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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B14


EVELYN ISOBEL BAXTER

Evelyn Isobel Baxter (née DesBrisay) died in London, ON, on August 13, 2019, after a lengthy illness.

Born in Winnipeg in 1925, Eve was a gifted pianist. She earned her Diploma in Music Performance and Teaching from the University of Manitoba and subsequently taught music in the province's remote and agricultural communities.

Her brother introduced her to Peter, her future husband; the handsome WWII veteran impressed her because he invited her to the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.

They married in 1949. While raising her young family, Eve taught music at Balmoral Hall in Winnipeg.

After the family moved to Toronto, Eve became a major force across Canada as a curator, arts administrator and advisor.

Her vision has left its stamp on the Ontario urban landscape: Toronto-Dominion Centre and Metro Hall in Toronto and Constitution Square in Ottawa are among the many public art projects she administered. She helped develop major corporate collections-particularly Sun Life Assurance Company and Osler Hoskin and Harcourt. But above all, she is remembered by many visual artists across Canada for the time and support that she gave them.

Eve also believed in the power of volunteerism to build community. She sewed costumes for the Manitoba Theatre Centre, organized Art Gallery of Ontario volunteer committee exhibitions, played piano at the nursery school in her Etobicoke neighbourhood, helped organize Toronto's Sesquicentennial and contributed leadership to the boards of the Winnipeg Art Gallery, Julia Greenshields Home in Toronto and the Tom Thomson Art Gallery in Owen Sound.

Despite the demands of a busy career, family remained Eve's top priority; she loved fiercely, and instilled in her children and grandchildren her thirst for reading, learning and sports (she was a lifelong Blue Bombers fan).

Eve was predeceased by her parents, Charlotte Austen and Normand Rudolph DesBrisay; her sisters Ann, Charlotte Bean and Elizabeth Wilcox; brother, John; brother-and sister-in-law, Robert and Patricia; husband, Peter; and son, Andrew Peter Mackenzie.

Left to mourn and to remember her fondly are her son, John (Miranda); her daughters, Charlotte Jones (Kent); Susan; Mary (Robert Osthoff), as well as her grandchildren, Maggie Jones (Michael Nemec), Cary Jones (Nell Reis), Grace Park (Brinton), and Stephanie Baxter.

The family thanks the staff at Mount Hope for their care for Eve over the years.

Help us to celebrate Eve's life at a reception on Saturday, August 24, 2019 from 3-5 p.m. at the A. Millard George Funeral Home Reception Centre (located on the Southeast corner of the parking lot), 60 Ridout Street South, London. A memorial service will be held in Winnipeg at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the acquisitions fund of a gallery of your choice or the Canadian Mental Health Association, 534 Queens Avenue, London, ON N6B 1Y6. Online condolences, memories and photographs shared at http://www.amgfh.com.

JAMES RICHARD BLAIR

November 1, 1935 August 8, 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Richard.

He was born in Calgary, and died peacefully at the Hamilton General Hospital surrounded by love. He was a mighty warrior as he fought valiantly to get better from the complications of a stroke. He leaves behind his beloved wife of 59 years, Susie (Williamson) and his cherished children, Caroline Mandich (Danny), Jamie (Fiona) and Christopher (Heidi). His wonderful grandchildren, Danielle Caffee (Chance), Josh Mandich (Bethany), Grace Mandich, Christopher Blair, Heather Blair, Taylor Blair, Christiana Blair, Hartley Blair and great-granddaughter, Selah Joy Mandich. His brothers-inlaw and sisters-in-law, Paul and Margot Williamson, Jamie and Janet Williamson, and Vicky Williamson. Missed by his nieces and nephews. Predeceased by his daughter, Heather, his parents, Col. James and Edith Blair, and brother, Alan Neville Blair. Richard worked for 45 years as a stock broker in Brantford starting with Ross Knowles and ending with BMO Nesbitt Burns.

He was a total family man to his children and grandchildren.

Richard was a world traveler who instilled this love in his children and grandchildren. He loved snow skiing, scuba diving, driving his wooden boats on Lake Joseph and building his own cottages. Later in life he spent his afternoons painting. He was self taught and a prolific artist. He was a true renaissance man. He spent his summers with all his family at his favourite place Muskoka.

A private family service was held at Grace Anglican Church, Sunday, August 11, 2019 and burial at Farringdon Cemetery.

Funeral arrangements have been entrusted with BeckettGlaves Family Funeral Centre, 88 Brant Ave. Brantford, 519-7524331. A celebration of Richard's life will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Hamilton General Hospital, 7 South acute stroke team or ICU East would be appreciated.

Condolences, donations and tributes are available at http://www.beckettglaves.com.

A tree will be planted in memory of Richard in the Beckett-Glaves Memorial Forest.

GEORGE HENRY BLUMENAUER

October 13, 1921 August 6, 2019

Peacefully in his sleep at Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital. Born in Nelson, BC, the son of a CPR Station Master, his early life was spent up and down the Kootenays until finishing High School in Cranbrook. He went on to UBC to obtain a BASc in mechanical engineering. After war-time service as an engineer officer (RCEME) he joined the Otis Elevator Company, obtained an MBA from Harvard, and went on to become President and Chairman.

His other accomplishments in finance and industry included directorships of the Royal Bank of Canada, Dominion Foundries and Steel Company (DOFASCO), Union Gas, Mutual Life of Canada and Hudson's Bay Oil and Gas.

As a Governor of McMaster University, he worked tirelessly to ensure the establishment of the School of Medicine and supported the community of Hamilton through fundraising and directorships of the YMCA, Hamilton Art Gallery, Hamilton Tiger Cats and other associations.

Predeceased by his wife, Margaret Emma Nielsen, he is survived by his three sons: Richard (Mary) William (Laura) and Christian Martin (Laetitia); grandchildren James (Melissa), Kathleen, Harry, Raymond, Lindsey, Christian (Erin) and Alexandra; greatgrandchildren Averie, Jax and Bella; and Freda Blumenauer of Abbotsford, B.C. and her family.

Over the years, his many recreational interests centered on his love of fishing and golf; from the Gaspé region to the Loxahatchee Club, the Hamilton Golf and Country Club, for over fifty years the Caledon Mountain Trout Club and for 68 years, the Mississaugua Golf and Country Club.

The family wishes to extend our thanks and sincere appreciation to those many friends of George who have supported him in his later years including the staff at Amica Oakville and his longtime Family Physician Dr.

Robert Gabriel.

We have long known that with his death, we will have lost one of the most outstanding Canadians of his generation.

There will be a visitation on Thursday, August 29th from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 9:00 p.m. followed by a Service of Remembrance at 12:00 noon, August 30, 2019.

All will take place at the Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West (one block east of Kerr, 905-844-2600), Oakville.

WILLIAM MONDS BRAITHWAITE

August 1, 1932 August 9, 2019

Bill died peacefully from Parkinson disease on August 9, 2019 at Hospice Wellington.

He closed his life in the same manner as he lived it: with patience, dignity and quiet strength.

Bill was loving husband to Elizabeth (nee Latimer) his wife of 63 years, beloved and generous father to Ken, Michael (Linda), Anne and cherished Pawka to Christopher.

A graduate of University of Western Ontario (Honours Business Administration 1954), a Chartered Accountant (1957) and graduate of McMaster University (MBA 1967), Bill's remarkable career as a professor at the University of Guelph spanned 50 years from 1959 to 2009.

A celebration of life is planned at Cutten Fields, 190 College Ave East, Guelph, Ontario on Sunday, September 15, 2019 from 2-4 p.m.

If so desired, memorial donations in Bill's memory made to Hospice Wellington would be appreciated by his family.

J. HARVEY BRIDE

Passed peacefully on August 10, 2019. Hymn-sing service on Friday, August 30th, 10 a.m. at Jubilee United Chruch, 40 Underhill Drive. Singers welcome to arrive at 9:45.

KATHRYN ELEANOR BUCCI

April 23, 1998 - July 16, 2019 In Loving Memory With deep sorrow, we announce the passing of our beloved daughter, little sister, cherished granddaughter and adored goddaughter and niece. We lost our glorious girl on July 16, 2019 at the age of 21.

Kathryn was an astonishing young woman: steadfast, sincere, kind and warm. She excelled in just about everything she undertook yet maintained a quiet, modest, self-deprecating way. Kathryn loved travelling, to New York City and Europe especially, but she loved Toronto even more: running along the Beltline, cycling through Serena Gundy Park, enjoying a concert or movie, catching up with the girls over a cup of coffee or dinner at a favorite hangout. Her enthusiasm for knitting and crocheting guaranteed her family and friends a steady supply of beautiful, lovingly made sweaters, scarves, blankets, and throws. Kathryn was also a shutterbug whose favorite subject was her cat, Yzma, to whom she was devoted.

She was an accomplished violist and guitarist, surprising many of her friends who were often unaware that she even played an instrument. Kathryn was an avid reader and serious Harry Potter fan. A couple of summers ago, Kathryn along with a few university friends, entered a Harry Potter trivia contest in Hamilton.

She approached the contest much like she would an exam; nothing but a perfect score would suffice.

Naturally, the team answered every question correctly and won the Top of the Hammer prize.

Kathryn attended St. Clement's School where she was active in a wide range of activities and distinguished herself in her academic studies. She played basketball, acted in drama productions, performed in the St.

Clement's chamber orchestra and headed her school's eco-team.

She was a tutor in English, math and physics. Kathryn represented her school at the annual Ontario Classics Conference and won top honours in several categories. She won a province-wide competition in chemistry and North Americawide competitions in Latin.

Through St. Clement's, Kathryn worked as a volunteer for the Horizons program and March Break Camp. She worked yearround as a volunteer at Mount Sinai Hospital and later at Princess Margaret where she accepted an internship.

When Kathryn completed high school in 2015, she earned the distinction of National AP Scholar from the US College Board. She won several academic prizes and awards, including excellence in the graduating class, chemistry, Latin, music, and physical and health education. She also received a leadership award, and a prize for character and scholarship.

In addition, she earned the Gold Duke of Edinburgh Award for which she completed two canoe trips in Algonquin Park, a dog sledding and winter camping trip, and a service project.

Kathryn received generous scholarship offers from every university to which she had applied. At age 17, she left for Hamilton to attend McMaster University. Then in 2018, she transferred to Victoria College at the University of Toronto. Kathryn continued to distinguish herself throughout her university years, winning awards and recognition in physics, astronomy and math.

We are devastated by her sudden death but are consoled by her memory which is alive in our hearts and minds. Bunny, we miss you and love you more than you can ever know.

Eonia I Mnimi As an expression of sympathy, the family is grateful for donations in Kathryn's name to the Toronto Public Library Foundation https://tplfoundation.ca/ - Mommy, Daddy, Ada, Nonna and U.G. (Angela and Stan, Andrea Elizabeth, Arhonda Christopoulos and George Christopoulos).

RUBY ISABEL BULL (née Hatch)

Passed away peacefully at Markham Stouffville Hospital on Sunday, August 11, 2019 at the age of 95. Predeceased by loving husband J. Lloyd Bull (2006). Cherished mother of Sandra Small (Parker). Proud grandmother of Ian Small (Tiffany Rego) and Kevin Small (Amanda Small), and greatgrandmother of Kivah Small and Malakai Small. Ruby will also be dearly missed by extended family and friends.

As per Ruby's wishes private cremation has taken place. A Celebration of her Life will be held at a later date. As an expression of sympathy, donations in memory of Ruby to a charity of your choice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

http://www.smithsfh.com

PAVILS CAKULS "Paul"

May 10,1930 August 14, 2019

Pavils passed peacefully from this world on August 14th at the age of 89. He will be loved and missed by his devoted wife Laila, daughter Katrine (Sam),sons Peter and Tom (Sara), grandchildren Declan, Iris, Avery and Graham, brother-in-law Kaspars, sister-in-law Elizabeth, nephew Marc(Ricarda) and many close friends in Canada and around the world.

Pavils was born in Rezekne, Latvia, where he spent his childhood.

He graduated in medicine from Leeds University in England, practiced medicine in Canada for more than 40 years, and enjoyed a long, productive and eventful retirement.The focus of Pavils' professional life was his work as a psychiatrist at the Hamilton Psychiatric Hospital where his tireless efforts returned hundreds of profoundly ill patients to productive life and restored them to their friends and families.

As an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at McMaster University he was involved in training and mentoring many young psychiatrists. Throughout his life Pavils was dedicated to advancing the Canadian-Latvian community, work that included teaching at Hamilton's Latvian Saturday School and working on the Latvian arts and literary periodical "Jauna Gaita", as well as being active in the LATS association.

Pavils will be remembered, first and foremost, as a selfless and deeply caring son, husband, father and friend.

Cremation has taken place.

A Memorial service will be held at the York Cemetery Chapel at 160 Beecroft Road, North York, on Friday, August 30th at 11 o'clock.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Latvian Canadian Cultural Centre.

ELIZABETH (Beth) ANN CLARKE (nee Challis)

It is with great sadness we announce that Elizabeth Ann Clarke passed away peacefully in her sleep at Markham Stouffville Hospital on August 15, 2019, at the age of 88 years. Predeceased by dearly beloved husband Charles (2009). Loving mother of Donald and his wife Ann of London, Jane of Toronto and Peter and his wife Anne-Marie of Banff, AB. Cherished grandmother of Mary, Robert, Thomas, Cameron and Connor. Beth will be lovingly remembered by her sister Marion and her husband Eric Patterson, her sister-in-law Ruth and her many nieces and nephews. Predeceased by brothers-in-law John and his wife Ruth and Jamie. Friends may call at the Turner & Porter 'Peel' Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy 10, N. of QEW) from 5-8 p.m. on Wednesday. Funeral Service will be held at St.

Bride's Anglican Church, 1516 Clarkson Rd. N., Mississauga, on Thursday, August 22, 2019 at 11 a.m., with visitation one hour prior. Interment at Springcreek Cemetery following the service. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Hope and Healing International, 3844 Stouffville Rd., P.O. Box 800, Stouffville, ON, L4A 7Z9, http://www.hopeandhealing.org.

ROBERT TERENCE CORCORAN (Terry)

August 7, 1936 August 10, 2019

Aged 83 years. Born and raised in Toronto. Predeceased by mother Aphra-Mary (nee Clark) and father Jack Corcoran. Beloved husband of Margaret (Maggie) Corcoran. Loving father to Tim (Sarah), Aphra-Mary (Steven), Brian (Eugenia). Grandfather to Kate and Graham. Brother to Bill (Mary), Jane (John). Much loved in-law and uncle to extended family across Canada and the United States.

A charming and gregarious extrovert, Terry had a successful sales career beginning at Investors Syndicate, then in radio advertising sales and finally as a realtor which he continued until retirement. Terry developed a broad network of clients, many of whom became dear friends.

After a brief romance, Maggie and Terry eloped on April 26, 1968 at Timothy Eaton United Church to the surprise of their families.

Their love story spanned 51 years; they were the consummate team.

They also played doubles tennis together where Terry would take all the shots...

Throughout his life, Terry was an outstanding athlete. As a young man he won the Toronto City Championships as a pitcher in baseball and was a ferocious defenceman in amateur hockey.

As an adult he won National and Club Squash Championships while a member at The Badminton and Racquet Club and The Toronto Racquet Club. Once Terry hung up his squash racquet, he joined the Toronto Hunt Club and loved sitting on the porch, having lunch looking out at the lake and chatting about well... anything.

Favorite topics included the economy, politics and anything his kids were up to.

Terry had a blessed life filled with family and friendships. He was a lover of Irish folk music, butter tarts and convertibles. In fact, he never owned a hardtop car! Why bother? He'd say. We'd like to think that Dad's driving his convertible to Heaven right now with a squash racquet in the back seat, music blaring. Safe travels, Dad.

Cremation has occurred. A memorial service will be held at the Toronto Hunt Club in September. Please contact the family for further details at aphramary@hotmail.com In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Kensington Health Org in memory of Terry Corcoran (https://www.

kensingtonhealth.org/Donations/ In-Memory-Donation.aspx)

ELGIN EVANS COUTTS Q.C.

In his 102nd year, Elgin Evans Coutts passed away at The Briton House Retirement Centre on Wednesday, August 7, 2019.

He is survived by his cherished wife and best friend of 74 years, Helen (née Muttart) and his loving children Don (Nora), and Peter (Kathie). Also left to grieve is Kathie's daughter, Kerry (Eric) and their children Christian and Ava.

Elgin was predeceased by his parents, Richard Alexander and Mary Alberta (née Hetherington), his brothers Robert and Carmen, his sister Norma and his infant son Alan.

After receiving his elementary and secondary education in Wingham, Ontario, Elgin joined the RCAF in 1940 and served as a pilot in the 162 Squadron. Upon his discharge in 1945 as Flight Lieutenant, Elgin enrolled in law school at Osgoode Hall, graduating in 1949.

He practiced law with Donald Carrick and later with the firm Coutts, Crane. Elgin was appointed Queen's Counsel in 1962 and retired in June, 2009, after a distinguished career of 60 years.

Elgin was actively involved in the Rotary Club of Toronto and was a Past President as well as a Paul Harris Fellow. Just weeks before his 59th birthday, he bicycled from Toronto to Prince Edward Island. He travelled 1,800 kilometres in just 11 days, and he was pleased to raise funds for Rotary. Elgin was a charter member and Trustee of Northlea United Church and served on the Board and on several committees.

He was a member of many other organizations, including The Royal Canadian Military Institute, Fort York Branch 165 of the Royal Canadian Legion, and the Granite Club.

We will miss Elgin's quick wit, his thoughtful insights and his remarkable memory.

He possessed a quiet faith, an unwavering devotion to his family and a genuine interest in the people around him.

In his senior years, Elgin lost his sight. Undaunted, he continued to work in his law practice and, characteristically, never complained about this handicap. His life represented a wonderful example of integrity, humility and service to the community.

The family is grateful to the nursing staff at The Briton House and to all of Elgin's caregivers, each of whom added to his health and happiness over the years.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 8:00 p.m. on Friday, September 13th. A memorial service will be held at Northlea United Church, 125 Brentcliffe Rd., Toronto on Saturday, September 14th at 11:00 a.m. Elgin's family graciously declines flowers, but would appreciate memorial donations to The Rotary Club of Toronto (Philanthropic Fund), 100 Front St. W., H - Level, Toronto, ON M5J 1E3 or to Northlea United Church, 125 Brentcliffe Rd., Toronto, ON M4G 3Y7. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

THOMAS CROTHERS

1935-2019

Tom passed away on July 31, 2019. Tom was the beloved husband of the late Elizabeth Anne Crothers (nee Collins, 2005). Tom was predeceased by his brother Robert Crothers and sister Margarette Houston, both in the summer of 2017. Tom will be greatly missed by his wonderful friend Valerie Lennox, whose companionship gave Tom much happiness in his final years. Tom will be fondly remembered by his nieces, nephews, and many friends.

In accordance with Tom's wishes, there was no visitation or service.

For those who wish, donations to North York General Foundation or the charity of your choice would be appreciated. Online condolences can be made at http://www.dixongarland.com.

Those who had the good fortune to know Tom will do well to remember the advice he gave and lived by: "Enjoy life."

EVA EAST Eva East,

born Eva Longstaff and affectionately called "Bunty" by close friends and family, passed away on August 4, 2019 at Michael Garron Hospital, Toronto, after a brief illness. She was 95.

Eva was born in Aldershot, UK in 1924 and was educated at Farnham Art School where she excelled in ceramics. During World War II, she was called up to work as a technician in a top secret radar lab (T.R.E.) in Malvern, Worcestershire. There she met and married Thomas East, a scientific officer. They had two daughters - Anthea Catherine East and Sarah Vivian East.

After emigrating from England to Canada, Eva set up a ceramics studio - first in Montreal, then in Toronto and later in Unionville, Ontario. She became well known for her beautiful glazes and masterfully thrown forms. Her body of work contributed a great deal to Canadian ceramics in the 1960's and 70's.

Eva is survived by her daughter, Vivian East and husband Bruce Meredith, her grandchildren, Stephen, Peter and Julia Ramdeholl, step-granddaughter, Sevren Meredith, daughter-in-law, Jennifer Simmonds and great granddaughters, Charlotte and Elise Ramdeholl. She is predeceased by her daughter, Anthea.

All will remember Bunty for her zest for life, her boundless creativity and her enthusiasm for a glass of sherry or two.

In lieu of flowers, we ask all who wish to celebrate her life to donate to Eva's favourite charity, The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.

LORNE ARTHUR EBEL

September 8, 1934 August 8, 2019

Lorne left us suddenly but peacefully on August 8th, surrounded by his wife and great partner of 66 years Dori (née Hughson), and the love and presence of all his children, grandchildren, greatgrandchildren and all those who knew him as family or friend.

Lorne was born in Southampton, Ontario and raised there and on the Manitoulin Island. Lorne enjoyed one of the happiest, active and most purposeful lives one could imagine. After meeting Dori in high school, they married in 1953 and travelled the world while also raising four children and balancing two careers. Lorne was a senior executive with the K-Mart Corporation, retiring in 1992 from the company after 39 successful years. Throughout his career, he lived in communities across Ontario and Manitoba making life-long friends from all walks of life and seeing the beautiful diversity living amongst us.

Outside of work, Lorne was fully engaged in all the communities in which he lived. A Rotarian and Paul Harris Fellow, he rarely missed a Rotary Club meeting and was the president of three different clubs across Ontario, president of the local Probus in Orangeville, Chair of the Board of the Headwaters Health Centre and chaired philanthropic auctions, events and galas too numerous to count. While his children were growing up, he was a boy scout leader, Junior Achievement leader, school volunteer and sports fan "extraordinaire" - a role that he happily continued with the arrival of his grandchildren. Never one to sit on the side lines, Lorne was physically active throughout his life and could be seen hiking the Bruce Trail, kayaking or canoeing rivers like the Saugeen, or skiing the Mono Nordic trails. He was quick to pick up a baseball glove or hockey stick for a little street hockey.

Lorne was serious about his civic duties and over the years managed many political campaigns at the municipal, provincial and federal levels sometimes winning, sometimes losing but always having a fun time along the way while ever expanding his circle of friends.

Few people, other than perhaps his beloved Dori, read more books in their life than Lorne and he was always quick to pass a good one on to someone else. While he always enjoyed a good literary journey, he was known for his world travels, paddling the the Yukon River, visiting the Pyramids of Egypt, the Galápagos Islands, Vietnam, or nestled in the dunes of Southampton. With close to a 100 countries visited in his lifetime, he was a true Voyageur and Dori was the "Clark" to his "Lewis"...now his next adventure begins.

Beyond his loving wife, Lorne is survived by his children, Lisa Bourdeau (husband Rick), Greg Ebel (wife Terri), Pamela Mauti (husband Joe); his siblings, John Ebel (wife Mary) and Heather Highgate (husband Carl); his 10 grandchildren; two greatgrandchildren; and numerous nieces and nephews.

Predeceased by his son, Matheson Ebel (wife Nancy); brother, George Ebel (wife Marie).

The family will receive friends at the Dods & McNair Funeral Home, Chapel & Reception Centre, 21 First St., Orangeville on Sunday, August 25, 2019 from 6:00-8:00 p.m. A Celebration of Lorne's Life will be held at the Westminster United Church, 247 Broadway Ave.

Orangeville on Monday, August 26, 2019 at 11:00 a.m., with visitation beginning at 10:00 a.m., Reception to follow at the Dods & McNair Reception Centre.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the Headwaters Healthcare Foundation (http://www.headwatershealth.ca) or the Westminster Capital Campaign (https:// westminsterorangeville.ca).

Condolences may be offered to the family at http://www.dodsandmcnair.com.

DIANE FULFORD GEE

Barbara Diane Fulford Gee, born July 2, 1928, died August 14, 2019. Daughter of the late Frances (Blount) and Albert Fulford. Predeceased by her husband Warren Burroughes Gee, siblings Joan Anne Gould (George Gould) and Wayne Fulford (Patricia Fulford). Diane is lovingly remembered by her children Marcus (Kate Andrew), Bryan (Jaleen Grove) and Caroline (Steven Graham); grandchildren Eric, Maddie, Sarah Andrew-Gee; Zephyr, Clea, Silas Christakos-Gee, their mother Margaret Christakos; Rebecca and Raiden Gee-Graham; brother Robert Fulford (Geraldine Sherman), sister-in law Marilynn Cawkell (Frank Cawkell) and many nieces and nephews.

Diane's family thanks the thoughtful caregivers at the Bradgate Arms who have made Diane's recent years and the last months, in particular, so comfortable.

Flowers gratefully declined.

Donations may be made to one of Diane's favourite charities: Diabetes Canada, Canadian Mental Health Association or Parkinson's Canada.

We will celebrate Diane's thoughtful, caring, stylish, optimistic and enthusiastic life 2 to 5 p.m. (speeches at 3) on Saturday, September 21st at the Arts & Letters Club, 14 Elm Street. Memories of Diane can be sent to dianegeefamily@gmail.com.

JOSEPH FREDRICK GERRATH

Of Guelph passed away peacefully with family at his side on August 10, 2019 at Hospice Wellington, at the age of 83. He is survived by his loving wife, Jean (Drewry); sisterin law, Tina (Hennekes); son, John (Christie Bahlai); daughter, Janet (Jer Robbins); grandchildren, James (Hannon), Penelope and Wesley (Bahlai-Gerrath); as well as many nieces and nephews. He was predeceased by his parents, John Gerrath and Margaret (Anderson) and siblings, Ruth (Foster), Lawrence, Louise (Stoneham), and John.

Joe was born June 25, 1936 on a farm near Cheviot, Saskatchewan where he lived until his father died in 1944. The family then settled in Vancouver where Joe received the rest of his schooling, culminating in a PhD in Botany from University of British Columbia in 1968. He and his wife Jean then moved to Guelph, where he began his career as a professor in the Botany Department at the University of Guelph. He taught many courses, including Phycology, Bryology, and Aquatic Biology.

He retired in 1999. Joe studied a group of green algae, the desmids, and was a foremost expert on their morphology and taxonomy. He collaborated with colleagues at the British Museum of Natural History on the desmid flora of Africa. He was an active member of the Canadian Botanical Association, and served as Treasurer and President. He also wrote and produced their quarterly Bulletin for some years, which gave him the opportunity to reveal his broad knowledge and sense of humour. Joe was an active member of the Guelph Field Naturalists in the 1970's and 1980's.

After he retired, Joe took up genealogy, and created a large and important data set on the Geraths/Gerrath family and their relatives, beginning with his father and his 8 siblings, and extending it to include Joe's 80+ cousins and their families.

He worked with historians at the University of Wisconsin Madison on early German settlement in the state, and continued adding to his files until his death. Joe volunteered regularly at the LSD Family History Centre in Kitchener for a number of years, and was a specialist in German genealogy.

Joe is remembered as a quiet, kind, and patient man who was generous with his time. He had an encyclopedic knowledge, which made him very useful to know in the pre-Google days. He loved to drive, and took the family on nearly a dozen camping trips across Canada and the USA, that usually included collecting algae samples. He enjoyed classical music, and was a long-time season ticket holder of Tafelmusik and the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony.

A reception will be held at the Wall-Custance Funeral Home & Chapel, 206 Norfolk St., Guelph on Sunday, September 1 from 1:00 to 4:00 p.m., where people can exchange reminiscences of Joe.

Donations may be given to the Guelph General Hospital or Hospice Wellington in his name.

TERANCE GEORGE GLOSSOP

December 16, 1934 July 19, 2019 We are very sorry to announce that Terry died at his home in Riga, Latvia after a brief illness.

He is survived by his wife, Baiba; and daughter, Karen.

He is also survived by his sons, Peter (Sylvie) and Neil (Natasha) and their mother, Elaine; his grandchildren, Claire (Ishan), Matthew, Christine, Michelle, Catherine and Connor; his sister, Sylvia and nieces and nephews.

Terry was born in Arundel, England - a small, southern English town - which he was immensely fond of and to which he frequently returned. After completing his National Service in Egypt and working for the Inland Revenue in London, Terry left England for Canada. This marked the start of a long career with the Toronto-Dominion Bank, which included postings in Vancouver, Montreal, Toronto, New York and London. While working, he earned a B.A. in Economics from York University in Toronto and an MBA from New York University. He retired from the Bank in 1996 as a Vice President.

He then embarked on a new career for nearly a decade, as an international banking consultant in developing countries. In the last fifteen years he and Baiba made their home in Riga.

Terry was a lover of jazz and opera - the sound of which often filled his home. He was also a dedicated traveller, having visited 79 countries. Terry brought hard work, wisdom, wit, courage, team spirit, creativity, service and adventure to every aspect of his personal and professional life. His children and grandchildren appreciated that Terry made a determined effort to stay connected with them despite all of his travel and work commitments. He is deeply missed by his family and friends.

A funeral service was held in Riga on July 31, 2019. A memorial celebration for Terry will take place in Toronto in the near future. Donations in memory of Terry may be made to oncological research at the University of Latvia at https:// z i e d o t . l u. l v / e n / h o m e - p a g e / or the Canadian Cancer Society.

RUTH ALISON HALL

With heavy hearts and great sorrow, we mourn the passing of (Ruth) Alison Hall (nee Jeffries) on August 14, 2019, in her 93rd year. Now reunited with her dearest friend and loving husband, Ross (1999) and muchloved daughter, Barbara (2016).

Alison was a devoted mother to Terry and his wife, Jane Ford, Barb and her husband, Niels Rasmussen, and Trish and her husband, Colin Vidler. She was a very proud grandmother to Davis and Gregory Hall, Laina (Lucas Dykstra), Leah and Tiana Rasmussen, Darcy (Darren Gebbetis) and Nigel Vidler. She was predeceased by her parents Harold and Gladys Jeffries, and her siblings Eileen Liddle, Terence Jeffries and Kathryn McNiven. She will be missed by many nieces, nephews and friends. Alison graduated from Victoria College at the University of Toronto with top honours in both academics and athletics. She had a strong sense of community and social responsibility. Alison was an active supporter of Trinity United Church, West Lincoln Memorial Hospital and its Foundation, the Canadian Federation of University Women and the Laurier Liberal Ladies. She served as the Chair of the Blood Donor Recruitment Advisory Committee (Ontario) for the Canadian Red Cross and on the Board of Directors at Albright Manor, Beamsville. She was awarded the Paul Harris Fellowship by Rotary International and was honoured for her contribution to the YMCA, Niagara.

A keen sportswoman and fan her entire life, Alison played hockey for the University of Toronto, curled, golfed and coached girls' hockey and softball. Alison was bright and articulate and enjoyed engaging dialogue and debate.

She was truly a partner to Ross, playing an important supporting role in his many civic endeavours and achievements. It was a role she cherished. Visitation will be held at STONEHOUSE-WHITCOMB FUNERAL HOME, 11 Mountain Street, GRIMSBY (905-945-2755) on Monday, August 26, 2019 from 6 - 9 p.m. Funeral Service to take place at St. John's Presbyterian Church, 10 Mountain Street, Grimsby at 11 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27, 2019. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Mark Preece Family House or the Canadian Red Cross.

http://www.smithsfh.com "Of those to whom much is given, much is expected."

PETER JOHN HARRIS

March 15, 1933 August 12, 2019 Peter John Harris, passed away peacefully on August 12, 2019 at Sunset Manor Collingwood, of Parkinson's. Born March 15, 1933 in Toronto, son of the late John Samuel and Helena Isobel Harris (Sawden) of Toronto. Beloved husband of 62 years to Betty (Mary Elizabeth Ellis). Dedicated father of Lisa Stuart (Andrew) and Gregory Harris (Lori), grandfather of Samantha and Edward (Ted) Stuart and Hudson, Holden and Berkeley Harris.

Graduate of University of Toronto Schools, O.C of Queen's York Ranger's Royal Cdn. Army Cadet Corp. 1952, University of Toronto Chemical Engineering 5T7, Theta Delta Chi and Western University Graduate School of Business Administration, Member of Toronto Ski Club Ski Patrol 1948-51, having slept in Jozo Weider's loft and helped build one of the first Blue Mountain ski lifts, Granite Club Member over 60 years.

His corporate career included; President W.R. Grace Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Vice President Pacific Division, Industrial Chemicals Group - Hanover Square New York, President Grace Chem. Ltd., Mississauga, Vice President Drummond McCall & Co. Ltd. Toronto. Upon retirement, he became a valued Financial Advisor to family, friends and business associates.

As a dedicated community member, he served as Board Chair, Fundraising Chair and Foundation Chair of Runnymede Health Centre over a thirty-year period as well as Board Chair of the Ontario Hospital Association.

As longstanding member of St. George's Church on-thehill he was Rector's Warden, Treasurer and Sides Captain.

Peter had a passionate interest in Astronomy from the age of 8 and was a life member of the RASC. With his love of Jaguar Cars, he was past President of the Ontario Jaguar Association.

Peter and Betty moved to Collingwood in 2014. Peter will be remembered for his love of music both Classical and Jazz, his keen intellect and his unfailing kindness to family and associates.

Arrangements entrusted to Fawcett Funeral Home Collingwood. Funeral Service will be at All Saints Anglican Church, 32 Elgin St. in Collingwood on Saturday, September 28th at 1 p.m. He will be buried in the Samuel John Harris family plot in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Sunset Manor, 49 Raglan St. Collingwood, ON L9Y 4X1, http://www.simcoe.ca, Sunset Manor would be appreciated.

PATRICIA ANNE HATT (nee Creighton)

Died peacefully at home with family. She remained strong, resilient and full of humour to the end. Patricia is predeceased by her late husband Brice. She is survived by her five children and spouses, Sarah (Peter), Martha, David (Jennifer), Victoria (Sean) and Katherine (Brett). Patricia was a devoted Nana to her eleven grandchildren, Grace, Emma, Ben, Gwen, Chris, Tyler, Matthew, Michaela, Sydney, Justin and Andrew and dog Louie. Patricia dedicated her life to advocacy for people with learning disabilities.

She volunteered with the Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario for over 20 years. She was a past Chair of the Board of Trustees for George Brown College; past chair and Executive Member of the Community Legal Education of Ontario [CLEO]; past co-chair of the Metropolitan Toronto Movement for Literacy; past member and former treasurer of the Ontario Justice Education Network [OJEN]; founding member of the York University Mentorship Program for Students with Learning Disabilities; and Adviser to the provincial and federal governments on issues of disability and employment.

The family will receive friends at the Robert J. Reid & Sons, "The Chapel on the Corner", 309 Johnson Street (at Barrie Street), on Friday August 23, 2019 from 4:00pm-8:00pm. The funeral service will be held at St. George's Cathedral, 270 King St E, at 11:00am on Saturday, August 24, 2019. As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations to a literacy based charity would be appreciated. Online condolences may be made at http://www.reidfuneralhome.com

GWEN HAWKE (née DeMont)

Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia on April 4, 1925, Gwen passed away peacefully in her sleep at The Dunfield Retirement Residence in Toronto, on Saturday August 3, 2019. Predeceased in 1999 by her beloved husband Howard, Gwen will be fondly remembered by her children Laurien Trowell, Martha Shinkle (Lee), Charles Hawke (d), Gordon Hawke (Jane) and Kelly Baxter (Brian). Beloved Nana/Grandma to Malindi, Geoffrey, Jessica, David, Heather, Hillary, John, Stephen and Geoffrey and eight great grandchildren. Lovingly remembered by Casey and Bill Hooke.

Gwen will be remembered by friends and family as fun loving, warm, generous, with a feisty spirit and great sense of style. She had a big heart and lived each day fully. She enjoyed golf, bridge, tennis, fitness, music and dancing, travel, driving her sporty cars, and always dressing to the nines. She was a long-time member of Rosedale Golf Club, CWSGA, the B&R Club, and the Monday Club.

Gwen had a strong community of support during her last year. Her family is deeply grateful to Aida, Maybel, and Marie Joy from Home Instead for their loving care, ensuring that Gwen got the most out of each day and lived with dignity. Thanks also to the amazing nursing team on the 3rd floor, and to all the friends and staff who made the Dunfield a wonderful home for Gwen.

There will be a private family service. Friends are invited to join the family for a Celebration of Gwen's Life at the Rosedale Golf Club, 1901 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto on Wednesday, August 21st, at 4:00 p.m. If desired, in lieu of flowers, donations can be made in Gwen's name to the Alzheimer's Society of Canada, 20 Eglinton Avenue West, 16th Floor, Toronto, ON, M4R 1K8. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

RUTH HOOD

February 5, 1933 August 9, 2019 Ruth Evelyn Hood (née Charlesworth) died peacefully, surrounded by loved ones in Toronto. She is survived by husband, Michael; daughter, Susanna; son-in-law, Scott Thomson; and a loving and attentive extended family.

Trained in library science, she worked on notable commissions as an editor and served her communities as a dedicated volunteer, philanthropist, and arts patron.

No funeral is planned, but an informal memorial gathering will be held in Toronto this autumn. Ruth's family will be grateful for contributions in her memory to the United Way and the Toronto Public Library.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019

We grieve the loss of Tony Houghton. Tony passed suddenly at his home in Kingston on August 8, 2019. He leaves behind his beloved wife Dianne, his daughters Sylvie, Stephanie, Catto and Sarah, his grandchildren Veronika, Sienna and Oliver, and his brother Hector.

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

GORDON RYO KADOTA

Gordon Ryo Kadota passed away on July 31, 2019 at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia at the age of 86. A private funeral was held on August 6 at Celebration Hall in Vancouver.

A Celebration of Life will be held at Nikkei Place, Burnaby, B.C.

on Sunday, September 22, 2019 at 3 p.m.

Gordon is survived by his second wife, Kyoko; daughter, Ayako (Steve); grandchildren, Sydney, Andrew and Dana; step-sons, Takashi (Reiko), Haruyuki (Kim); and step-grandchildren, K and Emi. Uncle Gordon will also be mourned by many nieces, nephews, and cousins in Canada, the U.S., England and Japan.

Gordon was born on January 15, 1933 in New Westminster, B.C., the 8th child of Kantaro and Shigeno (nee Kunita) Kadota. At the age of 7, he was taken to Japan for a visit, but the outbreak of World War II prevented his return to Canada.

He spent 12 years in Japan, graduating from Kwansei Gakuin University High School and later returned to Canada in 1952.

Following in his father's footsteps, Gordon worked in forestry and in the 1960's entered the travel industry, eventually specializing in tourism between Canada and Japan. This led to Canaway Consultants which provided translating and business consulting services. In the early 1970's, he also co-founded OK Gift Shop with the Canadian stores opening in Vancouver, Banff, and Niagara Falls. He remained active in the company until recently.

Beginning in the mid-1950's, he volunteered and became a leader in the Japanese Canadian community, serving both in organizations at the local and national levels. Over the years, Gordon received numerous awards for his work in the Japanese Canadian community, in business and tourism and the betterment of relations between Japan and Canada. In 2000, his dream of creating a gathering place for the Japanese-Canadian community was realized with the building of Nikkei Place in Burnaby, B.C.

Gordon was a great story teller and often started by saying "It's a long story". He had a big heart, kind words and a sense of humour that made it possible for him to continue for so many years in public service. He enjoyed travel, sports particularly golf and hockey, and was always helping others in need. Those who wish to make a donation in Gordon's memory might do so to Canuck Place Children's Hospice, St. Paul's Hospital Foundation or in keeping with Gordon's philanthropic spirit, any charity of your choice.

MARY CHRISTINE KARN (neé Pearse)

December 15, 192 August 8, 2019 It is with deep sadness that we announce the passing of Chris Karn. Chris died peacefully in Huntsville, ON, surrounded by family on August 8, 2019 at the age of 96. She was predeceased by her husband Gordon, the love her life, and her older sister Pam Biggs. Chris will be dearly missed by a large circle of family and friends.

Chris was the ultimate matriarch and role model for all who were lucky to have met her. She was an inspiration to her three children, Jinty (Jim Stewart), Kathy (Michael Pearce) and Ian (Sue Barker). She was dearly loved by grandchildren, Andrew Stewart (Susanna), Robin Allison (Zach), Roger Leavens (Claudia), Sarah Leavens (Bryce), David Pearce (Rachelle) and Michelle Pearce. Ten great- grandchildren are thrilled to have had such a special 'GG'.

To read Chris' story click on http://www.mitchellfuneralhome.ca A Memorial Service will be held at 2:00 p.m. Wednesday, August 28, at Mitchell Funeral Home, 15 High St., Huntsville, ON P1H 1N9.

There will be a reception following until 4 p.m.

Donations may be made in honour of Chris to The Lake of Bays Heritage Foundation http://www.lakeofbaysheritage.ca or to the charity of your choice.

BORIS S. KARPOFF P.Eng.

August 10, 1931 August 12, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the death of our father, Boris Svetoslave Karpoff de Korsounsky at the age of 88 at the Kamloops Hospice, BC. Dad died peacefully with his girls at his side.

He was predeceased by his wife, Audrey (née Gyuricska). He leaves behind his children; Hélène (Peter), Nadia (Colin), Alexandra (Daryl); grandchildren, Jacqueline, Karine, Colton, Mackenzie, Gabrielle and Dimitri, and sister Catherine (Richard).

Born and raised in Liège, Belgium, Boris immigrated to Canada in 1951 with his parents. He graduated as a mining engineer from Laval University, Québec in 1956. He went on to have a fulfilling career as a professional engineer and in later years worked as a mining consultant throughout the world.

Boris was passionate about the outdoor aspect of his job and enjoyed hiking and biking in his younger days. He was an avid glider pilot for many years and created lifelong friendships at several flying clubs in Ontario, Quebec and BC. Boris also was an avid stamp collector and rock hound, and took part in fossil hunts around Kamloops with the local paleontology club.

He touched many lives and leaves us all with many cherished memories.

He will be deeply missed by his family, near and far, and by his friends at Berwick on the Park, the Kamloops Stamp Club and KEG (Kamloops Exploration Group).

A private cremation will be held and a Celebration of Boris' Life will take place at a later date in Kamloops. Donations in lieu of flowers to the Kamloops Hospice Association (http://www.kamloopshospice.com) would be appreciated.

Arrangements entrusted to Kamloops Funeral Home 250-554-2577 Condolences may be sent to the family from http://www.kamloopsfuneralhome.com

DONALD HILARY KAYE

Donald Hilary Kaye passed away peacefully at home on Friday, August 9, 2019. Loving husband of Mary (nee Booth) for 40 years. Son of Augustine Kazimir Kaye, and brother to Rosalie Almond and Bernadette Kaye.

Predeceased by his mother, Mary Frances (Kavanaugh) and his brothers, Lester and Gordon.

A graveside service will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27th at Highland Memory Gardens, 33 Memory Gardens Lane, Willowdale. Memorial donations may be made to Epilepsy Canada.

GWYNETH SHEILA LANG (née Jones, formerly Turner)

Mother, teacher, mentor, role model. An inspiring and amazing (in all the senses of the word) wife, mother and grandmother.

Sheila showed us the importance of enjoying life's opportunities, and shared her love of language, art, music, theatre - and especially travel. Always colourfully dressed, she was never shy about being herself in the world, and was never afraid to talk about anything to anyone. She met life fearlessly and showed us all how it was meant to be done. Sheila was passionate about life. A swish hotel, a well-turned phrase, a good meal with friends (as long as she didn't have to cook it) were all things to be savoured whenever possible.

Family and friends were always important, with the 'Club' ladies holding a special place. These were friendships maintained from childhood all the way to the end of her life. Sheila was a natural teacher with huge reserves of knowledge about all manner of subjects - backed up with the vast filing cabinets full of the clippings she always seemed to be collecting. She quietly created opportunities for all of us to learn and grow, and had a deeply pragmatic wisdom that informed her outlook on life and helped the rest of us learn to keep things in perspective.

Mother to David (Lisa), Nancy (Loris) and Bruce (Steph) and grandmother to Thomas, Alana and Michael. Predeceased by both her husbands, Robert Alan Turner and Harold Murray Lang. Sheila died peacefully on Saturday, August 10 at Bridgepoint Active Healthcare Centre. She was truly, fabulously awesome, and we will miss her.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Butler Chapel, 4933 Dundas St. W. (between Islington and Kipling Aves.) on Saturday, August 24th from 2 to 3 p.m.

Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel at 3:00 p.m.

FREDA ELISABETH MARTIN (née McQueen)

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Dr. Freda Elisabeth Martin at age 87 on August 4, 2019.

Much loved by sons, Andrew (Dawn) and Peter; grandchildren, Louisa and Gregory; predeceased by parents, Andrew and Lily McQueen; husband, Kenneth; and sisters, Norah Fraser and Margaret Heather; missed by many nieces and nephews.

Freda was a loving wife and mother, had a long and distinguished career in child psychiatry and was a tireless advocate for childrens' mental health. Freda will be remembered in a celebration of life on September 22 at 2:00 p.m. at First Unitarian Congregation of Toronto 175 St. Clair Ave. W. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to plancanada.ca or to the charity of your choice in support of children and families in developing countries.

RUTH EILEEN MAX

May 10, 1931 August 11, 2019

Passed peacefully surrounded by family at Derbeckers Heritage House, St. Jacobs at age 88.

Survived by her loving husband of 66 years, Jack Max; brother Bob Stinson (Joan); daughters Jody Max, Jennifer Gloin (Greg). Also survived by six grandchildren: Andrew Beattie (Caitlyn), Christopher Taylor, Emma Beattie (Rob), Matthew Taylor, Jake Gloin and Leah Gloin; and three greatgrandchildren: Charlotte, James and Logan Beattie. Predeceased by her daughter Jill Max (Michael).

Ruth was born in Toronto but summered at Sandy Bay Road on Gull Lake (Minden) for much of her childhood. The "lake" was her special place and she and Jack were fortunate to have spent over 30 years there in their retirement.

Ruth was an active member of the Minden Hospital Auxiliary and a board member of the Gull Lake Association.

Ruth spent most of her working life as an editor - always known for her gift with words. She loved a good book, a comfy couch with a blanket and a view of the water, a glass of wine, with many laughs on the deck with her girls and Jack.

Grandma "cottage" as she was affectionately known, will be greatly missed by all her family and friends. A sincere thank you to the staff at Derbeckers Heritage House in St. Jacobs, who provided such genuine, loving care for the last few months.

Private family interment. Donation to Derbeckers Heritage House in lieu of flowers.

MARTIN VAUGHAN MORRIS

1956 - 2019

Martin Morris of Guelph passed away on August 7, 2019 at Innisfree House in Kitchener. He died as he lived his life: quietly, humbly and unassumingly from an extremely rare brain cancer, gliosarcoma.

Born in Portsmouth, England in 1956; he came to Montreal, Canada with his parents as a baby.

He lived in Montreal, Niagara Falls, Singapore and Peterborough.

For the last 35 years Martin lived in Guelph surrounded by a caring community.

Martin is predeceased by his mother Nesta Morris in 2008.

Deeply missed by his sister Charlotte Ryan and brother-in-law Jerome Ryan of Toronto and his nephew, the cellist Peter Xavier Ryan. His father Peter Morris and his father's partner Mona Negoita of Waterloo are also mourning his lost. His dear friend Marta Holfeuer who provided unwavering and loving support to Martin as well as his family, will truly miss his friendship.

Martin was an RPN at St Joseph's Health Care Centre in Guelph for 17 years and a proud recipient of their Mission Legacy Award where he was acknowledged for his "polite and calm disposition who attends to clients with care and compassion". He spoke French fluently with an Honours BA in French and an Honours BASc in Gerontology. A member of Mensa - Martin had an extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge on a multitude of subjects. He was a marathon runner and extensive walker, a copious letter writer. Lover of all fine things, Martin enjoyed wearing Mont Blanc sunglasses and odd socks; breakfast with Gordon at Wimpey's and dining at Miijidaa as well as staying at the Royal York Hotel. He had a quick wit and found humour in many things - he loved hearing the latest gossip. He lived all of his life with mental health issues that shaped him into the caring person that he was as he came to accept himself. An extremely generous gift giver - his true gifts were his care and concern and his ability to be a strong friend to those who needed him. He was always thoughtful and his actions were done with selflessness.

This last year allowed us to return his many gifts of kindness as we were able to care for him. His diagnosis was devastating to us - but it gave us this very special time with him that leaves us with a lifetime of joyous memories.

In memory of Martin, donations to the Guelph Public Library, where Martin enjoyed many hours, especially after his diagnosis, as it was a refuge and a hiatus from his illness.

Donations may be arranged through the Erb & Good Family Funeral Home, 171 King Street S., Waterloo http://www.erbgood.com or 519-745-8445.

Many thanks to Martin's and our friends, family, neighbours and health care workers whose prayers, support and acts of loving kindness truly lifted and carried us through this journey.

A big shout out and appreciation to nurses everywhere for their exceptional care and compassion that ensures every person feels loved and cared for - and whom Martin always enjoyed listening to and sharing nursing stories that only those who work as nurses would understand.

A private cremation ceremony has already taken place.

Friends are invited to share their memories of Martin with his family on Sunday, August 25th between 2:00 and 4:00 at Miijidaa cafe + bistro 37 Quebec St Guelph.

With tributes starting at 2:30.

ZOË ANNE MURRAY (née Molson)

Zoë passed away peacefully at home after a valiant struggle with Cancer on Thursday, August 8, 2019 at the age of 83.

She is survived by her loving spouse, John Worsley and her son, Maximilian Hardinge, and predeceased by her sons, Charles Hardinge (19562004) and Andrew Hardinge (1960-2014).

Zoë was born in Montreal on November 13, 1935 and was the daughter of the late Senator Hartland de Montarville Molson (1907-2002). Growing up in Montreal she attended The Study, went to Netherwood School in New Brunswick, and finishing school at Brillatmont International in Switzerland. On October 14, 1955, Zoë married Nicholas Hardinge and had three children.

On December 13, 1983, she married Christopher Murray and lived happily at La Glinette in St Aubin, Jersey, Channel Islands. Upon Christopher's death on December 26, 2007 in Barbados, Zoë found companionship and love once again with John Worsley and lived happily at River Run in Uxbridge.

Zoë was a world traveller, avid golfer, competitive tennis player, and passionate cook. She embraced the outdoor pursuits of fly fishing and shooting in Scotland, England and Canada with her family and four legged friends. Zoë was a loving mother to her three sons, mother-in-law to Julie, Sophia and Elizabeth, grandmother to Matthew, Emilie, Olivia, Thomas, Jamie, Melissa, Hugo and Oliver, and step-mother to Lucinda, Stephen, Doone, Willa, Harry, Jonathan, Dickon and Katie.

The family would like to thank Doctors Trinkaus, Babak, Mahadevan, and the PSWs and palliative nurses for their kindness and devotion to her care.

A private family service will be held at St Paul's in Uxbridge, and a celebration of life will be held at Grace Church on-the-Hill on Friday, September 20th, at 11:00 a.m. followed by a reception in the parish hall. Zoë's final resting place will be amongst the fragrant woods and velvet waters of Ivry a place she adored with her family and cousins. Zoë will be forever in our hearts.

JOAN IDELL QUIRIE OWENS

May 25, 1927August 3, 2019 Joan Idell Quirie, daughter of Ross James Quirie and Idell Grosskurth, was born in Toronto and lived in Ontario until her father's career took the family to Boston. After high school, she returned to Canada for grade 13 at Alma College and earned her B.A.

in English at Victoria College in 1948, before receiving her M.A. at Boston University in 1949. While teaching at The Wheeler School in Providence, Rhode Island, Joan met and married journalist Gwinn Owens, a native of Baltimore, Maryland, who shared her love of music, theater, and adventure.

In 1952, while still newlyweds, the couple traveled to Greece with the hopes of living there.

Ultimately, they decided to come back to the States and settled in Baltimore, where their four children were born and where Joan taught at St.

Paul's School for Girls and later, Ruxton Country School.

An avid reader and lifelong learner, upon retirement she became a student again, taking classes in literature, language, and art.

To her friends, family, and students, Joan was always a patient listener and a gentle advisor. She inspired others to write, to read, to think, and to observe. Her four children survive her: Gwendolyn (Peter Gibian) of Montreal, Ross of Santa Cruz, California, Laura (Reed Templeton) of Ocean View, Delaware, and Paul (Betsy Rogers) of Orlando, Florida, along with six grandchildren.

A memorial will be held in Baltimore on October 12, 2019.

ERIC CARL RIORDON

In Prince Edward Island on Wednesday, August 14, 2019, Eric C. Riordon, formerly of Montreal. Beloved husband of Catherine Jean Finnie. Treasured father of William (Mara), Edward (Dayzmilia) and dear grandfather of Charlotte and Emma. Brother of Michael (Brian Woods) and the late Mollie Anne. Son of the late Eric Riordon, ARCA and Mollie Usher-Jones.

Resting at Belvedere Funeral Home. Funeral Tuesday at St. James Church "The Kirk", Charlottetown at 11:00 a.m.

Burial service at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto, on Wednesday, August 21 at 11:00 a.m.

If desired, please consider making a donation of blood in Eric's memory. http://www.belvederefh.com

JOAN ELIZABETH STAGER (née Alexander)

January 17, 1933 August 4, 2019 Daughter of Thomas and Sylvia Louise Alexander (née Armstrong).

Predeceased by her husband John Kimberley Stager, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia, on October 10, 2018.

Also predeceased by her brothers, James Henry Alexander (Evelyn) and John Thomas Alexander (Donna); and nephew, Donald James Alexander. Joan is survived by her sister, Sylvia Louise Carl (Robert); and her brother, Gordon Burnett Alexander (Rosalyn). She will be fondly remembered by her many nieces, nephews, and godchildren. The family would like to acknowledge the loving commitment of Joan's caregiver, Aida Roxas.

Joan graduated from Lord Byng High School in 1951 and Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing in 1954. Early in her career she went to San Francisco where she was a nurse. Subsequently she returned to Vancouver where she met her beloved John; they married in 1964. Shortly thereafter, with architect Barry V. Downs, CM, the couple built a light-filled, gracious, midcenturymodern home on a wooded lot in the Southlands area. Furthering her education, Joan graduated with a degree in Fine Arts from UBC in 1977. She volunteered in the conservation department of the UBC Museum of Anthropology where she applied her natural precision and eye for detail to every project. Joan Stager demonstrated exquisite taste, was the consummate hostess, and delighted in her relationships with friends and family.

A memorial service and reception will be held Saturday, September 7, 2019, at Knox United Church, 5600 Balaclava Street, Vancouver, at 11:00 a.m.

DAVID CHRISTOPHER N. VALDO

Sadly, we had to let a very brave soul leave us after a four month valiant struggle at Royal University Hospital in Saskatoon, on July 18, 2019.

David, the loving son of Anne and Terry (d. 2001), awesome brother of Kristin and brother-inlaw of Kelly and proud uncle of Madison Schulkowsky.

A Celebration of David's life will be held in Toronto on Saturday, September 21, 2019 at St. George's-on-the-Hill, Dundas Street West at Royal York Road, Toronto at 12:30 p.m. All those who were blessed to know David are encouraged to join us.

David made many friends at St.

George's, Addus and Dramaways during his short life. A donation in David's memory to one of these organizations would be appreciated by his family, instead of flowers.

Dear David, the "nightmare" is over. Love you forever. Peace be with you always.

EARL VAN SLYKE "Van"

March 16 1921 August 7 2019 Van was born in Durham Ontario and raised in nearby Hanover...

the third in a family of nine boys.

He served honourably as a gunner in the Royal Canadian Artillery during the Second World War and fought in North Africa, Italy and was especially proud of his role in the liberation of Holland.

Following the war Van moved to Toronto where he married, raised his family, had a successful career in sales and pursued a lifelong passion for golf. He was predeceased by his wife Sheila and is survived by his children Wendy (Terry), Leslie (Danny) and Chris...grandsons Mike (Jaimee), Peter (Meghan), Alex, greatgranddaughter Hannah and his special nieces and nephews Allan, Paul, Jennifer and Diane.

Special thanks to the nursing staff at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre and Dr Deb Selby for their exceptional care in Van's final months.

Thank you for your service soldier.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

JOHN R. MCGEE "Jack"

January 10, 1932 August, 16, 2009 We took our vows together And said till death do us part When God came and took your hand My whole world fell apart No one knows the heartache I try so hard to hide No one knows the many times I've broken down and cried When I look back upon our lives One thing makes me glad That you chose me to share with you Those precious years we had I know you walk beside me And when my life is through I pray that God will take my hand And lead me back to you.

Love is forever, Me.

DUFFUS Happy 50th Annivers ary John and Judy Duffus! We love you always, Nicola Simon and Naomi Ben Tracy Fred and Carlie xxxxxooooo AURION JAMES WALKER June 11, 1926 August 13, 2019 Aurion James Walker, loving husband of the late Gertrude Walker, was born in Haileybury, Ontario on June 11, 1926, the oldest child of Eleanor (McCool) and James Walker. Aurion is predeceased by daughter Wendy (James Archer) and Brian, and is survived by son Stephen (Lynn) and son-in-law James Archer (Heather Gwynne-Timothy) and grandchildren Jennifer Murphy (Colin), Kaitlyn Roberts (Dan), Robyn Walker, Keirsten Clarke (Ben), Robert Archer, Emily Hollis (Brendan), and Kathleen Archer (Dave Maillet). Loved by his great grandchildren Ethan, Anna, Noah, Lena, Macie, Madeleine, Poppy, Olivia and Alex. Aurion is predeceased by siblings Mary (late Jerry) Burton, Dorothea (late Victor) Flemming, Mildred (Alan) Kurtz, Peter (Tina), Richard (Mary Ann) and Alice Louise, and survived by his brother Alexander (Margaret), and sisters Edna (late Eugene) Wilson, Kathleen (late Murray) Boyd and Gabrielle (late Peter Wilson).

Aurion, known to his friends as Jim, had an enriching career in the mineral exploration field, following in the footsteps of his father and maternal grandfather.

Subsequent to his term in the military, Jim began to pursue his passion for mineral exploration.

In 1947, Jim graduated from the Haileybury School of Mines, and advanced his career with several prominent mining companies.

One of the many highlights of his career were his four summers in the Yukon, and his passion for the Yukon remained with him into his later years.

In 1968, Jim started his own firm, Walker Exploration Limited, which was very successful.

Having received his P.Eng, Jim received his iron ring alongside his son Stephen in 1978 at Queen's University in Kingston. An active member of the Prospectors and Developers Association since 1951, Jim served as President from 1975 to 1977. Jim received an Honourary Member Award and in 1998, he received the Distinguished Service Award. In 2013, Jim received the Queen's Jubilee Medal in recognition of his lifetime commitment to the mining industry in Canada.

Jim will be remembered by family and friends for his generosity, his respect for others, and his sense of humour.

There will be a mass celebrating Aurion's life at St. Christopher's Roman Catholic Church at 1171 Clarkson Road N in Mississauga, Ontario on Tuesday, August 20, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Almonte General Hospital, or a charity that holds a special place in your heart would be appreciated.

Funeral Arrangements Entrusted Into The Care Of C.R. Gamble Funeral Home & Chapel Inc.

127 Church St., Almonte, ON., 613-256-3313 Condolences & Tributes: http://www.crgamble.com

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B17


PETER FOWL ER BARRETT

1939 - 2019

It is with great sadness that the family of Peter Barrett announces his passing on August 21 2019, peacefully at the age of 80, with his family by his side. Son of the late H.J.H. (Tim) Barrett and the late Dorothy MacPherson. Devoted husband of Karen. Cherished father to Christopher and Jenny (Steve). Adored grandfather of Cassie, Katherine, and Sarah.

Dear brother of the late James (Judith) and of the late Michael (Terry), and affectionate uncle to Kim, Scott, Allison, and Andrea.

Peter was born in Port Dover in 1939 in the family home on Prospect Hill, just down the street from young Karen Kolbe; by 1948 he had carved their initials together into a maple tree. Peter earned full scholarships to study at Queen's (B.Sc., M.Sc.) and as a Junior Fellow of Massey College, U. Toronto (Ph.D.), before he and Karen moved to London for 2 years as newlyweds in the 1960s with a Postdoctoral Fellowship at Imperial College.

As a Professor at Trent University for 30 years, Peter's gifted teaching touched the lives of many students in his First-Year Chemistry and Environmental Sciences classes. As a talented researcher and patented inventor he was elected Fellow of the Chemistry Institute of Canada, and served the University community as Don of Trail College, Department Chair for a decade, and then another decade as Trent's Dean of Science. Family will always cherish memories of sabbatical years living in Yorkshire in the '70s, and in Colorado in the '80s. Peter and Karen returned to their hometown of Port Dover in 1999, building a retirement home on Lake Erie where the old family cottage stood, with his vegetable garden, sailboat, piano, and basement laboratory for his continued experiments in home wine and beer making, pickles and preserves.

Peter was also a talented and accomplished musician, sharing much of his retirement time volunteering with local choirs, running youth music festivals, traveling to operas, and serving as church organist in Port Dover.

Peter will always be remembered for how much he enjoyed hosting large and lively family gatherings, complete with him at his piano singing, and demonstrating his latest home-built squirrelproofing contraptions for his many birdfeeders; a few of which even worked. His kind and gentle nature, and quick warm smile, will be missed by everyone who knew him.

In keeping with his wishes, cremation will take place and no service will be held. A private memorial for family will be planned at a later date. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to a local youth music charity or a palliative care family support program of your choice.

Peter and his Family will always be grateful to the wonderful staff of CBI Home Nursing in Norfolk County, and of the oncology and 3E/4B units at McMaster's teaching hospitals in Brantford, and in Simcoe. Arrangements have been entrusted to Thompson Waters Funeral Home, Port Dover (519) 583-1530. On-line donations and/or condolences can be made at www.

thompsonwatersfuneralhome.ca

MARGARET KATHERINE BOLTON

May 6, 1932 - July 29, 2019

Margaret Katherine (Kline Lawford) Bolton, BA (U of S), was born in Weyburn, Saskatchewan in the spring of 1932. She died on July 29, 2019 after leading a full life of quiet achievement and generosity of spirit; she earned a BA in Economics, worked with the forerunner of Medicare in Canada, married a man who became a prominent Canadian neurologist, and became an avid distance runner in mid-life. She was a devoted wife and loving mother to her three children.

Margaret's origins were uniquely Canadian. She was the daughter of a Metis man and of a woman from a pioneer family in the Territories (now Saskatchewan). Her father Joseph Klyne was a radiology technician in Weyburn, SK, and her mother, Dorothy Katherine Lawford PhD, became an esteemed Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Saskatchewan.

The university created the Dorothy K. Kline Award for Biochemistry in her honour after her tragic death in a car accident in 1965.

When Margaret was four years old, her mother Dorothy developed spinal tuberculosis and was confined to a TB sanitorium for 13 years. Margaret and her sister Marion were then adopted by Dorothy's brother Gardiner Lawford and his wife Stella (nee Dalgleish). Margaret always remembered Gardiner and Stella as wonderful parents.

As a child, Margaret was responsible and hardworking. She delivered the daily radio agricultural reports to local grain elevators near Kisbey, SK, and along with her sister Marion, she delivered groceries to the elderly.

Margaret met Charles Francis Bolton, in Weyburn, SK in 1952 when he was a young student studying Medicine at Queens University in Kingston, ON.

They had a long-distance courtship while he finished his studies, and they married in 1956.

After working as a Research Economist in the Department of Public Health in Regina - the forerunner of Medicare in Canada-- Margaret became a fulltime homemaker; a role she thoroughly enjoyed. She loved raising her three children and supporting Charles in his career as a neurologist. Former Neurology Residents in London, Ontario will remember Margaret as a kind and welcoming hostess at dinner parties.

Throughout her life, Margaret continued her interest in economics and politics and enjoyed lively discussions on current policies and topics. She loved gardening, and her efforts achieved the City of London's Trillium Award. She was a caregiver to the many animals and birds that came in large numbers to her backyard. She loved people and was always willing to take the time to listen, learn, and provide help and advice. Her children's many friends were a constant presence in the home.

In her early eighties, Margaret developed dementia and moved with Charles to Vancouver to be closer to daughter Kathy and a warmer climate. The family is grateful for the love and attention provided by the caregivers she had in her final years.

Margaret died peacefully at home at age 87. She leaves Charles, her husband of 63 years, her son David (Chantal Nadeau), daughters Katherine (Chris Stokes) and Nancy (Marty Turock), grandchildren Marianne and Francis, sister Marion Johnston, sister-in-law Bette Tusz (Bolton), brother-in-law Robert Dodds and many nieces, nephews, and friends. She is predeceased by fathers Joseph Kline and Gardiner Lawford, mothers Dorothy Kline and Stella Lawford, brothers-in-law Gordon (Pete) Johnston and Louis Tusz and sister-in-law Mary Dodds (Bolton).

We will miss Margaret's warm smile, her inspiration and her love.

Donations can be made to the Alzheimer's Society of Canada or the University of Saskatchewan.

A celebration of Margaret's life will take place in Saskatchewan in approximately one year.

More information about Margaret's life can be found at Kearney Funeral Services website.

ROBERT HOLLY JOHN GRAY

In Loving Memory On Monday, August 5, 2019 Robert Holly John Gray passed away peacefully at Bridgepoint Healthcare Facility in Toronto at the age of 96.

Dear Uncle Bob of David (Julie), Brian (Rosemary), Wayne (Janice), James (Mara), Robert (Diane), Patricia (Duncan-deceased), Richard (Michelle), and predeceased by John David Stewart (Robin Sarafin). He is survived by many great-nieces and nephews.

Lovingly remembered by Diego Guerra Sr. (Marcia Vallejo), Diego Guerra Jr.

(Lisbeth Gamboa), Christopher and Nicole; Daniel Guerra, Gabriel Guerra (Alisa), Mia and Angelina; Sheila Dyie, Enid Awuku and Tanya Awuku, Pablo (Fabian Disla Garcia), Saied Moshtagh and Joseph Corsi Awuku.

Robert worked at Ontario Hydro rising to the position of Assistant Treasurer. But his most noble and inspiring work was the help he gave to others giving generously of his time, talent and resources to those in need wherever he met them.

His other passions were following all sports and playing golf, travelling, and his beloved cottage at Haliburton Lake which he and many others enjoyed for over 50 years. More recently he has taken a great interest in genealogy especially the Gray and Gibbs families.

Those wishing to honour his name may make a donation to the charity of their choice.

Family and friends are invited to a Celebration of Life at the Thornhill Golf and Country Club, 7994 Yonge Street, Thornhill on Sunday, September 29th, 2019 at 1:00 p.m. Reception to follow.

There will be a graveside service at St. Peter's Cemetery, Maple Lake on a subsequent date. At Robert's request cremation has already taken place.

http://www.gordonmonkfuneralho me.com

J. HARVEY BRIDE

Peacefully, on Saturday, August 10, 2019, James Harvey Bride, passed away in his 90th year to join the celestial choir.

Harvey was born on February 3, 1930, in Newbridge, ON, to Carman and Alice (Spence) Bride.

At age 16, he left his family's farm for university. After receiving his honours degree in French from the University College in Toronto, in 1951, Harv spent a year in France developing his gift for languages.

In 1952, he returned to earn his teaching certificate at the Ontario College of Education. He began his career in Lucknow, ON.

During his 35 years of dedication to teaching French, Harv created many fond memories with his colleagues and high school students in Lucknow, and in Scarborough, at R.H. King, David and Mary Thomson and Sir Oliver Mowat collegiates. He retired in 1988. We were thankful he was able to attend Thomson Collegiate's final reunion in May. The event and kind comments gave him profound joy and fulfilment! While teaching, Harvey nurtured his zest for academic study by completing graduate degrees from McGill University and the University of Toronto. He spent his summers either in France refreshing his fluency, or in Toronto marking Grade 13 final exams or teaching summer school.

In Fordwich, ON, on April 20, 1957, Harv married Marianne Jean Doig.

Together, they raised two children, Peter and Miriam, in their home in Don Mills where they celebrated 62 years of marriage. Harvey was known for his kind and gentle nature, his heartwarming smile and his uplifting spirit. His passion for friends, religious and secular choir music, gardening and family history, was appreciated by all who knew him. For 80 consecutive years, Harv was steadfastly committed to his local church choir. He also joined French choirs, teachers' choirs, Toronto choirs and patriotic choirs. In 2013, with the Oxford Church Music Choir's tour to Dublin, he fulfilled his lifelong dream of visiting the Spence ancestral home in County Fermanagh, Ireland.

Harvey was predeceased by his brother, Lorne, of Winnipeg, MB.

He is held in loving memory by his wife, Marianne; son, Peter and cherished granddaughter, Emily, of Don Mills; his daughter, Miriam, of Whistler/Pemberton, BC; his sister, Merle McIntosh and family of Listowel, ON; by his sister-in-law Rosada and family of Winnipeg, MB; and by his brotherin-law and his wife, Edward and Joyce Doig, of Atlanta, GA.

To celebrate Harvey's life, we welcome family and friends to join us in hymn-sing services on Friday, August 30, at 10 am at Jubilee United Church, 40 Underhill Drive, Toronto, and 'up country' on Sunday, September 1, at 2 pm, at Fordwich United Church.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Harvey's name to Parkinson Canada, Jubilee United Church Benevolent Fund or Fordwich United Church.

Email condolences to: marianneandharvey@gmail.com

JACQUES EMMANUEL DACCORD

1931 - 2019

On August 22, 2019, Jake went to be with his Saviour. He will be greatly missed by Joan, his dearly loved wife of 62 years, his brother Claude, children Joyce (Sam), Bruce (Allison), Ruth (Reg) and Philip (Julie), eleven grandchildren, and three great-grandchildren.

Born in Montreal, Jake attended McGill University, obtaining a degree in Civil Engineering in 1953. He was later awarded an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, and went on to earn a Management degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1967.

Upon graduation from McGill, Jake joined Canron Limited, where he occupied a variety of positions over ten years. In 1963, he joined Urwick, Currie Ltd. (which later became Currie, Coopers & Lybrand Ltd.) where he participated in a wide variety of consulting engagements in Canada and abroad. In 1973, Jake was elected President and Managing Partner, and in 1984 he became Chairman of the firm.

In 1985, Jake joined The Ideal Metals Group, where he served as Chairman until 1990. In later years, Jake continued to provide consulting services to various clients and to serve as a director on several boards in both the business and charitable sectors, including World Vision Canada, Canadian Club of Montreal, Montreal Neurological Institute, St. James Club of Montreal, and Emmanuel Christian School.

Jake was a fellow of the Institute of Management Consultants of Quebec, and a member of the Order of Engineers of Quebec.

Jake and Joan enjoyed a mutual love of travel, sharing many adventures and exploring many parts of the world together.

In recent years, they valued their annual family holidays with children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Jake was an avid skier, and enjoyed many years of Utah ski vacations with his family. He was a passionate golfer, and held a membership at the Beaconsfield Golf Club for over 40 years.

A celebration of Jake's life will be held on Wednesday, August 28, 2019 at 3:00 p.m. at Snowdon Baptist Church, 5275 Earnscliffe Ave., Montreal. The family will receive guests from 1:00-3:00 p.m, and refreshments will follow the service. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made in memory of Jake to Christian Direction at http://www.direction.ca or World Vision Canada at http://www.worldvision.ca.

DR. JAMES STANLEY HALL

At Wingham & District Hospital on Wednesday, August 21, 2019, Dr. James Stanley Hall formerly of Wingham and Port Colborne at the age of 89.

Beloved husband of the late Donna (Henry) Hall who predeceased him on January 13, 2019. Loving dad of Bill & Mav Hall of Vankleek Hill, John & Janet Hall of Sutton, Jim & Silvija Hall of R. R.

#7, Lucknow, David & Joanne Hall of Grimsby and Pamela & Andrew Brown of Schomberg. Dear grandpa of thirteen grandchildren and five great-grandchildren.

Brother-in-law of Marion Middlebrook, James Currie and Susan Hall. Predeceased by his parents Stanley and Isabel (Hogg) Hall, brother George Hall, brotherin-law Harold Henry and sister-inlaw Audrey Currie.

Dad graduated from University of Toronto Medical School and went on to have a family practice in Port Colborne for 45 years. He was an honorary lifetime Lion's Club member who served for 60 years within the club. Dad had a great love of music and enjoyed playing the piano and organ.

He will be missed by everyone who knew him.

A memorial service will take place at the Wingham United Church on Thursday, August 29, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. followed by a private family interment and a reception and visitation to follow at the church beginning at 1:00 p.m.

Memorial donations to the Wingham United Church, Lions Club Guide Dog Program or a charity of choice would be appreciated as expressions of sympathy.

Online condolences at http://www.mcburneyfuneralhome.com

JOCELYN HARVEY

Born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, Jocelyn (or Josh) Harvey (née Gilbertson) was the eldest of five children. She studied English literature, became a professor and met her husband David Dow Harvey in Seattle. Always committed to progressive politics, they moved to Canada with their baby daughter Kerridwen (Didi) during the Vietnam War in 1969 and homesteaded on Gopherwood Farm outside of Barry's Bay, Ontario where they stayed for "five winters" as Josh liked to say. There her son John was born and the Harveys made several life-long friends. She then made her life with her family in Ottawa, with great dedication in her working life to the arts, in particular at the Canada Council for the Arts and then as an art consultant, continuing to work on arts related issues her entire life.

Josh lived her life fully and she touched many other people's lives. She dealt with medical issues in her later life but she maintained her characteristic optimism up until the end. She passed away at her home on August 18, 2019. She leaves her daughter Kerridwen and son John, their spouses Denis Hurtubise and Tina Matos, her cherished grandchildren James and Meredith, her two precious sisters Jessie Gilbertson and Win Levine, two nephews Jason and Jon Levine, and many dear friends. She is predeceased by her parents Julius and Dorothy, her brother Julius (Jay) and little sister Dot.

A celebration of life will be held on August 31st from 2 to 4 p.m. at the Ottawa Tennis and Lawn Bowling Club, 176 Cameron Avenue.

In lieu of flowers, donations are encouraged to the Jocelyn Harvey Legacy Fund to encourage public engagement, democratic renewal and critical public discourse.

http://www.canadahelps.org/jocelynharvey-legacy-fund/

GRACE INAAM BACHIR HISHON

April 22, 1949 August 19, 2019 It is with great sadness that we mourn the passing of Grace Inaam Bachir Hishon.

Grace passed away peacefully with her family by her side on August 19, 2019, at Baycrest Palliative Centre.

Loving daughter to John Hanna (deceased) and Najla Bachir, Grace is predeceased by her husband Brian Hishon. Devoted mother to Kelley (Mark) and Riel.

Loving sister to George (Ayesha), Anissa (Barry), Salah (Jacob) and Ziad (Rima).

Adoring Taita, grandma to Owen, Timothy and Hannah. Loving aunt to Jonathan, Nicholas, Ameel, Aliya, Ivy, John and Christopher.

Grace will be fondly remembered by sister in-law Pat (Rick), brother in-law Doug (Sheila) and sister-inlaw Judi (Wally) and their families.

Grace was born in Lebanon and immigrated to Canada with the family as a teenager.

She made several trips back home to connect with family and friends and will be sadly missed and mourned by her family and friends in Lebanon.

Grace fought a courageous battle with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) for the past 10 years with dignity. It broke our hearts to see this awful disease rob her of her bodily functions bit by bit.

She was very brave and endured all without complaint.

Grace had a wicked sense of humour. She loved working with people and was entrepreneurial.

She opened one of the first health food/nutrition stores in Oakville and spent the last 25 years as a successful real estate agent in Toronto West. Her clients became lifelong friends. Grace will be sadly missed and fondly remembered for her love and dedication to her family and friends. She will always be in our hearts.

Our heartfelt thanks to the Palliative Care team at Baycrest for their excellent care and support of our family, to Dr. Zive, Dr.Crispino and Dr. Marras, and to her wonderful caregivers, Noraly, Ann, Edna and Nida Caringal.

Visitation: Sunday, August 25th from 3-6 p.m. Funeral: Monday, August 26th at 11 a.m. Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., Toronto ON M6S 1P4

BETTY MARIE JAMIESON

It is with great sadness we announce that Betty Marie Jamieson (Brownlee) of Leawood, KS passed away on August 20, 2019.

Betty was born on July 28, 1931 in Russell, Manitoba, Canada.

She is survived by her son, Doug (Shelly) and grandchildren, Heather and Michael, of Toronto, Canada, and her daughter Sara of Prairie Village, KS. Betty was predeceased by her husband of 55 years, Mac Jamieson, her sons Reg (Mary Ellen) and Andy, and her daughter Nancy Tompkins.

She is also survived by Nancy's children Katie and Ken Tompkins.

Betty was an avid bridge player throughout her life, a hobby she and her late husband enjoyed together. In her younger years, she also loved to paint and play the piano. She enjoyed traveling with her family and spent many winter vacations relaxing on the beach in Grand Cayman, St. Croix, and other tropical destinations.

She will always be remembered as a wonderful, nurturing mother and friend.

In the last chapter of her life, Betty was a resident at the Forum of Overland Park, KS. The family would like to extend their gratitude to the many nurses and staff there who took exceptional care of Betty in her final days.

They would also like to thank Cheryl Lewis from Benefits of Home for nearly seven years of work as Betty's favorite caregiver.

Condolences may be left online at http://www.mcgilleystatelinechapel.com.

ROBERT WILLIAM LISTER

P.Eng Peacefully at Sunrise Senior Living, Burlington on Sunday, August 18, 2019 at the age of 94. Predeceased by his parents Elisha Rawson Lister and Annie (nee Skelton).

Beloved husband of the late Joyce Lister (nee Wickstrom, November, 2003). Loving father of Carla Okuloski (Dan), Valerie Lister (Rod Yip), Kim Lister (Matt Okuloski) and Ross Lister (Penny). Cherished grandfather of Ian and Helen.

Bob was Division Manager at Westinghouse Canada for many years. He was truly a renaissance man. He loved his bridge, tennis, golf, skiing and curling and did them all well although he couldn't putt worth a damn. His quest for learning never waned even in his later years.

Cremation has taken place. As per Bob's wishes, no services will be held. Private family interment at Greenwood Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, donations in memory of Bob to the Salvation Army would be appreciated.

CONSTANCE MARY McDOUGALL (née Hepburn)

May 24, 1925 - August 13, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce our dear mother, Mary McDougall, passed away peacefully with her family by her side. Beloved daughter of the late Dr. John and Lilian Hepburn, and mother of Scott (Josephine) and Carol. She was a proud grandmother of David (Caroline) and Michael Kerr, Constance (Bryan), Laura (Andrew) and Ian (Ashley) McDougall.

Mary was happiest when surrounded by her family and friends and was a graduate of Oriole Park Public School, Havergal College and the University of Toronto as an OT. A Celebration of Life will be held at St. John's York Mills Anglican Church, 19 Don Ridge Drive on Friday, September 20th at 2:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Heart & Stroke Foundation, Toronto General Hospital or the Canadian Cancer Society. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

LESLIE ANNE MCGILLIS

Passed away at the Peterborough Regional Health Centre on Tuesday, August 20, 2019 at the age of 60. Cherished daughter of Donna nee Bristow and the late Gerald McGillis. Beloved sister of Ian McGillis (Janet). Loved aunt of Heather and Holly McGillis. The family would like to thank Dr.

Michael Gibson and all the PSW's at Nightingale Nursing for their care and support. Cremation and a private family interment. Funeral arrangements entrusted to Nisbett Funeral Home. 705-745-3211.

GLYN WENTWORTH OSLER

February 3, 1931 - August 9, 2019 At the peak of golf season, Glyn died peacefully in Toronto, in his 89th year.

Although Alzheimer's claimed his memory, he was unfailingly polite and precise to the end of his days. Impeccably mannered, impeccably dressed, Glyn was the eldest of four born to Britton and Barbara (née Greene) Osler.

He was blessed with considerable athletic prowess, and had a particular affinity for all things involving physical acumen and movement. Whether gliding down a snowy slope, across the ice, over fairways, football fields and tennis court, through water, or around the dance floor, Glyn was first and foremost a sportsman, and he applied the rules of fair play to most endeavours. He insisted on proper decorum even when salmon fishing or shooting duck. From Upper Canada College, hockey took him to Ridley College where, in 1944, Glyn would form friendships that continued for the rest of his life. In 1952 at RMC, he was part of 'the New 100', the first postwar graduates of the Royal Military College. Flirting briefly with a career in law, Glyn attended Osgoode Hall before entering banking with the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.

Married to our mother Margot (née Johnston) in 1956, he proudly added a family of four girls in quick succession to his list of accomplishments. For a time, an ice rink transformed the back yard; Christmas was rung in with myriad child-sized ski boot and binding checks, while Easter was a time for ensuring that golf clubs and shorts length were properly adjusted. Dressed smartly for fall weather, Glyn proudly escorted his flock to Toronto Argonaut games, where he managed, somehow, to follow the plays while explaining tight ends.

Predeceased by his parents and two brothers, Derek and Fen, Glyn leaves behind a sister, Pamela Delworth, and will be missed by the four Osler girls, the daughters he entertained Dad-dancing the 'Twist': Barb (Richard), Trish (Warren), Dede (Andy) and Diana (Warren). Grandfather to Samantha, Caileigh, Jaime, Conal, Robyn, Harry, Emily and Strachan, and greatgrandfather to Abigail, Grace, Isla and Lucas, Grandad will live on in memory and in his trademark golf swing.

Colourful in spirit and in attire, with a wonderful sense of humour, his kind and generous nature touched many who knew him during his lifetime. We are deeply grateful to Glyn's beloved summer community of Metis Beach, QC, for their outpouring of love and support. We thank the caring staff at the Balmoral and at Meighen Manor, and are especially grateful to Integracare for their tremendous compassion. Despite his frailty at the end, we are comforted to know that Glyn Osler never forgot that Glyn Osler knew golf.

A memorial service for family and friends will be held on Thursday, September 12th at 2:00 p.m., at the Anglican Church of St. Peter & St. Simonthe-Apostle, 525 Bloor St. East, Toronto. In lieu of flowers, if you wish to make a contribution in Glyn's memory, please consider a charity of your choice or St. George's Anglican Church, Metis-sur-Mer, c/o Treasurer, 1023 Royal York Rd. Toronto, ON M8X 2G5.

TOM MCCULLOCH

The family of Thomas Duncan Wyness McCulloch sadly announce his passing on August 18, 2019. Tom was predeceased by his only brother Gordon in March 2003.

Beloved husband of Doreen McCulloch, he was born in Greenock Scotland, the eldest son of Thomas Duncan McCulloch and Ellen Gordon Wyness. In 1941, at the age of sixteen, during World War II, he went to sea as a Cadet in the Merchant Navy. He survived bombs, gunfire and torpedoes during this tumultuous time and was able to finish his service as a Second Officer. To honour his wartime sacrifice, he was awarded the Atlantic Star, the 1939-45 Star and medal, the Ushakov Medal and the Arctic Star.

In 1946, he married the 'anchor to his life', Doreen and shortly thereafter, Tom and his 'wee smasher' began their journey to immigrate to Canada. Tom and Doreen raised five Canadians - Andrew (Sue), Ellen (Alex), Duncan (Cheryl), Malcolm (Melanie), and Sarah. With their partners they in turn raised 13 grandchildren - David, Matthew, Amanda, Alexis, James, Sarah, Tori, Chanelle, Lindsay, Megan, Wesley, Megan, and Eric.

Tom's greatest passion was seafaring, and his chosen professions and many successes reflected just that. In addition to surveying the coast and waters of BC, he spent many seasons in the Western Arctic where he made the news headlines when his ship "Richardson" was almost lost in the pack ice off Point Barrow in 1967. His list of impressive accomplishments includes becoming the Director General of the Bayfield Laboratory for Marine Sciences in 1978 He was also a founding member of the Canadian Hydrographers Association, President of the Canadian Institute of Surveying and became a successful author of two books; 'Mandalay to Norseman' and 'Navigator to Hydrographer" respectively.

http://www.hamiltonharronfunerals.com

JUDITH MARGARET MATHILDA PERRY (nee Bishop)

Peacefully in Collingwood, Ontario, on August 16, 2019, in her 88th year. Much loved wife of the late Peter (2017) and mother to Jane (Patrick Teti), Alison (Douglas Moggach), David (1962 - 2006), and Cullen (Michele). "Janna" to Iain, Catriona, Christopher, Graham, Emma, and Rowan. Predeceased by her sister Susannah Crassweller and brothers Michael and David Bishop.

Born and raised in Toronto, Judy grew up in an old fashioned household but found ways to forge her independence. The family farm outside the city and summer cottage on Lake Rosseau nurtured her lifelong love of the outdoors. After attending Bishop Strachan School and Havergal College, Judy went to Macdonald College near Montreal for what she called the "Diamond Ring Course." She married Peter in 1956 "for better or worse, but not for his shirts." She was a traditional wife, but she wasn't. In 1971, true to her adventurous nature and longing for the countryside, Judy and Peter abandoned city life and moved their family to Collingwood. They never looked back. Judy immediately bought a horse, and several more over the years. She also loved dogs, gardening, classical music, and weaving. She sat on the boards of the Great Northern Exhibition, the Collingwood Historical Society, and the Georgian Bay Arts and Crafts Association. She and Peter spent every summer at their cottage at Snug Harbour where she picked a lot of blueberries, kept Peter fed, swam, boated, and welcomed one and all to their slice of paradise.

The celebration of their 60th wedding anniversary three years ago drew well over 100 guests, testament to their good fortune and resilient friendships. Devoted wife, loving and generous mother, loyal friend: Judy will also be remembered for her unabashed honesty, often acerbic wit, and indefatigable spirit.

Heartfelt thanks to the dedicated staff at Raglan Village and to family friend Marilyn McEachern for their exceptional care of Judy.

A memorial service will be held at 11:00 a.m. on August 30, 2019, at All Saints' Anglican Church, 32 Elgin St., Collingwood, followed by a reception. If desired, donations to Hospice Georgian Triangle Campbell House or the Collingwood General and Marine Hospital Foundation would be much appreciated.

Arrangements entrusted to Chatterson Funeral Home, Collingwood (705) 445-4700.

http://www.chattersonfuneralhome.com.

MICHAEL O. POULTER

It is with heavy hearts that our family announces the sudden death of Michael O. Poulter on Saturday, August 10, 2019.

Beloved husband to Caroline Schild-Poulter for 27 years.

Caring Papa to Sarah and Julien Poulter. Loving son of Patricia and the step-son of the late Ulbe Van Dyke.

Brother to John Poulter, Uncle to Charles and Matthew, brother to Beth Poulter (Don Baker) and Uncle to Claire and Patsy. Michael will also sorely be missed by many other family and friends.

Born in Oshawa Ontario, October 8, 1958, Michael received his undergraduate degree in Pharmacology from the University of British Columbia. He continued his studies at McGill University where he received a PhD in Pharmacology. It was during his post graduate research at the NIH in Washington, DC that he met Caroline. The two were married in Lausanne Switzerland in 1992 and relocated to Strasbourg, France where Michael continued his postgraduate research.

In 1995 Michael returned to Canada, taking positions first at the National Research Council in Ottawa and subsequently at the Institute for Neuroscience at Carleton University becoming head of the institute in 2003. In 2006 Michael relocated to London, taking a position as scientist at the Robarts Research Institute and as Professor in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at UWO.

Michael was an avid skier and sailor, a great bass player and an excellent cook.

A Celebration of life will be held on August 28th at Idlewyld Inn, 36 Grand Ave, London, Ontario from 2-5 p.m. Michael dedicated his life to epilepsy research and donated his time to Epilepsy Canada, as a Board Member and a Member of the Scientific Research Committee, with a mission to find a cure and enhance other research efforts across Canada. In lieu of flowers, donations to Epilepsy Canada can be made in his memory.

Le vrai tombeau d'un homme est dans le coeur de ceux qui l'aiment.

HUW OWEN PRITCHARD BSc, MSc, PhD, DSc, FRSC

Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, York University.

Peacefully at Credit Valley Hospital, August 9, 2019. Born July 23, 1928 Bangor Wales.

Much loved and loving husband of 63 years to Margaret (Maggie) Loving father to Karen (Sal) and David (Madeleine). Devoted Papa to Samantha (Marco) and Jason.

As per Huw's wishes a private cremation has taken place. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to The Peter Munk Cardiac Centre Toronto General Hospital.

There is a void that will never be filled. We will always love you.

MALCO LM BYERLEY REED

1934 - 2019

Peacefully, at Runnymede Health Centre, Toronto, Ontario, on July 30, 2019, in his 86th year. Malcolm leaves his sister Elinor, his sistersin-law Pauline Reed (Newton) and Susan Von Sichart, and 19 nieces and nephews. He was predeceased by his wife Katharine (nee Cameron), his sister Dorothy Martin, and his brothers Newton and Donald. He will be missed by his many friends.

Malcolm was born in 1934 at Kao-Shi-Ti, Zichong Province, China. He was the youngest of five children born to missionaries Fred and Anne (nee Male) Reed who were part of the Canadian Methodist (later United Church) Mission in west China. He grew up in the mission at Gigong, interrupted by the family's travel to Ontario on furlough in 1937 when he was three years old.

Malcolm returned with his mother and sister Elinor to Ontario in 1944 when wartime China became too dangerous. He finished high school in Orillia in 1952, close to his parents' rural churches.

Malcolm studied architecture and urban planning at the University of Toronto and enjoyed a 37year career in Halifax, London (England), Toronto (including operating his own firm there) and Kingston.

He was a committed life-long learner: interests in history and politics led him to other degree programs in the 1960's and 1970's. A career change in 1995 led to work in career counselling and language training until his retirement in 2004.

He married Katharine ("Katy") Cameron in 1969. They enjoyed opera, lived for many years in Toronto, and travelled extensively to visit friends and family in the US and Europe.

Malcolm was a supporter of many arts and social justice causes and organizations. Until his health declined, he was a committed active member of First Unitarian Congregation of Toronto, including a term as congregation president; was a volunteer at City Park Co-operative Apartments in Toronto, where he lived in his later years; and was very active in the work of the alumni association of the West China school he and his siblings attended.

A Celebration of Life will be held on Sunday, September 15th at First Unitarian Congregation of Toronto, 175 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, starting at 2:30 p.m. followed by a reception.

Cremation has taken place; private interment will be at a later date.

We are thankful for the wonderful support of his "circle of care" and close friends, and medical caregivers. In memory of Malcolm, please consider a donation to the charity of your choice.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

ROZELLE IRENE STOUT UPTON "S ally" (née Graham)

November 17, 1925 - August 16, 2019 A Sweet Adeline Sally passed away peacefully, age 93, at Caressant Care Nursing Home, Lindsay, after a long battle with Alzheimer's disease. She was predeceased by her first husband, Donald Stout (1961), her sister, Muriel Haggerty Heenan (2011), her second husband, Kenneth John Upton (2013), and her son-in-law, Stewart Aziz (2018). She lived life fully and will be sorely missed.

Family was everything to Sally, and she had a large one. She is remembered with much love and fond memories by her children, Karla Stout, Donna Carmichael (Graham), Craig Stout (Suzy), Elaine Stout Aziz, and stepchildren, Peter Upton (Jo-Anne) and Lucy Sanford (Norman), 11 beloved grandchildren and 16 great-grandchildren, her brother-in-law Richard Stout of White Plains, New York, and her nephews and nieces in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. She was regarded with great affection by numerous dear friends, many of whom became extended family members. Everyone was included in annual family events - swimming pool parties, John Upton's annual birthday party, pumpkin cutting days, and Boxing Day gatherings.

Her home was always open and inviting for all visitors.

Sally loved music, playing piano, singing in choirs, and participating for many years as a member of the Sweet Adelines York Highlands Chorus.

Even after language failed her, she would still hum along with the radio, music CDs, and songs sung to her. Music was an engaging and a calming influence always.

Sally was born in 1925 in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of Mabel and Frank Graham, and grew up in Stoneham with her sister Muriel. She excelled at school and became an officer of the Order of the Rainbow for Girls, whose guiding principles included "to be glad of life, because it gives you the chance to love and to work and to play and to look at the stars", a principle she embraced throughout her life.

She graduated from Stoneham High School in 1942 and worked for several years before obtaining her BA from Union College in Barbourville, Kentucky.

It was there she met her first husband, Donald Stout. They married in 1949 and both actively supported social justice and anti-discrimination causes as Don studied to become a Unitarian minister. In 1954, shortly after his ordination, Sally and Don emigrated to Canada, leaving behind the turmoil of segregation and McCarthyism, as he accepted the position of minister to the Don Heights Unitarian Congregation in Scarborough, and the fledgling fellowship in Mississauga, Ontario. Together they fostered the establishment and growth of the Unitarian Congregation of South Peel, now known as the Unitarian Congregation in Mississauga.

After Don's death, Sally went to the University of Toronto and earned a Bachelor of Library Science in 1964. She became Head Librarian at Oakville Public Library and was responsible for the building of the new library in 1967. It was an innovative approach to a library, adding the collection of audio materials (tapes and records) to the library resources, incorporating an art gallery that offered the lending of artwork into the building, and connecting the building to a swimming pool, thereby creating a hub for community activities.

In 1970, Sally and John Upton moved to a century farm house in King City, and married in 1975. She left the OPL to work at the Central Ontario Regional Library System which was at the forefront of augmenting library services to include inter-library loans, and integrating computer technology into library systems. She was also an active member of the Ontario Library Association for many years.

On retirement, she and John continued to be lifelong learners, travelling extensively, taking continuing education courses at the University of Toronto, and always enjoying family. When Sally was diagnosed with Alzheimer's in 2003, she faced the news with the strength and courage that were her hallmark, acknowledging the struggle she faced with grace, and often with humour.

Sally's family would like to extend deep gratitude to Mary Geisberger for her devoted, loving care of Sally for 20 years, and especially during the last difficult years. Thanks also to the nurses, PSWs and staff, first at Port Perry Villa, and these last years at Caressant Care Nursing Home, for their kindness and care of Sally.

A Celebration of Life for Sally will be held on September 28, 2019, at Elmhirst Resort in Keene, Ontario, from 2 to 5 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a donation to the Alzheimer's Society of Durham Region.

ROBERT STEANE

Surrounded by loving arms, our star, Robert (Bob) Steane left this life on July 30, 2019 after 69 years of leadership in industry and in life.

Bob was a cherished friend and partner to Kathy Berg and a funloving brother to Alan, Brian (wife Chriss) and younger brother David who sadly predeceased him in 2014. He was a sweet uncle to his nieces and nephews Tracy, Trevor, Bradley, Darryl, Michelle and Richard, and a beloved part of the lives of Kathy's children, Timothy, Erin, and Erica, and Kathy's mother, Beth Rude.

There wasn't much that Bob couldn't do and it was his determination and curiosity that allowed him to develop an impressive array of talents. Son to Harold and Isobel Steane, Bob was born in Mpanda, Tanzania into a mining family. The Steane family emigrated to Canada in 1953, initially living in a small mining community near Salmo BC and then moving to Vancouver. Bob went to school and was raised in a family neighbourhood first in Salmo and then in Vancouver.

He attended BCIT and then completed a Bachelor of Science in Metallurgical Engineering with High Scholastic Honours at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado.

Bob loved every minute of his mining career. He worked in Papua New Guinea, Namibia, and Australia before being enticed to a start-up operation at the Key Lake minesite in Northern Saskatchewan in 1983. This was the beginning of a life- long career of 34 years with Cameco.

For eight years (1999-2007) Bob led Cameco's Fuel Services operations in Ontario and became a fixture in the community of Port Hope. Bob moved back to Saskatoon completing his Cameco career as Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, retiring in 2017. Bob served on the Mining Association of Canada's Board of Directors from 2012 to 2017, which included his time as Committee Chair of the Aboriginal Affairs Committee (2013-2015) and as MAC's Board Chair (2015-2017).

Saskatoon and Saskatchewan became Bob's final home. In the last few years Bob created a philanthropic legacy. He served on the board of the Royal University Hospital Foundation (RUHF) and generously donated to RUHF, St. Paul's Hospital, Saskatoon Community Foundation, Persephone Theatre, Shakespeare on the Saskatchewan, and other organizations too numerous to mention. Bob also devoted his time by volunteering at the Lighthouse and participating in United Way Fundraisers (including twice climbing the CN Tower in Toronto when he lived in Port Hope). Earlier this year Bob and Kathy and other family members served breakfast at the Friendship Inn as part of his sponsorship for a day.

Anyone wishing to attend a celebration of Bob's life is welcome in the lobby of Persephone Theatre on October 25 from 2:00 to 4:30, hosted by family and colleagues. In the meantime, Bob would appreciate being remembered by his friends as they have a round of golf, a toast of scotch, or enjoy live theatre.

In lieu of flowers please send a donation to one of the identified charities or to a charity of your choice.

Condolences may be left at www.

saskatoonfuneralhome . co m Arrangements entrusted to Saskatoon Funeral Home 306-244-5577.

DR. LLOYD ROBERT SUTHERLAND

October 26, 1948 Woodstock, New Brunswick August 1, 2019 Calgary, Alberta It is with profound sadness that we announce the passing of Dr. Lloyd Robert Sutherland, beloved husband of Peter Wong, on Thursday, August 1, 2019 at the age of 70 years.

Lloyd was born in Woodstock, New Brunswick on October 26, 1948. He was predeceased by his parents: Dr. Jed Sutherland and Marie McCain Sutherland and good friend Dr. Stanley Giebrescht.

He is survived by his brother Andrew Sutherland, sister Heather Sutherland, nephews Tyler and Darren James, niece Lindsay James; and beloved cousins Barbara Gordon, Frances Gordon and Marie Gordon. Lloyd was greatly loved by his many McCain and Sutherland cousins in New Brunswick and Ontario.

Lloyd graduated from University of New Brunswick (BA, 1969), McGill University (MD, 1973), and then University of Toronto (FRCPC, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1978). He became Board-certified in Gastroenterology and was elected a Fellow of the American College of Physicians in 1985. Lloyd became a faculty member at the University of Calgary Medical School in 1977. While a scholar in the Intestinal Disease Research Unit, he earned his MSc (Epidemiology) in 1989. His novel clinical studies in IBD earned him international recognition. Lloyd became the Head of Gastroenterology in 1991 and served as Head of Community Health Sciences at U of C, and Director of the Centre for the Advancement of Health at the Calgary Health Region from 1995-2002. He was Founding Director of the Centre for Health and Policy Studies (CHAPS) from 1999-2001 and Director of the Heritage Medical Research Clinic in 1988.

Lloyd met Peter, his life partner, in 1996 and the two married on June 11, 2015 in Calgary, Alberta. Their life together was filled by their mutual love of music, ballet, theatre, international travel and gourmet dining. Lloyd was an accomplished pianist and a highly informed, stimulating conversationalist in history and politics. He especially loved his pet cats.

Lloyd contributed greatly to his community. He was President of Alberta Ballet from 1982-1985, a company now known around the world. He established the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver, becoming its President. He later was editor-in-chief of the Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology.

Internationally, he served as Scientific Secretary of the International Organization for the Study of IBD (IOIBD) from 1994-2000.

Lloyd published more than 200 peer reviewed papers and abstracts, and delivered more than 150 invited talks.

Lloyd received the 2003 Crohn's and Colitis F o u n d a t i o n of Canada's Finklestein Prize for his outstanding contributions in the field of IBD. He received an honorary degree from his Alma Mater, UNB in May 2004. He was known by his colleagues as an eloquent lecturer, and a compassionate physician and mentor.

A Celebration of Life will be held at St. Stephen's Anglican Church (1121 14 Ave SW, Calgary AB) on Friday, September 27, 2019 at 2:00 p.m. with a reception to follow.

The Dr. Lloyd Sutherland Professorship in Inflammatory Bowel Disease / Gastrointestinal Research was created in 2009 to support a junior Faculty member at the University of Calgary. His legacy of gentle leadership will live on in his patients, friends and colleagues with whom he enjoyed excellent relationships. Memorial donations can be made to this Fund through the Cummings School of Medicine at U.of C.

OLIVE EVELYN VANDERBURGH (née Russell)

Peacefully on August 16, 2019, Olive died in her 103rd year.

Olive was predeceased by her devoted and loving husband of 60 years Ralph (Van) VanderBurgh, her parents Fred and Vera Russell, her brother Bill and her sister Margaret. Aunt Olive will be deeply missed by her nieces and nephews Diane Jeffery, Brian Russell, Valerie Folk, Lynne Fulton, Bill VanderBurgh, Clive VanderBurgh, and their respective families. Olive spent most of her working career teaching the joy of choral music to her many students in Etobicoke schools, continuing the outstanding contributions to such teachings by her mother Vera. Olive was a gifted pianist, bringing her renditions of church music, Christmas carols and show tunes to many gatherings including those at Kingsway Retirement Residence.

Throughout her life, Olive brought continuing happiness to her family and others with her constant and very timely letter-writing abilities truly, a vanishing art.

Olive's extended family wishes to thank her family physician Dr. Joe Kozak for the exceptional care he gave to Van and Olive over many years. The family also wishes to thank the caring staff and her many friends at Kingsway Retirement Residence where Olive enjoyed a full and complete life for nearly a decade. Olive will be laid to rest beside her beloved Van in a private service.

RONALD ARTHUR WARR

December 29, 1933 August 12, 2019 After a life well lived and well shared, Ron died peacefully in his 86th year at TGH where he received exemplary care.

Born in Montreal, son of the late John and Evelyn Warr, Ron is survived by his partner in business and life, his soulmate Jill, and his sisters, Pat (Ted), and Cynthia (John, 2012). Cherished uncle of Ian (2009), Janet (Ron), Nancy (Bob, 2018), and Bayly. He will be missed by nephews Gary and Randy and their families.

Ron was also a treasured brother-in-law, friend and uncle to the extended "Carter" Clan. He always said his life was richer for it.

Ron was a serial entrepreneur enjoying several ventures but found his true success as founder of Cotton Ginny, Coconut Joe and many other banners. He forged lifelong friendships, both young and old, that enriched his life. Ron was a mentor to many and, above all, valued his relationships deeply. Ron impacted lives with his guidance, wisdom and eternal optimism.

A heartfelt thanks to Dr.Lorretta Daniel and Connie (Qian) Xu (NP) for their unwavering commitment to his quality of life. During a 60 day stay at 5B Cardiology, his home away from home, Ron was treated with kindness and respect always. Dr. Robert Caravaggio and Dr. Charlie Chan also played a pivotal role in his care. For this we are forever grateful.

Ron's wish would be that you not feel sadness but rather think of a time, meal, stock tip, book, floorplan, business challenge, strategy, phone call, debate, a laugh or conversation you have shared with him. This valiant, good man will be profoundly missed. We are the custodians of his memory. It will take some time for him to get to heaven though - seeing as he does not fly.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the 5th Floor Cardiology Department at Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation would be appreciated by the family.

Please visit tgwhf.ca/tribute or call 416-603-5300.

GWYNETH MENNA WEESE

January 14, 1948 August 9, 2019 It is with great sadness that the family announces the death of Gwyneth "Menna" Weese after a year-long battle with cancer. She passed away on August 9th, at Toronto General Hospital.

She is survived by Bob, her loving husband of 50 years; by her sons, Bryn (Jill) and Dylan (Allison); and her 8-year-old twin grandsons, Kevin and Morgan. Being a grandmother ("Mamgu") was a highlight of her life in recent years - she was always on the lookout for toys or books. She is also survived by family in Wales - cousin Ann, who was like a sister; Ann's husband, Terry; and their children and grandchildren. Menna had close friends in Canada, the U.S., the U.K., and Europe. She will be greatly missed by many.

Menna was born in Carmarthen, South Wales, on January 14, 1948, and raised in Betws, Ammanford.

The only child of Wynford and Margaret Jones, she was a stellar student. She received a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Wales in Aberystwyth, where she and Bob fell in love. She then studied at the prestigious Royal Institution of Great Britain and received her PhD in Chemistry from the University of London.

Menna moved to Canada with Bob in 1972 and enjoyed a successful career as a University lecturer and, later, a senior official in the Saskatchewan, federal, and Ontario governments, mainly in the field of environmental management. In addition to her working life, Menna was very active with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra Volunteer Committee and the residents' association on Baptiste Lake, where she loved spending summers and entertaining at the family cottage.

All who met Menna knew she was a force of nature. Intelligent, capable, confident, lively, and generous, Menna relished social and political debate. A prolific reader, she also loved symphonic music, theatre, and art. In recent years, she and Bob traveled to some of the world's most interesting places.

Menna was very proud of her Welsh roots and returned almost yearly to her hometown. She was fluent in Welsh and loved listening to Welsh singers and choirs.

Cremation has taken place, with a private family service at Turner and Porter's Yorke Chapel in Bloor West Village. A Celebration of Life will be held at The Boulevard Club, 1491 Lakeshore Blvd. W., Toronto, on Monday, September 30, 2 - 5 p.m.

The family wishes to thank all those who cared for and supported Menna through these many difficult months at St. Joseph's, Toronto Western, Princess Margaret, Bridgepoint and Toronto General hospitals. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Canadian Cancer Society or a charity of your choice.

Rest in peace. Tawel orffwys.

NOEL ZELDIN

It is with deep sadness we announce the passing of Noel Zeldin, in his 101st year, Thursday, August 22, 2019. Beloved husband of the late Betty Zeldin.

Loving companion and best friend of Evie Smith. Father and father-in-law of Teri and Ken Brown, Rob and the late Marlene Zeldin, Marilyn Zeldin and the late Lanita Leonard. Grandfather of Darrin, Mia and Michael, David and Sara, Michael and Lindsay, Jamie and Stephanie, Adam and Danielle. Great-grandfather of Max, Noah and Levy Back, Ruby, Hannah, Reid, Carter, Mason, Maddox, Penelope, Margot, and Jack Zeldin. He will be missed by many nieces and nephews.

Thanks to Aurora Pastrana for her care and kindness. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, August 25, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. Interment Beth Sholom Synagogue Section of Mt. Sinai Memorial Park.

Memorial donations may be made to the Betty and Noel Zeldin Endowment Fund c/o The Baycrest Foundation, 416785-2875, http://www.baycrest.orgor to the charity of your choice.

EIKO DIANE MUGFORD DIANE'S

CELEBRATION OF LIFE

Please join us on Saturday, September 14th from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Old Mill Room Brulé A, 21 Old Mill Rd, Toronto, ON, Canada.

After a murder-suicide, a small town searches for missed signs of danger
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Long before Mark Jones killed Ulla Theoret, her son, her mother and himself, his behaviour hinted to the community of Burk's Falls that something bad was brewing. What can this tragedy teach us about domestic violence in rural Canada?
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By MOLLY HAYES
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A10


On her way home from work on Feb. 23, 2018, Julia Conway stopped to pick up a coffee for her boyfriend's grandmother, a gesture that was part of her Friday routine. Unless she gave them a head's up that she had other plans, Paul Theoret's family knew to expect the bubbly 29-year-old after her shift ended.

The house, up a winding drive at the end of a secluded cul-de-sac on the outskirts of Burk's Falls, Ont., was dark and quiet when she arrived. The only sound she could hear as she approached the front door, besides the crunching snow under her feet, was the bark of the family dog, Lily. It was just 7:30 p.m., and Ms. Conway figured everyone must have called it an early night. She'd leave the coffee for "Mummi" on her bedside table, she decided.

First she headed to the basement to quiet the dog.

Down the stairs, she found the white Chihuahua-mix frantically pacing outside the doorway of the bathroom.

Behind the dog, on the floor, lay Paul. At first Julia thought he'd been sick. As she got closer, it registered: He'd been shot. Her boyfriend was dead.

She bolted back upstairs, where she made two more gruesome discoveries. Ulla, Paul's mother, was crumpled on her bedroom floor. And in Mummi's room, 88-year-old Raija Turunen lay still in her bed. They, too, had been shot.

Fending off panic, Ms. Conway, whose cellphone reception was spotty at the rural house, headed to the landline in the kitchen to call 911. There, slumped in a chair, was a fourth body. She could tell it was a man, but his face was unrecognizable from a gun blast. Tethered to the wallmounted house phone, she sat across from him as she waited for help to arrive.

Who was he? "Don't look at him - look at the ground," the 911 dispatcher kept telling her. "Look at the ground."

In the background, the family dog - still at Paul's side in the basement - continued to bark. Ms. Conway felt nauseated. Short of breath. Her head was spinning as she tried to make sense of who would do such a thing. But as the minutes passed, she realized who the man was - she'd seen him sitting in that exact kitchen chair before. It was their neighbour, Mark Jones.

For months, trouble had been brewing on Starratt Road: harassing letters, nasty confrontations, an allegation of sexual assault. Ms. Conway had long known about Mr. Jones's dangerous obsession with Paul's mother.

But she'd never imagined it would come to this.

More than a year later, the tightknit Burk's Falls community is still reeling from the loss.

Police have confirmed the basics of the tragedy: that Mr. Jones murdered the three family members and then shot himself. But because Mr. Jones is dead, there will be no trial, and Ulla Theoret's surviving sons, Thomas, 31, and Hans, 28, have been left with unanswered questions about how this happened and whether there were missed opportunities to prevent the violence.

While the murders stunned the community, located a half-hour's drive north of the Muskoka town of Huntsville, the case itself - a woman being killed by a man she had known and trusted, in her home, where she thought she was safe - is not an uncommon one in Canada. Ulla was among roughly 150 women who were murdered in 2018 - almost all of them by men, according to the Canadian Femicide Observatory for Justice and Accountability.

In cases where a perpetrator was identified and their relationship to the victim was known, roughly 60 per cent were killed by current or former intimate partners, and another 15 per cent were killed by friends or acquaintances. In just more than 10 per cent of cases, the killer also then killed himself.

In Ontario, all intimate-partner homicide cases are reviewed by the chief coroner's office through a Domestic Violence Death Review Committee, in order to make recommendations to prevent future deaths. The committee is still considering whether to review this case because Mark Jones and Ulla Theoret were not, and had never really been, a couple.

After months of trying to access information, the Theoret brothers believe a public inquest could be the only opportunity to examine whether local authorities missed an opportunity to prevent the deaths. They know now that their mother had gone to police six months before she was killed, but the OPP - which wouldn't discuss the case with The Globe and Mail - won't disclose how it handled Ulla's allegations or say whether the service is conducting an internal review.

In the absence of a formal examination, family, friends and neighbours of the victims and Mr. Jones find themselves haunted by their own what-ifs. No one saw the murders coming, but with the benefit of hindsight, many now realize that signs of danger were in clear sight.

It was through her older brother Peter that Ulla Theoret (then Ulla Turunen) first met Mark Jones. The two men, who had both studied together at George Brown College, met at a Halloween party in the 1980s, and though both lived in downtown Toronto, they shared a love of the outdoors.

For years, the two men and their group of friends spent nearly every weekend hunting or fishing in the woods, often at the Turunen family cabin in Burk's Falls.

Peter and Ulla's parents, Olavi and Raija, had purchased the sprawling farm property in Ryerson Township on the outskirts of Burk's Falls in the 1970s. Over the years, they built a new house and a sauna - a nod to their Finnish roots - with help from Peter and his buddies during their weekend trips. At the end of a day labouring away, Raija would have a hearty meal ready. A sign hung in her kitchen: "Today's menu: two options - take it or leave it."

Ulla, by this time a nurse, had married an American and moved to Michigan, where they raised Thomas, Paul and Hans. She returned each summer, bringing the boys up to visit their grandparents. When they reached college age, the boys were drawn back to Canada. Eventually, as the farm became challenging for their aging grandparents to manage, the brothers took turns staying with them in Burk's Falls and helping out.

In 2014, Ulla and her husband Steve followed to take over the caregiving duties. But their marriage was already fizzling, and Steve soon headed back to Michigan. Ulla decided to stay. Though her brother Peter had died years earlier, she was welcomed back by his old hunting buddies, who had become family friends.

One of them, Jouko Ojanpera, now lived in Huntsville.

Another, Armando Cabral, still made regular stops by the family farm. And though he'd drifted from the others, there was also Mark Jones - Jonesy, as they called him.

It was by then almost two decades since Mr. Jones had faded from the friend group. In the early 1990s, the guys had started planning moose-hunting trips near Thunder Bay. But Mr. Jones had diabetes, and didn't always take care of himself. The friends worried about being in the bush with him, far from a hospital. They stopped inviting him along.

Mr. Cabral thinks he was offended. As far as he remembers, that was why Jonesy eventually fell out of touch.

Mr. Ojanpera recalls his friendship with Mr. Jones ending more abruptly. During a duck-hunting trip in 1994, he came out of the bushes to find Mr. Jones - carelessly, not intentionally, he thinks - pointing a 12-gauge shotgun at him. Mr. Ojanpera hit the ground and heard the gun go off three times.

"I started cursing at him, calling him names," he recalls. "If I had been standing, I would've [been dead]. I said, 'I don't ever want to see you again.' " Mr. Jones moved to Barrie, Ont., after that, where he bought a four-plex, living in one unit and renting out the other three. For the most part, he seemed to keep to himself. He was a member of the Barrie Gun Club and a regular at a local machine shop.

Eventually, Mr. Jones began searching for a country home. Though he was initially looking in Barry's Bay, he came upon a property in Burk's Falls-just down the road from his old stomping grounds. He couldn't resist, recalled Gordon Adams, who owned the Barrie machine shop. It was twice the amount of land for half the price.

At a backyard party at the Turunen family property for Ulla's father Olavi's 90th birthday in the summer of 2016, Mr. Ojanpera made his way through the crowd of smiling faces - one of which stopped him in his tracks. There in the yard, sitting in a lawn chair and smoking a cigar, was Mr. Jones.

"He just grinned and said, 'Small world, eh?' " There is a list of 41 "indicators" - red flags - that Ontario's Domestic Violence Death Review Committee look for in each case it reviews.

The number of these indicators that had been present between the victim and the perpetrator during the time leading up to a domestic homicide helps demonstrate, in hindsight, the potential for lethality that existed. In almost three-quarters of cases, the committee says, seven or more risk factors were present.

Although Ulla was not in a relationship with Mark Jones, it appears that numerous risk factors were present between them in the year leading up to the murders: among them, a victim who had an intuitive sense of fear of the perpetrator; obsessive behaviour by the perpetrator; prior threats to commit suicide; sexual jealousy exhibited by the perpetrator; unemployment; access to firearms; and an escalation of violence.

After Ulla moved back to her family's farm, she and Mr.Jones began spending time together. As a new divorcee living with her parents in a town of fewer than 700 people, she welcomed the camaraderie, her friends say.

Her sons supported her desire to start dating. She was social and fun and had spent her entire life taking care of people, as a mother, nurse and daughter. They wanted her to be happy.

But it became evident early on that Ulla did not consider herself and Mr. Jones a match. While they shared some common interests, such as antiquing, their personalities clashed. She was bubbly and outgoing, and lived in colourful leggings and bright tops. Mr. Jones was controlling and told her she should wear turtlenecks.

"I never got a good feeling about him," Hans says, "and that's basically the way I described it to my mom."

During one phone call back in 2015, Thomas says, his mom casually mentioned that Mr. Jones had been leaving unsettling notes in the mailbox. That upset Thomas, who had by this time moved to Taiwan to teach English. It reminded him of a news documentary he'd recently watched about domestic violence.

He warned his mom to be careful and that the whole family could be at risk.

Ulla never mentioned Mr. Jones to him again.

But he was still lingering in their periphery. Mr. Jones was handy and helped the elderly Turunens out around the farm. Raija, in particular, took a liking to him and, despite her daughter's reservations, continued to invite him by to play cards.

Hans was struck by his mother's reaction when Mr.Jones showed up at the house for one such card game in 2016. He was hanging out with her in the basement when they heard Mr. Jones's voice upstairs. His mom's brow furrowed, and she asked Hans to make sure the man didn't come down there. When Hans confronted Mr. Jones upstairs, he asked why Ulla hadn't come up to say hello.

Hans told him to leave.

That was the last time he saw him.

Around town, however, Ulla had trouble avoiding him.

On one occasion in 2017, for example, she and a friend were at the laundromat in Burk's Falls one day when Mr.

Jones showed up. He started ranting and raving, and calling her degrading names. The laundromat's owner recalls how shaken up Ulla was.

A similar confrontation happened at a local gas station, while Ulla was out with a man whom she had briefly dated. She also told that man that Mr. Jones had liked to look at her father's guns in the basement, Thomas later learned, and that he'd "dry shot" at her before with the unloaded gun as a joke.

Others in the small town had also witnessed snippets of Mr. Jones's troubling and threatening behaviour toward Ulla.

Rural communities such as Burk's Falls present distinct risks for women experiencing violence, notes Sharon Davis, a manager at the closest women's shelter to the town, in nearby Parry Sound. On a practical level, poor cell reception and spotty internet access can make it more difficult for a woman to research and connect with support services. Firearms are also more likely to be present in rural communities and households.

And in a small town or community where everyone knows everyone, Ms. Davis says, people can be especially reluctant to raise the alarm when they suspect trouble in a relationship.

In its 2017 report, the Domestic Violence Death Review Committee found that it is not uncommon for friends, family or co-workers to struggle with how to respond to "troubled" relationships, and that in many cases, people around the victim "did not seem to know how to react in a constructive way to prevent further harm."

"People don't want to get caught up in it," Ms. Davis says. "People are really fearful of being wrong."

It was only in the fall of 2017 that those closest to Ulla realized the degree to which things had escalated.

After a grocery-shopping trip in town, Ulla, Raija, Paul and Julia arrived home to find Mr. Jones sitting in their kitchen, alone in the dark. Paul and Julia were taken aback. Ulla told them that she'd deal with it. They left her to speak with him and eventually heard him leave.

Later that year, after Julia noticed that Ulla was taking an unusual amount of time to burn their garbage in a bonfire out back, she came outside to find her crying. She was holding a piece of paper in her hands: another letter, she said, from Mark Jones. He'd been leaving notes in the mailbox again.

Ulla also confided something even more disturbing to Ms. Conway: Mr. Jones had sexually assaulted her. It had happened two years earlier in his car, in the fields behind his house, she told her. He'd forced her to perform oral sex. She thought she was going to die.

Ulla threw the letter into the fire, and asked Ms. Conway to promise she would not tell Paul or his brothers about the assault. She worried about what they might think, or what they might do.

Ms. Conway promised she'd keep quiet.

Other friends were also keeping Ulla's secret. She had told Jouko Ojanpera about the sexual assault months earlier, during a dinner party, back in May, 2017. But to him, too, she added: "Promise me you won't tell the boys."

He agreed he wouldn't, but urged her to report it to police.

"I felt like going to [Mr. Jones's] place and beating the crap out of him," he recalled later. "But we had already had cocktails and a bottle of wine, so I was not going to be stupid. Probably it would've been the right thing to do after all."

It was a complicated time in Ulla's life. Her father, Olavi, was ill (and would die that July). She was also seeing someone new, long distance - a Florida man she'd met at a Finnish banquet in Toronto.

"My life got easier and harder all at the same time," she wrote on Facebook that August.

Two weeks later, she went to Florida to meet up with her new beau. "Feeling happy!" she posted.

Paul Van Dam, a neighbour who lived in the area, recalls the morning when he saw Ulla trudging toward him down the road in her rubber boots.

"I need your advice," she told Mr. Van Dam, before she divulged the details of the assault.

He urged her to go to police. But again, she said she wasn't sure.

"Look," he told her, "you asked for my advice. I'm telling you to report this."

So, standing in Mr. Van Dam's living room on the morning of Sept. 22, she made the call to the local police detachment. Mr. Van Dam then drove her home, so that a detective could come by to meet with her. She went into the station the next day to provide a video statement.

When the officer asked why she was coming forward only now, she said her father had recently died and she didn't feel safe. In his report, the officer described her as "agitated."

Roughly six weeks after this, Ulla popped by Mr. Van Dam's house again. She looked relaxed, he thought. Happy. She thanked him for his help and told her Mr. Jones wasn't bothering her any more. Mr. Van Dam thought that was the end of it.

But a few months later, Mr. Van Dam was checking his mail at the foot of his driveway when Mr. Jones's Subaru whizzed past his house. He caught a glimpse of Ulla in the passenger seat. "I thought to myself, 'I should go talk to her about that,' " he says. "But I never did - that's my big regret."

The month before she died, Ulla - who had been struggling with depression, especially since her divorce - checked herself into the hospital for two weeks. Thomas and Hans described it as a mental breakdown. They had no idea at the time about the sexual assault. By that time, they thought Mr. Jones was long gone.

But they have seen his mother's medical records, and although they are not certain of all that she disclosed to her doctor, there are hints: She mentioned an aggressive neighbour and concern that police were not helping her.

It was a short time before the murders that Joe Lazar, another neighbour on Starratt Road, started to suspect something was wrong with Mark Jones. The two were not close, but they were friendly enough that Mr. Jones would come over for dinner or to watch a sports game now and again.

After the death of Mr. Lazar's dog in mid-February, 2018, he asked Mr. Jones if he would mind bringing over his backhoe to help him bury the animal. In reply, Mr. Jones screamed at him: "How could you let her die?" Mr. Lazar knew he had been fond of the dog, but the reaction was baffling. He confronted Mr. Jones, who told him that he'd been recently diagnosed with dementia.

It made sense. He'd heard that Mr. Jones had recently gotten lost while hunting on his own property, and had to call for help on his walkie-talkie. And once, while Mr. Lazar was helping him with a fencing project, he noticed Mr.Jones becoming uncharacteristically confused.

Mr. Lazar didn't know Ulla at all and knew little about Mr. Jones's relationship with her. Mr. Jones had mentioned years earlier that he was seeing a girl down the road, he recalled - but after he'd ribbed him about it, Mr. Jones had told him curtly that it was over and that he didn't want to talk about her. They never did again.

Around the time he'd revealed his dementia diagnosis to his friend, Mr. Jones - who was 58 at the time and "a bit of a hoarder" - had begun selling off his things, Mr. Lazar says.

He'd had his driver's licence revoked owing to the diagnosis, he said. His own parents had struggled with dementia, he told Mr. Lazar, and he "wasn't going to go out like that."

Mr. Lazar was alarmed. He knew Mr. Jones had a sister, and he made a mental note to ask for her number so he could give her a call - although he didn't follow up. He knew his friend had guns, and he was worried he might hurt himself. It never occurred to him that he might hurt other people.

On Feb. 21, 2018, Hans Theoret drove from the town of Bracebridge, Ont., to take his mother out for a birthday lunch.

When he dropped her off afterward, he debated spending the night, as he often did. But he had to work the next day, so he decided to head back that evening. As he pulled away, he told his mom he loved her.

At some point after that - it's unclear exactly when, although Thomas says investigators believe it was in the early hours of Thurs. Feb. 22 - Mr. Jones came to the house.

He left his car at the foot of the long, curving driveway, and carried both a 12-gauge shotgun and a .40 calibre handgun into the house. He shot Ulla. He shot Paul. He shot Raija.

Then he shot himself.

As soon as Joe Lazar learned of the murders on Starratt Road, he froze. He knew instantly that the killer was Mark Jones.

Armando Cabral, a friend of both Ulla and Mr. Jones, has had a particularly difficult time wrapping his head around the tragedy. He's seen firsthand that murders such as these aren't one-offs.

In 2012, Mr. Cabral's father killed his wife and then himself. Armando Sr. and Leonilde were 74 and 70. They'd been happily married for more than 40 years. But in the months before he murdered his wife, the elder Mr. Cabral had been showing signs of mental illness. He was depressed and said he was hearing voices.

Then, in 2015, Mr. Cabral's partner at work, Halton, Ont., firefighter Trevor McNally killed his wife, Sue NesbittMcNally, and then himself.

"If you said to us that Mark was one day going to go out and murder a bunch of people and commit suicide, we'd be like, 'No. No. Not ever in a hundred years,' " he says. "But people would've said that about my parents, too."

After the crime scene at the Turunen family home was cleaned up, and before the house was listed for sale, Mr. Cabral spent weekends up at the property last summer, helping Hans and Thomas slowly clear out their family's things.

He would catch himself staring off in the kitchen at Raija's cheeky menu sign, thinking back on the many meals he and Mr. Jones had shared there with the family. "We solved the world's problems in that kitchen," he says, shaking his head.

Down the road from the Turunen farm, Mr. Jones's house has sat frozen in time since the massacre. His belongings are still visible through the front windows.

It was only after their family members were killed that Hans and Thomas learned that their mother had reported a sexual assault to the police: Thomas discovered a message she'd sent to a friend on Facebook, after logging onto his mom's account.

They wondered, then, if this tragedy could have been avoided. They wanted to know if police had done enough to protect their mother after she spoke to them and asked the detachment to turn over any evidence they had.

After months of waiting, this past April, the brothers were provided with a video of her interview. Ulla was detailed in her recounting to the officers, Thomas says. She was clearly scared. It was, he adds, devastating to watch.

They've asked for any other documents related to the investigation, but many of their requests were denied on privacy grounds.

"Even though he killed my family, I don't have any right to know anything about him," Thomas says.

They want to know what came of their mother's report.

Was Mr. Jones interviewed? Why was he able to keep his guns after being accused of a violent sexual assault? If a doctor had indeed revoked his driver's licence after his dementia diagnosis, why not his firearms licences as well?

Ironically, Thomas points out, his mother had received a letter from the Chief Firearms Office after her hospitalization in January, 2018, informing her that her firearms licence - which she'd obtained in order to hang on to her father's hunting guns after he died - would require a doctor's sign-off. Firearms licences are supposed to be difficult to obtain in Canada. Thomas argues they should also be difficult to keep.

In response to questions from The Globe, Chief Firearms Officer of Ontario Dwight Peer explained that police reporting policies around firearms-licence holders vary from force to force. But if a licence holder is reported to have sexually assaulted someone, he said that should, when coded correctly, trigger a notification to the CFO.

The CFO can also receive calls from family, friends, neighbours or physicians who have concerns about a firearms-licence holder, he said. These concerns are then followed up on a case-by-case basis. He declined to comment on whether they were notified in this case - or whether any review is being done.

Mr. Lazar recalled that the summer before the murders, Mr. Jones had hauled "two carloads" of firearms and accessories to a gun sale near Orillia, Ont. He said he also had a target range on his property.

The Theorets filed a lawsuit against Mr. Jones's estate last summer, for damages "for the loss of support, care, guidance and companionship sustained by them."

The case continues to churn its way through the courts.

A sister of Mr. Jones, reached by phone, declined to speak with The Globe.

In response to an interview request from The Globe and Mail, the OPP said they cannot comment because they are mentioned (although not named as defendants) in the civil litigation.

"This was a tragic crime and our hearts go out to the families and friends of the murdered victims and the community," spokesperson Carolle Dionne said. "As the matter is before the courts, I am unable to provide further information."

After they sold the family farm, Thomas and Hans bought a house about an hour away, where Hans now lives with Julia Conway and Lily, the dog. Julia is like a sister to them now, the brothers say. She suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder and has not been cleared by her doctor to return to work.

Thomas has since gone back to Taiwan, where he is teaching and working on memoirs about his loss. In the meantime, he and his brother continue to try to get answers.

One morning in March, while Thomas was visiting, the three of them pulled out a box of items they got from the house after the cleaning crew went through. Most of the photos and documents were loose in the box, their picture frames - which had been splattered with blood - removed.

They smile at old glamour shots of Paul, who had modelled for a time - even appearing on the cover of Harlequin romance novels. They finger old photos of themselves as kids, wearing matching outfits, with matching bowl cuts, and playing at the farm while Raija and Olavi look on proudly. They linger over their parents' wedding album and laugh at a more recent shot of their mom, flashing a big smile, with bright pink hair. She'd dyed it spontaneously, just a short time before she died, they said - a classic Ulla thing to do.

"I don't know what would give me closure. I really don't know," Hans says, shaking his head. "I don't want to find out that somebody messed up, or that my mom, you know, could have handled it better or that this guy was just a psycho that went off the rails. There's nothing at this point that could really [make me feel better]. But I want to help somebody in the future ... somehow, maybe, there's a way we can get the word out and help somebody."

There are lessons here, they argue, for victims, for family, for friends, for the general public, for police. There have to be.

With research by Stephanie Chambers

Associated Graphic

Ulla Theoret holds the family dog, Lily, in a family photo.

Ullla, her mother and son were killed in 2018 on the outskirts of Burk's Falls, Ont., in the house built by her parents.

Julia Conway, above left, was the person who discovered Ulla, Raija, Paul and Mark dead at the house in February, 2018. She's struggled with post-traumatic stress disorder ever since, but has also formed a familial bond with Ulla's sons Hans and Thomas Theoret, above right.

PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mark Jones, left, sits alongside Jouko Ojanpera and Armando Cabral on a hunting trip. Mr. Jones became friends with Peter Turunen, Ulla's brother, through a mutual love for the outdoors.

Olavi and Raija Turunen, top, and Paul Theoret.

FAMILY PHOTOS COURTESY OF ARMANDO CABRAL AND THEORET FAMILY

The residents of Burk's Falls, Ont., have struggled to comprehend the tragedy that unfolded on Starratt Road last year.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B14


DE SANTIS

Baby De Santis has arrived! The proud parents, Nicole and Paul De Santis and big brothers, Rocco and Romeo, are delighted to announce the arrival of Rafael Nicholas De Santis on Tuesday, August 6, 2019 at 5:06 p.m. weighing in at 8lbs., 14 oz. and measuring 53 cm.

The grandparents (nonni): Rocco De Santis of Brampton, Russell Horodelski of Brampton and Josie and John Watson of Thornhill, are absolutely thrilled and are joined by the greatgrandmother (bisnonna), Franca Agueci of Bolton; Uncles: John De Santis of Brampton, Rob De Santis of Innisfil, Matthew Racanelli of Thornhill and Andrew Watson of Etobicoke; Aunts: Natasha Racanelli of Thornhill, Heather De Santis of Innisfil and Jessica Watson of Etobicoke; Cousins: Anica and Ridley Watson, Owen Rice, Lucas and Leo De Santis in wishing Rafael a long, healthy and happy life.

We would like to thank the doctors and nurses at St.Joseph's Hospital for their assistance during the delivery process with special thanks to Midwives: Janice, Stefanie and Sepideh of The Midwife Alliance.

MARGARET EVELYN BEARE Ph.D.

December 17, 1946 August 10, 2019 Margaret died peacefully on August 10. She will be forever loved and missed by her devoted daughter Nhai Nguyen-Beare (Ryan Maleganeas) and her Peterborough sisters, Bernadine Dodge (James Driscoll) and Christine Kearsley (Robert Kearsley). Margaret is also survived by her niece Kathleen Burneau (Gus Burneau) of Toronto, and will be mourned by a host of friends around the world.

Prof. Beare was born in Markham, Ontario and raised on a farm near Agincourt, Ontario. She was educated at Guelph University, (B.A. 1968 and M.A. 1971); Cambridge University, England, (Diploma in Criminology 1974) and Columbia University, NY (Doctor of Philosophy, 1987). Her career in transnational police policy and the study of organized crime began with her role as Senior Research Officer in the Office of the Solicitor General, 1982-1993. She joined the faculty of York University in the Sociology Department with a cross appointment to Osgoode Hall Law Faculty in 1995. She was the Founding Director of the Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, and remained a faculty member at York until her death.

Margaret is the author of Criminal Conspiracies: Organized Crime in Canada, and numerous edited and co-authored books, and, articles on money laundering, international policing policy, gang violence, and social justice. Her work involved extensive travel throughout South East Asia and South America. Her consultancy work as a leading authority on criminal activity was on-going up until her last illness.

When Margaret wasn't working, or travelling, or spending time with Nhai, she was listening to Leonard Cohen, throwing dinner parties, walking Harley, the latest of several golden retrievers, or relaxing at her cabin on Chemong Lake.

Margaret's family are most grateful for the tender care and support she has received from her friends and neighbours on Major Street, the wider Harbord Village community, and academic colleagues. A memorial to celebrate her life will take place at a later date.

Cremation has taken place.

DAVID JOHN BEIERSDORFER

Deputy Commissioner RCMP (Ret.)

B.Comm (U of AB) October 3, 1930 S askatoon, SK August 10, 2019 Victoria, BC Dave is survived by his wife Amelia of 65 years, daughters Debora of Jasper, Sandra (James Agnel) of Victoria, and sons Robert (Lori Stewart) of Ottawa and William (Carolyn Campeau) of Ottawa. He will be missed by his grandchildren: Michael, Scott, and Shae Lynn of Ottawa, Daniella (Adam Huber) of Kamsack Sask, Thomas and Elizabeth of Ottawa, and Samuel Agnel of Victoria and many nieces and nephews. He leaves behind two sisters Hilda (George Schoepp) of Stony Plain AB and Betty (Dr. Graham Gall) of Davis California.

Dave's early education was completed at Nutana Collegiate Institute in 1948 and he was selected as valedictorian for his graduating class. He became a member of the RCMP on Jan. 11, 1949 and served until January 10, 1984 (35 years). In 1956, he was selected by the RCMP to attend the University of Alberta and in 1959 was awarded his Bachelor of Commerce Degree, with first class standing marks, and multiple achievements of excellence awards. Over his career he was posted in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia. In 1963, he was commissioned as Sub Inspector and transferred to Victoria BC. While in Victoria he had the privilege of serving Maj/General GM Pearkes VC, Lt/ Gov of BC as a Honourary Aide de Campe for 5 years. He was transferred to Ottawa a second time in 1970 where he served as A/Director of Services and Supply, Director of Services and Supply, Director of Organization and Personnel and Deputy Commissioner Administration. As the Senior D/Commissioner he served as acting Commissioner in the absence of the Commissioner.

He served on Inter Departmental Committees and from 1974-1984 he was a member of the Advisory Committee to the Gov. General for the Canadian Bravery Awards. He is a lifetime member of the Victoria RCMP Veterans Association.

Dave was devoted to his family, church and public service. He strove to improve the quality and nature of the RCMP, and improve the working conditions of the members. Dave was very proud of his home and was an avid gardener in View Royal on Portage Inlet. He was well known with friends and neighbors for his generosity of supplying tomatoes from his 150 tomato plants that he grew annually. In early retirement years he enjoyed daily early morning coffee with his friends at McDonalds, commiserating over politics and world events. Most recently he was proud to receive a multi-generational pin for 3 generations of family service in the RCMP (Dave, William, Daniella).

The Beiersdorfer family would like to extend their gratitude to the staff and management at Highgate Lodge. The generous supportive care given Dave and the family is greatly appreciated.

Funeral Services will be held on Friday, August 16th at the Lutheran Church of the Cross 3787 Cedar Hill Rd. Victoria, BC. At 1:00 p.m. Reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, you may make a contribution to the Hospice Society.

WILLIAM BIDELL "Bill"

November 29, 1925 August 7, 2019 It is with great sadness that the family announces the peaceful passing of Bill Bidell in his 94th year at Bridgepoint Healthcare.

Born in Winnipeg, Bill was predeceased by his beloved wife Nell (2008) and his parents, Nicholas (1990) and Nellie (1998) Bidulka. He was the cherished father of Joan, Kathy (Kimball), and Stephen (Cheryl), and loving grandfather of Hannah and Nicholas.

Bill lived a full and wonderful life, engaging in many endeavors beginning with military service in the Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps from 1944-1946, followed by a distinguished career in the Ontario public service as a Civil Engineer, ultimately serving as Assistant Deputy Minister in both Ministries of Transportation and Environment.

Bill was a gifted violinist, beginning his studies at age eight.

He went on to perform with the Chamber Players of Toronto, the North York Symphony, the Scarborough Philharmonic Orchestra, the Tampa Bay Symphony Orchestra, and the Trinity Chamber Ensemble.

Bill also programmed chamber music for the TCE and his own chamber group. He also formed the Bidell String Quartet with members of his immediate family.

Bill was also a golfer, sailor, skier, and curler. He enjoyed travel throughout the world with Nell, winters with family in Safety Harbor, FL, and summers spent in Muskoka.

The family would like to extend their sincere thanks to Dr. Jeff Myers and the entire palliative team at Bridgepoint Healthcare, the doctors and nurses at North York General Hospital, and to Dr.

Claire Nunes-Vaz and all the caring staff at Amica Bayview Gardens.

Cremation has taken place.

A Celebration of Life will be held in the Fall. In lieu of flowers, donations to The Council of Canadians, WWF-Canada, or a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

DOROTHY FAYE BOEHMER

February 20, 1934 Tuesday, August 6, 2019 Dorothy Faye Boehmer, 85, of Aurora, Ontario passed away peacefully on Tuesday, August 6, 2019.

She is survived by her loving husband of 65 years, James William Boehmer and her children, Mark (Lorrie), Stephen (Jane) and Kimberly (Neil Hindle).

She was a loving sister to Miriam Feaster and a beloved Grandmother to Karyn (Adam Sarginson), Geoffrey, William, Courtney (Bobby Caughey), Jonathan (Ashley), Andrew, Nicholas, Kate, Matthew, Spencer, and GreatGrandmother to Reese.

The family acknowledges with heartfelt thanks the caregivers and nursing staff of Sunrise, Aurora. A Celebration of Life will be held at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home, 8911 Woodbine Ave., Markham.

Date and time to be determined. Online condolences can be made at chapelridgefh.com.

EDUARDO CAVALCANTE

Eduardo Cavalcante, beloved father, brother, uncle and friend, passed away peacefully at the Trillium Health Centre on the evening of Wednesday, August 7, 2019 at the age of 74. He found joy and comfort in the simple pleasures of life, and was nurtured by his lifelong love for History, Geography, Mathematics and Science.

He will be deeply missed by family and friends, and will be remembered for his passion for storytelling. Eduardo is survived by his two daughters, Elisabeth and Annelise.

DANIEL GABRIEL FOY

April 13, 1994 Passed away suddenly in Toronto.

Dearly loved and cherished son of Christine and Larry. Beloved brother of Kevin. Predeceased by his grandparents Raymond and Ruth Domleo and Fred and Glenna Foy. Also predeceased by his uncle David Domleo (Karen). Loved nephew of Debra Hopkins (Paul), Catherine Schryer (Franz), Ted Foy (Peggy), Mary Clare Argiropoulos (Constantine), Brian Foy (Colleen), Eileen Foy, Elizabeth Foy and Margaret Foy.

Dan will be fondly remembered by his many cousins.

Daniel was engaging, charming and witty. He sought challenges.

Dan was an intense friend, a passionate chef and an excellent sailor and snowboarder. He bonded closely with his canine and feline companions.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., on Saturday, August 17, 2019 from 1 p.m. until time of the Chapel Service at 3 p.m. Cremation has taken place. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery at a later date.

As an expression of sympathy donations to CAMH, The George Hull Centre or Jack.org would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca Goodbye Dan - we'll always love you.

SUE GREENSMITH

Sue Greensmith, teacher, world traveler, author died on August 9, 2019 aged 75 after a long illness that she fought to the end.

Sue was born in the small industrial town of Leigh, Lancashire, England.

After marrying Pete in 1967 they moved to Switzerland. Two years later in 1969 they emigrated to Canada. She charmed the clients of a stockbroker and glamorized the reception area, before finding her true vocation as a teacher. Her fondest experience was teaching French at the Joseph Howe Senior Public school.

Sue and Pete traveled the world together and of the many countries they visited, her most enjoyable experience was seeing the wild animals while on safari in Africa. Sue was a strong and highly intuitive person. Pete may have planned and organised but Sue triggered the final decisions, such as going to Canada jobless and buying properties at home and abroad.

Sue became an author in 2015 with her first book, 'The Adventures of Kikera and Sol', loved by both adults and kids. Her second book 'Sark' will be published shortly.

Sue will be deeply missed by her loving husband Pete, her devoted daughter Jackie and husband Jason, son Paul and wife Nancy, grandson Dylan, brother Stuart and family. Her very close friends will also sorely miss her: Jan, Janet, Leila and Howard, Pat and Bob, Sandy, Dave, Chris, Christine, Ron and Janice.

We will all miss her wonderful vibrant intelligence, wry humour, "joie de vivre" and her love of a good argument over a rum and coke. She will leave a big gap in all our lives. All our love to an exceptional human being who loved life and had no regrets.

Her favourite charity was Doctors Without Borders. The funeral ceremony will be at The Chapel of St. James Cemetery, 635 Parliament St. at 1.00pm on August 14, 2019.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019 We grieve the loss of Tony Houghton. Tony passed suddenly at his home in Kingston on August 8, 2019. He leaves behind his beloved wife Dianne, his daughters Sylvie, Stephanie, Catto and Sarah, his grandchildren Veronika, Sienna and Oliver, and his brother Hector.

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

A Celebration of Life will be held Thursday, August 15th at The Kingston Yacht Club from 3 - 6 p.m.

DONALD HILARY KAYE

Donald Hilary Kaye passed away peacefully at home on Friday, August 9, 2019. Loving husband of Mary (nee Booth) for 40 years. Son of Augustine Kazimir Kaye, and brother to Rosalie Almond and Bernadette Kaye.

Predeceased by his mother, Mary Frances (Kavanaugh) and his brothers, Lester and Gordon.

A graveside service will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27th at Highland Memory Gardens, 33 Memory Gardens Lane, Willowdale. Memorial donations may be made to Epilepsy Canada.

JENNIFER KHAYAT

Surrounded by family and friends, Jennifer, affectionately known as Vievers, age 43, passed away on August 12, 2019. She will be forever missed as the beloved friend (37 yrs) and wife (14 yrs) of Wiz and supermom to her 'habibis': Kaiden (age 10), Cole (age 7) and Cooper (age 4). Being a mom is her greatest joy in life.

Jen is remembered as the heart and soul of her family and friends. Jennifer is the beloved daughter of Linda and David Dean, granddaughter to Mildred Cope, sister to Jeff (Caitlin) and John (Cynthia) and as aunt to Max, Sophia and Hadley. Daughterin-law to Huda and Jan Khayat, sister-in-law to Rasha (Aldo) Angel and Eva (Luke) Kyleman and aunt to Madeleine and Naomi Angel and Sahara, Victoria and Jackson Kyleman. Jen is the adored niece of Craig (Wendy), Karin (Mike), Laury (Wendy) and Paula (Steve).

Family and friends mattered the most to Jen. Jen dedicated her entire career to social work, the vast majority at the Children Aids Society of Toronto.

Jen lived by the motto of "Celebrate Everything", and she did with enthusiasm.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 2:00 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, August 14th. A Funeral Mass to celebrate the life of Jennifer will be held at St. Bonaventure Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, M3C 2K9 on Thursday, August 15th at 11:00 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Community Share Food Bank at 33 Overland Drive in Don Mills would be appreciated, or reach out to the family for directing funds to the Masibambisane Children Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa where Jen volunteered. Condolences may be forwarded through w w w. h u m p h r e y m i l e s . c o m .

Celebrate Everything

HENRY LISS

On Monday, August 12, 2019 in his 94th year. Surrounded by his family. Devoted husband for 62 years of the late Burtha Liss and beloved companion for 6 years of Harriet Wolman. Loving father and father-in-law of Alan Liss, Mark and Sharon London Liss, and Howard and Susan Sack Liss.

Greatly missed by his grandchildren David, Andrew, Lana, Charles, Josh, Michael, and Leah. Predeceased by his brother and sister-in-law Irving and Estelle Liss.

We would like to thank the staff at Mount Sinai Hospital for their extraordinary and compassionate care. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, August 14, 2019 at10:00 a.m. Interment Holy Blossom Memorial Park. Memorial donations will be gratefully acknowledged at Reena Foundation Liss Family Endowment Fund, 905-763-8254 ext 3630, or to Henry E. Liss Memorial Fund c/o Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation, 416-586-8203.

STEPHEN JOSEPH O'ROURKE MD, FRCP(C)

Just shy of his 94th birthday, Steve died peacefully on August 11, 2019 surrounded by family in the Palliative Care Unit at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Steve is mourned by the love of his life, "Breid" (Brigid Conlon of Belfast), children , William (Janice), Patrick (Theresa), John (Catherine), Kit (Randall), grandchildren, Patrick (Kelly), Liam (Jackie), Sean, Caitlin, Eamonn, Rosie, Maggie, Eden, Austin, Ella, Maddie, greatgrandchildren, Tiernan and Maeve and many nieces, nephews and cousins around the world.

Born on a farm in Bruff, Co.

Limerick, Ireland, Steve graduated medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in 1949. As a Captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps he served in the Korean War and later in Fort Churchill, MB. He then joined the Department of Anaesthesia at St.

Mike's in Toronto where he gave anaesthetics for more than four decades, was a highly respected teacher and mentor to countless medical students and residents, pioneered spinal anaesthesia and was instrumental in advancing obstetrical epidurals.

A life-long horse racing fan, Steve rarely missed attending The Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate. Steve and Breid were founding members of St.

Bonaventure's Parish. They loved to entertain and hosted many celebrations throughout the years. Their endless hospitality and fun-loving nature warmed many hearts.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 1:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 15th. A Funeral Mass will be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, on Friday, August 16th at 10:30 a.m. If desired, donations to St.

Michael's Hospital Foundation, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, http://www.stmichaelshospital.com, would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

PATRICIA ANNE PHIN

Patricia Anne Phin, nee Oliver, passed suddenly and peacefully on August 10, 2019, in her home at Eastbourne, at the age of 83.

Mom was the loving wife of Mike Phin (passed September 2004) and a dedicated and always present mother to Heather Roberts (Johnmark), Vicki Boukydis (Andy), James Phin (Jennine), Susan Young (Eric), Thomas Phin (Sharon).

Dear sister to Susan Nixon and devoted grandmother to Marc, Michelle, Laura (Matt), Sarah, Christopher (Megan), Matthew (Laura), Katie, Andrew, Evan, Patricia, Nikki, Michael and Emily. She was also a wonderful greatgrandmother to Garrison.

A celebration of mom's life will be held at Rosedale Presbyterian Church 129 Mount Pleasant Rd., Toronto M4W 1R5, Friday, August 16th at 11 a.m. In lieu of flowers or donations, please consider being kind to someone who looks like they need it.

BISHOP JOHN MICHAEL SHERLOCK

On Monday, August 12, 2019, the Most Reverend John Michael Sherlock, DD, ninth Bishop of London, entered eternal life at the age of 93.

Bishop John Sherlock was born in 1926, ordained to the priesthood in 1950, ordained to the episcopacy in 1974, and installed as the ninth Bishop of the Diocese of London in 1978. When he became a Bishop, he chose Omnia et in omnibus Christus as his episcopal motto: "There is only Christ: he is everything and he is in everything" (Col. 3: 11). These words guided him throughout his episcopacy and until his last hour.

Bishop Sherlock was a deeply spiritual man with a keen intelligence, a natural ability to lead, and a joyful sense of humour. A tireless and forward-thinking Bishop, he made important contributions in Catholic education, health care, social justice, pastoral care, and the implementation of changes resulting from the Second Vatican Council. His influence reached across not only the Diocese but across Ontario and Canada. Among his many accomplishments was his organizing the 1984 papal visit to Canada, which led to a longlasting friendship with Pope Saint John Paul II. Bishop Sherlock retired in 2002.

Bishop Sherlock was preceded in death by his parents, Joseph and Catherine (O'Brien); his siblings, Fr. William, James, Fr.Phillip, and Mary (William) Dool.

He is survived by his siblings, Gerald (Bernice), Eleanor (Edward) Monahan, Allan (Anne-Marie), and Catherine Sherlock; along with many nephews and nieces, and great-nieces and -nephews.

Visitation will be at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica, 196 Dufferin Avenue, London, on Thursday, August 15, 2019, from 1 p.m. until 9 p.m. Vigil Prayers will be at 8:00 p.m. Visitation will continue the following morning, Friday, August 16, 2019 from 9 a.m. until the time of the Funeral Mass at 11 a.m.

The Funeral Mass will be on Friday, August 16, 2019, at 11 a.m.

at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica.

Burial will be at St. Peter's Cemetery in London.

Arrangements made by John T.Donohue Funeral Home, London.

GWYNETH MENNA WEESE

January 14, 1948 August 9, 2019 It is with great sadness that the family announces the death of Gwyneth "Menna" Weese after a year-long battle with cancer. She passed away on August 9th, at Toronto General Hospital.

She is survived by Bob, her loving husband of 50 years; by her sons, Bryn (Jill) and Dylan (Allison); and her 8-year-old twin grandsons, Kevin and Morgan. Being a grandmother ("Mamgu") was a highlight of her life in recent years - she was always on the lookout for toys or books. She is also survived by family in Wales - cousin Ann, who was like a sister; Ann's husband, Terry; and their children and grandchildren. Menna had close friends in Canada, the U.S., the U.K., and Europe. She will be greatly missed by many.

Menna was born in Carmarthen, South Wales, on January 14, 1948, and raised in Betws, Ammanford.

The only child of Wynford and Margaret Jones, she was a stellar student. She received a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Wales in Aberystwyth, where she and Bob fell in love. She then studied at the prestigious Royal Institution of Great Britain and received her PhD in Chemistry from the University of London.

Menna moved to Canada with Bob in 1972 and enjoyed a successful career as a University lecturer and, later, a senior official in the Saskatchewan, federal, and Ontario governments, mainly in the field of environmental management. In addition to her working life, Menna was very active with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra Volunteer Committee and the residents' association on Baptiste Lake, where she loved spending summers and entertaining at the family cottage.

All who met Menna knew she was a force of nature. Intelligent, capable, confident, lively, and generous, Menna relished social and political debate. A prolific reader, she also loved symphonic music, theatre, and art. In recent years, she and Bob traveled to some of the world's most interesting places.

Menna was very proud of her Welsh roots and returned almost yearly to her hometown. She was fluent in Welsh and loved listening to Welsh singers and choirs.

Cremation has taken place, with a private family service at Turner and Porter's Yorke Chapel in Bloor West Village. A Celebration of Life will be held at The Boulevard Club, 1491 Lakeshore Blvd. W., Toronto, on Monday, September 30, 2 - 5 p.m.

The family wishes to thank all those who cared for and supported Menna through these many difficult months at St. Joseph's, Toronto Western, Princess Margaret, Bridgepoint and Toronto General hospitals. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Canadian Cancer Society or a charity of your choice.

Rest in peace. Tawel orffwys.

PENELOPE HOPE WHITE

On the morning of August 8, 2019, Penny White passed away peacefully surrounded by her family at Campbell House Hospice. Penny was the only child of Garland and Ruth Pidgeon of Chatham, Ontario. Having only one child, she was the centre of their universe. The resulting Chrysalis turned into a lovely Monarch butterfly - the woman we know and love who had the most wonderful smile, and personality to match. Who will forget her homemade birthday cakes, her various hairstyles, her jazzy earrings, her zinger oneliners, the sparkle in her eyes?

She will be most remembered for her generosity, always putting the needs of others before herself.

Penny is survived by her husband, Peter; her children, Peter (Kathleen Meek) and Stephanie (Ryan Sorby); and her much loved grandchildren, Gwyneth White, and Thea and Luke Sorby. Penny had a special connection with young people who gravitated to her, and this was most evident with her grandchildren, with whom she enjoyed a particularly strong bond.

In 1960, Penny moved from the cloistered halls of The Pines in Chatham to London, Ontario, where she took the University of Western Ontario by storm.

Penny came into her own at Western and created a number of friendships that lasted a lifetime.

By the time she graduated, Penny had become a Sister of Phi Beta Phi, a graduate with an Honours BA in History, and an active and well-regarded member of the University Council. To top it all off, Penny was selected from a field of achieving competitors as the Queen of the Arts and Science Ball.

Penny and Peter married in 1967 and made their home in Chaplin Estates. Penny taught history at Sir Sanford Fleming High School and was active at Oriole Park Public School, becoming the President of the Parents Association. She led an active life, playing tennis, skiing, running and kibitzing with various gym groups. Penny became a wellregarded hostess among a group of like-minded friends. These were the "happiest" of times for the White Family who developed many longstanding friendships during their tenure there.

In 2004, Peter and Penny joined the migration to Collingwood where a large number of their friends were moving. A big change from the urban setting to an outdoor paradise. Golf, ski hills and fishing 20 minutes away. New friends to meet. New activities to undertake. For almost 20 years all of this was inspiring and fun.

Then in the blink of an eye this all changed dramatically. In 2017, a routine medical revealed metastatic breast cancer. Penny was an exemplary patient. She never complained and injected humour wherever she could to lessen the strain on those around her. The hordes of friends that made themselves available to drive her to appointments or just share a laugh speaks to the deep connection she made with all those around her.

May you rest in peace my sweet, and perhaps save a smile for us.

Please join us to celebrate Penny's life on Thursday, September 26th from 11 a.m. - 2 p.m. at Bear Estate, 300 Balsam Street, Collingwood Ont, L9Y 0B3.

In lieu of gifts, a donation in Penny's name could be made to Hospice Georgian Triangle.

H. PETER LANGER

March 25, 1916 August 14, 2009 In memory of our beloved father and grandfather who left us ten years ago. Always remembered by children, Ann, Peter (Linda) and Paul, grandchildren, Demian (Sue), Samantha, Jennifer and Graham, and great-granddaughter, Aurora.

Can art help extinguish a world on fire?
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R6


From Bluffs Park on Galiano Island, you can watch the ferries chug through the Active Pass, making their way between Galiano and Mayne Island. It's the kind of view that takes away whatever breath you have left after the climb, that makes you fall head over heels in love with the land. How lucky we are to be here, to live in this part of the world, the author Michael Christie and I said to each other on a fine June afternoon.

But in time, the conversation turned a little darker.

"These were alive, both of these," Christie said, as we paused at two red cedars on his driveway. They weren't any more. Then, a little further up, we encountered a tangled mass of trunk and dry, leafless branches - no longer standing but lying down, as if having surrendered. "Sorry, tree," he said.

Galiano is about an hour-long ferry ride from Vancouver, and it's where Christie started building a house for his family in 2013.

Clearing the driveway required a first for him: cutting down a tree. He borrowed a chainsaw, YouTubed some videos and got to work. When he was done and saw the tree's growth rings in that stump, "it hit me that I was looking at time, at a map, a record of history, that began before I was born."

The seed had been planted for Greenwood, Christie's new novel, and the reason for my visit. Unlike most of the author interviews I do, this one focused a lot less on the literature and a lot more on the issue that has become what I would term a justified obsession.

As Greenwood opens, it is 2038, 10 years after the Great Withering - a wave of fungal blights and insect infestations that take down the world's forests, triggering economic collapse and social chaos. A small island off the west coast of British Columbia is one of the few remaining places in the world where trees still exist. But then, some of those start showing signs of distress.

Reading an advance copy of the book this spring, a realization sliced into me as I did the math: My son will turn 20 in 2028.

From 20 to 30, the decade during which I was getting an education and backpacking through Europe and falling in love and starting a career, he would be fighting for food and air in Christie's eerily real-feeling future.

As the book moves back further and further in time, I paid particular attention to the 2008 section, where one character, Willow, works to "halt the ongoing genocide of the great heritage forests of the Pacific Northwest." Continuing genocide.

"I think there should be a new word for climate-related despair," Christie, whose children are now 10 and 6, told me in the airy, wooden home that he built. "Because I feel it more and more. I read books to my kids about animals that may not exist by the time they're 25."

I, too, have grown increasingly freaked out about the kind of world we are making and leaving for our children. It is this - my justified obsession - that has taken me, over the past few months, to Galiano and many other places, both geographic and psychic.

Last year, I was standing in my kitchen one morning listening to the news and it felt like the opening scene for a dystopian film: California was burning; B.C. was recovering from the worst wildfire season on record; a federal party leader (fringe, but still) was questioning the science of climate change; the most powerful politician on the planet was making inarticulate, imbecilic remarks. And still, I made pancakes. Just another day on Earth.

Despite the urgency of climate change - the climate crisis - it feels like humanity is dragging its feet. I am increasingly astonished at the lack of engagement on this issue. I also feel powerless. Sure, I carry around my reusable coffee mug, I discourage my son from using straws and I recycle and compost like it's nobody's business ("saving the planet, one toilet paper roll at a time" is my standard line). But what kind of difference, really, can I make?

I was voicing my feelings of helplessness to a friend when he pointed out that I write for a living.

Yes, but about the arts, I said. Go look around, he suggested.

I did. And what I found was encouraging - and terrifying.

The science is irrefutable: The world as we know it is rapidly transforming because of human activity. Last October, a staggering United Nations report explained that we have 12 years to reverse things or we are in for a climate catastrophe, with a significantly higher risk of droughts, floods, extreme heat and mass poverty. (A more recent estimate by one of the world's authorities on climate change suggests we have 18 months to turn things around.) Another landmark UN report out in May said that one million plant and animal species are on the verge of extinction. And a new UN report out this month tells us the world's food supply is at risk.

Want to feel panic on a regular basis? Set a Google Alert for "climate change."

("Flesh-eating bacteria cases rising due to climate change, doctors say.") When my friend told me to go look around, I found more than facts. I found art. Works of art examining this issue on a deep and meaningful level that may have the power to change minds and provoke action. And so I wondered: After all the information we have received from scientists and all the warnings from politicians (well, some of them), is it possible that it will be the artists who can save us? If the science hasn't registered, if the economics haven't resonated - both of which have been laid out in chilling clarity - maybe the arts can be the planet's white knight.

I think about being a teenager and being absolutely fixated on nuclear war - a terror that came to me not by reading the newspaper, but in large part via contemporary works of art: the films Testament and The Day After; John Wyndham's novel The Chrysalids; the atomic bomb-themed second track of U2's War album, Seconds ("it takes a second to say goodbye").

For all of their cringey faults, Band Aid and Live Aid made me aware of the famine in Ethiopia, and Sun City woke me up to the apartheid issue in South Africa. "That is fiction and drama's power, is it can make ideas visceral and emotional," Christie says. Feelings, not facts, drive people to act.

Or, as Jeff Bridges put it when I spoke to him about this, "Artists, man. They have tremendous things to kick in as far as the health of our planet. God, absolutely. From music to paintings to movies - everything."

It was a work of art that first set off my own personal alarm bells.

I picked up Omar El Akkad's novel American War in 2017 and was presented with a near-future in which planetary devastation has sent Americans to war with each other.

The world the novel depicts is a hellish one - and the trajectory from here to there felt very possible to me.

There's a scene early on, in 2075, when six-year-old Sarat, who lives in Louisiana, finds in the remains of a fishing net a soggy old book called The Changing Earth - filled with maps of the world, past and present. "The new maps looked like the old ones, but with the edges of the land shaved off - whole islands gone, coastlines retreating into their continents."

Beaches disappear, climate refugees - "the coastal displaced" are forced to haul their families and whatever possessions they can into the centre of the continent.

This description haunted me, even this summer as I drove past monster houses in Richmond, B.C., on a flat road separated from the Fraser River by only a grassy dyke that can be conquered in a few human steps.

Then I watched as Shepard Fairey - best known as the creator of the iconic Obama "Hope" poster - erected a 20-storey mural Earth Justice on a downtown Vancouver office building. The work - Fairey's tallest - depicts the planet as the centre of a flower, being cradled by human hands.

"Art can break through predispositions and not just preach to the choir," Fairey told me, saying he considers what he does a mixture of sugar and medicine.

I thought about the masses this mural is now preaching to, a few blocks east of Stanley Park, on a main thoroughfare where countless cars emerge from the rainforest refuge and bunch up in traffic on their way into the city.

In a giant shopping mall in Burnaby, I sought out five colourful, life-size sculptures of at-risk Canadian wildlife - made by Ocean Sole in Kenya from more than 6,500 upcycled flip-flops. It did not make me want to buy shoes.

Online, I discovered Canadian artist Benjamin Von Wong's spectacular pro-

jects, such as Mermaids Hate Plastic, for which he photographed a model dressed as a mermaid against a sea of 10,000 used plastic bottles.

"The work is a paradox," the Torontoborn, Montreal-raised artist told me from San Francisco, his current home base.

"It's really beautiful, but it's also really tragic."

There's a question Von Wong asks in one of his behind-the-scenes videos, which are as vital to his artistic practice as the photographs themselves: "How do you get people to talk about something that is ordinary, ugly and boring?" It was a perfect Cape Cod beach day, but for the assembled brainiacs I found myself with in Provincetown, Mass., nothing was more pressing than what was happening in a windowless conference room, underneath a discreet disco ball. It was not ordinary or boring, and while many beautiful works of art were referenced, the subject matter was indeed ugly. These people were there to blue-sky about averting the end of the world.

The weekend conference, Broto: Art, Science & Collaboration, was organized by Ian Edwards, a Canadian journalist turned sustainability strategist who was born and raised in Vancouver and now lives in Provincetown - a town whose fate, if things go unchecked, is to slowly be reclaimed by rising ocean water. (It was at one point in its history a Portuguese fishing colony; Broto means "sprout" in Portuguese.)

Edwards's hope is to make Broto "the Davos of climate change," he likes to say, referring to the annual World Economic Forum.

One thing that stood out for me that Michael Christie weekend was a proposal - purposely provocative, I think - issued by a panellist.

"I'm feeling a little combative," said Lance Gharavi, assistant director of the school of film, dance and theatre at Arizona State University.

While individual works of art, "however genius," may have value, he said, they won't do the trick. "What we need is for all art to be about climate change," he pronounced.

Picking up on that, Craig Altemose, executive director of the Better Future Project, told us about a church official he knows who had advised his ministers that every third sermon they give should be about climate change. Because if they don't, he said, in 30 years, every single sermon will be about grief.

"I think we are at a point in human history where in 30 years, every piece of art will be about climate change," Altemose said. "Because our entire world is going to be so dramatically transformed."

Broto isn't the only gathering of its kind; artists have been meeting all over the world, often with scientists, to consider their role in the current crisis.

"Can the arts solve climate change?" asked the invitation to a meeting of cultural leaders in Montreal in April. That event was co-organized by David Maggs, artistic director of Gros Morne Summer Music, which this week played host to a three-day "extravaganza of thinking about art, social impact and sustainability."

In April, Canadian theatre-makers from across the country gathered at the Banff Centre for Arts and Creativity for a summit to launch the National Arts Centre's Climate Change: reimagining the Footprint of Canadian Theatre. Co-led by Sarah Garton Stanley and Chantal Bilodeau, it is looking at how theatre practices affect the planet and how changing climate affects the theatre being made.

Bilodeau, who is from Montreal and lives in New York, also runs the Arctic Cycle, which uses theatre to foster dialogue about the climate crisis.

"The idea that what the arts are supposed to do is either teach us more about the climate or make us feel worse about the climate is so bananas," Maggs told me in Vancouver, where he lived until recently, doing his PhD and a postdoctoral in sustainability studies at the University of British Columbia. (Born in Newfoundland, he is now at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy.)

The art has to be more than just utilitarian, he said. Commissioning plays that encourage carpooling or songs about depleting salmon stocks won't cut it.

"The prescriptive agenda is poison to an art-making process and it usually just is really embarrassing for everybody that's involved," he said. "It produces bad art and it produces ineffective art.

"So how are we going to take this moment to do it well?" In a 2005 article titled "What the warming world needs now is art, sweet art," Bill McKibben, founder of 350.org and one of the leading voices on climate change, wrote: "Where are the books? The poems?

The plays? The goddamn operas?" Well, they're here. More and more, we are seeing art that engages with this issue.

Since McKibben's appeal, Avatar and Wall-E became box office blockbusters.

We're watching Our Planet on Netflix and Good Omens on Amazon Prime Video. Rapper Lil Dicky's celebrity-studded song Earth has more than 174 million views (the clean version an additional 26 million plus).

My kid knows all the words.

And yes, there are goddamn operas, including Auksalaq by Alaskan composer Matthew Burtner, which premiered simultaneously in 2012 in various cities around the world including Montreal. More recently, composer Stuart MacRae's opera Anthropocene premiered in Scotland in January.

You'll find works of art about climate change this summer at the exhibitions Fast Forward at the Confederation Centre of the Arts in Charlottetown, and Open Channels, at the Ajagemo art space in Ottawa.

Still, a survey of most mainstream art suggests we live in a world that is not facing imminent catastrophe. If the arts holds a mirror up to us, as a civilization, it is more than a bit unsettling to find only the faintest reflection of the frightening reality that looms.

That's not to say that art doesn't have a role as respite.

Give me Russian Doll any day; bingewatching that was a lot more fun than rewatching Anthropocene: The Human Epoch this summer.

But Anthropocene is exactly the kind of art we need right now.

A visually spectacular, non-preachy documentary about the impact humans have had on the planet (spoiler alert: very negative), it stunned me on both viewings.

The piles of tusks, representing thousands of murdered elephants, moved me to tears.

"This is not a Debbie Downer moment," Cindy Pease Roe, who makes sculptures with marine debris cleared from beaches, told me at Broto.

"It's a Debbie Downer topic, but I am using my art to teach people about a very difficult subject."

I have to respectfully disagree. This is as Debbie Downer as it gets. (Or, to use a term my editor coined about this project, it's a Marshapocalypse.) As Jay Critchley, another artist who makes work about the environment, put it to me in Provincetown: "The time to stick something on a white wall and look at it is over."

I'm a rule-follower by nature, but when it comes to this, I am all for an element of protest and dissent. And I think shocking people into action with a depiction of devastation - real or imagined - is called for.

One Arctic Cycle initiative, Climate Change Theatre Action, commissions 50 professional playwrights to write five-minute plays. For CCTA 2019, Vancouver's Neworld Theatre's artistic director Marcus Youssef submitted a script for Dust.

It's 2119, after a climate catastrophe. The funeral industry and Silicon Valley engineers discover that burning human bodies can produce high energy yields. So they go for it. But after they burn through the billions of bodies lost in the environmental calamity, they need more. So farms are constructed where humans are bred for this purpose, kept in small pens, with hands, feet and teeth removed. "It's dystopian satire," Youssef says.

Now that's a play I would watch.

I see the pitfalls of art that is only doom and gloom, but, for me, exposure to a terrifying fictional future has been the most affecting experience. Being able to see a version of myself (or my child) in the characters has a profound effect, as in American War and Greenwood - and, even more brutally, on the TV show Years and Years.

The family drama set in the very near future is more about political despotism than climate change, but there are casual references to the disappearance of butterflies and the melting of the North Pole. The characters who occupy this world are not buzzing around in flying cars or wearing silver jumpsuits; they dress like us and have jobs like ours and live like us - until they can't anymore.

It's easy to dismiss celebrities as not-the-experts on climate change. But you can't argue with the megaphone that comes with fame. People magazine might not rush to publish an exclusive article announcing a documentary about the Great Bear Rainforest - but when Ryan Reynolds is the doc's narrator, it triggers an exclamation-mark worthy headline. "Ryan Reynolds' Latest Project Takes Him Home to Canada - and Surrounds Him with Bears!"

If there's any question about the power of celebrity to bring attention to this issue, consider the F-bomblaced rant by Bill Nye (the Science Guy) about the planet being on fire; it has been viewed millions of times.

Or Lil Dicky's Earth. "Honestly, everybody," the rapper says in his song's extremely watchable video, "Scientists are saying that we have about 12 years to turn this environmental crisis around or we're screwed. What do you say?

You guys want to save the world?" That is a message I want my kid to hear.

Climate change-combatting organizations are also harnessing the power of celebrity.

Greenpeace Canada got dozens of Canadian artists - including Neil Young, Pamela Anderson and k.d. lang - to endorse a pact for a Green New Deal.

"It's becoming painfully obvious every day how atrocious this issue is and how quickly it's galloping towards us," Rufus Wainwright, who also endorsed the pact, told me from Berlin.

He says he has gotten flak in the past because of his political views; some people think musicians should stay in their lanes.

"But with the climate change debate, I think it's different," he says. "The fact that I can reach so many more people with my message, it really becomes a numbers game." Jeff Bridges was preparing for the release of the climate change documentary Living in the Future's Past, which he narrated and produced, when he had what he described to me as "a firsthand experience with the whole climate thing." He lost his Santa Barbara home in a mudslide triggered by wildfires. "We got four feet of mud in our house; wiped our house out completely," he recalled.

I asked whether he felt an obligation to make art about this issue, given the platform his fame offers.

"It's a combination of responsibility, but it's kind of like love, too," he answered. "My wife comes to mind. I have a responsibility to be a good husband, but it's also a joy, a pleasure. I love my wife. So doing things in her favour, that's in my favour, too; it's makes me feel good." (As if we needed another reason to love the Dude.)

During our conversation, he pointed out that this is not just a fight that famous people should be waging. "Celebrity is one of the arrows in my quiver," he said. "But we all have something to lend to this [project] of creating a beautiful planet that we're going to want to hand over to our kids and grandkids."

Even if we're reaching a tipping point in terms of critical mass, the effectiveness of art as a change agent is another story.

Still, I have heard some encouraging reports from artists on the frontlines.

I asked Douglas Coupland about the response to Vortex, his Pacific Garbage Patch-themed art installation at the Vancouver Aquarium.

"Everyone who's ever taken a kid there in the last year is like, 'Doug, Doug' " - everybody wants to talk about it. "You do any show anywhere it has some effect, but this one really seems to have struck a nerve."

Striking a nerve with children and young people seems particularly important, since they're going to be the ones managing this disaster pretty soon.

Von Wong's team surveyed people at his Strawpocalypse installation, where more than 168,000 used plastic straws were collected to create The Parting of the Plastic Sea.

Although 90 per cent of people who saw it said they were previously aware of the environmental impact of plastics, 80 per cent of visitors indicated a change of heart about how they viewed the problem.

Or consider this story I heard from Alanna Mitchell, who turned her book Sea Sick: The Global Ocean in Crisis into a one-woman work of theatre.

After a performance at The Theatre Centre in Toronto, she was speaking with an audience member when she noticed an obviously emotional man a few feet away.

He approached and asked if he could hug her. "He was sobbing," Mitchell told me.

"And he said: 'I'm a climate scientist. And I've never learned how to talk about this stuff.' " In the middle of my climate-art immersion, life - and work - went on. I saw two plays at Vancouver's Bard on the Beach Shakespeare Festival, both excellent, but I walked away those nights thinking, "Yes, but climate change."

And while I ripped through both seasons of Fleabag and didn't think about the apocalypse even once, I have mostly been consuming art and reconsidering, through a new lens, art that I'd already seen.

The ambiguous apocalypse in Cormac McCarthy's The Road. The waters of Venice rising in Spider-Man: Far From Home. Even the fragility of Alberto Giacometti's sculptures, currently at the Vancouver Art Gallery. And Christian Marclay's The Clock, at the Polygon Gallery in North Vancouver.

What are we ticking toward, I wondered in the dark.

When I visited Christie on Galiano, on the opposite coast from Provincetown, I noticed a piece of paper on the wall of his little writing shed. "Trees warp time" it says. It's thumb-tacked next to a window, the view green with trees, everywhere. I imagined Greenwood's 2038. What will we see outside our windows not even 20 years from now?

I asked Christie that day about his hopes for his novel.

He said he would like to resensitize people to the wonder of trees.

I returned home that evening and paid a new kind of attention to the maple tree across the sidewalk outside my house. I turned the hose on it - it hadn't rained in ages - and I really studied it. I remembered witnessing its planting, after its dying predecessor was cut down by a city crew.

I thought about how in winter it sheds its leaves, allowing me a peek-a-boo view from my bedroom window of the mountains - less snowtopped than when I moved into this house just over a decade ago. Today, that maple is flourishing and rich with foliage. And I am more sensitized to it - full of, yes, wonder.

For that, I'll credit the tree, but also the novel, the work of art, that brought it to life for me in a new way.

Associated Graphic

Artist Douglas Coupland's Pacific Garbage Patch-themed art installation, Vortex, is at the Vancouver Aquarium. Coupland says this particular piece 'really seems to have struck a nerve.'

DARRYL DYCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Author Michael Christie and Marsha Lederman set out into the woods of Galiano Island, B.C. Christie's new novel, Greenwood, focuses on a world destroyed by climate change in the year 2038.

JACKIE DIVES/THE GLOBE AND MAIL. ILLUSTRATIONS BY WENTING LI

Anthropocene, a visually spectacular documentary about the impact humans have had on Earth, at one point shows a phosphor tailings pond near Lakeland, Fla., to point out how industry has transformed the planet.

Visitors walk around Olafur Eliasson's Ice Watch installation, which is made of giant blocks of ice, at the Tate Modern museum in London.

HENRY NICHOLLS/REUTERS

Shepard Fairey's Earth Justice, a 20-storey mural erected on a downtown Vancouver office building, depicts the planet as the centre of a flower that's being cradled by human hands.

JIMMY JEONG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

As climate change looms over the coming federal election, Canada's energy industry needs to clean up its act
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By SHAWN MCCARTHY
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B6


In a sprawling building in the industrial southeast of Calgary, a team of technicians is trying to win a race the Canadian oil patch can't afford to lose.

The men and women in blue coats are huddled over a pressurized vessel that simulates the process of extracting oil from the thick mixture of rock-hard bitumen and sand that makes up the oil sands. Their mission is to test new ways to get the oil out, using solvents to liquefy the bitumen and make it easier to recover from underground reservoirs.

The process uses less energy and water than current methods - and, as a result, produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions.

Working with a variety of solvents, the team at Imperial Oil Ltd.'s research centre feeds bitumen into a reservoir box and injects small doses of liquid to determine which compound - combined with steam or on its own - is most effective at freeing the bitumen from sand. What they discover will be further tested in a pilot project on oil sands deposits near Fort McMurray, Alta.

The work, overseen by engineer Cheryl Trudell, is part of a broader, $1-billion-a-year, industrywide research effort to make the oil sands more competitive, with lower costs and less harmful to the environment. It involves an unprecedented level of co-operation among the major oil sands producers, rivals that now must work together to make progress in reducing carbon emissions - and quickly. They understand that climate change - and the fate of their industry in a world trying to limit its environmental effects - will be a key issue in the coming federal election and for years to come.

At stake are the growth prospects for an industry that has been a major driver of the Canadian economy. Oil sands production has doubled in the past decade to three million barrels a day. Almost all of the country's estimated 167 billion barrels of crude reserves are in the oil sands. It's expensive and takes a lot of water and energy to get the oil out - thus Canada's reputation as a producer of oil with a high carbon footprint.

Rarely has the energy industry faced a more urgent need to solve that problem and change its image. Failure to clean up oil sands production could consign companies to moribund share prices and a slow death as the world seeks to wean itself off the most carbon-intensive energy sources.

Faced with concerns about a growing climate crisis, institutional investors are increasingly demanding that fossilfuel companies demonstrate how they can prosper if the world succeeds in cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Oil sands producers operate a capital-intensive business that depends on those investors, including banks and pension funds, for financing.

Meanwhile, governments around the world are pushing policies aimed at dramatically reducing the demand for crude over the coming decades, including tougher fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks and incentives for electric vehicles to displace those fuelled by gasoline and diesel.

So time is ticking. In their market value, energy producers include oil sands reserves that won't be developed for another decade or two. For those reserves to remain valuable, companies such as Imperial and Suncor Energy Inc. will need to be among the low-cost, low-carbon crude producers in world markets.

A better environmental record might also be the best way for the oil industry to shield itself from politics. In Canada, the future of climate-change policy will depend on the outcome of the federal election this fall. The governing Liberals are determined to maintain a cap on overall oil sands emissions and a regulated price on emissions; the Conservatives have a more industry-friendly approach that includes lighter regulations and no emissions cap; and the Greens and New Democrats both propose more aggressive efforts to cut oil sands emissions.

Regardless of who wins, oil-patch executives say they will continue to drive down emissions per barrel, that they are well aware the global pressure to address climate change is only likely to increase. They have no choice if they're going to win back an investment community that is increasingly skeptical about what they have to sell.

The producers are making some progress. The industry on average has cut emissions per barrel of crude produced - known as "carbon intensity" - by 22 per cent since 2012, according to a recent Bank of Montreal study. But overall emissions have grown dramatically in the past decade along with oil production.

Indeed, oil sands companies, led by Imperial, Suncor, Cenovus Energy Inc. and Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., say they should gain a competitive edge from carbon regulations and their own efforts to reduce emissions. They are among the few global oil companies that operate with an explicit carbon price, as well as legislation that will cap their emissions, Suncor chief executive Mark Little noted in a recent interview.

"If you believe that carbon is having an impact [on the environment], which we certainly do, then you start aligning your thinking and your investment and your organization to address that challenge," Mr. Little said. "We are doing that."

The companies are working together on environmental technologies in ways rarely seen in industry. Their sevenyear effort through the Canada's Oil Sands Innovation Alliance is starting to pay dividends, as they begin using technology that was developed jointly, at times with financial backing from provincial and federal governments. CNRL and Cenovus are also using carbon-capture technologies that either store CO2 underground or use it in other products or for other purposes.

Both companies have purchased or built facilities that capture carbon from oil extraction and refining to prevent it from escaping into the atmosphere.

Mr. Little says the oil sands sector can drive its carbon intensity below the international average, and others in the Canadian industry agree. If so, exported Canadian oil could displace dirtier oil from other countries, which would put the industry on a sounder footing with investors.

But a recent study by Stanford University economists suggests there is still a long way to go.

And cuts to carbon-per-barrel measures don't impress environmentalists much.

They look at the total amount of GHG emissions coming from the sector, and the oil sands industry remains the fastest-growing source in Canada. Even with the projected improvements, emissions are expected to climb through the next decade as Alberta pumps out even more crude.

Even by the industry's preferred measure of emissions per barrel, the oil patch doesn't stack up very well, critics say. A peer-reviewed study by Stanford researchers last year rated the Canadian oil industry the fourth-most carbon-intensive of 50 countries, trailing only Cameroon, Venezuela and Algeria and far worse than that of the United States. Based on 2015 data, Canada was almost 70 per cent above the global average, the researchers found, although they qualified that by saying poor data from some countries skewed those results.

"The talking points about cleanest oil are just not accurate for GHGs," said Simon Dyer, executive director at the Pembina Institute in Calgary. "If we want to be leaders in GHG, we're going to have to do much, much more." He said companies tend to tout their newest projects and future prospects for best-in-class examples of GHG intensity, rather than measuring the environmental impact of the industry as a whole.

Oil companies will have to accelerate their efforts if they are to survive in a world that must cut fossil-fuel use to avert the most catastrophic effects of climate change, said a recent report from a federally appointed expert panel on sustainable finance. The panel, headed by former Bank of Canada deputy governor Tiff Macklem, warns that high-carbon industries face a heightened risk of having their assets devalued - unless they can come up with game-changing technologies to cut pollution.

The oil sands sector is already dealing with climate challenges that have harmed it financially.

Most obviously, there is the political opposition to new pipelines and the rising burden of government regulation on its activities. But it's also suffering from new attitudes from big money.

Swiss-based Zurich Insurance Group - which has an investment pool of US$200-billion - said in June that it would no longer underwrite or invest in oil sands companies or the pipelines and crude-by-rail facilities that support them unless they align their business plans with the effort to limit the increase in global temperatures to well below two degrees Celsius.

In doing so, Zurich joined a growing list of investors cutting their exposure to fossil fuels, notably coal and oil sands. Several banks and institutional investors - including the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, Britain's HSBC Holdings PLC, Norway's sovereign-wealth fund and California's largest public-sector pension funds - have indicated they will shift their investment portfolios away from high-carbon companies.

The debate over the oil industry's future has fuelled some of the fiercest political battles of Justin Trudeau's government. The Liberals brought in a carbon levy and passed a law that requires most resource projects to be assessed on how they affect Canada's ability to meet its commitments to reduce GHG emissions. But the government also bought the Trans Mountain pipeline with a view to completing its expansion, adding 590,000 barrels a day of export capacity.

The October federal election will send a clear signal about the direction of climate and energy policy. The four leading oil companies, which account for three-quarters of total oil sands production, insist they will continue to work on the GHG problem, regardless of who is in power in Ottawa.

Whatever the political stripe of the new government, it will face some hard decisions, early on, about climate and the pace of energy development.

In 2005, the oil sands accounted for less than 5 per cent of Canada's GHG emissions. Next year, it will be 13 per cent, Environment Canada projects. That's because oil sands production has almost tripled in that time and is projected to hit 3.4 million b/d in 2020.

Assuming planned pipelines get built, producers could add another million b/d by 2030, says Kevin Birn, a Calgarybased analyst with IHS Markit Ltd., a global consultancy.

So GHG emissions keep going up, despite the new technologies that help make each barrel cleaner. In 2010, the sector generated 53 million tonnes (MT) of emissions. That may double to 106 MT by 2030, Environment Canada says.

(The former, NDP government in Alberta passed legislation capping oil sands emissions at 100 MT by 2030, but never enacted the regulations needed to enforce it.)

That presents a problem for Canada's commitments under the 2015 Paris accord on climate change, where the government promised to reduce overall GHG emissions to 30 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030. In fact, Canada is under pressure to increase the ambition of its targets. The United Nations will hold a climate summit in New York next month, where Secretary-General Antonio Guterres will urge all countries to do more than they pledged in Paris, because the commitments fall far short of what is required to limit the increase in global temperatures.

Environment Minister Catherine McKenna insists Canada can hit its targets - and even exceed them - while making room for growth in the oil sands as long as the 100 MT cap on emissions is honoured. But critics on the left and right challenge that assertion. At a Globe and Mail panel discussion in June, environmental activist Tzeporah Berman argued the projected growth in the oil sands should be restricted because it is inconsistent with Canada's responsibilities in fighting climate change. Seated beside her, former industry executive Dennis McConaghy agreed the goals are inconsistent but argued it is the country's Paris targets that need to be revisited.

Whichever party forms the next government faces a key decision on whether to approve Teck Resources Ltd.'s proposed Frontier oil sands mine, which would add 260,000 b/d of production and more than four million tonnes a year of carbon emissions. A joint federal-Alberta review panel recommended last month that the project get the green light, concluding that its economic benefits outweigh the "significant adverse" environmental effects. The panel noted, though, that the mine would make it harder for Canada to achieve its climate change goals.

The big four oil sands producers say they support the Paris agreement and have backed carbon pricing, as long as it is applied in a way that provides incentives for emission-reducing investments but doesn't make Canada uncompetitive with other oil-producing countries. They are particularly concerned about competition from the booming shale-oil sector in the United States, where investment continues to pour in. In contrast, investment in the oil sands has declined precipitously, to a projected $12-billion this year from $34billion in 2014.

In the short term, their environmental goals are relatively modest. Only Suncor has announced a medium-term target, aiming to cut its carbon intensity to 30 per cent below 2014 levels by 2030. CNRL says it is working on setting a 2030 target and has a long-term goal to become carbon neutral through the use of technologies to dramatically reduce emissions and capture the remaining CO2 for storage or use in new products.

"While we don't put a time frame on [achieving carbon neutrality], it is understood by everyone that that is our goal, and we have concrete measures in place, concrete steps to bring us to it," said Joy Romero, CNRL's vice-president for technology and innovation.

CNRL is the most heavily invested in carbon capture and storage technology (CCS). The company is the major partner in the Quest project, which was started and is still operated by Royal Dutch Shell PLC to capture CO2 emissions at a refinery in Scotford, Alta., near Edmonton. CNRL is also a majority owner of the Northwest Upgrader, which will capture CO2 for use in enhanced oil recovery projects.

At the upgraders, the companies use amine solutions to grab carbon dioxide produced during the process of making the hydrogen that helps transform thick bitumen into synthetic crude oil, which is easier to ship and refine. The CO2 is then chilled and liquefied before being sent by pipeline to storage locations.

In the case of Quest, the CO2 will be sequestered deep underground, where it will be monitored for leakage. The CO2 captured at the Northwest Upgrader will be used to stimulate the recovery of oil from aging Alberta fields and will be recovered for reuse rather than vented into the atmosphere. (CO2 is injected into older, conventional wells to maintain reservoir pressure, which allows more oil to be produced.)

CNRL has also recently started capturing CO2 at its Horizon oil sands plant near Fort McMurray, using it to displace the carbon dioxide it had been purchasing for use in wastewater treatment. Again, the CO2 will be recaptured in a closed-loop system.

With recent technological advances, the carbon-capture process is now cheaper than trucking the industrial gas from the south, Ms. Romero said. Carbon dioxide mixed with water produces a calcium carbonate that acts like a washing agent to remove clays, which settle to the bottom of tailings ponds. The approach allows more water to be recycled, reducing the size of the tailings ponds and cutting the use of natural gas in the operations.

Since 2012, the company has reduced emissions intensity at the 300,000-b/d Horizon mine by 37 per cent, while cutting operating costs to $20 a barrel from $34. It is touting these facts to institutional investors who make decisions partly on environmental, social and governance factors, known as ESG issues.

"Because our products are global commodities, they always have to be cost-competitive. So we're obviously trying to make sure we are cost-competitive inside of all this and that we have the preferable ESG barrel," Ms. Romero said. "So we hope those factors give us greater market share."

Suncor is also positioning itself as a long-term player in a global oil market whose future is highly uncertain. The company says it expects to add 360,000 b/d of in situ oil sands production before 2023 at a break-even level of less than US$50 for West Texas Intermediate. Last year, it had 940,000 b/d of production capacity.

In an interview at his Calgary office, Mr. Little said Suncor will continue to invest in technologies that reduce costs, increase revenues and cut GHG emissions, Last year, the company spent more than $600-million on research and development.

"The perfect scenario is one where you find something that has lower capital intensity, lower cost structure, higher revenues and reduced environmental footprint. That's utopia," he said. If there is increased operational risk involved in deploying a new technology, it has to earn a higher rate of return than business-as-usual operations, he added.

Carbon-pricing policies create incentives for Suncor to make an investment in GHG-reducing technology when the economics might otherwise not support it, Mr. Little said. "A carbon price is a very effective mechanism. One of the reasons we supported a carbon price is it allows market forces to help drive innovation and technology and allow us to come up with creative solutions."

Suncor is trying one such solution, paraffinic froth treatment, at its newest mine, Fort Hills.

Imperial also employs the process at its Kearl oil sands mine.

It employs hydrocarbon-based solvents to "wash" the bitumen after it has been dug out of the massive open-pit mine. The solvents interact with bitumen to help remove water, solids and the heaviest hydrocarbon molecules, known as asphaltenes. Paraffinic froth treatment requires less energy than traditional washing processes and yields a lighter-grade crude, which is easier to transport by pipeline and refine. GHG emissions per barrel at Fort Hills or Kearl are equivalent to those of conventional oil production, the companies say.

As a result, the producers do not need to upgrade the bitumen and can sell it as "modified bitumen," which commands higher prices than the product that has to be diluted in order to be shipped through pipelines but lower prices than the synthetic crude oil produced from upgraders.

At Imperial Oil, Dr. Trudell's lab is developing and testing the next big innovation in oil sands extraction: the use of solvents such as propane and butane to reduce the amount of steam needed to extract crude from bitumen deposits that are too deep to be mined. With the traditional method of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), steam generated by natural-gas boilers is injected into horizontal lengths that have been drilled into a formation in order to heat the tar-like bitumen. Less steam means burning less natural gas and fewer GHG emissions. Imperial Oil's planned Aspen project - which the company has delayed until pipeline capacity improves - will employ solvent-assisted technology that will lower emissions per barrel by 25 per cent, while also reducing operating costs.

Suncor is planning to use solvent technology for the in situ projects where the bitumen is too deep. It is also experimenting with a process it calls Solvent+, which includes the use of hydrocarbons such as propane and butane plus the application of heat generated by electromagnetic waves. That process could reduce GHG emissions by as much as 70 per cent because it would eliminate the need for steam and yield a lighter bitumen that would not need upgrading, said Gary Bunio, Suncor's general manager for oil sands strategic technology. However, it will not be ready for commercial use for several years at least.

The companies pose their longer-term challenge as a competitive one - they want to be the "preferred barrel" in a world where growth in oil demand is uncertain. However, environmental advocates argue the question should not be "Which source of crude is best?" but rather, "How can we quickly replace crude oil with cleaner energy?" Some 75 per cent to 80 per cent of GHG emissions associated with a barrel of crude occur when it is burned in a vehicle or other end user.

"When you look at this from a global perspective, our position is that we need to stop expanding production," said Keith Stewart, senior energy strategist with Greenpeace Canada.

"We need action on both the demand and the supply side."

Efforts to reduce consumption will be far more difficult if continued production growth drives down global oil prices, he noted. And Canada has been identified by the Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA) as an important source of new supply as demand grows in the short term and production declines in aging oil fields around the world.

The future health of the Canadian oil sands depends, to a large degree, on how much oil the world will be consuming in 10 or 20 years. And projections of future demand range wildly, depending in part on the likelihood of success in the global effort to deal with climate change.

For example, Cenovus said in a report last month that it largely operates on the basis of a scenario laid out by the IEA that sees global crude demand growing until at least 2040.

However, that scenario - frequently cited by Canadian oil executives to defend bullish growth plans - is consistent with three degrees of global warming, an outcome that scientists say would have devastating consequences for human wellbeing as well as vulnerable plant and animal species.

The IEA has also published a sustainable development scenario that it says is consistent with the Paris agreement goal of limiting warming to well below two degrees, which would see oil demand peak near the end of the 2020s and decline by 30 per cent by 2040. Critics say the IEA is too bullish on future oil demand - a report last fall from the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned that two degrees of warming would be catastrophic and urged governments to limit warming to no more than 1.5 degrees, a goal that would require a rapid reduction in the use of fossil fuels, including oil, essentially phasing them out within 30 years.

In their sustainability reports, a number of the producers acknowledge that their operations would be constrained under a two-degree scenario, but none has yet provided a detailed analysis of the likely effects. Ottawa-based analyst Celine Bak argues that oil sands companies are vastly overstating their value in today's market because much of their oil reserves - which are used to establish asset value - will never be produced in a carbon-constrained world.

In climate-risk report released last month, Suncor laid out its view of the impact of climate change on its business operations and the value of its assets over time. It included one scenario that features the technological innovation and policy action needed to meet the two-degree target. Under that future, "new oil sands growth projects are challenged and unlikely to proceed," the company said, though it added that its existing assets would remain profitable to 2040.

In leading the backlash in Alberta against tougher climate policies and constrained production growth, Premier Jason Kenney has dismissed concern among global investors as "flavour of the day." But evidence is mounting that climate change is a present and growing crisis. Company executives - and governments in Canada - will face increasingly tough decisions on the wisdom of making long-term bets on oil.

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JASON FRANSON/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Cheryl Trudell of Imperial Oil, seen in her lab in Calgary in June, leads a team of 40 scientists and technicians that works to find innovative ways to reduce energy and water use in the Canadian oil sands.

TODD KOROL/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BACK TO THE USSR:
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HOW PUTIN'S STALINIST NOSTALGIA MADE HIM AN ENEMY OF DEMOCRACY
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By CHRIS ALEXANDER
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O1


Served in Afghanistan from 2003 to 2009 - first as Canada's ambassador, then as deputy head of the UN mission. He was minister of citizenship and immigration in Stephen Harper's Conservative government. Before 2003, he also served for six years in the Canadian embassy in Moscow, including as deputy head of mission.

For roughly as long as there have been democratic elections, there has been the threat and practice of foreign interference. Certainly, new developments have made the challenge even more daunting: Social-media platforms, buttressed by TV propaganda and old-fashioned corruption, have given today's malefactors impunity with global reach. But there has always been interest in luring democracies, powered by the will of the people, to bend to the will of those who trample on democratic rights in their own states.

In our era, no country has embraced this kind of trespass - warfare, really - with greater abandon than Vladimir Putin's Russia.

His goal is simple: discredit democracy. By making elections seem like pointless contests of extremes in which moderate views are trampled, he seeks to bolster dictatorship as an alternative. By taking issues that have historically made democracies strong and turning them against those very societies, the Kremlin seeks to promote confusion and chaos.

His inspiration is similarly easy to understand: Mr. Putin's efforts are fuelled, ultimately, by his halcyon view of the Soviet Union.

In his lifetime, he bore witness to its rise, so he sees its dissolution as a tragedy; reversing this catastrophe has required dramatic methods. It has meant ending freedom of speech. It has meant that the Kremlin now redirects, often by the crudest possible means, Russia's decades-old Orwellian machinery of internal disinformation toward international audiences. It has meant invading Georgia in 2008 to frustrate that country's bid to join the more prosperous Euro-Atlantic community of countries.

Perhaps above all else, it has meant needing a compliant subordinate in Kiev, to prevent Ukraine from going down the same path. No event did more to upend Mr. Putin's strategy of Soviet revivalism than the launch of the Euromaidan movement in November, 2013, which triggered an unprecedented five-year period of reform and European integration for Ukraine. The fall of its quisling regime under Viktor Yanukovych was such a shock to the top-down system of Mr. Putin and his coterie that grabbing Crimea and invading Ukraine's Donbass region seemed reasonable by comparison.

Yet, Mr. Putin's regressive behaviour is about more than poisoning democratic debate or taking revenge for Ukraine's European turn. It speaks to a dangerous reversion to the mindset of a man who only shared this Earth with Mr. Putin for a single year: the truth-eliding, life-cheapening strongman Joseph Stalin.

Indeed, while most know about and deplore Mr. Putin's 2014 invasion of Ukraine, it's far easier to forget the even longer shadow left by the post-1945 Soviet takeover of Central Europe by guile, subversion and violence.

Perhaps lost to popular history - and certainly lost amid the mythmaking in modern Russia - is that when the Second World War began, Nazi Germany's only serious ally, other than Benito Mussolini's Italy, was Stalin's Soviet Union.

On Aug. 23, 1939 - 80 years ago - Stalin and Adolf Hitler made a deal that set in motion the invasion and occupation of six countries. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a treaty of non-aggression signed at the Kremlin by Soviet and German foreign ministers in Stalin's presence, included a "secret additional protocol" providing for Soviet and German spheres of influence covering Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (all bordering the Baltic Sea), while declaring the "interest of the USSR in Bessarabia," then a part of Romania.

On Sept. 1, Nazi armies invaded Poland from the west. Just more than two weeks later, Soviet armies stormed in from the east. On Sept. 28, the two sides signed the German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty, as well as two more documents around "common efforts" in Poland and its "repatriation and political subjugation." Stalin subsequently annexed more than 200,000 square kilometres of Poland; Hitler claimed 92,500 square kilometres.

By November, Stalin had invaded Finland. In June, 1940, Soviet armies had occupied the Baltic states, followed later that month and in early July by the invasion, occupation and later annexation of northern Bukovina, Hertza and Bessarabia, then under the administration of the Kingdom of Romania and later incorporated into the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Sadly, some of the deadly results of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact still endure: Parts of Finland, Latvia and Estonia annexed in 1940 remain part of the Russian Federation. Territories taken from Romania include today's Moldova, as well as Chernivtsi Oblast and part of Odessa Oblast in Ukraine. But the pact's role in adding fuel to the fire of world war was far greater.

While Stalin spent the two years in which the pact was in force occupying or annexing territory that today belongs to 10 European states, including Russia, the "subjugation" of Poland freed Hitler's hand to invade Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France.

Drunk with victory in Poland and elsewhere, convinced that new "spheres of influence" agreed by totalitarian regimes were inevitable and distracted by the Winter War with Finland, Stalin utterly failed to foresee Hitler's brutal and historic double-cross in Operation Barbarossa, in 1941. More than 28 million Soviet citizens perished in the resulting slaughter. About half were from what is today Russia; eight to 10 million were from Ukraine; two to three million from Belarus. At least 1.5 million died in Central Asia, and a million more in the Caucasus.

One million died in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, whose illegal annexation was never recognized by Canada and most democracies.

In the rogues gallery of Second World War aggressors, Stalin too often gets overlooked. After all, when Hitler betrayed him, the Soviet Union became an ally of the United States, Britain, Free France and others. The Allied forces won the war - and the authority to write history and the narrative of their glorious role in it. But Hitler's war on the Soviet Union exacted colossal, unimaginable losses partly because Stalin's disastrous two-year dalliance with him made the Nazi dictator that much stronger.

While the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was a disaster for all concerned - above all, for Russia's people - you'd never know that from listening to Russian officials today. Russia's ambassador to Canada failed to mention the Hitler-Stalin alliance this year when he marked the start of the Nazis' grim campaign and celebrated their eventual surrender in 1945, writing instead that "without the Red Army's victory and the Allied comradeship-in-arms, Europe as we know it would have never existed." And Mr. Putin's hapless Foreign Affairs Minister, Sergey Lavrov, who has never been one to let facts stand in the way of odious sophistry, sought to pin blame for June, 1941, on "those who, by colluding with Hitler in Munich in 1938, tried to channel Nazi aggression to the east." It's a wonder Mr. Lavrov didn't look to blame John Kerry.

This world, in which Stalin is a model, is the one Vladimir Putin now inhabits. While NATO allies debate the past and acknowledge mistakes - from the failure to stop Mussolini's aggression in Ethiopia or Stalin's famine-genocide in Ukraine to the legacy of Yalta - today's Kremlin refuses to accept any criticism of either Stalin or Mr. Putin.

That's because their actions have been so similar. Both added territory by force and both trusted in propaganda, disinformation and influence operations to close the deal. Mr. Putin has frequently repeated Stalin's rationale for invasion and annexation: It was someone else's fault. In a May news conference with German Chancellor Angela Merkel, for instance, he said the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact "made sense for ensuring the security of the Soviet Union" after Stalin's bid for an anti-Hitler coalition with Western countries failed. Mr. Putin also termed the pact "payback" for Poland's own overtures to Nazi Germany. He justified the invasion and occupation of Georgia in 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 in similar terms, as well as the illegal annexation of Crimea; these were necessary interventions, he said, because of the "unacceptable" breakup of the Soviet Union.

Free historical inquiry into the Second World War has been all but shut down in Russia. Mentioning the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland in the wrong context can lead to a heavy fine. Those who chart the fine filigree of conspiratorial complicity, totalitarian practice and violent intent that link Hitler and Stalin are condemned as heretics. Anyone opposing Mr. Putin's aggression in Georgia, Ukraine or elsewhere is branded a Nazi. This reactionary climate makes for a stark and bitter contrast with 1989, when Soviet authorities first acknowledged and condemned the MolotovRibbentrop Pact, or the post-1991 period under Boris Yeltsin, when a critical spirit still governed discussion of what Russians call the Great Patriotic War.

Far from absorbing the lessons of Stalin's deadly embrace of Hitler, today's Kremlin is reprising it by illegally annexing territory, aggressively undermining democracy and vaingloriously touting a toxic cult of personality as a model for the world. The "end of history" - political scientist Francis Fukuyama's vision of a perfect endpoint for concepts of human and sociocultural governance - has given way to the "end of logic," with Stalin's dark role now inspiring a widening tragedy under Mr.

Putin.

Let's be clear: The Russian chauvinists upon whom Mr. Putin relies are serious about their recycled neo-Stalinist doctrines, even if they lead to new confrontations and new conflicts. If this still sounds far-fetched, look no further than "The Long-Running State of Putin: On What Is Really Happening Here," a long article published in Moscow's unapologetically nationalist and therefore semi-official Nezavisimaya Gazeta in February by Mr. Putin's long-serving top ideologist, Vladislav Surkov. In it, the Kremlin strategist justifies invasion, corruption and repression as a better model of governance in the name of a permanent member of the UN Security Council. Over almost three decades of working on Russian issues, living in Russia and studying Russian history, I have never read such a nauseating and dangerous rhetorical cocktail of patent nonsense.

The arc of Mr. Surkov's career is also an illustration of how things have gotten here. He and a handful of relentless, ruthless and hubristic officials, together with a circle of oligarchs, have kept Mr.

Putin in office by effectively making him a modern apostle of neoStalinism, all the while treading carefully in the waves that allow Mr. Putin to retain that title.

When I last met with Mr. Surkov, he was pushing papers in Mr.

Putin's Kremlin during Jean Chrétien's Team Canada mission to Russia, working to instill discipline in oligarch ranks after the incarceration of his former boss, oil magnate Mikhail Khodorkovsky. He went on to engineer the muzzling of independent media, before instituting the farce of Russia's "managed democracy," in which parties move through the political arena with all the spontaneity of an S-400 missile system parading through Red Square.

By 2011, with social media and the Arab Spring roiling the waters around dictators everywhere, Mr.

Surkov had been dropped from the Kremlin on suspicion of having orchestrated anti-Putin demonstrations to keep now-Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in the president's role. But by 2014, as Ukraine made its historic break with Moscow's tutelage, Mr. Surkov was back in office as the puppeteer-in-chief for Kremlin proxies in Ukraine - a motley crew of ex-military mercenaries, thugs and ne'er-do-wells whose actions have made Russia less popular in Ukrainian eyes than at any previous time in the two countries' thousand-year histories of statehood. Now, he is one of the small group of aides upon whom Mr.

Putin has depended continuously for 20 years, alongside the two dozen or so oligarchs who keep this team in power.

Mr. Surkov's February article - a kind of "ode to dictatorship" that would have made many Stalin-era court poets blush - can be read as their disturbing and revealing manifesto. It confirms deep insecurity about Russia's current international isolation and lacklustre economy. It signifies continuing blindness about realities in Ukraine. And it lays bare the Kremlin's supremely misplaced confidence in its ability to upset the apple cart of market-based democracy. Shockingly, it is the work of a Kremlin that believes a neo-Stalinist agenda is a tonic for the whole world.

In Mr. Surkov's dystopian vision, democratic choice is an illusion - a P.T. Barnum sideshow rejected by Russian society in favour of "the realism of predetermination," or predestination. In other words, dictators are the destiny not just of Russia but the whole world.

Russia's breaking apart, he says, was unnatural - it had to be stopped. Now Russia "has begun to re-establish itself and has returned to its natural and only possible condition as a great, expanding and land-gathering community of peoples." In other words, Ukraine is just the beginning.

Post-Cold War American hegemony, he claims, was only ended by the "Munich speech." Here, Mr. Surkov is not referring to British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's blithe declaration in 1938 that he had secured "peace for our time" after a trip to Nazi Germany, but rather Mr. Putin's speech in 2007 claiming Russia wanted peace; instead, he invaded Georgia in 2008.

Mr. Surkov argues that democracy only survives because of a "deep state" that, anonymously and unaccountably, restores equilibrium. Russia lacks a "deep state," he says, but has a "deep people" who trust Mr. Putin because his system is "more honest."

All of this means that the 21st century is turning out "our way," in Mr. Surkov's view, with "English Brexit, American #GreatAgain, and Europe's anti-migrant retrenchment" representing only the start of "deglobalization, restoration of sovereignty and nationalism" now that "the bastards are everywhere." The whole piece reads like a bad Steve Bannon infomercial. The implication that Donald Trump's disastrous legacy and Russian fatalism will keep Mr.

Putin in power is clear and repeated.

Not that the Kremlin is leaving things to chance. As Mr. Yanukovych was being airlifted to safety in Moscow in 2014, Kremlin-directed assets on social media sought to sow discord by bolstering the "yes" side of Scotland's independence referendum. In 2015, Moscow worked to amplify extremist views of the migration crisis in Europe. It's a mixed track record: Their assets successfully backed Brexit and Mr. Trump, but Emmanuel Macron and Angela Merkel were elected and re-elected despite industrial-scale Kremlin support for their opponents.

Yet, there are more world leaders now in Mr. Putin's image, from Italy's Matteo Salvini to Hungary's Viktor Orban. Over the past year, Kremlin-backed campaigns have even sown discord in Mexico, with a view to further polarizing U.S. opinion.

Still, in most democracies, from Finland to France, Russian interference has fallen flat. Defences have proven stronger; citizens are getting wiser. The European Union, the Atlantic Council, NATO and Anders Fogh Rasmussen's Alliance of Democracies have launched major initiatives to counter its effects.

In other words, Russia's blows have buffeted our democracies but have by no means broken them. On the contrary, there is in many quarters a new appreciation for how fragile and contingent our free institutions may be, which has inspired a firmer determination to defend them. Where apparent polarization shrank the middle ground of politics for a time, new initiatives are springing up aimed at community-building, citizen solutions, dialogue, accountability and competence.

What do such Russian antics mean for Canada? A polarized Europe during the migration crisis of the summer of 2015 was a crucial backdrop for our last federal election, especially after the tragic death of three-year-old Alan Kurdi. Mr. Putin and his team were surely as delighted to see that Canadian government leave office - it had been instrumental in Russia's ejection from the G8 and in the establishment of a tough sanctions regime - as they were to see the formation of the People's Party of Canada, with its skeptical attitudes toward immigration.

But the challenges of 2019 are different. Russian interests are now more likely to be pushed by domestic players under foreign influence than by bot armies out of St. Petersburg. Social-media platforms, still so lax in rooting out such abuse, are increasingly seen as platforms worthy of derision. Courtesy and fact-checking are making a comeback, although most media business models remain distressed.

For Canada, the challenge is to promote substantive debate, free of disruption by malign actors, on issues that count most for our country today: markets and competitiveness, immigration, inclusion, sustainability and the advancement of Indigenous peoples. We also need to have a cleareyed conversation about the new world we inhabit - one in which there are real partners committed to multilateralism and the UN's global goals, as well as a growing number of dictatorships, explicit or camouflaged, waging proxy and propaganda wars. The simple antidote to dismissal, distortion, distraction, dismay and division at the hands of anonymous voices is accountable debate by real people, preferably in person. In other words, the solutions are more democracy and more transparency.

State-owned propaganda outlets, from RT and Sputnik to China Central Television, need to be given a wide berth. Google, Facebook and Twitter should be seen as part of the problem, not the solution, and regulated accordingly.

Quality independent media, where journalists tell real stories that matter to all of us, deserve our eyeballs and our investment.

The citizen who is not willing to pay a modest amount to open their mind to their country and the world runs the risk of flying blind.

Remember that in the world laid out by Mr. Surkov, Russian dictatorship is the new model for the entire globe. In this world, territory can be seized at will, and Russia is able to mess with our heads. That's simply not the reality. After Mr. Yeltsin's structural reforms, real wages grew by more than 10 per cent annually from 1999 to 2008, while GDP rose 7 per cent on average per year. Russia's GDP today has barely grown since then; a country with three times China's per-capita nominal GDP in 2013 now has barely $1,000 more. By every measure, Mr. Putin's military adventures, as well as his twin policies of fear and corruption, have been utter disasters. Well-regulated markets, honest governments with progressive tax systems, political pluralism and free speech work much better, by definable, defensible metrics; their appeal has barely flickered despite the blast furnace of five years of industrial-strength propaganda. The countries, organizations and jurisdictions that have been targets are pulling through this test intact, if not stronger.

For all of Mr. Surkov's cocksure rosiness, Russia may not do the same. As in the 1930s, ordinary Russians are again suffering asymmetrically profound hardship while dangerous pedants like him drone on about baubles in the "higher league of geopolitical struggle." It's enough to make one want to read the MolotovRibbentrop Pact once more, this August - and then go out and support the nearest anti-disinformation initiative.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In May, on the 74th anniversary of Nazi Germany's surrender, people in Vilnius hold portraits of relatives who died in the Second World War. The war's end brought Lithuania and the other Baltic states into the Soviet sphere of influence, which they would not escape until 1990-91.

ASSOCIATED PRESS

Russian President Vladimir Putin and other participants in a Victory Day march on Red Square in Moscow in May carry portraits of their relatives who fought in the Second World War.

ALEXANDER NEMENOV/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Moscow, 1939: With Joseph Stalin standing behind him and a portrait of Vladimir Lenin hanging above him, Soviet foreign commissar Vyacheslav Molotov signs a non-aggression pact with his German counterpart, Joachim von Ribbentrop, third from right.

NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION

THE VAGINA LIES
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Starved for information about how their bodies work, women have had to settle for half-truths, lies and snake-oil remedies. It's time to change that
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By JEN GUNTER
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O6


Obstetrician and gynecologist. She is host of the documentary series Jensplaining, writes two columns for The New York Times and is the author of the new book The Vagina Bible: The Vulva and the Vagina - Separating the Myth From the Medicine, from which this essay is adapted.

I have been in medicine for 33 years, and I've been a gynecologist for 24 of them. It was early experiences with the health-care system that drew me to medicine (I had a kidney removed when I was 11 years old) and a love of science that made me commit to it. It was activism that led me to OB/GYN.

I've been pro-choice for as long as I can remember. In high school (I graduated in 1984), I was very clear - to myself and to anyone who asked - that restricting access to abortion had nothing to do with "life" and everything to do with the patriarchy. No man could tell me what to do with my body.

In medical school, OB/GYN fascinated me. Here was clear, factual information about the reproductive tract. Even though I had studied science before medical school, much of what was presented seemed new, given the amount of detail. How was I just now, in my early 20s, learning how my body worked? I also distinctly remember being annoyed that all my lectures were from men. This was the late eighties and the absence of women at higher levels in medicine was common. So common that one tended not to notice that most of one's professors were men.

But I did. And here, in the field of women's health, the absence of female doctors and researchers was a powerful reminder of that glass ceiling.

I needed to help change that system.

Over the years, I've listened to a lot of women, and I know the questions they ask as well as the ones they want to ask but don't quite know how. Almost all of these queries are born of inaccurate knowledge about their bodies, gleaned from what they learned (or didn't learn) in school or at home, from men or in magazines or online. The problem? You cannot be an empowered patient with inaccurate information.

One of the core tenets of medicine is informed consent. We doctors provide information about risks and benefits and then our patients, armed with that information, make choices. This system only works when the information is accurate and unbiased. Finding these kind of data can be challenging, as we have, apparently, quickly passed through the age of information and are now stalled in the age of misinformation.

False, fantastical medical claims are nothing new. However, sorting myth from medicine is getting harder and harder. In addition to social-media feeds that constantly display medical messaging of variable quality, there is a headline-driven news cycle that constantly requires new content - even when it doesn't exist. And with women's bodies, there are even more forces of misdirection at work. Those who peddle in pseudoscience are invested in misinformation, but so is the patriarchy.

Obsessions with reproductive-tract purity and cleansing date back to a time when a woman's worth was measured by her virginity and how many children she might bear. A vagina and uterus were currency. Playing on these fears awakens something visceral. It's no wonder the words "pure," "natural" and "clean" are used so often to market products to women.

Members of the media and celebrity influencers tap into these fears with articles about vaginal mayhem and products intended to prevent it, as if the vagina (which evolved to stretch and tear to deliver a baby long before suture material was invented) is somehow constantly in a state of near catastrophe.

That's why I have a vagenda: for every woman to be empowered with accurate information about the vagina and vulva. And that's why I've written a book on the subject. The Vagina Bible is everything I want women to know about their vulvas and vaginas. It is my answer to every woman who has seen me pass on information in the office or online and then wondered, "How did I not know this?" Misinforming women about their bodies serves no one interested in health or equality.

Widespread misinformation is the inevitable consequence of a long history of medical neglect of women's anatomy.

Going way back, medically speaking - as in Hippocrates (although there is a belief among many academics that Hippocrates wasn't even a real person) - male physicians rarely performed pelvic exams on women or even dissected female cadavers, as it was considered inappropriate or insensitive for a man to touch a woman outside of a marital relationship. As there were no female physicians, everything first written about women's bodies in ancient medical textbooks and taught to the first physicians was passed along, from women and midwives, to men, who in turn interpreted the information as they saw fit. So medicine has been steeped in mansplaining from the start.

Most ancient physicians, probably like many other males of the time, were unsure of the role of the clitoris and likely thought it unimportant. This stands in sharp contrast to the anatomic glory of the penis. In medicine, all body surfaces are assigned a front or back, which we call ventral (front) or dorsal (back). If you look at a person standing in a neutral position (arms at the side and palms facing forward), the face, chest and palms of the hands are on the ventral side, and the back and the back of the hands are dorsal. This convention is applied differently to the penis, because of course it is. The neutral stance for a man, according to the anatomists of old, was a massive, skyward-pointing erection. Except, of course, men don't walk around with constant erections, and so when you look at a man in what most people would consider the resting state - meaning a flaccid penis - the part that faces you is not the "front" of the penis but actually the "dorsal," or back surface, and the undersurface is the "ventral."

It's not really a small point; it is a wonderful (in a tragicomic kind of way) encapsulation of how society, including medicine, is obsessed with erections, while the clitoris barely registers as a footnote. The clitoris, when it was considered by ancient physicians at all, was believed to be the female version of the penis - but lesser. (I'm sorry, but the organ, capable of multiple orgasms, that only exists for pleasure is not lesser. It is the gold standard.)

Clitoral neglect wasn't confined to medicine. Think about all those ancient Greek statues with defined scrotums and penises (the penises are on the small side because sexuality was apparently at odds with intellectual pursuits and so a big brain, not a big penis, was the ideal). The vulvas of the time were but mysterious mounds concealed by crossed legs.

Around 1000 AD, Persian and Arab physicians began to take more interest in the clitoris, but given the constraints imposed on male physicians touching a naked woman or even a female cadaver, work was slow. By the end of the 17th century, descriptions of female anatomy, including the clitoris, were quite accurate, anatomically speaking.

Some anatomists who made these advancements are memorialized in the names of the structures they accurately described - Gabriele Fallopio (fallopian tubes; also invented the first condom and studied it in a clinical trial!) and Caspar Bartholin (Bartholin's glands).

By 1844, the anatomist Georg Ludwig Kobelt published such detailed work that his anatomic descriptions of the clitoris rival those we have today. However, his work was essentially ignored (as was almost everything that had led up to it), likely owing to a combination of the expansion of Victorian beliefs (essentially the dangers of female sexuality) and Sigmund Freud popularizing the false belief that the clitoris produced an "immature" orgasm.

Physicians in the twenties and thirties truly believed the vagina was filled with dangerous bacteria. Of course, that idea is absurd, and you don't need a medical degree to reach that conclusion. If the vagina were perpetually in such a state of infectious near-catastrophe, women would never have survived, evolutionarily speaking. The narrative of a dirty vagina did, however, fit the societal goal of female oppression.

For many years, discussing female sexuality in the doctor's office was taboo. Much of women's health, especially sexual health, was deemed unimportant or irrelevant because that is how women were viewed.

A male-dominated profession, a male-dominated society with little interest in women's experiences and opinions about their own bodies, a penis-centric view of female sexuality and the belief propagated by Freud's work that the clitoris was unimportant - those are a lot of obstacles to overcome.

In addition, the clitoris, being largely internal, is also harder to study than the penis, practically speaking. Eventually, anatomic studies using female cadavers to dissect the clitoris were allowed, but it is important to note the limitations of the work. Cadavers are expensive and not readily available.

Many cadavers are also older subjects, and clitoral volume reduces after menopause; in one cadaveric study, all subjects were between 70 and 80 years old. The preservation process also distorts the clitoris.

Before the advent of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), it wasn't really possible to know exactly how the clitoris in a living woman was positioned or how it engorges with blood in response to sexual stimulation.

Anatomic knowledge has come a long way. While I don't remember each anatomy lecture from medical school and residency, I still have my textbooks. The two that are specific for OB/GYN are anatomically correct, clitoris-wise, but the general anatomy book (published in 1984) devoted three pages of illustrations (two in colour) to the penis, with the clitoris relegated to an inset image in an upper corner - and the entire structure is the worst shade of puce. It's also called a "miniature penis."

As if.

Before we had microscopes and testing, before we had X-rays or other imaging, we struggled to make real medical diagnoses. And of course, without knowing what is actually wrong, it is hard to prescribe the right therapy.

As women were denied an education and, because of social mores, could not get an exam from a male physician, they often had to make do with female healers, who likely did the best with what they had.

I often wonder what these women would think of this modern trend of eschewing science for so-called "natural" and "ancient" remedies. I truly believe they would favour modern diagnostics and therapies such as vaccines and antibiotics as opposed to crystals and poultices. I believe they would look at anti-fungal medication for yeast and call it magic.

Undoing medical mythology is hard.

In some cases, we see or hear the misconceptions repeated so often that we believe there must be some truth to them - the "illusory truth effect" (repetition being mistaken for accuracy) is real.

Additionally, women, who have historically been dismissed by the medical establishment, have an extra incentive to distrust it and turn elsewhere for help - especially if the person they turn to is welcoming and actually listens.

So here's a list of "old wives' tales" - although some are not so old.

Apple cider vinegar to balance your vaginal pH: Vaginal pH is controlled by healthy vaginal bacteria, not food or the environment. This basic misunderstanding of the vaginal ecosystem drives a lot of misinformation, such as this apple cider vinegar scam.

Vinegar has approximately the same pH as stomach acid, so how a shot of vinegar could balance your pH, but the acid floating around in your stomach doesn't, is never explained. I mean, come on. You can't change your blood pH with food because your kidneys and lungs control blood pH, and when they don't you get very ill and die. So the idea that vinegar could impact vaginal pH is, biologically, simply absurd. What drinking apple cider vinegar will do is damage the enamel of your teeth.

Birth-control pills cause weight gain: This has been well studied, and the answer is no. This is not disbelieving women; this is the exact opposite.

This is taking what women report about weight gain and studying it.

These data really reflects doctors listening to women. Several studies have shown no link between birth-control pills and weight gain. One study even compared women who took birth-control pills with women who had a copper IUD inserted - so no exposure to hormones. Both groups gained the same amount of weight. The life situation associated with starting new contraception may be associated with weight gain, but the pill is not.

Coffee enemas (rectal!) for anything: Dear God, no. People, even some doctors, promote this to treat depression! I. Just. Can't. Even. First of all, this is a waste of good coffee. But, medically speaking, to believe coffee in your rectum could treat anything is ludicrous. I mean, why is that different from drinking it? Chasing the origin of this myth led me down a rabbit hole of epic proportions (think clandestine Facebook groups, e-mails to medical historians, museum curators digging through archives). This myth started relatively recently. The only medical reference is in the 1944 Royal Army Medical Corps training manual during the Second World War, and it was used to keep men awake. I'll say! Just don't. And run from anyone who tells you this will help.

Hormonal contraception causes "infertility": Nope, but the patriarchy trying to scare you away from controlling your reproductive health is invested in this myth. Sadly, many "natural" health proponents also capitalize on this fear as well. Whether the infertility myth is from ignorance or misinformation (many bloggers writing about reproductive health don't fact-check or have little to no science background) or intent (disinformation: Think religious reasons or someone trying to scare you away from prescription contraceptives to sell you a menstrual-cycle tracking app), you will have to ask them. With the injection, fertility can be delayed several months, but by one year, all women are back to baseline. With all other methods of contraception, once stopped or removed, you are good to go, pregnancy-wise, the next month.

Lifting your arms over your head while pregnant will cause the cord to wrap around your baby's neck: Nope.

This isn't a vagina myth, but OB/GYNs hear it all the time, so I thought I would include it. This is just not biologically possible, and if pregnancies were that fragile, we would have died out years ago. I wonder if this myth serves the patriarchal ideal of the "delicate woman" or if it is simply born out of pregnancy fears.

Parsley in the vagina: The sprig.

Stuffed up the vagina each night for three to four nights to induce a period.

Look, I don't make this stuff up, I just report on it. Apparently some people - people who are wrong - think it could stimulate uterine contractions. There is no evidence vaginal application of parsley can do that to the uterus, but even if it could, that would not make you have a period. Progesterone withdrawal causes a period, not uterine contractions. Please don't put parsley in your vagina.

Steaming the vagina: This is promoted to "cleanse" the uterus. This ties into the destructive myth that the uterus is unclean because of menstrual blood that has been used by many cultures to exclude women from society - it's a defining characteristic of the patriarchy. So this idea is promoting a patriarchal idea. Some "health" bloggers promote losing weight to the point that periods stop to prevent the accumulation of these so-called "menstrual toxins." This is harmful on so many levels.

If you are dieting to the point your periods have stopped, you may be underweight, and if that continues, you could suffer real health consequences, such as osteoporosis (thinning of the bones).

Vaginal tightening sticks: These are promoted as Japanese in origin; whether they are or not I don't know. However, Western cultures are often guilty of exoticizing other cultures, so I would be wary when a specific culture or country is used as part of a marketing strategy.

Anything offered to tighten your vagina is an astringent that will likely damage the tissue that lines the vagina, as well as the protective vaginal discharge. It is also part of the patriarchal idea that a "used" vagina stretches and is undesirable. This mythology harms women medically and emotionally, and people who promote it should be ashamed of themselves.

Yogurt for yeast infections: It doesn't contain the strains of lactobacilli that are important for vaginal health. When a woman puts yogurt in her vagina, she is putting other bacteria there, as yogurt has live cultures, and the consequences are unknown. It may feel soothing because it is cream-like, but the risks are unknown and it will be ineffective.

Zinc to increase your libido: Zinc is apparently appearing in nutraceuticals intended to increase libido. In one study, zinc supplementation made male rats thrust more during sex (sexxxy!) and generally increased their "sexual competence." However, injecting zinc directly into dog testicles contributed to subfertility. I am going to have to go with a big no on this one, as there are no studies in women - although Sexual Competence of Rats could be the name of a punk band that never made it out of their parents' basement because their first single, Thrusting, failed to chart.

Power and health are inseparably linked. You can't be an empowered patient and get the health outcomes you want with inaccurate information and halftruths. Even if the information is correct, you also can't be empowered when the person or source informing you is making you feel bad or is not listening to your concerns.

When, in the past, I have come out against the misinformation presented to women, I have been attacked for diminishing the choices available to them.

But to me, the idea that women can take away what serves them from the morass of half-truths and lies about their bodies is the greatest perversion of choice. True choice - the ability to analyze information and make personal risk-benefit assessments based on it - requires facts.

And it is this quest to supply women with the facts that keeps me up at night. It is why I keep fighting.

I want every woman to have the power that comes with knowing how her body works and knowing how to look for help when her body may not be working as she hoped it would. I want all women to know when there is bias and medical subterfuge, when there are lies and when the patriarchy is just invested in keeping them frightened about their own normal (and, I might add, glorious) bodily functions.

The patriarchy and snake oil have had a good run, but I'm done with how they negatively affect women's health.

So I am not going to stop swinging my bat until everyone has the tools to be an empowered patient and until those who seek to subjugate women through enforced ignorance have shut up and taken a seat in the back of the class.

That's my vagenda.

Associated Graphic

Obsessions with reproductive-tract purity and cleansing date back to a time when a woman's worth was measured by her virginity.

KAMELEON007/GETTY IMAGES/ISTOCKPHOTO

Today, physicians and sex educators can print out accurate 3-D models of the clitoris, but for much of medical history no one had a clear idea what it looked like.

FACEBOOK/ODILE FILLOD

Zinc: Great for your rock collection, not so much for your libido.

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As rents rise across Canada, tenants are forced into subpar conditions or driven out of markets altogether. It's a complicated crisis - without a quick fix
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By MATT LUNDY
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B6


Amy Silliker knows where she's living the next six months. Beyond that, it gets murky.

After many years out of province, she snagged a great job as a paralegal in Summerside, PEI, taking her back to her hometown nearby in February, and where she's been house-sitting as she gets settled.

Six months into her rental search, she's found nothing. She checks Kijiji every day, but listings are out of her budget. She's on every apartment waitlist imaginable, and calls each month to see whether anything has opened up. Nothing has. A single mother, Ms. Silliker has heard a harsh refrain from some landlords: They don't want children.

The clock is ticking - and Ms. Silliker isn't all that confident.

"I hope that I wouldn't have to [leave] because I love my job," the 25-year-old says. "But I mean, I can't be homeless either."

Welcome to the birthplace of Confederation, now home to arguably the worst market in the country for renters.

Prince Edward Island's apartment vacancy rate plunged to 0.3 per cent in 2018, according to the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. (CMHC). Just five years earlier, it was 7.1 per cent.

After years of anemic construction and growing demand - thanks to an 8-per-cent population bump since 2014 - the average rent on a one-bedroom unit has climbed 16 per cent in five years. The vacancy rate for three-bedroom apartments on the island? Zero.

"We are using the word 'crisis' without exaggeration," says Hannah Bell, an MLA for the provincial Green Party.

Toronto and Vancouver tend to hog the spotlight when it comes to discussions of the country's rental crisis, with vacancy rates in both metro areas sitting at around 1 per cent.

But renters - who account for more than 30 per cent of Canadian households - are struggling to find suitable housing in cities and towns from coast to coast. In Kelowna, B.C., the average rent on a twobedroom apartment shot up nearly 10 per cent in 2018 from a year earlier. In nearby Revelstoke, B.C., a popular ski destination, the mayor says seasonal workers are sleeping 15 to a house. In Prince Edward County, Ont., homes are being converted into Airbnbs to accommodate floods of wine-drinking tourists, taking the homes off the rental market.

All of this means renters are often forced to stay in substandard, abusive or cramped conditions - or they're being driven out of markets altogether, taking them away from jobs, family and friends.

There's no one issue to blame for the crisis. Instead, it springs from a combination of policy changes and tax reforms that have made rental construction less appealing, demographic shifts that mean demand is growing faster than supply, and a seemingly unstoppable housing market that has put home ownership out of reach for all but the wealthiest.

And there's no quick fix.

Demand for rentals is "overwhelming the supply that's coming online, and I just don't see any silver bullet that's going to change the supply equation overnight," Michael Waters, the chief executive officer of Ottawa-based Minto Apartment real estate investment trust (REIT), said in a May earnings call.

"This will take quite a long time to remedy."

Canadian developers used to build loads of apartments, but it has become much less appealing.

During some peak years in the 1960s and '70s, more than 100,000 new rental units were completed, far greater than today's construction levels.

Tax policies encouraged rental investments. Notably, owners could claim high levels of depreciation (up to 10 per cent annually) against a rental property's income, helping to drive down taxable income during a building's early years, when startup costs are higher and rents are lower. Owners could then use a property's "paper loss" to reduce other sources of taxable income.

But in the early 1970s came a major tax overhaul with the primary goal of closing loopholes in the country's tax structure. Rental incentives were collateral damage.

"There was little, if any, consideration of the adverse consequences on the flow of private capital" into rentals, economist Frank Clayton wrote in a 1998 report for the Canadian Federation of Apartment Associations.

As a result, allowable depreciations were reduced and the "paper loss" scheme eliminated. Sellers of rental buildings were also now subject to capital gains taxes, among other adverse changes.

Later on, Brian Mulroney's Conservative government cut funding for social housing, leading to a sharp decrease in new affordable units in the 1990s.

At the same time, market dynamics were changing. Though the 1990s kicked off with a recession, the ensuing years saw robust economic growth.

Home prices were modest and mortgage rates had declined precipitously, from double digits in the 1980s to about 7 per cent by the late nineties for a five-year rate. Canadians jumped at the opportunity to become homeowners, and the number of renters declined between 1996 and 2006.

To satiate demand, developers turned their attention to another form of high-rise: condominiums.

Condo construction exploded. Since 1990, condo starts nationwide have averaged 46,500 a year, compared with 21,000 for rental housing. Toronto provides an extreme example: Over the past decade, about 80,000 new condo units have come onto the market, compared with just 4,500 purpose-built rentals, according to a city report from January.

From a developer's standpoint, there are obvious reasons to build condos. For one, you can presell the units, helping to secure part of the necessary financing.

"It's simply easier to build condo product: presell 70 to 80 per cent of the units, build the building and then move on to your next project and collect a fairly large profit along the way," says Paul Morassutti, vice-chairman at real estate services firm CBRE Ltd.

Of course, condos can be a lucrative to momand-pop investors - the average two-bedroom condo in the Toronto area rents for roughly $2,400 a month, according to CMHC, and about $2,000 in Metro Vancouver - and many units end up on the rental market. Depending where you look, they contribute significantly to a city's new rental supply: About one-third of the Toronto area's condos are used as rentals, compared with 19 per cent in 2007.

But from a renter's perspective, condo living - indeed, living in any unit that's not purpose-built - can be precarious. Eventually, the owner may opt to move in, or decide to lock in profits and sell.

"It doesn't allow renters to have confidence that their rental unit is theirs as long as they continue to pay rent on time," says Graham Haines, research manager at the Ryerson City Building Institute.

Then there's the Airbnb effect. Increasingly, owners are bypassing the rental market entirely. A recent McGill University report found more than 31,000 homes (including condos) were rented out so often on Airbnb in 2018 that they were likely removed from Canada's long-term rental supply. (The company disputes the figure and the study's methodology.)

What's clear is that condos, increasingly, aren't places where families can live and grow.

The median size of condos built in Ontario from 1981 to 1990 is just more than 1,000 square feet, according to Statistics Canada; for those built in 2016 and 2017, it is 665 square feet. In B.C., it declined to 775 square feet from 922 square feet.

"We're building condos not based on what the rental market needs, but what the investors who want to buy one condo will want instead," Mr.Haines says.

Rental demand is strong, and it's only getting stronger.

Since coming into office in 2015, the federal Liberals have pursued higher levels of immigration to help stoke economic growth and ease long-term demographic concerns. Canada welcomes more than 300,000 immigrants annually, and Ottawa is targeting higher intakes in coming years. This has led to some of the country's strongest population growth

in decades.

It's a policy rooted in sound economic theory.

But most newcomers also rent, and combined with decades of meagre rental construction, the result is that demand has overwhelmed supply.

"We just haven't been building traditional apartment buildings to keep up with expansions in population," says David Macdonald, senior economist at the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA).

Consider PEI. To help boost its fortunes, the province has pursued an "aggressive population growth strategy," says Ms. Bell, the MLA, seeking out both immigrants and luring native islanders back home.

Over the four years that ended in mid-2018, PEI's population grew 6.2 per cent, the highest among the provinces. In addition to immigration, rental demand has been topped up by those moving to Charlottetown from rural areas, Ms. Bell says.

But with lacklustre construction, and a vibrant short-term rental market, vacancies have all but dried up.

"We are genuinely concerned that we are going into yet another fall and winter where we have people who are in crisis," Ms. Bell says.

The problem is magnified in major employment centres such as Toronto and Vancouver, which are hubs for newcomers.

Indeed, in the 12 months ending July 1, 2018, the Toronto region's population grew by roughly 125,000 people, or 56 per cent higher than the previous 10-year average, Statistics Canada reports. For both the Toronto and Vancouver areas, population growth was entirely owing to international migration, including permanent residents and foreign students.

It all adds up to a national vacancy rate for purpose-built apartments of 2.4 per cent in 2018, down from 3 per cent in 2017, according to CMHC, which cited immigration as a key factor in the decline.

In turn, rents are shooting up. The average apartment rate in Victoria climbed 7.4 per cent in 2018 from a year earlier, CMHC data show. In Peterborough, Ont., rents climbed 6.9 per cent. And for the average two-bedroom in the Oshawa area, rates rose 6 per cent.

It's no surprise that Toronto and Vancouver are exceptionally pricey. The average two-bedroom apartment in the Toronto area runs $1,467 a month, with Metro Vancouver at $1,649. Want a bigger space, or condo, in the city? Be prepared to spend more. And bear in mind, new listings command far steeper rates. The median asking rent in July for a two-bedroom unit in Toronto was $2,850 a month, according to rental site PadMapper. In Vancouver, it topped $3,000.

No wonder rising rents are stretching wallets.

CMHC says housing is "affordable" when a household spends less than 30 per cent of its pretax income on shelter. In the previous census, close to 1.8 million tenant households spent in excess of that threshold.

By that measure, a full-time worker would need to earn $35.43 an hour to afford an average two-bedroom in the Vancouver area, according to a recent CCPA report. (The think tank used CMHC's prices in its calculation.) It was $33.70 an hour for the Toronto area, and $22.40 an hour for Canada over all.

Meanwhile, Statscan data show that roughly 29 per cent of Canada's 13.8 million full-time workers are earning less than $20 an hour.

The consequence is that "households don't have as much money for other priorities and buying other things in the economy," Mr. Macdonald says.

To avoid financial strain, many have little choice but to hunker down.

Nava Dabby and her family are a prime example.

She and her husband live in what's billed as a twobedroom apartment in Toronto's St. Clair West area.

But their 16-month-old son's room is cramped, with a "teeny-tiny, little window."

Ms. Dabby, a 34-year-old yoga studio manager, would love more space, but at $1,450 a month, her current rent is half what she would pay for a larger place in the same neighbourhood. They've looked into buying. To that end, they've socked away $75,000 for a down payment and have been preapproved for a mortgage of roughly $450,000 - a sum that falls well short of going rates for houses in the city.

"If I ever magically saw this $500,000 house, I would probably buy it," Ms. Dabby says. "But I haven't seen one in the last two years that I've been getting real estate e-mails."

Ryan Aird, 29, finds himself similarly stuck. After a bitter dispute with the landlord, he and his girlfriend looked to move out of their one-bedroom apartment near Toronto's High Park, which costs just more than $1,500 a month..

But four years after they moved in, the market had changed drastically. "Prices have gone just so high now that we'd be downsizing or moving into a basement unit, and still paying more than we pay now," Mr. Aird says.

Like most renters in Ontario, Mr. Aird is covered by rent control, which ties his unit's annual price hikes to provincial inflation. But once a unit is vacated, landlords can set the price. In Mr. Aird's building, for instance, identical one-bedrooms are being listed for at least $2,000 a month.

For obvious reasons, renters largely support rent control, because the predictable and relatively modest increases give them long-term financial stability. The downside, however, is that many tenants end up enduring nasty landlords, noisy neighbours, poorly kept buildings and even abusive relationships to hold on to rent-controlled rates.

Moreover, economists typically agree that rent control scares off developers and crimps new supply, thereby making rental markets tighter and pricier.

In 2017, the previous Ontario Liberal government expanded rent control to all units; it had earlier covered units built before 1991. The expansion was roundly criticized on Bay Street. "There is a clear risk that the broadening of Ontario's rent-control policy may worsen rental stock availability," a Toronto-Dominion Bank research report said.

Finally, the math is getting better for developers.

From a financial standpoint, developing rentals is still challenging, given rising construction costs and pricey land, especially in big markets. But owning them long-term? That's an increasingly attractive asset - and some big names want a piece.

RioCan REIT, better known for shopping malls, started leasing units in Toronto and Ottawa this year. Oxford Properties, the property arm of Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System pension fund, is trying to build a four-acre development near the CN Tower that includes 800 rental units in two towers. And Minto has added buildings in Calgary, Montreal and elsewhere to its portfolio.

"The front-end returns are somewhat skinny," Mr. Morassutti of CBRE says. "But all of those owners feel that, over time, especially if you've got a 30year horizon, the overall return will be quite healthy, as rents continue to grow."

The construction data reflect this growing appetite. The number of rental starts climbed to nearly 50,000 units in 2018, nearly double the previous 10year average, CMHC says. More than 10,000 new units are under construction in the Greater Toronto Area alone, and another 44,000 are planned but have yet to break ground, according to research firm Urbanation.

The policy climate appears to have improved for developers, as well. Ontario's current Progressive Conservative government has scrapped rent control on new units completed after late 2018, and will allow developers to postpone development charges for rental and non-profit housing by five years, easing startup costs.

More broadly, governments at all levels have dedicated billions toward rental development, much of it in affordable housing. Through a series of programs, CMHC is looking to deliver more than 110,000 new units by 2027-28. Its Rental Construction Financing Initiative provides low-cost loans to developers, and 23 projects have been announced to date.

As for tenants, some relief is on the way: The Canada Housing Benefit, which launches next year, will provide an average rent subsidy of $2,500 a year, and eventually reach 300,000 families.

But with rip-roaring population growth, it might not be enough.

"We're still under-building [in Toronto]," says Shaun Hildebrand, president of Urbanation. "Even though we're seeing the level of development ramp up, it's coming off of a depressed level, right? So the numbers all look very exaggerated."

Mr. Hildebrand says three times as much rental construction is needed to satisfy Toronto's demand.

And what's being built isn't for everyone. Ottawa is seeing a spate of high-end rentals come to market with one-bedroom units at $2,100 a month.

As such, "increased rental starts have not been due to public funding or tax incentives, but rather answer a demand for new, mostly luxury rentals for people priced out of the housing market," the CCPA report said.

So, how can Canada unlock a flood of new, purpose-built rentals, including affordable units?

Many municipalities are hampered by zoning bylaws that restrict high-density development. In Vancouver, for instance, city council recently turned down a rezoning application to build 21 rental townhomes in the Shaughnessy neighbourhood.

The project was opposed by an end-of-life hospice next door.

Now, the lot's owners are planning to build a single, 12,000-square-foot mansion.

The situation is much the same in Toronto. "I think it's utterly insane that, in 2019, if you're building a building that's within a pitching wedge of a subway station, that you should have to scratch and claw just to build nine or 10 storeys," Mr. Morassutti says.

As for the Canada Housing Benefit, it will reach just a fraction of the millions of Canadians who are now spending too much on rent. Likewise, though funding for social housing has picked up, construction sits below heyday norms, suggesting even more cash is needed.

Tax reform, including a reinstatement of some bygone incentives, would turn heads in the private sector. Tighter regulation of short-term rentals - in particular, cracking down on commercial Airbnb operators - could free up supply and, where rules are in place, tougher enforcement is needed. (Quebec has struggled to clamp down on explosive Airbnb growth.) Taxes on uninhabited homes could help, too, in places where they don't already exist.

But all of this will take time.

Laura Cappell, for one, will be watching to see how all this pans out from afar. A communications freelancer, she felt like she was "being held hostage" by rent prices in Toronto. So she decided to move - all the way to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Her fully furnished three-bedroom house (pool and most utilities included) costs just less than $1,400 a month, or about $350 less than her one-bedroom apartment in midtown Toronto.

"You know, Toronto will always be home," Ms.Cappell says. "But I don't have to live there."

Associated Graphic

Nava Dabby and her husband live in what's billed as a two-bedroom apartment in Toronto's St. Clair West area. But their young son's room is cramped. Ms. Dabby would like more space, but at $1,450 a month, her current rent is half what she would pay for a larger place in the area. They've put away $75,000 for a down payment for a home, but have only been preapproved for a mortgage of roughly $450,000 - well below going rates for a Toronto home.

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The new spheres of influence: As the American era ends, what will take its place?
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From crackdowns in Hong Kong and Kashmir to the mad scramble for the Middle East, the unipolar, U.S.-led world we know is unravelling. Who is in control now, and where does Canada stand?
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A12


It's been a noisy, tumultuous summer around the globe.

Hundreds of thousands of protesters have taken to the streets of Hong Kong - briefly shutting the city's international airport - in a remarkable challenge to Beijing's power. Crowds have also marched through Moscow, rattling the Kremlin with their call for free elections. Wars blaze on in Syria and Yemen, tensions are ominously high in the Persian Gulf and an unchecked North Korea has launched a new flurry of missiles.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi decided this chaotic moment in history was the right time to strip the Indian-controlled part of Kashmir of its autonomy, touching off a dangerous war of words with neighbouring Pakistan. It was just the latest example - after Russia's seizure of Crimea five years ago, and U.S. recognition this year of Israel's annexation of the Golan Heights - of a regional power moving to change the facts of a long-standing conflict. In doing so, Mr. Modi joined Vladimir Putin and Benjamin Netanyahu in pursuing what they see as their countries' vital national interests - while disregarding what used to be considered international norms.

Amid the global cacophony was a very significant silence: Scroll through U.S. President Donald Trump's Twitter feed - the megaphone of the world's most powerful man - and you'll find little in the way of support for the pro-democracy demonstrators in Hong Kong and Moscow or criticism of India's move in Kashmir.

Instead of trying to play the old U.S. role of global policeman, Mr. Trump floated a border change proposal of his own - suggesting that the United States could purchase Greenland - then took offence when Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen dismissed it as "an absurd discussion." It was easy to chuckle at the Trump-induced spat. But the underlying thinking - that borders can be changed without consulting the people who live there - reveals how the old rules of international relations have vanished.

"A new era has begun," Mr.Modi declared in the wake of his Aug. 5 announcement, which effectively made the Indian-controlled part of Kashmir - a predominantly Muslim region that spans the border between India and Pakistan and which the nuclear-armed neighbours have fought two wars over, clashing as recently as 1999 - into just another Indian state. But Mr.Modi's remark applied far beyond South Asia.

Almost three years after the election of the isolationist Mr.Trump, it's more obvious than ever that the unipolar, U.S.-led world we lived in for a quartercentury after the end of the Cold War is over. It's not yet clear what will take its place. "We're seeing an unwind of the international order," said Ian Bremmer, the head of the Eurasia Group, a New York-based international risk consultancy. And the multiplying crises around the world, he said, were "symptoms of what happens when a geopolitical order ends, but we don't have a new one emerging."

The sudden void has left countries such as Canada, which felt comfortable and safe under the previous system, stumbling to figure out where it's now safe to stand. Even the old architecture is disappearing, with Mr.

Trump pulling the U.S. out of everything from trade and environmental treaties to arms-control pacts. He has also questioned the utility of two keystones of Canadian foreign policy, the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, while the European Union, another stalwart Canadian friend, is for the most part too consumed with its own problems to project itself on the international scene.

The disorder will be on display this weekend as the Group of Seven countries gathers in Biarritz, France, where disagreements over how to handle everything from Brexit to the Iran nuclear deal - combined with Mr.

Trump's penchant for the unpredictable - have meant there will no joint statement at the end of the annual gathering for the first time since 1975.

Canada's Liberal government has been slow in recognizing how much the ground under its feet has shifted. The past 12 months have seen Ottawa wander into barbed diplomatic disputes, first with Saudi Arabia and now China, simply by standing up for concepts once proclaimed to be "universal" - human rights, the rule of law - to which Riyadh and Beijing no longer even feign deference.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, in a pre-election foreignpolicy speech this week, said the rise of nationalist and populist forces around the globe had created "a more unpredictable and unstable world, where some have chosen to step away from the mantle of global leadership, even as others challenge the institutions and principles that have shaped the international order."

Historic parallels are imperfect because the advent of technology has dramatically changed the nature of everything from warfare to the way governments relate to their citizens.

Non-state actors, from terrorist groups to social-media companies, are also more powerful than they've ever been (witness this week's move by Twitter and Facebook to expose - and shut down - an alleged online effort by the Chinese government to sow dissent among the Hong Kong protesters).

But the growing international disorder nonetheless sparks comparisons to the prewar periods of the previous century.

"Anyone who looks at the news today has to realize that we're getting closer to one or two of these things boiling over," Mr.

Bremmer said, pointing to Kashmir, the Persian Gulf and the escalating tensions in East Asia as three of the most dangerous flashpoints. "Given that the world is now going into an economic slowdown, [the instability] is certainly going to intensify."

The United States' withdrawal from the international stage, of course, began before Mr. Trump's 2016 run for the White House. He is a symptom and an accelerant - take, for example, his claim in late July that Mr. Modi had asked him to mediate between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, which infuriated Indian hardliners and put pressure on Mr. Modi to act. However, Mr. Trump is not, by himself, the cause of his country's growing isolationism.

Barack Obama was president when Mr. Putin made his gamechanging grab for Crimea, a move that exposed the limits of U.S. and Western power. It was also Mr. Obama who decided that the U.S. - exhausted by the long war in Afghanistan and the unnecessary one in Iraq - should not intervene in Syria, an abstention that allowed Russia and Iran to step forward and shape the conflict instead.

"You don't have a West that asserts itself as a global leader, at least not as it did under previous [U.S.] administrations, as the U.S.

has portrayed itself since the Second World War," said James Dorsey, a senior fellow at Singapore's S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. In the vacuum, what Mr. Dorsey called "autocrats, authoritarians and illiberals" have risen, each seeing themselves as the leader of something larger than their nation state. These regional powers feel able to pursue aggressive, even expansionist, agendas without fear of serious repercussions.

Mr. Dorsey sees a "civilizational" world emerging in which China and India dominate their smaller neighbours in East and South Asia and where Russia can pursue Mr. Putin's ambition of restoring Moscow's hegemony over the countries of the former Soviet Union. The U.S. will focus its attention more narrowly on the Americas, while Europe - the force that often dragged Washington away from its isolationist impulses - is distracted by Brexit and other internal challenges, such as the rise of populism across the continent. (Italy, which saw its government collapse this week, sparking concerns that far-right leader Matteo Salvini could make a play for the prime minister's job, is only the latest example.) The Middle East, as usual, remains contested ground, the place where world powers do much of their jousting. What's remarkable today is the number of interested players. Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey and Qatar - all of them nominal U.S. allies that no longer see a need to defer to Washington - are pursuing separate and contradictory agendas in the region. That has led to clashes between their political allies and proxy armies in places such as Libya, where Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the UAE have backed an insurgent army that's trying to oust the UN-backed government in Tripoli, which has received military support from Turkey and Qatar.

The chaos resulting from every state acting independently is also on display in Yemen, where the UAE - after four years of fighting as part of a Saudi-led coalition against Iranian-backed Houthi rebels - abruptly withdrew its forces last month, leading to clashes on the ground between pro-Saudi forces and a militia that had previously been loyal to the UAE. The withdrawal was believed to have been motivated by security worries closer to home, specifically rising tensions with Iran.

Iran, for its part, is engaged in a high-stakes game of chicken that has already seen oil tankers attacked and a U.S. military drone destroyed over the Persian Gulf by an Iranian missile. Mr.Trump said after the drone incident that he was "five minutes" away from ordering retaliatory missile strikes, but changed his mind after considering how many people would die. Both the U.S. and Iran say they don't want war, but the chance of a miscalculation that leads to exactly that remains dangerously high.

Meanwhile, Russia, Turkey, the U.S. and Iran all have troops on the ground in Syria, each of them fighting for very different goals, while Israel pursues its own agenda through occasional airstrikes. Earlier this summer, Russia and Turkey appeared to take a step closer to each other - and in Turkey's case, a big step away from its NATO allies - when President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government purchased advanced Russian-made air-defence systems. But any warming between Moscow and Ankara was frozen this week when a Turkish military column was bombed by the Russian-backed regime of Bashar al-Assad as it moved into Idlib province, a part of northern Syria under the control of Turkish-backed rebels.

Each of the many antagonists has a very specific agenda in Syria, while none has a credible vision of how to bring peace to the country after more than eight years of war.

Peacemaking is the area where U.S. disinterest is most strongly felt. For the past four decades - since the groundbreaking 1979 treaty that ended the state of war between Egypt and Israel - it has been the White House that brokered and underwrote peace in the region. But the Trump administration's "Deal of the Century," which putatively aims to tackle the thorniest of the region's problems - the Israeli-Palestinian conflict - has been dismissed out-of-hand (and before the details are fully known) by most Middle East observers as lopsidedly pro-Israel. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas said the U.S. under Mr. Trump, is no longer capable of playing its previous role as the region's "honest broker."

After decades of setting the agenda through a seemingly unbeatable combination of soft power and military might, Washington is now seen as just another party pursuing its own narrow agenda in the region.

"The U.S. is no longer the reference point that everyone looks to," said Lina Khatib, head of the Middle East and North Africa program at Chatham House, a London-based international affairs institute. "The American administration is mostly focused on domestic issues in the U.S., and trade relations, but it's definitely not interested in the Middle East - other than supporting Israel and putting pressure on Iran."

Ms. Khatib said the U.S., rather than policing rogue actors as it did in the past, is now abetting the sense of lawlessness in the region and beyond.

"When the U.S. doesn't do anything about Kashmir, or when the U.S. recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital even though it flies in the face of the United Nations, this gives the green light to actors to do what they want without fear of any repercussions." Once-solid alliances are falling apart in East Asia, too, where an escalating dispute between Japan and South Korea - seeded in unresolved Second World War grievances - has seen each side strike the other from its list of trusted trading partners. South Korea has said it may next cancel its longstanding intelligence sharing with Japan, a not-insubstantial threat at a time when North Korea has resumed its provocative missile tests, conducting six launches in the past month alone.

The biggest winners in this international disorder are arguably Mr. Putin's Russia and President Xi Jinping's China.

Five years on from the annexation of Crimea - even as Moscow stands accused of directing both a separatist army in eastern Ukraine and disinformation campaigns aimed at provoking social discord in the West - the conversation in much of Europe is over how and when to end the economic sanctions the West has had in place against Russia since the events of 2014. The sanctions have damaged both sides, the argument goes, without causing any discernible change in the Kremlin's behaviour.

Ahead of the G7 meeting in France, Mr. Trump said - not for the first time - that he favours expanding the club to re-admit Russia, which was expelled after the takeover of Crimea.

Beijing, meanwhile, apparently feels free to indefinitely keep as many as a million of its Muslim citizens in "re-education" camps, likely because the West and the Islamic world have made only statements of concern, without attaching any serious costs to Beijing's mass internment of its Uyghur minority.

China - similar to Russia, Israel and India - has also been establishing new facts on the ground, quite literally, in the South China Sea. It has built artificial islands, and erected military bases on them, to enforce its claim to the entire body of water, which borders half a dozen countries and contains some of the world's busiest trading routes.

Hong Kong - and the question of whether and how to restore order there - looms as the next test for Mr. Xi, but of all the factors he has to consider, the reaction of the international community is at best a secondary consideration.

Yu Jie, a Chatham House senior research fellow on China, said Mr.

Xi would be more worried about pleasing the domestic Chinese audience - which is deeply split between hard-line Communists, who want to see a crackdown on the demonstrations, and a business community that is alarmed about the repercussions of Beijing sending security forces into the semi-autonomous trading hub.

China's rise as an economic, military and diplomatic superpower has meant the country is less concerned about ruffling feathers abroad - in part because the West, which young Chinese people used to idealize, now looks far less impressive as a model. (Chinese students studying in Britain, Australia and Canada have attended protests calling for Beijing to restore "stability" in Hong Kong.)

"China's younger generation no longer feels themselves subject to the criticism of the international community," Ms. Yu said.

"They've travelled in the West and they see the West doesn't set a good example of democracy, that the West doesn't have a good story to tell."

That's part of the reason, she said, that this week's joint Canada-EU statement on the situation in Hong Kong - which called on China to respect "fundamental freedoms, including the right of peaceful assembly, and Hong Kong's high degree of autonomy" - was easily swatted aside by Beijing. Many ordinary Chinese no longer believe the West has the moral authority to make such statements about their country, and many likely appreciate their government's tough response.

The U.S. was also very notably absent as a signatory to the Canada-EU intervention.

"The unipolar moment seems to be over, and what China seems to be trying to do is reshape the debate," Ms. Yu said. In a multipolar world, the question is no longer about whether "fundamental freedoms" are being respected; the issue is who has and who doesn't have a right to weigh in on a crisis unfolding on Beijing's doorstep, far away from Ottawa and Brussels.

A few years ago - before the rise of Mr. Trump and Mr. Xi - the working assumption was that as China rose as a superpower, it would take on more responsibilities on the international stage, with Beijing and Washington making up an informal "G2" that would become the most important relationship in the world.

The concept of a G2 was based on the assumption that the economies of China and the U.S. were so intertwined that their leaders would realize the need to work together to solve international problems. The election of Mr.

Trump - and the trade war he launched against Beijing - has upended that thinking and left the U.S. and China looking like two regional powers, pursing their own agendas when and where they see fit.

With the U.S. heading into a presidential election next year, many will be watching to see whether Mr. Trump's rivals can oust him from the White House and, if so, whether the next president will seek to reverse course and restore some of the his country's lost leadership.

But even a new president would struggle - even if they wanted to try - to undo the new facts on the ground in Crimea, the Golan and Kashmir. They'd also find themselves outnumbered on the international stage by nationalist populists such as Mr. Putin, Mr. Modi, Mr. Erdogan and Mr. Xi.

"Trump is just a symptom," Mr.Dorsey, of the S. Rajaratnam School, said. "You have, almost globally, an unravelling of confidence in the system and unravelling of confidence in the leadership. ... It's very dangerous. I think it's a recipe for an unstable, more violent, more discriminatory world."

Associated Graphic

An Indian security service member stands guard in Srinagar, Kashmir. India this month stripped the Indian-controlled part of Kashmir of its autonomy.

TAUSEEF MUSTAFA/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Top: Kashmiri girls walk amid smoke during clashes between Indian security forces and protesters on Friday. Above: On the same day, Kashmiris attend a protest after Friday prayers during restrictions. On Aug 5., an announcement by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in which he declared 'a new era has begun,' turned Kashmir, a predominantly Muslim region, into just another Indian state.

ADNAN ABIDI/REUTERS

Protesters walk toward Hong Kong's Legislative Council during a rally in Hong Kong on Friday.

LILLIAN SUWANRUMPHA/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Top: Pro-democracy protesters shout at police in Hong Kong on Friday. Above: People form a human chain in a protest that coincided with the 30th anniversary of the 1989 Baltic Way demonstrations. Protests in the China-controlled city, which briefly shuttered the city's airport, represent a remarkable challenge to Beijing's power.

TOP: THOMAS PETER/REUTERS; ABOVE: ANTHONY WALLACE/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

People ride past destroyed buildings in a shopping district in Douma, Syria, in June. In a sign of shifting alliances, North Atlantic Treaty Organization-member Turkey had been moving closer to Russia, but relations cooled this week after a Turkish military column was bombed by the Russian-backed regime of Bashar al-Assad in northern Syria.

MERIDITH KOHUT/NYT

In counting domestic-violence deaths, Canada's jumble of rules and record-keeping doesn't add up
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To stop Canadians from being killed by their partners, researchers and policy makers need a full picture of the problem, but statistical blind spots and varying provincial standards leave many deaths unaccounted for
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By MOLLY HAYES, ELIZABETH RENZETTI
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A8


TORONTO -- Nadia El-Dib was 22 years old, the middle child of four daughters, lively and outgoing. She was studying to be a legal assistant at the South Alberta Institute of Technology. She dreamt about going to law school.

On March 25, 2018, Ms. El-Dib left a Calgary shisha bar with Adam Bettahar, an ex-boyfriend she had found overly controlling.

Her body was found hours later in a suburban backyard. She had been shot twice and stabbed more than 40 times. Four days later, after a warrant for first-degree murder was issued for his arrest, Mr. Bettahar was killed in a shootout with RCMP officers near Edmonton.

Her family didn't know that Mr.Bettahar had been stalking and harassing her after their breakup: She didn't want to burden them with her worries, they later learned. Other women in her circle said that Mr. Bettahar had also displayed troubling behaviour toward them, but they didn't take it seriously enough to report him to police.

"Nadia didn't fit the stereotypical box of who gets murdered in a domestic-abuse situation," said her sister, Racha El-Dib.

"It's a lesson to learn since it's happening a lot more out there, especially with the statistics of one in every six days a woman is murdered in Canada," she said.

"Nobody talks about it. Nobody ever thinks, 'It's going to be me.' The reality is it can be anybody."

Ms. El-Dib's family would like her death to serve to raise awareness of, and hopefully prevent, future incidents of domestic violence. But the way that statistics on these crimes are collected in Canada leaves no guarantee that every incident can serve this purpose.

It is possible, but not certain that Ms. El-Dib's killing will be reviewed by Alberta's Family Violence Death Review Committee. If it is, then it will be one more piece in a puzzle for researchers to study and analyze so that they can try to prevent similar tragedies.

Such investigations have led to legislation to protect domestic violence survivors in workplaces, better co-ordination in the criminal justice system and the identification of red flags - warning signs that a romantic partnership might turn violent.

But, even with the existence of these committees, there are any number of holes in the way domestic homicides are recorded and investigated in Canada, researchers say. As many as 20 per cent of domestic-violence deaths may be overlooked because they involve dating relationships or same-sex partnerships. Murdersuicides, which make up nearly one-third of partner homicides, are not examined to the same degree as one where a perpetrator is still alive. Researchers are working to compile a comprehensive national database of domestic homicide statistics, but are stymied by different privacy legislation and recording standards across provinces.

What they would like to see is a system like Australia's. Australian officials, acknowledging that "a solid national evidence base is required" to effect change, began in 2017 to collect comprehensive data on domestic violence on a national level, rather than relying on a patchwork of inconsistent information from multiple regions.

Canadian researchers, by contrast, must sometimes rely on court documents and media reports, neither of which is totally reliable, to compile information.

According to Statistics Canada, there were 960 domestic homicides - in which the victim was a current or former spouse, common-law partner or dating partner of the perpetrator - between 2003 and 2013. Of those, 747 of the victims were women, and the largest demographic group was women in their twenties.

But that data, provided by coroners' offices or police reports, aren't enough for domestic-violence researchers and advocates who want to prevent similar crimes in the future. For that indepth insight, they rely on domestic violence death review committees (DVDRC), a system that is picking up steam across the country, but is still patchy and inconsistent in its evidence-gathering.

A DVDRC is a multidisciplinary group - some combination of law enforcement, Indigenous advisers, community workers, academics and policy planners - convened by a provincial government to examine the killing of intimate partners or family members. So far there are DVDRCs in six provinces: Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, Manitoba and British Columbia. A new committee is being launched in Quebec, and there has been movement on establishing a regional committee in Atlantic Canada. The purpose of the committees is to study some or all of the intimate partner murders in their jurisdictions, detect patterns, flaws or missed opportunities, and make recommendations.

"DVDRCs are the one mechanism now in place, in jurisdictions that have them, that put a comprehensive eye on system responses and see how we can do things better in the future," says Myrna Dawson, director of the Centre for Social and Legal Responses to Violence at the University of Guelph.

Dr. Dawson and Peter Jaffe of Western University are partners in the Canadian Domestic Homicide Prevention Initiative, a multidisciplinary project to gather better data for homicide prevention, especially among groups who face a higher risk of violence, such as children, Indigenous women, immigrant and refugee groups, and women in remote and rural communities.

Canada's first DVDRC was struck in Ontario in 2003, in response to three domestic killings that had prompted inquiries in the previous five years: two murder-suicides and one instance of a husband murdering his wife and four children.

Some DVDRCs are more rigorous, and therefore more valuable, than others. For example, Ontario's committee examines every homicide and files a report every year. From 2003 to 2017, Ontario's DVDRC reviewed 445 deaths; twothirds were homicides and onethird were murder-suicides. Because the review looks at every death, every year, patterns become apparent: In three-quarters of the cases, there had been a history of domestic violence. In twothirds, the couple was separated or in the process of separating.

The latest report provided a summary of the most common risk factors, including a perpetrator who was depressed or unemployed, who had previously been violent and who had shown signs of controlling behaviour.

"I think in terms of the data aspect, [the DVDRCs] are extraordinarily valuable," Dr. Dawson said.

"For example, we have a risk factor checklist with something like 40 or 41 risk factors. So you can monitor trends in risk factors over time and start to see if there are different risk factors emerging."

Other provinces' committees are more cursory, often lumping several years of homicides together and not examining each case individually. Alberta's Family Violence Death Review Committee began in 2014, and its latest report examined 15 deaths in 2016 (as of the end of 2016, the committee had completed four "in-depth" reviews. Some cases, for example those that are still before the courts, are ineligible).

Saskatchewan, which has one of the highest rates of family-violence homicide in the country (48 homicides and nine related suicides from 2005 to 2014 - 15 of whom were children) has had one DVDRC review, in 2018, which examined nine years' worth of murders and suicides.

Still, even the limited data in Saskatchewan's DVDRC was revealing: 30 of the adult victims had been in intimate-partner relationships with the perpetrator, and two-thirds of those victims were women; one third of family violence victims were under 21; and half were Indigenous. The Saskatchewan report also identified a number of risk factors, including a history of violence and drug or alcohol abuse, but also the impact of colonization and residential schools in cases involving Indigenous people.

A DVDRC will often make recommendations based on those risk factors or failures within the system, some of which are adopted and some that never see the light of day. Saskatchewan's report recommended the implementation of "Clare's Law," based on similar legislation in the United Kingdom, which would allow police to warn romantic partners of a person's violent history. Saskatchewan introduced the Clare's Law legislation, the first of its kind in Canada, in November, 2018.

The review committees are patchily convened across the country because they are costly and labour-intensive: "You have a dilemma," said Dr. Jaffe, director of the Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women at Children at Western University. "To actually do a detailed review and talk to friends and family and co-workers and go through all the medical and social service records as Ontario does, that would be very time-consuming. That is a challenge. Every jurisdiction has that struggle."

And yet, he points out, the committees' findings are invaluable because they can lead to real changes. For example, Lori Dupont was a nurse who was stabbed to death by her ex-boyfriend, a doctor, in 2005. Her case, along with that of Theresa Vince, who was killed by an employer who'd sexually harassed her, led to fundamental changes in 2010 to Ontario's workplace laws to protect victims of harassment and violence. The review of the 2006 murder of university student Natalie Novak by her boyfriend led to new policies around safety for women on campuses.

As well, the investigations reveal patterns that can be taken together as warning signals. Some of the most prevalent indicators in domestic-homicide cases include a prior history of abuse, the couple's separation and the perpetrator's history of depression.

As a result, Dr. Jaffe said, mentalhealth professionals have been sent directives about potential indicators to watch for in their clients.

In addition to the frequency of their reviews, these committees also differ in terms of their scope.

For example, in Alberta, all familial homicides are eligible for review - including those committed by children or parents.

In Ontario, the DVDRC only looks at homicides perpetrated by intimate partners. This means that the February murder-suicide of Roopesh Rajkumar and his 11year-old daughter Riya, for example, will not be reviewed - despite the undeniable lessons to be learned from that case.

Other cases can be missed because they fall into a grey area. For example, the February, 2018, murders of Ulla Theoret, her mother and her son, by a neighbour named Mark Jones who had briefly courted and then violently stalked Ms. Theoret for several years, is still being considered for review. The eligibility of this case is up in the air - even though Ms.Theoret reported to police just months before Mr. Jones murdered her, that he had previously sexually assaulted her. And because Mr. Jones also killed himself, the Theoret family will not get answers through a trial.

These discrepancies in scope also pose challenges for researchers trying to compare these cases province to province.

There are other shortcomings in the collection of domestic-violence statistics. For one thing, researchers may rely on media reports to identify crimes at a time when the number of local news outlets is shrinking across the country. This deficit was highlighted in a December, 2018, report from the Domestic Homicide Prevention Initiative, which relied on court documents and stories from media outlets to examine 418 domestic homicides in Canada between 2010-15. "We are still working with limited information, extracted from court decisions and media reports," the report stated. "This raises challenges in terms of consistency, thoroughness and accuracy of data for some of the cases. Many cases have missing information."

Privacy concerns can also impede the sharing of information, especially across provincial borders. Individual names and other identifying features are kept out of DVDRCs. Yet a wariness about revealing details, out of respect for the victims and survivors or possibly out of fear of lawsuits, is still one of the main roadblocks to comprehensive reporting around domestic homicides.

"We're living in an environment where people are hyper-vigilant about lawsuits," Dr. Jaffe said.

"But this is not a blaming exercise. It's like a plane crash. You want to find the black box. You want to know what the problem is, if it's pilot error or weather conditions. You want to be able to put a memo out to all airline manufacturers. That's our analogy in the death review committee, we're not pointing fingers. But the reality is that most institutions and systems are afraid of lawsuits."

The problem of secrecy extends to some police forces, which may refuse to release even the names of homicide victims in the case of murder-suicides. Controversy erupted in Alberta last year after some police departments refused to release the names of women who'd been killed by their partners in murder-suicides, citing the families' privacy concerns and saying that sharing the identity of the victims "did not serve an investigative purpose." In return, anti-violence advocates argued that more information was needed about every violent death in order to educate the community about what was going on in its midst. (Edmonton Police recently reversed their position on withholding names.)

What researchers would really like to see is a comprehensive national database of statistics - and they know it's possible because one country has led the way.

While the United States, Britain and New Zealand all use DVDRCs to better understand domestic violence and to shape future policy, one country stands out for the comprehensive way it collects data: Australia.

In May, 2018, the Australian Domestic and Family Violence Death Review Network issued its first report, establishing a national system for collecting, coding and sharing information around domestic homicides - a system that had previously, like Canada's, been a hodgepodge of provincial classifications. A similar national database in Canada would help identify and reduce violence against women and girls, researchers say.

Meanwhile, there are families that have waited years for a better understanding of the tragedy that robbed them of a loved one.

Adam Arreak Lightstone is a member of the legislative assembly in Nunavut, which, along with Canada's other territories, does not have a domestic violence death-review committee.

Eight years ago, Mr. Lightstone's sister and her children were killed by her husband. To this day, he still struggles to talk about his sister's death.

Sula Enuaraq was 29 years old when she was murdered by Sylvain Degrasse in Iqaluit in 2011.

Mr. Degrasse also killed their seven- and two-year-old daughters before killing himself. Ms.

Enuaraq had told her family members that she was in an abusive relationship and was planning to leave her husband a few days before she and her daughters were killed.

Mr. Lightstone was studying in Ontario at the time of the murders, and for years afterward coped by telling himself that his sister had moved away to China.

In June, 2018, Mr. Lightstone decided to speak publicly about her murder and share a review that had been done into her death with help from the Ontario coroner's office.

That review, which was completed in 2015, had come up with recommendations to prevent such deaths in the future. Although it was shared with Ms.

Enuaraq's family, it had never been made public. Mr. Lightstone felt that if it was going to be of any use, this information needed to be available to everyone.

The recommendations related to public education, health care, law-enforcement services, women's shelters and firearms access.

The report called for better training for police and health-care providers, more funding for women's shelters and increased public education around firearm safety.

Mr. Lightstone said he would like to see this process done for every case of domestic homicide in the territory.

Nunavut has a high rate of domestic violence, and Mr. Lightstone said it is not uncommon in downtown Iqaluit to spot a woman with a black eye. Last year, two women were killed in murder-suicides there. We should be learning from these tragedies, he argues, not sweeping them under the rug.

"Unfortunately ... I think it's easier for Canada to forget about all the issues facing us here in Nunavut," he said. "Domestic violence is an issue here in the territory that no one seems to want to talk about."

For the past year, Racha El-Dib has worked to ensure that her sister's murder has meaning. Her family launched Nadia's Hope Foundation to spread awareness of domestic abuse and teamed up with Calgary charity Gems for Gems to create an educational scholarship for women who have fled violence. If other young women can learn about the warning signs of domestic abuse through her sister's story, perhaps they'll be able to escape her fate.

There is hope, too, for future improvement in the data-collection system, with better co-ordination across provinces. Dr. Jaffe said a comprehensive national database of domestic-homicide statistics might be possible within the next five years, an invaluable help to researchers and policymakers. "Most domestic homicides are predictable and preventable with hindsight if the whole village had worked together."

Associated Graphic

Racha El-Dib, seen looking at a portrait of her sister Nadia El-Dib in her Calgary home, began a charity with her family called Nadia's Hope Foundation to spread awareness of domestic abuse after her sister was killed by an ex-boyfriend in 2018.

PHOTOS BY LEAH HENNEL/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Racha El-Dib visits Nadia's grave in Calgary. Nadia's killing may be reviewed by Alberta's Family Violence Death Review Committee, and if it is, it would be one more piece in a puzzle for researchers to analyze so they might prevent similar tragedies.

SOURCE: 2017 DVDRC ANNUAL REPORT

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Correction

A Tuesday news story about domestic violence death review committees incorrectly said that Ontario only reviews cases where the homicides are perpetrated by intimate partners, and that the February murder-suicide of Roopesh Rajkumar and his daughter Riya would not be reviewed. In fact, the DVDRC reviews all homicides that involve the child of an intimate partner or ex-partner and will be reviewing their deaths.

SNC affair began with 2016 meeting between PM, company
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By KATHRYN BLAZE BAUM
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


The seeds for the SNC-Lavalin affair were sown more than three years ago. In early 2016 - long before the resignations and caucus ejections of this year - Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and a senior adviser met with the Quebec engineering giant's then-CEO.

They discussed the company's legal woes and the potential fallout should it be convicted of fraud and bribery.

The meeting, which has not been publicly disclosed until now, is among a series of startling revelations contained in the report released Wednesday by federal Ethics Commissioner Mario Dion.

Many of the actors in the SNCLavalin controversy have given a public account of events as they saw them, whether through press conferences, written statements or testimony before the House of Commons justice committee that probed the matter earlier this year.

And yet, much is revelatory in the report, based on the testimony of 14 witnesses - including, for the first time, Mr. Trudeau and the examination of hundreds of pages of evidence.

Among the findings: Consistent communications between top government officials and SNC-Lavalin representatives that grew more intense at key legislative and corporate junctures, including as it related to board meetings and fluctuations in share price.

A lobbying effort that reached into Switzerland and China.

The involvement of three former Supreme Court judges, including two who provided outside legal opinions that were shared with cabinet ministers, unbeknownst to the former attorney-general.

The introduction of new players, including former Treasury Board president Scott Brison, who is now a vice-chair at the Bank of Montreal, and BMO chairman Robert Prichard, who is described in the report as legal counsel for SNC-Lavalin.

There was also the revelation that others, namely Finance Minister Bill Morneau, played a more significant role than previously known in the effort to avoid a conviction for SNC-Lavalin.

The commissioner's investigation concluded that Mr. Trudeau contravened a section of the Conflict of Interest Act by using his position of authority over then-attorney-general Jody Wilson-Raybould to try to get her to override the decision of the independent Director of Public Prosecutions to proceed with a trial in the SNC-Lavalin case.

The report offers the clearest picture yet of what happened when, and who, exactly, did what.

The story begins in early 2016, with the Prime Minister's meeting with Neil Bruce, at the time SNC's CEO. Although a Globe analysis of the federal lobbying registry published last month showed that the company registered 81 interactions with government officials on the issue of "justice and law enforcement" between early 2016 and early 2019, the company's meeting with Mr. Trudeau is not listed.

(The company registered a Feb.

18, 2016, meeting with Mathieu Bouchard, the senior PMO adviser.)

In his meeting with Mr. Bruce, Mr. Trudeau learned of SNC-Lavalin's desire for a made-in-Canada legal tool that would allow prosecutors to suspend criminal proceedings against companies charged with white-collar crimes in exchange for a negotiated settlement. This is often referred to as a deferred prosecution agreement (DPA). Around this time, Mr. Trudeau told Mr. Bouchard to pay attention to the SNC-Lavalin file and "identify existing levers that could lead to a positive outcome for everyone."

Given the task of keeping an eye on the SNC-Lavalin matter, Mr. Bouchard started seeking information on DPAs from officials in various federal departments at the beginning of 2016. The PMO also asked the Privy Council Office to organize multidepartmental meetings to discuss the concept of a DPA regime "as well as SNC-Lavalin's legal issues," the report says. While it was previously unclear what prompted the 2017 public consultations on the potential enactment of a DPA law, the report says it was at these meetings that a consensus emerged that Ottawa would run a consultation process on the matter.

Soon after the consultation process closed in December, 2018, Mr. Bruce met with the Finance Minister and his policy director, Justin To, while in Davos, Switzerland, at the World Economic Forum. This Jan. 23, 2018, meeting, which had been requested by SNC-Lavalin representatives, is not listed on the federal lobbying registry and has not been publicly disclosed until now. (Only arranged conversations must be logged. It is the lobbyist that must register the conversations. There is no evidence that SNC-Lavalin did anything illegal in its quest for a DPA.)

SNC-Lavalin would not comment on the commissioner's findings and declined to say why it did not log its 2016 meeting with the Prime Minister on the lobbying registry.

Mr. Morneau told the commissioner that while he did not recall what was discussed, he believed that the company would have raised its desire for a DPA law. Mr. To provided more details, based on a conversation he had with the Finance Minister about the meeting: "According to Mr. To, Mr. Morneau generally noted SNC-Lavalin's view that the government should proceed with the implementation of a [DPA] regime ... Mr. Bruce described potential negative economic impacts if SNC-Lavalin were unable to reach a remediation agreement."

Mr. To met again with Mr.Bruce in Ottawa on Feb. 2, 2018 another meeting that does not appear to have been registered.

Here, the company presented Mr.To with a confidential document that said, among other things, that the implementation of a DPA regime would increase the chances of the company maintaining its head office in Canada.

(The commissioner's report notes that, according to a 2017 article in Le Devoir newspaper, SNC-Lavalin agreed to the Caisse de depot's terms of financing for an acquisition that said the company had to maintain its headquarters in Montreal for the subsequent seven years).

Later that month, the Liberals announced through their budget plan that a DPA law would be forthcoming. On Feb. 2, 2018, even before the consultation results were announced, SNC-Lavalin presented finance officials with "the possibility of including the [DPA] regime in the 2018 budget implementation bill as a means to expedite the process."

Hasty passage was in the company's interest, given that a trial on the fraud and bribery charges was looming. As a Globe investigation revealed last month, Ms.Wilson-Raybould questioned the effectiveness of DPAs and was concerned that they were being pushed by a powerful company with a history of legal issues. Ms.Wilson-Raybould, The Globe reported, wanted nothing to do with the legislation and certainly did not wish to take the lead on it. She did not appear before the finance committee studying the budget bill, nor did she accept an invitation from the Senate legal affairs committee to testify on the matter.

Come mid-August, Mr. Morneau's office continued its efforts on the SNC-Lavalin file. Ben Chin, who was at the time the Finance Minister's chief of staff and is now a senior PMO adviser, contacted Ms. Wilson-Raybould's then-chief of staff, Jessica Prince, to discuss the company's situation. This meeting, too, was previously unknown, as Ms. WilsonRaybould's testimony before the House justice committee studying the SNC-Lavalin affair covered the period beginning in early September, 2018.

At this meeting, the report says, Mr. Chin stated that he had been speaking with SNC-Lavalin and that the "company's perception was that the process of negotiating a remediation agreement was taking too long." He asked whether anything could be done to expedite the process. By now, the DPA legislation had not yet even come into force. It would become law on Sept. 19. In a follow-up e-mail, Ms. Prince informed Mr. Chin that the Public Prosecution Service of Canada had previously told Ms. WilsonRaybould's staff that they could not seek an update on the file; simply asking for an update, Ms.

Prince wrote, would be perceived as - and might well be - improper political interference. Mr.Chin forwarded the e-mail to Mr.Morneau and Mr. To. The Finance Minister told the commissioner that he did not recall reading that e-mail.

The pressure campaign continued even after Sept. 4, when Ms. Wilson-Raybould was informed of Director of Public Prosecutions Kathleen Roussel's position that SNC-Lavalin would not be invited to negotiate a DPA.

This is well-known, and was documented before the House justice committee, albeit with competing perceptions of the events articulated by Ms. Wilson-Raybould and then-clerk of the Privy Council Office Michael Wernick as well as then-principal secretary to the Prime Minister, Gerald Butts.

What was not definitively known, however, was the Prime Minister's reaction to Ms. Roussel's decision. The report states that Mr. Trudeau was "puzzled" by the development because, in his mind, "SNC-Lavalin was precisely the kind of candidate for which the [DPA] regime was designed: one that had taken significant steps to reform itself and whose conviction would harm many people who had been involved in the wrongdoing." Mr.Butts, the report says, would later tell Ms. Prince that the government had created the DPA law for SNC-Lavalin's benefit.

Mr. Trudeau asked his staff for "existing options to move the file forward." He also told the commissioner that he would have advised his staff that it was important for Ms. Wilson-Raybould to take into consideration the potential negative impact on Canadians - an allusion to the economic impact of a conviction, which could lead to a 10-year debarment from federal procurement and job losses. The DPA law, as passed, outright bars prosecutors from considering the "national economic interest" in cases of alleged foreign bribery.

Mr. Morneau's office snapped into action, too. As a result of Ms.Roussel's decision, senior Finance and PMO staff contacted Ms. Wilson-Raybould's office to discuss what, if anything, could be done. As with Mr. Trudeau, Mr. Morneau was "extremely surprised" by the director's decision.

He told the commissioner that he did not believe Ms. WilsonRaybould had done her "due diligence" on the matter.

Knowing that whatever course she took would be scrutinized by the PMO and others, Ms. WilsonRaybould sought advice from several attorneys-general on the matter. But when it came to seeking advice on an actual prosecutorial decision - which would require allowing an outside person to access confidential information regarding the case - Ms.

Wilson-Raybould was not on board. Seeking such advice, the report says, would have been unprecedented.

Much of what transpired in the ensuing weeks is on the public record, including a meeting between Mr. Trudeau, Mr. Wernick and Ms. Wilson-Raybould, at which the former attorney-general says the Prime Minister reminded her that he was a Member of Parliament in Quebec and Mr. Wernick brought up the impending election in that province.

The report, though, fills in some of the details. It says that the PMO and Finance officials who raised concerns with Ms.Wilson-Raybould and her staff were at the same time "engaging in discussions with SNC-Lavalin representatives and their legal counsel to assist the company in finding solutions in order to initiate negotiations toward a [DPA]." For example, according to SNC-Lavalin, the company presented a draft PowerPoint document to Finance officials, who "suggested possible additional factors relevant to the public interest." The PowerPoint presentation also outlined a "Plan B," which would be executed should the company not be invited to negotiate a DPA.

And while SNC-Lavalin was soliciting meetings with government staff, at least one of those interactions came at Mr. Morneau's own request - a new detail in this chain of events. The Finance Minister told the commissioner he does not recall whether Mr. Bruce, who stepped down as the company's CEO in June, asked that he or anyone in his office take actions on SNC-Lavalin's behalf.

Also new to this narrative is the involvement of Mr. Brison, who was at the time Treasury Board president but was in February named a vice-chair at BMO.

In mid-October, the report says, Mr. Brison met on an unrelated matter with Kevin Lynch, a former Privy Council Office clerk who is one of BMO's vice-chairs and is also now SNC-Lavalin's chair, and Mr. Prichard, the BMO chairman who is described in the report as legal counsel for SNCLavalin. According to the report, Mr. Brison said Mr. Lynch and Mr.Prichard raised SNC-Lavalin's position on DPAs.

By November, SNC-Lavalin ratcheted up its communications with government officials, the report says. The company prepared two legal opinions, including one by former Supreme Court justice and SNC-Lavalin legal counsel Frank Iacobucci. Mr. Iacobucci's opinion outlined the legitimacy for Ms. Wilson-Raybould to intervene in criminal matters. The report reveals that while the legal opinion was shared with several cabinet ministers, it was not provided to Ms. Wilson-Raybould.

Ms. Wilson-Raybould also told the commissioner that she did not see a second legal opinion crafted at the behest of SNC-Lavalin by former Supreme Court justice John Major. Mr. Major's opinion centred on whether the failure of Ms. Roussel to provide reasons for her refusal to negotiate a DPA with SNC-Lavalin was unlawful and whether the refusal itself was unlawful. In new evidence to the commissioner, it has come to light that an SNCLavalin representative hand-delivered a copy of Mr. Major's opinion to Mr. Chin and senior PMO advisers.

In further new evidence, the commissioner also reported that, at the request of SNC-Lavalin, Mr.Morneau and Mr. Brison each had a meeting with Mr. Lynch while they were in Beijing for a conference in mid-November.

Mr. Lynch, the report says, described the company's ongoing concerns about Ms. Roussel's position. Mr. Morneau told the commissioner that Mr. Lynch "may have brought up the idea" of having former chief justice of the Supreme Court Beverley McLachlin act as a third-party expert on the matter.

At a meeting between PMO advisers and Mr. Prichard at the end of that month, Mr. Bouchard noted a proposal that had been suggested by SNC-Lavalin: that Ms. McLachlin would be asked to preside over a settlement conference between Ms. Roussel and SNC-Lavalin, and the government could appoint the former chief justice to support the negotiation of a DPA.

Mr. Trudeau testified to the commissioner that he had not heard of this idea, which only came to light in Wednesday's report. Ms. McLachlin, the report said, expressed to Mr. Iacobucci some reservations with the proposal and said she did not want to be retained by the government. Ms. Wilson-Raybould said she was not aware of these discussions until the commissioner mentioned it to her in an interview for the report.

Although a dinner meeting between Ms. Wilson-Raybould and Mr. Butts, then-principal secretary to Mr. Trudeau, at the Château Laurier in early December made headlines across the country months ago, what is new in the commissioner's report is this: After the dinner meeting, an SNC-Lavalin representative texted Mr. Bouchard and asked for an update ahead of the company's board meeting the following day.

Soon after the Château Laurier meeting came the now-widely known call between Ms. WilsonRaybould and Mr. Wernick, which the former attorney-general recorded and released as evidence to the House justice committee probing the SNC-Lavalin affair. For the first time, publicly, Mr. Trudeau addressed the controversial call, telling the commissioner that he never directed Mr. Wernick to speak to Ms. Wilson-Raybould in such stark terms, nor did he intend to threaten the former attorneygeneral.

But the Ethics Commissioner rejected that assertion, saying "it is difficult for me to imagine that Mr. Wernick would have acted without a full and clear appreciation of Mr. Trudeau's position on the matter."

Associated Graphic

Former Supreme Court justice and SNC-Lavalin legal counsel Frank Iacobucci

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Supreme Court chief justice Beverley McLachlin

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mathieu Bouchard, senior policy adviser to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau DAVE CHAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Minister of Finance Bill Morneau

SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Treasury Board president Scott Brison

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former SNC-Lavalin CEO Neil Bruce

PAUL CHIASSON/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Supreme Court justice John Major

JONATHAN HAYWARD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Senior adviser to the Prime Minister Elder Marques 2014

RETAIL WEST CONFERENCE

Robert Prichard, legal counsel for SNC-Lavalin J.P.

MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Friday, August 16, 2019

Correction

A Thursday news article on the SNC affair incorrectly dropped the word "not" from the following quotation from the Federal Ethics Commissioner's report. The report said "SNC-Lavalin was precisely the kind of candidate for which the [DPA] regime was designed: one that had taken significant steps to reform itself and whose conviction would harm many people who had not been involved in the wrongdoing.The article also incorrectly said the consultation process ended in December, 2018, when it was December, 2017.

WITH MODI'S NEW MAP OF INDIA, HINDU NATIONALISTS CHART BOLD COURSE
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In a long-contested border region with Pakistan, India's Prime Minister has tilted the balance of power, left Muslims' future uncertain - and electrified his political base
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A14


KATRA, INDIA -- Late one morning in this holy town in northern India, several dozen men held high the country's tricolour flag, chanting as they marched down the narrow streets, past vendors selling puffed rice for offerings and images of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

They had come to mark the country's 73rd Independence Day on Thursday, a cohort of middle-aged men with triumph on their faces as they walked through the religious centre in Jammu and Kashmir.

But theirs was no normal celebration, and this was no ordinary Independence Day.

"Kashmir is ours! All of Kashmir is ours!" they cried. Their voices echoed up the narrow street, which opened to a view of the cloud-draped Trikuta hills that Hindu pilgrims climb to worship at the Vaishno Devi temple, the second-busiest religious shrine in India.

"Victory for Mother India!" the men shouted in unison. "Brother Narendra Modi, our pride!"

Less than two weeks earlier, Mr. Modi, a leader steeped from childhood in a potent ideology of Hindu nationalism, had at a stroke redrawn the national map of India, ending the special status that had provided a measure of autonomy to a contested region with 12.5 million people who live between the Himalayas, the Karakoram Range and the Indus valley.

His government stripped the national constitution of the provisions that had allowed Jammu and Kashmir its own flag, its own constitution and its own laws, placing it directly under New Delhi's control.

Hours before the announcement, technicians cut phones and internet while troops fanned out, imposing a broad curfew.

His unilateral move - bifurcating the area into Jammu and Kashmir on one side, and on the other, Ladakh, an area to which both India and China lay claim - has prompted the United Nations Security Council to meet to discuss the region for the first time in decades.

The Kashmir decision, hailed by the public as unifying the country, stands among the most consequential decisions of Mr. Modi's rule, and cements him as an ideological leader who, fresh off an election win that further augmented his power, is prepared to pursue a Hindu nationalist agenda. In doing so, he is remaking the country in pursuit of objectives that have for decades been the dream of the country's far right wing.

Mr. Modi has said he intends to bring new development and new peace to Kashmir, making the region, which has witnessed two wars and a 30-year insurgency that has left 47,000 dead, into a fragile drafting board for the India he envisions.

At the same time, he risks provoking new forms of conflict, with India's nuclear-armed neighbours and with its own minority peoples.

By the end of this week, the curfew had been lifted in Jammu, where Hindus form the largest group and the former state's flag was nowhere to be seen. But Muslimdominated Kashmir remained in a state of lockdown, with armed soldiers patrolling empty streets, past intersections blocked with coils of razor wire and homes where residents took refuge without any form of electronic communication.

In Katra, a place Mr. Modi has visited twice as Prime Minister, the curfew was never imposed in the first place.

Trains continued to deliver the faithful, Hindus who make up 80 per cent of India's population and who have found in Mr. Modi a powerful ally. In a poll released this week, Indians ranked him the country's best prime minister of all time, eclipsing even the Nehru and Gandhi dynasty.

Observers and former colleagues say Mr. Modi sees himself restoring Hindu greatness and relegating to history centuries of slavery under the Muslim Mughals and the British.

"Thursday marked Jammu and Kashmir's first Independence Day," beamed Katra hotel owner Rakesh Sharma. Nearby, photo studios give life-size cut-outs of Mr. Modi more prominence than backdrops with the Hindu deities that draw crowds here.

Critics, however, have taken a much dimmer view of Mr. Modi's sudden move in Kashmir, and what it shows about his intentions for his second term.

"There's more to come," said Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay, a journalist and author who has written a lengthy biography of Mr. Modi, as well as a history of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the rightist group that the Prime Minister first joined at the age of 8. "He definitely is going to pursue the Hindu nationalist agenda to the limits."

Mr. Modi regularly salts his talk with references to "one nation," saying this week after the Kashmir decision that "the spirit of 'One Nation, One Constitution' has become a reality and India is proud of that."

But in doing so, Mr. Mukhopadhyay said, he has transformed India's slogan of "unity in diversity" into "unity in oneness."

Early each morning, a group of men gathers on the manicured lawn of Pushp Vihar Sector 5 Park in New Delhi to exercise before the heat of the day. Often, they assemble by 5 a.m., a show of discipline in keeping with the rigours of the group they belong to: the RSS, a sprawling nationalist volunteer group founded in 1925 that possesses the features of a religious order, debate club and army cadet program.

At Push Vihar park, the men gather for yoga, wrestling, boxing, sports and discussion. "We talk about Indian culture, nationalism and how each and every citizen has to be patriotic and give something to the country," says Surender Singh Rawat, who heads the morning gatherings here.

They talk, too, about Mr. Modi, a leader who immersed himself in the RSS from his primary school days, and whose ascension has made these gatherings much more popular.

"There's a boom," Mr. Rawat says. More people have come, too, after the Kashmir decision, aligning themselves with a foundational ideology of a popular prime minister.

Mr. Modi has at times distanced himself from the RSS. But his "vision for India is the vision of the RSS," said Yashwant Sinha, a former high-ranking official in the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) who served as a finance and foreign minister two decades ago. "Which is basically Hindu ascendance within the country."

An early leader of the RSS, Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, sought to define the group's vision in Bunch of Thoughts, a book that prescribes a rejuvenation of the "Hindu nation" as a curative to Western permissiveness.

Mr. Golwalkar lists Muslims, Christians

and Communists as "internal threats," describing Muslims as a menace whose communities amount to "miniature Pakistans" inside India's borders. Last year, the RSS released a new edition that elides some of the book's sharpest rhetoric. It still describes Islam as intolerant and "capable of horrific genocide.

Mr. Modi himself has been accused of bias against Muslims. As a boy watching war between India and Pakistan in 1965, he was "voluble on how all Pakistanis should be decimated," a hometown acquaintance told biographer Andy Marino.

The darkest stain on Mr. Modi's political career came in 2002, when he was chief minister of Gujarat state during race riots between Hindus and Muslims that left roughly 1,000 dead, and raised questions about whether Mr. Modi had done enough to prevent the slaughter of Muslims.

Mr. Modi has said the 2002 violence left him "shaken to the core," and, in late July of this year, bowed before a copy of the constitution before saying "there should be no discrimination over caste or religion."

Yet, his tenure as Prime Minister has been marked by a rash of mob lynchings, an outbreak of violence in which people suspected of illegally slaughtering cows have been dragged by their beards and forced to chant praise to Hindu gods before being killed. Indian officials do not gather hate crime statistics, but data journalists in the country say roughly 90 per cent of such crimes in the past decade have taken place since Mr. Modi came to power.

Mr. Modi has condemned vigilantism, saying "mob lynching is a crime, no matter the motive."

But vulnerable groups - Muslims and members of lower castes alike - are under such threat that extraordinary efforts are under way to respond.

Since July 26, Mehmood Pracha, an accomplished corporate lawyer, has trained 15,000 people in how to apply for gun ownership, guiding them through the process of filling out forms. It is all perfectly legal - and, to many in India, shocking.

Mr. Pracha would prefer his students not to actually arm themselves. But he hopes the impression of a populace seeking firepower dispels their image of vulnerability. And he feels compelled to act.

In his view, fault for the lynchings lies squarely at the feet of the Modi government, which he accuses of weakening protections for the country's weakest members. "That is the soul of our constitution, which they are hell-bent upon destroying," he said.

Mr. Modi swept into power in 2014 with promises to tackle corruption, light a fire under the economy and inaugurate a new era of job growth.

His economic record, however, has been mixed. Though the national GDP has surged, India last year fell from fifth to seventh place among the world's largest economies. Car sales in July plunged 31 per cent. Unemployment is the worst it has been in 45 years.

Officials have said a new way of measuring jobs makes proper historical comparison impossible, but there is reason to doubt official statistics. Mr. Modi's own former long-standing economic adviser has publicly accused the government of dramatically inflating growth.

Where Mr. Modi has unquestionably succeeded, however, is in redirecting the course of the country, and his role in it - and, critics say, in using his nationalist agenda to distract from economic woes.

Observers, critics and former colleagues say the second-term list of priorities for Mr. Modi is likely to include issues that have been core to the RSS for decades: the construction of a Hindu temple on the site of a Muslim mosque at Ayodhya (a potential religious flashpoint that has already given rise to deadly riots) as well as the creation of a uniform civil code (doing away with special legal provisions for religious groups); and perhaps even limiting births (in a country where Muslim families fall under suspicion of having many children).

Mr. Modi himself hinted at the latter in an Independence Day speech this week, referring to the "consequences of the uncontrolled population growth" and calling it "an act of patriotism" to have few children.

Such a proposal might stir a revolt elsewhere. But Mr. Modi has skillfully woven his political persona with the Hindu character of the country, making him "the embodiment" of the nationalist spirit he has helped to curry, said Mr. Sinha, the former BJP minister who quit the party last year and has now become an outspoken critic.

"Modi is India," he said. "It gives him enormous powers."

Mr. Sinha worries that "we are moving in the direction of single-party rule for many years to come."

Mr. Modi's agenda has made for potent politics. He enjoys broad support in the country's media, entertainment and corporate sectors. Even politicians from smaller opposition parties have in recent weeks defected to Mr. Modi's BJP.

But he has also courted danger, critics say. Internally, if nationalist impulses foment further violence against minorities, "at some point he may want to get off the tiger and not be able to control it," Mr.

Mukhopadhyay, the biographer, said.

In Kashmir, the threat is more imminent. Observers warn that insurgent activity could return when the curfew lifts, a possibility that places Indian leadership in a delicate situation as it seeks the peace it has promised in Kashmir.

Indian and Pakistani troops have already exchanged fire, with Pakistan reporting three dead soldiers.

Pakistan claims all of Kashmir, and its Prime Minister, Imran Khan, has vowed to "fight until the end" against aggression from India.

"India has sprayed Occupied Kashmir with gasoline and is playing with matches," Mosharraf Zaidi, a Pakistani international affairs analyst, warned on Twitter.

Kashmir has long been a place of deep contrasts: a land of rushing rivers, stunning mountain vistas and bloody violence; a Muslim region in a Hindu country; an agricultural region caught between nuclear powers.

In 1947, at the partition of the British Raj, the royal rulers of Kashmir wavered in choosing between Pakistan and India. They opted for the latter only when raiders from the former pushed deep into Kashmir, arriving on the outskirts of Srinagar, its capital. Even then, Kashmir has accepted only partial Indian rule. New Delhi took control of foreign policy, defence and communications, but Jammu and Kashmir retained the right to its own constitution and the ability to bar outsiders from owning property.

Almost immediately, some in India began to call for abolishment of those provisions, which were "not in the interest of either India or the people of Jammu and Kashmir," said Abha Khanna, media director for the Jammu Kashmir Study Centre, an organization that has dedicated itself in part to providing documentary proof of ancient Indian ownership of Kashmir.

And it has involved formulating a template for integrating minorities into the mainstream definition of what it means to be Indian.

The problem in Kashmir, Ms. Khanna believes, is a fundamentalism that has poisoned the populace. She accuses local leaders, teachers and journalists of occupying a "separatist-terrorist-political nexus" that has spread a "narrative that India does not feel for the people of Kashmir."

The solution, she said, lies primarily in changing people's thoughts, using rhetoric similar to that employed in China amidst a campaign to re-educate Muslims - though she does not advocate the use of force. But "the education system has to incorporate the feel of India," Ms. Khanna said.

In the meantime, the lockdown on Kashmir is unfortunate and unavoidable, she said. She recalled seeing a puppy once whose foot had become infected with maggots. Only painful intervention could remove the rot. "The puppy is going to scream," she said. "But it has to be done to be able to save his foot." In Kashmir, "it is something similar."

Indian authorities aren't keen to have others see what that looks like. Though they have pledged to begin easing the lockdown in coming days, foreign journalists are barred from Kashmir.

Even in Jammu, signs of the government chokehold remain.

Soldiers and heavily armed police stand every few dozen metres on roadsides, some at posts next to mounted rifles pointing at oncoming traffic. Though mobile phone service has been restored, mobile internet remains completely black.

Kashmiris here are hesitant to criticize the government. Muslims in India have been attacked under Mr.

Modi, but "these things take place in every country. In America, sometimes white men attack black men," said Hilam Sanaie, founder of AlHilal International School, an Islamic boarding institution.

Fear nonetheless ripples through the city's Muslim community. With their home now under the control of the central government, there is worry that outsiders will move in, seizing jobs and bringing crime. "They feel that if people come here, our women won't be safe," Mr.Sanaie said.

Naveeda Rehman, a Kashmiri woman in Jammu, speaks darkly about the direction India is taking. "I don't feel like it's a democratic country any more, because we can't ask for what we want," Ms. Rehman said.

And if India is indeed one, "why is only one religion being targeted?" she asked.

"A terrorist is someone who spreads fear," she says. "These days, who is the one spreading terror?"

Associated Graphic

Top: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi attends celebrations in honour of the country's 73rd Independence Day on Thursday. Above: Members of the rightist group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, which Mr. Modi joined as a child, take part in a drill in Ahmedabad.

TOP: PRAKASH SINGH/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE: SAM PANTHAKY/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Kashmiri residents leave their house in Srinagar on Wednesday during government-imposed restrictions. Curfew was recently lifted in Jammu, but Muslim-dominated Kashmir has remained in a state of lockdown, with armed soldiers patrolling empty streets and residents taking refuge without electronic communication.

DANISH SIDDIQUI/REUTERS

Above: A 14-year-old is tended to in a hospital in Srinagar after being trampled in a stampede when Indian forces opened fire on demonstrators on Aug. 9. Below: Indian paramilitary soldiers patrol Srinagar on Thursday.

ABOVE: ATUL LOKE/NYT; BELOW: DAR YASIN/AP

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B16


PETER MICHAEL FO RRISTAL

Peacefully at his residence surrounded by his family on August 13, 2019, Peter Forristal passed away at age 67. Beloved husband of Laurence Pellan for 40 years. Loving father of Annik Forristal and Chantal Forristal (Maciej Gebczynski). Dear brother to John (Jan) Forristal, Tim (Kathy) Forristal and Greg (Sandy) Forristal, and brother-in law to Denis (Christiane) Pellan.

He will be missed by his nieces and nephews.

Peter worked at Imperial Oil for 35 years. He loved to spend time with his family, converse, wine and dine, travel, hike, and read.

Visitors will be received at the John T. Donohue Funeral Home, 362 Waterloo Street at King Street, London, on Sunday afternoon from 2-5 o'clock. Funeral Mass will be held at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica, 196 Dufferin Avenue, London, on Monday morning at 10 o'clock with inurnment to follow in St. Peter's Cemetery, London.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Cure PSP (http://www.psp.org) would be appreciated.

DANIEL GABRIEL FOY

April 13, 1994

Passed away suddenly in Toronto.

Dearly loved and cherished son of Christine and Larry. Beloved brother of Kevin. Predeceased by his grandparents Raymond and Ruth Domleo and Fred and Glenna Foy. Also predeceased by his uncle David Domleo (Karen). Loved nephew of Debra Hopkins (Paul), Catherine Schryer (Franz), Ted Foy (Peggy), Mary Clare Argiropoulos (Constantine), Brian Foy (Colleen), Eileen Foy, Elizabeth Foy and Margaret Foy.

Dan will be fondly remembered by his many cousins.

Daniel was engaging, charming and witty. He sought challenges.

Dan was an intense friend, a passionate chef and an excellent sailor and snowboarder. He bonded closely with his canine and feline companions.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., on Saturday, August 17, 2019 from 1 p.m. until time of the Chapel Service at 3 p.m. Cremation has taken place. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery at a later date.

As an expression of sympathy donations to CAMH, The George Hull Centre or Jack.org would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca Goodbye Dan - we'll always love you.

IRA MICHAEL FRIEDMAN

On August 14, 2019, on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia.

Cherished son of the late Jack and the late Helen Friedman. Beloved brother and brother-in-law of Susan and Edward, Karen and Jay and Debra and Robert. Dear uncle to Rebecca and Marc, Jesse and Katie, Rachel, Sarah, Zachary and Jessica, Emma and Ella, Nathan and Elise, Joseph and Eli. Greatuncle to Sam, Rose, Isaac, Annie, Lylah and Jack. Good friend and trusted advisor to many. He was a researcher and sailor who navigated life with curiosity, knowledge and a dry wit. Funeral took place on August 14, 2019 at Victoria Jewish Cemetery. Shiva will took place at at Chabad Victoria and will then continue in Toronto on August 16 at 18 Sala Drive, Richmond Hill, from 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. and on August 18th and 19th from 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. and from 6:30 p.m.

to 9:00 p.m. Condolences may be offered at http://www.sandsvictoria.ca SANDS OF VICTORIA 250-388-5155

BRUCE DAVID GILLINGHAM

June 28, 1929 August 13, 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Bruce Gillingham at the age of 90 at the Carpenter Hospice in Burlington. Born and raised in Montreal to Thomas and Winifred Gillingham he later met his future wife, Beverley while skiing in Saint-Sévère and they shared an incredible journey for more than 64 years. Bruce leaves behind his beloved wife, Beverley and children Derek (Deborah), Brent and Stephenie along with his adored grandson Aaron and nieces Catherine, Carolyn and nephew Gregory.

Bruce graduated from Lower Canada College in 1947 and earned a Bachelor of Commerce degree from McGill University in 1952.

He loved his work as a professor at Northern College in Kirkland Lake and Sheridan College in Brampton and Oakville where he taught business, marketing and economics. He also served as Chairman of the Business department at Sheridan College until his retirement. He loved teaching and took great pleasure in nurturing and supporting the many students in his classes.

Bruce was an avid gardener who in later years successfully re-established native plants, ferns and wild flowers along the beachfront trail in Burlington.

He is also remembered as a music lover whose records filled the home with the sounds of Duke Ellington, Frank Sinatra, Benny Goodman, Dave Brubeck and Louis Armstrong. He was also a founding member and drummer of "The Gloworms". Bruce loved to travel and his visits to England and Italy with Beverley were among his favourites. His children fondly remember their many impromptu road trips across North America in the family station wagon.

The Gillingham family would like to extend their gratitude to the staff and volunteers at the Carpenter Hospice, Joseph Brant Memorial Hospital and the Juravinski Cancer Centre for their kindness and care. A private celebration of life will be held at a future date in Montreal. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a contribution to the Carpenter Hospice or Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Foundation.

JOHN MCNAB MILSOM

November 25, 1920 June 17, 2019

John McNab Milsom born November 25, 1920 (Flt. Lt. RCAF/ RAF) passed away peacefully June 17, 2019 at age 98. He is survived by his wife, Judith (nee Enid V.

Paris) of 74 years, and sons, Brian (Svetlana) and Jeremy.

A veteran of WWII, he volunteered with the RCAF, graduated as a GR pilot and was posted in Gibraltar and North Africa with the RAF (48 Squadron) escorting convoys and hunting U-Boats. Once his first tour (over 600 Hours/ 90 missions) was completed he was sent to Turnberry, Scotland, to train pilots converting onto Hudsons and Venturas, aircraft he knew well.

More than anything, he wanted to convert onto the DeHavilland Mosquito. He joined Banff Strike Wing (248 Squadron) in 1944 and flew 17 more combat missions from Banff sinking Nazi ships and destroying enemy infrastructure.

After V-day, his last mission was to escort a Norwegian squadron for the triumphant return of King Haakon and his government from Great Britain back to Oslo, Norway. He then flew back to Britain and parked his airplane.

The war was over.

Once back in Canada, John returned to the University of Toronto, completed a degree in Engineering and Business, was employed with CGE and the North York Board of Education. He retired in 1985.

A celebration of his 98 years will be held on September 9, 2019, from 2 p.m. until 5 p.m. at the Toronto Cricket, Skating, and Curling Club on Wilson Avenue.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

STEPHEN JOSEPH O'ROURKE MD, FRCP(C)

Just shy of his 94th birthday, Steve died peacefully on August 11, 2019 surrounded by family in the Palliative Care Unit at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Steve is mourned by the love of his life, "Breid" (Brigid Conlon of Belfast), children , William (Janice), Patrick (Theresa), John (Catherine), Kit (Randall), grandchildren, Patrick (Kelly), Liam (Jackie), Sean, Caitlin, Eamonn, Rosie, Maggie, Eden, Austin, Ella, Maddie, greatgrandchildren, Tiernan and Maeve and many nieces, nephews and cousins around the world.

Born on a farm in Bruff, Co.

Limerick, Ireland, Steve graduated medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in 1949. As a Captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps he served in the Korean War and later in Fort Churchill, MB. He then joined the Department of Anaesthesia at St.

Mike's in Toronto where he gave anaesthetics for more than four decades, was a highly respected teacher and mentor to countless medical students and residents, pioneered spinal anaesthesia and was instrumental in advancing obstetrical epidurals.

A life-long horse racing fan, Steve rarely missed attending The Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate. Steve and Breid were founding members of St.

Bonaventure's Parish. They loved to entertain and hosted many celebrations throughout the years. Their endless hospitality and fun-loving nature warmed many hearts.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 1:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 15th. A Funeral Mass will be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, on Friday, August 16th at 10:30 a.m. If desired, donations to St.

Michael's Hospital Foundation, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, http://www.stmichaelshospital.com, would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

REINHILDE SPERLICH WALWYN "Ronnie" Reinhilde "Ronnie"

Sperlich Walwyn, 93, died peacefully on July 25, 2019 in Aurora, Ontario.

The cause of death was peripheral vascular disease.

Ronnie was born in Judenburg, Austria on September 4, 1925, the first born child of Rudolf and Hildegard (Grill) Sperlich. She came to Canada in August of 1952 and was married to John Pearce Walwyn, a stock broker, in October of 1954.

Ronnie enjoyed many happy years living in Toronto, travelling and spending many summers at Faith Island on Lake Joseph in Muskoka. After the death of her beloved JP in 1976, Ronnie maintained close contact with many friends in Toronto although she chose to move up to King Township where she lived for over forty years at Angus Hill Farm. In 2015, she moved to Hollandview Trail Retirement Residence in Aurora.

Ronnie made a great number of friends in her almost 94 years.

She was a true and loyal friend, a unique human being, genuine and always kind. She loved family gatherings, both on visits to see family and friends in Austria and in Canada, where she regularly hosted holiday family gatherings and cooked traditional meals for often more than thirty people.

She truly believed in lifelong learning over the years. She took French language courses, painted with the same group of amateur artist friends over a number of years, joined Toastmasters and delivered a fine speech at her 80th birthday party, and learned computer skills to email and Skype. Taking a few writing courses led to the successful completion of Lots of Goodbyes, her story as a young woman coming to a new land. In the mid '80s, she studied for her real estate license and ventured into the business world, purchasing Snowball Place, a small country mall west of Aurora. With some real estate partners, she opened The House of Brougham, a pine furniture franchise and a few years later, she and her good friend, Joan Davies opened The J R Room, a store with stylish women's clothing. (J was for Joan, R was for Ronnie!) Ronnie was also a member of the congregation at All Saints Anglican Church in King City where she joined in regularly for services and volunteered for many activities.

She was actively involved with her Investment Club in Toronto, was a long term member of the Wine Tasters Guild of Aurora and the Aurora Probus Club and also volunteered for Hospice King/ Aurora and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection.

She enjoyed playing Bridge, especially with her friends at Hollandview. Another passion in her later years was to play Poker, especially Texas Hold 'em, and to those who knew her well, this came as no surprise! Throughout the years, she travelled extensively. Her last big adventure, in December 2017 at the age of 92, was a trip by plane and then hi-speed train to Xian, China to see the Terra-Cotta Army of Dreams. Well done, Ronnie! Ronnie was very kind to the many animals on the farm. She loved all the cats and dogs, especially her first miniature Schnauzer, Erika. Ronnie was always keen to head down to the barn to watch the birth of a foal and she always marvelled at the miracle of that new life.

Ronnie is survived by and will be terribly missed by many close family members including her brother, Rudi Sperlich; niece, Gudrun Hodl; step-mother, Stefi Sperlich; half-sisters, Ute Wagner and Sieglinde Logar; half-brother, Volker Sperlich, all from Austria; cousin, Horst Sperlich from Germany; nephew, Klaus Sperlich; step-son, John Walwyn; step-granddaughter, Jennifer Walwyn, all from the USA; niece, Barbl Goldring; stepdaughter, Suzanne Winchell; stepgrandchildren, Cathie Bowden, Stephen Goldring, Christy Gunton, Laurie Gunton, Luther Winchell, Christopher Winchell; and her close friend, Marjorie O'Donnell, all from Canada.

Ronnie was predeceased by her husband, JP Walwyn; her stepdaughters, Louise Goldring and Gilda McPhedron; and her stepgranddaughter, Shelley Gunton.

Special mention and thanks go to the wonderful staff and residents at Hollandview Trail Retirement Residence for all the love and support given to Ronnie during this difficult time and throughout her four years at Hollandview.

A celebration of Ronnie's life will be announced at a later date.

A tale of 'bikelash' in three cities
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Cycling infrastructure is an easy target for drivers frustrated with increasing gridlock, but sharing the road could lead to reduced commutes for everyone
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By MATT BUBBERS
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, August 23, 2019 – Print Edition, Page D2


Cars are marvellous machines which, for the better part of the past 100 years, have been the fastest, most convenient form of transportation.

However, if you commute by car around any big Canadian city, you can already sense that paradise has been lost.

More than 10.5 million people in Canada - nearly a third of the population - commute to work, alone, by car. The number of people whose drive to work takes an hour or more is rising, too. Worse, Statistics Canada found that long commutes by car can have a negative impact on commuters' health, safety and personal finances, and may also put a strain on family relationships. Every year, the number of vehicles on the roads increases.

We are going to need to find alternatives - not necessarily to replace the commuter car, but at least to augment it. What exactly those alternatives could be is the trillion-dollar question. Uber and Lyft are vying for a piece of that market; so are Segways, hoverboards, e-scooters and all manner of strange e-devices. Public transit is overdue for massive upgrades and expansions. Car-sharing services want in on the action, too. Automakers are not going quietly into the night, partnering with high-tech mobility startups while investing in self-driving and electric technologies.

Predating the car by 80-odd years, the bicycle might be the simplest, cheapest alternative of all. As the automobile's future seems less certain, the bicycle's future looks brighter. From 1996 to 2016, cycling was the fastestgrowing mode of transportation among commuters in metropolitan areas, according to Statscan.

Despite that growth, drivers remain the vast majority of road users. As drivers spend more time stuck in traffic, new bike lanes are easy targets for their anger and frustration. The roads belonged to drivers; now they're being told to share.

Across the country, there is a loud backlash against new cycling infrastructure projects - a "bikelash," if you will - despite widespread support for safer cycling infrastructure. Among non-cyclists in Toronto, 81 per cent are in favour of a safer cycling network, according to a 2016 poll commissioned by Evergreen, a Torontobased non-profit that encourages urban sustainability. It's easy to agree that safer streets are a worthy goal in the abstract, but when it comes to laying down new bike lanes on a busy roads near you, the bikelash gets real, fast. Here is what that looks like in the country's three largest metropolitan areas.

VANCOUVER Last year, Vancouver mayoral candidate Wai Young vowed that, if elected, she would tear up bike lanes. The former Conservative MP promised in a tweet that, "As mayor i will free the roads." On Twitter, she went on to list a number of existing bike lanes she would rip out if elected. Separated bike lanes are "a luxurious road system built for a select few and I don't think it's necessary," she said in a CBC interview.

Young's campaign is one example of the city's "loud public bikelash," noted in the 2019 Copenhagenize Index, an exhaustive ranking of the world's top 20 bicycle-friendly cities. Vancouver tied with Montreal for the 18th spot.

Vancouverites have been burned by bike lanes before. In 1996, when a poorly planned bike lane was suddenly installed on the busy Burrard Bridge, angry drivers used their new cellphones to complain. "This is about a nine on the Richter scale of disaster," one passing driver told a CBC TV crew. "The morons who run this city never cease to amaze me," another driver said. Within hours, the bike-lane project was cancelled. A 2005 pilot project failed, too. Finally, in 2009, the city installed permanent, separated bike lanes on the Burrard Bridge.

"On the first day at the south intersection, there were TV trucks and helicopters and media expecting it to be a big story and for it to fail again," said Richard Campbell, executive director of the B.C. Cycling Coalition. But nothing happened. Traffic moved normally. This time around, the city had given commuters ample notice of the changes, refined the street layout and ensured the bike lanes were part of a citywide network. Today, the Burrard Bridge bike lanes are the busiest in North America.

The bikelash isn't as bad in Vancouver as it used to be, Campbell said. Bike lanes have not, in fact, ground car traffic to a halt. "I think people cried wolf one too many times, both politicians and the media don't take them so seriously any more."

In the 2018 mayoral race, Young placed a distant fourth.

TORONTO In Canada's largest city, the bikelash is alive and well. Ontario Premier Doug Ford and his late brother Rob made their careers railing against the "war on cars." Stuck in downtown Toronto traffic, Doug posted a Twitter video calling the King Street pilot project - which prioritized streetcars over cars and bikes - a disaster. "This is a war on the car. Folks, this has to come to an end."

City data showed that, one year into the pilot, car traffic had shifted to alternate parallel routes on which average travel times varied by only a minute during rush hour. Streetcars, meanwhile, were running five minutes faster and bicycle volume rose 380 per cent.

Opposition to separated bike lanes on Bloor Street, another major project, came mainly from some local businesses as well as city politicians representing wards away from the lanes in question. One such politician was Etobicoke councillor and deputy mayor Stephen Holyday.

"I think people would feel more comfortable if they see those [Bloor Street] lanes packed with cyclists. But they don't. I'm saying this empirically, through observation. ... Go stand on Bloor Street during rush hour. Yeah, you'll see some bikes, but you'll see a whole lot more cars stacked and racked trying to get through there," Holyday said in an interview.

Drivers spent between two and four minutes longer crossing the stretch of Bloor between Shaw Street and Avenue Road during rush hour owing to the new bike lanes, according to city data.

Nearby streets saw slightly increased car traffic. City data also showed a 56-per-cent increase in the number of cyclists on Bloor, a reduction in the rate of car/bike collisions, fewer near-misses and an increase in total customer spending at local businesses.

Criticism of cycling infrastructure is often intertwined with complaints about their sometimes bad behaviour, such as rolling through stop signs or weaving around cars and pedestrians.

As chief executive officer of Copenhagenize and a former member of Copenhagen city council, where he was responsible for technical and environmental issues, Morten Kabell is an expert in cycling infrastructure. "Those things happen," he said of the rule breakers. "There are idiots anywhere. The only difference is that they're way more dangerous in a car than on a bicycle." He also said that it's easier to spot cyclists who break the rules than it is drivers.

You can't easily tell if a car is doing six or seven kilometres an hour over the speed limit.

"There's no question separated bike lanes are safer, but when you have the vast, vast, vast majority of road users in vehicles, I don't see the logic in that," Holyday said. "We're doing some social engineering, besides physical engineering here, to change the way people get around, and it's done through pressure."

Toronto City Council recently voted 23 to 3 in favour of extending the Bloor bike lanes west closer to Holyday's ward. He voted against it. The King Street pilot has also been made permanent.

MONTREAL Marianne Giguère uses a bicycle to get around Montreal, where she is a city councillor for the De Lorimier district. She's a member of Projet Montréal, the municipal party that swept to power in 2017 on a promise to "get Montreal moving" through, in part, an ambitious plan that included a network of 184 kilometres of bicycle express lanes called the Réseau Express Vélo, or REV.

"People always react strongly when you come and change their habits; that's normal. We manage it by being very well prepared," Giguère said. To counteract any bikelash, she explained, the city worked hard to get the support of different groups, including taxi drivers, the truckers' association and the CAA. In some cases, building support among local businesses and residents meant going door to door.

"It takes time, but it works," she said. "The people who are very mad at it, who are really not willing to see it happen, they get marginalized. They speak very loud and of course they get a lot of media attention."

Over all, she finds there's less resistance now than there used to be. "People have seen good examples working. They realize that, in some way, bikes are cool." The Bixi bike share program let more people try cycling, too. "When they do, they realize it's not just for young white men in good shape; they realize everybody can ride. It's become less marginalized than it was 10 years ago." You see less spandex, and more regular clothes.

In some parts of central Montreal, 15 per cent of trips are by bicycle, "which is nearly unheard of in most North American cities," the 2019 Copenhagenize study found. And this in a city that gets serious snowfall.

"In Montreal, the conditions are harder than Toronto, more like Moscow," Giguère said. "It's kind of: build it and they will come; plow it and they will ride."

Some days, it's impossible to bike, she acknowledged, but said there aren't many days like that. "You need to have the infrastructure plowed and salted. You're not telling people it's a religion; that you must go on any day with your bike. But it's hard for cars, too, and when I go to work, I'm so much faster with my bike. ... I am a 43year-old normal mother. I'm not any superhero. I don't do bungee jumping."

Still, there are significantly fewer cyclists in winter. The share of bikes on the road declined from 3.1 per cent in summer to 0.7 per cent in winter, according to 2014 data - collected before widespread efforts to plow bikes lanes began - by the Canadian Institute of Planners.

It has been two years since Projet Montréal won the municipal election. The party has come under fire recently for taking too long to get the REV built and from residents who are unhappy about the removal of parking spaces.

GETTING THERE Trying to cram more cars down the same streets is not working, and hasn't been for some time now. It's like a hot-dog eating competition that just won't end.

It's getting gross.

The knee-jerk reaction among drivers who feel that they're losing out by having to share the road is entirely understandable.

Bike lanes are not always a win for drivers. However, drivers also stand to benefit from cycling infrastructure if it's done right.

More bikes means fewer cars, less congestion and more available parking spots. In some North American cities, adding protected bike lanes has sped up overall commute times for everyone.

A 2014 analysis by the New York City Department of Transportation found that, after installing 48 kilometres of protected bike lanes, travel times on several major avenues were reduced while vehicle traffic volume remained steady and moved just as quickly as before.

After installing protected bike lanes on Kinzie Street in downtown Chicago, the city saw little to no impact on car travel, plus a big increase in the number of cyclists.

Bicycles won't work for all commuters all the time, but to speed up daily commutes, it's going to take a little bit of everything: bicycles, buses, trains, e-scooters, ride-sharing, walking and public transit. When used to their full potential, these alternatives will allow everyone (including people who really need to drive) to get where they're going more safely and in less traffic.

Changing century-old habits, however, won't be easy.

Holyday said because of projects such as the Bloor Street bike lanes, he and his constituents in Etobicoke don't feel as much a part of the city as they once did. "I live in the 416. They live in the 416.

And they don't feel as connected to the centre part of the 416 as they used to. That, to me, is the core piece that drives a lot of my approach on this."

For Giguère, change is necessary. "What drives me crazy is how cities are loaded with cars and space that is used by cars; it's just not livable. ... People spend so much time in their cars and they feel it's just the way it has to be. I know that individuals don't feel they have a choice, but you need to plant that seed. [Cars] are useful for so many things, but in a dense city, it's not their place."

This is personal. It's not simply a matter of finding the perfect planning solution or technical fix.

People identify with their chosen mode of transportation. Cyclists, drivers, urban, suburban: We are attached to these identities, and, too often, divided by them. Add to this the widening of political, social and economic divisions and you can see why it's hard to agree on something as seemingly mundane as bike lanes, let alone, say, climate change. Building cycling infrastructure is no panacea, but breaking down physical divisions by finding ways for everyone to move around more freely might help us all to get where we want to go.

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In Montreal, above, councillor Marianne Giguère says the city worked to get groups such as taxi drivers, the truckers' association and the CAA on board with its plans to build a network of 184 km of bicycle express lanes. Meanwhile, Toronto saw a 56-per-cent increase in the number of cyclists on Bloor Street, below, after bike lanes were installed there.

ABOVE: PAUL CHIASSON/THE CANADIAN PRESS; BELOW: FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

CLOSE TO THE BONE
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Last month, the Royal Ontario Museum's Hell Creek paleontology team, led by fossil-hunting rock star David Evans, headed for Montana's badlands to unearth the remains of a triceratops named Dio and a rich, prehistoric record of climate change
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By JONATHAN DEKEL
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R1


JORDAN, MONT. -- Sixty-six and a half million years ago, a triceratops that would one day be known as Dio died on the shore of an inland sea in what is now Montana.

Weighing somewhere between eight and 10 tonnes, its muscular body was likely soon scavenged by creatures big (its trusty adversary Tyrannosaurus rex) and small (bacteria), eventually separating its distinctive, 500-plus-pound tri-horned head from its core, leaving it facedown at the water's edge.

Over the next 500,000 years, flooding buried Dio's six-foot-long skull, allowing iron and manganese in the water to percolate through its bones, turning the calcified white exterior a chocolaty brown. When an asteroid hit the Earth more than 5,000 kilometres away - wiping out nearly all living dinosaurs and laying another 30 to 40 centimetres of sediment atop its final resting place, Dio was already well on its way to fossilization, wrapped in its rocky sarcophagus. Which is where it lay, mostly undisturbed, until July, 2018, when a research assistant at the Royal Ontario Museum named Danielle Dufault spotted its occipital condyle - the unique, nearly perfect sphere-shaped bone connecting its head to its socketed spine - sticking out of the ground of the fossil-rich Hell Creek Formation, and set a marker on the GPS.

She later named the fossil after her heavy-metal hero, Ronnie James Dio.

Last month in Jordan, Mont., the ROM's four-person Hell Creek paleontology team packed their gear into a Ford pickup truck and prepared to head back to the badlands to uncover the rest of the triceratops's massive skull.

The team, which includes Dufault, was led by Dr. David Evans, the museum's paleontological rock star, whose résumé includes dinohunts in the Sudan and Mongolia, hosting a television series and helping to discover almost a dozen new dinosaur species.

Boyish, with shoulder-length black hair, Evans wore dark sunglasses, a dino-themed T-shirt and loosefitting jeans, maintaining the wunderkind Indiana Jones aesthetic that helped land him the top paleo gig in Canada at the age of 26.

Now 38, he oversees the museum's dinosaur research and curation and serves as a professor in the University of Toronto's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

"If you want to see the world, you come to the ROM," he later tells me, "and the gateway to the ROM is dinosaurs and mummies. We have more dinosaurs on display than the Smithsonian has. That's something we should be really proud of."

In recent years, fantastical exhibitions such as Zuul, Destroyer of Shins, have kept interest in the ROM's mainstay department high. Like most century-old institutions, the museum under chief executive and director Josh Basseches is looking toward fare that is pop-culture friendly in the hopes of attracting a more diverse audience. This has, understandably, required Evans to keep the hits coming.

And he knew none could be bigger than finding a T.rex skeleton.

With this in mind, Evans mentioned the museum's Holy Grail at a board meeting a few years back.

Afterward, a member asked him how much it would cost to bring one in. Acquiring a skeleton, as they had with Zuul, would be too costly. So Evans suggested a five-year expedition to Hell Creek, ground zero for Late Cretaceous fossils owing to the paleontological godfather Barnum Brown, who discovered the first triceratops and first tyrannosaurus in its earthy crust.

The Hell Creek Formation spans parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming.

Much of the ROM's collection derives from Alberta, where fossil discoveries are the property of the provincial government. In contrast, fossils found in Montana's badlands belong to the land owner, who can sell that stake to the highest bidder. In leasing a possible fossil bed in Hell Creek - including the right to keep whatever they find - Evans saw not only an opportunity to discover a T. rex, but to enrich his data from the Late Cretaceous period and use the museum's research arm to better understand the drastic climate change and forced migration that happened before the asteroid precipitated a mass extinction.

As a bonus, it would keep the digging rights away from commercial prospectors, who would have no interest in the clues the fossils and their surroundings might contain about climate change.

So, when a real estate agent told Evans that a ranch a stone's throw from where Brown's first T. rex was found had just been sold to a Wall Street banker, he quickly offered to lease the land.

Two years in, the ROM's Hell Creek expedition had yet to turn up a T. rex, but Dufault's discovery in the first year had possibilities for display as well as research potential, making it a valuable lead.

FILLING THE GAPS The Y Hanging Diamond ranch sat 43 km north of Jordan, on the south bank of the Missouri River.

About 800 metres from its fenced-off eastern border was a dry patch of land with clear sightlines across the horizon and a dinosaur skull sticking out of the ground. Dio's remains were found at the bottom of a steep incline surrounded by trees and cows, making the only viable approach by foot.

GPS in hand, Evans had ROM paleontological technician Ian Morrison pull the truck as close as possible to the spot before the rest of team - Dufault's and Evans's lab students Cary Woodruff and Ryan Wilkinson - jumped out and started unpacking several tanks of water, pickaxes, shovels and buckets. Unlike in the movies, dinosaur fossils are almost never found fully articulated on the surface, and Hell Creek's uneven terrain has made groundpenetrating radar impossible to use. As such, paleontological excavation had changed very little since Brown's day. Coupled with the lack of cell signal, it has the heroic quality of time travel.

The previous year, the team encased Dio's protruding piece in plaster, then wrapped that in a garbage bag to protect it from the winter elements. Approaching the site, Evans and crew were happy to discover it had mostly been left alone, making the dig a relatively easy task.

Typically, the first day of an excavation requires a heavy amount of moving earth. Under the dry, hot sun, the next several hours were spent digging a seven-byeight-foot quarry into the ridge, carefully removing and redistributing the earth so as to not disturb any wayward fossils. Morrison, the elder of the group, reminded all parties to drink water. "I've had heroes pass out," he said.

To while away the time, the team discussed a wide range of topics: ranking Metallica albums, favourite podcasts and the retroactive effect of the #MeToo movement on Woody Allen's oeuvre among them. To amuse his crew, Evans recounted the time actor Mary Elizabeth Winstead shadowed him for her role in the remake of The Thing. "She told a reporter we were throwing fossilized bones around the ROM warehouse," he said with a laugh. "I can assure you we did not do that."

When the team eventually took shelter atop a tree-lined mound for lunch, Evans's tone gained a more serious timbre. Whatever is collected here, he explained, will ultimately appear in an exhibition on the effects of climate change. And beyond what the public sees, he said, there would be ample scientific data from the area that can help humanity as a whole better navigate the rapidly accelerating Anthropocene-influenced extinction event.

"Everybody agrees the asteroid impact is what ultimately led to the extinction of the dinosaurs," he said, looking down on the dig site. "What I'm trying to find out is what type of animals made it through the extinction - what kind of characteristics they had, what type of circumstances precipitated an ecosystem collapse of that nature and how fast it took for those ecosystems to recover, so we can understand the consequences of what we're doing today."

Noting that the vast majority of dinosaur remains found in the area had been triceratops, Evans theorized that this imbalance must have been caused by mass migration as the environmental conditions shifted. "So [we need to study whether] those stressed ecosystems were caused by climate and sealevel changes, and did that exacerbate the effects of that asteroid impact?" Humans are causing similar conditions today, he continued. "We're making ecosystems more sensitive to tipping. It's a cascading effect where the extinction of one thing precipitates the extinction of another on a global scale. Those are where everything falls apart."

After taking a few bites of a sandwich, he added that the current rate of climate change is much faster than what preceded the five previous mass extinctions, when more than 75 per cent of the species on Earth were lost. "And if we continue at the rate we're going, we're probably going to reach those levels in most of the major groups of animals. We're talking five hundred to 1,000 years."

As for this particular dig, Evans admitted it was too early to know if what would be found would ever be seen by crowds of children.

"There's this perception of scientists that they're all trying to cure cancer or find a new dinosaur. That's not really how science works," he said. "The way you cure cancer is by using all the little baby steps that people have taken to understand how cells divide and multiply. ... You're just contributing where you're seeing gaps in knowledge, and eventually the picture becomes clear.

"So we want to discover as many fossils as we can, and of course we'd love to collect a T. rex for the museum, but we're also collecting data to fill in the gaps.

... What we're doing to the planet is happening so fast, we can't really study it and make projections in real time. And we certainly can't appreciate the longterm effects of what we're doing to the planet. The fossil record holds important lessons in that regard."

Evans ended the lunch break by saying that the first day's dig has moved faster than he expected.

When the team returned to the valley below, they switched to smaller handheld tools, delicately digging in the hopes of better understanding how Dio's skull was angled. Woodruff, a Montana native who took pride in his own homemade pick, soon discovered more of Dio's frill. A glue solution was applied, giving the fossil a preserving sheen. With mosquito hour drawing near, Morrison and Evans agreed to call it a day. Before heading to their campground for the night, the group decided to reconnect with the rest of the world at Jordan's Hell Creek bar. Checking their phones, everyone save for driver Morrison sat silently with a crisp light beer under the watchful eye of taxidermy deer heads.

'DINOSAURS WILL ALWAYS BE COOL' Three weeks later, Evans sat in his office deep inside the ROM. Surrounded by bones collected on his expeditions, he gave a situational report: He'd just been on a satellite call with Morrison, who, along with Wilkinson, had stayed behind to encase Dio's fossilized skull in plaster and find a way to safely get the cast, which weighed more than a tonne, out of the valley and to Toronto. "Helicopter is an option," he half-joked.

Two days after the initial quarry dig, the crew had discovered Dio's horn and orbital bone, orienting it almost perfectly downward. This meant the majority of its skull had remained intact.

"Everything is more or less where it should be," he said, beaming.

As for its future, the ROM's collection lacked an articulated adult triceratops skull, Evans explained. So assuming the plastering, unpacking and cleaning went well, Dio's chances for display were quite high. At the very least, "it's something we can take out for special events" until the climate-change exhibit was ready.

And while that would be a big early win for the museum's Hell Creek expedition, Evans admitted he still dreamed of bringing a T. rex to the ROM. Maybe even a baby.

It's a quest he'd been on since he first fell in love with the giant lizards in this very building at the age of 4.

And it's one he was determined to complete. But for now, eyeing a wall of preserved embryos the museum's previous curator left behind, Evans allowed himself to take pride in his job.

"Dinosaurs will always be cool. They were cool 100 years ago, when the ROM started collecting fossils, and they're even cooler now," he announced. "The fossils that we're collecting and the research we're doing carries on this legacy. It makes our historic collections more relevant. "They're always going to be one of the most important things that we do here," he added. "Certainly if I have anything to do with it."

Associated Graphic

David Evans, a paleontologist at the Royal Ontario Museum, stands at a dig site in Jordan, Mont., last month. Whatever is collected here will appear in an exhibition on the effects of climate change, he says.

TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The Hell Creek Formation, which spans parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming, is ground zero for Late Cretaceous fossils, owing to American paleontologist Barnum Brown's discovery of the first triceratops and tyrannosaurus bones in its earthy crust.

Paleontologist David Evans, centre, leads the Royal Ontario Museum's crew at a dig site near Jordan, Mont., last month to uncover the rest of Dio, a 66-million-year-old triceratops. The dinosaur was first spotted by ROM researcher Danielle Dufault and was named after her heavy-metal hero.

At 38, Evans still maintains the wunderkind Indiana Jones aesthetic that helped score him the top paleontological gig in Canada at the age of just 26. Now head of the ROM's dinosaur research and curation, he also serves as a professor in the University of Toronto's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

PHOTOS BY TODD KOROL/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Lee-Bentham tees up a shot at redemption
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Marked by disappointment and a fractured family relationship, the young golfer's first stint on the LPGA Tour ended in ignominy. But now that time has healed old wounds and rekindled her passion for the game, the 27-year-old is back and on the upswing
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By JEFF BROOKE
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S11


THORNHILL, ONT. -- Rebecca Lee-Bentham's first go-round on the LPGA Tour did not end well. She suffered not only declining performance and injuries as the years wore on, but also unhappiness and a fractured relationship with her father, who was also her coach and caddy.

The experience was so dissatisfying that she quit the tour, halting a playing career that just a few years earlier had seemed full of promise.

But with the passing of time and a renewed passion for the game, she has decided to take another shot at tour golf. Her comeback begins in earnest on Aug. 22 in California in the first stage of the LPGA Tour's qualifying tournament, better known as Q-school.

The 27-year-old from Toronto will be among hundreds of women who are trying to advance through the first two stages of Q-school and then earn a playing card on the LPGA Tour for 2020 by finishing in the top 45 at the third and final stage.

If Lee-Bentham can get that far, she will have also earned a shot at redemption; a second chance to correct her initial foray into professional golf, which she remembers as "not fun at all."

"It kind of crushed me when she decided to pack it in, although I do know and understand the inside [story] of what was going on there," said Derek Ingram, who coached Lee-Bentham for a few years while she was on Canada's national amateur team. "Now I'm thrilled that she's trying again because I think she'll have very good success."

The odds of reaching the world's top tour for women are long, but Lee-Bentham has beaten them before.

Shortly after dropping out of the University of Texas as a 19year-old to take a crack at pro golf, she breezed through the 2011 Qschool and suddenly found herself playing among the women she had idolized growing up.

Her immediate success seemed a natural progression from her elite amateur days, when her triumphs included winning the Ontario Women's Amateur as a 15-year-old and later the Canadian Junior Girls and Canadian Women's Amateur championships.

But the pro game's learning curve was steep in her early years on tour. While there were breakthrough moments, such as a career-best 11th-place finish at the Evian Championship in 2013 and a respectable US$118,000 in winnings that same year, there were also many weeks of bottom-ofthe-pack finishes and missed cuts. Her declining results led to part-time status on the LPGA Tour and relegation to the second-tier Symetra Tour.

Her performance inside the ropes, though, wasn't the half of it. She struggled on the practice range, too, trying to make sense of all the advice she was getting from her father, Ken Lee, and others.

"My mentality was a little different then," Lee-Bentham said recently before leaving for California. "It wasn't as much fun for me before. I was more like, 'I have to do it.' And it was more like people giving me information and I was just kind of following it - it wasn't me trying to figure it out."

Lee-Bentham acknowledged she was a perfectionist in a sport that defies perfection. She also conceded she put too much pressure on herself.

"You're never going to be happy or satisfied when you always compare yourself to others, which is what I did a lot back then, too," she said during a candid conversation about her past and future, sitting on a bench in the shade near the driving range at Ladies Golf Club of Toronto, a course in suburban Thornhill, Ont., that's among the Greater Toronto Area facilities where she practises.

"I was comparing myself to other players, wanting what they have. Even my dad would do that to me, too. [He would say,] 'That person practises more than you.

Look at them, they're doing better than you.' He was always comparing."

The comparisons were but one sign of a straining relationship with her father.

Lee introduced her to the game at the age of 12 and was her first coach, taking control of her career through junior and amateur golf and into the pro ranks. He even retired early from his engineering job with a technology company to become her caddy after she joined the LPGA Tour.

This sort of parental involvement isn't unusual in women's professional golf. Fathers and mothers are ubiquitous at LPGA Tour events, especially among the contingent of Asian players, although it crosses cultural boundaries, too. Canadian star Brooke Henderson's entourage, for example, usually includes her father, Dave, and mother, Darlene, as well as her sister, Brittany, who's also her caddy.

It can work for some players.

But it doesn't pay off for everyone.

Lee-Bentham said she knows her father meant well. He instilled in her a fierce work ethic, telling her she had to practise harder than others because she started playing relatively late in life and had fewer resources at her disposal, and he gave her parental protection as she embarked as a young adult into a grown-up's world.

But being together 24/7, the long practice sessions and the pressure had a dark side. "It's tough," Lee-Bentham said.

"When you're growing up and you're in your early 20s, you're trying to be more independent, but then you have someone that kind of blocks that. You butt heads a lot. You want to figure things out on your own, but they don't want you making mistakes."

Lee acknowledges they both felt stress, mentally to succeed and physically to keep their bodies healthy. Lee had knee problems, Lee-Bentham back troubles. "We did have some issues, but our final goal was we were trying to be better than everybody else," he said.

Her growing unhappiness, diminishing results and injuries ultimately prompted her to pack it in. The Canadian Pacific Women's Open in 2016 was her swan song on the LPGA Tour.

"When I stopped playing," she said, "me and my dad didn't have the greatest relationship. There was a lot of bitterness." As difficult as it was to stop chasing the dream, it proved to be a good move. She directed her energies into teaching golf, fulfilling a long-held desire to give back to the game.

Working out of Angus Glen Golf Club in suburban Markham, Ont., and the Metro Golf Dome in Scarborough, the Toronto neighbourhood where she was born, LeeBentham built a robust roster of junior and adult clients. She also developed a new understanding of golf's technical skills and how to articulate them to others.

"I knew how to do it, but couldn't explain it," she said. "The more I got comfortable explaining it, the more I understood it, and I then I could do it even better myself." She believes her fundamentals are stronger now than when she was a teenage amateur phenom or on the LPGA Tour.

Just as important to her, she put her personal life in order, too.

She said she mended her relationship with her father - "He knows I'm mature enough to figure things out on my own; he sees I enjoy it a lot more; we are both a lot happier" - and she was able to attend the weddings of both of her siblings, Paul and Sarah, and later be on hand for the birth of Paul's daughter, her first niece.

Lee agrees. He describes their relationship as "better than ever" now and added he's content to support her from a distance this time.

"I'm glad she does that, going back," he said during a telephone interview from his tennis club.

"She still has a lot of talent in her. I told her, 'You can teach your whole life, whenever you want to.

But being in tournament competitive golf is limited.' "When she's in Toronto, LeeBentham lives with her parents in a small condo, which has been especially crammed recently because her sister moved in temporarily while she prepares to relocate to the United States with her husband. But the household is harmonious and she says she is happy.

"Because I was always doing what other people told me to do, I didn't get to do what I wanted to do all the time," a wiser and more mature Lee-Bentham said. "But now it's like I have a choice. I have the choice to practise; if I want to see friends and family, I can."

During Lee-Bentham's 21/2 years of teaching, she was often asked about returning to competitive golf, but had no interest. Then a confluence of people and events last December made her reconsider.

Past acquaintances and new people in her life had, simultaneously but without knowing one another, encouraged her to try again, and they all offered different pieces of support - including the US$2,500 entry fee into Qschool, a place to stay in California over the winter, a course in California at which to practise and a car to drive.

Lee-Bentham took the offers as a sign. So she wound down her teaching schedule in early 2019, pulled out the set of old TaylorMade irons she once used on the LPGA Tour, headed to California and returned to the range to practise the game that has occupied more than half her life.

If she had any concerns that a lengthy time away from competition would leave her too rusty, she put them to rest immediately. She held the first-round lead in May at the Bermuda Grey Goose World Par 3 Championships, playing against a field that included Canada's top male club professionals and international veterans such as PGA Tour-winner Chip Beck and Englishman Barry Lane, who went on to win the Par 3. (LeeBentham finished in 10th.)

Then in July, Lee-Bentham came from behind to steal the DCM PGA Women's Championship, a prestigious Canadian event whose past champions include Henderson and fellow Canucks Lorie Kane and Alena Sharp. This year's edition was held at Ladies Golf Club. Her final round of nine-under-par 63 not only vaulted her to the top of the leaderboard but also signalled she still has the skills to dominate a course and come through in the clutch.

In a cruel stroke of irony, the DCM victory earned her a berth in next week's CP Women's Open, which will be held in her backyard at Magna Golf Club in Aurora, Ont., but she won't be able to attend because she's at Q-school.

Nevertheless, it was building block. Soon after, she won the PGA of Ontario Women's Championship by eight shots, albeit against a small, regional field.

The trophies bode well for her important week ahead at Mission Hills Country Club, the same facility in Rancho Mirage where the LPGA Tour holds the ANA Inspiration, one of its five major tournaments. Lee-Bentham might not jump into Poppie's Pond after her final round on Aug. 25 if she advances to the second stage, as the ANA champion traditionally does, but she'll have reason to celebrate clearing the first significant hurdle in her comeback.

"Not having control of her situation [before], probably the only way out for her was to quit and start over on her own terms," Ingram, her former national coach said .

"So I am excited that she is going to have that opportunity. I believe a fresh new vibe and attitude will be really good for her and I think she'll love the game again.

Regardless of the success, I really commend her for challenging herself." The LPGA Tour begins its three-stage qualifying school next week in the California desert. The first stage will be held over three courses in Rancho Mirage and the surrounding area, with the top 90 or so finishers advancing to the second stage in Florida in October. The top 45 finishers at the third stage earn 2020 LPGA Tour cards and the rest are guaranteed status on the second-tier Symetra Tour. At least 16 Canadians will be among the approximately 300 entrants next week in the first stage.

Besides former LPGA Tour player Rebecca Lee-Bentham, here are three Canadians to watch:

SELENA COSTABILE A classically trained pianist and speaker of five languages (and counting), the 21-yearold fledgling pro from Thornhill, Ont., is also very accomplished at golf - she won a pro tournament as an amateur and has played in two LPGA Tour events.

ANNA YOUNG The five-time Saskatchewan Women's Amateur champion has been a pro for a few years and has at least a couple of mini-tour victories to her credit and about 20 starts on the Symetra Tour.

NAOMI KO The former national amateur team member from Victoria has a sense of occasion - she's played her way into two U.S. Women's Opens.

Other Canadians entered in the first stage as of Aug. 6: Mackenzie Barrie, Nayan Calsin Murdoch, Usu Gloria Choi (amateur), Caroline Ciot, Josée Doyon, Hannah Hellyer, Casey MacNeil, Michelle Ruiz (a), Sabrina Sapone, Kelsey Sear (a), Joo Youn Seo, Alison Timlin.

401 Number of unique participants in Q-School through the three stages in 2018.

45 Number of 2020 LPGA Tour cards available this year in the third and final stage, which is now called Q-Series and consists of two 72-hole tournaments.

Associated Graphic

Toronto's Rebecca Lee-Bentham has been putting in work at facilities across the Greater Toronto Area, including at Richmond Hill's Summit Golf Club earlier this summer, to prepare for her comeback.

PHOTOS BY TIJANA MARTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Thursday, August 22, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B15


PHILIP DAVID GRAHAM

Philip David Graham of Vancouver, BC passed away at home, Friday, August 16, 2019, with his devoted wife of 44 years, Tricia (TremayneLloyd) at his side. Loving and devoted husband, father of six children, businessman, sailor, skier and world traveler.

In addition to his wife, Philip will be sadly missed by daughter, Lahana Grey; sons, Ronald (Linda) Philip (Cathy), Christopher (Sue Ann), Bruce (Anna) and Lawrence (Carollyne); as well as eleven grandchildren; and five greatgrandchildren. Of the greater Graham family, he will be missed by siblings, Jane, Sheila, Helen, and Bill; plus dozens of nieces and nephews.

Born in Toronto in 1925, Philip grew up in Montreal, the 6th child of Ronald "FR" Graham and Marguerite (Phelan). The family moved to Vancouver when Philip was 15. At nineteen, he married Joan Dixon, the mother of his children, and subsequently graduated from University of British Columbia with a BSc.

In 1967, Philip and Joan took their 4 youngest children around the world on their yacht, Driver. Philip returned Driver to Vancouver in 1975.

Between 1953 and 2003 Philip was a Director of his family's holding Company Graymont Limited. Between 1980 and 1991 he was President and Chief Executive Officer and Chairman between 1987 and 2003.

Following retirement in 2003 Philip continued to follow the firm closely, remaining a strong advisor to Graymont's Board of Directors and taking great pride in the company's growth from a single Quebec lime plant in 1980 to a global player today.

Philip enjoyed a happy, full and successful life and had a positive impact on many other lives.

Funeral will be a private service.

An Eight Bells Memorial at the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and the UBC Hospital Foundation.

GRACE INAAM BACHIR HISHON

April 22, 1949 August 19, 2019 It is with great sadness that we mourn the passing of Grace Inaam Bachir Hishon.

Grace passed away peacefully with her family by her side on August 19, 2019, at Baycrest Palliative Centre.

Loving daughter to John Hanna (deceased) and Najla Bachir, Grace is predeceased by her husband Brian Hishon. Devoted mother to Kelley (Mark) and Riel.

Loving sister to George (Ayesha), Anissa (Barry), Salah (Jacob) and Ziad (Rima).

Adoring Taita, grandma to Owen, Timmy and Hannah. Loving aunt to Jonathan, Nicholas, Ameel, Aliya, Ivy, John and Christopher.

Grace will be fondly remembered by sister in-law Pat (Rick), brother in-law Doug (Sheila) and sister-inlaw Judi (Wally) and their families.

Grace was born in Lebanon and immigrated to Canada with the family as a teenager.

She made several trips back home to connect with family and friends and will be sadly missed and mourned by her family and friends in Lebanon.

Grace fought a courageous battle with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) for the past 10 years with dignity. It broke our hearts to see this awful disease rob her of her bodily functions bit by bit.

She was very brave and endured all without complaint.

Grace had a wicked sense of humour. She loved working with people and was entrepreneurial.

She opened one of the first health food/nutrition stores in Oakville and spent the last 25 years as a successful real estate agent in Toronto West. Her clients became lifelong friends. Grace will be sadly missed and fondly remembered for her love and dedication to her family and friends. She will always be in our hearts.

Our heartfelt thanks to the Palliative Care team at Baycrest for their excellent care and support of our family, to Dr. Zive, Dr.Crispino and Dr. Marras, and to her wonderful caregivers, Noraly, Ann, Edna and Nida Caringal.

Visitation: Sunday, August 25th from 3-6 p.m. Funeral: Monday, August 26th at 11 a.m. Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., Toronto ON M6S 1P4

OLIVE EVELYN VANDERBURGH (née Russell)

Peacefully on August 16, 2019, Olive died in her 103rd year.

Olive was predeceased by her devoted and loving husband of 60 years Ralph (Van) VanderBurgh, her parents Fred and Vera Russell, her brother Bill and her sister Margaret. Aunt Olive will be deeply missed by her nieces and nephews Diane Jeffery, Brian Russell, Valerie Folk, Lynne Fulton, Bill VanderBurgh, Clive VanderBurgh, and their respective families. Olive spent most of her working career teaching the joy of choral music to her many students in Etobicoke schools, continuing the outstanding contributions to such teachings by her mother Vera. Olive was a gifted pianist, bringing her renditions of church music, Christmas carols and show tunes to many gatherings including those at Kingsway Retirement Residence.

Throughout her life, Olive brought continuing happiness to her family and others with her constant and very timely letter-writing abilities truly, a vanishing art.

Olive's extended family wishes to thank her family physician Dr. Joe Kozak for the exceptional care he gave to Van and Olive over many years. The family also wishes to thank the caring staff and her many friends at Kingsway Retirement Residence where Olive enjoyed a full and complete life for nearly a decade. Olive will be laid to rest beside her beloved Van in a private service.

DR. BETTE MILDRED STEPHENSON PENGELLY O.C., O.Ont., M.D., F.C.F.P.(C), D.Litt. (Hon.), LL.D. (Hon.), O.ST.J.

July 31, 1924 - August 19, 2019 Bette was the daughter of Carl and Mildred Stephenson. Born in Aurora, Ontario, Bette attended primary and secondary school in Willowdale. She was predeceased by her sister, Faye; brother, Robert; husband, Dr. G. Allan Pengelly; and son-in-law, Randall Kennedy. She is survived by her children, StephenPengelly(Anne),ElizabethKennedy,ChristopherPengelly(Elizabeth), Michael Pengelly (Linda), Timothy Pengelly (Joyce) and Mary-Katherine Pengelly (Duane); grandchildren, Brynn Kennedy Wiffen (Brad), Evan Kennedy, Patrick Pengelly (Sayran), Robert Pengelly, Andrew Pengelly (Brooke); and great-grandchildren, Douglas, Juniper, Aubrey, Emmaline and Heyv.

Bette decided she would be a physician at the age of five and pursued that objective even though it eventually required persuading the Dean of Medicine at the University of Toronto to accept her into the programme a year before she was eligible. She became a doctor in 1946, met and married Allan Pengelly, who was also a med student, in 1948, and, as she had planned, had six children.

Bette practiced family medicine in Willowdale and was an active member of the medical staff at Women's College Hospital in Toronto until 1988. She was a founding member of the College of Family Physicians of Canada, the Director of the Outpatient Department of Women's College Hospital, the first Chief of the Department of Family Medicine at Women's College, the President of the Medical Staff and Chair of the Medical Advisory Committee at Women's College.

From 1961 to 1964, Bette was Chair of the National Committee on Education, College of Family Physicians of Canada. From 1964 to 1973, Bette was the first woman to be elected to the Board of Directors of the Ontario Medical Association. From 1968 to 1969, was the first Chair of the Ontario Medical Association Board of Directors and from 1970 to 1971, was the first woman President of the Ontario Medical Association.

In 1972, Bette was the first Woman elected Chair of the Board of the Canadian Medical Association and in 1973, she was a member of the first medical delegation invited to the People's Republic of China. From 1974 to 1975, she served as the first woman President of the Canadian Medical Association.

Although Bette had no aspirations to run for public office, she was persuaded, in 1975, to contest the PC nomination and election in what was then the York Mills Riding, held previously by Dalton Bales. Shortly after being elected, Premier William Davis invited her to become Ontario's first female Minister of Labour. In that role, she accepted and implemented the recommendations contained in the Report of the Commission on Safety in the Mining Industry in Ontario. She was also instrumental in establishing the Division of Health and Safety at the Ministry of Labour.

As Minister of Education, Colleges and Universities from 1978 to 1985, Bette established the Secondary Education Review Committee, accepted its report on Ontario Secondary Education and introduced the Blueprint for Secondary Schools in the Province. Bette was also responsible for establishing the Bovey Commission on Post Secondary Funding in Ontario and introduced legislation establishing a program and funding for Special Education in the Province.

In addition to the Labour and Education, Colleges and Universities portfolios, Bette served as acting Minster of Health in 1976, Chair of Management Board of Cabinet, Deputy Premier and Minister of Treasury and Economics.

After leaving Government in 1985, Bette served on a number of Boards including the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, The Ontario Police Commission, the Board of Governors of Women's College Hospital, the Association for Learning Disabilities, Ridley College, the Canadian Association for Lifelong Learning, and was Chair of the Province's Learning Opportunities Task Force. Bette also served as a Board member of Education Quality and Accountability Ontario (EQAO), the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Cancer Research Institute of Ontario and was Chair of the Research and Grants Committee of the Justin Eves Foundation.

Bette was the recipient of the Order of Canada (Officer), the Order of Ontario, the Order of St. John, the Queen's Silver and Gold Jubilee Medals, the B'Nai B'rith's Woman of the Year Award, the Governor General's Award in Commemoration of the Persons Case and was the first Canadian to receive the Citation for Outstanding Public Service by the Council for Exceptional Children. Bette was also the recipient of honourary degrees from Nipissing University (D.Litt.) and the University of Toronto (LL.D.).

Visitation will be held on Friday, August 23rd from 2 to 4 p.m. and from 6 to 9 p.m. and on Saturday, August 24th from noon to 1 p.m., at the R.S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge Street in North York. The Funeral Service will be held Saturday, August 24th at 1 p.m. at R.S. Kane Funeral Home. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Justin Eves Foundation or the Women's College Hospital Foundation.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

RHODA VYNER

Peacefully passed on August 20, 2019 in her 95th year. She was predeceased by her husband Lenny in 1980. She is survived by her sons Calvin and Brian (Bunny) and grandsons Brett and Lee (Krista) and her new greatgranddaughter Everleigh Rose.

Her life is a story of many hardships growing up as a young girl in the East End of London.

Immigrating to Toronto in 1948, Rhoda and her loving husband worked hard and sacrificed to build a better life for their family.

Their lives here had endured setbacks and misfortunes but despite this Rhoda never ever complained.

She was extremely resilient and always positive. Armed with her good humor she shouldered on always appreciated all the good in her life. Her life shined brightly when her daughter-in-law Bunny became part of her life along with her two precious grandsons. They were the centre of her life and she was so proud.

She was a caring and loving grandmother and mother-in-law.

Always supportive and available to be of help in any way. She will be remembered by many including nieces, nephews here in Toronto and London.

Donations appreciated to: Schizophrenia Ontario Society 416-449-6830 x 225 or Baycrest Centre, 416-785-2875 . Shiva at 36 Hazelton Ave, suite 4 B.

PLANTAGENET

In memory of Richard III, king of England, who died on 22 August 1485, defending his crown against the usurper, Henry Tudor.

Loyaulte me lie.

Richard III Society of Canada, info@richardiii.ca richardiii.ca @RichardIIICA ETHEL F. RUMBALL May 27, 1925 August 22, 2009 Forever in our hearts, dearly missed every day.

Some of life's great mysteries should be left unsolved
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By CHARLOTTE GRAY
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O1


Author of 10 biographies and books on Canadian history. Her latest, Murdered Midas: A Millionaire, His Gold Mine and a Strange Death on an Island Paradise, will be published next month.

When I read last week that we might learn what happened to Amelia Earhart, I was disappointed. As a curator at Washington's National Air and Space Museum said recently, Earhart "is our favourite missing person."

Her disappearance in 1937 led to decades of wild conjectures. I asked myself if I was ready to know the truth.

I wonder: Are some historical mysteries best left unsolved?

When a disappearance remains baffling or a brutal murder unsolved, is the lack of resolution simply exasperating? Or is the (often crackpot) speculation it generates a source of entertainment, as well as a glimpse into the mindset of the times?

Earhart was a feminist icon, bestselling author and friend of Eleanor Roosevelt - and one of the very first female pilots in the world.

Earhart, who was 39 years old when she vanished, had planned a spectacular trip that would make her the first female flyer to circumnavigate the globe. She had already been flying for 40 days and had made more than 20 stops (including Miami, Fla.; Natal, Brazil; Dakar, Senegal; Khartoum, Sudan; Kolkata, India, and Darwin, Australia) when she and her navigator, Fred Noonan, took off from Lae, in Papua New Guinea, on July 2.

Their Lockheed Model-10 Electra airplane was headed for tiny Howland Island, more than 4,000 kilometres east on the other side of the International Date Line. It was the longest, most dangerous leg of the flight. This was before radar, GPS or weather satellites; below her was only the vast ocean.

She never made it. The plucky, freckle-faced aviator (or "aviatrix," as she was called back then) disappeared somewhere in the Pacific.

Earhart joined the pantheon of doomed heroines, who had dared to challenge the conventions of their times and are destined to remain forever youthful in the public imagination because they died too young. You know the list: Joan of Arc, Marilyn Monroe, Princess Di.

But Earhart was special. Perhaps she cultivated her feminine appeal in order to raise funds for her flights, but her achievements and ambitions were thrilling by any standard. She set records flying solo across the Atlantic, nonstop across North America and from Honolulu to Oakland. And her disappearance has fascinated pilots, writers, filmmakers and conspiracy theorists for nearly a century.

Now, no less a hunter than Robert Ballard, who located the scattered remains of the Titanic in 1985, is on the job. He has taken his ship, the Nautilus, which is equipped with high-definition cameras, a 3-D mapping system and remotely operated underwater vehicles, to the tiny coral atoll of Nikumaroro (once known as Gardner Island) in the Pacific's largely uninhabited Phoenix Islands, part of the tiny nation of Kiribati.

The impetus for this expedition has Jules Verne undertones. Dr.

Ballard was persuaded to join the hunt by something called "the Bevington Object," a tiny speck on the edge of a grainy black-andwhite photograph taken by Eric Bevington, a British colonial officer, in 1937, three months after Earhart disappeared.

The main subject of Bevington's photo is a British freighter that had run aground years earlier on the northwest corner of Nikumaroro. But decades after the photo was taken, a forensic imaging expert noticed the mystery object, and concluded that it could be the landing gear of a Lockheed Electra. Intelligence analysts at the Pentagon confirmed his conclusion - and who dares challenge the Pentagon boys? This is what has sent Dr. Ballard off to the tiny atoll, which is a mere 7.5 km long and 2.5 km wide - one-10th the size of B.C.'s Salt Spring Island. Dr. Ballard will search the ocean bed for Earhart's plane.

The Ballard expedition is just the latest episode in the Earhart search, which rivals the search for Sir John Franklin's missing ships in the Arctic in the number of decades it has spanned and the money it has cost. Two years ago, National Geographic sponsored four sniffer dogs (Berkeley, Piper, Marcy and Kayle) to snuffle out human remains on Nikumaroro.

Many of the Earhart expeditions have been sponsored by The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery, a non-profit organization known by its acronym TIGHAR (website tag-line: "Science Changing Mystery to History." TIGHAR is also investigating the 1944 disappearance of Glenn Miller, in a plane over the English Channel).

I wish Dr. Ballard luck, but my reservations are twofold.

First, I'm afraid that if he is successful, science will not only have given us a grisly conclusion to the story, but will also smother interest in Earhart's life. She will lose her aura of mystery, and interest will fade in the larger narrative of her extraordinary accomplishments during the early days of aviation, before flying became a largely male sport. Once the aviation industry got organized, from the 1940s onward, gender roles hardened and the daring female pilots for whom Earhart was a hero were pushed out of the cockpit.

Women were forced to don pinafores and plastic smiles so they could fulfill more traditional service roles, as flight attendants.

They took a long time to get their hands back on the throttle. (Just listen to the lyrics of Me and the Sky, sung by the female pilot character in Come From Away, to feel their frustration.)

I'm also reluctant to let go of the wilder guesses about Earhart's fate. When a mystery has no neat resolution, speculation rushes to fill the vacuum - and the theories, no matter how nutty, say much about the preoccupations of the day. The official U.S. Navy explanation for Earhart's disappearance was simple: "crash-andsink." Earhart and Noonan had planned a flight path to Howland Island, where a Coast Guard cutter was stationed to guide her in. But according to official sources, Noonan's calculations were off, the Electra's receiving antenna was broken, and Earhart plummeted into deep water northwest of her destination. The cutter's telegraph operators had even heard her increasingly frantic calls for directions.

However, such a simple explanation has attracted derision from those who prefer their history complicated. A popular conjecture immediately after Earhart vanished proposed Japanese involvement. One theory was that she and Noonan had been captured and executed by the Japanese because she was a spy. In a period when Japan's imperial ambitions were challenging American power, the country was a magnet for conspiracy theorists who expected the worst from it. Then there was the widely discussed theory that Earhart had survived, and begun a new life under a pseudonym in New Jersey. Where did this bizarre idea come from?

Hard to say - except that the life of a New Jersey housewife was, at the time, seen as a much more suitable career choice for a woman.

But these glimpses into the 1930s American imagination will evaporate if the Earhart mystery is solved.

Brutal, unsolved murders from years ago also breed elaborate explanations that reflect the ghoulish interests of the time. Take Jack the Ripper, the unidentified serial killer who strangled and disembowelled at least five women in London's East End in 1888. According to Wikipedia, there are more than 100 hypotheses about the Ripper's identity, and the enduring interest has spawned the term "ripperology."

The murders took place during a period of intensifying social stress within a growing underclass, in a district of desperate poverty where alcoholism and violence were rife. But various armchair investigators spun elaborate theories that a blue-blooded toff was involved - maybe even one of Queen Victoria's sons. Why did suspicion fall on the royal family?

Because it was losing its lustre during these years. Since Prince Albert's death, Queen Victoria had shrouded herself in black and, on the rare occasions she appeared in public, scowled at her subjects. At least two of her sons were known libertines. Amateur sleuths were eager to connect the dots.

One of the great unsolved murders in Canadian history is that of Sir Harry Oakes, a prospector who spent 15 hard-knuckle years looking for gold all over the world until he finally hit paydirt in Northern Ontario in 1912. Lake Shore Mine, in Kirkland Lake, was a gusher of a gold mine, producing tons of rich ore and (along with other mines in the vicinity) making mining the backbone of the Canadian economy between 1920 and 1940.

Oakes was described in the North American media as "the richest man in the British Empire." But the tough little prospector was outraged by Canadian tax levels, and decamped to Nassau, in the Bahamas, a sunny place for shady tax avoiders such as him. There, he was bludgeoned to death in his bedroom during a tropical rainstorm in 1943.

Oakes's murderer has never been identified. But as I discovered when I researched Sir Harry's life for my new book, speculation on the murderer's identity and motive erupted within weeks of his death. There would be waves of Oakes obsession in future years, each illustrating how the past is always seen through a contemporary lens so that it echoes current fixations. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the post-Godfather market for books about the Mafia exploded, several books were published that suggested that American organized-crime kingpin Meyer Lansky was involved.

Lansky wanted Oakes dead, suggested a couple of authors, because Oakes resisted his plans to develop casinos in the Bahamas.

There is no evidence to support this supposition.

A titillating detail for crime writers was that the Duke of Windsor was the governor of the Bahamas at the time of the murder, and behaved suspiciously at the scene of the crime. After the Duke's death in 1972, information about his Nazi links surfaced and disillusionment about the former king intensified. Speculation arose that he was trying to remove money from British-controlled territories, in case of the Nazi victory he would welcome, and Sir Harry, now a British citizen, was abetting him in this treacherous scheme. In this version of the Oakes story, the Canadian millionaire was killed in order to cover up illegal currency dealings between the two men and other seedy Nassau businessmen.

Again, lack of evidence did not bother the speculators, and the continuing mystery persuaded me to explore other aspects of his life.

Science has solved so many mysteries, but it did not solve Sir Harry's murder and, so far, it has not ended the Amelia Earhart saga. And I'll admit that I am happy to have a few mysteries left on which we can exercise our creativity. I want Amelia Earhart, in her boyish check shirt and leather flying helmet, to remain in the popular imagination. I want to hold onto the possibility that she's still out there, somewhere beyond the clouds.

Associated Graphic

The Illustrated Police News from Oct. 27, 1888, details the police search for Jack the Ripper, a serial killer of women in London's Whitechapel neighbourhood.

REUTERS

A 1937 photo by Eric Bevington shows, at left, a tiny smudge that intelligence analysts said resembled the landing gear of Amelia Earhart's Lockheed Electra on the Nikumaroro atoll.

TIGHAR PHOTO BY J. GLICKMAN/THE NEW YORK TIMES

'Why did they do this?'
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A B.C. community tries to understand how a night out for a 14-year-old boy ended in tragedy after his apparent overdose was posted on social media without a single call for help
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By NANCY MACDONALD
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


LANGLEY, B.C. -- More than anything else in this world, Carson Crimeni wanted to make friends and fit in. He'd never been invited to a classmate's birthday party; he'd never been on a sleepover. The hyperactivity and impulsiveness brought on by his attention deficit hyperactivity disorder made him a target. He didn't tell his family, but in the past year, his peers say, the 14-year-old was bullied relentlessly - kicked at, hit and mocked by classmates.

Early in the past school year, a girl his age started a rumour that he'd wet his pants in class. That spread like wildfire. He was christened "Crackhead Carson" - so named because he had trouble sitting still. That's all anyone ever called him, say students from Walnut Grove Secondary School, where Carson had just finished Grade 8.

So the invitation to hang out with a group of much older teens on Aug. 7 was a thrill. But the warm, summer night ended with Carson's death from an apparent overdose, as he was taunted by people he thought were his friends.

Instead of calling for help, they made him a meme.

In videos, Carson appears heavily intoxicated and ingests drugs labelled MDMA, a party drug also known as ecstasy. He's sweating through his grey hoodie, swaying to music while a group of young men howl and catcall him. The videos are posted to popular socialmedia platforms over several hours that night, even as the boy is overheating and losing the ability to speak.

News of the incident, which is being investigated by the RCMP, ricocheted through Walnut Grove, a wealthy commuter town in B.C.'s Lower Mainland.

"It tears me apart," says Darrel Crimeni, the grandfather Carson knew as Nonno, in the Italian tradition. "He was a beautiful boy. Why did they do this? It's pure evil."

Shortly before 10 p.m. that Wednesday night, a teen skateboarding home found Carson's shoes, the orange and black NMD Adidas kickers his Nonno bought him a week earlier.

Next, the boy saw Carson, who was flat on his back, soaked in sweat. He was cold as stone, shaking violently, lying alone against the silver chainlink fence ringing Walnut Grove's soccer field.

Carson's eyes had rolled back into his head. His bare feet were curled inward at bizarre angles, says Mitchell Pederson, 15, the skateboarder who saw Carson and alerted police. His breath came in irregular, ragged gasps. For 20 long seconds, Mitchell says in an interview conducted with his mother's consent, none came at all.

The Globe and Mail spent three days in the community, speaking to Carson's family and six of his friends. The family provided The Globe with videos of Carson from that night.

Someone had thrown Carson's cellphone in a nearby garbage can. Those posting on his descent had vanished.

In one video, his face is a deep, blazing red. His hair is soaked from sweat. His eyes are bulging from his face.

Young men all around him burst into raucous laughter when he can't seem to recall his name.

Carson curls inward, hugging himself. He looks terrified.

A photo taken later shows the boy, now shirtless, his chest and face a bright shade of pink, his hair wet, his blue eyes open wide.

The sun is still shining.

The awful coda was shot hours later, against a black, night sky. In it, a teen leans toward the ambulance attending to the boy. "Carson almost died lol" the caption reads.

Some in Walnut Grove are blaming warped, new cultural pressures that parents barely understand. For Gen Z youth, who spend hours online every day, memes such as those made of Carson - captioned images or videos meant to be funny or sarcastic - have become one of the most popular ways to communicate.

But in a world where comments and followers are measures of popularity, and an "all-about-thelikes" sense of values dominates, the bar for outrageous behaviour is constantly being raised.

Carson's aunt, Diane Crimeni, 33, worries that in viewing everything through a screen, kids are starting to have trouble discerning reality: "To them, nothing seems real.

"How many kids sat at home watching Carson dying in front of their eyes, but did nothing?" she adds.

Still others see this as an ageold story. Carson had many classic characteristics of a child at risk for bullying. He was perceived as different from his peers. He was not popular. He sought out attention, often by being annoying or by trying to provoke others.

When Vancouver criminal lawyer Kyla Lee was growing up, Reena Virk was lured to a waterfront park north of Victoria, where the 14-year-old was beaten and left to die by a group of teens. Ms. Lee says she believes Carson's story is the postmillennial generation's equivalent: "Find a child, get them completely intoxicated on drugs, film them, then leave them to die." Those with Carson saw him as "entertainment," she adds, not a human in need of help.

Ms. Lee, who has viewed several videos from the night, says the people who filmed Carson could be charged with criminal negligence causing death. The act of filming is enough to show criminal disregard for the life of the child "in obvious distress," she says. The power imbalance is aggravated by a stark age difference, she adds.

Carson was considerably younger than those who have been identified on social media as having been there that night.

Carson, meanwhile, who was goofy and childlike and stood a little over five feet tall, seemed even younger than an eighth grader. He'd chosen a Spider-Man game for his 14th birthday, just a few weeks before he died.

He didn't always understand when he was being subtly bullied.

He still had a child's round cheeks and lugged Koko, his orange tabby, to bed with him every night.

His voice hadn't broken yet.

He had a 7 p.m. curfew that he'd missed only once before. In his final call home, at 4:22 p.m. on Aug. 7, he claimed he was off to a movie, knowing his father, Aron Crimeni, would never let him hang out in the skate park with older boys.

In the three hours before his death, Aron Crimeni called his son 11 times, then drove around looking for him. Carson's grandfather was on foot.

It was Darrel, 71, who followed the red, flashing lights of a police car parked near the soccer field, some 800 metres from home.

As police wrestled an adultsized oxygen mask into place, Darrel called his son: "He's not breathing," he said. "He's in bad shape. Really bad shape."

Aron followed the ambulance over the Fraser River to Ridge Meadows Hospital, where he found a doctor bent over Carson's slight chest, trying to revive him.

"Don't go," he pleaded with his son. "Wake up."

By then, however, the boy's heart had stopped. He had no pulse.

Aron, 45, who works as an apprentice electrician, fell instantly in love with the baby boy he named for Johnny Carson - a fitting name, it turned out. From the time he could walk, all Carson ever wanted to do was make people laugh. Aron gained full custody of him when he was four months old. Aron and Carson shared the same pale, blue eyes, the same sense of humour.

"We did everything together," says Aron, whose social circle is limited to a few online friends.

They went for sushi, saw all the Marvel movies, shot hoops together. "He's the only person I hang out with." Until he was 10, Carson and his father lived with Darrel in his sprawling home on an acreage in Surrey's Newton neighbourhood.

Carson's aunt, Diane, would paint the boy's nails and take him bike riding. Aron's other sister, Laura, was like a mother to him and still bought most of Carson's clothes.

"It was like he belonged to all of us," Diane explains.

But at school, Carson struggled mightily.

Darrel saw it as his job to build up Carson's self-esteem.

He was always signing Carson up for new sports - soccer, hockey, swimming, skiing, golf - hoping to ease his anxiety and hyperactivity and help him find a passion. When he started showing an interest in pool, his grandfather drove around the Lower Mainland until he found a "family friendly" pool hall, where he took Carson every Thursday.

For Grade 5, the Crimenis moved as a family to Walnut Grove, where Darrel bought a townhouse exactly halfway between the elementary school and Walnut Grove Secondary. Aron rented nearby. They chose the community so Carson could attend its excellent schools and to get him away from the drugs and gangs colonizing central Surrey.

But Carson's problems followed him there.

A group of six boys who spoke to The Globe say they were the only kids who accepted Carson at Walnut Grove Secondary. The Globe granted them confidentiality because of their age and the sensitivity of the matter.

They're gamers who don't fit in with the cool kids at the top of Walnut Grove's pecking order.

They spent countless hours online with Carson playing an adventure survival game. Seeing how badly he was treated by those in his grade, they tried looking out for him.

They come from intact, middle-class homes, and say Carson stuck out in their homogeneous burg, where two-thirds of adults have postsecondary degrees and the average home costs just less than $1-million.

Carson bused in from downtown Langley, where his single dad rents a $700-a-month, onebedroom apartment. Until recently, he lived with his retired grandfather, who lives on a fixed income in a community where 70 per cent of adults are married and the median household income tops $112,000.

The six boys who spoke to The Globe smoked pot with Carson, but say there is "no way" he tried hard drugs before Aug. 7.

This summer, though, they witnessed worrying behaviour: Some older boys unknown to them were allegedly "greening" Carson out - getting him so high on marijuana he'd grow whitefaced and sick.

In Walnut Grove, a heavy police presence has chased away skaters from the park where Carson's night began; it's become a makeshift memorial. Every day, people still visit it. Some leave flowers. Many shed tears. Parents bring their kids, reminding them to stand up for their friends, to call police when something feels wrong.

"He was vulnerable, gullible," Aron says. "He thought these guys were his friends. He trusted them."

Associated Graphic

Aron Crimeni walks around the skateboard park in Langley, B.C., which has become a makeshift memorial for his son, Carson, who died of an apparent overdose on Aug. 7.

JIMMY JEONG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Darrel Crimeni, grandfather of Carson Crimeni, sits in the room his grandson would stay in at his house in Langley, B.C. The skateboard park where Darrel found Carson, below, has become a makeshift memorial.

PHOTOS BY JIMMY JEONG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Why and how have beauty pageants endured? A portrait of six queens of the modern age
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In a society more and more uncomfortable with judging women by their looks, I wanted to understand the people keeping pomp and pageantry alive - and was surprised by what they told me
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By LUCY LU
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O4


Toronto-based photographer

I have a distinct memory of myself, at the age of 4 or 5, crying because my grandparents forbade me from wearing a dress. In their defence, it was the dead of winter. I remember wanting, so badly, to grow out my hair in order to look more girlish since I was often mistaken for a boy when I was a young child. In my adolescence, perhaps because I never felt like I was conventionally beautiful, I put little thought into my appearance altogether.

When I first watched the Miss Universe pageant on TV, seeing dozens of beautiful and graceful women walk across the stage, I remember feeling envious, that I had gotten the short end of the stick. Why were these women being rewarded for something - in their case, genetics - they had no control over? To assuage these feelings, I told myself these women were shallow, that their looks were the most, and perhaps only, valuable thing they possessed.

While the idea of a competition to crown the finest, best-looking man or woman has existed for centuries, the first modern beauty pageant to take place in North America was organized by P.T. Barnum in the mid-19th century, though it was shuttered because of public protest.

The glory days of beauty pageants are long gone; viewership for Miss Universe and Miss America has been falling steadily since the early 2000s.

It seems that we, as a society, have decided that the concept of parading women on stage and judging them mostly based on physical attractiveness is an outdated and objectifying notion. But on Aug. 17, Miss Universe Canada will be crowned in Toronto. And that woman will go on to represent the country at the 68th annual Miss Universe event in December. So, it's a notion that still won't die. Why?

I found myself asking this question when I learned that one of my old highschool friends was participating in a local beauty pageant. Frankly, I was surprised that these competitions still existed. I wanted to know how someone such as my strong-willed friend could expose herself to that type of scrutiny and judgment. This inspired my journey into photographing beauty-pageant contestants.

At first, I had a hard time leaving my biases at the door. Many mainstream pageants such as Miss Universe still have antiquated rules about who can compete for the title. Contestants must be under the age of 28 and must not be, nor have ever been, married or pregnant, which gives me the icky feeling that pageants are just an elaborate scam that parades eligible young women on stage, from which bachelors can take their picks, as if off a restaurant menu.

But all the women I spoke with acknowledged that while pageants are not perfect, they still find something genuinely fulfilling, and even empowering, about being a part of them.

Some joined with the simple hope of meeting new people and connecting with other women from all over the world.

Some told me that competing in pageants helped them with their confidence or made them become better public speakers. Some said that the gruelling hours spent getting into shape and preparing for the competitions strengthened their work ethic. Many expressed the appeal of the charity and community work that contestants take part in.

It would be naive to say that individual positive experiences equate to beauty pageants being a wholly progressive concept.

After all, each and every woman I spoke with acknowledged that yes, a large part of beauty pageants is still based on physical appearance.

And yes, beauty pageants have had a long history of issues surrounding diversity. But contestants are still willing to look past those problems for a personal sense of achievement.

The women I spoke with showed incredible vulnerability and strength, leading me to remain torn on whether beauty pageants are something I wish to see in the future. But I've gained a new respect for the women who choose to participate in them.

There's something admirable about their genuine, and at times arduous, attempts to feel like the best versions of themselves, both physically and mentally. They, like me, are motivated by a desire to be seen, to overcome personal adversities and to work toward their highest potential.

They've found their expression of that through beauty pageants and have shown me that the search for empowerment can come in unconventional and complex packages.

ALICE LI Alice Li acknowledges the difficulty of putting yourself out there on stage and that, in doing so, you really need to have a handle on who you are and what you stand for.

Her ambition is unwavering and her work ethic is strong. She competes in pageants, works full time and performs with dance and music in Toronto subway stations to raise money for her charity of choice, the Children's Wish Foundation.

"These women are confident enough to stand on stage, in front of so many people, and people they don't even know. And they're confident enough to express their style, speak in front of people, walk across the stage in a swimsuit," she says. "The beauty-pageant experience is for the girls who compete. And as long as the girls who compete are getting something positive from it, it doesn't matter what the audience says."

Alice Li, 25, is a full-time accountant and a seasoned pageant queen. She's been doing pageants since she was 15, which makes this year her 10th year competing. She's currently vying for Miss Universe Canada. Her previous titles include Miss Intercontinental Canada and Miss Ontario World. Shot at Ms. Li's office in Toronto on Oct. 20, 2018.

VANESSA NASH-GALE "I'm tattooed, pierced. I'm short. I'm not a beauty queen!" says Vanessa Nash-Gale, winner of Miss Fuller Woman Canada 2016, the only plus-size pageant in Canada, which folded a few months after she was crowned. Ms. Nash-Gale grew up watching Miss Universe and has always been interested in fashion, makeup and glamour.

She says what most people don't know about pageants is the hard work that contestants put into them. When she was competing, she was also working 40 hours a week and rehearsing three hours every day, sometimes rehearsing two more hours on her own at home. When I ask her about her thoughts on beauty pageants and feminism, she responds, confidently: "People would say 'I thought you were a feminist.' Well, I am a feminist. I choose to be in a pageant, just like I choose to wear makeup. Feminism isn't about rejecting the feminine; it's about accepting whether or not people want to subscribe to it."

Vanessa Nash-Gale is a 39-year-old sewing and leather-craft teacher from Newfoundland.

Shot in Ms. Nash-Gale's home in Toronto on April 6.

NATASHA EUTENEIER "I'm a huge believer in being the queen of your life," says Natasha Euteneier, mother of a four-year-old son, Sebastian, whose experience as a single parent led her to advocate for other moms in her pageant platform. Ms. Euteneier participated in Ms. Galaxy Canada this year, as this stream of the Galaxy Pageants allows for women with children to compete. Being the epitome of an extrovert, what Ms. Euteneier enjoyed most about competing was meeting people, being introduced to different causes and being able to engage with her local community.

Ms. Euteneier says: "As a person, you have many different areas that you will be judged on, whether you like it or not.

You're also judging yourself. So what pageants are doing is inspiring you, and judging you, on who you are and what you can offer to the world."

Natasha Euteneier is a 27-year-old sales professional and entrepreneur. She recently competed in Ms. Galaxy Canada, representing Halton, Ont., and will be competing in Miss Europe Continental this November. Shot in Ms. Euteneier's home in Georgetown, Ont., on March 22.

KATE BRIONES Kate Briones is sweet and well-spoken, and at first, I hardly noticed her speech impediment, something she's had since she was 4.

She looks back fondly on her decision to enter her first pageant two years ago, where she took home the title of Miss Teen Canada's Top Choice. This year, she competed in Miss Teen Galaxy Canada.

"Speaking was always something that scared me," she says, "so I wanted something to kind of help me out of that, to help me feel more confident about myself."

She said she was surprised to win, but that winning taught her that her speech impediment is not something that will hold her back from achieving the things she wanted. "The only competition I have is within myself."

Kate Briones is a 17-year-old high-school student. She hopes to go into child and youth work in the future. Shot in Ms. Briones's home in North York, Ont., on April 14.

JULIANA QIAN Juliana Qian is the first runner-up to Miss Chinese Toronto 2015 and had previously competed in Miss Asia Toronto. Her interest in pageants started with competing in an Asian-Canadian modelling competition - Sunshine Generations. "Modelling, being on stage and performing in front of an audience is what I really love to do," she says. Ms. Qian has been dancing since her teens and now teaches hip-hop and popping as a side job.

I asked her about the reactions of her family and peers when she told them she was entering a pageant. She says: "I think [my family] were pretty supportive; I got a lot of positive feedback. But, in a way, I felt more disconnected from my friends, because they didn't really understand, they thought it was like a 'Barbie' thing to do. So I felt like I was being judged because of that."

Juliana Qian, 24, works as an administrator, but identifies more as a dancer and model.

She still performs and models but is not sure if she wants to do another pageant in the future. Shot in Ms. Qian's home in Scarborough, Ont., on April 12.

GRACE DIAMANI Grace Diamani wishes to see more women of colour participating in and winning pageants. She is currently competing in Miss Universe Canada, and if she wins, she would be the first black woman to represent the country in the Miss Universe pageant.

As the daughter of a political science professor and a women's studies professor, she admits there was some hesitation from her parents when she decided to enter Miss Grand, a pageant with a specific message to "stop the war and violence" around the world. Ms. Diamani was already interested in modelling at the time and this statement spoke to her because of her ties to the Republic of the Congo, where her parents are from; she wanted to advocate for women and children in war-torn countries through her platform.

Grace Diamani, 26, is currently living in Ottawa and studying sociology at Carleton University. Taken in Ms. Diamani's childhood home in Whitby, Ont., on July 27.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Correction

A Saturday Opinion article on beauty pageants incorrectly said that no black women have represented Canada in the Miss Universe pageant.

Matters of life and death
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Ahead of her 15th book, Quebec mystery writer Louise Penny explains why her bestselling works aren't really 'about murder,' how her characters survive their wounds and how she has coped with her own
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By ALEC SCOTT
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R9


'Who hurt you, once, so far beyond repair?" This phrase gets repeated often in Louise Penny's mystery novels. She puts it into the mouth of one of the main characters - a swearing, Scotch-swilling poet - in her bestselling series.

The line, taken with permission from a poem by Marylyn Plessner, speaks to Penny's core project, a central concern that has drawn millions of readers, me among them, to her unconventional whodunnits. Are we, after enduring certain hurts, beyond repair? Or can we, as with some of Penny's characters - like she herself has done - not only survive our various wounds, but find a way to thrive after sustaining them?

A tall woman, with a presence both formidable and warm, Penny barely touches her half of a matcha muffin during an interview at a café in her adopted hometown, Knowlton, Que.

"My books aren't about murder, not really," she says. "Though that sounds maybe odd."

Her 15th book, A Better Man, comes out this August. If it matches the sales of her previous few, it'll sit at or near the top of The New York Times and Globe and Mail bestseller lists for some time. Penny has sold more than 8.5 million books and won, often multiple times, this popular genre's top awards.

On launch day, Aug. 25, readers from around the world, members of what one reporter has called the Penny Posse, are expected to gather on Knowlton's Village Green. Then, this fall, Penny will travel abroad and across Canada for promotional interviews in Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Toronto and Montreal. She relishes the events, she says, even if she has to tamp down a long-standing fear of flying to get to them.

"I realized," she says, "I could not have a robust and successful writing career and a phobia of flying at the same time. So I went to therapy, even hypnosis and finally just got on planes."

She has done what it takes to make hers a robust career, turning out a sequel most years and communicating with her readers via blog, e-newsletter and Facebook. But even working at it as she does, she says she's surprised this level of success came her way - and so relatively late in life. After a long career as a CBC reporter, she took up writing in her 30s and published her first book, Still Life, in 1990, in her early 40s.

"What are the chances?" she says. "I'm a middle-aged woman writing in what the rest of the world would consider the middle of nowhere - Canada - and writing about the middle of nowhere. It does not have New York Times bestseller written all over it."

The new book returns to Three Pines, Penny's fictional Quebec village, a sort of sanctuary for lost souls: a therapist-turned-bookstore owner; that foul-mouthed poet; a gay couple who run the local bistro, inn and antique store combo (and whose careful individuation saves them from cliché); and a painter coping with the recent loss of her husband.

"It's a love letter to the scene that's actually here. I feel badly when people visit, my publisher especially, since they soon discover that I have no imagination," Penny says with one of the many laughs that punctuate the interview.

She has often said that the sleuth of her books, Chief Inspector Armand Gamache, grew out of her sense of her husband, hematologist Michael Whitehead, who worked at Montreal's Hospital for Sick Children - so much so that, after his death at 82 of dementia in 2016, she worried she wouldn't be able to carry on writing the books.

"I thought it would be too painful," says Penny, now 61.

She didn't force herself to start writing again, but a few months after his death, a fully formed sentence for an asyet-unwritten book came to her, prompting her to sit down at her usual spot, the dining-room table, and resume her work, usually banging out a thousand or more words a day.

"It's maybe silly, but something Terry Fox wrote in his diary helps me: He said when he got up in the mornings, he didn't set out to run to Victoria."

In this book, Gamache, the sometimes head of the Sûreté du Québec, is asked to track down a woman who has disappeared while postwinter floods bear down on the little town, Montreal and Quebec at large. Once again, it displays how she has mastered the elements of the mystery writer's craft - setting up in clean prose a puzzle with false clues and real ones, moving toward a solution. But the deeper reward lies in how the books probe the psyches of Gamache, his family and colleagues, as well as this circle of small-town bohemians, the author picking off her characters, psychologically at least, one by one.

Her characters are all wounded in different ways. Her sleuth, for one, is no invulnerable lone wolf, but a man who relies on the people around him and who believes wisdom begins when you admit your mistakes and ask for help. This way of thinking, and another character's struggle with addiction to opioids, owe much to Penny's own experience.

An increasingly heavy drinker from her 20s to her mid-30s, she thought of suicide. "I had no friends, the phone didn't ring, I was probably a few months away from losing my job." She once said, "Had I a gun, I would have blown my head off." She credits a call to Alcoholics Anonymous and, after a year of sobriety, meeting Whitehead for pulling her back from the brink.

It was he who encouraged her to pursue her childhood dream of writing - and supported her while she tried. But this, too, didn't come easily. She put her first effort, a historical novel she worked on for five years, into a drawer, before finding her way to writing Still Life. Rejected by about 50 publishers, it almost died, too, but she decided to send it in to a British literary contest, where it came second, drawing interest from a London agent and publisher. ("She was hurt that publishers in Canada didn't recognize her book," childhood friend Wendy Mesley said. "But furious, too, because she knew it was good.") Penny is right, not surprisingly, that her books aren't really about murder, nor even about death. Instead, they're paeans to life's pleasures, small and large, and explorations of how to endure pain.

On the pleasure side of the equation, she writes well about food.

"I use it to give a sense of place, Quebec, and also to break down the fourth wall, to make the reader feel invited in."

A dog owner (who has just lost her golden retriever, Bishop, when we meet), she also speaks to the often profound bond between people and their domestic animals.

She also serves up a moving portrait of the relationship between Gamache and his rock-solid wife, Reine-Marie, a depiction of the deepening connection that can arise in a true marriage of minds. After some of Gamache's colleagues die in a raid he led, he decides, despite his own grievous wounds, that he must march in their lengthy funerary procession - and she accepts that he must do this, whatever the physical cost.

As a series, the books also do a good job speaking about the satisfactions and challenges of an artist's life. For her interest in the arts, she gives some credit to her mother.

Penny grew up in a well-to-do North Toronto family.

"She lived in what I thought was a huge mansion, with a den," Mesley says. "We visited each other's cottages, hers fabulous in the Laurentians, mine 12-by-12 in the Kawarthas. I thought her life was perfect."

But all did not glitter for long. Her parents divorced, leaving the girl living with her almost-broke mother. Her mother used some of her first paycheque to buy a piece of art they could ill afford. "She wanted to make a point to me," Penny has said, "about the importance of beauty."

Judging by the books, point taken.

All of this is very cozy, but what ultimately draws me is how she paints a particularly harsh slice of the Canadian experience and how, more generally, she describes the way people process trauma.

Penny sets her fourth book, A Rule Against Murder, at what she acknowledges is a thinly disguised version of the Manoir Hovey, the renowned Eastern Townships inn. The guests are the family of one of her Three Pines artists, a group of wealthy anglos from Montreal and Toronto who make the toxic WASPs in Edward Albee look positively benign. (They're great as suspects for a murder, because you believe any one of them would do it between sips of a gin and tonic.) Brought up (like Penny herself) in this tribe, the artist character tries, over the course of several books, to escape his inherited belief system.

"I am writing about this old idea, that 'He who travels fastest travels alone,' " Penny says, quoting a Kipling poem. "It was part of my upbringing, but it's simply not true - this myth of self-reliance."

After her crash, with lots of help and some fortitude, she has found joy in her life and work. "Surprised by joy" - a line from William Wordsworth - is the line she's had carved into a bench marking her husband's passing in New York's Central Park. She's found a community far from where she grew up that, as Three Pines does for her characters, has taken her in, given her much, allowed her to give much back.

"The real blessing is not that I've had a book published," she has written in the acknowledgments to one of them, "but that I have so many people to thank."

Penny's books and her biography both speak to the possibility that, if we're lucky, we can come back, even if it seems we've been hurt beyond repair.

Associated Graphic

Louise Penny, seen near her home in Knowlton, Que., turns out new entries in her bestselling mystery series, centred on Quebec Chief Inspector Armand Gamache, almost annually and maintains a steady communication with fans through a blog, e-newsletter and social media.

PHOTOS BY RENAUD PHILIPPE/THE NEW YORK TIMES

The author, seen in her Knowlton home, worried she wouldn't be able to continue writing her most well-known character after the death of her husband, from whom she drew inspiration.

NO WAY OUT
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For the past 10 weeks Hong Kong has been gripped by mass protests. What began as pushback against an extradition law, since shelved, has evolved into something different. The 'revolution of our times,' as the students like to call it, is a mixture of ennui, cultural rootlessness and economic despair. How it ends remains very much unclear
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By TOM GRIMMER
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O1


HONG KONG -- Hong Kong-based consultant and writer

On Aug. 5, the day of Hong Kong's first general strike in 50 years, I took an evening walk down to government headquarters in the Admiralty district, which has been a focus of the protests since they began in early June. It was already 9 p.m., most of the demonstrations in the area were finished for the night, and black-shirted protesters were rapidly draining out by bus and the subway. So instead of watching a siege, I settled for a beer in a nearby pub.

There were two customers in the otherwise empty bar, twentysomethings dressed in the standard Hong Kong protester kit: black clothes, sneakers and knapsacks. While they sipped IPAs, the young man played Candy Crush on his phone, nodding and half-listening as his girlfriend nattered and posted pictures on Instagram. They chatted in Cantonese, but the young woman addressed the Nepalese waitress in flawless English.

What struck me about this was its ordinariness. Two kids, just out of their teens, enjoying a drink on a summer's eve. On another day, in another year, they might have spent the afternoon at the beach. It was hard to picture them throwing Molotov cocktails at a police station.

In a broader sense, it was also reflective of what Hong Kong is like these days. In recent weeks, there have been sporadic scenes of extreme behaviour otherwise alien to the city: a large fire burning outside a police station; a cop drawing his sidearm; protesters assaulting a Chinese journalist and seizing and zip-tying the hands of a suspected mainland security operative at the airport.

At the same time, Hong Kong continues to go about its daily business as one of the world's great commercial centres. Many of us still go to work, even if we go holding our breath. We try and concentrate on our lives despite the noise. The stockbrokers broke, the shippers ship, the taxi drivers careen around like maniacs and the old guy on my street who has fixed small appliances from a tiny stall for 40 years still shows up every day. I don't know if he's oblivious to what's going on or it just looks that way.

It was only the closure of the airport - among the world's busiest for passengers, the leader in cargo and a crossroads for global tourism - that really jolted the city. On Wednesday, demonstrators took the unusual step of somewhat sheepishly apologizing for the airport chaos.

"We're deeply sorry about what happened yesterday," read one banner unfurled by protesters. "We were desperate and we made imperfect decisions. Please accept our apologies."

But back to that bar. Not two hours after I paid my tab, that very street in Wan Chai blew up with a flash-mob protest, tear gas and truncheons. The young couple from the pub may have joined in.

Or they may have gone home to watch Netflix. That's Hong Kong right now.

I write this on the eve of another weekend when, once again, massive rallies are planned. With protests now in their 10th week and increasingly violent, many of us long-term residents despair for an uncertain future. Satellite photos of armoured personnel carriers being massed just over the border in China don't help.

This is among the biggest stories in the world at the moment, so I'll skip rehashing how two million people filled our streets in June opposing an ill-conceived extradition law. That mass movement - one in four citizens - has become an amorphous, largely leaderless outpouring of frustration by Hong Kong's millennials and Gen Z'ers. The crowds are now much smaller, but the violence is exponentially greater.

And the brutality undeniable from a police force once considered among Asia's finest.

The proposed legislation that sparked this is "dead," says Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam.

But for the people on the streets now, that is too little, too late.

They want it formally withdrawn, a step that the government has been inexplicably unwilling to take, along with any other gestures of contrition. The blackshirts, as protesters are known, have other demands, including an inquiry into police behaviour.

I was brusquely asked, recently, how an expat in this 60s - who has a ticket out of here if the worst-case scenario comes to pass - can truly understand what motivates the youth of Hong Kong. It's true: A survey by three Hong Kong academics conducted over the past two months revealed that 60 per cent of protesters are younger than 30 and more than 70 per cent have some postsecondary education. Ominously, it also revealed that most peaceful protesters understand why some of their comrades, facing a government that won't budge, have resorted to violence.

The "revolution of our times," as the students like to call it, is a mixture of ennui, cultural rootlessness and economic despair.

The lack of cultural identity is, in a strange way, part of being a young Hong Konger - which means, first and foremost, not being from China (although almost everyone in Hong Kong can trace their roots there). Canadians should identify with this because we, too, define ourselves by what we're not: Americans. Many of those who have taken to the streets were born after Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997 after a century-and-a-half under British rule and long after the Tiananmen Square crackdown of 1989.

In many ways, I admire their David-versus-Goliath guts, but I also wonder if they fully appreciate what they are up against if China is pushed far enough.

Moreover, these youths are not sure what being "Chinese" means. Is it the culture of their parents and grandparents - who made Hong Kong great - or the culture of authoritarian capitalism in China? The only thing they are sure about is they don't want the latter. But one also gets the sense that they are not only rebelling against Hong Kong's impotent government in the shadow of China, but also the Confucian traditions of conservatism. They struggle to see what's in it for them - and can you blame them?

Which leads us directly into a discussion of economic desperation, perhaps the most intractable issue at play here. Hong Kong is supposed to be in 50-year transition to full Chinese rule in 2047.

But economically and socially, it's already a done deal. Hong Kong always benefited from mobile capital but static labour. That's no longer the case. In its core industry, finance, the Mandarin spoken on the mainland has all but become the second language. Socially, the mainland allows 150 people a day to emigrate from China, in addition to the professionals who flock here to work.

Naturally, Hong Kong's de facto official Cantonese dialect is feeling increasingly diluted. Slowly outnumbering your hosts is the oldest colonial trick in the book.

There's more. Hong Kong has the most expensive residential real estate in the world and the second-highest (after New York) Gini co-efficient, the classic measure of the rich-poor gap. A lot of young people in Hong Kong have little hope of ever owning a home and many live with their parents into their 30s and even after marriage.

They look upon what seems to them as a rigged economic system, run by a handful of familycontrolled conglomerates and pro-China business lobbies. They know they are at a disadvantage in what is mislabelled a meritocracy. (It remains to be seen if their rage stays focused solely on the government and the police, but so far there have been no broken shop windows, overturned cars alight or willful damage to private property despite 10 weeks of unrest.)

That same person who upbraided me for being a dopey expat also suggested that the young people in the streets are the "no hopers." These are not the kids who get a strong secondary education and then go on to Hong Kong University or top schools abroad. I think there's a broad spectrum of protesters, although many are from the communities in Hong Kong's periphery, in both a geographic and economic sense. They must compete not only with each other, but with the mainland kids, many of them well-connected, who come into Hong Kong after attending universities in the West.

These are the people with no easy way out of here if things really go pear-shaped. Many people who were here pre-1997 have alternatives, either through relatives who emigrated or other back-pocket arrangements. But others have no such option.

In a nutshell, for these kids, the Hong Kong economic dream - work hard and you'll succeed - looks dead. The political dream, for a full democracy that was neither present under the British pre-1997 nor under China now, seems more distant than ever.

Since that night of the strike, things have ratcheted up considerably, including the unprecedented airport siege, the firing of tear gas inside subways stations, and disturbing rumblings out of China about foreign "black hands" and Hong Kong's protests showing "signs of terrorism." No one knows where this is going; it is completely uncharted.

As things have spiralled out of control - into "the abyss," in the words of Ms. Lam - I have wondered about that pair from the pub. They may have been at the airport, or gassed and beaten in that subway station. Will they, in 28 years when Hong Kong reverts fully to Chinese rule, tell their kids about these heady days of rebellion? Perhaps similar to the anti-establishment Western youth of the sixties, they will simply succumb to economic reality and forge a compromise with the future. They might watch from afar, from say Sydney or Toronto.

Of course, it's very hard to say where China itself will be politically by then, but chances are those two will know one thing for sure: They witnessed free expression as we knew it die in Hong Kong.

Associated Graphic

Black-shirt protesters occupy the departure hall of the Hong Kong International Airport during a demonstration on Monday.

ANTHONY KWAN/GETTY IMAGES

Black-shirt protesters rally before marching to West Kowloon railway station in Hong Kong early last month.

VIVEK PRAKASH/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Anti-government protesters hand out leaflets, above, to travellers last Saturday at the Hong Kong International Airport, where they apprehended a man, below, just three days later for allegedly spying for the Chinese government.

ABOVE: VIVEK PRAKASH/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; BELOW: ANTHONY KWAN/GETTY IMAGES

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B17


MARGARET EVELYN BEARE Ph.D.

December 17, 1946 August 10, 2019 Margaret died peacefully on August 10. She will be forever loved and missed by her devoted daughter Nhai Nguyen-Beare (Ryan Maleganeas) and her Peterborough sisters, Bernadine Dodge (James Driscoll) and Christine Kearsley (Robert Kearsley). Margaret is also survived by her niece Kathleen Burneau (Gus Burneau) of Toronto, and will be mourned by a host of friends around the world.

Prof. Beare was born in Markham, Ontario and raised on a farm near Agincourt, Ontario. She was educated at Guelph University, (B.A. 1968 and M.A. 1971); Cambridge University, England, (Diploma in Criminology 1974) and Columbia University, NY (Doctor of Philosophy, 1987). Her career in transnational police policy and the study of organized crime began with her role as Senior Research Officer in the Office of the Solicitor General, 1982-1993. She joined the faculty of York University in the Sociology Department with a cross appointment to Osgoode Hall Law Faculty in 1995. She was the Founding Director of the Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, and remained a faculty member at York until her death.

Margaret is the author of Criminal Conspiracies: Organized Crime in Canada, and numerous edited and co-authored books, and, articles on money laundering, international policing policy, gang violence, and social justice. Her work involved extensive travel throughout South East Asia and South America. Her consultancy work as a leading authority on criminal activity was on-going up until her last illness.

When Margaret wasn't working, or travelling, or spending time with Nhai, she was listening to Leonard Cohen, throwing dinner parties, walking Harley, the latest of several golden retrievers, or relaxing at her cabin on Chemong Lake.

Margaret's family are most grateful for the tender care and support she has received from her friends and neighbours on Major Street, the wider Harbord Village community, and academic colleagues. A memorial to celebrate her life will take place at a later date.

Cremation has taken place.

DANIEL GABRIEL FOY

April 13, 1994

Passed away suddenly in Toronto.

Dearly loved and cherished son of Christine and Larry. Beloved brother of Kevin. Predeceased by his grandparents Raymond and Ruth Domleo and Fred and Glenna Foy. Also predeceased by his uncle David Domleo (Karen). Loved nephew of Debra Hopkins (Paul), Catherine Schryer (Franz), Ted Foy (Peggy), Mary Clare Argiropoulos (Constantine), Brian Foy (Colleen), Eileen Foy, Elizabeth Foy and Margaret Foy.

Dan will be fondly remembered by his many cousins.

Daniel was engaging, charming and witty. He sought challenges.

Dan was an intense friend, a passionate chef and an excellent sailor and snowboarder. He bonded closely with his canine and feline companions.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., on Saturday, August 17, 2019 from 1 p.m. until time of the Chapel Service at 3 p.m. Cremation has taken place. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery at a later date.

As an expression of sympathy donations to CAMH, The George Hull Centre or Jack.org would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca Goodbye Dan - we'll always love you.

DESMOND PATRICK KERANS

March 10, 1930 August 13, 2019

Peacefully in Ottawa at the age of 89. Survived by his wife of 46 years, Marion Douglas Kerans; four stepchildren, Karen (Brian), Joanne (Michael), Robert (Heather), and Lyn (Jamie); thirteen grandchildren; and eight great-grandchildren; and by other family members, Murray Angus (Joyce), Deborah Stienstra (Greg) and Elspeth MacEwan (Grant).

Also survived by his brother, Roger Kerans. Predeceased by his parents, Philip and Julia Kerans; step-children, Patrick and Maureen; and nephew, Chris Kerans.

The family would like to thank Dr. Claudia Hubbes for her exceptional care in Pat's final years, and the May Court Hospice in Ottawa. In lieu of flowers, those wishing to honour Pat may do so by donating to a charity of their choice.

A funeral mass will be celebrated at 10:00 a.m. at St.

Joseph's Catholic Church, 174 Wilbrod St., Ottawa on Saturday, August 17 followed by a reception. Cremation has taken place. Pat's ashes will b e interred on Caribou Island, NS, at a later date.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

STEPHEN JOSEPH O'ROURKE MD, FRCP(C)

Just shy of his 94th birthday, Steve died peacefully on August 11, 2019 surrounded by family in the Palliative Care Unit at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Steve is mourned by the love of his life, "Breid" (Brigid Conlon of Belfast), children , William (Janice), Patrick (Theresa), John (Catherine), Kit (Randall), grandchildren, Patrick (Kelly), Liam (Jackie), Sean, Caitlin, Eamonn, Rosie, Maggie, Eden, Austin, Ella, Maddie, greatgrandchildren, Tiernan and Maeve and many nieces, nephews and cousins around the world.

Born on a farm in Bruff, Co.

Limerick, Ireland, Steve graduated medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in 1949. As a Captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps he served in the Korean War and later in Fort Churchill, MB. He then joined the Department of Anaesthesia at St.

Mike's in Toronto where he gave anaesthetics for more than four decades, was a highly respected teacher and mentor to countless medical students and residents, pioneered spinal anaesthesia and was instrumental in advancing obstetrical epidurals.

A life-long horse racing fan, Steve rarely missed attending The Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate. Steve and Breid were founding members of St.

Bonaventure's Parish. They loved to entertain and hosted many celebrations throughout the years. Their endless hospitality and fun-loving nature warmed many hearts.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 1:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 15th. A Funeral Mass will be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, on Friday, August 16th at 10:30 a.m. If desired, donations to St.

Michael's Hospital Foundation, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, http://www.stmichaelshospital.com, would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

KAY WILSON (née Kathleen Medland)

Peacefully in Mississauga on August 12, 2019, at the age of 99.

Predeceased by her husband, Fred. Loving mother of Paul (Chris), Peter (Janet), and the late Douglas and Susan. Beloved grandmother of Leslie (Rob), Jay (Chelsey), Julia (Darren), Nik (Ryan), and Kate (Jocelyn), and great-grandmother of Callum, Rory, Jake, Ben, Lewis, and Nolan.

Special thanks to the team at the Village of Erin Meadows for their kindness and care. She has donated her body to the University of Toronto, where she will be a valued partner with medical students in their anatomical studies. Donations in Kay's memory may be made to the Anatomical Research Fund, University of Toronto.

A memorial will take place at the Village of Erin Meadows Retirement Home on August 24, from 3 to 5 p.m.

DIANE MCCONNELL

In fond memory of Dr. Diane McConnell of Toronto (Parkdale) who passed away on January 15, 2015. Diane taught Renaissance Literature at University of Toronto and later Memorial University before returning to Toronto to work for the Ministry of Education. She is remembered for her lively, thoughtful and caring approach to life.

"It makes me feel good, knowing that in some obscure, conclusive way they were connected with me and me with them."

(Ypres 1915, Alden Nowlan)

PATRICIA SHANNON

Remembering my friend As time unfolded this past year Memories keep you ever near Happy thoughts of times together Hold memories that will last forever.

From Sandra Dear

Indelible memories
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Have you ever been surprised by how much you love a destination? In Tofino, B.C., Domini Clark discovers a place that will always be a part of her
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By DOMINI CLARK
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page P13


For years, I have been vocal about my dislike of the Pacific Northwest. As someone who spent summer vacations in Nova Scotia and Maine, the differences between the two coasts were stark.

The East is simple: You listen to the waves, eat some lobster and make conversation with strangers about where to find the best fried clams. It's relaxing. The West Coast is not relaxing. It is about being chill. And "chilling" is a competitive sport. How many miles was your run? How long are you willing to wait for a simple ham and cheese crêpe at a farmers' market before you lose your patience? How many food groups have you eliminated from your diet? (Clearly not enough if you're eating a ham and cheese crêpe.)

And Vancouver, well, that city is like a hot dumb guy. Gorgeous, but not a lot going on underneath the handsome looks. Good for a weekend fling.

So whenever someone tried to lure me out west, that was the spiel I recited. And the rebuttal was constant: "Go to Tofino," they said. "You'll love Tofino," they said.

I had my doubts. For starters, the town's tourism logo is a Volkswagen bus. (Nothing smacks of "chilling" like #vanlife.) It's famous for an annual surf competition. People use the word "hippie" a lot to describe it. None of these things bodes well. Eventually though, I gave in - pretty much just to shut everyone up.

So one sunny September day, I climbed into a rickety-looking six-seater plane and flew to a remote tip of Vancouver Island.

And five days later I returned home with a souvenir of it permanently inked on my body.

What gets lost in the image of Tofino, B.C., as a laid-back surf spot is the reality that, at its heart, this is a small town in the middle of nowhere. The full-time population is less than 2,000 and it is literally at the end of the road (the Pacific Rim Highway). The first Europeans to settle here were Norwegians in the 1800s. Back then it was a fishing village and that air remains: Everybody knows each other and they're all in it together. This is no pretentious hipster haven.

On my first morning, I head out on Tranquil Bay for a casual, impromptu wildlife-watching cruise with Tod Byrnes, a local photographer who also runs Chesterman Beach B&B. First he sets some crab traps for his dinner. He doesn't seem particularly rushed, chatting with passersby as we get ready and then patiently exploring every cove to increase our chances of animal sightings as the sun plays hide and seek with the clouds. (It pays off, as we spot multiple bears strolling along the island shores.) I will get to know this relaxed, easygoing demeanor well during my time here, as it proves to be a common personality trait. Perhaps no one is in a rush to go anywhere, it occurs to me, because there is nowhere to go. Everything they need is right here and everyone is operating at the same slow pace.

If you are looking for a vacation destination that will instantly eradicate your stress, you'd be hard-pressed to do better.

To move here permanently is a different story, though. The late summer weather is lovely, but soon cold-weather storms will arrive, with gale-force winds and violent waters. It's fun to watch for a few days - and "storm season" has proven to be a strong tourist draw - but not for months.

"There are challenges to living here," is how Don Travers of Remote Passages Marine Excursions, a popular whale-watching operator, puts it, as we prep for a tour on Day 2 that will bring us close to grey whales, sea otters and sea lions. Still, to him the appeal of calling Tofino home is clear. "I always ask people, 'Why are you here?' " he says. "If they don't know, I tell them: 'You came for the wilderness.' " Surrounded by dramatic coastline and old-growth forest, the citizens of Tofino enjoy a wonderful quality of life in a region of spectacular natural beauty. But the veil of hipsterdom hides the determination and effort that goes into it all. People who move here either find a way to make it work, or they turn back. As a result it's a hotbed of entrepreneurship: More than 600 business licences are issued each year. Many residents hold multiple jobs and in peak visitor season may work up to 70 hours a week - while still fitting in a daily surf, of course.

Even that sport is deceptive, I learn on my third day. The stereotypical image of the surfer is not one of an industrious individual.

"There's something about the surf lifestyle," Krissy Montgomery, owner of Surf Sister and one of the forces behind the annual Queen of the Peak all-women surf competition. "It's so laid-back."

Surfing is not for slackers, though. It is hard work, akin to doing yoga on a small board on crashing waves. If you haven't mastered chaturanga on dry land, good luck to you. After an hourlong lesson, I am beaten down and exhausted. The fault does not lie with my patient, upbeat instructor, rather with my pathetically weak core muscles.

Perhaps it is fitting that surfing is such a symbol of the town, since it also exemplifies the other quality that makes Tofino such an incredible place to visit: passion.

How else to explain how Tofino punches far above its weight in several areas, notably food? Sobo started life as a food truck and ended up on enRoute magazine's best new restaurant list. When I was there the chef at Wolf in the Fog - which topped the list in 2014 - was giddy about serving gooseneck barnacles, even though prying the crustaceans off rocks requires extreme effort for minimal meat. Even casual eateries - wow.

Rhino Coffee House serves up some of the best doughnuts I've ever had and the breakfast pizza at the Common Loaf Bake Shop was so mouth-watering I had it twice.

At the famed Wickaninnish Inn, where rooms go for more than $700 in peak season, excellent service is expected. But managing director Charles McDiarmid takes hospitality to another level. When word comes in that a family missed their flight and subsequently had to forfeit their car rental, he lends them his personal vehicle without divulging the ownership. When he catches wind that a diner in the hotel's restaurant was unhappy about a noisy neighbouring table, he covers the bill without a word. It's not a surprise to learn that he grew up nearby.

It was a passion for the land that ended up protecting the most notable residents here. In the 1980s, members of the area's First Nations bands, including the Nuu-chah-nulth, environmental groups and other concerned locals set up blockades to prevent commercial logging on neighbouring Meares Island. Part of Clayoquot Sound (along with Tofino), the small island is home to ancient forest, with trees more than 500 years old. The protests became known as the War in the Woods and ultimately more than 850 protesters were arrested. But it worked. The amount of permissible logging was greatly reduced and Meares remains the largest unbroken piece of old-growth forest in the Vancouver Island area. In 2000, UNESCO designated Clayoquot Sound as a biosphere reserve.

Today, the smell of cedar is unmistakable the second I set foot on Meares after a quick boat ride over from Tofino. I follow the Big Tree Trail - a fairly easy boardwalk through the woods - to a massive Western red cedar. The Hanging Garden Tree, as it's known, is so named because it is supports copious other vegetation: Dozens of plants and trees call it home. It is about 18 metres in circumference and estimated to be at least 1,600 years old, perhaps as many as 2,000, making it one of the oldest trees on Earth.

I encounter other magnificent Western red cedars during my time in Tofino. Each one impresses, with towering height and ropey bark, large branches reaching upward toward the sky as it ages.

So it is one of these trees that I decide to have tattooed onto my left forearm, the most permanent souvenir possible. I choose it because the red cedar symbolizes so much of what Tofino means to me: wilderness, strength, persistence and standing tall in the face of hardship. Also kindness and love. Research shows that hugging a tree can ease depression, stress and improve one's mood.

So can this place and its people.

I didn't come here with any thought of getting inked, but within hours of arriving I knew it had to happen.

On my last full day I venture to the home of a local tattoo artist and tell him what I want, hoping that this stranger will understand my vision. He listens, then riffles through a pile of papers haphazardly stacked on a desk.

"Like this?" he asks, holding up a sketch. It is exactly what I want: realistic but not too detailed, comprised of just bold, black lines. "I drew it last year when a man came in and asked for a tree.

He turned it down, saying he wanted a 'normal tree.' "I don't know who that man was, but I say he's a fool. Mind you, I was as well, almost letting prejudice keep me from discovering what is now one of my favourites places. It's a lesson I won't soon forget. How could I, really?

Every time I look down I have a reminder.

The writer travelled as a guest of Tourism Tofino and Destination British Columbia. They did not review or approve this article - or pay for the tattoo.

Associated Graphic

The writer found Tofino, B.C., the small town at the end of the road on Vancouver Island, had a hard-working, but laid-back, entrepreneurial spirit. She was so moved by the old-growth red cedars in the area she got a tattoo of one on her arm.

PHOTOS BY DOMINI CLARK/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, August 23, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B15


PENNY MARGARET BERTON

August 5, 1948 August 19, 2019 Peacefully on Salt Spring Island after 2 years in remission. As prophesied in "The Secret World of Og", Penny was destined to take off on adventures. In 1975 she left Toronto to see the world, living for 30 years in Bali where she found her fullest creative expression as a designer and a mother. Penny listened for symbols; islands repeating through generations, mushroom trails, serpentine jewelry and rivers of gold. Finding home became a spiral journey up winding mountain roads back to her roots in Canada.

Her refuge for 13 years was Salt Spring Island in a circle of trees and friendships. Penny's belief in magic and play initiated a movement and continues to manifest through her children.

Open to the universe, with her feet planted firmly on the earth, she found joy even during her last days. Predeceased by parents Janet and Pierre, and sister Pamela, she was survived by six siblings, children Elora and Orin, and their spouses Rajiv and Maria.

She delighted in her 4 years as grandmother to Nayan and 7 weeks to Nusa. There will be a private family memorial.

MARY CAROLYN BOX

December 6, 1930 August 15, 2019 Carolyn passed away peacefully at the Grace Health Centre in Toronto.

Predeceased by her parents, Dr. Willard McConnell Box and Helen (Witzel) Box. Beloved cousin and friend to Mary Anne Witzel (Jim Walker), Marilyn (Arthur) Angus, Margaret (Rick) Sellner, Ted (Andrea) Witzel, Tim (Lauri) Witzel and Terry (Mardi) Witzel. Carolyn is also fondly remembered by members of her birth family and many lifelong friends. Her birth family became a loving part of her life and she travelled to Ireland several times to connect with her cousins and investigate her family history.

Her birth family in Canada includes Doreen (Bowley) Morgan of Kingston, and her daughters, Mary Ellen (Peter) Doody, Heather (Eric) van der Wal.

Carolyn attended The Bishop Strachan School in Toronto and graduated with Masters degrees in Education from McGill University and University of Vermont. In lieu of flowers, donations in memory of Carolyn may be made to the OVC Pet Trust, University of Guelph.

A Celebration of Life for Carolyn will be held at 11:30 a.m. on Wednesday, August 28, 2019 at Morley Bedford Funeral Services, 159 Eglinton Avenue West, Toronto.

GRACE INAAM BACHIR HISHON

April 22, 1949 August 19, 2019 It is with great sadness that we mourn the passing of Grace Inaam Bachir Hishon.

Grace passed away peacefully with her family by her side on August 19, 2019, at Baycrest Palliative Centre.

Loving daughter to John Hanna (deceased) and Najla Bachir, Grace is predeceased by her husband Brian Hishon. Devoted mother to Kelley (Mark) and Riel.

Loving sister to George (Ayesha), Anissa (Barry), Salah (Jacob) and Ziad (Rima).

Adoring Taita, grandma to Owen, Timmy and Hannah. Loving aunt to Jonathan, Nicholas, Ameel, Aliya, Ivy, John and Christopher.

Grace will be fondly remembered by sister in-law Pat (Rick), brother in-law Doug (Sheila) and sister-inlaw Judi (Wally) and their families.

Grace was born in Lebanon and immigrated to Canada with the family as a teenager.

She made several trips back home to connect with family and friends and will be sadly missed and mourned by her family and friends in Lebanon.

Grace fought a courageous battle with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) for the past 10 years with dignity. It broke our hearts to see this awful disease rob her of her bodily functions bit by bit.

She was very brave and endured all without complaint.

Grace had a wicked sense of humour. She loved working with people and was entrepreneurial.

She opened one of the first health food/nutrition stores in Oakville and spent the last 25 years as a successful real estate agent in Toronto West. Her clients became lifelong friends. Grace will be sadly missed and fondly remembered for her love and dedication to her family and friends. She will always be in our hearts.

Our heartfelt thanks to the Palliative Care team at Baycrest for their excellent care and support of our family, to Dr. Zive, Dr.

Crispino and Dr. Marras, and to her wonderful caregivers, Noraly, Ann, Edna and Nida Caringal.

Visitation: Sunday, August 25th from 3-6 p.m. Funeral: Monday, August 26th at 11 a.m. Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., Toronto ON M6S 1P4

JUDITH MARGARET MATHILDA PERRY (nee Bishop)

Peacefully in Collingwood, Ontario, on August 16, 2019, in her 88th year. Much loved wife of the late Peter (2017) and mother to Jane (Patrick Teti), Alison (Douglas Moggach), David (1962 - 2006), and Cullen (Michele). "Janna" to Iain, Catriona, Christopher, Graham, Emma, and Rowan. Predeceased by her sister Susannah Crassweller and brothers Michael and David Bishop.

Born and raised in Toronto, Judy grew up in an old fashioned household but found ways to forge her independence. The family farm outside the city and summer cottage on Lake Rosseau nurtured her lifelong love of the outdoors. After attending Bishop Strachan School and Havergal College, Judy went to Macdonald College near Montreal for what she called the "Diamond Ring Course." She married Peter in 1956 "for better or worse, but not for his shirts." She was a traditional wife, but she wasn't. In 1971, true to her adventurous nature and longing for the countryside, Judy and Peter abandoned city life and moved their family to Collingwood. They never looked back. Judy immediately bought a horse, and several more over the years. She also loved dogs, gardening, classical music, and weaving. She sat on the boards of the Great Northern Exhibition, the Collingwood Historical Society, and the Georgian Bay Arts and Crafts Association. She and Peter spent every summer at their cottage at Snug Harbour where she picked a lot of blueberries, kept Peter fed, swam, boated, and welcomed one and all to their slice of paradise.

The celebration of their 60th wedding anniversary three years ago drew well over 100 guests, testament to their good fortune and resilient friendships. Devoted wife, loving and generous mother, loyal friend: Judy will also be remembered for her unabashed honesty, often acerbic wit, and indefatigable spirit.

Heartfelt thanks to the dedicated staff at Raglan Village and to family friend Marilyn McEachern for their exceptional care of Judy.

A memorial service will be held at 11:00 a.m. on August 30, 2019, at All Saints' Anglican Church, 32 Elgin St., Collingwood, followed by a reception. If desired, donations to Hospice Georgian Triangle Campbell House or the Collingwood General and Marine Hospital Foundation would be much appreciated.

Arrangements entrusted to Chatterson Funeral Home, Collingwood (705) 445-4700.

http://www.chattersonfuneralhome.com.

HARVEY STERLING

On Wednesday, August 21, 2019 at Sage Nursing Home. Beloved husband of the late Roslyn.

Loving father and father- in-law of Randall and Jennifer Sterling, and Bonnie Grundman and Eon D'Ornellas. Devoted Zadie of Adam, Natali, Jason, Carly, Michael, Jamie, and David. At Benjamins Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Friday, August 23, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. Interment in the Beth Shalom Synagogue section of Mt. Sinai Memorial Park. Shiva at 625 Avenue Road, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to The Roz and Harvey Sterling Memorial Fund c/o Baycrest Foundation 416-785-2875.

OLIVE EVELYN VANDERBURGH (née Russell)

Peacefully on August 16, 2019, Olive died in her 103rd year.

Olive was predeceased by her devoted and loving husband of 60 years Ralph (Van) VanderBurgh, her parents Fred and Vera Russell, her brother Bill and her sister Margaret. Aunt Olive will be deeply missed by her nieces and nephews Diane Jeffery, Brian Russell, Valerie Folk, Lynne Fulton, Bill VanderBurgh, Clive VanderBurgh, and their respective families. Olive spent most of her working career teaching the joy of choral music to her many students in Etobicoke schools, continuing the outstanding contributions to such teachings by her mother Vera. Olive was a gifted pianist, bringing her renditions of church music, Christmas carols and show tunes to many gatherings including those at Kingsway Retirement Residence.

Throughout her life, Olive brought continuing happiness to her family and others with her constant and very timely letter-writing abilities truly, a vanishing art.

Olive's extended family wishes to thank her family physician Dr. Joe Kozak for the exceptional care he gave to Van and Olive over many years. The family also wishes to thank the caring staff and her many friends at Kingsway Retirement Residence where Olive enjoyed a full and complete life for nearly a decade. Olive will be laid to rest beside her beloved Van in a private service.

RHODA VYNER

Peacefully passed on August 20, 2019 in her 95th year. She was predeceased by her husband Lenny in 1980. She is survived by her sons Calvin and Brian (Bunny) and grandsons Brett and Lee (Krista) and her new greatgranddaughter Everleigh Rose.

Her life is a story of many hardships growing up as a young girl in the East End of London.

Immigrating to Toronto in 1948, Rhoda and her loving husband worked hard and sacrificed to build a better life for their family.

Their lives here had endured setbacks and misfortunes but despite this Rhoda never ever complained.

She was extremely resilient and always positive. Armed with her good humor she shouldered on always appreciated all the good in her life. Her life shined brightly when her daughter-in-law Bunny became part of her life along with her two precious grandsons. They were the centre of her life and she was so proud.

She was a caring and loving grandmother and mother-in-law.

Always supportive and available to be of help in any way. She will be remembered by many including nieces, nephews here in Toronto and London.

Donations appreciated to: Schizophrenia Ontario Society 416-449-6830 x 223 or Baycrest Centre, 416-785-2875 . Shiva at 36 Hazelton Ave, suite 4 B.

CAMH data reveal fluctuating patient-abscondment rates
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When granting day passes, officials strive to balance public safety with giving patients an 'opportunity to succeed'
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By VICTORIA GIBSON, CARLY WEEKS
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A16


As the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health reviews its system for granting day passes after a forensic patient disappeared and fled the country, data show the number of abscondments from the Toronto hospital and other Canadian forensic institutions has fluctuated for years.

In 2012, CAMH and other institutions reviewed and amended their security protocols after several patients with violent criminal pasts went missing across Canada. CAMH officials had already noticed an increase in such incidents, with 43 in 2009-10, 33 the next year and 43 again in 201112, according to data the hospital provided to The Globe and Mail.

The hospital updated the way it assesses those forensic patients before they are allowed to go on leave and tightened security practices, particularly in low-security areas from which some patients had absconded several times.

AWOL incidents dropped by 37 per cent the first year after the changes, and further in subsequent years, the data show.

Then numbers started to climb again in 2017-18, returning to 43.

The current review was launched in late July, after patient Zhebin Cong went missing while on an unsupervised day pass on July 3.

Mr. Cong, who was found not criminally responsible (NCR) for murder in 2016, then boarded a flight. The Ontario government has said it will take part in the external review. CAMH expects it to be complete by the end of the year.

People are found not criminally responsible for an offence that is committed - or made by omission - while they have a mental disorder that made them incapable of appreciating the nature and quality of the action, or knowing it was wrong. In Canada, they are detained and treated in psychiatric facilities for an indeterminate period. They earn privileges such as passes based on their progress.

NCR patients are overseen by the Ontario Review Board (ORB), an independent tribunal that determines which facilities they should be in, what level of security may be required and what privileges or conditions should be applied. Hospital staff also assess risk factors. The goal is for patients to recover to the point where they can return to the community. As patients recover, the treatment team must constantly try to find a balance between granting them some freedom while ensuring public safety.

Mr. Cong's most recent ORB decision, released in May, said his recovery was going well, but that clinicians were facing challenges trying to move him into the community. Mr. Cong wanted to return to China to live with his mother, and didn't understand why he was only allowed to move into housing in Toronto that was approved by CAMH.

Mathieu Dufour, associate chief of psychiatry at the Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, said that over all, the forensicpsychiatry system works well and that patients who come through it are much less likely to re-offend than those in the criminal-justice system.

Despite the recent headlines, he said it's not very common for patients to go missing and that processes are in place to help minimize the risk. Some of the risk factors Dr. Dufour said clinicians look for when determining whether a patient is likely to abscond include any history of going missing from the facility, impulsive behaviour and any frustration related to their stay. He said while there is no "perfect science" when it comes to managing these risks, the process is rigorous.

At CAMH, chief of forensic psychiatry Sandy Simpson says hospitals must find the right balance between granting privileges and ensuring community safety.

"The challenge for us is making sure we're giving people the opportunity to succeed," he said in a separate interview in 2018. "If we never get people going AWOL, we're holding people back way too much. If people are getting liberty that they're using with bad outcomes, then we're giving it too much. But the idea is, there's a sweet spot in the middle somewhere."

Along with the review, CAMH says it is testing a new tool to determine which forensic patients should be eligible for passes.

The tool, developed at Waypoint Centre for Mental Health in Penetanguishene, Ont., is being used on a trial basis and acts as a supplementary check to the daypass system already in place, Dr.

Simpson said. The trial started after Mr. Cong went missing.

CAMH has declined to provide details about how the Waypoint tool works. But the Waypoint Centre had to increase its security protocols in recent years after problems in its new building for forensic patients, including the stabbing of a nurse by a patient in 2016. A 2016 Ontario auditor-general's report highlighted safety and security gaps at the facility.

Waypoint officials declined an interview request. In an e-mail statement, a hospital spokeswoman wrote that the new tool was developed to supplement practices already in place and "is still being evaluated."

In the weeks since CAMH started using the new tool, two more forensic patients have gone missing from CAMH.

Anthony Murdock, 45, ran away while on a supervised day pass near the hospital on July 30.

He had long history of sexual offences against strangers and is considered a risk to the public, documents on his case show. He was located two days later in Brampton.

Ahmed Sualim, who was also found not criminally responsible for armed robberies in 2012, was reported missing from CAMH earlier last month, but found several hours later.

The number of abscondments has been closer to the usual rate since, Dr. Simpson says - 15 patients absconded in the first six months of 2019. Some of those patients have absconded more than once, but the total number of incidents is still "down to about the normal," he said.

"You do get cluster effects with these sorts of things," he said. Mr.

Cong's abscondment raised a "different level of concern" for the hospital, he said. "We don't want the public being endangered and we don't want people leaving the country."

Violence among AWOL patients - toward themselves or others - is rare, as is criminal activity. Dr. Simpson said the only incident in the past decade of criminal activity by a person gone AWOL while on a pass was in June, when a patient was accused of robbing a convenience store and a bakery. Before that, the most violent action against another person was when a patient threw a Coca-Cola can at a guard, he says.

Many patients leave for a specific reason, according to hospital data Dr. Simpson cited last year.

From 2010 to 2014, he said, about 40 per cent of people who absconded visited home, saw someone or got their hair cut. About one-quarter fail to return because of disorganization that may be a symptom of their mental illness, an error such as getting lost or are delayed on transit.

Two-thirds returned within 24 hours. Between 20 per cent and 25 per cent return having used drugs or alcohol, Dr. Simpson said. And about one-third of abscondments involve the same patients repeatedly.

"There's a group of people who present chronic low risk [of not coming back at the prescribed time], for whom there's very little that we can do," Dr. Simpson told The Globe in 2018.

"They may run a little fast and loose with their passes, but nothing dreadful is going to happen," Dr. Simpson said. "There are some people for whom we know their risks are there, but continuing hospitalization for them is unlikely to be helpful. And again, risks to the community are very low, so we might run a bit more of a risk of AWOLs with them, knowing that unless we push ahead, if we demand perfection, we're never going to get there."

In 2012, an absconded patient from the East Coast Forensic Hospital in Nova Scotia killed a prominent activist. Clinical director Aileen Brunet, who was in her first few months on the job, described the event as "very traumatic" in an interview with The Globe in 2018. After a review, changes were made within the hospital around forensic patient leaves. Abscondment numbers from the Nova Scotia hospital are comparable to those at CAMH, with 31 incidents in 2017-18 involving 19 patients.

The year previous was higher, with 47 incidents involving 22 patients.

An additional issue for CAMH is its downtown location. "Most forensic hospitals are in the middle of the countryside, where it's a lot more difficult to go AWOL.

Here, you just pop out the front door and onto the TTC, right up Ossington [Avenue] and you're gone," Dr. Simpson said in 2018.

By comparison, the Forensic Psychiatric Hospital in British Columbia logged just one unauthorized absence and two escapes in 2017-18. That is a steep drop from 2010-11, when the hospital logged 22 unauthorized absences and one escape. The facility is surrounded by green space.

"If you look over all at the NCR process, it dramatically reduces risk of reoffending amongst this patient group relative to what you'd get with them had they gone through the criminal-justice system. So although we may focus on abscondments or people coming back late from passes and so on, if you look at the overall care pathway, the results we get over all, the risk to the public is massively reduced because of the NCR regime," Dr. Simpson said this week.

"That said, can we do better?

And does the public ... have a right to expect that of us? Absolutely."

With a report from The Canadian Press

Associated Graphic

The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health is reviewing its system for granting day passes and testing a new tool that determines which forensic patients should be eligible.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In Tuktoyaktuk, erosion a warning to rest of Canada's North
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The community is one of first in country to face existential threat from climate change
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By MATTHEW MCCLEARN
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


Visitors to Tuktoyaktuk don't require geology degrees to see the community has a serious problem. Along the peninsula at its northern edge, known as the Point, is a line of homes just feet from the carved-up shoreline, one bad storm away from toppling into the Beaufort Sea. If you look more closely, you can find the shredded remains of various initiatives over the years to slow erosion, which has greatly accelerated thanks to rising temperatures and sea levels - and, as is the case in many Northern communities, melting permafrost.

Big problems often require big solutions. Mayor Merven Gruben envisions a barricade of locally built concrete slabs running along almost a kilometre of the peninsula's western shore - by far the most ambitious proposal the hamlet has ever seriously considered.

It's one of several options in a report from W.F. Baird & Associates Coastal Engineers, which the hamlet recently hired to study possible solutions. Now, Mr. Gruben is seeking tens of millions of dollars from the federal government to finance its construction.

"That's going to be our main priority right now - to build that up," he said. "Because we're losing infrastructure and lands inside the harbour already."

As Canada's North warms at one of the fastest rates on Earth, Tuktoyaktuk is among the first communities in the country to face an existential threat from climate change.

From above, Tuk - as it is commonly known - already resembles a half-eaten block of Swiss cheese. And it's not just homes that are at risk: The cemetery is also on the Point. Nearby Tuktoyaktuk Island, which shelters the harbour, is wasting away even more quickly; if nothing is done, projections show much of it could be destroyed by 2050.

Tuk's experience serves as a distant early warning to other communities that may face similar threats in the decades ahead.

Even when all levels of government understand what's at stake, finding workable, affordable solutions can be painfully slow and devilishly challenging.

Mr. Gruben's preferred solution - the slabs - is informed at least partly by experience. Since the 1970s, the hamlet has tried everything from sandbags to boulders to concrete slabs. It's generally agreed that a segment of slabs installed along the Point's shoreline in the 1990s has performed the best. But Baird's preferred solution is to protect both the Point and Tuktoyaktuk Island with large beaches, piling sand at strategic points and allowing currents to distribute it over time - a technique known as beach nourishment. Baird predicts the slabs would be less effective and would not address rising sea levels.

Dustin Whalen, a physical scientist with Natural Resources Canada who has worked in the community for a decade, said the beaches seemed to be the most attractive options among those weighed in the Baird report. But he warned that new beaches would likely accelerate the degradation of the permafrost, which might ultimately render them useless. Battered by storm surges, waves and ice, Baird suggests the beaches would have a design life of just 30 years and would require constant maintenance. And there's a significant risk that powerful storms or other factors could ruin them well before that.

"History has said that longterm shore protection in Tuktoyaktuk is not working," Mr.Whalen observed. "So in 20 years, are we just going to add this one to the list? Or is this the plan that the community has been waiting for?" Whatever option the hamlet selects, the cost will greatly exceed local budgets. Tuk's total revenue from all sources amounted to less than $2.4-million in 2017, and the territorial government lacks any sizable infrastructure funding.

"Anything we would have currently would be fairly small in size and scope," said Eleanor Young, deputy minister of the territory's Municipal and Community Affairs Department. But once the hamlet selects its preferred solution, Ms. Young said, her department would help it apply for federal funding.

Ottawa has several programs aimed at helping communities adapt to climate change, one of which paid for most of the Baird study. But how much is the federal government prepared to spend on what can only be regarded as temporary measures to protect this tiny Northern hamlet of roughly 1,000 souls?

Mr. Gruben admitted the preferred project's cost was "a big ask" and doubted the bid for federal funding will see much progress before the federal election in October. But he predicted the next government would be receptive.

"Tuk is really on the map and a focus of a lot of things that are happening in the North in Canada," he said.

Major infrastructure projects in the North can take decades to complete, even when multiple levels of government broadly agree on their necessity. For example, Tuk residents first began campaigning for an all-weather road joining their community with Inuvik, to the south, back in the 1960s. The territorial and federal governments finally agreed to build it because they wanted a highway to the Arctic Ocean. But the 138-kilometre road wasn't opened until Nov. 15, 2017.

Right now, there's little consensus, even locally, on how to proceed. While the hamlet governs the peninsula, for instance, the island is owned by the Inuvialuit Regional Corp. There's considerable tension between the two organizations, which have barely begun co-ordinating a strategy to save the community.

"If we lose that island, we're screwed," Mr. Gruben said. "But it's been really hard dealing with the [IRC]."

Other Northern communities are grappling with thawing permafrost, which can wreak havoc on roads, schools, homes and hunting trails. But few have yet been forced to consider the radical options Tuk must now contemplate.

Brian Horton, manager of Yukon College's Northern Climate ExChange in Whitehorse, studies adaptation across the North. He says most communities he's familiar with are in the early stages of responding. "Communities are gathering the information that they need to be able to start taking measures now, in most cases, in the Yukon," he said. "They have been taking small steps."

Much of the emerging literature on climate-change adaptation favours moving people out of harm's way rather than erecting defensive structures. But when Baird held community meetings, few Tuk residents seemed eager to relocate. Its report briefly considered the logistical challenges of moving the community - the roads, water and power infrastructure, cemetery and reservoir aren't exactly portable. "It was generally agreed that relocation is not a solution that could be developed in the short term," Baird noted. "Protecting the shoreline will allow the community time to consider this option further."

Mr. Gruben said the community has been gradually moving inland for at least a decade and expected that to continue. "A lot of people don't like it, but you know, it's something that we have to do."

Tuk's experience with relocation thus far hasn't been encouraging. Vulnerable homes have been removed from the peninsula, and the hamlet encouraged owners to relocate to an inland neighbourhood known as Reindeer Point. When Globe and Mail journalists visited the community in 2017, four more homes appeared to be just one bad storm away from destruction; the hamlet announced that those, too, would move.

But two years later, they still haven't budged. Eddie Dillon, a former mayor who is now chair of the Tuktoyaktuk Community Corp., a local arm of the Inuvialuit Regional Corp., said a July storm with winds reaching 100 kilometres an hour crumbled more of the surrounding shoreline.

"One of my issues with the hamlet is that that they were given $800,000 to address the moving of those houses," he said.

"And yet, there's no plan in place ... at the end it's going to be an emergency situation."

Mr. Gruben agreed that the houses should have been relocated last winter, but he blamed the territorial government, which he said requested engineering studies that have caused delays.

"They've been really screwing us up here."

Ms. Young said funding has now been secured and suitable land has been found for the houses. The territorial government is looking for gravel to prepare the new lots to receive the homes. Next, structural experts must estimate the cost; if it's too high, building new homes might be required instead.

"Something I heard, even in the early conversations with Tuk, was that we probably didn't spend enough time planning 20 years ago," Ms. Young reflected.

"The more lead time you have, the better you can plan so that you're not making these decisions at the last minute. That has been one of the things that's become really apparent to me."

Associated Graphic

Erosion in Tuktoyaktuk has greatly accelerated because of rising temperatures and sea levels but few residents want to relocate.

PATRICK DELL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The hamlet of Tuktoyaktuk faces an existential threat as an increasing number of homes are put in danger by accelerating erosion along the northern peninsula's shoreline.

From above, Tuktoyaktuk already resembles a half-eaten block of Swiss cheese as the shoreline has receded. But there's little consensus on how to proceed, and who should pay for whatever solution is eventually decided upon.

Top: Concrete slabs protect against erosion on Tuktoyaktuk's shores. Above: The cemetery on the peninsula's northern point is also at risk from the eroding shoreline.

The Globe theatre: Reprint turns old news into song and dance
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Paper's headquarters will play host to three short musicals inspired by photos and stories from the archives
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By J. KELLY NESTRUCK
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R2


A newspaper is no longer just a newspaper, of course.

Now it can be a website, a mobile app, a video channel or a podcast. But can it tell the news in the form of musical theatre too?

Reprint is an evening of three short new musicals inspired by photos and clippings from The Globe and Mail archives that opens for a run this week at the newspaper's new King Street address, up in its glamorous 17thfloor event space overlooking Toronto.

This the first edition of a new musical development residency called Launch Pad from The Musical Stage Company and Yonge Street Theatricals (produced in association with The Globe this time around) intended to invest in up-and-coming musical theatre creators and to seed new shows.

Globe theatre critic J. Kelly Nestruck donned his Newsies cap and spoke to members of each creative team as they were getting ready to go to press with their new shows.

What Goes Up Music by Colleen Dauncey Lyrics by Akiva Romer-Segal Book by Ellen Denny The Globe and Mail inspiration: A 1977 article by Paul McGrath headlined The Frisbee and the Soul.

What did you find in the archives that inspired What Goes Up?

ROMER-SEGAL: Our initial inspirations were black-and-white photos from the late seventies of recreational life on the Toronto Islands, which led us to the discovery of the sport of competitive freestyle Frisbee - which really blossomed on the islands at that time. That led us to this article, The Frisbee and the Soul, as well as interviewing actual members of the Frisbee community from that era.

Is What Goes Up set to do for flying discs what Starlight Express did for roller skates in musical theatre?

DAUNCEY: When we first saw videos on YouTube and started reading about freestyle Frisbee, it looked like a really interesting topic, but now that we've been working on it and talking to a lot of people in the Frisbee community, it is so much deeper than just what it looks like from the outside. It was really fun to dive into all the details and try to tell this story authentically, but also with a lot of fun eighties music.

The angle and tone of the McGrath article is quite amusing, and enlightening in a way: "Given the respect that was instilled in those who grew up in the sixties for things that do nothing but do it beautifully, the success story of the Frisbee from pie plate to industry is fairly normal ..." ROMER-SEGAL: Yeah, the big surprise to us about the sport was the mindfulness and almost meditative quality that came with freestyle Frisbee. Even the people who are still doing it just recreationally, that's sort of the main thing that they get from it other than fitness and community. We tried to really engrain that into our show.

Will we see some Frisbee choreography in the show at this stage?

DAUNCEY: Yeah, absolutely we will have choreography to the extent that we can within this short rehearsal process and inside of a glass building. But it is wonderful that there's going to be a view of [the] Toronto Islands from The Globe and Mail Centre, so you can see exactly where the show takes place.

Fangirl Music and lyrics by Anika Johnson and Barbara Johnston Book by Nick Green The Globe and Mail inspiration: A photo by Boris Spremo of a crowd of teenagers screaming at a Beatles concert at Maple Leaf Gardens in 1967.

How did this 1960s photo inspire a musical ... about YouTube?

JOHNSON: Barb and I are huge Beatles fans and thought maybe we would write about the phenomenon of Beatlemania - and then we met with Nick Green. He arrived with this amazing idea to instead investigate contemporary teenage fandom, which is a phenomenon that exists predominantly on YouTube. It's a kind of crazy Wild West right now, because we're in the juncture where the last generation of adults who lived without the internet is raising the first generation of teenagers who have never lived without it.

What kind of plot did you come up with to interrogate questions of fandom today?

JOHNSON: Well, one of the things that blew our minds the most when we started researching is there's the YouTube stars, and then there are the second level of YouTube stars, who are stars because they run fan pages. So our show focuses on a girl named Michaela, a teenage girl who runs a successful fan blog devoted to a YouTube star. She is sort of a minor celebrity online and then the show follows what happens when she meets her idol in person.

JOHNSTON: Nick has talked a lot about how there's a whole world of the most famous and rich people and nobody knows it exists except for the people who are directly involved. We really wanted the piece to be something that would shine a line on that, but not judge.

You both have a lot of musicaltheatre creation experience, but you also have a side project: You perform in Wannabe, a Spice Girls tribute band.

JOHNSTON: It's been a useful thing that we've drawn on when writing. We'll be in an event where people will just start grabbing at us or start screaming, and you realize that they're not listening or watching, they just want to go nuts. There's that George Harrison quote, "The world used us as an excuse to go mad." I feel like that's so insightful of all fandom.

Cygnus Music and lyrics by Anton Lipovetsky Book by Steven Gallagher The Globe and Mail inspiration: An Aug. 16, 2003, page of photos and reporting by Sean Fine about the Northeast blackout.

What was it that caught your interest in The Globe's coverage of the blackout?

GALLAGHER: It was a photograph that we saw of two people sitting in Riverdale Park overlooking the Don Valley in Toronto and the sun was setting and the buildings [in the distance] were really dark.

There was something mysterious about what was about to happen.

Sometimes, you know, in extreme circumstances, people let their guard down.

LIPOVETSKY: There's something about being forced into a presence with all the lights and electricity gone, distractions gone, that I thought would be interesting for a musical.

Were either of you in Toronto at that time, or in an area where the blackout took place?

LIPOVETSKY: I was in Vancouver.

GALLAGHER: I lived in Cabbagetown and what I was struck by was that, instead of widespread panic, there was a weird sort of camaraderie that happened. You know, the corner store was giving away freezies and people were actually on their front porches, sharing glasses of wine and cooking barbecues together because they had to get rid of the food they were worried about going rotten.

It's like the Toronto Come From Away. Anton, what does the blackout sound like in your show?

LIPOVETSKY: I was really inspired by the angsty kind of ennui of the early 2000s. Like the music of Aimee Mann: introspective, folky, pop songs. I thought that was kind of perfect for the blackout because it's an acoustic sound.

But it's evolved into its own thing, like any musical that I've worked on.

What can you tell me about the story that you've put together?

GALLAGHER: Well, about a month before the blackout happened, gay marriage became legal in Ontario - and so that plays into the story a little bit. There was a lot of change happening in the city at that time and a lot of real excitement, but a lot of people may have gotten married because they could. Anton and I were also really interested in how difficult it is to make a connection when you live in a large city.

You two were connected with each other through the Launch Pad program.

LIPOVETSKY: We were a match made by The Musical Stage Company. We live in different cities, so it could have been a struggle to stay connected, but we have a great relationship online.

GALLAGHER: I send him full book scenes by text and he'll send me whole lyrics for songs, and we go back and forth for hours by text.

It's really amazing being not in the same space, but sort of in the same space, as well because of technology that didn't exist in 2003.

These interviews have been condensed and edited.

Reprint runs August 19-22.

Tickets available at musicalstagecompany.com

Associated Graphic

From left: Colleen Dauncey, Akiva Romer-Segal and Ellen Denny are the brains behind What Goes Up, which takes inspiration from a 1977 Globe and Mail article about competitive Frisbee on the Toronto Islands.

Fangirl, from Barbara Johnston, Nick Green and Anika Johnson, draws on a 1967 photo in The Globe showing a crowd of teenage fans screaming as The Beatles perform. Green suggested using the piece to investigate contemporary fan culture.

ABOVE, TOP: DAHLIA KATZ

The Globe's coverage of the 2003 Northeast blackout served as a launch pad for Anton Lipovetsky and Steven Gallagher's Cygnus. Gallagher lived in Cabbagetown at the time, and remembers being struck by the 'weird sort of camaraderie that happened.'

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

It's carte blanche for rezoning
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Applications to the city to change designations of certain properties are soaring - and almost all succeed
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, August 23, 2019 – Print Edition, Page H6


VANCOUVER -- The number of applications to rezone properties in Vancouver has doubled in the past decade and almost all of them have been approved, says a lawyer who specializes in landuse law.

So rare are rejections of rezonings that long-time housing experts could only recall two in the city's recent history, including the 2017 attempt to rezone 105 Keefer St. in Chinatown to a mid-rise condo and the attempt on June 25 this year to rezone a single lot at 4575 Granville St. to a 21-unit rental townhouse development. Both cases attracted significant media attention because of the pushback against them, as well as the rejections themselves, particularly 105 Keefer. In that case, Chinatown activists and residents mounted an effort to fight market condos in the heart of a historic neighbourhood where many seniors are struggling.

These are well-known cases because it's so routine for applications to go through that when the rare one does get rejected, the development community is understandably indignant. Why reject one when so many are approved?

As well, a lot of preliminary discussion with the city is conducted long before the public hearing stage and developers usually get a sense of whether the project is viewed favourably.

In the case of 4575 Granville St., city planning staff had recommended that the project be approved. But city council voted 7-4 against it. The Vancouver Hospice Society had gathered thousands of signatures in a petition opposing the development on the grounds that its size and scale were wrong and it would cause disruptions.

Those in favour of the project said that its rejection sent a troubling message to other developers that they could waste a lot of time and money if they attempted to rezone. But lawyer Nathalie Baker says that when developers purchase property that is already scheduled for another use, they shouldn't assume that rezoning is a given. Vancouver has made rezoning, or "spot zoning," the new normal, when it should be the exception; it has created a culture of entitlement, she says.

"It's almost like there's an assumption to it, an entitlement to it - but there's not," Ms. Baker says. "It's up to council to decide whether or not something should be rezoned. And it's within their right to say, 'no' to the rezoning.

When you buy the property and you know what is permitted, you buy it assuming the risk that you might not get to build a 15-storey tower, or whatever it might be."

And rezoning applications are on the rise, she says. In 2007, there were eight residential rezoning applications and by 2018, there were 45 in the works.

Because rezonings require public input, the number of public hearings also doubled in that time span. The city is proposing changes to the public hearing procedure that have raised some eyebrows.

"It's not just the number of rezoning applications that have increased dramatically, it's the scale of the proposals," Ms. Baker says.

"The buildings are sometimes really big and seem out of scale with the neighbourhood."

University of British Columbia professor Patrick Condon says the reason the projects are often massive is because of the hefty tax the city receives from rezonings. Unlike other municipalities that have adopted citywide plans, Vancouver is changing existing zones on a piecemeal basis. When a change is requested, the community amenity contribution tax kicks in, which is negotiated on a case-by-case basis. In this way, the city gets libraries, community centres, parks and other valuable amenities.

However, in many other North American cities, because of fears that spot zoning invites corruption, it has been made illegal, Prof. Condon says. Not only does the practice negate the zoning that has been established, he says, but it also allows those with a lot of money to decide how a neighbourhood is going to change and gives developers with deeper pockets an advantage.

Other B.C. municipalities governed by the Local Government Act are required to produce an Official Community Plan and update it every five years. Because Vancouver has its own charter, it isn't required to create such a plan. Prof. Condon and others have been calling for one for several years, in part to stop the practice of piecemeal spot zoning.

"Normal cities have a zoning map that tells you what you can and can't do, with little need for council authorized variances," Prof. Condon wrote in an e-mail.

"But Vancouver is not normal.

The city has no plan and has not updated its zoning map in over 40 years. Almost everything that gets done is done by variance or 'spot zoning,' which is when the council intervenes to approve a change in zoning for one parcel.

Why? Because if a parcel is spot zoned the city can negotiate for concessions mostly in the form of [community amenity contribution] taxes."

As well, says Elizabeth Murphy, a private-sector project manager, spot zoning for bigger developments has a knock-on effect that doesn't help affordability because it inflates nearby land values.

"If you set a precedent for scale as a spot rezoning, you are affecting the development expectations and land values all around it."

At 105 Keefer, developer Beedie Group revised its plans five times, only to ultimately be rejected by the city's development permit board - an extremely rare move.

Prior to that decision, city council had rejected a proposed 12-storey tower that included 25 units of housing for low-income seniors.

The developer submitted a revised plan, complying with zoning that allowed for nine stories.

And even though it fit with the zoning, it didn't pass design requirements. Planning director Gil Kelley said at the time that the developer needed to listen more closely and engage with the community.

Kevin Huang, whose group the Hua Foundation supported the effort, says the rejection of the 105 Keefer proposal was partly due to both the intensity of the pushback and the demographic of the people who fought it, such as Chinese elders and young professionals who'd never attended a public hearing before.

"This was such a big thing within Chinatown and the segments within the broader Vancouver community, the question became for the city that if we agree to do this, what would be the political cost?" Mr. Huang says.

Andy Yan, director of Simon Fraser University's city program, says Chinatown citizens hadn't organized themselves so powerfully since they fought a freeway proposal that would have destroyed their neighbourhood in the 1970s. It was considered a huge victory for the neighbourhood, he says. The most recent rezoning rejection he could find was back in 2006, but in that case, the project ultimately went ahead.

"The redevelopment application [on Keefer] on the surface seemed to be a slam dunk for the developers, but with a sizable and diverse community coalition against the project it became a 12round existential boxing match about what kind of housing is being built, and who it's being built for in one of the most historic and socially fragile neighbourhoods in the city," he said.

Like Mr. Huang, Mr. Yan is also concerned about proposed changes to the public hearing process, particularly since people who don't speak English are already at a disadvantage because they use interpreters.

The proposed amendments include cutting public speaker time to three minutes from five minutes, only allowing one speaker from any organization, giving the meeting chair additional powers, expanding a code of conduct to apply to public speakers at council meetings, limiting the public from questioning city staff, as well as a pilot program that would not allow councillors to ask speakers any questions. Councillors would also have to give four weeks' notice of motions they want to make, rather than the current one week. And staff reports on major policies could be submitted up to noon the day prior to a council meeting, which would make it difficult for many people to prepare a response. A city council decision on the changes has been postponed to the fall.

"This is about democratic practice in the city and changes like these are exceptionally serious," Mr. Yan says.

Ms. Baker says the problem is not the hearing process, which has always worked, but rather the fact that the planning process is being overwhelmed with applications.

"This was not a problem 10 years ago," she says. "There's been an exponential growth in the number of rezoning applications that are being submitted and going to council. ... It's already very difficult for people to comment and what this [proposed amendment] does is limit public comment and potentially prevents people from criticizing proposals that they don't want in their neighbourhood."

Associated Graphic

Vancouver housing activist Kevin Huang, above, supported the successful effort to stop the rezoning of 105 Keefer St. in Chinatown. He says he is concerned about the proposed changes to the public hearing process.

A proposed rezoning of 4575 Granville St. in Vancouver was rejected earlier in June. It's one of only of a handful of rejections that housing experts can remember.

PHOTOS BY KERRY GOLD/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

How new beginnings felt like the end
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Staying in one home and school could have helped Rushanthi Kesunathan be as successful as she had imagined when she was a young person - and as accomplished as many of her peers. Each relocation, though, was a setback to her childhood dreams
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By RUSHANTHI KESUNATHAN
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O8


Rushanthi Kesunathan is a Tamil-Canadian journalist based in Markham, Ont.

By the time I was 17 years old, I had moved more than twice as many times as the average teen - between five cities, six schools and six homes.

Today, I'm a 28-year-old straggler. I'm currently unemployed, I've dropped out of three college programs and my parents pay for the majority of things I own.

Growing up, I wanted what most people want for themselves: confidence, independence and a successful career. Instead, I failed multiple highschool and college courses because I felt too anxious about presentations. I live in my parents' home, and though I've helped with bills occasionally, I've never made enough money to sustain myself. My father supports me when it should be other way around - he is 70 and still not retired. Meanwhile, many of my friends and cousins - some even younger than myself - are graduates who are now working and planning their weddings.

For a long time, I took for granted that this outcome was my fault. But after years of reflection and research, I've since changed my mind.

Now, I believe that if I had stayed in one home and school, I could have been as successful as I had imagined when I was young - and as successful as many of my peers. Each move, though, was a setback to these childhood dreams.

And while some children thrive in ever-changing environments, learning to adapt to new situations and make friends more easily, I didn't. Every move took a toll on my confidence - eventually, that first-day-ofschool feeling never left me.

Moving also meant that I was thrown into different curriculums, with sometimes very different approaches to education, pushing me further and further behind in my classes until catching up felt impossible.

I remember each move vividly.

I was eight years old and Sri Lanka was in the midst of a civil war. Sensing there was no future for my sisters and me there, my dad moved my mom, two older siblings and me to Canada. Like most Tamil men of his generation, my father mostly lived the stoic ideal. He is the breadwinner of our family, the rock against which the family can lean. His import and export business is based in Colombo, so he didn't come with us. Instead, he chose to visit every few months.

In December, 1998, I stepped through the doors at Toronto's Pearson Airport to see the thrilled faces of my aunt, uncle and two cousins who already lived here. Aunty zipped me into an oversized checkered blackand-green jacket, and I rushed out of the airport to feel winter weather for the first time. "Look at the smoke coming out of my mouth!" I told my mother in Tamil.

The next four years would easily become my favourite memories as a child. I even dabbled in writing - I wrote my very first story in the Scarborough apartment we moved into. The Magic Carpet was about a bored and adventurous child who makes a wish to travel on a flying carpet.

My Grade 2 classmates were nice enough and I hardly spent recess alone. All my teachers were the kind you could run up to and hug. I maintained my grades, and learned some karate and some basic swimming. I majored in tomboy. I felt hurt when one of my sisters was bullied, but also relished the moments when my other sister bullied the bullies. I went fishing for the first time on a school field trip and remember feeling amused when a classmate swallowed live worms.

But then, things changed again. We moved from Scarborough to Mississauga, then to Peterborough, Ont. Four homes, four schools and three cities in a span of four years. And each move was my ambitious father's idea.

When he no longer wanted us living in an apartment, he bought us a house in Mississauga. Because my mother is a homemaker, we depended on our father's income, who often sent us money every month.

Problem.

So, he bought a grocery store in Peterborough. Problem solved.

And we moved, again.

But the store in Peterborough wasn't successful and, in the summer of 2002, just before my 12th birthday, I moved again.

This time approximately 14,006 kilometres away, back to Colombo.

I was sad to say goodbye to the friends I had spent the previous year obsessing over Digimon and Pokémon with, and the peers I'd spent so many lunch hours trapped in detention with. I had begun to feel comfortable.

Still, I was excited - I was going home. I had cousins waiting for me and authentic Sri Lankan cuisine to dive back into. School was going to be amazing, I thought, because now I had a killer Canadian accent and would be considered a foreigner.

How could my future classmates resist me?

But the joke was on me. While Canadian schools generally focus on holistic education, my new school in Sri Lanka emphasized grades.

I was suddenly expected to adapt to a brand-new work ethic and teaching style in Sri Lanka.

My mother hired tutors, but my grades plummeted and I failed Grade 6. I ranked at the bottom of the class for the next five years. It didn't help that I had to share my poor grades in front of my classmates - the norm in Sri Lankan schools. It was humiliating and I slowly became timid.

And while I eventually found a circle of friends, school never got easy and its humiliations didn't stop. A new itch began to develop. I wanted to leave Colombo and start over some place where no one knew about my rankings and my failures.

I got my wish and, just before my 17th birthday, we returned to Canada. My sisters were ready for postsecondary and my parents hoped we could study at Canadian universities. We rented out a basement for two months, then a condo, and a year later, a house, which is currently where I live.

But this time, we stayed in one city and one school.

In Canada, some of my grades improved and my parents wanted me to become a doctor, but the effects of the past decade were crushing. I didn't have the work ethic or test scores for medical school.

I stayed back a year in high school and when I got too old to continue, I started classes at an adult school. I enrolled in several university level courses, flunked some and barely passed others. I tried for my parents, only to fail.

When I'd finally came to accept that university wasn't a path for me, my parents encouraged me to start college. Get into any program, get your foot in the door Rushi, they said. I was now 21 years old. At college, I transferred through three programs and three campuses. When one college couldn't have me any more, I tried another and I failed there, too.

I was embarrassed. Everyone around me was succeeding. I thought about ending my life, but what if I failed at that, too? I told myself I would fly to another country and start fresh.

Was I running away from hard work and any sense of responsibility? It felt easier somehow to fail and leave than to try harder.

Somewhere along the way I began to believe that every time I messed up, I could start fresh with a new move - I never learned to make things work because I never had to.

While I don't fault my father entirely, I wish there had been more handholding throughout each move. But I believe he didn't know how to help. My family, like many from the region, doesn't believe in support through transitions, in counselling.

It has been 20 years since my initial move to Canada from Sri Lanka. I've just graduated from a journalism program at my third college. I pushed through because of my parents. They're the hardest-working people I know.

My father is still working in Sri Lanka, while my mother has worn herself out chauffeuring and comforting me.

I'm also thankful to the teachers who refused to give up on me and reminded me that I had way more potential than I let on. You have to work harder, they would say. It just took me a while to realize this.

There are still times where I feel like quitting, packing up and going somewhere new, but I've decided to stay and try.

I've met a lot of people in my life through constant moving, not all of them have remained, but all have somehow helped shape me into who I am right now. I'm not afraid to raise my hand in class any more, or to speak up when need be, or to even write Part 2 of The Magic Carpet.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY PUI YAN FONG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A 'wave of destruction' pits heritage advocates against developers in Quebec
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As old churches, city halls and other buildings are slated for demolition, the province's definitions of what's 'heritage' and what isn't are being put to the test
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By LES PERREAUX
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Thursday, August 22, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A8


MONTREAL -- Quebec's famous old towns like Montreal's Vieux Port and the capital's fortified city present an image of a province on top of heritage preservation. But some heritage experts and historians question if those landmark neighbourhoods conceal holes in the province's system of heritage protection.

For decades, a moribund economy and languishing property values acted as a heritage safeguard in Quebec. Developers were rarely interested in buying and bulldozing old property to build new. A robust economy in the past several years has unleashed the bulldozer and wrecking ball on old buildings at an accelerating pace. Every few weeks, some new piece of Quebec's past is in the news for imminent or under way demolition.

"Now that the economy is going well, we are facing a wave of destruction to build new because there's a vision that new is beautiful," said Alex Tremblay-Lamarche, the head of Quebec City's historical society.

No official statistics exist tracking the demolition of heritage sites - a term that is both a concept and a government classification with widely varying definitions.

In a 2018 book, engineer Yves Lacourcière estimated 33 per cent of Quebec heritage buildings had disappeared since the 1970s.

Just in the past month, workers began dismantling a Quebec City church considered a unique example of Romano-Byzantine design. A 120-year-old city hall in Compton, Que., was razed. An apartment building in Montreal's Plateau district considered a prime example of a Montreal greystone with arches and sculptured stone is under demolition. Last winter saw a succession of buildings from different eras and styles teeter and fall, from a 114-year old neo-Italian inn to a 200year-old farmhouse in Chambly that was the home of René Boileau, one of the architects of the 1837-38 rebellions, to a 300year-old French regime farmhouse in Laval.

Often one level of government or another declared the properties heritage sites, but with uninterested or underfinanced owners and no public money, they have fallen apart anyway.

The church under demolition in Quebec City sits near the crossroads of where modern buildings begin to encroach on the 150-year-old legislature, 300-year-old stone apartments and the famous ramparts - and also where the preservation of architectural heritage confronts financial reality.

As a unique example of Romano-Byzantine design executed at the tail end of the First World War, Saint-Coeur-de-Marie church, formerly known as L'Église des Nobles, is not even among the 10 oldest churches in the city. It is a relic from a more modern time, a piece combining European and American influences.

It is also an artifact of war. Steel rationing necessitated the use of Catalan-inspired self-supporting Guastavino tile ceilings for its two immense 14-metre interior domes. Constructed by the Guastavino Tile Co. of New York, the ceiling echoed a style familiar from Grand Central Terminal, Carnegie Hall and the U.S.

Supreme Court in Washington.

"It's not the oldest church in Quebec, but it is absolutely unique and distinct in Quebec," Mr. Tremblay-Lamarche said. "It was built on one of the city's great prestige arteries, once considered the Champs-Elysées of Quebec, that has suffered one hit after another in recent years."

Louis Lessard, a property developer who owns the church, has fought for a decade with the city to tear down the church and build a condominium tower.

They rejected all nine of his plans. He is suing.

Ironically, city workers inadvertently started the demolition job for him last winter when they flooded the church while working nearby.

A month ago a judge issued an emergency demolition order. Mr. Lessard's crew set up a concrete barricade and started dismantling the church spire.

"People in Quebec City are calling the barrier the Wall of Shame," Mr. Lessard said.

Mr. Lessard said the church illustrates how often neither public nor private money follow professed desire for heritage preservation.

The Catholic Church decommissioned the church as a place of worship nearly 30 years ago and it has mostly sat empty since. Long before Mr. Lessard's real estate development ambitions, other plans emerged. One entrepreneur wanted to turn the church into a concert hall. He didn't have the $30-million Mr. Lessard estimates would be required to restore and renovate the church.

"Some people say now they love it. Nobody loves it. Nobody wants to put money into it. Without money, there is no conservation," Mr. Lessard said.

"Historians are great, I love them. They are always the first in line to express their love for a building, but they don't put a cent into them. The city doesn't want to put in money.

"The province doesn't want to put in money. That building needs to be demolished."

Experts agree Quebec's booming economy of the past five years has put additional pressure to redevelop real estate, but Luc Noppen, a professor of urban studies at the University of Quebec at Montreal, says other factors are also at play.

Medium and large cities such as Quebec City and Montreal are trying to densify to maximize tax revenue and slow sprawl and combat climate change. Established residents often resist densification efforts and the potential destruction of heritage adds another point of conflict, Prof. Noppen said. "The status quo will be upset, but there are also issues of equality.

Will we leave Montreal's Plateau neighbourhood intact in the name of heritage but bulldoze [poorer] Point Saint Charles?" he said.

The definition of heritage has expanded and is no longer a debate for only experts.

"In the 1960s, 70s, 80s, even into the 90s, we had a very narrow idea of heritage. It had to be a building. It had to have high artistic value, and be very old," he said. "We've expanded it, and now there is a soupçon of heritage afforded to all kinds of buildings people find interesting. Developers are running straight into it."

The professor pointed to the Guaranteed Pure Milk Bottle in downtown Montreal and immense freeway-side Orange Julep dome as two items the public would not have seen as heritage 40 years ago.

Citizens would fight for them now, if they were threatened.

"Heritage is not concrete fact, it is a representation of public opinion," he said.

"There is a lot of impression. There is rumour. There is the bad image of real estate promoters. All we can do is inform them what is special about their church.

Then they have to decide. There's no magic recipe."

Quebec has solid heritage protection laws but they are subject to the interests of owners, the availability of cash and political whim. "From one election to another, the level of protection comes and goes," Prof Noppen said. "Meanwhile, the body of heritage only continues to grow and we will see more and more controversy."

The money Quebec spends on heritage is difficult to tally. While the province has about $45-million dedicated to heritage restoration subsidies, about half of which go to religious sites, it spends hundreds of millions more in a patchwork of renovation programs, public-works projects and maintaining its own vast collection of heritage buildings. It just spent $60-million overhauling the entrance to the National Assembly.

Cities in Quebec have a last-resort power to expropriate heritage properties that fall into disrepair.

However, civic politicians are loath to take that step and assume the same costs of ownership and restoration that private owners have avoided. Every municipality has small subsidy programs but also spends large amounts on particular projects. Montreal City Hall just launched the $43-million first phase of an estimated $144-million restoration.

"It's one thing to have tools, it's another to have budgets," said Émilie Thuillier, the borough mayor who is in charge of heritage at Montreal City Council.

"Municipalities can't own every heritage building out there.

"And we have financial assistance programs but it's not enough. It's never enough."

Associated Graphic

Maison Charbonneau, located at 8740 Mille-Îles Blvd in Laval, Que., is a residential home built in 1736. The house was deemed a Quebec heritage building in 1977.

DARIO AYALA/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Far left: Head of Quebec City's historical society Alex Tremblay-Lamarche, seen in front of the Saint-Coeur-de-Marie church in Quebec City, says buildings are being demolished 'because there's a vision that new is beautiful.'

FRANCIS VACHON/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Left: The Saint-Coeurde-Marie church is a unique example of Romano-Byzantine design executed at the tail end of the First World War.

FRANCIS VACHON/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Above: The Saint-Coeurde-Marie church isn't 'the oldest church in Quebec, but it is absolutely unique and distinct,' Mr. TremblayLamarche says.

FRANCIS VACHON/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Left: A partly demolished heritage home built in 1904 is seen at 4419 Esplanade Ave. in Montreal.

DARIO AYALA/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

At 40, Tapestry is Canadian opera's most reliable risk taker
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The Toronto company has built an impressive library by exclusively producing new works and rigorously vetting them for talent. Others could learn a thing or two - if they'll pay attention
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By JENNA SIMEONOV
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R2


You've likely walked past the studios of Tapestry Opera, unaware. They reside in Toronto's Distillery District - a pedestrian-only few blocks of cobblestone packed with galleries and shops. Amid the famous shoe stores and pricey coffee, and only a five-minute walk from the Front Street studios of the Canadian Opera Company, Tapestry Opera is hardly visible - symbolic of their underdog status in Canada's opera scene. Underdog though they may be, they've got staying power: This fall, Tapestry is celebrating 40 years in the business of creating new opera.

Since Wayne Strongman founded it in 1979, Tapestry's history has been exclusively in the commissioning and production of contemporary Canadian opera.

No small feat, that. And it's particularly remarkable for Tapestry, where the focus on new opera is decidedly a niche of something already niche. Even under their company mandate, Tapestry Opera wears many hats. They tell Indigenous stories and #MeToo stories; they put up shows in Toronto's Don Valley and they invite Fucked Up to write arias for the likes of David Pomeroy and Krisztina Szabo. Tapestry, with its compact size and operating budget, can afford the kind of creative risks that their larger companions cannot; and because they can take risks, they have become a hub for innovative projects and the artists who create them.

Tapestry's big birthday isn't just about celebrating their fourdecade hustle. The company's true legacy is in its standardization of new opera development: the Composer-Librettist Laboratory. Known colloquially as the LibLab, it took formal shape in 1995 after Strongman, who had seen too many pieces "just fall apart on the cutting room floor," had learned how best to support the operas-in-progress under Tapestry's watch.

The LibLab is an environment that's part workshop, part professional speed-dating for composers and librettists. It puts these would-be opera creators into the same room and nudges them toward collaborative work. Composers and librettists partner up in several combinations, testing the chemistry in different pairings by working together on an operatic short or single scene. It's a tactic meant to maximize the collaborative learning curve - or, as Alexander Neef, general director of the Canadian Opera Company, puts it, "you throw darts at the wall and see what sticks."

Most of what comes out of the LibLab doesn't stick, but that's not the point. Rather, it's about offering an incubating environment where new opera can be put to the test before too much hope or money are thrown in its direction. The LibLab participants produce their short pieces, which are then almost immediately subjected to external criticism from people such as Strongman, fellow conductors and dramaturgs, and select industry invitees. "Feedback was solicited. We heard what people had to say," says Tom Diamond, Canadian stage director and dramaturg for Tapestry Opera's LibLab. "That doesn't really happen with other companies."

And of course, there's the formidable library of Canadian opera of which Tapestry can rightly boast. To date, the LibLab has produced 160 shorts, 20 chamber operas and 18 full-length works. The quantity of these fledgling operas eventually produces a few of lasting quality - such as the Dora Award-winning Rocking Horse Winner and The Overcoat: A Musical Tailoring (both of which premiered in 2017), and the internationally acclaimed Nigredo Hotel (1992). After all, choosing a few out of many is how we now have our favourites from the oeuvres of Mozart and Verdi.

Would it not be a sure bet then, when other opera companies set out to commission a new opera, that they ask Tapestry for advice?

Even after reaching the checkpoint of their first large-scale production, Iron Road (2001), Tapestry couldn't seem to attract longterm partnership from Canada's large companies.

"I'd been trying to woo them for years," Strongman recalls.

"Look, you need a developmental arm. Let Tapestry be that for you."

Since the years of Harry Somers and Claude Vivier - when, as Strongman puts it, composers "were kind of writing for each other" - contemporary opera has suffered from a long bout of bad public relations. Even as the dissonant 20th century gave way to the neo-lyricism of the 21st, the PR damage of contemporary opera seems to endure. And in a business as precarious as opera, bad press is synonymous with financial risk.

It should be said that Tapestry, in its modest size, can better shoulder those risks. Their promotion of new opera and Canadian careers means they're looked on favourably by artsfunding organizations, and they're small enough for ticket revenue to make a difference (by comparison, in 2018 the COC earned more from their bar and parking revenue than from ticket sales).

Indeed, for most of Strongman's time at Tapestry, the larger, more financially conservative companies had "little appetite" for new opera. Money worries aside, it's easy to imagine that companies simply underestimate how hard it is to create a good opera; they're not out to exclude Tapestry, they just don't know to ask for help.

Diamond puts it simply: "When companies develop an opera, they believe they know how to do it. But most of these companies do traditional opera, so they don't know how to do it."

The COC's Neef has his use for the LibLab, and it's mostly in the area of vetting potential talent. "It would be very unlikely for us to commission [a composer] to write a mainstage opera if they've never written an opera before," he says. "For someone to cut their teeth, places like Tapestry are really important." Important, maybe, but apparently still unappetizing. I can't help but compare the LibLab system to the high-risk process that gave us Hadrian, the 2018 COC commission by Rufus Wainwright and Daniel MacIvor. It had ironic origins, with obvious grandeur in mind from the very start - Wainwright's goal, he told me, was to "just, like, write the great American opera" - yet it was workshopped among a relatively closed group of ears, an echo chamber mostly limited to the core creative team. The result was something certainly large-scale, yet practically untested with the public.

This is what often happens when Canada's better-funded companies commission new opera: They skip the part about early feedback - a risky move that puts too much pressure on opening night, leaning precariously on a cocktail of famous names and crossed fingers.

"It's been my experience," Diamond says, "that other companies don't want to know what other people have to say about their works, almost until it's too late."

Neef, as with most other opera bosses, isn't opposed to new opera. In fact, "I'm a little bit concerned about the fact that we don't have more contemporary work on our mainstage," he says, "and that contemporary work is sort of branded as not for the mainstage."

Thus spins the cycle of doom that has hung over new opera since the middle of the 20th century. Neef and his ilk want more new opera on his big stage and consider the LibLab a useful tool - yet they seem to do little with that tool, instead defiantly hustling the likes of Wainwright past the composer queue.

It's this gap that remains wide: the inability of composers, even those vetted in the LibLab, to earn the trust of Canada's larger opera companies and see their works move from the studio to the big stage. I suspect that, amid the investment risks, there's a bit of ego in the way. Perhaps it smarts a little that a company humble enough to prioritize process over product has got the new opera problem so thoroughly solved.

If these companies are ever going to cede that, if they can't beat Tapestry, then they must join it, the time is now. The company itself isn't dwelling much on its place in the larger Canadian scene. As it always has, Tapestry is busy looking forward; and in time for its big 4-0, it finds itself the leader of the Canadian opera pack.

With the groundwork thoroughly laid by Strongman, current artistic director Michael Mori is doing an enlightened job of making the Tapestry legacy mean something to its current audiences. Strongman likely had little inkling that Tapestry would be the ideal face of opera in 2019; that his company would have the stuff of a great startup: small and agile, responsive to its audience, with refreshingly few elderly white men leading the way. It's a great story, a twist ending that only makes sense with 40 years of hindsight.

Associated Graphic

The Dora Award-winning Rocking Horse Winner, above, is just one of the acclaimed works to come out of Tapestry Opera's Composer-Librettist Laboratory. Iron Road, right, marked the company's first large-scale production.

RIGHT: GILLIAN MAPP/ REUTERS

Brooke's Brigade is only growing
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Defending champ has drawn fans all week at the CP Women's Open - for her, being a golf star is a natural fit
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By RACHEL BRADY
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S3


AURORA, ONT -- All week, thick crowds have been following Brooke Henderson around Magna Golf Club to watch her title defence at the CP Women's Open.

As fans steady their phones at her and holler "Go get 'em Brooke" on every hole, the Canadian star politely acknowledges the encouragement with a small tip of her hand. She chokes down on her extra-long driver and lets the ball rip far and straight. Gasps of admiration echo from the gallery. They whoop proudly at her every birdie putt.

An equipment retailer constructed a Brooke's Brigade viewing zone, where kids scoop up free red Brooke T-shirts. Her image is on all the posters, media guides and credentials. She is routinely met by large media scrums.

Huge packs of autograph-seekers, from retirees to kids wearing her well-recognized Ping visor, surround the fence past the 18th green after her rounds. Henderson spends 20 minutes scribbling and posing for photos before she is ushered off to the clubhouse.

In five years, Henderson has gone from teenage phenom and world-topping amateur to a 21year-old LPGA star with nine titles to her name. The native of Smiths Falls, Ont., has already won a major and become Canada's most winning pro golfer in history. Her victory in Regina last year ended a 45-year stretch without a Canadian champion at the national women's open. Now, with the spotlight focused squarely on her in Aurora, Ont., she takes aim at something no one from Canada has done at this tournament: repeat.

"Doing media days and being around the tournament, I had been around the trophy a lot and always wanted to touch it or pick it up, but I had never done it because I told myself I would earn it," Henderson said. "But the thing is, once you win a tournament, you really only get to spend maybe an hour with the trophy and then they take it away. But you get a replica, and that's on my trophy shelf."

When she played in her first Canadian Women's Open as a 14year-old amateur, her coach and father, Dave Henderson, captured a photo of the large silver tournament trophy when it was on display by the front gates of the Vancouver Golf Club.

He got up close and wrapped his arm behind it, but he was careful not to touch it.

"Kind of like the Stanley Cup - we know hockey players never touch it until they win it," recalled her dad in Aurora this week, watching from the back of the media tent as his daughter met the press. "We had the photo blown up and put right on the bedroom door, so you couldn't really miss it. It's there subtly with lots of other good memories and inspirational quotes and scores.

She passed it every day when she was home over the following years. I think it was motivational."

He said another trophy they have set as a goal is the Vare Trophy, awarded to the LPGA player with the lowest scoring average of the season. Henderson is currently fifth on Tour in that category (69.742).

"If you focus on that, all of your skills have to be good," her dad said.

Henderson is flanked by her close-knit circle this week in Aurora - including her sister Brittany on her bag, her parents, her agent from IMG, and her long-time contact at Ping, the club manufacturer.

Wednesday afternoon, the company received a last-minute request from Henderson for a new club - a 4-iron she wanted to add to her arsenal just in case she might need it. Ping quickly customized one for her in Oakville, Ont., and hand-delivered it to her on the range at Magna Golf Club by 7 a.m. - an hour before she began Thursday's opening round.

"As soon as you mention Brooke's name at Ping - in Canada or the U.S. - we jump," said Dave Wilson, general manager of Ping Canada, who has known the family since Henderson's early teens, and often walks the course with them when she plays.

He had lunch with the Hendersons after she shot an exciting sixunder 66 opening round on Thursday at Magna to sit - at least for a while - atop the leaderboard.

"We didn't even talk about golf.

It was like fist bump, 'good round,' "said Wilson, to articulate Henderson's poised tone. "She's humble, she's kind to everyone, and you'll never see her getting ahead of herself after a round."

It reminded him of the breakfast they all had before her Sunday round in Regina last summer.

The preparation had been done, the confidence was there. They didn't talk at all about the championship she could win that day.

In fact, they talked about a TV show he had just watched about whales.

"Dave and Britt and Brooke do so much work ahead of time.

Then on the course, Britt and Brooke are so good at quickly processing humidity, lie, wind direction, speed - they make a very unique team," Wilson said.

"You're only allowed one, two bad swings per round at this level. You can't play with reckless abandon.

She is very aggressive off the tee because her ball striking is so good. Brooke can do whatever she wants with her driver, and that's such a gift."

On top of improved skill, Henderson has also become seasoned at managing her obligations.

The bulk of her appearances on behalf of the tournament were in early July. There was a news conference inside Magna's opulent clubhouse, which kicked off with the viewing of a powerful LPGA ad. Henderson was featured prominently among the Tour stars in the ad, over messages "this is for every girl who was told success and kindness are two different things" and "this is us crushing it for you, so you can crush it for the next girl."

That was followed by an afternoon jam-packed with one-onone interviews. Then came a lateday meet-and-greet at Aurora's GolfTown, where a long line of fans snaked through store aisles amid the vibrant golf polos, skorts, clubs and leather bags, awaiting their chance to stand next to her.

Everything that comes with being a golf star comes more naturally to her now.

"You know what airlines are best to fly into that city, what hotels you like, you understand the golf courses a little better," Henderson said.

"Being able to say no and learn to time manage is key. I have to understand that I need proper time to rest and to practice, so I think time management has been one of the most important things I've learned. I'm a much more confident player and person now."

On Friday, Henderson shot a second-round three-under 69 and is right in the CP Women's Open fight, in a tie for third, three back of leader Nicole Broch Larsen.

Henderson has won two titles a season for four successive years.

In her LPGA career, she has already made US$5.9-million in prize money. This season, she has made US$1.14-million, placing her No. 5 on the money list. There is lots more available.

The CP Women's Open has a purse of US$2.25-million with the winner getting a US$337,500 cheque. She is No. 5 in the CME Race to the Globe standings - a season-long tally of points that decides the Top 60 to play in the CME Group Tour Championship, which has a US$5-million purse and the US$1.5-million winner's cheque, the largest single prize in the history of women's golf.

Henderson can remember rubbing shoulders with Canadian golfers Alena Sharpe and Lorie Kane in her first CP Women's Open. Now she's the veteran player inspiring the young ones - meeting 12-year-old Canadian amateur Michelle Liu on the driving range this week ahead of her first one.

Magna's wide fairways suit Henderson's strengths, so it's easy to imagine the Canadian could repeat as champion this weekend.

It's never easy to be the very best in a field of 156 golfers - especially with 99 of the LPGA's Top 100ranked golfers in Aurora.

"Knowing I was capable of winning this event after having done it last year I just think gave me a lot of confidence, made me more comfortable in front of these crowds," Henderson said.

The crowds will only get bigger on the weekend.

Associated Graphic

Canadian Brooke Henderson greets fans on the 16th hole during the second round of the CP Women's Open in Aurora, Ont., on Friday.

NATHAN DENETTE/THE CANADIAN PRESS

A boomtime for property managers
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Vancouver's empty homes tax is prompting many homeowners to seek help renting out their properties
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page H7


VANCOUVER -- New taxes designed to push homeowners into renting out all or part of their empty homes are achieving the goal - at least while the housing market in B.C. remains soft.

Lower Mainland property managers and realtors say they're seeing an increase in the renting business, now that homeowners in urban areas can't leave properties vacant without incurring the province's speculation and vacancy tax.

Vancouver homeowners also face the City's empty homes tax (EHT), which was a response to the affordable-housing shortage.

"The point of [the tax] was to make it so the homes weren't being unoccupied and being used for the population that lives and works here, so in that sense, it does seem to be achieving its purpose," says Jessica Lee, cofounder of new property management firm Bodewell that launched a year ago in anticipation of a growing rental market.

"There is more inventory on the market and more to choose from. People who were perhaps living outside Vancouver now have opportunities to move back."

Donald Mackenzie, company president, says that business is growing at about 50 per cent per month. They work with realtors who are advising clients to hold until the market goes back up.

The expectation is that the client will then return to the realtor to sell the property, Mr. Mackenzie says.

"We enable them to hold and keep making a return until the market has picked up again and maybe in three or four years they will be selling," he says. "And there are a lot of good tenants out there. It's working."

Mr. Mackenzie said that they were also motivated to launch their firm when they saw all the condo completions coming online, such as the Tate tower downtown, where they have many client investors holding units and now renting them out.

Laneway house builder Jake Fry says that for the first time in his long career he got an inquiry from someone looking to avoid the EHT.

"The first question was, 'If we build laneway on this property, will we avoid the empty homes tax if we rent it out?' I have never had that question before," he says.

He says an effect of the market downturn has been a return to business on the west side of the city. When extreme wealth started pouring into west side neighbourhoods such as Point Grey, Mr. Fry's business moved eastward because west side homeowners looked down on the idea of a laneway house rental, he says. Now that the market has slowed, new owners on the west side are open to the idea of a laneway house as a mortgage helper.

"When prices jumped up and people were paying exorbitant rates, those Point Grey people wouldn't talk to us anymore, because why would they have a rental unit? It was déclassé," he says. "So our work was moving steadily east. And now we are going back and finding more and more projects on the west side, because these homes are now staying as family homes."

West Vancouver realtor Dez Tsourpi says the bulk of her clients are investors and she is also a property investor.

"But I'm unique in that I purchase rental properties specifically to rent out - I'm not a flipper. I buy them specifically as part of my retirement plan to get a renter in there, pay [the properties] off eventually and have income down the road, because I'm self employed and I don't have a pension. This is all part of my wealth building plan," Ms.

Tsourpi says.

She's been referring her clients to property managers such as Mr. Mackenzie because they aren't flipping presale condo assignments or newly built units as they used to. Ms. Tsourpi says investors have typically bought around transit such as SkyTrain and in walkable, desirable areas.

A low vacancy rate means they can demand high rents, she says. A typical one bedroom downtown is about $2,100 a month.

Seva Roberts, property manager for Re/Max, says he had to rent out a luxury house he owns in North Vancouver, B.C., to avoid extra taxes. He says he had tried to sell, but the market crashed.

He has a number of clients who are adding small basement suites to their secondary properties in order to qualify for exemption from the taxes. Only one dwelling unit in a multiunit property has to be rented for at least six months in order to be exempt. That means the main part of a house can remain empty and available for the owners whose primary residence is elsewhere, as long as there is a rental on the property.

The City's director of financial services, Melanie Kerr, says that the addition of any new rental units, including basement suites, is "a positive."

Mr. Roberts says his job has become an administrative quagmire because so many of his clients are offshore investors. He oversees rentals in Vancouver, West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby and Richmond. He says he's now dealing with timeconsuming audits on properties where the owner has failed to supply the appropriate documentation by deadline.

He says he has one client from Mongolia who's looking at a $20,000 empty homes tax bill on his luxury Coal Harbour condo.

"It's a different ballgame," Mr.Roberts says. "Everyone has this other job now, to deal with these taxes. ... It's very, very frustrating."

According to the City's latest Empty Homes Tax Report, which will be updated in the fall, 331 out of 6,231 audited homeowners were found to be non-compliant with the EHT. Those owners were invoiced for the tax. Revenue generated from the audits for the first year, 2017, was $6.2million. Total revenue earned from the EHT was $38-million, of which $17.4-million was outstanding.

Mr. Roberts says that for clients who aren't yet permanent residents, he believes they are shouldering an unfair amount of tax burden. The EHT is 1 per cent of a property's value and the provincial tax is 1 per cent of the value. As of this year, the provincial tax is 2 per cent of assessed value for foreign owners and satellite families. Foreign owners do not qualify for the principal residence exemption.

Mr. Roberts says the tax is forcing foreign owners to rent out the homes they own and live in and rent a place elsewhere.

"I have a lot of clients that are working on getting their permanent resident card and they own a luxury condo. One specific client, he owns a luxury condo and he's building a house in Jericho.

He has to rent out his condo instead of living in it to avoid the speculation tax. He has to go rent another place.

"So it's forcing people out of their homes and now they are having to go rent other homes, which is interesting."

Mr. Roberts says he's heard of foreign owners who rent from other foreign owners and do a house swap on paper to avoid the 2-per-cent tax.

"They just rent to each other and pay each other's utility bills and just stay living in their houses."

Ms. Lee says owners in that situation will run into problems when they get audited.

As to whether the new rental inventory is having an effect on affordability is another matter.

Mr. Roberts says he's not yet seeing it.

"For the person renting downtown who has a job, it hasn't changed. The one bedrooms and two bedrooms are still hot."

Ms. Tsourpi isn't so sure, either. She says the taxes are having the desired effect. But she's concerned that once the market goes up and homeowner-investors decide to sell their properties, those rental units could be removed from the market. The ultimate solution, she says, is government incentives that encourage the development of secure, purpose-built rental.

"In the long run, it's investors who provide a lot of liquidity to the marketplace for rentals and if they don't feel like they're getting enough value and they pull out en masse, I don't know what that will mean," she says.

"We've seen a lot of 'stick,' but we haven't seen a lot of 'carrot,' " she says of housing incentives.

"I'd like to see some carrot."

Associated Graphic

Jessica Lee, co-founder of Bodewell Property Management, launched her company a year ago in anticipation of a rental-market surge in response to Vancouver's empty homes tax. Ms. Lee says she is indeed noticing more inventory on the market now.

JACKIE DIVES/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Cannabis, crypto and connections: Wayland Group's shifting fortunes
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By TIM KILADZE, MARK RENDELL
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


A warning sign of fresh trouble for Wayland Group Corp. came to light in late April.

Once one of Canada's most promising cannabis companies, Wayland announced on April 23 that it likely wouldn't file its 2018 financial statements on time. A week later, it confirmed the delay, prompting the Ontario Securities Commission (OSC) to place a cease trade order on its shares.

For months, the company was quiet.

But in the dying minutes of Friday, August 2, as most of the country was settling in to a midsummer long weekend, Wayland sent out an unexpected news release.

Its chief executive had resigned, its auditor had quit - and there still weren't any financial statements.

Instead, Wayland announced a deal to sell its Canadian assets to a cryptocurrency company and revealed discussions to sell its remaining international business to ICC International Cannabis Corp., an early stage company built by junior mining financiers.

Altogether, the proposed deals and departures paint a landscape in which Wayland would effectively cease to exist. If the deals go through, the developments will mark an abrupt end for one of the first licensed commercial marijuana growers in Canada, a company that has faced operational problems, regulatory probes and criticisms of overly promotional activities.

Wayland plans to sell its Canadian assets, which include a production facility in Langton, Ont., to Cryptologic Corp.

The buyer is a relatively small cryptocurrency miner that lost $74-million in fiscal 2018 after writing down two acquisitions. Until July 31, the company was known as Vogogo Inc., and at the time of its name change, management said in a news release that the "rebranding emphasizes the company's focus on cryptocurrency mining."

Two days later, Cryptologic offered to buy Wayland and to pivot to cannabis.

Many of Cryptologic's backers come from the online gambling industry, where some helped build Amaya Inc. The name Cryptologic even appears to have been recycled: Cryptologic Inc. was an online gambling company acquired by Amaya in 2012.

Three Cryptologic shareholders - Yoel Altman, John Vettese and Craig Bridgman - were also shareholders of a private company called NanoLeaf Technologies Inc.

that was acquired by Wayland in 2017 for $38.5-million in stock.

Cryptologic's takeover structure is complicated. The company has offered to pay for Wayland's Canadian assets by issuing 57.5 million of its shares at $4 apiece. However, Cryptologic shares closed at $1.99 on the Canadian Securities Exchange on Friday, meaning the company is offering a theoretical value for its shares.

It is the same tactic that Green Growth Brands Ltd. used in its recent unsuccessful takeover takeover bid for Aphria Inc. In December, Green Growth proposed to acquire Aphria "based on a valuation of $7 a share" of Green Growth, yet at the time the offer was announced the buyer's shares were worth $4.98 each.

There is another parallel between the Green Growth and Cryptologic offers: Mr.Altman and Mr. Bridgman have ties to both companies. Mr. Altman has been a principal of Green Growth, and Mr. Bridgman has been a shareholder in the company, according to regulatory filings.

In an e-mail, Cryptologic CEO John FitzGerald said the offer price took into account that Cryptologic committed to providing Wayland with a bridge loan and to having cash available to fund the merged company's growth - implying that these developments will boost Cryptologic's value, and therefore its share price, in the long run.

He also said that, if the deal is completed, he will step down as CEO and the company will be run by current chief financial officer Jordan Greenberg, who cut his teeth in the cannabis space with Nuuvera Inc., a development-stage company that was acquired by Aphria only three months after going public.

As for the shareholders with ties to both the company that Wayland acquired in 2017 and to Cryptologic, Mr. Vettese, who is a corporate lawyer at Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP, wrote in an e-mail that he "had no involvement whatsoever" in the proposed Cryptologic/Wayland transaction. "I first became aware of the proposed transaction after it was publicly announced," he wrote.

Mr. Altman and Mr. Bridgman did not return multiple requests for comment.

If completed, Wayland's other proposed deal, to sell the rest of its international assets to ICC, would see the company sell its majority stake in a business whose prized asset is one of only three companies licensed to grow medical marijuana in Germany.

Wayland already sold ICC a 49.9-percent stake in its international portfolio in an all-share deal that valued the stake in the portfolio at US$129-million when it was announced in January. Today, the shares Wayland received in return are worth US$19.5-million, after an 87-per-cent drop in ICC's share price.

Canadian-run hedge fund MMCap International Inc. was the largest shareholder of both Wayland and ICC in early 2019, according to regulatory filings. Its current position in both firms is unknown.

Both the ICC and Cryptologic deals are being negotiated against a backdrop of turmoil at Wayland.

On Aug. 2, Wayland disclosed that MNP LLP had resigned as its auditor, adding that MNP said "there is an unresolved issue ... relating to the conduct of the company's former CEO in respect of the audit of the company's 2018 annual financial statements."

MNP did not elaborate on the matter, and the audit firm declined to comment for this story.

Asked about the unresolved issue, former CEO Ben Ward declined to comment, but in an interview he said he expects the audit to be completed in due course. He added that he has effectively been out of the company since June.

Wayland's new CEO, Matthew McLeod, declined to comment for this story.

The development comes after a series of blows in 2017 and early 2018 that changed Wayland's trajectory.

Licensed in 2014, the company, then known as Maricann Group Inc., was one of the first to receive approval from Health Canada to grow cannabis as part of the federal government's commercial medicalmarijuana system.

Yet in March, 2017, a windstorm hit the company's Ontario production facility, destroying crops in two of its five greenhouses. At the time, Wayland was preparing to go public on the Canadian Securities Exchange, and it began trading in April, 2017, but the company did not disclose the damage done by the storm until months later, in September.

A few months later, in February, 2018, the company came under scrutiny from the OSC for failing to disclose to investors that Mr. Ward was the subject of an OSC investigation for his actions at a previous company.

The OSC also opened an investigation that month into two directors of the company - former chairman Julian Neil Tabatznik and Raymond Stone - who sold about $8-million worth of shares days before the company announced a $70-million financing in late January, 2018.

Both Mr. Tabatznik and Mr. Stone resigned from the board, and in early March, 2018, a syndicate of investment banks, led by Eight Capital and Canaccord Genuity, cancelled the financing altogether.

An OSC investigation into the two directors was closed in September, 2018, with no further action taken. The OSC investigation into Mr. Ward is continuing.

After the failed share sale, Wayland's stock price collapsed throughout 2018, and management spent heavily to promote the company. In 2018, Wayland paid investorrelations firms more than $4.5-million, half in cash, half in shares, to promote its stock. On three occasions that year the OTC Markets Group, which manages the over-the-counter trading platform where Wayland's shares trade in the United States, ordered the company to issue clarifying statements about misleading promotional material.

Mr. Ward dismissed any suggestions of wrongdoing. "I'd frame it as industry norm, industry standard," he said in the interview. "It's a way to get your message out and gain liquidity for investors."

Despite the efforts, the share price never recovered, dropping to $0.74 on the CSE before it was cease traded, down from a high of $4.25. Wayland's stock continues to trade over-the-counter in the U.S., where it closed at 20 US cents on Friday.

CANNABIS PROFESSIONAL This story first appeared in Cannabis Professional, the authoritative news service tailored specifically for professionals in the rapidly evolving cannabis industry. To subscribe, visit tgam.ca/canpro

Associated Graphic

Wayland Group, which was licensed in 2014 and then known as Maricann Group, was one of the first to receive approval from Health Canada to grow cannabis as part of Ottawa's commercial medical-marijuana system.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Will the 'king' of all diseases be dethroned?
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It has killed thousands of people and terrified the world. How did Ebola come to dominate our imaginations in the first place, and what happens now that we have effective treatments?
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By STEVEN HATCH
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O5


Associate professor of medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, specializing in infectious disease and immunology, and author of Inferno: A Doctor's Ebola Story

Earlier this month, the World Health Organization announced that it had stopped clinical trials it had been performing on Ebola therapies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo because two of the treatments were clearly and unambiguously saving lives. In effect, the announcement served as a declaration of victory in the war against the virus. Since then, we've been living in a world where Ebola has been defanged.

What was once a killer that struck fear into billions of people has now been shorn of its terrifying identity.

Five years ago, as I worked in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) in Liberia, these two drugs - REGN-EB3 and mAb114 - would have been a pipe dream, the answer to the prayers of millions caught up in Ebola's deadly grip.

While the West African outbreak of 2014-15 "only" resulted in around 30,000 infections, with more than 10,000 dead, the affairs of the three primary countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea ground to a halt. Business stopped. People remained indoors. Clinics and hospitals closed up shop. Distrust reigned supreme.

And many more people who didn't have Ebola died because of these effects. The actual number of infections did not capture the level of misery these countries experienced. Effective drugs would have seemed like manna from heaven in such an environment.

Mostly, what I did in the ETU was provide what is euphemistically termed "supportive care."

It's a code phrase that means, "We have no specific drugs to help, but we'll do what we can."

And what we could wasn't much.

The mortality rate in our unit was about 50 per cent, similar to other ETUs at the time. A fair amount of my effort was to watch people die while treating them with as much dignity as possible.

I had come to Liberia for the first time only a few months before the outbreak; when I saw the virus barrelling its way through the country in early 2014, I resolved to go help my new friends, and within a few months, I became part of the massive local and international effort to bring it to heel.

Some experimental Ebola therapies were introduced during this time. A drug called ZMapp had been developed years before in the United States, but there wasn't enough of the drug to formally test its effectiveness, so a few people received it under what is called a "compassionate protocol." A few other drugs, from the reasonable to the fanciful, were selectively distributed, but none of them were studied in any organized manner, and so nobody knew if any of them had any life-saving effect.

However, the scale of the tragedy spurred international scientific groups to have a more deliberate approach when the next big outbreak came. The current outbreak in Congo, which started more than a year ago, provided just such an opportunity. It led to a trial of four potential medications, including ZMapp and the two that were shown to be lifesaving. Since Ebola made its debut on the international health scene in 1976, these trials marked the first time in which we proved there were specific, effective treatments against the virus. Historically, Ebola killed roughly 70 per cent of its victims; the two new treatments studied in Congo dropped the mortality rate to half that, and in patients who managed to receive the drugs early in the illness, the mortality rate had dropped to an astonishing 10 per cent.

And this hasn't been the only good news. Not only are there now effective treatments, but a safe and highly effective vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, has been developed. Thus far, it has been given to more than 100,000 people in the region. There is little question that without this vaccination campaign, the current outbreak would be a great deal worse than it is, possibly as large and devastating as the West African outbreak.

In such a moment of triumph, it is useful to take stock of Ebola's place in our collective imagination, and consider how and why it managed to strike such fear into people when other viruses no less harmful are not given the same notoriety. For instance, influenza is often thought of as an annual nuisance, but the more virulent strains can be as lethal as Ebola, and are much more easily transmitted. SARS - no stranger to Canadian soil - is an easily transmitted respiratory virus, and remains a threat. A virus found mainly in Southeast Asia called Nipah can cause fatal encephalitis, and can be passed from person to person.

So why does Ebola seem to have the designation as "king" of the scary viruses?

I would argue that it is not merely coincidental that Ebola hails from sub-Saharan Africa.

Africa is, of course, a continent with which Europe and North America are inextricably intertwined through the horror of slavery. Might white Westerners be motivated by a collective, subconscious anxiety about the redress of historical wrongs by a lethal virus straight from the heart of Africa?

I don't mean to reduce the fear of Ebola to an overly simplistic racial equation. But likewise, I think it's important to understand the racial element of Ebola's power to instill fear.

Richard Preston, who wrote the first bestseller on Ebola, 1994's The Hot Zone, once said that Ebola was "the first act of revenge of the rain forest." This is perhaps true, but the fear of Ebola could just as easily be read as apprehension of a different type of revenge from Africa, one based on hundreds of years of inhumanity, payback for one of the worst sins humans have ever perpetrated.

Such racial anxieties continue to shape Western policies toward the region.

This is arguably on display in the current outbreak, which has been often treated as a story of minor interest to the world media, in part because of the remoteness of the region.

In July, when three cases of Ebola were detected in Congo's neighbour of Uganda, suddenly the outbreak was nearing headline status. Why the sudden interest? Uganda has large, commercial airports. It's much easier for Ebola to hitch a ride to the rest of the world from Uganda than from Congo.

In spite of the good news, the dynamics of the current outbreak continue to make Ebola a lurking worldwide menace.

The site of the outbreak is Kivu province, which is the centre of a war zone the size of Alabama. To say that is "politically unstable" is an understatement, and it has been unstable for the better part of two decades. Official pronouncements from Congo's Ministry of Health have been treated with skepticism by armed militias hostile to the central government. Similarly, the good intentions of the international aid groups have been misconstrued, with ETUs being burned and aid workers attacked.

The harder it is for health authorities to do their jobs and eradicate the virus, the longer the outbreak will persist, and the longer the outbreak persists, the more likely it is that an improbable event will occur. Such events might include an infected person catching an international flight.

And once this occurs, the knowledge that there is an effective vaccine as well as effective therapies will likely not provide enough reassurance to stem the tide of panic that will inevitably engulf the region where it appears. For Ebola's great strength lies not in the absolute number of people it kills, but instead in the chaos it sows. I saw this firsthand in Liberia on repeated visits during the West African outbreak, and I have little doubt that it can reproduce this effect elsewhere, treatment or not.

When the WHO announcement was made on Aug. 12, I happened to be back in Liberia, where I have returned nearly a dozen times since 2015 as part of continuing training of Liberian physicians. The news of effective treatment received a mixed reception. While they were pleased to hear the news, I have little doubt that these Liberian physicians - who had lived through a year of apocalypse, watching friends, colleagues and patients die - must have also been wistful.

It was a week of victory in medicine, although for too many, it came too late.

Associated Graphic

A health-care worker sprays a room during the funeral of a suspected Ebola victim in Beni, a town in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, last December.

GORAN TOMASEVIC/REUTERS

PM 'directed staff' to help SNC avoid trial, Dion says
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By DANIEL LEBLANC, KATHRYN BLAZE BAUM
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


OTTAWA TORONTO -- Prime Minister Justin Trudeau oversaw his government's efforts to obtain an out-of-court settlement for engineering company SNC-Lavalin Group Inc. starting in 2016, undermining the authority of former attorney-general Jody Wilson-Raybould and breaking Canada's ethics rules in the process, the Ethics Commissioner has found.

In hard-hitting findings that returned the SNC-Lavalin affair to the forefront of political debate, Ethics Commissioner Mario Dion said the Prime Minister "directed his staff to find a solution that would safeguard SNC-Lavalin's business interests in Canada."

The Ethics Commissioner determined the Prime Minister's actions breached section 9 of the Conflict of Interest Act by improperly attempting to further the private interests of SNC-Lavalin.

The report reveals surprising twists in the company's efforts to avoid a criminal trial on charges of fraud and bribery, including new or further details on the involvement of three former Supreme Court judges, Finance Minister Bill Morneau, former Treasury Board president Scott Brison and Bank of Montreal chair Robert Prichard in his capacity as SNC-Lavalin's legal counsel.

The Ethics Commissioner's investigation also found regular communications between officials at SNC-Lavalin and members of the Prime Minister's Office, who coordinated efforts to find a way around Ms. Wilson-Raybould's refusal to intervene in the prosecution of the Montreal-based engineering firm.

The report disclosed for the first time that Mr. Trudeau met in early 2016 with SNC-Lavalin's CEO, Neil Bruce. Afterward, Mr.Trudeau asked one of his senior advisers, Mathieu Bouchard, to oversee the SNC-Lavalin file and look at laws in other countries that allow companies facing corruption charges to make deferred prosecution agreements (DPAs).

The government included an amendment to the Criminal Code to allow such remediation agreements in the 2018 budget bill, which was adopted later that year.

The director of public prosecutions decided not to negotiate an agreement with SNC-Lavalin. In her position as attorney-general, Ms. Wilson-Raybould repeatedly refused to overturn the decision.

"The authority of the Prime Minister and his office was used to circumvent, undermine and ultimately attempt to discredit the decision of the director of public prosecutions as well as the authority of Ms. Wilson-Raybould as the Crown's chief law officer," Mr.Dion's report said.

In a statement, Ms. Wilson-Raybould called the report a "vindication of the independent role of the attorney-general and of the director of public prosecutions in criminal prosecutions." She also praised the Ethics Commissioner for not being distracted by "inaccurate information about the events or about me personally."

At a news conference, Mr. Trudeau said he "can't apologize for standing up for Canadian jobs" that were at stake because of SNCLavalin's legal and financial problems.

He added he would not fire any officials involved in the efforts to overturn the SNC-Lavalin decision, saying the government has learned lessons from its failed efforts to protect the public interest while upholding prosecutorial independence.

"The buck stops with the Prime Minister," Mr. Trudeau told reporters. "I assume responsibility for everything that happened in my office. This is important because I truly feel that what happened over the past year shouldn't have happened."

This is the second time the Ethics Commissioner has found Mr.Trudeau in contravention of the Conflict of Interest Act. In 2017, then-commissioner Mary Dawson concluded Mr. Trudeau broke ethics rules by accepting a free family vacation in the Bahamas on the island of the Aga Khan, the billionaire spiritual leader of the world's Ismaili Muslims.

No penalty results from the two reports beyond negative headlines and public criticism.

While the Liberal Party took a large hit in public opinion after The Globe and Mail broke the SNC-Lavalin story in February, Mr.Trudeau's team recovered some of its lost support in recent weeks.

Conservative Leader Andrew Scheer said the SNC-Lavalin affair - as well as the Prime Minister's character and reliability - will be a key factor in the Oct. 21 election.

"His first violation [of the Conflict of Interest Act], for accepting a paid vacation on a luxury island from someone lobbying his government was shocking. This one is unforgivable," Mr. Scheer said.

SNC-Lavalin is awaiting trial on allegations it paid millions of dollars to public officials in Libya between 2001 and 2011 to secure government contracts. If convicted, the company could face a 10-year ban on receiving federal government contracts.

The Globe first reported on Feb.

7 that Ms. Wilson-Raybould had resisted pressure from the PMO to issue a directive to defer court proceedings against SNC-Lavalin in favour of a negotiated settlement. Mr. Trudeau initially dismissed this as "false," but later acknowledged an "erosion of trust" between his staff and Ms. WilsonRaybould.

The justice committee of the House held five meetings on the controversy. Ms. Wilson-Raybould testified on Feb. 28 after the government lifted constraints of solicitor-client privilege and cabinet confidences over a specific time frame.

"I experienced a consistent and sustained effort by many people within the government to seek to politically interfere in the exercise of prosecutorial discretion in my role as the attorney-general of Canada in an inappropriate effort to secure a deferred prosecution agreement with SNC-Lavalin," she said at the time.

During Mr. Dion's investigation, a lawyer acting for the Prime Minister argued that Ms. WilsonRaybould's view of events was tainted by anger over her demotion in January to minister of veterans affairs. She resigned from cabinet in February and was kicked out of the Liberal caucus in April along with Jane Philpott, who was president of the Treasury Board.

"Mr. Trudeau's counsel submitted that, in sum, Ms. Wilson-Raybould's decision-making process was inadequate and infected by legal misunderstanding and political motivation," the report said.

The PMO did not respond to questions on the identity of Mr.Trudeau's lawyer.

In his report, Mr. Dion criticized the government for failing to waive the principle of cabinet confidence for all matters covered by his investigation, which limited the amount of information witnesses could provide during interviews and in the production of documents.

"I am convinced that if our office is to remain truly independent and fulfill its purpose, I must have unfettered access to all information that could be relevant to the exercise of my mandate," the Ethics Commissioner wrote.

The report provides new details on interactions between senior PMO officials - mostly Mr.Bouchard and another lawyer, Elder Marques - and Ms. WilsonRaybould and her top ministerial staffers over the possibility she would listen to external advice and reconsider her position. Other ministers and their staff, including Mr. Morneau and Mr. Brison, were involved in these efforts.

The report said that Mr. Prichard was part of a meeting last October in which Mr. Brison was informed of the situation facing SNC-Lavalin. Afterward, it said, Mr. Brison discussed the matter with Ms. Wilson-Raybould, but quickly understood he would not influence her decision.

The report also says two former Supreme Court judges advised SNC-Lavalin on the file: Frank Iacobucci, acting as a lawyer for the company, who requested an opinion from former Supreme Court judge John Major in 2018, which was then shared with the government.

Mr. Iacobucci also contacted the former chief justice of the Supreme Court, Beverley McLachlin, to see whether she could play a role in the matter.

Ms. Wilson-Raybould was told last year by PMO officials that hiring Ms. McLachlin was being contemplated, but it was the Ethics Commissioner who told her officials at SNC and in Ottawa had actually been in contact with the retired judge. Ms. McLachlin, who never worked for the federal government on the file, did not respond to a request for comment.

Mr. Dion also shines new light on a phone call on Dec. 19, 2018, between then-clerk of the privy council Michael Wernick and Ms.Wilson-Raybould, who taped the conversation.

The report said Mr. Wernick met that day with Mr. Trudeau before phoning Ms. Wilson-Raybould. Ms. Wilson-Raybould has said she saw the conversation as another attempt to force her to change her mind. Mr. Dion agreed: "Although the messenger had changed, the message remained the same: A solution was needed to prevent the economic consequences of SNC-Lavalin not entering into negotiations for a remediation agreement."

With a report from Matthew Lapierre

Associated Graphic

Former attorney-general and justice minister Jody Wilson-Raybould attends a National Indigenous People's Day ceremony in Vancouver on June 21.

CHAD HIPOLITO/THE CANADIAN PRESS

The American who helped Calgary's libraries begin a new chapter
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By CHRISTINA FRANGOU
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A4


In June, Bill Ptacek, CEO of the Calgary Public Library, received one of the city of Calgary's highest honours: Citizen of the Year. At the ceremony, Mayor Naheed Nenshi declared, "I have a giant crush on Bill Ptacek. I love him so much!"

But Mr. Ptacek was not there.

He was recovering from brain surgery a few kilometres away at the home where he, his wife, Margaret, and their eldest daughter Sara, 39, have lived since moving to Calgary in 2014.

The Chicago native has dedicated his 40-year career to public libraries in both U.S. and Canadian cities, modernizing, expanding and reshaping them into places where people can gather. In his five years here, Mr. Ptacek oversaw the opening of the New Central Library. He spearheaded a massive shift in the role of libraries in the city, eliminating fees and creating play areas for children.

He turned libraries from quiet places for reading into buzzing community hubs.

What he's never said publicly is that for much of his time here, Mr.Ptacek has lived with terminal cancer.

He will formally retire this fall and is now on medical leave, and the Calgary Public Library will announce a new chief executive this week.

For Mr. Ptacek, living with cancer has become more difficult lately. Two tumours have set up residence in his brain, affecting his balance, energy and voice.

Many days, but not all, it's a little harder to move, to sleep, to eat. He underwent surgery for one of the brain tumours this spring, but surgeons could only remove part of it. The other has always been inaccessible.

Mr. Ptacek is 69 and Margaret, his wife, is 68. They're both librarians who grew up in Chicago - he on the South Side, she the North.

They met working at the Chicago Public Library more than four decades ago. She recalls: "He walked in. He's got on a threepiece plaid suit, a tannish colour."

"Can you give some more detail?" he breaks in. This is how they talk, weaving into each other's stories.

"I saw him and thought this is the man I should be with," she continues. And then he opened his mouth and she changed her mind.

But a few months later, mutual friends set them up. They went on their first date just after Christmas, 1978. They were engaged in January, married in February and expecting their first child by March. They laid out ground rules for marriage: books would be permitted at the dinner table and no one could complain if the other kept a light on to read late at night.

That year, Mr. Ptacek took a job at a library in Idaho Falls, Iowa, a town of fewer than 40,000 people.

Sara was born there, and immediately, it was clear that something was wrong. She was diagnosed with an extremely rare condition, Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome.

People born with the syndrome have delayed physical and mental development, often along with severe epilepsy. Sara has all of this. As an infant, she would suffer more than 30 seizures in an hour.

Although Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome is sometimes an inherited condition, tests revealed Sara's was not. The couple wanted more children, and had two more daughters.

Those first years were some of the hardest of their lives, they say.

Hard in a different way than now.

"I remember our conversation," Mr. Ptacek says. "We're going to deal with this and move forward with our lives or we're going to let it ruin our lives. And we said let's move forward."

In 1988, they moved to Seattle where Mr. Ptacek spent the next 25 years revamping the King County Library. Under his stewardship, it became one of the first libraries in the United States to provide internet access and, in 2010, was the busiest library system in the country.

The move probably saved Mr.Ptacek's life. In 1999, he was diagnosed with a rare form of lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). At the time, it was called incurable; it still is with conventional therapies. But Seattle was home to Oliver Press, a scientistoncologist who was pioneering treatments for the condition. Mr.Ptacek was one of the first patients enrolled in an early clinical trial of radiotherapy and a stem cell transplant. "After a while, I was back to normal," he says. He ran a marathon within a year and returned to cycling. In the next 20 years, he'd ride famed peaks in France and do an annual trip up Mount Rainier.

In 2014, the Calgary Public Library came calling. Construction on the new library was already under way. The $245-million project would connect Calgary's downtown with the emerging East Village neighbourhood. It gave more space to public programming than silent study areas. It was a library befitting a librarian with the philosophy that "a library is not a place. It's a concept."

During his time as CEO, Calgary opened six new library locations.

Staff pulled out books in trade for more seating, cafés and oddities such rock concerts and a full-size fire truck for kids.

"Change agents are very often not calm and cool and collected," says Councillor Evan Woolley, "but that was Bill in my mind."

In 2017, Mr. Ptacek returned home from a business trip with a flu he couldn't shake. A chest Xray revealed lung cancer, likely a consequence of the therapy he received 20 years prior. And a catch: The MCL came back, too. Two different cancers, two different spots.

In the year before the Central Library opened, Mr. Ptacek received chemotherapy and 45 rounds of radiation with an additional 12 rounds of radiation to his brain as a precautionary measure.

Lung cancer often spreads to the brain. "I have never suffered like that," he says.

Mr. Ptacek finished treatment a few months before the Central Library's doors opened to the public. He showed up to every event related to the library, sometimes wearing a tuque as his hair thinned from treatment, says Avnish Mehta, board member for the Calgary Public Library.

"His behaviours led you to believe that there was nothing going on. He continued to bring his level of energy, clarity and quality to every conversation," Mr. Mehta says.

After the library opened in November, 2018, something felt off, Mr. Ptacek says. This spring, there was a new diagnosis: Cancer had wound its way to his brain. After his surgery in May, he'll have regular scans but is not receiving any treatment.

One physician told him he has maybe a year, another told him maybe a few. Maybe, he said last week, it's a few months. "Who knows?" he says.

The couple returned to the motto they developed after Sara was born. Keep moving forward.

Says Margaret, "it can't stop you.

You can't wallow in it."

Mr. Ptacek tires easily but is back to woodworking, adding to the 20 or so pieces of furniture he's built for their home. He misses riding bikes and exercising - one of few topics where he expresses noticeable sorrow. He aims to read one book a day.

"Life isn't worth living if you don't have a good book going as far as I'm concerned."

They both say they are not afraid of what's to come. They acknowledge the likely outcomes associated brain tumours - seizures, personality changes, strokes. Ms. Ptacek worries that he'll suffer pain. He worries about what will happen with Sara if he isn't there. It takes both of her parents to care for her.

He'll live the rest of his life in Calgary. After his death, Ms. Ptacek and Sara will join the other daughters in Seattle.

"I don't know how long I'm going to live. But it's not how you start, it's how you finish," Mr. Ptacek says. "I want to make sure that all the time I have left is as good a life as I possibly can have, that utilizes all the things I've learned over the years."

Associated Graphic

Calgary Public Library CEO Bill Ptacek, seen at his home on Friday, has lived with terminal cancer for much of the five years he's been in the city. After a 40-year career in public libraries, he is now on medical leave and will formally retire this fall. He plans to live the rest of his life in Calgary.

TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Bigger isn't better
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It's time to rethink our living spaces, writes Matthew Hague, and come to terms with the fact that smaller homes could make us happier
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By MATTHEW HAGUE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page P8


A few years ago, Vancouver interior designer Danny Chan noticed that a number of his friends and clients started moving to the farflung suburbs. They said they had outgrown their tiny, yet costly, condos in the city and wanted their young kids to have backyards, as opposed to back alleys, to play in.

It wasn't the desire for greenery that troubled Chan; he loves the park near his Olympic Village condo. It was that postupsizing, complaining, not contentment, came his way. "My friends ended up stuck in their cars for up to three hours a day, commuting," Chan says. "They would only see their kids for about an hour a day, because they were never home, always in traffic. It made no sense and it made them feel resentful, not happy."

So Chan started to research the kinds of houses that make people feel good. He found that more space didn't correlate with joy. According to University of British Columbia psychology professor Elizabeth Dunn, the happiest homes were those that facilitated the greatest social interaction - something that sprawl often interferes with. Having greenery is nice - gardens, trees and grass relax people, whether in public parks or privately owned - but a lawn so vast that the neighbours look like specks on the horizon is isolating. In a study of Danish and Canadian front yards, urbanist Jan Gehl found the best lawn size was a diminutive 10.6-feet deep, just enough to sit out on and talk to the neighbours.

The insights changed Chan. Last year, he decided to rebrand the interior design studio he shares with his wife, Sandra Dee, to focus solely on small spaces.

With the name Happy Home Design (it was formerly Chan+Dee), the goal is to help clients make better use of what they have instead of "chasing the illusion that bigger is better," he says. "I'm trying to get people to think about the quality of their lives, not the quantity." As such, when prospective clients have recently told him they have outgrown their house, he's suggested they take a closer look. "People want more room," he says, "But it's crazy how much space people devote to storing bulk purchases from Costco. Do you need more storage, or fewer massive shampoo bottles that you won't use?" Honing in on quality over size is smart, not just for Chan, whose three kids, ages 6, 8 and 10, share a single bedroom in their 1,600-square-foot place, but for the rest of us, too. Smaller spaces are great spaces.

They are cheaper to buy, maintain and clean, as well as being more sustainable, requiring less energy to heat and cool (residential energy use increased 6.5 per cent between 1990 and 2013, according to Natural Resources Canada, a time when house sizes were growing).

Even better, as more and more research is showing, smaller spaces are often more satisfying - bringing families together, not dwarfing them in a sea of space. Turns out, good things do come in small packages.

It's hard not to find news stories these days bemoaning Canada's housing crisis and the shrinking footprint of ever pricier abodes. But the reality is nuanced, showing a generational divide. Although millennials are largely priced out of the real estate market, living in cramped, expensive places, the size of the homes of their boomer parents have doubled over the past 40 years, averaging 2,000-square feet - among the largest in the world. It's more than four times larger than the average place in Hong Kong, for example. And this is despite more people living alone than ever before, according to Statistics Canada.

Incredibly, or perhaps depressingly, a huge amount of that extra square footage is underutilized. According to the Canadian Centre for Economic Analysis, in Ontario alone, nearly two-thirds of homes are too large for their inhabitants, with five million empty bedrooms across the province and almost 400,000 homes that have three or more unused bedrooms. In Vancouver - the city with Canada's lowest affordability and some of the most cramped accommodations - there are still almost 800,000 unused bedrooms.

What's worse, the extra room hasn't made anyone feel better off. In a 2017 study published in the Journal of Happiness Studies, Dr. Chris Foye, an urban studies professor at the University of Glasgow, found that although homebuyers often feel a sense of elation after their move into a bigger home, the feeling is short lived. That's because many people upsize simply to appease a sense of competitive pressure - it's a way to outdo the neighbours, or to fulfill cultural expectations of owning a big home one day - not because the family really needs a second TV room and a home gym that collects dust more than it tones abs.

In fact, much the same way that there is an optimal income that, broadly speaking, is ideal for emotional well-being (between $76,000 and $95,000 a person per year, according to a 2018 report from Purdue University; beyond this contentment either flat-lines or falls), there might also be a sweet spot for home size. In his study, Dr.

Foye found that homes with four rooms a person were the upper limit for satisfaction. Another study, from the University of California's Center on Everyday Life of Families, points to the importance of having comfortable kitchens and dens - the areas where the average American family spends 68 per cent of their time - versus the silliness of having formal living rooms and dining rooms, or even front porches, which almost no one ever used (but which can bump up mortgage payments, heating bills and time spent cleaning regardless).

Nailing an exact ideal square footage can be hard.

According to Kenton Zerbin, an Edmonton-based sustainable living consultant who teaches people the benefits of building and living in small homes, "there is no one size fits all." Instead, he suggests that people look for spaces that work on balance, factoring a number of things. "People end up spending long hours to buy a big house, then longer hours to fill it with stuff," he says. "I suggest they consider their lifestyle carefully - are they the ones that entertain their friends and family? Do they need room for one or 100 people? Do they want to work shorter hours and spend more time with their kids? - then tailor something to those needs."

Zerbin also points out that flexibility is important, as needs change over time. For the past two years, he has lived in a tiny, 260-square-foot home with a 100-square-foot loft for the sleeping space, an affordable arrangement that he loves because it allows him to live debt free and have flexibility to travel and take on the work projects because he wants to, not has to. But he also says that his needs might be different in a few years, if he and his wife have children and require a bit more room.

Nike Onile, a Toronto-based artist and designer who runs 800 SQ FT, a boutique and interiors studio catering to people living in less than 1,000-square feet (she herself lives in a 600-square-foot condo), agrees that being flexible is essential. "Part of successfully living in a small space is a willingness to transform," she says. "In a larger home, someone might move in a lamp and think they won't move that lamp again until they move out. In a small space, a room has to have multiple functions. You have to be able to flip it around easily."

Among her clients, Onile sometimes meets people who are resisting the transition to smaller spaces. In part, they might be overly attached to possessions and afraid of letting go. "But I'm trying to help people have more room for their life, not just things," she says. "I want people to be free to enjoy themselves and make good memories, not be tied down by stuff." According to her, there's space-saving upside to this. "The thing to remember is that you don't need square footage for good memories," she says.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY ERIC CHOW

Fluid floorplans make small spaces seem bigger. Clockwise from left: A kitchen opens to a compact dining area. A studio apartment boasts adjacent bedroom and living spaces. A living room and kitchen blend in a cozy apartment. ISTOCK

Hong Kong open to talks with protesters
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After months of refusing requests, top official says government willing to begin dialogue but many demands cannot be met
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


HONG KONG -- Hong Kong's government is signalling a willingness to talk to protesters after more than two months of demonstrations, but a top government adviser says many of their demands cannot be met.

"The dialogue has to start," Bernard Chan, a close adviser to Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam, said in an interview Monday with The Globe and Mail. The government has for months refused requests to discuss protester demands. Now, though, it "needs to address the concerns raised over the last couple of months," he said.

At a news conference on Tuesday, Ms. Lam confirmed the government would "immediately" set up a platform for dialogue with the people of Hong Kong.

She also said the government would initiate a fact-finding study to investigate complaints against police and make recommendations to the government to prevent further incidents.

A Sunday rally in which hundreds of thousands of people marched peacefully through downtown was a "sign of relief," Mr. Chan said, after weeks of clashes between demonstrators and police. "Hopefully we can sustain this while we now have to come forward to some sort of a dialogue and reconciliation." Yet he also outlined a series of "non-starters" for such talks, underscoring the breadth of the gap between the protesters, who have demanded major democratic reforms, and a government that answers to Beijing and Hong Kong's powerful business interests.

Ms. Lam is preparing for a major policy address in October in which she will unveil steps to address other issues, such as housing affordability and social mobility, Mr.Chan said.

Still, in displaying an openness to talk, Hong Kong's leaders seem to be acknowledging that they must respond to public pressure, particularly after organizers said more than 1.7 million people marched through heavy rain Sunday, many holding signs calling for the government to meet a series of demands. (Police estimated the crowd was less than a 10th that size.)

The official government response came Sunday night. In a statement, it said it "will begin sincere dialogue ... when everything has calmed down." Protest organizers understood that to mean that no talks are possible unless the demonstrations stop altogether.

Mr. Chan, however, suggested that dialogue would still be possible if "orderly protest" continues. "We don't discourage people to go out and protest, so long as it is not unauthorized."

But, he added, "you can't start a dialogue when you're in the middle of a war.

So you kind of need to have a reasonably good state of mind for both sides to sit down."

While Mr. Chan is not part of the government, he is the convenor of the Executive Council, an advisory body that serves as a quasi-cabinet to Ms. Lam, whose 2017 election campaign he led.

The city's leaders are aware, he said, that failing to seize the current moment of calm risks spurring further disruptions by protesters, who have accused the government of turning a deaf ear to their demands.

Along with the full cancellation of a proposed extradition bill that could see Hong Kong residents face trial in Chinese courts, they are demanding Ms. Lam's resignation, a retraction of a government characterization of protests as "riots," an investigation into police conduct and the granting of more democratic freedoms. On social media, some demonstrators have fixed the end of August as the deadline for the government to respond. It's not clear what they plan to do if the deadline is not met, but the violence that has plagued the city in recent weeks has stemmed in part from frustration, as even large, peaceful protests have failed to elicit much government response.

"We have tried different ways and means to fight for our freedom. Yet the Hong Kong government has chosen to be silent," said Brian Tong, a pseudonym for a masked protester who spoke Monday at a citizens' news conference. Protesters will continue to "fight for our five demands," he said.

Anger at perceived government indifference has also fuelled a deep mistrust, raising questions about the sincerity of any government discussion of dialogue.

"The government doesn't want to see more violent protests, so that's why they are trying to reward yesterday's peaceful protest. That can be to some extent a demobilizing strategy," said Samson Yuen, a political science scholar at Hong Kong's Lingnan University who has studied the demonstrations. The suggestion of dialogue could also be used to "split the movement," he said, by driving a wedge between moderates and militants.

The immensity of the public outcry this summer - three rallies have brought more than a million people to the streets since June, interspersed with numerous smaller demonstrations - has nurtured the belief that pro-democracy leaders now have enough public backing to push for change.

"It's not hopeless to finally gain something from Beijing this time," said Eddie Chu, a pro-democracy member of the city's Legislative Council.

But it's "nonsense" to demand a halt to all violent action before talking, he said.

The protest movement is largely leaderless - without a single voice to call off clashes.

The public of Hong Kong "has already displayed consistent support" for the movement, Mr. Chu said. "Therefore it is already a mature time for the government to react actively. So let's not wait for something that cannot be given."

But there are limits to what Hong Kong is willing to discuss. Several of the five demands are "non-starters," Mr. Chan said.

The government will not consider an amnesty for people arrested at protests and any change in electoral arrangements needs "consent from Beijing." Ms. Lam has repeatedly refused to step down, while Mr.

Chan said "technicalities" have prevented the cancellation of the extradition bill, which has been declared dead but not fully withdrawn. And an inquiry whose entire "focus is just on police brutality - that's just a no-go," he said, although he left open the possibility that the scope of such an inquiry could be discussed.

The city's leadership is discussing ways to respond to what it sees as underlying reasons for the protests, Mr. Chan said.

They "may not be addressing the five demands, but other issues - other social issues - Hong Kong is dealing with."

The scale of the protests has provided an opportunity to push back at entrenched interests, he said, expressing hope that progress can be made on the land and housing-affordability problems that plague one of the world's most expensive property markets. Hong Kong could look to Singapore as an example for raising the percentage of households in government housing. The city also needs to move more quickly to make land available for housing development, he said.

"Maybe the developers also have to be a bit more accommodating, too," he said.

"All the stakeholders, vested interested parties out there have to see this as a give and take."

It's not clear, however, that such proposals will find favour with protesters who, scholars such as Mr. Yuen have found, are motivated by political demands rather than economic grievances.

"They see the key to solving the economic problems in politics," he said.

In Hong Kong, the chief executive is elected by a 1,200-member election committee, half of whom are industrial and professional representatives, giving rise to accusations that control lies in the hands of the city's powerful tycoons. Scholars describe the city as being in the grips of a "real estate hegemony."

Protest organizers doubt Ms. Lam's ability to overcome the long-standing obstacles to solving such issues.

"I do not think she has the courage to really displease those who voted for her," said Bonnie Leung, vice-convenor of the Civil Human Rights Front, which has coordinated the largest rallies of the summer. Still, she said, "we are always open to talking to the government."

Even if Hong Kong's leaders bar discussion of some demands, "at least we are starting somewhere, instead of just protesting in the streets with some people being beaten by the police and the government with no response at all," Ms. Leung said. "That is not healthy."

Associated Graphic

Sunday's peaceful rally, seen above, was a 'sign of relief' for Hong Kong, an adviser to Chief Executive Carrie Lam says. Protest organizers say more than 1.7 million people marched on Sunday, but police say the crowd was less than a tenth of that size.

LAM YIK FEI/NYT

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B15


DAVID PAUL CARBONARO

Passed away peacefully at his home, surrounded by his family, on August 18, 2019. Loving husband of Anna (nee Fierro), devoted father to Lucas and Zachary, son of Saviour and Grace, brother to Marie, Joan, Jospeh (Carol), Stephen (Judy), Diane and Robert (Paulina), uncle to Sarah (David), David, Jacob, Sophia, Marcus, Owen and Clara.

David enjoyed all aspects of his life with his family and friends.

He was an avid traveler having seen much of the world on his many journeys accompanied by his family. David loved being outdoors with his horses and spent much of his time at his country home in Campbellville bike riding and playing golf and tennis.

His family is proud of his many achievements throughout his life. As the oldest son of Maltese immigrants, he grew up in the Junction neighbourhood of west end Toronto and dedicated much of his time to help socially and economically develop the area.

David was the community leader which established the Malta Village BIA which has resulted in the complete revitalization of the Junction.

As a lawyer, early in his career he founded his own Bay Street law firm which bore his name and became one of the most prominent lawyers in Canada having officially represented the Toronto Stock Exchange in both China and the Middle East.

David also had a passion for horse racing where he owned, trained and personally raced horses across North America.

David had a tremendous desire to help the less fortunate and was active on many boards dedicated to improving peoples' lives in Canada and Africa.

Visitations will be held at Lynett Funeral Home on Wednesday, August 21 from 6:00 - 9:00 p.m.

and on Thursday, August 22 from 2:00 - 4:00 and 6:00-9:00 p.m. Funeral Mass will be held on Friday, August 23, 2019 at St. Paul the Apostle Church. In lieu of flowers, the family asks that donations be made to the Canadian Cancer Society.

RONALD JAMES CLIFFORD

Passed away peacefully at Tall Pines Long Term Care Centre, Brampton on August 18, 2019 at the age of 91. Beloved husband of Margaret for 63 years. Loving father of Paule, Sandy and Bruce (Cathy). Cherished granddad of Emily and Andrew.

His many passions included parachuting, dirt-track car racing, scuba diving, sailing, theater, building and flying airplanes, target shooting and celestial navigation using a sextant. After his recent stroke, his will to live so that he could say goodbye, was a testament to his incredible character. He will be lovingly missed by all who knew him.

Special thanks to the warm and caring staff at Tall Pines.

A Memorial Service will be held at Scott Funeral Home, 289 Main Street North, Brampton (905-4511100) on Thursday, August 22, 2019 at 11 a.m., with visitation one hour prior. If desired, donations in Ron's memory may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation.

RABBI PERRY COHEN

On Sunday, August 18, 2019 at Mt.

Sinai Hospital. Beloved husband of Channah Ruth Cohen. Loving father and father-in-law of Ronald and Beth Cohen of New York.

Dear brother and brother-in-law of Robert Cohen and Susan Altschul of Montreal, and Cynthia Powell of Ottawa. Loving uncle of Andrew and Liz Tayler and their children Jacob, Ezra, and Sophia.

Loving grandfather of Julia, and Gabrielle. Loving uncle of Sara Deborah. At Beach Hebrew Institute Synagogue , 109 Kenilworth Avenue, Toronto, for service on Tuesday, August 20, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. Interment in the Beach Hebrew Institute Synagogue section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 90 Cordova Avenue, Unit 809, Etobicoke. Memorial donations may be made to The Rabbi Perry Cohen Memorial Fund for The Beach Hebrew Institute Synagogue c/o The Benjamin Foundation 416-780-0324 http://www.benjamins.ca.

TIMOTHY ROSS JEWELL

June 30, 1964 August 18, 2019 It is with a heavy heart that we announce the passing of Timothy Ross Jewell, after a courageous battle with brain cancer. He will be sadly missed by his daughters, Christina and Claire; his wife, Louisa Jewell; mother, Desanka Jewell; sisters, Heather (Tom), Angela (Pablo); niece, Veronica; nephew, Andre; brother, Paul; Aunt Yvonne and Uncle John Speck; cousins, Mike (Christine) and David, Brandon and Danielle; and countless life-long friends who loved him dearly. We know his father, Paul Jewell, was waiting in heaven to welcome Tim to a better place. Tim was a kind and generous soul who always put everyone else's needs above those of his own. He was very, very good to us all. Tim grew up in Toronto attending high school at St. George's College and graduated from the University of Waterloo as an Electrical Engineer with a minor in computer science.

He was a brilliant programmer, inventor and entrepreneur who founded his company, DataDepositBox where he flourished until the end. His favourite job was acting as Santa Claus for the Red Door Family Homeless shelter Christmas party for 20 years where he personified generosity and graciously spread joy. He was the funniest person we knew and made us laugh every day until our bellies hurt. He loved to play squash, was an avid CrossFit man and loved to dance the night away to house music at "Table 12." It was a tragic day for the world when we lost our Timmy. He will be sadly missed but will be in our hearts forever.

Please join us for a visitation on Tuesday, August 20 from 4:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto, M4T 2V8 and a Celebration of Life on Wednesday, August 21 at 7:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m., at Rosehill Venue Lounge, 6 Rosehill Ave, Toronto, M4T 1G5 (near Yonge & St Clair - Green P parking just two doors east on Rosehill).

In lieu of flowers, a donation to The Red Door Family Homeless Shelter in Tim's name would be appreciated (https://www.reddoorshelter.ca/).

ERIC CARL RIORDON

In Prince Edward Island on Wednesday, August 14, 2019, Eric C. Riordon, formerly of Montreal. Beloved husband of Catherine Jean Finnie. Treasured father of William (Mara), Edward (Dayzmilia) and dear grandfather of Charlotte and Emma. Brother of Michael (Brian Woods) and the late Mollie Anne. Son of the late Eric Riordon, ARCA and Mollie Usher-Jones.

Resting at Belvedere Funeral Home. Funeral Tuesday at St. James Church "The Kirk", Charlottetown at 11:00 a.m.

Burial service at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto, on Wednesday, August 21 at 1:30 p.m.

If desired, please consider making a donation of blood in Eric's memory. http://www.belvederefh.com

JAMES DAVID ROBINSON

July 22, 1943 August 14, 2019 David died late Wednesday afternoon in Newmarket's Southlake Regional Health Centre.

He had been receiving care for terminal liver cancer since June, but experienced a rapid decline, after a fall at home. We are grateful he was with his family and died peacefully.

David is survived by daughter Claire and her partner John, and by son Will and wife Catriona, as well as his former-wife Mary Ann.

David won the gold medal for Honors Political Science in 1965, the year he graduated from the University of Western Ontario.

His interest in Canadian politics was life-long. For over 3 decades, he taught history at Langstaff Secondary School. Basketball and field hockey were just two of many sports he coached. He loved his job and his students. He was an avid crossword enthusiast and mystery connoisseur. A volunteer coordinator for his local blood donor clinic, he was also a longtime canvasser for the Cancer Society. Dave was a sports fan and kept detailed stats for all his favorite teams, including the Raptors, NC State, the Jays and Man.U. He had a soft spot for animals, especially cats, and his 'buddy' Dozer. In the spring, he planted a wonderful garden - his dahlias are blooming and the potatoes are thriving.

Dave was a kind, considerate person who put others before himself and never sought the spotlight. He had a dry sense of humour and valued that in others too. We miss him terribly.

Following cremation, the family will host a memorial at Victoria Hall, 27 Mosley Street, Aurora, L4G 1R2, Saturday, August 24th from 2 to 4 p.m. In lieu of flowers please consider making a blood donation to your local clinic.

The politics, science and global implications of an Amazon on fire
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Blazes are burning through the South American rain forest, destroying vast swaths of one of the world's largest natural carbon sinks and pitting scientists and human-rights groups against a climate-change skeptic President
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Friday, August 23, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A8


A record-setting wave of wildfires has been burning through the largest rain forest on Earth. Brazil's President, who says his country lacks the resources to fight them, is under mounting international pressure from governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) over policies that have opened up the region to development. On Thursday, federal prosecutors in Brazil said they will investigate a spike in deforestation and wildfires to evaluate whether monitoring and enforcement of environmental protections has been reduced.

For countries such as Canada, where climate change threatens to bring more intense wildfires, the Amazon's fate offers a grim vision of the destructive forces that make the problem worse.

Here's what you need to know.

THE FIRES SO FAR The view from space The number of wildfires in the Amazon has surged 83 per cent over the same period last year, according to Brazil's space research agency, INPE. As of Aug. 20, the government agency had registered 72,843 fires, and more than 9,500 have been spotted by satellites since last Thursday alone.

Images from NASA have shown large swaths of burning land in the southern part of Amazonas state and northern Rondonia state.

The view from the ground Reuters journalists drove the same 30-kilometre stretch of the Trans-Amazonian highway from Humaita toward Labrea for seven days, watching a fire eat its way through the jungle. On Wednesday of last week, the raging fire was just a few metres off the road, the yellow flames engulfing trees and lighting up the sky. By the weekend, the fire had receded into the distance, but cast an orange glow several storeys high.

Gabriel Albuquerque, a pilot in Rondonia state's capital city of Porto Velho, said in four years of flying his small plane, he has never seen the situation so bad. "It is the first time that I've ever seen it like this," he said, as he prepared to go up.

The view from Sao Paulo Southeast of the wildfire area lies Sao Paulo, a city of 12 million - the most populous in the Western hemisphere. On Monday, the city was plunged into darkness in the middle of the day, which meteorologists attributed to the wildfire smoke and a cold front that brought the smoke there and trapped it in clouds.

BOLSONARO'S RESPONSE Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro has faced public condemnation for his handling of the situation in the Amazon, where his government has dismantled decades-old environmental protections to encourage agriculture and mining. Amnesty International blamed his government for the Amazon's fires, and denounced illegal land invasions and arson attacks that the group has documented against Indigenous people living there.

In a Facebook Live broadcast on Wednesday, Mr. Bolsonaro lashed out at environmentalist NGOs, suggesting without evidence that they set fires in the Amazon to damage his administration's image after he cut their funding.

On Thursday, he denied that he had directly blamed the NGOs.

He also said the government would investigate the fires, but lacked the resources to fight them effectively.

THE CLIMATE CONTEXT Attributing specific extremeweather events to climate change is an imprecise science. Wildfires are a natural occurrence in many forests, although such fires in the Amazon are rare and short-lived for much of the year.

On Brazil's agricultural land, many large agribusinesses set small, controlled fires to manage forests. Seasonal burns can fluctuate dramatically from one year to the next, and since the INPE began keeping records on Amazon wildfires only in 2013, its declaration that the fires have set a record high does not draw on a deep pool of directly comparable data.

But climate scientists overwhelmingly agree that, as human-generated greenhouse-gas emissions warm the planet, wildfires will become more common and more devastating, and will start earlier in the season. These are patterns Canadians have already observed in recent waves of drought and fire in Western Canada, and in this summer's unprecedented blazes in the Arctic.

In the Amazon, as in the Arctic, accelerating wildfires are part of a destructive feedback loop.

The rain forest is one of the planet's largest natural carbon sinks, absorbing about a quarter of the annual C02 output of fossil-fuel use. When it burns, that CO2 is released back into the atmosphere, causing global temperatures to rise even further.

Even if the forests were to grow back just as they were, it might not help much: A recent international study found the Amazon's estimated capacity to absorb C02 is less than previously thought, because older research models didn't account for the land's phosphorus-deficient soil.

THE BRAZILIAN POLITICAL CONTEXT Mr. Bolsonaro, a right-wing populist and environmental skeptic, has had a fraught relationship with the Brazilian agencies that monitor and seek to protect the Amazon.

In early August, the head of INPE, Ricardo Galvao, quit his job over a dispute with Mr. Bolsonaro about deforestation data: Preliminary findings for July showed deforestation more than tripling over the same period a year ago, but Mr. Bolsonaro dismissed that as a lie.

The increase in deforestation also drew condemnation from international donors to the Amazon Fund, a Brazilian-run agency created in 2008 to invest in reforestation efforts. Germany and Norway withdrew millions of dollars committed to the fund, accusing Brazil of reneging on agreements to protect the forest.

The Amazon Fund was part of a decade-long push by Brazil to keep deforestation under control. From 2004 to 2014, it successfully brought deforestation down by 82 per cent.

But scientists warned that the forest was in a precarious state, and critics accused the fund of being mainly a reward for gains already made, not an incentive to improve the forest further.

Meanwhile, a rising global market for soybeans gave farmers more incentives to clear land for cultivation, and Brazil's government corruption scandals of the past few years led Mr. Bolsonaro's predecessor, Michel Temer, to appeal to rural voters to support him in exchange for eased restrictions on natural-resource extraction.

In 2017, Globe and Mail journalist Stephanie Nolen journeyed through a 2,000-kilometre stretch of Brazil's Highway BR-163 to see the toll of deforestation firsthand. She found a region polarized between landowners and Indigenous people - and their competing visions of how to live with the Amazon: Almost everyone I met on our journey talked about the price they were being asked to pay - to protect the forest, or to develop it.

The ranchers and the farmers asked why the cost of stored carbon and recycled rain should come out of their pockets. The Munduruku [Indigenous people] wonder why their survival must be bartered for a growing economy that will fund Brazil's pensions and universities. Should Western consumers bear some of the price, too, by paying more for sustainable rain-forest products, for wooden decks or soy-based pet food or steak? Everything - wood, soy, cattle - raised on farms compliant with the Forest Code costs more, because it comes from a reduced area of productive land on property that's mostly forest. And auditing those supply chains costs money, too.

HOW YOU CAN HELP As noted above, reforestation in the Amazon isn't a panacea for climate change, but it's not a bad idea either.

A study this summer in the journal Science found that tree planting on a massive global scale would be one of the most effective ways to mitigate the effects of climate change, and that even with existing urban and farmland, the Earth has room for another 900 billion hectares of tree canopy. Several charities offer Canadians a way to invest in Amazon forests, including One Tree Planted (onetreeplanted.org) and the Nature Conservancy's Plant a Billion Trees campaign (nature.org).

Researched and compiled by Globe staff with reports from the Associated Press and Reuters

Associated Graphic

A satellite image shows smoke rising from the Amazon rain forest in the Brazilian state of Rondonia. REUTERS

Smoke billows during a fire in an area of the Amazon rainforest near Porto Velho. UESLEI MARCELINO/REUTERS

Far left: Smoke and flames billow from the trees near Porto Velho on Wednesday. UESLEI MARCELINO/ REUTERS

Left: A man works in a burning tract of the Amazon as it's cleared by loggers and farmers on Tuesday. BRUNO KELLY/REUTERS

Dishful thinking
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Revelling in the scorched-earth nihilism of its anti-hero, Stéphane Larue's debut novel, The Dishwasher, also captured the imagination of Québécois readers. Published three years ago in French, it's a massive bestseller by Canadian standards and has been shortlisted for the Governor-General's Award. Earlier this month, its English translation, by Pablo Strauss, was released
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R9


It's October of 2002 in Montreal, and winter is coming on fast. Past due on his first freelance gig and ensnared in lies to his family and friends, a graphic design student with a gambling addiction goes after the first job that promises a paycheque: dishwasher at the sophisticated La Trattoria.

You could see in through the glass panes of a garage door. On a sign above it, the restaurant's name was written in an elegant sans-serif: la trattoria. I pushed open the door and walked into a spacious slate-grey hallway. It wasn't what I expected. The fanciest place I'd ever eaten was Saint-Hubert bbq chicken, my dad took us there all the time when I was little. But La Trattoria was nothing like SaintHubert, or the Normandin in Trois-Rivières or the Georges in Longueuil or any other family restaurant. It was nothing like the diners my friends and I hung out at after class or a night out. I was expecting some greasy fast-food joint. This room with its shimmering glassware felt more like an art gallery.

I tried not to think about it, told myself again that I was doing the right thing. At this point I didn't have a thousand options. The way Dave put it, there was no way they'd turn me down. No one took a job washing dishes unless they were desperate. I was desperate as hell.

I went into the hallway and pushed open a second glass door.

From outside, the dining room had seemed cavernous and dark. Now I saw it was bigger than I'd thought, and even in the dim light everything looked polished to a shine.

The chairs weren't normal restaurant chairs, more like what we had in the drafting studio at my Cegep, the junior college where I studied graphic design. The lacquered wood tables looked clean enough to eat off. The walls were exposed brick, with mortar oozing out of the joints as if someone had gone out of their way to botch the job. Two massive, ultramodern light fixtures hung from the ceiling like diamond-encrusted radar antennae.

The dark wood floor made me feel like I should take my boots off before walking on it. A long, padded leather partition divided the rectangular room into two sections.

Next to it stood a large wall of wine bottles stacked to the ceiling, at least 15 feet high. There weren't any customers yet. My hands were sweaty. I dried them on my pants.

Back then I didn't know a thing.

Were there 20, 120, 220 seats? I couldn't have told you. In fact the room held 70 diners, plus 15 at the bar that stretched pretty much the full length of the room.

A handful of employees in black were gathered for a talk at the back of the room, next to the wall of wine bottles. They stopped for a minute and looked in my direction, then started talking again. A young woman was finishing up the table settings and bread dishes. When she saw me she put her little pile of dishes down on the corner of the bar and walked toward me. Her hair was blond and very short. She was also dressed in black: a skirt and a top that left her shoulders bare. She had prominent collarbones and pale skin. She said hi. I mumbled hi back.

"Yes?" She spoke clearly in a tone that made it known I was an unwelcome intrusion. Clearly not a customer. I stuttered that I was here for a training shift as a dishwasher. She sized me up in a second. I tried to appear determined and outgoing, as I'd learned at private school. She looked five or six years older than me, maybe seven.

"Next time, go around the back and ring the bell. The address is on the door, you'll see it."

I followed her through the dining room. Every single table was perfectly set. The cloth napkins were identically folded. I'd never set foot in a restaurant to do anything but eat.

The employees sitting around talking looked over at me as if I'd disrupted an important ritual. Only one of them dignified me with a nod. My nerves were starting to get the better of me. Everyone was blurring together, their faces somehow out of focus. The guys were all different ages, with the same chiselled features and GQ style, kicking back in fitted shirts and well-cut pants. The sound of the soles of my work boots on the hardwood echoed through the whole room. I felt like someone banging a hammer in a church.

The waitress led me through the front kitchen. The contrast with the dining room was stark. It was a kind of narrow rectangle, lit more brightly than a gym, with large growling hood vents above the ovens. A massive pizza oven was built into the back wall, throwing a dry, intense heat even through closed doors. Around the oven's legs a motley collection of receptacles had piled up: plastic buckets, buspans and greasy containers that must have been chucked there during the lunch rush. The kitchen was divided into two stations by shelves stacked high with dishes. A cook was kneeling in front of the open fridges, writing on an aluminum pad with a black marker. He didn't say a word to me.

We passed a staircase down to the basement. The stairwell walls were painted a cheerless turquoise and covered with red, brown, and green splotches of sauce. The odd fly buzzed around the fluorescent lights above the stairs. I was getting hot in my coat. A strangely soothing smell wafted up from the basement. It took me a moment to place it: chicken broth.

The waitress stopped in the doorway of a room lined with shelves full of dishes. It was pretty big, maybe ten feet by twenty.

The left side was stacked with clean dishes; the right with the dirty ones. Between was a battlefield where the remains of the day's lunch lay in agony. A tall, grimy metal shelving unit was covered with piles of splattered plates. Pots stained with burnt tomato sauce harboured twisted ladles, tongs coated with unidentifiable sauces, plastic inserts with soggy julienned vegetables and viscous marinades, baking sheets spackled with fat and strips of scorched chicken skin.

On the dishpit's long steel counter piles of crusted frying pans leaned precariously next to a dishwasher from which small puffs of steam emerged. At the bottom of one of the overstuffed shelves a mountain of cutlery soaked in a bucket of grey water. The tiled walls were filthier than a high-school cafeteria after a food fight: knots of overcooked linguine, brown shreds of lettuce poised to come unstuck, unidentifiable lumps, soup splatters and squirts of sauce covered the wall with a layer that grew thicker as it neared the ground, where it coalesced into a seam of sodden, oily black gunk. A large garbage can rose in the centre of it all like a sacrificial well, its black bag overflowing with what the lunchtime hordes had rejected, like the entrails of an animal with rumpled, slimy skin. The area smelled like disinfectant and something else I couldn't put my finger on, a greasy, fetid odour that filled my nostrils. A much smaller hood vent was noisily sucking up the humid air that had long ago had its way with the ceiling.

Two cooks were hanging out at the back of the dishpit next to the open back door.

Their black pants were stained with soup and the fronts of their white shirts were smeared, as if every kid at a daycare had wiped off their hands after an especially gross snack. They were smoking and speaking English. One held his rolled-up chef's hat in his hand.

"Renaud!"

They turned toward us. The waitress pointed her thumb at me.

"I've got a new one for you."

Excerpted from The Dishwasher by Stéphane Larue, translated into English by Pablo Strauss.

Copyright © 2019 All rights reserved. Published by Biblioasis. biblioasis.com

Going public with the truth about women's privates
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Obstetrician-gynecologist Jen Gunter speaks to The Globe and Mail about her new book, The Vagina Bible, which tackles everything from vulvar pain and menopause to Kegels and orgasms
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By ZOSIA BIELSKI
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R11


Dr. Jen Gunter was building a 3-D model of the clitoris at her home one day, fashioning it from clay, a toilet paper tube and a McDonald's straw, when her 15-year-old son walked in.

"He looked at me and said, 'You are ruining my childhood,' " Gunter laughed.

The obstetrician-gynecologist has styled herself as the world's most steadfast defender of women's vaginas against iffy products, untested science and nothing short of "the patriarchy." Gunter, born in Winnipeg, shot to prominence in 2017 when she waged war on Goop, Gwyneth Paltrow's wellness franchise for women, known for peddling dubious treatments including vaginal steaming and $91 vaginal jade eggs for "empowerment." Sounding the snake-oil alarm, Gunter entered into a series of high-profile spats with Team Goop and by most accounts, won.

Readers of Gunter's new book The Vagina Bible won't find many Goop smackdowns; the OB/GYN has widened her crosshairs.

Women's health, she argues, has been vastly underserved by their physicians, their partners, predatory marketers, dangerously illinformed cosmetic surgeons and the culture at large - a sizable army making women feel bad about their reproductive organs, in seemingly infinite ways.

With The Vagina Bible, Gunter wants to give women their combat armour. The clear-eyed encyclopedia touches on just about every matter serious (vulvar pain, menopause, STIs and toxicshock syndrome), intimate (Kegels, orgasms and lube) and banal (ingrown hairs, douching and the pH balance of soap). With her trademark dismissiveness, Gunter tackles all manner of new horrors inflicted upon women, from "vaginal rejuvenation" to the Oshot - injections of a woman's own plasma into her clitoris, ostensibly for better orgasm ("so many layers of horrific, it's hard to know where to begin," she writes).

Throughout, Gunter, 53, proffers hard truths about sex most women innately know. No, vaginal orgasms are not the norm, the G-spot isn't a thing and squirting really isn't what you think it is.

"A penis is not the most reliable way to achieve female orgasm," she deadpans.

While the Twitter-loving OB/ GYN is certainly not the first to dispel these myths about women's sexuality, today, she holds the loudest megaphone. The Globe and Mail spoke with Gunter by phone from the San Francisco Bay Area.

Why did you feel women needed a user's manual for their vaginas?

Well, misinformation is coming at women from so many different angles. Many doctors still believe medical myths. In the States, we have a government invested in misinformation about contraception and abortion; you've got a bit of that in Ontario with the repression of sex education. You have Big Natural [the natural products industry] grifting off the information gaps. Women calling themselves fertility doulas are spreading misinformation about the pill. Online, Instagram influencers are also pushing misinformation about women's health. I had this Lord of the Rings Gandalf moment: "You shall not pass!" I was done.

How did you decide to get right into it, with several in-your-face diagrams of women's genitalia on Page 2?

I wanted women to open the book and be like, "This is it, this is what it looks like." We haven't talked about women's bodies in non-sophomoric terms. If women are forced to talk in euphemisms, how do you even know what you're talking about? If you don't know how all the features on your car work, you can't drive it well.

"Not knowing your anatomy, how it works and how to make it work," you write, "is disempowering and puts women at a disadvantage in a sexual relationship." How?

I noticed over my career that I had far fewer questions about problems with orgasm and sexual function from women who partner with women, who are more likely to know how the parts work. There were many more of these questions from women partnering with men.

Where do these women learn practical aspects of female sexual response? If she's with a younger man, where has he learned it?

From what his buddies told him?

From porn?

Hearing women, it strikes me how often sex is reduced to metrics defined by men: "How many orgasms did I give you?" "Did I make you orgasm at the same time that I did?" "Did I make you squirt?" When we focus on these metrics, we diminish pleasure, which can mean different things for different people at different points in their life, at different points in their day.

A question your female patients ask you a lot is, 'How did I not know this?' What's the answer?

Medicine's not good at communication. When you have 10 minutes with a patient, it's hard to do a good job of educating people.

And now, we have fewer checkups for women because papsmear test guidelines are changing [every three years instead of annually in Canada].

You examine the many ways women are made to feel ashamed in this realm: the incessant grooming, the scented baby wipes and washes, the invasive "tightening" surgeries. You describe it as a push to "tame the female genital tract for some misogynistic ideal."

I have women of many ages now look at me shocked when I tell them that pubic hair is normal.

They're revolted. Are we saying that a prepubertal vulva - no pubic hair and small labia - is the ideal? It's important for us to think about what we're promoting as the ideal.

You cite a study that found a third of women who go under the knife to reduce their labia minora had previously received negative commentary. What do you tell these women? We forget how a casual comment can have such negative impact.

With labiaplasty, if you know that your labia minora have erectile tissue and specialized nerve endings involved in sexual response cycle, maybe you might think differently about having those reduced. We don't have long-term data on labiaplasty to be able to tell women what the impact might be on their sexual function.

You paint a wholly different picture of women's sexual anatomy as this incredible machine, a highly complex set of erectile tissues, glands, oils - everything with a specific purpose.

It is incredible machinery that can do so much.

Before we had any ability to offer medical care, women were having babies, dealing with blood and having sex to do it all over again.

Let's turn to Gwyneth and Goop.

Why are celebrities pushing wellness cures particularly problematic for women's health?

Celebrities are genetically privileged: They're gorgeous. They look like the healthiest specimens. They have star power. But few get behind evidence-based medicine. There is so much good advocacy they can do and then you think, really, you want to sell vaginal steaming?

The women who flock to wellness brands such as Goop often feel disenfranchised by Western medicine, by doctors who don't take their concerns seriously, who speed through appointments or fail to refer them properly. Can you see why women might turn to the wellness sphere, jade eggs and all?

Women are not heard in the doctor's office in ways that they should be.

Alternative-medicine providers are capitalizing on these gaps, making patients feel they're being listened to.

Women need to be better represented in medicine. If we don't have more female researchers, professors and medical-school deans, we're going to have a hard time fixing the system. The other way is to empower patients so that they know when they are getting bad advice.

You're on Twitter a lot, swear a lot and like to share personal intel.

What do you say to doctors who've taken issue with your M/O?

I would say that patients appreciate authenticity. They want to feel a connection, that the doctor gets you. How you feel at the doctor's office matters as much as the information you get.

This interview has been edited and condensed.

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Dr. Jen Gunter argues that women's health has been vastly underserved by physicians, partners and the culture at large.

What we can learn from California gun laws
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Despite many firearms restrictions, the state is still plagued by mass shootings, leading experts to suggest legislation isn't enough
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By TAMSIN MCMAHON
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A7


SAN JOSE, CALIF. -- U.S. lawmakers looking to curb gun violence after last week's mass shootings in Texas and Ohio could take a lesson from California.

The state has long had the most restrictive gun laws in the United States, but continues to see more mass shootings than anywhere in the country.

California has more than a hundred gun laws on its books.

Many go back more than a decade, including a ban on assault weapons and restrictions on high-capacity magazines. The state has required background checks for all gun sales, including private transactions and firearms purchased at gun shows, since the 1990s. In 2016, it enacted "red flag" laws that allow police to seize firearms from people deemed a threat.

U.S. President Donald Trump offered support for both policies in the wake of shootings that left 31 people dead in El Paso, Tex., and Dayton, Ohio, with Mitch McConnell, Republican leader of the U.S. Senate, signalling he is open to passing new gun-control measures when senators return from a summer break in September.

But California's experience raises questions about whether this type of legislation alone is enough.

Despite its stringent laws, California has seen 33 mass shootings since 2000, more than any other state. There have been three in the past nine months that have killed 15 people.

Law-enforcement officials and experts in gun violence say many of the measures California has put in place are considered among the most promising ways to reduce gun violence and deter mass shootings. But they have been hampered by a poor rollout.

Databases used for background checks have been plagued by missing information and lengthy backlogs. Gun-violence restraining orders that let police confiscate weapons from high-risk people - put in place after mass shootings in Isla Vista and San Bernardino - have been rarely used because many police departments and prosecutors weren't even aware of them.

Mass shooters have continued to expose loopholes in California's laws. Last fall, former Marine Corps machine gunner Ian David Long killed 11 people inside a bar in Thousand Oaks, a suburb of Los Angeles. Police had called in mental-health crisis workers to assess Mr. Long months before the shooting, but never tried to use the state's redflag laws to confiscate his guns.

In 2017, a gunman banned from owning firearms because of a restraining order used two homemade AR-15 style rifles to kill six people and shoot children at a local elementary school in Tehama County. Several recent Californian mass shooters have been able to acquire magazines that could hold up to 75 bullets, despite the state's longstanding ban on high-capacity magazines.

Earlier this year, California began limiting gun purchases to buyers who were at least 21 years old and requiring background checks to buy ammunition. But two of California's mass shooters this year were still legally allowed to buy semi-automatic rifles, even though both were just 19 years old.

Newly unsealed search warrants showed the gunman who attacked a synagogue near San Diego in April appeared to have a hunting licence, which may be how he was able to pick up his AR-15 style rifle from a local gun store the day before the shooting. Those with hunting licences are allowed to buy rifles starting at the age of 18 under an exemption to the state's new age restrictions.

Police say the teenager who killed three people at a weekend festival in Gilroy late last month purchased his AK-47 style rifle and high-capacity gun clips in neighbouring Nevada.

California has also been forced to revise its assault-weapon restrictions repeatedly to keep up with innovations from firearm manufacturers. It rewrote its assault-weapons laws for a third time in 2016, to close a "bullet button" loophole - named after a popular modification that had allowed gun owners to use a pointed object such as the tip of a bullet to quickly remove a magazine while still technically complying with the state's restrictions on detachable magazines.

Gun-violence researchers say laws such as background checks and firearm restraining orders are among the most important measures to curb mass shooters.

But California's experience shows how important it is for lawmakers to not just pass new legislation, but make sure it is properly implemented.

"Background checks can return false negative results (fail to identify prohibited persons) when information on prohibiting events isn't reported," Garen Wintemute, an emergency-room physician who leads a violence research project at the University of California, Davis, wrote in an e-mail. "Gun violence restraining orders aren't used often enough; they're new, and not well known."

Dr. Wintemute's team is preparing to publish a study this fall describing ways in which background-check policies fall short and recommending reforms, but he declined to elaborate.

California is home to an estimated 4.5 million legal firearms owners, but gun-violence restraining orders were used just 610 times in the first three years, with nearly half of them last year issued by a single county.

Santa Clara County deputy district attorney Marisa McKeown, a vocal proponent of the restraining orders, says her office has used them more than 40 times this year, up from just four in 2017. She regularly trains police officers on restraining orders and has encountered judges who have delayed issuing the emergency orders because they weren't familiar with them.

"It's an incredibly powerful tool. It fills a gap. It prevents shootings. It is effective," says Ms. McKeown, whose region includes the site of last month's mass shooting in Gilroy. "However, the police didn't know about it."

The biggest roadblock to California's firearm restrictions, however, may be the legal challenges by gun-rights groups. Earlier this year, a federal court judge in San Diego briefly overturned California's 19-year ban on high-capacity magazines in a ruling that referenced several cases of women terrorized by intruders after they ran out of ammunition and cited Nazi Germany's restrictions on Jews owning weapons as an example of the dangers that come when governments forcibly disarm their citizens.

The court reinstated the ban a week later pending the state's appeal. But in the eight days that the ban was lifted, the California Rifle & Pistol Association reported that gun owners in the state purchased "hundreds of thousands - if not millions" of highcapacity magazines in a buying spree the lobby group dubbed "Freedom Week."

Many of California's recent gun laws - including its assaultweapons bans and mandatory background checks for ammunition purchases that began this year - may ultimately end up being appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, said Stanford University law professor John Donohue.

The court is poised to hear its first Second Amendment (the right to bear arms) case in nearly a decade this year. The case, involving a New York law banning gun owners from transporting their handguns outside the city, could have major consequences for state and local gun restrictions - and for efforts by Congress to expand federal gun laws.

While much of focus of the Trump administration's appointments of conservative judges such as Justice Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court had been on what it will mean for state abortion laws, Dr. Donohue believes state and local gun-control laws may instead be country's next major legal battle.

"In many ways, this is a much bigger deal than the abortion decision," he said. State laws allowing access to abortion would still remain even if the Supreme Court overturns Roe v. Wade.

"But if the gun decision is made on a federal constitutional basis, that would mean that California, and New York, and Illinois, will have to have the gun regulations of Alabama and Mississippi."

Associated Graphic

People leave a funeral on Aug. 6 for a victim killed in a mass shooting at a weekend festival in Gilroy, Calif., last month. Police say the teenager who killed three people at the festival bought his AK-47-style rifle and high-capacity gun clips in Nevada.

NOAH BERGER/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Arts and crafts in Edmonton
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Couple preserve style of Highlands neighbourhood bungalow
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By SIMON LEWSEN
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page H3


EDMONTON -- When, in 2004, David Locky first visited his future home - a bungalow in Edmonton's Highlands neighbourhood - he was mesmerized by the brick on the fireplace. It was as coarse as oldgrowth tree bark and as iridescent as a mollusc shell. In the right light, you'd see shades of ochre, copper and burnished red.

At the time, Mr. Locky and his wife, Sarah Wilkinson, were graduate students and neither knew much about architecture. (Today, Mr. Locky is a biology professor at MacEwan University and Ms.

Wilkinson works in restoration ecology at the University of Alberta.) When the seller explained that the fireplace was made of clinker brick - a rare material in Edmonton - they didn't know what he meant. But the house had a rustic kind of charm and the $209,000 price was just within their budget. So, they bought it.

Then they set about researching the house and its design history.

They learned, for instance, that clinkers are castaways. Because the kilns of the 19th century distributed heat unevenly, the bricks closest to the centre often liquefied and fused together. Deeming them unsalable, brickmakers threw them out. By the early 20th century, a salvage culture had emerged, with builders scouring dumps in search of clinker discards, which they separated with mallets. The pieces were dry, heavy and often misshapen. They were called clinkers because, when you banged them together, they'd clink.

They were a favoured material of the arts and crafts movement, a design culture that originated in England and later flourished in North America. Mr. Locky's home - which he calls the Rose House, in reference to the original owners, William and Lillian Rose - is a relatively pure exemplar of the vernacular arts and crafts style in Alberta. But purity is an inapt word. For arts and crafts designers, perfection was a dubious virtue. This was a humanistic movement. It sought beauty in the rough materials of daily life.

Early arts and crafts adherents - British critics and social reformers such as John Ruskin and William Morris - rebelled against the ornate style of their Victorian contemporaries. They argued that makers should look instead to artisanal medieval traditions, which favoured natural finishes, thick textures and organic forms.

They scorned both elite affectations and an industrial culture that mechanized labour, reducing artisans to mere workers. It's not that they hated ornamentation (arts and crafts isn't minimalism) but they preferred to keep things simple, since even the most delicately wrought chair is still just a thing you sit on.

By the turn of the century, British arts and crafts culture had given rise to the American Craftsman tradition, which sprung up first in New England and then in states such as California and Oregon, where the movement's democratic ideals melded with a local pioneer-homesteader aesthetic.

You can see evidence of the Craftsman style in virtually every North American city, but it's most obvious on the Prairies and in the Pacific Northwest. While the old anglophone neighbourhoods of Central Canada have a Victorian character (think: pointed arches and polychromatic bricks) the homes in Edmonton tend to be low and wide rather than tall and sharp, and they're often clad in fieldstone, rustic siding or wooden shingles.

The Rose House is a traditional California bungalow - a squat, compact structure with a gabled roof and a porch that spans most of the front façade. This design is perhaps the most recognizable Craftsman typology. In the interwar years, builders adapted it to the Canadian climate by adding insulation, basements and storm windows.

The house makes good use of its 1,400 square feet. There's no antechamber; instead, you enter directly into a fireside living room. The downstairs has a huband-spoke formation, whereby each room - the kitchen, the den and the bedroom of the couple's daughter, Rosemary - branches out from a central landing.

"There's seven doorways in that tiny space," Mr. Locky says. Upstairs, there's a gabled master bedroom, which is just tall enough that you can walk upright beneath the ridge Remarkably, for a structure that was built in 1924, the place still has its original finishes. The floors are thin-strand maple, the trim is chunky, old-growth Douglas fir and the exterior cladding is a patchwork of overlapping cedar shingles, which bear the markings of the circular saw that cut them. In the seventies, the house had passed from the original owners - the Roses and then their relatives - into the hands of a slumlord, who engaged in a practice you might call preservation-through-neglect. It's a terrible way to conserve a home, although it can be better than the alternative - at least when the alternative is ripping out the interiors and replacing them with laminate. "For 30 years, nothing was done," Mr. Locky says. "The original surfaces were unpainted. The floors were covered with carpets, but they were otherwise in great condition." In the nineties, the home was acquired by less parsimonious owners, who patched leaks, replaced water-damaged plaster with sheetrock and redid the electricals. When they put the house on the market, they sought a like-minded buyer. "They only let us have it once they'd made sure we weren't going to knock it down," Mr. Locky says. "They grilled us about it two or three times."

Upon taking up residency, Mr.Locky and Ms. Wilkinson applied for (and received) heritage designation for the house, a move that brings both perks and drawbacks.

The bad news: It limits what you can do. The good news: It limits what future owners can do, too.

"We can't smash out the windows or put a big addition on it," Mr.Locky says. "But neither can anyone else." The house is eligible for municipal and provincial restoration grants. Last summer, the couple invested $44,000 (some of it their own, some of it the government's) into the exteriors.

They installed new hardware on the casement windows, reappointed bricks on the chimney and replaced the roof.

Mr. Locky has been filling the space with arts and crafts treasures. His acquisitions include a quarter-sawn oak table from a convent in Winnipeg; a fumedoak armchair by Gustav Stickley, an early Craftsman proponent known for sturdy furnishings with exposed joinery; and a set of hand-hammered copper vases from the Roycroft Campus, a fabled and vaguely cultish alternative community from Western New York. (Imagine a medievalstyle gild on the shores of Lake Erie.)

Mr. Locky approaches his work in the manner of a collector not an interior decorator. He has no interest in the design dogmas of the Instagram age - the voids, the colour blocks, or the obsessively curated surfaces. His shelves are cluttered with tchotchkes: copper ashtrays engraved with Celtic knotwork, a bookend that's adorned with a bronze-dipped eucalyptus leaf. There's little in the home that you'd describe as chic or contemporary.

One senses, though, that Craftsman design was never really chic or contemporary, not even in its heyday. Its proponents took inspiration from the past and they believed that the best items were the ones you actually use, not the ones you keep behind glass. It was a movement dedicated to accessible, domestic pleasures - the kind that don't always require vast fortunes or sophisticated tastes.

This idea is so essential that virtually every generation rediscovers it. Today, lifestyle guru Marie Kondo tells her fans that the good life can be theirs too. "Discard anything that doesn't spark joy," she says. That dictum bears a striking resemblance to words Mr. Morris, the grandfather of arts and crafts, wrote 140 years earlier: "Have nothing in your house that you do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful."

Associated Graphic

The Rose House in Edmonton is a California-style bungalow that was originally built in 1924. The current owners have decorated the home with tchotchkes and furniture that fit the arts and crafts style of the house.

PHOTOS BY JASON FRANSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B15


JAMES WILLIAM BOEHMER

April 24, 1934 - August 17, 2019 Age 85, of Aurora, Ontario, passed away peacefully on August 17, 2019. Son of the late Dr. Stewart and Evelyn Boehmer, and predeceased by his wife, Faye of 65 years on August 6, 2019.

He is survived by his children, Mark (Lorrie), Stephen (Jane) and Kimberly (Neil Hindle). He was the loving Grandfather to Karyn (Adam Sarginson), Geoffrey, William, Courtney (Bobby Caughey), Jonathan (Ashley), Andrew, Nicholas, Kate, Matthew, Spencer and Great-Grandfather to Reese.

The family acknowledges the caregivers and nursing staff of Sunrise, Aurora and GEM, Newmarket.

Visitation at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home 8911 Woodbine Ave, Markham, Tuesday, August 27, 2019 5-9 p.m.

Visitation at Tyndale University - Stiller Lounge 12 p.m. - 1 p.m. Wednesday, August 28, 2019. Celebration of Life for Jim and Faye Tyndale Chapel 1 p.m.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019, with reception following (3377 Bayview Ave, Toronto).

Online condolences can be made at chapelridgefh.com.

In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to the Stewart Boehmer Scholarship Fund http://www.tyndale.ca or World Vision (Boehmer Memorial Fund) http://www.worldvision.ca

PHILIP DAVID GRAHAM

Philip David Graham of Vancouver, BC passed away at home, Friday, August 16, 2019, with his devoted wife of 44 years, Tricia (TremayneLloyd) at his side. Loving and devoted husband, father of six children, businessman, sailor, skier and world traveler.

In addition to his wife, Philip will be sadly missed by daughter, Lahana Grey; sons, Ronald (Linda) Philip (Cathy), Christopher (Sue Ann), Bruce (Anna) and Lawrence (Carollyne); as well as eleven grandchildren; and five greatgrandchildren. Of the greater Graham family, he will be missed by siblings, Jane, Sheila, Helen, and Bill; plus dozens of nieces and nephews.

Born in Toronto in 1925, Philip grew up in Montreal, the 6th child of Ronald "FR" Graham and Marguerite (Phelan). The family moved to Vancouver when Philip was 15. At nineteen, he married Joan Dixon, the mother of his children, and subsequently graduated from University of British Columbia with a BSc.

In 1967, Philip and Joan took their 4 youngest children around the world on their yacht, Driver. Philip returned Driver to Vancouver in 1975.

Between 1953 and 2003 Philip was a Director of his family's holding Company Graymont Limited. Between 1980 and 1991 he was President and Chief Executive Officer and Chairman between 1987 and 2003.

Following retirement in 2003 Philip continued to follow the firm closely, remaining a strong advisor to Graymont's Board of Directors and taking great pride in the company's growth from a single Quebec lime plant in 1980 to a global player today.

Philip enjoyed a happy, full and successful life and had a positive impact on many other lives.

Funeral will be a private service.

An Eight Bells Memorial at the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and the UBC Hospital Foundation.

RONALD JOHN WOOTTON

It is with sadness that the family accepts the passing of Ronald John Wootton on August 19, 2019. A resident of Scarborough, he is survived by his beloved Meraj, his spouse of 25 years, stepson Aamir (Junbo), his daughter Karen Wootton, grandson Joshua, sister Lynda Grant (Bob), and brother Kenneth.

Predeceased by his daughter Kimberley Wootton and his parents Harold and Isabella Wootton. Ron was born in North Bay and worked for Bell Canada for 31 years. He considered himself lucky to secure a BCI contract in Trinidad for 2 years and was ready with his earned nautical licences to pursue one of the loves of his life - sailing. As many may dream, he sailed the Caribbean Sea and continued his boating passion until his passing. In 2012, he was the recipient of the Queen Elizabeth Jubilee medal for his community involvement over many years as well the Urban Hero Award in 2013. Another passion of Ron's was fishing and especially with his buddies all of whom were in search of the big catch which took them to all the best fishing holes from BC to Newfoundland. He was the family handyman, tutored by his father. He could fix or rig up anything to keep it going.

Junk from the dump became either a jewel or at least something that would make do. His cottage at Shadow Lake in the Kawarthas became the repository for much of his handywork. Ron was kind, enjoyed the quietude of nature as well as being the prankster in the group.

Always respectful, sentimental and a person to be counted on. His fight with cancer finally ended as he set sail into the sunset and smiled back at his family and friends.

Family and friends will be received at the McDougall & Brown Funeral Home Scarborough Chapel, 2900 Kingston Rd., (west of McCowan Rd.) on Thursday, August 22, 2019 from 12 p.m.

until a time of service in the chapel at 1 p.m. A private interment service will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to Friends of Oochigeas, 464 Bathurst St, Toronto, ON M5T 2S9, a summer camp for children with cancer. https:// support.ooch.org/in-honour/ ronald-j-wootton. Online condolences may be left at http://www.mcdbrownscarb.ca

JOHN MATHESON

November 3, 1938 August 17, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of John Kelly Matheson, beloved husband of Mary (nee Elton) for 52 years. He will be greatly missed by his children, Catherine (Troy McLellan), Ian, Ross (Jennifer) and Paul. As well as his step grandchildren, Dylan, Charlie, Rowan and Kaede and his favourite pal Glasgow.

Predeceased by his brother Donald Matheson (husband of Vi), and parents Donald and Katie, he will be remembered fondly by his sisters, Peggy Matheson and Janet McBride (Tom) as well as his in-laws, Jane Olvet (Sid), John Elton (Sharon) and Peter Elton (Valerie) along with many nieces and nephews.

John graduated from York Memorial in 1956 and then went on to study Radio and Television Arts at Ryerson Institute of Technology, graduating in 1959. This led him to a ten-year career in advertising, spending time in Toronto, Lethbridge and Vancouver. He loved his time in Western Canada and travelled back there many times to visit friends and family.

Always an avid reader and lifelong learner, John was a member of the first class of part-time students at York University. He went on to earn degrees in English and Political Science as well a Master's in Education from OISE (University of Toronto).

John and Mary moved from Toronto to Grimsby in 1969 where he began his second career in Education at Grimsby Secondary School. He often regaled his family with tales of his first years in education and loved the time he spent coaching cross country and working on drama productions. He went on to become an Administrator retiring from the Lincoln County Board of Education in 1997. He spoke fondly of the many colleagues he made and students he interacted with over those years.

John was a supporter of the Liberal Party and worked on many campaigns, making many good friends along the way. He was a President of the Grimsby Historical Society and a member of the Grimsby Library Board and Grimsby Art Gallery Board. He was a parishioner at St. Andrew's Anglican Church where he enjoyed singing in the choir.

His family would like to thank his at home healthcare team, Michelle, Nellie, Tanya, Barb and Dennis as well as the many Doctors and Nurses who cared for him at Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Center, WLMH and McNally House.

The funeral service will be at St. Andrew's Anglican Church Grimsby on Friday, August 23rd at 11:00 a.m. with reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to McNally House Hospice or Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Center Foundation.

There's something in the water
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The notion that drinking small quantities of fluoride will shave points off our IQ is back. The logic behind it is as dubious as ever
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By ANDRÉ PICARD
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O3


Health reporter and columnist for The Globe and Mail. His most recent book is Matters of Life and Death: Public Health Issues in Canada.

There is no shortage of conspiracy theories in health care, but some of the most imaginative and enduring are about fluoridation.

You don't have to venture too far down the internet rabbit hole to find that fluoride - which is placed in some drinking water to reduce cavities - has been linked to almost every conceivable medical and social condition, from cancer to frail bones, rising crime rates to plummeting IQs.

One paranoiac, Cold War-era analysis goes something like this: Fluoride - an invisible, tasteless, brain-altering chemical - was put into the water supply by agents of the Soviet Union in a concerted bid to make citizens stupid and the United States ripe for takeover.

"It's incredibly obvious isn't it?" General Jack D. Ripper explained in the savagely satirical 1964 film Dr. Strangelove. "A foreign substance is introduced into our precious bodily fluids without the knowledge of the individual. Certainly without any choice.

That's the way your hardcore commie works."

Laughable. Except, the notion that drinking water containing minute quantities of fluoride shaves points off our IQ is back - served up by a prestigious medical journal, no less.

Earlier this week, JAMA Pediatrics published a Canadian study that suggested children exposed to fluoride in utero may have slightly lower intelligence scores than those not exposed to fluoride.

Research such as this is valid, but the researchers overreached when they said pregnant women should limit their consumption of fluoridated water. That's the kind of leap that gives the field of environmental epidemiology a bad name.

The research involved 512 pregnant women in six cities whose fluoride intake was measured in two ways: 1) They were asked to estimate their consumption of tap water and the fluoride content of the local supply was applied; 2) The urine of 141 women living in cities with fluoridated water and 228 with non-fluoridated water was tested.

Three to four years later, the mothers' children underwent IQ tests.

After some number crunching, the researchers found that an increase of 1 milligram per litre of urinary fluoride levels was linked to a 4.5-point IQ score decrease in boys, but no difference in girls.

Based on self-reported consumption, an increased daily intake of 1 mg/litre was linked to an IQ reduction of 3.66 points in boys and girls.

Practically, that means the children of mothers who consumed fluoridated water had slightly lower IQs - about two to three points based on median fluoride intake of 0.7 mg/litre.

That is utterly meaningless. IQ is at best an imperfect measure of intelligence. Test results can vary from day to day. Heck, you probably lose two IQ points watching a Seth Rogen movie.

Then, there are the study's limitations, the most important of which is the age-old admonition: Correlation is not causation.

Meaning, just because the small sample of fluoridated-water drinkers' children in the study had marginally lower IQ scores doesn't mean the fluoride is to blame. Countless things contribute to your memory, analytical thinking, mathematical ability and spatial recognition (the things measured in an IQ test), including genetics, education, nutrition, pollution and more.

The researchers do us no favours - and potentially a great deal of harm - by jumping to dubious conclusions that fuel antifluoridation conspiracies.

Already, we are seeing groups such as the Fluoride Action Network salivating at the propaganda value of these findings and holding them out as proof "claims that thousands of studies show fluoridation is safe are not true. In fact, public health has been negligent about examining the health of people living in fluoridated communities."

Over the past 70-some years, few substances have been more studied than fluoride, and the conclusion is always the same: Fluoridation is safe and prevents cavities.

The origin of fluoridation is a fascinating tale of shoe-leather scientific investigation. In 1901, newly graduated dentist Frederick McKay opened a practice in Colorado Springs, Colo. He noticed that many of the town's children had grotesque brown stains on their teeth but also very few cavities. He was determined to figure out why. It took him three decades to crack the puzzle.

Turns out that children who drank from water supplies with high levels of naturally occurring fluoride developed "Colorado Brown Stain." But the fluoride also strengthened tooth enamel, resulting in fewer cavities.

The head of the dental hygiene unit at the U.S. National Institute of Health, H.T. Dean, was intrigued, and decided to test fluoride levels around the U.S. The study found a sweet spot where fluoride levels protected teeth without staining - 1 part per million. (Today, the standard is 0.7 ppm.)

So why not add the chemical to water supplies where it was not naturally occurring, Dean wondered.

In 1945, Grand Rapids, Mich., became the first city in the world to fluoridate its drinking water.

After 11 years, the rate of cavities fell a whopping 60 per cent, but remained the same in Muskegon, a nearby city that did not fluoridate.

Also in 1945, a similar experiment was conducted in Brantford, Ont., which registered a 35per-cent drop in cavities and a 63per-cent reduction in the severity of cavities over the next 11 years.

It was the first time in history scientists had found a way to prevent cavities, a public-health milestone.

But it was wartime and fluorine had another, more sinister use as a key component in the manufacturing of atomic bombs.

In the postwar years, as skepticism of science grew, distrust in government flourished and the Red Scare was born, fluoridation became a flashpoint.

Anti-fluoridation activists have done a brilliant job of adapting their fear-mongering to the times.

In the 1960s, fluoride was positioned as a civil-rights issue - unwarranted "mass medication." In the seventies, shielding people from fluoride was a consumerprotection issue. In the eighties, it became about preventing waterways from being polluted by a dangerous chemical. In the budget-slashing nineties, fluoridation was targeted as an unnecessary expense for taxpayers. And in the 2000s, as an "unnatural" and "neurotoxic" chemical. Today, anti-fluoridation groups are riding the wave of rejection of expertise and promoting pseudoscience with science-y language.

Yet, over time, the fundamental arguments for and against fluoridation haven't changed.

Public health officials argue that it's a cheap, safe, effective way of reducing cavities. Fluoridating municipal water supplies costs about $1 per person; each dollar invested saves an estimated $38 in dental care.

Opponents of fluoridation see Big Brother poisoning them with chemicals and make sweeping safety claims, based largely on rat studies and wild generalizations about small epidemiological studies, such as the new paper on IQ.

About 66 per cent of U.S. drinking water and 38 per cent of Canadian drinking water is fluoridated. (Water is also treated with chlorine or ozone to kill bacteria.)

In Europe, only about 3 per cent of drinking water is fluoridated; in many European countries, children take fluoride supplements; in countries with free dental care, they get regular fluoride rinses. In Asia and Africa, salt and milk contains fluoride.

There's no question that with the advent of fluoridated toothpaste and the popularity of bottled water (which, by the way, leeches hormone-like chemicals), the relative effectiveness of fluoridated water has dropped.

If we're going to debate anything, it should be how to best ensure everyone gets enough fluoride to protect their teeth.

But as health threats - real and imagined - go, the "government is poisoning us with fluoride" argument doesn't hold any water.

Associated Graphic

Fluoride was discovered to strengthen tooth enamel, resulting in fewer cavities, in the first half of the 20th century. Soon after, in 1945, Grand Rapids, Mich., became the first city to fluoridate its drinking water.

IAN WALDIE/GETTY IMAGES

'I think nature's importance tends to expand for any city dweller'
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By EMILY DONALDSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R10


Jana Prikryl, whom New Yorker critic James Wood has called "one of the most original voices of her generation," is the author of two poetry collections: The After Party (2016) and the just-published No Matter. Her essays on photography and film have appeared in The Nation and The New York Review of Books, where she works as a senior editor and poetry editor. Born in the former Czechoslovakia, Prikryl lived in Canada from the age of 6 until her 2003 move to the United States. She currently lives in Brooklyn, N.Y., with her spouse, Colin Gee, and their young son.

What was the impetus behind this collection? How was it different from your debut, The After Party?

The After Party came together slowly, almost despite me, over more than a decade. It was only after I'd written "Thirty Thousand Islands," the sequence that forms the second half of the book, that I realized how I might put the things I'd squirreled away for 15 years in order. Whereas No Matter started germinating quickly as soon as I finished The After Party, and then I got a fellowship at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, at Harvard University, where I had nine months to work on it. Radcliffe also delivered me from New York City while I wrote, which allowed me to really consider the place where it felt like I'd just barely survived my 30s. Meanwhile, the U.S. was coming apart in the wake of the 2016 election. So I was writing in a very focused, daily way, trying to use the anger and alarm I felt that year to find new forms and new experiments on the page.

Where, when and how do you write poems?

This is a tricky question because it has changed a lot lately. For most of my life I wrote whenever I could, which usually meant weekends and evenings, around the edges of my job as an editor at The New York Review of Books. Then my son was born a few weeks after The After Party came out and I wrote virtually nothing for a year. Then at Radcliffe I wrote almost all of No Matter during regular working hours, five days a week. Since last summer I've been back at my job in New York, with a toddler at home, so I'm again writing very little. This year I've found my most productive moments come for a few minutes at a time on the subway.

New York, which the poems sometimes refer to as a "second city" for its inhabitants, plays a prominent role in the collection. What's your relationship to the city?

I moved to New York for grad school in 2003 (a master in cultural reporting and criticism at NYU), though I was really drawn to the glamour and magnetism of the city. It's clear to me that I wouldn't be who I am now without New York and the writers and editors and artists I've encountered here over the last 16 years.

But as a friend of mine (who happens to be from Toronto) once told me, New York is a great place to live if you're a single, 25-yearold white man. It's a place of vast and visible inequality, where it can be rough to be female, foreign, unmoneyed and both ambitious and hoping eventually to have a family. I think women have always experienced big cities very differently from men; you could say that the realistic novel wouldn't exist without this problem. Even today, a woman's status and value exists in a "marketplace" separate from a man's, especially during her thirties, when so much of her future hinges on the choices she makes right then. I found it was brutal to be a fairly inward, introverted person navigating this jostling place, where every encounter seems public and every confidence taken as a unit of exchange. So there's a dimension of No Matter that reflects my disenchantment with the city and part of the book is a kind of burlesque on that frantic desire just to get out alive.

Of course I'm still here! I particularly loved the collection's repeating series "Waves" poems, which feel like an antidote to the exhaustion of the city that you just described. Is it important to you to seek out vestiges of the natural environment in such an unremittingly urban one?

Yeah, I think nature's importance tends to expand for any city dweller, though I haven't been very good at getting out to it during my years in New York. I think one thing those "Wave" poems dramatize is this feeling of being starved of an elemental thing while struggling to appease some other elemental appetite, like ambition - like a calcium deficiency when you're getting too much iron, or is it the other way around? The "Waves" poems also seem to me, I guess not coincidentally, to circle the question of vulnerability, human and mortal, as well as female and immigrant and visible minority. I think of them as flirting with poignancy (a dangerous volatile substance) in a riskier way than some of the other poems in the book.

Having a child has an obvious impact on one's work in terms of the hours it sucks out of the day, the sheer exhaustion of it. Do you feel like motherhood has affected you creatively?

This feels strange to say but ... I am not sure that it has? I'm not the kind of writer who tends to think through the medium of her closest relationships; maybe the last time I wrote a "love poem" I was somewhere in my mid-twenties (i.e., a very long time ago).

The subject of my new book, insofar as it has one, might be boiled down as "what people owe one another in a society that's not morally despicable," but while I was experimenting on the page, the whole point was to feel free. Then again, a major part of motherhood for me has been a kind of utter submission - not so much to the exhaustion and drudgery of it (which is real!), but more to its terrible contingency and fears of the worst. A person's relationship to death (which has never felt too far away from me) suddenly gets up-close and personal when they have a child. One way I try to cope with parental anxieties is just total surrender, and questions of submission (and stoicism) do run through this new collection. At what point does that kind of surrender turn into something darker, something selfish rather than selfless? I wasn't thinking of my own motherhood when I wrote the series of "Stoic" poems in this book, but I now realize they aren't unrelated to my experience of the last three years.

Do you see yourself in the United States long-term?

I wish I could answer this definitely. We're in a peculiar moment in the U.S., when it feels like almost any unthinkable thing could happen. So much hinges on 2020, and even the best-case scenario thereafter involves a now openly racist, xenophobic right-wing party pulling policies and debates in its hateful direction. So I do find myself longing to move back to Canada, both for my sanity's sake and my child's; but it's a question involving so many factors (not least, two jobs) that I usually finish the thought in more of a pretzel than I started.

Emily Donaldson is editor of Canadian Notes & Queries and Best Canadian Essays 2019.

Associated Graphic

Thanks to a fellowship at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, at Harvard University, Jana Prikryl was able work full-time on her poetry, resulting in her latest collection, No Matter.

JULIANA SOHN

Trudeau rejects calls for apology on SNC
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PM says he did nothing wrong but acknowledges need for stricter communications protocols between A-G, government officials
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By KATHRYN BLAZE BAUM, IAN BAILEY, IAN BROWN, MICHELLE ZILIO
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


TORONTO Y VANCOUVER DOAKTOWN, N.B. OTTAWA -- Prime Minister Justin Trudeau maintains he does not need to say he is sorry for violating the Conflict of Interest Act with his improper involvement in the SNCLavalin affair, even as two of his former cabinet ministers say Canadians deserve an apology.

"You apologize when you did something wrong," Mr. Trudeau said in an interview with The Globe in New Brunswick. "What I did in this situation was do my very best to stand up for Canadian jobs, while at the same time doing everything I could to protect the integrity of our judicial system."

Ethics Commissioner Mario Dion released a report Wednesday that said the Prime Minister wrongly used his position of authority over Jody Wilson-Raybould when she was attorneygeneral in an attempt to get her to override the decision of the Director of Public Prosecutions to proceed with a criminal trial against SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.

In separate interviews with The Globe on Thursday, Ms. WilsonRaybould and her former cabinet colleague Jane Philpott said Mr.

Trudeau owes Canadians an apology for overseeing his government's efforts to obtain a deferred prosecution agreement (DPA) for the Quebec engineering giant.

A DPA would allow prosecutors to suspend criminal proceedings against companies charged with white-collar crimes in exchange for a negotiated settlement. The legal tool, which the Liberals enacted into law in 2018, has never been used in Canada.

"Honestly, for a Prime Minister that has been very open and gracious about apologizing for so many things, I can't understand why this is not something that he would apologize for," Ms. Wilson-Raybould told The Globe.

"I think the Prime Minister's defence of jobs seeks to avoid actually having the conversation about what the Ethics Commissioner was speaking about."

Ms. Philpott, who resigned from cabinet in March saying she had lost confidence in the government's handling of the matter, echoed Ms. Wilson-Raybould's comments.

"No one would ask an official to apologize for standing up for people's jobs," Ms. Philpott said. "That's not the violation that we're worried about. It's the fact that he undertook to advance the interests of a private corporation and use the powers of his office to do so."

Mr. Trudeau expelled both women from the Liberal caucus in April. They have said they will run as Independents in the Oct. 21 election.

The Ethics Commissioner's report provided new details on the extent of the involvement of the Prime Minister and his top officials, including previously undisclosed meetings with SNC-Lavalin representatives, and discussions - unbeknownst to Ms. Wilson-Raybould - with a former Supreme Court chief justice.

Mr. Trudeau said he disagrees with the commissioner's conclusions. Still, he said he accepts the need for "more rigorous protocols" when it comes to communications between government officials and the attorney-general. "When a prime minister wants to say to the attorney-general, 'You need to take into account this or that,' that should be in writing," he told The Globe.

"The attorney-general should give a response in writing. Then you don't get miscommunications, body language, the kinds of things that ended up being very complicated in this situation."

Ms. Wilson-Raybould, who was shuffled to Veterans Affairs in January and resigned from cabinet after the SNC-Lavalin affair came to light in February, said she was disappointed to read the Prime Minister's characterization of her performance as attorney-general in his testimony to the ethics watchdog. The report said Mr. Trudeau called Ms. Wilson-Raybould's decisionmaking process "inadequate and infected by legal misunderstanding and political motivation." In the face of what she described as "continuous personal attacks," Ms. Wilson-Raybould defended her tenure as attorney-general and said she sought to uphold judicial independence.

The commissioner's 58-page report, based on the testimony of 14 witnesses and hundreds of pages of evidence, returned the SNC-Lavalin affair to the forefront of political debate with the election looming.

The chair of the ethics committee of the House, Conservative MP Bob Zimmer, called an emergency meeting for Wednesday. The goal is to receive a briefing from Mr. Dion, but Liberal MPs could shut the meeting down with their majority on the committee.

The report unearthed communications between top government officials and SNC-Lavalin representatives, including a previously undisclosed 2016 meeting between the Prime Minister and the company's then-chief executive, Neil Bruce. It introduced new players and fleshed out the role of those whose involvement was on the public record, but whose precise efforts were not known.

Among those people was Finance Minister Bill Morneau. He initiated at least one meeting with the company and met with SNC-Lavalin representatives in Switzerland and China in 2018.

In Toronto on Thursday, Mr. Morneau reiterated the government's position that the efforts to spare SNC-Lavalin from a conviction were in the name of saving jobs. "What my role as Minister of Finance is - what the role of my department is - is to look at the interests of Canadians," he said.

Montreal's SNC-Lavalin has more than 50,000 employees, 9,000 of them in Canada. Of those, about 3,400 are in Quebec, 3,000 are in Ontario and 1,000 are in British Columbia. The company, which has a history of legal woes, is facing charges related to its business dealings in Libya between 2001 and 2011. A conviction could lead to a 10year debarment from federal contracts in Canada, and possibly by the World Bank, which provides financial support to most major infrastructure projects in developing countries. Although such deals are common in the United States and elsewhere, a DPA for SNC-Lavalin would become Canada's benchmark case.

The company undertook what Michael Wernick, the country's top civil servant until he retired amid the controversy earlier this year, has called the "most extensive government-relations effort in modern times" to have a DPA law established and work in its favour. Despite the efforts of the company and top government officials, Director of Public Prosecutions Kathleen Roussel opted not to negotiate a DPA with SNC-Lavalin. Ms. Wilson-Raybould had the power to override that decision, but refused to do so.

"The authority of the Prime Minister and his office was used to circumvent, undermine and ultimately attempt to discredit the decision of the director of public prosecutions as well as the authority of Ms. Wilson-Raybould as the Crown's chief law officer," Mr. Dion's report said.

Mr. Dion emphasized that legal opinions crafted by former Supreme Court judges were "circulated, and their contents discussed, during ongoing legal proceedings involving the Prosecution Service ... unbeknownst to the attorney-general." Mr.Dion also found that Ms. Wilson-Raybould was unaware - until he told her - that the Prime Minister's Office and SNC-Lavalin's legal counsel had "preliminary discussions" with former Supreme Court chief justice Beverley McLachlin about the possibility of providing advice or acting as a mediator. (The report said Ms.McLachlin expressed reservations and was not retained by the government.)

Ms. Wilson-Raybould called these communication gaps "troubling," adding that they lead her to wonder what else might secretly have been under way.

"I was shocked - probably reflected in my demeanour in front of the commissioner," she said.

Conservative Leader Andrew Scheer said that several witnesses - the report says nine - were not able to provide testimony that they deemed relevant to the investigation because the government refused to waive the principle of cabinet confidence.

"There are still questions that have no answers."

With reports from Daniel Leblanc in Ottawa and Matthew Lapierre in Toronto

Associated Graphic

Conservative Leader Andrew Scheer, centre, seen shaking hands with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau during Acadian Day festivities in Dieppe, N.B., on Thursday, says of the SNC affair, 'There are still questions that have no answers.'

DARREN CALABRESE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Why Putin's embarrassing nuclear failure is no laughing matter
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A series of high-profile accidents has loosened the Russian President's hold on power
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By MICHAEL BYERS
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O1


Holds the Canada Research Chair in Global Politics and International Law at the University of British Columbia

A massive explosion killed five nuclear scientists on an offshore platform in the White Sea, near the Arctic Circle, last week. According to Russia's state nuclear energy corporation, they were working on an "isotope power source for a liquid engine unit." In other words, they were testing a prototype of the nuclear-powered "Burevestnik" cruise missile.

The missile, which the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has already designated as the "Sky Fall," is hardly a secret. In a televised speech last year, President Vladimir Putin bragged that Russian scientists had developed a "small-scale, heavy-duty nuclear energy unit that can be installed in a missile." He even showed an animation in which a missile strikes the United States from the south, after a circuitous flight that takes it near Antarctica.

Mr. Putin's bragging combined with the very public accident make for a very dangerous mix.

His claims about Russia's continued status as a "great power," and therefore his credibility with the Russia public, are undermined whenever an advanced piece of Russian technology fails in such a spectacular way. And there have been quite a few spectacular failures lately.

A nuclear-powered cruise missile would operate by using radioisotopes to rapidly heat the air moving through its engine, much like the consumption of kerosene creates thrust for a jet aircraft.

Unlike kerosene, however, the radioisotopes would not be consumed, enabling the missile to fly almost indefinitely. Burevestnik is the Russian name for the storm petrel, a seabird known for long-distance flights.

Russian authorities were reluctant to admit that the explosion involved the Burevestnik, with the Ministry of Defence reporting that the accident occurred during the testing of a liquid-fuelled missile engine.

In nearby Severodvinsk, the municipal government's website initially reported a 16-fold increase in radiation levels. Local stores quickly sold out of iodine, which, when ingested, can reduce the amount of radiation absorbed by the thyroid. But then the notice was removed and residents were told that radiation levels were normal.

In Moscow, television screens went blank for an hour, a breakdown later attributed to a malfunctioning storm-warning system. At the same time, a text message urged residents to remain at home because of a windstorm, which never materialized.

All of this is reminiscent of the deadly delay in reporting the Chernobyl nuclear accident three decades ago, as well as of the denials of any risk when the Ekaterinburg nuclear missile submarine caught fire when docked near Murmansk in 2011, when, in fact, it was fully loaded with warheads.

There is a difference today, however, in that commercially available satellite imagery can quickly reveal the damage from major fires and explosions, with that information then reaching ordinary Russians through a stillporous internet. Two U.S.-based companies have already published images of the scorched offshore platform and a nearby ship - one that is specially equipped for collecting waste from Russia's nuclear-powered icebreakers.

Old habits die hard. The Russian government under Mr. Putin is no less secretive, incompetent and vindictive than the Soviet regime in which he was trained. If the President wants a nuclearpowered cruise missile, all efforts will be made to build one - regardless of the risk. And all efforts will be made to shield him from blame when things go awry.

Yet, Mr. Putin's grip on power is looser today than at any time since Boris Yeltsin opened his way to the presidency two decades ago. Incomes in Russia have fallen for five straight years because of the combination of low oil prices and stringent sanctions.

Initially, Mr. Putin benefited from the annexation of Crimea that prompted those sanctions.

During a visit to Novosibirsk in 2014, I found otherwise liberalminded intellectuals celebrating the reunification of "Mother Russia." Roughly 90 per cent of Russians approved of Mr. Putin's leadership at the time.

No longer.

Last Saturday, 60,000 people gathered on the streets of Moscow to protest the exclusion of independent candidates from the city's municipal election. The regime responded by arresting more than 3,000 of them, often quite violently, because it knows that such protests reflect a much deeper and broader opposition to how Russia is governed.

Like many national leaders, Mr. Putin often uses foreign policy for domestic ends. However, his most recent international successes are difficult to translate into public popularity. Computer hacking and social-media hijacking may have delivered both Brexit and Donald Trump, but how does one take credit for something that has to be adamantly denied?

For all these reasons, Russia's nuclear weapons program is of great and growing importance to the self-image of Russians and therefore Mr. Putin's grasp on power. Nuclear weapons enabled the Soviet Union to maintain parity with NATO for nearly half a century, and they remain the jewel in Russia's crown today.

Yet, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) offer no novelty factor in 2019. And so, Mr. Putin has very publicly pushed for new, technologically impressive means for delivering warheads.

Kremlin officials are staying on message. Days after the explosion on the offshore platform, spokesman Dmitry Peskov told reporters: "Our President has repeatedly said that Russian engineering in this sector significantly outstrips the level that other countries have managed to reach for the moment, and it is fairly unique."

Of course, nuclear weapons are a mug's game, since everyone loses if they are used. As Chernobyl demonstrated, radiation, once released, can be carried almost anywhere on winds and ocean currents. Only generals, politicians and arms manufacturers pretend that a nuclear war could ever be won.

Key to Mr. Putin's claims of technological superiority is the fact that these claims cannot be disproved, since no rational actor would ever use the weapons in an actual war.

And this is why a spate of recent accidents will be very troubling to Mr. Putin, since there is now evidence building up in public against his claims. Just last week, an explosion at a military depot killed one person, injured 13 and forced the evacuation of 16,500. Last month, 14 sailors died in a fire on a nuclear-powered deep-sea submarine.

Similar problems plague the Russian space program, another of Mr. Putin's technological talismans. Last October, a Soyuz rocket failed halfway through a launch to the International Space Station, with the astronauts on board surviving only because the abort system worked as designed.

In 2017, another Soyuz failed because someone forgot to enter new coordinates when the rocket was transferred from the usual spaceport in Kazakhstan to a new spaceport in the Russian Far East.

Russian scientists will not be surprised that the Burevestnik blew up. They know that the United States attempted to build a nuclear-powered cruise missile in the 1960s, before deeming the effort futile. But will anyone tell the Russian President this?

An incident last May is illustrative: While skating a victory lap after one of his regular games against Russian hockey heroes, Mr. Putin fell flat on his face. He was quickly lifted to his feet, and the celebration continued as if absolutely nothing had happened.

The fact remains that Russia has a potent nuclear force made of ICBMs that cannot be intercepted, because of their numbers, multiple warheads and the ease with which decoys - as simple as foil chaff - can be deployed. Many of these missiles are immune to first strikes, because they are located on submarines hidden under the Arctic sea ice.

As Mr. Putin fights to remain in power, Russia enters another troubled period in its long and tumultuous history. Change is coming, whether by assassination, coup, or revolution. Will all those ICBMs remain in their tubes? I'm not cheering for Mr. Putin, but I'm worried about what happens when he's gone.

PROMOTER BROUGHT EXPO 67 TO THE WORLD
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He was described as 'an incurable silver-lining searcher' whose job was to overcome early negative coverage and criticisms of the exposition
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By TOM HAWTHORN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B18


Yves Jasmin spread the gospel of Expo 67 to the world.

His mission began three years before the world's fair in Montreal opened its doors, a time when naysayers were convinced the exposition was doomed to fail.

"The most heartbreaking task was to convince Canadians that Expo was not a national catastrophe," he told the journalist Pat Carney, later a senator, in 1967.

Mr. Jasmin, who has died at 97, was hired as director of public relations, information and advertising for the Canadian Corporation for the 1967 World's Fair, a Crown company. In the afterglow of Expo's great success, the early criticisms, some based in anti-Québécois bigotry, were forgotten. Before then, nearly every aspect was mocked, including even the bilingual name Expo 67, which some English-language newspapers stubbornly refused to use.

The task of promoting Expo 67 was made all the more difficult by a lack of enthusiasm for the World's Fair held in New York in 1964 and 1965, a commercial enterprise that was dismissed by many as an expensive flop. To make matters worse, the planners of Montreal's exposition depended on luring north a large number of border-state Americans if Expo was to be a success.

In the midst of the negative reports, Harry Bruce wrote in Maclean's magazine that Mr. Jasmin "is such an incurable silver-lining searcher that he regards the past 18 months of world's fair news as a million dollars' worth of free publicity."

To promote the coming exposition, a sevenweek exhibition was held at Macy's department store in New York. A $40,000 scale model toured American shopping malls, while a travelling $70,000 inflatable rubber tent called the Expo/ rama Aerosphere offered previews. In Paris, Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers in formal red serge directed traffic at the Place de l'Opéra, while the RCMP Musical Ride took part in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. Expo 67 floats rolled in the Orange Bowl parade in Miami, the Cotton Bowl parade in Dallas and the Tournament of Roses parade in Pasadena, Calif.

Another brainstorm was persuading renowned figures such as American comedian Jack Benny, French singer Maurice Chevalier and Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin to appear for free in advertising.

"We had a lot of stars like that - international stars well known in the U.S. - speaking on behalf of their countries saying, 'Mine will be at this international exhibition,' " Mr. Jasmin said.

Once the fair began on April 28, 1967, Mr. Jasmin, in his Mad Men-era outfit of a dark suit with a skinny tie, a lit cigarette in his right hand, was a ubiquitous presence on site. He hobnobbed with royalty (the Queen), mascots (Bonhomme Carnaval), and the hoi polloi, such as 19-year-old Massachusetts nursing student Celine Bouthillier, the fair's 20 millionth visitor. In the end, more than 50 million passed through the gates.

The early negative coverage was overcome by offering journalists free trips to Montreal, where they were offered guided tours and background information sheets from what came to be an army of 400, including 30 press aides, answering to Mr.Jasmin.

In a pinch, Mr. Jasmin resorted to old-fashioned ballyhoo to promote the fair. He described the man-made islands in the middle of the St. Lawrence River as coming "out of the water like Botticelli's Venus."

The veteran publicist belonged to a coterie of administrators who were hired to revive a faltering Crown corporation. They fashioned themselves as les durs ("the tough guys") who were going to create a monumental exposition on a tight schedule.

For this, they were well compensated, with Mr. Jasmin earning a salary of $25,000 (about $190,000 in today's dollars), which was condemned on the editorial pages of daily newspapers. Only after Expo 67's tremendous success was it determined to be money well spent.

Joseph Augustin Yves Jasmin was born on Feb. 27, 1922, at Lachine, Que., to the former Rachel Valois and Aquila Jasmin, a farmer's son who became a lawyer. The family traces its roots to a colonist who settled in the farming village of Saint-Laurent on the island of Montreal in the early 18th century. In the divisive 1917 federal election, Aquila Jasmin lost a contest for a seat in the House of Commons as a candidate for Robert Borden's proconscription Unionists.

After completing high school, Yves Jasmin enlisted in the infantry in 1942, rising to the rank of lieutenant and serving overseas during the Second World War. In 1944, he joined the National Film Board, where he wrote and directed newsreels.

After three years as a filmmaker, Mr. Jasmin was hired by Le Canada, a French-language daily newspaper founded by Wilfrid Laurier. The pro-Liberal organ's editor-in-chief was his older brother, Guy Jasmin. In 1949, the brother and their widowed mother died when their Air France Constellation crashed in the Azores, killing all aboard.

Yves Jasmin left the newspaper in 1952 to become a senior publicist for Trans-Canada Airlines. He spent four years with the airline before taking similar positions with Molson Breweries and Ford Canada.

Mr. Jasmin was the first French-Canadian elected as president of the Canadian Public Relations Society. In a speech to the group in 1963, he criticized English-speaking members in Quebec for "your aloofness and your isolation."

He said the companies that employ them make blunders because they are ignorant of the milieu in which they operate.

"Your only contact with French Canada is through some assistant in your company who has been kept under foot for years," he said, "who's been shot down in flames every time he has made a suggestion."

Late in 1967, Mr. Jasmin became the first nonAmerican to win the Public Relations Society of America's top award for demonstrating "the exercise of our craft at its highest levels of competence and under the most difficult of circumstances." The following year he was invested in the Order of Canada.

After Expo 67 ended, Mr. Jasmin became a senior vice-president with Air Canada. He took a senior civil service position in promoting museums and opened his own public-relations firm before retiring in 1990.

He recounted his experience with the world's fair in an anecdote-rich 1997 book, La Petite histoire d'Expo 67, which was a bestseller in Quebec.

Mr. Jasmin made several public appearances two years ago for events marking the 50th anniversary of the world's fair, including the premiere of the French-language documentary Expo 67: Mission Impossible. Mr. Jasmin and Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien, who, as director of operations, was known as the mayor of Expo, were interviewed for the documentary. The men also appeared on the popular television show Tout le monde en parle and both were named honorary citizens of Montreal.

Mr. Jasmin died on July 23. He leaves sons Claude Jasmin, a retired art historian, and Pierre Jasmin, an internationally acclaimed pianist and retired music professor, from his first marriage to Ginette Caron. He also leaves Elisabeth Jasmin, an engineer, from his second marriage to Micheline Vermette. He also leaves six grandchildren. He was predeceased by both wives.

A celebration of life was held on July 31 in the former Jamaica Pavilion, one of the few remaining Expo 67 buildings from that unforgettable summer promoted more than a half-century ago by Mr. Jasmin.

Associated Graphic

To help promote Expo 67, Yves Jasmin brought a seven-week exhibition to Macy's in New York, RCMP officers to the Place de l'Opéra in Paris and exhibition-themed floats to parades in Miami, Dallas and Pasadena, Calif.

LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA

We're in the midst of a convenience crisis
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Apps and online shopping have made life easier, Gayle MacDonald writes, but at a cost of the joy of doing things with our hands
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By GAYLE MACDONALD
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page P10


I was struck the other day by how lazy I've become. Not in the traditional sense of the word. I work. I have kids, a husband and a decent social life. But lazy in the sense that I seem to make decisions based, first and foremost, on the path of least resistance.

For instance, I found a new recipe recently for roasted lemon chicken that called for French grey sea salt - an ingredient I didn't have, and frankly, had never heard of. But rather than walk one block to the grocery store, I clicked on Amazon Prime and "sel gris" from the coast of Brittany appeared on my doorstep the next day.

The pattern repeated itself when we needed new patio furniture. It never occurred to me to get in the car and visit a few stores. Instead, I compared prices online, from the comfort of my couch, and chose a four-piece, rattan set from Wayfair. It arrived, already assembled (a prerequisite, of course), in three days.

As I surveyed the mountain of packaging from the ever-growing pile of online deliveries - everything from bedside lamps to a yoga mat, a backpack for one of the kids to a pair of Stan Smith sneakers for me - I realized I've become hard-wired to look for the most convenient way of doing absolutely everything.

And it made me made me wonder, am I the only one?

My 23-year-old son, Dylan, who is still in university, confesses he and his roommates have ordered - as single items - batteries, paper towels and even toilet paper from Amazon. They also have what he calls a "trash crisis" at his house from all the packaging that arrives through Foodora, DoorDash and UberEats. "We have a McDonald's 500 metres from our house and sometimes we call UberEats," he tells me. "It's ridiculous."

Others would call it slothful or irresponsible. There is no question, however, that this tendency for many of us to choose convenience - sometimes over basic common sense - is an issue.

Former U.S. presidential hopeful Al Gore called his Oscar-winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth for good reason. It's because our reliance on fossil-fuel driven "conveniences," such as cars and plastics, have landed us in a fine environmental mess.

But on a more esoteric level, there's another convenience-driven quandary. What if we become so accustomed to computers and other AIdriven technologies doing everything for us that we forget the joy of doing things slowly, meticulously and with our own two hands?

Toronto's Maggie Cassella, a standup comedian and television producer, says she knows her unhealthy relationship with modern-day conveniences - particularly Amazon Prime, which guarantees two-day delivery to over 100 million subscribers worldwide - has set her on a slippery slope.

"I can justify that I need it in order to send my elderly parents their prescriptions in the States," Casella says.

"But I constantly feel guilty each time I click on it because of the CO2 emissions my orders, alone, are generating.

"It's definitely a lovehate thing. On one hand, it saves me time, but on the other hand it's made me lazy. My girlfriend and I used to enjoy going out Saturday mornings to run errands. We'd get immense satisfaction checking things off our list, wandering around, stopping for lunch and sharing some laughs. We don't do any of that anymore. We've substituted it with being in front of a screen, and ordering everything online, instead of being with each other."

She's not alone. Consumers worldwide purchased almost US$2.9-trillion on the web in 2018, up from US$2.4trillion the previous year, according to Digital Commerce 360, a Chicagobased company that studies e-commerce. This year, Canadians are expected to spend US$39-billion - double what we did in 2016.

More worrisome, Casella says, is that her reliance on convenience has affected her quality of life. "By eliminating all these socalled tedious tasks, like running errands, I've eliminated the opportunity to stumble across something unexpected or serendipitous, create a wonderful new memory or even meet a new neighbour. Technology is wonderful in so many ways, but it's also a bit dangerous because it can be isolating."

Perhaps Casella is right to be worried, given loneliness - a close cousin of isolation - seems to be on the rise, with the U.S. SurgeonGeneral recently warning it's an "epidemic" in United States and Britain appointing its first "minister of loneliness."

In a New York Times piece a year ago, Tim Wu, a law professor at Columbia University, described the tyranny of convenience as "the most underestimated and least understood force in the world today.

"Though understood and promoted as an instrument of liberation, convenience has a dark side. With its promise of smooth, effortless efficiency, it threatens to erase the sort of struggles and challenges that help give meaning to life."

Wu says that convenience, as a liberating force, has many benefits (top of mind would be things such as washing machines, dishwashers, vacuums etc.). But as "an ideal, as a value and as a way of life," convenience worries him because it has a "complex relationship with other ideals that we hold dear. Ideals such as the desire to lead a life of meaning and authenticity.

"Think of it this way: Convenience is like driving up the mountain instead of climbing it. You get to the same place but you lose something along the way. Character-building requires overcoming obstacles and knowing defeat. It doesn't come from doing everything the easy way."

Wu chooses to do many things in his life the old-fashioned way, like drive stick shift, cook with charcoal and catch fish on a fly rod. But in countless other areas of his life, he succumbs to convenience. "I use the subway, I stream movies and I need my electric coffee grinder," he says with a laugh. "When you really ask yourself what guides your decisions on a day-to-day basis, it's hard to deny convenience is this overwhelmingly powerful force. It often feels like the decider of everything.

"I choose to make meals from scratch. It's a lot more work, and it's not always tastier, but there's value and meaning in it."

Canadian anthropologist and culture guru Grant McCracken calls these conveniences worthy, but he is cautious of their intrusions in our daily routines. "The industrial revolution declared war on space and time ... and right through the second half of the 20th century, this war had no skeptics.

Convenience was king," he says. "But in the last few decades, we have seen a counter-revolution. We saw the arrival of slow food, meditation, mindfulness, artisanal economies and a more measured approach to life by many people. All of which is better for humans and better for the planet."

As for me, I've made a promise to myself to curtail my obsession with efficiency and become a little more unstructured. I've cut my online purchases in half. I've committed to riding my bike to work. I handwash the dishes when it's just my husband and I sharing a meal. And recently, I even used a paper map to get to a friend's farm instead of Google.

I got lost, but I found a lovely café, with great coffee and freshly baked cinnamon buns to die for.

Associated Graphic

Amazon and other online companies that offer speedy delivery of items have made things more convenient for shoppers, but some experts worry about its social and environmental impacts.

PATRICK SEMANSKY/ASSOCIATED PRESS; JENNY KANE/ASSOCIATED PRESS

An incredibly awkward interview with Kit Harington
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The erstwhile Game of Thrones star discusses his latest role in The Death and Life of John F. Donovan, and his newfound passion for vegetable gardening
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By JOHANNA SCHNELLER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, August 22, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A12


Well, this was an awkward one. By the time I sat down with Kit Harington at last year's Toronto International Film Festival to talk about The Death and Life of John F. Donovan, we both knew the movie was a mess. Director/co-writer Xavier Dolan had written the script numerous times, shot and then reshot it, and edited it for, literally, years. (It's finally being released on Friday.)

Dolan had set out to make - as far as I can tell - a meditation on which sides of ourselves we show to the world, and when, using the secretly gay celebrity Donovan (Harington) as his example; and a movie about how the entertainment industry conspires to keep gay actors in the closet; and a story about a boy named Rupert (Jacob Tremblay, playing a younger version of Dolan himself) who falls into a letter-writing relationship with Donovan, accidentally causing the actor to be labelled a pedophile; and a parallel story about Donovan's and Rupert's demanding mommies (Susan Sarandon and Natalie Portman, respectively); and then he'd mashed them together and shoehorned them into a framing device featuring the now-grown Rupert (Ben Schnetzer) telling his story to a reluctant celebrity reporter (Thandie Newton). It was a case of much too much adding up to nothing much at all.

So if the circumstance of my interview with Harington had been different - if it hadn't been during TIFF; if the clock hadn't been ticking so insistently; if other reporters weren't lined up in the hall for their turns with Jon Snow; if there hadn't been so many handlers handling things so handily - I might have ventured a question about films that swing and miss, and we might have had an interesting conversation about artistic disappointment.

Instead, we behaved like two people sitting beside each other at a lunch counter, gamely making polite conversation and maintaining studious eye contact even though we've both spilled soup all down our shirts.

Harington's eyes are espressobean brown, and although his Jon Snow curls, expertly groomed stubble and manly cloaks of fur conspired to make him a bit more fantastically dreamy on Game of Thrones, in person, he is quite handsome enough for any one human being to be. Now 32, he possesses an innate modesty and graciousness, a sense of his extreme good fortune, that a lineage of British baronets, coupled with a world-class education, polished with a once-in-a-lifetime hit TV show that made him one of the highest-paid actors on the planet, can instill. "I've had a few months off, so I may gabble a bit," was how he began, and well, I mean, aww.

At this point, he was newly married to Rose Leslie, his GoT co-star, and still months away from checking himself into a wellness retreat in the United States, reportedly to "work on some personal issues." But he admitted that "there is much in the character of Donovan that is close to my life."

"You see Donovan get into a car after a premiere and he takes off his suit, puts on his hoodie," Harington says. "He puts up his hood and he's hiding. All of that, I've done. I do those red carpets, and I've got hundreds of flashbulbs flashing at me, and people screaming for autographs, and everything is very focused on me.

Afterwards, I want to shepherd myself away and crawl into bed and be looked at by no one."

Harington's family were theatregoers and he grew up awed by "people who put themselves on the line in public," including Ben Whishaw, whom he saw in Hamlet in 2004. Even before graduating from London's Central School of Speech and Drama in 2008, Harington had landed a role in the National Theatre's production of War Horse. But he wasn't prepared for the fame bit.

"Some actors relish it," he says.

"They step out of the car and it's, 'Yes. I've arrived. This is how it's meant to be.' I admire those people; they're generous about being looked at. But I find it weird. I've had a long, difficult relationship with owning that. I get out of the car and sort of apologize for even being there. It took a long time for me to accept that I am [an] actor and not just some charlatan."

(Later, when I ask him why Jon Snow was such a fan favourite, he replies, "He's a good, un-narcissistic, unselfish person.") For protection, Harington says, he builds a fame-wall around himself: "I have a persona I get out of the car with. I'm polite, but I'm not Kit. I'm not the me who walks home and says hello to my wife. That's what I found fascinating about John F. Donovan. It's about the different facets of a person's life, which bits they choose to show and which they choose to hide."

Harington makes those choices when talking about Dolan, too.

He praises the director's previous films, especially Mommy and Laurence Anyways. He calls Dolan's attention to detail "exhausting and incredibly frustrating, but it makes for brilliant movies."

"The costumes!" he continues.

"I can't tell you how many different costume changes I had. In the morning, Xavier would put five looks together, and then on set he'd go, 'Mmm, no,' and we'd go do another fitting. Everything was designed by him, everything was bigger than life. Xavier is blessed with that thing some directors have - obsession.

"There are beautiful shots in this, which I will cherish going forward in my career, moments I really loved," he finishes. But notice his choice of words: Shots.

Moments.

"Some people told Xavier that the message of Donovan" - that it's impossible to be an openly gay actor in Superheroes-Only Hollywood - "doesn't matter anymore," Harington says. "But neither Xavier nor I think that's changed. No matter who you are, everyone has something to hide.

That's why the exposure of fame is taxing on your soul, because of the constant worries about your private life being dug up. There is no one who doesn't have a shadow, dark things they wouldn't want you to know. Anyone who tells you they don't is lying."

So? Harington's secrets? "They will never, never see the light of day," he says, kidding but not kidding.

Our time is nearly up. We've both done pretty well, I think, talking about this movie without talking about oy, this movie. So I give us both a break - I ask what makes him happy.

"I've just started growing vegetables," he replies. "I've got a place in Suffolk" - he does not call it a 15th-century home that cost £1.75-million - "with my own garden and my own greenhouse."

I ask what he grows. "I grow tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, sweet potatoes," he says. "I grow carrots, spring onions, onions, garlic. I grow runner beans, green beans, beet root." He smiles, and finally I feel I'm seeing, if not the real Harington, at least a more real facet.

The Death and Life of John F.Donovan opens Aug. 23.

Associated Graphic

Top: A still from The Death and Life of John F. Donovan. Above: Kit Harington, seen at the premiere of the film in Toronto in September, 2018, says he grew up in awe of 'people who put themselves on the line in public,' but wasn't prepared for his own fame.

GEOFF ROBINS/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Torontonians push prices higher in Prince Edward County
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Residents of the bucolic Ontario municipality fear big-city buyers - arriving in droves in search of vacation homes, investments or a place to retire - are making it harder for locals to own
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By CAROLYN IRELAND
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page H2


An influx of Toronto buyers is pushing up prices in the real estate market of Prince Edward County, and the latest numbers suggest local residents are struggling to find affordable properties.

Visitors from Toronto have long been attracted to the county's vineyards, sand dunes and arts scene. Many have ended up buying property in the bucolic area, about a two-hour drive east of the city and surrounded by the waters of Lake Ontario.

But many county residents fear that the investment dollars streaming in have made it more difficult for local people earning local incomes to own a home.

The divergence comes at about the $400,000 mark, with sales of properties above that charging ahead and sales below falling fast - partly because people looking below that mark can find so little to buy. Some potential buyers are forced to look in nearby cities, such as Belleville and Trenton.

On the high side of the divide, July sales set a record in the county.

"For homes over $400,000, it was a blockbuster month," says Treat Hull of the brokerage Treat Hull & Associates Ltd.

Sales of houses above $400,000 surged 123 per cent last month from those in July, 2018, while sales below that level dropped 38 per cent.

Mr. Hull is quick to caution that the results for a single month do not provide an accurate picture of the county's market, because visits to the area spike in the summer. "There's a very, very pronounced seasonal pattern here," he says.

Also, relatively few transactions take place in the county, which has a few sizable towns surrounded by farmland and vineyards. As prices rise, the affordable segment of the market shrinks. "In such a small market, there's a risk that you're just chasing noise," he adds.

But looking at results for the year-to-date also shows the two segments moving in opposite directions: High-end sales have climbed, while sales of more affordable properties have tumbled.

For the year to July 31, Mr. Hull says, sales of homes over $400,000 jumped 23 per cent from the same period in 2018. Below the $400,000 mark, sales dropped 24 per cent in 2019 so far compared with the same period in 2018.

According to Mr. Hull, the median selling price in the county in July was $455,000 - a 32-percent rise from the median price of $345,000 recorded in July, 2018.

Mr. Hull says the sales numbers don't reveal where buyers come from, but based on his conversations with clients, local real estate lawyers and fellow agents, he has learned the people spending more than $400,000 are from Toronto "almost invariably."

Some of those buyers are purchasing a vacation home, others are buying an investment property to rent out on short-term rental platforms such as Airbnb and another cohort is fleeing the big city in retirement.

And while sales were robust in July, the summer sun may have encouraged some buyers after a particularly long, cold and wet spring in Ontario.

Earlier sales were dampened by financing costs and increasingly expensive list prices, which prompted some buyers to push the pause button, according to Richard Stewart, vice-president at Chestnut Park Real Estate Ltd.

"Sellers remain very tenacious with their list price and are unwilling to part with their property for much less than their expectations given the impressive sale prices they witnessed on neighbouring properties over the last year or two," Mr. Stewart says in a note to clients in July. "With trends like these and stubborn sellers insisting on their price and buyers forced increasingly to crunch the numbers, deals are taking longer to occur."

Another factor in the Prince Edward County market is the advent of short-term rental accommodation. Many of the investors who buy second homes in the county rent them out on Airbnb and other platforms, according to Mr.

Hull.

As the PEC towns of Picton and Wellington have grappled with increased noise, garbage and traffic from temporary residents in the summer, they have also had to contend with empty properties and dark streets in the winter.

The popularity of short-term rentals has also siphoned some of the affordable housing from the county, as investors renovate century-old farmhouses and turn them into luxury accommodations.

Last year, the municipal council approved amendments to the official plan and zoning bylaws.

The slate of regulations came after two years of study and public airings of the issue.

Under the planned regulations, operators will be required to obtain a licence and pay a licensing fee. The council will also set density targets for various neighbourhoods and issue licences only until that threshold is reached.

Davelle Morrison, a real estate agent with Bosley Real Estate Ltd., also owns investment properties in the county. Ms. Morrison says she is seeing a lot of properties that might have been great Airbnb locations sit on the market as a result of the new rules. "I do believe it has slowed down the real estate market there," she says.

The forthcoming changes have also created a market for properties that will be "grandfathered" because they already operate as short-term accommodation, she says.

"I also think there are people who have gone rogue and opened new Airbnbs regardless of the impending rules," she says.

In the latest twist, the municipal council recently voted at a planning meeting to ban all second suites from being used as short-term rentals. Second suites include such units as basement apartments and a loft space above a garage, for example.

The surprise move came without public consultation, but a meeting seeking input from residents is planned for this month.

The number of short-term rentals in the county has risen to 1,361 on a current website of inventory, compared with approximately 1,000 last year, Ms. Morrison says.

The local government had planned to have its slate of new regulations in place for this summer, but actually issuing the licences has been put off until the fall, Ms. Morrison says, adding that the delay has created a lot of uncertainty in the real estate market in PEC.

She points out that new buyers need to determine the density of existing short-term rentals to determine the likelihood of getting a licence to run their short-term rental from the county. Since owners haven't been able to register for a licence yet, buyers are hesitant to make a home purchase, because it's hard to suss out how close an area is to meeting or exceeding its density target, she explains.

Ms. Morrison has also noticed that many properties already set up as a bed-and-breakfast or multiunit rentals are overpriced, in her opinion. "Sellers think the vacation rental market and its potential are so strong, they build that high potential into their list price," she says.

Ms. Morrison says most buyers are knowledgeable and they will sit on the sidelines until prices come down instead of making an offer to unrealistic sellers.

For her part, she disagrees with some of the planned changes, and thinks the lack of clarity is weighing on the market. "Real estate buyers do not like uncertainty," Ms. Morrison says.

Associated Graphic

Prince Edward County real estate broker Treat Hull says July was 'a blockbuster month' for sales of properties above $400,000. And while the numbers don't show where these buyers are from, Mr. Hull says conversations with clients have revealed the answer is 'almost invariably' Toronto.

MARTA IWANEK/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Meng not a bargaining chip, Pompeo says
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U.S. Secretary of State rejects possibility that Huawei CFO's extradition would be dropped in deal to end trade war with China
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By STEVEN CHASE, JANICE DICKSON
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Friday, August 23, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


OTTAWA -- U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo rejected the accusation from Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou's legal team that she is being used as a bargaining chip and dismissed the possibility the United States might drop its extradition request for her as part of a deal to end a trade war between Washington and Beijing.

Separately, he suggested that Canada or other allies that allow Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

gear into their next-generation 5G networks might end up losing access to some U.S. intelligence information if Washington believes it's at risk of sharing data on insecure networks.

Mr. Pompeo, in an interview with The Globe and Mail, said the United States will stick to the legal process it set in motion in late 2018 when it asked Canada to detain Ms. Meng. She was arrested at Vancouver International Airport.

U.S. President Donald Trump raised the possibility in December of intervening in the Meng case if it could help secure a trade agreement with China. He said he'd step in "if I think it's good for the country."

Ms. Meng's lawyers this week filed legal papers accusing Washington of using her as a "bargaining chip" in the escalating ChinaU.S. trade war.

Mr. Pompeo flatly rejected the charge during a Thursday press conference with Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland.

Later, in the Globe interview, he elaborated, saying the United States makes extradition requests only after gathering sufficient evidence to support them.

He also repeatedly pushed back against the idea Washington might intervene in the legal process to free Ms. Meng.

"We're always crystal clear about how we make extradition requests, not just here but all around the world.

"Attorney-General [William] Barr and his team at the Department of Justice will make decisions ensuring that we don't ask if we don't believe we have not just allegations but sufficient evidence to deliver on the things that we said or the reasons for the extradition," Mr. Pompeo said." "This case won't be any different than the way we've handled scores and scores of extradition matters all across the last - goodness - several decades ... both here in Canada and around the world."

He showed impatience over being asked repeatedly whether Ms. Meng might be freed by U.S.

intervention instead. "It's a legal process. That's the fourth time you've asked. You're welcome to ask a fifth time and I'm happy to give you the same answer," Mr.Pompeo said.

Ms. Meng is free on $10-million bail while she awaits an extradition trial set to begin in early 2020. She is living in one of her multimillion-dollar homes in Vancouver while wearing an electronic tracking device and being monitored by a security company.

The Americans allege Ms.Meng helped the company violate U.S. economic sanctions against Iran. She has been charged in the United States with bank fraud, wire fraud and conspiracy to commit bank and wire fraud.

The Meng case is unfolding as the Canadian government mulls a U.S. request to bar Huawei equipment from next-generation 5G networks. Canada, the United States, Britain, Australia and New Zealand are part of an intelligence-sharing network called Five Eyes. Australia has already barred Huawei from its 5G network and New Zealand blocked the first request from one of its wireless carriers to install the company's equipment in a 5G network. Canada and Britain have yet to make a decision.

Mr. Pompeo, a former director of the Central Intelligence Agency, was asked whether the United States might restrict the information it shares with Canada if Ottawa allows Huawei gear into the 5G networks Canadian telecom carriers are building.

The Americans say Huawei answers to China's ruling Communist Party and could be compelled to help Beijing spy or sabotage Western networks. Article 7 of China's 2017 National Intelligence Law says that Chinese companies must "support, co-operate with and collaborate in national intelligence work" when asked.

"The United States will always ensure that wherever it places its national-security information, it's doing so into networks that it trusts. So to the extent that there were networks that weren't trusted networks, the United States, whether it's the Department of Defence, or [an] intelligence committee or State Department information that requires a certain level of security, we just won't do it," Mr. Pompeo said.

"We won't expose it to those networks that we believe the Chinese government could have access to."

Asked a second time to clarify whether Canada could find itself restricted from some U.S. intelligence, Mr. Pompeo added: "Any time we are dealing with our good, close national-security partners, we want to make sure that our networks are things that they trust - that they can feel confident when they put information into a system that is ours, that it will be protected. We demand the same thing of those countries. And when that doesn't happen, we have to got to make a different decision."

He said, however, that when it comes to Ottawa's verdict on Huawei's involvement in 5G networks, "I am confident that they will make a decision [that is] good for the Canadian people."

Mr. Pompeo said he believes Canadians wouldn't want to be using networks that could be exploited by China's Communist Party.

"Canadian citizens are rightly worried about their privacy and protecting their data and their information, and so permitting the Chinese Communist Party to control a company that would transit that information is not good for the Canadian people."

Relations between Canada and China have soured since Ms.Meng's arrest. Beijing seized former Canadian diplomat Michael Kovrig and entrepreneur Michael Spavor shortly after. China also responded by ceasing purchases of Canadian commodities including canola seed, soybeans, pork and beef.

On Thursday, Mr. Pompeo twice pushed back against what he considered questions that implied moral equivalence between the U.S. and Canadian actions on Ms. Meng and China's apparent backlash, including the arrests of Mr. Kovrig and Mr. Spavor.

At the Ottawa news conference, Ms. Freeland avoided a question on whether Canada has asked the U.S. to drop its extradition request to help secure the release of Mr. Spavor and Mr. Kovrig. She instead stressed the Canada-U.S. border wouldn't work without the extradition treaty.

Mr. Pompeo took aim at the question, telling the reporter she "took the Chinese line" by connecting Ms. Meng's arrest with the detention of the two Canadian men.

"The arbitrary detention of two Canadian citizens in China is fundamentally different," he said, adding that connecting the two is "what China wants to talk about."

"They want to talk about these two as if they are equivalent, as if they're morally similar, which they fundamentally are not."

Later, in the interview, asked about the economic pain China is inflicting on Canada, he said the U.S. and Canada have done nothing wrong.

"These things have happened because the Chinese government has chosen to behave in a certain way. Not because of an American action, nor a Canadian action.

And to suggest some moral equivalence is really unfortunate."

With a report from Mike Hager in Vancouver

Associated Graphic

U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, seen with Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland on Thursday, says he's 'confident' Ottawa's decision on whether to allow Huawei technology will be made in the best interests of Canadians.

DAVE CHAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Is the federal carbon tax really a nightmare for small businesses?
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By BRIAN MILNER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B3


To hear small-business opponents of the federal carbon tax tell it, they are among the leading casualties of an ill-considered, poorly designed effort by the Trudeau government to burnish its climate-change credentials at the expense of economic growth, jobs and the profits of hard-working entrepreneurs.

Rents, fuel, processing, shipping and other costs will rise and already thin margins will suffer in a slowing economy, in which competitive pressures make it tough to pass on increases to customers. To add insult to injury, small businesses will have to earmark additional capital for approved emission-reduction measures in order to qualify for government rebates that will cover only a fraction of their costs.

The Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) calculates that small business accounts for almost 50 per cent of all carbon-tax revenue, but Ottawa is returning only 7 per cent through rebates.

"We've been talking loudly about the unfairness of the current system," says Corinne Pohlmann, the CFIB's senior vicepresident, national affairs. "There's a lot more given back to the individual taxpayer.

[Small business] owners feel like they're the ones paying the freight."

It's too early to gauge the impact of the federal tax, which came into effect April 1 in four provinces - Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario and New Brunswick - with either no carbon plan of their own or one that failed to meet federal guidelines. Alberta will be joining the club Jan. 1 after newly elected Premier Jason Kenney pulled the plug on an existing program.

But economic analyses and evidence gathered elsewhere indicate that the fears of small business aren't necessarily grounded in reality.

"There's definitely a lot of scare-mongering about the potential impact of these carbon prices," says Leigh Raymond, a political science professor at Purdue University in Indiana, who studies the politics involved in market-based policies to reduce carbon emissions. "The impacts are not zero, but they're far from the most fearful [predictions]."

Additional taxes of any kind typically lead to higher consumer prices as businesses pass whatever costs they can down the food chain, which Ottawa has figured into its plan to return 90 per cent of the carbon take to individuals through tax credits.

Price-sensitive industries such as construction are bound to take a hit. And the higher costs will inevitably be passed on to general contractors, developers and ultimately those buying or leasing the spaces.

The tax will also dampen exports, business investment and economic growth, but only slightly, according to an assessment by the Conference Board of Canada.

"These changes are small," says Michael Burt, executive director with the Conference Board. "For example, assuming an $80-per-ton carbon tax in 2025, we find that consumer prices would be 1.4 per cent higher, employment would be 11,000 jobs lower and GDP would be 0.08 per cent lower at that time."

And these modest negatives would be offset by increased investment in cleanenergy technologies and infrastructure as the tax revenues are recycled back into the economy.

The board's forecast is based on an assumption that only half the carbon-tax haul would be returned through tax breaks and that Ottawa and the provincial governments with their own versions of carbon pricing would spend the rest on new programs.

The federal levy, which is currently pegged at $20 a ton, is set to rise to $50 by 2022 - about 11.5 cents on a litre of gasoline.

The government insists it will be frozen at that level if the Liberals win re-election in October. The opposition Conservatives have vowed to eliminate the tax if they prevail at the polls, turning carbon pricing into a key election issue.

In British Columbia, which imposed the first carbon tax in North America in 2008, "anecdotal evidence suggests the policy is a success - achieving large reductions in pollution at relatively modest cost to the economy," says an academic paper released last fall by a trio of environmental economists - Hendrik Wolff of Simon Fraser University, Akio Yamazaki of the University of Calgary and Deven Azevedo, a graduate student at the London School of Economics.

Their research into the employment impact of the B.C. tax found that it has indeed caused some pain for larger players in energy-intensive and trade-focused industries. But it has actually boosted jobs in smaller service and manufacturing businesses operating in such sectors as health, food, tourism and apparel.

Income-tax cuts and direct rebates introduced alongside the B.C. carbon levy - it was originally designed to be revenue-neutral - "increased the purchasing power of low-income households, benefiting locally operating businesses," the study found.

No one questions that it's politically hard "to increase what we might call pocketbook costs to constituents," even when those increases are relatively small, says Prof. Raymond, who has examined carbon-pricing efforts in Canada and several U.S. states.

"So things like fuel surcharges are salient. The polity pays a lot of attention to them. Any kind of policy that might increase those prices is likely to be more challenging."

Governments, he adds, "need to think carefully about who's going to bear the costs and what they're going to do with that revenue to be convincing that what they're doing is useful and that they're also going to help people cope with economic pressures they might feel." That, insist the small-business lobby and other critics of the tax, is where Ottawa gets poor marks.

CFIB members are "highly supportive" of efforts to reduce carbon emissions, Ms.

Pohlmann says. "It's not a question of being opposed to doing what they can to reduce their carbon footprint. It's the regime that's been set up ... that's causing a lot of anxiety for small-business owners."

Ottawa belatedly announced two carbon-tax rebate programs for small business at the end of May, totalling $1.4-billion over four years to cover up to half the costs of investing in energy-saving equipment and appliances.

"It took a while, to be honest, to get the details right," federal Environment Minister Catherine McKenna said at the time.

"We wanted very practical things that will help small businesses save money."

Business operators are still waiting to learn how the subsidy programs will be implemented, Ms. Pohlmann says. "There's very little information and you have to invest your own money in order to get back money you put into the carbon tax."

There is plenty of criticism from all sides over the way the government has designed the tax, says Catherine Abreu, executive director of Climate Action Network Canada, who laments the fact climate change has turned into "such a polarized political topic right now."

The tax "is a product of compromises that the government has made to stakeholders. So it's not perfect. But it's really important, because once something's in place, you have the opportunity over time to adjust it so that it works better for the people who are affected by it."

Putting a price on carbon, Ms. Abreu says, is just one piece of the climate-change puzzle.

Part of what carbon pricing is meant to do is incentivize the private sector to pursue innovative methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. That helps businesses operate more efficiently. "But it also potentially creates the space for them to be a more cutting-edge player in this new kind of economy," she says.

Designed for failure
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Canada is no longer home to a design museum. Imagine what aspects of our everyday material culture are at risk of being lost, writes Brendan Cormier, simply because we have neglected to invest in the cultural infrastructure to preserve these objects
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By BRENDAN CORMIER
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O4


Brendan Cormier is a senior design curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. He co-founded the Toronto-based design studio Department of Unusual Certainties.

On March 20, the Design Exchange (DX), housed in Toronto's historic old stock exchange on Bay Street, made the unprecedented announcement that it would be deaccessioning its entire collection, comprising more than 300 Canadian design objects. When it opened in 1994, the institution took on the mantel of being "Canada's Design Museum," rightly addressing the country's lack of cultural infrastructure and support for design.

It consequently sought to build a collection of Canadian postwar design objects that reflected ingenuity, innovation and artistry, which included Jacques Guillion's Cord Chair, Clairtone's G2 Stereo and Jan Kuypers' Helsinki Desk. With the loss of its collection, the DX will now by definition cease to be a museum.

This is deeply troubling. While the DX has long struggled to assert itself as a major museum of importance in the country, its move away from museum-status is nevertheless a major loss. Canada will now become one of the only advanced economies in the world not to have its own design museum. The United States has the Cooper Hewitt, the United Kingdom has the V&A and the Design Museum, and virtually every other European country has an institution of this kind.

These institutions play a vital role in supporting local and national design cultures, and these countries have benefited from having a museum or museums that not only collect and preserve design objects, but also work to foster creativity, innovation and critical debate around how we make things.

The news from the DX is all the more startling because the trend for creating new design museums is increasing, not shrinking. More and more countries with growing economies are viewing design museums as necessary institutions for preserving and disseminating culture, while providing insight and fuel for future innovation. Exciting initiatives like Design Society in Shenzhen, the Museum of African Design in Johannesburg and the Moscow Design Museum all explore in different ways how a design institution can contribute both to a public and to a nation.

They may vary in scope, budget, and size, but they share one common idea - that museums can help design culture thrive.

Canada is now the clear outlier. For an example of what happens when a country consistently invests and supports a national design museum, we might look to my own place of work, the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. It was created in the middle of the 19th century out of a concern that the quality of goods produced in Britain was declining, while neighbouring nations were out-competing the country. The museum founders also saw how traditional craft techniques - which produced objects of great aesthetic and cultural value - were under threat of disappearing due to industrialization. It set about a two-fold mission: First, it would collect and preserve objects of high-quality production and craft representing a rich array of different making-techniques around the world, to ensure that these traditions were never lost or forgotten; and then it would use these objects to educate and inspire both manufacturers and a broader public.

Now, 165 years later, not only does the V&A have one of the most comprehensive and thorough design collections in the world, but it also receives millions of visitors every year, pumping tourist money into the local economy. It has also inspired generations of British designers, many of whom have gone on to illustrious global success, while helping Britain maintain and advance a robust design industry.

While the V&A's collecting strategy goes for a global encyclopedic approach, the world is also better served by a diversity of design museums, each working in their own way to collect and document local histories.

One great example is M+, an ambitious new museum set to open in Hong Kong in the coming year. Since its inception, its collections mandate has been to collect visual culture from a uniquely Asian perspective. One particularly poignant project has focused on documenting the history of neon signs in Hong Kong.

Although it seems hard to imagine the city without the nighttime glow of neon, indeed the production of neon signs is slowly fading away, being replaced with much more flexible and economical LED technology. In response, M+'s curatorial team worked assiduously to preserve and document the legacy of neon in the city. They researched its history, met and filmed the people still making these signs, interviewed cultural figures deeply influenced by the signage, and acquired a handful of signs for their permanent collection.

Inspiring stories like this highlight how depressing the situation in Canada now is. We simply lack an appropriate institution to collect and record such histories.

Imagine what aspects of our everyday material culture are at risk of being lost and forgotten; simply because we have neglected to invest in the cultural infrastructure to preserve these stories and objects. Imagine the amount of talented and accomplished designers, who have impacted our material and visual landscape, whose legacies might never be discussed. And simply because we have neglected to invest in curatorial and museum staff who could do the legwork, meeting with, documenting and collecting their work.

The DX, no longer being a museum, has decided to focus its efforts instead on a biennial event called EDIT: Expo for Design Innovation and Technology, an endeavour that I wish them all possible success with. But I can't help but think that what has pushed them in this direction was ultimately a failure to perform competently as a museum, a failure brought on by misguided management and a complacent board.

Perhaps though, we can see this failure as a new opportunity.

For years, many of us in the design community have quietly held out hope for the Design Exchange, that it would expand and improve and truly become the important piece of cultural infrastructure it promised to be.

And while, occasionally, it has had moments of brilliance, a good exhibition here, a great lecture there, it's growth into a fullfledged and thriving museum never really transpired.

Wiping the slate clean, now is the best time to start dreaming up a new design museum; a museum that is meaningful and impactful, which collects Canadian design but also convenes critical discussions around it. All the right ingredients exist to do so.

Canada has a stellar education system, a professional sector of talented and ambitious designers and a curious and engaged public. As for funding, there are good arguments to be made for more dedicated public funding for design (we have had it in the past). But we are also a rich country and private patrons should be able to step up and show their support for design.

These things can start out small - a few hired posts, a modest space to store and show acquired objects, a nimble events program. Such an intervention would already be a great addition to our cultural landscape, and a small group of patrons could make this happen. In Canada, there are still a million design stories to be told. Long live a new design museum that can tell them.

Associated Graphic

The G2 Stereo, manufactured by Toronto's Clairtone Sound Corporation, was displayed in something called the "Canadian Cottage" display at the XIII Milan Triennale, one of the world's top design shows of its time.

IMAGE COURTESY OF THE DESIGN EXCHANGE

The princely County that has it all
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Prince Edward County is a favourite spot for Ontarians, but its many delights make it a must-see destination for adventurers everywhere
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By RENEE SYLVESTRE-WILLIAMS
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page P8


It's hard to pick the best time of day in Prince Edward County.

Some prefer the morning when the air is fresh and crisp and you can put a few kilometres on your bikes or your hiking boots. Others prefer noon, when the sun is high but you're staying cool with a swim in Lake Ontario. Still others prefer the evening, which might start with dinner at a restaurant that features local foods paired with County wines, beers and ciders, followed by the sun sinking below the water's horizon in a blaze of pinks, red and orange.

Then look up: Prince Edward County has very little light pollution, so those glorious lights across the sky? That's the Milky Way.

Prince Edward County - or "the County," as residents call it - is considered one of Ontario's great vacation spots. Connected to the mainland by a few major roads, the peninsula sits between Ottawa and Toronto. It began as a tourist destination for campers and hikers, later developing into a magnet for wine, cheese, craft beer and food enthusiasts. The County's a place where you can go for a hike or a swim at the many beaches, rent a bike to tour the more than 40 wineries or breweries and finish the day with dinner at one of many fine restaurants.

THE BEACHES Patrick Maloney and his wife have been coming to the County since the 1970s, when they used to camp and cycle in the area, eventually retiring and opening Pedego, an electric bike outlet in Bloomfield. He calls Sandbanks Provincial Park, a long-time draw for tourists, "one of the most spectacular parks in Ontario."

With its magnificent sandy beaches and dunes, Sandbanks has always attracted a large contingent of campers, long before the County became known for its wineries, Maloney says.

For somewhere a little less crowded but just as beautiful, bring your folding chairs and picnic baskets to North Beach Provincial Park. It has a beautiful kilometre-long sandy beach and swimming-friendly blue water.

BIKING AND HIKING You can bike all over the County, says Ed Kraus, owner of Ideal Bike in Wellington. He estimates that 90 per cent of his customers enjoy cycling tours of the wineries, which are often shorter distances.

The remaining 10 per cent are avid cyclists. "They want to ride longer distances and the County's really good that way," he says. "All the routes loop back on themselves or potentially can. I've seen some people crank out some big numbers, like 180 kilometres in a day, where they've toured the entire county."

Whether you bike long or short distances, make sure to hit the Millennium Trail, a 46-km path winding across the County from Picton to Carrying Place. The trail was neglected until recently, when advocates and volunteers, including Maloney, raised more than $150,000 to refurbish and resurface the old train line. As you walk, bike, jog or ride, you're treated to nearly every type of landscape the County has to offer. Picton eases you in with a nice, smooth road as you go past farmland and the Picton Golf & Country Club. Section 14 is a little rougher, with an unpaved trail that snakes through vineyards, where, depending on your visit, you'll see vines flush with grapes.

Finally, explore the wetlands in Hillier, part of the trail - just don't forget your waterproof shoes. To explore the marshes of Sandbanks, try the hike along the shores of the Outlet River, a short two kms, or the Woodlands Trail, a 3.5-km trek that takes you through trails sheltered by sugar maples or conifers, some of which were planted in 2017 as part of the park's reforestation program.

Walking the Millennium Trail is also a great opportunity for kids to spot rabbits and chipmunks.

CANOEING AND KAYAKING The County is on a peninsula, mostly surrounded by water from Lake Ontario and the Bay of Quinte, which means a variety of water activities for all ages and skills. You can rent kayaks and canoes at various outlets, such as Cabin Fever Kayak in Milford, where you can paddle on the sixkm Black River and watch out for wildlife swans, beavers, kingfishers and herons, depending on the time of year. The Outlet River, south of Sandbanks, is a perfect place for some laid-back canoeing.

WHERE TO STAY There is a variety of options when it comes to where to lay your head and if you want to cook your own meals. If you want to camp, there are nearly a dozen campgrounds in the County. The most well known are the vast array of campsites in Sandbanks Provincial Park, which can accommodate anything from tents to large trailers, some of which offer electricity and shower access.

Other locations include Sandbanks Beach Resort, which has a blend of campsites, trailers and cottages for rent. County Shores, located on the Bay of Quinte, has spots for campers and RVers. If you prefer your camping to be a bit less rustic, you can do the glamping thing, too. Fronterra Farm in Consecon has all the amenities glampers could desire, including an ensuite bathroom in your tent. There's also a brewery and a farm onsite. You may never want to leave, but Fronterra also has bike and canoe rentals for seeing the local sights.

The upscale Drake brand has established itself as one of the places to stay in the County, with the Drake Devonshire and recently opened Drake Motor Inn, both in Wellington.

Both are a blend of hotel, art space, spa and cocktail lounge, set right on the water. The locations are in the heart of Wellington, a great base from which to rent bikes and ride around town.

For something more traditional, Angeline's Inn has a renovated 1860s log cabin, perfect for a family stay. The cabin was moved 33 km to Bloomfield and rebuilt with all the modern conveniences.

WHERE TO EAT After a day of biking or kayaking, indulge your hunger at local restaurants that specialize in pairing locally made wines and beers with local produce. The County Canteen in Picton is an elevated pub that has 26 Ontario craft beers.

Another option, especially for brunch, is Agrarian Bistro in Bloomfield, which focuses on local dairy, meat and produce on its menus.

If you want some excellent local wine with your meal, you're in the right place. There are several wineries that also serve food. The restaurant at Waupoos Winery is set among the vines and overlooks the lake.

After dinner, walk down to the deck and take in the view of the lake. If you prefer cider with your food and lake views, the County Cider Company in Waupoos offers pizza, made-on-the-premises cider and shaded tables looking out over the lake. Just the place to refresh and refuel before hopping on your bike for your next County adventure.

Associated Graphic

The stunning sunsets and clear, starry night skies have attracted visitors to Ontario's Prince Edward County for decades.

From top: Prince Edward County is one of the best destinations for biking, either as a family or for cycling buffs. Fronterra Farms' upscale glamping accommodations are a great way to be close to nature in comfort. The Drake Devonshire brings a touch of urban hipness to the town of Wellington. An array of camping facilities can be found all over Sandbanks Provincial Park.

Prichard's wide network may be his Achilles heel
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By RITA TRICHUR
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Robert Prichard is the poster boy for corporate Canada. So much so that a study published by the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management back in 2004 deemed him a "principal gatekeeper of governance reform" because he sits on so many boards. The research, which mapped Mr. Prichard's web of business connections, put him at the centre of an exclusive network of corporate elites. Much to their surprise, the academics concluded that "old boys' network" was having a positive impact on corporate governance.

Being an influential director has always been Mr.Prichard's calling card, but these days it's proving to be his Achilles heel.

He's the chairman of both the Bank of Montreal and Torys LLP, the law firm representing SNC-Lavalin Group Inc. in its criminal case on fraud and bribery charges.

He's also a director for two other large companies and a major Toronto hospital.

His Rolodex is a who's who of Canada's establishment.

There's nothing wrong with having clout. Let's face it, perky self-promotion is one way to navigate Bay Street's cliquish corporate culture. But by sitting on so many major boards, Mr. Prichard has unwittingly entangled Canada's oldest bank in the SNC-Lavalin affair. Regulators should be paying attention. Mr. Prichard's story is a cautionary tale about the hazards that arise when individuals take on too many directorships or occupy those roles for too long.

Mr. Prichard is a seasoned director, which is why he should have known better. He's been BMO's chairman since 2012 and has served on BMO's board since 2000. Being the bank's chairman is a part-time job, but investors pay him richly - nearly $600,000 a year - to put their interests first.

He's also a long-time director of buyout firm Onex Corp. and sits on the board of food company George Weston Ltd., owner of major retail brands such as Loblaws Inc. and Shoppers Drug Mart Corp. He has previously served on the boards of Barrick Gold Corp.

and transit agency Metrolinx.

He's also a trustee for the Hospital for Sick Children.

He's a busy guy. But BMO's proxy circular - the document it sends to shareholders every year that describes how the board works - states that a director's duty is to represent the bank 365 days a year. Directors are expected to be independent and ensure their outside interests, including business and political activities, don't create real or perceived conflicts for the bank.

That's why Mr. Prichard had no business getting involved in SNC's criminal case while he was chairman of BMO. Although the charges against SNC have not been tested in court, lobbying for the Montreal engineering company was evidently fraught with risks.

For his part, Mr. Prichard says he did nothing wrong. He told The Globe and Mail in a written statement that he informed BMO of all his outside activities, including his decision to join the Torys legal team advising SNC, and recused himself appropriately.

"I comply with both the ISS and Glass Lewis guidelines on maximum number of boards. My attendance record at all my boards is strong, rarely falling below 100 per cent. In all my years as a director, no one on any of the boards has to my knowledge ever questioned my commitment, engagement or availability," Mr. Prichard said in an e-mail on Friday.

"I was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Corporate Directors in recognition of my work as a director, the highest honour available in Canada for directors, which is some evidence of my standing in that community. And I was elected to a second term as chair of BMO by my colleagues, again some evidence of their view that I was fulfilling the role effectively." The bank was aware that Mr.

Prichard's interests were aligned with those of BMO vice-chair Kevin Lynch, who is also chair of SNC. Further, BMO officials apparently knew that both men were lobbying former Treasury Board president Scott Brison to make the case for a deferred prosecution agreement for SNC - before the politician was hired in February as a vice-chair for the bank's capital-markets division.

"With respect to conflicts, most active directors face conflicts from time to time arising from their multiple boards and other professional and executive roles.

The key is that the board have a good policy governing how to deal with conflicts and ensuring all directors abide by them. BMO's policy addresses this directly," Mr.

Prichard said in his e-mail.

There's little doubt that Mr. Prichard complied with the bank's conflict-of-interest rules. The trouble is those rules allowed him to put himself first.

Bank stocks are among the most widely held equities in the country. Every Canadian has exposure to banks either directly as shareholders, or indirectly through pension plans or other funds. Canada's economy is tied to the health of our banks. That's why there's nothing banks fear more than reputational risk.

Indeed, it's right there on the first page of BMO's code of conduct for employees. "Our reputation depends on how we behave with all stakeholders. Whether acting in our capacity as BMO representatives or as individual citizens, our actions reveal who we are, what we believe and what we stand for. Living up to our values is much more than just following the law and our policies. It is making sure we always do the right thing."

Whose name is signed at the bottom of those words? Step forward, Mr. Prichard.

In keeping with that spirit of transparency, BMO owes its shareholders a proper explanation about why it was alright for Mr.Prichard to get involved with SNC's case. Further, investors deserve to know how Mr. Brison came to work at the bank and if Mr. Prichard and Mr. Lynch discussed any BMO business while lobbying him on SNC.

BMO also owes it to shareholders to toughen up its conflictof-interest rules. The bank has said that Mr. Prichard intends to step down as chairman at the bank's next annual meeting, at which time he will have hit the 20-year term limit and 70-year age limit for grandfathered BMO directors.

Directors who joined BMO's board after 2010 are subject to a 15-year term limit, but the bank reserves the right to waive the age and term limits for directors, the chairman and committee chairs.

That loophole should be closed.

Regulators, meanwhile, should consider imposing consistent age and term limits for all federally regulated companies. They should also follow the example of countries that have stricter rules on director independence. In France, for instance, a director is no longer considered independent after serving on a board for 12 years.

Term and age limits prevent directors from getting too cozy with management and ensure that boards benefit from fresh blood and diverse points of view. Otherwise, members of Canada's old boys' network will always be tempted to put themselves first.

Associated Graphic

Robert Prichard is chairman of Bank of Montreal as well as Torys LLP, the firm representing SNC-Lavalin in its criminal case on fraud and bribery charges. The charges haven't been tested in court, but Mr. Prichard's decision to lobby for the company is fraught with risks.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In Nova Scotia, a thriving lobster industry buoys boat builders
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By ERIN ANDERSSEN
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


WEDGEPORT, N.S. -- A newly finished lobster fishing boat waits on a trailer in a yard at Wedgeport Boats, like a displaced sea creature ready to return. The Porsche-red hull gleams in the Nova Scotia sun. Standing on the ground in its shadow, the vessel's owner, Mark Rogers, watches with satisfaction as the vinyl sticker - the kind used for race cars - is applied to the bow, revealing a muscled, smiling cartoon lobster.

It's the afternoon before the official launch of the Katie Anne - named, according to custom, for Mr.Rogers's now-grown daughter. The launch has been planned for a Friday, which, as grizzled fishermen will say, is traditionally a day best avoided for a new voyage. But Mr. Rogers figures he's balanced those odds: A priest is coming to deliver a blessing with holy water and, although he isn't Roman Catholic, he's accepted a rosary - once owned by a nun - to hang in the cockpit of the boat, just for luck.

"I would rather have God with me than against me," he quips. "I can get in enough trouble on my own."

But fortune is already smiling on East Coast lobster fishermen and boat builders alike, thanks to a thriving lobster fishery, fuelled by a strong global market, abundant catch and a low dollar.

Fishermen with older boats have been flipping them at prices high enough to make trading up possible, investing in vessels with larger holds so they can stay out at sea longer and swishier accommodation for the crew. In the past five years, according to the Nova Scotia Boat Builders Association, sales for new builds and repairs in the province have more than doubled - to $110-million in 2018.

When Fraser Challoner and his partner, Skip Muise, first became co-owners of Wedgeport Boats in 2008, they were laying off workers for months at a time almost every year, an especially hard call in a small fishing village such as Wedgeport, located on the southwestern tip of the province, about 300 kilometres from Halifax. But, as business began to pick up, the company, one of about 60 in Nova Scotia, expanded to a new property and added buildings. Now Mr. Challoner, the general manager, is booking contracts into 2021.

So it's a good day at Wedgeport Boats, and not only because there's a cool wind to cut the afternoon heat. Not counting the fleet on land for serving or retrofitting, there are six boats in various stages of construction - a hull with its ribs still showing in one bay; workers fibreglassing a nearly finished hull in another. In one bay, a boat is being worked on by another builder.

"We're so busy," Mr. Challoner says, "we can give work away."

But every boom has its complications, especially when your work is tied to an industry famous for glory-day highs and devastating lows.

For one thing, as Jan Fullerton, the boatbuilding association's executive director, points out, yards are having trouble finding skilled workers to handle all the business on offer right now. That's meant some poaching between yards, but also a new focus on apprenticeship programs to attract young Nova Scotians into the trade, or bring in skilled workers from other countries.

At Wedgeport, one of the welders who worked on the Katie Anne is Simon An, a 21year-old from South Korea who graduated recently from Nova Scotia Community College and is hoping to receive his permanent residency in Canada with help from the Wedgeport yard and a provincial immigration program.

Mr. Challoner says that while the yard doesn't struggle to keep workers, "we have an aging crew," and not enough certified boat builders coming up behind them. But yards also have to be careful about the size of their work force, he says, given that the current run of contracts isn't likely to last. The Wedgeport yard is already planning ahead, expanding its focus to servicing, repairs and Transport Canada inspections, as well as a line of orders for fibreglass fishing boats for a salmon aquaculture company, Mr Challoner says.

When you live off the ocean, you learn fast that what the tides brings in, it also takes out.

But for now, and on this day especially, business is bright.

Once the Katie Anne is launched, the next boat in line belongs to Camille Jacquard, who is also milling around today, Tim Hortons cup in hand, pondering the design of his trim paint.

The name is decided: Pelagic Predator. His boat will be designed to "wash, rinse and repeat," as Mr. Challoner puts it, to fish lobster, tuna and swordfish. But ask Mr. Jacquard, a fifth-generation fisherman, what he's most excited about, and he says: "the comfort."

Right now, the cockpit and galley are only framed in, but once it's done, like the Katie Anne, it will have a full kitchen, an entertainment system and a small bathroom with a shower.

"You've heard of glamping?" jokes Ron Ward, a sales rep with Atlantic Electronics who is here to oversee some final tests on the Katie Anne. "Well, this is glamour fishing."

Not so glamorous: As a Globe and Mail investigation found in 2017, commercial fishing is the most dangerous sector in Canada.

But another perk of the boom is that the fleet upgrade will also come with the latest safety equipment and technology. The Katie Anne, for instance, is equipped with sonar that can scan the shape of objects on the ocean floor, to assist with salvaging.

The next day, the launch goes smoothly.

With the yard still quiet to avoid distractions, Mr. Muise, who as production manager oversees the construction side of the business, carefully backs the Katie Anne down to the water - the trickiest part of the launch, everyone agrees, no matter how many times you've done it. The prayers are delivered and blessings bestowed, and Katie Anne herself smashes the celebratory bottle of champagne on the hull of her namesake.

The Katie Anne will then go through further testing and sea trials in August, before heading to her home port of Saint John.

Meanwhile, the next job calls.

"In my head," Mr. Muise says, "it's on to the next boat." Which is another reason to celebrate.

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Top: Wedgeport Boats, one of about 60 boat makers in Nova Scotia, is located in a small fishing village on the southwestern tip of the province.

Above: A worker applies a decal of a muscled, smiling cartoon lobster to the red hull of the Katie Anne, Wedgeport Boat's latest completed vessel.

Left: There are six boats in various stages of construction at the Wedgeport yard, and general manager Fraser Challoner is booking contracts into 2021.

PHOTOS BY ANDREW TOLSON/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

After hauling it into the shipyard, worker Derrick Riddell, left, and Wedgeport Boats co-owner Skip Muise prepare a boat for maintenance.

Simon An, a 21-year-old from South Korea, works as a welder at Wedgeport. He's hoping to get his permanent residency through the yard and a provincial immigration program.

Thanks to a flourishing lobster industry, business is going well at boat yards such as Wedgeport, below. But every boom has complications. For instance, yards are having trouble finding skilled workers to handle all the contracts on offer right now.

SPACEFLIGHT PIONEER TRAINED NORTH AMERICA'S FIRST ASTRONAUTS
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After working with John Glenn and others at NASA, he moved home, helping oversee the Canadarm program and training Canadians for space missions
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By CHRIS GAINOR
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B16


In 1959, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced America's first astronauts to the world. Nearly 25 years later, Canada's first astronauts were chosen. Both groups of astronauts were trained by Bruce Aikenhead, a soft-spoken Canadian who began a long career in spaceflight after losing his job when the CF-105 Avro Arrow jet interceptor was cancelled.

His career also included service in the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War and work at well-known Canadian firms including Electrohome, CAE Inc. and Spar Aerospace, but Mr. Aikenhead, who died this month, will be best remembered as one of the key individuals in the early years of Canada's space program.

Until the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) opened for business in 1989, Canada's space efforts were spread amongst a variety of government agencies and private contractors. No one could match Mr. Aikenhead's variety of experience in Canada's space sector or his three years in a key role at NASA.

Shortly after Bruce Alexander Aikenhead was born, on Sep. 22, 1923, in Didsbury, Alta., his family moved to London, Ont., where he was raised. During the war, Mr.

Aikenhead joined the RCAF and serviced radar equipment while attached to the Royal Air Force in England and, later, in India.

Mr. Aikenhead studied radio physics at the University of Western Ontario after the war and completed an honours bachelor of science degree in radio physics in 1950. He married the former Helen Wait in 1947, and together they raised their family. Starting in 1950, Mr. Aikenhead worked at Dominion Electrohome Industries in Kitchener on production engineering of radio receivers, car radios and televisions.

In 1955, Mr. Aikenhead turned to aviation, joining Canadian Aviation Electronics in Montreal, now known as CAE, where he helped develop aircraft simulators. Three years later, he moved to Avro Canada in Malton, Ont., where he worked on the flight simulator for the Avro Arrow, a highly advanced aircraft that was capable of flying twice the speed of sound.

Six months after Mr. Aikenhead started work at Avro, the Conservative government of John Diefenbaker cancelled the Arrow program on Feb. 20, 1959, throwing thousands of skilled people out of work. A few weeks after the cancellation, top officials from NASA flew to Malton and hired 25 former Avro engineers, including Mr. Aikenhead, to work on Project Mercury, which would launch the first U.S. astronauts into space.

On the day in April, 1959, that Mr. Aikenhead reported to work at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., he was assigned to join the team that would train the Mercury astronauts. He then went through his formal employment induction procedures for NASA alongside the seven astronauts, who had also started work that day. For the rest of his time at the agency, he and the astronauts worked in adjacent offices.

With his experience in simulators, Mr. Aikenhead developed a device that simulated the cabin of the Mercury spacecraft, and he helped train Alan Shepard and Virgil (Gus) Grissom for their suborbital launches in 1961. Mr. Aikenhead and his colleagues were training John Glenn that fall for his first American orbital flight when NASA decided that its human space program would relocate to Houston.

Along with some of the other engineers from Canada, Mr.

Aikenhead decided that Texas was too far away from home, and he was able to get another job at CAE working on aircraft simulators. When his friend Mr. Glenn made his historic flight on Feb. 20, 1962, Mr. Aikenhead could only follow it on the radio from his new home in Montreal.

In 1966, Mr. Aikenhead returned to the space sector when he decided to join Gerald Bull of McGill University in the High Altitude Research Program, which sought to develop cannons capable of launching satellites into orbit. The program ended the following year when the Canadian government withdrew financial support, and Dr. Bull went on to notoriety by developing cannons for military clients around the world until his still-unsolved killing in 1990.

After his layoff, Mr. Aikenhead soon found a job at RCA Canada in Montreal, where he was project engineer for the ISIS 2 spacecraft, the fourth and last of Canada's first generation of satellites that explored the ionosphere as part of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies program. After the launch of ISIS 2 in 1971, he worked on the Communications Technology Satellite, which after its launch in 1976 was known as Hermes, and pioneered direct-to-home and other communications technologies.

By then, RCA had been purchased by Spar Aerospace, which assigned Mr. Aikenhead to work with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) on a program to build the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System for the U.S.

Space Shuttle. In 1981, Mr. Aikenhead moved to the NRC in Ottawa as deputy program manager for what became known as the Canadarm.

The Canadarm proved itself in early shuttle flights, and in 1983, the Canadian government followed up on NASA's invitation to fly Canadian astronauts by selecting five men and one woman for the Canadian Astronaut Program.

Mr. Aikenhead was involved in the final selections, and, with his experience at NASA, he quickly became involved in training the Canadian team. When Marc Garneau was selected to be the first Canadian to fly in space, Mr.

Aikenhead's contacts at NASA helped open many doors in Houston for the Canadians prior to Mr. Garneau's flight in October, 1984.

Mr. Aikenhead was put in charge of the Canadian Astronaut Program in 1986, but the program was effectively on hiatus for a time because of the loss of the shuttle Challenger that year. He presided over the program's transfer from NRC to the CSA in 1989, the shuttle flights of Canadian astronauts Roberta Bondar and Steve MacLean in 1992 and the selection of Canada's second group of astronauts, including Chris Hadfield and Julie Payette, now the Governor-General of Canada.

In March, 1993, Mr. Aikenhead retired and moved to Salmon Arm, B.C., with his wife, Helen, who died in 2005. Mr.

Aikenhead was named an officer of the Order of Canada in 1997. During his retirement, Mr. Aikenhead indulged his love of jazz and opera, and became a founder of the Okanagan Science Centre in Vernon, where he developed exhibits on space science and took part in school programs.

Mr. Aikenhead's death of natural causes in Vernon, B.C., on Aug. 5 brought quick responses from Canadian astronauts. Mr. Garneau, now Canada's Minister of Transport, praised him as a mentor, while Robert Thirsk remembered him as the "go-to guy" when astronauts needed information about space travel and Mr. Hadfield called him "kind, smart, hard working and humble."

Mr. Aikenhead, who was 95, leaves his son, Steve Aikenhead; and daughters Kasey Bernz, Elizabeth Aikenhead, Barbara Newton and Jane Swaine (who was fostered by the Aikenheads).

Associated Graphic

Bruce Aikenhead - seen at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., in 1960 - began working for the U.S. space agency in 1959. Using his experience working on aircraft simulators at Montreal's Canadian Aviation Electronics, Mr. Aikenhead developed a device that mimicked the cabin of the spacecraft that would later put the first Americans in orbit.

NASA

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Fresh from the farm
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Take advantage of late summer stone fruits with a twist on peach cobbler
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By TARA O'BRADY
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page P5


Nigel Slater once wrote that he rarely cooks a peach, and I routinely follow his example. Living, as I do, between two towns that boast summer peach festivals, the drupes are most often consumed straight from the farm. Often in the parking lot, bent at my waist, feet apart and elbows parallel to the ground, so that the copious juices drip to the gravel rather than onto my clothes. The season's plums are enjoyed in much the same way, as well as the smooth-skinned nectarines.

In an attempt to prolong the satisfaction, I do bring some home to steward into ripening. Those live on a platter in the dining room, stem-side down, resting on their shoulders in a single layer and with space between each.

Like this, they're coaxed to their full promise over the following days.

Stone fruits are ready when they feel heavy for their size - combat any urge to prod or squeeze the fruit for tenderness, as this will only lead to bruises and disappointment later. Instead, rely on that weighty feel in your palm, akin to a water balloon almost, and then smell, searching for the undeniable headiness exclusive to the ripest fruit.

As the days lean further into August, stone fruits settle into their stride. So, when that bounty and my dessertadoring family dictate an immediate use for a punnet of fruit, I break my no-cook habit.

Whole peaches poached in white wine, their skins slipped off, then the rosy flesh chilled, are served in their perfumed bath with a swath of cream. Fat apricot halves are canned in a straightforwardly old-school simple syrup speckled the seeds from a vanilla bean. A quick plum chutney, buzzing with spice and assertive with vinegar, meets barbecued pork on our plates at dinner.

In my mind, though, the best partner to stone fruit is a crust. A crisp pie pastry counters the fruit's softness; the rocky rubble of a crumble or crisp does the same.

In thumbing through Nicole Rucker's new cookbook Dappled: Baking Recipes for Fruit Lovers, I came across her peach cobbler, with its cobblestoned topping of ricotta biscuits. I appreciated the potential of the dairy freshness and golden-crisped edges against the sweet and soft stewed fruit beneath.

I love the colours of the late-summer farmstand; peach hues, vibrant golden nectarines, fuchsia-fleshed plums, so tumbled them all together into a kaleidoscope version of Rucker's recipe. The plums dazzled here. Their sharpness brought a keen edge to the peaches' honeyed influence, and the cobbler was stained sunrise shades.

With the at-its-peak fruit I had, I was miserly with sugar and slightly generous with flour, so the juices flowing in the pan still thickened to a luscious puddle, which was then sopped up by the tender-bellied biscuits with enthusiasm. Breaking the rules is rarely so rewarding.

PEACH AND RICOTTA BISCUIT COBBLER INGREDIENTS (SERVES 8)

2 pounds ripe peaches, skinned, pitted and cut into

3/4 -inch pieces (about 6 cups)

1 2/2 cups sugar

2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice

2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

1 teaspoon ground cinnamon Pinch kosher salt

1/2 recipe Ricotta Biscuits dough (see below), cut into

2-inch squares

2 tablespoons heavy cream, for brushing Position a rack in the centre of your oven and preheat the oven to 350°F. Place a parchment-lined baking sheet on the lower rack of the oven to catch any drips.

Combine the peaches, sugar, lemon juice, flour, cinnamon and salt in a 2-quart baking dish. Arrange the biscuits on top of the filling and brush the surface with the heavy cream. Bake the cobbler until the biscuits are browned and baked through and the juices bubble vigorously around the edges of the dish, about 45 minutes. Serve the cobbler warm. Any leftovers will keep well at room temperature overnight, but it's really best eaten the same day.

RICOTTA BISCUITS INGREDIENTS (MAKES 16 BISCUITS)

5 cups cake flour, plus more for rolling

3 tablespoons sugar

1 tablespoon baking powder

2 teaspoons baking soda

2 teaspoons kosher salt

2 sticks unsalted butter, cold and cut into

1/2 -inch cubes

2 cups cold buttermilk, plus more for brushing

1 1/2 cups cold whole-milk ricotta cheese, drained for at least

1 hour in a fine-mesh strainer lined with two layers of cheesecloth Sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda and salt into a large mixing bowl.

Place the bowl in the freezer to chill for 20 minutes. Add the butter to the dry ingredients and toss to combine. Pinch and smear the pieces of butter between your fingers - processing the butter like this creates small leaves that layer in the dough, resulting in flakes later. Once all the butter chunks have been pinched, grab small handfuls of flour and butter and rub the two together between the palms of your hands until the mixture resembles uneven pebbles on a sandy beach.

Create a well in the centre of the mixture and add 1 cup of the buttermilk. Using a fork, toss the flour and butter from around the edge of the well into the centre. Fluff the buttermilk and flour mixture with the fork five or six times, until shaggy looking.

Crumble the ricotta cheese into tablespoon-size chunks over the dough, making sure not to break up the cheese too much. Using your hands, with your fingers spread wide open, loosely incorporate the cheese into the dough with a lift-and-gentlysqueeze motion. Drizzle the remaining 1 cup of buttermilk over the dough while using the fork to bring the mixture together into a loose and shaggy mass.

Scrape the dough onto a lightly floured work surface and use your hands to shape it into a 10-inchby-7-inch rectangle. Fold the rectangle in thirds like a letter and then rotate 90 degrees. Using a rolling pin, flatten the dough back into a10-inch-by-7-inch rectangle. Repeat the folding, rotating and rolling process two more times, ending with the dough shaped into a 10-inch-by-7-inch rectangle of about 1-inch thickness. Wrap the dough with plastic and refrigerate for 30 minutes.

Position two racks in the centre zone of your oven and preheat the oven to 400 F. Line two baking sheets with parchment paper.

Return the dough to the work surface and roll it out into a 12-inch-by-10-inch rectangle of about ¾-inch thickness. Using a sharp knife, trim and discard ¼ inch from all sides of the dough. Cut the rectangle into 4 evenly spaced vertical strips, and then into 4 horizontal strips to get 16 biscuits. Place 8 biscuits about 1½ inches apart on each prepared baking sheet. Generously brush the tops of the biscuits with buttermilk.

Bake until the biscuits are golden brown and have expanded upward to reveal fluffy layers on the sides, 18 to 20 minutes. Cool for as long as you can stand it, or risk a burned mouth and go for it.

Reprinted from Dappled by arrangement with Avery, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House LLC. Copyright © 2019, Nicole Rucker.

Associated Graphic

TARA O'BRADY/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Hong Kong protesters defy China's threat with massive, peaceful rally
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


HONG KONG -- Beneath an undulating roof of umbrellas that covered streets for kilometres, Hong Kong demonstrators delivered an emphatic show of support on Sunday for protests that have now continued for more than two months.

In that time, demonstrations have shut down the city's airport, snarled traffic and led to violent confrontations with police in one of the world's most important financial centres, which is beginning to show signs of economic pain from the continuing turmoil.

But the sea of people marching under heavy rain on Sunday offered a ringing endorsement of the protesters' demands for change, and signalled that demonstrations are unlikely to fade soon.

Organizers estimated that more than 1.7 million people came out to march in defiance of a police ban, joining a peaceful rebuttal to the Beijing central government that has labelled the protests an extremist movement that has shown "signs of terrorism." "With this huge number, we can say that these people, the people of Hong Kong, have revitalized and also reauthorized the campaign," said Bonnie Leung, viceconvenor of the Civil Human Rights Front, which organized the march.

"We have the people's support," she said.

The number of demonstrators sent a "pretty clear and loud" message that "Hong Kong people are not happy with the current situation," said Jeremy Tan, a prodemocracy member of the city's Legislative Council.

Protesters have demanded the full cancellation of a proposed extradition bill, an independent investigation into police use of force and more democratic freedoms.

Police released a far smaller estimate of the crowd size Sunday, saying just 128,000 people had attended the original meeting point, at the city's Victoria Park. In a statement released late Sunday night, the Hong Kong government criticized demonstrators for occupying roads and "reiterated that it was most important to restore social order as soon as possible. The Government will begin sincere dialogue with the public, mend social rifts and rebuild social harmony when everything has calmed down."

But the peaceful Sunday may not mark a turn away from the violent clashes with police that have clouded Hong Kong streets in tear gas and pepper spray. Instead, some of the city's most provocative voices saw the large turnout as validation of more aggressive tactics demonstrators have employed in recent weeks.

"The majority of Hong Kong people are not backing down.

They still support whatever means the protesters used in the past, and I think it's a very important signal that we are still keeping up the momentum," said Andy Chan, a political activist disqualified for running for office because of his openly pro-independence position. He is currently on bail after being arrested on Aug. 2 by police who said they found explosives and weapons in a Hong Kong apartment. He has not been charged with any crime, and has continued to call for protesters to stand against police.

"We need to defend our freedom," Mr. Chan said. "If we do not insist and resist - then instead we will go home, the movement will be at an end and many people will get caught, arrested and go to jail.

So we can't stop."

Sunday night brought no further clashes. Hundreds of blackclad protesters - some wearing helmets and gas masks - assembled around Hong Kong's government complex, but by midnight most had dispersed, leaving the city with its first weekend free of tear gas in a month.

Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland condemned violence in the territory, in a joint statement with her European Union counterpart, Federica Mogherini, on Saturday. They voiced support for Hong Kong's autonomy and demonstrators' right to peaceful assembly, but urged restraint in the wake of "unacceptable violent incidents."

In response, a spokesperson for the Chinese embassy in Canada called for Ms. Freeland to "immediately stop meddling in Hong Kong affairs and China's internal affairs," and said the Canadian government "should be cautious on its words and deeds" when it comes to Hong Kong.

Meanwhile, some seeking to send a more peaceful signal went to unusual lengths during Sunday's daytime march, displaying symbols of Communist China as an olive branch to Beijing-linked officials who have decried "ultraradicals" for staging "the ugliest riot in the world" and making themselves enemies of the people. The rhetoric from Beijing has been augmented by a gathering of military trucks and armoured personnel carriers in the nearby mainland city of Shenzhen, indicating that Beijing is prepared to use force if necessary to quell unrest in the city.

In response, Oscar Lau held high a Chinese flag Sunday in the midst of the mass gathering at Victoria Park. "I know tensions are high, so I'm here holding this flag to calm the situation," said Mr. Lau, a university research worker. His voice quavered as he spoke. In a protest movement that has seen at least one Chinese flag tossed into the sea, the fivestar emblem has become a provocative symbol.

But Mr. Lau wanted to underscore that, unlike their portrayal in Chinese media, most protesters have no desire to sever Hong Kong from China. "I want to send a message to the Hong Kong government, the mainland government and mainland people that what we are demanding is not independence," he said.

China's state media have reported extensively on violence among protesters, as well as demonstrations in support of Beijing.

On Sunday night, the People's Daily featured reports on a proBeijing rally on Saturday in which organizers estimated 470,000 people came out to decry violence among protesters. The state-run newspaper made no mention, however, of the Sunday rally.

Nor did it mention Crystal Ting, who joined the assembly with a large poster-board featuring a photo of a young Mao Zedong and some of his famous quotes. For those in power that fail their people, "the masses will always have a reason to get them out," read one quote from Chairman Mao. "A revolution is not a dinner party ... a revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another," read another.

Ms. Ting, a school worker, knew that a single poster would do little to counteract the narratives of China's powerful propaganda apparatus. But "we have to change what the people in China think," she said, hopefully. "They shouldn't think that all we want is to fight for independence and go against the government."

And, she added, the very father of Communist China has said people "should have the right to fight for our justice and freedom."

With reports from The Canadian Press

Associated Graphic

Demonstrators protest outside army headquarters in Hong Kong during a rally on Sunday.

THOMAS PETER/REUTERS

Protesters read a sign next to graffiti. Demonstrators are seeking the cancellation of a proposed extradition bill, among other freedoms.

KIM HONG-JI/REUTERS

Protesters rally to demand democratic reforms. Some advocates say the number of demonstrators sends a clear message to Hong Kong leaders.

ALY SONG/REUTERS

Thousands of protesters march in Hong Kong on Sunday despite heavy rain. Police estimated that 128,000 people were at Sunday's rally, while its organizers say more than 1.7 million people took part in the demonstration.

CHRIS McGRATH/ GETTY IMAGES

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Environmental studies
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Increasingly, iconic fashion brands are attempting to meet the demand for Earth-friendly products. Odessa Paloma Parker reports on what it takes to get to the green side
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By ODESSA PALOMA PARKER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page P9


In July, Zara announced its new sustainability initiatives, including recycling packaging and creating a new eco-conscious line called Join Life. Not everyone was enthusiastic about the news. Eco-activists such as Livia Firth have railed against mega-brands such as Zara and H&M for adopting, or setting goals to adopt, sustainable measures when the ideal solution would be to not produce so many, or any, mass items at all.

But having access to more mindfully made clothing is better than not having it, so there is encouragement to be found in the sustainability decisions being made by large-scale brands, slow-moving as they may be Dr. Elizabeth C. Kurucz is an associate professor of leadership and organizational management in the College of Business and Economics at the University of Guelph who focuses on businesses implementing organizational changes toward more sustainable business practices. She says that for both businesses and consumers, more mindful practices were slow to be developed and adopted, and even more so, standardized and vetted.

In the early days of her doctoral research, in the late 1990s, Kurucz says, "There were certain companies that were trying to do well by doing good, but it wasn't viewed broadly as a strategic business advantage for organizations; it was more a corporate social-responsibility viewpoint of, 'We've got to do the right thing.' But often, those companies were just continuing to do their bad business practices while doing some nice sort of philanthropic things on the side."

Kurucz contrasts that with today, when "we're looking at organizations who are reorienting their whole business strategy around sustainable-development goals or societal-level goals." The Sustainable Apparel Coalition was founded in 2012 after a meeting of minds at Patagonia and Walmart, and it has since launched a business toolkit, the Higg Index, which allows big brands to better understand the scope of their social and environmental impact. "Part of the issue is the tools weren't there to be able to identify all of the multifaceted impacts, environmentally and socially, of the supply chain," Kurucz says about one reason why sustainability has become a manufacturing approach - and a marketing focus.

Nina Marenzi, founder and director of the Sustainable Angle, an organization that provides advisory services and runs the Future Fabrics Expo in London, has seen an increase in eco-minded activity among larger mass brands. "We've certainly noticed quite a few differences in the last 12 to 18 months," she says. "I think a lot of these companies that looked at [sustainability] and didn't really move because they kept thinking 'Oh, this might go away,' or they didn't have the resources or they struggled with convincing the board ... all of a sudden, it really caught momentum and now they're struggling to keep up."

But there's the matter of resources to contend with. "It does take a long time to change your supply chain, or to improve your supply chain, and there's a lot of homework to do," she says. "And if you haven't done that by now, then you're not going to have a product that is going to come out that is having a lower environmental impact for another year."

Some might argue this is all too little, too late. It's hard to be optimistic when you read current statistics about carbon emissions and how much plastic is in the sea.

While Uniqlo currently has a sustainable denim initiative, there's not one that addresses the myriad other product categories it produces. The "beach bottle" announced this spring by hair-care brand Herbal Essences and waste-management company TerraCycle is, at this point, made of only 25-per-cent recycled plastic. And H&M has committed to using 100-per-cent sustainable materials by the year 2030, but that's 11 years away - which is the time cited at a recent UN General Assembly meeting that we have left to prevent irreversible damage from climate change. All these ideas are the start of more sustainably minded production, yet they also shed light on how much more work is needed to move such large companies over to greener pastures.

Converse, the Nike-owned brand that launched the much-loved Chuck Taylor All Star sneaker more than 100 years ago, announced its Renew collection this summer. With three different approaches to more sustainable design and manufacturing, Renew's Chucks are composed of either canvas, crafted from 100-per-cent recycled polyester made from discarded plastic bottles, upcycled denim sourced in partnership with London-based vintage retailer Beyond Retro, or a composite yarn made from Converse's own cotton-canvas waste mixed with polyester. Polyester, however, is a material that makes many environmentally minded people such as Marenzi cringe, and the shoe brand says it's exploring additional blends for the line. "I think from a materials perspective, we've already been making a lot of advances," Converse's director of materials, Jessica L'Abbe, says about Renew's initial fabrications. "Even [our] standard canvas is sustainably sourced, so we were already really working to make a lot of our ingredients better."

L'Abbe also addressed the use of materials such as glitter in the collaboration collection with fashion brand J.W. Anderson, since it's been highlighted as a major eco-no-no. "[Even] when using non-renewable materials, there are always ways to make things better," she says. "Following Nike Inc. and a lot of the processes that they already have set up, we're always ... building our library up to have better ingredients in it."

This focus on better has long been championed by Swedish lifestyle giant IKEA. "[Sustainability] is not a new concept for us," Melissa Mirowski, its Canadian sustainability specialist, says. "It's always been at the heart of the business."

In addition to adopting more sustainable manufacturing processes - the company committed to using wood from 100-percent sustainable sources by 2020 and reached that goal in 2017 - the home-focused brand has developed products that allow consumers to lead more sustainably focused lives themselves. Mirowski cites IKEA's Kungsbacka kitchen cabinetry as an example, which is made from recycled wood and covered with a plastic foil made from recycled PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles. "[At] end of life, you basically peel off the foil front and it's fully recyclable," she says.

Such a product journey is also a useful marketing angle, Marenzi says: "These days, everyone talks about needing to have authentic value. Customers really want to associate themselves with the products and with what the brands stand for."

Many behemoth brands have far to go as they launch environmentally and socially minded measures and prove they're not just paying lip service, but shoppers also have to do their part when it comes to digging in to decision-making, using their purchase power to ultimately dictate what messages and companies they believe in - and want to buy into.

Associated Graphic

Converse's new Renew Chucks are composed of either canvas crafted from 100-per-cent recycled polyester made from discarded plastic bottles, upcycled denim, or a composite yarn made from the company's cotton-canvas waste mixed with polyester.

'She was soulful ... It was magic when she danced'
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Colleagues and friends reflect on the career of Karen Kain, who will be the first Canadian to receive the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Award
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By BRAD WHEELER
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R5


Although Karen Kain is undoubtedly a noted Canadian, there would be no reason for her to suspect that a large framed photograph of her hangs in a dowdy hallway of the General Wolfe Inn, a modest lodging a ferry-ride away from Kingston that has withstood decades of winds, winters and any impulses to be redecorated.

Reaching the top of the stairs while on a recent stay there, I was greeted by the image of the legendary former ballerina in her tutu-and-tippy-toes prime. There is only one other star in the hotel's unexpected hall of fame: The model Twiggy, a Swinging Sixties pop-culture icon.

"Wow," Kain says, upon hearing of her pride of place. "I'm in good company."

And in rare company. How many dancers can you name?

How many ballerinas got their portrait done by Warhol or appeared in an episode of The Littlest Hobo? That Kain has seeped into the Canadian consciousness or onto the walls of the quirkiest corners of the country speaks to her dominating presence, outlandish charisma and extra-elite talent.

In recognition of her 50 years with the National Ballet of Canada - first as a dancer and, since 2005, artistic director - Kain is set to receive the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Award, an honour presented by the Royal Academy of Dance. On Aug. 29, Kain, 68, will be the first Canadian ever bestowed the award.

Previous recipients include Rudolf Nureyev, who along with Kain and Mikhail Baryshnikov, transcended the ballet world.

She, the Russians and a certain groovy Canadian prime minister were rock stars of the pirouetting kind.

"It was serendipity," Kain says, speaking from her office at the National about her elevated status.

"I had been with the company a few years when suddenly Nureyev came into our midst."

After defecting from the Soviet Union, Nureyev worked with prominent Western troupes, including the National Ballet. In 1973, Kain debuted in the role of Princess Aurora in The Sleeping Beauty with Nureyev, thus beginning their dance partnership. "I was in the right place at the right time," Kain says.

"He was a mega superstar and we were going to be working with him. He put us on the international map."

As artistic director, it is Kain's job to keep the company on that international map and to give young dancers the opportunities she once enjoyed as a performer herself. "I just try to bring in the brightest and the best influences," Kain says.

"I see the best all the time and I've worked with the best. And do you know what? The National Ballet of Canada is right up there."

In good company, one might say. And in no small part owing to the efforts of Kain.

In honour of Ms. Kain's 50year association with the National Ballet of Canada, The Globe and Mail spoke to people who have worked closely with her over the years.

FRANK AUGUSTYN, NATIONAL BALLET PRINCIPAL DANCER FROM 1972 TO 1989 First impression: I first saw Karen in the hallway of the National Ballet School. All I remember is seeing these bigger teeth. And bigger braces. Later, with the company, she was chosen to dance in The Mirror Walkers by Peter Wright. There was something special about her - an enormously gifted person. [National Ballet founder] Celia Franca saw it. We all did.

The mark she left on me: During a tour of Eastern Canada in the 1970s, Karen and I did [a] performance of Giselle in Fredericton. At the end, we received huge and loud applause. When the ballet master and ballet mistress came backstage, they were crying. Usually they have corrections, but not this time. Just tears. Karen and I didn't know what happened. It was precise and felt so effortless. It was then that I realized that I should try to achieve that every time - that every performance should be like this. Of course, it happened very infrequently, maybe three times in my career. But it was so magical. It seemed as if you didn't even do it.

In three words: Karen is charismatic, passionate and loyal.

SABRINA MATTHEWS, BALLET CHOREOGRAPHER First impression: I went to the National Ballet School of Canada from 1987 to 1995. As students, we took part in the annual productions of The Nutcracker. I was lucky enough to become Clara, which meant Karen was my Sugar Plum Fairy. It's every little girl's dream and she was just as captivating up close in the rehearsal studio as she was on stage.

Her dancing: She had an incredible acting ability. You couldn't stop watching her. Not a lot of dancers have that. When you saw her dance The Merry Widow, you believed she was her.

DAVID DRUM, FRIEND AND FORMER NATIONAL BALLET CHIROPRACTOR Favourite memory: We lived right next door to each other in Toronto's Cabbagetown. We were having trouble with our places being broken into, so we both bought German shepherd guard dogs. The funny thing was that the people who broke in after that stole both our dogs. They didn't take anything else.

Her dancing: It wasn't just Karen's technique and physical beauty. She was soulful. She gave herself to the role. It was magic when she danced.

Her help: I had invented a foot roller. For nothing, she would come to trade shows and demonstrate it. She was wonderfully supportive. She fed me a lot, too.

MARJORY FIELDING, RECENTLY RETIRED NATIONAL BALLET WARDROBE SUPERVISOR OF 24 YEARS First impression: Karen was already an icon when I met her in 1991. I was assisting on a new version of The Taming of the Shew, and there was a photo call. There are still posters of it around. Karen has her fists up, looking quite pugnacious. It was just a laugh.

But I think that fighting spirit is in her. It's just cloaked in velvet.

In three words: She's beautiful, gracious and a pleasure to work with.

CYLLA VON TIEDEMANN, PERFORMING-ARTS PHOTOGRAPHER First impression: I took the photographs for the company's yearbook, I believe in 1992. I had a lot of naked backs - everybody was naked and Karen was in a beautiful outfit. She made you feel like a peer. She was humble, and willing to play along and work with my crazy ideas.

The mark she left on me: There was a tenacity about her. Yes, an elegance, but also perfectionism.

She was willing to do poses over and over, even if that meant she would have to work longer. She understood the creative process, and she taught me a lot about it.

To keep at until it's perfect.

Associated Graphic

Karen Kain's career as a dancer and artistic director at the National Ballet of Canada spans 50 years. She is renowned for her performances in productions such as Don Quixote, right, and Afternoon of a Faun, bottom, pictured with collaborator Frank Augustyn. Augustyn calls Kain 'an enormously gifted person.'

TOP: FRED LUM/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL; RIGHT: JEFF WASSERMAN/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL; BOTTOM: BARRY GRAY/ THE NATIONAL BALLET OF CANADA

Jay-Z's capitalism shouldn't be a surprise
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Rapper has always put profit first, and with the NFL, it's no different
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Saturday, August 24, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S12


TORONTO -- Jay-Z is a businessman. He may rap a bit as well, but from the off his singular focus on making money was what set him apart. He wasn't goofing around or panting to be popular. He was working.

The rapper did some business with the NFL last week. In the process, he resuscitated the Colin Kaepernick mess and sent everyone to their battle stations.

The ensuing argument seems to boil down to someone not calling someone when they would have appreciated a head's-up call first, though it's not clear that second someone would have answered it. How do we know that?

Because the second guy's girlfriend said so.

(We may graduate from high school, but none of us really leave.)

Jay-Z and his Roc Nation imprint are now collaborating with the NFL on partnerships, the most significant of which is the Super Bowl halftime show.

The deal was formally announced during history's most painfully relaxed news conference. Jay-Z and NFL commissioner Roger Goodell sat together at a conference table, leaned back and swivelling side-to-side in their chairs. Jay-Z looked like a rock star. Goodell looked like a man channelling "Tucson dad takes the kids to a Jonas Brothers concert."

Once the questions started, the mood shifted to low-grade panic.

Rather than discussing all the money they planned to make together, there was instead a lot of defensive talk about social justice.

"This is a success. This is the next thing," Jay-Z said. "There's two parts to protesting. You go outside and you protest. And then the company or the individual says, 'I hear you.' " Upon hearing them, the company or the individual gives the protester a large contract to do concert promotion. Is that how it works?

TMZ reported that Jay-Z's real payout is still to come - the opportunity to purchase an ownership stake in a yet-to-be-identified NFL franchise.

That is a licence to print money. It's also entrée into the world's most elite social club - capped at 32 members and they aren't recruiting. I'll let you decide which matters more.

Jay-Z was apparently taken by surprise when people didn't applaud him on his way up into the Establishment. "Shocked" was the word used by sources (i.e.

Jay-Z spokespeople) in a Wall Street Journal report. Sadly, that word "shocked" was not followed by "I tell you."

Right-thinking America lined up to tell a man who built his artistic persona on being an arch-capitalist that his arch-capitalism was an abomination. Many things happening now are illustrative of our neighbour's slow roll into mid-21st century irrelevance. This one may be the least consequential and, therefore, the most fun.

The really cutting criticisms were delivered by Kaepernick's No. 2 in the player movement, Eric Reid. Reid called Jay-Z "despicable" and said he is "approaching" being "a sell-out" (whatever that means).

Reid is currently a corner back for the Carolina Panthers. He makes several million dollars a year in the NFL in exchange for his football services. It must be lovely to be able to play a revolutionary on TV, while also collecting a seven-figure stipend from the ruling junta.

Though blackballed from the league, Kaepernick remains on a large retainer from Nike. The tagline of the ad campaign he fronts is, "Believe in something, even if it means sacrificing everything."

Well, not everything.

Nike gives Kaepernick a lavish living. He gives them counterculture cover. It's a sweet deal for both parties, as long as no one thinks too hard about it.

What we have here are the Lenins and Trotskys of modern sport, railing about what's best for the common man while never stooping so low as to live like one.

Everyone expects to make a buck as well as a point, which as best I recall was not the battle cry of the French Revolution.

All this shouting makes for good copy, very little of which is about the NFL and its shortcomings.

You have to give it to Goodell. A few months ago, it seemed as though he would never outrun the blowback from Kaepernick's anthem-kneeling protest.

Nothing the league said in its own defence resonated. Doing a raft of community outreach didn't help. Hiring Reid back didn't shut him up.

Kaepernick's Nike collaboration arrived like a body blow. The NFL's main opponent now had a media platform as big as its own.

The rebels were on the outskirts of the capital.

But Goodell finally found the right playbook. It was written by an Italian in the 16th century - "... it will always happen that, by exercising a little dexterity, the one will be able to divide the many, and weaken the force that was strong when it was united."

Using a scheme drawn up by Machiavelli, the NFL has driven a wedge through the resistance.

The story is no longer, "Greedy conglomerate doesn't care about human wreckage." It's "Colin mad at Jay; What will Beyonce say?" Jay-Z is a smart guy. Presumably, he did a pros and cons list before embarking on this course.

Con: I become the Benedict Arnold of the hipster left.

Pro: I become a shot caller.

Con: Colin Kaepernick hates me.

Pro: Colin Kaepernick doesn't own anything.

Con: This move will catch the angry attention of the media-consuming public.

Pro: The media-consuming public has the attention span of a seven-year-old locked overnight in a candy factory.

Even if America is coming apart at the seams, it's still America. The highest law of the land is get as much as you can for yourself. You can worry about sorting everyone else out once that's taken care of. That appears to be JayZ's approach.

If so, it's no different than any of the robber barons who built the United States. This is the wheel of American history in motion.

In the meantime, everyone gets what they want. Jay-Z gets his payoff. Reid gets his pulpit. Kaepernick gets attention for the cause. The proles get another tabloid distraction from their real problems.

Behind them all is the unmoved mover who set the drama in motion. The NFL's reward is a chance to relax while someone else soaks up its heat for a change.

If the league is especially lucky, this is the outrage that finally exhausts everyone and they wander off to bite at the ankles of some other cultural monolith.

Who knew? If you're working at a high enough level, peace of mind really is something money can buy.

Associated Graphic

Jay-Z's deal with the NFL was formally announced during a news conference last week: The rapper and NFL commissioner Roger Goodell sat together at a conference table, Jay-Z looking like a rock star and Goodell looking like a man channelling 'Tucson dad takes the kids to a Jonas Brothers concert,' Cathal Kelly writes.

BEN HIDER/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Bichette dreams big
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Forget just being happy to be here. Toronto's young star shortstop is good at baseball and he knows it. In fact, he says he wants to be 'one of the best players who ever lived'
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B9


TORONTO -- Among the many new things on Bo Bichette's to-do list, clothes shopping is up there.

"I find myself looking for hoodies more," the Blue Jays shortstop says over the weekend. People have begun picking him out on the street. The walk from the Rogers Centre to his digs has become something of an amateur paparazzi gauntlet.

"I think it's the hair they recognize," Bichette says. "It could be the hair."

It's the hair.

Bichette is a Pantene commercial come to life. He's also - and this is a first for Toronto this year - remarkably good at baseball. The two things together have people a bit worked up.

We've now been told for ages that the Jays have some stars coming. Not some players, but some Ted Williams types.

In the fullness of time, that may prove to be true, but Bichette is the first to show up and deliver straight off.

The 21-year-old has been in the bigs for three weeks. In his first game, he had a hit. In his second, he had two. In his third, he had three, including a home run. He got on base in each of his first 17 games, which caught some attention. He tied an MLB record for most consecutive games with a double - nine.

That put him in Babe Ruth's postal code.

All the other overadvertised Jays prospects are still just that - prospects. Bichette has sashayed in like he's Honus Wagner reincarnated.

Two superficial things strike you as different about Bichette (okay, three, but you'll have to trust me when I tell you that hair really is lustrous).

The first important thing is his size.

The Blue Jays list Bichette, a shortstop, at six feet and 185 pounds. Putting it delicately, that is an exaggeration.

Marcus Stroman was not small, but wouldn't shut up about it. Stroman was short-ish and as wide in the shoulders as a refrigerator. Bichette, on the other hand, is small. Like, elfin.

He's so slight of frame that whenever you catch him out of the corner of your eye, you think a batboy has decided to run onto the field.

This hasn't stopped him from showing a nice turn of power. How much of a hitter will this kid be once he actually does weigh 185? (Reaching six feet will require some time on a stretching rack.)

The other thing that stands out is Bichette's swagger.

"[Young players] are more outspoken than what they used to be," Jays manager Charlie Montoyo said on the general topic of what's changed since his day. "When I first got there, you're quiet, you don't say anything. Now, they can talk more."

Bichette is a talker. He's the sort of person who wanders around greeting all the other guys with an open-handed slap on the chest or a shoulder rub - top moves from the alpha-male body-language lexicon.

Before the pregame stretch, lesser rookies and newcomers to the team sit around the clubhouse at full attention. They're poised to leap up should anyone come over and wonder how they got in there.

Bichette lounges. He slides down so far in his chair that he's nearly horizontal. He isn't scanning the room for threats. He already has the torpid posture of a 10-year vet who's just made another all-star team.

Part of this may be the famous bloodline (his father is former major-leaguer Dante Bichette). But Vlad Guerrero Jr. and Cavan Biggio - Bichette's contemporaries in the Good Genes Club - don't have this ease yet. They still carry themselves like kids - sometimes a little too loud or a little too amped up. They're aware of being watched. Bichette doesn't do any of that. He may look like he's 14, but he feels like he's 40.

Bichette has been observing the tactical deployment of clichés his whole life, so most of his patter is of the "just excited to be here" variety.

Then he drifts into calling this first three weeks "a dream" and surprises you again.

"Actually, it's not that," Bichette says.

"This is more like the goal. Well, like a goal.

My dream is to be one of the best players who ever lived. It's not to make it here.

That's just a goal."

Up until this point, I have been familiar with three sorts of new baseball players.

There are the "do my best for the team" types - guys who will be happy with a career in the majors, any sort of career.

There are the "reach my potential" sorts - those who think they could be good, but aren't sure enough to lay any claim to the fact.

And there are the "as good as anyone in the game" or "as good as Exceptional Player X" pros - those who know they are great, but aren't going to stand up and shout about it.

I have yet to encounter a guy who has played 20 games at this level who is willing - however obliquely - to put himself in the conversation with Hank Aaron or Ty Cobb.

"Who ever lived" is a line nobody steps over, even those who are among the best players who ever lived. Even Mike Trout doesn't talk this way.

The funny thing? Standing there in front of Bichette and listening to him say it, it sounds reasonable. The kid thinks he's going to be Cal Ripken good. Based on very preliminary results, that is not a laughable thing to say.

You don't need to be an MLB scout to see where he can improve - a little more range in the field, fill a couple of gaps in his swing and, most importantly, get older and bigger. Those are simple problems to solve.

"As fun as these first three weeks have been, I can get so much better," Bichette says.

He can.

The Blue Jays season has been a recordbreaking deep-sea dive - just when you think they can't get any lower, they do.

Some years from now, people will have forgotten all that. Losing seasons never matter. In all likelihood, all that will be remembered of 2019 is that it marked the arrival of a single player.

Were I betting on it, I'd lay serious money that that guy is Bichette.

Associated Graphic

Bo Bichette of the Blue Jays hits a pop fly during Sunday's game against the Seattle Mariners in Toronto. The 21-year-old started his career on a tear, getting on base in each of his first 17 games and tying an MLB record by hitting a double in nine consecutive games.

FRED THORNHILL/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Bo Bichette of the Blue Jays forces out Tim Lopes of the Seattle Mariners during a game in Toronto on Sunday. For Bichette, making it to the big leagues was 'a goal,' while becoming one of the greatest players of all time is his 'dream.'

FRED THORNHILL/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Ringu and the curse of adulthood
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Welcome back to Summers at the Cinema, in which Globe Arts contributors offer a window into their favourite summer-movie memories from years past. This week, Cliff Lee revisits a J-horror classic and his old haunts in Toronto's suburbs
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By CLIFF LEE
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page R4


The summer of 2002 was a summer of firsts for me. I graduated high school. I got a job. By September, I moved out of my parents' place for university. But in between, I ran screaming out of my basement. I checked the backseat of my car for ghosts every night I drove during that foggy summer in the suburbs of Toronto. I was scared witless. I also watched Ringu, a Japanese horror movie about a cursed videotape. That night is long past, but the terror of the demon child Sadako, and the friendships - and nightmares - she helped cement, will live on forever.

Two decades later, the 1998 movie Ringu has been seared into the minds of modern horror fans as one of the best ghost stories ever filmed. So the story goes: A rumour among Japanese schoolchildren is there's a strange tape; after watching it, the phone rings and a voice warns you will die in seven days. When a journalist's niece dies after viewing a copy, she begins investigating the legend of ... Sadako. (Even typing that name still brings shivers.)

You never forget her image: a girl in a water-drenched white dress, barefoot with nailless and bloodied fingers, lurching supernaturally toward the camera, her head of long, wet, stringy hair bowed downward until - ahhhhh! - her victim's mouth-warping final moments.

Ringu begot The Ring, a U.S. adaptation from October, 2002, that sparked the Western boom of Asian-inflected psychological horror. Today, the aesthetic is shorthand for the best of the genre: foreboding soundtracks, slow-burn reveals and careful mythology building. A trend that began as English remakes such as The Grudge (about a vengeful ghost family) and Dark Water (about a vengeful ghost child) became full-blown Hollywood franchises, such as James Wan's Conjuring Universe (a vengeful demon doll and demon nun, among other monstrosities).

In the summer of 2002, a littleknown foreign film about a vengeful Japanese demon girl banished to a well wasn't sitting on the shelf at Jumbo Video. In our last months together before university beckoned, a group of friends was determined to watch Ringu. We eventually found a pirated VHS for rent at a Chinese video store. It was understood a bootleg wouldn't be very good quality. But wouldn't it be so cool to see before the remake came out?

Watching it was the most disconcerting movie experience of my life. The tape's quality was awful; only Sadako knows how many times it had been dubbed over. That's not to mention its suspicious look - plain black, save for a title sticker scrawled in Chinese. The subtitles were not just poorly translated - are those moaning voices saying "frolic in brine, goblins be thine?" - but reduced to washed out runes that left us guessing at the story. It turns out Sadako transcends fluent language, because what we could make out through the analog fuzz was terrifying.

Picture this (or don't, please): naive teens, sitting in a dark basement, watching doomed characters watch a cursed tape of creepy, grainy images of the undead, all dubiously dubbed onto a creepy, grainy tape of unknown Asian provenance. We absorbed the crux of the Sadako curse - that it's passed on by making copies. And we had watched this copy. Which means - ahhhhh! - we freaked.

We ejected the tape and stared.

Nope, nope, no one would even touch it. Matt, who rented it, tried imploring someone else to return it. Take that cursed thing? Into my home? Sorry, Matt, you return your own ghost tape. (He ended up doing the deed under considerable duress.)

Spoiler alert: We're still alive.

But the damage was done - that very night, in fact, as I gave Jason a lift home through the fog. You couldn't see more than a few feet in front of the car. Then Jason casually advised: "You should make sure Sadako isn't in your back seat." It was a joke, but I was shook. How could you really know what was back there, in the dark, under the seat? My driving instructor would have been proud of the number of rear-view mirror checks I did that summer.

I dreaded going into my own basement, where my family kept the desktop computer. My parents were incredulous when once I turned on all the lights in the house and blared music at 2 a.m. - they would never understand the lengths you should go to keep the shadows at bay. The apex: One night when a high-pitched screech suddenly pierced the basement air - ahhhhh! - I was sure Sadako was here. I launched myself up the stairs, screaming at the top of my lungs. What's wrong, my concerned parents asked? It was just the fire alarm, its low-battery alert choosing a very inappropriate summer to come alive.

There were jokes, too, attempts at taking away her strange power. We discovered Matt's incredible susceptibility to jump scares, sparking years of quietly creeping up on him until - ahhhhh! - it's Sadako. Francis's aging minivan developed a strange bumping sound in one wheel well - ahhhhh! - it's Sadako. And have you ever tried to do Sadako's iconic reverse-kabuki monster walk in real life? It's - haha! - Sadako, as still hilariously imitated by me and my friends well into adulthood.

Today, Sadako is a bit of a popculture joke. She's thrown out the first pitch at a Japanese baseball game. She's battled other monsters in questionable horror mashups. She got old: On a recent rewatch, the scares were intact, but their 1990s analog vintage did not age well after years of filmmakers wielding better technology and makeup to outdo the spirit who started it all. There is even a new Japanese sequel, Sadako, that has been nearly universally panned by critics so far. Time has passed her by.

Among friends, she's remained timeless. Our lives have diverged since that summer, between work, family and the rest of life that doesn't spare much time to be scared witless. When it does, there she is, as we recount our favourite Sadako stories over coffees or holiday reunions.

There's been a late addition to our personal legend of Sadako.

Recently a friend bought a house in Toronto. As she was cleaning out the random debris left behind by the previous owner, she happened upon something under the stairs: a tape, plain black, save for a title sticker scrawled in Chinese.

What was on it? Are you crazy - would you watch it? After a few dares, it was decidedly thrown out, unseen. The curse of responsible adulthood proved stronger than - ahhhhh! - Sadako.

Next week: Domini Clark is here to kick butt and chew gum with 2017's Atomic Blonde - and she's all out of gum

Associated Graphic

Sadako - with her water-drenched white dress, stringy black hair and beckoning lurch - used to strike fear into the hearts of horror fans, but decades after Ringu's release, the demon has become somewhat of a pop-culture joke.

Should growing families move - or renovate?
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As real estate values surge, it's becoming harder for people to upgrade their houses
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By SAIRA PEESKER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, August 22, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B7


Space is tight at the Richardson house in Waterloo, Ont.

The two-parent, two-kid family lives in a 1950s bungalow in the historic Mary Allen neighbourhood, a walkable area close to the city core and the children's school. Their house has just less than 1,000 square feet on the main floor, with three small bedrooms, but the bathroom is tiny and closet space is limited.

"My husband and I share one closet," says Jen Richardson, whose sons are 4 and 7. "The bigger our boys get, the tougher it gets. Their clothes get bigger, and they need somewhere to put them."

Home values in Mary Allen have gone up significantly since the couple bought the place in 2007, before they had kids. While that's good for resale value, it's making it difficult for them to find an affordable, bigger home without leaving the area - something they'd rather not do. Listings in the neighbourhood are scarce, and the houses they've looked at have sold for well north of $700,000 - or the $600,000 range for places requiring a topto-bottom renovation. "My husband is feeling the emotional strain of trying for these houses, not winning them and feeling like, 'I cannot keep doing this,' " Ms. Richardson says.

The couple have also considered renovating. They got a home equity line of credit and drawings for their dream reno: a 500square-foot extension running the length of the back of the house. While the designer estimated it would cost $250,000 to build, contractors' estimates were closer to $400,000 - sending the Richardsons back to the drawing board, wondering whether to live with things as they are or settle for a cheaper, less optimal renovation. "We know that [once the kids move out], this size house is all we're going to need. Can we live through 15 to 20 years of feeling utterly cramped?" Ms. Richardson says.

At one time, buying a starter home and upgrading to a larger house to accommodate a growing family was common practice. But the Richardsons' conundrum is increasingly common among young families today.

In areas where real estate values continue to surge, many families are strapped for space but struggling to afford bigger homes in their neighbourhoods, where they often have kids in school and an established community. For these families, it can make financial sense to stay put and renovate, experts say; a renovation to add a bedroom can cost the same as moving - and that's before taking into account the financial strain of a larger mortgage.

"More people are choosing to stay and renovate out of necessity because they can't get that next house," says Hamilton mortgage broker Brian Hogben, who says that changes to mortgage rules mean many young families no longer qualify for financing for a larger home. "It actually is a blessing in disguise because it saves them money."

Mr. Hogben is the founder of Mission35 Mortgages. He estimates that the process of buying a new home can cost more than $45,000 when taking into account legal and realtor fees, moving and financing costs, HST, land-transfer tax and Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. loan insurance for down payments of less than 20 per cent.

He says he encourages clients to consider spending that amount on a renovation, an investment that punches above its weight when it comes to resale value. "Can you turn your $435,000 house into a $550,000 house with 50 grand? Probably you can, and you [don't have to move]. You're keeping your neighbours."

David Saunders, a realtor and carpenter in Ontario's Kawartha Lakes region, is currently building an addition to take his 860square-foot home to about 1,200 square feet, including adding a bedroom. He bought the house when he was single, but after meeting his wife, Vanessa, and having a son, "there's hockey gear in the living room and it's a little bit tight." Still, he loves where he lives, on a large property with waterfront on the Pigeon River.

Mr. Saunders says he typically asks his real estate clients whether they have considered renovating before they look at buying something new. "It is expensive and emotionally challenging to move."

Jason Hunke, a contractor who builds additions in the Richardsons' neighbourhood, says a good-quality bedroom addition usually costs about $200 to $225 a square foot, putting a 12-by-12 bedroom at $28,800, at the lower end. However, he says, it's not particularly attractive to add a bedroom onto the back of a house - it often makes more sense to move the kitchen to the back, which means the job involves more than the new room, making it hard to provide a quote on a square-foot basis.

"I don't like making an addition look like an addition," says Mr. Hunke, president of Hunke Construction. "You either care about resale [value] or you don't.

If someone walks into a kitchen in the middle of the house ... it doesn't help for resale."

Those who choose the renovation route will likely require patience - Mr. Hunke says his company, and other quality firms, often book a year in advance.

Agreeing on the cost of the renovation early would be wise for homeowners - construction costs in Canada have risen at a slightly higher rate than inflation in recent years, according to David Foster, senior adviser for policy and communications for the Canadian Home Builders' Association.

The emotional challenge of moving has Toronto resident Caitlin Watson feeling paralyzed.

After 13 years of sharing a loftstyle condo at Lansdowne Avenue and Dupont Street with her partner, Joel Ramirez, they're finding the space isn't quite right for life with their new son, Vann.

Their unit has a partly enclosed bedroom and floor-to-ceiling windows on two walls. Their son's crib sits in a large closet, and they have to use an "extra loud" white-noise machine to mask the sound of voices or the TV in the open-concept home.

They want to stay in their neighbourhood, but the change in real estate prices since they bought their home has been steep. After selling their place, they could walk away with about $300,000, but "nothing good around this area is less than $700,000," she said, which would almost triple their mortgage. "It would mean cutting out things like trips."

She knows the closet bedroom will only work for so long, but waffles between sentimental feelings about their home and questions about the right time to buy.

"Will it ever be affordable or should we bite the bullet now and start chipping at that huge amount of [debt]?" she said.

"He's not going to be a teenager living in this walk-in closet."

Associated Graphic

David Saunders works on drywall while his son, Isaac, plays behind a drop sheet in their house in Omemee, Ont. Mr. Saunders is building an extension for his 860-square-foot home.

JOHNNY C.Y. LAM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BOBSLEIGH CHAMPION WAS STRAIGHT SHOOTER IN BUSINESS WORLD
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A dairy farmer's son, he won a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games six years after taking up the daredevil sport in Switzerland, and later made the unprecedented step of buying his Canadian company a seat on the New York Stock Exchange
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By FRED LANGAN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B20


A farm boy from rural Ontario, Monty Gordon worked his way through university and in 1957 joined Nesbitt Thomson, a Montreal brokerage house, where his intelligence, hard work and infectious charm made him a star.

When Mr. Gordon told his family he was working in the stock market, his father Ernest Gordon, a dairy farmer, was pleased, assuming his son was buying and selling livestock. Monty Gordon always spoke highly of his father and mother, Katharine, saying they were such hard workers. So was he, but off the farm.

Lloyd Lamont Gordon, who has died at 87, grew up on a farm near Harriston, in Western Ontario. He said only his mother ever called him Lloyd, and all his life he was known as Monty, although the more formal L. Lamont had more cache in business.

After Harriston High School, where he was president of the student council, Mr. Gordon travelled 120 kilometres south to the University of Western Ontario in London. He earned a business degree and made connections that stayed with him all of his life. At university, Mr. Gordon was mixing with people from rich families, but the dairy farmer's son had to support himself. He took on several jobs, including driving a taxi. He was also house manager of the Zeta Psi fraternity and is credited with getting it out of financial trouble by organizing successful Friday night parties.

After graduating, he and his university friend Vic Emery went to Europe in the summer of 1955 working their way across on Norwegian freighters, Mr. Gordon landing in Bergen, Norway, and Mr. Emery in Belgium. They met in Paris and toured Europe in an old beat-up car. The two had been in the naval reserve at university and found that donning their junior officer's uniforms got them invited to some great parties. At the end of the trip, Mr. Gordon took a naval course in England.

That winter, they found themselves in St. Moritz in Switzerland, where they were introduced to the daredevil sport of bobsleigh.

Mr. Gordon joined the St. Moritz Tobogganing Club in 1956 and was a member for all of his life. He and Mr. Emery eventually formed the Canadian bobsleigh team. They practised at the bobsleigh run at Lake Placid, N.Y., 140 kilometres from Montreal.

In 1961 the team entered competitions in the United States and Europe and they raced in the 1962 Commonwealth Games in St.

Moritz. The Canadian team won a gold medal with Mr. Gordon driving the four-man bobsled. In the 1964 Olympics, the Canadian team won a gold medal in the four-man bobsled event with Mr.

Emery driving. Mr. Gordon competed, but his sled did not win a medal. He drove four-man and two-man bobsleds.

The bobsleigh team included many men who went on to successful business careers, including Mr. Emery, Gordon Eberts, Paul Levesque and Christopher Ondaatje, (brother of the author Michael Ondaatje) among others.

"Monty Gordon and Vic Emery were the driving force that propelled the rags-to-riches Canadian bobsled team to the Olympics," Mr. Ondaatje said.

Mr. Gordon also raced sports cars on tracks near Montreal, and his accidents on the track earned him the nickname "Crash Gordon." His crew of friends also rented a ski chalet in Saint-Sauveur, which at the time was the party capital of the Laurentians. In Montreal, in the late 1950s, Mr.

Gordon shared an apartment on Ridgewood on the side of the mountain with Mr. Emery and Robin Korthals, who went on to become president of the TorontoDominion Bank.

Back in Canada, Mr. Gordon started work at Nesbitt Thomson in a building at the corner of St. Peter and St. James, as the streets were known then. He worked on what is called the institutional side, that is trading stock for large clients such as insurance companies, banks and pension funds.

Mr. Gordon rose quickly at Nesbitt Thomson and became a director of the firm in 1964. He worked for Nesbitt's office in New York and was instrumental in convincing his partners to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange, something that was unheard of in Canada at the time. Nesbitt paid around half a million dollars for the seat, which allowed the firm to trade directly on the floor of the exchange, meaning they did not have to pay commissions to a U.S.

dealer when buying U.S. stocks.

Paul Levesque, one of Mr. Gordon's oldest friends who started working with him at Nesbitt Thomson in 1958, felt the reason for Mr. Gordon's business success was that he was a straight shooter, got to the point and believed in what he was saying.

"It wasn't difficult for Monty to convince someone of the pros and cons of a deal because he spoke so honestly and was so open," Mr. Levesque said.

Mr. Gordon also helped the careers of many young people in the investment business. Hubert Marleau was a young man out of university with no experience, but Mr. Gordon hired him at Nesbitt Thomson.

"He was a very unusual person.

He had dreams, and they were ambitious dreams," said Mr. Marleau, who later founded his own firm, Marleau Lemire. "When he bought the seat in New York he gave me the job of training the Nesbitt directors to make sure they passed the New York Stock Exchange exams."

On New Year's Day in 1969, Mr.Gordon left a promising career at Nesbitt Thomson and started a brokerage firm in Montreal with his bobsleigh teammate, Mr.Eberts. The firm was called Gordon, Eberts Securities, and eventually became plain Gordon Securities. The firm was entrepreneurial, took risks and hired ambitious young salespeople and traders. One of their innovations in Canada was the "bought deal" in which Gordon would buy the newly issued shares of a company with the goal of selling it to investors for a profit.

Mr. Gordon and his firm eventually moved to Toronto in the late 1970s, and he left the firm to work on a string of entrepreneurial deals, from a startup drug company to a highway barrier firm. He had a magic touch, and a large group of followers always seemed ready to invest his businesses. Large brokerage firms also wanted him around, and for many years he was chairman of Sprott Securities.

Mr. Gordon was a familiar figure on Yonge Street walking every morning with his briefcase from his home to the Rosedale subway station to head downtown to work.

Lloyd Lamont Gordon was born in Harriston, Ont., on April 29, 1932. He died in Toronto on July 26. Mr. Gordon was married three times. He leaves his children Catherine, Deborah, James, Pamela, Jennifer and 14 grandchildren.

Associated Graphic

Above and below, Monty Gordon, front, drove for the Canadian bobsleigh team as it achieved the second fastest heat time during World Championships in Germany in February, 1962. Similar to Mr. Gordon, many of his Canadian teammates went on to have successful business careers.

BLUMENTHAL

The great housing data battle: One year later
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By SHANE DINGMAN
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page H2


When the federal Competition Bureau won a seven-year legal battle with the Toronto Real Estate Board (TREB) last summer over housing data, the ruling was billed as the dawn of a new era of innovation and choice for consumers.

For years, TREB had claimed that for privacy reasons its rules had to restrict realtors from posting certain categories of data on what it calls virtual office websites. The federal watchdog argued that providing the public with more information would mean better informed consumers and would promote competition.

On August 23, 2018, the Supreme Court of Canada declined to hear TREB's final appeal, an order from the federal Competition Tribunal came into effect, and within months TREB was no longer able to block its members from posting data, such as the selling price of a home.

A year after the ruling, a shift is under way. But it hasn't been the revolution some had predicted.

In many markets, a lack of available data is making it difficult for consumers to determine a home's selling price. In larger markets where more data exist, information is often guarded behind a password, or pricing data are weeks or months old. Still, changes are afoot.

"From our perspective, this is a clear victory for consumers," said Anthony Durocher, deputy commissioner of the Competition Bureau, noting that one of the ruling's effects was the arrival of international real estate companies such as Redfin Corp. "These are [companies] who publicly stated competition action and law in general is motivating them to enter the Canadian marketplace. It's vindicating to see the impact competition law can have."

Lauren Haw, chief executive of Toronto-based online real estate brokerage Zoocasa, said her business saw benefits as soon as the data were online.

"Growth has been amazing, more than double over last year - everything from agents, clients, sales, all of it is up," Ms. Haw said.

Traffic spiked in the early days, but customer interest has stayed above the levels she saw before the data were liberalized. "We saw an increase 50 fold the day of, everyone did a looky-loo, but year over year the actual conversion of account creation per user is up 10-fold."

"Conversions" are key, because in order to see sold data on a website such as Zoocasa under TREB's rules, a potential client needs to create a login that is password protected.

Outside of TREB's region, it gets harder to find data. Zoocasa doesn't have anything close to national coverage with its soldprice data. The largest and most popular listings site is Realtor.ca, maintained by the Canadian Real Estate Association in co-operation with its many member boards, but until recently it didn't have any sold data either.

That began changing in March and May of this year, when Nova Scotia and New Brunswick boards came together to allow some historical sold price data to appear on Realtor.ca, without a password.

"When we made this decision at the national level it was for boards to opt in, we just wanted them to have the platform available," said Jason Stephen, the current president of CREA. Mr.

Stephen said it's not his role to try to convince any other region they should follow suit, ditch the passwords and put their data on Realtor.ca, but he does say, as a realtor who happens to be from New Brunswick: "It went live in NB and the real estate sky didn't fall."

Across the country there are other examples of sites where the data can be found, but in many cases local rules still put a damper on making it accessible to consumers.

Adam Major, managing broker of Holywell properties in Vancouver, is the co-founder of site called Zealty.ca that publishes sold data for the Vancouver area, one of the first to do so in the region after the TREB ruling.

"REBGV [the Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver] has been fairly decent. They said we might be in violation of their rules and we responded that their rules were no longer up to date, and they never pushed back. We could have gotten our hand slapped worse than we did," Mr.Major said. He said he would like to expand to the rest of British Columbia, but finds himself stalled.

"We have lots of people inquiring about Okanogan and Victoria," he said. "One challenge [is] you have to be a member of that board ... there's 11 or 14 boards in B.C., and each one is its own little fiefdom."

Even though the specifics of the TREB order only applied to that board, the spirit of the decision - more data for more consumers - is something the Competition Bureau still intends to see applied nationally.

"We've had a lot of encouraging conversations with other boards across Canada. Generally speaking, we're pleased with how boards and their members have reacted to the decision," Mr. Durocher said. "But we remain vigilant."

And some inside the industry also take the longer view that eventually all these data restrictions will fall.

"If the consumer wants something and the only reason you're not providing it is you think you can benefit somehow by keeping it for yourself, in the end you lose," Royal LePage CEO Phil Soper said.

He's of the view that the TREB decision didn't change the industry in a big way, in part because the role of the real estate agent has already transformed dramatically from the days of clients having to come into an office to see physical books of listings.

"Today's consumers were raised on search, they are search experts. Finding them a home is not - in its purest sense - what we get paid for," Mr. Soper said.

"We get paid for being a complex project manager and adviser for helping them when things go wrong, which they often do."

TREB's CEO John DiMichele has said from the beginning that the Bureau's case had been "misconceived" and was "based on old facts and an earlier time." He also said the order has created confusion in its interpretation of the value of TREB's Multiple Listing Service database.

"What we do see is that some information, such as photos, that would normally have been included in a listing but are not mandatory are either not being provided or being deleted, at the direction of the consumer, and therefore diluting the MLS," Mr.DiMichele said. "In this way, the Order is hurting innovation. ... Also, if the dilution of the MLS system continues through decreased or loss of information it will hurt consumers the most as transparency and valuable information is critical in order to make informed decisions."

Associated Graphic

The CEO of online real estate brokerage Zoocasa says growth at her firm has boomed after the Toronto Real Estate Board was forced to stop blocking members from posting data such as the sale price of homes.

Canadian culture gets a little help from Friends
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As social media threatens to sway October's election, one group fights for more support for the CBC and other national journalism initiatives, and less leeway for Facebook
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By SIMON HOUPT
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A12


HAMILTON -- On a Tuesday evening earlier this summer, a couple dozen citizens were gathered in the upstairs room of a ramshackle British pub in Ancaster, Ont., throwing back pints and receiving a crash course in the tantalizing prospects of Canadian electoral math.

"The Trudeau government, their majority is just 14. Seven seats go the other way, the majority disappears," explained Daniel Bernhard, a wiry fellow with a sharp mind and a gift for cutting to the heart of a matter. "If you look at those closest 14 seats in the last election, it's just 13,000 votes.

Which means if just 6,500 people in seven ridings had voted differently, the Liberals would have a minority government. And they understand that math as well as we do."

If Bernhard's math is, in fact, slightly off - the Trudeau government's majority is currently 16 seats - his point is correct: A small number of people could make a very large difference in the election this October. And so, he had come to this Hamilton neighbourhood, armed with a PowerPoint presentation and a fistful of petitions, to buy the locals a round of drinks in hopes of enlisting them as foot soldiers in a battle for Canada's very soul.

Or, at least, its culture. Last year, Bernhard, 32, became the new executive director of Friends of Canadian Broadcasting, the grassroots group that was formed in the mid-1980s to protest cuts in federal funding for the Canadian Broadcasting Corp.

Friends is still tub-thumping for the CBC: It is currently in the midst of a campaign urging the government to increase funding from approximately $34 per capita to $50. But under Bernhard's leadership, the organization has also moved to capitalize on a much more explosive issue, positioning itself as one of the most prominent critics of Facebook at a time when suspicion of Silicon Valley giants is leaching into the mainstream.

In February, Friends played host to the first all-candidates debate in the Burnaby South by-election (the race won by Jagmeet Singh), positing the question: "Can Canada survive Facebook?" Over the past few months, it has turned up the heat on the social-media giant, appearing before Parliament and launching a newspaper and social-media campaign calling on all federal leaders to "Unfriend Facebook."

Bernhard sees the election in October as a prime opportunity to make Friends' influence felt, urging the federal government to bring the digital giants to heel by applying stronger regulations and eliminating what it sees as tax loopholes. Noting the way fake news was weaponized on Facebook to influence U.S. elections and the Brexit referendum, Bernhard says the government needs to "reduce the poison and increase the medicine": That is, boost financial support for both the CBC and other Canadian journalism initiatives.

"Our proposition for this election is really clear," Bernhard tells the group, standing beneath a large cut-out poster of a glass of Guinness, as he lays out Friends' WeChoose campaign. "There's a choice. We can choose to continue this policy of 'anything goes' for Silicon Valley. We can choose to continue extremely generous exemptions, tax breaks, all kinds of benefits for the companies that have negligible or arguably negative effects on society. Or we can support Canadian broadcasting."

He adds: "More important than what we choose, is that we choose. Because right now we're in a situation where the people who decide what is acceptable public speech are not accountable to us. They're sitting in California, trying to make as much money as possible with as little responsibility as possible."

His words - especially about the threat of fake news - seem to have hit their target. The crowd murmurs with concern. He explains that Friends intends to press candidates in 22 potential swing ridings (including Calgary Centre, Edmonton Centre, Montreal-Hochelaga, Parkdale-High Park, and Northumberland-Peterborough South) to carry their message back to the party leaders.

"The candidates know they're in these tight ridings.

They go around, they see our signs, they see our activity and when they're on their weekly call with the campaign headquarters, we want them to say: 'You know, I'm in a tight race here and there are all these folks with this WeChoose campaign that are telling us what they want. I want to win, you want me to win, I'm in a strategically important riding, can you help me out?' "Bernhard insists that Friends' issues are not partisan ones. He notes, for example, that various Liberal governments have been alternately hostile or friendly to the CBC, and that traditional conservative fiscal policies would seek to close any tax loopholes that give foreign companies an unfair advantage over domestic ones.

A Friends volunteer named Sue joins Bernard at the front of the room, and together they lead the group in a brainstorming session of how to best press their case over the next few months: setting up booths at local fairs, flyering neighbourhoods, conducting candidate briefings.

When one man says he'd like to arm himself with facts to press Friends' case, Bernhard directs him to WeChoose.ca, where briefing notes and printable flyers can be downloaded.

The next afternoon, Bernhard is back in Toronto at the new Friends office, above a Korean restaurant on Bloor Street in the Annex. Since taking over the organization, he has added an entirely new staff - now numbering about six or seven - building out its fundraising and communications capabilities. Bernhard himself is a fervent voice on social media. On Twitter, his handle is @SendInTheWolf: a reference to Winston the Wolf, the fixer in Pulp Fiction played by Harvey Keitel who arrives late in the film to oversee a bloody clean-up job.

Before taking the Friends gig, Bernhard founded a consulting firm, Mushroom Cloud, serving arts organizations and charities. He sees the new job as something of a mission.

"My grandparents were all Holocaust survivors. They moved to South America and then gradually came here," he says.

"Canada's been good to us. It's given us opportunities that not many other places in the world can provide. And the media's a huge part of that."

Bernhard likens the growing influence of Silicon Valley to a hostile takeover that the federal government hasn't even cared to prevent.

"Do you know Edward Luttwak's book, Coup d'État: A Practical Handbook? He says that [in conducting a coup] there are three teams of commandos you need. A goes to Parliament, B goes to critical infrastructure - bridges, power plants - and C goes to broadcasters, radio, newspapers. And we're deciding here in Canada we're just going to give that stuff away to companies that have no regard for our public interest."

Associated Graphic

Friends of Canadian Broadcasting's Daniel Bernhard, right, installs a sign for the organization's WeChoose campaign in Waterloo, Ont., on Aug. 1.

TIJANA MARTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Modernizing B.C.'s history begins with the Royal Museum
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The province plans on spending millions to overhaul the facility, and chief executive Jack Lohman says it's the right time
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By IAN BAILEY
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A16


VANCOUVER -- It's the home of the world's largest collection of Emily Carr paintings, sketches and other possessions of the legendary artist as well as the actual Douglas Treaties, which helped to set the foundation for modern British Columbia. John Lennon's 1960sera Rolls Royce is there, once used by the Beatles to go to Buckingham Palace to be honoured by the Queen and bought by BritishColumbia-based billionaire Jimmy Pattison.

These are only a few of more than seven million artifacts in the Royal BC Museum, a 51-year-old complex in downtown Victoria that provincial Culture Minister Lisa Beare calls "a jewel of our province" for its role in displaying and explaining B.C. history.

But the province has concluded it's time for an all-round overhaul of the museum; a revamp that covers the bricks and mortar as well as the way in which the museum tells B.C.'s story.

Museum chief executive Jack Lohman, a veteran of the Museum of London as well as an organization representing 15 national museums in South Africa, says the upgrade should include a new building.

That raises the possibility of a project costing hundreds of millions of dollars in a province where efforts to build a new Vancouver Art Gallery have become bogged down over similar multimillion-dollar costs. Upgrades to the Royal Alberta Museum in Edmonton, completed this past October, cost $375-million.

But Mr. Lohman says a new museum building, as opposed to a renovation, is the way to go, and the edge in getting it done is a provincial government that is enthusiastic about the museum as a provincial asset.

"In my own view, I think a new building is going to serve British Columbians better than a 50year-old building with poor access, dependent on lifts and spaces that don't work for us," Mr.Lohman said.

In recent remarks, for example, Premier John Horgan has been talking about using any new museum upgrade as a showcase for B.C. wood products as part of a continuing commitment to use such components in government infrastructure projects.

Mr. Lohman, who has been with the B.C. museum since 2012 , says the current B.C. complex - which has issues with asbestos - allows only a small fraction of museum holdings to be displayed. Although the current building is about 50 years old, the museum has existed as an institution for about 133 years.

Located alongside the provincial legislature and Empress Hotel, the museum has three permanent galleries covering First Nations' history, natural history and modern history. It includes an IMAX theatre. In recent years, annual attendance has hovered between 710,000 and 790,000.

Mr. Lohman said it's too soon to be specific about costs for a new Royal B.C. Museum complex, but cited the costs of various new and renovated museums, including $351-million to build the Canadian Museum of Human Rights in Winnipeg, which opened in 2014, as well as the upgrades of the Royal Alberta Museum.

"You can see that a certain ambition provides a certain cost," he said. "Until the studies are done, I wouldn't like to say [the cost] should be this or that, but there are a lot of benchmarks out there in terms of what new museums are costing."

The NDP government of B.C. is not ruling out that ambition or cost after promising, in the latest Throne Speech, to "modernize" the museum to better protect its historic holdings and to provide better access to its collections.

It is also beginning work on a business plan for the future of a museum that now receives an annual $11.9-million provincial grant covering about 54 per cent of its operating budget.

Asked whether she prefers a new building or renovation, Ms.Beare said, "That's what the business case is going to look at, what will be the best option, whether it is a rebuild of the existing building or the ability to renovate in phases the current building. That work is being done right now."

But a new building is only one part of the equation under consideration. Without getting into specifics, Ms. Beare says there needs to be a rethink of the museum's tactics for telling the story of B.C.

"We want to make sure a modern museum is able to tell the stories of all the people of British Columbia. This is an opportunity to make sure we are doing that," she said.

She declined to say whose stories might currently be left out, simply saying, "We're not keeping scorecards."

However, Mr. Lohman said he hopes to see the museum deal more with global issues of extinction, biodiversity loss, First Nations' history and the impact of Asia on B.C. "We need to rewrite the story of British Columbia. I think everybody in the province agrees it doesn't begin in 1778 with the arrival of James Cook. It actually goes back several thousand years," he said.

"What's wrong is we're peddling a narrative that is way out of date."

Members of the public called for this kind of rethink in recent consultations that ran between April and June in seven meetings held in five B.C. communities.

One submission by a member of the public said the museum was behind the times. "After visiting the Smithsonian Museums in Washington, D.C., I couldn't believe how old our exhibits and layouts are," she said.

In addition to suggestions there be more content on the environment, the more consistent request was for more inclusion.

There are calls for more stories about black immigrants and Japanese, South Asian and Doukhobors people. "Women, and especially minority women's history in the province, is sorely lacking in the present museum," wrote one woman. Another called for a "decolonized perspective" on B.C.

Michaela, another member of the public, said in her submission, "I would love to see more information on Indigenous perspectives and history. A lot of the museum focuses on the settlers' history and it makes it appear like the Indigenous people weren't here and weren't colonized."

Mr. Lohman said he is open to change, and optimistic about the opportunity to see it happen.

Based on his experience, he said passion is key to success in museum projects.

"You need the right idea at the right time, but that needs to be embraced with passion and passion will bring supporters, philanthropists, government and so on," he said. "I think this is the right time."

Associated Graphic

The provincial government says it will update both the structure and the way in which the story of B.C. is told. Museum chief executive Jack Lohman says he hopes the museum gets a new building, and would like it to present more global issues to help update the narrative of B.C.'s history.

CHAD HIPOLITO/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The Keys to the kingdom
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The Florida archipelago faces a litany of disheartening environmental problems, Suzanne Morphet writes. But passionate locals are hard at work on potential solutions, and many programs make for compelling tourist attractions
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By SUZANNE MORPHET
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page P11


'You'll see a lot of sick turtles," warns our guide as she welcomes us to the Turtle Hospital in Marathon, Fla. "Don't let that depress you."

Once a motel and strip bar in the middle of the Florida Keys, the Turtle Hospital rescues and treats about 100 sea turtles a year, some with permanent injuries.

We spot Bubble Butt, for instance, floating haplessly on the surface of what used to be the guest swimming pool. Part of his misshapen shell was replaced with fibreglass after he was struck by a boat, but a bubble under the shell still prevents him from diving. Entering the hospital's surgical unit, we watch in grim fascination as veterinarians operate on a green sea turtle that's infected with fibropapilloma (FP), a herpes-like virus that affects between 50 per cent and 70 per cent of green sea turtles in Florida Bay. Intubated and anaesthetized, the turtle lies limp on its back as the vets remove hideous pink tumours that sprout like cauliflower from its flippers and belly.

"The FP virus is only found in and around developed islands, which tells us a lot," says Bette Zirkelbach, the hospital's manager. "It's a gauge of pollution and the quality of our water."

Turtles are in trouble - that much is obvious - but after just a couple days in Florida's Keys, I've learned that this string of 44 subtropical islands faces a litany of environmental problems. From the almost total destruction of the coral reef that runs down the Keys' Atlantic coast to the invasion of venomous lionfish, there's much to make anyone sad, mad or both. But, I learn, the Keys are also where passionate locals are turning their problems into compelling visitor attractions.

At the Coral Restoration Foundation in Key Largo, for instance, I learn that the Florida Reef Tract, the third-largest barrier reef in the world, has been devastated by everything from septic-waste runoff to sunscreen chemicals.

"We call it death by a thousand cuts," the foundation's Alice Grainger says. "There's no one thing."

About 97 per cent of the reef's main types of coral - staghorn and elkhorn - have died, leaving underwater landscapes barren for its entire length - almost 600 kilometres.

In the late nineties, a commercial fish collector in the Keys, Ken Nedimyer, realized he could grow coral more quickly than it would grow in the wild. In 2007, he formed the foundation, which now has seven underwater nurseries where fingersized fragments of coral are hung to grow on plastic "trees." In just six to nine months, the pieces are big enough to be glued onto the reef itself. Incredibly, the foundation's small staff, along with many intern and volunteer divers, has now painstakingly "outplanted" 100,000 pieces of coral - one by one - mostly on eight small sections of reef.

"They're fusing together, behaving normally and they're spawning," said Roxane Boonstra, the volunteer co-ordinator.

"This is critical."

Visitors can do their part by signing up for dive programs that take them out to the Coral Tree Nursery for monitoring or outplanting.

"Even if we can't bring back the entire reef, we can bring these [eight] reefs back," Grainger adds optimistically.

A one-hour drive south in Marathon, John Mirabella - owner of Castaway restaurant - is doing his part to help the ocean environment by hunting and serving lionfish. It's not known how these flamboyant fish, native to the Asia-Pacific, got into Florida's waters, but they're here and they're deadly. Their zebra-like stripes make them an aquarium favourite, but lionfish compete with local fish species for food, or devour them outright.

"When you see how many lionfish are on a wreck, it'll blow your mind," says Mirabella, who dives and spearfishes with his buddies as often as he can. Lionfish are easy prey, given their numbers and behaviour. "All they do is sit in one place and open and close their mouths and suck these little baby fish in, 20 to 30 minnows an hour."

Mirabella has been stung by their venomous fins - an excruciatingly painful experience, he says - but that hasn't stopped him. "We need to eradicate lionfish because if we don't, they're going to eradicate all of the other species that spawn locally."

Fortunately - or perhaps unfortunately for Mirabella's patrons - Hurricane Irma killed a lot of lionfish and since then, he's had trouble meeting the demand. His "King of the Jungle" sushi roll is hugely popular and it's easy to see why. It arrives artfully displayed along the spine of a lionfish, head and feathery fins still attached.

The firm flesh of the lionfish, combined with avocado and asparagus, is savourysweet and tasty.

By the time I arrive in Key West for a dolphin-watching and snorkel tour on Squid, the town's first electric-powered charter boat, I'm curious about how much wildlife is actually still out there. But an hour into the excursion, a dozen or more bottlenose dolphins appear, diving under and around the boat.

Later, in a shallow spot, we don masks and snorkels. This isn't part of the Florida reef, but it looks just as barren. Then our guide finds some floating strands of sargassum, a seaweed that's been piling up on beaches in Florida and the Caribbean recently.

Resorts don't like it, but sargassum supports lots of life, much of it microscopic.

Swimming closer, we see a dozen or more small yellowtail snappers nibbling on the frilly fronds, their blue scales sparkling in the dappled sunlight.

That night, I go for dinner at the Stoned Crab, a restaurant that specializes in its namesake. Stone crabs are only caught for their claws, and usually only one is removed at a time, which grows back within a year. "It's the only animal you can eat without killing it," restaurant owner Chris Holland says with a chuckle.

Licences to harvest stone crab come with strict regulations. They must be a certain size, for starters, and live ones must be returned to the water to regenerate new claws - all of which makes it another ideal food for people who want to help these islands get back to their natural state.

Who knew helping the environment could be so delicious?

Special to The Globe and Mail The writer was a guest of Florida Keys tourism office. It did not review or approve this story.

Associated Graphic

Top: The Florida Reef Tract, the third-largest barrier reef in the world, has been devastated by pollutants, but since 2007, the Coral Restoration Foundation has been growing and planting thousands of new pieces of coral. Bottom: The Florida Keys' Turtle Hospital rescues and treats about 100 sea turtles a year.

ZACH RANSOM (CORAL); ANDY NEWMAN/FLORIDA KEYS NEWS BUREAU (TURTLE)

Hong Kong protesters find support from mainland China in hidden chats
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Encrypted messaging app allows Chinese to learn about, defend pro-democracy movement
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Friday, August 23, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


BEIJING -- Support for protesters in Hong Kong has come from an unexpected place: internet users in mainland China who are turning to encrypted chats to evade censorship and express a sympathy for the city's demonstrators that is nowhere to be seen in Beijing's official media.

In some cases, Chinese internet users are even discovering online chat groups to learn about, and defend, the pro-democracy movement by following the trail of pro-Beijing internet armies that have set out to smear the city's protesters.

A number of those conversations are taking place on Telegram, an encrypted messaging app that grants users anonymity and has been the central tool used by Hong Kong protesters to communicate and organize demonstrations.

In chats hidden from all but those who know where to look, Chinese internet users are openly siding with Hong Kong protesters, questioning the leadership of President Xi Jinping and lamenting the stiff societal controls of the Chinese Communist Party.

The Globe and Mail reviewed days of chats on several Telegram groups. They provided a glimpse into a much more robust debate inside China about Hong Kong than what is visible in state-controlled media, which has shed little light on the primary motivations of protesters.

"A lot of mainlanders don't even know what the five main demands [of the Hong Kong protests] are - only that people in Hong Kong are wasted freeloaders," said a Telegram user, a Chinese finance worker who declined to provide a name for fear of retribution. He supports "people voicing out their demands through peaceful protests," and called the mainland voices spreading government-friendly messages "a shame for a civilization with such a long history."

Those marching in Hong Kong have called for the full withdrawal of a proposed extradition bill; an independent investigation into police conduct; the reversal of a government characterization that protests were "riots"; the exoneration of those previously arrested; and the granting of greater democratic freedoms.

In China, however, news reports have paid scant attention to the protesters' objectives - save to say that they seek independence, which many do not - but they have shown dramatic images of violent clashes with police, and labelled participants ultraradicals taking part in acts akin to terrorism.

As the protests have continued, Chinese social-media giants have maintained a vigilant censorship regime, purging any sentiment not in line with the official view and freezing accounts "suspected of spreading malicious rumours." The Great Firewall, the digital ring fence that keeps out internet content authorities dislike, has been strengthened this summer to block a raft of additional foreign news sources, The Globe included.

And Chinese internet users have been marshalled to duck past the Great Firewall and post pro-Beijing comments on Western social media. Earlier this week, Facebook and Twitter closed a series of accounts involved in what Twitter called an attempt to "sow political discord in Hong Kong" by a "large, spammy network" that participated in a state-backed operation.

On Diba, a Chinese forum site popular with nationalists, users have formed "troll armies" to spread pro-Beijing messages on social media.

Telegram has been one of their targets.

But in taking aim at Telegram, nationalists have also pointed others to chat groups that have become a source of unfiltered information and unvarnished debate.

"When the Hong Kong protests began in early July, I found it understandable because they had reasonable demands," said Andy Liu, a legal worker in mainland China. He criticized state media for "over-exaggerating the degree of violence and violent demonstration." Such a view is considered dangerous in Beijing, where authorities have acted to ward off the spread of protests on mainland soil.

But Mr. Liu is far from alone.

The Globe's review of chats on Telegram found most of them conducted in the simplified Chinese characters that are used in mainland China, but not Hong Kong.

In one exchange, a person sympathetic to the protesters wrote: "If bad people are in charge of a country, then what will happen? I think 8964 is the best example," a reference to the Tiananmen massacre on June 4, 1989. A pro-Beijing commenter responded by suggesting protesters had dressed like police to beat others as a way to gain to support.

In a separate exchange, one person asked: "Can you tell me whether it's reasonable to use tear gas on the street?" Another replied: "If you have the right to conclude that all bad things are done by people from the Communist Party of China, then why don't I have the right to see all of these evil deeds as committed by local Hong Kong freeloaders?" Some group chats have devolved into cursing and vic