the same pipes as the handrail.

"It's really trying to do something unique and architectural," Mr. Beynon said.

Seven years and three kids later, they tackled renovation number two and three, which included updating the bathrooms, changing the lower level's hardwood floors from a thinner to a wider plank and switching up the baseboards.

CONDO LIFE WITH KIDS

Ms. Andrew and Mr. Beynon still get reactions of disbelief when they tell people they are raising three little kids in a condo. But they know that this choice has been right for their family.

In addition to giving their kids an urban upbringing, living in condo has also given them a different perspective about materialism when it comes to buying new stuff. They still buy their kids toys but they've been creative in their storage solutions so that the new items don't cause clutter.

And over their years at 308 Palmerston, they've seen more and more young families join them. They say that there are four or five other families that have kids on their floor alone, which has given them a real sense of community and turned the hallway into their version of a neighbourhood street.

They credit their ability to make their family work in the space in part to the terrace, which is their favourite feature of the home.

"The terrace is so big that it's like another room for the kids," Mr. Beynon said. "They use it all the time."

They also note that adults enjoy the space too, having hosted many dinner parties - seating up to 10 people - out there.

THE PRICE

The 10-foot-deep terrace was a big factor when it came to valuing the condo in Toronto's market.

"There's aren't many condos like this," Mr. Aykler said, adding that it's not just the terrace that is rare when it comes to this penthouse, it's also its square footage and location.

Mr. Aykler remembers that eight years ago there weren't very many three-bedroom condos in Toronto, let alone Little Italy. That has changed a little, though.

"Now, you're seeing more twobedrooms and three-bedrooms getting developed cause the market has shifted away from onebedroom units," he said. "But there still aren't that many."

And in Little Italy, condos are still quite scarce, meaning when Mr. Aykler expanded area where he looked at comparable units to include Queen West and the Annex. Ultimately, though, the price came down to determining price per square foot, which was more challenging than most condos because "we had to determine how to value the outside space."

MOVING ON

As the three kids grow older, Mr. Beynon and Ms. Andrew realized that they were starting to outgrow their beloved home. It's a change they are meeting with excitement and heartache.

"I know the kids are sad about leaving," Ms. Andrew said. "They ask us questions about what it means to leave this place."

They know they are also going to miss the terrace and the neighbourhood, but are thankful for the memories.

"There are amazing surprises as you go," Mr. Beynon said, when talking about the joy their kids get out of playing in their summer sandbox on the terrace.

"It has been a great ride here, we are definitely sad to leave," Ms. Andrew added.

Associated Graphic

The corner unit has has a wraparound terrace with views of the south and east sections of Toronto. Down below is the vibrant neighbourhood of Toronto's Little Italy, with its restaurants and shops.

PHOTOS BY DANCHAN.CO

The owners of penthouse 16 renovated the unit not only to modernize it but with a view to 'maximize use of our livable space.'

DANCHAN.CO

French lessons
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The École des Trois Ponts offers an immersive cultural experience
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By KAT TANCOCK
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P17


THIZY, FRANCE -- In the basement of Distillerie Crozet Frères, Monsieur Crozet himself is showing off his stash of ingredients: stacked boxes of dried herbs, barrels of citrus peels and a large container of saffron, the value of which I'm afraid to inquire about. In the next room, on wet brick and concrete floors, huge presses are slowly extracting the juice out of a shipment of lemons. Farther on, beside yellow-painted floor-to-ceiling shelves lined with rows and rows of liqueurs and syrups, a simple hot plate rests on a table, holding pots of the bright-coloured wax used to seal each of the distillery's bottles, one by one.

The Crozet family has been manufacturing its wares here for four generations, since 1875. The product list is massive: more than 50 syrups and 35-odd liqueurs in flavours such as rose, blackberry and chestnut; eaux de vie and absinthe; and aperitifs such as their specialty, Skos, a quinquina - an aromatized wine traditionally containing quinine - whose label once boasted of its energizing properties: "ne fatigue jamais."

Located in the village of Thizy, about an hour's drive northwest of Lyons, the distillery is far from the beaten tourist track - and, in fact, typically only welcomes guests to its tasting room and store, not into the depths of this active, busy workplace. As I sip a sample of Skos, hoping for a sudden reversal of jet lag, we chat about the business and its place in a community which, as with many small towns around the world, struggles to keep its young people from leaving for the big city.

The best part? I've been conversing with Crozet this whole time en français. Because I'm not on just any distillery tour - I'm on a field trip with my French class.

Aided by a specially prepared vocabulary (with words such as wax, barrel and tank) and a professeur on hand to help explain any tricky terminology, I'm practising my language skills in the real world while getting acquainted with local food and business culture, too. I've travelled here not to get somewhere, but to be somewhere, to escape from checklist tourism and simply spend time with a new place and its people.

École des Trois Ponts in Riorges, at the outskirts of Roanne, seemed like the perfect spot to do so. In business since 1991, the school prides itself not just on its ability to teach the language, but on immersing students in local culture, too. Cooking classes have long been part of the repertoire, but the gourmet excursions that make up my program are a new addition to the curriculum, oriented toward students at the intermediate to advanced level who will most benefit from the indepth conversations with local entrepreneurs and artisans.

(Beginners can be accommodated, upon request, with interpreters on hand.)

Every morning, we spend three hours in the classroom conjugating verbs, practising new words and perfecting pronunciation.

Then, each afternoon, we're ferried to a different town and business to taste their wares and test our skills. In the evenings, after a little downtime, we sit down at the table for a four-course meal prepared by the school's chef, always accompanied by a staff member for the sake of company and conversation - the latter aided, bien sûr, by a glass of French wine. The week continues in this way: a little grammar, a little French cuisine, a little time exploring historic villages or, say, dining on asparagus "three ways" and meringue spheres filled with the season's first strawberries in a centuries-old château. On our free afternoon, I squeeze in a pastry lesson, prepping dense, buttery financiers and delicate tuiles that must have passed muster, as they turn up on our dessert plates that night alongside an icy sorbet.

Every morning, we spend three hours in the classroom conjugating verbs ... Then we're ferried to a different town to test our skills.

In keeping with French tradition - this is a cultural immersion, after all - we share a cheese plate at each dinner as our third course, accompanied by a brief lesson from the school's chef.

We're taught how to cut each cheese properly; that we should never spread cheese on bread, but simply place it; and that as children, our teachers were chastised by their parents for eating cheese without bread. Land of Atkins this is not. And we learn about the provenance of each cheese - the region, the type of milk, the aging process - before we pass the tray around to try them for ourselves.

So it's no wonder that I feel prepared for our cheese tasting with Laurent Mons of Mons Fromager-Affineur, a local company that exports its cheeses to 19 countries. We pull up chairs at Les Halles Diderot, Roanne's indoor market, to watch a brief video about the cheese-making process before diving into our samples of fromage - one soft, one hard, one goat and one blue - and the red and white wines served alongside. It turns out we're expected to cast a critical eye (or, rather critical tastebuds) at the pairings, and Mons has prepared tasting sheets so we can take organized notes on each cheese: whether it has a hard or soft rind, what type of milk it's made from and how well it goes with each wine. "It's not a test," he says to us in French, although it certainly has the appearance of one - at least for the cheeses themselves. I give top marks to the rich-tasting blue, which turns out to be their own 1924 Bleu, made from a blend of cow and sheep milk. While none of their products are sold in Canada, I'm sad to hear, I can find it at Whole Foods in the United States, next time I'm travelling that way.

One day after lunch, we wind our way up country roads in the town of Saint-Symphorien-deLay to the farmstead where proprietor Nicolas Piot produces chocolates and pastries, sold on the premises as well as at local markets. When we visit, Easter is less than a month away, and he's busy creating treats for the occasion. We crowd into the tiny shop as he releases cartoonish milkchocolate pigs, cows, tigers and fish from moulds so we can see the works in progress, then shows us finished bells and rabbits adorned with festive seasonal ribbon.

But it's squares of single-origin chocolate he has laid out for us to sample and comment on, as well as a scattering of his sablés, buttery cookies resembling shortbread in flavours such as chocolate and pistachio. The former is fodder for conversation: the 68per-cent-cocoa Peruvian variety is flavourful and complex, the 46per-cent-cocoa sample from the Dominican Republic much more light-tasting and creamy. But the sablés are a revelation, deceptively simple, melt-in-your-mouth treats that really showcase Piot's talents, not to mention his business's butter consumption.

That evening, doing my homework - a faux letter to a friend about our excursion that day - I describe the narrow roads, green hills, stone buildings and fields full of cows on the way to Piot's shop. "Before he started this business, he worked for top pastry chefs and chocolatiers to learn everything he could," I write. "Now, he makes chocolate bars and confections as well as pastries to order, such as birthday cakes. He also makes excellent sablés - I bought a bag to share with you!"

I have to admit that's a little white lie. The sablés aren't going to make it onto the plane.

YOUR TURN

French-language and cooking programs at École des Trois Ponts in Riorges, France, are generally packaged by the week, with fees including full room and board.

Mornings are spent in the classroom, while afternoon activities might include cooking classes, gourmet excursions or countryside walks. From 1,090 (about $1,650) for the French & Gourmet program; 3ponts.edu.

Riorges is a short taxi ride from the Roanne train station, itself about an hour by train from Lyons.

Associated Graphic

Excursions arranged by École des Trois Ponts include visits to the medieval village of Saint-Jean-Saint-Mauricesur-Loire, where students can converse with local entrepreneurs and artisans.

PHOTOS BY KAT TANCOCK

Top: The writer enjoyed local cuisine such as asparagus 'three ways.' Above: Pots of the bright-coloured wax used to seal each of the distillery's bottles at Distillerie Crozet Frères.

Back to school
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He's been dead for almost 150 years, but John Stuart Mill and his seminal work, On Liberty, are still relevant. So what would he think about today's campus free-speech debates?
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By CLIFFORD ORWIN
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O4


Perhaps you, too, would be grouchy if you've been dead since 1873. Or perhaps you would be perfectly serene. "Grouchy" better described John Stuart Mill upon his ghost's return from a recent visit to Canadian university campuses. He noted in this interview exclusive to The Globe and Mail that British North Americans ("or Canadians, as they now call themselves") still pay him lip service as the great founder and patron of free speech. He complained, however, that they no longer seem to understand what he intended by the term.

Mill's seminal On Liberty is rich in argument and abounds in brilliant formulations. He was a great journalist as well as a leading thinker. But if I had to choose one from all the rest, it would be this one: "But the peculiar evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is, that it is robbing the human race; posterity as well as the present generation; those who dissent from the opinion, still more than those who hold it.

If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth, if wrong, they lose, what is almost as great a benefit, the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth, produced by its collision with error."

There is something Socratic in this last notion: That just as Socrates forever tested his understanding by engaging his fellow Athenians in discussion, so we must always test ours by exposing our fellow citizens to alternatives.

Mill was not naively confident that truth would prevail in any collision with error. His argument was rather that it had to be heard in order to have any chance of doing so.

Nor did he think that freedom of speech was practical for every society - only those that had reached a certain stage of maturity. Canada qualifies, however, as would any successful liberal democracy.

To be sure, Mill endorsed suspending free speech when it posed a "clear and present danger" to the lives or property of any individual or group. But he opposed restricting it further. He did not wish to chill criticism, not even when it was harsh and directed at particular groups. I am Jewish, and criticism of Jews, Judaism or Israel often pains me.

Still, I cannot, on Millian grounds, claim for any of the three any exemption from criticism. (Nor, of course, can the critics abridge my right of response.)

In its recent whirlwind tour of Canada, Mill's ghost touched down at several campuses. It fluttered away from them perplexed.

Mill had expected to find our universities bulwarks of his principles but discovered that in fact these principles were hotly contested. A good example, much in the news, was Wilfrid Laurier University. There a dispute over teaching materials generated rival statements on free speech.

Four Laurier professors responded to the dispute by circulating a petition urging the university to adopt a policy modelled on that of the University of Chicago, since adopted by several other U.S. colleges and universities.

This policy is strongly Millian. Indeed, Mill told me he would have broken his ghostly silence and signed the petition himself had not the authors requested signatures from the Laurier community only. He particularly endorsed the following paragraph: "It is not the proper role of our university to attempt to shield individuals from ideas and opinions they find unwelcome, disagreeable, or even deeply offensive. Although our institution greatly values civility ... concerns about civility and mutual respect can never be used as a justification for closing off discussion of ideas, however offensive or disagreeable those ideas may be to some members of our community."

"However offensive or disagreeable" - that cuts to the heart of the matter.

A rival statement on the issue emerged from some colleagues in the communications program, who, while conceding that "public debates about freedom of expression [were] valuable," insisted that they "can have a silencing effect on the free speech of other members of the public." Nothing in their statement supports this claim, however, which should be swallowed with a sizable grain of salt. "Charges that our program [in communications] shelters students from real-world issues or fosters classrooms inhospitable to discussing contentious issues from different vantage points seem to us simply preposterous."

Such charges may seem less preposterous to readers of the statement, the purpose of which was to defend two colleagues who had stopped at nothing to silence just such a different vantage point.

Yet another such statement was issued by the Rainbow Centre, an official entity of the university that advocates for queer and trans students. It protested that "the discourse of freedom of speech [was] being used to cover over the underlying reality of transphobia that is so deeply ingrained in our contemporary political context." Nothing is more predictable on campuses by now than the claim that a given liberal practice that presents itself as emancipatory is actually repressive.

In the present case, like any other, such a claim requires such substantiation as can only occur through free debate itself. Either the claimants can offer persuasive reasons for their position, and refute all objections to it, or they can't.

Or would any such discussion, according to them, just compound the problem by cowing even further those whom free speech is alleged to silence? If so, how to proceed? Must we cave to these petitioners, for want of their permission to challenge them? In casting the discourse of free speech as oppressive, statements such as the one just quoted imply that to curb it would be liberating.

And so it would be - for those who got to do the curbing.

The basic premise of the opponents of free speech, namely that its very practice actually silences this or that group, casts the group in question as a basket case and encourages it to regard itself so. It treats the university as a sheltered workshop, some members of which require protection from the opinions of the rest. The most extreme version of this argument is that these students feel (and so must be deemed) unsafe when exposed to opinions uncongenial to them. A safe campus is a tame campus, from which students have a right to graduate unchanged, toting the same basket of congealed opinions with which they arrived.

This rejection of adverse opinions as "unsafe" would have driven Mill up the highest wall in Westminster. He argued the opposite: that we are safe only for so long as we are exposed to opinions contrary to our own - safe from our unfortunate proclivities to sloth, narrowness and prejudice, safe from forever riding in triumph over the corpses of straw men. He thought that there was no surer sign of a bad argument than its holder's insistence on its immunity to challenge. He also held that once any group claimed for itself the pious right to police unwholesome views, woe to any that differed from its own. Mill thought this the clear lesson of history - and he was right.

The dispute at Laurier must still be resolved - the administration awaits an internal panel's recommendations. It hasn't been the only one in Canada recently, and others are bound to occur.

The current lot differ from those known to Mill in that now it is the self-anointed forces of progress that argue for narrowing the discussion to one whose terms they get to dictate. As U.S. sociologist Rogers Brubaker has put it: "These tendencies point in an increasingly and disturbingly illiberal direction. They threaten to transform the university from a space of free and unencumbered exchange into a space of constrained, monitored and inhibited exchange. They threaten to remake the university into a disciplinary institution in the Foucauldian sense, one that seeks - through an expanding array of training programs and through the proliferation and expansion of investigative and disciplinary bureaucracies - to produce docile subjects who will speak in institutionally correct ways."

Some ghosts remain relevant.

Mill hoped to foster not docile subjects but democratic citizens who would take pride and even delight in the give and take of opposing arguments. He called on liberal democrats to develop thick skins, without which full debate over crucial issues (including the self-criticism on which genuine social progress depends) would be impossible. He was right to issue this call, and our universities evade it to their detriment.

Associated Graphic

John Stuart Mill has been credited as the great founder and patron of free speech. He argued that every opinion had the right to be heard, even if it was wrong.

PUBLIC DOMAIN

Pre-sale regulations in spotlight as hot GTA condo market leaves buyers out in the cold
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By JANET MCFARLAND
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Wednesday, February 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


When Mohammad Zaki agreed to buy a three-bedroom unit in a preconstruction townhouse development in 2016, he thought the home would be move-in ready this year.

Two weeks ago, he found out it's not being built at all. The cancellation of the project has left Mr. Zaki and the other buyers in the 68-unit Kennedy Gardens development on the east side of Toronto scrambling in a market where prices have climbed significantly since purchase agreements were signed years ago.

The condominium-style townhouse building was originally scheduled to be completed in mid-2018, but buyers were notified in December that the completion date had been changed to 2021. A month later, buyers were sent another letter saying the project was being cancelled entirely and their deposits would be refunded.

Mr. Zaki and his would-be neighbours are not alone. Kennedy Gardens is the eighth such project to be scuttled in the Greater Toronto Area in the past year.

The trend is raising questions about the rights of buyers, the motivations of developers and the responsibility of lawmakers to better regulate a red-hot segment of the real estate market: presale condos.

The issue is positioning buyers against builders as both sides attempt to reap the benefits of soaring prices. Buyers are frustrated that even as they are locked into deals, there is no recourse if a builder backs out. Developers say they are simply following the terms of signed contracts.

Purchase contracts typically give builders wide scope to cancel a project, including if they have not sold enough units, do not have financing or have not received city building permits. The developer of Kennedy Gardens, Time Development Group Inc., told buyers in a Jan. 31 letter that it had not sold enough units and did not have satisfactory construction financing in place to proceed with the project.

The company did not reply to requests for comment.

Mr. Zaki, who agreed to pay $525,000 for his townhouse in 2016, feels guilty that he encouraged other prospective buyers to proceed after meeting them at the sales centre in 2016, where he lined up for four hours for information on buying a unit.

"I kind of reassured them, which I shouldn't have done - I should have kept my mouth shut," he said.

The cancellation comes after several other Toronto-area development projects have also been halted in recent months, including the high-profile Museum Flats condominium in downtown Toronto. It was cancelled in November after buyers had purchased 168 units in the 10-storey building in 2016. Developer Castlepoint Numa said it had not received necessary approvals, building permits and financing, but said it plans to redesign and relaunch the project later.

There have been seven condominium project cancellations in the Greater Toronto Area in the past year, according to data from condo-tracking firm Urbanation, not including the Kennedy Gardens project.

Home construction tracking site BuzzBuzzHome said it recorded five projects that were cancelled in 2017 after sales had launched, and four others cancelled before sales had occurred, including single family, townhouse and condo projects.

The proportion of cancellations is not high considering there are more than 600 new residential projects either preselling or still in the planning stages in the GTA.

But some of the failures have been attributed to delays in receiving city permit approvals, financing issues and poor sales, surprising buyers because the region's condo market has been so strong.

Condominiums have become the hottest housing sector in the GTA as detached house prices have climbed out of reach for many buyers in recent years. The result is that most new development projects have sold out quickly, some within days of launching. The strength of the demand is evident in the increase in the preconstruction price of apartment-style condominiums in the GTA, which rose 58 per cent between the end of 2015 and the end of 2017 to an average of $716,772 in December, according to the Building Industry and Land Development Association.

The recent project failures have also put new focus on the lack of recourse for buyers, who can do little when a project is scuttled as long as their deposits are returned as required.

Toronto lawyer Bob Aaron said if a developer cancels a project and relaunches it, there is nothing the original buyers can do if the reasons given for cancellation were permitted within the sales contract.

"I have seen builders say: 'Hey, I can make more money if I just terminate these agreements on some excuse and then put them back on the market at a lot more money,' " Mr. Aaron said. "It all depends on what the contract says, and typically those contracts are wide open for the builder to back out. It's whatever is in the contract."

Toronto city councillor Josh Matlow tabled a motion that was approved by council in 2013, asking the province to require developers to spell out uncertainties far more clearly in promotional materials to buyers - particularly when the projects haven't secured city zoning approvals for a residential development.

While potential risks for cancellation are included with the purchase contract, he believes they also need to be prominently displayed in advertising-style marketing materials so that buyers clearly see the uncertain nature of their purchases.

"It may be in there somewhere, but a lot of people aren't fully cognizant - they think they're getting something and they're waiting for something to be built and ready for them. It needs to be far more clear." Cancellations for any reason are hard on buyers because their lives are thrown into turmoil after years of waiting, Mr. Matlow added.

"The market may have passed you by," he said. "I've heard from others ... who have been sitting for a number of years thinking they have their lives organized and now the market has become far too expensive for them. They're never going to be able to get a unit the same size unless they win the lottery."

Ontario's consumer protection rules currently require new home vendors to provide project information to buyers with each purchase agreement, but more disclosure requirements are coming.

Aleks Dhefto, spokesman for the Ministry of Government and Consumer Services, said the province is developing regulations to standardize disclosure statements so they are easier for buyers to understand and contain required information about the status of the project, planning approvals and other issues.

The regulations haven't been developed yet, but the province will work with stakeholders "to find ways to provide extra safeguards to protect condo buyers and help them make more informed decisions," he said. Further disclosure regulations are also coming as part of the new Strengthening Protection for Ontario Consumers Act, which received royal assent in December. The regulations could specify disclosures that must be made to all new home buyers - not only condominium buyers - as well as "mandatory or prohibited" terms and conditions in new home sales agreements, Mr. Dhefto said.

Mr. Matlow believes consumer protection rules should go further to also prevent a developer from cancelling a project and then relaunching it at a higher price shortly afterward. He suggests former buyers should be "grandfathered" and their prior purchase price honoured if a developer relaunches soon after cancellation.

Ontario legislation requires deposits to be repaid with interest when a project is cancelled, but does not go further. The Condominium Act also requires developers to "take all reasonable steps" to sell units in a property without delay, and complete and register buildings without delay.

Mr. Aaron, the real estate lawyer, said rules are tilted in favour of developers, who can cancel projects for a wide variety of reasons, while buyers cannot opt to cancel their purchase as time passes.

It is an imbalance that particularly irks Mr. Zaki, who is unsure of his next step. He recently saw a three-bedroom unit at a nearby project being developed on Victoria Park Avenue listed for $810,000, which is far more than the $525,000 he agreed to pay two years ago for his larger Kennedy Gardens unit.

"We can't just back out, but yet a developer has this trump card they can play, saying 'Oh, sorry,' " he said.

Associated Graphic

After the recent cancellation of a Toronto townhouse development in which he agreed to purchase a unit two years ago, Mohammed Zaki, seen at the site of the project on Tuesday, says he is unsure of his next steps.

GLENN LOWSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Why the market can't make up its mind on inflation
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By IAN MCGUGAN
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


Two weeks ago, the mere suggestion that wages might be rising a whisker faster than expected in the United States was enough to drive global stock markets into a panic over the possibility of higher inflation ahead.

This week, the mood abruptly shifted. Investors around the world yawned at a higher-than-expected reading on U.S. inflation and decided to treat themselves to a rally.

The wild swing in sentiment may simply be the result of Mr. Market's notoriously unstable temperament.

More likely, though, it reflects the complicated nature of inflation. Too little is worrisome, so is too much.

Like Goldilocks' porridge, the goal with inflation is to achieve a temperature that's just right.

Markets have apparently decided that the inflationary pressures we're witnessing still leave us solidly in Goldilocks territory. For now, they're correct.

The question is whether we will stay in this happy place.

Here's the problem: Central bankers typically aim for an inflation rate of around 2 per cent, a level that is in keeping with strong economic growth and a stable job market. Since the financial crisis, policy makers have often been unable to hit this target. They've been stymied by persistent joblessness and unused factories and mines. The large amount of slack in the economy has put a lid on price increases and kept inflation stubbornly below target.

Recent numbers suggest North America is finally emerging from this long malaise. In Canada, where the consumer price index (CPI) is rising at 1.9 per cent year over year, and in the United States, where the headline number is at 2.1 per cent, inflation is now ticking along at nearly exactly the 2-per-cent target. Unemployment in both countries has tumbled and both economies are growing at a reasonable clip. This is all good news.

So why have markets been so volatile in their reaction to inflationary tremors? It comes down to their assessment of what happens next.

Over the past several years, rock-bottom yields on bonds and savings accounts have provided next to no competition for stocks. As a result, equity investors have enjoyed one of the best bull runs in history. But signs that inflation is returning to more normal levels suggest that other interest rates may also be rebounding to more normal levels. If so, stocks will no longer be the only game in town.

In the United States, the yield on the benchmark 10-year Treasury bond has soared to around 2.9 per cent, its highest level in four years. That is still low by historical standards and not an obvious reason for concern, especially if corporate earnings continue to be strong and future increases in rates occur at a measured pace. However, signs of a more normal economy provide lots of reason to worry about disruptive surprises ahead.

The biggest risk for investors is the possibility of a policy error.

Jerome Powell, the new chair of the Federal Reserve, has served as a governor of the world's most powerful central bank since 2012, but he has been in the top job for a mere two weeks. He faces an economy that is headed into unknown territory because of the massive tax-reform package recently passed by Congress.

Governments usually deliver a bounty of goodies only when joblessness is high and businesses are begging for a boost.

Instead, U.S. tax reform will unleash a powerful wave of stimulus on an economy that is already operating close to full capacity, with unemployment at a 17-year low.

The new tax rules are likely to send demand soaring at the same time as the supply of new workers is dwindling.

Too much demand competing for not enough supply amounts to a textbook formula for inflation. In theory, the Fed should now lean against those inflationary forces by raising rates to dampen demand. But how fast and by how much should it hike?

It's a tough question, especially for a new Fed chief operating in the chaotic environment of U.S. President Donald Trump's Washington.

If Mr. Powell mistimes things, by being too slow or too fast with rate increases, inflation will once again become the obsession of stock markets.

For now, the futures market indicates investors are expecting him to hike rates three times this year. This would bring the key Fed funds rate to 2.25 per cent, still low by historical standards and not likely enough to derail any economic momentum.

But those expectations could be upset by a second risk: the possibility that inflationary forces are already stronger than generally realized. In recent months, there has been a surge in ISM prices-paid indexes, which measure price increases across large swaths of the U.S. economy. Producer prices for core consumer services also jumped in January, according to numbers released this week.

While most conventional gauges peg current inflation at around 2 per cent, the Underlying Inflation Gauge (UIG) developed by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York says the inflationary trend is rising quickly and now running as high as 3 per cent a year.

The UIG looks at factors beyond prices, such as financial and industrial gauges, and is supposed to "provide a more timely and accurate signal of turning points in inflation" than conventional measures, according to the New York Fed.

If it's right in detecting growing inflationary forces, there would seem to be a case for raising rates at a pace faster than many market participants currently expect.

However, today's situation is unusual because some of the traditional economic relationships no longer appear to apply as they did in the past.

Falling unemployment, for instance, used to reliably signal more inflation ahead as employers raised pay to attract increasingly scarce workers. But that relationship, known as the Phillips curve, has been growing weaker, perhaps because of businesses' increasing ability to move production to lower-cost locations.

Meanwhile, an aging population seems to be creating unusually strong demand for income-producing assets. A recent working paper from researchers at the Bank of England speculates that this growing appetite from the gray-haired set for safe bonds and similar investments will keep interest rates stuck at far lower levels than in the past.

The upshot is that forecasters are now divided about what lies ahead. The team at TD Bank sees no great reason to worry and expects the Fed to take a gradual path to hiking rates. In contrast, Allen Sinai at Decision Economics expects inflation to climb to between 2.5 per cent and 3 per cent by late 2019, with yields on the benchmark 10-year Treasury bond leaping as high as 5 per cent, a big move from their current level.

If rates do jump as high as Mr. Sinai expects, investors might decide to respond to much higher bond yields by moving money out of stocks. At the very least, higher bond yields would shatter what traders call TINA - the notion that There is No Alternative to buying stocks. It would be replaced by what Ben Inker of GMO LLC calls TIAOA - There Is An Okay Alternative.

Even if rates don't surge, there's still a third danger for investors: The possibility that a stronger economy and higher inflation will drive much faster growth in wages, depressing companies' profit margins, especially in the United States.

Look back over recent decades and you see a bob-and-weave act between the share of the economy that goes to workers and the share that goes to companies' bottom lines - when one goes up, the other goes down. Since 2014, the share of U.S. GDP that goes to workers' pay has been rising, although it is still at one of its lowest levels in the past halfcentury.

If workers' pay were to continue climbing, especially at a pace above inflation, corporate profit could get crimped at just the same time as bonds become a more attractive alternative for investors.

This is still just speculation, of course. Despite the recent fuss about rising wages in the United States, paycheques are growing at much the same pace as they did two years ago, according to the wage-growth tracker developed by the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. But the trend is something to watch. What finally brings the great bull market of the past decade to an end may not be a blast of bad news, but too much good news on rising wages.

A modern megaproject gets a new lease
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Deco, modern and what's next? The historic home of CIBC could get a dramatic revamp
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By ALEX BOZIKOVIC
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R5


The coffee machine hisses and a barista places a cappuccino on the marble counter with a clink.

It's a familiar scene, except for the setting: The café is in the lobby of Commerce Court West in Toronto. It was designed by architect I.M. Pei in the 1960s as a temple of a banking hall: 112 square feet, 33-feet high, unsullied by columns or beams and washed by sunlight through plate glass.

Now, it's got coffee and croissants, and also sofas to lounge on. Clearly, the nature of corporate work has changed, and Commerce Court - the four-building complex at King and Bay that is one of the most significant and symbolic works of architecture in the country - is poised to change, too. The question is, how do you update a modernist megaproject for the 21st century?

The plan from Vancouver's QuadReal Property Group would alter the historic complex, demolishing its two smallest buildings to add a new 1.8-million-squarefoot office tower. It would restore the two most important buildings and open space. And while it needs refinement, the scheme makes a strange kind of sense: It adds a behemoth to save the details that matter.

The design, which was submitted for city approval a month ago, is led by architects Hariri Pontarini and Dialog, heritage architects ERA, landscape architect Claude Cormier and planners Urban Strategies. So far, they are vague about the new tower's architecture and focused on the heritage and urban-design challenges.

Those are considerable. Commerce Court, the headquarters of CIBC until a planned move in 2021, is one of the bank complexes that defines Toronto's skyline and symbolizes Canada's banking industry.

ERA and Dialog are working on a refit of the 34-storey North Tower, which was the tallest building in the British Commonwealth when it was completed for the Canadian Bank of Commerce in 1931, designed mostly by New York architects York and Sawyer. The ziggurat-topped tower is ornately decorated from the plasterwork of the lobby to the giant stone heads at the top.

After a merger with the Imperial Bank of Canada created CIBC in 1961, the new megabank set out to design a megaproject. They hired I.M. Pei and Partners, who had just completed Place Ville Marie in Montreal.

The art-deco tower was preserved and wrapped into a modernist superblock to its south. Two sections of public street were closed; a new formal plaza, faced with granite, was placed in the middle; two low buildings, five and 14 storeys wrapped in slabs of Indiana limestone, slid into the southeast corner of the site.

The key was - and is - the 57-storey West Tower, designed by Pei's office and completed in 1972.

This tower has a surface of stainless steel, embossed with tiny dots for a subtle texture; panels of this material surround rows of 11 rectangular windows, which pause for the massive structural columns of the building. The design has a rhythmic rigour, which, like its dark counterpart, Mies van der Rohe's TD Centre across the street, is effortlessly and timelessly elegant.

And yet, the tower is of its time. The office floors in the 1970s were lined with offices along the outer walls for senior staff, while support staff were relegated to the windowless middle.

But today's corporate employers want a completely different model, as the lead design architect, David Pontarini of Hariri Pontarini, explained on a recent tour of the site.

In offices designed now, almost no one has private space and everyone is allotted much less room - roughly 90 square feet a person, down from 180 a generation ago. "They're looking for new, larger floor spaces," Pontarini says. Employers "are looking for energy-efficient workspaces, which are cheaper to run; and as they rethink their organizations, they're looking for a clean slate."

Plus more amenities - just as small condos imply more use of public space, smaller cubicles "push people out into the lobbies and the cafés," Pontarini says.

Thus, the new proposed 64-storey tower is much thicker then Pei's main tower.

To make room, the architects propose tearing down the smallest buildings in Pei's ensemble. The smallest would be replaced by open space and a new glassy pavilion, partially open to the busy Path underground mall below. The 14-storey one would be replaced by the new behemoth. The architecture of that building is still, for now, not fully designed; Pontarini and his colleagues are designing what is essentially a glass box, "carved away at the corners," he suggests, "in a way that speaks to the stone carving on the 1931 tower."

The loss of the two smaller Pei structures is a loss of built heritage, but one few people will notice. Designed as complements to the deco and modernist showpieces, they are quiet outside and generic inside. Unlike their very similar counterparts at Place Ville-Marie in Montreal, they have little presence in the cityscape.

The tradeoff of sacrificing those buildings is retaining the plaza, which would be crowded by the new tower on the east, but expanded to meet the streets in the southwest corner. It represents a very specific model of modernist architecture and urban design, and this deserves careful but critical attention. "There was this idea that the retail would be underground, and the plaza would be this pure realm of businessmen," says heritage architect Michael McClelland, a principal at ERA.

"We don't actually think cities work like that any more."

This is true. The high-modernist plaza - open, hard-surfaced, rigidly geometric - is no longer well-suited to the social life of big cities or of big banks. Cormier is planning to strip it back to largely its original state, removing some 1990s additions by Zeidler Roberts in the deconstructivist style and clearing away clunky furniture, then adding connections to the underground Path and the adjacent streets. A glass-walled pavilion building will provide space to display art and host performances, which the developers plan to program.

There is no doubt: The new tower will disrupt the geometry and balance of Pei's scheme. At a moment when landscapes of this era are receiving critical attention, and Pei himself, now 100 years old, is being rehabilitated by critics, this is unfortunate.

But is it worth it? "I am as saddened by an intervention here as anybody else is," Pontarini says, "but I think there is substantial change in this city. Given the pressure to keep a vibrant downtown core, how do you remake a site like this?

We don't want King and Bay to become a museum piece."

That is a legitimate concern. As ERA principal Andrew Pruss points out, until 1920 the hub of the city's downtown was an earlier cluster of skyscrapers just east at Yonge Street. Today, CIBC is moving south to a new pair of skyscrapers. No one would have predicted this 20 years ago, and no one would have predicted the surrounding area would be filled with tall apartment towers. But here we are.

So: a revived public realm, a futureproofed new tower and two relics spiffed up for a new generation. It's a difficult balance, but a good one. The new tower and pavilion must be architecture of the highest quality. The tower should be slim, and sustainable, as possible. They're not there yet.

It's heartening, however, that the designers are looking to the past for lessons, not just to the sixties, but the twenties, too; Pontarini suggested the designers are turning to the evocative symbolism of the deco tower for inspiration. I went to the top of Commerce Court with some of the architects to tour the observation deck on the top of the tower they are planning to reopen. We walked past the 24-foot stone heads that overlook the city, Pei's steely tower and the plaza below, and it was clear that this great and sophisticated place should be a vibrant part of the city again. With coffee, and with some change.

Follow me on Twitter @alexbozikovic

Associated Graphic

David Pontarini, above left, of Hariri Pontarini Architects, and Michael McClelland, right, of ERA Architects, are among the architects behind a proposal to overhaul Toronto's Commerce Court West. The plan includes demolishing the downtown complex's two smallest buildings and adding a major new tower and a glass-walled pavilion.

PHOTOS BY CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL; RENDERING: HARIRI PONTARINI ARCHITECTS

SLAY
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African-Americans' continuous contribution to popular culture and style proves that fashion is not only about colour and cut, but about power and political statements, too
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By NATHALIE ATKINSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 10, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P9


Viola Davis festooned in diamonds rocking natural hair. Tracee Ellis Ross draped in a satin Marc Jacobs dress and turban. Angela Bassett wearing Naeem Khan's fringed chartreuse pantsuit with radiating stitching that stretched from shoulder to shoulder - a detail reminiscent of the traditional beaded neckpiece worn by Samburu women in Kenya. These design features aren't unusual on the contemporary red carpet, but they take on added dimension as movements push Hollywood and all industries for greater inclusion, diversity and representation.

To understand these political statements currently being made in fashion, it helps to be fluent in the visual lexicon. And the history of western fashion requires a history lesson in black style, both ancient and modern.

For more than half a century, street style, icons such as flygirls, West Indian reggae and the African diaspora have all been both explicit and offhand influences on designers from Romeo Gigli to Saint Laurent.

That's the story Constance White hopes to tell in her new book, How to Slay: Inspiration from the Queens and Kings of Black Style. "We should be more aware of the contributions in pop culture, in culture generally, and fashion in particular," says the journalist and former editorin-chief of Essense. "I really wanted to create a documentation of what African-Americans contribute to the style landscape."

The book showcases the historical framework of AfricanAmerican influence on fashion, design and culture, and surveys icons of black style across categories - such as the diva glam of Leontyne Price, Diahann Carroll, Diana Ross, Grace Jones, and even Nicki Minaj's signature over-the-top look. "It's not just a silly flamboyant girl who just happened. It's from Trinidadian dance hall reggae and calypso culture. Fashion rarely just 'happens,' " White adds. "There are always reasons and threads you can pull together that explain it."

One of those threads, for example, comes from the Civil Rights movement in the U.S. The post-war anti-Colonial movement in Asia was also gaining momentum at the same time.

And it arguably had a tipping point of visibility in 1958, when Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of newly independent Ghana, wore kente cloth robes to visit Washington.

Subsequent to his visit, more African-Americans reclaimed their identity and adopted these textiles in both western and traditional garment styles. Dashikis, large hooped earrings, turbans and cowrie shell jewellery all became popular. White calls this the American expression and reclamation of heritage African styles (think the Ugandan-influenced style of young Maya Angelou) Afro-chic.

White considers the recent revival of this more expressive Black Pride style of the 1960s and 1970s - in Kevan Hall's vivid use of blocked cloth, Gwen Stefani's L.A.M.B. or now-defunct SUNO collection - one she says had been dormant until recently, a new Renaissance. "It has been interesting how much we've been doing the lookback," she says, though given the eerily parallel political climate, it's not surprising that this fashion era and its trends resonate. "Afrocentric fashion goes hand in hand with the robust Black Lives Matter movement protesting racial injustice," White suggests, before wondering, whether it's the internal awakening that takes place first, followed by the outward expression, or if the culturally loaded signifiers are the inspiration for awareness. "Style can be superficial, but it can also, undeniably, be an expression of significant social, cultural and economic realities," White says.

That includes not just South African Gwara Gwara dance moves in Rihanna's recent Grammys performance, but the shimmering, see-through gown she chose for the 2014 CFDA Fashion Awards. White and other fashion observers interpreted the notorious outfit as a political act.

"I think the references are there," White says. "She is very savvy and deliberate." And every one of the 230,000 rhinestones studding the Adam Selman slip dress was a tribute to Josephine Baker. "People know her name," White says of the Jazz Age performer and activist, "but I don't think a lot of people realize how broadly influential she was. One of the indications of that to me," she adds, "is that Baker actually created and sold a commercial brand of skin cream so that women could be as dark as she was!"

Similarly, Nina Simone "loudly and proudly" gave voice to black style with her natural hair, headwraps and elaborate earrings. She opened a space in the western world for all women with dark skin "or other features of African-ness" to be regarded as equally beautiful, desirable and influential. In that vein, White declares, "Lupita Nyong'o has greater significance than a man landing on the moon."

This month Nyong'o stars in Marvel's new Afrofuturist superhero epic Black Panther, and in one scene her character, Nakia, infiltrates a casino wearing a slinky modern evening gown in a pattern inspired by kente cloth. Thanks to its unique fusion of ancient and recent fashion heritage, Black Panther will likely have more of an influence on this moment in realworld style than any other superhero fantasy film.

To dress the movie's fictional African nation of Wakanda and its distinct tribes, for example, costume designer Ruth E. Carter explicitly references indigenous Maasai, Tuareg, Xhosa and Ndebele clothing traditions. The influences are visible throughout the film, from the Nsibidi neck rings on Forest Whitaker's shaman to the beaded tabards worn by female warriors.

To simultaneously mine historical and futuristic themes, "I set my sights on the African fashion designers that are very forward, but still using a lot of African patterns," Carter says.

She cites Nigerian label Ikiré Jones (whose scarf is worn by Chadwick Boseman's ruler T'Challa in a scene at United Nations) and South Africa's MaXhosa knitwear, who both use the continent as inspiration.

"If you look through history of the black American you will see signs of their African past," says the long-time Spike Lee collaborator and Oscar-nominated costume designer of Amistad and Malcolm X. "It's not something that's necessarily infused by me to make a point - it is what it is."

When I tell Carter that the first glimpse of the Dora Milaje (Wakanda's elite, all-female special forces) in their elaborate armour and neck rings immediately brought to mind model Pat Evans, she's delighted. In the 1970s, the outspoken Evans wore her head shaved to draw attention to prejudice in the beauty industry and to reject Eurocentric beauty standards. "That's the callback that we wanted you to have! But if you were in the seventies and you were talking to Pat," Carter adds, "she'd say she was calling back to another time, its origin would probably be some ancient indigenous culture like the Ndebele. We can't really say it stops anywhere - it is an inspiration that we all draw from. And that's what makes it special."

Those fusion touches reflect the same way style was put together and worn in the 1960s black pride movement circa 1966 (the same year both the Black Panther Party and the movie's comic book superhero were first established). That visual grammar is not only the fashion vocabulary of the African diaspora or radical politics of the time.

White argues, it's also now absorbed into mainstream fashion culture, be that in the B-girls and B-boys of Brooklyn and the South Bronx name-checking brands they wore, or the dramatic attitude and larger-thanlife fashionable self-presentation of Grace Jones.

The clothing worn by queen Ramonda (Angela Bassett) in Black Panther reflects the technologically advanced society, but it's rooted in both ancient and recent history: Her outfits include a regal circular shoulder mantle based on patterns of African lace, and a dramatic crown inspired by the Isicholo headdress traditionally worn by married Zulu women (famously, seen on singer Miriam Makeba).

Both also bend reality with cutting-edge twists. They were built in collaboration with architect Julia Koerner using algorithms and 3-D printing technology.

Unlike the other clothes meant to look as though they are centuries-old and crafted by human hands, these items are seamless and perfectly symmetrical, taking ancient and recent style trends into the current moment, and taking them into fashion's future.

Associated Graphic

Style icons making a statement, clockwise from above: Pat Evans, Diana Ross, Rihanna, Angela Bassett in costume as Black Panther character Ramonda, and Nicki Minaj.

GETTY IMAGES (EVANS, RIHANNA), MARVEL STUDIOS (BASSETT), EVERETT COLLECTION (ROSS, MINAJ).

Point of order - 45 storeys up
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In downtown Ottawa, you can't build anything taller than the Peace Tower - beyond that, developers find the sky's the limit
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By ADAM STANLEY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, February 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H6


Up until 1965, you wouldn't find a building taller than the Peace Tower in Ottawa.

Federal and city regulations banned developments over 92 metres to preserve the skyline dominance of Parliament Hill.

The rule still exists in Ottawa's immediate downtown area to help protect the classic silhouette. But, outside the downtown core, almost 25 buildings across the city are either already built or nearing completion in the next few years that will eclipse that 92-metre mark, including the 45-storey (147-metre) Claridge Icon, set to be the city's tallest residential condo when completed this year.

Ottawa has become the latest city in Canada to start building up.

"It's just a manifestation of keeping up with the times," says Alain Miguelez, a project manager for community planning with the City of Ottawa.

Mr. Miguelez says the tall buildings going up in areas such as the Lebreton Flats and Little Italy reflect the rapid growth of a city that now has a population of more than one million, with a light-rail transit system coming online later this year.

There is an appetite for bigger projects in Ottawa. Condo sales are booming, with sales up 20 per cent in 2017. The city's median income, at more than $86,000, is the highest in Ontario. Add to that low unemployment, just 5.9 per cent, and the new transit system, and Ottawa is ripe for sky-high developments, says Rick Eisert, a realtor with ReMax/Hallmark Realty Group and a past president of the Ottawa Real Estate Board.

Large condo projects such as Icon were bound to come, Mr. Eisert says.

"We knew it was a matter of time. It's a function of the developers where they can put these tall, massive buildings. They're going to have the infrastructure around it and have all the amenities that people are going to require."

An increasing population density drawn to the new transit corridor and living in "essentially, vertical subdivisions," is a good thing, says City Councillor Catherine McKenney, as long as the city remains steadfast in making sure the surrounding amenities are developed as well.

"It's one thing to tell people that they can raise a family in a condo unit," she says. "But not if there's not a recreation centre nearby; not if there aren't the amenities and good space for families to park bikes and store strollers and have the daycare available."

The anticipated development of tall condo buildings is a recent addition to Ottawa's real estate landscape.

The city's attempt at "height control," as Mr. Miguelez describes it, may have had a dampening effect in the past. "The way these controls work is that permitted heights rise as you get farther away from the Peace Tower, so, by the time you get to Gloucester Street, you can be in the vicinity of 30 storeys ... but that's about as tall as you'll get in the historic core," he says. "In total, you're looking at about six blocks south of Wellington Street, roughly between the Byward Market and Bronson Avenue, that fall within this heightcontrol system."

Mr. Eisert says that, until 2010, Ottawa was very conservative in terms of development, as builders would only put shovels in the ground if they had presold 75 per cent of a building. But, "there was always a demand for condominiums."

About eight years ago, a group of developers built some condos on spec and "did very well," he says, because they took advantage of pent-up demand. That first round of condos was sold out in short order, but there wasn't as much demand for the second round. That resulted in an excess inventory in 2013 and 2014.

By last year, the remaining inventory was sold amid swelling demand, Mr. Eisert says.

"We're back on a regular cycle.

There is going to be requirement for new development because Ottawa is a thriving city," he says. "People are discovering Ottawa. It's a great option not only within Canada to move here, but also for foreign people moving into Canada."

Mr. Miguelez says the influx of young people is not just because "it's a nice place to raise a family."

"It's an exciting city. It's an exciting place to be," he says. The highrise condominiums now under construction, many of which are near the new transit stations, are a reflection of the strong demand. "[They] wouldn't be built otherwise." In addition to the Claridge Icon, Trinity Group Inc. is building a group of three towers ranging in height from 50 to 59 storeys near the planned Bayview light-rail station.

The first development outside of Toronto by developer Sam Mizrahi, the 12-storey luxury condo at 1451 Wellington St. W., designed by IBI Group, is going up in Westboro, about 10 minutes from downtown.

And the 23-storey ArtHaus, which bills itself as the first mixed-use hotel/art gallery/condo building in North America, is to be completed this year, adjacent to the Rideau Centre shopping mall and minutes from the Byward Market.

Those buildings are dubbed "status properties" by realtor Daniel Warchow, with Royal LePage Team Realty in Ottawa.

"The developers are noting that there is, perhaps, a market to be had [in Ottawa]," he says. "Developers generally have positive experiences here in Ottawa with local government. Those developments, they become star properties. They have cachet. They tend to sell well at very good price points."

Derek Nzeribe, the regional director of marketing and business development for Milborne Group, a Toronto-based real estate sales and marketing company, that includes ArtHaus as one of its clients, says that, although there are a lot of condos going up in Ottawa, ArtHaus is one that found opportunities for first-time homebuyers, investors and end-users.

Mr. Nzeribe says ArtHaus took cues from the Museum of Modern Art in New York. While MOMA has apartments and an art gallery, ArtHaus will feature an art gallery, 14 floors of Ottawa's first Le Germain Hotel, and eight floors of condos.

The first occupants will move in this March.

Alexandra Serafini of DevMcGill, the developer of ArtHaus, says there was a good fit for this project in Ottawa. Condominium owners will have their own lobby, elevator, gym and rooftop terrace separate from what is available to hotel guests.

"It's a new, urban feel," Ms. Serafini says. "When people finish work, people will stay downtown to enjoy downtown."

The National Capital Commission announced big changes were coming to Ottawa's downtown in late January. A $4-billion deal will see the Lebreton Flats, less than 10 minutes from Parliament Hill, get developed to include a new stadium for the city's National Hockey League franchise along with shopping, transit, and residential buildings.

Mr. Eisert says condos would be a good fit for that area, especially with access to the new transit system. "It's been 60 years and [the LeBreton Flats are] finally getting developed to what it should be. I think it's going to revitalize a lot of things."

The first thing to be revitalized is transit, which is adding a light-rail system through downtown to its current bus network. The first phase of the new LRT, the 13-stop Confederation Line, is expected to open this November and connect to the existing five-stop Trillium Line. Fully 23 per cent of Ottawans use transit as their main means of transportation, more than any other city without a subway in Canada.

"With the graduation of transit service to rail, you're seeing a new generation of buildings that are a notch up in sophistication," says Mr.

Miguelez, who points to the 45-storey Icon as one of many that will make up the new area around Carling Station on the light-rail route.

"The Icon is an element you'd see from the [highway] coming in from Montreal. Basically, you're driving in and you'll see this tower ... and it will call you to a place."

Associated Graphic

A number of Ottawa buildings are eclipsing 92 metres, the city's traditional height restriction so that the Peace Tower would stand out. When completed, the Claridge Icon will become the city's tallest condo at 45 storeys.

PAUL ROBINSON

Other high-rise projects beyond Ottawa's core include a 12-storey luxury condo at 1451 Wellington St. W.

MIZRAHI DEVELOPMENTS

Amid NAFTA uncertainty, Mexican exporters shift aim south and east
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By STEPHANIE NOLEN
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


MEXICO CITY -- Last May, farmer Mario Andrade Cárdenas sent his first shipment of strawberries and raspberries to China. In October, Jorge Contreras Fornelli tracked down a Mexican supplier to send flakeboard to his sofa factory in Juárez, replacing raw materials he currently imports from the United States. In December, a cargo ship carrying 30,000 tonnes of wheat from Argentina docked in the Mexican port of Veracruz. And last month Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto flew 6,700 kilometres south, on his first visit to the landlocked Republic of Paraguay, to sign a new economic co-operation pact.

A year into Donald Trump's U.S. presidency - and the accompanying uncertainty about the future of the North American free-trade agreement - Mexico's government and its private sector have begun to engage seriously with the idea of an economy that redirects its focus from the north.

"We've kept going with business as usual, but we're changing our mentality and our mindset," said Mr. Andrade, a past president of the National Association of Berry Exporters.

"Eighty per cent of the total agricultural crop of Mexico goes to Canada and the U.S., and you don't change that in a day," he said, adding that there is no denying how dependent he and other agribusiness owners - and the 300,000 Mexicans who work in the US$1.8-billion berry industry - are on NAFTA.

"But we opened our eyes and reevaluated" after Mr. Trump began to talk of "tearing up" NAFTA, Mr. Andrade said, and it wasn't hard to find new markets. "We started to look at China and the Arab countries. Of course we feel vulnerable - they're moving the floor underneath us. But now we feel, if NAFTA ends, it won't be the end of the world. " The berry farmers' push into new markets is emblematic of an effort by manufacturers and producers across Mexico, but the reality is that they are small steps - and late ones, says Fernando González-Rojas, a former World Trade Organization dispute settlement lawyer who now teaches trade law at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education in Mexico City.

"Was Mexico able to design a Plan B since the shock of Trump being elected? The truth is, not really," he said. "When you're part of a club such as NAFTA, you invest so much in it that you cannot change course so rapidly. But Mexican industry started looking at other trade partners, specifically South America. Mexico today is looking at Brazil and Argentina in a whole new way."

Mexico also pushed for the revival of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (now called the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership), one forged without the United States - something that's ultimately good for Mexican industry - and has accelerated talks with the European Union to broaden existing trade ties.

Luis de la Calle, who was part of the Mexican negotiating team that drew up the original NAFTA terms 24 years ago and who now advises the government, says new export opportunities - such as Mr. Andrade's berries - are useful, but the real key to leverage with the Trump administration is for Mexico to find new sources of imports, because that threatens agricultural producers in the U.S.

South, a Republican region whose support Mr. Trump increasingly understands he needs.

"Diversification of your exports doesn't give you negotiating strength - imports is what matters," he said. "That first shipment of wheat from Argentina just came in, and it's not much wheat in the overall scheme, but the signalling is critical: That ship sends people to the White House wearing 'I Support NAFTA' buttons."

Mexico is the largest importer of U.S. corn, buying US$2.6-billion annually, but has already sent delegations to Brazil and Argentina to find new suppliers.

Mr. Contreras, who chairs the board of Sofamaster, the secondlargest furniture firm in Mexico, has been seeking to end the company's reliance on a U.S. supplier because of the uncertainty of Mr. Trump's plans. His factory is in a maquiladora zone in Ciudad Juárez, where duty-free raw materials are trucked in and finished products are shuttled back across the border into Texas. For more than 20 years he has relied on a U.S.-based maker of flakeboard, whose quality he trusts, he said.

But if the United States were to withdraw from NAFTA, the product would face a 20-per-cent tariff under the WTO rules that would come into force - and he would replace it with the local one.

"That's our Plan B," he said.

But the company's research suggests flakeboard is the only raw material that would face duties, and the firm could continue to export to the United States without tariffs. Mr. Contreras says he wouldn't be thrilled with making the shift, but he's ready if he has to - and ultimately, he noted wryly, his firm's situation demonstrates why pulling out of NAFTA would be bad for plenty of U.S. consumers and workers, something Mr. Trump does not seem to grasp.

The U.S. President said as recently as three weeks ago that he had not made up his mind about "tearing up" NAFTA. Such statements have weakened the peso and drove down levels of both foreign and domestic investment in Mexico in 2017.

That has the Peña government keen to send new signals. On Jan. 11, Mexico signed the ICSID Convention, administered by the World Bank, which allows for the adjudication of disputes in international investment.

Essentially, it's a way of replacing Chapter 11 of NAFTA, the clause that sets out rules for transnational investment, and provides guarantees for investors in Mexico.

"Now, even if we leave NAFTA, we're still a trusted recipient of foreign investment," Prof. González-Rojas said. The larger message, he added, is "Mexico is open for trade - and it's going to stay open." At the conclusion of the sixth round of NAFTA talks in Montreal in late January, all three delegations expressed official cautious optimism, although there was little to show from the actual negotiations. In Mexico, optimism tends to stem from the simple fact there are talks at all: The longer the pact survives, most business owners and officials say, the less likely it is that the United States will simply walk away.

One factor that has little to do with Mr. Trump is the Mexican presidential election, to be held on July 1. None of the candidates has had much to say about the trade agreement of late, although the clear front-runner, left-leaning populist Andrés Manuel López Obrador, has in the past suggested that the deal should be renegotiated to Mexico's advantage. Now, no candidate wants to be seen to share the anti-NAFTA views of Mr. Trump, who is wildly unpopular in Mexico, and since the agreement is broadly viewed as being beneficial to Mexico's economy, none can overtly advocate leaving it.

"If López Obrador wins, the strategic value of NAFTA grows exponentially - it becomes key to keeping Mexico from 'becoming Venezuela,' as the U.S. sees it," Mr. de la Calle said. "And if Trump pulls out before June, it maximizes the chances of López Obrador winning, so he won't do it."

Mr. Andrade, the berry farmer, said his exports to Asia and the Middle East remain a small part of the business - but one he's keen to grow. "It's the biggest market in the world, with new and different options," he said, suggesting that being forced to look beyond North America can only be good for his industry.

Meanwhile, in Juárez, Mr. Contreras said many factory owners are reluctant to invest much in their firms while the Trump uncertainty endures, but in fact, business is just fine. "Our exports are growing," he said. "And our company is going to keep moving on."

Associated Graphic

Fruit pickers harvest strawberries at a farm in San Quintín in Baja California, Mexico, in 2015. One berry farmer sent strawberries to China for the first time last May in a move emblematic of an effort by businesses across Mexico to push into new markets amid trade uncertainty with the United States.

EDGARD GARRIDO/REUTERS

Agnès Varda is more than a meme
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Why the French auteur deserves serious analysis, no matter her current Instagram friendliness
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By TINA HASSANNIA
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, February 17, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R7


Agnès Varda, the 89-year-old mother and grandmother of the French New Wave cinema, is on Instagram. In one of her recent photos, a brightly coloured suitcase frames a view of the glinting gold honorary Oscar she received this past fall - the first to be awarded to a female director.

Instagram has few octogenarians, but it makes sense for Varda to join the selfie culture. The director has long inserted her own sharply recognizable presence into her self-reflective, frequently essayistic films. With her small figure and mop of magenta hair, she has a distinctive public image; her idiosyncratic iconography is combined with a warm yet slyly unsentimental personality. Today, she's made herself freely available to fans - photos of adoring cinephiles posing with her are a staple in my Instagram feed - and her most recent film, Faces Places, a collaborative documentary made with French street artist JR, features the two directors' shared enthusiasm for selfies.

Today's age of personal branding has made it virtually mandatory for artists to self promote, and Varda's found a useful teacher in JR, an Instagram star with more than a million followers.

Faces Places spends a bit too much time playing up the cutesy intergenerational dynamic, however, and it lessens the import of the murals the pair create in the film to commemorate the working-class people they meet across France.

In fact, it is not until the latter half of the film that Varda's contemplative voice emerges as she comments elegiacally on the nature and function of photography. One particular mural JR and Varda produce is washed away by the sea's high tide, and one can't help but think of the equally transient nature of photography in a digital world, where mindless scrolling has cheapened the practice of thoughtful consideration of an image.

Varda's filmography requires that same thoughtful consideration - more than a quick trip through her Instagram account - and a rediscovery of this pioneering filmmaker is vastly overdue.

Although her style undoubtedly influenced the Cahiers du Cinéma critics who would shape the French New Wave - including well-known directors such as Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut - Varda didn't fit into the Cahiers "boys club," and described feeling alienated by their intense nerd-out sessions over the hundreds of movies they'd seen (Varda studied art history). Film scholars more readily associate Varda with the Left Bank group, which includes French formalist Alain Resnais and the cinema essayist Chris Marker. More formally daring and political than the French New Wave, the Left Bank offered an alternative to the tragic romanticism and individuality ascribed to male protagonists found in the New Wave's early output.

Varda's work presents not only a unique perspective of the female experience, but a resounding wisdom. The emotional arcs of her characters - and Varda, when she's inserted herself - are spiritually affected by the mosaics of the spaces, places and fragments presented in each film. While her protagonists have distinguishable, concrete traits, they're also a little open to transformation by their changing circumstances, with each new experience teaching them who they really are.

It is essential, then, for film lovers to talk more about Varda's movies and less about her cute appearance - now more than ever, to prevent her grandmotherly visage from becoming a meme, lest she become the new Werner Herzog. The similarly outsider Herzog has had his daring, innovative work across decades become overshadowed by easy imitations of his foreignness (on Twitter, "Werner Herzog voice" prefaces jokes about the loneliness of cuddly animals; the account @WernerTwertzog, which emphasizes his Bavarian accent) and his own intimidating brand (he's mocked himself on television's Rick and Morty, voicing an alien who philosophizes on humanity's cultural obsession with penises).

Varda is lesser-known than Herzog and far more respected - but her quirkiness and the hunger of social media to churn and then spit out new gags could endanger the re-evaluation her filmography deserves, one that must account for the difficulties faced by a female European director. Gender biases have long prevented women from gaining access to production funds to advance their directing careers - an issue where we're only now starting to make considerable progress - and the art-house circuit is even more competitive and direly underpaid. Varda has only ever made enough money to live on, a reality she's confirmed numerous times in interviews.

Her recent honorary Oscar joins a lifetime of prestigious awards - yet her impact has never been documented to even half the degree of her male peers. The Toronto Public Library, for instance, has roughly 60 books on the subject of Godard, only 10 on Varda. While her peers get entire chapters in film-studies textbooks, Varda gets a sentence, a paragraph, maybe a page. It is time we rewrote the canon to champion her oeuvre, much like Cahiers du Cinéma's serious analysis of Alfred Hitchcock back in the 1950s, when nobody took the master of suspense seriously.

Feminist film magazine cleo - aptly named after Varda's masterpiece Cléo de 5 à 7 - is making a profound effort to get that canon conversation flowing; the editorial team has programmed a new retrospective of her work at Toronto's TIFF Lightbox replete with introductions by women in the film industry, running next month.

The first Varda go-to is Cléo de 5 à 7, about a shallow, nervous, Parisian chanteuse awaiting results to confirm if she has cancer. The black-and-white film is meticulously constructed to show a narrative as if in real time, with timestamps printed on screen to make the viewer astutely aware of the subtraction of hours and minutes before Cléo finds out her potentially fatal fate. The opening coloured sequence features tarot cards spread and read on a table, and the jolting switch from the vibrant card illustrations and earthy tablecloth to the intense, black-and-white facial expressions of the chanteuse and fortune-teller are formally dazzling and shocking in their binarism.

Vagabond (1985) is Varda's other true masterpiece, about a young woman tramp ambling from one transient space to another. The film reveals the hardened view of Mona, an outsider made more vulnerable due to her gender, yet the film doesn't let us victimize her. She broodingly examines objects in her path, the flotsam and jetsam of her adventure, with each adapted to any old purpose she needs, particularly shelter.

Varda's auteurist preoccupation with objects - often framed in closeups - can be also found in films such as The Gleaners and I (available on iTunes), a documentary on the French cultural practice of collecting food scraps from harvested fields. Her compassion for showing the lives of outsiders is also a key concern in her work.

In documentaries such as Gleaners and 1980's Mur Murs (also available on Criterion) - about Los Angeles's mural culture - Varda's fascination with visual arts and art history becomes an auteurist preoccupation. She deftly frames visual compositions - from murals to old, forgotten paintings - and recontextualizes them. Aspects of the paintings are recreated in her film, and it's sometimes hard to tell what's real and what's not - though, of course, none of it is; we are watching a film, after all.

Varda loves to make us aware of not simply her own authorial presence, but how we must always challenge an image presented to us. "In my films, I always wanted to make people see deeply," Varda once said - words of wisdom that defy our current, disposable image culture.

The enduring French filmmaker may now have Instagram, but Varda refuses to let selfies replace self-reflection - and that's something we can all learn from.

Radical Empathy: The Films of Agnès Varda runs March 22 through April 17 at the TIFF Lightbox (tiff.net).

Associated Graphic

From left: Actor Meryl Streep, actor and filmmaker Greta Gerwig and French artist JR pose with a cardboard cutout of Agnès Varda, with whom JR collaborated on the Oscar-nominated documentary Faces Places, at the 90th Annual Academy Awards Nominee Luncheon in Beverly Hills, Calif., on Feb. 5.

KEVORK DJANSEZIAN/GETTY IMAGES