Globeandmail.com

For Fernandez, tennis success is a family affair
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With a single-minded focus and wisdom beyond her years, the youngster is determined to rise to the top, with a little help from dad
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By JAMIE ROSS
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S5


GATINEAU -- Last week, on her run to a second pro-level tournament final in two weeks, Leylah Annie Fernandez committed a minor breach of tennis etiquette. After taking out fellow Canadian and world No. 224 Françoise Abanda in the semi-final at the Granby Challenger, Fernandez, who had just won arguably the biggest match of her career, ran over to hug her father before heading to the net to shake hands with her opponent.

Convention would suggest the order of those two actions should be reversed, but considering Fernandez is only 16 and that the celebration totalled about 12 seconds, it was easy to shrug off as harmless inexperience.

Abanda did not see it that way.

Perhaps feeling slighted by the celebration, or simply stung having been beaten by the teenager twice in two weeks, she took to social media to educate her young compatriot on proper manners.

"I waited at the net, but Leylah was busy celebrating with her team. You're supposed to shake your opponent's hand before your coach," Abanda wrote on twitter.

If she continues her ascent through the WTA rankings, it probably won't be the last time Fernandez runs afoul of a higherranked, more-experienced player. After Angelique Kerber called Bianca Andreescu a "drama queen" after losing to the then-18year-old in the final at Indian Wells, it almost feels like a rite of passage.

On the heels of her success at back-to-back Canadian events this month, which included her first pro tournament victory at the Gatineau Challenger and runner-up at Granby, Que., Fernandez rose 115 spots to No. 272 in the world when the WTA put out its rankings Monday.

That keeps her goal of cracking the top 200 this season within reach. After being granted a maindraw wild card on Wednesday, she'll get another chance to eat away at that margin at the Rogers Cup in Toronto, which begins next week. Fernandez will face a qualifier after being given a wild card into the tournament.

"I want that," Fernandez said during an interview in the midst of her winning run at Gatineau.

"Top-200 ranking. [Make the main draw at] French Open, Wimbledon. That's what I want to do.

Progress, little by little."

Incremental progress would be a change for Fernandez, whose past year has been full of firsts.

She inked an apparel deal with Asics in the fall; reached the final of the junior Australian Open in January; and took the junior French Open title in June.

Since then, she's signed with an agent, began working with a new coach and won her first pro tournament. Media requests have poured in. Responsibilities, on and off court, have piled up.

Until recently, Fernandez's father, Jorge, had been managing most aspects of his daughter's career, including coaching. But with another daughter on the rise in the junior ranks, the workload is now too much.

"The attention has grown to the level where I can't manage it any more," he said. "We have to stay focused on what got the attention in the first place."

FAMILY OFFERS FULL SUPPORT If it all sounds like a bit much for a teenager, don't worry. Fernandez says she still finds time to do normal kid stuff. Such as ... watching Murdoch Mysteries while knitting?

"This is a weirdo. A 90-year-old trapped in a 16-year-old's body," Jorge says, nodding toward his daughter.

She rolls her eyes.

"He's 49 going on 5."

There is a palpable bond between Jorge and Leylah, who despite travelling year-round with her dad by her side insists she never gets sick of him. Their closeness makes those long road stretches a bit easier, when they might go as long as a month without seeing Leylah's mom, Irene, or sister Bianca.

The family's total commitment to their daughters' tennis careers has stretched them thin. With Jorge devoting all of his time to coaching his children, Irene is left working full-time.

The family moved from Laval, Que., to a small apartment in Delray Beach, Fla., where the sisters share a bedroom. Living in Florida, a global tennis hub, gives them nearly endless year-round access to public courts, so they don't have to pay for court time at a private club.

The Fernandez family was the subject of a recent Radio-Canada documentary that explored the challenges of raising a nascent tennis star on a tight budget.

In it, Jorge, who immigrated to Canada from Ecuador as a child, reveals he has no retirement savings and the family doesn't own any property. "We have nothing, really," he says. "What we do have, we devoted to tennis."

GROWTH IN THE GAME WON'T BE CHEAP Tennis Canada has stepped in and contributed financing for Leylah, despite her development outside the national body's traditional system.

That money went toward paying for coach Dave Rineberg, who joined the Fernandez camp on a trial basis for Leylah's Canadian swing. The financing also helps offset the cost of travel, in which a player may have to hop from one country or continent to the next on a weekly basis.

"She's going to turn pro and we're going to need some heavy financing," Jorge told the Montreal Gazette shortly after the junior French Open win. "This is going to turn into a numbers game, and that's a whole different problem we're going to have to face. We need a team for her at some point."

Getting an agent brings someone into the fold who can seek out new sponsorship and marketing opportunities.

Jorge says some of his daughter's commercial appeal comes from her ability to speak three languages. She is fluent in English, French and Spanish, having grown up speaking French at school in Quebec while picking up Spanish at home from her dad.

English is her third language, which she learned by speaking with her mother, who doesn't speak Spanish or French.

The bigger pay days, however, come with tournament wins.

Fernandez's victory at Gatineau netted her US$3,935, while her finals appearance in Granby generated US$6,518. The real money starts rolling in when a player begins playing at WTA events, where prize pools swell into the millions of dollars.

A first-round appearance at the Rogers Cup will earn her about US$8,000, which is almost half of her entire earnings this season.

LEARNING TO ENJOY THE RIDE Sitting in a tent in Gatineau ahead of an evening match, Fernandez, dressed in all blue gear (her father, sporting the same brand, head to toe in red), is asked what it was like to watch 15-year-old American Cori Gauff make her historic run through Wimbledon a few weeks earlier.

By this point in the conversation she had let her father do most of the talking. But at the topic of Gauff, she perks up.

Fernandez fell to Gauff in the junior French Open only last year, so it was easy to imagine having that success herself, she says.

On the one hand, she was happy for her. On the other, it was motivation.

"If she can, then I can. When I saw that at first, I thought. 'I want to be there next year.' " Jorge knows it's a cliché, but he reminds his daughter that it's not necessarily about the destination.

He wants her to actually be a teenager and enjoy the ride.

"She's an old soul. There's something oddly mature about her and what she wants to achieve," Jorge says. "I tell her all the time, 'It's about the journey.

One day you'll tell your kids about the experiences. Travelling the world.' "Fernandez nods her head, but again, doesn't engage. It's only when the topic of conversation returns to tennis that she takes interest.

Asked about winning a junior Grand Slam, she offers the same humble platitude you would expect from any polite young person. But on the issue of losing, she sits up straight and then leans forward. Her voice rises for the first time.

"Losing. That's devastating," she says with wide eyes. "Because I just know, there are so many things I could improve on to make me better. I can never wait to get back out there."

Associated Graphic

Leylah Annie Fernandez hits a forehand at the Granby Challenger in Gatineau on July 17. The 16-year-old is determined to crack the top 200 this season.

DAVE CHAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Woods calls on Presidents team to stay sharp
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As his season winds down, star golfer asks for commitment from prospective players
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By DOUG FERGUSON
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B14


MEDINAH, ILL. -- Tiger Woods wants the eight players who made his Presidents Cup team and four more under consideration as captain's picks to play tournaments and stay sharp over the next three months leading to the December matches Down Under.

Left unclear was whether that applies to the captain if Woods decides to pick himself.

Woods said he told prospective Presidents Cup players at a meeting two weeks ago how important it was to be committed to the team and to the event.

"And that means playing and being prepared," he said during a conference call Monday evening.

"The only time we have ever lost the Cup was in Australia, and quite frankly, some of the guys didn't play or practise that much.

It was our off-season, and we got beat pretty badly."

The matches were held the first week of December in 1998 at Royal Melbourne, and the International team routed the Americans so badly it clinched the cup before lunch was served. It remains the only time the International team won since the Presidents Cup began in 1994. The teams tied in South Africa in 2003.

"It's something I try to reinforce to the guys, that it is important to be solid, be fresh and be sharp," Woods said. "We're going overseas and we're playing against an amazing team, and it's their soil. These guys are going to be tough to beat."

The Americans won in a return to Royal Melbourne in 2011 when it was held in mid-November.

This time, the matches end 10 days before Christmas.

Woods and Phil Mickelson were part of that first U.S. team that went to Melbourne, and only one of them was assured of returning 21 years later. Woods is a captain for the first time and eventually will decide whether to be the first playing captain of the Presidents Cup since Hale Irwin in 1994.

The Masters champion was not among the eight qualifiers after the BMW Championship, finishing 13th in the standings. And while he wants his players and potential picks to stay sharp, Woods has only one tournament on his schedule - the Zozo Championship in Japan from Oct. 24-27.

So does that rule him out when he makes his four picks a week after Japan?

"I don't know. That's up to myself and the vice-captains and eight guys," he said.

"I'm going to keep an open line of communication with my players and my vice-captains to find the four guys that they want to go down there with and who best fits the team."

The eight qualifiers are Brooks Koepka, Justin Thomas, Dustin Johnson, Patrick Cantlay, Xander Schauffele, Webb Simpson, Matt Kuchar and Bryson DeChambeau. All but Cantlay and Schauffele have played in a Presidents Cup or Ryder Cup. Cantlay played in the Walker Cup in 2011.

Among those needing a pick are U.S. Open champion Gary Woodland, Tony Finau, Rickie Fowler, Patrick Reed, Chez Reavie and Kevin Kisner - along with Woods and Mickelson, who has played on every U.S. team dating to the 1994 Presidents Cup.

All but Finau have won tournaments this year.

When asked if Mickelson would be a vice-captain if he doesn't warrant a captain's pick, Woods instead spoke of the experience of the three assistances he has - Fred Couples and Steve Stricker, who both were winning Presidents Cup captains, and Zach Johnson, who is part of the Ryder Cup committee.

Mickelson plans to play the Safeway Open in Napa at the end of September (which his management company runs) and the CJ Cup in South Korea, and said he might add a tournament depending on how he plays.

Woods has made it clear that the four picks will be a consensus of his assistants and eight qualifiers, though "ultimately it's going to be my call." He has played only six tournaments since winning the Masters. He missed the cut in three of them (two were majors) and finished a combined 39 shots out of the lead in the other three.

So how does he measure whether he's worthy of a pick?

"It's practising, it's playing, it's staying sharp," Woods said. "Obviously, I'm playing in Japan, and so that's going to help. I think it has to do with a lot of my competitions I'm going to have down here [in Florida]. I'll be playing with a lot of the guys here.

They're going to be getting ready for some of the fall events. We'll have some matches, and that's always fun because we're able to talk trash and have a great time.

"That will be something that I will definitely rely on, and obviously the event in Japan will be a big deal."

Associated Graphic

Tiger Woods is not among the eight qualifiers for his Presidents Cup team after he closed with an even-par 72 to tie for 37th at the BMW Championship in Medinah, Ill. It remains unclear if he will pick himself for the team.

ANDREW REDINGTON/GETTY IMAGES

Man City starts season on the right foot, winning Community Shield match against Liverpool
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By ROB HARRIS
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Monday, August 5, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


LONDON -- After completing a clean sweep of domestic trophies last season, Manchester City opened the new campaign by lifting the Community Shield following a shootout victory over Liverpool on Sunday.

City netted all five penalties - the last by Gabriel Jesus - and backup goalkeeper Claudio Bravo made a key save on his first appearance in a year to deny Georginio Wijnaldum's attempt in a 5-4 shootout win after the traditional curtain-raiser to the English season ended 1-1 in regulation time.

"It was a good test for both teams," City manager Pep Guardiola said. "It's nice for the players to realize what they will face this season. At this level, the difference is nothing."

On the field, perhaps, between the teams. Not in terms of trophy hauls in recent years.

City opened last season by lifting the Shield and went on to win the FA Cup, League Cup and Premier League - edging Liverpool to England's top title by a single point.

Liverpool, which won the Champions League for a sixth time last season, won only one of seven preseason games before losing to City at Wembley Stadium.

Raheem Sterling took 12 minutes to pick up where he left off for City at Wembley in May, when he completed a 5-0 victory over Watford in the FA Cup final.

Kevin De Bruyne nodded across to David Silva, who flicked the ball on for Sterling to turn in from close range. It was Sterling's first goal against the club he left four years ago, and he didn't hold back in celebrating in front of the Liverpool fans closest to the goal.

Liverpool was not only exposed in defence, but wasteful up front - and twice denied by the goal frame after the break when Virgil van Dijk hit the bar and Mohamed Salah struck the post.

But Bravo was beaten in the 77th minute when two defenders combined.

Van Dijk brought down Jordan Henderson's free kick and volleyed across to Joël Matip, who headed low into the net.

Liverpool was denied a winner in regulation time when Salah's header beat Bravo, but Kyle Walker scrambled back to clear from the goal-line.

"It was a really powerful performance," Liverpool manager Juergen Klopp said.

"Both teams had a similar preseason, travelling so much you don't really know where you are. It's just so intense with all the trips.

"Obviously in the second half, we were in charge and full of desire. We didn't do it, but at least we got the equalizer, so it's how it is.

Penalties, a bit of luck is involved and one goalkeeper's save decides it, but I can't be disappointed today."

For a game focused on raising money for good causes, there was a significant amount of ill-feeling at Wembley.

The club anthems were booed by opposing fans, then the national anthem - God Save The Queen - was jeered by Liverpool supporters.

WHITECAPS 2, FC CINCINNATI 1

CINCINNATI Felipe scored in the 84th minute to help Vancouver end its ninegame winless streak and hand expansion FC Cincinnati its fourth straight loss in MLS action on Saturday night. Russell Teibert chased down Ali Adnan's pass and crossed it through the goalkeeper's legs to Felipe, who smashed it home from close range. Hwang In-beom made it 1-1 for the Whitecaps (5-11-9) in the 41st minute, following up Kendall Waston's attempted clearance with a low hard shot from outside the area. Allan Cruz gave FC Cincinnati (5-17-2) the lead in the sixth minute.

RAPIDS 6, IMPACT 3

COMMERCE CITY, COLO. Kei Kamara scored the second hat trick of his career and Colorado used a flurry of first-half goals to beat Montreal. Kamara gave Colorado (6-12-5) a 2-1 lead in the 36th minute with a penalty kick and made it 3-1 in the first minute of first-half stoppage time. Three minutes later, Diego Rubio scored to make it 4-1 before halftime. Kamara netted his hat trick with a header to cap the scoring in the 90th minute. Andre Shinyashiki also scored and Colorado had another on Montreal's own goal. Maximiliano Urruti and Saphir Taïder scored for Montreal (11-11-3).

RED BULLS 2, TORONTO FC 0

HARRISON, N.J. Kemar Lawrence scored his first goal of the season and Luis Robles had three saves to help New York beat Toronto. Alejandro Romero Gamarra also scored for the Red Bulls (10-9-4). Toronto dropped to 9-10-5.

Associated Graphic

Manchester City players celebrate after Gabriel Jesus, right, scores the winning penalty kick in the shootout of the Community Shield match against Liverpool on Sunday at Wembley Stadium in London.

ADRIAN DENNIS/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Bethel-Thompson eager to battle Edmonton
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Argos quarterback looks to redeem himself, says July loss was low point in season of challenges
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By DAN RALPH
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


TORONTO -- McLeod Bethel-Thompson is looking forward to facing the Edmonton Eskimos again.

Bethel-Thompson finished just 6-of-18 passing for 90 yards with an interception July 25, when Edmonton (5-3) dispatched Toronto 26-0 at Commonwealth Stadium. It was Edmonton's first shutout win since 2014 and marked the first time since 2009 the Argos hadn't scored a point in a game.

The two teams meet again Friday night at BMO Field. It will be the first game for Toronto (1-6) since Bethel-Thompson rallied that the squad to a thrilling 28-27 home victory over the Winnipeg Blue Bombers on Aug. 1.

In a season that's been chock full of challenges, Bethel-Thompson said the loss in Edmonton was his lowest point.

"I learned what death felt like and maybe that's a metaphor, but maybe it's not," Bethel-Thompson said Thursday. "[What] it feels like to be too far into it, to want it too much, to make it life or death and when you get punched in the mouth.

"When you're too far into it what the game can feel like, how everything can feel too fast or too out of control and what you need to do to just kind of breathe and come back into the moment. If you're playing two steps ahead of yourself, you're never going to see what's right in front of your face. It was a good learning experience."

And the lesson learned?

"Be myself, play my game and be in the moment," he said. "If I can play my game, I'm going to have a lot of success.

"I'm excited to see what that looks like."

Bethel-Thompson looked good against Winnipeg, completing 37-of-49 passes for 343 yards and three TDs while rushing for 44 yards on five carries. BethelThompson's 11-yard touchdown pass to S.J. Green with 13 seconds remaining tied the score 27-27 before Tyler Crapgina booted the game-winning convert.

"It was a great death that night [loss to Edmonton] and it was a beautiful rebirth after that," Bethel-Thompson said.

Ideally, Bethel-Thompson would've preferred Toronto playing the following week rather than going on a bye. But he said there are benefits to having some down time.

"The quick answer is yeah, I would've wanted to get right back on the field," he said. "We got on a roll at the end of that game ... but my body feels better than it did.

"That was a long road stretch [three straight games away from BMO Field before facing Winnipeg] and we needed a break from football. That's why this game is so important, to get us back rolling going into this stretch."

But head coach Corey Chamblin felt Toronto desperately needed the break.

"That was the last little bit of juice we had with all the stuff we went through," he said. "You can see now the guys are a lot fresher.

"I think the biggest thing with the win is you'll reset yourself and find yourself back in a positive mindset. It creates more positive energy not only in the locker room, but outside the locker room."

Edmonton comes off a 16-12 win over Ottawa as CFL passing leader Trevor Harris (2,631 yards) finished 33-of-40 passing for 327 yards in his first game against his former team. C.J. Gable ran for 116 yards and two TDs on 18 carries while adding four catches for 34 yards.

Harris has recorded 20 or more completions in 21 straight games, just three short of the CFL record held by Ricky Ray, the former Eskimo/Argo who retired earlier this year.

But registering a second straight win won't come easily for Toronto.

Edmonton's offence leads the CFL in net yards (423.6 a game), average plays from scrimmage (63), fewest sacks allowed (three) and passing (328.9), while being tied for most average yards per play (6.7). The Eskimos' defence comes in first overall in fewest offensive points allowed (16.5 a game), yards allowed (251.6), offensive plays (48.5), yards per play (5.2) and sacks (26).

"The good thing is this is our second time seeing them," Chamblin said. "We should be better prepared for what we're going to see. They'll have their wrinkles and we'll have to adjust to it, but they won't have 1,000 wrinkles."

Toronto is also expecting a season-high home crowd with the Canadian National Exhibition opening Friday.

Associated Graphic

Toronto Argonauts quarterback McLeod Bethel-Thompson scrambles to escape from a diving Lorenzo Mauldin IV of the Tiger-Cats in Hamilton on June 6.

PETER POWER/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Keys, Medvedev earn biggest titles yet at Cincinnati
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By JOE KAY
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


MASON, OHIO -- Two unexpected champions embraced their first Rookwood championship trophies, concluding a week that brought more questions than clarity to the coming U.S. Open.

Who's going to be healthy on the women's side? Will stumbles in the men's bracket at the Western & Southern Open carry over to New York?

And are Madison Keys and Daniil Medvedev capable of carrying their new-found momentum into a Grand Slam event? After winning the biggest tournament title of their careers, they were already getting asked about how it might transfer to the bigger stage.

Keys rallied late in both sets and beat Svetlana Kuznetsova 7-5, 7-6 (5) on Sunday for her second title of the season and easily the biggest of her career. After flameouts in her past three tournaments and a tough draw for the week, she couldn't imagine the outcome.

Back on the court to receive the trophy, she told the crowd: "If you told me this is where I would be a week ago, I would have laughed in your face!"

Yet, there she was, back in the Top 10 on a surprising upswing heading to New York.

She'll move up to the No. 10 ranking after a gritty showing that was typical of her week. She broke Kuznetsova to pull even in both sets at 5-5 and then pulled them out with a steady serve.

Keys hadn't made it past the second round in her past three tournaments, including Wimbledon. Now, she's got a good feeling with her favourite Grand Slam event at hand.

"It's definitely a great building block," Keys said. "I want to do well in New York and have a good end to the season."

At 34, Kuznetsova was the oldest finalist in the Western & Southern Open's history. She beat three top-10 players in a tournament - Sloane Stephens, Karolina Pliskova and Ashleigh Barty - for the first time in her 19-year career.

The 153rd-ranked player got a late start on the season as she completed a sevenmonth recovery from a knee injury. In her ninth tournament of the season, she got her game together and got her best result in two years.

"Honestly, I didn't expect to be so good at this tournament," she said.

After what happened in Cincinnati during the week, nobody knows what to expect in the women's bracket in New York.

Serena Williams dropped out of Cincinnati because of back spasms that also forced her to withdraw from the final in Toronto. Naomi Osaka, the defending U.S.

Open champion, withdrew from her semifinal match on Friday with discomfort in her left knee that left her worried about her condition heading to New York.

There's some intrigue on the men's side, too.

The bracket in Cincinnati was billed as a reunion of the Big Four - Novak Djokovic, Roger Federer, Rafael Nadal and Andy Murray back together for the first time since January. None of them made it to the final.

Nadal won the Rogers Cup last Sunday and withdrew from the Western & Southern, citing fatigue. Murray played singles for the first time since hip surgery in January and lost his opening match. Seventime champion Federer was knocked out in the quarter-finals, and Djokovic lost to Medvedev in the semi-finals with the crowd cheering him on.

The Russian thanked the crowd for its support after beat David Goffin 7-6 (3), 6-4 for his first Masters 1000 title Sunday. It was his third straight final, but the first time he'd won. Medvedev lost to Nadal on Montreal a week earlier, then went on to reach his sixth final of this season, most on the ATP tour. He's won twice.

"To finally lift the trophy this week is an amazing feeling," Medvedev said.

At age 23, he became the youngest Cincinnati champion since Murray at age 21 in 2008.

"Congratulations," Goffin told him, "and I think you're ready for New York."

Associated Graphic

Madison Keys of the United States hoists the Rookwood Cup on Sunday after defeating Russia's Svetlana Kuznetsova 7-5, 7-6 (5) at the women's final of the Western & Southern Open. Daniil Medvedev won the men's title.

JOHN MINCHILLO/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Liverpool beats Chelsea on penalties to win UEFA Super Cup
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


ISTANBUL -- Adrian may never play more than a smattering of games for Liverpool, but he'll be remembered for his "crazy week."

The backup goalkeeper turned penalty hero with a save on the final kick of the shootout, as Liverpool beat Chelsea to win the Super Cup and kick off a new European season.

After Champions League holder Liverpool and Europa League winner Chelsea finished extra time at 2-2, Adrian made the crucial save with his leg to deny Tammy Abraham and give his team a 5-4 win on penalties in a game which finished after midnight Turkish time on Thursday.

It was a dramatic turnaround after Adrian fouled Abraham to concede a penalty in extra time.

Adrian was signed just nine days before as backup for Alisson, but when the Brazilian injured himself last Friday in the English Premier League opener, he was thrust into the spotlight first as a substitute, then as a Super Cup starter.

"Welcome to Liverpool," Adrian said.

"It's been a crazy week. I'm really happy for the team, I'm happy to play for Liverpool and happy for the fans."

The 32-year-old Spanish goalkeeper was a free agent after leaving West Ham, where he didn't play a single Premier League game last season and last appeared in an FA Cup loss to the lowly AFC Wimbledon.

"The goalkeeping coach told me he needs time to get fit, but he didn't have time. He played so well tonight," Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp said.

"His performance over 120 minutes was incredible and the penalty save was the icing on the cake."

Even before the shootout, Adrian kept Liverpool in the game with a 113th-minute save from Mason Mount to stop Chelsea winning in extra time. Still, he's expected to relinquish his Liverpool starting spot to Alisson when the Brazilian returns from his calf injury in a few weeks.

Liverpool played its second penalty shootout in three games, having lost to Manchester City for the Community Shield on Aug. 4.

Chelsea took the lead in the 36th minute, when Christian Pulisic exposed poor positioning by Liverpool right back Joe Gomez to pass for Olivier Giroud to shoot low past Adrian.

Liverpool stormed back after the break, Fabinho's 48th-minute pass opening up the Chelsea defence and leaving Sadio Mane with an easy finish off Mohamed Salah's flick.

In extra time, Mane put Liverpool ahead off a Roberto Firmino cross, but Chelsea quickly responded with a penalty from Jorginho - whose name was misspelled as "Jorghino" on his shirt - when Adrian brought down Abraham.

Just as in its 4-0 loss to Manchester United on Sunday, Chelsea played a strong first half before slumping after halftime, but this time, its mistakes weren't nearly as harshly punished.

"I don't like losing," Chelsea manager Frank Lampard said after his second game in charge yielded a second loss.

"We were very unfortunate today. It's a really good sign for us."

Lampard's team tormented Gomez in the opening 45 minutes, drawing him out of position and exploiting the space created. After an early chance for Salah, it was all Chelsea as Pedro hit the bar and Giroud shot at Adrian. Soon after, Pulisic and Giroud combined for the opening goal.

Chelsea emerged after halftime looking disjointed and almost immediately conceded.

After Mane scored, Liverpool nearly followed up with a second as Fabinho fired just wide, then Jordan Henderson forced a save from Kepa Arrizabalaga.

The Chelsea goalkeeper made a spectacular double save to keep Liverpool at bay in the 75th, diverting Virgil van Dijk's shot onto the bar after substitute Abraham cleared Fabinho's shot off the line with his first touch of the game.

Liverpool won its fourth Super Cup and the first by an English team since the Reds beat CSKA Moscow in 2005. Chelsea has now lost three Super Cup games in the last eight years, twice with Lampard as captain and once with him as coach.

Ottawa looks for ways to kick-start its struggling offence
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Redblacks, who play host to the East-leading Tiger-Cats, have struggled to move the ball
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By LISA WALLACE
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S3


OTTAWA -- It's hard to score points when you don't have the ball, and lately for the Ottawa Redblacks, it's hard to score points even when you do.

The Redblacks (3-5) look to get their sputtering offence going on Saturday when they play host to the East Divisionleading Hamilton Tiger-Cats (6-2).

Ottawa sits dead last in the CFL with a time of possession of 25 minutes and 32 second and its net offence of 304.4 yards a game is the worst in the league as is its 5.3 average yards a play. When the Redblacks have managed to get the ball, they have struggled to sustain any kind of momentum with a league-worst 51 two-and-outs.

"It's mainly on my shoulders. We just have to finish drives and take care of the ball and execute the plays as coach calls them," said Ottawa quarterback Dominique Davis, who has thrown a league-high 15 interceptions.

"I'm always hard on myself if we win or if we lose," he added. "I just look at it as a learning experience and try to correct the mistakes from the week before."

Redblacks head coach Rick Campbell says everyone's attention to detail needs to be better.

"Everybody on offence knows exactly what we're doing and they can do it with speed and tempo and confidence and then you start building momentum that way," Campbell said. "On the flip side our defence is going to get some two-and-outs so we can get our offence the ball more often."

The offence might improve if the Redblacks could get the ball in Brad Sinopoli's hands more often. The veteran receiver, who posted four consecutive 1,000-plus yard seasons, has just 311 yards on 31 catches so far this season.

"I never really worry about the numbers," Sinopoli said. "As a player, you just want to be involved as much as you can and when that doesn't happen you're disappointed in yourself and you're maybe trying to figure out what can I do better, what can I change, but at the same time it's football.

"There's a lot of different factors that come into play. You have to ride the wave and make the play when the ball comes your way."

Campbell agreed that Sinopoli has been under-utilized, but said that other offensive weapons have been as well.

"We're not being productive enough as a whole and football really is the ultimate team game and that you have to get 12 guys working together," Campbell said. "When that happens, all of a sudden Brad's stats look like they normally will.

"We obviously want to use him the best we can and it's going to be a function that his stats are going to start looking better as we start looking better as a team."

Mossis Madu Jr. will be back in the lineup as John Crockett is still dealing with some minor ailments. Ottawa has had success when they can run the ball and Madu is looking to keep the trend going.

Last week in a 16-12 loss to Edmonton Crockett rushed for 85 yards in the first half and Ottawa led 12-10, but touched the ball just four times in the second half for four yards.

"Earlier in the season when we were having success we were running the ball," Madu said. "In each drive and it gets going more and more we run the ball and we have success. There's been games where we go two and out and it's because we're not running the ball well and collecting first downs."

Associated Graphic

Ottawa Redblacks quarterback Dominique Davis, right, hands the ball off to Mossis Madu Jr., during a game in June. Madu returns to the team, which while struggling on offence, has had some success running the ball this season.

JEFF MCINTOSH/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Panthers to retire Luongo's number
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Goaltender who sported the No. 1 jersey will be the first Florida player to receive the honour
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By TIM REYNOLDS
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


SUNRISE, FLA. -- Roberto Luongo regrets not having more friends and family at his last game with the Florida Panthers. If he had known he was retiring, a decision he didn't make until weeks later, he would have ensured that more of the people closest to him were there that night.

They're all invited for his jersey retirement instead.

The Florida Panthers announced Monday that they will send Luongo's No. 1 jersey to the rafters on March 7. Fittingly, the opponent will be the Montreal Canadiens - the hometown team for their now-retired goaltender.

"Hopefully, there will be a lot of people in the building to enjoy that special moment with me," Luongo said.

Luongo will become the first Panthers player to have his number retired.

"Roberto is a cornerstone of Panthers history and an icon of the game," Panthers owner Vincent Viola said. "He has represented himself and the Panthers with tremendous dignity, determination and a standard of excellence throughout his career.

Roberto exemplifies what it means to be a Florida Panther. ... There is no player more deserving to be the first Florida Panther to have his jersey number retired."

Luongo retired in June after 19 NHL seasons, most of them with Florida. His 489 career victories are third in NHL history behind Martin Brodeur and Patrick Roy.

"There was never a question in any of our minds that Roberto would be the first Panthers player to have his number retired by the franchise," Panthers general manager Dale Tallon said. "One of the game's most iconic goaltenders, he gave his heart and soul to the Panthers and the South Florida community and carried himself with dignity, modesty and humour."

Luongo is Florida's all-time leader in wins, shutouts and saves. He was a two-time Olympic gold medalist for Canada, plus helped his home country win two world championships and the 2004 World Cup of Hockey. He entered the off-season intending to come back for at least one more year, then realized over the next few weeks that his body didn't want to go through what would have been a 20th season.

"I knew that I was at the point in my career where my body just didn't want me to go through the motions," Luongo said. "The more we got into the summer, the more I realized it was time to step away from the game."

The Panthers previously retired two other numbers - 93 for former Panthers president Bill Torrey in commemoration of the franchise's inaugural game being played in 1993, and 37 for original owner Wayne Huizenga, in tribute to both his being born in 1937 and that being his lucky number.

Associated Graphic

Goaltender Roberto Luongo, making a save against the Senators in March, retired in June after 19 NHL seasons, most of them with the Panthers. He has 489 career victories, the third most in NHL history behind Martin Brodeur and Patrick Roy.

JOEL AUERBACH/ GETTY IMAGES

Blue Jays rout Rangers in second straight victory
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Back-to-back homers from McKinney and Hernandez help take Toronto to a 3-0 win
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By MELISSA COUTO
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


TORONTO -- Billy McKinney and Teoscar Hernandez hit back-to-back home runs in the sixth inning and the Toronto Blue Jays kept the Texas Rangers off the board Tuesday in a 3-0 victory.

Randal Grichuk also hit a solo homer for the Blue Jays (51-72).

Danny Santana had a pair of doubles for the Rangers (59-60), supplying the visitors' only two hits through the game's first five innings.

Texas starter Lance Lynn (14-8) gave up one run and four hits with three walks and a strikeout in five innings. It was the first time since April 23 that Lynn had pitched fewer than six innings in a start.

Wilmer Font served as the opener for Toronto, allowing one hit and two walks over his two innings of work.

Left-hander Thomas Pannone (3-5) followed Font with four scoreless innings - allowing just two hits and two walks while striking out three - and Tim Mayza, Derek Law and Ken Giles kept the shutout going to give Toronto its fifth win in seven games.

Giles, making his first appearance since Aug. 7, earned his 16th save of the season.

The Blue Jays made it a 3-0 game in the sixth with the backto-back solo shots from Hernandez and McKinney off Texas reliever Shawn Kelley.

It was the 11th time this season that Toronto had homered in consecutive at-bats - and second time in as many nights - tying a franchise record from 1999.

Grichuk gave Toronto a 1-0 lead in the second inning with his team-leading 22nd homer of the season, a solo shot to straightaway centre field.

The Blue Jays have hit 106 homers since June 16. They came into the game four back of the Yankees for the most home runs hit in that two-month span.

Rookie sensation Bo Bichette walked in the third inning to extend his on-base streak to 16 games to begin his career, the longest ever by a Blue Jay. The on-base streak is the third longest in MLB history by a player aged 21 or younger, surpassing Ted Williams's 15-game streak from the 1939 season.

Rangers centre-fielder Delino DeShields slammed hard into the wall when he fell backward while making a catch on a deep Reese McGuire fly ball with two out in the fourth inning. McGuire was batting with the bases loaded and DeShields's catch saved at least a pair of runs. DeShields stayed in the game.

Rougned Odor continued to be booed loudly in each of his plate appearances. Toronto fans have loudly voiced their displeasure for the Texas second baseman since he punched former Blue Jays slugger Jose Bautista in the jaw during a 2016 game.

GREEN BAY PACKERS NOT SURE WHETHER RODGERS WILL PLAY IN WINNIPEG EXHIBITION GAME THURSDAY
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


WINNIPEG The Green Bay Packers are making no promises that star quarterback Aaron Rodgers will play during Thursday's NFL preseason game in Winnipeg against the Oakland Raiders.

When asked if Rodgers will play in the first NFL game in Canada since 2013 on Tuesday, Packers coach Matt LaFleur was noncommittal.

"That [Rodgers's status] is to be determined," LaFleur told reporters. "I want to wait and see. I'm not going to say one way or another right now. That will be a game-time decision."

Not having Rodgers on the field would be a big blow to game organizers, who had hoped a Week 3 preseason game would mean the most time for starters - as is traditionally the case.

Rodgers has not played yet during the preseason, but did return to practice on Monday after sitting out the Packers' second game with back tightness.

Another marquee player eligible for the game, Oakland receiver Antonio Brown, also remains a question mark.

Brown was back on the field for the Raiders on Tuesday after missing the previous practice as part of his dispute with the league and union over his helmet.

Brown took part in a walk-through without wearing a helmet and then went into the weight room as the rest of his teammates stretched. Brown came back out toward the end of the stretch but wasn't wearing a helmet like all of his teammates who were practising. The Raiders then held a brief practice out of view of the media.

Ticket sales have been slow for the game at 33,000-seat IG Field, with thousands still available.

Oakland is the home team. Canadianbased On Ice Entertainment Ltd. is the game organizer.

THE CANADIAN PRESS, WITH A REPORT FROM THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Major restaurant chains choosing sides as 'protein war' heats up
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By SYLVAIN CHARLEBOIS
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B4


Professor in food distribution and policy, and scientific director of the Agri-Food Analytics Lab at Dalhousie University in Halifax

The great "protein war" is heating up as several major restaurant chains are embracing the plant-based movement while others firmly position themselves as guardians of the mighty meat eater. It's getting confusing with all these announcements, and it's hard to keep track.

A&W, Canada's first Beyond Meat ambassador, started it all a little more than 12 months ago with its surprisingly successful Beyond Burger campaign that uses plant-based meat substitutes produced by Beyond Meat of Los Angeles.

Since then, grocers have all jumped on the Beyond Meat bandwagon, but now many other chains are making their position on plant-based dieting quite public. So much so that A&W's pioneering move has somewhat been lost in all the plant-based noise.

In cattle country, where A&W was hated as much as the taxman, beef producers now have many targets to choose from. Tim Hortons, Burger King and Subway, to name just a few, have all embraced plant-based products in recent months.

The case made by Restaurant Brands International (RBI) is interesting. Tim Hortons and Burger King, both owned by RBI, appear to be hedging on plantbased dieting. Early in the summer, Tim Hortons was adding many Beyond Meat products to its menu while Burger King introduced the Impossible Whopper, using California-based Impossible Foods' patties; both chains are going plant-based, but with different companies.

Both Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods, the two leading contenders for top supplier of plantbased products, have had a busy summer. As soon as Burger King announced its partnership with Impossible Foods, Beyond Meat made public its association with another major restaurant chain, Subway, and a few weeks after this it finalized its partnership with Dunkin' Donuts. Then, the American-based institutional food-prep giant Sodexo announced it was working with Impossible Foods.

Confused yet? Not a week goes by these days that we don't hear about a major chain going plantbased.

Tim Hortons's commitment to Beyond Meat points to how inclusive the chain wants to be. Tim Hortons is mostly known for its non-meat offerings and now is offering something for everyone.

Burger King's case is a little more complicated since it makes its money selling mostly burgers. After running pilot programs for a few months in different U.S. markets, it is now offering the Impossible Whopper to its customers across the United States. It did not take long for skeptics to criticize Burger King's plant-based move.

Some vegans make the point that the chain intends to cook Impossible Whopper patties on the same grill as patties from "dead cows." As a result, Burger King is now giving customers a choice: They can have their Impossible Whopper patties cooked separately if desired. Simply adding a plant-based option on the menu is no longer enough, chains are now made accountable for what goes on in the kitchen as well.

Burger King's decision to partner with Impossible Foods may seem surprising, but the chain was clearly motivated by McDonald's very public stand on meat consumption.

As Chipotle and Arby's did earlier this summer, McDonald's is doubling down on beef and has no intention to offer meat alternatives anytime soon. In fact, McDonald's is now selling an enhanced version of its Big Mac and the ads are everywhere - an obvious, direct response to what we have seen since last year's Beyond Burger launch by A&W.

Seeing McDonald's Canada going in another direction would have been surprising. For a long time, McDonald's Canada has prided itself on promoting Canadian beef and other commodities grown and produced in the country. It would have been awkward to see McDonald's adding any plant-based products to its menu.

McDonald's Canada is also a key stakeholder in the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef, an initiative launched to give beef a greener reputation. Its commitment to beef and its customer base remains the same. In 2003, McDonald's offered a less-thandecent veggie burger. The product was awful and was dropped a few years later as if its failure was almost by design. The chain clearly has no intention of luring flexitarians who are looking for "fake" animal proteins.

The summer of 2019 has become a high point in the so-called "protein war," our divisive quest to see a more pluralistic protein marketplace. The narrative of how the food-service industry is using the emergence of plantbased dieting as a lightning rod seems to be polarizing our collective discussion about the future of proteins even more.

Beyond Meat, Impossible Foods, Maple Leaf Foods, with its Lightlife product, Montrealbased Vegeats, and many other plant-based product providers are trying to democratize the notion of proteins. As a result, we are seeing more innovation coming from the food industry than we have in the past 20 years. We are seeing the rise of a brand-new section in the grocery store, a first in many years. Proteins are making everyone in the food industry think differently about their products, at the meat counter and beyond.

We should be thankful for what is happening, but let's hope a truce in the protein war occurs soon. A divisive debate is never desirable, especially when food is involved.

Associated Graphic

Many grocers and restaurants, including Carl's Jr., seen above, have jumped on the Beyond Meat bandwagon since A&W's successful campaign last year. However, other chains that have built their platform around promoting Canadian beef, such as McDonald's Canada, are doubling down on their meat-focused brands as a counter to the plant-based trend.

JUSTIN SULLIVAN/GETTY IMAGES

Brookfield bets $2.4-billion on mortgages
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Asset manager to take controlling stake in Genworth's Canadian mortgage insurance arm as CMHC cedes share to private sector
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By JAMES BRADSHAW
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Brookfield Asset Management Inc.'s private-equity arm is making a long-term bet on Canada's mortgage market with a $2.4-billion deal to take control of Genworth MI Canada Inc., the country's second-largest mortgage insurer.

Brookfield Business Partners LP, a publicly traded subsidiary of the global asset manager, is acquiring a 57-per-cent stake in Genworth MI Canada from the mortgage insurer's American parent company, Genworth Financial Inc.

Brookfield will pay $48.86 a share for nearly 49 million shares in Genworth MI Canada - a 5-percent discount to the price at Monday's close on the Toronto Stock Exchange, but an 18-per-cent premium compared with the date when the company was formally put up for sale.

The deal appears to relieve a headache for Richmond, Va.based Genworth, which has waited years for regulators to approve a separate deal that would see the American company acquired for US$2.7-billion by a privately held Chinese buyer, China Oceanwide Holdings Group Co. Ltd. That transaction, which was first announced in October, 2016, has stalled while awaiting approval from Canadian regulators and federal officials, who are required to consider the potential impact on Canada's mortgage industry and have held the deal up over national-security concerns, even after U.S. regulators gave it a green light.

Earlier this summer, Genworth Financial announced it was considering "strategic alternatives" for Genworth MI Canada, seeking to break the deadlock. That raised the prospect that, absent a suitable buyer, Genworth Financial's stake in its Canadian subsidiary might have to be sold into the public market at a discount. But Brookfield emerged with deep pockets and the industry expertise needed to take control.

"We are pleased to find such a highcalibre buyer for our interest in Genworth Canada," said Genworth Financial president and chief executive Tom McInerney.

Genworth Financial's share price shot up 15.8 per cent on Tuesday, and Brookfield Business Partners shares rose 2.7 per cent, but stock in Genworth MI Canada fell 1.7 per cent.

The Canadian arm of Genworth is a rare asset. It is Canada's largest private-sector mortgage insurer, providing a backstop against defaults to residential mortgage lenders, and it trails only the governmentowned Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) in size. Its only privately owned competitor is Canada Guaranty Mortgage Insurance Company, which is jointly owned by Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan and financier Stephen Smith.

Genworth Canada currently has a 33per-cent share of the country's mortgageinsurance market, while CMHC holds half and Canada Guaranty the remaining 17 per cent, according to data from RBC Dominion Securities Inc. But the federal housing agency has been ceding its share to the private insurers.

Genworth's improving position in a highly consolidated market made it a logical target for Brookfield Business Partners, which seeks to acquire and manage companies in sectors where the barrier to entry is high. Brookfield also has extensive expertise in mortgages and housing: It is one of the largest residential real estate developers in North America, active in real estate financing, and owns the Royal LePage brokerage.

Brookfield Business Partners managing partner David Nowak described Genworth Canada as "a high-quality leader in the mortgage-insurance sector," in a statement.

The total share of mortgages that are insured has been falling, from 57 per cent in 2015 to 41 per cent in 2019, according to a recent CMHC report. The shift toward uninsured mortgages comes as regulators have tightened rules on mortgage lending, requiring borrowers to meet stricter tests to qualify for mortgage insurance.

Even so, the housing sector as a whole has continued to grow, adding a steady stream of new demand for mortgage insurance, particularly from first-time home buyers. And Brookfield is betting that Genworth can grab a larger share of the market, making full use of Brookfield's deep relationships with banks that do the lion's share of Canada's mortgage lending.

The deal is expected to close before the end of 2019, subject to approvals from Canada's banking regulator and Minister of Finance.

Brookfield is not currently looking to acquire the 43 per cent of Genworth MI Canada's shares that are owned by other investors. But Jaeme Gloyn, an analyst at National Bank Financial Inc., said that prospect "is not entirely off the table" and "would likely unfold at a premium" to the price Brookfield is paying for control.

Ratings agency DBRS Ltd. called the deal "positive for Genworth Canada," which has been more stable than its U.S.

parent.

Oceanwide Holdings consented to the transaction and extended the deadline to finalize its own deal with Genworth Financial until Dec. 31.

BROOKFIELD BUSINESS PARTNERS LP (BBU.UN) CLOSE: $47.92, UP $1.26 GENWORTH MI CANADA (MIC) CLOSE: $50.60, DOWN 35¢

Underwriters are stuck with about a third of New Gold's bought deal
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By NIALL MCGEE, TIM KILADZE
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B2


New Gold Inc.'s $150-million stock issue has met with a frosty reception from investors as underwriters remain stuck with about a third of the shares despite bullion's big run this year.

Late last week, Toronto-based New Gold said a syndicate of underwriters had purchased the issue from the company and was offering close to 94 million new shares at $1.60 apiece to investors, a discount of 7 per cent to the market close at the time.

In such "bought deal" transactions, underwriters attempt to resell shares to third-party investors, preferably in a matter of hours. For assuming the risk, brokers are paid a flat commission, in this case 4.5 per cent.

But nearly a week after the underwriters purchased the shares, about a third of deal remains on their books, according to sources, who were not authorized to speak publicly. Sources cited the relatively slim deal discount given New Gold's risk profile, uneven interest in the sector and questions over the miner's long-term prospects as factors.

New Gold, whose market value is about $890-million, is carrying about US$780-million in longterm debt, largely incurred by big cost overruns at its low grade Rainy River mine in Ontario. New Gold said it intends to use proceeds from the bought deal in part to pay down that debt. New Gold receives the proceeds from the issue, minus a commission to the dealers, regardless of whether it sells out to third-party investors.

New Gold's shares have consistently traded below the $1.60 deal price since it was announced, meaning investors could buy stock in the open market at a cheaper price rather than buy from the syndicate. New Gold's shares closed at $1.55 apiece Wednesday on the Toronto Stock Exchange.

BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc. led the deal and was allocated the biggest chunk of stock to sell: 35 per cent.

RBC Dominion Securities Inc. and Scotia Capital Markets were allocated 15 per cent each.

Neither BMO nor New Gold responded to a request for comment.

Sixteen banks participated in the syndicate, including large Canadian bank-owned dealers CIBC World Markets Inc. and TD Securities Inc., U.S. dealers JPMorgan Securities and Merrill Lynch, as well as a number of boutiques, such as Canaccord Genuity Group Inc. and GMP Capital Inc.

Jon Case, precious metals portfolio manager with Sentry Investments Inc., said he was offered a piece of the New Gold deal, but turned it down. He said the weak reception for New Gold points to a lack of interest from generalist investors, in sharp contrast to a couple of years ago.

In 2016, the last time gold bullion had a similar move upward in a short period of time, the appetite from investors for gold equity issues was much stronger.

"There was a New Gold-style deal every week," Mr. Case said.

"They were all oversubscribed, they all traded up because there was this absolute tsunami of money pouring into gold equities.

The fact that the New Gold deal hasn't gone well tells you that despite the pretty spectacular performance in the equities, you still haven't really got that generalist capital."

Over the past decade, interest from both specialist mining funds and generalist investors has fallen, in large part because of disappointing performance at many of the big gold companies, including badly timed acquisitions and technical problems at mine sites.

The rise of gold exchange traded funds and the popularity of alternative investments that appeal to the risk-orientated investors, such as cannabis stocks, has also dampened the appeal of gold for generalist investors.

Historically sought out as a safe-haven investment, gold has run up 18 per cent this year, driven by escalating international tradewar tensions, a slowdown in global growth and falling interest rates. On Wednesday, gold futures traded north of US$1,520 an ounce, the highest level since early 2013.

NEW GOLD (NGD) CLOSE: $1.55, NO CHANGE

AGF shares jump 18.9% on British merger talks
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Potential deal between Tilney Group and Smith & Williamson - which Canadian fund manager partly owns - 'makes sense,' analysts say
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By CLARE O'HARA, DAVID MILSTEAD
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B3


Shares of Canadian fund manager AGF Management Ltd. soared Monday amid merger talks on the other side of the Atlantic.

AGF confirmed Monday that Londonbased Smith & Williamson, a private wealth-management firm of which AGF owns 33.6 per cent, is in "exclusive discussions" with Tilney Group Ltd. about a possible merger that would create one of Britain's largest wealth managers with £45-billion ($72.7-billion) in assets.

Investors drove AGF's share price to an 18.9-per-cent gain as analysts said the news of a potential deal "makes sense."

Tilney, a financial-planning and investment-management group also based in London, manages approximately £24-billion in assets with more than 300 financial planners and investment managers. The company also provides digital advice through its online platform Bestinvest.

"While these discussions are ongoing, there can be no certainty these will lead to a transaction," AGF said in response to media reports in Britain about a potential change to its investment in Smith & Williamson.

AGF declined to comment further when contacted by The Globe and Mail.

AGF first acquired an interest in Smith & Williamson in 2002, when the British financial-services firm merged with AGF's subsidiary NCL (Securities) Ltd.

Smith & Williamson manages £21.4billion in assets and focuses on highnet-worth and institutional clients. Recently, the firm's board has been in discussions to launch an initial public offering as early as 2020.

But while a climbing share price reflects the potential for an early monetization of AGF's stake in Smith & Williamson, the market still is not giving AGF enough credit for its British affiliate, said John Aiken, an analyst with Barclays Capital Inc.

"This is particularly surprising given Smith & Williamson's plan for an IPO next year, and the recently confirmed talks of an outright sale," Mr. Aiken added in a research note on Monday.

He said AGF's opening Monday price of $5.10 was a 61-per-cent discount to the midpoint of his estimates of the worth of the shares. In that scenario, Mr.Aiken assumes AGF's stake in Smith & Williamson is worth just less than $275million, or about $3.50 a share.

Similarly, CIBC World Markets analyst Paul Holden agrees that the current share price is not adequately capturing potential proceeds for AGF, which he predicts "would be predominately used to repurchase stock, reduce financial leverage and co-invest in infrastructure assets."

Mr. Holden says he believes AGF could realize $1 to about $1.50 more a share for its AGF stake than the $1.55-ashare value that is reflected on the company's balance sheet. He boosted his target price for AGF to $7.50 from $6 on the news.

The discussion between the two British firms comes two years after Smith & Williamson were in similar "exclusive" discussions with London-based Rathbone Brothers PLC - a deal that eventually fell through when both firms were unable to come to an agreement that was in the best interests of shareholders.

Tilney approached Smith & Williamson in 2017 with a counteroffer that was dismissed.

During that time, AGF's CEO Blake Goldring said he would "actively pursue alternatives to realize value in its investment."

Desjardins Securities analyst Gary Ho says the potential valuation could be above $267-million, and he would "not be surprised" to see other potential bidders emerge from Monday's news as "there are limited sizable private wealth managers in the U.K."

AGF MANAGEMENT (AGF.B) CLOSE: $5.41, UP 86¢

Canada sheds 24,200 jobs as labour market stagnates
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Unemployment rate in July rose to 5.7 per cent, as wholesale and retail trade declined
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By KELSEY JOHNSON
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REUTERS
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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B3


OTTAWA -- Canada's economy shed a net 24,200 jobs in July, driven by a decline in wholesale and retail trade, official data showed on Friday as Canada's job market remained in a holding pattern for the third consecutive month.

Statistics Canada said the unemployment rate edged up to 5.7 per cent from 5.5 per cent in June as more people looked for work after hitting record lows earlier this year. Analysts in a Reuters poll had predicted a gain of 12,500 jobs and an unemployment rate of 5.5 per cent.

"Clearly, it's on the disappointing side of expectations," Bank of Montreal chief economist Doug Porter said.

"Of course, you can never read too much into any one month, but this is the third setback in employment in the past five months."

The Canadian dollar weakened to 75.37 US cents after the decline in jobs.

July saw the loss of 11,600 fulltime jobs and 12,600 part-time positions. Employment declined for youth between the ages of 15 and 24 and for women in the core working ages of 25 to 54 but increased for core working-age men.

Wages for permanent employees - a figure watched closely by the Bank of Canada - rose by 4.5 per cent year over year, the largest gain seen since January, 2009.

"At the moment, it looks like the Canadian labour market has reached a limit where the unemployment limit can't break that 5.5-per-cent, 5.4-per-cent level without wages going up," said Simon Harvey, an FX market analyst for Monex Europe and Canada.

The number of private-sector employees, Statscan reported, dropped by 69,000 in July - driven largely by declines in the wholesale and retail trade sector, which shed 20,600 jobs. Self-employment was up by 28,000 positions, while the number of public-sector employees was little changed.

The construction sector saw the biggest employment boost in July, adding 25,000 jobs. Gains were also seen in the public administration industry, which posted an increase of 9,200 positions.

The central bank has remained firmly on the sidelines since October and is not expected to move for the remainder of the year - despite a recent rate cut by the U.S.

Federal Reserve.

"The Bank of Canada needs to tread carefully," Derek Holt, vicepresident of capital markets economics at Bank of Nova Scotia, cautioned on Friday, noting Canada's domestic data could start "to weaken in the third quarter."

"I do think at the margin this lands pretty heavily on the side of suggesting the bank will consider trimming interest rates at some point," BMO's Mr. Porter said.

"Of course, we have to wait and see what actually happens on the trade front in the next few weeks, but this certainly is supportive of the doves' view," he said.

In a separate release, Statscan said the value of Canadian building permits declined by an unexpected 3.7 per cent in June to $8.01-billion as multifamily and institutional permit values dropped.

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While 11,600 full-time jobs were lost in July, wages for permanent employees rose by 4.5 per cent year over year, the largest increase since January, 2009.

NATHAN DENETTE/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Stenocare seeks probe in CannTrust pesticide use
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Medical-marijuana importer says it no longer trusts the grower's guarantee its products are free from such chemicals
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By MARK RENDELL
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B2


A Danish medical marijuana importer says it no longer trusts promises from CannTrust Holdings Inc. that its cannabis was grown without pesticides, another blow to the Canadian producer, which is under investigation by Health Canada.

Stenocare A/S, which is the only supplier of cannabis oil for the Danish medical market, said it has bought products from CannTrust with a guarantee that they were produced in pesticidefree environments. In a news release on Tuesday, Stenocare said it now doubts those declarations after learning more about CannTrust's growing practices.

"With the CannTrust move from indoor to greenhouse cultivation during Q4 2018, it now appears that CannTrust introduced a more general use of Health Canada approved pesticides in the new greenhouse where cultivation of medical cannabis plants is located. Stenocare is very concerned with this general use of pesticides that could potentially be in conflict with the strict Danish requirements [for] no use of pesticides," the company said.

Stencocare stopped selling CannTrust products after revelations in July that the Ontario producer grew thousands of kilograms of cannabis in unlicensed rooms in late 2018 and early 2019.

On Tuesday, Stencocare said that it has asked a special committee of CannTrust's board that is overseeing an internal investigation at the company to "fully investigate the validity of the declarations" about pesticide use. Stencocare also said it is seeking new import partners, and is contemplating legal action against CannTrust "for full compensation for losses incurred."

Stencocare did not respond to requests for further comment.

CannTrust spokeswoman Jane Shapiro said in an e-mail: "The declarations provided to Stenocare were signed by former board chair Eric Paul (when he was CEO) and former CEO Peter Aceto.

"The special committee demanded the resignation of Mr.Paul and terminated with cause the employment of Mr. Aceto in July. The special committee was not aware of the declarations given until just before taking action against Mr. Paul and Mr.Aceto." CannTrust is under investigation by Health Canada for cultivating cannabis in unlicenced rooms at its greenhouse facility in Pelham, Ont., and for other unlicensed activity at its manufacturing plant in Vaughan, Ont.

The company and several of its officials are also under investigation by the Ontario Securities Commission.

CannTrust has frozen all sales as it waits to hear whether Health Canada will suspend its cannabis licences. Federal regulators could also force CannTrust to destroy inventory that was produced in the unlicensed rooms, which CannTrust says is worth about $51-million.

On Monday, CannTrust said that the Ontario Cannabis Store, the provincial wholesaler, is returning $2.9-million worth of the company's products.

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Stenocare stopped selling CannTrust products, seen at the company's Niagara greenhouse, after revelations the producer was growing cannabis in unlicensed rooms.

TIJANA MARTIN/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Airlines win right to appeal Canada's new passenger bill of rights
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By ERIC ATKINS
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


The airline industry has won the right to appeal Canada's new rules that govern how airlines must treat passengers who face delays, cancelled flights or lost luggage.

The Federal Court of Appeal on Thursday granted several airlines, including Air Canada, Porter Airlines and the industry group International Air Transport Association, the right to jointly appeal the air passenger bill of rights.

The first phase of the new law went into effect on July 15, requiring airlines to pay up to $2,400 for bumping a customer for reasons within the airline's control; provide compensation of as much as $2,100 for lost or damaged luggage; and allow passengers to leave a plane that is delayed on the tarmac for more than three hours with no chance of an imminent departure.

The second phase, which goes into effect on Dec. 15, requires airlines to pay up to $1,000 a passenger for non-safety-related flight delays or cancellations that are within a carriers' control; provide food, drinks and accommodations to delayed passengers; and seat children younger than 14 near their accompanying adult at no extra charge. The rules apply to all flights originating or ending in Canada and cover domestic and international carriers.

The airlines sought permission to appeal the rules on the basis that they contain provisions - including compensation that exceeds actual passengers losses - that are contrary to an international deal the airlines reached in 1999, known as the Montreal Convention. The industry also argued Canada has no authority to impose the rules on foreign carriers.

The respondents in the appeal, the Attorney-General of Canada and the Canadian Transportation Agency, replied to the airline industry's application to appeal in a July letter to the court, saying the rules were the result of consultations with the airline industry, consumers groups and other stakeholders.

"The objective was to put in place clearer and more consistent passenger rights by establishing minimum standards of treatment ... and minimum levels of compensation that all airlines must provide," the letter said, asserting the challenge to the rules "must fail on the merits."

Before the new rules came into force, passengers who felt they were wronged by airlines relied on a patchwork of government, industry and airline rules, practices - and, in many cases, their own negotiating skills to settle with a carrier.

As is customary, the Federal Court of Appeal did not issue reasons for its decision. No date for a trial has been set.

Goldman arm to take stake in Toronto's Slate
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By CLARE O'HARA
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


The asset-management arm of Wall Street investment bank Goldman Sachs Group Inc. is taking a minority stake in Toronto's Slate Asset Management, according to sources familiar with the matter.

The investment, which is expected to be announced Monday morning, will see Goldman buy a minority interest in Slate, a real estate focused investment company with more than $6billion in assets under management. It runs a collection of office, retail and industrial properties in Canada, the United States and Germany, including a number of large office towers in midtown Toronto and plazas and malls across the U.S. South and Midwest.

Founded in 2005 by brothers Blair and Brady Welch, the privately owned company has completed more than $11-billion of transactions globally in both private equity funds and publicly traded real estate investment trusts (REITs).

The company has listed two real-estate trusts on the Toronto Stock Exchange: the Slate Office REIT and the Slate Retail REIT.

The deal is being made through Goldman Sachs Asset Management's Petershill unit, which acquires stakes in alternative asset managers. In early 2018, Goldman raised US$2.5-billion for Petershill and has purchased minority interests in a number of investment managers, including Britain-based hedge fund firm LMR Partners, real estate investment company Westbrook Partners and venture capital firm Industry Ventures LLC.

Slate Asset declined to comment on the transaction, while Goldman Sachs did not return requests for comment.

Goldman has been aggressively growing through acquisition in its wealth-management business. Earlier this year it scooped up United Capital Financial Partners Inc. for US$750-million in cash, adding US$25-billion in assets under management and 220 financial advisers to its wealth business.

The deal will not affect any day-today operations, investment decisions or executive roles at Slate Asset Management, according to sources who were granted anonymity because they were not authorized to speak publicly about the matter.

The financial details of the transaction are not expected to be disclosed. Earlier this year, one of Slate's investment funds acquired a grocery real estate portfolio in Germany for 31.5-million ($46.3million), while in 2017 another of Slate's investment funds acquired Calgary's Scotia Centre in 2017.

The Calgary deal was part of a $1.14-billion acquisition of a 97property portfolio in Western Canada, Ontario and the Atlantic provinces in a deal with Cominar Real Estate Investment Trust.

With a report from Tim Kiladze

Jay-Z sells out Kaepernick, grabs big money from NFL
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By PAUL NEWBERRY
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


Remember when Jay-Z was a dynamic hip-hop artist whose stark lyrics gave voice to the oppressed and downtrodden?

Well, those days are over.

He may have 99 Problems - but a conscience certainly ain't one.

Completing his transformation to total sellout, Jay-Z climbed into bed with those racial progressives over at the NFL in what was clearly nothing more than a money grab for one side and a public-relations coup for the other.

Sorry, Kaep.

Social justice has been banished to the sidelines.

"I think we've moved past kneeling and I think it's time to go into actionable items," Jay-Z said in a ludicrously weak attempt to spin his hefty NFL payoff into some sort of profile in courage.

With a totally straight face - and NFL commissioner Roger Goodell by his side - the rap icon and entrepreneur said his partnership with the league is actually a progressive step to carry on the campaign that banished quarterback Colin Kaepernick courageously began by kneeling during the national anthem to bring attention to police brutality and glaring racial inequities in the U.S. justice system.

"I think everyone knows what the issue is - we're done with that," Jay-Z said. "We all know the issue now. Okay, next."

Hmm, where have we heard that before?

Oh, yeah, from opponents of the civil-rights movement, who derided those protesting against whites-only lunch counters and seats in the back of the bus as nothing more than rabble-rousers who should've been focused on real issues afflicting the African-American community, as if a system that denied pretty much every human dignity wasn't the actual problem.

"Now that we all know what's going on, what are we going to do?" Jay-Z said, putting his foot further in his mouth. "How are we going to stop it? Because the kneeling was not about a job, it was about injustice."

Hey, maybe the NFL should take its deal with Roc Nation to a whole new level by pairing Jay-Z with Jon Voight, another celebrity (yes, kids, Jon Voight was once a cutting-edge actor) who turned in what little was left of his cred card after that awful film Anaconda by declaring recently that racism was "solved long ago by our forefathers."

We can see the ad now: "Welcome to another season of exciting NFL football! Featuring the social-justice stylings of Jay-Z, who'll show us all how to make a buck off police beating up black people. And the racially harmonious world of Jon Voight, asking the question that's been on everyone's mind: Why can't we all just get along? And finally, we'll bring you the smiling face of Roger Goodell, reminding everyone for the 847th time that Colin Kaepernick is not in the NFL because he's just not good enough."

Now, back to reality.

Safety Eric Reid, who joined Kaepernick in his kneeling protest but managed to keep a job in the NFL, took aim at Jay-Z for teaming up with the league without getting some sort of assurance that his former 49ers teammate would get another crack at taking the field, something he clearly wants to do.

Jay-Z framed it this way: "So what are we gonna do? ... [Help] millions and millions of people, or we get stuck on Colin not having a job."

Reid replied on Twitter: "These aren't mutually exclusive.

They can both happen at the same time! It looks like your goal was to make millions and millions of dollars by assisting the NFL in burying Colin's career."

Touché.

Maybe we're being too hard on Jay-Z, who has long pulled off that delicate balancing act between social consciousness (such as his Trayvon Martin documentary series) and the potential pitfalls of good ol' capitalism (his 2013 collaboration with Barney's was widely panned over allegations that the luxury store discriminated against black shoppers).

He's been on the right side of many issues, but never let it stand in the way of making a buck.

Jay-Z was reportedly peeved at rapper Travis Scott for performing with Maroon 5 during last season's Super Bowl in Atlanta, after many black artists bailed on the halftime show over the league's treatment of Kaepernick. But now that he's got all that cash in his pocket, Jay-Z says his stance had nothing to do with the ex-quarterback.

"My problem is [Scott] had the biggest year to me last year, and he's playing on a stage that had an M on it," Jay-Z said. "I didn't see any reason for him to play second fiddle to anyone that year, and that was my argument."

Jay-Z says he won't be performing at this season's Super Bowl, but his company - home to Rihanna, DJ Khaled and other stars - will co-produce the halftime show and serve as a consultant on other entertainment projects with the league, as well as working with its Inspire Change initiative.

"The NFL has a great big platform, and it has to be all-inclusive," Jay-Z told The New York Times when his deal with the league was first announced.

"They were willing to do some things, to make some changes, that we can do some good."

Too bad he won't be pushing for an NFL that includes Kaepernick.

Curry welcomes new beginnings at Golden State
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By JANIE MCCAULEY
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B12


OAKLAND -- Someday, years or even decades from now, at one of those celebratory reunions teams like to do, Stephen Curry knows he and Kevin Durant will reminisce with fondness about their three insanely successful years together on the Golden State Warriors.

They will reflect on the greatness, the fun, all they learned from each other shooting side by side, day after day. Two championships, a pair of NBA Finals Most Valuable Player awards for Durant.

"I'll always remember the three years we had. We'll probably be back here down the road celebrating those like they did the '74-'75 team," Curry said, nodding in the direction of the Warriors' recent championship banners. "It'll be cool when that happens."

For now, Curry is embracing new beginnings as the oldest player on a Golden State roster that will look far different come training camp next month - and that also was the theme he shared with girls attending his Warriors camp this week in one of his bittersweet final trips to the downtown Oakland practice facility before a move to San Francisco and the new Chase Center. Durant, recovering from surgery to repair a ruptured right Achilles tendon, has departed to join the Brooklyn Nets.

"We won two championships and I think we both got better throughout the process as basketball players and as people," Curry said. "With the demand every single night to be great and just all that that comes with, in terms of the media attention, the scrutiny, the criticism, the praise even, it's a lot to handle. And I think me and him especially on that level could connect. Him going to Brooklyn, you're just trying to make sure he's happy and going to a place where he feels like he needs to be. At the end of the day, you've got to be happy about that for him."

Also gone are veterans Andre Iguodala and Shaun Livingston, guard Quinn Cook and big man DeMarcus Cousins. Meanwhile, the Warriors have added a handful of new faces such as D'Angelo Russell, Willie Cauley-Stein and Glenn Robinson III. Draymond Green got a new four-year deal earlier this month worth close to US$100-million. Kevon Looney re-signed, too.

As Klay Thompson works back this season from surgery for a torn ACL in his left knee that he injured in the deciding Game 6 loss of the Finals to the Toronto Raptors, Curry's backcourt mate will be Russell.

At 31, Curry doesn't mind that he will be the quote-unquote old guy entering his 11th NBA season.

A two-time NBA MVP, he has reached five straight NBA Finals.

"Has it sunk in? No. Have people been reminding me? Yes, any time they bring up our team looking forward," he said with a smile. "It's cool, though, hopefully I'm wise beyond my years but still youthful in what I can do on the floor. It's just a change in dynamic all the way around. We're excited about the opportunities, the challenges for the whole roster, because we've got a lot of guys that have the opportunity to really prove themselves and make a difference in our team.

Obviously our core, till Klay gets back, we know how to win and we know how to play. We're just going to do it a little differently."

Curry is unconcerned at this stage about outside expectations regarding how good this group might be and speculation that these Warriors may not be a championship contender.

"I know the reality of the situation in terms of we lost a guy like Kevin Durant, who's an alltime great basketball player," Curry said.

"We lost two veteran, high-IQ guys in Shaun and Andre that really were like the cogs in the wheel that kept us going and you could rely on them every single game. So, the look is different but nobody really has a sustained run like we did where every year you're expected to be the greatest. It's just a matter of now we have to, I wouldn't even say prove people wrong, but we have to kind of galvanize the new roster and do the exact same thing."

As he told the female campers all sporting his No. 30 jersey, first things first.

Curry took a quick poll of how many had started school again.

Dozens of hands shot into the air.

"Great to see you all again! You all having a great day, too?" Collective: "Yeah!"

"New beginnings, right? We're going to take care of our school work this year?" Curry asked.

"We're going to be very dedicated and hard-working in the classroom as we are on the basketball court? That's very important to be well-rounded people, right?

Athletes and academics."

Associated Graphic

Stephen Curry of Golden State and Toronto's Danny Green battle for the ball during the NBA Finals last June between the Warriors and Raptors. Curry has reached five straight Finals.

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Buhai leading at Women's British Open
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Canadian Svensson flirts with golf's magic number at Wyndham Championship
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS, THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S3


MILTON KEYNES, ENGLAND -- Ashleigh Buhai stretched her surprise lead at the Women's British Open to three shots, shooting a bogey-free five-under 67 in Friday's second round.

Buhai, a 30-year-old South African who has never won on the LPGA Tour, birdied four of the final eight holes to post 12under 132.

"I'm trying not to keep thinking it's a major. It's just another tournament," said Buhai, whose best previous British Open finish was a tie for 30th in 2017. "I just keep trying to do what I've done the last few weeks. I've kept the mistakes off the card the last two days."

Alone in second at nine under was 20-year-old Hinako Shibuno, a rookie on the Japan LPGA Tour who is making her LPGA Tour and major championship debut.

"I just wanted to make the cut.

That's all," Shibuno said.

Brooke Henderson of Smiths Falls, Ont., is tied for 18th at four under after shooting a one-under 71 on Friday. Hamilton's Alena Sharp missed the cut at four over.

Shibuno, who shot 66 on Thursday, had a 69 on Friday and wowed spectators at Woburn Golf Club with her fearless play.

She led for much of the afternoon before Buhai overtook her.

Shibuno has two victories in Japan this year and is ranked 46th in the world.

American Lizette Salas was third at eight under. She birdied the first four holes en route to a bogey-free 67.

"Awesome day," Salas said.

Bronte Law, the top-ranked English player at No. 22 in the world, also shot 67 and was four shots back alongside Céline Boutier, second-ranked Park Sunghyun, Caroline Masson and local favourite Charley Hull, who is playing on her home course.

Boutier had the day's lowest round at 66.

Defending champion Georgia Hall was also six under after a 69, along with Ariya Jutanugarn (70), Carlota Ciganda (69) and top-ranked Ko Jin-young, who was frustrated after a 70.

CANADIANS IN THE HUNT AT WYNDHAM CHAMPIONSHIP GREENSBORO, N.C. Canada's Adam Svensson made a run at golf's magic number before settling for a nine-under 61 on Friday at the Wyndham Championship.

The 59 watch was on after the 25-year-old golfer from Surrey, B.C., made seven birdies for a 28 on the front nine at a soft and wet Sedgefield Country Club. But Svensson cooled down with two birdies on the back nine, preventing him from becoming just the 10th player in PGA Tour history to shoot 59.

"I was kind of like, all right, I'm nine-under par [after No. 13] and there's still four or five holes and a par five," Svensson said.

"I was actually pretty calm. I thought I would be a little more nervous than I was." Svensson was tied with Canadian Mackenzie Hughes and four others in third place heading into the weekend at 11 under - two strokes behind leader An Byeong-hun An was at 13-under 127 halfway through the PGA Tour's final event before the FedEx Cup playoffs. Brice Garnett was a stroke back after a 64.

Adam Hadwin of Abbotsford, B.C., was the lone Canadian to shoot 59 on the PGA Tour, doing so in 2017 at the CareerBuilder Challenge.

Svensson missed a five-foot putt for birdie at No. 15 and a 15-footer for birdie at No. 17, pretty much ending his shot at a 59.

He made an 11-foot par putt on No. 18 to complete a bogey-free round.

"I was happy with the way I played. I had a couple missed putts coming down the stretch," he said.

Hughes, from Dundas, Ont., shot 66 after opening with a 63 to stay in contention entering the third round.

Three other Canadians made the cut. Corey Conners of Listowel, Ont., (66) and Roger Sloan of Merritt, B.C., (66) are five under, while Mike Weir of Brights Grove, Ont., (69) is four under.

Associated Graphic

Canadian Adam Svensson plays a shot on the 17th hole during the second round of the Wyndham Championship at Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, N.C., on Friday. Svensson shot a bogey-free nine-under 61 and sits in a tie for third place.

TYLER LECKA/GETTY IMAGES

Blue Jays rout Rangers in second straight victory
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Back-to-back homers from McKinney and Hernandez help take Toronto to a 3-0 win
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By MELISSA COUTO
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


TORONTO -- Billy McKinney and Teoscar Hernandez hit back-to-back home runs in the sixth inning and the Toronto Blue Jays kept the Texas Rangers off the board Tuesday in a 3-0 victory.

Randal Grichuk also hit a solo homer for the Blue Jays (51-72).

Danny Santana had a pair of doubles for the Rangers (59-60), supplying the visitors' only two hits through the game's first five innings.

Texas starter Lance Lynn (14-8) gave up one run and four hits with three walks and a strikeout in five innings. It was the first time since April 23 that Lynn had pitched fewer than six innings in a start.

Wilmer Font served as the opener for Toronto, allowing one hit and two walks over his two innings of work.

Left-hander Thomas Pannone (3-5) followed Font with four scoreless innings - allowing just two hits and two walks while striking out three - and Tim Mayza, Derek Law and Ken Giles kept the shutout going to give Toronto its fifth win in seven games.

Giles, making his first appearance since Aug. 7, earned his 16th save of the season.

The Blue Jays made it a 3-0 game in the sixth with the backto-back solo shots from Hernandez and McKinney off Texas reliever Shawn Kelley.

It was the 11th time this season that Toronto had homered in consecutive at-bats - and second time in as many nights - tying a franchise record from 1999.

Grichuk gave Toronto a 1-0 lead in the second inning with his team-leading 22nd homer of the season, a solo shot to straightaway centre field.

The Blue Jays have hit 106 homers since June 16. They came into the game four back of the Yankees for the most home runs hit in that two-month span.

Rookie sensation Bo Bichette walked in the third inning to extend his on-base streak to 16 games to begin his career, the longest ever by a Blue Jay. The on-base streak is the third longest in MLB history by a player aged 21 or younger, surpassing Ted Williams's 15-game streak from the 1939 season.

Rangers centre-fielder Delino DeShields slammed hard into the wall when he fell backward while making a catch on a deep Reese McGuire fly ball with two out in the fourth inning. McGuire was batting with the bases loaded and DeShields's catch saved at least a pair of runs. DeShields stayed in the game.

Rougned Odor continued to be booed loudly in each of his plate appearances. Toronto fans have loudly voiced their displeasure for the Texas second baseman since he punched former Blue Jays slugger Jose Bautista in the jaw during a 2016 game.

Man U settles for tie with Wolves
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EPL match ends in 1-1 draw after Pogba misses penalty, but Solskjaer says United is 'a young team who will learn'
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


WOLVERHAMPTON, ENGLAND -- Paul Pogba pulled his jersey over his face when the final whistle sounded, his latest spot-kick failure costing Manchester United two points and casting doubt over the wisdom of the team rotating its penaltytakers.

The France midfielder saw his 68thminute attempt saved - his fourth penalty miss in the past year - as United had to settle for 1-1 at Wolverhampton Wanderers in the English Premier League on Monday.

Pogba won the penalty after being tripped by Wolves defender Conor Coady and opted to take the kick himself after talking with Marcus Rashford, who converted a penalty in United's 4-0 win over Chelsea on the opening weekend of the season.

"The two of them are designated penalty-takers," United manager Ole Gunnar Solskjaer said. "It's up to them, there and then.

"Marcus scored last week, but Paul was also confident. I like players with confidence."

Rashford said Pogba "wanted to take it, it's that simple."

"Anyone can miss a penalty," Rashford said. "He has scored so many penalties and it is normal to miss one. I took one last week, so for me it's no problem that he took it. It's unfortunate he didn't score but that's football."

Anthony Martial put United into the lead at Molineux after running onto Rashford's pass and shooting first time with his left foot high into the net in the 27th.

United handed Martial the No. 9 jersey for this season, with Solskjaer demanding more goals from the winger he has converted into a striker.

It is two goals in two games for the Frenchman, who also netted from close range against Chelsea.

Wolves was overrun in the first half, but improved in the second half - mainly after the halftime introduction of pacy winger Adama Traore - and equalized through a superb strike from Ruben Neves.

The midfielder received the ball on the edge of the area from Joao Moutinho, took a touch and curled a shot in off the crossbar. The video assistant referee checked the goal for offside against Moutinho but the goal stood.

Wolves also drew its first game, 0-0 at Leicester.

"First half was a mature performance.

Second half was a bit sloppy," Solskjaer said. "We are improving. We are a young team who will learn. We learned on the pitch today."

Associated Graphic

Paul Pogba falls after being tripped by Wolves defender Conor Coady during their English Premier League match in Wolverhampton, England, on Monday. The incident resulted in a penalty kick, which Pogba opted to take himself.

DAVID ROGERS/GETTY IMAGES

Australia salvages a draw in its second Ashes test against England
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B10


LONDON -- Australia defied the absence of star batsman Steve Smith because of a concussion and more devastating spells of pace bowling by Jofra Archer to hold out for a draw in the second Ashes test against England on Sunday.

Set an improbable victory target of 267 off 48 overs at Lord's, the Australians quickly slumped to 47-3, but a fourthwicket stand of 85 between Marnus Labuschagne (59) and Travis Head (42 not out) helped push them to safety.

Australia lost three more wickets in a five-over stretch to keep the match alive as the light faded, but managed to survive to 154-6 at the end.

Australia retained a 1-0 lead in the five-match series.

Labuschagne had an interesting day. He only found out he'd be playing as test cricket's first concussion substitute when Smith was withdrawn from the team early on Sunday, after waking up with a headache and feeling groggy after being hit in the neck by an Archer bumper on Saturday.

Labuschagne came to the middle with Australia struggling on 19-2 after 5.3 overs and, off the second ball he faced, was hit on the grille of his helmet by another vicious delivery from Archer.

The batsman dropped to the ground, was checked out by medical staff and required a new helmet.

In a blistering spell by Archer, balls flew past Labuschagne, but he survived and looked more comfortable in the final session as England's hopes began to dwindle at the home of cricket.

He finally departed, somewhat controversially, when England captain Joe Root was adjudged to have got his fingers under a diving catch at midwicket from Labuschagne's sweep.

It was Labuschagne's second half-century in his sixth test and he could stay in the team for the third test starting on Thursday on Headingley, with Smith's availability in doubt.

With Australia currently holding the Ashes urn, the English need to win two of the final three tests to take it off its fierce rivals.

Archer's performance at Lord's on his test debut will give England real hope, though. He was a permanent menace, taking 2-59 off 29 overs in the first innings and then 3-32 off 15 overs in the second.

Singers Jett, Underwood, to lead Sunday Night Football performance
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By JOE REEDY
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


Fred Gaudelli knew NBC would have to come up with something grand for this season's Sunday Night Football opener given this is the NFL's 100th anniversary.

It didn't take long for the show's executive producer to arrive at something as Carrie Underwood came up with the perfect idea.

This season, the show will open with the original Waiting All Day for Sunday Night song, but this time Underwood will be joined by Rock & Roll Hall of Famer Joan Jett. Jett's band, the Blackhearts, also performs.

Waiting All Day for Sunday Night was adapted from Jett's 1988 hit I Hate Myself for Loving You. Pink performed it first in 2006, followed by a country version sung by Faith Hill for six seasons and then Underwood, who did her own version from 2013 to 2015.

"It is a perfect way to celebrate the league's 100th season by going back to the beginning," Gaudelli said. "It is a perfect way to evolve and celebrate the song."

Gaudelli has known Jett and her manager, Kenny Laguna, for more than 20 years. Their first collaboration came when Gaudelli was working for ESPN and Jett did a cover of Real Wild Child for the first X Games. When Gaudelli moved to NBC in 2006 after the network acquired the Sunday night rights, he knew what he wanted as the theme song.

This is Underwood's seventh year as the featured performer for the opener. The seven-time Grammy winner sang Oh Sunday Night for two seasons and Game On last year. Oh Sunday Night was adapted from Somethin' Bad, Underwood's duet with Miranda Lambert from 2014.

"I have always been a huge fan of Joan's, and I'm thrilled that she's joining us for the Sunday Night Football open," Underwood said in a statement.

The open, which will debut before the Sept. 7 game between the Pittsburgh Steelers and New England Patriots, was shot at Atlanta's Mercedes-Benz Stadium.

It was the first time it has been shot at an NFL stadium instead of a sound stage.

CI FINANCIAL LOOKS FOR A WAY FORWARD
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As the asset-management business undergoes a revolution, the Bay Street powerhouse is struggling for investor attention amid doubts about its strategy
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By TIM KILADZE, CLARE O'HARA
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B4


The call was controversial, and she knew it. Presenting at an investment conference last fall attended by some of the biggest names in North American finance, fund manager Kim Shannon devoted her 20-minute presentation to praising, of all companies, CI Financial Corp.

In an earlier time, Ms. Shannon had been one of CI's stars: She was crowned Canadian fund manager of the year in 2005 for her work on the CI Canadian Investment Fund. But she had a very public falling out with CI's top brass after she moved to a rival firm; by the time she spoke on stage at Arcadian Court in Toronto last fall, the frosty relationship had lasted for more than a decade.

Yet, Ms. Shannon is a bargain hunter who typically lines her portfolios with the shares of companies that many other investors hate (and are therefore cheap). That describes CI, the largest Canadian mutual-fund company not owned by a big bank. Since May, 2014, CI's stock has plummeted 45 per cent, and after some share buybacks, what was once a $10-billion company now has a stock-market value of $4.8-billion.

Not long ago, mutual funds were the way millions of middle-class investors got access to professional stock selection - and CI dominated. For years, it was considered the best managed and fastest moving of the large Canadian fund companies.

But the traditional fund business, which typically charges 2 per cent a year in fees on equity portfolios, is now in a fight for relevance.

Low-cost exchange-traded funds (ETFs) have developed a robust following. Robo-advisers have made some clients question the value of human advice.

This new competition and pressure from regulators have forced money managers to cut fees to try to prevent investors from moving their money.

In Canada, there is an extra degree of difficulty. Independent fund managers such as CI, AGF Management Ltd. and Mackenzie Financial (which is a unit of IGM Financial Corp.) used to rule, but the Big Six banks have been elbowing their way deep into the business of wealth management through acquisitions and by using their branches to hawk their own funds.

Despite those factors, Ms. Shannon sees opportunity in CI: a company with strong cash flow, manageable debt and a large customer base, and $130-billion in assets under management. "They were, and still are, an incredible sales machine," she said in an interview last month.

The question is whether that's enough anymore.

CI has fallen into net redemptions, which means investors are pulling more money from its funds each quarter than they are putting in. In the fund industry, once that cycle starts, it is tough to break.

CI's top executives say they are victims of an industry revolution beyond their control. The man who has been the face of the company for decades, chairman Bill Holland, says investor perceptions of mutual-fund companies have changed radically. "It's still an unbelievable business. But the people who look at it hate it. They do."

Some observers beyond the company's inner circle tell a different tale, suggesting CI has lacked a clear strategy. This was the one independent fund company with the scale to invest for the future and the heft to take on the banks, but now it's struggling. "We've been fairly articulate in what we're trying to accomplish here," CI chief executive Peter Anderson says. And yet, he knows the message isn't getting through to investors. "It's clear people aren't hearing it."

Mr. Holland was the brains behind CI's once-explosive growth, and he is so revered internally that they call him "Chief." At 60 years old, he is still intense and brash, his mind darting to five different places when answering a question. He's also the rare example of an executive who can't help but say how he really feels.

Barely a minute into an interview with Mr. Holland and Mr. Anderson, the Chief is already exasperated. CI had $656-million in free cash flow last year, but the market treats the company like it's radioactive. The stock trades at a mere 8.5 times earnings. "We make more than the weed industry," Mr. Holland says, yet cannabis companies such as Cronos Group Inc. with no profits have higher market capitalizations.

It's as if everyone's forgotten who's running the show, and what they have accomplished.

Formerly known as Universal Savings, and later Canadian International, the company built an early reputation for offering investors exposure to foreign markets, at a time when many Canadian investors held only domestic funds and assets. Mr. Holland joined in 1989, at the beginning of what was a golden decade for the industry.

CI had a certain edge: Its sales and marketing arm, run by Mr.Holland, was unparalleled. It was a time when the rules were looser, which meant CI's wholesalers - the employees who sold its funds to investment advisers - could entice clients with lavish gifts and getaways. "All you talked about was, 'How do I qualify for the trip?' " Mr.Holland says of the mindset many investment advisers had in that day. CI would offer all-expenses paid excursions to Florida and guests would be put up in a spot known as the CI Safehouse. Like Vegas, what happened there, stayed there.

CI also displayed a knack for finding, and marketing, star fund managers. Retail investors trusted big names with good track records, and CI was happy to promote them - people such as Ms.Shannon and Gerry Coleman, who managed the CI Harbour Fund.

Once Mr. Holland became CEO in 1999, he became bent on bulking up through deals. His playbook was to acquire rivals for their assets, then slash the duplicated costs. A year into his tenure, he launched a gutsy, but ultimately unsuccessful, hostile takeover bid for archrival Mackenzie, hoping to make CI the largest fund company in Canada.

Mr. Holland never quite reeled in a trophy asset, but a series of sizable acquisitions included purchasing Sun Life Financial's mutualfund assets - the insurer became CI's largest shareholder in return - and the Canadian unit of Assante Corp. The latter caused a stir because Assante ran its own network of financial advisers - meaning that CI was putting itself in competition with the people at other firms who bought its funds.

Yet, it worked. "Without a doubt, the best decision we made years ago was to buy this business," Mr. Anderson says. By 2006, on the eve of the global financial crisis, CI was the largest of all independents and had amassed $55-billion in assets under management - second only to Royal Bank of Canada.

Like everyone else, CI suffered through the Great Recession. But its pain was short-lived, while many rival independent firms never recovered. Michael Lee-Chin, a boy wonder from the 1990s bull market, sold his company, AIC Ltd., to Manulife Financial Corp. for a small fraction of its former value in 2009. AGF and Mackenzie both fell into unstoppable spirals of net redemptions.

What saved CI? The company always kept a diverse fund lineup, with a healthy share of conservatively managed value funds. In 2013, after the commodity supercycle had crashed, CI had more top-rated funds than anyone else in the Canadian mutual fund industry.

CI's management also preached fiscal prudence. Mr. Holland handed the CEO role to one of his deputies, Steve MacPhail, in 2010, and the new boss was obsessed with expenses. (A friend once described Mr. MacPhail as "the last guy to take Uber if there's surge pricing.") That discipline, coupled with strong returns, sent CI's shares soaring to a record high of $36.79 in May, 2014.

One week later, CI got a gut punch. Bank of Nova Scotia had been its largest shareholder since 2008, after it acquired Sun Life's 37-percent stake, and many people assumed Scotiabank would buy the rest of the company some day. But the opposite happened. A new CEO, Brian Porter, decided to unload the stake by selling the shares to public investors. Scotiabank also pulled $3-billion worth of client money it had placed in CI funds.

But it wasn't until 2016 when things really started to go badly. A tax change by the Trudeau government became a big problem for CI.

Historically, investors were allowed to move money between investments known as "corporate class funds" without incurring taxable gains. Ottawa came to see this as a tax loophole. Its policy change, buried deep within the 2016 federal budget, hit roughly $120-billion of industry assets under management (AUM), or 10 per cent of all mutual-fund assets in Canada. CI arguably got the worst of it, because corporate class funds made up about 50 per cent of its retail assets, according to Mr. Holland. Wealthier clients in its Assante and Stonegate channels used these funds to minimize taxes once their contributions to registered investment portfolios had been maxed out.

At the time, Mr. Anderson was only a few weeks into his tenure as CEO, having taken over from Mr. MacPhail. The day the changes were unveiled, he was mid-air on flight. "It was the first time I ever used WiFi on a plane," he says. Reading through the budget, colourful language erupted from his mouth.

It was around this time that Mr. Holland started to see the revolution that was beginning to overtake the wealth-management industry.

Bank-owned brokerage firms began firing investment advisers and pushing some middle-class investors to their bank branches instead - where, conveniently, the banks market their own funds.

Robo-advisory firms such as Wealthsimple Inc. and Nest Wealth Asset Management Inc. were also developing a following, particularly with millennials.

ETFs were also catching on in Canada. Mutual-fund companies held their own for many years; people are creatures of habit, and they had been trained to buy mutual funds for three decades. Even today, the Canadian ETF industry has 35 providers managing approximately $178.6-billion in assets, but that's still only a sliver of the $1.47-trillion invested in mutual funds domestically.

But that gap is shrinking. In 2018, ETFs in Canada had $19.8-billion in net sales, while mutual funds saw $2.7-billion in net outflows, according to Strategic Insight. Halfway through 2019, ETFs are on pace to outsell mutual funds again.

"The real change, I would say, has been in the last year," Mr.Holland says. "The [mutual-fund] industry is in net redemptions most months."

What's changed? Crucially, the cost difference is glaring. ETF behemoths such as BlackRock Inc. and Vanguard Group Inc. spread their internal costs over their trillions in assets. In turn, they can slash fund fees to a tenth of a percentage point, just 0.1 per cent annually, or less. Canadian funds, meanwhile, have been slow to evolve. In mid-2018, the average five-year decline in management expense ratios (MERs) for Canada's 100 largest mutual funds was only 0.05 of a percentage point. The most expensive version of CI's second-largest fund, the Signature Income and Growth Fund, costs investors 2.41 per cent annually.

The competition is breeding all sorts of experimentation. A year ago, global mutual-fund giant Fidelity Investments, which has a large Canadian arm, launched the world's first ever no-fee index fund.

Banks are also getting into ETFs more aggressively. In January, Royal Bank of Canada and BlackRock joined forces to sell them, creating a partnership between Canada's largest bank and the world's largest asset-management firm. The two are developing and marketing ETFs under the brand RBC iShares.

Amid all this change, the knock on CI is that it was too slow to evolve. On some level, it is understandable: CI kept pulling in money for many years while rival independents wobbled. "They didn't have to fix what wasn't broken," says Scott Chan, a financial-services analyst at Canaccord Genuity.

Some critics say it's more complicated than that. One theory is that management always expected to sell the company to Scotiabank, and when that possibility died, they had to scramble. Others blame Mr. MacPhail, arguing he was so focused on expenses that he forgot to invest for the future.

Mr. Anderson isn't having any of it. CI, he points out, was one of the first big money managers to acquire an ETF provider, scooping up First Asset Capital Corp. in 2015 when it had $3-billion in assets under management. He also says CI was one of the first to launch "liquid alternatives" funds, which provide downside protection in falling markets by offering hedge fund or private-equity strategies within a mutual-fund account.

Mr. Anderson does concede that CI missed the boat on funds for alternative investments, a widely popular asset class that allows high-net-worth investors to buy slices of infrastructure and real estate projects.

Other say there were problems with how CI grew. As the company did acquisition after acquisition, including the 2017 purchase of Sentry Investments for $807-million, its fund lineup became unwieldy.

"When you do that," says Dan Hallett, an independent analyst who's covered the industry for decades, "what you really get at a high level is poor performance, because you can't possibly have 150 outstanding, top-notch products." In turn, investors began pulling their money - hence the net redemptions.

The most stinging critique of CI today is that management has not articulated a clear and coherent strategy for the way forward. "I hear it every day," Mr. Holland says.

That doesn't mean he agrees. He and Mr. Anderson say their vision is to transform CI from a fund company to a wealth manager - one with everything from a fund manufacturing arm that creates new products to financial advisers to a digital footprint. In other words, to make CI look more like a bank.

Investors increasingly reward money mangers that own their distribution channels, so CI wants to double its assets in its Assante and Stonegate networks. (At the moment, 830 Assante advisers manage $45-billion in client assets.) "To get to that size, we're probably going to have to continue to look for potential acquisitions," Mr. Anderson says.

CI is also bulking up its digital operations, having recently acquired a majority stake in robo-adviser Wealthbar Financial Services Inc. It also purchased BBS Securities Inc., which specializes in digital back-office functions to help streamline operations. In June CI named Darie Urbanky, who has a background in tech and operations, as its new president, signalling the importance of these businesses going forward.

The wild card is whether CI will be any good at any of this. This is a company best known for being a serial acquirer and for its sales team. In Canada, there isn't much left to purchase, and the sales culture has changed, with regulators cracking down on anything resembling bribes to advisers. "When you think about the old, hardselling days - they're just gone," Mr. Holland says. "We couldn't even take people to the basketball games in the playoffs," he adds of the Raptors' run this spring. Sports tickets are against the rules.

It also isn't clear who will be in charge of the next chapter. In April, CI announced that Mr. Anderson will retire next year. "The key talking point on the name right now is the search for a new CEO," says CIBC World Markets analyst Paul Holden. "Until then, it feels like we are in a state of limbo."

Because there is so much uncertainty, it has to be asked: Why not sell CI to a larger financial institution, namely a bank or an insurer?

"Gaining access to distribution, whether domestically or internationally, just makes a lot of sense for their businesses," Mr. Holden says.

Of course, that would require a buyer, and the big unknown is who would want a fund company facing net redemptions. But on Bay Street the best two guesses at potential acquirers, or partners, are Bank of Nova Scotia and Sun Life, largely because of the historical relationships.

Of these, Scotiabank is the tougher sell, at least right now. The bank recently purchased three separate companies in the span of one year, for a total cost of nearly $7-billion, and CEO Mr. Porter has said he is focused on integrating these businesses before splurging again.

Sun Life is a little more realistic. The life-insurance business is struggling to adapt in the digital age, so the company is already building out a wealth-management business to offset slower growth.

But the major wrinkle here is that CI is a big company to swallow, with a market value of about $5-billion. Any acquirer would have to pay a premium over and above that.

Asked about CI's relationship with Sun Life, Mr. Holland and Mr.Anderson start gushing with praise for the insurer. There's no formal relationship right now, but CI's open to ideas. "Who knows what the relationship between CI and Sun Life could be, will be, should be," Mr. Holland says. They sound hopeful - or at least wishful - that something, even just a distribution partnership, could come together.

The only option Mr. Holland openly shoots down is a privateequity buyout.

"We're always getting looked at," he acknowledges.

"We hit every value screen." But he says it's hard to make the math work. Mr. Holland thinks CI would have to be acquired for $31 a share - "and then they have to lever it," he says, meaning adding a lot of debt.

For now, the far better option in Mr. Holland's mind is to buy back CI's stock at cut-rate prices. The company slashed its dividend a year ago to devote more cash to stock repurchases, all in the name of boosting earnings per share. "We're very rapidly privatizing the company," he says.

It is the ultimate value-investing move, and it's partly what attracted Ms. Shannon to the stock. "They had such a valid reason for cutting the dividend," she explains. The problem is, there aren't many people who feel the same - at least not yet. "Historically, we've trained investors that when you've cut your dividend, it usually means you're in financial difficulty," she says.

CI is not. This is the company that emerged stronger when previous frothy plays, such as the dot-com bubble, died off. Who says ETFs and robo-advisers really won't struggle in the long run? They haven't even been recession-tested yet. "The death of the mutual-fund business is very overrated," Mr. Holland says.

The risk in thinking this way is that what's transpiring now is likely more than a correction - it is a revolution, and retail investors are forming new patterns of behaviour. Cable companies once prayed that cord-cutters would come back, too.

CI could start aggressively cutting its fund fees, but then it is competing against global giants - one of which has teamed up with Canada's biggest bank. CI's best hope, then, may be to give investors reason to seek out its funds again - that is, to deliver good returns.

Stellar performance could turn the tide on net redemptions, and stemming these could change the market narrative.

The trouble with this plan is that isn't so easy to do - at least not in these conditions. This bull market has lasted a decade, and it's been next to impossible for money managers to beat broad indexes over a long time period. Even Warren Buffett, one of the most brilliant investors of a generation, has struggled in his equity portfolios lately to beat index funds that cost 0.1 per cent a year, or less.

The entire mutual-fund industry suffers from a perception problem. Ms. Shannon is a member of the U.S. Institute, a think tank for asset managers, and there's a consensus that incumbents haven't done enough to market themselves. "We've talked about how, collectively, we haven't come together to defend active management in any cohesive way," she says.

But Mr. Holland can't help but take it personally. This was his baby, so the cold shoulder from investors hurts. "Nobody cares about the asset-management business," he says.

Associated Graphic

Peter Anderson, CEO of CI Financial, says that despite criticism over its approach, the company has 'been fairly articulate in what we're trying to accomplish here.'

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Bill Holland, the CI Financial chairman who has been the face of the company for decades, admits that investor perceptions of mutual-fund companies have changed radically.

MARK BLINCH/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In the spring of 2018, a lot of things looked right in the global economy.
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By DAVID PARKINSON
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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B6


World gross domestic product was growing at its fastest pace in six years, and looked to still be accelerating: The International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook projected growth of nearly 4 per cent in each of the next two years.

What's more, the growth looked "synchronous," as the economists put it - not just strength here and there, but a broad swath of the world simultaneously on the upswing. The value of global trade was expanding at a healthy 6-per-cent annual clip.

Central banks - including those of the United States and Canada - were raising interest rates, in recognition that their economies, already running at full speed, no longer needed the stimulation that low rates had long been providing. After a decade of ups and downs, the world finally looked to be in a (more or less) full recovery from the 2008 financial crisis.

That's when the world's biggest economy, the United States, fired the first shots in a trade war with the world's second-biggest economy, China.

In the ensuing 16 months, as each side has raised tariff walls against each other and China-U.S.

trade talks have gone nowhere, the dispute has cast an ominous cloud over that once-bright outlook. Optimism has been replaced with fear. Synchronous growth has been supplanted by synchronous slowdown. It's increasingly apparent that this dispute threatens to knock the wind out of the global economy and financial markets. And while Canada's economy has so far held up better than most, there's little doubt our heavily trade-dependent economy stands in the crossfire.

Over the past week the gloom took its darkest turn yet: U.S. President Donald Trump threatened a new round of sweeping tariffs against Chinese goods, China responded by allowing its currency to devalue, and the U.S. formally declared China a "currency manipulator" - opening a dangerous new front in the war.

The fear sparked in global financial markets was visceral. Bond yields plunged to record lows, commodity prices tumbled, stock markets whipsawed and currencies gyrated violently. By the time the dust had settled, the inversion of the U.S. yield curve - in which yields on short-term bonds are higher than longer-term bonds - was the deepest in nearly two decades. That's an emphatic signal that the markets are bracing for a recession, with the trade war as the catalyst.

At the root of this increasingly worrisome feud is a Trump administration that views China as its economic enemy, and looks determined to pursue a Chinese trade policy based more on confrontation than co-operation. This fear of China, and a determination to rein it in, have led us to this highstakes game of chicken. The stability of the global economy hangs in the balance.

THE BATTLE BEGINS Underpinning the Trump administration's trade issues with China is a belief among the President and his key advisers that the United States made a big mistake nearly two decades ago, when it orchestrated China's entry into the World Trade Organization. Hardliners led by senior trade adviser Peter Navarro, along with U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer, are convinced China's centralized government never intended to pursue truly free markets and fair trade. They see a Chinese economy that has grown into a major U.S. competitor by exploiting the trade liberalization afforded it by WTO membership, and at the expense of U.S.

manufacturing jobs. They now appear intent to put the genie back in the bottle.

But this runs deeper than simply levelling the trade playing field. There's a sense it has more to do with the United States feeling its place at the top of the global pecking order threatened - a desire to halt China's march to supplant the U.S. as the dominant world power, abetted by a permissive world trade order that has allowed it to manipulate its gullible Western counterparts.

"There are a lot of people in Washington who have become convinced that they're in some sort of existential struggle with China," says international trade veteran Robert Wolfe, a professor at Queen's University in Kingston.

(Indeed, Mr. Lighthizer last year called China's trade policies around intellectual property an "existential threat to America's most critical comparative advantage and the future of our economy: our intellectual property and technology.") Mr. Trump's zeal to launch a tariff war was aided by his confidence that the U.S. could win in short order. China, after all, is a much more trade-dependent economy than the United States; China's exports are the equivalent of about 20 per cent of its GDP, compared with about 12 per cent for the U.S. What's more, China exports four to five times as much to the United States as the U.S. ships in the other direction. The assumption was that China, which would feel more pain from the trade war, would blink first and make concessions to strike a deal.

That was a serious miscalculation of the Chinese mentality, says Paul Blustein, author of the new book Schism: China, America, and the Fracturing of the Global Trading System.

"Surrendering and kowtowing to foreigners is just unthinkable," Mr. Blustein says. "They'd rather 'eat bitterness' - that's the Chinese term for accepting some kind of lower living standards, if you have to, in order to keep your national pride."

Mr. Trump's latest volley in the trade war will shift the bitterness closer to home. The U.S. tariffs imposed so far, on US$250-billion a year of Chinese goods, have focused on imports that don't hit U.S.

consumers directly - they're mostly intermediate inputs in the manufacturing process. But the additional US$300-billion a year of Chinese goods that Mr. Trump has threatened to hit with tariffs beginning Sept. 1 (starting at 10 per cent and eventually rising to 25 per cent) represent everything else China sends to the U.S. market - including consumer products such as electronics, toys, sports equipment and clothing that dominate U.S. retail shelves.

"The White House now appears prepared to impose increased and visible costs directly on its voting base," Bank of Nova Scotia economists Brett House and Juan Manuel Herrera say in a recent research report.

Meanwhile, many observers worry that this week's clashes between the United States and China on the currency front opens a dangerous new avenue in the dispute - one in which the two countries race to devalue their respective currencies to make their exports more price-competitive, in order to counteract the damage from the tariffs. A wave of what trade experts refer to as "competitive devaluations" - involving not only the key U.S. and Chinese currencies, but quite possibly triggering similar keep-pace moves by other countries - would introduce a new and highly destabilizing component to world finances.

"If this is the beginning of a new and dangerous phase of the trade war, then all bets are off," IHS Markit chief economist Nariman Behravesh said in a research note. "The ensuing financial fire storm could push the U.S. and global economies into recession."

CANADA VULNERABLE The basic economic math surrounding tariff wars is pretty simple. A tariff increases the cost of importing a good, and that increased cost could either take a bite out of an importer's profits, or be passed along to the importer's customers in the form of a price increase. Either way, the tariff eats into disposable income and discourages consumption, while increasing inflation. Done enough times with enough products in enough markets, the cumulative impact is to slow economic activity and decrease trade. When that involves economies as big as the United States and China, in a global economy that has become highly integrated, the drag on their activity is certain to spill over to other trading partners, too, leading to a generalized slowdown.

Sixteen months in, the U.S.-China dispute has already demonstrated that effect. World GDP has slowed appreciably, with waning export demand cited repeatedly as the biggest drag on growth. The IMF has steadily lowered its forecasts, recently reducing its 2019 growth projection to 3.2 per cent.

World trade growth has evaporated; new orders for future exports are in decline, implying further slowing to come. The newest U.S. threats to greatly expand its tariffs against China - and the nearcertainty that China will retaliate - will only deepen and extend the slowdown.

While the whole world will pay a price for this trade war, Canada looks particularly exposed. Not only is the Canadian economy heavily dependent on trade - exports are equivalent to nearly onethird of Canada's GDP - the United States and China are Canada's two biggest trading partners, accounting for a combined 80 per cent of Canada's exports and 70 per cent of its imports.

The ties are, of course, particularly tight with the United States, with which Canada shares its only border and fully 70 per cent of its total two-way trade. Scotiabank's Mr. House says Canada will chiefly feel the impact of the tariff war through its drag on U.S. growth, which would translate to slower U.S. demand for Canadian exports; the upward pressure from the tariffs on U.S. inflation and how that could affect U.S. interest rates; and the resulting impact on the exchange rate between the Canadian and U.S. dollars.

On one hand, it's hard to see how even the latest prospect of greatly expanded U.S.-China tariffs would send Canada's economy anywhere near a recession. Scotiabank calculated that the nearterm direct economic impact of this latest threatened round of U.S. tariffs would shave a modest 0.11 percentage point off Canadian GDP growth in 2020. If Mr. Trump followed through on his threat to gradually increase those tariffs to 25 per cent from an initial 10 per cent, Scotiabank estimated the hit at more like 0.28 percentage point.

With the Bank of Canada projecting last month that the economy would grow by about 1.9 per cent next year, the damage from another U.S.-China tariff escalation would be meaningful, but not enough to grind growth to a halt. And if the Canadian economy is feeling the pressure, it has a funny way of showing it: Estimates suggest that the second quarter was Canada's strongest quarter for growth in two years.

However, other less-direct economic consequences are harder to quantify - and potentially more serious. Economists worry that business and consumer confidence, not just in the United States and China but around the world, could be profoundly shaken with further escalation, especially the longer the dispute drags on with no signs of a resolution. If rising uncertainties cause consumers to retrench, and cause businesses to put off investing in new equipment and facilities, the resulting slowdown in economic activity could dwarf the more direct impacts of the tariffs.

The introduction of the currency wild card this week has added a highly unpredictable, and potentially highly disruptive, new element to the situation. It was perceived as a major step up in risk by the financial markets, which some observers have felt have been too complacent about the trade war until now. The resulting plunge in bond yields around the world - including in Canada, where the 30-year government bond hit a record low of 1.48 per cent - and the deep inversion of yield curves effectively signal that the global bond market now sees the risk of a global recession as very real.

For Canada, how the market drama played out in the commodities sector was a particularly dire warning. Oil prices slumped 13 per cent in a few days, leading a generalized slide in commodity prices, reflecting fears that a deeper global slowdown would gut demand for raw materials - not the least from the United States and China themselves, who are the world's biggest commodity consumers. Given Canada's position as a major exporter of a wide range of commodities, and oil in particular, the commodity slump played out in its currency, too, as the Canadian dollar lost a full cent against its U.S. counterpart.

The Bank of Canada will be under increased pressure now to follow other central banks that have begun moving swiftly, and in growing numbers, to cut interest rates to shore up their economies against the rising risks. The U.S. Federal Reserve cut its key rate by one-quarter of a percentage point last week, prior to the latest escalation in trade tensions, citing trade risks as a key concern.

After the new actions, New Zealand's central bank raised the bar by cutting a half percentage point this week. The market has now priced in about an 80-per-cent likelihood that the Bank of Canada will cut its rate by a quarter-point before the end of the year - up from a 20-per-cent chance just 10 days ago.

What's striking, Scotiabank's Mr. House says, is that this rapid slide into talk of recession is coming at a time when, at least in Canada and the United States, there are few if any economic indicators pointing to a downturn. Both countries have solid growth and full employment.

"We wouldn't be talking about recession at all in Canada and the United Sates, were it not for those trade battles," he says. "It's really an 'own goal' that's being kicked here by the White House."

"It makes no sense to be doing what [Mr.

Trump] is doing."

APPROACHING THE EDGE By the same token, what the U.S. President does next is equally hard to predict - especially with its decision to formally label China a currency manipulator.

"It's a dangerous move on the part of the United States that's not been thought through," says Tom Bernes, Distinguished Fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation in Waterloo, Ont., and a former senior official at the International Monetary Fund.

A logical next step would be to petition the IMF - which, among other things, polices currency manipulation - to investigate China's actions in currency markets. But the IMF as recently as last month concluded that China's currency was fairly valued - effectively a determination that China hasn't been artificially driving its currency lower for its own economic gain, the basic definition of manipulation.

Since Mr. Trump has open disdain for multilateral economic institutions such as the IMF anyway, he may take matters into his own hands. He may use the currency-manipulator label as justification to have his own government intervene in currency markets, either to push China's yuan higher or to devalue the U.S. dollar. Such a move would risk seriously destabilizing financial markets, which would have deep concerns with the government imposing its will on the currency market.

But many observers viewed China's decision this week to allow its currency to fall as essentially a shot across the bow - calculated to show the United States how easily it could devalue its currency if pushed to do so, and perhaps to roil financial markets in the process. Mr. Trump has always been highly sensitive to downturns in the stock market; the market turmoil triggered by this week's currency spat may convince him that further moves on the currency front would jeopardize the healthy markets that he cherishes, especially with the presidential election year fast approaching.

Similarly, some observers question whether he will go through with his threatened next round of tariffs, given the likely negative reaction the voting public to the resulting jump in prices for popular consumer goods. Rather, they believe the threat is aimed at turning up the heat on China to strike a deal - typical of Mr. Trump's negotiating style.

"Ultimately, the failure to reach a trade deal would weaken the U.S. economy, undermining Trump's re-election prospects. ... He does not want that," writes Peter Berezin, chief global strategist at BCA Research, an independent economic and financial-markets research firm based in Montreal.

BAD PRECEDENTS, FRAYED RELATIONSHIPS Regardless of whether the United States and China can find a way to dial down their tensions or even reach some sort of trade agreement, a dangerous precedent has been set. Mr. Trump's distaste for key international institutions, and the global rulesbased multilateralism that they engender, has led the world's most powerful economy to toss aside the global trade rule book and wield tariffs as a weapon in pursuit of "America First" self-interest.

What's more, he has brought China outside the rule book with him - and so far, China has been willing to come along.

But the lessons of 20th-century history have shown that tariff wars and other forms of beggarthy-neighbour economic aggression have not only proven to be economically destructive. They have contributed to the build-up of ill will that, ultimately, fuelled two world wars.

"I don't think disputes over trade lead to war, but they can certainly add to add to mutual hostility and tension," says historian Margaret MacMillan, whose book The War That Ended Peace chronicled the deteriorating geopolitical relationships and economic aggression that preceded the First World War. After all, she reminds us, "Before the First World War, Britain and Germany were each other's biggest trading partner."

Ms. MacMillan worries that perhaps the most troubling aspect of this trade war is the distrust it is fostering between the world's two superpowers.

"You've got people on both sides now saying that the other is an enemy - or hostile, or at least not a friend," she says. "That is worrying, because once you begin to say it, then you begin to take it for granted. It's a sort of self-fulfilling thing - if China sees the U.S. as its opponent, then everything the U.S. does starts to feed into that, and vice versa."

"It's adding up to a rather troubled relationship."

Trade war's losers include microchips, energy and banks
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U.S. companies with high exposure to China are most vulnerable, but they are not the only businesses at risk
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By STAN CHOE
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ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B2


NEW YORK -- Looking across the stock market, it's hard to find a company that isn't vulnerable in some degree to the U.S.-China trade war.

Stocks of U.S. companies that do lots of business with China, such as chip makers and other technology companies, are obvious candidates for investors to sell when trade worries rise. They have fallen more than the rest of the market whenever President Donald Trump sends out a tweet or speaks about tariffs.

But investors are also looking beyond these first-order effects as they pick out which stocks look susceptible to the trade war.

Those picks now include many companies that have no significant ties to China but are still at risk.

That's why all but 2 per cent of the stocks in the S&P 500 fell on Aug. 5, when worries ratcheted higher after China let its currency devalue to its lowest level in a decade.

The damage has been widespread since Mr. Trump shocked investors on Aug. 1 by saying on Twitter he planned soon to extend tariffs across virtually all Chinese imports.

The latest tariffs cover about US$300-million worth of Chinese goods, many of them consumer products that were exempt from earlier rounds of taxes.

Even though Mr. Trump has delayed some of the tariffs, they will ultimately raise costs for U.S.

companies bringing goods in from China. Those companies will then have to either pass higher prices on to their customers or give up some of their profits. That's a big deal for investors because a stock's price tends to track the path of its earnings over the long term.

One concern is that all the uncertainty on trade will lead businesses and shoppers to hold off on spending in hopes of waiting out the tumult.

Businesses say they have seen inklings of such behaviour, which, if it accelerates, could lead to a self-fulfilling cycle in which weaker sales for companies push them to cut back on hiring.

That could lead in turn to even weaker spending and do more damage to the economy. That's trouble for most companies, to some degree.

It's also why some of the hardest-hit stocks in recent weeks have little business, if any, in China but remain vulnerable to the consequences of the trade war.

Among the losers in the dispute: ENERGY Energy stocks in the S&P 500 have plunged 10.2 per cent since just before Mr. Trump sent his Aug. 1 tweet, the worst decline of the 11 sectors that make up the index.

National Oilwell Varco, for example, is based in Houston and gets most of its revenue from supplying drilling and other technologies in the United States, Saudi Arabia, Brazil and Norway. But its stock has plunged nearly 22 per cent, seven times the loss of the overall S&P 500.

That's in large part because the price of oil has sunk on worries that the trade war will do lasting damage to the global economy. If that happens, countries around the world will have less need to burn oil.

The price of benchmark U.S.

crude plunged nearly 8 per cent on Aug. 1, its worst day in 41/2 years.

BANKS Financial stocks have been the second-worst performing sector in the S&P 500 in recent weeks as the prospect of less-profitable lending threatens banks' profits.

Comerica, for instance, has been sucked into an industrywide downdraft. It is based in Dallas and has bank branches mostly in Arizona, California, Florida, Texas and Michigan. It has some businesses operating outside the country, but in Canada and Mexico, not China. Its stock has sunk 16.2 per cent during the recent pickup in trade tensions.

The escalation in the trade war has led a growing number of economists and analysts to warn about a possible recession.

And those concerns have spread to the bond market, where interest rates have sunk sharply.

The market for interest rates has gone so haywire this month because of worries about a possible recession that long-term Treasury yields in some cases are lower than short-term yields.

That's trouble for an industry that relies on borrowing money at short-term rates, lending it out at long-term rates and pocketing the difference.

MICROCHIP COMPANIES Companies that make microchips that go into laptops and other electronics have been some of the trade war's biggest victims because of how dependent they are on China.

Consider Micron Technology, which got more than 57 per cent of all its sales from China in its last fiscal year. Not only that, it needs China for rare earth minerals found there, and it also has significant manufacturing operations in the country.

Micron sank 2.9 per cent on Aug. 1, when Mr. Trump announced he would extend tariffs to products that include laptops and mobile phones. That was more than triple the S&P 500's loss.

Since Mr. Trump's 2018 tweet that "trade wars are good, and easy to win," Micron is down 8.5 per cent, while the S&P 500 is up 7.9 per cent.

INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES Since Mr. Trump initiated the trade war with China in 2018, the reaction in the market has been to sell big industrial companies whenever tensions rise. The temptation makes sense given how global the companies are, but it may be misguided, said Stephen Volkmann, an equity analyst at Jefferies who covers machinery and industrial companies.

"Every time there's a tweet, I get a call and asked, 'How does this affect CAT?' " Mr. Volkmann said, using the ticker symbol for heavy-equipment maker Caterpillar. "CAT tends to make what they sell where they sell it."

That means many of its products do not have to cross borders before they are sold, which offers some insulation from the effect of tariffs.

Other industrial companies have also already absorbed tariffs and successfully passed the costs on to their customers. But "it's a little like shouting in the wind to get anyone to care," Mr. Volkmann said.

When asked if any of the industrial companies he follows is much more vulnerable than others because of this next round of tariffs, he struggles to name one in particular.

"The most important part is: Do we enter a recession because of them?" he said. "If that's true, that's true for all my companies."

Associated Graphic

Investors track the effect of trade tension on heavy-equipment maker Caterpillar, which has some protection from tariffs because many of its products don't cross borders before being sold.

JUSTIN SULLIVAN/GETTY IMAGES

U.S. retail boom eases economic fears
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Despite upbeat July sales report, expectations of a Federal Reserve rate cut likely won't change
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By LUCIA MUTIKANI
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REUTERS
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B2


WASHINGTON -- U.S. retail sales surged in July as consumers bought a range of goods even as they cut back on motor vehicle purchases, helping to assuage financial market fears that the economy was heading into recession.

The upbeat report from the U.S. Commerce Department on Thursday, however, will likely not change expectations that the U.S. Federal Reserve will cut interest rates again next month as news from the manufacturing sector remains dour, underscoring the darkening outlook for the economy against the backdrop of trade tensions and slowing growth overseas.

President Donald Trump cheered the strong retail sales data, which came a day after a key part of the U.S. Treasury yield curve inverted for the first time since June, 2007, and triggered a stock market sell-off. An inverted Treasury yield curve is historically a reliable predictor of looming recessions.

Mr. Trump's "America First" policies, which have led the United States into a bitter trade war with China, have been blamed for threatening to derail the longest U.S. economic expansion in history and unleash a global recession.

"The United States is now, by far, the Biggest, Strongest and Most Powerful Economy in the World, it is not even close!" Mr.Trump wrote on Twitter. "As others falter, we will only get stronger. Consumers are in the best shape ever, plenty of cash."

Financial markets have fully priced in a 25-basis-point rate cut at the U.S. central bank's Sept.

17-18 policy meeting. The Fed lowered its short-term interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point last month, citing the acrimonious U.S.-China trade fight and slowing global economies.

But the data could push markets to dial back expectations of a 50-basis-point rate cut next month. (One basis point is a hundredth of a percentage point.)

"So yes, consumers are lifting economic growth and easing pressure on the Federal Reserve to cut more aggressively, but the trade war itself, and the rhetoric that accompanies it will push for more rate cuts," said Jennifer Lee, a senior economist at BMO Capital Markets in Toronto.

Retail sales increased 0.7 per cent last month after gaining 0.3 per cent in June, the government said. Economists polled by Reuters had forecast retail sales would rise 0.3 per cent in July.

Compared with July last year, retail sales increased 3.4 per cent.

Excluding automobiles, gasoline, building materials and food services, retail sales jumped 1 per cent last month after advancing by 0.7 per cent in June. These socalled core retail sales correspond most closely with the consumer spending component of gross domestic product.

Solid retail sales were reinforced by strong second-quarter results from Walmart Inc. The world's largest retailer posted a 20-quarter, or five-year, streak of U.S. growth, unmatched by any other retail chain, and raised its earnings forecasts for the year.

U.S. stocks were trading largely higher after Wednesday's sharp losses. The dollar edged up against a basket of currencies.

U.S. Treasury prices rose, with the yield curve steepening a little after Wednesday's inversion.

July's gain in core retail sales suggested strong consumer spending early in the third quarter, though the pace will likely slow from the April-June quarter's robust 4.3-per-cent annualized rate. Consumer spending, which accounts for more than two-thirds of the economy, is being underpinned by the lowest unemployment rate in nearly half a century.

While a separate report from the Labour Department on Thursday showed an increase in the number of Americans filing applications for unemployment benefits last week, the trend in claims continued to point to a strong labour market.

Solid consumer spending is blunting some of the hit on the economy from the downturn in manufacturing, which is underscored by weak business investment. There are, however, red flags for the labour market coming from manufacturing.

The sector's struggles were highlighted by a third report from the Fed on Thursday showing factory production dropped 0.4 per cent in July. Output at factories has declined more than 1.5 per cent since December, 2018. Manufacturing, which makes up about 12 per cent of the economy, is also being weighed down by an inventory overhang, especially in the automotive sector.

The troubles appear to have continued into the third quarter.

Though a report from the Philadelphia Fed on Thursday showed factory activity in the mid-Atlantic region slowed moderately in August amid an increase in new orders, manufacturers reported hiring fewer workers and slashing hours.

A measure of factory employment dropped to its lowest level since November, 2016. The weakness in factory employment in the region that covers eastern Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey and Delaware was mirrored by another survey from the New York Fed. Activity in New York was little changed this month, with employment measures deteriorating further.

"The health of factories is still an important driver of growth and the soft patch for production remains a factor that is keeping economic growth in the slow lane," said Chris Rupkey, chief economist at MUFG in New York.

Manufacturing productivity tumbled at its fastest pace in nearly two years in the second quarter, with factories cutting hours for workers, another report from the Labour Department showed.

The economy grew at a 2.1per-cent rate in the second quarter, decelerating from the first quarter's 3.1-per-cent pace.

Growth estimates for the third quarter range from a 1.5-per-cent pace to a 2.1-per-cent rate.

In July, auto sales fell 0.6 per cent after rising 0.3 per cent in June. Receipts at service stations rebounded 1.8 per cent, reflecting higher gasoline prices. Online and mail-order retail sales jumped 2.8 per cent, the most in six months, after rising 1.9 per cent in June. They were likely boosted by Amazon.com Inc.'s Prime Day event.

There were increases in sales at clothing, furniture and building material stores. Sales at restaurants and bars accelerated 1.1 per cent. But spending at hobby, musical instrument and book stores dropped 1.1 per cent last month.

"The consumer is incredibly resilient," said Lindsey Piegza, chief economist at Stifel in Chicago. "But without growth from housing investment and manufacturing, the consumer will be hard-pressed to continue to alone support the U.S. economy."

Associated Graphic

Solid consumer spending is helping to ease the pain the U.S. economy is feeling from the downturn in manufacturing.

MARCIO JOSE SANCHEZ/AP

Chinese ban on Canadian exports increasingly hurting farmers
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By STEVEN CHASE
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Monday, August 5, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


OTTAWA -- The hardship is mounting for Canadian farmers hurt by China's decision to stop buying certain agricultural exports from Canada in the wake of Ottawa's arrest of a top Chinese tech executive.

"Since the end of the December we have not sold a single vessel - a shipload of soybeans - to China," Ron Davidson, executive director at Soy Canada, said.

Relations between Beijing and Ottawa turned sour late last year, at a time when Canadian farmers were already struggling with the turmoil in agricultural markets caused by the mid-2018 trade war between the United States and China. The catalyst was Canada's detention of Chinese tech giant Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.'s chief financial officer last December on an extradition request from the United States.

In the months since Meng Wanzhou was arrested, China has increased retaliatory economic pressure on Canada, and the casualties have included Canadian soybeans, canola, pork and beef. With the loss of a major market sowing uncertainty in the industry, farmers of these products are scrambling to find alternative buyers.

Agriculture Minister Marie-Claude Bibeau said in a statement Tuesday that the government will ensure farmers "have the support they need."

"In recent weeks, we have announced over $27-million in support of our grains, oilseeds and meat industries, aimed primarily at developing international markets," she said, adding that Ottawa is working with provinces to improve farm financial-support programs such as AgriStability.

"We are working around the clock to resume trade of key agricultural exports with China as soon as possible."

Canola producers are still struggling with a suspension of canola seed purchases from China - a loss that amounts to one-quarter of their exports.

"Canada on average ships about $2.7-billion in canola seed [annually] to China. This has slowed to a trickle," said Brian Innes, vice-president of public affairs at the Canola Council of Canada, which represents 43,000 producers.

"This is by far the most challenging disruption this industry has ever seen."

For pork producers - now banned from China - they're working to shift export sales to other foreign markets such as Japan, Korea and Taiwan. But the buyers there know Canadian pork is barred from China and the prices fetched will reflect that, said John Ross, executive director of the Canadian Pork Council.

"Nothing was certified for export after June 25. So that product is really looking for a home," said Mr. Ross, whose organization represents 7,000 producers.

A ban on shipments of Canadian pork and beef to China took effect late last month. Chinese officials cited falsified export certificates.

Mr. Ross said Canadian pork producers were on track toward $1-billion in sales to China this year, or as much as one-quarter of exports, before the ban.

He added China also purchased pig heads and feet, and there's no significant alternative market for these parts now.

"We're still processing hogs every week and the product is moving into the global market. It's just not moving to the best market that there is."

For soybean farmers, the closing of the China market is the latest in a turbulent world market. After China slapped major tariffs on U.S. soybeans in 2018, the American crop ending up flooding other markets including Canada and Europe. Before Ms. Meng's arrest, China had offered Canadian soybean farmers an alternative export destination.

"We got pushed out of the Canadian market. We got pushed out of the European market, which is the second biggest world market and we became overdependent on China," Mr. Davidson said.

"And now something happened in China and we're not selling there either."

He said the soybean industry - which during the last census amounted to more than 30,000 farmers - is looking to Ottawa for help. The canola industry's Mr. Innes says prices have fallen 10 per cent, which is a significant change for farmers.

"Taking away 10 per cent takes away farmers' ability to meet costs and takes away profits." Over a year, a 10-per-cent decline in prices means a loss of $1-billion in revenue, he said.

The Canadian government has been trying to solve the impasse with China, but Beijing has not been receptive. "The government is making all effort to engage the Chinese but it takes two to engage.

"The response from China has not been very positive," Mr.

Ross said.

Ottawa is also trying to find new markets for products. Mr.

Innes praised the work of International Trade Minister James Carr who has helped spur more outreach to other buyers such as Japan, Korea, Pakistan and European countries.

The canola industry is also seeking the federal government's help to boost requirements for biodiesel that contains crop-based oil such as canola.

One of the biggest problems now is not knowing what comes next.

"I would suggest that for all producers, the suspension of the pork trade with China immediately injected a significant level of instability and uncertainty in our industry," Mr. Ross said.

"In turn, this instability impacts producer's confidence in the market and their willingness to invest in both the maintenance and/or growth of their farms."

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Struggle for control precipitated company's troubles
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By JEFFREY JONES
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Every day brings a new revelation from the corporate horror show that is CannTrust Holdings Inc.

The latest: CannTrust said on Monday that Health Canada has determined a second operation run by the cannabis company, this time a manufacturing facility, was not compliant with regulations. That triggered another dip in the stock's roller-coaster ride.

On Friday, the company said its auditor, KPMG LLP, had withdrawn its certification of the company's 2018 financials and declared the audited results can't be relied upon as accurate.

And so it has gone since July 8, when CannTrust - once considered as close to blue chip as the industry could offer - disclosed Health Canada had cited it for growing pot plants in unlicensed rooms at its Southern Ontario greenhouse.

On the surface, the sad saga of CannTrust looks to be about a failed attempt to skirt regulations in an effort to meet promises to investors. What the reporting has shown, though, was a struggle for control at the executive and board levels, which led employees to divide themselves into warring camps.

Ultimately, the internal battle pushed conflict out in the open, and that was a factor in a crisis that has prompted the ejection of CannTrust's two top executives, set off an investigation by securities regulators, led to an effort to sell the company and brought skepticism about the legal cannabis industry's ability to operate like any other.

Company founder Eric Paul stepped aside as chief executive officer in early October, 2018, to make way for Peter Aceto, the former CEO of Tangerine Bank. Mr. Paul said that, with Mr. Aceto's "successful track record of strong leadership, deep operational knowledge and focus on delivering shareholder value, he will be the perfect compliment to our leadership team."

By all accounts, it was not a smooth transition of power. Weeks after Mr. Aceto was hired, president Brad Rogers and Michael Ravensdale, vice-president of quality and production management, left the company in quick succession, according to CannTrust's management circular. The reasons for their departures have not been made public.

Then, as an internal e-mail showed, within a month and a half of his arrival, Mr. Aceto was told by staff of cannabis being grown in unlicensed rooms at the company's Niagara-region greenhouse, and that the company had "dodged some bullets" when Health Canada inspectors did not raise onerous questions, The Globe and Mail reported. It was brought to the attention of Mr. Paul, the chairman.

The e-mail chain shows he told staff how to respond to any questions from the regulator.

An internal document shows plants had been moved into two unlicensed rooms on Oct. 3, two days after CannTrust announced Mr. Aceto had signed on as CEO. The move was made after lengthy delays by Health Canada processing the company's applications, according to the document, seen by The Globe. The rooms did not receive certification until last April.

By the end of 2018, tension between Mr.Aceto and Mr. Paul over who was running the company began to surface, according to another internal e-mail, the contents of which were reported by The Globe last week. "Management often receives conflicting instructions from board members.

It is often unclear when and which board members need to be involved in decisionmaking, and when decisions are made, they are often second-guessed," Mr. Aceto wrote on Dec. 31.

According to current and former employees, some of CannTrust's workers took sides as tension increased, some with Mr. Paul and his long-time allies on the board, and some with Mr. Aceto. Those in the former camp complained that the new CEO lacked the industry background necessary to deal with the nuances of delivering cannabis on time while juggling the demands of customers, investors and regulators.

Those siding with the latter lamented that Mr. Aceto was never really handed the reins at CannTrust, and that he was given conflicting information on industry and company standards and practices by the long-time executives and directors - the same ones who had initially sought a CEO who could add credibility to the management team as recreational cannabis legalization approached.

With no clear leadership and the company in crisis, loyalists felt obliged to lay the blame at the other guy's feet in hopes of a revival.

In the end, neither has escaped scorn.

As the walls closed in on CannTrust amid investigations and recriminations, Mr.Aceto was terminated "with cause" by the board's special committee looking into the imbroglio. It also persuaded Mr. Paul to step down.

Now, as the fate of CannTrust hangs in the balance, it's clear internal strife only served to help tear the company apart from the inside.

Associated Graphic

A uniform-cleaning services employee delivers lab coats to CannTrust's Vaughan, Ont., facility on Monday, where Health Canada uncovered several more infractions in July.

TIJANA MARTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Vancouver port volumes jump on surge in specialty crop exports
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By BRENT JANG
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


VANCOUVER -- The Port of Vancouver handled a record 72.5 million tonnes of cargo in the first half of this year, a bright spot for British Columbia as housing markets, the forestry sector and other parts of the economy sag.

Canada's largest port said cargo volumes rose 0.5 per cent compared with the 72.2 million tonnes processed in the first six months of 2018.

"While Canada is certainly not exempt from the challenges impacting global trade, the diverse range of trading partners and cargo handled through the Port of Vancouver ensures the entire port remains resilient," Robin Silvester, president of the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority, said in a statement.

But a new report by Central 1 Credit Union cautions about the impact of trade uncertainty in the second half of 2019.

"A compendium of factors including deterioration in the global trade environment, retrenchment in the forestry sector and slowing consumer spending on big-ticket items will weigh on growth," Central 1 deputy chief economist Bryan Yu said in his outlook for the B.C. economy.

Mr. Yu said reduced sales activity in real estate, as well as downturns in mining and forestry, will contribute to slower growth in gross domestic product in B.C. of 2.2 per cent this year, compared with 2.4 per cent in 2018.

Reduced housing sales activity, "owing to federal mortgage stress tests and provincial government tax measures, has dragged the resale market into recession-like conditions," he said. "Meanwhile, the forestry sector has experienced sharp contractions since robust activity in early 2018."

Undaunted by the forestry slump, B.C. billionaire Jim Pattison launched an unsolicited, $981.7-million bid this week for full control of Canfor Corp., Canada's second-largest lumber producer. Mr. Pattison, through Great Pacific Capital Corp., owns 51 per cent of Vancouver-based Canfor.

He wants to take the company private with his cash bid of $16 a share for the 49 per cent of Canfor stock that is widely held.

Last month, Canfor announced the indefinite shutdown of its sawmill in Mackenzie, B.C., and plans to chop one of two shifts at its mill in Isle Pierre, B.C., in September.

"A rising number of mills have closed due to current market conditions and lack of long-term timber supply, marking a trend that will likely persist," Mr. Yu said.

He warns that global economic conditions are deteriorating amid the U.S.-China trade war.

China's ban on Canadian canola has eroded total exports of the agricultural product. The Port of Vancouver said it saw a 12.6-per-cent decline in canola shipments in the first half of this year versus the same period last year. Lumber exports slipped 1.6 per cent and other wood product shipments fell 10.2 per cent.

But many commodities enjoyed strong demand, with specialty crop exports surging 34.2 per cent, potash and potassiumbased fertilizer shipments jumping 27.3 per cent and wheat exports rising 22.4 per cent.

Imports and exports of goods in containers set a record, with 1.7 million shipments handled in this year's first half, up 3.5 per cent from the same period of 2018.

The shipping industry deploys large vessels to carry containers, which are reusable steel boxes measured as 20-foot equivalent units.

"The Port of Vancouver is definitely a significant driver of the economy and reflective of the trade that goes through the region," Mr. Yu said in an interview.

The Vancouver Fraser Port Authority is warning that the West Coast could run out of capacity to handle container shipments within six years. The port authority said it needs to win regulatory approval to build its Roberts Bank Terminal 2 site that would be situated on reclaimed land south of Vancouver, with operations opening in 2029.

But a rival proposal from a tenant, GCT Global Container Terminals Inc., has added to the uncertainty over how best to expand trade capacity.

Associated Graphic

A record 1.7 million shipments were handled at the Port of Vancouver in the year's first half, up 3.5 per cent from the same period in 2018.

JONATHAN HAYWARD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

S&P cuts SNC-Lavalin debt rating to junk status
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By STEFANIE MAROTTA
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.'s credit rating has been downgraded to junk status by Standard & Poor's, which cited the potential for the company to lose more money on construction and engineering contracts.

The bond-rating agency on Monday lowered the rating on SNC-Lavalin's senior unsecured debt to double-B-plus from triple-B-minus and maintained a negative outlook.

The move, which could make it more expensive for the Montreal-based engineering company to borrow money, comes weeks after SNC reported a $2.1billion loss for the second quarter, prompting it to cut its dividend for the second time this year.

SNC-Lavalin's stock has been falling for months amid a political crisis over unresolved bribery and fraud charges.

The company has announced several strategic shifts, but its largest shareholder, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, has called for cultural changes "across the board."

"The downgrade really reflects the losses that the company experienced over the past three quarters. We saw more risk going forward than we previously assumed," S&P credit analyst Alessio Di Francesco said in an interview.

"But the downgrade primarily reflects the losses on the lump sum turnkey contracts [LSTK], which we believe indicate weaker operating efficiency and a weaker financial risk profile."

SNC-Lavalin said that it will drop bids on LSTK contracts, which carry a higher risk of the company having to take responsibility for unexpected costs and budget overruns. The contracts, worth billions of dollars, include several Canadian infrastructure projects.

"This update follows our [second-quarter] results, however, we remain committed to maintaining an investment grade credit rating," SNC-Lavalin spokesperson Daniela Pizzuto said in a statement. "To that end, the company is pursuing a new strategic direction that will tackle the root cause of our short-term cash flow considerations - namely LSTK contracting, which we have exited.

"By exiting such contracting and splitting it off from what is otherwise a healthy and robust business, we expect to see more consistent earnings and cash flow."

S&P initially placed SNC-Lavalin on watch for a possible downgrade in July after the engineering company said that it expected weak second-quarter results, Mr. Di Francesco said.

But poor earnings results and potential problems with some remaining fixed-price contracts signalled even greater issues than expected, he added.

"The magnitude of losses that we saw recently leads us to believe that there is more risk in the remaining lump sum turnkey contracts that the company still has to work through," Mr. Di Francesco said. "We also see other risks for potential slower growth in the economy and unresolved fraud and bribery charges."

The troubled company has been trying to recover since it said in October that the federal director of public prosecutions had declined to negotiate a deal to defer bribery and fraud charges. Its attempt to get an agreement plunged the Trudeau government into political controversy. Former attorney-general Jody Wilson-Raybould said she faced pressure from the Prime Minister, his key advisers and some cabinet ministers to overrule the director's decision.

Analysts expected the downgrade after SNC-Lavalin's warning of poor earnings, according to RBC Dominion Securities. SNC-Lavalin bonds have traded down in price since mid-July when the company announced a strategic shift that would see it stop bidding for LSTK contracts.

"We view today's news as largely neutral given the largely anticipated move by S&P and the fact that we see largely limited impact from the credit downgrade to non-investment grade," RBC analyst Derek Spronck said in a note, adding that the move could weigh on bonds but is "not likely to impact equity holders or operations."

The downgrade will move SNC-Lavalin's bonds to FTSE Canada High Yield Bond Index from the investment-grade FTSE Canada Universe Bond Index.

SNC-LAVALIN (SNC) CLOSE: $17.14, UP 42¢

Toronto-based theScore gains entry into U.S. sports betting
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By STEFANIE MAROTTA
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B3


Sports fans and gamblers in New Jersey will soon be able to bet online with theScore Inc. in time for football kickoff.

The Toronto-based media company has received approval from the New Jersey Division of Gaming Enforcement to play host to internet and mobile sports-wagering services in the state, it said on Friday. The move comes after the U.S. Supreme Court reversed a federal law last year that prevented gambling on sports in most states, opening the door for states to legalize sports betting.

TheScore is planning a soft launch of its sportsbook app to a select group of bettors "in the coming days," but would not confirm a date. It also intends to roll out the sportsbook app across the state in time for U.S.

football season.

"Sports betting is just one aspect of why people are passionate about sports," founder and chief executive John Levy said.

"It's all part of this engagement that people have with sports."

Through theScore's sportsbook app, which is required by state regulation to be separate from its main media app, users can bet on sports games and other statistics, such as how many points or goals a team will score, Mr. Levy said. It plans to integrate the two apps so that users can toggle between the media app with news, live scores and alerts, and the sportsbook app to directly place bets.

While competitors in New Jersey such as DraftKings Sportsbook and FanDuel Sportsbook offer similar betting services, Mr.Levy said that theScore aims to grab a piece of the market that has generated US$1.925-billion year-to-date in total gambling revenue, according to the New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety.

"We provide all this sports and betting information, and then people take it and they go and bet elsewhere, but those other apps are just transactional," Mr.Levy said. "People go and make a wager, and then they get their information elsewhere. But most of the time, they're getting their information from us."

With about two-thirds of its four million average monthly users located in the United States, theScore plans to expand the app to other states after its initial New Jersey launch. Last month, the company announced an agreement with Penn National Gaming Inc., North America's largest regional gambling operator, which allows theScore to offer online and mobile sports betting and online-gambling applications in 11 states.

In Canada, the federal government prohibits betting on singlegame sporting events, which is banned under the Criminal Code.

Sports betting is allowed through provincially regulated lottery and gaming commissions, but the Ontario government said in its 2019 budget that it wants to open up online gambling. Ontarians spend approximately $500-million annually on gambling online, with most of that money spent on illegal websites, according to the province's 2019 budget.

And Canada risks missing out on a large market, according to Paul Burns, president of the Canadian Gaming Association. He estimates that sports-lottery products generate about $500-million a year, with online offshore sports betting amounting to more than $4-million.

"Sports betting is very popular and it's growing," Mr. Burns said.

"It's a huge part of the gambling industry in Europe and it's a growing segment in North America thanks to the legalization in states in the U.S."

THESCORE (SCR) CLOSE: 53¢, UP 4¢

Alberta extends quotas on oil production amid capacity concerns
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By ROD NICKEL
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


The government of Alberta said on Tuesday it was extending mandatory curtailments on crude production by an extra year through 2020, because of uncertainty about when expanded pipelines may come online.

Alberta's previous New Democratic Party government imposed production limits in January to drain a glut of oil in storage that built up owing to congested pipelines. The curtailments have dramatically reduced a painful discount on Canadian heavy crude, but investor confidence remains shaken and energy stocks are trading around historic lows.

Premier Jason Kenney's United Conservative Party government, which took office in the spring, has steadily eased curtailments as inventories drained.

But Alberta Energy Minister Sonya Savage said that with delays in pipeline approvals such as Enbridge Inc.'s Line 3 replacement, production levels could exceed rail and pipeline capacity by 150,000 barrels a day (b/d), and greater price discounts could reappear, unless the province extended curtailments.

"We're doing this because we have to. In the short term, we don't have the capacity to move the production," Ms. Savage told reporters in Calgary.

The government also said it would raise the exemption in the curtailment formula for all oil producers to 20,000 b/d from 10,000 b/d, effective in October. The move means that curtailment will apply to only 16 of Alberta's 300 oil producers, down from 29 companies currently. In October, oil production will rise slightly to 3.79 million b/d from 3.76 million in September, Ms. Savage said.

Ms. Savage said it was possible that curtailment might end earlier, depending on market conditions, but that extending it for now gave the province greater flexibility.

Pipeline projects have run into fierce opposition in Canada and the United States, causing regulatory and court delays lasting years.

Activists oppose pipelines as a way of strangling expansion of the Canadian oil sands, which they say are especially harmful to the environment. Alberta's biggest producers, including Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. and Suncor Energy Inc.

urged the provincial government in July to allow expanded production as greater rail capacity to ship it became available.

Ms. Savage said she had not ruled out the idea, but was not ready to make a decision. She said she intended to announce monthly revisions to curtailment levels 60 days in advance, instead of 30 days previously, to help producers plan.

Alberta is not changing the overall methodology that it uses to determine each company's production limit.

Sweden's dynamic duo, Raymond and Holtz, ready to challenge for top draft spot
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By JOSHUA CLIPPERTON
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S3


PLYMOUTH, MICH. -- Lucas Raymond took a pass, cut to the middle and roofed his third goal of the game to send Sweden into a euphoria.

Somewhere in the mass of humanity that swarmed the diminutive forward back in April as his country celebrated its first under-18 world hockey title - on home soil, no less - was teammate Alexander Holtz.

"It was amazing," Raymond recalled this week. "It doesn't happen very often that you get to win such a big thing."

"Incredible," Holtz added.

"And to do it on home ice, it was [even] more special."

The pair were catalysts at that tournament, figure to be important pieces at the 2020 world junior championship in the Czech Republic and are expected to go early, perhaps both in the top three picks, at next year's NHL draft.

Raymond and Holtz. Holtz and Raymond. Expect to hear those names linked together for a long time.

"We knew they were really talented," Swedish head coach Tomas Monten said. "What helps their game is they work really hard, they skate [and] they're not afraid of playing in the dirty areas.

"They're going to get some extra attention. Everyone knows that they're skilled, that they're players to watch out for."

The 17-year-old wingers, who usually play on the same line, are in suburban Detroit this week at the World Junior Summer Showcase for a series of practices and games against the United States, Canada and Finland as the countries swing preparations for the 2020 event into high gear.

Holtz and Raymond are also getting their first real taste of speaking with North American reporters, something they'll have to get used to at the world juniors and ahead of the draft.

"We talked to them a little bit before coming here," Monten said. "We went through this with [2018 No. 1 pick] Rasmus [Dahlin] two years ago. If they want any special help, just ask us."

"It's good to talk to the media," Holtz said. "You have to do it." But they won't live under the same microscope as Jack Hughes, who went first at the most recent NHL draft, or presumptive 2020 No. 1 pick Alexis Lafrenière.

That's because instead of playing junior hockey in Canada or the United States this season, Raymond (Frolunda) and Holtz (Djurgardens) will remain with their professional clubs back home in Sweden.

The 5-foot-10, 165-pound Raymond is more of a playmaker, while Holtz - at six feet and 183 pounds - is often characterized as the tandem's finisher, even though the former scored three times in the under-18 final against Russia.

Raymond had 13 goals and 48 points in 37 outings with Frolunda's top junior team in 2018-19, while Holtz registered 30 goals and 47 points in 38 games for Djurdgardens in the same division. Both teens also spent stints playing against men in the pros in Sweden's top league, the SHL.

"Incredible players," said defenceman Philip Broberg, drafted eighth over all by Edmonton in June. "Really important for this team. Just really good guys to be around.

"They're really good, humble people."

Sweden has won just two gold medals at the world juniors (1981 and 2012), but Monten said having the coming under-20 tournament, which gets under way on Dec. 26, back in Europe on wider international ice after three straight years in North America should benefit his players.

"You've got to play a little bit more of a puck-possession game," he said. "We're going to try to use the size of the ice to our advantage."

Raymond and Holtz are doing their best to avoid draft talk, but it's difficult in 2019 when lists and prognostications are already out and readily available as observers guess where hockey's next crop of potential stars might wind up.

"I'm trying not to think about it," Raymond said. "It's tough because of all the social media."

Lafrenière, who is part of the Canadian set-up at the summer showcase in Plymouth, Mich., looks to be the top choice as it stands now - granted, a lot can change - ahead of the 2020 draft in Montreal.

But the two Swedes are hoping to nudge into the conversation.

"Yeah of course!" Holtz said with a big grin. "Every player wants to go first over all."

Only six of their countrymen have ever been taken in the top three at the NHL draft - Mats Sundin (No. 1 in 1989), Daniel and Henrik Sedin (No. 2 and No. 3 in 1999), Victor Hedman (No. 2 in 2009), Gabriel Landeskog (No. 2 in 2011) and Sandin last year.

Raymond and Holtz could very well add to that list next June, but will do their best to block out the noise until then.

"They know that they're going to get drafted," Monten said.

"They can only play and only do their thing.

"Then others decide where they go."

Associated Graphic

Lucas Raymond and Alexander Holtz, not shown, helped Sweden to its first under-18 world title.

CODIE MCLACHLAN/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Thomas perseveres to win the BMW Championship
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American holds off competitors as they cut into his lead to claim No. 1 seed heading into FedEx Cup finale
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By DOUG FERGUSON
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


MEDINAH, ILL. -- Justin Thomas had more stress than he wanted and answered with the shots he needed Sunday at Medinah to win the BMW Championship and claim the No. 1 seed going into the FedEx Cup finale.

Thomas watched a six-shot lead shrink to two in a span of three holes around the turn, until he regained control with two great wedges and two pivotal putts. One last birdie gave him a four-under 68 and a three-shot victory over Patrick Cantlay, who gave him a battle to the end with a 65.

"I was really nervous today. It's hard to play with a lead," Thomas said. "You don't know how often things like this will happen, and it feels great."

The victory, the first for Thomas since the World Golf Championship at Firestone last year, gives him a two-shot lead starting the Tour Championship next week as the top 30 players in the FedEx Cup chase the US$15-million prize.

The field will have a staggered start based on their position in the FedEx Cup, meaning Thomas starts at 10-under par.

The top 30 who advanced includes Lucas Glover, who went bogey, double bogey late in his round until finishing with a par to wrap up his first trip to East Lake in 10 years.

It will not include Masters champion Tiger Woods, the defending champion.

Woods was a long shot going into the final round to crack the top 30, and he closed with a 72. East Lake was his first victory in five years, capping his return from four back surgeries, a special moment replaced six months later by his Masters victory.

Hideki Matsuyama took the 36-hole lead with a 63 until falling back with a 73. He responded with another 63 to finish alone in third, making him one of three players who moved into the top 30 to reach East Lake.

The other was Jason Kokrak, but only after J.T. Poston made bogey on his final hole.

The U.S. team for the Presidents Cup didn't change, with Bryson DeChambeau holding down the final spot. Tony Finau would have needed to finish alone in third.

He closed with a 69 to finish fourth, unable to keep up with Matsuyama.

Nothing changed for the International team either, as Jason Day failed to earn one of the eight automatic spots.

Both captains, Woods and Ernie Els, will have four picks on Nov. 5.

Corey Conners (69) of Listowel, Ont., tied for seventh with Glover at 15 under over all. After starting the season with only a partial PGA Tour card, Conners has now earned a spot in all four majors next season, the World Golf Championships and, of course, a full tour card for 2020.

He was also well within the top 30 to advance to the Tour Championship.

Adam Hadwin (76) of Abbotsford, B.C., tied for 43rd at six under.

With so much at stake, the one certainty going into the final round seemed to be the winner. Thomas had a six-shot lead, and only seven players dating to 1928 had ever lost a lead that big on the PGA Tour.

Thomas didn't hit a fairway until the fifth hole. He still had a six-shot lead when his chip from across the green on the parfive seventh nearly went for eagle.

And then it turned quickly.

Cantlay made an eight-foot birdie on No.

7, followed with a 12-foot birdie on No. 8 and a six-foot birdie on No. 9. Thomas then helped out by hitting his second to the parfive 10th under a tree, hitting left-handed to get it out and making bogey. Cantlay made his fourth straight birdie, and the lead was down to two with eight holes remaining.

That's when Thomas came to life with a wedge to two feet for birdie.

He followed with two key putts, and the most important might have been for par.

He drove into the right rough and had to play about 65 yards short of the green, hitting wedge up to about 12 feet. Cantlay had a 15-foot birdie putt, and a two-shot swing would have cut the lead to one.

Cantlay missed. Thomas made his par putt, stepping forward with a fist pump.

Associated Graphic

Justin Thomas of the United States plays a shot on the 10th hole during the final round of the BMW Championship at Medinah Country Club on Sunday. Thomas's victory was his first since he took the World Golf Championship at Firestone last year.

SAM GREENWOOD/GETTY IMAGES

Raiders' Brown practises with certified helmet
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By JOSH DUBOW
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


ALAMEDA, CALIF. -- Star receiver Antonio Brown practised in a certified helmet with the Oakland Raiders on Tuesday, two days after being given an ultimatum by general manager Mike Mayock to be "all in or all out."

"He's all in, ready to go," coach Jon Gruden said. "That's my understanding. Really happy to have him out here. He's a great player."

Brown didn't attend practice Sunday as he worked to find a helmet he was comfortable using and that met safety standards set by the NFL and the NFL Players Association. He lost a grievance last week in which he sought to be allowed to use the Schutt Air Advantage helmet he has worn throughout his career. But the helmet was too old to be certified as safe.

He had hoped to find a newer version of his preferred helmet that could be approved, but the one he submitted failed a safety test conducted by the league and union.

He filed a second grievance Monday seeking a one-year grace period, according to a person familiar with the situation who spoke on condition of anonymity because it wasn't made public. But he is back practising with the team while that gets resolved.

Brown was not wearing a helmet during the open portion of practice and spent some of the time during stretch in the nearby weight room. But he walked off the field after practice holding a new helmet and Gruden said he's running well after also missing time with frostbitten feet.

"He's really good," Gruden said. "He's shown great retention of what we're doing.

He didn't miss the off-season program."

Brown didn't take part in a full practice during the Raiders' entire training camp stay in Napa, Calif., which wrapped up Monday, missing time because of frostbite on his feet suffered in a cryotherapy accident in France and then over the helmet issue. That led to Mayock saying Sunday that the Raiders had supported Brown, but had "exhausted all avenues of relief."

Gruden said the drama surrounding Brown hasn't affected the team's preparation for the season.

"It's not been a distraction to me at all," Gruden said. "I hate to break it to anybody, but we've known what the status is regarding his feet. He just showed up with frost bite. I never had a guy show up with frost bite. Fortunately, we got that thing under control. This grievance thing is no laughing matter. It's something that's really important to him. There's nothing wrong in supporting your players on things they believe in. We also understand the league's position but I'm confident that he's going to be a heck of a player for us and be ready to roll."

Brown had 686 catches and 9,145 yards receiving the past six seasons in Pittsburgh, the best marks ever for a receiver in a six-year span. But he still wore out his welcome with the Steelers after leaving the team before a crucial Week 17 game last season and Oakland was able to acquire him in March for the small price of third- and fifth-round draft picks.

The drama that surrounded Brown in Pittsburgh didn't stop upon his arrival in Oakland, even though he was given a hefty raise with a three-year contract worth US$50.125-million.

He arrived at camp with the frost-bitten feet, sending him to the non-football injury list. He was activated on July 28 and participated in parts of two practices before leaving for more than a week to get treatment and deal with the helmet grievance.

Associated Graphic

Oakland Raiders receiver Antonio Brown practised in a certified helmet with the team in Alameda, Calif., on Tuesday, after losing a grievance last week in which he sought to be allowed to use the Schutt Air Advantage helmet he has worn throughout his career - that helmet was too old to be certified as safe.

PHOTOS BY JEFF CHIU/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Former MLSE executive Hunter takes over top Wolfpack job
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By NEIL DAVIDSON
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


TORONTO -- Bob Hunter has overseen the growth of BC Place Stadium, Rogers Centre, Scotiabank Arena and BMO Field. Now he is looking to help take the Toronto Wolfpack to the next level.

The former Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment executive has been named chairman and interim chief executive officer of the transatlantic rugby-league team. He succeeds majority owner David Argyle, who gave up both jobs in early June after finding himself embroiled in a racism scandal.

The 65-year-old Hunter left MLSE in January after 22 years and started his own consulting practice. He sees the Wolfpack job as his new full-time endeavour.

"It's a great opportunity to bring some of that 22 years of experience to a reasonably new organization. Even with the success they've had to date," Hunter said in an interview. "I've been really, really pleasantly surprised at the sophistication of the business and look at it as a great opportunity to try and help that team grow to a new level."

He inherits a club that has enjoyed great success on the field.

"Needless to say we've got a great team ... the playoffs [are] ahead of us, potential promotion ahead of us," he said. "A great time to join."

The Wolfpack (23-1-0) have already clinched the second-tier Betfred Championship regular-season title and are currently riding a 18-game win streak.

With three games to go, they are preparing for the promotion playoffs.

Toronto, which failed to gain promotion to the Super League in 2018 at the last hurdle in a 4-2 loss to London Broncos, can reach the top tier with two playoff wins this season.

But the franchise faces challenges off the pitch.

Toronto recently announced it would not televise two of its remaining home games to save money. The Wolfpack had been paying for production costs to air its games on Sky Sports in Britain. Toronto distributed the broadcasts elsewhere, including Canada, where the matches were shown on Game TV and only by CBC.

The Wolfpack are facing a lawsuit filed in Alberta by iLink Media Group, which handled TV production in 2018. The company argues the rugby-league team "defaulted on payment for a significant portion of last year's season to the tune of just over $300,000."

Argyle has said he is confident the dispute can be resolved.

The franchise itself is unique. While based in Toronto, there are no North Americans on the current roster and the team and its coaches live in England. When the Wolfpack play home games at Lamport Stadium, the team stays in temporary accommodations here.

Hunter started his career at Ontario Place in 1982 before heading west first to help open BC Place Stadium in Vancouver and then joining the Expo '86 Vancouver World's Fair management team.

In 1987, he returned to Toronto to work on SkyDome (now Rogers Centre), first as vice-president of operations and fan services and was then president and CEO. A year later, he became executive vice-president and GM of the Air Canada Centre (now Scotiabank Area) and also oversaw Ricoh Coliseum and an extensive renovation of BMO Field.

In 2014, he became MLSE's chief project development officer.

Hunter, who has already attended Wolfpack games, says he hopes to "enhance the fan experience" at Lamport Stadium.

"With Bob's experience and reputation in the Toronto sports market, I am confident that he is the right person to help build and increase our organization's foothold in the Canadian sports landscape," Argyle said in a statement. "One of our goals is to improve and reshape our fans' experience at Lamport Stadium and there is no one better than Bob to help lead us in that direction."

Canada routs Australia in FIBA warm-up
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Pangos leads jelling squad with 18 points; teams will meet again to tip-off the World Cup tournament in China
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S2


PERTH, AUSTRALIA -- Canada never trailed and outscored Australia 23-13 in the final quarter for a 90-70 upset win over the home side in a FIBA World Cup warm-up basketball game Friday.

The Canadians (2-1 in exhibition play this summer) led 51-36 early in the third quarter, but Australia rallied to draw level before the visitors dominated the final period for an easy win. The teams meet again on Saturday night at the same stadium in Perth.

"When we can come out and play that aggressive and knock down shots like that, it's great against a tough team like Australia," said Canadian guard Kevin Pangos, who led the team with 18 points on 7-of-10 shooting.

"We've just to continue and keep growing as a team."

Australia plays Canada in its first game of the World Cup on Sept. 1 in China.

Canada goes into the World Cup without most of its NBA stars. The Miami Heat's Kelly Olynyk became the latest big-name player to pull out after sustaining a knee injury. He joined Andrew Wiggins, Jamal Murray, R.J. Barrett, Tristan Thompson, Dwight Powell, Shai Gilgeous-Alexander, Chris Boucher and Nickeil Alexander-Walker as other top Canadian NBA players to miss the World Cup.

Pangos, from Newmarket, Ont., added six assists and four steals for Canada. The team is being coached by Toronto Raptors coach Nick Nurse, who led the team to the NBA championship this season.

"Within our locker room, we're focused on who is here," Pangos said. "I think that's the most important thing. When you think about all the other stuff, that becomes unnecessary and a distraction. We're excited with the group we have. We're going to try to grow the best we can ... and try to peak at the worlds."

Andrew Nembhard of Aurora, Ont., and Kaza Kajami-Keane of Ajax, Ont., added 12 points apiece.

Nembhard, entering his second year at the University of Florida, added a team-high 10 rebounds and four assists.

"He gets places easy and I'm not quite sure how he does it," Nurse said of Nembhard. "I'm trying to figure it out. He's got this head fake, he's in, he's out, he's over, he's around, and all of a sudden he's into some clear space. He's got a funky game a little bit, for a 19-year-old kid, a pretty good game."

Sacramento Kings point guard Cory Joseph of Toronto was not in the lineup for Canada.

Patty Mills led Australia with 20 points.

Canada stays in Australia to face New Zealand in a pair of exhibition games on Aug. 20-21 before wrapping up its pretournament schedule against the United States on Aug. 26 Canada split a two-game exhibition series against Nigeria in Toronto and Winnipeg last week before heading overseas.

Associated Graphic

Andrew Nembhard dribbles past Nathan Sobey during an exhibition game precedeing the FIBA World Cup in Perth, Australia on Friday. Nembhard, a sophomore at the University of Florida, has 'a pretty good game' for a 19-year-old, coach Nick Nurse said.

TONY ASHBY/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

U.S. women's soccer team likely headed to trial as equal-pay talks break down
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Players looking forward to jury trial, representative says, as governing body accuses their counsel of aggressive approach
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By ANNE M. PETERSON
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B12


Players for the World Cup champion women's national team say mediation talks with the U.S. Soccer Federation in their dispute over equal pay are over.

Molly Levinson, who represents the players in matters concerning the dispute, said in a statement Wednesday that the players look forward to a jury trial.

"We entered this week's mediation with representatives of USSF full of hope," Levinson said.

"Today, we must conclude these meetings sorely disappointed in the federation's determination to perpetuate fundamentally discriminatory workplace conditions and behaviour."

U.S. Soccer said it had hoped to reach a resolution, but accused the counsel for the players of "an aggressive and ultimately unproductive approach."

"We value our players, and have continually shown that, by providing them with compensation and support that exceeds any other women's team in the world," the federation's statement said.

The players sued U.S. Soccer in March, charging institutionalized gender discrimination that includes inequitable compensation when compared with their counterparts on the men's national team. The federation countered that pay and benefits for members of the men's and women's teams, bargained by separate unions, can't be compared and said there was no basis for allegations of illegal conduct.

The two sides agreed to mediate the matter once the Women's World Cup in France was over. The United States beat the Netherlands to win the title last month, and afterward fans in the crowd chanted "Equal Pay!"

Federation president Carlos Cordeiro wrote U.S. Soccer members in late July claiming the women's team was paid more over all than the men's team between 2010 and 2018.

The letter stated that the federation paid out US$34.1-million in salary and game bonuses to the women between 2010 and 2018 as opposed to US$26.4-million paid to the men. The total did not include the value of benefits received only by the women, like health care, Cordeiro wrote.

The players have disputed the figures, claiming they are misleading.

"It is clear that USSF, including its board of directors and president Carlos Cordeiro, fully intend to continue to compensate women players less than men. They will not succeed," Levinson said Wednesday.

"We want all of our fans, sponsors, peers around the world, and women everywhere to know we are undaunted and will eagerly look forward to a jury trial."

U.S. Soccer in turn took a swipe at the Levinson.

"Despite inflammatory statements from their spokesperson, which are intended to paint our actions inaccurately and unfairly, we are undaunted in our efforts to continue discussions in good faith," the statement said.

Associated Graphic

The U.S. women's soccer team and U.S. Soccer agreed to mediate the matter of equal pay after the Women's World Cup in France. The team beat the Netherlands to win the title last month and fans in the crowd chanted 'Equal Pay!' afterward.

RICHARD HEATHCOTE/GETTY IMAGES

SHAPOVALOV TRIUMPHS OVER ROUGH FIRST SET TO BEAT SOUSA IN CINCINNATI
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B12


MASON, OHIO Canada's Denis Shapovalov roared back from a bad first set to post a 2-6, 6-3, 6-2 win over lucky loser Joao Sousa of Portugal in first-round action Tuesday at the Western & Southern Masters 1000 tennis tournament.

Shapovalov, from Richmond Hill, Ont., won on his first match point when his forehand was sent into the net by Sousa.

It was the second tournament in a row that Shapovalov, ranked 34th in the world, won his first match. He had five-match losing streak - part of a 2-9 run dating back to March - heading into last week's Rogers Cup men's tournament in Montreal. He beat Pierre-Hugues Herbert of France in the first round in Montreal to end his loss streak before falling to world No. 4 Dominic Thiem.

It looked as if Shapovalov's struggles might continue against world No. 43 Sousa, who beat the Canadian in the only other meeting between the players - a 6-4, 4-6, 6-4 win in Auckland, New Zealand, back in January.

Sousa broke Shapovalov in the match's first game and looked to be in complete control as he cruised to a 6-2 first-set win.

Shapovalov got back into the match with a confident second set. He won the first game with an ace, then broke Sousa to go up 2-0. He went up 3-0 after a nervy hold that went to deuce twice, and then held the rest of the way to even the match at one set apiece. He continued to apply pressure, breaking Sousa to open the third set. He broke Sousa again to go up 4-1, then won while serving for the match in the eighth game of the set.

Shapovalov hit 28 winners compared with seven for Sousa, who advanced into the main draw in Cincinnati after 10th seed Fabio Fognini of Italy withdrew.

Next up for Shapovalov is Frenchman Lucas Pouille, who advanced with a 6-3, 7-6 (6) win over American qualifier Denis Kudla. THE CANADIAN PRESS

Auger-Aliassime ousts Raonic as top Canadian men's player
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B12


Félix Auger-Aliassime is now the topranked Canadian in men's tennis after jumping into 19th spot in the latest ATP Tour rankings released Monday.

The 19-year-old from Montreal moved up two spots to become just the second Canadian to break into the top 20 since the ATP started publishing rankings in 1973.

Auger-Aliassime jumped past Milos Raonic of Thornhill, Ont., who moved down two spots to No. 22. Raonic, the only other Canadian to crack the top 20, has a career-high ranking of No. 3.

Denis Shapovalov of Richmond Hill, Ont., fell four spots to No. 38.

Auger-Aliassime's rise to the top of Canadian tennis comes despite the teenager putting up some mediocre results on grass and hardcourt.

He hasn't advanced beyond the third round of a tournament since reaching the semi-finals of a Wimbledon warm-up event in late June.

He was drummed out of the first round of the recent Masters event in Cincinnati after No. 58 Miomir Kecmanovic posted a convincing 6-3, 6-3 win.

He reached the third round of his hometown event the week before at the Rogers Cup, but was pushed to a third-set tiebreak by Vancouver's Vasek Pospisil - ranked No. 205 - then moved on to the third round when the ailing Raonic retired before the third set of their second-round match.

Auger-Aliassime was then beaten in three sets by No. 8 Karen Khachanov. However, with an injured Raonic unable to defend points and Shapovalov also struggling, Auger-Aliassime was able to take the mantle of top-ranked Canadian heading into the coming U.S. Open.

In women's rankings, Rogers Cup champion Bianca Andreescu of Mississauga fell one spot to 15th after sitting out the Cincinnati tournament.

Japan's Naomi Osaka, Ashleigh Barty of Australia, Karolina Pliskova of the Czech Republic, Romania's Simona Halep and Elina Svitolina of Ukraine round out the top five.

RAPTORS TO OPEN SEASON AGAINST WILLIAMSON AND THE PELICANS
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B12


TORONTO The Toronto Raptors will begin their 2019-20 season with a championship banner raising, and the festive atmosphere will continue with home games on Christmas Day and New Year's Eve.

The team announced its schedule for the coming NBA season on Monday, making official previously leaked highlights such as the Christmas game and the Dec. 11 return of former Raptor superstar Kawhi Leonard, now with the Los Angeles Clippers.00

Toronto will open its 25th campaign on Oct. 22 against the visiting New Orleans Pelicans, and the Raptors will celebrate their 2019 championship with a ring ceremony and banner raising before the game.

The matchup will feature the NBA regular-season debut of No. 1 draft pick Zion Williamson, who began his NCAA career in nearby Mississauga last year when his Duke Blue Devils faced the Ryerson Rams in an exhibition game.

And once again, Toronto's schedule has affected an A-list artist who had previously booked Scotiabank Arena. The Raptors home opener will push back a concert featuring rock superstar Elton John from Oct.

22 to Oct. 24. A June 14 appearance by television star Oprah Winfrey was scrapped during the NBA Finals.

The Raptors will play their first ever Christmas home game when they play host to the division-rival Boston Celtics at noon ET. Toronto's only other appearance in the NBA's prestigious Christmas lineup was against the New York Knicks at Madison Square Garden in 2001.

Prior to that game, the Raptors will play host to Leonard and the Clippers on Dec. 11. Leonard helped Toronto to its lone NBA title last season, winning Finals MVP honours in the process, before leaving for his hometown Clippers in free agency.

Toronto will play its first road game Oct. 25 at Boston.

The Raptors will have 13 back-toback games this season, one more than last year. Seven of those backto-backs will be entirely on the road.

U.S. duties, slower housing starts hit B.C. softwood shipments
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Value and volume of exports fall but analysts say Pattison's Canfor bid takes long-term view of industry's tough times
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By BRENT JANG
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


VANCOUVER -- The value of B.C. softwood shipments into the United States has plunged 25 per cent as American duties and lower-than-expected home construction south of the border reduce demand.

In the first half of this year, producers in British Columbia sent softwood worth $1.5-billion to the U.S., compared with $2billion in the same period last year, according to trade data compiled by the B.C. government.

The volume of lumber exports has also tumbled, with 6.9 million cubic metres of B.C. softwood sold into the U.S. in this year's first half, down 10 per cent from a year ago.

The slump in exports to Canada's largest trading partner underscores the tough times faced by B.C. lumber producers, including Canfor Corp. The company is the target of an unsolicited $981.7-million bid by Vancouver billionaire Jim Pattison to take it private.

The 90-year-old Mr. Pattison has a long history of investing for the long term and riding out the industry's downturns.

"Jim Pattison isn't just looking at 2019.

He's looking out to 2025, 2030 and 2050," RBC Dominion Securities Inc. analyst Paul Quinn said in an interview on Tuesday.

"He sees lot of value and knows what's going on. He's fully cognizant and believes that we'll be in better markets and the value of Canfor will be higher."

In the first half of this year, Vancouverbased Canfor paid $81.5-million in softwood duties imposed by the U.S. Department of Commerce. Those duties hurt the company in the first six months, when it lost $138.1-million, compared with a $282million profit in the same period in 2018.

Spring flooding in the U.S. South delayed residential construction and contributed to slower-than-forecast American housing starts. Industry analysts say U.S. duties on softwood from Canada are effectively incorporated into bills paid by American home builders, which in turn pass on the higher costs to consumers.

Analysts say that makes U.S. softwood more attractive to those builders, with American lumber producers gaining market share as a result of the Trump administration's ruling that Canadian softwood is being subsidized and dumped south of the border.

The combination of excess supplies and dampened demand has translated into lower prices for lumber products. The price for benchmark two-by-fours made from Western spruce, pine and fir averaged US$353 for 1,000 board feet in the first half of the year, down 36.5 per cent from US$556 in the same period last year, according to Random Lengths, a U.S.based company that monitors wood prices.

"It will not be until 2020 before a better supply/demand balance occurs to raise prices," Russ Taylor, managing director at wood research company Forest Economic Advisors Canada, said in an August report.

After slapping preliminary duties in April, 2017, the U.S. Commerce Department started in early 2018 to impose the highest final duties against three B.C.based producers: 23.56 per cent against West Fraser Timber Co. Ltd., 22.07 per cent on Tolko Industries Ltd. and 20.52 per cent on Canfor. Most other Canadian producers pay the weighted average of 20.23 per cent.

In the long-running Canada-U.S. softwood dispute, the U.S. Commerce Department says most provinces provide subsidies by charging unfairly low stumpage fees to Canadian producers, which pay for the right to chop down trees on Crown land. Under the American system, most producers pay for U.S. timber rights on private land.

Canada vehemently disagrees with the U.S. position of injury to American producers, and hopes the duties will be cancelled under the North American freetrade agreement's Chapter 19 dispute-resolution mechanism.

B.C. producers have been able to diversify by exporting softwood to China, but those shipments are down from record levels in 2013. In the first half of this year, B.C. saw $482.6-million worth of lumber shipped to China, up 6 per cent from the same period in 2018 but down 23 per cent compared with the first six months of 2013.

Canfor, Canada's second-largest lumber producer, is among the B.C. forestry companies keen to increase shipments to China. Others include West Fraser, Tolko, Interfor Corp. and Conifex Timber Inc.

West Fraser, Canada's largest lumber company, has the financial ability to mount a rival bid for Canfor, though analysts say that is unlikely.

Mr. Pattison, through Great West Capital Corp., owns 51 per cent of Canfor.

Great West has offered $16 a share in cash for the 49 per cent of Canfor shares that are widely held.

"Institutional ownership is quite widespread," CIBC World Markets Inc. analyst Hamir Patel said in a research note. "An organized effort demanding a higher bid may not emerge. With the offer not subject to financing or due diligence, we see little risk of the offer being withdrawn."

British Columbia is Canada's largest lumber exporter into the U.S., with a 48.3per-cent share of sales volume last year, followed by Quebec (19.2 per cent), Alberta (12.2 per cent), Ontario (9.3 per cent) and New Brunswick (7.4 per cent).

Associated Graphic

A worker moves lumber at the Partap Forest Products mill in Maple Ridge, B.C. Producers have diversified by exporting softwood to China, but those shipments are down from record levels in 2013.

DARRYL DYCK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Canada's second-largest lumber producer, Canfor, whose softwood is seen in transit in Alberta, is one of the B.C. forestry companies keen to increase shipments to China. Others include West Fraser, Tolko, Interfor and Conifex Timber.

BAYNE STANLEY/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Pattison bets on a lumber rebound with bid to take Canfor private
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By BRENT JANG
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


VANCOUVER -- B.C. billionaire Jim Pattison is betting on an upswing in the forestry sector as he offers $981.7-million to take full control of lumber company Canfor Corp., a bid that sparked a rally in beaten-down share prices of Canfor and other Canadian producers.

Mr.Pattison, through Great Pacific Capital Corp., owns 51 per cent of Vancouver-based Canfor.

Great Pacific announced late on Sunday that it is bidding $16 a share in cash for the 49 per cent of Canfor that it doesn't already own.

The unsolicited offer to take Canfor private sent ripples across the lumber industry on Monday as Canfor shares surged 73 per cent to $15.26 on the Toronto Stock Exchange.

Interfor Corp. saw its stock jump 7 per cent to $11.70; West Fraser Timber Co. Ltd. shares gained 4 per cent to $48.05; and Western Forest Products Inc. stock rose 4 per cent to $1.29.

"The bid shines a big light on Canadian lumber names, but how lasting that effect is will be interesting to see.

I think the share prices will stay up this week and then probably drift lower unless something positive happens to lumber prices," RBC Dominion Securities Inc. analyst Paul Quinn said in an interview.

Investors have taken notice because Mr. Pattison is "a long-term, strategic and very smart investor who sees value in this lumber space," he said.

While investors welcomed Mr. Pattison's bid, the Canadian lumber industry still faces uncertainty over exports to China and the pace of home building in the United States.

Russ Taylor, managing director at wood research firm Forest Economic Advisors Canada, doubts prices for spruce, lumber and fir (SPF) will stage a significant rally in the second half of 2019.

"SPF lumber prices continue to languish near or below cost. This has continued to cause ongoing Canadian mill curtailments and some closures, mainly in B.C.," Mr. Taylor said in an August report on wood markets.

But Mr. Pattison, who owns about 12 per cent of Vancouver-based West Fraser, has been a patient investor over the decades and says he stays calm during declines in commodity prices.

"You can control costs and production, but there's no sense in worrying about something you can't control," he said in an interview with The Globe and Mail in February, referring to the economic challenges faced by various industries.

"Things will be okay. I'm not predicting anything except that I'm optimistic."

He said it would be difficult to time when the lumber market might bottom.

"There are double bottoms," Mr. Pattison cautioned.

He added that consolidation isn't necessarily the solution when an industry such as forestry is ailing: "When times are difficult, you try to cut your costs. It depends how much synergy you can get out of consolidation. In some cases, you might only get savings from the switchboard operator. Other times, you may save hundreds of millions of dollars."

Mr. Pattison served on Canfor's board from 2003 until 2017, when he stepped down as a director. He sat at the back of the room at the annual meeting that he attended in 2017, listening to brief tributes to him, including one from Canfor's chief executive officer, Don Kayne.

RBC's Mr. Quinn is skeptical that a higher bid will emerge for Canfor. West Fraser has the financial clout to mount a rival offer, but Canada's Competition Bureau would likely intervene and B.C.'s NDP government would also frown on consolidation in a sector already reeling from mill closings across British Columbia, he said.

Last month, for example, Canfor announced the indefinite shutdown of its sawmill in Mackenzie, B.C.

In the second quarter, Canfor lost $48.6-million as low lumber prices and U.S. duties on softwood hurt the company, compared with a $169.8-million profit in the same period of 2018.

The company's share price is down sharply from its 52-week high of $32.32 in August, 2018.

Benchmark two-by-fours made from Western spruce, pine and fir sold recently for US$352 for 1,000 board feet, down 43 per cent compared with a record high of US$622 in June, 2018, industry newsletter Madison's Lumber Reporter said.

Mr. Pattison serves as chairman and chief executive officer of Jim Pattison Group. He started with one car dealership in 1961 and now oversees a worldwide privately held conglomerate, doing business in more than 90 countries, surpassing $10.6-billion in revenue last year.

Annual revenue is more than five times higher than two decades ago and the number of employees has exceeded 46,000 people, compared with 9,300 workers two decades ago.

Pattison Group's holdings are diverse, including: Guinness World Records; Ripley's Believe It or Not; Great Wolf Lodge; Sun-Rype fruit beverages; and the SaveOn-Foods supermarket chain and other grocery stores.

CANFOR (CFP) CLOSE: $15.26, UP $6.46

Associated Graphic

Canfor, whose sawmill in Houston, B.C., is seen above, has had its share price drop sharply from its 52-week high of $32.32 in August, 2018. The company lost $48.6-million in the second quarter owing to low lumber prices and U.S. duties on softwood.

HOME-BUILDING JOBS FALL IN ONTARIO
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As starts for low-rise houses decline, employment shrinks for workers who specialize in framing and bricklaying trades
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By JANET MCFARLAND
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Monday, August 5, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


A drop in the number of low-rise houses under construction in the Toronto region has led to job cuts for workers who specialize in homebuilding trades.

The number of detached and semidetached houses under construction in the Toronto region fell sharply this spring, forcing companies in the home-building sector to cut staffing levels, especially in trades such as framing and bricklaying that feel the earliest impact of a slowdown.

"We started seeing it a bit at the end of the year last year, but it certainly hit in the spring," said Richard Lyall, president of the Residential Construction Council of Ontario, which represents home construction companies.

"The winter was still relatively busy because there was still some finishing work and closings, but certainly in the spring, framing took a hit and bricklaying took a hit."

His organization's statistics show a 25-per-cent drop in low-rise residential construction jobs between February and May compared with the same period in 2018. Mr. Lyall said there was an increase in construction employment in the stronger high-rise condominium sector, however.

Ontario posted a decline in residential construction employment in each month between March and June compared with the same months last year, according to data compiled by Statistics Canada for The Globe and Mail.

The largest monthly employment decline came in June, when the total number of residential construction jobs fell by 23 per cent to 88,600 from 114,800 in June, 2018. The employment data are available only for Ontario as a whole and do not break down activity in the Toronto region. However, Statscan said 49 per cent of the province's residential construction workers live in the Toronto area.

Mr. Lyall said some workers have shifted to other construction sectors to find work, but for others, their skills are not easily transferable.

Trades involved in the early stages of building, such as concrete pouring and house framing, were first to see their business fall, he said, while interior "finishing" trades have seen the impact later.

"We went from a point where we had a serious shortage of bricklayers to where we didn't have a bricklaying problem at all, and where we had a surplus of framers," he said.

Statscan warned that residential construction employment was near its record high in June last year, so the steep decline may not signal a trend that will continue.

The low-rise construction slowdown came after new home sales fell sharply in 2017 and 2018.

Data from Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. showed the number of detached homes under construction in June in the Toronto region was 42 per cent below the level in June last year, while the number of semi-detached houses under construction fell 38 per cent and row houses dipped by 10 per cent.

Condo and rental apartment units under construction were up 12 per cent, however.

Developers typically put new projects up for sale long before breaking ground, and major preconstruction sales declines in 2017 and 2018 laid the groundwork for the construction slowdown this year.

Sales of preconstruction lowrise homes in the Greater Toronto Area dropped by 58 per cent in 2017 compared with 2016, then fell a further 50 per cent in 2018 over 2017, according to data prepared by Altus Group.

David Wilkes, chief executive of the Building Industry and Land Development Association, which represents developers, blames much of the sales slump on the mortgage stress test that took effect at the start of 2018, which reduced how much buyers could afford to pay.

Mr. Wilkes said some buyers could not qualify for any mortgage, while many others opted for cheaper homes such as condos or townhouses, rather than detached houses.

"We've seen that the mix is changing and people aren't buying their preferred house, but one that would allow them to meet the stress test," he said.

He said builders have been adjusting by lowering their pricing and by launching a greater number of townhouses to match the shift in market demand.

A slowdown in housing starts this year suggests the construction downturn may continue in coming months. Housing starts which reflect the launch date of construction - fell by 50 per cent for detached houses in the Toronto region in the first half of 2019 compared with 2018, CMHC reported.

However, Mr. Lyall says he believes construction employment is stabilizing.

Moreover, preconstruction sales have picked up in 2019 from their low base in 2018, which could spur more construction activity this fall or in 2020 as new projects launch. Single-family home sales rose 127 per cent in June, for example, although still remain 30 per cent below the 10year average, according to Altus data.

"Certainly if demand continues to move up, I expect the market will respond to that," Mr.

Wilkes said. "We are seeing projects being launched in the singlefamily and the mid-rise or middensity areas."

Associated Graphic

Statistics from the Residential Construction Council of Ontario show a 25-per-cent drop in low-rise residential construction jobs between February and May, compared with the same period in 2018.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mounting signs of global downturn spark market sell-off
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By DAVID BERMAN
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Heightened concerns about the global economy sent stocks skidding on Wednesday and pushed key government bond yields to new lows, after disappointing economic data from China and Germany signalled that a global downturn is brewing.

The S&P 500 fell 2.9 per cent. The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered its worst sell-off since October, 2018, tumbling 800.49 points or 3.1 per cent.

Canada's benchmark index, the S&P/TSX Composite, fell 1.9 per cent, also its biggest one-day decline since October and erasing $47-billion from the index's market capitalization, according to Bloomberg. But the bond market, which has been sending gloomy economic signals for much of this year, reflected some of the biggest concerns among many investors as the rush into safe holdings raised bond prices and lowered yields.

The yield on the Government of Canada 10-year bond fell to 1.14 per cent, a 31/2-year low and down from a yield of 2.6 per cent in October.

More ominously, the yield on the 30-year U.S.

Treasury bond sank to just 2.022 per cent, which is its lowest level in history. And the 10-year U.S. Treasury bond briefly yielded less than the two-year bond - an unusual flip known as an inverted yield curve that often portends an economic recession.

"There is no such thing as a sure thing. But this is as close to a sure thing as there is," David Rosenberg, chief economist and strategist at Gluskin Sheff + Associates, said in an interview.

Mr. Rosenberg added: "A recession isn't even close to being priced into the stock market right now."

The market volatility comes as the U.S. economy continues to look strong from some angles.

The U.S. Labour Department reported earlier this month that employers added 164,000 jobs in July while the unemployment rate held steady at a 50-year low.

Gross domestic product expanded by 2.1 per cent in the second quarter, at a seasonally adjusted annual rate.

As well, companies within the S&P 500 have reported a 2.8-percent gain in their year-over-year profits in the second quarter, according to I/B/E/S data from Refinitiv - and 73 per cent of companies have beaten analysts' expectations.

But cracks are starting to appear. The U.S. Federal Reserve cut its key interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point last month for the first time since 2008, amid weak inflation and a global economic slowdown that is being tied to a trade war between China and the United States.

Problems got even worse on Wednesday, after two of the world's foremost exporting dynamos, China and Germany, delivered more evidence that all is not well with their economies.

German GDP contracted by 0.1 per cent in the second quarter, reflecting uncertainty over trade and Brexit and suggesting that an outright recession is near. In China, employment and factory production numbers were disappointing.

German data "provides further evidence of the severity of the slowdown in Europe. A deteriorating global backdrop and gloomy business surveys for July suggest that the third quarter won't be much better," Melanie Debono and Gabriella Dickens at Capital Economics said in a note.

The pain in the stock market was severe and widespread.

The S&P 500 fell 85.72 points to 2840.60. All 11 sectors declined, as did 99 per cent of the stocks in the index. Economically sensitive sectors were hardest hit: Energy fell 4.1 per cent, financials fell 3.6 per cent and materials fell 3.3 per cent. All 30 stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell.

The TSX fell 304.90 points to 16,045.94, suggesting that Canada is fully exposed to global volatility.

"In reality, we are nothing more than a torque on global growth," Mr. Rosenberg said.

"When the OECD's leading indicator is down for 18 months in a row, when the U.S. economy is clearly cooling off, when the U.K.

and German economies are on the cusp of recession and China's numbers are slowing down, that is not good news for trade-oriented economies like Canada's."

The energy sector fell 3.1 per cent after the price of crude oil declined 3.3 per cent to US$55.23 a barrel. Financials, a sector that is dominated by the Big Six banks, fell 1.9 per cent. And among cannabis producers, Canopy Growth Corp. fell 5.8 per cent and Aurora Cannabis Inc.

fell 8.2 per cent.

But at least the rising price of gold, now at six-year highs, offered some relief: Eldorado Gold Corp. rose 6.4 per cent and Barrick Gold Corp. rose 1 per cent.

Associated Graphic

A robot installs a windscreen at the Daimler factory in Rastatt, Germany. The country's manufacturing data for July indicate that new export orders are declining at the fastest pace since the financial crisis.

KAI PFAFFENBACH/REUTERS

BMO chair stands by his role in effort to secure deal for SNC
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By JAMES BRADSHAW
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Bank of Montreal chairman Robert Prichard is defending his involvement in the political and legal fracas over SNC-Lavalin Group Inc., saying he informed the bank he was joining the team at a Bay Street law firm that was hired to give advice to the engineering company.

Canada's fourth-largest bank was drawn into the controversy over the Trudeau government's handling of the SNC file after the federal Ethics Commissioner released a report Wednesday that found the Prime Minister broke the rules in directing government officials to find a solution to SNC's legal troubles that would safeguard its interests.

The report revealed two senior BMO officials, Mr. Prichard and vice-chair Kevin Lynch, made multiple attempts to lobby cabinet minister Scott Brison to help SNC avoid a criminal prosecution.

The two men met with Mr. Brison, who was Treasury Board president at the time, in October and November. Mr. Brison, in turn, conveyed their legal arguments and concerns over SNC to then-attorney general Jody Wilson-Raybould, and to senior members of the Prime Minister's Office.

In January, Mr. Brison announced he was quitting politics, and in February he joined BMO's capital markets arm, BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc.

The web of influential officials at the heart of the SNC-Lavalin affair highlights the governance challenges confronting some of Canada's largest companies as they navigate the myriad responsibilities borne by directors who have roles at different companies.

In pushing SNC's case for a legal settlement of the charges it faces, Mr. Prichard and Mr. Lynch sought to meet their obligations to SNC-Lavalin, rather than to BMO - Mr. Prichard as chair of law firm Torys LLP, which represents SNC-Lavalin, and Mr.Lynch as chair of SNC's board.

Under BMO's conflict of interest policy and director independence standards, directors are required to declare outside activities and interests to the bank, and to recuse themselves from certain board discussions.

"Under these policies, I have always declared my outside activities to BMO (including my joining Torys legal team advising SNC in the fall of 2018) and recused myself as appropriate," Mr. Prichard said in an e-mail. "The other boards on which I serve, like all public company boards, have similar conflict of interest policies."

BMO's policies apply to directors "in their roles on the board and in their outside activities," a bank spokesperson said in an emailed statement. "BMO's Code of Conduct is the ethical foundation for everyone in the organization. The Code guides our decisions, actions and the way we work."

The bank also confirmed that Mr. Lynch, who is not on BMO's board, is required to get bank approval for outside activities in advance, including his work for SNC-Lavalin.

Mr. Prichard is an experienced corporate director who is used to wearing several hats at once. A former law professor, university president and newspaper executive, he has served on BMO's board since 2000. He is chair of Torys LLP, a director of private equity firm Onex Corp.

since 1994 and of retailer and food company George Weston Ltd. since 2000, in addition to doing board work for non-profits such as the Hospital for Sick Children. He was also a director of mining company Barrick Gold Corp. from 2015 until January, 2019, and chair of public transit agency Metrolinx until last July.

"For most people, that would be too much," said Richard Powers, a corporate governance expert at the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management.

But Mr. Prichard "has an amazing capacity for work" and "he's followed the rules," Mr.Powers said.

Mr. Prichard had perfect attendance at board and committee meetings for BMO, Onex, Weston and Barrick last year - a combined 77 meetings in 2018 - according to public filings. Last year, he earned $592,648 as BMO's chairman, in addition to a combined $718,500 for his director's roles at the other three companies.

Mr. Prichard intends to step down as BMO's chairman at the bank's next annual meeting, after 20 years on the board and at age 70 - both limits BMO set for directors who joined the bank before 2010. (Term limits have since been shortened to 15 years for directors who were first elected from 2010 onward.)

"I certainly can see people coming up with the perception of a conflict. But when you look past that, I would say that they [Mr. Prichard and Mr. Lynch] acted properly," Mr. Powers said.

BANK OF MONTREAL (BMO) CLOSE: $92.35, DOWN 35¢

HBC committee says Baker's take-private offer isn't rich enough
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By JEFFREY JONES
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


A contentious, $1-billion privatization offer for Hudson's Bay Co. from its executive chairman is too low, the special board committee examining the bid said on Friday in an unusual assessment weeks before its formal opinion on the proposal is due.

The five-director committee said it had engaged real estate appraisers and planning consultants to help evaluate the offer from executive chairman Richard Baker, whose group controls 57 per cent of HBC shares. The shareholder group announced the bid in early June.

"Based on initial analysis completed to date by its financial [adviser] and other factors, the special committee has communicated to the shareholder group that the price of $9.45 per common share offered in the shareholder group proposal is inadequate," the committee said in a statement on Friday.

The statement, which comes before it is due to issue its final fairness determination in September, backs up criticism by some of HBC's minority shareholders. They have complained the offer does not reflect the value of the chain's real estate holdings in Canada and the United States.

It could force New York-based Mr. Baker and his allies to rethink their plans for taking Canada's oldest corporation out of public markets - at least at the current bid price. If the board's special committee recommends that shareholders reject the offer, it would likely stymie the group, given the staunch opposition among the large minority holders.

For the bid to be successful, a majority of the shares not held by Mr. Baker's group must be voted in favour. His shareholder group said it had no immediate comment on the special committee's statement. Mr. Baker's partners are Rhone Capital LLC, office-sharing company WeWork Property Advisors, Hanover Investments (Luxembourg) SA and Abrams Capital Management LP.

The independent directors' statement adds a new wrinkle to an already acrimonious process.

Catalyst Capital Group Inc., Land & Buildings Investment Management LLC and Sandpiper Group are among dissidents calling the offer inadequate. Land & Buildings founder Jonathan Litt has called it "woefully" so.

Toronto-based Catalyst has launched a bid for about 8 per cent of HBC's outstanding shares in a move to control more of the minority shares in opposition to Mr. Baker's offer. It said it was encouraged by the committee's view of the Baker group's bid.

"This clear rejection by the special committee of the Baker group's undervalued offer represents a first, but important, step toward reinforcing the broader market's understanding of the value of HBC," it said in a statement.

Some minority shareholders have issued their own valuations putting the value of the real estate, much of it in prime urban locations, around $30 a share.

The company would be able to realize such value only by selling it.

There are also calls for the company to hold a formal auction.

Under Mr. Baker, HBC has generated healthy proceeds from asset sales, including its Lord & Taylor flagship building in Manhattan, N.Y., for $1.1-billion.

But the retail operations at its stores, including Hudson's Bay and Saks Fifth Avenue, have struggled against a backdrop of changing consumer behaviour and intense competition from online retailers such as Amazon and discount stores.

Meanwhile, the special committee said it was not in a position to issue a formal assessment of Catalyst's offer of $10.11 a share, but it noted that it does not provide the legal protections of a full-blown takeover bid.

Mr. Baker has called it "coercive," as it could deprive investors of the opportunity to cash out for the price he is offering if it dooms his bid.

However, Catalyst, led by financier Newton Glassman, argued it is giving all shareholders the opportunity to tender to its bid.

It said it supports the rights of minority holders and is well-suited to be a long-term holder of HBC shares.

The committee said it intends to meet with various shareholders next week.

HUDSON'S BAY (HBC) CLOSE: $9.80, UP 1¢

Associated Graphic

Hudson's Bay's retail operations have struggled amid changing consumer behaviour and intense competition.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Catalyst raises HBC stake to block privatization bid
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Purchase increases pressure on Richard Baker to boost $9.45-a-share offer
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By RACHELLE YOUNGLAI
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Catalyst Capital Group Inc. has acquired 10.05 per cent of Hudson's Bay Co., giving the investment firm more leverage to block a $1-billion privatization offer from the retailer's executive chairman, Richard Baker.

The Toronto-based firm said on Monday it has bought 18.5 million shares worth about $187-million through an offer it made last month to minority shareholders. The new shares add to Catalyst's existing position in HBC, the company said without disclosing its total holdings in the retailer.

Mr. Baker, who has called the Catalyst offer coercive, is leading a coalition of shareholders representing 57 per cent of HBC's stock in a bid to take the company private. For the privatization to succeed, securities rules require the approval of a majority of the minority shareholders.

The Catalyst stake increases the odds that Mr.Baker will have to change his offer of $9.45 a share to win the investment firm's support. Catalyst and some of the other minority investors say HBC is worth more than the privatization offer.

"What it means is that the privatization in its current form is less likely to happen," said Alex Arifuzzaman, founder of retail real estate adviser InterStratics Consultants Inc. "They will have to raise the price or work with [Catalyst] to sell some assets or do something."

HBC, which owns its eponymous department store chain across Canada, along with Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue in the United States, is trying to survive a changing retail environment. Department store chains like Sears Canada and brands like Target Canada have gone out of business as competition from e-commerce grows.

The Catalyst offer of $10.11 a share expired on Aug. 16. After the news that the investment firm had obtained the 10-percent stake, the price of HBC stock rose more than 7 per cent to $10.09, outperforming the Toronto stock index and suggesting investors believe a higher bid will materialize.

It is not clear whether Mr. Baker will change his offer. A spokeswoman for the Baker group declined to comment.

Catalyst, led by financier Newton Glassman, said it is committed to working with HBC directors to "seek out every alternative" to maximize value for all shareholders, whether through a sale process, dividend distributions of the cash to be realized from the sale of the company's key European assets or otherwise."

Catalyst has not disclosed what it believes HBC is worth. A spokesman for Catalyst declined to comment.

Some of the dissident shareholders have publicly said that HBC is worth more than $20 a share and want Mr. Baker to fully divest the company's European operations, as well as sell or redevelop properties such as its Saks Fifth Avenue building in Manhattan.

Under Mr. Baker's leadership, the company has taken steps to revitalize its HBC chain, shuttered underperforming Lord & Taylor stores, divested part of its European operations, and sold some of its top real estate properties in Canada and the United States.

But that has not boosted HBC stock back to its 2015 levels of nearly $29 apiece.

"HBC's retail real estate manoeuvres have failed to surface value or put a floor under its stock," said Kathleen Wong, a senior analyst with Veritas Investment Research Corp. who is recommending that HBC shareholders sell.

So far, dissident shareholders have received some support from a special committee of independent HBC directors evaluating Mr. Baker's proposal. The committee called the offer "inadequate" in its initial assessment.

The executive chairman's plan is only a proposal at this stage. The special committee has to issue its final recommendation and the proposed bid must be formalized before shareholders can vote on it.

HUDSON'S BAY (HBC) CLOSE: $10.09, UP 71¢

Associated Graphic

Under executive chairman Richard Baker's leadership, the company has taken steps to revitalize its HBC chain.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Trade tensions, economic woes cast cloud over bank outlooks
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Analysts predict steady third-quarter profit for the Big Six, but investors will be looking for signs of weakness in two key measures that could be hampered by global trends
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By JAMES BRADSHAW
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Rising trade tensions and weakening growth in major economies loom large as Canadian banks prepare to report earnings for the fiscal third quarter.

Several analysts are predicting that earnings for each share among Canada's six largest banks will increase by 6 to 7 per cent year over year - a steady but unspectacular rate - for the three months that ended July 31.

But investors will be watching for signs of weakness in two key measures of the banks' resilience in quarters to come: Provisions for credit losses, or the money banks set aside to cover bad loans, and net interest margin, which measures the spread between what banks pay on deposits and earn from loans. Both could be hampered by global trends such as tariffs and trade wars, U.S. interest-rate cuts and the inverted yield curve.

"We do not expect [third-quarter] results to resolve the conflict between the pessimism and optimism surrounding the macroeconomic environment," said Robert Sedran, an analyst at CIBC World Markets Inc. "If anything, we expect this conflict to be on full display as we see growth that is neither as strong nor as easily achieved as that of the last couple of years."

Royal Bank of Canada's results could be a bellwether, as Canada's largest bank by assets reports first on Aug. 21., Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce follows on Aug. 22, and the remaining four major lenders - Bank of Nova Scotia, Bank of Montreal, National Bank of Canada and Toronto-Dominion Bank - will release their results from Aug. 27 to 29.

Analysts expect as many as three of the Big Six banks to raise their quarterly dividends: RBC, Scotiabank and CIBC.

Here are two themes to watch:

EXPECTED LOAN LOSSES Analysts are predicting a gradual uptick in provisions for credit losses in the third quarter.

If they are correct, it will be a function of anticipated losses reverting to something near their historical average, after a prolonged period of unusually low losses. The core consumer loan books that encompass debt from residential mortgages and credit cards still look healthy.

Propped up by strong employment rates, delinquencies on personal loans "remain well below their historical averages," said Rob Colangelo, a senior vicepresident at ratings agency DBRS Ltd., in a research note.

But many analysts will be watching to see how much each bank sets aside to begin building reserves against the possibility that performing loans might soon turn sour. Predictions of expected losses are required under fairly new accounting rules known as IFRS 9, and heavily influenced by changing economic forecasts.

"We believe many investors would prefer to see banks slowly build [anticipated credit losses] for conservatism so late in the economic cycle," said Darko Mihelic, an analyst at RBC Dominion Securities Inc. "We believe the action [or inaction] of many banks in [the third quarter] will be watched carefully by investors."

NET INTEREST MARGINS Banks got some reprieve last year from an extended period of rockbottom interest rates that squeezed profit margins coming out of the global financial crisis, as central banks in the United States and Canada began gradually raising rates. Now, the Bank of Canada appears to have put rate increases on hold, and the Federal Reserve has cut rates to try and nip signs of a slowing economy in the bud. Meanwhile, bond yields are falling as investors seek safe haven amid trade disputes, putting pressure on banks' lending margins - particularly for RBC, TD, BMO and CIBC, which all have substantial U.S. operations.

That, in turn, will make banks' constant efforts to cut costs and become more efficient even more important to their overall profitability. "We have flattened our net interest margin assumptions [and some pressure in the U.S. seems likely]," Mr. Sedran said, although that's "hardly catastrophic."

Associated Graphic

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Encana challenges pipeline fee tied to U.S. steel tariffs
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By MEGAN DEVLIN
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Canadian oil and gas producer Encana Corp. is asking a U.S. energy regulator to throw out a proposed surcharge on a new Texas pipeline meant to recoup increased construction costs the pipe's owner says have ballooned because of U.S.

steel tariffs.

Encana along with ConocoPhillips Co., companies that both harvest shale oil from the Permian Basin that stretches across western Texas and southeastern New Mexico, filed a challenge Monday about the proposed 5-US-cent-a-barrel fee on the Cactus II pipeline.

They argue the pipeline that transports 670,000 barrels a day of crude oil to refineries on the Texas Gulf Coast failed to demonstrate the fee is "just and reasonable."

That's because Plains All American, the pipeline's owner, has applied to the U.S. Department of Commerce for the third time to waive the 25-per-cent tariffs it paid on imported steel from Greece. The oil producers believe Plains should wait to see if it's exempt from the tariffs before getting a surcharge approved.

Plains estimates the steel and aluminum tariffs brought in last year by U.S. President Donald Trump's administration added US$40-million in construction costs to the US$1.1-billion pipeline. Plains commissioned the steel from Greece months before Mr. Trump implemented the tariffs, but didn't receive its first shipment until last summer - after the tariffs came into effect.

Plains chief executive officer and director Willie Chiang has argued the tariffs are unfair because the company couldn't find a domestic steel producer able to manufacture pipe to the specifications it needed.

Its first two waiver requests were denied, but if Plains wins an exemption on its third request, the company would "stop the surcharge and rebate it as appropriate," Mr. Chiang told investors on an Aug. 6 earnings call.

But Encana and ConocoPhillips are concerned that won't happen because Cactus II didn't put Mr. Chiang's promise in writing in its application for the surcharge to the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).

The fee could bring in US$33,500 a day for Plains if Cactus II ships at capacity. At that rate, Plains would make back the additional construction costs in a little more than three years.

The steel and aluminum tariffs were meant to protect U.S.based producers, but this case suggests the tariffs could also be affecting domestic energy producers and transporters.

It's a clash of the Trump administration's goals of energy dominance and free trade, according to James Coleman, an energy law professor at the Southern Methodist University of Texas.

While a 5-US-cent-a-barrel surcharge doesn't seem like much, especially in a market where the price of a barrel of oil can swing by more than that in a day, it's an added fee producers will want to keep out, Mr. Coleman said.

"Transport costs really are the whole game, increasingly, in energy because cost of producing has fallen so far."

If FERC approves the Cactus II surcharge, it could set a precedent that would allow two other pipelines constructed after the new steel tariffs were implemented to add their own fees to recoup costs. FERC is expected to make a decision by the end of the month.

Kinder Morgan Inc.'s Gulf Coast Express natural gas pipeline and Epic Midstream crude oil pipeline could also pass tariff costs on to shippers.

Neither Encana nor ConocoPhillips responded to a request for comment.

ENCANA (ECA) CLOSE: $5.85, DOWN 5¢ CONOCOPHILLIPS (COP) CLOSE: US$52.71, DOWN US$1.22

A tour to promote Japanese art
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The donor Tony Girardin
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By PAUL WALDIE
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B2


The gift: Founding the Go-Somewhere! Japanese Art Tour The reason: To promote Japanese art in Canada A few years ago, Tony Girardin was on a world tour proA moting his documentary about a Montreal bicycle maker, Marinoni: The Fire in the Frame, when he made a stop at a film festival in Tokyo.

Mr. Girardin, who was born and raised in Montreal, had never been to Japan and was mesmerized. "I've never lived such a special experience in my life," he recalled from his home in Montreal.

"It was just beyond words." The film festival was held in association with a local art gallery, and Mr. Girardin got to know some of the artists.

Over time, the connections strengthened and, after a couple more trips to Japan, he invited five artists to visit Canada to show their work.

The event, the Go-Somewhere! Japanese Art Tour, has been under way for most of the summer, with stops in Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Tadoussac, Que., Wakefield, Que., and Almonte, Ont. The artists are painters Tomoko Aso and Akiko Takeuchi, along with print maker Kurumi Wakaki, folk artist Mami Yonekura and silversmith Tsubomi Yonekura. None of them had been to Canada before or shown their work outside Asia.

Mr. Girardin received some financial support from the Japanese embassy, but he has covered most of the expenses. "It's been a good year for me and I'm footing the bill," he said, adding that the artists have been working in a Montreal studio between exhibits.

He said the tour is winding down this week and has been a big success. "When you are told that these people are happier than they have ever been in their lives, it's totally worth it," he said.

pwaldie@globeandmail.com

Brees isn't sweating the numbers
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Record-setting Saints QB may be getting on in years, but says efficiency will lead to longevity
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By BRETT MARTEL
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


NEW ORLEANS -- Drew Brees sees discussions about his arm strength and recently declining passing yardage as moot points.

Efficiency is what wins, the 40year-old, record-setting Saints quarterback says - and that will be a driving factor in determining his longevity.

"I can't throw the ball 70 yards like some guys can. But last time I checked, I don't really need to throw 70 yards in order to be effective and win games. So I'm not worried about it," Brees said in a telephone interview on Tuesday.

Brees said being able to throw as deep as any NFL QB "would be a nice luxury, but I don't need to."

While Brees is in the final season of his contract - and said he has no plans to discuss a possible extension until after this season - he is less than a year removed from capping off possibly the most efficient campaign of his previous 18 NFL seasons.

He broke his own completion percentage rate for a single season in 2018, connecting on 74.4 per cent of his passes. He also passed for 32 touchdowns while throwing just five interceptions, the second-best such ratio in the league.

Meanwhile, the Saints nearly went to last season's Super Bowl - and very well might have if not for league-acknowledged officiating mistakes near the end of regulation in the NFC title game. (Missed pass interference and helmet-tohelmet contact penalties committed by a Los Angeles Rams defender were seen as egregious enough to spark a rule change making such plays subject to video review.)

At the same time, Brees's 3,992 yards passing, which ranked 13th in the NFL, represented his lowest single-season passing total since he joined the Saints in 2006. Brees points out that he sat out the final game of last season, with New Orleans having already clinched the NFC's No. 1 playoff seed - meaning he likely would have wound up with more than 4,200 yards, based on his per-game average of 266 yards passing.

"That's still probably low, according to our standard," Brees conceded, but added, "To me, the yardage is kind of inconsequential. It's all about the efficiency of the passing game and running game and how they complement each other."

In addition to playing football, Brees is a father of four who gets involved in his children's activities and also has ever-growing business interests.

He owns nine Jimmy Johns sandwich shops in the New Orleans area, and spoke to The Associated Press while promoting a nationwide "Home in the Zone" contest that will provide money to help the winner acquire a home in one of the restaurant chain's delivery zones.

Brees, the all-time NFL leader in completions (6,586) and yards passing (74,437) , doesn't specify how much longer he intends to keep playing, but there is an active precedent. New England Patriots QB Tom Brady is still playing at 42 and was 41 when he won last season's Super Bowl.

Brees's 520 TD passes puts him one ahead of Brady and leaves him 19 short of Peyton Manning's record of 539 - a mark Brees should break this season if he plays anywhere nearly as well as a year ago.

"I feel like I've got the right people in my corner ... so I feel like I'm getting the best information when it comes to how to prolong my career as long as possible," Brees said. "Most retired players that you talk to, especially quarterbacks, I think the consensus is: Play as long as you can, enjoy it as long as you can. It's nothing earthshattering."

Entering this season, the departure of running back Mark Ingram during free agency and the arrival of veteran receiving tight end Jared Cook begs the question of whether there might be an uptick in passing.

Since joining the Saints, Brees has averaged nearly 303 yards passing a game and has passed for at least 5,000 yards in a season five times.

Yet three times, the Saints have missed the playoffs when Brees passed for 5,000-plus yards in a season; he had to throw more in those years (2008, '12 and '16) because the Saints were often behind. So while Brees still sees potential for big games through the air, he doesn't concern himself with whether that might happen.

"From week to week, it might be a little bit higher or lower, depending on what's needed," Brees said. "Whether that's a lot of running, a lot of passing, a combination of both - I think at the end of the day, you want to be balanced.

That's when you're most effective because it keeps defences off balance, spreads the wealth, gives them a lot to worry about, gives you a lot of ways to win from week to week."

Associated Graphic

Saints QB Drew Brees, warming up for a preseason game against the Chargers in Carson, Calif., on Sunday, says most retired players advise him to play as long as he can and enjoy it.

KEVORK DJANSEZIAN/GETTY IMAGES

Williams looks to build on her legacy at the Rogers Cup
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By RACHEL BRADY
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Monday, August 5, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B9


TORONTO -- The world's most famous female tennis star is competing in the Rogers Cup for the first time in four years. She's back in a city she adores, with a chance to do something special.

The 37-year-old superstar, Serena Williams, is looking for her first title since the 2017 Australian Open. If she emerges as champion in Toronto this week, she would join Chris Evert and Monica Seles as the only women since 1978 to win four Rogers Cup women's singles titles.

A lot has changed for Williams since she last played in Canada in 2015, losing in the final that year to Belinda Bencic.

Since then, she gave birth to daughter Olympia in 2017 and married internet entrepreneur Alexis Ohanian.

"As a professional tennis player, I have different priorities now. I schedule my life around my daughter," Williams said as she met with the media on Sunday. "It's cool because I always have something really spectacular to look forward to whether I'm winning or losing a match. It's a whole different part of my life now."

The global superstar arrived at her news conference wearing an outfit that combined French couture with a nod to women's soccer. Her ensemble was part of a Women's World Cup-inspired collaboration between Nike and French designer Marine Serre - a lime-green soccer jersey over a white-and-black patterned bodysuit.

She has heralded the U.S. women's soccer team recently on Twitter, congratulating them for their fourth World Cup win, and reiterated Billie Jean King's support of their pleas for equal pay.

Williams trumpeted Wheaties for putting the champs on its cereal box.

Williams recently became the first athlete named to Forbe's list of the richest self-made women in the United States, estimating her fortune to be worth US$225million. She's been dropping money into startups. But she's very much still playing tennis, too.

"I love my job, I love what I do," Williams said. "It's fun to be a part of a group of people who go out and play, just two people in front of an amazing crowd. It's not much incredibly longer that I'm going to be able to do that.

There aren't many people who can do it, so I'm just really proud to be a part of that."

The 37-year-old 23-time Grand Slam champ has an impressive history at Rogers Cup. In her eight career appearances in Canada, Williams has made the semi-finals seven times - the outlier being 2005 when she withdrew in the third round because of a knee injury.

Williams has a 30-4 match record at the Canadian Open, and has hoisted the trophy three times - all of those in years when the WTA event was in Toronto.

"Whenever I come here I have so much fun; I know it really well," Williams said. "I'm here a lot, even without the tournament. I love being here. After so many years, I have so many different friends here."

Williams's history at the Rogers Cup underlines the longevity and adversity she's experienced in the sport.

She won her first Rogers Cup as a 19-year-old in 2001, overcoming top-seeded Jennifer Capriati in a three-set final. A decade later, she beat Sam Stosur to win the 2011 Rogers Cup - part of a remarkable comeback after missing 49 weeks with a foot injury and then blood clots in her lungs. In 2013 she breezed to a dominant win over Sorana Cirstea to grab her eighth title of the season after not dropping a set all week.

This time, Williams is fresh off the Wimbledon final, where a near-perfect Simona Halep dusted her in under an hour - 6-2, 6-2 - denying the American the 24th career Grand Slam singles title she needed to tie Margaret Court.

Williams is a No. 8 seed in Toronto this week in an event that will also help her to tune up for the U.S. Open. The world's No.

9-ranked player gained a bye into the second round when Petra Kvitova dropped out Friday with an arm injury. She opens play Wednesday against the winner of a first-round clash between Elise Mertens and Aliaksandra Sasnovich.

The draw holds a potential quarter-final matchup for Williams against world No. 2 Naomi Osaka and maybe even a rematch in the semis with the No.

4-seeded Halep.

Associated Graphic

Serena Williams, playing here at Wimbledon in July, is seeking to win her fourth Rogers Cup trophy in Toronto this week.

BEN CURTIS/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Alibaba co-founder Tsai takes full ownership of Nets
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By BRIAN MAHONEY
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S2


NEW YORK -- In a record sale for a U.S. sports franchise, the co-founder of Alibaba agreed to buy the remaining 51 per cent of the Brooklyn Nets and Barclays Center for about US$3.4-billion, two people with knowledge of the details said Friday.

Joe Tsai already had purchased 49 per cent of the team from Russian billionaire Mikhail Prokhorov in 2018, with the option to become controlling owner in 2021.

Instead, he pushed up that timeline for full ownership of a team on the rise after signing superstars Kevin Durant and Kyrie Irving in July. Terms were not disclosed, but those familiar with the matter told The Associated Press that Tsai is paying about US$2.35billion for the Nets and nearly US$1-billion in a separate transaction for the arena. They spoke on condition of anonymity because the agreements are not complete.

The deal is expected to be completed by the end of September and is subject to approval by the NBA's Board of Governors. It will surpass the US$2.2-billion that Tilman Fertitta paid for the NBA's Houston Rockets and that David Tepper spent for the NFL's Carolina Panthers. Tsai is the executive vice-chairman of the Alibaba Group, the Chinese e-commerce giant. He already had purchased the WNBA's New York Liberty.

Prokhorov became the NBA's first non-North American owner in 2010 and oversaw the Nets' move from New Jersey to Brooklyn, N.Y., two years later. He spent big in the first couple years after the move in a quest to chase a championship, but the team soon became one of the worst in the NBA before rallying to return to the playoffs this past season.

He boasted of trying to win a championship within five years of his ownership, rapidly going through players and coaches in the first few years in Brooklyn. But he spent less time around the team in recent years while focusing on his interests in Russia - which at one point included a campaign for president of the Russian Federation - and remained in the background after hiring Sean Marks as the team's general manager in 2016.

"It has been an honour and a joy to open Barclays Center, bring the Nets to Brooklyn and watch them grow strong roots in the community while cultivating global appeal," Prokhorov said in a statement. "The team is in a better place today than ever before, and I know that Joe will build on that success, while continuing to deliver the guest experience at Barclays Center that our fans, employees and colleagues in the industry enjoy."

Prokhorov had invested US$200-million and made funding commitments to acquire 80 per cent of the team and 45 per cent of the arena project, after the team's planned move across the Hudson River had repeatedly stalled. He later bought the remainder of the arena, which quickly became a popular attraction for concerts, boxing and college basketball, as well as the home of the New York Islanders.

Tsai, a native of Taiwan, is positioned to take full control of the team by the time the Nets head to China to play two exhibition games against the Los Angeles Lakers in October. That comes at the start of a season of renewed excitement for the Nets, who just three seasons ago won an NBAworst 20 games but are set to make a big move up the standings after landing two of the best players on the market when free agency opened.

"I've had the opportunity to witness up close the Brooklyn Nets rebuild that Mikhail started a few years ago," Tsai said. "He hired a front office and coaching staff focused on player development, he supported the organization with all his resources and he refused to tank. I will be the beneficiary of Mikhail's vision, which put the Nets in a great position to compete and for which I am incredibly grateful."

Tsai, 55, graduated from Yale University and its law school. He figures to help the NBA extend its growth in Asia, where the Basketball World Cup will be held in China this year before the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo. The league is staging preseason games in both countries along with India, the home country of Sacramento Kings owner Vivek Ranadive, whose teams will play in them.

Brett Yormark, the CEO of BSE Global, which manages the Nets and its arena, will oversee the transition before leaving for a new role.

Jays swing hot bats in rout of Rangers
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By JOHN CHIDLEY-HILL
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B13


TORONTO -- Brandon Drury hit a grand slam as part of an eight-run fourth inning as the Toronto Blue Jays cruised past the visiting Texas Rangers 19-4 on Monday night.

Justin Smoak, Randal Grichuk and Danny Jansen also hit home runs as Toronto's (50-72) offence churned out 21 hits.

Blue Jays rookie sensation Bo Bichette stayed hot, improving his batting average to .400 with four hits, three runs and a stolen base.

Neil Ramirez threw seven strikes as the one-inning starter for Toronto. He gave way to Brock Stewart, who earned his second win of the season after pitching 5 1/3 innings, giving up three runs on five hits. Buddy Boshers and Justin Shafer each pitched an inning and a third, with Shafer allowing a run in the ninth inning.

Nomar Mazara, Willie Calhoun and Rougned Odor each had a solo homer for the Rangers (59-59).

Ariel Jurado (6-8) allowed eight runs on 11 hits and a walk over 3 2/3 innings. Adrian Sampson, Brett Martin, Jesse Chavez, Rafael Montero, and catcher Jeff Mathis came out of the bullpen for Texas.

Mazara opened the scoring in the second inning, taking a 1-0 pitch from Stewart over the centre-field wall for his 16th home run of the season.

Drury replied for the Blue Jays in the bottom of the inning, stroking a single to shallow centre field, driving home Grichuk from second base.

Bichette added to that two batters later, cashing in Derek Fisher from third base with a single to right field. Bichette was thrown out at second on the play as he tried to stretch his hit to a double, ending the inning but giving Toronto a 2-1 lead.

Smoak piled on in the third inning, crushing the first pitch he saw from Jurado into the rightfield stands for a two-run homer.

He also scored Vladimir Guerrero Jr., who had singled in the previous at bat.

Four pitches later Grichuk took Jurado to left field for a 5-1 lead, for Toronto's 10th pair of back-toback home runs this season.

In the next at bat Teoscar Hernandez hit a double to deep right-centre field, bringing the Rogers Centre crowd of 16,492 to their feet, expecting a third consecutive home run.

Those cheers turned to boos when a video review upheld an out call by umpire Adrian Johnson after Hernandez stole third base.

Guerrero tacked on another run in the fourth, hitting an RBI single to centre field to plate Jansen. That chased Jurado from the mound.

Smoak's bat continued to hurt the Rangers as his double advanced Guerrero to third and scored Bichette for a 7-1 lead.

In the next at bat, Grichuk's double over Calhoun's head in left field cleared the bases, bringing home Smoak and Guerrero to extend Toronto's lead to eight runs.

A pair of walks by Hernandez and Fisher loaded the bases and brought Drury to the plate for the second time in the inning. His high, arching moon shot almost made the second deck for the first grand slam of his career.

Smoak earned his fourth RBI of the game in the next inning, doubling to left field to score Bichette and give the Blue Jays a 14-1 lead. Grichuk added another run with a groundout to short giving Guerrero ample time to run home.

Toronto's offence kept rolling in the sixth inning, with Cavan Biggio's double to right field pushing Jansen and Bichette across the plate for a 17-1 advantage.

The Rangers struck back in the seventh inning, with Calhoun and Odor hitting solo home runs to make it 17-3. Odor was booed during each one of his at bats with Blue Jays fans not forgiving his role in a benches-clearing brawl in 2016 that began when he punched former Toronto slugger Jose Bautista in the jaw.

Jansen hit his 11th home run of the season in the eighth inning, bringing home Fisher and extending Toronto's lead to 16 runs.

A two-out single by Jose Trevino plated Mazara for the game's final score.

Associated Graphic

Toronto Blue Jay Teoscar Hernandez is tagged out stealing third by Isiah Kiner-Falefa of the Texas Rangers during the third inning at Rogers Centre on Monday.

FRED THORNHILL/THE CANADIAN PRESS

First woman to referee Super Cup ready for historic moment in spotlight
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By ECE TOKSABAY
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REUTERS
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


ISTANBUL -- Liverpool manager Juergen Klopp has hailed the appointment of France's Stéphanie Frappart as the first woman to referee a major UEFA competition final as a "historic moment."

Frappart will take charge of the Super Cup between Liverpool and Chelsea on Wednesday, and she vowed to prove female officials are just as effective as their male counterparts.

Asked for his verdict on the decision, Klopp gave it a resounding thumbs-up.

"Finally - it's time. I'm happy to be a part of this historic moment. It's a smart decision to have women referee a very, very important game. It's the first time, but I hope it's not the last," said the German, who guided Liverpool to its sixth European Cup title last season.

"Obviously, we're not smart enough to make all the smart decisions, but this is a smart decision. I'm really sure we will try to not make the game any more difficult than it will be [for officials]. I will show my best face if possible, otherwise my mum would be angry," he joked.

Frappart, 35, will be assisted by her French compatriot Manuela Nicolosi and Ireland's Michelle O'Neill.

The trio have worked together at bigger matches - they were in charge of this year's Women's World Cup final in France - but there is no doubt they will be in focus at Istanbul's Vodafone Park.

Asked if she was afraid of being "double criticized" for any mistakes made, Frappart said it was time for female referees to show they are as good as the men.

"We have to prove ourselves technically and physically that we are the same as the men. We are not afraid about [wrong decisions]. We are ready," she told a news conference.

Frappart, who in April became the first female referee in France's Ligue 1, also dismissed the idea that it was more difficult to officiate a men's game.

"I think there is not a lot of difference because football is the same. It's the same rules, so I will do the same as the women's game," she added.

Chelsea manager Frank Lampard said he was pleased to be part of a moment in history.

"I think the game has come on a long way in many ways, in terms of the women's World Cup, which we all watched this summer, in terms of how much respect the game's getting, how many people are watching it and the interest in the game," he said.

"I think we were very slow everywhere on this and now we are trying to make strides, and there's still a long way to go but in terms of tomorrow, I think it's a huge moment.

"Its a historical moment that is one more step in the right direction."

The Super Cup is an annual match played between the winners of the Champions League and the Europa League. Liverpool beat Tottenham Hotspur in the Champions League final last season while Chelsea defeated Arsenal in the Europa League final.

Fourth official and Turkish referee Cuneyt Cakir supported the trio, saying: "They are brave, they have courage, they don't hesitate to give unpopular decisions - you will see tomorrow."

UEFA said separately that it had also invited to the game two Italian female referees, Annalisa Moccia and Giulia Nicastro, who had experienced sexist behaviour at recent domestic matches.

"We strongly condemn any form of sexist, discriminatory, derogatory or abusive conduct towards female referees," UEFA President Aleksander Ceferin said in a statement.

Associated Graphic

'We have to prove ourselves technically and physically that we are the same as the men. ... We are ready,' referee Stéphanie Frappart said at a news conference in Istanbul on Tuesday.

UEFA/POOL VIA REUTERS

Swedish female hockey pros boycott tournament over pay
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B12


STOCKHOLM -- The top female hockey players in Sweden refused to attend training camp Thursday or play in an coming international tournament in Finland, the latest such move by a women's national team to get better compensation.

The Swedish Ice Hockey Federation said it had been informed of the looming boycott and was "surprised" at the decision.

A total of 43 national team players are involved in the boycott, which is seemingly about the lack of compensation they receive while on duty with the national team. The players were scheduled to attend a five-day camp starting Thursday outside Stockholm, ahead of the Five Nations Tournament - also involving Russia, Japan, Czech Republic and host Finland - beginning Tuesday.

A statement was posted on social media by Sweden player Erika Grahm, saying the action is being taken to "develop and create better conditions" in the national team to show "encouragement and respect" for current and future generations. It said the players' demands are not "unreasonable," but didn't disclose the specific issues.

The move is similar to what happened two years ago in North America, where the U.S. women's national team threatened to boycott the 2017 world championships on home ice, demanding more pay and treatment similar to what the men's team receives.

They reached a four-year agreement with USA Hockey that increased pay up to US$4,000 a month with the ability to make around US$71,000 annually and up to US$129,000 in Olympic years.

The World Cup champion U.S.

women's soccer team is also in a fight for more compensation, with that dispute likely headed to court.

Many of Sweden's players have full-time jobs away from the rink, so must fit games around work schedules and family needs.

Travel schedules for national team games can be tight, affecting preparation.

"Many of us have borne the frustration that led to today's decision for several years," the statement read. "Now it's all about the younger generation not having to do it."

The Swedish federation said it gives no compensation to players on the women's or men's national teams, and that it instead comes through a financial agreement between the leagues and the top clubs.

This agreement, the federation added, was renewed for the 2019-20 season and uses the "same model that applied to men's hockey for many years."

Calls to board members of the federation went unanswered Thursday.

Among those coming out in support of the Swedish players were U.S. Olympic champions Jocelyne and Monique Lamoureux, who tweeted: "Proud of Team Sweden and what this will mean for their program and the next generation of young girls in Europe!"

U.S. teammate Meghan Duggan added: "Sending strength to the Swedish National Team in their quest for more support and resources for their program."

The Professional Women's Hockey Players' Association said it stood with Sweden's players "in your fight for equality and respect your commitment to creating a sustainable future for yourselves and the next generation!"

In May, the National Women's Hockey League reached an agreement with the union to increase salaries, offer a 50-50 split of sponsor-related revenues and improve benefits. That move came after more than 200 of the world's top female players pledged not to play professionally in North America.

"Us players are prepared to take responsibility and do everything possible to take us back to where we belong," the players' statement read. "But only with the conditions, encouragement and respect that requires an attitude toward us as elite athletes.

"Until the governors in the ice hockey federation show that, the Damkronorna have an empty squad."

Mariners blank Blue Jays in rout
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Pitcher Yusei Kikuchi throws just 96 pitches, strikes out eight in a complete-game shutout
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By TIM WHARNSBY
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B10


TORONTO -- Even if Vladimir Guerrero Jr. and Lourdes Gurriel Jr. had been in Toronto's lineup, the Blue Jays likely would not have beaten Seattle Mariners starter Yusei Kikuchi on Sunday.

The Japanese left-handed pitcher threw a complete-game shutout, struck out eight and retired his final 17 batters in a row in a 7-0 win against the Blue Jays.

Before Toronto's (52-75) third loss in four games, however, they received good news when Guerrero's MRI exam showed no serious damage after he left Saturday's game with left-knee pain. Blue Jays manager Charlie Montoyo said Guerrero is a possibility for the opener of Toronto's threegame series in Los Angeles against the Dodgers on Tuesday.

"The MRI showed some inflammation, but he's not bad," said Montoyo, who has also been without Gurriel since Aug. 8 as the second baseman recovers from a strained quadriceps.

"[Guerrero] took a day, and we'll see how he feels on Tuesday."

Guerrero had tweaked his knee, cutting off a ground ball in the second inning of a 4-3 loss to Seattle. He had also suffered a left-knee strain that kept him out of the lineup in double-A last summer, but this ailment is unrelated.

"I didn't feel that uncomfortable, because I knew it wasn't that bad," Guerrero said before the game though interpreter Hector LeBron. "I just wanted to be cautious about it, and I just decided at that particular moment that I should stop and talk to the trainers, just to be safe." His teammates were relieved to hear the positive news.

"You don't want a guy like Vladdy going out right now, when he's making his mark in the big leagues," Blue Jays pitcher Thomas Pannone said. "He's got off to a really hot start, and he's a big piece of this team. It's great news he's not injured."

Without having to face Guerrero and Gurriel, Kikuchi (5-8) needed only 96 pitches for his complete-game victory.

The only time the Blue Jays threatened was a leadoff double to left field in the third inning from Guerrero's replacement, Brandon Drury. But Kikuchi coaxed Danny Jansen into a fly ball to left field. Billy McKinney then popped to short, and a line drive to short from Bo Bichette stranded Drury at second base.

"I've never actually thrown a complete game under 100 pitches in Japan, so I'm really happy that I was able to do that here," said Kikuchi, who, at 28, is in his first year in Major League Baseball. He was winless in his previous eight starts.

Mariners third baseman Kyle Seager, who hit the game-winning homer in Saturday's game, swatted his 16th to right field in the second inning off Toronto opener Wilmer Font (3-3).

Seattle checked in with three runs in the fourth inning off Pannone. Austin Nola led off the inning with a solo blast to right field and then catcher Tom Murphy smacked a two-run shot with Daniel Vogelbach aboard.

Mariners outfielder Keon Broxton added a homer to centre field in the seventh inning to increase his team's lead to 5-0. Broxton scored again in the ninth inning.

He drew a leadoff walk and was driven home on Dylan Moore's double down the right-field line.

Moore scored on a Tim Lopes single to centre.

Associated Graphic

Yusei Kikuchi of the Seattle Mariners throws a pitch to a Blue Jays batter in Toronto on Sunday. Kikuchi retired the final 17 Jays batters in a row to finish his complete-game shutout.

MARK BLINCH/ GETTY IMAGES

Puerto Rico knocks off Canada in baseball at Pan Ams
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S2


LIMA -- The Canadian men's baseball team suffered its first loss at the Pan American Games on Friday, falling 8-5 to Puerto Rico in super round action.

Canada (3-1) carried a win into the super round. Teams carry records against other teams to advance out of preliminary play into the super round.

Canadian starter Ryan Kellogg of Whitby, Ont., didn't get out of the fourth inning, surrendering three runs on five hits.

Puerto Rico starter Miguel Martinez gave up one run on five hits in six innings, helping his team improve to 4-0.

Michael Crouse of Port Moody, B.C., hit a solo home run for Canada.

Puerto Rico broke the game open with a four-run eighth inning. Canada responded with its own four-run frame in the bottom of the inning, but couldn't get any closer.

Canada faces Nicaragua on Saturday.

The medal games are Sunday.

In badminton, Canada's Michelle Li beat her friend and compatriot Rachel Honderich to win her third straight Pan Am Games women's singles title. Li showed no mercy Friday with a 21-11, 21-19 victory over Honderich. Honderich has focused more on women's doubles over the past year in her pursuit of Olympic qualification. She won doubles gold with Kristen Tsai of Surrey, B.C., earlier in the day with a 21-10, 21-9 win over American duo Jamie Hsu and Kuei-Ya Chen.

They joined a parade of Canadian athletes to the badminton podium on Friday at Videna Sports Complex. Canada won four gold and three silver medals on the day.

In surfing, Lina Augaitis just missed the podium in the women's stand-up paddleboard race.

The Ottawa native finished fourth. On the men's side, Finn Spencer of Whistler, B.C., lost his Round 3 match to Colombia's Giorgio Gomez.

In racquetball, Canada's Samuel Murray and Coby Iwaasa posted wins in men's singles play.

Winnipeg's Jennifer Saunders lost 2-1 to Maricruz Ortiz of Costa Rica.

CANADIANS TO WATCH ON SATURDAY Samuel Murray (racquetball): The native of Baie-Comeau, Que., faces Argentina's Fernando Kurzbard in preliminary pool action.

Murray won the Canadian championship this year.

Meaghan Benfeito (diving): The native of Laval, Que., has won three Olympic medals. She'll go for gold in the 10-metre event.

Men's field hockey team: Canada looks to finish the first round at 3-0 with a win over host Peru. The home team is 0-2 at the Pan Ams.

Luke Ramsay (sailing): The Vancouver native won silver in the Sunfish class at the 2015 Pan Ams in Toronto.

Richard Mcbride (shooting): The 52-year-old native of Saskatoon has competed in eight world championships in skeet shooting since 2005.

Canada's Thibault ready to soak up opportunity at CP Women's Open
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By JOHN CHIDLEY-HILL
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


TORONTO -- Brigitte Thibault is having the best summer of her young career, and it's only going to get better this week at the CP Women's Open.

Thibault, from Rosemère, Que., represented Canada at the Pan American Games in Lima winning bronze in the team event on Aug. 10.

She also won the Ontario Women's Amateur Championship on July 12 before earning an exemption into Canada's national women's championship for the second time.

"It's been huge. Golf Canada helps me get into these events, it's an amazing opportunity for me to even be in them," Thibault said.

"The CP Women's Open, as an example, is a tournament where I would normally have to qualify.

"To know I'm already in the field and to be able to get this experience for future opportunities, it's great."

Thibault, who has her sights set on representing Canada at the 2024 Summer Olympics in Paris, finished ninth in the women's individual event at the Pan Ams, 14 shots behind American gold medalist Emilia Migliaccio.

The 20-year-old Thibault has been using her summer to improve her short game before returning to Fresno State University for her senior year this fall.

She won the Mountain West Conference Championship this spring to end her 2018-19 collegiate season.

"[Tournaments] are something I look forward to with an open mind," Thibault said. "Just really try to grab all information or things I can learn that week to really help me for the future.

"There's so much work to do all the time with golf. It never stops."

Competing at the Women's Open on Thursday is another opportunity to improve her game.

Thibault has only competed in one other LPGA event and relishes the opportunity to learn from the best players in golf again.

"The CP Women's Open has always been an important, special tournament for me," Thibault said. "That's the first LPGA event that I actually qualified for."

U.S. to delay some China tariffs until stores stock up for holiday shoppers
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By DAVID SHEPARDSON, DAVID LAWDER
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REUTERS
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


U.S. President Donald Trump on Tuesday backed off his Sept. 1 deadline for 10-percent tariffs on remaining Chinese imports, delaying duties on cellphones, laptops and other consumer goods, in the hopes of blunting their impact on U.S. holiday sales.

The delay, which affects about half of the US$300-billion target list of Chinese goods - along with news of renewed trade discussions between U.S. and Chinese officials - sent stocks sharply higher and drew cautious relief from retailers and technology groups.

Mr. Trump's 10-per-cent tariffs will be effective from Dec. 15 for thousands of products, including clothing and footwear, possibly buttressing the holiday selling season from some of the fallout from the protracted trade spat between the world's two largest economies.

"We're doing this for Christmas season, just in case some of the tariffs would have an impact on U.S. customers," Mr. Trump told reporters in New Jersey.

"Just in case they might have an impact on people, what we've done is we've delayed it so that they won't be relevant to the Christmas shopping season."

The U.S. Trade Representative's Office announced the decision just minutes after China's Ministry of Commerce said VicePremier Liu He conducted a phone call with U.S. trade officials. Mr. Liu agreed with U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to speak again by phone within the next two weeks, the ministry said.

Mr. Trump has said the two sides may still meet in early September as scheduled.

The delay in tariffs on a substantial portion of a US$300-billion list of remaining Chinese imports sent U.S. stocks surging, after steep losses in the past week, with the Standard & Poor's 500 up 1.5 per cent and the Nasdaq Composite gaining nearly 2 per cent.

Shares of market bellwether Apple Inc.

soared 4.2 per cent on news that its core iPhone, tablet and laptop computer products would be spared from tariffs for the time being.

But the Trump administration still plans to impose 10-per-cent tariffs on thousands of Chinese food, clothing and other consumer electronics products beginning Sept. 1.

Among these are Chinese-made smartwatches from Apple and Fitbit, smart speakers from Amazon.com Inc., Google and Apple, and Bluetooth headphones and other devices, a category estimated at US$17.9-billion last year by the Consumer Technology Association.

Flat screen televisions from China, a category worth US$4.5-billion, also will face 10-per-cent tariffs on Sept. 1 after being spared from Mr. Trump's first round of tariffs more than a year ago.

Live animals, dairy products, skis, golf balls, contact lenses, lithium ion batteries and snowblowers will also get tariffs on Sept. 1.

Based on a Reuters analysis, the delay could extend to around half of the US$300billion list of remaining Chinese imports.

Chinese imports subject to the tariffs on Dec. 15 totalled about US$156-billion last year, according U.S. Census bureau data.

Most retailers would have stocked their holiday merchandise before the earlier September deadline, some might have faced the tariffs for fill-in orders late in the holiday shopping season.

Still, the Retail Industry Leaders Association said "removing some products from the list and delaying additional 10 per cent tariffs on other products, such as toys, consumer electronics, apparel and footwear, until Dec. 15 is welcome news as it will mitigate some pain for consumers through the holiday season."

The Consumer Technology Association applauded the delay on some items, but added: "Next month, we'll begin to pay more for some of our favourite tech devices - including TVs, smart speakers and desktop computers. The administration should permanently remove these harmful tariffs and find another way to hold China accountable for its unfair trading practices."

The 21-page list of products that will not get hit with tariffs until December also includes baby monitors and strollers, microwaves, instant print cameras, doorbells, high chairs, musical instruments, ketchup dispensers, baby diapers, fireworks, sleeping bags, nativity scenes, fishing reels, paint rollers and food products.

A separate group of products will be removed from the tariff list altogether, the USTR said, "based on health, safety, national security and other factors." It did not immediately identify these items.

Mr. Trump announced the Sept. 1 tariffs less than two weeks ago, blaming China for not following through on promises to buy more American agricultural products during talks in Shanghai at the end of July.

That move was met with a drop in China's yuan a few days later, prompting the Trump administration to declare Beijing a currency manipulator and sending markets tumbling for several days last week.

Since Mr. Trump's Aug. 1 tweets announcing the new tariffs, the U.S. benchmark S&P stock index has dropped more than 4 per cent.

The tariff delay, combined with renewed talks with China, suggests Mr. Trump may be willing to compromise.

In a sign the administration may be expecting something in return, Mr. Trump tweeted on Tuesday: "As usual, China said they were going to be buying "big" from our great American Farmers. So far they have not done what they said. Maybe this will be different!"

Mr. Trump's tariff delay comes amid growing concerns about a global economic slowdown. Goldman Sachs said on Sunday fears of the U.S.-China trade war leading to a recession were increasing and Goldman no longer expects a trade deal between the two countries before the 2020 U.S. presidential election.

Mr. Trump has also personally criticized Chinese President Xi Jinping for failing to do more to stem sales of the synthetic opioid fentanyl amid an opioid overdosing crisis in the United States.

The USTR office plans to conduct an exclusion process that could allow more items to be removed from the 10-per-cent tariff list.

Associated Graphic

The Qingdao free-trade port area in China's Shandong province is seen in May. U.S. President Donald Trump's recent tariff delay, combined with renewed talks with China, suggests he may be willing to compromise with Beijing.

AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Air Canada tables richer bid for Transat
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New takeover offer of $720-million a result of pressure from investors and rival bidder Group Mach
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By ERIC ATKINS
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Air Canada has raised its offer to buy Transat A.T. Inc. by 38 per cent, to $720-million, buckling to pressure from some investors and a would-be rival bidder.

Air Canada's move to increase its price for the Montreal airline and travel company came after weeks of calls and meetings with investors, who said they would reject the takeover attempt unless they got more for their shares.

Montreal real estate developer Group Mach had also offered a higher price for a portion of the company in hopes of blocking the deal.

Air Canada and Transat said the new offer is worth $18 a share, up from $13, or $520-million.

The new bid now has the support of Transat's largest shareholder, Letko Brosseau and Associates Inc. - the Montreal money manager that controls almost 20 per cent of Transat's shares and had opposed the first bid.

The deal would give Air Canada control of a competitor on transatlantic flights as well as Transat's Airbus fleet at a time Air Canada is facing capacity and revenue constraints.

The squeeze stems from its Boeing 737 Max passenger jets that are grounded amid a global halt that came after two fatal crashes.

"After extensive consultations with Letko Brosseau and several other large shareholders of Transat, we agreed to materially increase our price to ensure the transaction receives the necessary level of support," said Calin Rovinescu, Air Canada's chief executive.

Peter Letko, a partner at Letko Brosseau, had told The Globe and Mail that Transat should not sell itself until it restores margins and profitability in order to fetch a better price.

In an interview on Monday, after the new offer had been announced, Mr. Letko said: "We're satisfied with the price.

"We thought that Air Canada was very thoughtful and sensitive to the fact that we were not pleased with the original price," he said of the meetings he held with the company.

Air Canada's takeover of Canada's third-largest airline requires support of two-thirds of Transat shareholders by Aug. 23. The deal is expected to close next year and requires approval from legal, regulatory and antitrust bodies in Canada and Europe. The combined companies would control at least 60 per cent of domestic flights over the Atlantic and most of the Montreal travel market, and are expected to face a rigorous review by the Competition Commissioner.

Transat has lost money in two of the past four years, and is expected to post a loss in 2019 as it tries to expand its sun-destination hotel operations. The company's share price in the past five years has rarely been higher than $9, and sank to less than $5 in March.

Transat said in April that it was in talks with "more than one" possible suitor, and soon entered exclusive talks with Air Canada. The two sides announced on June 27 that they had an agreement on a takeover at $13 a share.

Christophe Hennebelle, a spokesman for Transat, said the $13 offer the two sides first negotiated was deemed fair by Transat's outside advisers, National Bank and Bank of Montreal. "It was a good price and obviously now we have an even better price," Mr. Hennebelle said.

Montreal real estate developer Group Mach had offered - and later dropped - a conditional bid worth $14 a share. Mach recently took a new tack, offering $14 for up to 19.5 per cent of Transat and trying to collect vote proxies to block the Air Canada deal.

Quebec's Financial Markets Administrative Tribunal, in a ruling issued on Monday, sided with a Transat complaint and blocked the Mach offer.

Still, Alfred Buggé, vice-president of Mach, did not rule out another attempt to buy Transat, and took credit for spurring Air Canada to increase its bid by $200-million. "The shareholders of Transat owe us a great debt of gratitude," Mr. Buggé said. "If it wasn't for Mach, the shareholders wouldn't have this offer."

Transat shares closed at $16.75 on Monday on the Toronto Stock Exchange, a discount of $1.25 to the revised offer that Mr. Buggé attributed to the deal's uncertainty.

PenderFund Capital Management of Vancouver, Transat's fifth-largest investor, opposed the initial price agreed to by Transat's board.

Amar Pandya, an analyst and portfolio manager with PenderFund, said other shareholders he spoke to also opposed the price initially agreed to by the Transat board of directors, but that the higher offer and Letko's support make it "almost a done deal."

"There was not a lot of support for the $13 offer," he said.

"With Mach instigating as well, that created more disagreement within the shareholder base," Mr.Pandya said in a telephone interview.

Patrick McQuilken, a spokesman for the Fonds de solidarité FTQ, which owns 12 per cent of Transat, said there were at least three meetings and phone calls between the labour-sponsored investment fund and Air Canada.

He said, as is typical for the fund in any investment decision, the Fonds focused on the offer price as well as the employment and economic effects of the takeover.

He said it is too soon to say whether the Fonds is supporting the new offer.

AIR CANADA (AC) CLOSE: $43.76, DOWN 74¢ TRANSAT A.T. (TRZ) CLOSE: $16.75, UP $4.96

Germany's economy is in trouble. That's bad news for everyone
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By DAVID PARKINSON
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Germany is the world's fourth-largest economy. It's the third-largest exporter in the world, behind only China and the United States, and by far the most export-intensive economy in the G7. It's Europe's biggest manufacturer.

It's fair to say that Germany is a pretty decent proxy for the state of the globalized, interconnected world economy. And it's in trouble.

Data released Wednesday showed that the German economy fell 0.1 per cent quarter-over-quarter in the second quarter, battered by declining exports and slumping manufacturing. It's the second time in the past four quarters that the German economy has contracted; its growth over the past 12 months is an anemic 0.4 per cent.

The German GDP report shook global financial markets Wednesday, and rightly so. It's no exaggeration to say that Germany is on the brink of a recession. If you're pretty much anywhere else in the world that depends heavily on global trade - such as Canada, for instance - this should be serious cause for concern.

Germany's slump is definitive evidence that the trade worries that we have been wrestling with for months are now more than just "fears" or "risks" or "uncertainties" - whatever word you like to use to imply that they are something that may happen down the road, but haven't transpired yet. They've arrived.

After all, consider that Germany's unemployment is near a 30year low. Domestic demand held its own in the quarter, as solid private-sector wage growth continues to support consumer spending. The services sector continues to show growth. The deterioration in trade is overwhelming all of that.

What's more, Germany is a highly diversified exporter - this isn't a question of being dragged down by a single export market.

The two combatants in the U.S.China trade war account for a combined 16 per cent of Germany's exports.

No, this slump speaks - loudly - to just how bad the slump in world exports is becoming. Not only is the U.S.-China trade war no longer a "what if" in terms of its massive impact on global trade activity, but its effects are spreading in a highly interconnected global economy. Germany is Exhibit A in what the spillovers on global supply chains looks like.

And there's reason to think that things will get worse in Germany before they get better. The country's manufacturing purchasing managers' index (PMI) for July, released earlier this month, indicated that new export orders are declining at their fastest pace since the financial crisis and Great Recession of 2009. The indicator suggests that demand for Germany's exports, which is heavily tilted toward manufactured goods, is deteriorating further in the third quarter. Given that outlook, it's only a matter of time before Germany's still lofty employment and consumer demand are caught in the downdraft.

The potential for an all-out recession has drawn calls for the German government to increase its spending, to inject a dose of fiscal stimulus into an economy that quite clearly needs help. But the government is bound by its own balanced-budget laws and already sounds defiantly resistant to moving away from that.

For now, about the best support its economy will likely get will be in the form of interest rate cuts from the European Central Bank - which now look to be a lock in light of the slumping German economic figures.

All of this should resonate if you're sitting in Canada. While the Canadian economy isn't as tilted toward exports as Germany's is (exports are equivalent to 32 per cent of Canadian GDP, versus 47 per cent for Germany), the global export market is nevertheless a critical contributor to Canada's economic growth outlook.

And remember that Canada has much closer direct trade ties to the trade-war combatants than Germany does: The United States and China account for 80 per cent of Canada's exports. This storm is destined to wash up on Canadian shores.

When it does, Canada arguably has less fiscal space than Germany to provide a spending stimulus to offset a global trade recession. Canada's federal government is already running a moderate deficit and has been for the past four years. In an election year - and with those deficits under attack from the opposition parties as evidence of the current Liberal government's financial mismanagement and broken promises - there may be very little room politically for the government to inject a spending stimulus.

Which means the ball may land with the Bank of Canada.

The bank has so far resisted the growing trend among central banks to cut interest rates, citing a still solid Canadian economy and repeatedly stressing that the U.S.-China trade war contains upside risks to the economic outlook (i.e. a deal could be struck to settle the dispute) in addition to the downside. But as we see more of the concrete economic carnage from these protectionist clashes, the Bank of Canada's lines of resistance may not apply for very much longer.

Quebec minister touts AI financing, but Caisse says there's no deal
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By SEAN SILCOFF
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


The Quebec government and pensionfund giant Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec will invest a combined US$100-million in Element AI Inc., representing up to half of a coming venturecapital financing by the Montreal artificial intelligence startup, Quebec's Economy and Innovation Minister Pierre Fitzgibbon said.

The cabinet of Premier François Legault last month issued an order in council that the government would invest US$25-million through Investissement Québec (IQ), a provincially controlled investing agency, as Element "is of significant economic interest to Quebec." IQ portfolio managers typically make their own investing decisions that are approved internally, but, in some cases, cabinet taps a politically directed fund, investing it through IQ, Mr. Fitzgibbon told The Globe and Mail in an interview.

The minister also said the Caisse would put up US$75-million, gaining the right to appoint a director to the board. He said the government would receive a stake of between 4 per cent and 5 per cent in Element AI, translating into a company valuation of up to US$625-million based on the figures provided.

However, a Caisse source disputed that its investment is a done deal, in a rare example of public disagreement between the investment manager and the government that controls it.

The Caisse is mandated by the province to both support Quebec's economic development and generate returns for depositors.

Mr. Fitzgibbon said the Caisse, with $327billion in assets under management, "made its own assessment regarding the investment" after working jointly with the government on due diligence.

But Caisse spokesman Maxime Chagnon said: "It's far from clear that we're about to make an investment in that company or not. You would be wrong and taking a big risk to jump to any conclusion [based on] whatever you've been told and by whoever you've been told."

He added: "Whether we do it or not has nothing to do with government. We make our own investment decisions based on our criteria and process."

Mr. Fitzgibbon asserted that with the Caisse and Investissment Québec potentially accounting for half of the financing, "obviously we have our stake in the ground and we through the Caisse will be influencing the mission, influencing strategy [though] not directing it." The Globe reported last month the Caisse and the province would participate in the financing, citing unnamed sources.

In a statement to The Globe, Element AI acknowledged it was "in advanced discussions with investors as we work to complete our round of financing," but said it had "no updates or projected timelines for any announcement." The company said "we welcome the trust the government of Quebec has placed in Element AI," but did not comment on the Caisse's involvement. A venture-capital financing of US$200-million would rank as one of the largest in Canadian history.

The Caisse has emerged as one of the most active venture-capital investors in Canada in recent years, backing such companies as Lightspeed POS and Hopper and Breather Products.

Element AI became one of the world's most watched AI startups upon its founding three years ago because of its association with co-founder Yoshua Bengio, a University of Montreal professor regarded as one of the godfathers of deep learning, the foundational science of today's AI revolution.

Buoyed by a US$102-million venture financing in 2017, backed by Canadian and global investors including Microsoft Corp., Tencent Holdings Ltd. and Fidelity Investments Canada, Element AI went on a hiring spree, surpassing 500 employees and becoming so big it no longer qualified as a small business, limiting its access to tax credits.

But Element has had setbacks getting products to market while bearing heavy operating costs, The Globe reported in July.

Other domestic AI startups have complained Element is draining the market of talent and has yet to prove its commercial viability.

Nevertheless, Element has positioned itself as the champion of a homegrown AI sector that the government and the Caisse have been keen to promote as a driver of economic activity. The current Coalition Avenir Québec government and the previous Liberal one have committed hundreds of millions of dollars to initiatives since 2017 to bolster Montreal's standing as a global AI centre, while the Caisse in March launched a $250-million fund to invest in Quebec AI companies.

Mr. Fitzgibbon said he was aware of the issues raised in The Globe article, but said Element has undertaken "a lot of soul searching" in recent months. "There is some adjustment required [and] we'll be tightly monitoring them," he said, adding that the company needed to focus its efforts on promising applications, adding large customers and working in a "proper partnership with the shareholders ... to bring outside resources to influence the strategy.

"They need to be generating a lot of revenue and profits, which they aren't right now. ... Although it is a risky investment, it is one we as a government [believe] is worth it."

Two indicators to help investors decide if they should hold firm or sell stocks
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By SCOTT BARLOW
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


This week's inversion of the U.S. bond yield curve, a phenomenon with a strong track record of foreshadowing recessions, has forced equity investors to acknowledge that an economic slowdown is upon us.

Investors' main hope now is that central banks' moves to reduce borrowing costs will spur a recovery of growth in the short term.

Otherwise, a much deeper plunge in stock prices than this week's volatility is likely.

Equity markets on Thursday reflected anxiety over the dependence on central bankers: North American indexes seesawed between gains and losses, before ending with only minor moves.

But the bond market continued to send clear and ominous signals of slow growth, or possible economic contraction. The yield on 30-year U.S. Treasuries fell to less than 2 per cent for the first time ever, while the benchmark 10-year note dropped to a three-year trough.

"Investors must decide if the Fed can deliver the growth needed to justify current or higher [stock] prices," Morgan Stanley U.S. equity strategist Michael Wilson said in a recent note.

In Mr. Wilson's view, current growth levels for the economy and earnings do not support stock prices as high as they are now.

If a recovery doesn't materialize, market prices will adjust lower for deteriorating fundamentals for companies. He's predicting a drop of 10 per cent sometime this quarter.

"Given the very broad and steep decline in many leading indicators and corporate earnings growth, I've made the case that we are far from mid-cycle [stage of the bull market] and closer to end-of-cycle," he stated.

U.S. economic data released this week have been mostly positive, including a report released on Thursday on retail sales for July that showed a 0.7-per-cent monthly increase, more than double what economists had expected.

But elsewhere, the slowdown continues, judging by economic data released this week. In China, industrial production growth fell to the lowest level in 17 years, and Germany's numbers indicate that Europe's largest economy actually contracted in the second quarter.

For investors, portfolio risks will continue to rise until a better growth materializes. Here are two charts to help assess the investment backdrop.

The first chart depicts the yearover-year change in the JPMorgan Global Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) and the U.S. PMI Manufacturing New Orders.

The JPMorgan index has provided a key indicator of global business activity and the annual change has been closely correlated to industrial metals prices.

Year over year, the index has been mired in negative territory since the summer of 2018.

Manufacturing new-orders results are among the most effective leading indicators of the U.S.

economy. The year-over-year growth rate for new orders has been declining since 2017.

PMI data are vital during periods of market volatility. Investors should tread cautiously until a clear uptrend is visible on both lines.

In a report released on Tuesday, UBS market strategist Francois Trahan used 20 years of market history to show that "buying the dip" strategies - adding to portfolio equity holdings when indexes decline significantly - are "a losing proposition" when PMI indexes are falling.

The second chart presents the MSCI Cyclicals minus Defensives Index, which measures the relative performance of U.S. economically sensitive stocks against those such as utilities and consumer-staples companies that are largely unaffected by changes in the economy. A rising line indicates that economically sensitive stocks - which includes commodity investments - are outperforming defensives, and implies optimism on future economic growth.

The trend on the chart has been generally positive for all of 2019, although with a steep downdraft in April and May. More recently, a significant decline has occurred as investors shifted money to the defensive stocks that benefit from rapidly declining bond yields.

As with the PMI New Orders index, equity price trends can be a leading indicator of economic growth.

Further declines in the JPMorgan index would cement pessimism on growth prospects for the United States and the limited number of other countries - such as Canada - where the economy remains resilient.

The consensus view, based on the average economist and analyst forecasts for the second half of 2019 and for 2020, is that the global economy, at least for now, is in the midst of a temporary slowdown. There's optimism that central banks will come to the rescue. More than 30 central banks around the world have already cut interest rates this year, and the U.S. Federal Reserve is widely expected to cut them again next month.

If this is the case, then profit growth will resume and investors have little to worry about. But Morgan Stanley's forecast suggests the imminent end of the market cycle and post-crisis market rally. This requires investor action to take profits, reduce risk and batten down the hatches for a sustained bear market. These two charts should help investors decide.

Canada sees second straight trade surplus amid slump in imports
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By DAVID PARKINSON
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Canada posted its second straight trade surplus in June, but slumping imports and a reversal of recent export gains have raised questions about the country's trade momentum in a protectionist environment.

Statistics Canada reported a merchandise trade surplus of $136-million in June, down from a revised $566-million in May. It marked the first time since the end of 2016 that the country posted consecutive surpluses.

Economists had predicted a return to a small deficit, in the $300-million range, anticipating that exports would give back some ground after surging 4.6 per cent in May, a jump that was aided by one-time factors. And exports did indeed decline by 5.1 per cent in June, more than reversing May's gains, although much of the reversal stemmed from lower prices; export volumes, excluding price changes, fell a more modest 2.2 per cent.

The surprise surplus was mostly due to a 4.3-percent slump in imports, which fell to their lowest level in seven months - evidence of weaker demand in the domestic economy. On a volume basis, imports were down 3.6 per cent.

Total two-way trade (exports plus imports) was down 4.6 per cent from May, at $100.5-billion, a four-month low. And Statscan noted that the declines on both sides of the ledger were broadly based: 10 of 11 export sectors lost ground, while nine of 11 import sectors fell.

"It was a bit of a two-faced report," said Royce Mendes, senior economist at Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.

"The surplus was only the result of a drop in two-way trade.

That was not positive for the Canadian economy."

The slowdown comes as global trade flows in general have been deteriorating, with the U.S.-China trade war elevating uncertainty and weighing on global demand. The dispute between the world's two biggest trading countries sharply escalated in mid-May, when the U.S. increased tariffs on US$200billion of Chinese goods to 25 per cent from 10 per cent, a move that was met with retaliatory tariffs by China at the beginning of June.

The U.S. merchandise trade report for June, also released Friday, bore the scars of the escalation: Exports declined 2.7 per cent and imports fell 2.1 per cent in the first full month under the tariff increases. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that the trade hostilities are weighing increasingly on the world economy. Thursday's Markit global manufacturing purchasing managers' index (PMI) - considered a key indicator of industrial activity and global demand - came in at 49.3 for July, its lowest since 2012, amid a deepening decline in new export orders. (Any reading below 50 implies an outright contraction in global manufacturing.)

"That's quite worrying for the future of export growth," said Stephen Brown, senior Canada economist for Capital Economics, an independent economic research firm.

Despite June's trade downturn, the month capped a generally strong quarter for Canadian exporters, with shipments up 5.1 per cent in value and 4.1 per cent in volume in the March-to-June period. With imports having dipped overall in the quarter, net trade will be a major contributor to secondquarter economic growth, which Statscan will report at the end of this month.

Coupled with the solid May gross domestic product report earlier this week (real GDP grew a more-than-expected 0.2 per cent from April), economists now estimate that real GDP rose at about a 3-per-cent annualized rate in the quarter, a strong rebound after growth all but stalled in the prior two quarters.

However, the slowdown in both exports and imports to end the quarter, coupled with growing global growth concerns, raise questions about the momentum of trade entering the second half of the year.

"It certainly tells us we shouldn't expect a repeat of the second quarter," Toronto-Dominion Bank senior economist Brian DePratto said. "I think we're looking at more modest growth, both in trade and the overall economy."

And with U.S. President Donald Trump threatening Thursday to further expand U.S. tariffs against China, there's now a serious risk that the global trade malaise will deepen in the coming months.

"What concerns us are the new tariff threats," Mr. Brown said, adding that they have the potential to affect a broader cross-section of the economy than the tariffs to date.

"The trade risk is more significant."

Callidus investors told to accept go-private bid
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By JEFFREY JONES
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Callidus Capital Corp.'s second-largest shareholder has agreed to take the struggling alternative lender private at a fraction of what the shares were worth when financier Newton Glassman took it public five years ago.

In a statement, Callidus's special committee of directors examining the deal said Braslyn Ltd.'s offer for the minority shares, worth about $5.3-million, could be the only option left to stave off insolvency by next year. It urged minority investors to accept the deal, warning that they could be left holding shares with no value due to Callidus's high debt obligations and worsening financial position if they do not. Under the deal, Bahamas-based Braslyn will offer 75 cents for each share not owned by Mr. Glassman's Catalyst Capital Group Inc., majority owner of Callidus.

The shares closed at 41 cents on Thursday on the Toronto Stock Exchange. Late last year, Braslyn, owned by Tavistock Group founder Joe Lewis, proposed to buy out the minority for $2 a share but did not make a formal bid.

Since then, Torontobased Callidus has reported losses owing to underperforming loans and weak financial results at companies it acquired when their owners defaulted on their debt. This week, it reported a second-quarter net loss of $79.7-million, compared with a year-earlier loss of $40.8-million.

The outcome will be a bitter pill for investors who had hoped for a privatization deal that Mr. Glassman, Callidus's executive chairman, had previously said could be worth at $18-$22 a share, based on a 2017 valuation by National Bank Financial. Callidus began a search for suitors in September, 2016, but no other would-be buyers emerged.

Since then, the company became embroiled in an epic legal battle against short-sellers, former borrowers and reporters from The Wall Street Journal, whom Mr. Glassman has accused of conspiring to make and publicize false whistle-blower claims to the Ontario Securities Commission regarding the company's accounting. The legal battle, which has involved some of Bay Street's most prominent personalities, has only served to cloud investors' view of Callidus's performance.

The defendants, including Greg Boland, founder of West Face Capital Inc. and a rival in numerous other court disputes with Mr.Glassman, have denied the charges. Mr. Boland has countersued.

At Braslyn's offer price, Callidus shares will have fallen nearly 95 per cent from the company's initial public offering in 20. Braslyn, whose founder is the owner of English soccer's Tottenham Hotspur as well as one of the world's most valuable private art collections, has a 14.5-per-cent stake in Callidus.

Catalyst has a 73-per-cent interest. Jason Callender, a representative for Mr. Lewis, declined to comment when reached by phone.

Officials with Callidus and Catalyst had no comment on Friday, spokesman Dan Gagnier said.

Catalyst's funds have provided debt financing and guarantees. This year, Catalyst extended a US$250-million bridge loan to Callidus, among other assistance. That lifeline appears to be growing short.

The board committee noted in the statement that Callidus owes Catalyst $421-million and it cannot repay the debt.

Catalyst informed the directors that it will not grant any extensions beyond September, 2020, if the Braslyn deal falls through, the committee said.

"Inevitably, that would lead to the insolvency and/or liquidation of the company," it said.

"In such circumstances, the special committee considers it unlikely that the Callidus shareholders (including Braslyn) would receive any value for their common shares."

As part of the deal, Braslyn would be entitled to 15 per cent of the proceeds of asset sales Callidus makes in the year after the transaction is completed. Braslyn's bid requires the approval of a majority of the minority shareholders at a meeting, as well as court approval. It would get a break fee of $2-million in certain circumstances if the deal does not close.

Callidus shares rose 75 per cent to 72 cents on Friday.

Shopify surpasses BCE market cap as shares continue to surge
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Software company's value climbs to $56.2-billion despite lack of profitability, as market share and revenue expand
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By TIM SHUFELT
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


In becoming a rising force in global ecommerce, Shopify Inc.'s stock has caught fire, and on Tuesday the company passed venerable BCE Inc. in stock market value.

The Canadian software company's shares are up by 164 per cent so far this year, trouncing all the U.S. internet behemoths and capturing the attention of the market's biggest growth and tech investors.

Already larger than some betterknown American peers, including eBay Inc., Shopify's scorching rally has also vaulted it into the ranks of Canadian corporate elite.

Its $56.2-billion market capitalization makes it the country's 10th-largest public listing, surpassing media and telecom giant BCE and closing just shy of $500 a share on Tuesday.

"I think people are starting to get the disruption now," said Ron Shuttleworth, a partner at Toronto-based Oak Hill Financial and a veteran of the Canadian tech sector.

"They're not trying to be a retailer like Amazon or eBay. These guys are retail enablers. I just hope they can maintain the momentum."

If the company can't maintain its torrid pace of expansion, shareholders could be forced to endure a painful reckoning.

Like many fallen growth names before it, Shopify's sky-high valuation could make for a long drop if fortunes change. The company trades at more than 20 times next year's revenue estimate and has yet to report an annual profit.

For more than 800,000 internet merchants, however, Shopify has become the platform of choice to sell everything from socks to coffee.

"It's the democratization of ecommerce," Mr. Shuttleworth said. "You strap on this little ecommerce engine, and you're off to the races."

The company has been steadily adding new features to its core offering, including an integrated credit-card payment processor launched last year, and most recently, a fulfilment network, giving its clients shipping and warehousing capabilities.

While still dwarfed by the likes of Amazon.com Inc., Shopify's rapid growth in market share and revenues show no sign of slowing.

"Shopify is capturing more of the e-commerce opportunity, in domestic and international markets," RBC Dominion Securities analyst Paul Treiber said in a recent note.

Last year, the company's sales exceeded US$1-billion for the first time. Now, Shopify is on track to double that top line by next year.

Despite Shopify's lack of profit, many investors are willing to pay for growth over earnings.

Many other prominent internet companies spent years putting up red ink for the sake of building market share.

"For people that missed the rise of Amazon or Google, this looks like one of those opportunities," said Jeff Parent, chief investment officer at Castlemoore Inc., which owns shares of Shopify. "There's a lot of enthusiasm," he said.

Meanwhile, the enthusiasm for the FAANG stocks - Facebook Inc., Amazon, Apple Inc., Netflix Inc. and Google-parent Alphabet Inc. - has waned somewhat.

As a group, those stocks are trading about 16 per cent below their 2018 peak, forcing many tech and growth investors to broaden their horizons.

As more investors get on board, Shopify's valuation makes it one of the most expensive cloud-based stocks on the market.

"You're paying for the next six to eight years of tremendous growth right now," said John Zechner, president of wealth management company J. Zechner Associates.

"If you go long the stock, you'd better hope they don't have any disappointments along the way."

SHOPIFY (SHOP) CLOSE: $499.15, UP $17.53

Associated Graphic

Shopify saw sales exceed US$1-billion for the first time in 2018 and is on track to double that by next year.

JUSTIN TANG/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Bichette dreams big
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Forget just being happy to be here. Toronto's young star shortstop is good at baseball and he knows it. In fact, he says he wants to be 'one of the best players who ever lived'
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B9


TORONTO -- Among the many new things on Bo Bichette's to-do list, clothes shopping is up there.

"I find myself looking for hoodies more," the Blue Jays shortstop says over the weekend. People have begun picking him out on the street. The walk from the Rogers Centre to his digs has become something of an amateur paparazzi gauntlet.

"I think it's the hair they recognize," Bichette says. "It could be the hair."

It's the hair.

Bichette is a Pantene commercial come to life. He's also - and this is a first for Toronto this year - remarkably good at baseball. The two things together have people a bit worked up.

We've now been told for ages that the Jays have some stars coming. Not some players, but some Ted Williams types.

In the fullness of time, that may prove to be true, but Bichette is the first to show up and deliver straight off.

The 21-year-old has been in the bigs for three weeks. In his first game, he had a hit. In his second, he had two. In his third, he had three, including a home run. He got on base in each of his first 17 games, which caught some attention. He tied an MLB record for most consecutive games with a double - nine.

That put him in Babe Ruth's postal code.

All the other overadvertised Jays prospects are still just that - prospects. Bichette has sashayed in like he's Honus Wagner reincarnated.

Two superficial things strike you as different about Bichette (okay, three, but you'll have to trust me when I tell you that hair really is lustrous).

The first important thing is his size.

The Blue Jays list Bichette, a shortstop, at six feet and 185 pounds. Putting it delicately, that is an exaggeration.

Marcus Stroman was not small, but wouldn't shut up about it. Stroman was short-ish and as wide in the shoulders as a refrigerator. Bichette, on the other hand, is small. Like, elfin.

He's so slight of frame that whenever you catch him out of the corner of your eye, you think a batboy has decided to run onto the field.

This hasn't stopped him from showing a nice turn of power. How much of a hitter will this kid be once he actually does weigh 185? (Reaching six feet will require some time on a stretching rack.)

The other thing that stands out is Bichette's swagger.

"[Young players] are more outspoken than what they used to be," Jays manager Charlie Montoyo said on the general topic of what's changed since his day. "When I first got there, you're quiet, you don't say anything. Now, they can talk more."

Bichette is a talker. He's the sort of person who wanders around greeting all the other guys with an open-handed slap on the chest or a shoulder rub - top moves from the alpha-male body-language lexicon.

Before the pregame stretch, lesser rookies and newcomers to the team sit around the clubhouse at full attention. They're poised to leap up should anyone come over and wonder how they got in there.

Bichette lounges. He slides down so far in his chair that he's nearly horizontal. He isn't scanning the room for threats. He already has the torpid posture of a 10-year vet who's just made another all-star team.

Part of this may be the famous bloodline (his father is former major-leaguer Dante Bichette). But Vlad Guerrero Jr. and Cavan Biggio - Bichette's contemporaries in the Good Genes Club - don't have this ease yet. They still carry themselves like kids - sometimes a little too loud or a little too amped up. They're aware of being watched. Bichette doesn't do any of that. He may look like he's 14, but he feels like he's 40.

Bichette has been observing the tactical deployment of clichés his whole life, so most of his patter is of the "just excited to be here" variety.

Then he drifts into calling this first three weeks "a dream" and surprises you again.

"Actually, it's not that," Bichette says.

"This is more like the goal. Well, like a goal.

My dream is to be one of the best players who ever lived. It's not to make it here.

That's just a goal."

Up until this point, I have been familiar with three sorts of new baseball players.

There are the "do my best for the team" types - guys who will be happy with a career in the majors, any sort of career.

There are the "reach my potential" sorts - those who think they could be good, but aren't sure enough to lay any claim to the fact.

And there are the "as good as anyone in the game" or "as good as Exceptional Player X" pros - those who know they are great, but aren't going to stand up and shout about it.

I have yet to encounter a guy who has played 20 games at this level who is willing - however obliquely - to put himself in the conversation with Hank Aaron or Ty Cobb.

"Who ever lived" is a line nobody steps over, even those who are among the best players who ever lived. Even Mike Trout doesn't talk this way.

The funny thing? Standing there in front of Bichette and listening to him say it, it sounds reasonable. The kid thinks he's going to be Cal Ripken good. Based on very preliminary results, that is not a laughable thing to say.

You don't need to be an MLB scout to see where he can improve - a little more range in the field, fill a couple of gaps in his swing and, most importantly, get older and bigger. Those are simple problems to solve.

"As fun as these first three weeks have been, I can get so much better," Bichette says.

He can.

The Blue Jays season has been a recordbreaking deep-sea dive - just when you think they can't get any lower, they do.

Some years from now, people will have forgotten all that. Losing seasons never matter. In all likelihood, all that will be remembered of 2019 is that it marked the arrival of a single player.

Were I betting on it, I'd lay serious money that that guy is Bichette.

Associated Graphic

Bo Bichette of the Blue Jays hits a pop fly during Sunday's game against the Seattle Mariners in Toronto. The 21-year-old started his career on a tear, getting on base in each of his first 17 games and tying an MLB record by hitting a double in nine consecutive games.

FRED THORNHILL/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Bo Bichette of the Blue Jays forces out Tim Lopes of the Seattle Mariners during a game in Toronto on Sunday. For Bichette, making it to the big leagues was 'a goal,' while becoming one of the greatest players of all time is his 'dream.'

FRED THORNHILL/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Manchester United's woes help illustrate English Premier League's rise
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S1


In order to see how far the English Premier League has risen, it helps to look at how far Manchester United has fallen.

The club remains one of the most profitable ventures in the history of sport.

Last year, United turned over revenues of nearly $1-billion. Its brand is still king - one of a handful of teams that are watched and admired in every corner of the planet.

But between the frugality of its American owners and the fickleness of the market, United cannot figure out how to put together a roster suitable to the club's stature. It is as though the New York Yankees had to draw their players exclusively from the Arizona Fall League.

The club finished sixth last year and took no trophies - one of its worst results in 30 years. Paul Pogba, far and away the best player on the squad, made it clear he wanted to leave. After an excruciating summer of push-pull, he didn't get his wish.

One imagines Pogba will return refreshed and happy to continue working with a bunch of colleagues he neither likes nor rates.

United did add one major player - galumphing centre back Harry Maguire, who is now the most expensive defender in history.

Rather than prove United's bona fides (no other truly top team was interested in Maguire), it showed that both teams in Manchester have to pay a hidden tax in order to acquire talent. Only one of them can afford it.

On Thursday, United's sophomore manager, Ole Gunnar Solskjaer, announced he'd experienced a "great feeling of relief" when the transfer window closed. That is loser talk.

Poor Solskjaer. He was brought in to save United's 2018-19 season and, for his sins, was given a permanent position. He now looks like he ages a month for every day he's in the job. By April, the ratio may be up to a year-per.

The Premier League kicks off in full on Saturday. If you plan on watching, remember that cable TV is now a zombie medium. As of this year, Canadians can only view EPL games on an internet streaming platform, DAZN.

If you choose to be cheap, here's a précis of how things will go. Manchester City or Liverpool will win it. Over the summer, City used its bottomless Emirati wallet to pad a squad already bursting with quality. City's bench might now qualify as one of the 10 best teams on Earth.

Liverpool made no significant changes, either an indicator of enormous confidence or the dithering that presages the imminent end of the fun times.

Other teams will be either good (Spurs, Arsenal, Chelsea) or interesting (Everton, Wolves). A few will be bad in an interesting way (Crystal Palace, Newcastle).

And some will be flaming disasters (Sheffield United, Norwich).

Which is also interesting.

United will likely be a smorgasbord - occasionally good, often bad, eventually a disaster, all of it interesting.

Not so long ago, the Premier League lament was that the Big Four could not be cracked. At that point, United was first among a very few equals. Then the makeup of the Big Four began to shift.

Eventually, it became the Big Six.

Now it's no longer clear who counts as a member from year to year.

All the while, the economics of world soccer were shifting at hyper-speed. Ten years ago, the most paid for a soccer player was the £80-million Real Madrid forked over to United for Cristiano Ronaldo (in retrospect, the first of what would become a steady series of surrenders). At the time, Ronaldo was 24 and arguably the best soccer player in the world.

This summer, four players went for at least that much. The most expensive of them, Joao Felix, is a teenager who has played only one season in Portugal's Primeira Liga. Atletico Madrid paid $180-million for what is effectively a flyer. That's what now counts as budget-conscious shopping.

Everyone has had to radically reconsider what qualifies as affordable. The biggest spenders of all remain Spain's royal couple - Real and Barcelona. Both clubs are owned by fan-controlled trusts. They spend what they earn, giving their eminence equilibrium. But, thanks to its enormous broadcast contracts, the Premier League is the only one in the world in which just about everyone can afford to splash out big numbers. In all, 20 teams spent $2.25-billion this summer.

That amount does not include salaries, which are rising like an out-of-control hot-air balloon.

Two events of recent years have emboldened the herd. United's long fall from prominence proved nothing lasts forever. In 2015-6, 5000-to-1 long shot Leicester won the Premier League, proving miracles do in fact happen.

The two black swans taken together flipped the internal calculus of every club. The good ones could no longer afford to take a financial breather for a season or two and still feel certain of earning a Champions League place.

The mediocre ones could no longer convince fans that good enough was good enough.

A stable ecosystem of buyers and sellers became a chaotic one made up entirely of buyers. United hasn't just been squeezed out of the market by the Bayerns and Paris Saint-Germains of the world. United is now now competing with the West Hams and Watfords.

Now everyone believes they can win. If not a title, then at least enough to better their station. Every competitor is all in, all the time.

In North America, we've grown used to the dreary up-down, contend-rebuild cycle that sports franchises have convinced us is inevitable. The advantage to business is obvious - teams can tightly control costs while simultaneously feeding fans a line about needing to lose in order to win (see under: Toronto Blue Jays).

Premier League teams have no such luxury. Their contending moment is right now, year in, year out, an absolute constant.

The relegation model gives the whole thing a Hunger Games feel.

One awful month won't just ruin your year. It might kill your club for a decade.

A while back, the superlative most often applied to the EPL was that it was the most watched sports league in the world.

Thanks to the intruding hand of the market, and to a disastrous chain of decisions by Manchester United, it is now indisputably also the world's best.

Associated Graphic

Man United finished sixth last year and took no trophies - one of its worst results in 30 years. Paul Pogba, centre, the club's best player, made it clear he wanted to leave but didn't get his wish and is set to return the club, Cathal Kelly writes.

PAKAWICH DAMRONGKIATTISAK/GETTY IMAGES

With a meltdown looming, the spotlight is squarely on the Leafs
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page S1


TORONTO -- If the Toronto Maple Leafs managed anything significant last season, it was proving they know how to play the Spartacus game.

After the whole thing had imploded again, everyone was in a great rush to stand up and take their licks. It was widely agreed that the pivotal error was allowing William Nylander's contract negotiation to bleed into midseason. That needless drama unsettled everyone and everything.

"The blame for the situation going that far has to go to me," general manager Kyle Dubas said afterward. "I just wish that I had been here from the beginning," Nylander said.

Unfortunately, they were not in the same room as they said it, so could not do so while hugging each other and weeping softly.

Once those cathartic moments of responsibility taking were over, it was on to Mitch Marner and doing the exact same thing all over again.

What's up with Marner, the team's standout individual last campaign? Who knows? He isn't signed. He cannot currently be signed, owing to his own demands and the limitations of the salary cap. He may be signed on Day 1 of the season once space is cleared by pushing broken pieces of the roster off the books, but that's not certain. This could be Nylander Redux, albeit with a more important player in a far more important season.

In April, after they'd been shrugged off by the Boston Bruins, the Leafs had finally used up all of their rebuilding mulligans - and they'd taken a few. No more easy rides in the media. No more pulling a sad face and expecting fans to forgive them.

Their options for the 2019-20 season were reduced to three: a) win something meaningful; b) lose and start pushing bodies overboard; or c) lose and return to the cycle of excuses and decline that was once the operating principle of this organization.

In June, the Raptors won an NBA championship and it got worse.

In terms of unlikely accomplishments, this was like flying a hang-glider to the moon. An NBA team labours under essentially the same regime as an NHL club - 30-or-so competitors, salary cap, draft system.

But compared with the Leafs, the Raptors have several structural disadvantages - no top picks; no pull with free agents; no widespread local affinity for the game (and if you're throwing up a corrective finger on that last one, we won't know if things have really changed until next spring).

Despite these disadvantages, the Raptors won anyway. And so it should now be asked, why can't the Leafs do that, too?

In July, Kawhi Leonard left. That was bad news for the Raptors. It was a nightmare for the Leafs.

In another world - the one in which Leonard stays - the Raptors soak up all the attention next April. The Leafs will always be the Leafs in this town, but deep in their tortured sports souls, Torontonians are front-runners.

They'd have stuck with the proven winner.

Last June, the Leafs PR department visited an NBA Finals game at Scotiabank Arena. They were trying to get a feel for the logistics of the occasion.

"Can you imagine how crazy it would be if both teams were in a final right now?" one of them said to me.

Not any more, I can't. The Leafs are the only championship-calibre outfit left in town. Just as expectations shot off the charts, the Leafs lost the only other team that was out there running interference for them.

So based on nothing but feel, how is Toronto doing this off-season?

The team has made some moves, throwing out expired or defective materials (Patrick Marleau, Nazem Kadri, Jake Gardiner, et al.)

and returning some top-end defensive help (Tyson Barrie). That's an aggregate good.

These should be boom times. With less than a month to go before the beginning of training camp, we should be hearing a lot of excited chatter about next year. Mostly, what you hear out there is a nervous silence.

A few things are dampening enthusiasm - history, both recent and ancient; the Raptors hangover; the pervading sense of doom that is as much a part of Leafs mystique as Stompin' Tom or Bill Barilko.

But the big problem is the Marner situation and its echoes of the Nylander fiasco. It is the sense that even when the Leafs get things right, they eventually find a way to turn them wrong.

As yet, there's no rush to blame Marner for wanting to maximize his value. Nobody's pillorying Dubas for being unable to give Marner money he doesn't have to give him. When no one was looking, Leafs fans got reasonable.

But wait for it. The meltdown is coming. In Toronto, it always is.

If the Leafs feel like anything right now, it is a band that's talking about breaking up and going solo because it made the cover of Rolling Stone, but hasn't yet had a No. 1 album.

Some outfits are too big to fail. The Leafs feel like one that is too big to succeed. They will feel like that until the moment they do.

If Marner signs once the season begins, all will be forgiven again. Right up until he goes eight games without a goal or the team loses five in a row - things that will probably happen at some point. If Toronto's permanent hockey hysteria gets hold of the narrative early, it will not let go. Too many things have gone squirrelly in the last little while for people to apply rationality to the situation.

We know to something close to a certainty that the Leafs will face either the Bruins or Tampa Bay Lightning in the first round next year. One can already envision the pent-up anxiety that will attend either match up The Bruins have history backing them up.

The Lightning have the best man-for-man roster in the NHL. And the Leafs have a few million people standing behind them with a finger in their back saying, "I dare you to screw this up." The next eight months are all a prelim to that moment.

If it works out, there will finally be joy in Mudville. But right now, you'd have to say that Mudville is preparing itself for the other thing.

Associated Graphic

If the Leafs don't sign Mitch Marner soon they could run into the same woes they had last year after William Nylander missed the start of the season, Cathal Kelly says.

CLAUS ANDERSEN/GETTY IMAGES

Canadian Liu set to make history
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When the 12-year-old amateur tees off on Thursday, she'll be the youngest player to compete in the CP Women's Open, smashing the record set by Henderson, who played in 2012 at 14 years old
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By JEFF BROOKE
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B10


AURORA, ONT. -- Michelle Liu got a big hug from Lydia Ko and advice from Christina Kim, and she met some of her other golfing idols that she had only seen previously on TV, including Canadian superstar Brooke Henderson and Ariya Jutanugarn. It's been a special week already for the 12-year-old from Vancouver and the golf hasn't even begun.

Liu is the youngest player in the CP Women's Open this week at Magna Golf Club in Aurora.

When she tees off Thursday at 12 years, nine months, six days, she'll also be the youngest in the national championship's history, smashing the record for precociousness set by Henderson, who played in 2012 as a 14-year-old.

"I'd definitely say crazy is a good word for it," Liu said Tuesday with a wide smile that showed off her braces.

It's quite an accomplishment for the slight, fivefoot preteen who hasn't yet begun Grade 8 at the private all-girls school, Crofton House, she attends in Vancouver. But it seems like almost a natural extension of the rapid progress she's making in the game.

Liu isn't a ceremonial golfer this week, gifted a spot in the field as a gimmick.

She earned her way in by finishing as the low Canadian at the Canadian Women's Amateur in Red Deer, Alta., in late July.

She placed 12th over all in the championship but, more important, was one stroke better than the nearest Canadian - Quebec's Brigitte Thibault, a member of the national amateur team who represented the country at the inaugural Augusta National Women's Amateur this spring.

Liu's accomplishment adds to a playing record that also includes winning her age category at both the IMG Junior and the U.S. Kids Golf world championships, two majors in junior golf, in 2017. In one round at this year's IMG, held in San Diego and area, she shot eight-under-par 65, a course record.

"It exceeds my expectations," her mother, Jenny Xu, said Tuesday, walking outside the ropes, under an IMG Junior World umbrella and watching her daughter play a practice round with Daniela Darquea of Ecuador. "She's really grown and improved lately and I'm very proud of her."

(The family cheering section will grow as the week goes on with the addition of Liu's grandmother, who is flying in from China to see her granddaughter play for the first time in two years, and Liu's father.)

A day earlier, Liu joined the gregarious Kim and M.J. Hur in her first trip around Magna.

"I think I really got to learn something from them," Liu said, "and I especially [appreciated] how warm and welcoming they were to me."

Fans have also been kind to her. She said she's been approached for autographs.

"I feel like I'm getting pretty famous," she said, laughing.

"It's a new experience for me, so I would say that's definitely pretty cool."

When she's been on the practice range this week, she has met LPGA Tour regulars in between hitting shots under the watchful eye of Rob Houlding, her coach since almost the time she began the game at the age of 6. Liu's visit with Henderson included getting a picture together.

Henderson saw glimpses of herself, a former amateur phenom who played in (and even won) professional events before she joined the LPGA Tour as a rookie in 2015.

"Very sweet girl," Henderson said. "It's pretty cool that she got an invite here. I played my first event [the CP Women's Open] when I was 14 and it was lifechanging.

"I learned so many great experiences from it. Met a lot of pros, which was pretty cool. I was pretty star-struck. I think maybe if she can get past that and just try to play her game, that would be best."

Houlding, whose students at his Richmond, B.C., academy include other high-performing juniors, will also serve as Liu's caddy this week, if nothing else to give her a sense of normalcy. His student's prodigious talent might be still limited by her size (although she has grown three inches or four inches this year and is hitting the ball farther) but she has something rare, he said.

"Her mind is way ahead of everyone else's," Houlding noted, calling her patient, driven to perfection and mature beyond her years.

Liu followed her older sister Lucy and friends into the game (Lucy plays on the women's varsity team at Yale University) and she practises every day except Monday for three or four hours at Houlding's academy or at her home club Shaughnessy, which coincidentally is set to be the site of the CP Women's Open next year. Houlding added she's extremely good at organizing and managing her time.

But there's more to the Vancouver girl than just golf. She said she enjoys basketball and volleyball as well as art. She has competed in a national debating competition in the United States and, with a couple of friends, started a charity, the Hope for Girls Foundation, to help impoverished children in the Guangxi province of China get an education. They raise money through bake sales. She also has a goal to make a web comic.

Those pursuits can wait at least a week, though. One more day of practice awaits Wednesday, then it's game time for the first round Thursday and her LPGA Tour debut. Although playing as an amateur she is not eligible to take home any prize money.

"Probably still pretty nervous," Liu said of her expected state by Thursday. "But I would say it's just a matter of simplifying it [the game] to each shot instead of thinking too much about who is watching, what's going on, that sort of stuff."

Associated Graphic

Twelve-year-old Canadian Michelle Liu, right, plays a practice round with Ecuador's Daniela Darquea ahead of the CP Women's Open in Aurora, Ont., on Tuesday.

NATHAN DENETTE/THE CANADIAN PRESS

In his Astros debut, Sanchez makes a mockery of the Blue Jays
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Monday, August 5, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B9


TORONTO -- After throwing six innings of a combined no-hitter in his debut for the Houston Astros on Saturday night, Aaron Sanchez said, "You can't write it up any better than this."

No, probably not. As long as the genre is horror.

When the Toronto Blue Jays traded Sanchez on Wednesday, they were trusting him to do a few things in Texas. First, be mediocre. Second, lose a few more (he'd come out on the wrong end of 13 successive decisions at that point). Third and most important, be inconspicuous.

Sanchez decided instead to humiliate his former team in the most hurtful way possible.

A few days ago, the Jays looked simple.

Thanks to Sanchez, they now look ridiculous.

The glass-half-full way of considering the Jays currently is that they know something the rest of us don't. Sure, the roster may resemble the stock-market floor an hour after the crash, but that's only because we cannot see the totality of the grand plan.

That plan - which is never quite articulated beyond phrases such as "years of control" - is rooted in talent evaluation.

Player X may seem to you better than Player Y, but the Jays are here to tell you that certain complicated baseball matters should be left to the experts. Still at issue is who, precisely, all these experts are.

In attempting to rationalize trading Sanchez, reliever Joe Biagini (who also pitched an inning of that no-hitter) and a prospect for a nearly 26-year-old Triple-A outfielder, Jays general manager Ross Atkins opted for Scoutspeak instead of English.

Atkins listed off Derek Fisher's physical attributes with such fawning admiration that it sounded as though he were punching up the guy's Tinder profile. The word "handedness" featured so often in multiple interviews that it began to lose all meaning.

The unfortunate part of working in sports is that you can't spend your career going around a boardroom table saying "handedness" over and over again, and congratulating one another on being geniuses. Eventually, your thought experiments must be tested in the field.

In his Houston debut, Sanchez pitched pretty close to the best game of his life. On the same night, Fisher went to field a popup in shallow right field, misjudged it disastrously and got hit in the face with the ball.

Sanchez ended his evening by leading off ESPN's SportsCenter.

Fisher ended his by going to the hospital. So much for those magical hands.

Just as knowing how to drive should be a prerequisite for becoming a driving instructor, I'd be so bold as to suggest that being able to spot talent in your own midst - like, you've been living with the guy for six years - is a basic requirement for calling yourself a talent evaluator.

Another important element is that your talent evaluations turn out. Jays management is having some issues there as well.

Despite all the horse trading they've done in the past few years, not a single one of those transactions is an undeniable win. I'm not talking about this guy being a little better than that guy. I'm talking a Josh Donaldson trade, one in which you saw that what someone else considered garbage was in fact gold, and then convinced them to give you that gold for real garbage.

The only Jays players anybody wants are the ones Atkins and team president Mark Shapiro inherited from the Alex Anthopoulos regime. All Atkins and Shapiro have managed in four years on the job is a flurry of activity, thus far adding up to uniform mediocrity.

They were right about one thing. This isn't a rebuild. Instead, it is redecoration.

A rebuild's goal is radical improvement. A redecoration's goal is moving a bunch of furniture around in order to end up with the same room, only one that looks a little different.

A rebuild suggests moving to a low point as quickly as possible and, from then on, showing constant progress. Redecoration confuses change for enhancement.

It's too late to turn this redecoration into a rebuild. Talent evaluation hasn't worked. We've all been evaluating the talent together for a couple of years. It's not very talented.

And now, sadly, there is no one left to trade. Sad for Blue Jays fans and sad for the Astros. Houston was two more deals with the Jays away from becoming the 1927 Yankees.

There is only one way out of the bind all the big brains on Level 300 have put the Jays in: spending a lot more.

In the hierarchy of words you can say around a boardroom table at the Rogers Centre, if "control" is the most holy, "spending" would be the most profane. That concept is so verboten that the Jays can't even allude to it without squirming.

Here's Atkins on another deadline giveaway, Marcus Stroman, and whether they had discussed a contract extension: "It felt as if the gap was too big for us to continue." How, exactly, does one "feel" something about a contract gap? Either you want to spend the money, or you don't. So say that.

According to Stroman, the Jays never made him any sort of offer.

It must be a real work of emotional labour to feel something about a price discrepancy when you haven't yet been quoted a price.

What the Jays actually felt was that they didn't want Stroman at any cost, because that would mean spending money. Which they are not allowed to talk about, much less do.

This all adds up to an insoluble conundrum.

It's not just that they don't have the right players and won't pay for the right players. With the proper application of time, pressure and money, those are solvable difficulties.

It's that the Jays don't seem to know what the right players look like. No amount of boardroom sophistry can solve that problem.

Hometown champ Andreescu takes a breather as she plots next steps
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By RACHEL BRADY
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Tuesday, August 13, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


TORONTO -- Bianca Andreescu celebrated her Rogers Cup title on Sunday with a quiet night at home in Thornhill, Ont., alongside her parents and some Japanese takeout food.

That was after it took the 19year-old four hours to leave York University's Aviva Centre grounds after a final that made her the first Canadian female champion in 50 years.

It had been an emotionally draining match, despite it only lasting 20 minutes before Serena Williams retired with a back injury. Andreescu had countless stops to make after her big victory, throughout the back hallways of the tennis centre where she spent many hours as a kid building her game.

After her tearful on-court exchange with Williams, and the trophy presentation, Andreescu did a long list of interviews. She visited a room full of Rogers Cup ball kids, who erupted into a frenzied chant for her that shook the downstairs hallways of Centre Court stadium. She then went to unveil her new name strip on the Rogers Cup champions wall before attending a reception for the tournament volunteers and whooping them up with a speech.

After six matches in Toronto in six days - 141/2 sets in all - Andreescu and her coach Sylvain Bruneau had to then sit down to discuss her next move. She was due to play her opening-round match at the Cincinnati Masters on Monday. It was the same decision they faced after she played several gruelling matches en route to her first WTA title, at Indian Wells in March. Back then she chose to roll right into the next tournament. She then wound up missing nine weeks to rehab an injured shoulder.

"I've had a tough week playing so many three-setters, and I wanted to listen to my body and not make the same mistake I made at Indian Wells," Andreescu told The Globe and Mail on Monday, explaining her decision to pull out of Cincinnati. "I know now that I need to schedule my tournaments a little better. I'm learning as I go." Andreescu jumped up to No. 14 in Monday's newest WTA Tour world rankings, and to No. 8 in the Race to Shenzhen rankings, which will determine the eight players who get to compete in the year-end WTA Finals.

She said she will stay in Toronto and take two or three days off tennis - including some celebrations with her friends. Then she's scheduled to play an exhibition match at the Aurora Games in Albany, N.Y., before tuning up for the next Grand Slam.

"The U.S Open is right around the corner," she said. "New York is one of my favourite cities and I can't wait [to] get back there. I think I have a great shot of doing really, really well there." The tennis world will be hoping to see Andreescu and Williams face off again - to see them finish what they started in the tooshort Rogers Cup final.

Williams retired after just four games, making Andreescu the champ by default. Andreescu then turned an awkward moment into a heartwarming one, walking right over to the teary, disheartened 37-year-old champion of 23 Grand Slams and taking her hands, hugging her and gushing over how much she admired her. She told her she could relate to how it feels to make that agonizing call to end a match.

"I'm a pretty outgoing person and I'm not shy at all, and I knew what to say to her because I truly felt for her so much after what I've experienced with injuries in my short career. I told her that she's a beast [and] she's gonna bounce back," Andreescu said.

"Just having that little conversation with her meant so much to me.

"I got her to crack a smile, so that made me feel really good."

Andreescu said the shoulder held up very well throughout the Rogers Cup, and she's not worried about the groin that nagged her during the tournament. For at least a few more nights, she will wake up in her own bed in Thornhill.

"I've never found another bed like that anywhere. I've slept amazing every night," she said.

"What a week it's been. There's no place like home."

Associated Graphic

After winning the Rogers Cup title on Sunday, Bianca Andreescu has dropped out of the Western & Southern Open, which means she'll get a few more nights of rest in her own bed.

VAUGHN RIDLEY/GETTY IMAGES

Lakers centre Cousins diagnosed with ACL tear
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By TIM REYNOLDS
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B12


EL SEGUNDO, CALIF. -- DeMarcus Cousins is now facing rehab from another major injury, and the Los Angeles Lakers have endured their first big problem of a season with championship expectations.

Cousins was diagnosed Thursday with a torn ACL in his left knee, an injury that could sideline the six-time all-star big man for much - if not all - of this coming season. Cousins's agent, Jeff Schwartz of Excel Sports Management, said a timeline for surgery is being discussed.

Cousins got hurt earlier this week in a workout in Las Vegas. The ACL tear comes about 18 months after he ruptured his left Achilles, and roughly four months after he tore his left quadriceps muscle.

Those previous injuries cost him a lot of games and a lot of money.

This injury is only going to add to those totals.

"He was going to be a big part of what we're going to do," Lakers forward Kyle Kuzma said after USA Basketball practice at the Lakers' facility on Thursday, shortly after the severity of Cousins's injury was confirmed.

The Achilles tear preceded Cousins's 2018 trip to free agency, one where he could have commanded a multiyear deal exceeding US$100-million. He wound up having to sign a one-year, US$5.3-million contract with Golden State.

And this summer, again after dealing with injury, Cousins had to settle for much less than the going rate for someone averaging more than 20 points and 10 rebounds a game for his career. He signed with the Lakers on another one-year deal, this time for US$3.5-million.

"I've told y'all before I don't take any of this for granted," Cousins said in June, during the NBA Finals in which he and the Warriors lost in six games to the Toronto Raptors. "I've seen how quick this game can be taken away from you. So every chance I get to go out there and play, I'm going to leave it on the floor."

This could have been a massive year for Cousins, who was going to get a chance to play with LeBron James and reunite with his former New Orleans teammate Anthony Davis with the Lakers - a team with major aspirations after an off-season roster overhaul.

A big year could have set Cousins up for a significant contract next summer. It's unclear now if he'll play at all before he returns to the open market.

The Lakers, even without Cousins, still figure to have more than enough talent to end a stretch of six consecutive seasons without a playoff berth, by far the longest such run in franchise history.

James returns after an injury-marred season where he averaged 27.4 points, 8.5 rebounds and 8.3 assists. Davis - a six-time all-star and three-time All-NBA performer - was acquired in a blockbuster trade with New Orleans, JaVale McGee and Rajon Rondo were re-signed, and Danny Green chose to sign with the Lakers for two years and US$30-million after helping Toronto win the NBA title.

But without Cousins, there is a bit of a void on the Lakers' roster as far as centre.

Among current Lakers, only Davis and McGee have spent any significant time in their careers at that position.

"It's no joke when you get injured," Kuzma said. "This is our livelihood and is something that we love to do. It's super unfortunate for a guy like DeMarcus. You can tell how much he loves basketball through all these injuries - he's fought back and tried to get back as early as possible. That's kind of how the ball goes sometimes."

Cousins has averaged 21.2 points and 10.9 rebounds over parts of nine NBA seasons with Sacramento, New Orleans and Golden State. Cousins is one of only 11 players in NBA history to average that many points and rebounds per game in a career, a list that includes two other active players - Minnesota's Karl-Anthony Towns and Philadelphia's Joel Embiid.

Wimbledon sensation Gauff gets U.S. Open wild card at 15 years old
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By HOWARD FENDRICH
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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B11


Coco Gauff will get a chance to try for an encore: The 15-year-old from Florida received a wild-card entry Tuesday for the U.S. Open's main draw.

It will be Gauff's second Grand Slam tournament.

She made a magical run to the fourth round at Wimbledon last month after getting a wild card into the qualifying rounds there.

Ranked just 313th at the time, Gauff became the youngest player to qualify for Wimbledon, upset five-time champion Venus Williams in the first round and wound up losing at the All England Club to eventual title winner Simona Halep.

Gauff is currently No. 140 in the WTA rankings. She initially made a mark at the age of 13 by becoming the youngest U.S. Open junior finalist in history; she won the French Open junior title at 14 years old.

Age restrictions set up by the women's professional tour limit the number of tournaments someone who is 15 can enter and the number of wild-card invitations she can be offered - and Gauff already has accepted three wild cards elsewhere.

But according to the WTA, the U.S.

Tennis Association - which runs a Grand Slam tournament, and so is not overseen by the WTA or ATP tours - essentially can choose to ignore the eligibility rule and offer Gauff a wild card.

"I want to thank the USTA for the opportunity to participate in my home slam," Gauff said in a statement e-mailed by her agent. "I look forward to playing my first main draw at the U.S. Open."

Among the other players receiving wild cards from the USTA on Tuesday for the women's field at Flushing Meadows in New York were 2011 U.S. Open champion Sam Stosur - an Australian who was granted that country's reciprocal berth - and 17-year-old Caty McNally, an American who won the doubles title with Gauff and reached the singles semi-finals at the Citi Open in Washington this month.

Gauff and McNally have said they plan to play doubles together at Flushing Meadows; that event's wild-card entries will be announced later. The pair won the U.S. Open junior doubles trophy together a year ago.

The draw for the U.S. Open is Aug. 22, and play in the year's last major tennis tournament begins Aug. 26.

Other women's wild cards went to Francesca Di Lorenzo, Whitney Osuigwe, Kristie Ahn and Katie Volynets of the U.S., along with 16-year-old Diane Parry of France, who got her country's reciprocal invitation.

Di Lorenzo, a 22-year-old from Ohio, is a past NCAA doubles champion now ranked 128th.

Osuigwe, a 17-year-old from Florida, won a French Open junior title and is ranked 105th. Ahn, a 27-year-old from New Jersey, finished first in the USTA's wild-card challenge, while Volynets, a 17year-old from California, won the 18s national championship.

Nine wild cards for women's qualifying were also awarded, including to five-time Grand Slam doubles champion Bethanie Mattek-Sands, 14-year-old Reese Brantmeier of Wisconsin, Vicky Duval, Shelby Rogers and Pan American Games medalist Caroline Dolehide.

Denis Kudla, a 26-year-old from Virginia who was the highest-ranked man to miss out on making the U.S. Open field through direct acceptance, was among the men's wild-card entries.

Others getting into the main draw include Americans Jack Sock, Bjorn Fratangelo, Marcos Giron, USTA wild-card challenge winner Ernesto Escobedo and 18s national champion Zachary Svajda, along with Antoine Hoang, who got France's reciprocal entry. The Australian federation has not announced who will get its men's wild-card invitation.

Men awarded wild cards for qualifying include Sebastian Korda, son of 1998 Australian Open champion Petr Korda, and last year's 18s national champion, Jenson Brooksby.

Is the federal carbon tax really a nightmare for small businesses?
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By BRIAN MILNER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B3


To hear small-business opponents of the federal carbon tax tell it, they are among the leading casualties of an ill-considered, poorly designed effort by the Trudeau government to burnish its climate-change credentials at the expense of economic growth, jobs and the profits of hard-working entrepreneurs.

Rents, fuel, processing, shipping and other costs will rise and already thin margins will suffer in a slowing economy, in which competitive pressures make it tough to pass on increases to customers. To add insult to injury, small businesses will have to earmark additional capital for approved emission-reduction measures in order to qualify for government rebates that will cover only a fraction of their costs.

The Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) calculates that small business accounts for almost 50 per cent of all carbon-tax revenue, but Ottawa is returning only 7 per cent through rebates.

"We've been talking loudly about the unfairness of the current system," says Corinne Pohlmann, the CFIB's senior vicepresident, national affairs. "There's a lot more given back to the individual taxpayer.

[Small business] owners feel like they're the ones paying the freight."

It's too early to gauge the impact of the federal tax, which came into effect April 1 in four provinces - Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario and New Brunswick - with either no carbon plan of their own or one that failed to meet federal guidelines. Alberta will be joining the club Jan. 1 after newly elected Premier Jason Kenney pulled the plug on an existing program.

But economic analyses and evidence gathered elsewhere indicate that the fears of small business aren't necessarily grounded in reality.

"There's definitely a lot of scare-mongering about the potential impact of these carbon prices," says Leigh Raymond, a political science professor at Purdue University in Indiana, who studies the politics involved in market-based policies to reduce carbon emissions. "The impacts are not zero, but they're far from the most fearful [predictions]."

Additional taxes of any kind typically lead to higher consumer prices as businesses pass whatever costs they can down the food chain, which Ottawa has figured into its plan to return 90 per cent of the carbon take to individuals through tax credits.

Price-sensitive industries such as construction are bound to take a hit. And the higher costs will inevitably be passed on to general contractors, developers and ultimately those buying or leasing the spaces.

The tax will also dampen exports, business investment and economic growth, but only slightly, according to an assessment by the Conference Board of Canada.

"These changes are small," says Michael Burt, executive director with the Conference Board. "For example, assuming an $80-per-ton carbon tax in 2025, we find that consumer prices would be 1.4 per cent higher, employment would be 11,000 jobs lower and GDP would be 0.08 per cent lower at that time."

And these modest negatives would be offset by increased investment in cleanenergy technologies and infrastructure as the tax revenues are recycled back into the economy.

The board's forecast is based on an assumption that only half the carbon-tax haul would be returned through tax breaks and that Ottawa and the provincial governments with their own versions of carbon pricing would spend the rest on new programs.

The federal levy, which is currently pegged at $20 a ton, is set to rise to $50 by 2022 - about 11.5 cents on a litre of gasoline.

The government insists it will be frozen at that level if the Liberals win re-election in October. The opposition Conservatives have vowed to eliminate the tax if they prevail at the polls, turning carbon pricing into a key election issue.

In British Columbia, which imposed the first carbon tax in North America in 2008, "anecdotal evidence suggests the policy is a success - achieving large reductions in pollution at relatively modest cost to the economy," says an academic paper released last fall by a trio of environmental economists - Hendrik Wolff of Simon Fraser University, Akio Yamazaki of the University of Calgary and Deven Azevedo, a graduate student at the London School of Economics.

Their research into the employment impact of the B.C. tax found that it has indeed caused some pain for larger players in energy-intensive and trade-focused industries. But it has actually boosted jobs in smaller service and manufacturing businesses operating in such sectors as health, food, tourism and apparel.

Income-tax cuts and direct rebates introduced alongside the B.C. carbon levy - it was originally designed to be revenue-neutral - "increased the purchasing power of low-income households, benefiting locally operating businesses," the study found.

No one questions that it's politically hard "to increase what we might call pocketbook costs to constituents," even when those increases are relatively small, says Prof. Raymond, who has examined carbon-pricing efforts in Canada and several U.S. states.

"So things like fuel surcharges are salient. The polity pays a lot of attention to them. Any kind of policy that might increase those prices is likely to be more challenging."

Governments, he adds, "need to think carefully about who's going to bear the costs and what they're going to do with that revenue to be convincing that what they're doing is useful and that they're also going to help people cope with economic pressures they might feel." That, insist the small-business lobby and other critics of the tax, is where Ottawa gets poor marks.

CFIB members are "highly supportive" of efforts to reduce carbon emissions, Ms.

Pohlmann says. "It's not a question of being opposed to doing what they can to reduce their carbon footprint. It's the regime that's been set up ... that's causing a lot of anxiety for small-business owners."

Ottawa belatedly announced two carbon-tax rebate programs for small business at the end of May, totalling $1.4-billion over four years to cover up to half the costs of investing in energy-saving equipment and appliances.

"It took a while, to be honest, to get the details right," federal Environment Minister Catherine McKenna said at the time.

"We wanted very practical things that will help small businesses save money."

Business operators are still waiting to learn how the subsidy programs will be implemented, Ms. Pohlmann says. "There's very little information and you have to invest your own money in order to get back money you put into the carbon tax."

There is plenty of criticism from all sides over the way the government has designed the tax, says Catherine Abreu, executive director of Climate Action Network Canada, who laments the fact climate change has turned into "such a polarized political topic right now."

The tax "is a product of compromises that the government has made to stakeholders. So it's not perfect. But it's really important, because once something's in place, you have the opportunity over time to adjust it so that it works better for the people who are affected by it."

Putting a price on carbon, Ms. Abreu says, is just one piece of the climate-change puzzle.

Part of what carbon pricing is meant to do is incentivize the private sector to pursue innovative methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. That helps businesses operate more efficiently. "But it also potentially creates the space for them to be a more cutting-edge player in this new kind of economy," she says.

Cannabis, crypto and connections: Wayland Group's shifting fortunes
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By TIM KILADZE, MARK RENDELL
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Monday, August 19, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


A warning sign of fresh trouble for Wayland Group Corp. came to light in late April.

Once one of Canada's most promising cannabis companies, Wayland announced on April 23 that it likely wouldn't file its 2018 financial statements on time. A week later, it confirmed the delay, prompting the Ontario Securities Commission (OSC) to place a cease trade order on its shares.

For months, the company was quiet.

But in the dying minutes of Friday, August 2, as most of the country was settling in to a midsummer long weekend, Wayland sent out an unexpected news release.

Its chief executive had resigned, its auditor had quit - and there still weren't any financial statements.

Instead, Wayland announced a deal to sell its Canadian assets to a cryptocurrency company and revealed discussions to sell its remaining international business to ICC International Cannabis Corp., an early stage company built by junior mining financiers.

Altogether, the proposed deals and departures paint a landscape in which Wayland would effectively cease to exist. If the deals go through, the developments will mark an abrupt end for one of the first licensed commercial marijuana growers in Canada, a company that has faced operational problems, regulatory probes and criticisms of overly promotional activities.

Wayland plans to sell its Canadian assets, which include a production facility in Langton, Ont., to Cryptologic Corp.

The buyer is a relatively small cryptocurrency miner that lost $74-million in fiscal 2018 after writing down two acquisitions. Until July 31, the company was known as Vogogo Inc., and at the time of its name change, management said in a news release that the "rebranding emphasizes the company's focus on cryptocurrency mining."

Two days later, Cryptologic offered to buy Wayland and to pivot to cannabis.

Many of Cryptologic's backers come from the online gambling industry, where some helped build Amaya Inc. The name Cryptologic even appears to have been recycled: Cryptologic Inc. was an online gambling company acquired by Amaya in 2012.

Three Cryptologic shareholders - Yoel Altman, John Vettese and Craig Bridgman - were also shareholders of a private company called NanoLeaf Technologies Inc.

that was acquired by Wayland in 2017 for $38.5-million in stock.

Cryptologic's takeover structure is complicated. The company has offered to pay for Wayland's Canadian assets by issuing 57.5 million of its shares at $4 apiece. However, Cryptologic shares closed at $1.99 on the Canadian Securities Exchange on Friday, meaning the company is offering a theoretical value for its shares.

It is the same tactic that Green Growth Brands Ltd. used in its recent unsuccessful takeover takeover bid for Aphria Inc. In December, Green Growth proposed to acquire Aphria "based on a valuation of $7 a share" of Green Growth, yet at the time the offer was announced the buyer's shares were worth $4.98 each.

There is another parallel between the Green Growth and Cryptologic offers: Mr.Altman and Mr. Bridgman have ties to both companies. Mr. Altman has been a principal of Green Growth, and Mr. Bridgman has been a shareholder in the company, according to regulatory filings.

In an e-mail, Cryptologic CEO John FitzGerald said the offer price took into account that Cryptologic committed to providing Wayland with a bridge loan and to having cash available to fund the merged company's growth - implying that these developments will boost Cryptologic's value, and therefore its share price, in the long run.

He also said that, if the deal is completed, he will step down as CEO and the company will be run by current chief financial officer Jordan Greenberg, who cut his teeth in the cannabis space with Nuuvera Inc., a development-stage company that was acquired by Aphria only three months after going public.

As for the shareholders with ties to both the company that Wayland acquired in 2017 and to Cryptologic, Mr. Vettese, who is a corporate lawyer at Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP, wrote in an e-mail that he "had no involvement whatsoever" in the proposed Cryptologic/Wayland transaction. "I first became aware of the proposed transaction after it was publicly announced," he wrote.

Mr. Altman and Mr. Bridgman did not return multiple requests for comment.

If completed, Wayland's other proposed deal, to sell the rest of its international assets to ICC, would see the company sell its majority stake in a business whose prized asset is one of only three companies licensed to grow medical marijuana in Germany.

Wayland already sold ICC a 49.9-percent stake in its international portfolio in an all-share deal that valued the stake in the portfolio at US$129-million when it was announced in January. Today, the shares Wayland received in return are worth US$19.5-million, after an 87-per-cent drop in ICC's share price.

Canadian-run hedge fund MMCap International Inc. was the largest shareholder of both Wayland and ICC in early 2019, according to regulatory filings. Its current position in both firms is unknown.

Both the ICC and Cryptologic deals are being negotiated against a backdrop of turmoil at Wayland.

On Aug. 2, Wayland disclosed that MNP LLP had resigned as its auditor, adding that MNP said "there is an unresolved issue ... relating to the conduct of the company's former CEO in respect of the audit of the company's 2018 annual financial statements."

MNP did not elaborate on the matter, and the audit firm declined to comment for this story.

Asked about the unresolved issue, former CEO Ben Ward declined to comment, but in an interview he said he expects the audit to be completed in due course. He added that he has effectively been out of the company since June.

Wayland's new CEO, Matthew McLeod, declined to comment for this story.

The development comes after a series of blows in 2017 and early 2018 that changed Wayland's trajectory.

Licensed in 2014, the company, then known as Maricann Group Inc., was one of the first to receive approval from Health Canada to grow cannabis as part of the federal government's commercial medicalmarijuana system.

Yet in March, 2017, a windstorm hit the company's Ontario production facility, destroying crops in two of its five greenhouses. At the time, Wayland was preparing to go public on the Canadian Securities Exchange, and it began trading in April, 2017, but the company did not disclose the damage done by the storm until months later, in September.

A few months later, in February, 2018, the company came under scrutiny from the OSC for failing to disclose to investors that Mr. Ward was the subject of an OSC investigation for his actions at a previous company.

The OSC also opened an investigation that month into two directors of the company - former chairman Julian Neil Tabatznik and Raymond Stone - who sold about $8-million worth of shares days before the company announced a $70-million financing in late January, 2018.

Both Mr. Tabatznik and Mr. Stone resigned from the board, and in early March, 2018, a syndicate of investment banks, led by Eight Capital and Canaccord Genuity, cancelled the financing altogether.

An OSC investigation into the two directors was closed in September, 2018, with no further action taken. The OSC investigation into Mr. Ward is continuing.

After the failed share sale, Wayland's stock price collapsed throughout 2018, and management spent heavily to promote the company. In 2018, Wayland paid investorrelations firms more than $4.5-million, half in cash, half in shares, to promote its stock. On three occasions that year the OTC Markets Group, which manages the over-the-counter trading platform where Wayland's shares trade in the United States, ordered the company to issue clarifying statements about misleading promotional material.

Mr. Ward dismissed any suggestions of wrongdoing. "I'd frame it as industry norm, industry standard," he said in the interview. "It's a way to get your message out and gain liquidity for investors."

Despite the efforts, the share price never recovered, dropping to $0.74 on the CSE before it was cease traded, down from a high of $4.25. Wayland's stock continues to trade over-the-counter in the U.S., where it closed at 20 US cents on Friday.

CANNABIS PROFESSIONAL This story first appeared in Cannabis Professional, the authoritative news service tailored specifically for professionals in the rapidly evolving cannabis industry. To subscribe, visit tgam.ca/canpro

Associated Graphic

Wayland Group, which was licensed in 2014 and then known as Maricann Group, was one of the first to receive approval from Health Canada to grow cannabis as part of Ottawa's commercial medical-marijuana system.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Prichard's wide network may be his Achilles heel
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By RITA TRICHUR
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Robert Prichard is the poster boy for corporate Canada. So much so that a study published by the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management back in 2004 deemed him a "principal gatekeeper of governance reform" because he sits on so many boards. The research, which mapped Mr. Prichard's web of business connections, put him at the centre of an exclusive network of corporate elites. Much to their surprise, the academics concluded that "old boys' network" was having a positive impact on corporate governance.

Being an influential director has always been Mr.Prichard's calling card, but these days it's proving to be his Achilles heel.

He's the chairman of both the Bank of Montreal and Torys LLP, the law firm representing SNC-Lavalin Group Inc. in its criminal case on fraud and bribery charges.

He's also a director for two other large companies and a major Toronto hospital.

His Rolodex is a who's who of Canada's establishment.

There's nothing wrong with having clout. Let's face it, perky self-promotion is one way to navigate Bay Street's cliquish corporate culture. But by sitting on so many major boards, Mr. Prichard has unwittingly entangled Canada's oldest bank in the SNC-Lavalin affair. Regulators should be paying attention. Mr. Prichard's story is a cautionary tale about the hazards that arise when individuals take on too many directorships or occupy those roles for too long.

Mr. Prichard is a seasoned director, which is why he should have known better. He's been BMO's chairman since 2012 and has served on BMO's board since 2000. Being the bank's chairman is a part-time job, but investors pay him richly - nearly $600,000 a year - to put their interests first.

He's also a long-time director of buyout firm Onex Corp. and sits on the board of food company George Weston Ltd., owner of major retail brands such as Loblaws Inc. and Shoppers Drug Mart Corp. He has previously served on the boards of Barrick Gold Corp.

and transit agency Metrolinx.

He's also a trustee for the Hospital for Sick Children.

He's a busy guy. But BMO's proxy circular - the document it sends to shareholders every year that describes how the board works - states that a director's duty is to represent the bank 365 days a year. Directors are expected to be independent and ensure their outside interests, including business and political activities, don't create real or perceived conflicts for the bank.

That's why Mr. Prichard had no business getting involved in SNC's criminal case while he was chairman of BMO. Although the charges against SNC have not been tested in court, lobbying for the Montreal engineering company was evidently fraught with risks.

For his part, Mr. Prichard says he did nothing wrong. He told The Globe and Mail in a written statement that he informed BMO of all his outside activities, including his decision to join the Torys legal team advising SNC, and recused himself appropriately.

"I comply with both the ISS and Glass Lewis guidelines on maximum number of boards. My attendance record at all my boards is strong, rarely falling below 100 per cent. In all my years as a director, no one on any of the boards has to my knowledge ever questioned my commitment, engagement or availability," Mr. Prichard said in an e-mail on Friday.

"I was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Corporate Directors in recognition of my work as a director, the highest honour available in Canada for directors, which is some evidence of my standing in that community. And I was elected to a second term as chair of BMO by my colleagues, again some evidence of their view that I was fulfilling the role effectively." The bank was aware that Mr.

Prichard's interests were aligned with those of BMO vice-chair Kevin Lynch, who is also chair of SNC. Further, BMO officials apparently knew that both men were lobbying former Treasury Board president Scott Brison to make the case for a deferred prosecution agreement for SNC - before the politician was hired in February as a vice-chair for the bank's capital-markets division.

"With respect to conflicts, most active directors face conflicts from time to time arising from their multiple boards and other professional and executive roles.

The key is that the board have a good policy governing how to deal with conflicts and ensuring all directors abide by them. BMO's policy addresses this directly," Mr.

Prichard said in his e-mail.

There's little doubt that Mr. Prichard complied with the bank's conflict-of-interest rules. The trouble is those rules allowed him to put himself first.

Bank stocks are among the most widely held equities in the country. Every Canadian has exposure to banks either directly as shareholders, or indirectly through pension plans or other funds. Canada's economy is tied to the health of our banks. That's why there's nothing banks fear more than reputational risk.

Indeed, it's right there on the first page of BMO's code of conduct for employees. "Our reputation depends on how we behave with all stakeholders. Whether acting in our capacity as BMO representatives or as individual citizens, our actions reveal who we are, what we believe and what we stand for. Living up to our values is much more than just following the law and our policies. It is making sure we always do the right thing."

Whose name is signed at the bottom of those words? Step forward, Mr. Prichard.

In keeping with that spirit of transparency, BMO owes its shareholders a proper explanation about why it was alright for Mr.Prichard to get involved with SNC's case. Further, investors deserve to know how Mr. Brison came to work at the bank and if Mr. Prichard and Mr. Lynch discussed any BMO business while lobbying him on SNC.

BMO also owes it to shareholders to toughen up its conflictof-interest rules. The bank has said that Mr. Prichard intends to step down as chairman at the bank's next annual meeting, at which time he will have hit the 20-year term limit and 70-year age limit for grandfathered BMO directors.

Directors who joined BMO's board after 2010 are subject to a 15-year term limit, but the bank reserves the right to waive the age and term limits for directors, the chairman and committee chairs.

That loophole should be closed.

Regulators, meanwhile, should consider imposing consistent age and term limits for all federally regulated companies. They should also follow the example of countries that have stricter rules on director independence. In France, for instance, a director is no longer considered independent after serving on a board for 12 years.

Term and age limits prevent directors from getting too cozy with management and ensure that boards benefit from fresh blood and diverse points of view. Otherwise, members of Canada's old boys' network will always be tempted to put themselves first.

Associated Graphic

Robert Prichard is chairman of Bank of Montreal as well as Torys LLP, the firm representing SNC-Lavalin in its criminal case on fraud and bribery charges. The charges haven't been tested in court, but Mr. Prichard's decision to lobby for the company is fraught with risks.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

EDC admits Gupta jet loan a mistake
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Export agency says it regrets lending $41-million to brothers to buy Bombardier plane, acknowledges lack of transparency
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By GEOFFREY YORK
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Canada's export agency, admitting error in a much criticized loan to a client of Bombardier Inc., has promised a tighter screening process to guard against the risks of doing business with politically influential customers.

Export Development Canada expressed regret on Wednesday over a US$41-million loan to the Gupta brothers, who have been at the heart of South Africa's biggest postapartheid corruption scandal.

It took more than two years for EDC to acknowledge it made a mistake when it helped the Guptas buy a US$52-million luxury aircraft from Bombardier, the Montreal-based manufacturer of trains and aircraft.

The deal was disclosed by The Globe and Mail in August, 2017.

EDC said in a statement that it now "regrets" its participation in the loan to the Guptas.

It also acknowledged a lack of transparency in its conduct: "We should have been more transparent in response to questions related to this loan, including whether we saw risks during our due diligence, why we proceeded, and what we have learned as a result." The agency, a Crown corporation, promised to take a tougher stand in the future on any deals with politically connected people.

The Guptas are business partners with the son of former South African president Jacob Zuma.

The Guptas fled the country last year after they became the targets of a criminal investigation into lucrative business deals that resulted from their political connections. The scandal was a key factor in triggering Mr. Zuma's resignation last year.

In 2015, despite years of media coverage of corruption allegations against the Gupta brothers, EDC helped the Guptas by lending them 80 per cent of the purchase cost of the Bombardier airplane. The money was funnelled through a Gupta company, Westdawn Investments.

"We recognize we haven't always made the right business decisions," said the statement by Carl Burlock, EDC's executive vice-president and chief business officer.

"The Westdawn transaction is a case in point.

We need to do better, and we will do better." In a separate statement on Wednesday, a spokesman for Bombardier said the company "would not proceed with such a transaction" if it knew what it knows today. "In light of all data that has emerged in the years following the delivery of the aircraft, it goes without saying that Bombardier would not proceed with such a transaction with all information available today," Olivier Marcil, vice-president of external relations for Bombardier, said in an e-mail.

"Bombardier is continually reinforcing its processes and will continue to take proactive steps to ensure that it abides by the highest standards of ethics and compliance no matter where we conduct business." There have been extensive media reports of corruption by the Guptas since 2011, and an inquiry in 2013 found illegalities when South Africa allowed Gupta wedding guests to bypass normal immigration procedures by using a military base for their private plane. But EDC still went ahead with its loan for the Bombardier deal, which was negotiated throughout 2014.

An investigation by The Globe over the past two years has disclosed a host of shortcomings in EDC's handling of the deal. The agency's statement on Wednesday confirmed many of those issues.

When EDC approved the loan in 2015, it had failed to conduct an "in-depth examination" of the risks related to politically exposed persons (PEP), Mr. Burlock said in his statement.

Instead, its decision relied heavily on the lack of criminal charges or formal police investigations in South Africa, it said.

"As a result, EDC chose to proceed and acknowledges that that decision was a mistake," the statement said. "This transaction has provided powerful lessons for EDC."

The uproar over the US$41-million loan has helped EDC see the "gaps" in its decision-making processes and its due diligence, and those gaps have now been filled, it said.

Critics such as Above Ground, an Ottawabased research and advocacy group, have said that the EDC loan to the Guptas is part of a larger pattern of lax standards. The loan was "just one of many questionable decisions" by the federal agency, Above Ground said in a tweet on Wednesday. "Ottawa can't leave it to EDC to catch and fix its own mistakes; it must create effective accountability mechanisms."

The loan was cancelled in late 2017, but the Guptas continued to use the Bombardier plane for months afterward, provoking a court battle between EDC and the family.

As a "direct result" of the Gupta loan, EDC is now "better informed" about the risks of doing business with PEP, and this will be factored into its future decisions, Mr. Burlock said.

"All financing transactions are now reviewed for political influence risks," he said in his statement. "When there is an allegation, it is systematic that we conduct further due diligence into the concern. ... Based on our experience with this transaction, and from our improved screening for PEP-related risks, we would not proceed today with transactions that feature the same risk profile."

In future, EDC will "review the company's governance and ownership structures" to look for evidence of risks in any new client, Mr. Burlock said. In addition, he said, EDC will lower its tolerance for PEP-related risks.

He added that EDC has already established a chief compliance and ethics officer, a new policy on financial crimes, and a new management committee to review the risks of prospective customers.

In a separate transaction in 2015, EDC provided a US$450-million loan to help Bombardier sell locomotives to Transnet, the South African state-owned freight rail company. There has been widespread evidence of corruption at Transnet, and the locomotive deal has come under scrutiny at South Africa's public inquiry into state corruption, which began last year and continues this year. EDC did not mention the Transnet transaction in its statement on Wednesday, although it had previously said it was investigating the loan.

In an interview on Wednesday, Mr. Burlock told The Globe that EDC is continuing to "monitor" its Transnet loan. He said the bank is "closely following" the South African inquiry where the Bombardier contract and other locomotive deals are being investigated.

A spokesman for International Trade Diversification Minister Jim Carr, the federal minister responsible for supervising EDC, said the government supports EDC's promises.

"EDC has said they need to do better, and we agree with them," the minister's spokesman Michael Jones said in a statement.

"We're pleased to see EDC is moving ahead with their efforts to strengthen their processes and we will continue to monitor their progress."

He added that Mr. Carr sent a letter to EDC last year, directing it to "ensure that responsible business practices and human rights are core considerations in any transaction."

Profitability eludes Canopy
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Disappointing results spur sell-off in cannabis stocks as company acknowledges it will take three to five years to overcome growing pains
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By MARK RENDELL
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Canopy Growth Corp. is still three to five years away from profitability, the company acknowledged on Thursday, after releasing quarterly financial results showing a decline in revenue, stubbornly low gross margins and a massive net loss due to a one-time accounting change.

The results fell far short of analyst expectations, sending Canopy's stock price down 14.5 per cent on Thursday and spurring a broader sell-off in cannabis stocks that brought the Solactive North American Marijuana Index to its lowest level so far this year.

Canopy's inability to increase revenue despite being the leader in a growth-stage industry points to operational problems and difficult choices the company faces about what products to focus on. Canopy subtracted $6.4-million from its revenue, for instance, because it expects cannabis oil and softgel products to be returned unsold.

The lacklustre results, the first since Canopy fired its chief executive Bruce Linton, also highlight structural problems across the industry, including the shortage of retail stores in key provincial markets such as Ontario and Quebec.

And they point to the haphazard manner in which Canopy, like many other marijuana companies, transitioned from the medical market into the recreational market over the past 10 months.

Canopy reported Wednesday night that quarterly revenue fell to $90.5-million, down 4 per cent from the previous quarter. It also reported a net loss of $1.28billion, most of which was attributed to a one-time charge related to revaluing warrants held by Constellation Brands Inc., which holds a significant stake in the company.

The results received negative coverage from most analysts that follow the company, several of whom suggested Canopy has a long road to profitability. Bank of Montreal analyst Tamy Chen wrote in a note to clients that "margins and cash flows could further deteriorate."

"While Canopy is already making upfront capital investments for value-add products, the cost to manufacture these formats are substantially higher than current products, which would result in significant working capital investment and [operational expenditures]," Ms. Chen wrote.

Ryan Tomkins, an analyst with Jefferies International Ltd., was even more blunt in a note: "While strong harvest figures should allay crop failure worries, elsewhere we see little to reassure investors that significant [sustainable] sales growth and profitability will be visible in the near future."

On an analyst call on Thursday, Canopy's top brass offered candid insight into Canopy's race to establish a dominant position in the Canadian recreational market, and the ways in which that speed has come back to haunt them, in the form of greenhouse retrofits and an industry-low gross margin of 15 per cent.

In the fall of 2017, Canopy partnered with a vegetable company in British Columbia to turn three million square feet of greenhouse infrastructure in B.C.'s Lower Mainland to cannabis production. The BC Tweed greenhouses, which Canopy acquired outright the following summer, would power the company's push into the recreational market, once the doors to legal adult use opened in October, 2018.

"There were basic things we needed to improve that we knew were the case in the greenhouses, but we didn't want to miss that opportunity for additional inventory creation and sales in the first quarter of legalization to get that strong market share," Rade Kovacevic, Canopy's president, said on the analyst call.

Canopy did enter the recreational market with a huge amount of product, selling far more than its closest competitors in the first full quarter of recreational sales.

Over the subsequent two quarters, however, it had to take large portions of its facilities in B.C. off-line to properly convert them from vegetable greenhouses to facilities more suitable for growing cannabis. Canopy made a similar choice with its facility in Mirabel, Quebec. These greenhouses only came back into full production in recent months.

Canopy says its slim gross margins came from having to run the facilities while they were not producing product.

It was not just ill-equipped greenhouses that led to operational inefficiencies.

Across its production chain, Canopy spent the past year rigging up temporary solutions in order to get products to market, increasing costs.

"In Smiths Falls, in order to get prerolled joints to market, we shut down growing rooms, and we changed those rooms into a facility that could, on a semi-manual, semi-automated basis, create prerolled joints," said Canopy's CEO Mark Zekulin, who is now the company's sole chief executive since Mr. Linton's firing.

"These are the natural things we did in an early market to make sure that we got product online and served our customer need, but that led to inefficiencies, and that will slowly get fixed as the rest of Smiths Falls comes properly online," Mr.Zekulin said.

Canopy is far from the only cannabis company that has resorted to makeshift solutions to establish a foothold in the recreational market, fill contractual obligations to provincial wholesalers and try to meet sky-high expectations from investors. Stories abound of producers asking employees to stay late to manually add excise stamps to packages; many firms still lack automated packaging lines, while others are converting licensed growing space to manufacturing space to conduct basic logistical operations.

Canopy's stumbles in the past two quarters, however, have been amplified by the high expectations it set early on.

"Obviously our competitors have now begun to ramp up their own supply, which means they're able to increase revenue from a lower base ... and [take] some market share back," Mr.Zekulin said.

But Mr. Zekulin said his company is poised for growth. Canopy harvested 40,960 kilograms last quarter in its newly retrofitted greenhouses, which is by far the largest harvest in the industry. It is also investing heavily in value-added products like beverages and vaporizers, which will become legal in the coming months.

"We are well aware that our business will, in the future, be increasingly judged by financial metrics including achieving positive earnings," he said.

Associated Graphic

Workers produce medical marijuana at Canopy's facility in Smiths Falls, Ont. The company spent the past year rigging up temporary solutions across its production chain in order to get products to market, increasing costs.

SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

To get prerolled joints to market, Canopy Growth CEO Mark Zekulin says the company shut down growing rooms at its Smiths Falls, Ont., facility and turned them into areas that could create prerolls on a semi-manual, semi-automated basis.

SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Regulator saw cannabis growing in unlicenced areas, e-mails show
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By MARK RENDELL
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


In February, federal government inspectors toured rooms at a CannTrust Holdings Inc. facility where cannabis plants were growing illegally, internal CannTrust correspondence shows.

Five weeks later, Health Canada granted a licence to cover these same rooms.

Health Canada did not open an investigation into the illegal growing operation at the company until June, after a tip from a former CannTrust employee.

The department is now investigating the company for growing thousands of kilograms of cannabis in unlicensed rooms in late 2018 and early 2019; the Ontario Securities Commission is also investigating the company.

The timeline of events raises questions about the inspections Health Canada undertakes to make sure that marijuana growers are complying with the law amid a massive expansion of the legal pot industry.

During a targeted inspection in response to odour complaints on Feb. 26, 2019, two Health Canada inspectors toured CannTrust's greenhouse in Pelham, Ont., according to an e-mail from a CannTrust quality-assurance official to then-CEO Peter Aceto, thenchairman Eric Paul and other CannTrust officials.

"Inspectors went through all rooms, including the unlicensed ones, but did not comment on this," the official said in the email, which was seen by The Globe and Mail. "They toured the facility and reviewed odour neutralizing technology in every room. ... "The inspectors confirmed [odour] is not an issue they particularly want to be dealing with, but it's about the optics of the program. HC needs to avoid bad press for the cannabis program, and people complaining about odour = bad press," the e-mail said. On April 5, Health Canada issued licences for the five rooms where unlicensed growing activity had occurred.

Neither CannTrust nor Mr.Aceto responded to request for comment about the Health Canada inspections. When reached by phone, Mr. Paul declined to comment citing continuing investigations.

Health Canada did not address questions from The Globe about whether its inspectors had been in the unlicensed rooms during inspections, why the illegal activity was not flagged and whether it had done anything to improve the inspection process since it begin investigating CannTrust in June.

"Before the recent inspection at CannTrust's Fenwick site, which resulted in a non-compliant rating, 2 inspections were conducted to assess the licence holder's compliance with good production practices (e.g., product quality) and compliance with odour controls," Health Canada spokesperson Eric Morrissette said in an e-mail.

"The federally regulated system contains multiple measures that are designed to protect the health and safety of Canadians and the integrity of the cannabis system. These measures include stringent requirements for physical and personnel security, record-keeping, inventory controls and reporting that are verified through Health Canada inspections and other regulatory oversight activities." At the time of the Health Canada inspection in late February, CannTrust was growing openly in five large unlicensed rooms, according to a document seen by The Globe, confirming the timeline that plants were in the unlicensed rooms.

Health Canada inspectors also visited the facility on Nov. 15, 2018. At that time, an unlicensed room known as RG8 contained plants.

The November inspection prompted an e-mail from CannTrust's director of quality and compliance to Mr. Aceto, Mr. Paul and other executives, saying: "We dodged some bullets ... [Health Canada] did not ask about RG8E/W."

According to Sherry Boodram, CEO of consulting company CannDelta Inc., it is unlikely Health Canada inspectors could tour a facility and not know what rooms are licensed and unlicensed. "As an inspector, you'll prepare, you'll look at past inspection reports and see if there are any outstanding issues, or anything that you need to follow up with; you'll look and see if there's any amendments or notices or anything the licensed producer has applied for with Ottawa," said Ms. Boodram, who did cannabis inspections for Health Canada from 2015 to 2017.

"When you go to the facility, you also ask the licensed producer, 'Okay, have you submitted any amendments, are you applying for any licences?' " At the time of the November inspection, a licence application had been submitted for RG8. By the February inspection, licence applications had been submitted for all five rooms where unlicensed cannabis was being grown.

Karina Lahnakoski, the vicepresident of quality and regulatory at consulting firm Cannabis Compliance Inc., echoed the idea that an inspector should know what rooms are licensed.

"Any inspector going in to inspect a licence holder will definitely have access to all the licensing information on that licence holder, and they will do their due diligence before they show up to the site to know what the licence entails, what conditions are on the licence," Ms. Lahnakoski said.

Former CannTrust employee Nick Lalonde has alleged temporary walls were hung at least once for photographs of the unlicensed rooms that were sent to Health Canada as part of the licencing process. Most of the time, however, the plants were out in the open, said Mr. Lalonde, who left the company in May and sent a whistle-blowing e-mail to Health Canada in June.

"Other than the picture, they were wide open, right there, so anyone that was an investor in the facility, anyone else walking through the facility, should have realized absolutely that there's plants in these rooms," Mr. Lalonde said in an interview.

"To get to one half of the facility you have to walk past RG8, which is a big, clear wall, with big, clear windows and doors that you can see plants in there, people working."

Health Canada's inspection and licensing system has been under significant pressure over the past year due to the rapid expansion of the industry and regulatory changes last October, when the Cannabis Act came into force.

"They've been under a lot of pressure obviously, because the number of licensed-producer facilities have definitely increased dramatically. ... And even though they've hired more staff, it will still take a while to be able to learn," Ms. Boodram said.

Since July 8, when CannTrust revealed that it received a noncompliance order from Health Canada, the company has halted all sales, fired Mr. Aceto and forced Mr. Paul to resign.

On Thursday, the joint seriousoffences team of the Ontario Securities Commission said it was opening an investigation "into matters and parties related to CannTrust."

CANNABIS PROFESSIONAL This story first appeared in Cannabis Professional, the authoritative news service tailored specifically for professionals in the rapidly evolving cannabis industry. To subscribe, visit tgam.ca/canpro

RBC, Scotia units boost stake in SNC - and feel the pain
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By MEGAN DEVLIN
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Wednesday, August 21, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


As the largest shareholder in SNC-Lavalin Group Inc., the Caisse de dépot et placement du Québec has been the biggest loser of the company's shareprice collapse. But some retail investment funds are also feeling the pain of SNC's deep problems.

Topping the list is the investment management arm of the Royal Bank of Canada, now SNC-Lavalin's second-largest shareholder. RBC funds collectively owned 16.6 per cent of the company, or 29.2 million shares, as of May 31, according to regulatory filings.

The filings show that RBC Global Asset Management funds were heavy buyers of SNC-Lavalin stock through the spring, as the share price declined because of unexpected losses on contracts and a political controversy over its attempts to get a deferral of criminal charges it faces. The bank's fund managers bought 7.6 million shares in April and another 4.6 million in May.

SNC-Lavalin shares have dropped 49 per cent since the end of April and 30 per cent since the end of May.

It isn't clear how many of the bank's funds were responsible for the buying, but one RBC fund that made a big bet on the engineering company was the PH&N Absolute Return Fund, managed by Hanif Mamdani, RBC Global Asset's head of alternative investments.

In a letter to unit holders in June, Mr. Mamdani described SNC-Lavalin shares as "one of the most dislocated situations we have seen since the 2016 oil bust" and said the price of the stock is "nonsensical." He wrote that, excluding the value of the company's "world class" assets - including its stake in the tolled Highway 407 in Ontario (16.77 per cent at the time) - investors were ascribing a negative value to SNC's engineering and construction business. In other words, the stock was so cheap that investors were effectively saying that division was worth less than zero. He estimated that the engineering and construction business was worth $15 to $20 a share.

In July, however, SNC-Lavalin disclosed deeper-than-expected problems in that business, said it would stop bidding for certain kinds of contracts and would reorganize its poorly performing resources and infrastructure units.

The company withdrew its financial guidance and said it would consider selling its oil and gas business, on which it took a huge writedown - leading to a $2.1-billion second-quarter loss.

"Unfortunately, as we are learning, the current ... market can punish stocks mercilessly if sentiment is sufficiently negative," said a quarterly commentary to investors in the $1.6-billion PH&N fund, which lost 4.6 per cent in the second quarter.

RBC Global Asset Management declined to comment.

One trouble spot for SNC-Lavalin has been lump-sum turnkey (LSTK) projects - contracts for which it is responsible to pay costs that go over initial estimates. It's a business SNC-Lavalin is exiting, but it needs to finish the contracts already in place.

Those have the potential to incur more losses, and investors don't know how much more because the contracts aren't public.

Although that area of the business looked "busted," buying SNC-Lavalin shares was still attractive because of the low valuation, said David Taylor of Taylor Asset Management, an SNC shareholder. "The market's giving a fair price to the 407. It's giving a fair price to that engineering service business. And the rest of the business you're sort of getting it for free," he said.

MD Financial Management, which is now owned by Bank of Nova Scotia, and Fidelity Investments appear to have made the same wager, increasing their stake in SNC-Lavalin.

MD bought 1.28 million shares to quadruple its SNC holdings, to 1.66 million shares, as of the end of July, according to Bloomberg data. Fidelity, which owns the third biggest stake in SNC-Lavalin at nearly 5 per cent, added about 800,000 shares recently to hold 8.7 million as of Aug. 19. MD Financial Management and Fidelity declined to comment.

All investment portfolios have winners and losers, and no investor can ever "bat 1,000," as Mr.

Taylor put it. Investors such as the Caisse, RBC Global Asset and others who pick up SNC-Lavalin shares at low levels stand to gain if the company can successfully restructure and reverse its shareprice slide. Its decision to sell most of its 407 ownership for up to $3.25-billion appeared designed to reassure investors that the company has the balance sheet to withstand its current problems.

SNC-Lavalin's stock has a buy recommendation from Dimitry Khmelnitsky, an analyst with Veritas Investment Research Corp. in Toronto.

"The market is expecting a billion and a half [dollars] or so of additional losses [for SNC-Lavalin] going forward. On top of all the losses management had already. That seems way too punitive," Mr. Khmelnitsky said, cautioning the stock is a longer-term investment - since he expects more volatility as fear of the unknown persists.

SNC-LAVALIN (SNC) CLOSE: $16.90, DOWN 24¢

Associated Graphic

Investors such as RBC Global Asset Management who bought SNC stock at low levels are poised to gain if the company can restructure and reverse its share-price slide.

ANDREW VAUGHAN/THE CANADIAN PRESS

As Husky shares fall, speculation rises over Li Ka-shing buyout
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By JEFFREY JONES
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B1


Husky Energy Inc. could be ripe for privatization by its long-time controlling shareholder based on company-specific math and the sorry state of Canada's oil patch.

Of course, the big question is whether Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing and his organization believe such a deal is worth pursuing. A buyout of the minority investors, at more than $2.8-billion, would be a lot cheaper than it was even a year go.

It would also be a bargain compared with just about every other global integrated oil company, according to veteran RBC Dominion Securities analyst Greg Pardy, who laid out the case in a research report on Monday.

It's a sign of the times. Speculation about Husky's future has cropped up as its sector's woes have played out in the form of a meltdown in market value.

Energy shares have tanked as the industry struggles with its age-old problem of tight pipeline capacity to move oil and gas out of Western Canada. It has sent weary investors elsewhere, and prompted producers to shift capital from boosting output to a steady diet of paying down debt and buying back shares. Companies that stray from that formula get roundly punished in the market.

Mr. Pardy's thesis: Husky already operates as a "quasi-private company," in which the majority shareholder wields the power. Indeed, this has been cited as a drag on the stock at various times since Husky re-entered public markets with its acquisition of Renaissance Energy in 2000.

Since then, Mr. Li has benefited handsomely from regular and, at times, special dividends.

A buyout would allow investors to partake in some of the gap that exists between the current share price of $9.22 and estimated net asset value of $19.53, based on proved and probable reserves.

Husky's shares had lost nearly 60 per cent over 12 months. On Monday, Mr. Pardy's assessment of a buyout prompted a 5-per-cent gain.

Finally, Husky would enjoy full alignment with the major owners, which include the conglomerate CK Hutchison Holdings Ltd., of which Mr. Li is a major shareholder. The retired tycoon also has a large direct stake. In total, the control block is just under 70 per cent.

Husky declined to comment on the speculation.

As conditions weaken, there's chafing in the industry over the requirement of explaining to public investors each quarter why share prices have tumbled despite enviable assets, strong balance sheets and profitable operations.

Harold Hamm, chief executive and 77-per-cent-owner of U.S.

shale producer Continental Resources Inc., voiced that very lament early this month.

Husky has had its own problems, including operational mishaps, from oil spills in Saskatchewan and off the Newfoundland coast to a refinery explosion in Superior, Wis. Analysts have also said it is a difficult company to research, given its disparate producing and refining operations in Canada, the United States and in the South China Sea, as lucrative as some of those are.

According to TD Securities, Husky trades at a multiple of enterprise value (EV) to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of about 3.5 times. That compares with an average multiple for U.S.

integrated companies of about six times.

Of course, it is a denizen of a Canadian industry that can't catch a break. The S&P/TSX energy group is down 36 per cent in the past year, far underperforming the global oil market and the Canadian stock market.

In that time, Husky launched a $2.5-billion hostile takeover bid for rival oil sands producer MEG Energy Corp., and subsequently walked away, blaming partly the Alberta government's mandated oil-production cuts. The policy was aimed at rescuing heavy oil prices that had skidded due to a glut of supply within the province. So even if a company lifted output, its options for selling the stuff would be limited.

Mr. Pardy said a go-private transaction would have its downsides, including limiting Husky's options for raising capital in the future. Equity markets have been anything but welcoming to Canadian oil producers in recent years, though.

Mr. Li first bought into Husky in 1987, a time when the industry was reeling from depressed crude prices. As a long-term investor, perhaps today's crisis spells opportunity for him once again.

HUSKY ENERGY (HSE) CLOSE: $9.22, UP 45¢

Associated Graphic

A buyout of Husky - whose Hardisty, Alta., storage site is seen above - would let investors take part in some of the gap that exists between its share price of $9.22 and estimated net asset value of $19.53, based on proved and probable reserves.

LARRY MACDOUGAL/THE CANADIAN PRESS

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B14


EVELYN ISOBEL BAXTER

Evelyn Isobel Baxter (née DesBrisay) died in London, ON, on August 13, 2019, after a lengthy illness.

Born in Winnipeg in 1925, Eve was a gifted pianist. She earned her Diploma in Music Performance and Teaching from the University of Manitoba and subsequently taught music in the province's remote and agricultural communities.

Her brother introduced her to Peter, her future husband; the handsome WWII veteran impressed her because he invited her to the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.

They married in 1949. While raising her young family, Eve taught music at Balmoral Hall in Winnipeg.

After the family moved to Toronto, Eve became a major force across Canada as a curator, arts administrator and advisor.

Her vision has left its stamp on the Ontario urban landscape: Toronto-Dominion Centre and Metro Hall in Toronto and Constitution Square in Ottawa are among the many public art projects she administered. She helped develop major corporate collections-particularly Sun Life Assurance Company and Osler Hoskin and Harcourt. But above all, she is remembered by many visual artists across Canada for the time and support that she gave them.

Eve also believed in the power of volunteerism to build community. She sewed costumes for the Manitoba Theatre Centre, organized Art Gallery of Ontario volunteer committee exhibitions, played piano at the nursery school in her Etobicoke neighbourhood, helped organize Toronto's Sesquicentennial and contributed leadership to the boards of the Winnipeg Art Gallery, Julia Greenshields Home in Toronto and the Tom Thomson Art Gallery in Owen Sound.

Despite the demands of a busy career, family remained Eve's top priority; she loved fiercely, and instilled in her children and grandchildren her thirst for reading, learning and sports (she was a lifelong Blue Bombers fan).

Eve was predeceased by her parents, Charlotte Austen and Normand Rudolph DesBrisay; her sisters Ann, Charlotte Bean and Elizabeth Wilcox; brother, John; brother-and sister-in-law, Robert and Patricia; husband, Peter; and son, Andrew Peter Mackenzie.

Left to mourn and to remember her fondly are her son, John (Miranda); her daughters, Charlotte Jones (Kent); Susan; Mary (Robert Osthoff), as well as her grandchildren, Maggie Jones (Michael Nemec), Cary Jones (Nell Reis), Grace Park (Brinton), and Stephanie Baxter.

The family thanks the staff at Mount Hope for their care for Eve over the years.

Help us to celebrate Eve's life at a reception on Saturday, August 24, 2019 from 3-5 p.m. at the A. Millard George Funeral Home Reception Centre (located on the Southeast corner of the parking lot), 60 Ridout Street South, London. A memorial service will be held in Winnipeg at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the acquisitions fund of a gallery of your choice or the Canadian Mental Health Association, 534 Queens Avenue, London, ON N6B 1Y6. Online condolences, memories and photographs shared at http://www.amgfh.com.

JAMES RICHARD BLAIR

November 1, 1935 August 8, 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Richard.

He was born in Calgary, and died peacefully at the Hamilton General Hospital surrounded by love. He was a mighty warrior as he fought valiantly to get better from the complications of a stroke. He leaves behind his beloved wife of 59 years, Susie (Williamson) and his cherished children, Caroline Mandich (Danny), Jamie (Fiona) and Christopher (Heidi). His wonderful grandchildren, Danielle Caffee (Chance), Josh Mandich (Bethany), Grace Mandich, Christopher Blair, Heather Blair, Taylor Blair, Christiana Blair, Hartley Blair and great-granddaughter, Selah Joy Mandich. His brothers-inlaw and sisters-in-law, Paul and Margot Williamson, Jamie and Janet Williamson, and Vicky Williamson. Missed by his nieces and nephews. Predeceased by his daughter, Heather, his parents, Col. James and Edith Blair, and brother, Alan Neville Blair. Richard worked for 45 years as a stock broker in Brantford starting with Ross Knowles and ending with BMO Nesbitt Burns.

He was a total family man to his children and grandchildren.

Richard was a world traveler who instilled this love in his children and grandchildren. He loved snow skiing, scuba diving, driving his wooden boats on Lake Joseph and building his own cottages. Later in life he spent his afternoons painting. He was self taught and a prolific artist. He was a true renaissance man. He spent his summers with all his family at his favourite place Muskoka.

A private family service was held at Grace Anglican Church, Sunday, August 11, 2019 and burial at Farringdon Cemetery.

Funeral arrangements have been entrusted with BeckettGlaves Family Funeral Centre, 88 Brant Ave. Brantford, 519-7524331. A celebration of Richard's life will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Hamilton General Hospital, 7 South acute stroke team or ICU East would be appreciated.

Condolences, donations and tributes are available at http://www.beckettglaves.com.

A tree will be planted in memory of Richard in the Beckett-Glaves Memorial Forest.

GEORGE HENRY BLUMENAUER

October 13, 1921 August 6, 2019

Peacefully in his sleep at Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital. Born in Nelson, BC, the son of a CPR Station Master, his early life was spent up and down the Kootenays until finishing High School in Cranbrook. He went on to UBC to obtain a BASc in mechanical engineering. After war-time service as an engineer officer (RCEME) he joined the Otis Elevator Company, obtained an MBA from Harvard, and went on to become President and Chairman.

His other accomplishments in finance and industry included directorships of the Royal Bank of Canada, Dominion Foundries and Steel Company (DOFASCO), Union Gas, Mutual Life of Canada and Hudson's Bay Oil and Gas.

As a Governor of McMaster University, he worked tirelessly to ensure the establishment of the School of Medicine and supported the community of Hamilton through fundraising and directorships of the YMCA, Hamilton Art Gallery, Hamilton Tiger Cats and other associations.

Predeceased by his wife, Margaret Emma Nielsen, he is survived by his three sons: Richard (Mary) William (Laura) and Christian Martin (Laetitia); grandchildren James (Melissa), Kathleen, Harry, Raymond, Lindsey, Christian (Erin) and Alexandra; greatgrandchildren Averie, Jax and Bella; and Freda Blumenauer of Abbotsford, B.C. and her family.

Over the years, his many recreational interests centered on his love of fishing and golf; from the Gaspé region to the Loxahatchee Club, the Hamilton Golf and Country Club, for over fifty years the Caledon Mountain Trout Club and for 68 years, the Mississaugua Golf and Country Club.

The family wishes to extend our thanks and sincere appreciation to those many friends of George who have supported him in his later years including the staff at Amica Oakville and his longtime Family Physician Dr.

Robert Gabriel.

We have long known that with his death, we will have lost one of the most outstanding Canadians of his generation.

There will be a visitation on Thursday, August 29th from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 9:00 p.m. followed by a Service of Remembrance at 12:00 noon, August 30, 2019.

All will take place at the Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West (one block east of Kerr, 905-844-2600), Oakville.

WILLIAM MONDS BRAITHWAITE

August 1, 1932 August 9, 2019

Bill died peacefully from Parkinson disease on August 9, 2019 at Hospice Wellington.

He closed his life in the same manner as he lived it: with patience, dignity and quiet strength.

Bill was loving husband to Elizabeth (nee Latimer) his wife of 63 years, beloved and generous father to Ken, Michael (Linda), Anne and cherished Pawka to Christopher.

A graduate of University of Western Ontario (Honours Business Administration 1954), a Chartered Accountant (1957) and graduate of McMaster University (MBA 1967), Bill's remarkable career as a professor at the University of Guelph spanned 50 years from 1959 to 2009.

A celebration of life is planned at Cutten Fields, 190 College Ave East, Guelph, Ontario on Sunday, September 15, 2019 from 2-4 p.m.

If so desired, memorial donations in Bill's memory made to Hospice Wellington would be appreciated by his family.

J. HARVEY BRIDE

Passed peacefully on August 10, 2019. Hymn-sing service on Friday, August 30th, 10 a.m. at Jubilee United Chruch, 40 Underhill Drive. Singers welcome to arrive at 9:45.

KATHRYN ELEANOR BUCCI

April 23, 1998 - July 16, 2019 In Loving Memory With deep sorrow, we announce the passing of our beloved daughter, little sister, cherished granddaughter and adored goddaughter and niece. We lost our glorious girl on July 16, 2019 at the age of 21.

Kathryn was an astonishing young woman: steadfast, sincere, kind and warm. She excelled in just about everything she undertook yet maintained a quiet, modest, self-deprecating way. Kathryn loved travelling, to New York City and Europe especially, but she loved Toronto even more: running along the Beltline, cycling through Serena Gundy Park, enjoying a concert or movie, catching up with the girls over a cup of coffee or dinner at a favorite hangout. Her enthusiasm for knitting and crocheting guaranteed her family and friends a steady supply of beautiful, lovingly made sweaters, scarves, blankets, and throws. Kathryn was also a shutterbug whose favorite subject was her cat, Yzma, to whom she was devoted.

She was an accomplished violist and guitarist, surprising many of her friends who were often unaware that she even played an instrument. Kathryn was an avid reader and serious Harry Potter fan. A couple of summers ago, Kathryn along with a few university friends, entered a Harry Potter trivia contest in Hamilton.

She approached the contest much like she would an exam; nothing but a perfect score would suffice.

Naturally, the team answered every question correctly and won the Top of the Hammer prize.

Kathryn attended St. Clement's School where she was active in a wide range of activities and distinguished herself in her academic studies. She played basketball, acted in drama productions, performed in the St.

Clement's chamber orchestra and headed her school's eco-team.

She was a tutor in English, math and physics. Kathryn represented her school at the annual Ontario Classics Conference and won top honours in several categories. She won a province-wide competition in chemistry and North Americawide competitions in Latin.

Through St. Clement's, Kathryn worked as a volunteer for the Horizons program and March Break Camp. She worked yearround as a volunteer at Mount Sinai Hospital and later at Princess Margaret where she accepted an internship.

When Kathryn completed high school in 2015, she earned the distinction of National AP Scholar from the US College Board. She won several academic prizes and awards, including excellence in the graduating class, chemistry, Latin, music, and physical and health education. She also received a leadership award, and a prize for character and scholarship.

In addition, she earned the Gold Duke of Edinburgh Award for which she completed two canoe trips in Algonquin Park, a dog sledding and winter camping trip, and a service project.

Kathryn received generous scholarship offers from every university to which she had applied. At age 17, she left for Hamilton to attend McMaster University. Then in 2018, she transferred to Victoria College at the University of Toronto. Kathryn continued to distinguish herself throughout her university years, winning awards and recognition in physics, astronomy and math.

We are devastated by her sudden death but are consoled by her memory which is alive in our hearts and minds. Bunny, we miss you and love you more than you can ever know.

Eonia I Mnimi As an expression of sympathy, the family is grateful for donations in Kathryn's name to the Toronto Public Library Foundation https://tplfoundation.ca/ - Mommy, Daddy, Ada, Nonna and U.G. (Angela and Stan, Andrea Elizabeth, Arhonda Christopoulos and George Christopoulos).

RUBY ISABEL BULL (née Hatch)

Passed away peacefully at Markham Stouffville Hospital on Sunday, August 11, 2019 at the age of 95. Predeceased by loving husband J. Lloyd Bull (2006). Cherished mother of Sandra Small (Parker). Proud grandmother of Ian Small (Tiffany Rego) and Kevin Small (Amanda Small), and greatgrandmother of Kivah Small and Malakai Small. Ruby will also be dearly missed by extended family and friends.

As per Ruby's wishes private cremation has taken place. A Celebration of her Life will be held at a later date. As an expression of sympathy, donations in memory of Ruby to a charity of your choice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

http://www.smithsfh.com

PAVILS CAKULS "Paul"

May 10,1930 August 14, 2019

Pavils passed peacefully from this world on August 14th at the age of 89. He will be loved and missed by his devoted wife Laila, daughter Katrine (Sam),sons Peter and Tom (Sara), grandchildren Declan, Iris, Avery and Graham, brother-in-law Kaspars, sister-in-law Elizabeth, nephew Marc(Ricarda) and many close friends in Canada and around the world.

Pavils was born in Rezekne, Latvia, where he spent his childhood.

He graduated in medicine from Leeds University in England, practiced medicine in Canada for more than 40 years, and enjoyed a long, productive and eventful retirement.The focus of Pavils' professional life was his work as a psychiatrist at the Hamilton Psychiatric Hospital where his tireless efforts returned hundreds of profoundly ill patients to productive life and restored them to their friends and families.

As an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at McMaster University he was involved in training and mentoring many young psychiatrists. Throughout his life Pavils was dedicated to advancing the Canadian-Latvian community, work that included teaching at Hamilton's Latvian Saturday School and working on the Latvian arts and literary periodical "Jauna Gaita", as well as being active in the LATS association.

Pavils will be remembered, first and foremost, as a selfless and deeply caring son, husband, father and friend.

Cremation has taken place.

A Memorial service will be held at the York Cemetery Chapel at 160 Beecroft Road, North York, on Friday, August 30th at 11 o'clock.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Latvian Canadian Cultural Centre.

ELIZABETH (Beth) ANN CLARKE (nee Challis)

It is with great sadness we announce that Elizabeth Ann Clarke passed away peacefully in her sleep at Markham Stouffville Hospital on August 15, 2019, at the age of 88 years. Predeceased by dearly beloved husband Charles (2009). Loving mother of Donald and his wife Ann of London, Jane of Toronto and Peter and his wife Anne-Marie of Banff, AB. Cherished grandmother of Mary, Robert, Thomas, Cameron and Connor. Beth will be lovingly remembered by her sister Marion and her husband Eric Patterson, her sister-in-law Ruth and her many nieces and nephews. Predeceased by brothers-in-law John and his wife Ruth and Jamie. Friends may call at the Turner & Porter 'Peel' Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy 10, N. of QEW) from 5-8 p.m. on Wednesday. Funeral Service will be held at St.

Bride's Anglican Church, 1516 Clarkson Rd. N., Mississauga, on Thursday, August 22, 2019 at 11 a.m., with visitation one hour prior. Interment at Springcreek Cemetery following the service. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Hope and Healing International, 3844 Stouffville Rd., P.O. Box 800, Stouffville, ON, L4A 7Z9, http://www.hopeandhealing.org.

ROBERT TERENCE CORCORAN (Terry)

August 7, 1936 August 10, 2019

Aged 83 years. Born and raised in Toronto. Predeceased by mother Aphra-Mary (nee Clark) and father Jack Corcoran. Beloved husband of Margaret (Maggie) Corcoran. Loving father to Tim (Sarah), Aphra-Mary (Steven), Brian (Eugenia). Grandfather to Kate and Graham. Brother to Bill (Mary), Jane (John). Much loved in-law and uncle to extended family across Canada and the United States.

A charming and gregarious extrovert, Terry had a successful sales career beginning at Investors Syndicate, then in radio advertising sales and finally as a realtor which he continued until retirement. Terry developed a broad network of clients, many of whom became dear friends.

After a brief romance, Maggie and Terry eloped on April 26, 1968 at Timothy Eaton United Church to the surprise of their families.

Their love story spanned 51 years; they were the consummate team.

They also played doubles tennis together where Terry would take all the shots...

Throughout his life, Terry was an outstanding athlete. As a young man he won the Toronto City Championships as a pitcher in baseball and was a ferocious defenceman in amateur hockey.

As an adult he won National and Club Squash Championships while a member at The Badminton and Racquet Club and The Toronto Racquet Club. Once Terry hung up his squash racquet, he joined the Toronto Hunt Club and loved sitting on the porch, having lunch looking out at the lake and chatting about well... anything.

Favorite topics included the economy, politics and anything his kids were up to.

Terry had a blessed life filled with family and friendships. He was a lover of Irish folk music, butter tarts and convertibles. In fact, he never owned a hardtop car! Why bother? He'd say. We'd like to think that Dad's driving his convertible to Heaven right now with a squash racquet in the back seat, music blaring. Safe travels, Dad.

Cremation has occurred. A memorial service will be held at the Toronto Hunt Club in September. Please contact the family for further details at aphramary@hotmail.com In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Kensington Health Org in memory of Terry Corcoran (https://www.

kensingtonhealth.org/Donations/ In-Memory-Donation.aspx)

ELGIN EVANS COUTTS Q.C.

In his 102nd year, Elgin Evans Coutts passed away at The Briton House Retirement Centre on Wednesday, August 7, 2019.

He is survived by his cherished wife and best friend of 74 years, Helen (née Muttart) and his loving children Don (Nora), and Peter (Kathie). Also left to grieve is Kathie's daughter, Kerry (Eric) and their children Christian and Ava.

Elgin was predeceased by his parents, Richard Alexander and Mary Alberta (née Hetherington), his brothers Robert and Carmen, his sister Norma and his infant son Alan.

After receiving his elementary and secondary education in Wingham, Ontario, Elgin joined the RCAF in 1940 and served as a pilot in the 162 Squadron. Upon his discharge in 1945 as Flight Lieutenant, Elgin enrolled in law school at Osgoode Hall, graduating in 1949.

He practiced law with Donald Carrick and later with the firm Coutts, Crane. Elgin was appointed Queen's Counsel in 1962 and retired in June, 2009, after a distinguished career of 60 years.

Elgin was actively involved in the Rotary Club of Toronto and was a Past President as well as a Paul Harris Fellow. Just weeks before his 59th birthday, he bicycled from Toronto to Prince Edward Island. He travelled 1,800 kilometres in just 11 days, and he was pleased to raise funds for Rotary. Elgin was a charter member and Trustee of Northlea United Church and served on the Board and on several committees.

He was a member of many other organizations, including The Royal Canadian Military Institute, Fort York Branch 165 of the Royal Canadian Legion, and the Granite Club.

We will miss Elgin's quick wit, his thoughtful insights and his remarkable memory.

He possessed a quiet faith, an unwavering devotion to his family and a genuine interest in the people around him.

In his senior years, Elgin lost his sight. Undaunted, he continued to work in his law practice and, characteristically, never complained about this handicap. His life represented a wonderful example of integrity, humility and service to the community.

The family is grateful to the nursing staff at The Briton House and to all of Elgin's caregivers, each of whom added to his health and happiness over the years.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 8:00 p.m. on Friday, September 13th. A memorial service will be held at Northlea United Church, 125 Brentcliffe Rd., Toronto on Saturday, September 14th at 11:00 a.m. Elgin's family graciously declines flowers, but would appreciate memorial donations to The Rotary Club of Toronto (Philanthropic Fund), 100 Front St. W., H - Level, Toronto, ON M5J 1E3 or to Northlea United Church, 125 Brentcliffe Rd., Toronto, ON M4G 3Y7. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

THOMAS CROTHERS

1935-2019

Tom passed away on July 31, 2019. Tom was the beloved husband of the late Elizabeth Anne Crothers (nee Collins, 2005). Tom was predeceased by his brother Robert Crothers and sister Margarette Houston, both in the summer of 2017. Tom will be greatly missed by his wonderful friend Valerie Lennox, whose companionship gave Tom much happiness in his final years. Tom will be fondly remembered by his nieces, nephews, and many friends.

In accordance with Tom's wishes, there was no visitation or service.

For those who wish, donations to North York General Foundation or the charity of your choice would be appreciated. Online condolences can be made at http://www.dixongarland.com.

Those who had the good fortune to know Tom will do well to remember the advice he gave and lived by: "Enjoy life."

EVA EAST Eva East,

born Eva Longstaff and affectionately called "Bunty" by close friends and family, passed away on August 4, 2019 at Michael Garron Hospital, Toronto, after a brief illness. She was 95.

Eva was born in Aldershot, UK in 1924 and was educated at Farnham Art School where she excelled in ceramics. During World War II, she was called up to work as a technician in a top secret radar lab (T.R.E.) in Malvern, Worcestershire. There she met and married Thomas East, a scientific officer. They had two daughters - Anthea Catherine East and Sarah Vivian East.

After emigrating from England to Canada, Eva set up a ceramics studio - first in Montreal, then in Toronto and later in Unionville, Ontario. She became well known for her beautiful glazes and masterfully thrown forms. Her body of work contributed a great deal to Canadian ceramics in the 1960's and 70's.

Eva is survived by her daughter, Vivian East and husband Bruce Meredith, her grandchildren, Stephen, Peter and Julia Ramdeholl, step-granddaughter, Sevren Meredith, daughter-in-law, Jennifer Simmonds and great granddaughters, Charlotte and Elise Ramdeholl. She is predeceased by her daughter, Anthea.

All will remember Bunty for her zest for life, her boundless creativity and her enthusiasm for a glass of sherry or two.

In lieu of flowers, we ask all who wish to celebrate her life to donate to Eva's favourite charity, The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.

LORNE ARTHUR EBEL

September 8, 1934 August 8, 2019

Lorne left us suddenly but peacefully on August 8th, surrounded by his wife and great partner of 66 years Dori (née Hughson), and the love and presence of all his children, grandchildren, greatgrandchildren and all those who knew him as family or friend.

Lorne was born in Southampton, Ontario and raised there and on the Manitoulin Island. Lorne enjoyed one of the happiest, active and most purposeful lives one could imagine. After meeting Dori in high school, they married in 1953 and travelled the world while also raising four children and balancing two careers. Lorne was a senior executive with the K-Mart Corporation, retiring in 1992 from the company after 39 successful years. Throughout his career, he lived in communities across Ontario and Manitoba making life-long friends from all walks of life and seeing the beautiful diversity living amongst us.

Outside of work, Lorne was fully engaged in all the communities in which he lived. A Rotarian and Paul Harris Fellow, he rarely missed a Rotary Club meeting and was the president of three different clubs across Ontario, president of the local Probus in Orangeville, Chair of the Board of the Headwaters Health Centre and chaired philanthropic auctions, events and galas too numerous to count. While his children were growing up, he was a boy scout leader, Junior Achievement leader, school volunteer and sports fan "extraordinaire" - a role that he happily continued with the arrival of his grandchildren. Never one to sit on the side lines, Lorne was physically active throughout his life and could be seen hiking the Bruce Trail, kayaking or canoeing rivers like the Saugeen, or skiing the Mono Nordic trails. He was quick to pick up a baseball glove or hockey stick for a little street hockey.

Lorne was serious about his civic duties and over the years managed many political campaigns at the municipal, provincial and federal levels sometimes winning, sometimes losing but always having a fun time along the way while ever expanding his circle of friends.

Few people, other than perhaps his beloved Dori, read more books in their life than Lorne and he was always quick to pass a good one on to someone else. While he always enjoyed a good literary journey, he was known for his world travels, paddling the the Yukon River, visiting the Pyramids of Egypt, the Galápagos Islands, Vietnam, or nestled in the dunes of Southampton. With close to a 100 countries visited in his lifetime, he was a true Voyageur and Dori was the "Clark" to his "Lewis"...now his next adventure begins.

Beyond his loving wife, Lorne is survived by his children, Lisa Bourdeau (husband Rick), Greg Ebel (wife Terri), Pamela Mauti (husband Joe); his siblings, John Ebel (wife Mary) and Heather Highgate (husband Carl); his 10 grandchildren; two greatgrandchildren; and numerous nieces and nephews.

Predeceased by his son, Matheson Ebel (wife Nancy); brother, George Ebel (wife Marie).

The family will receive friends at the Dods & McNair Funeral Home, Chapel & Reception Centre, 21 First St., Orangeville on Sunday, August 25, 2019 from 6:00-8:00 p.m. A Celebration of Lorne's Life will be held at the Westminster United Church, 247 Broadway Ave.

Orangeville on Monday, August 26, 2019 at 11:00 a.m., with visitation beginning at 10:00 a.m., Reception to follow at the Dods & McNair Reception Centre.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the Headwaters Healthcare Foundation (http://www.headwatershealth.ca) or the Westminster Capital Campaign (https:// westminsterorangeville.ca).

Condolences may be offered to the family at http://www.dodsandmcnair.com.

DIANE FULFORD GEE

Barbara Diane Fulford Gee, born July 2, 1928, died August 14, 2019. Daughter of the late Frances (Blount) and Albert Fulford. Predeceased by her husband Warren Burroughes Gee, siblings Joan Anne Gould (George Gould) and Wayne Fulford (Patricia Fulford). Diane is lovingly remembered by her children Marcus (Kate Andrew), Bryan (Jaleen Grove) and Caroline (Steven Graham); grandchildren Eric, Maddie, Sarah Andrew-Gee; Zephyr, Clea, Silas Christakos-Gee, their mother Margaret Christakos; Rebecca and Raiden Gee-Graham; brother Robert Fulford (Geraldine Sherman), sister-in law Marilynn Cawkell (Frank Cawkell) and many nieces and nephews.

Diane's family thanks the thoughtful caregivers at the Bradgate Arms who have made Diane's recent years and the last months, in particular, so comfortable.

Flowers gratefully declined.

Donations may be made to one of Diane's favourite charities: Diabetes Canada, Canadian Mental Health Association or Parkinson's Canada.

We will celebrate Diane's thoughtful, caring, stylish, optimistic and enthusiastic life 2 to 5 p.m. (speeches at 3) on Saturday, September 21st at the Arts & Letters Club, 14 Elm Street. Memories of Diane can be sent to dianegeefamily@gmail.com.

JOSEPH FREDRICK GERRATH

Of Guelph passed away peacefully with family at his side on August 10, 2019 at Hospice Wellington, at the age of 83. He is survived by his loving wife, Jean (Drewry); sisterin law, Tina (Hennekes); son, John (Christie Bahlai); daughter, Janet (Jer Robbins); grandchildren, James (Hannon), Penelope and Wesley (Bahlai-Gerrath); as well as many nieces and nephews. He was predeceased by his parents, John Gerrath and Margaret (Anderson) and siblings, Ruth (Foster), Lawrence, Louise (Stoneham), and John.

Joe was born June 25, 1936 on a farm near Cheviot, Saskatchewan where he lived until his father died in 1944. The family then settled in Vancouver where Joe received the rest of his schooling, culminating in a PhD in Botany from University of British Columbia in 1968. He and his wife Jean then moved to Guelph, where he began his career as a professor in the Botany Department at the University of Guelph. He taught many courses, including Phycology, Bryology, and Aquatic Biology.

He retired in 1999. Joe studied a group of green algae, the desmids, and was a foremost expert on their morphology and taxonomy. He collaborated with colleagues at the British Museum of Natural History on the desmid flora of Africa. He was an active member of the Canadian Botanical Association, and served as Treasurer and President. He also wrote and produced their quarterly Bulletin for some years, which gave him the opportunity to reveal his broad knowledge and sense of humour. Joe was an active member of the Guelph Field Naturalists in the 1970's and 1980's.

After he retired, Joe took up genealogy, and created a large and important data set on the Geraths/Gerrath family and their relatives, beginning with his father and his 8 siblings, and extending it to include Joe's 80+ cousins and their families.

He worked with historians at the University of Wisconsin Madison on early German settlement in the state, and continued adding to his files until his death. Joe volunteered regularly at the LSD Family History Centre in Kitchener for a number of years, and was a specialist in German genealogy.

Joe is remembered as a quiet, kind, and patient man who was generous with his time. He had an encyclopedic knowledge, which made him very useful to know in the pre-Google days. He loved to drive, and took the family on nearly a dozen camping trips across Canada and the USA, that usually included collecting algae samples. He enjoyed classical music, and was a long-time season ticket holder of Tafelmusik and the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony.

A reception will be held at the Wall-Custance Funeral Home & Chapel, 206 Norfolk St., Guelph on Sunday, September 1 from 1:00 to 4:00 p.m., where people can exchange reminiscences of Joe.

Donations may be given to the Guelph General Hospital or Hospice Wellington in his name.

TERANCE GEORGE GLOSSOP

December 16, 1934 July 19, 2019 We are very sorry to announce that Terry died at his home in Riga, Latvia after a brief illness.

He is survived by his wife, Baiba; and daughter, Karen.

He is also survived by his sons, Peter (Sylvie) and Neil (Natasha) and their mother, Elaine; his grandchildren, Claire (Ishan), Matthew, Christine, Michelle, Catherine and Connor; his sister, Sylvia and nieces and nephews.

Terry was born in Arundel, England - a small, southern English town - which he was immensely fond of and to which he frequently returned. After completing his National Service in Egypt and working for the Inland Revenue in London, Terry left England for Canada. This marked the start of a long career with the Toronto-Dominion Bank, which included postings in Vancouver, Montreal, Toronto, New York and London. While working, he earned a B.A. in Economics from York University in Toronto and an MBA from New York University. He retired from the Bank in 1996 as a Vice President.

He then embarked on a new career for nearly a decade, as an international banking consultant in developing countries. In the last fifteen years he and Baiba made their home in Riga.

Terry was a lover of jazz and opera - the sound of which often filled his home. He was also a dedicated traveller, having visited 79 countries. Terry brought hard work, wisdom, wit, courage, team spirit, creativity, service and adventure to every aspect of his personal and professional life. His children and grandchildren appreciated that Terry made a determined effort to stay connected with them despite all of his travel and work commitments. He is deeply missed by his family and friends.

A funeral service was held in Riga on July 31, 2019. A memorial celebration for Terry will take place in Toronto in the near future. Donations in memory of Terry may be made to oncological research at the University of Latvia at https:// z i e d o t . l u. l v / e n / h o m e - p a g e / or the Canadian Cancer Society.

RUTH ALISON HALL

With heavy hearts and great sorrow, we mourn the passing of (Ruth) Alison Hall (nee Jeffries) on August 14, 2019, in her 93rd year. Now reunited with her dearest friend and loving husband, Ross (1999) and muchloved daughter, Barbara (2016).

Alison was a devoted mother to Terry and his wife, Jane Ford, Barb and her husband, Niels Rasmussen, and Trish and her husband, Colin Vidler. She was a very proud grandmother to Davis and Gregory Hall, Laina (Lucas Dykstra), Leah and Tiana Rasmussen, Darcy (Darren Gebbetis) and Nigel Vidler. She was predeceased by her parents Harold and Gladys Jeffries, and her siblings Eileen Liddle, Terence Jeffries and Kathryn McNiven. She will be missed by many nieces, nephews and friends. Alison graduated from Victoria College at the University of Toronto with top honours in both academics and athletics. She had a strong sense of community and social responsibility. Alison was an active supporter of Trinity United Church, West Lincoln Memorial Hospital and its Foundation, the Canadian Federation of University Women and the Laurier Liberal Ladies. She served as the Chair of the Blood Donor Recruitment Advisory Committee (Ontario) for the Canadian Red Cross and on the Board of Directors at Albright Manor, Beamsville. She was awarded the Paul Harris Fellowship by Rotary International and was honoured for her contribution to the YMCA, Niagara.

A keen sportswoman and fan her entire life, Alison played hockey for the University of Toronto, curled, golfed and coached girls' hockey and softball. Alison was bright and articulate and enjoyed engaging dialogue and debate.

She was truly a partner to Ross, playing an important supporting role in his many civic endeavours and achievements. It was a role she cherished. Visitation will be held at STONEHOUSE-WHITCOMB FUNERAL HOME, 11 Mountain Street, GRIMSBY (905-945-2755) on Monday, August 26, 2019 from 6 - 9 p.m. Funeral Service to take place at St. John's Presbyterian Church, 10 Mountain Street, Grimsby at 11 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27, 2019. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Mark Preece Family House or the Canadian Red Cross.

http://www.smithsfh.com "Of those to whom much is given, much is expected."

PETER JOHN HARRIS

March 15, 1933 August 12, 2019 Peter John Harris, passed away peacefully on August 12, 2019 at Sunset Manor Collingwood, of Parkinson's. Born March 15, 1933 in Toronto, son of the late John Samuel and Helena Isobel Harris (Sawden) of Toronto. Beloved husband of 62 years to Betty (Mary Elizabeth Ellis). Dedicated father of Lisa Stuart (Andrew) and Gregory Harris (Lori), grandfather of Samantha and Edward (Ted) Stuart and Hudson, Holden and Berkeley Harris.

Graduate of University of Toronto Schools, O.C of Queen's York Ranger's Royal Cdn. Army Cadet Corp. 1952, University of Toronto Chemical Engineering 5T7, Theta Delta Chi and Western University Graduate School of Business Administration, Member of Toronto Ski Club Ski Patrol 1948-51, having slept in Jozo Weider's loft and helped build one of the first Blue Mountain ski lifts, Granite Club Member over 60 years.

His corporate career included; President W.R. Grace Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Vice President Pacific Division, Industrial Chemicals Group - Hanover Square New York, President Grace Chem. Ltd., Mississauga, Vice President Drummond McCall & Co. Ltd. Toronto. Upon retirement, he became a valued Financial Advisor to family, friends and business associates.

As a dedicated community member, he served as Board Chair, Fundraising Chair and Foundation Chair of Runnymede Health Centre over a thirty-year period as well as Board Chair of the Ontario Hospital Association.

As longstanding member of St. George's Church on-thehill he was Rector's Warden, Treasurer and Sides Captain.

Peter had a passionate interest in Astronomy from the age of 8 and was a life member of the RASC. With his love of Jaguar Cars, he was past President of the Ontario Jaguar Association.

Peter and Betty moved to Collingwood in 2014. Peter will be remembered for his love of music both Classical and Jazz, his keen intellect and his unfailing kindness to family and associates.

Arrangements entrusted to Fawcett Funeral Home Collingwood. Funeral Service will be at All Saints Anglican Church, 32 Elgin St. in Collingwood on Saturday, September 28th at 1 p.m. He will be buried in the Samuel John Harris family plot in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Sunset Manor, 49 Raglan St. Collingwood, ON L9Y 4X1, http://www.simcoe.ca, Sunset Manor would be appreciated.

PATRICIA ANNE HATT (nee Creighton)

Died peacefully at home with family. She remained strong, resilient and full of humour to the end. Patricia is predeceased by her late husband Brice. She is survived by her five children and spouses, Sarah (Peter), Martha, David (Jennifer), Victoria (Sean) and Katherine (Brett). Patricia was a devoted Nana to her eleven grandchildren, Grace, Emma, Ben, Gwen, Chris, Tyler, Matthew, Michaela, Sydney, Justin and Andrew and dog Louie. Patricia dedicated her life to advocacy for people with learning disabilities.

She volunteered with the Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario for over 20 years. She was a past Chair of the Board of Trustees for George Brown College; past chair and Executive Member of the Community Legal Education of Ontario [CLEO]; past co-chair of the Metropolitan Toronto Movement for Literacy; past member and former treasurer of the Ontario Justice Education Network [OJEN]; founding member of the York University Mentorship Program for Students with Learning Disabilities; and Adviser to the provincial and federal governments on issues of disability and employment.

The family will receive friends at the Robert J. Reid & Sons, "The Chapel on the Corner", 309 Johnson Street (at Barrie Street), on Friday August 23, 2019 from 4:00pm-8:00pm. The funeral service will be held at St. George's Cathedral, 270 King St E, at 11:00am on Saturday, August 24, 2019. As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations to a literacy based charity would be appreciated. Online condolences may be made at http://www.reidfuneralhome.com

GWEN HAWKE (née DeMont)

Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia on April 4, 1925, Gwen passed away peacefully in her sleep at The Dunfield Retirement Residence in Toronto, on Saturday August 3, 2019. Predeceased in 1999 by her beloved husband Howard, Gwen will be fondly remembered by her children Laurien Trowell, Martha Shinkle (Lee), Charles Hawke (d), Gordon Hawke (Jane) and Kelly Baxter (Brian). Beloved Nana/Grandma to Malindi, Geoffrey, Jessica, David, Heather, Hillary, John, Stephen and Geoffrey and eight great grandchildren. Lovingly remembered by Casey and Bill Hooke.

Gwen will be remembered by friends and family as fun loving, warm, generous, with a feisty spirit and great sense of style. She had a big heart and lived each day fully. She enjoyed golf, bridge, tennis, fitness, music and dancing, travel, driving her sporty cars, and always dressing to the nines. She was a long-time member of Rosedale Golf Club, CWSGA, the B&R Club, and the Monday Club.

Gwen had a strong community of support during her last year. Her family is deeply grateful to Aida, Maybel, and Marie Joy from Home Instead for their loving care, ensuring that Gwen got the most out of each day and lived with dignity. Thanks also to the amazing nursing team on the 3rd floor, and to all the friends and staff who made the Dunfield a wonderful home for Gwen.

There will be a private family service. Friends are invited to join the family for a Celebration of Gwen's Life at the Rosedale Golf Club, 1901 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto on Wednesday, August 21st, at 4:00 p.m. If desired, in lieu of flowers, donations can be made in Gwen's name to the Alzheimer's Society of Canada, 20 Eglinton Avenue West, 16th Floor, Toronto, ON, M4R 1K8. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

RUTH HOOD

February 5, 1933 August 9, 2019 Ruth Evelyn Hood (née Charlesworth) died peacefully, surrounded by loved ones in Toronto. She is survived by husband, Michael; daughter, Susanna; son-in-law, Scott Thomson; and a loving and attentive extended family.

Trained in library science, she worked on notable commissions as an editor and served her communities as a dedicated volunteer, philanthropist, and arts patron.

No funeral is planned, but an informal memorial gathering will be held in Toronto this autumn. Ruth's family will be grateful for contributions in her memory to the United Way and the Toronto Public Library.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019

We grieve the loss of Tony Houghton. Tony passed suddenly at his home in Kingston on August 8, 2019. He leaves behind his beloved wife Dianne, his daughters Sylvie, Stephanie, Catto and Sarah, his grandchildren Veronika, Sienna and Oliver, and his brother Hector.

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

GORDON RYO KADOTA

Gordon Ryo Kadota passed away on July 31, 2019 at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia at the age of 86. A private funeral was held on August 6 at Celebration Hall in Vancouver.

A Celebration of Life will be held at Nikkei Place, Burnaby, B.C.

on Sunday, September 22, 2019 at 3 p.m.

Gordon is survived by his second wife, Kyoko; daughter, Ayako (Steve); grandchildren, Sydney, Andrew and Dana; step-sons, Takashi (Reiko), Haruyuki (Kim); and step-grandchildren, K and Emi. Uncle Gordon will also be mourned by many nieces, nephews, and cousins in Canada, the U.S., England and Japan.

Gordon was born on January 15, 1933 in New Westminster, B.C., the 8th child of Kantaro and Shigeno (nee Kunita) Kadota. At the age of 7, he was taken to Japan for a visit, but the outbreak of World War II prevented his return to Canada.

He spent 12 years in Japan, graduating from Kwansei Gakuin University High School and later returned to Canada in 1952.

Following in his father's footsteps, Gordon worked in forestry and in the 1960's entered the travel industry, eventually specializing in tourism between Canada and Japan. This led to Canaway Consultants which provided translating and business consulting services. In the early 1970's, he also co-founded OK Gift Shop with the Canadian stores opening in Vancouver, Banff, and Niagara Falls. He remained active in the company until recently.

Beginning in the mid-1950's, he volunteered and became a leader in the Japanese Canadian community, serving both in organizations at the local and national levels. Over the years, Gordon received numerous awards for his work in the Japanese Canadian community, in business and tourism and the betterment of relations between Japan and Canada. In 2000, his dream of creating a gathering place for the Japanese-Canadian community was realized with the building of Nikkei Place in Burnaby, B.C.

Gordon was a great story teller and often started by saying "It's a long story". He had a big heart, kind words and a sense of humour that made it possible for him to continue for so many years in public service. He enjoyed travel, sports particularly golf and hockey, and was always helping others in need. Those who wish to make a donation in Gordon's memory might do so to Canuck Place Children's Hospice, St. Paul's Hospital Foundation or in keeping with Gordon's philanthropic spirit, any charity of your choice.

MARY CHRISTINE KARN (neé Pearse)

December 15, 192 August 8, 2019 It is with deep sadness that we announce the passing of Chris Karn. Chris died peacefully in Huntsville, ON, surrounded by family on August 8, 2019 at the age of 96. She was predeceased by her husband Gordon, the love her life, and her older sister Pam Biggs. Chris will be dearly missed by a large circle of family and friends.

Chris was the ultimate matriarch and role model for all who were lucky to have met her. She was an inspiration to her three children, Jinty (Jim Stewart), Kathy (Michael Pearce) and Ian (Sue Barker). She was dearly loved by grandchildren, Andrew Stewart (Susanna), Robin Allison (Zach), Roger Leavens (Claudia), Sarah Leavens (Bryce), David Pearce (Rachelle) and Michelle Pearce. Ten great- grandchildren are thrilled to have had such a special 'GG'.

To read Chris' story click on http://www.mitchellfuneralhome.ca A Memorial Service will be held at 2:00 p.m. Wednesday, August 28, at Mitchell Funeral Home, 15 High St., Huntsville, ON P1H 1N9.

There will be a reception following until 4 p.m.

Donations may be made in honour of Chris to The Lake of Bays Heritage Foundation http://www.lakeofbaysheritage.ca or to the charity of your choice.

BORIS S. KARPOFF P.Eng.

August 10, 1931 August 12, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the death of our father, Boris Svetoslave Karpoff de Korsounsky at the age of 88 at the Kamloops Hospice, BC. Dad died peacefully with his girls at his side.

He was predeceased by his wife, Audrey (née Gyuricska). He leaves behind his children; Hélène (Peter), Nadia (Colin), Alexandra (Daryl); grandchildren, Jacqueline, Karine, Colton, Mackenzie, Gabrielle and Dimitri, and sister Catherine (Richard).

Born and raised in Liège, Belgium, Boris immigrated to Canada in 1951 with his parents. He graduated as a mining engineer from Laval University, Québec in 1956. He went on to have a fulfilling career as a professional engineer and in later years worked as a mining consultant throughout the world.

Boris was passionate about the outdoor aspect of his job and enjoyed hiking and biking in his younger days. He was an avid glider pilot for many years and created lifelong friendships at several flying clubs in Ontario, Quebec and BC. Boris also was an avid stamp collector and rock hound, and took part in fossil hunts around Kamloops with the local paleontology club.

He touched many lives and leaves us all with many cherished memories.

He will be deeply missed by his family, near and far, and by his friends at Berwick on the Park, the Kamloops Stamp Club and KEG (Kamloops Exploration Group).

A private cremation will be held and a Celebration of Boris' Life will take place at a later date in Kamloops. Donations in lieu of flowers to the Kamloops Hospice Association (http://www.kamloopshospice.com) would be appreciated.

Arrangements entrusted to Kamloops Funeral Home 250-554-2577 Condolences may be sent to the family from http://www.kamloopsfuneralhome.com

DONALD HILARY KAYE

Donald Hilary Kaye passed away peacefully at home on Friday, August 9, 2019. Loving husband of Mary (nee Booth) for 40 years. Son of Augustine Kazimir Kaye, and brother to Rosalie Almond and Bernadette Kaye.

Predeceased by his mother, Mary Frances (Kavanaugh) and his brothers, Lester and Gordon.

A graveside service will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27th at Highland Memory Gardens, 33 Memory Gardens Lane, Willowdale. Memorial donations may be made to Epilepsy Canada.

GWYNETH SHEILA LANG (née Jones, formerly Turner)

Mother, teacher, mentor, role model. An inspiring and amazing (in all the senses of the word) wife, mother and grandmother.

Sheila showed us the importance of enjoying life's opportunities, and shared her love of language, art, music, theatre - and especially travel. Always colourfully dressed, she was never shy about being herself in the world, and was never afraid to talk about anything to anyone. She met life fearlessly and showed us all how it was meant to be done. Sheila was passionate about life. A swish hotel, a well-turned phrase, a good meal with friends (as long as she didn't have to cook it) were all things to be savoured whenever possible.

Family and friends were always important, with the 'Club' ladies holding a special place. These were friendships maintained from childhood all the way to the end of her life. Sheila was a natural teacher with huge reserves of knowledge about all manner of subjects - backed up with the vast filing cabinets full of the clippings she always seemed to be collecting. She quietly created opportunities for all of us to learn and grow, and had a deeply pragmatic wisdom that informed her outlook on life and helped the rest of us learn to keep things in perspective.

Mother to David (Lisa), Nancy (Loris) and Bruce (Steph) and grandmother to Thomas, Alana and Michael. Predeceased by both her husbands, Robert Alan Turner and Harold Murray Lang. Sheila died peacefully on Saturday, August 10 at Bridgepoint Active Healthcare Centre. She was truly, fabulously awesome, and we will miss her.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Butler Chapel, 4933 Dundas St. W. (between Islington and Kipling Aves.) on Saturday, August 24th from 2 to 3 p.m.

Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel at 3:00 p.m.

FREDA ELISABETH MARTIN (née McQueen)

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Dr. Freda Elisabeth Martin at age 87 on August 4, 2019.

Much loved by sons, Andrew (Dawn) and Peter; grandchildren, Louisa and Gregory; predeceased by parents, Andrew and Lily McQueen; husband, Kenneth; and sisters, Norah Fraser and Margaret Heather; missed by many nieces and nephews.

Freda was a loving wife and mother, had a long and distinguished career in child psychiatry and was a tireless advocate for childrens' mental health. Freda will be remembered in a celebration of life on September 22 at 2:00 p.m. at First Unitarian Congregation of Toronto 175 St. Clair Ave. W. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to plancanada.ca or to the charity of your choice in support of children and families in developing countries.

RUTH EILEEN MAX

May 10, 1931 August 11, 2019

Passed peacefully surrounded by family at Derbeckers Heritage House, St. Jacobs at age 88.

Survived by her loving husband of 66 years, Jack Max; brother Bob Stinson (Joan); daughters Jody Max, Jennifer Gloin (Greg). Also survived by six grandchildren: Andrew Beattie (Caitlyn), Christopher Taylor, Emma Beattie (Rob), Matthew Taylor, Jake Gloin and Leah Gloin; and three greatgrandchildren: Charlotte, James and Logan Beattie. Predeceased by her daughter Jill Max (Michael).

Ruth was born in Toronto but summered at Sandy Bay Road on Gull Lake (Minden) for much of her childhood. The "lake" was her special place and she and Jack were fortunate to have spent over 30 years there in their retirement.

Ruth was an active member of the Minden Hospital Auxiliary and a board member of the Gull Lake Association.

Ruth spent most of her working life as an editor - always known for her gift with words. She loved a good book, a comfy couch with a blanket and a view of the water, a glass of wine, with many laughs on the deck with her girls and Jack.

Grandma "cottage" as she was affectionately known, will be greatly missed by all her family and friends. A sincere thank you to the staff at Derbeckers Heritage House in St. Jacobs, who provided such genuine, loving care for the last few months.

Private family interment. Donation to Derbeckers Heritage House in lieu of flowers.

MARTIN VAUGHAN MORRIS

1956 - 2019

Martin Morris of Guelph passed away on August 7, 2019 at Innisfree House in Kitchener. He died as he lived his life: quietly, humbly and unassumingly from an extremely rare brain cancer, gliosarcoma.

Born in Portsmouth, England in 1956; he came to Montreal, Canada with his parents as a baby.

He lived in Montreal, Niagara Falls, Singapore and Peterborough.

For the last 35 years Martin lived in Guelph surrounded by a caring community.

Martin is predeceased by his mother Nesta Morris in 2008.

Deeply missed by his sister Charlotte Ryan and brother-in-law Jerome Ryan of Toronto and his nephew, the cellist Peter Xavier Ryan. His father Peter Morris and his father's partner Mona Negoita of Waterloo are also mourning his lost. His dear friend Marta Holfeuer who provided unwavering and loving support to Martin as well as his family, will truly miss his friendship.

Martin was an RPN at St Joseph's Health Care Centre in Guelph for 17 years and a proud recipient of their Mission Legacy Award where he was acknowledged for his "polite and calm disposition who attends to clients with care and compassion". He spoke French fluently with an Honours BA in French and an Honours BASc in Gerontology. A member of Mensa - Martin had an extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge on a multitude of subjects. He was a marathon runner and extensive walker, a copious letter writer. Lover of all fine things, Martin enjoyed wearing Mont Blanc sunglasses and odd socks; breakfast with Gordon at Wimpey's and dining at Miijidaa as well as staying at the Royal York Hotel. He had a quick wit and found humour in many things - he loved hearing the latest gossip. He lived all of his life with mental health issues that shaped him into the caring person that he was as he came to accept himself. An extremely generous gift giver - his true gifts were his care and concern and his ability to be a strong friend to those who needed him. He was always thoughtful and his actions were done with selflessness.

This last year allowed us to return his many gifts of kindness as we were able to care for him. His diagnosis was devastating to us - but it gave us this very special time with him that leaves us with a lifetime of joyous memories.

In memory of Martin, donations to the Guelph Public Library, where Martin enjoyed many hours, especially after his diagnosis, as it was a refuge and a hiatus from his illness.

Donations may be arranged through the Erb & Good Family Funeral Home, 171 King Street S., Waterloo http://www.erbgood.com or 519-745-8445.

Many thanks to Martin's and our friends, family, neighbours and health care workers whose prayers, support and acts of loving kindness truly lifted and carried us through this journey.

A big shout out and appreciation to nurses everywhere for their exceptional care and compassion that ensures every person feels loved and cared for - and whom Martin always enjoyed listening to and sharing nursing stories that only those who work as nurses would understand.

A private cremation ceremony has already taken place.

Friends are invited to share their memories of Martin with his family on Sunday, August 25th between 2:00 and 4:00 at Miijidaa cafe + bistro 37 Quebec St Guelph.

With tributes starting at 2:30.

ZOË ANNE MURRAY (née Molson)

Zoë passed away peacefully at home after a valiant struggle with Cancer on Thursday, August 8, 2019 at the age of 83.

She is survived by her loving spouse, John Worsley and her son, Maximilian Hardinge, and predeceased by her sons, Charles Hardinge (19562004) and Andrew Hardinge (1960-2014).

Zoë was born in Montreal on November 13, 1935 and was the daughter of the late Senator Hartland de Montarville Molson (1907-2002). Growing up in Montreal she attended The Study, went to Netherwood School in New Brunswick, and finishing school at Brillatmont International in Switzerland. On October 14, 1955, Zoë married Nicholas Hardinge and had three children.

On December 13, 1983, she married Christopher Murray and lived happily at La Glinette in St Aubin, Jersey, Channel Islands. Upon Christopher's death on December 26, 2007 in Barbados, Zoë found companionship and love once again with John Worsley and lived happily at River Run in Uxbridge.

Zoë was a world traveller, avid golfer, competitive tennis player, and passionate cook. She embraced the outdoor pursuits of fly fishing and shooting in Scotland, England and Canada with her family and four legged friends. Zoë was a loving mother to her three sons, mother-in-law to Julie, Sophia and Elizabeth, grandmother to Matthew, Emilie, Olivia, Thomas, Jamie, Melissa, Hugo and Oliver, and step-mother to Lucinda, Stephen, Doone, Willa, Harry, Jonathan, Dickon and Katie.

The family would like to thank Doctors Trinkaus, Babak, Mahadevan, and the PSWs and palliative nurses for their kindness and devotion to her care.

A private family service will be held at St Paul's in Uxbridge, and a celebration of life will be held at Grace Church on-the-Hill on Friday, September 20th, at 11:00 a.m. followed by a reception in the parish hall. Zoë's final resting place will be amongst the fragrant woods and velvet waters of Ivry a place she adored with her family and cousins. Zoë will be forever in our hearts.

JOAN IDELL QUIRIE OWENS

May 25, 1927August 3, 2019 Joan Idell Quirie, daughter of Ross James Quirie and Idell Grosskurth, was born in Toronto and lived in Ontario until her father's career took the family to Boston. After high school, she returned to Canada for grade 13 at Alma College and earned her B.A.

in English at Victoria College in 1948, before receiving her M.A. at Boston University in 1949. While teaching at The Wheeler School in Providence, Rhode Island, Joan met and married journalist Gwinn Owens, a native of Baltimore, Maryland, who shared her love of music, theater, and adventure.

In 1952, while still newlyweds, the couple traveled to Greece with the hopes of living there.

Ultimately, they decided to come back to the States and settled in Baltimore, where their four children were born and where Joan taught at St.

Paul's School for Girls and later, Ruxton Country School.

An avid reader and lifelong learner, upon retirement she became a student again, taking classes in literature, language, and art.

To her friends, family, and students, Joan was always a patient listener and a gentle advisor. She inspired others to write, to read, to think, and to observe. Her four children survive her: Gwendolyn (Peter Gibian) of Montreal, Ross of Santa Cruz, California, Laura (Reed Templeton) of Ocean View, Delaware, and Paul (Betsy Rogers) of Orlando, Florida, along with six grandchildren.

A memorial will be held in Baltimore on October 12, 2019.

ERIC CARL RIORDON

In Prince Edward Island on Wednesday, August 14, 2019, Eric C. Riordon, formerly of Montreal. Beloved husband of Catherine Jean Finnie. Treasured father of William (Mara), Edward (Dayzmilia) and dear grandfather of Charlotte and Emma. Brother of Michael (Brian Woods) and the late Mollie Anne. Son of the late Eric Riordon, ARCA and Mollie Usher-Jones.

Resting at Belvedere Funeral Home. Funeral Tuesday at St. James Church "The Kirk", Charlottetown at 11:00 a.m.

Burial service at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto, on Wednesday, August 21 at 11:00 a.m.

If desired, please consider making a donation of blood in Eric's memory. http://www.belvederefh.com

JOAN ELIZABETH STAGER (née Alexander)

January 17, 1933 August 4, 2019 Daughter of Thomas and Sylvia Louise Alexander (née Armstrong).

Predeceased by her husband John Kimberley Stager, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia, on October 10, 2018.

Also predeceased by her brothers, James Henry Alexander (Evelyn) and John Thomas Alexander (Donna); and nephew, Donald James Alexander. Joan is survived by her sister, Sylvia Louise Carl (Robert); and her brother, Gordon Burnett Alexander (Rosalyn). She will be fondly remembered by her many nieces, nephews, and godchildren. The family would like to acknowledge the loving commitment of Joan's caregiver, Aida Roxas.

Joan graduated from Lord Byng High School in 1951 and Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing in 1954. Early in her career she went to San Francisco where she was a nurse. Subsequently she returned to Vancouver where she met her beloved John; they married in 1964. Shortly thereafter, with architect Barry V. Downs, CM, the couple built a light-filled, gracious, midcenturymodern home on a wooded lot in the Southlands area. Furthering her education, Joan graduated with a degree in Fine Arts from UBC in 1977. She volunteered in the conservation department of the UBC Museum of Anthropology where she applied her natural precision and eye for detail to every project. Joan Stager demonstrated exquisite taste, was the consummate hostess, and delighted in her relationships with friends and family.

A memorial service and reception will be held Saturday, September 7, 2019, at Knox United Church, 5600 Balaclava Street, Vancouver, at 11:00 a.m.

DAVID CHRISTOPHER N. VALDO

Sadly, we had to let a very brave soul leave us after a four month valiant struggle at Royal University Hospital in Saskatoon, on July 18, 2019.

David, the loving son of Anne and Terry (d. 2001), awesome brother of Kristin and brother-inlaw of Kelly and proud uncle of Madison Schulkowsky.

A Celebration of David's life will be held in Toronto on Saturday, September 21, 2019 at St. George's-on-the-Hill, Dundas Street West at Royal York Road, Toronto at 12:30 p.m. All those who were blessed to know David are encouraged to join us.

David made many friends at St.

George's, Addus and Dramaways during his short life. A donation in David's memory to one of these organizations would be appreciated by his family, instead of flowers.

Dear David, the "nightmare" is over. Love you forever. Peace be with you always.

EARL VAN SLYKE "Van"

March 16 1921 August 7 2019 Van was born in Durham Ontario and raised in nearby Hanover...

the third in a family of nine boys.

He served honourably as a gunner in the Royal Canadian Artillery during the Second World War and fought in North Africa, Italy and was especially proud of his role in the liberation of Holland.

Following the war Van moved to Toronto where he married, raised his family, had a successful career in sales and pursued a lifelong passion for golf. He was predeceased by his wife Sheila and is survived by his children Wendy (Terry), Leslie (Danny) and Chris...grandsons Mike (Jaimee), Peter (Meghan), Alex, greatgranddaughter Hannah and his special nieces and nephews Allan, Paul, Jennifer and Diane.

Special thanks to the nursing staff at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre and Dr Deb Selby for their exceptional care in Van's final months.

Thank you for your service soldier.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

JOHN R. MCGEE "Jack"

January 10, 1932 August, 16, 2009 We took our vows together And said till death do us part When God came and took your hand My whole world fell apart No one knows the heartache I try so hard to hide No one knows the many times I've broken down and cried When I look back upon our lives One thing makes me glad That you chose me to share with you Those precious years we had I know you walk beside me And when my life is through I pray that God will take my hand And lead me back to you.

Love is forever, Me.

DUFFUS Happy 50th Annivers ary John and Judy Duffus! We love you always, Nicola Simon and Naomi Ben Tracy Fred and Carlie xxxxxooooo AURION JAMES WALKER June 11, 1926 August 13, 2019 Aurion James Walker, loving husband of the late Gertrude Walker, was born in Haileybury, Ontario on June 11, 1926, the oldest child of Eleanor (McCool) and James Walker. Aurion is predeceased by daughter Wendy (James Archer) and Brian, and is survived by son Stephen (Lynn) and son-in-law James Archer (Heather Gwynne-Timothy) and grandchildren Jennifer Murphy (Colin), Kaitlyn Roberts (Dan), Robyn Walker, Keirsten Clarke (Ben), Robert Archer, Emily Hollis (Brendan), and Kathleen Archer (Dave Maillet). Loved by his great grandchildren Ethan, Anna, Noah, Lena, Macie, Madeleine, Poppy, Olivia and Alex. Aurion is predeceased by siblings Mary (late Jerry) Burton, Dorothea (late Victor) Flemming, Mildred (Alan) Kurtz, Peter (Tina), Richard (Mary Ann) and Alice Louise, and survived by his brother Alexander (Margaret), and sisters Edna (late Eugene) Wilson, Kathleen (late Murray) Boyd and Gabrielle (late Peter Wilson).

Aurion, known to his friends as Jim, had an enriching career in the mineral exploration field, following in the footsteps of his father and maternal grandfather.

Subsequent to his term in the military, Jim began to pursue his passion for mineral exploration.

In 1947, Jim graduated from the Haileybury School of Mines, and advanced his career with several prominent mining companies.

One of the many highlights of his career were his four summers in the Yukon, and his passion for the Yukon remained with him into his later years.

In 1968, Jim started his own firm, Walker Exploration Limited, which was very successful.

Having received his P.Eng, Jim received his iron ring alongside his son Stephen in 1978 at Queen's University in Kingston. An active member of the Prospectors and Developers Association since 1951, Jim served as President from 1975 to 1977. Jim received an Honourary Member Award and in 1998, he received the Distinguished Service Award. In 2013, Jim received the Queen's Jubilee Medal in recognition of his lifetime commitment to the mining industry in Canada.

Jim will be remembered by family and friends for his generosity, his respect for others, and his sense of humour.

There will be a mass celebrating Aurion's life at St. Christopher's Roman Catholic Church at 1171 Clarkson Road N in Mississauga, Ontario on Tuesday, August 20, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Almonte General Hospital, or a charity that holds a special place in your heart would be appreciated.

Funeral Arrangements Entrusted Into The Care Of C.R. Gamble Funeral Home & Chapel Inc.

127 Church St., Almonte, ON., 613-256-3313 Condolences & Tributes: http://www.crgamble.com

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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B15


CUSHMAN / REID

Claire Elizabeth Cushman and Stuart Allan Reid were married on July 27, 2019 in Sorrento, Maine. The bride, daughter of John Cushman and Heather Lawson of Toronto, holds a BA in English from Brown University and an MFA from the New York Academy of Art. She is a painter specializing in landscapes. The groom is the son of Dr. Andrew Reid and Carol Findlay Reid, formerly of Toronto and Findlay, Ohio, and presently of Philadelphia.

He holds a BA in Government from Dartmouth College and is a managing editor of Foreign Affairs magazine.

Claire and Stuart will be living in Paris for a year while Stuart is writing a book and where Claire will paint, before returning to their home in Brooklyn, NY.

DONOHUE/GOTTWALD

Overjoyed, Sean and John Donohue announce the birth of their granddaughter, Charlotte Delaney Gottwald, born in Singapore on July 30, 2019. Proud parents are Nora Donohue and Kamil Gottwald.

Also rejoicing is a host of Donohue and Gottwald relatives including two greatgrandmothers, Anne Delaney and Lada Gottwaldova.

MAXWELL JOY

We are pleased to announce the arrival of Maxwell Alexander Grahame Joy, on July 27, 2019, at 7:21 a.m., weighing in at 7 lbs 15oz, in his new role as CEO of JoySky Development Group. After spending the past nine months shadowing mom, Michelle Skutelsky and listening to dad, David Joys' strategic planning; he is happy to promote them to their new roles as Chief Milk Officer ("CMO") and Chief Diaper Officer ("CDO"), respectively.

It is during his time in utero training that he has developed a true appreciation for the Fairmont Gold Standard; as applied particularly to lighting, sound and culinary excellence.

He looks forward to being introduced to the rest of the Executive Board of Directors consisting of his brother, Todd Joy, CFO and his sister, Jasmine Joy, COO, both of the parent company Joy Developments Inc., whose guidance will be instrumental in navigating numerous life opportunities. Max is also keenly interested in meeting assembled committee members made up of the Skutelsky/Joy families, the newly formed Compliance Committee, (comprised of past and present crew of Sonic Boom), and in addition foreign strategy and oversight from the Morrall family.

Please take this opportunity to join us in welcoming "Max Joy" to the world.

GABRIEL RUTHERFORD STEPHENS

On Tuesday July 23rd to Rachel Kellogg and Michael Stephens in Toronto a beautiful son 9 pounds, 10 ounces. Ecstatic grandparents include Abigail Bakan and Paul Kellogg, Debbie Harding and David Stephens and Mary Hatch and Roger Maus.

ANNEMARIE BIRCH

Passed peacefully on July 25, 2019 in her 100th year.

Born in East Prussia on April 29, 1920, she fled her homeland in January 1945 to escape the Russian advance. Miraculously reunited with her mother and two sisters in Berlin, they relocated to northern West Germany where she taught school at a British school until immigrating to Canada in the early 1950's. Annemarie settled in Toronto, where she met her beloved husband Richard E. Birch, who would introduce her to the golf world. They were married for 40 years at the time of his death in 2004. As a member of the Lambton Golf & Country Club, she became a proficient and decorated golfer, and considered winning the prestigious Lambton Senior Ladies Trophy in her early 80's (when she also shot her age) among her top achievements in the sport. Possessed of many artistic and athletic gifts, Annemarie was also an avid photographer, talented pianist and organist, tennis fan and opera buff. A chic, sharing and gracious woman - truly one-of-a-kind - she appreciated and saw beauty in all things and people, always able to produce a few apt words of wit and wisdom.

Annemarie will be deeply missed by her niece, Katrina and husband, John Hele and their children, Katherine, Carson and Trevor; and Victoria (John) O'Malley, and Mark (Rebecca) Harben, children of her late niece, Jeanette Harben; and newest addition great-grandniece, Mariana O'Malley.

The family would like to thank the caring staff at the Hazelton Place Retirement Residence, Annemarie's home for the past four years. There will be no service, and a private interment will take place at a later date. If you wish to remember Annemarie, please make a donation to a charity of your choice.

DR. C. ANN BROWN (née Brothers)

Born in Montreal, Quebec 1943, died in Kingston, Ontario, July 29, 2019, following a brief illness, peacefully surrounded by family. Predeceased by her beloved husband of 47 years, Dr. Hugh Brown (2016).

Ann was dearly loved and will be forever missed by her daughters Jennifer (Ian Joiner) and Angela, and her grandchildren Catherine, Alexander, William, and Kyle. Ann provided incredible love, support, and inspiration to her family.

Born and raised in Montreal, Ann graduated from the Royal Victoria Hospital School of Nursing in Montreal in 1964 and from McGill University in 1970. She completed graduate studies at Queen's University in Kingston (Master of Education, Master of Science and PhD).

At Queen's Ann served as a faculty member in the School of Nursing from 1976 until her retirement as Associate Professor in 2013. Her contributions to the body of knowledge on heart rate variability focused specifically on the mechanisms of adaptation of regular exercise on cardiovascular health. Ann's research, and that of her graduate students, examined the cardiovascular effects of low intensity aerobic exercise in pregnant and healthy women, and people living with cardiovascular disease. Ann appreciated the contribution of long-time family friend Peter Fenwick who secured key equipment that enabled this research.

Ann loved sailing with the family, swimming, cross-country skiing, walking, reading, classical music and good wine. She and Hugh swam several times per week well into their mid-70s. They enjoyed their canine (Great Danes), feline and equine family members tremendously. Ann loved horseback riding, an activity she shared with her daughters and grandchildren. After her retirement, she learned to play golf, never well, but always with immense pleasure.

Her daughters and grandchildren were a source of great joy, stimulation and support. Ann loved her family dearly and was immensely proud of their interests, accomplishments and differences. She delighted in their talents and individuality.

Ann was predeceased by her parents, Alexander Brothers (1976), and Muriel Brothers McNair (nee Martin) (2004), and sisters, Marilyn Doherty (nee Brothers) (2007), and Barbara Phillips (nee Brothers) (2014). She is survived by sister-in-law, Stephanie Stratton (Larry), brothers-in-law, Barry Phillips, and John Doherty, cousins, nieces, nephews, dear long-time friends, and colleagues.

The family would like to thank the physicians, nurses, and staff who cared for Ann with exceptional compassion, skill, and dedication.

Visitation will be held at James Reid Funeral Home (1900 John Counter Blvd, Kingston) on Wednesday, August 7th from 5 - 7 p.m. and on Thursday, August 8th from 12:30 - 1:30 p.m. The family will have a private service.

In lieu of flowers, memorial donations to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada or to the Canadian Cancer Society would be appreciated by the family.

http://www.jamesreidfuneralhome.com

LUCY BRICKER

At Windsor Regional Hospital on Sunday, July 28, 2019, Mrs. Lucy Jane (Russell) Bricker of Windsor, in her 86th year. Beloved wife of the late Dr. Jim Bricker. Dear mother of Mary Anne Bricker of Toronto, Laurie and Maurice Bizero of Manotick, Jamie and Carol Bricker of Oshawa, and David and Jacqueline Bricker of Lakeshore. Grandmother of Daniel Tessaro, Paul Tessaro and Kelly Marshall, Jordan and Ryan Bricker, and Sarah Michelle, Lauren, and Matthew Bricker, and greatgrandmother of James. Sister of Becky Prisco of Toronto.

Predeceased by her brother James Russell and her sister Mary Safrance.

A private family service will be held at Knox Presbyterian Church, Listowel followed by interment in Fairview Cemetery, Listowel.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.eatonfuneralhome.ca

C. JAMES BURRY

Of Toronto, Ontario, age 88, passed away suddenly at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto on July 25, 2019. Devoted husband of Winifrede Rogers Burry for 61 years. Proud father of Guy (Liz Lundell), Donald, and John and "Grandpa" to Kate and Owen, Alex (Melinda Choy) and EmmaLee. Predeceased by much-loved sister Joan Brown and dear sisterin-law Marianne Rogers. He will be missed by sister-in-law Gay Rogers, extended family and many friends.

Jamie was born in Toronto, Ontario, son of James A. S. and Dorothy (Fox) Burry. Jim was in the class of '53 at the Royal Military College, Kingston (#3021) where he earned the nickname "Burro" for his tenacity. He graduated from Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto and then completed a Master of Science degree at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Jim was a recognized expert in the field of water purification and waste water management. He worked as a consulting engineer at James F. MacLaren Associates as part of the team that designed Canada's first metropolitan-scale sewage treatment plant - the Humber Wastewater Treatment System in Toronto, opened in 1960. Jim later consulted on projects with Gore & Storrie before he became a professor at Ryerson University from 1967 to 1991 - where he was one of the first to provide coursework on computer. He was President of the American Water Works Association and recipient of the Water Environment Federation's Bedell Award. Jim was also a director on the board of St. Marys Cement Company.

Jamie's favorite pastimes were working on the computer, painting military miniatures, genealogy, reading, listening to music, watching anything gridiron and college hoops, driving machinery at Midloch Farm in his penny loafers, and taking many memorable family trips to Florida, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island as well as Christmases at the Muskoka cottage that he and Win purchased in 1987.

A reception to celebrate his life will take place at The York Club, 135 St George St., Toronto, ON on Friday, September 6, 2019 from 3:30 to 5:30 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Taylor Statten Camping Bursary Fund (tscbf.

com) or the charity of your choice would be appreciated. Jamie always thought that summer camp was truly important for his boys because it gave him a few peaceful summers.

FRANCIS LYNDON DEVANEY B. Arch (Hons.)

OAA, Architect Suddenly and unexpectedly, Lyndon Devaney passed away on Thursday, July 25, 2019, in his 67th year. Beloved partner of Gale Willgoss, Lyndon will be remembered for his enduring generosity and indomitable spirit by her family, Tyla Fullerton and Brian Sweet, Kendra Fullerton and Adam Boddy, Stace Fullerton and Michael Gieck, and Elise Fullerton and Dan Florescu.

Sadly missed by his brother, Relf Devaney and wife, Susan Procter, and his sister, Jill and husband, Richard Weston. Devoted uncle of Scott and Eric Weston. Loyal and devoted friend of Bill Harrison and his wife, Trish. After graduating from the University of Toronto, Lyndon joined Zeidler Partnership in 1982, becoming a principal of the firm. In 2007, Lyndon and his team constructed the Trump International Hotel and Tower in downtown Toronto. From Zeidler Partnership, Lyndon formed Devaney Strategic Planning and Design and in 2013 continued working with developers as a highly skilled project manager in Devaney Strategic Planning Inc.

Lyndon's creative vision is seen in Canada Place, an iconic landmark in Vancouver Harbour; the World Trade Centre in Toronto; Canary Wharf in Britain; Parq Vancouver Casino and Hotels Douglas and JW Marriott, and additional projects across Canada and internationally.

As an avid model maker in his teens, 'LD's exacting attention to detail became the hallmark of his work as an architect. His interest in sports was highlighted in his passion for Formula One's premier races and elite cars.

Lyndon's trademark black T-shirt and black jeans exemplified his taste in classic, stylized simplicity.

An esteemed colleague, respected mentor and trusted friend.

Lyndon was predeceased by parents, Francis Devaney (1969) and Joan Devaney Brown (2009).

A private cremation has taken place. Condolences may be offered at Smith's Funeral Home in Burlington or at condolenceforlyndon@gmail.

com. If desired, expressions of sympathy may be made to the Dustin Leopold Memorial Tribute Fund c/o Crohn's and Colitis Canada or to the YMCA-YWCA of the National Capital region at http://www.ymcaywca.ca.

DORIS DOHRENWEND

1931 - 2019

Born in Bronxville in New York, Doris Dohrenwend died of multiple cancers at her home in Toronto on July 31, 2019.

She is survived by her brother, Bruce Dohrenwend, and sisterin-law, Catherine Douglass, in New York City.

Doris was an art historian and curator in the Far Eastern Department of the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) from 1967, when she immigrated to Canada, until her retirement in 1996. Work in Japan had led to a strong interest in Asian art and a return to school.

At the University of Michigan, 1955-1957, she studied Japanese art and crafts under James Marshall Plumer. Her thesis was on Japanese modern woodblock prints. Later at Harvard, she concentrated on Neolithic and Bronze Age China under Max Loehr. Her thesis, on the human image in Chinese art before Buddhism, was accepted for a Ph.D. in 1973.

These studies, including research travel, were made possible by the Ford Foundation Foreign Area Training Program.

In Toronto, she concentrated on the early China collections in which the ROM is notably rich.

In connection with work towards special exhibitions, she also became absorbed in studies of Chinese glass and, particularly, jade, publishing the first catalogue of the museum's jade in 1971.

The last years before her retirement (1990-1995) were dominated by a specific commission naming Doris Dohrenwend and colleague Patricia Proctor to conduct a search for special works of Chinese art - large and/or fine or gapfilling works - to present for ROM purchase. This involved travel and knowledge of the art market in the United States, Europe and East Asia and was made possible by a landmark bequest from Herman Herzog Levy of Hamilton, Ontario, gentleman, collector and old friend of the ROM's Far Eastern Department.

Donations in memory of Doris Dohrenwend may be sent to The Bishop White Committee, East Asia Endowment Fund, Far Eastern Department, ROM, Toronto, at bwc@rom.on.ca.

PETER BRIAN EDWARDS

March 19, 1931 July 25, 2019 After a long and full life, it is with much sadness we advise of the sudden death of Peter Brian Edwards on July 25, 2019. He will be sadly missed by his wife and best friend of 46 years Patricia Carol Edwards (née Yeargin), and by his many cousins and friends in North America and the United Kingdom.

Peter was born on March 19, 1931 in Great Crosby, UK, and attended Merchant Taylors' School, Crosby.

When his draft notice arrived, he volunteered to go to Korea with the First Royal Tank Regiment which as part of the UN force saw active combat. At the end of his tour Peter returned to the U.K.

and was assigned to the 13th Bn of the Parachute Regiment. He then took a market research position with AC Neilsen in Oxford. Peter emigrated to Canada in 1954 and worked at Simpson's Department Store, Cunard Steamship Lines and The Dominion Bureau of Statistics. In 1959, he began his university degree at McMaster University but after one year he was hired by Proctor and Gamble and was sent to Cincinnati to the computer market research department. Peter's next move was to attend Toronto Teachers' College after which he taught elementary, middle and later, after receiving a degree from York University, high school. He became a guidance counsellor at Westview Centennial Secondary School in North York until his retirement in 1989.

Peter did extensive volunteer work. He was the President of the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada, and a founder of the Toronto branch of the Royal Heraldry Society. He was in the St John Ambulance Brigade, Uniform Division for eight years and served for two of those years as the Provincial Commissioner of Ontario. He established the archives at the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and worked as the Honourary Archivist for ten years.

Vexillology, the study of flags, was his hobby and he established the Burgee Data Archives. He was a member of the North American Vexillogical Association, NAVA, and the international flag organization FIAV. He won the Driver award from NAVA. He travelled around the world to attend their conferences. In the last two years he has been an enthusiastic contributor to the digital book Flags of the World and has submitted over 300 articles on flags, mostly yacht club burgees. His library is now at the Naval Marine Archive, in Picton.

He retained his UK connections as a member of the Honourable Artillery Company, The Cavalry and Guards Club, and as a Liveryman of the Merchant Taylors' Company. In Canada, he joined the Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) and later the Governor General's Horse Guards as a Captain (CD). He was a life member of the Royal Canadian Military Institute.

Peter was a member of the Whitby Yacht Club and a Life Member of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club. He and Patricia enjoyed sailing Lake Ontario, the North Channel, and once to Martha's Vineyard. They sailed in Conneda, San Remo, Nova, Unicorn III and Pamlico.

At Peter's request there will be no formal service or Celebration of his life.

Donations would be gratefully accepted in memory of Peter to the Toronto Humane Society or the charity of your choice.

JOHN WAYNE FAZEKAS

1952 - 2019 After both a retirement and life that were shortened by Lewy Body Dementia, John died on July 29, 2019. John is survived by his wife Barbara, (née Tait) of Cobourg, ON and two daughters: Angela of Toronto and Sarah of Nanaimo, BC. Predeceased by his mother Helen (2010) and his father John (June 23, 2019), John is survived by his sisters Robin (Colin Williams of Guelph) and Luanne Fazekas of Windsor. John also leaves brother-in-law Robert Tait (Shel) of Alliston and Golden and sister-in-law Mary Bates (Norman) of Strathmore, Alberta as well as eight nephews, five nieces and numerous cousins.

A lifelong employee of the North Shore and Algoma District school boards, John taught in Elliot Lake and was a principal in Iron Bridge and Elliot Lake. Upon retirement, John and Barb moved to Cobourg, ON. As per John's request, there will be no formal service. In lieu of flowers, John would like to be remembered by donations to charities of your choice, especially those catering to the educational and physical needs of children. Cremation has taken place with celebrations of his life planned for Cobourg at the Mill on Thursday, September 12th at 1 p.m., in Elliot Lake at Laurentian Lodge on Thursday, September 26th and in Windsor at the DH on Saturday, October 5th at 12 noon. Condolences received at http://www.MacCoubrey.com.

VERONICA IRENE GALLOWAY (Armstrong)

The Clan lost another member on Wednesday, July 17, 2019.

Irene had a long journey through life from birth to James and Helen Armstrong in Skendleby, Lincolnshire, England on July 2, 1921, to servicing airplane engines in WWII in Gloucestershire, to meeting Flying Officer Derek Allen Davy (RAF) (1944-1988) marrying in 1946 and emigrating to Canada. Life changed on June 10, 1950 with the birth of a daughter, Terry Suzanne Davy, at Grace Hospital in Toronto. In 1986, she married her second husband, Robert Galloway (1918-2009) who is survived by his two sons, Peter (Karen) and Robert (Donna Lynn) and predeceased by a son, Ian.

Sadly, Alzheimer's crept into Irene's life and caused a move to Heritage River Retirement Home in Elora followed by Simcoe Manor Long-Term Care Home in Beeton where the staff couldn't have provided better care. She ended her journey there in a peaceful, caring setting at age 98.

Cremation has taken place and interment will be on August 15, 2019 at 11 a.m. at Belsyde Cemetery, Fergus. A guest book is available at http://www.grahamgiddyfh.com. A tribute donation may be made at http://www.etobicokehumanesociety.

com who rescued her beloved cats, Maggie and Ginger.

LYNDA GARNER (Nee Mott)

We are heartbroken in announcing Lynda Isabel Jane's the passing on Monday, July 29, 2019. Wife, best friends, lover and partner in every way imaginable to Malcolm Garner. Gentle, loving steadfastly supportive and challenging, she never stopped surprising us with her capacity for strength.

Despite an extremely arduous journey these recent months, she fought like a champion to stay in our lives. Lynda and Malcolm, married 52 tears, lived together in Toronto where they made their home, ran their business and raised their only daughter Hilary, who is the light of her life.

To honour Mom's wishes, we will be holding a private graveside service at Forestville Cemetery.

There will be a memorial to honour her spirited soul at Sunnybrook Estates, McLean House on Wednesday, August 7, 2019 between the hours of 3-7 p.m.

Arrangements are entrusted to The Ferris Funeral Home, 214 Norfolk St., S., Simcoe (519-426-1314).

Donations, while not requested would be graciously received if made to the Hillcrest Forestville Cemetery or St. Andrew's-By-TheLake Anglican Church Turkey Point, Ontario. Online condolences at http://www.ferrisfuneral.com.

PHILIP JAMES GODDARD, P hD.

1958 - 2019 Passed away peacefully on Tuesday, July 30, 2019, at his home in West Newton, Massachusetts. He was the loving son of Margaret and the late Jack Goddard, cherished brother of Linda Lenczner (Eric) and Nancy Bunyard (Paul), uncle of Sarah Caputo (Tom), Michael Lenczner, Christine Darling (Brad) and Laura Bunyard. He was the great-uncle of Jane, Allison, Amy, Jenna, Jack and Leah. Loving best friend of Nancy Kunkel.

Philip lived his early days on the family farm in Mississauga. He was educated at Gordon Graydon High School, University of Western Ontario, University of Texas at Houston and Harvard University.

He worked in medical research specializing in gastro intestinal physiology and pharmacology.

Phil worked in Boston and remained dedicated and involved with his family and friends in Canada. He was a good son to his parents, a loving family member and a loyal friend.

Philip dealt with medical issues for the last few years of his life and did so with a positive and resilient spirit before finally succumbing to cancer.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga, (Hwy 10, N. of the QEW), Tuesday from 2-4 and 6-8 p.m. Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel Wednesday, August 7, 2019 at 11 a.m. If desired, donations to Sleeping Children Around the World would be appreciated.

Online condolences available through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

PAMELA SUSAN HANLEY

Wednesday, July 31, 2019, at age 67, in the arms of her loving family.

Thirty-one years married to her loving husband, Tom Campbell.

Devoted sister to Peter, Julia, Teresa (Mario), and Valerie (Len). Fun-filled aunt to Jeff, Ryan, Vanessa, Nick, Lauren, Steven and Andrew. Chief spoiler of her poodle Pixie and loving friend to Connie and Kim. Pam's great wit, humour and friendship will be greatly missed by all who knew her.

While nearing the end of this challenging journey that made her so tiny and frail, she showed us all such courage and hope that reminded us of the preciousness of life. While Pam's life seemed too short, all those who were touched by her joyful, witty nature, have come to understand that the quality of existence far exceeds the time we are here.

Sincere appreciation to Dr. Brian Morris and all the exceptional care givers and volunteers at Hospice Simcoe.

To respect Pam's final wish, there is no funeral service. Donations may be sent to Hospice Simcoe, Georgian Bay Hospital, or Wheels of Hope and would be gratefully acknowledged. Condolences may be left for the family at peacefultransition.ca.

LEON HOPPEL

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Leon Hoppel at the age of 83 at his home in Toronto after a long illness, peacefully with his beloved wife of 60 years, Pat Kay, by his side on July 14, 2019. He also leaves behind his sister, Greta Lawrence and husband, Ian; and nephews, Brian and Daniel Lawrence.

Leon was an employee for many years of IBM Canada and Amdahl Corp. Leon was a proud member of AA for 47 years and he would like the world to know it changed his life and made him a better person!! There will be a Celebration of Leon's life on August 6th, at 11:30 a.m. at Lambton Golf and Country Club, 100 Scarlett Rd., Toronto. For those who wish, donations may be made to a charity of their choice.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

MARY ISABEL HOUSTON SVM, B.A., B.Ed.

1925 - 2019

Mary was born November 7, 1924 at on the family farm at Dilke, Saskatchewan to Mary and Stanley Belcher. With her sister Margaret and brother Boswell, she attended one-room Edwards School 4 miles away, completing the last 2 years of high school education by correspondence.

She obtained her B.A. (with distinction) and B.Ed. degrees at the University of Saskatchewan, then taught for three years at the Yorkton Collegiate Institute.

Mary married Dr. Stuart Houston on August 12, 1951. They had 4 children: Stanley Clarence (Venta Kabzems) Edmonton; Margaret Sigrithur (Richard Ehman) Rochester MN; David Vernon (Kathryn Bell) Syracuse NY; and Donald Stuart (Martha Helgerson) Winnipeg. David completed a M.Sc. at Queens University and Stan, Marg and Don all completed M.D. degrees at the University of Saskatchewan. They have among them produced nine wonderful and diverse grandchildren: Adam and Ilona Houston (Stan), Eric, Jeff and Katherine Ehman (Marg), Meg and Stuart Houston (David), and Anna and Mary Houston (Don).

Mary's final thrill was the arrival of a great grandchild in Minnesota on November 15, 2018, the fourth generation to be named Sigrithur.

Mary was able to live at home in her three-storey house till she was 92, and loved her yard, growing all her bedding plants inside under lights during the winter.

While a patient in Saskatoon City Hospital in May, Mary had the great pleasure to spend time with baby Sigrithur, seemingly the happiest infant anywhere. Mary was transferred June 24th to the Luther Special Care Home, where she died July 19th.

While raising her busy family, Mary was active in her church circle at St. James, the University Women's club, and especially in the Saskatchewan Natural History Society (now Nature Saskatchewan). She was the main provider of logistical support in the form of huge jugs of iced tea and a cooler full of sandwiches, cookies and fruit for Stuart's owl, pelican and vulture banding expeditions, and bean soup at noon during each Boxing Day bird-count. She was a gracious and generous hostess for frequent house guests and served innumerable dinners for visiting birders, students, and medical professionals at the house on University Drive in Saskatoon. She was a self-effacing gentle person with a gift for putting people at ease.

In the provincial Saskatchewan Natural History Society Mary was one of the first four elected Fellows in 1987, and served as vice-president from 1979 to 81.

She received the Douglas H.Pimlott Conservation Award from the Canadian Nature Federation in 1988, and represented Saskatchewan on the Canadian Nature Federation from 1979 to 81. Mary was named as one of the "Outstanding Saskatoon Women" in International Women's Year (1975). She received the Distinguished Canadian Award from the University of Regina Seniors' University Group in 1992, the Meewasin Conservation Award in 1996, the Saskatchewan Volunteer Medal and Saskatchewan Centennial Medal in 2005, College of Education Alumni Wall of Honour in 2010, College of Arts and Science Alumnus of Influence in 2013, and was inducted into the Saskatoon Women's Hall of Fame in 2011. She wrote up seven species for the prodigious Birds of Saskatchewan published at Christmas 2018, coauthored 1 book, 11 book chapters, and 93 scientific papers, and provided editorial criticism of uncounted other works.

Mary's bird banding record is unique in North America.

She banded more Bohemian Waxwings (5,385) than all other North American banders combined, with many more recoveries. She also banded some 7,500 Mountain Bluebirds and 18,000 Tree Swallows fledged in the houses along a roughly 150 mile bluebird trail, and 4,900 Purple Martins in colonies, plus colonial island water birds including 8,000 Ring-Billed Gulls, 4,000 California Gulls, 2,000 Cormorants, and 2,000 Pelicans, and songbirds caught in her backyard (6,000 Juncos, 3,500 White-throated Sparrows and 3,200 Redpolls).

Her funeral service will held in Emmanuel Anglican Church, 607 Dufferin Ave. Saskatoon on Sunday, August 11th at 12:00 noon with a reception after.

Arrangements in care of Martens Warman Funeral Home (306-934-4888).

RUTH FRANCIS JACQUES (née Thomson)

September 26, 1931 July 21, 2019 TGH Class of '54. Ruth was married to Doug (d. 2012) for 56 years.

They had three children; Drew (Lisa), David (Jackie), and Heather (Forrest), and five grandchildren; Lucas and Sierra, Jocelyn and Alexander, and Larahanne. A celebration Of Ruth's Life will be at Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Rd.

W. (one block east of Kerr St.)

Oakville , Saturday, August 10th at 11:30 a.m. with visitation one hour prior to service. In lieu of flowers, the family would appreciate donations to the Alzheimer's Society or Knox Presbyterian Church (New Roads Project).

THEODORE MICHAEL KOZMINCHUK

On July 27, 2019, Theodore (Ted) passed away at the age of 88 at his residence in Toronto, Ontario.

He was predeceased by his father Michael, mother Antonia (Tina), sisters Marilyn, Pauline Skiba and Rose, and long time partner Charles Moray Chesney.

Cherishing his memory are sisters Bernice Mazur and Phyllis Doran, brothers Victor and Brian (Jackie), and many nieces and nephews.

Ted worked many years in the oil exploration business, then changed careers in the early 1960s, dedicating his life to education. Teaching experiences included a one-room school house in Lappe, Ontario, Selkirk Collegiate in Thunder Bay, Bell High in Ottawa, and Runnymede Collegiate in Toronto as Head of Physics. Ted entered the Canadian Army Reserves in 1962 as the Second Lieutenant.

Ted loved tending to his plants and had a special place in his heart for his cats. Ted had a passion for travelling, visiting many countries around the world, focusing on history and indigenous cultures.

Ted will be missed by all of us.

As per Ted's wishes, a visitation will take place on August 8, 2019 from 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m. at Turner & Porter, 2357 Bloor St West, Toronto, ON, M6S 1P4.

Donations may be made in Ted's memory to Heart & Stroke Foundation, Cancer Society, or Toronto Humane Society.

Vichnaya Pamyat (Forever Remembered)

J. ALEXANDER LANGFORD Q.C.

December 7, 1931 - July 23, 2019

Peacefully, in Toronto, holding the hand of the woman he adored for nearly seventy years. Predeceased by his parents, Henry E. Langford, Q.C and Helen Langford. Treasured by his wife of sixty-two years, Marion Grace (Barker) Langford. Cherished by his children Mary (Langford) and J. Michael Rolland, Sarah Langford, Anne Langford Dotsikas and Peter Dotsikas, John and Eva (Kowalski) Langford, Jane A. Langford and Blair Freeman. Adored and revered by his grandchildren: Megan Rolland, Alexandra and Hollie Rolland, John Rolland, Caileigh Langford, Rhiannon Langford, Kate Dotsikas, Emily Dotsikas, Ben Langford, Ana Langford, Henry Freeman and Charlotte Freeman. Loved by his only sibling, Elizabeth (Langford) Julian (Larry Lundy).

Celebrated by steadfast friends.

Alex was a life-long scholar. He loved his high school years spent at the University of Toronto Schools (UTS) and won yearly academic prizes through graduation (1950). He was very proud of the liberal arts education he received from Victoria College, University of Toronto (Vic 5T4, Honours B.A. History), the 4th generation in his family to be educated on the 'old Ontario strand'. Deeply felt was that connection to his many ancestors who studied and taught there. He then studied law at Osgoode Hall Law School (LSUC 1958) and remained a tenured law student, reading the evolution of the law into his 80s. Even in retirement, Alex was an engaged participant in both the Economist Readers with the Academy of Life Long Learning and Learning in Retirement at Glendon College. He never travelled without a suitcase full of books, always reading several volumes simultaneously. For Alex, to learn was to live. For those who loved him, feeding his voracious appetite for knowledge with stacks of books was our regular habit until days before his passing.

Following his call to the bar, Alex joined the then new firm Miller Thomson where he practiced corporate law for more than thirty years. He was a longtime director of E-L Financial Corporation, Magna International Inc., Victoria & Grey Trust Company, National Trust Company and many other private and closely held companies. As a scholar and historian, Alex had a deep appreciation of the law as the "cement of society" and its role in public affairs. This alone motivated his active involvement in the profession.

In his first year of practice, he was Chair of the Junior Bar of the Ontario Bar Association (predecessor of the Young Lawyers section) and member of the Association's Executive Committee, on which he served continuously for over fifty years, acting as its President in 1985-1986. Over the years, he penned advocacy positions for the CBAO on provincial and national legislative initiatives and acted as counsel to civic leaders. In 2012, he received the Award for Distinguished Service from the Ontario Bar Association. Alex pursued all his briefs with honour and integrity in the finest tradition of the profession.

Alex was a gentleman and a man of principle; influenced neither by popular opinion nor convention. Deeply loyal to the foundational institutions in his life, Alex was a committed volunteer. He served on Victoria University's Board of Regents for over a decade, as well as the Chancellor's Council at the University of Toronto. His service also extended to our democratic institutions. He was proud of his country and served as Honorary Solicitor to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs for thirty-years (creator and leader of its international briefing tours from 1963-1980). He volunteered in every provincial and federal election from the time he could vote until recently and welcomed a feisty conversation about the politics of the day.

A proud member of the United Church of Canada, Alex had faith both spiritual and academic: he could and would engage with theologians on the history of the Protestant church and historical references in the Bible.

He attended church weekly throughout his adult life and served on the executive of both Lawrence Park Community Church (1957 to 2006) and Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (2006-2016), acting as lay Presbytery representative for over fifty years. Alex received a Distinguished Service Award from the United Church for his leadership.

Of all his stations, certainly his favourite was the tallest seat at the family table. He loved his large clan; delighting in (and occasionally egging on) their boisterous antics. He had a profound sense of occasion, the more pomp and circumstance the better! Every grandchild knew his distinctive wink.

Always up for a rigorous debate, it pleased him to see his family members passionately advocating a position, even if it differed from his own (provided it was well-informed!). He patiently acted as the family Google to the end.

At his core, Alex was a man in love with his wife and all the musical notes she brought to his life. His devotion to her was as pure as it was legendary.

Seared in his memory until his final days was the story of his first meeting with Marion and throughout their long marriage, his love for her underscored his every action. Together, they created a dynasty defined by decency, joy, and service to others. For those of us blessed to travel within their orbit, their love made all things possible: the ripples continue in ways known and yet undiscovered. Theirs was an uncommon example for our modern age.

A celebration of Alex's life will be held on Thursday, October 3rd at 10:30 a.m. at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (230 St. Clair Ave W., in Toronto). In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the J. Alexander & Marion G.

Barker Langford Scholarship at Victoria University (Office of Alumni Affairs & Advancement, 150 Charles Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1K9; http:// http://www.vic.utoronto.ca/Giving.htm). Alex and Marion met as "freshies" at Vic in September 1950. In their golden years, they established this scholarship fund. For Alex, it reflected two things he loved: Vic and his beloved wife!

ROBERT JOSEPH LEONARD

March 29, 1961 - July 26, 2019

We lost an original when my beloved left this world surrounded by family and his two extra brothers. Robert was intelligent, loyal, creative and always ready for a debate. He loved technology, the English lexicon, a game of squash, discussion around the table and his Basenjis, Chance, Gypsy and Ingrid.

My thanks go out to the core team who facilitated many medical appointments and provided counsel and support: brothers Norman and Ted; sisters Libby, Jeannie and Dana; nephews Ian and Connor; nieces Ali and Bailey; friends Drew, Joe and L. Baltz; extended family Lindsay, Bonnie, Pam, Guy, Tara and Chris and his best mother-in-law, Betty.

A sincere thanks to Doctors Kim, Chen and Saltman at Princess Margaret Hospital for indulging his obsession with the binder and laughing at his jokes and to all the nurses both in hospital and at home who looked after both of us with patience and tenderness.

Robert was the son of Warren and Jean and one of eleven children. He is joining his brothers Larry and Jeff who left before him and his wonderful father-in-law Bruno. He followed a decidedly different scholastic path to arrive at his chosen profession and was on the cutting edge of this new thing called the internet before many knew it existed. He ended his career as a technical product consultant for a large software company, logging countless hours in the air.

He loved a gathering of friends and family and for all the travel, was a serious home-body. Friday night "Shabbat" dinners with the Pen girls (and additional guests) were sacred and mobile devices were forbidden.

I met what turned out to be the "boy next door" (his family moved away from the street directly behind my family home the year we moved in) on the corner of Yonge and St. Clair in 1987. That led to our movie star kiss on the dance floor of the El Mocambo and the rest was history. We would have celebrated our 30th anniversary this September.

There will be no funeral, per Robert's wishes. If you would like to honour his memory, please sign your organ donor card. Another way to remember him would be to drop off a basket of healthy snacks at a nursing station of your local hospital. So many nurses provided such compassionate care to us and they should be celebrated. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.morleybedford.ca I have lost my best friend, my love and my champion but I am grateful for the years we had, the belly laughs we shared and the bond that will never be broken.

Elisa Pen Leonard

GERALD PERLEY LEWIS (Gerry)

October 28, 1928 July 30, 2019 Following a brief illness, Gerry left us with wonderful memories of a gentle man who lived long, laughed much and loved well. He was predeceased by his dear wife, Joan. He will be remembered fondly by his children, Stephen, Elizabeth and Michael; and his daughters-in-law, Leanne and Tracy. He was adored by his grandchildren, Emma, Natalie, Adam, Courtney and Alexandria.

Gerry's generosity, trademark GPL sense of humour and spirit of adventure were a joy to all who knew him, including his siblings, Phil, Vivienne and Jack and their families, along with friends and neighbours.

A celebration of life will be held at a later date. To remember Gerry, please take a walk in nature, play a game of Scrabble, or tell a good joke. Donations in his honour may be made to The Bruce Trail Conservancy or The Heart and Stroke Foundation.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

MARIGOLD AGNES MACKENZIE LYALL

It is with great sadness that we announce the sudden passing of our dearest Marigold on Monday, July 22, 2019. Marigold was born on March 2, 1929 in Victoria, BC.

and recently celebrated her 90th birthday in the company of a hundred of her friends and family.

All who knew and loved Marigold were looking forward to enjoying many more years of her elegant, vibrant company. To the end, Marigold pushed forward into the world and embraced all that life had to offer. Gourmet cook, celebrated hostess, avid reader, gardener nonpareil, quilter, world traveller, athlete, yearly winner of her age group in the Sun Run, wife, mother, grandmother, aunt, friend, confidante - this list only begins to capture the wonder that was Marigold. Struck down by sudden illness, Marigold was surrounded by loved ones to her final moments, which she faced with courage and strength, thinking of the well-being of those around her to the end.

Our hearts are broken, but we are humbled and inspired by the example of her life and the courage of her final hours. When the tears fade, her memory will inspire joy in all who knew her.

The family would like to thank Dr.John Duncan for his compassion, friendship, and invaluable service. Marigold is survived by Gordon, her dear husband of 67 years, her children, Charles (Nancy), David (Jill), Elizabeth (Tony), and Andrew (Heather), and her 10 grandchildren, Philip, Johnny (Erin), Michael, Alison, Chip, Hunter, Mackenzie, Sarah, Matthew, and Rachel. A memorial service will be held on Wednesday, August 14, 2019 at the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club from 3-5 pm. In lieu of flowers donations may be made to the Mabel Mackenzie Colbeck Scholarship in English, a UBC scholarship that was set up to honour Marigold's mother, online at support.ubc.ca/ mackenzie-colbeck-scholarship, by calling 604.827.4111, or by mail at 500-5950 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3.

KIM MARTYN

On August 1, 2019, our beloved Kim passed away after living with cancer for over ten years. Predeceased by her partner, Bruce MacDougall, Kim is survived by her cherished daughters Kendra (Kaz) and Emma (Dee), her brothers Rob and Steven (Megan), her stepmother Liz, many nieces and nephews, and a large group of dear friends, all of whom will love and remember her always. A celebration of life will be held on Thursday, August 8th at the Heliconian Club at 35 Hazelton Avenue from 5 pm to 8pm. In lieu of flowers, please consider a gift to The Anglican United Refugee Alliance, http://www.auraforrefugees.org in memory of Kim.

WILLIAM JOHN MURRAY

It is with sadness and love that we report the passing of William John (Jay) Murray. Jay was born October 1, 1933 in Hamilton, Ontario and passed away surrounded by family in Port Credit on May 11, 2019.

He was the only child of Lily Roe (nee Davidson) and William Thomas Murray, and beloved nephew of Connie, Jean and Jack Davidson.

Jay graduated from the University of Toronto's Faculties of Engineering and Business in 1959 and remained lifelong friends with his Delta Upsilon fraternity brothers. His career in sales took his family to Vancouver, Waterdown, King City and Mexico City which fostered new friendships and strengthened cherished experiences.

A devoted family man, Jay married Janet Elizabeth (Dinny) Duncan (d. 1982) in 1961 and they had six children, Cynthia (Cindy) Murray, William (Billy) Murray (d. 1966), Gordon (Gordy) Murray (d. 1967), Douglas Murray, Anne Murray and Margaret (Maggie) Murch. He was proud grandfather to Charlotte and Louden van Ryn, Tate and Jax Murray, Duncan and Zoe Murch, and father-in-law to Sean Murch.

Jay loved sports including curling, fishing, golf and tennis, and played football on his high school team. He indulged in a love of travel after retirement, visiting Maggie, Sean and grandchildren Duncan and Zoe in Vancouver a few times a year. Further travels led him to China, Czechoslovakia, and a safari through Africa. He wintered in Florida establishing many friends there as well. Throughout his life he and his family and friends enjoyed summers at Dinny's family cottage, Duncraigie and at The Health Club.

Over the years Jay lived with his daughter Cindy and grandchildren Louden and Charlotte and in the last 4 years with Cindy, Anne and grandchildren Tate and Jax.

Although his heart and body grew weary, his love and support for his family never faltered. He will be fondly remembered and deeply missed by all whose lives he touched.

SISTER MARGARET MYATT, CSJ (formerly Sister Gabrielle)

Died peacefully at Sisters of St.

Joseph Residence, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario on Thursday, August 1, 2019 in the 65th year of her religious life.

She is predeceased by her parents, Charles Myatt and Margaret Chapman and her sisterin-law, Sandra. Sister Margaret will be sadly missed by her brother Charles, her niece Tricia Sidebottom, her nephew Joseph Myatt, and sisters in community.

Sister Margaret entered the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto on September 8, 1953. Her hospital administration background included four years as Assistant Administrator of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto.

In 1975, Sister Margaret was appointed Administrator of St.

Joseph's Hospital, Toronto and was responsible for the merger of St. Joseph's Hospital and Our Lady of Mercy Hospital into St.

Joseph's Health Centre in 1980.

She continued as Chief Executive Officer for St. Joseph's Health Centre until 1990. From 1990-1998, Sister Margaret served as CEO of St. Joseph's Hospital and Home in Guelph, Ontario.

Upon her retirement from the ministry of health care, Sister Margaret was elected as General Superior of the Sisters of St.

Joseph of Toronto. She served the congregation for 12 years with vision and dedication. She initiated new ministries within the congregation, the most notable being Fontbonne Ministries, which has a focus on nurturing community through housing and outreach programs. Perhaps her greatest venture was the Women's Religious Project. This project was conceived in 1999 as a joint ministry of 29 congregations in the Archdiocese of Toronto who were brought together by Sister Margaret to mark the millennium. This neighbourhood affordable housing project saw the building of 60 houses.

Later, Sister Margaret brought together women and men religious congregations in a 'Joint Apostolic Ministry' later known as Becoming Neighbours. This initiative has been instrumental in assisting refugees and newcomers to Canada.

Sister Margaret generously served on and chaired many boards and committees associated with denominational and provincial health care.

Sister Margaret was a woman of deep faith in God, love for the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph and a visionary leader who responded to the needs of the poor and disadvantaged.

May she rest in peace and may her good works follow her.

Visitation at Sisters of St. Joseph's Residence 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario Tuesday, August 6, 2019, from 2:30 - 4:30 p.m.

with a Prayer Vigil at 7:00 p.m.

Mass of Christian Burial Wednesday, August 7, 2019, at 10:30 a.m.

Chapel, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery at a later date.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

HARRY ALLEN OBRONT

With heavy hearts, we announce the passing of Harry Obront on Friday August 2, 2019 at Baycrest Hospital. Beloved husband of Rosaleen Lehman-Obront.

Loving father and father-inlaw of Reesa Obront and Don O'Grady, Joshua and Katrina Obront and step-father of Tania and Simone, Tara and Tony, and Anthony. Proud Zadie of Tyler, Dakota, Aria, Luca, Gabriel, Francesco, and Max. Son of the late Benjamin and Sally Obront. Brother and brother-in-law of Riva and the late Morty Obront, Carol and the late Seymore Obront, and the late Shirley and Donny Auerbach. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Ave. West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday August 5, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment Temple Sinai Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Shiva 101 Thomas Cook Ave., Maple. Donations may be made to the Baycrest Foundation, 416-785-2875 http://www.baycrestfoundation.org

CHARLES RONALD PIKE

December 9, 1926 - July 27, 2019

I was born in Regina, Saskatchewan to Eleanor May (Robinson) of Kingston, Ontario and John Charles Pike of Harbour Grace, Newfoundland. My father was an 11th generation Newfoundlander. The youngest of 3 children, elder siblings Eleanor Margaret Dethridge (Stan) of Ottawa, Ontario and George Newman Pike (Winifred) of Richmond, BC having predeceased me. My parents lived over 50 years in Regina and are interred there. I am the last of this branch of our family and expired at the age of 92 following 26 years of retirement living in Peterborough, Ontario.

I have been blessed with a GREAT life. My only regret is the family and friends I have now physically left. My wonderful and loving wife of 66 years, Constance Mary (Scobie), our three children - Catherine, m. Eric Wiebe (Caledon, Ontario), Terence, m. Sohee Kang (Bowen Island, B.C.) and Susan (Peterborough, Ontario). Our children are all independent, responsible and empathetic adults of whom we are very proud. We have 8 wonderful grandchildren - Angus and Connor Wiebe (Caledon), Sean and Dylan Pike (Bowen Island), Nuruddin and Nasruddin Qorane (Toronto) and Halimah and Abdul-Hakim Qorane (Peterborough). They ALL have great futures ahead of them.

The love of my life, Connie, was born in Rosetown, Saskatchewan and we first met in 1950 when I was in my graduating year at the University of British Columbia (B.App.Sc. - Civil Engineering) and she was in Nursing Training at the Vancouver General Hospital. These two 'depression era' prairie kids were joined in marriage in Vancouver, in 1952. As our son once aptly wrote in a poem written to celebrate our 50th Wedding Anniversary: If I asked him right now, "Dad, what's your greatest success?" I'm sure he'd say, "Son, the day your Mother said Yes."

We have had the opportunity, and satisfaction, of living and/or working, in every province of Canada except PEI and Newfoundland - where we have vacationed. We love Canada. We have traveled and explored a good part of our world but never found any other country with greater appeal.

I was employed for 46 years by Canadian Pacific Ltd. including 3 years in the corporation's head office, 38 years in a great variety of 'on-line' service and responsibilities with CP Rail - and 5 years as a Senior Management Consultant following retirement. In time, my ambition led me away from my profession but never from my engineering training. My career was largely spent in the management of change. I always strove to find new and better ways of doing things - more efficiently and safely - and in the best interests of the company, its employees and our customers. I was successful enough to satisfy my personal ambition. My last 8 active years with the railway were spent as system Vice President, Operations and Maintenance, and Vice President of the Prairie Region. One CP Rail project, to which I was fully committed from its inception on our rail system, strongly impacted and improved railway operations throughout North America. It was the Air Flow Method (AFM) of qualifying train braking systems.

A sincere compliment - by the people of my home province - was my induction into the Saskatchewan Transportation Hall of Fame in 1991. I also had the good fortune to be named a Commander of the Order of St. John, served as an officer in the Canadian Army (RCE) - commissioned by Queen Elizabeth II in the 1st year of her reign - and was a working member of many business, community and recreational oriented management boards mainly located within the communities across Canada in which we lived.

I have been further blessed with the good and lasting friendship of many associates. I fully retired in 1992.

Connie and I have thoroughly enjoyed 26 subsequent 'hassle free' retirement years in Peterborough, Ontario. We were members of the Peterborough Golf and Country Club where I also curled. As non-resident members, of the Royal Montreal Golf Club, we made annual visits there for many years. Winter vacations have often been spent golfing, in a great variety of locations - around the world.

A Celebration of my Life will be held at a future date.

Remembrance, if you so desire, could be made to a charity of your choice.

ANTONIA PLATONOV (née Höhn)

1937-2019

Our beautiful mother passed away on July 15, 2019, in Mississauga, Ontario at the age of 81.

She is survived by her loving husband of 55 years, Victor, a fellow "displaced person" whom she met at a dance in 1962, and by her two sons, Michael and Daniel (Laura), plus brother Karl (Erna), grandson Victor and extended family in Ontario and B.C. She is predeceased by her parents, Emil and Herta, sister Gertrude and brother Daniel.

As ethnic Germans in the Soviet Union, they were persecuted: Antonia's father died in one of Stalin's prisons, so she and her family fled west during the war to settle in Celle, Germany. Canada became a better place when she arrived here in 1955, joining her brother Karl and sister Gertrude.

Antonia is one of the last echoes of that generation which took a leap into the unknown to secure a brighter future. From working in a Philips factory to a CN Rail office, she made her way in her adopted homeland, eventually sponsoring her mother, Herta, to immigrate.

After several years of marriage, two sons came along, which we understand was a bit of a surprise at the time. Our family home was one of love, learning and safety. These things we took for granted then, but were priceless we now realize. "Toni" had endless curiosity and a lifelong appreciation for languages, music and culture, all of which she instilled in us. Her work ethic and high standards were second to none. Mum, we hope we will do you proud with what you've taught us.

Her last years were marked by Alzheimer's Disease, which was the greatest injustice for a good heart and a good life well lived. Our family took great comfort in the superb care she received at Silverthorn Care Community. We take comfort now in knowing that we will all meet again.

Liebe Mutter Dear Mother Ruhe sanft in Frieden Rest Gently in Peace

MARY AIRD RUTHERFORD (née Baillie)

Mary died of non-Hodgkin lymphoma at her home in Ottawa on July 19, 2019, with her son Michael at her side. Mary, a poet and researcher, was a "bride married to amazement," as one of her favourite poets, Mary Oliver wrote. Her curiosity, courage and zest for life continued to shine in her last weeks. Mary's many enthusiasms included poetry and the visual arts, birding and nature walks, Georgian Bay waters, and good conversation. Devoted wife of 48 years to her late husband Jack, Mary will be lovingly remembered by Michael, his wife Lisa Ennis, her granddaughter Aria, her brother John Baillie and sister Jane Baillie-Sipherd, and cherished cousins, friends and Sherwood Park neighbours.

She was born in Hamilton on April 16, 1938, to John and Helen Baillie. Mary was "queen of the springboard" growing up, as she wrote in her poem "The Dive," from Engagement Calendar. She excelled in sports and academics at Strathallan School, and then studied English and French at McGill and U of T. Mary met the love of her life Jack Rutherford at the CBC, and they married in 1965. She was chief researcher on the Pierre Berton Show, and supervisor of research services at TVO. In 1968, she and Jack moved to Washington, D.C., where Michael was born. They returned to Toronto in 1976, and the family grew with the arrival of Trapper, the bugling beagle. Mary became research editor of the Imperial Oil Review in 1980.

On retirement in 1993, she faced her "swimmer's moment" and found a new direction: poetry.

Her poems were shortlisted for the 2005 CBC Literary Awards and her collection Engagement Calendar was released by Inanna Publications in 2013. That same year she and Jack celebrated the birth of Aria, just three months before Jack died. Mary continued to write, travel and relish visits with family and friends. She moved with determination to Ottawa this past spring to be close to her family, make new discoveries and new friends, and as Thoreau wrote, "suck out all the marrow of life." In "Primum Vivere," from Engagement Calendar, Mary wrote: "You have fathomed the whirlpool's eye, cannot wish away / the fear. Yet a whirling fills your spirit with such thirst. / Primum vivere.

You know you must begin again."

A celebration of her life will be held at Beechwood National Memorial Centre, 280 Beechwood Avenue, Ottawa at 1 p.m. on September 21, 2019 with reception to follow.

Donations in her memory may be made to Lymphoma Canada.

http://www.beechwoodottawa.ca 613-741-9530.

JOAN M. SCOTT

January 22, 1920 - July 30, 2019 Peacefully, with grace and dignity, of natural causes, surrounded by the love of her family, in her 100th year.

Proud, devoted and loving mother of four sons, David (Isabel), Doug (Laurie), Donn (Jean) and Dale; granddaughters, Joanne James (Mark) and Susan Chisholm (John); and great-grandchildren, Emma, Jack, John, James and Isabel Joan.

Joan Muriel Scott was born in the Isle of Wight, England, a lifetime resident of North Toronto, the home she loved. An active member of St. Timothy's Anglican Church, her spiritual home, for more than 65 years, and a devoted member of St. Andrew's Group, the women's auxiliary, where she always gave the Devotions. Member of North Toronto Y's Mennettes, a YMCA community service group, since the 1960s. Both groups are the source of many dear, life-long friends. A cottager at Gull Lake, Minden, ON.

Attended John Fisher P. S. and Northern Secondary School, and after graduating in 1937, she worked as a nutritionist at the world-renowned Connaught Medical Research Laboratory at University of Toronto, during a period of important work on the polio vaccine, and during World War II, while her husband was overseas, supporting Canada's wartime effort when Connaught Labs was a major producer of medicine for Canadian soldiers.

Predeceased by her parents, George and Dorothy Smith, sister Vera, brother Hugh, and husband Ralph V. Scott.

A long, well-lived Christian life, marked by grace, dignity, strength, courage, integrity, humour, faith in God, and devotion to her sons and family. She was a wonderful daughter, mother, grandmother, great grandmother and friend. We are proud of her.

Mum, we owe you so much. We will miss your greatly, and love and remember you always.

Service at St. Timothy's Anglican Church, 100 Old Orchard Grove, Toronto, at 11 a.m., Tuesday, August 13, 2019, with a reception in the Parish Hall, and a private, family interment at Mount Pleasant Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, donations to St. Timothy's Church (http://www.sainttimothy.ca or http://www.canadahelps.org).

KENNETH CHARLES COPLAND STEIN

It is with heavy and loving hearts that the family of Kenneth Charles Copland Stein (born March 11, 1943) announces his passing. On July 22, 2019, Ken - a loving husband, father, dedicated public servant, and a key member of the team that built Shaw Communications - passed away peacefully, surrounded by those who adore him: His wife, Leslie Jones. His sons, Luke and Chris Stein. His daughters, Maddie Stein and Sarah Nicolai. His son-in-law, Dave Nicolai. His two grandchildren, Anna and Emilia Nicolai. And his beloved dog, Poppy. He will be missed by his brothers, Brian, Gordon, and Harry Stein and his sister Debbie Hopkins. He was predeceased by his brother, Eric Stein.

Ken was sad to leave this life so soon - he would have loved many more years of boating, golfing, hiking, and skiing with the people he loved - but he knows he was a blessed man. He hopes we all remember that he led an exceptional life, fulfilled by family, friends, work, literature, art, and the everlasting majesty of nature.

"All this he saw, for one moment breathless and intense, vivid on the morning sky; and still, as he looked, he lived; and still, as he lived, he wondered." Kenneth Grahame A Memorial Service will be held at Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Blvd., Toronto, on Wednesday, August 7th at 1:00 p.m. with a reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, Ken would ask you to consider donating to the Holland Bloorview Foundation, ArtHeart Community Art Centre, or the Children's Book Bank.

JOHN HERD THOMPSON

It is with profound sadness that we announce the passing of John Herd Thompson on July 13, 2019, seven months after being diagnosed with stage four lung cancer. He was born in Winnipeg in 1946 to Joe and Gladys Thompson.

John served as a junior cadet officer in the Chippawa Division of the University Naval Training Division. He earned a bachelor's degree with honours from the University of Winnipeg in 1967, a master's degree a year later from the University of Manitoba and a PhD degree in history from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, in 1975.

In a 40-year teaching career, John taught North American history at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, at McGill University in Montreal and Duke University in North Carolina where he retired as a professor emeritus in 2012.

John was also a distinguished visiting professor at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. He published numerous academic papers and authored many books on North American history.

Starting in 1988, John served 14 years as a historical consultant for the Heritage Minutes series of historical micro-dramas broadcast on Canada's national television networks and screened in Cineplex-Odeon theatres across the country.

John was a passionate baseball fan and an avid jazz musician who played saxophone and clarinet.

Later in life, he became a snow bird enjoying winters in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.

Wherever he was, John was known as a good friend and a kind, amiable and considerate intellectual with whom you could always enjoy an engaging conversation over a pint. He is sorely missed.

Surviving John are his loving partner and high school sweetheart, Margaret, with whom he reunited after 45 years; children, Anne and Mark; sister, Beth (Bill); nephew, Chris (Gina); niece, Kathryn (Andrew); and the many great-nieces and nephews who will remember him affectionately.

HELEN MORROW COWAN (née Magill)

April 11, 1913 - August 4, 1979 Our darling Moo, loved and missed for 40 years.

Susan and Michael, Betsy and Richard SAL MONTEFORTE P.Eng.

September 24, 1925 August 5, 2003 Remembering, remembered.

Our memory is us, stronger than life, never fades away.

KAREN RENÉE TOMBLIN

August 5, 2017 The last thing I said to You was I love You! You said the same to me before I went to walk Merlin the Mofo Dog.

My Heart will Always have a Special Place for You, Karen Renée, Always.

Today we are spreading Your ashes at the cottage in Georgeville, QC - Memphremagog Lake - a place You loved.

Merlin and I will abide by Your wishes, we'll strive and continue to be Happy & Seek Happiness notwithstanding Your physical absence.

You left us with phenomenal memories.

Thanks KT! Love, Merlin and Paul.

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B17


BRUCE ALEXANDER AIKENHEAD

September 22, 1923 August 5, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the death of our father, Bruce Alexander Aikenhead at the age of 95, on August 5, at Hearthstone Manor in Vernon.

Dad died peacefully with family at his side. He was predeceased by his wife, Helen and sisters, Dorothy and Edith. He leaves behind his sister, Audrey; children, Stephen, Kasey (Louis), Elizabeth (Trevor), Barbara (Brad), Jane (Ralph); grandchildren, Li, Jennifer, Zoe, Patrick, Julia, Claire and Reid; great-grandchildren, Melody and David.

Born in Didsbury, Alberta and raised in London, Ontario, he was a veteran of WWII (RAF/RCAF), stationed in India as a radar mechanic. Bruce graduated from the University of Western Ontario in 1950 and went on to have a remarkable career that spanned several decades in aerospace history. He has been heralded as a true 'Space Pioneer', and was involved with the Avro Arrow, NASA Mercury and Gemini projects, the Canadarm and finally as Director General of the Canadian Astronaut Program.

He was proud to have been appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada. He retired to Salmon Arm, BC in 1993.

Dad found great joy in the simple things in life: music, family, that first sip of a cold beer, and he was always up for an adventure.

His lesson was about gratitude and he humbly attributed his own accomplishments to 'good luck'. Dad was steadfast in his kindness, consideration of others, compassion, generosity, and his humor. A true gentleman, open minded, open hearted, always interested in everyone's story.

He touched many lives. Dad leaves us all with many cherished memories and he will be very deeply missed. We are so grateful for the great times we spent together especially in the last decades after retirement when there were frequent, extended family get-togethers in Vernon, Victoria, Toronto and Warkworth.

The family appreciates the excellent care given by Diana, the care aides of BC Interior Health, the staff of 3N at Vernon Jubilee Hospital and the tender care given during his brief stay at Hearthstone Manor over his final days. A Celebration of Life will be held at the Salmon Arm Art Gallery on Sunday, September 22 from 1-3 p.m., and another at Elizabeth's home in Warkworth, Ontario on Sunday, September 29, from 2-4 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to your local SPCA or the Okanagan Science Centre in Vernon.

You are invited to leave a personal message of condolence at w w w. M y A l t e r n a t i v e s . c a .

Arrangements entrusted to Alternatives Funeral & Cremation Services, Vernon 250-558-0866 and Armstrong 250-546-7237.

MARY ANNE ASKIN

Passed away on August 6, 2019 after a short but valiant battle with cancer.

Mary Anne was born on April 27, 1958 in Fort William, Ontario to Muriel Askin and the late Alfred Askin. She grew up with her three siblings: Rob (Elaine), Jane (Rick), and Nancy, first in Iroquois Falls, and then in Sault Ste.

Marie, Ontario. Mary Anne met Ted in 1983 while she was in Windsor on a job placement. They married 11 months later and celebrated their 35th anniversary just nine days before her passing.

Mary Anne and Ted raised three wonderful children Tim, Bryan and Natalie, who provided Mary Anne with extraordinary care in her final days. She was a loving and proud mother who was a mentor, travel companion, and best friend to her children. They will miss weekends at the cottage, travelling the world, and playing board games with her. Mary Anne's spirit lives on in each of her children who are grateful for every moment they had with her.

Mary Anne dedicated her life to the well-being and dignity of others. She worked as an occupational therapist for almost 40 years after graduating from the University of Western Ontario. Her work at the John McGivney Children's Centre in Windsor with children with physical, cognitive, and developmental disabilities and her work with military veterans were very meaningful for Mary Anne. She made the world a better place for her patients, their families, and everyone whose life she touched.

Mary Anne loved spending time at the cottage in Muskoka (regardless of the season), curling, quilting, and gardening. She treasured her time with her friends. The void left in our hearts by her passing will never be filled.

She will always be missed by her family, friends, and by her four-legged companion, Roxie.

The family extends heartfelt thanks to Mary Anne's friends who provided weekly meals during her illness, sat with her during her chemo treatments, and to the incredible nursing staff and doctors at Toronto General Hospital and Princess Margaret Hospital who cared for Mary Anne during her final weeks. A very special thanks to Dr. Gallinger and his surgical team for giving us eight more months with Mary Anne.

A private ceremony has taken place. Although she lived in Windsor, Mary Anne was always a northern girl at heart and her ashes will be buried in Sault Ste. Marie in a family plot with her father, Alf. There will be a Celebration of Mary Anne's life in the near future.

To honour Mary Anne's caring spirit, please sign your organ donation card, give blood, thank a military veteran, donate to a cause, volunteer, or simply lend a hand. And always be kind.

NANCY BACKLUND

Passed peacefully away with her husband at her side on August 2, 2019 at St. Joseph's at Fleming, Peterborough. Loving wife of Bill for 40 wonderful and happy years.

Predeceased by her parents Archibald and May Whiffen and siblings Margaret Rae, Helen Lunt, Frank Whiffen and Jack Whiffen. A Private Celebration of Life will take place at a later time. Arrangements entrusted to Comstock-Kaye Life Celebration Centre, 356 Rubidge Street, Peterborough, Ontario, 705-7454683. If so desired, donations in memory of Nancy may be made to the Alzheimer Society. Online condolences may be made at http://www.comstockkaye.com

ROSA BERGMANN

November 24, 1925 July 25, 2019 In November 1925, Rosa Hammer was born as the youngest of four children into a farmer's family in the officially smallest town in Austria. At 18 she left the farm (which she never really liked) and an adoring mother and brother to move to the big city, Vienna.

The Second World War was raging and Vienna was under constant bombardment, but she had set her mind on starting afresh - and if you knew Rosa, there was no stopping her when she set her mind to something. The trip to Vienna was part of an adventure spanning 93 years which would take Rosa from a farm girl in that small Austrian town, to a seamstress and part-time model in a leading fashion boutique in Vienna, to the wife of an equally adventurous Austrian engineer, to an immigrant in St. Thomas and finally to the mother of two and grandmother of four in Toronto and Mississauga.

She was the backbone of her family enabling her two boys to grow and flourish. Over the years, she developed a love for opera, poetry, tennis, skiing, painting, bridge and travel - and she never missed a chance for a smoke with friends or soon-to-be friends. Rosa loved to talk and decided early on to switch from speaking German to English - "because it was simply faster". She had the uncanny ability to energize those around her (sometimes scaring them in the process) and entertained all with her razor wit and Austrian charm. She remains forever in our thoughts and memories.

Cremation has taken place.

Arrangements entrusted to Turner & Porter, Neweduk-Erin Mills Chapel, 905-828-8000.

DONALD B RUCE COOK

September 29, 1949 August 5, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Bruce Cook.

Bruce was born in Winnipeg to Donald and Muriel Cook, the eldest of three boys, a born leader who took charge of his younger siblings.

In 1972, he took a job in Scotland where he met his future wife Janet, who he persuaded to return to Winnipeg with him.

They were married for 46 years, and enjoyed many adventures and traveling until illness took him far to soon cutting short the plans they had made together.

Bruce leaves behind his mother, Muriel; his brother, Hugh and his wife, Arlene; his nephew, Fraser; niece, Kathleen and her husband, Kurtis; his niece, Lauren; and sister-in-law, Janie.

He was predeceased by his father, Donald (2011); his brother, Malcolm (2016); and his mother-inlaw, Jessie (2006).

Early in Bruce's career, he was promoted and left for Edmonton before being transferred to Burlington, where he lived the rest of his life. Bruce worked many years in the waste business, then changed careers moving into business consulting, and for the past number of years ownership of businesses in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning sector. Bruce worked right up to his illness, and had a strong belief that you never paid your dues, you owed it to yourself and others to get moving and make a difference. Bruce enjoyed a highly successful work career, and one of Bruce's core strengths was numbers, he understood them and what to do with them, that combined with work ethic and dedication prompted good things to happen. He was a mentor to many of the people he worked with and a common theme in the last few days has been how much that will be missed.

Bruce had a great sense of humour, a lover of terrible puns, he had a true zest for life. His loyalty to his wife, family and friends was profound. A private Celebration of Life will be held at a future date in Burlington and Winnipeg.

GRACE AYRE DENGIS (née Taylor)

Of Waterloo passed away peacefully with family by her side on Sunday, August 4, 2019. She was in her 94th year.

Beloved wife of the late Gord who predeceased her in 2002. Loving mother of Hart Drew (Sharon), Cheryll Drew and Sue Simpson (Mike). Dearly missed by Gord's children Carol Dengis and Mike Dengis (Jan). Loving Grama to Jeremy Drew (Carrilee), Ashley Drew Pitchuck, Leah Dengis (Maria), Cyd Giddings (Seth), Greg Simpson (Lauren), Jamye Troy (Matt) and Kevin Simpson.

Predeceased by granddaughter Lauren Dengis. Great grandmother of eight. Fondly remembered by sister-in-law Shirley Taylor.

Predeceased by brother Bill Taylor.

Dearly loved friend of Mary Willoughby for over 75 years.

Grace loved her family, friends and life with a passion. She enjoyed golf, bridge and curling for many years and was a member of Westmount Golf and Country Club and Knox Waterloo Presbyterian Church. Grace was a dedicated volunteer at her church and for a number of charities and causes.

Many thanks to the staff at Luther Village on the Park, Golden Years and Parkwood Mennonite Home for their amazing care and compassion over the past eight years.

Grace has been reunited with her true love, Gord, and they are dancing together again! The Dengis family will receive relatives and friends at the Erb & Good Family Funeral Home, 171 King Street S., Waterloo on Tuesday, August 13, 2019 from 6-8 p.m. Funeral Service will be held at Knox Waterloo Presbyterian Church, 50 Erb Street W., Waterloo on Wednesday, August 14, 2019 at 6:30 p.m. with a reception to follow.

In memory of Grace, donations to the Waterloo Region Family Network or the Grand River Hospital Mental Health Music Therapy Program would be appreciated by the family and may be arranged through the funeral home www.

erbgood.com or 519-745-8445.

STEPHANIE F. DEUTSCH

January 2, 1917 - July 16, 2019 Of Kingston, ON, beloved wife of John Deutsch, former principal of Queen's University. A celebration of life on August 25, at the Cataraqui Golf Club, in Kingston, from 2-4 p.m.

Contact mdeutsch6703@rogers.com.

ALFRED GABER

On Friday, August 9, 2019 at Sunnybrook Hospital. Husband of the late Bella Gaber. Father of Pat Rayman, and Elaine Gaber-Katz.

Grandfather of Bella, and Haley, great-grandfather of Noa, and Eitan. A graveside service will be held on Sunday, August 11, 2019 at 1:00 p.m. in the Community Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Memorial donations may be made to the Kidney Foundation of Canada, 416445-0373.

MORRISON WILLIAM HEWITT

July 1, 1931 Hamilton - July 27, 2019 Toronto

On July 27, 2019 Morrison William Hewitt died with his wife Romy at his side.

A greatly loved husband, father, grandfather and brother.

Already missed by Romy, his beloved son David, loving step-daughter Kate Wheeler (John) and his granddaughters Alexandra and Sophie Beaton as well as his brother James Hewitt (Anne).

A proud graduate, class of '55 at the Royal Military College, Kingston (#3480) and a recipient of the Nixon Memorial Sword "for possessing the highest officer like qualities" presented by the Duke of Edinburgh in Vancouver 1954.

He then earned a business degree from Queen's University.

The bulk of Mo's career was spent as a Partner at Woods Gordon (later Arthur Young) from the infancy of its Information Technology practice. In retirement he authored a business primer on IT.

Cremation has taken place. At Mo's request there was no funeral. In memory of Mo who spent many hours with his cherished dog Bishop, donations may be made to your local St. John Ambulance Service Dog Visitation Program.

A gentleman to the end, we will remember Mo with love.

ISOBEL MERAB HALL

It is with sadness that we share the passing of our mother, Isobel (nee Trotter), on Thursday, August 1, 2019. Isobel was in her 94th year and lived a full life, filled with many proud and honourable accomplishments.

Isobel was a loving wife to John (deceased 2004) and proud sister to her only brother, the late Hector S.

Trotter (Teresa). She will be dearly missed by all who knew her but especially by her children, Nancy, Jim (Sheila), Diana (Steve) and Barb (Brock); her grandchildren, Adam (Amy), Megan (Brett), Andrew (Leah), Caitlin, Russell, Kate (Chad), Conrad, Patrick and Chloe; and her great-grandchildren, Cameron, James, Edward, Jack, Sean, Isobel and Thomas.

Born in Montreal, Quebec in 1926 to Jean Sutherland and Clifford Trotter, she attended and graduated from Rothesay Netherwood School in New Brunswick and was one of few women in 1947 to graduate with a Commerce degree from McGill University. It was at McGill she met the love of her life John A. Hall, a mining engineer, football player and avid golfer. Isobel and John were married on April 15, 1950. This began numerous adventures throughout northern Quebec and Ontario with stints in various mining towns. Isobel was full of stories about her life and adventures in Timmins, Noranda and Murdochville. Isobel and John moved to Toronto in 1967 where they became active members of their community.

Isobel enjoyed the friendship of many and had a passion for golf, bridge, gardening and bird watching. She enjoyed time with family and friends both in Toronto and Delray Beach, Florida. She was an incredible woman, with a thirst for current events, politics, the stock market and understanding of people. She was a loyal confidante, active listener and trusted advisor.

She had a wonderful sense of humour and enjoyed nothing more than a good laugh.

Isobel was a beautiful person inside and out, she was charming, elegant and dignified in every way. She approached life with an enthusiastic and game for anything mindset. She was warm and welcoming to everyone she encountered, leaving anyone she'd met better for having known her. Her kind spirit and warm heart will be dearly missed.

A funeral service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville) on Saturday, August 17th at 1:00 p.m. followed by a reception from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m.

Memorial donations in memory of Isobel may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (heartandstroke.ca), 110-1525 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1Z-8R9. Condolences may be forwarded through w w w. h u m p h r e y m i l e s . c o m .

MILDRED "MILLIE" HARLOCK

Millie died peacefully in Princess Margaret Hospital on Monday, July 29, 2019 in Toronto at the age of 79. Beloved daughter of the late Bruce and Mildred Harlock. Millie was born on May 10, 1940 in Toronto, Ontario.

Millie is survived by her brothers, Gordon and Donald Harlock, her nephews, Dave Harlock and his wife Bev Broniek, Wayne Harlock and his wife Cindy Brandon and Paul Harlock.

Special thanks to Dr. Laframboise and all the staff at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto.

A funeral service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Monday, August 12th at 1:00 p.m., with a reception to follow in the Rosedale Room. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Princess Margaret Hospital, Gynaecology Surgical Oncology Research Fund, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2C1 or to an animal shelter of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

GWEN HAWKE (née DeMont)

Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia on April 4, 1925, Gwen passed away peacefully in her sleep at The Dunfield Retirement Residence in Toronto, on Saturday August 3, 2019. Predeceased in 1999 by her beloved husband Howard, Gwen will be fondly remembered by her children Laurien Trowell, Martha Shinkle (Lee), Charles Hawke (d), Gordon Hawke (Jane) and Kelly Baxter (Brian). Beloved Nana/Grandma to Malindi, Geoffrey, Jessica, David, Heather, Hillary, John, Stephen and Geoffrey and eight great grandchildren. Lovingly remembered by Casey and Bill Hooke.

Gwen will be remembered by friends and family as fun loving, warm, generous, with a feisty spirit and great sense of style. She had a big heart and lived each day fully. She enjoyed golf, bridge, tennis, fitness, music and dancing, travel, driving her sporty cars, and always dressing to the nines. She was a long-time member of Rosedale Golf Club, CWSGA, the B&R Club, and the Monday Club.

Gwen had a strong community of support during her last year. Her family is deeply grateful to Aida, Maybel, and Marie Joy from Home Instead for their loving care, ensuring that Gwen got the most out of each day and lived with dignity. Thanks also to the amazing nursing team on the 3rd floor, and to all the friends and staff who made the Dunfield a wonderful home for Gwen.

There will be a private family service. Friends are invited to join the family for a Celebration of Gwen's Life at the Rosedale Golf Club, 1901 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto on Wednesday, August 21st, at 4:00 p.m. If desired, in lieu of flowers, donations can be made in Gwen's name to the Alzheimer's Society of Canada, 20 Eglinton Avenue West, 16th Floor, Toronto, ON, M4R 1K8. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

GERALD CHARLES HOLLYER, Q.C.

Gerry passed away peacefully at home on August 1, 2019 in his 88th year with his loving wife Carol by his side. Father of five; Grandfather of eight.

He will be greatly missed by all.

Throughout his legal career with Kingsmill-Jennings and Miller Thompson; Gerry was an inspiration and mentor to many. An accomplished skier, swimmer, gardener and painter; he enjoyed his life fully.

A private family memorial will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the B.C.

Alzheimer's Association would be appreciated.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

A Celebration of Life will be held Thursday, August 15th at The Kingston Yacht Club from 3 - 6 p.m.

MARGARET ANNE JANZEN

July 31, 1927 July 30, 2019

Passed peacefully surrounded by her family at Trillium Hospital Mississauga one day shy of her 92nd birthday. Predeceased by her husband, Peter Janzen; son, Rolf Peter Janzen and sister, Erika Plester of Gevelsberg Germany.

Survived by her children, Mark (Anne), Sigrid LaForest (Raymond); and daughter-in-law, Doreen Janzen. Also survived by eight grandchildren, Wade, Nicole, Margaret, Sean, Derek, Natalie, Peter and Hilary; and nine greatgrandchildren. Dear companion of the late Crombie Tanner.

Born in Gronau, Germany, Margaret immigrated to Canada in 1950 to marry Peter. Active throughout her life, she was a Bruce Trail end-to-ender, avid gardener and swimmer. Oma, as she was affectionately known by all, will be greatly missed by family and friends. She was devoted to her family, inspiring us all with her quiet perseverance and determination.

Private family interment.

Donations to the Trillium Health Partners-Mississauga Hospital in lieu of flowers.

JAMES LOGAN KAPPELE BASc., P.Eng (4T8)

On August 4, 2019, at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre, Toronto in his 94th year. Beloved husband of Sheila (née Medcalf). Loving father of Ross (Jackie) and David (Kyra), and grandfather to Alex, Margot, Reid, Mark, and Jamie Kappele. Stepfather to Ian and Andrew Badgley (Victoria) and grandfather to Charlotte and Daniel Badgley. Predeceased by Barbara E. Kappele (née McCready) and parents Marjorie and Harold Kappele of Hamilton, Ontario.

Survived by his brother Robert (Ruth) of Watertown, Ontario.

Jim was born in 1925 and attended Central Collegiate in Hamilton. He studied engineering at the University of Toronto and trained as a pilot for the British Navy. In 1956, Jim was a founding partner of Kappele, Wright and MacLeod Limited, a consulting engineering company. Much to his sons' delight, Jim began working with Molson Breweries of Canada, retiring in 1991. Jim was inducted into the U of T Alumni Engineering Hall of Distinction in 1998.

He built a cottage in Muskoka and was an avid skier at Craigleith Ski Club, both passions of which his children and grandchildren are grateful for. He was a long-time member of Eglinton St. George's United Church, and the Granite Club.

Our family held a small private service, yet we look forward to raising a glass with you in celebration of Jim's wonderful life at the Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Avenue, on August 15th from 4 to 6 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to: Sunnybrook Veterans Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, M4N 3M5 or Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Boulevard, Toronto, M4R 1L2 or to a charity of choice.

J. ALEXANDER LANGFOR D Q.C.

December 7, 1931 - July 23, 2019 Peacefully, in Toronto, holding the hand of the woman he adored for nearly seventy years. Predeceased by his parents, Henry E. Langford, Q.C and Helen Langford. Treasured by his wife of sixty-two years, Marion Grace (Barker) Langford. Cherished by his children Mary (Langford) and J. Michael Rolland, Sarah Langford, Anne Langford Dotsikas and Peter Dotsikas, John and Eva (Kowalski) Langford, Jane A. Langford and Blair Freeman. Adored and revered by his grandchildren: Megan Rolland, Alexandra and Hollie Rolland, John Rolland, Caileigh Langford, Rhiannon Langford, Kate Dotsikas, Emily Dotsikas, Ben Langford, Ana Langford, Henry Freeman and Charlotte Freeman. Loved by his only sibling, Elizabeth (Langford) Julian (Larry Lundy).

Celebrated by steadfast friends.

Alex was a life-long scholar. He loved his high school years spent at the University of Toronto Schools (UTS) and won yearly academic prizes through graduation (1950). He was very proud of the liberal arts education he received from Victoria College, University of Toronto (Vic 5T4, Honours B.A. History), the 4th generation in his family to be educated on the 'old Ontario strand'. Deeply felt was that connection to his many ancestors who studied and taught there. He then studied law at Osgoode Hall Law School (LSUC 1958) and remained a tenured law student, reading the evolution of the law into his 80s. Even in retirement, Alex was an engaged participant in both the Economist Readers with the Academy of Life Long Learning and Learning in Retirement at Glendon College. He never travelled without a suitcase full of books, always reading several volumes simultaneously. For Alex, to learn was to live. For those who loved him, feeding his voracious appetite for knowledge with stacks of books was our regular habit until days before his passing.

Following his call to the bar, Alex joined the then new firm Miller Thomson where he practiced corporate law for more than thirty years. He was a longtime director of E-L Financial Corporation, Magna International Inc., Victoria & Grey Trust Company, National Trust Company and many other private and closely held companies. As a scholar and historian, Alex had a deep appreciation of the law as the "cement of society" and its role in public affairs. This alone motivated his active involvement in the profession.

In his first year of practice, he was Chair of the Junior Bar of the Ontario Bar Association (predecessor of the Young Lawyers section) and member of the Association's Executive Committee, on which he served continuously for over fifty years, acting as its President in 1985-1986. Over the years, he penned advocacy positions for the CBAO on provincial and national legislative initiatives and acted as counsel to civic leaders. In 2012, he received the Award for Distinguished Service from the Ontario Bar Association. Alex pursued all his briefs with honour and integrity in the finest tradition of the profession.

Alex was a gentleman and a man of principle; influenced neither by popular opinion nor convention. Deeply loyal to the foundational institutions in his life, Alex was a committed volunteer. He served on Victoria University's Board of Regents for over a decade, as well as the Chancellor's Council at the University of Toronto. His service also extended to our democratic institutions. He was proud of his country and served as Honorary Solicitor to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs for thirty-years (creator and leader of its international briefing tours from 1963-1980). He volunteered in every provincial and federal election from the time he could vote until recently and welcomed a feisty conversation about the politics of the day.

A proud member of the United Church of Canada, Alex had faith both spiritual and academic: he could and would engage with theologians on the history of the Protestant church and historical references in the Bible.

He attended church weekly throughout his adult life and served on the executive of both Lawrence Park Community Church (1957 to 2006) and Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (2006-2016), acting as lay Presbytery representative for over fifty years. Alex received a Distinguished Service Award from the United Church for his leadership.

Of all his stations, certainly his favourite was the tallest seat at the family table. He loved his large clan; delighting in (and occasionally egging on) their boisterous antics. He had a profound sense of occasion, the more pomp and circumstance the better! Every grandchild knew his distinctive wink.

Always up for a rigorous debate, it pleased him to see his family members passionately advocating a position, even if it differed from his own (provided it was well-informed!). He patiently acted as the family Google to the end.

At his core, Alex was a man in love with his wife and all the musical notes she brought to his life. His devotion to her was as pure as it was legendary.

Seared in his memory until his final days was the story of his first meeting with Marion and throughout their long marriage, his love for her underscored his every action. Together, they created a dynasty defined by decency, joy, and service to others. For those of us blessed to travel within their orbit, their love made all things possible: the ripples continue in ways known and yet undiscovered. Theirs was an uncommon example for our modern age.

A celebration of Alex's life will be held on Thursday, October 3rd at 10:30 a.m. at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (230 St. Clair Ave W., in Toronto). In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the J. Alexander & Marion G.

Barker Langford Scholarship at Victoria University (Office of Alumni Affairs & Advancement, 150 Charles Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1K9; http:// http://www.vic.utoronto.ca/Giving.htm). Alex and Marion met as "freshies" at Vic in September 1950. In their golden years, they established this scholarship fund. For Alex, it reflected two things he loved: Vic and his beloved wife!

THOMAS ANDREW McDOUGALL, Q.C.

Peacefully before sunrise on Monday, August 5th, 2019 in Ottawa. Cherished husband, father, grandfather, mentor and friend. He is survived by his wife, Suzanne (née Panet); and his three children, Andrew (Andréa Marcotte), Martha Whitlock (Richard), and Simon (Annie-Lou St-Amant); his five grandchildren, Theodore, Ewan, and Morgana McDougall; and Zoe and Grace Whitlock; and his brothers, John Lorn (Jane) and Ian (Mary Futher). Predeceased by his parents: Thomas Frederick Kenny McDougall and Christina Pauline Stuart McDougall (née McNaughton).

Co-founder of a preeminent national capital law firm of almost 50 years with many esteemed partners, friends and colleagues.

A private family service will be held. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations to The Ottawa Hospital and Hospice Care Ottawa May Court site would be appreciated.

Condolences/Tributes/Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

SYBIL ANNE (MOON) McENTEER

After a fulfilling life, Sybil passed away suddenly on Thursday, August 1, 2019 at the age of 86.

Daughter of John Henry and Alma (Cundle) Moon, Sybil was born in Guelph, Ontario on May 14, 1933. Married for 47 years to Douglas George McEnteer, who predeceased her in 2005.

Sister to Alan Moon of Thunder Bay. Devoted mother to Alison Cumming (James) and Douglas, and proud grandmother of Rachel and Sarah Cumming and Daria McEnteer. She leaves behind many cousins and members of her extended families.

Sybil lived in Ontario for most of her life where she attended Riverdale Collegiate in Toronto and enjoyed playing cello in the school orchestra. After graduating from Victoria College at the University of Toronto and becoming qualified as a teacher, she and Doug married and moved to the mining town of Schefferville in northern Quebec, where she taught grade one. Ultimately, they settled in Thornhill where they raised their two children.

Later in life, she returned to the workforce with the Ministry of Education. She also spent many wonderful times at the chalet that she and Doug built together in the Beaver Valley, and it is where she prepared her highly sought-after strawberry jam.

Throughout her life, Sybil established strong and lasting friendships, including with her 'Round Robin', Schefferville, TEMC, CFUW and condominium friends, and right up until her last days was busy arranging activities with friends and family. Her faith was very important to her and as a longstanding member of Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, it figured prominently in her life and she cared deeply about the church community and its causes. Sybil continually strived to be wellinformed, to learn new things, and was passionate about social justice and political issues. She was a voracious reader of the daily papers and books, always had the radio tuned to CBC, and attended later-life learning courses, all contributing to her being an engaging conversationalist. She appreciated music and the arts and often attended the ballet, opera, theatre, symphony, and musical recitals, and volunteered at the Kiwanis Festival. Other activities she enjoyed were travelling, cooking, curling, playing cards, doing puzzles, and watching Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy after dinner.

A service to celebrate her life will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Friday, September 6th at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, 230 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, with a reception to follow. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Habitat for Humanity (http://www.habitatgta.ca) or the Canadian Federation of University Women scholarship fund (North Toronto branch at http://www.cfuwnorthtoronto.com).

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

R.A. GORDON McGEE

May 25, 1954 - August 1, 2019 Gord died peacefully after a short but courageous battle with cancer. Son of D'Arcy and Norah, pre-deceased by sister Kathleen and brother Michael. He leaves behind his son Gord Jr. and Gord's mother Rebecca Fairbairn, and brother D'Arcy (Leslie), sister Margot (Jeremy) and brother Tim (Mary) as well as many loving nieces and nephews.

Gord lived his life with a passionate sense of adventure, an abiding love of family and friends and a deep Christian faith. Growing up on the ocean in Victoria, Gord developed a lifelong love for all things maritime. By an early age he was a skilled sailor and experienced boater, spending endless summers exploring local waters and islands with his mates. Gord's abilities as a powerful, natural athlete soon emerged as he set records in track and cross country, tore up black diamond ski runs, and water skied with such force that the tow boats would groan almost to a stop when he carved a turn. Gord made friends easily; he had a wonderful inclusive personality and for all his high energy and striking physique he was a gentle and caring spirit. He had a huge heart. After attending Glenlyon School in Victoria and boarding school at Bishop's College School in Quebec, Gord attended UVIC and Loyola in Montreal, ultimately earning his BA at Western in London.

From there Gord pursued a career in real estate development in Vancouver.

It was in pursuit of that calling that Gord's life changed forever - while driving to an exciting new position in Edmonton he hit black ice near Kamloops and broke his back. At age 23 he started life over in a wheelchair. Gord and Becca married in 1978 and Gord Jr. was born soon thereafter. In the ensuing 41 years Gord faced every challenge with his legendary physical strength and indomitable spirit. There were remarkable successes; through sheer force of will he swam, boated, explored, travelled and drove everywhere, attracting an army of admiring friends, helpers and supporters from all walks of life. But there were also many frustrations and disappointments born of his disability including his attempts to relaunch his career in commercial real estate and to become a teacher after earning his certificate in education at UBC. After a period of mounting self-doubt and self-recrimination, Gord found peace and inspiration in his Christian faith, which helped to strengthen and guide him for the rest of his life. Gord Jr. was the love of his life, his pride and joy, and the two of them had many legendary adventures together on sea and land. Gord rarely met a stranger without reaching out to connect with them and to start up a conversation. Gord was an insatiable war history, travel and nostalgia buff and, being also very tech savvy, he loved to share that passion with his appreciative, albeit sometimes overwhelmed, YouTube distribution group.

Gord faced mounting health and mobility challenges in the final years of his life which he fought with the help of beloved friends and caregivers and with his typical silent courage, determination and good humour. If he felt sorry for himself, he kept it to himself. His positive, appreciative attitude towards others, especially his caregivers, was inspirational. One of Gord's favourite simple pleasures was to head out rain or shine for a "push" down by the river usually interspersed with a few FaceTime calls to chat with friends and family. This he did as recently as the week before he died. Dear Gord, loving father, husband, brother and uncle, gentle giant and man of faith, never stop going for that "push" or, better still, a run. Know that we will always be at your side. God Bless.

Special thanks to caregivers Tina and Mary and to Gord's incredibly generous circle of friends - you know who you are - the family is forever grateful to you.

A service celebrating Gord's life will be held on Friday, August 23, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. at St. John's Vancouver, 5350 Baillie Street, Vancouver with a reception to follow at Noon at The Royal Vancouver Yacht Club, 3811 Point Grey Road, Vancouver.

For messages of condolence and service information please use Amherstcremation.com.

GORDON SCOTT TOWNSEND MCKINNON

November 26, 1982 July 31, 2019

It is with immense sadness that his family announces the sudden and tragic passing of Gordon (Gord) McKinnon on Wednesday, July 31, 2019 at the age of 36. He was the beloved husband of Kate Culver, son of Stephanie Townsend-McKinnon and the late Donald McKinnon (2012), and brother of Alexa (Adam Bussiere), Donna (Bob Rioux), Donald (Mona, nee Pelletier) and Duncan.

A loving uncle to his nieces and nephews Donny, Madison, Abby and Cameron. Gord was like a son to his mother and father-in-law, Carol Hendra and Patrick Culver.

Gord lived life passionately and left a legacy of what it meant to get the most out of life. Although his sudden passing leaves his family and friends heartbroken, they are thankful to have such wonderful memories of an incredible man, who did so much for so many in such a short time.

Cremation has taken place and a private service has been held. A celebration of Gord's life will be held at a later date.

SYLVIA MORRIS

Sylvia Morris passed away peacefully in her sleep on August 3, 2019, breaking many hearts with her sudden passing.

She leaves behind her most beloved daughter, Lara (Fayette); granddaughter, Sadie; brothers, Roly and Brian, and was predeceased by sister, Patricia.

She was a cherished friend to sisters-in-law, Beverly and Valerie, and the late Dawne. Auntie Sylvia will be dearly missed by nieces and nephews, Michael, Gordon (Leslie), Jan Marie, William, Courtney (Jeffrey), Justin, Simone (Mike) and Connor.

Sylvia will also be remembered fondly by a large group of close friends from work, volunteering, and her neighbourhood. She was amazing at keeping in touch and freely gave her time to those she cherished.

Most of her professional life was as a Law Clerk, completing her career at Torys. She was well respected, serving as President of the Institute of Law Clerks Ontario and initiating their annual conferences.

With piercing blue eyes, silver curls, and high cheekbones, Sylvia managed to be elegant with a dash of cool. Always adorned with the perfect scarf, bracelet, and nail colour, Sylvia could be seen walking everywhere in her trademark comfortable shoes and backpack. She kept up a regular yoga practice, spent time at the gym, and was often impossible to keep up with, even in her 80s! Sylvia loved to support the arts, travelling annually to Stratford and Shaw, and attending local theatre, films, and lectures. She volunteered for years at the AGO and Gardiner Museum and had a creative spirit, sewing clothes, quilting with her daughter, and collecting pottery.

From choosing to be a single mother in 1967, to living without a car since the early 80s, to refusing to give in to digital culture, Sylvia was a trailblazer who lived fully and inspired us to be our best, seek happiness, and be bold. She will be so deeply missed by all those who loved her.

A celebration of life is being planned for September. Details will follow at: rememberingsylvia.

wixsite.com/morris

JOY SALMON MOON

Born in Welland January 28, 1938. Peacefully died early Sunday, August 4, 2019 at the Algonquin Grace Hospice.

Joy was predeceased by her husband Andrew in 1992. Survived by her son, Jonathan; daughter, Alina; and beloved grandson, Andrew. She will be missed by her brother, Alan Salmon; sister, Sam Ion; nieces, nephew and many good friends. Joy loved her early work as a children's book editor at Oxford University Press.

She was influential in getting car seat legislation approved in the early 1970's, and was a devoted long distance track coach for many years, forming many lifelong friendships and founding the Tom Longboat Club, whose initials held great meaning for her...TLC. Her retirement was spent at Lake of Bays writing, reading and doing genealogy research.

Cremation has occurred and a memorial service will be held at a later date to be announced. Donations to the Aspen Valley Wildlife Sanctuary would be appreciated. Messages of condolences can be left at http://www.billingsleyfuneralhome.com

MARTIN MULDOON

Professor Emeritus February 28, 1939 August 1, 2019 It is with profound sorrow that we announce the passing of Martin Eugene Muldoon after a short illness.

Martin is acknowledged by all who knew him as having been an extraordinarily patient, gentle, wise man who always kept a cool head and had a delightful sense of humour. He was always supportive of his family and many friends. One old friend remembers him as "a man of few words, but much presence."

Martin was born in Co. Mayo, Ireland to Peter and Margaret (Hopkins) Muldoon. He received his Bachelor's and Master's degrees at the National University of Ireland Galway and in 1960, he immigrated to Canada to pursue his Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Alberta. In 1966, he accepted a position at York University where his career was to last almost 40 years.

In 1977, he married Judith Anne ("Jay") Wall. Together they raised three daughters, Christine (J.E.D. LaCoste), Heather (Robert Weikel, Jr.)

and Sarah.

In addition to teaching and research, Martin acted as an advisor and graduate supervisor; gave talks on mathematics to high school and elementary school students; organized conferences; acted on academic committees; and played an active role in his union. Muldoon was a member of the SIAM Activity Group on Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions; the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics; and Science for Peace.

Muldoon was devoted to York and although he retired in 2003, he continued teaching part-time and stayed connected to the university until the very end.

Martin was predeceased by his parents and one older sister, Mary Muldoon. His gentle, protective presence will be missed by his wife, daughters, sons-in-law, and grandson, Gabriel. To his birth family, their historian and storyteller is gone. He is sadly mourned by Eileen; Ursula (Bill); Pat (Eileen); Bernie (John); Lucy (James); Peter (Mary); Colm (Maggie); and Shane (Michelle), his many nieces and nephews, cousins and relatives, neighbours, colleagues and friends on both sides of the ocean.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville) for a Celebration of Life at 1:00 p.m. on Friday, September 13th.

Martin was most involved in Science for Peace and in lieu of flowers donations would be gratefully received.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

Slán agus beannacht (Goodbye and blessings)

JUNE OLEKSIJCZUK (née Blake)

1929 - 2019

It is with great sadness that the family of June Oleksijczuk announces her passing on August 4, 2019. Born of Edith (McFarland) and J. Dalton Blake in Toronto, June was the beloved wife of the late William (Bill) Oleksijczuk; the radiant, hardworking and resourceful mother of Julia Frances Byrne (Trevor) and Denise June Oleksijczuk, and dear grandmother of Connor, Liam and William.

In the final decades of her life, it was with remarkable good humour and forbearance that she bore the ravages of Parkinson's Disease. Warmest thanks to the extraordinary caregivers who nursed her through these years, especially Lourdes Goncalves and Eunice Gernandizo.

There will be a ceremony for friends and family at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. W. at 11:00 a.m. on Saturday, August 10th. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Moorelands Camp.

JOHN ERNEST SEETON

March 2, 1940 August 1, 2019

Passed away surrounded by family, predeceased by mother Doris Vera (nee Moore), father Patrick and brother Richard.

Survived by loving wife Rosemary (nee Laing), boet Patrick David (Karin), four sons Richard (Dimple), Bruce (Jessica), Ian (Lori) and Patrick (Lyz) and his 4 beloved grandchildren, Balen, Tayin, Wyatt and Bowie.

Born in Cape Town, the family ranged South Africa before he attended Natal University for Engineering and captained the 2nd XVs. After graduation, his world tour was truncated in Toronto when he met Romey. Married in 1970, they started a family soon after. Stints building hotels in Jamaica and Sudan followed.

John returned to Canada to build power plants for Ontario Hydro and later built his own custom building company - Spring Valley.

Family life centred on camping and canoe adventures.

Latterly, he spent winters reconnecting with South Africa and most enjoyed spending time with family, grandchildren and playing tennis in Oakville. Active till the end, John will be missed by all. Memorial service at St John's United Church in Oakville, Tuesday, August 13, at 1 p.m.

Details of Celebration of Life to come. In lieu of flowers, donations to Multiple Myeloma research or OTMH are appreciated.

DR. LAWRIE SILVERBERG

Peacefully, surrounded by his loving family on Thursday, August 8, 2019 at Bethell Hospice.

Beloved husband of Debbi Silverberg. Loving father and father-in-law of Marlene and David Ellison, Robyn Gignac, Jamie Silverberg, and Andrew and Paulette Tomarin. Devoted Zaidy of Abigail, Aliya, Josh, Jullian, Hannah, Molly, Jacob, and Emily.

The funeral service was held at Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel on Friday, August 9, 2019 at 2:30 p.m. Interment in the Temple Solel Congregation section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery.

Memorial donations may be made to Bethell Hospice Foundation, 905-838-3534 or at http://www.bethellhospice.org

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk and Edwin Beange.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

BRENDA JEAN PROTHEROE

On August 2, 2019 at Toronto Western Hospital, following a brief and unexpected illness, Brenda died peacefully with her brother David and close family friend Stephanie Austin at her side. She was predeceased by her parents Jean (McMillan) Protheroe and Col. David Harrison Protheroe, and by her brother Donald Protheroe. In addition to her brother David, Brenda leaves cousins in Alberta and a multitude of friends by whom she was much loved and whom she valued as family.

After graduating from York University and the Faculty of Education at the University of Toronto, Brenda began a career in education with the City of York. As a teacher, Brenda was respected by colleagues and students for her commitment to learning and her empathy for young people, especially those coping with personal issues. Her students knew that Brenda spared no effort to help them succeed. Later in her career Brenda provided leadership as a school administrator and superintendent. In these roles she was trusted for her vision, integrity and diligence. Young women who worked with her speak of the lessons in leadership she provided, how from her they learned the power of supporting one another. In more recent years, Brenda, always eager to challenge herself, took on international projects in education and a national project with Architects' Associations across Canada.

Brenda was a cherished friend of many. She was eager to meet people and build relationships that would last over the years. Whether the setting was dinner with a neighbour or a trek in a faraway place, Brenda could find insights to offer or interests to share with those she met. She was eager to appreciate others and her sense of humour enlivened the conversation for everyone. Brenda had a love of discovery and adventure; she valued the diversity of her community and the world she lived in. When describing Brenda, friends and acquaintances remark on her generous nature and gracious manner, her intellectual strength and thoughtfulness, and her lively interest in the experiences of others.

Interment in Ottawa alongside her family will take place in a private ceremony. A Celebration of Life will be held in Toronto in early October with details announced at a later date. Those who would like to receive information about the Celebration should indicate their interest with a message to protheroecelebrationoflife@yahoo.com Those who wish to honour Brenda with a charitable donation in her name should consider a gift to Girls Action Foundation, Plan Canada, or Tarragon Theatre, or to a charity of their choice.

ROBERT STEANE

It is with great sadness the family announces the passing of Robert (Bob) Steane on July 30, 2019 at St. Paul's Hospital in Saskatoon.

Bob is survived by his friend and partner Kathy Berg and his brothers Alan and Brian Steane.

Bob enjoyed a lifelong career in the mining industry culminating with 34 years at Cameco, 7 as Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, before retiring in 2017.

A celebration of Bob's life will be held in October in Saskatoon.

The location and date of the celebration will be announced in a full obituary when plans have been finalized.

In lieu of flowers please make a donation to St. Paul's Hospital Close to Home Campaign or Persephone Theatre; two charities which were close to Bob's heart.

Condolences may be left at http://www.saskatoonfuneralhome.com Arrangements entrusted to Saskatoon Funeral Home 306-244-5577.

ELMER OSCAR STROM

Passed away at Trillium Mississauga Hospital on August 4, 2019 in his 84th year. Beloved husband of Dorothy Margaret (née McMillan); son of the late Oscar and Hilma Strom; caring brother of the late Astrid Marinich (late Jock), late Alvar (late Gladys), late Arne (late Terry) and late Leonard (late Gerry and Anna).

He will be missed by his many nephews and nieces from the Strom and McMillan families.

Elmer was of Swedish descent.

He was born in Nestorville (now Thessalon), grew up in Sault Ste. Marie, graduated from Sault Collegiate and University of Toronto (Bachelor of Physical and Health Education). He worked primarily with the Canada Employment Centre. With a love of nature, Elmer spent time out of doors where he found stimulus for painting and sculpting abstract bird, animal, and fish forms in wood, stone, and bronze. He enjoyed playing sports (baseball, softball, basketball, and tennis).

Having been born in Nestorville, he made regular visits to the North, particularly visits to Algoma and Lake Haliburton. With Dorothy and friends, he travelled extensively.

At Elmer's request, cremation will take place with no funeral service. Private interment will be at Glendale Memorial Gardens, Albion Road, Etobicoke, at a later date. If you so wish, donations may be made to the Unitarian Service Committee Canada, your local food bank, or United Way.

Messages of condolence and memories may be left at www.

arbormemorial.ca/en/glendale.

MICHELLE CUSHMAN TAYLOR

1961 - 2019

It is with sadness we announce the passing of our sister, Michelle Cushman Taylor on August 2, 2019 in Vancouver BC, from cancer. Michelle is predeceased by her father, Austin G.E. Taylor (Firpo) and her mother, Elizabeth Newbold Taylor (Betsy). She is survived by her sisters Patricia Taylor (Steve Krieger), Lisa Woodward (John), Kathleen Hamilton (Ron) and her nieces and nephews: Justin and Aldyen Krieger; Christopher, Peter, Michael and Austin Woodward; and Kate Hunter and Laura Hamilton. Michelle lived an enjoyable life and could often be found in the company of her (mostly) well behaved dogs, her many ponies and horses and tending to her beautiful garden.

Michelle held dear the time she spent with good friends listening to music, traveling together and discussing many things over great food. No service by request.

Memorial donations may be made to the B.C. Cancer Foundation, 150686 West Broadway, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1G1.

JOHN ALFRED VIVASH

June 22, 1931 - August 5, 2019

John passed away peacefully, with loved ones by his side. Husband of Barbara Williams; father of Mary Elizabeth Kinch, Catherine Vivash (Matthew Smith), and Michael Vivash (Kim); Grampa of Jamie (Margaret), Iain, and Emma; Katie, Campbell, Colin, and Connor; and Jack, Grace, and Sam.

He was an influence on Bay Street for over six decades. He was a wise mentor to many. John believed in being a lifelong learner. He lent his expertise to many academic and medical institutions, and, as well, supported them financially. John valued his relationships, and lifelong friendships.

He delighted in, and always took care of, his family. His wish was for this notice to be short and simple, so we will simply say that he was greatly loved and loved us all in return. We will miss him dearly.

Visitation will be at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Avenue West, on Sunday, August 11th, from 5-8 p.m. and Monday, August 12th, from 11 a.m. - 2 p.m. Private committal to follow. Flowers gratefully declined. The family would welcome donations in John's memory directed to the Geriatric Oncology Project Fund - The Princess Margaret Foundation, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9.

LUCIA GEERTRUIDA MARIA ten KORTENAAR

March 8, 1927 - July 19, 2019 (née Buwalda) Lucy (Luus) passed away peacefully at the Grenadier Retirement home in Toronto on Friday July 19, 2019.She was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and came to Canada via Curaçao in 1951 after working for two years in a blood research clinic there.

She was predeceased by Tony (Toon), her husband of sixty-five years, and her daughter Lucia.

Lucy was mother to Mary-Anna (David), Annette (Paul), Anthony (Angela), Jef (Monique), Lucia, and Philip (Heather). She was Oma to Monica (Steve), Adrian (Monika), Mathew, Alexander (Ashlea), Christopher (Christiane), Elizabeth (Matthew), Michael, Rebecca (Timothy), Alexandra, Marc Anthony, Lukas (Brittany), Simone (Matthew), Martin, Thomas and Liam. And a dear Oma(ten) to Frederick, Coraline, Ayda, Noah, Joel and Maeve.

She grew up in Amsterdam with a love of classical music and an insatiable desire for learning. Her wartime experiences in Amsterdam had a lasting effect on her outlook on life and her concern for others. Her feisty spirit will be missed as will her great cooking skills and love of gardening.

Her funeral will be held at St. Joan of Arc Church on August 22nd, at 11a.m. followed by a reception in the parish hall.

Online condolences at http://www.turnerporter.ca

HELEN GURD YOUNG (née Steers)

Peacefully at the May Court Hospice, Ottawa, on Wednesday, August 7, 2019 at the age of 86.

Dearly beloved wife of the late John Young. Loving mother of Alex (Rina Manconi), the late John and the late Frank. Cherished Gram of Sandro, Adamo and Anastasia. Dear sister of the late Michael Steers (late Cynthia).

The funeral mass will be held at Madonna Della Risurrezione Roman Catholic Church, 1621 Fisher Avenue, Ottawa, on Tuesday, August 13, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. In lieu of flowers, memorial contributions to the Hospice Care Ottawa - May Court would be appreciated by the family.

Condolences/Tributes/Donation Hulse, Playfair & McGarry hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

After a murder-suicide, a small town searches for missed signs of danger
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Long before Mark Jones killed Ulla Theoret, her son, her mother and himself, his behaviour hinted to the community of Burk's Falls that something bad was brewing. What can this tragedy teach us about domestic violence in rural Canada?
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By MOLLY HAYES
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A10


On her way home from work on Feb. 23, 2018, Julia Conway stopped to pick up a coffee for her boyfriend's grandmother, a gesture that was part of her Friday routine. Unless she gave them a head's up that she had other plans, Paul Theoret's family knew to expect the bubbly 29-year-old after her shift ended.

The house, up a winding drive at the end of a secluded cul-de-sac on the outskirts of Burk's Falls, Ont., was dark and quiet when she arrived. The only sound she could hear as she approached the front door, besides the crunching snow under her feet, was the bark of the family dog, Lily. It was just 7:30 p.m., and Ms. Conway figured everyone must have called it an early night. She'd leave the coffee for "Mummi" on her bedside table, she decided.

First she headed to the basement to quiet the dog.

Down the stairs, she found the white Chihuahua-mix frantically pacing outside the doorway of the bathroom.

Behind the dog, on the floor, lay Paul. At first Julia thought he'd been sick. As she got closer, it registered: He'd been shot. Her boyfriend was dead.

She bolted back upstairs, where she made two more gruesome discoveries. Ulla, Paul's mother, was crumpled on her bedroom floor. And in Mummi's room, 88-year-old Raija Turunen lay still in her bed. They, too, had been shot.

Fending off panic, Ms. Conway, whose cellphone reception was spotty at the rural house, headed to the landline in the kitchen to call 911. There, slumped in a chair, was a fourth body. She could tell it was a man, but his face was unrecognizable from a gun blast. Tethered to the wallmounted house phone, she sat across from him as she waited for help to arrive.

Who was he? "Don't look at him - look at the ground," the 911 dispatcher kept telling her. "Look at the ground."

In the background, the family dog - still at Paul's side in the basement - continued to bark. Ms. Conway felt nauseated. Short of breath. Her head was spinning as she tried to make sense of who would do such a thing. But as the minutes passed, she realized who the man was - she'd seen him sitting in that exact kitchen chair before. It was their neighbour, Mark Jones.

For months, trouble had been brewing on Starratt Road: harassing letters, nasty confrontations, an allegation of sexual assault. Ms. Conway had long known about Mr. Jones's dangerous obsession with Paul's mother.

But she'd never imagined it would come to this.

More than a year later, the tightknit Burk's Falls community is still reeling from the loss.

Police have confirmed the basics of the tragedy: that Mr. Jones murdered the three family members and then shot himself. But because Mr. Jones is dead, there will be no trial, and Ulla Theoret's surviving sons, Thomas, 31, and Hans, 28, have been left with unanswered questions about how this happened and whether there were missed opportunities to prevent the violence.

While the murders stunned the community, located a half-hour's drive north of the Muskoka town of Huntsville, the case itself - a woman being killed by a man she had known and trusted, in her home, where she thought she was safe - is not an uncommon one in Canada. Ulla was among roughly 150 women who were murdered in 2018 - almost all of them by men, according to the Canadian Femicide Observatory for Justice and Accountability.

In cases where a perpetrator was identified and their relationship to the victim was known, roughly 60 per cent were killed by current or former intimate partners, and another 15 per cent were killed by friends or acquaintances. In just more than 10 per cent of cases, the killer also then killed himself.

In Ontario, all intimate-partner homicide cases are reviewed by the chief coroner's office through a Domestic Violence Death Review Committee, in order to make recommendations to prevent future deaths. The committee is still considering whether to review this case because Mark Jones and Ulla Theoret were not, and had never really been, a couple.

After months of trying to access information, the Theoret brothers believe a public inquest could be the only opportunity to examine whether local authorities missed an opportunity to prevent the deaths. They know now that their mother had gone to police six months before she was killed, but the OPP - which wouldn't discuss the case with The Globe and Mail - won't disclose how it handled Ulla's allegations or say whether the service is conducting an internal review.

In the absence of a formal examination, family, friends and neighbours of the victims and Mr. Jones find themselves haunted by their own what-ifs. No one saw the murders coming, but with the benefit of hindsight, many now realize that signs of danger were in clear sight.

It was through her older brother Peter that Ulla Theoret (then Ulla Turunen) first met Mark Jones. The two men, who had both studied together at George Brown College, met at a Halloween party in the 1980s, and though both lived in downtown Toronto, they shared a love of the outdoors.

For years, the two men and their group of friends spent nearly every weekend hunting or fishing in the woods, often at the Turunen family cabin in Burk's Falls.

Peter and Ulla's parents, Olavi and Raija, had purchased the sprawling farm property in Ryerson Township on the outskirts of Burk's Falls in the 1970s. Over the years, they built a new house and a sauna - a nod to their Finnish roots - with help from Peter and his buddies during their weekend trips. At the end of a day labouring away, Raija would have a hearty meal ready. A sign hung in her kitchen: "Today's menu: two options - take it or leave it."

Ulla, by this time a nurse, had married an American and moved to Michigan, where they raised Thomas, Paul and Hans. She returned each summer, bringing the boys up to visit their grandparents. When they reached college age, the boys were drawn back to Canada. Eventually, as the farm became challenging for their aging grandparents to manage, the brothers took turns staying with them in Burk's Falls and helping out.

In 2014, Ulla and her husband Steve followed to take over the caregiving duties. But their marriage was already fizzling, and Steve soon headed back to Michigan. Ulla decided to stay. Though her brother Peter had died years earlier, she was welcomed back by his old hunting buddies, who had become family friends.

One of them, Jouko Ojanpera, now lived in Huntsville.

Another, Armando Cabral, still made regular stops by the family farm. And though he'd drifted from the others, there was also Mark Jones - Jonesy, as they called him.

It was by then almost two decades since Mr. Jones had faded from the friend group. In the early 1990s, the guys had started planning moose-hunting trips near Thunder Bay. But Mr. Jones had diabetes, and didn't always take care of himself. The friends worried about being in the bush with him, far from a hospital. They stopped inviting him along.

Mr. Cabral thinks he was offended. As far as he remembers, that was why Jonesy eventually fell out of touch.

Mr. Ojanpera recalls his friendship with Mr. Jones ending more abruptly. During a duck-hunting trip in 1994, he came out of the bushes to find Mr. Jones - carelessly, not intentionally, he thinks - pointing a 12-gauge shotgun at him. Mr. Ojanpera hit the ground and heard the gun go off three times.

"I started cursing at him, calling him names," he recalls. "If I had been standing, I would've [been dead]. I said, 'I don't ever want to see you again.' " Mr. Jones moved to Barrie, Ont., after that, where he bought a four-plex, living in one unit and renting out the other three. For the most part, he seemed to keep to himself. He was a member of the Barrie Gun Club and a regular at a local machine shop.

Eventually, Mr. Jones began searching for a country home. Though he was initially looking in Barry's Bay, he came upon a property in Burk's Falls-just down the road from his old stomping grounds. He couldn't resist, recalled Gordon Adams, who owned the Barrie machine shop. It was twice the amount of land for half the price.

At a backyard party at the Turunen family property for Ulla's father Olavi's 90th birthday in the summer of 2016, Mr. Ojanpera made his way through the crowd of smiling faces - one of which stopped him in his tracks. There in the yard, sitting in a lawn chair and smoking a cigar, was Mr. Jones.

"He just grinned and said, 'Small world, eh?' " There is a list of 41 "indicators" - red flags - that Ontario's Domestic Violence Death Review Committee look for in each case it reviews.

The number of these indicators that had been present between the victim and the perpetrator during the time leading up to a domestic homicide helps demonstrate, in hindsight, the potential for lethality that existed. In almost three-quarters of cases, the committee says, seven or more risk factors were present.

Although Ulla was not in a relationship with Mark Jones, it appears that numerous risk factors were present between them in the year leading up to the murders: among them, a victim who had an intuitive sense of fear of the perpetrator; obsessive behaviour by the perpetrator; prior threats to commit suicide; sexual jealousy exhibited by the perpetrator; unemployment; access to firearms; and an escalation of violence.

After Ulla moved back to her family's farm, she and Mr.Jones began spending time together. As a new divorcee living with her parents in a town of fewer than 700 people, she welcomed the camaraderie, her friends say.

Her sons supported her desire to start dating. She was social and fun and had spent her entire life taking care of people, as a mother, nurse and daughter. They wanted her to be happy.

But it became evident early on that Ulla did not consider herself and Mr. Jones a match. While they shared some common interests, such as antiquing, their personalities clashed. She was bubbly and outgoing, and lived in colourful leggings and bright tops. Mr. Jones was controlling and told her she should wear turtlenecks.

"I never got a good feeling about him," Hans says, "and that's basically the way I described it to my mom."

During one phone call back in 2015, Thomas says, his mom casually mentioned that Mr. Jones had been leaving unsettling notes in the mailbox. That upset Thomas, who had by this time moved to Taiwan to teach English. It reminded him of a news documentary he'd recently watched about domestic violence.

He warned his mom to be careful and that the whole family could be at risk.

Ulla never mentioned Mr. Jones to him again.

But he was still lingering in their periphery. Mr. Jones was handy and helped the elderly Turunens out around the farm. Raija, in particular, took a liking to him and, despite her daughter's reservations, continued to invite him by to play cards.

Hans was struck by his mother's reaction when Mr.Jones showed up at the house for one such card game in 2016. He was hanging out with her in the basement when they heard Mr. Jones's voice upstairs. His mom's brow furrowed, and she asked Hans to make sure the man didn't come down there. When Hans confronted Mr. Jones upstairs, he asked why Ulla hadn't come up to say hello.

Hans told him to leave.

That was the last time he saw him.

Around town, however, Ulla had trouble avoiding him.

On one occasion in 2017, for example, she and a friend were at the laundromat in Burk's Falls one day when Mr.

Jones showed up. He started ranting and raving, and calling her degrading names. The laundromat's owner recalls how shaken up Ulla was.

A similar confrontation happened at a local gas station, while Ulla was out with a man whom she had briefly dated. She also told that man that Mr. Jones had liked to look at her father's guns in the basement, Thomas later learned, and that he'd "dry shot" at her before with the unloaded gun as a joke.

Others in the small town had also witnessed snippets of Mr. Jones's troubling and threatening behaviour toward Ulla.

Rural communities such as Burk's Falls present distinct risks for women experiencing violence, notes Sharon Davis, a manager at the closest women's shelter to the town, in nearby Parry Sound. On a practical level, poor cell reception and spotty internet access can make it more difficult for a woman to research and connect with support services. Firearms are also more likely to be present in rural communities and households.

And in a small town or community where everyone knows everyone, Ms. Davis says, people can be especially reluctant to raise the alarm when they suspect trouble in a relationship.

In its 2017 report, the Domestic Violence Death Review Committee found that it is not uncommon for friends, family or co-workers to struggle with how to respond to "troubled" relationships, and that in many cases, people around the victim "did not seem to know how to react in a constructive way to prevent further harm."

"People don't want to get caught up in it," Ms. Davis says. "People are really fearful of being wrong."

It was only in the fall of 2017 that those closest to Ulla realized the degree to which things had escalated.

After a grocery-shopping trip in town, Ulla, Raija, Paul and Julia arrived home to find Mr. Jones sitting in their kitchen, alone in the dark. Paul and Julia were taken aback. Ulla told them that she'd deal with it. They left her to speak with him and eventually heard him leave.

Later that year, after Julia noticed that Ulla was taking an unusual amount of time to burn their garbage in a bonfire out back, she came outside to find her crying. She was holding a piece of paper in her hands: another letter, she said, from Mark Jones. He'd been leaving notes in the mailbox again.

Ulla also confided something even more disturbing to Ms. Conway: Mr. Jones had sexually assaulted her. It had happened two years earlier in his car, in the fields behind his house, she told her. He'd forced her to perform oral sex. She thought she was going to die.

Ulla threw the letter into the fire, and asked Ms. Conway to promise she would not tell Paul or his brothers about the assault. She worried about what they might think, or what they might do.

Ms. Conway promised she'd keep quiet.

Other friends were also keeping Ulla's secret. She had told Jouko Ojanpera about the sexual assault months earlier, during a dinner party, back in May, 2017. But to him, too, she added: "Promise me you won't tell the boys."

He agreed he wouldn't, but urged her to report it to police.

"I felt like going to [Mr. Jones's] place and beating the crap out of him," he recalled later. "But we had already had cocktails and a bottle of wine, so I was not going to be stupid. Probably it would've been the right thing to do after all."

It was a complicated time in Ulla's life. Her father, Olavi, was ill (and would die that July). She was also seeing someone new, long distance - a Florida man she'd met at a Finnish banquet in Toronto.

"My life got easier and harder all at the same time," she wrote on Facebook that August.

Two weeks later, she went to Florida to meet up with her new beau. "Feeling happy!" she posted.

Paul Van Dam, a neighbour who lived in the area, recalls the morning when he saw Ulla trudging toward him down the road in her rubber boots.

"I need your advice," she told Mr. Van Dam, before she divulged the details of the assault.

He urged her to go to police. But again, she said she wasn't sure.

"Look," he told her, "you asked for my advice. I'm telling you to report this."

So, standing in Mr. Van Dam's living room on the morning of Sept. 22, she made the call to the local police detachment. Mr. Van Dam then drove her home, so that a detective could come by to meet with her. She went into the station the next day to provide a video statement.

When the officer asked why she was coming forward only now, she said her father had recently died and she didn't feel safe. In his report, the officer described her as "agitated."

Roughly six weeks after this, Ulla popped by Mr. Van Dam's house again. She looked relaxed, he thought. Happy. She thanked him for his help and told her Mr. Jones wasn't bothering her any more. Mr. Van Dam thought that was the end of it.

But a few months later, Mr. Van Dam was checking his mail at the foot of his driveway when Mr. Jones's Subaru whizzed past his house. He caught a glimpse of Ulla in the passenger seat. "I thought to myself, 'I should go talk to her about that,' " he says. "But I never did - that's my big regret."

The month before she died, Ulla - who had been struggling with depression, especially since her divorce - checked herself into the hospital for two weeks. Thomas and Hans described it as a mental breakdown. They had no idea at the time about the sexual assault. By that time, they thought Mr. Jones was long gone.

But they have seen his mother's medical records, and although they are not certain of all that she disclosed to her doctor, there are hints: She mentioned an aggressive neighbour and concern that police were not helping her.

It was a short time before the murders that Joe Lazar, another neighbour on Starratt Road, started to suspect something was wrong with Mark Jones. The two were not close, but they were friendly enough that Mr. Jones would come over for dinner or to watch a sports game now and again.

After the death of Mr. Lazar's dog in mid-February, 2018, he asked Mr. Jones if he would mind bringing over his backhoe to help him bury the animal. In reply, Mr. Jones screamed at him: "How could you let her die?" Mr. Lazar knew he had been fond of the dog, but the reaction was baffling. He confronted Mr. Jones, who told him that he'd been recently diagnosed with dementia.

It made sense. He'd heard that Mr. Jones had recently gotten lost while hunting on his own property, and had to call for help on his walkie-talkie. And once, while Mr. Lazar was helping him with a fencing project, he noticed Mr.Jones becoming uncharacteristically confused.

Mr. Lazar didn't know Ulla at all and knew little about Mr. Jones's relationship with her. Mr. Jones had mentioned years earlier that he was seeing a girl down the road, he recalled - but after he'd ribbed him about it, Mr. Jones had told him curtly that it was over and that he didn't want to talk about her. They never did again.

Around the time he'd revealed his dementia diagnosis to his friend, Mr. Jones - who was 58 at the time and "a bit of a hoarder" - had begun selling off his things, Mr. Lazar says.

He'd had his driver's licence revoked owing to the diagnosis, he said. His own parents had struggled with dementia, he told Mr. Lazar, and he "wasn't going to go out like that."

Mr. Lazar was alarmed. He knew Mr. Jones had a sister, and he made a mental note to ask for her number so he could give her a call - although he didn't follow up. He knew his friend had guns, and he was worried he might hurt himself. It never occurred to him that he might hurt other people.

On Feb. 21, 2018, Hans Theoret drove from the town of Bracebridge, Ont., to take his mother out for a birthday lunch.

When he dropped her off afterward, he debated spending the night, as he often did. But he had to work the next day, so he decided to head back that evening. As he pulled away, he told his mom he loved her.

At some point after that - it's unclear exactly when, although Thomas says investigators believe it was in the early hours of Thurs. Feb. 22 - Mr. Jones came to the house.

He left his car at the foot of the long, curving driveway, and carried both a 12-gauge shotgun and a .40 calibre handgun into the house. He shot Ulla. He shot Paul. He shot Raija.

Then he shot himself.

As soon as Joe Lazar learned of the murders on Starratt Road, he froze. He knew instantly that the killer was Mark Jones.

Armando Cabral, a friend of both Ulla and Mr. Jones, has had a particularly difficult time wrapping his head around the tragedy. He's seen firsthand that murders such as these aren't one-offs.

In 2012, Mr. Cabral's father killed his wife and then himself. Armando Sr. and Leonilde were 74 and 70. They'd been happily married for more than 40 years. But in the months before he murdered his wife, the elder Mr. Cabral had been showing signs of mental illness. He was depressed and said he was hearing voices.

Then, in 2015, Mr. Cabral's partner at work, Halton, Ont., firefighter Trevor McNally killed his wife, Sue NesbittMcNally, and then himself.

"If you said to us that Mark was one day going to go out and murder a bunch of people and commit suicide, we'd be like, 'No. No. Not ever in a hundred years,' " he says. "But people would've said that about my parents, too."

After the crime scene at the Turunen family home was cleaned up, and before the house was listed for sale, Mr. Cabral spent weekends up at the property last summer, helping Hans and Thomas slowly clear out their family's things.

He would catch himself staring off in the kitchen at Raija's cheeky menu sign, thinking back on the many meals he and Mr. Jones had shared there with the family. "We solved the world's problems in that kitchen," he says, shaking his head.

Down the road from the Turunen farm, Mr. Jones's house has sat frozen in time since the massacre. His belongings are still visible through the front windows.

It was only after their family members were killed that Hans and Thomas learned that their mother had reported a sexual assault to the police: Thomas discovered a message she'd sent to a friend on Facebook, after logging onto his mom's account.

They wondered, then, if this tragedy could have been avoided. They wanted to know if police had done enough to protect their mother after she spoke to them and asked the detachment to turn over any evidence they had.

After months of waiting, this past April, the brothers were provided with a video of her interview. Ulla was detailed in her recounting to the officers, Thomas says. She was clearly scared. It was, he adds, devastating to watch.

They've asked for any other documents related to the investigation, but many of their requests were denied on privacy grounds.

"Even though he killed my family, I don't have any right to know anything about him," Thomas says.

They want to know what came of their mother's report.

Was Mr. Jones interviewed? Why was he able to keep his guns after being accused of a violent sexual assault? If a doctor had indeed revoked his driver's licence after his dementia diagnosis, why not his firearms licences as well?

Ironically, Thomas points out, his mother had received a letter from the Chief Firearms Office after her hospitalization in January, 2018, informing her that her firearms licence - which she'd obtained in order to hang on to her father's hunting guns after he died - would require a doctor's sign-off. Firearms licences are supposed to be difficult to obtain in Canada. Thomas argues they should also be difficult to keep.

In response to questions from The Globe, Chief Firearms Officer of Ontario Dwight Peer explained that police reporting policies around firearms-licence holders vary from force to force. But if a licence holder is reported to have sexually assaulted someone, he said that should, when coded correctly, trigger a notification to the CFO.

The CFO can also receive calls from family, friends, neighbours or physicians who have concerns about a firearms-licence holder, he said. These concerns are then followed up on a case-by-case basis. He declined to comment on whether they were notified in this case - or whether any review is being done.

Mr. Lazar recalled that the summer before the murders, Mr. Jones had hauled "two carloads" of firearms and accessories to a gun sale near Orillia, Ont. He said he also had a target range on his property.

The Theorets filed a lawsuit against Mr. Jones's estate last summer, for damages "for the loss of support, care, guidance and companionship sustained by them."

The case continues to churn its way through the courts.

A sister of Mr. Jones, reached by phone, declined to speak with The Globe.

In response to an interview request from The Globe and Mail, the OPP said they cannot comment because they are mentioned (although not named as defendants) in the civil litigation.

"This was a tragic crime and our hearts go out to the families and friends of the murdered victims and the community," spokesperson Carolle Dionne said. "As the matter is before the courts, I am unable to provide further information."

After they sold the family farm, Thomas and Hans bought a house about an hour away, where Hans now lives with Julia Conway and Lily, the dog. Julia is like a sister to them now, the brothers say. She suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder and has not been cleared by her doctor to return to work.

Thomas has since gone back to Taiwan, where he is teaching and working on memoirs about his loss. In the meantime, he and his brother continue to try to get answers.

One morning in March, while Thomas was visiting, the three of them pulled out a box of items they got from the house after the cleaning crew went through. Most of the photos and documents were loose in the box, their picture frames - which had been splattered with blood - removed.

They smile at old glamour shots of Paul, who had modelled for a time - even appearing on the cover of Harlequin romance novels. They finger old photos of themselves as kids, wearing matching outfits, with matching bowl cuts, and playing at the farm while Raija and Olavi look on proudly. They linger over their parents' wedding album and laugh at a more recent shot of their mom, flashing a big smile, with bright pink hair. She'd dyed it spontaneously, just a short time before she died, they said - a classic Ulla thing to do.

"I don't know what would give me closure. I really don't know," Hans says, shaking his head. "I don't want to find out that somebody messed up, or that my mom, you know, could have handled it better or that this guy was just a psycho that went off the rails. There's nothing at this point that could really [make me feel better]. But I want to help somebody in the future ... somehow, maybe, there's a way we can get the word out and help somebody."

There are lessons here, they argue, for victims, for family, for friends, for the general public, for police. There have to be.

With research by Stephanie Chambers

Associated Graphic

Ulla Theoret holds the family dog, Lily, in a family photo.

Ullla, her mother and son were killed in 2018 on the outskirts of Burk's Falls, Ont., in the house built by her parents.

Julia Conway, above left, was the person who discovered Ulla, Raija, Paul and Mark dead at the house in February, 2018. She's struggled with post-traumatic stress disorder ever since, but has also formed a familial bond with Ulla's sons Hans and Thomas Theoret, above right.

PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mark Jones, left, sits alongside Jouko Ojanpera and Armando Cabral on a hunting trip. Mr. Jones became friends with Peter Turunen, Ulla's brother, through a mutual love for the outdoors.

Olavi and Raija Turunen, top, and Paul Theoret.

FAMILY PHOTOS COURTESY OF ARMANDO CABRAL AND THEORET FAMILY

The residents of Burk's Falls, Ont., have struggled to comprehend the tragedy that unfolded on Starratt Road last year.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B14


DE SANTIS

Baby De Santis has arrived! The proud parents, Nicole and Paul De Santis and big brothers, Rocco and Romeo, are delighted to announce the arrival of Rafael Nicholas De Santis on Tuesday, August 6, 2019 at 5:06 p.m. weighing in at 8lbs., 14 oz. and measuring 53 cm.

The grandparents (nonni): Rocco De Santis of Brampton, Russell Horodelski of Brampton and Josie and John Watson of Thornhill, are absolutely thrilled and are joined by the greatgrandmother (bisnonna), Franca Agueci of Bolton; Uncles: John De Santis of Brampton, Rob De Santis of Innisfil, Matthew Racanelli of Thornhill and Andrew Watson of Etobicoke; Aunts: Natasha Racanelli of Thornhill, Heather De Santis of Innisfil and Jessica Watson of Etobicoke; Cousins: Anica and Ridley Watson, Owen Rice, Lucas and Leo De Santis in wishing Rafael a long, healthy and happy life.

We would like to thank the doctors and nurses at St.Joseph's Hospital for their assistance during the delivery process with special thanks to Midwives: Janice, Stefanie and Sepideh of The Midwife Alliance.

MARGARET EVELYN BEARE Ph.D.

December 17, 1946 August 10, 2019 Margaret died peacefully on August 10. She will be forever loved and missed by her devoted daughter Nhai Nguyen-Beare (Ryan Maleganeas) and her Peterborough sisters, Bernadine Dodge (James Driscoll) and Christine Kearsley (Robert Kearsley). Margaret is also survived by her niece Kathleen Burneau (Gus Burneau) of Toronto, and will be mourned by a host of friends around the world.

Prof. Beare was born in Markham, Ontario and raised on a farm near Agincourt, Ontario. She was educated at Guelph University, (B.A. 1968 and M.A. 1971); Cambridge University, England, (Diploma in Criminology 1974) and Columbia University, NY (Doctor of Philosophy, 1987). Her career in transnational police policy and the study of organized crime began with her role as Senior Research Officer in the Office of the Solicitor General, 1982-1993. She joined the faculty of York University in the Sociology Department with a cross appointment to Osgoode Hall Law Faculty in 1995. She was the Founding Director of the Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, and remained a faculty member at York until her death.

Margaret is the author of Criminal Conspiracies: Organized Crime in Canada, and numerous edited and co-authored books, and, articles on money laundering, international policing policy, gang violence, and social justice. Her work involved extensive travel throughout South East Asia and South America. Her consultancy work as a leading authority on criminal activity was on-going up until her last illness.

When Margaret wasn't working, or travelling, or spending time with Nhai, she was listening to Leonard Cohen, throwing dinner parties, walking Harley, the latest of several golden retrievers, or relaxing at her cabin on Chemong Lake.

Margaret's family are most grateful for the tender care and support she has received from her friends and neighbours on Major Street, the wider Harbord Village community, and academic colleagues. A memorial to celebrate her life will take place at a later date.

Cremation has taken place.

DAVID JOHN BEIERSDORFER

Deputy Commissioner RCMP (Ret.)

B.Comm (U of AB) October 3, 1930 S askatoon, SK August 10, 2019 Victoria, BC Dave is survived by his wife Amelia of 65 years, daughters Debora of Jasper, Sandra (James Agnel) of Victoria, and sons Robert (Lori Stewart) of Ottawa and William (Carolyn Campeau) of Ottawa. He will be missed by his grandchildren: Michael, Scott, and Shae Lynn of Ottawa, Daniella (Adam Huber) of Kamsack Sask, Thomas and Elizabeth of Ottawa, and Samuel Agnel of Victoria and many nieces and nephews. He leaves behind two sisters Hilda (George Schoepp) of Stony Plain AB and Betty (Dr. Graham Gall) of Davis California.

Dave's early education was completed at Nutana Collegiate Institute in 1948 and he was selected as valedictorian for his graduating class. He became a member of the RCMP on Jan. 11, 1949 and served until January 10, 1984 (35 years). In 1956, he was selected by the RCMP to attend the University of Alberta and in 1959 was awarded his Bachelor of Commerce Degree, with first class standing marks, and multiple achievements of excellence awards. Over his career he was posted in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia. In 1963, he was commissioned as Sub Inspector and transferred to Victoria BC. While in Victoria he had the privilege of serving Maj/General GM Pearkes VC, Lt/ Gov of BC as a Honourary Aide de Campe for 5 years. He was transferred to Ottawa a second time in 1970 where he served as A/Director of Services and Supply, Director of Services and Supply, Director of Organization and Personnel and Deputy Commissioner Administration. As the Senior D/Commissioner he served as acting Commissioner in the absence of the Commissioner.

He served on Inter Departmental Committees and from 1974-1984 he was a member of the Advisory Committee to the Gov. General for the Canadian Bravery Awards. He is a lifetime member of the Victoria RCMP Veterans Association.

Dave was devoted to his family, church and public service. He strove to improve the quality and nature of the RCMP, and improve the working conditions of the members. Dave was very proud of his home and was an avid gardener in View Royal on Portage Inlet. He was well known with friends and neighbors for his generosity of supplying tomatoes from his 150 tomato plants that he grew annually. In early retirement years he enjoyed daily early morning coffee with his friends at McDonalds, commiserating over politics and world events. Most recently he was proud to receive a multi-generational pin for 3 generations of family service in the RCMP (Dave, William, Daniella).

The Beiersdorfer family would like to extend their gratitude to the staff and management at Highgate Lodge. The generous supportive care given Dave and the family is greatly appreciated.

Funeral Services will be held on Friday, August 16th at the Lutheran Church of the Cross 3787 Cedar Hill Rd. Victoria, BC. At 1:00 p.m. Reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, you may make a contribution to the Hospice Society.

WILLIAM BIDELL "Bill"

November 29, 1925 August 7, 2019 It is with great sadness that the family announces the peaceful passing of Bill Bidell in his 94th year at Bridgepoint Healthcare.

Born in Winnipeg, Bill was predeceased by his beloved wife Nell (2008) and his parents, Nicholas (1990) and Nellie (1998) Bidulka. He was the cherished father of Joan, Kathy (Kimball), and Stephen (Cheryl), and loving grandfather of Hannah and Nicholas.

Bill lived a full and wonderful life, engaging in many endeavors beginning with military service in the Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps from 1944-1946, followed by a distinguished career in the Ontario public service as a Civil Engineer, ultimately serving as Assistant Deputy Minister in both Ministries of Transportation and Environment.

Bill was a gifted violinist, beginning his studies at age eight.

He went on to perform with the Chamber Players of Toronto, the North York Symphony, the Scarborough Philharmonic Orchestra, the Tampa Bay Symphony Orchestra, and the Trinity Chamber Ensemble.

Bill also programmed chamber music for the TCE and his own chamber group. He also formed the Bidell String Quartet with members of his immediate family.

Bill was also a golfer, sailor, skier, and curler. He enjoyed travel throughout the world with Nell, winters with family in Safety Harbor, FL, and summers spent in Muskoka.

The family would like to extend their sincere thanks to Dr. Jeff Myers and the entire palliative team at Bridgepoint Healthcare, the doctors and nurses at North York General Hospital, and to Dr.

Claire Nunes-Vaz and all the caring staff at Amica Bayview Gardens.

Cremation has taken place.

A Celebration of Life will be held in the Fall. In lieu of flowers, donations to The Council of Canadians, WWF-Canada, or a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

DOROTHY FAYE BOEHMER

February 20, 1934 Tuesday, August 6, 2019 Dorothy Faye Boehmer, 85, of Aurora, Ontario passed away peacefully on Tuesday, August 6, 2019.

She is survived by her loving husband of 65 years, James William Boehmer and her children, Mark (Lorrie), Stephen (Jane) and Kimberly (Neil Hindle).

She was a loving sister to Miriam Feaster and a beloved Grandmother to Karyn (Adam Sarginson), Geoffrey, William, Courtney (Bobby Caughey), Jonathan (Ashley), Andrew, Nicholas, Kate, Matthew, Spencer, and GreatGrandmother to Reese.

The family acknowledges with heartfelt thanks the caregivers and nursing staff of Sunrise, Aurora. A Celebration of Life will be held at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home, 8911 Woodbine Ave., Markham.

Date and time to be determined. Online condolences can be made at chapelridgefh.com.

EDUARDO CAVALCANTE

Eduardo Cavalcante, beloved father, brother, uncle and friend, passed away peacefully at the Trillium Health Centre on the evening of Wednesday, August 7, 2019 at the age of 74. He found joy and comfort in the simple pleasures of life, and was nurtured by his lifelong love for History, Geography, Mathematics and Science.

He will be deeply missed by family and friends, and will be remembered for his passion for storytelling. Eduardo is survived by his two daughters, Elisabeth and Annelise.

DANIEL GABRIEL FOY

April 13, 1994 Passed away suddenly in Toronto.

Dearly loved and cherished son of Christine and Larry. Beloved brother of Kevin. Predeceased by his grandparents Raymond and Ruth Domleo and Fred and Glenna Foy. Also predeceased by his uncle David Domleo (Karen). Loved nephew of Debra Hopkins (Paul), Catherine Schryer (Franz), Ted Foy (Peggy), Mary Clare Argiropoulos (Constantine), Brian Foy (Colleen), Eileen Foy, Elizabeth Foy and Margaret Foy.

Dan will be fondly remembered by his many cousins.

Daniel was engaging, charming and witty. He sought challenges.

Dan was an intense friend, a passionate chef and an excellent sailor and snowboarder. He bonded closely with his canine and feline companions.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., on Saturday, August 17, 2019 from 1 p.m. until time of the Chapel Service at 3 p.m. Cremation has taken place. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery at a later date.

As an expression of sympathy donations to CAMH, The George Hull Centre or Jack.org would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca Goodbye Dan - we'll always love you.

SUE GREENSMITH

Sue Greensmith, teacher, world traveler, author died on August 9, 2019 aged 75 after a long illness that she fought to the end.

Sue was born in the small industrial town of Leigh, Lancashire, England.

After marrying Pete in 1967 they moved to Switzerland. Two years later in 1969 they emigrated to Canada. She charmed the clients of a stockbroker and glamorized the reception area, before finding her true vocation as a teacher. Her fondest experience was teaching French at the Joseph Howe Senior Public school.

Sue and Pete traveled the world together and of the many countries they visited, her most enjoyable experience was seeing the wild animals while on safari in Africa. Sue was a strong and highly intuitive person. Pete may have planned and organised but Sue triggered the final decisions, such as going to Canada jobless and buying properties at home and abroad.

Sue became an author in 2015 with her first book, 'The Adventures of Kikera and Sol', loved by both adults and kids. Her second book 'Sark' will be published shortly.

Sue will be deeply missed by her loving husband Pete, her devoted daughter Jackie and husband Jason, son Paul and wife Nancy, grandson Dylan, brother Stuart and family. Her very close friends will also sorely miss her: Jan, Janet, Leila and Howard, Pat and Bob, Sandy, Dave, Chris, Christine, Ron and Janice.

We will all miss her wonderful vibrant intelligence, wry humour, "joie de vivre" and her love of a good argument over a rum and coke. She will leave a big gap in all our lives. All our love to an exceptional human being who loved life and had no regrets.

Her favourite charity was Doctors Without Borders. The funeral ceremony will be at The Chapel of St. James Cemetery, 635 Parliament St. at 1.00pm on August 14, 2019.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019 We grieve the loss of Tony Houghton. Tony passed suddenly at his home in Kingston on August 8, 2019. He leaves behind his beloved wife Dianne, his daughters Sylvie, Stephanie, Catto and Sarah, his grandchildren Veronika, Sienna and Oliver, and his brother Hector.

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

A Celebration of Life will be held Thursday, August 15th at The Kingston Yacht Club from 3 - 6 p.m.

DONALD HILARY KAYE

Donald Hilary Kaye passed away peacefully at home on Friday, August 9, 2019. Loving husband of Mary (nee Booth) for 40 years. Son of Augustine Kazimir Kaye, and brother to Rosalie Almond and Bernadette Kaye.

Predeceased by his mother, Mary Frances (Kavanaugh) and his brothers, Lester and Gordon.

A graveside service will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27th at Highland Memory Gardens, 33 Memory Gardens Lane, Willowdale. Memorial donations may be made to Epilepsy Canada.

JENNIFER KHAYAT

Surrounded by family and friends, Jennifer, affectionately known as Vievers, age 43, passed away on August 12, 2019. She will be forever missed as the beloved friend (37 yrs) and wife (14 yrs) of Wiz and supermom to her 'habibis': Kaiden (age 10), Cole (age 7) and Cooper (age 4). Being a mom is her greatest joy in life.

Jen is remembered as the heart and soul of her family and friends. Jennifer is the beloved daughter of Linda and David Dean, granddaughter to Mildred Cope, sister to Jeff (Caitlin) and John (Cynthia) and as aunt to Max, Sophia and Hadley. Daughterin-law to Huda and Jan Khayat, sister-in-law to Rasha (Aldo) Angel and Eva (Luke) Kyleman and aunt to Madeleine and Naomi Angel and Sahara, Victoria and Jackson Kyleman. Jen is the adored niece of Craig (Wendy), Karin (Mike), Laury (Wendy) and Paula (Steve).

Family and friends mattered the most to Jen. Jen dedicated her entire career to social work, the vast majority at the Children Aids Society of Toronto.

Jen lived by the motto of "Celebrate Everything", and she did with enthusiasm.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 2:00 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, August 14th. A Funeral Mass to celebrate the life of Jennifer will be held at St. Bonaventure Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, M3C 2K9 on Thursday, August 15th at 11:00 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Community Share Food Bank at 33 Overland Drive in Don Mills would be appreciated, or reach out to the family for directing funds to the Masibambisane Children Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa where Jen volunteered. Condolences may be forwarded through w w w. h u m p h r e y m i l e s . c o m .

Celebrate Everything

HENRY LISS

On Monday, August 12, 2019 in his 94th year. Surrounded by his family. Devoted husband for 62 years of the late Burtha Liss and beloved companion for 6 years of Harriet Wolman. Loving father and father-in-law of Alan Liss, Mark and Sharon London Liss, and Howard and Susan Sack Liss.

Greatly missed by his grandchildren David, Andrew, Lana, Charles, Josh, Michael, and Leah. Predeceased by his brother and sister-in-law Irving and Estelle Liss.

We would like to thank the staff at Mount Sinai Hospital for their extraordinary and compassionate care. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, August 14, 2019 at10:00 a.m. Interment Holy Blossom Memorial Park. Memorial donations will be gratefully acknowledged at Reena Foundation Liss Family Endowment Fund, 905-763-8254 ext 3630, or to Henry E. Liss Memorial Fund c/o Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation, 416-586-8203.

STEPHEN JOSEPH O'ROURKE MD, FRCP(C)

Just shy of his 94th birthday, Steve died peacefully on August 11, 2019 surrounded by family in the Palliative Care Unit at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Steve is mourned by the love of his life, "Breid" (Brigid Conlon of Belfast), children , William (Janice), Patrick (Theresa), John (Catherine), Kit (Randall), grandchildren, Patrick (Kelly), Liam (Jackie), Sean, Caitlin, Eamonn, Rosie, Maggie, Eden, Austin, Ella, Maddie, greatgrandchildren, Tiernan and Maeve and many nieces, nephews and cousins around the world.

Born on a farm in Bruff, Co.

Limerick, Ireland, Steve graduated medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in 1949. As a Captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps he served in the Korean War and later in Fort Churchill, MB. He then joined the Department of Anaesthesia at St.

Mike's in Toronto where he gave anaesthetics for more than four decades, was a highly respected teacher and mentor to countless medical students and residents, pioneered spinal anaesthesia and was instrumental in advancing obstetrical epidurals.

A life-long horse racing fan, Steve rarely missed attending The Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate. Steve and Breid were founding members of St.

Bonaventure's Parish. They loved to entertain and hosted many celebrations throughout the years. Their endless hospitality and fun-loving nature warmed many hearts.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 1:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 15th. A Funeral Mass will be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, on Friday, August 16th at 10:30 a.m. If desired, donations to St.

Michael's Hospital Foundation, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, http://www.stmichaelshospital.com, would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

PATRICIA ANNE PHIN

Patricia Anne Phin, nee Oliver, passed suddenly and peacefully on August 10, 2019, in her home at Eastbourne, at the age of 83.

Mom was the loving wife of Mike Phin (passed September 2004) and a dedicated and always present mother to Heather Roberts (Johnmark), Vicki Boukydis (Andy), James Phin (Jennine), Susan Young (Eric), Thomas Phin (Sharon).

Dear sister to Susan Nixon and devoted grandmother to Marc, Michelle, Laura (Matt), Sarah, Christopher (Megan), Matthew (Laura), Katie, Andrew, Evan, Patricia, Nikki, Michael and Emily. She was also a wonderful greatgrandmother to Garrison.

A celebration of mom's life will be held at Rosedale Presbyterian Church 129 Mount Pleasant Rd., Toronto M4W 1R5, Friday, August 16th at 11 a.m. In lieu of flowers or donations, please consider being kind to someone who looks like they need it.

BISHOP JOHN MICHAEL SHERLOCK

On Monday, August 12, 2019, the Most Reverend John Michael Sherlock, DD, ninth Bishop of London, entered eternal life at the age of 93.

Bishop John Sherlock was born in 1926, ordained to the priesthood in 1950, ordained to the episcopacy in 1974, and installed as the ninth Bishop of the Diocese of London in 1978. When he became a Bishop, he chose Omnia et in omnibus Christus as his episcopal motto: "There is only Christ: he is everything and he is in everything" (Col. 3: 11). These words guided him throughout his episcopacy and until his last hour.

Bishop Sherlock was a deeply spiritual man with a keen intelligence, a natural ability to lead, and a joyful sense of humour. A tireless and forward-thinking Bishop, he made important contributions in Catholic education, health care, social justice, pastoral care, and the implementation of changes resulting from the Second Vatican Council. His influence reached across not only the Diocese but across Ontario and Canada. Among his many accomplishments was his organizing the 1984 papal visit to Canada, which led to a longlasting friendship with Pope Saint John Paul II. Bishop Sherlock retired in 2002.

Bishop Sherlock was preceded in death by his parents, Joseph and Catherine (O'Brien); his siblings, Fr. William, James, Fr.Phillip, and Mary (William) Dool.

He is survived by his siblings, Gerald (Bernice), Eleanor (Edward) Monahan, Allan (Anne-Marie), and Catherine Sherlock; along with many nephews and nieces, and great-nieces and -nephews.

Visitation will be at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica, 196 Dufferin Avenue, London, on Thursday, August 15, 2019, from 1 p.m. until 9 p.m. Vigil Prayers will be at 8:00 p.m. Visitation will continue the following morning, Friday, August 16, 2019 from 9 a.m. until the time of the Funeral Mass at 11 a.m.

The Funeral Mass will be on Friday, August 16, 2019, at 11 a.m.

at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica.

Burial will be at St. Peter's Cemetery in London.

Arrangements made by John T.Donohue Funeral Home, London.

GWYNETH MENNA WEESE

January 14, 1948 August 9, 2019 It is with great sadness that the family announces the death of Gwyneth "Menna" Weese after a year-long battle with cancer. She passed away on August 9th, at Toronto General Hospital.

She is survived by Bob, her loving husband of 50 years; by her sons, Bryn (Jill) and Dylan (Allison); and her 8-year-old twin grandsons, Kevin and Morgan. Being a grandmother ("Mamgu") was a highlight of her life in recent years - she was always on the lookout for toys or books. She is also survived by family in Wales - cousin Ann, who was like a sister; Ann's husband, Terry; and their children and grandchildren. Menna had close friends in Canada, the U.S., the U.K., and Europe. She will be greatly missed by many.

Menna was born in Carmarthen, South Wales, on January 14, 1948, and raised in Betws, Ammanford.

The only child of Wynford and Margaret Jones, she was a stellar student. She received a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Wales in Aberystwyth, where she and Bob fell in love. She then studied at the prestigious Royal Institution of Great Britain and received her PhD in Chemistry from the University of London.

Menna moved to Canada with Bob in 1972 and enjoyed a successful career as a University lecturer and, later, a senior official in the Saskatchewan, federal, and Ontario governments, mainly in the field of environmental management. In addition to her working life, Menna was very active with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra Volunteer Committee and the residents' association on Baptiste Lake, where she loved spending summers and entertaining at the family cottage.

All who met Menna knew she was a force of nature. Intelligent, capable, confident, lively, and generous, Menna relished social and political debate. A prolific reader, she also loved symphonic music, theatre, and art. In recent years, she and Bob traveled to some of the world's most interesting places.

Menna was very proud of her Welsh roots and returned almost yearly to her hometown. She was fluent in Welsh and loved listening to Welsh singers and choirs.

Cremation has taken place, with a private family service at Turner and Porter's Yorke Chapel in Bloor West Village. A Celebration of Life will be held at The Boulevard Club, 1491 Lakeshore Blvd. W., Toronto, on Monday, September 30, 2 - 5 p.m.

The family wishes to thank all those who cared for and supported Menna through these many difficult months at St. Joseph's, Toronto Western, Princess Margaret, Bridgepoint and Toronto General hospitals. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Canadian Cancer Society or a charity of your choice.

Rest in peace. Tawel orffwys.

PENELOPE HOPE WHITE

On the morning of August 8, 2019, Penny White passed away peacefully surrounded by her family at Campbell House Hospice. Penny was the only child of Garland and Ruth Pidgeon of Chatham, Ontario. Having only one child, she was the centre of their universe. The resulting Chrysalis turned into a lovely Monarch butterfly - the woman we know and love who had the most wonderful smile, and personality to match. Who will forget her homemade birthday cakes, her various hairstyles, her jazzy earrings, her zinger oneliners, the sparkle in her eyes?

She will be most remembered for her generosity, always putting the needs of others before herself.

Penny is survived by her husband, Peter; her children, Peter (Kathleen Meek) and Stephanie (Ryan Sorby); and her much loved grandchildren, Gwyneth White, and Thea and Luke Sorby. Penny had a special connection with young people who gravitated to her, and this was most evident with her grandchildren, with whom she enjoyed a particularly strong bond.

In 1960, Penny moved from the cloistered halls of The Pines in Chatham to London, Ontario, where she took the University of Western Ontario by storm.

Penny came into her own at Western and created a number of friendships that lasted a lifetime.

By the time she graduated, Penny had become a Sister of Phi Beta Phi, a graduate with an Honours BA in History, and an active and well-regarded member of the University Council. To top it all off, Penny was selected from a field of achieving competitors as the Queen of the Arts and Science Ball.

Penny and Peter married in 1967 and made their home in Chaplin Estates. Penny taught history at Sir Sanford Fleming High School and was active at Oriole Park Public School, becoming the President of the Parents Association. She led an active life, playing tennis, skiing, running and kibitzing with various gym groups. Penny became a wellregarded hostess among a group of like-minded friends. These were the "happiest" of times for the White Family who developed many longstanding friendships during their tenure there.

In 2004, Peter and Penny joined the migration to Collingwood where a large number of their friends were moving. A big change from the urban setting to an outdoor paradise. Golf, ski hills and fishing 20 minutes away. New friends to meet. New activities to undertake. For almost 20 years all of this was inspiring and fun.

Then in the blink of an eye this all changed dramatically. In 2017, a routine medical revealed metastatic breast cancer. Penny was an exemplary patient. She never complained and injected humour wherever she could to lessen the strain on those around her. The hordes of friends that made themselves available to drive her to appointments or just share a laugh speaks to the deep connection she made with all those around her.

May you rest in peace my sweet, and perhaps save a smile for us.

Please join us to celebrate Penny's life on Thursday, September 26th from 11 a.m. - 2 p.m. at Bear Estate, 300 Balsam Street, Collingwood Ont, L9Y 0B3.

In lieu of gifts, a donation in Penny's name could be made to Hospice Georgian Triangle.

H. PETER LANGER

March 25, 1916 August 14, 2009 In memory of our beloved father and grandfather who left us ten years ago. Always remembered by children, Ann, Peter (Linda) and Paul, grandchildren, Demian (Sue), Samantha, Jennifer and Graham, and great-granddaughter, Aurora.

THE VAGINA LIES
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Starved for information about how their bodies work, women have had to settle for half-truths, lies and snake-oil remedies. It's time to change that
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By JEN GUNTER
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O6


Obstetrician and gynecologist. She is host of the documentary series Jensplaining, writes two columns for The New York Times and is the author of the new book The Vagina Bible: The Vulva and the Vagina - Separating the Myth From the Medicine, from which this essay is adapted.

I have been in medicine for 33 years, and I've been a gynecologist for 24 of them. It was early experiences with the health-care system that drew me to medicine (I had a kidney removed when I was 11 years old) and a love of science that made me commit to it. It was activism that led me to OB/GYN.

I've been pro-choice for as long as I can remember. In high school (I graduated in 1984), I was very clear - to myself and to anyone who asked - that restricting access to abortion had nothing to do with "life" and everything to do with the patriarchy. No man could tell me what to do with my body.

In medical school, OB/GYN fascinated me. Here was clear, factual information about the reproductive tract. Even though I had studied science before medical school, much of what was presented seemed new, given the amount of detail. How was I just now, in my early 20s, learning how my body worked? I also distinctly remember being annoyed that all my lectures were from men. This was the late eighties and the absence of women at higher levels in medicine was common. So common that one tended not to notice that most of one's professors were men.

But I did. And here, in the field of women's health, the absence of female doctors and researchers was a powerful reminder of that glass ceiling.

I needed to help change that system.

Over the years, I've listened to a lot of women, and I know the questions they ask as well as the ones they want to ask but don't quite know how. Almost all of these queries are born of inaccurate knowledge about their bodies, gleaned from what they learned (or didn't learn) in school or at home, from men or in magazines or online. The problem? You cannot be an empowered patient with inaccurate information.

One of the core tenets of medicine is informed consent. We doctors provide information about risks and benefits and then our patients, armed with that information, make choices. This system only works when the information is accurate and unbiased. Finding these kind of data can be challenging, as we have, apparently, quickly passed through the age of information and are now stalled in the age of misinformation.

False, fantastical medical claims are nothing new. However, sorting myth from medicine is getting harder and harder. In addition to social-media feeds that constantly display medical messaging of variable quality, there is a headline-driven news cycle that constantly requires new content - even when it doesn't exist. And with women's bodies, there are even more forces of misdirection at work. Those who peddle in pseudoscience are invested in misinformation, but so is the patriarchy.

Obsessions with reproductive-tract purity and cleansing date back to a time when a woman's worth was measured by her virginity and how many children she might bear. A vagina and uterus were currency. Playing on these fears awakens something visceral. It's no wonder the words "pure," "natural" and "clean" are used so often to market products to women.

Members of the media and celebrity influencers tap into these fears with articles about vaginal mayhem and products intended to prevent it, as if the vagina (which evolved to stretch and tear to deliver a baby long before suture material was invented) is somehow constantly in a state of near catastrophe.

That's why I have a vagenda: for every woman to be empowered with accurate information about the vagina and vulva. And that's why I've written a book on the subject. The Vagina Bible is everything I want women to know about their vulvas and vaginas. It is my answer to every woman who has seen me pass on information in the office or online and then wondered, "How did I not know this?" Misinforming women about their bodies serves no one interested in health or equality.

Widespread misinformation is the inevitable consequence of a long history of medical neglect of women's anatomy.

Going way back, medically speaking - as in Hippocrates (although there is a belief among many academics that Hippocrates wasn't even a real person) - male physicians rarely performed pelvic exams on women or even dissected female cadavers, as it was considered inappropriate or insensitive for a man to touch a woman outside of a marital relationship. As there were no female physicians, everything first written about women's bodies in ancient medical textbooks and taught to the first physicians was passed along, from women and midwives, to men, who in turn interpreted the information as they saw fit. So medicine has been steeped in mansplaining from the start.

Most ancient physicians, probably like many other males of the time, were unsure of the role of the clitoris and likely thought it unimportant. This stands in sharp contrast to the anatomic glory of the penis. In medicine, all body surfaces are assigned a front or back, which we call ventral (front) or dorsal (back). If you look at a person standing in a neutral position (arms at the side and palms facing forward), the face, chest and palms of the hands are on the ventral side, and the back and the back of the hands are dorsal. This convention is applied differently to the penis, because of course it is. The neutral stance for a man, according to the anatomists of old, was a massive, skyward-pointing erection. Except, of course, men don't walk around with constant erections, and so when you look at a man in what most people would consider the resting state - meaning a flaccid penis - the part that faces you is not the "front" of the penis but actually the "dorsal," or back surface, and the undersurface is the "ventral."

It's not really a small point; it is a wonderful (in a tragicomic kind of way) encapsulation of how society, including medicine, is obsessed with erections, while the clitoris barely registers as a footnote. The clitoris, when it was considered by ancient physicians at all, was believed to be the female version of the penis - but lesser. (I'm sorry, but the organ, capable of multiple orgasms, that only exists for pleasure is not lesser. It is the gold standard.)

Clitoral neglect wasn't confined to medicine. Think about all those ancient Greek statues with defined scrotums and penises (the penises are on the small side because sexuality was apparently at odds with intellectual pursuits and so a big brain, not a big penis, was the ideal). The vulvas of the time were but mysterious mounds concealed by crossed legs.

Around 1000 AD, Persian and Arab physicians began to take more interest in the clitoris, but given the constraints imposed on male physicians touching a naked woman or even a female cadaver, work was slow. By the end of the 17th century, descriptions of female anatomy, including the clitoris, were quite accurate, anatomically speaking.

Some anatomists who made these advancements are memorialized in the names of the structures they accurately described - Gabriele Fallopio (fallopian tubes; also invented the first condom and studied it in a clinical trial!) and Caspar Bartholin (Bartholin's glands).

By 1844, the anatomist Georg Ludwig Kobelt published such detailed work that his anatomic descriptions of the clitoris rival those we have today. However, his work was essentially ignored (as was almost everything that had led up to it), likely owing to a combination of the expansion of Victorian beliefs (essentially the dangers of female sexuality) and Sigmund Freud popularizing the false belief that the clitoris produced an "immature" orgasm.

Physicians in the twenties and thirties truly believed the vagina was filled with dangerous bacteria. Of course, that idea is absurd, and you don't need a medical degree to reach that conclusion. If the vagina were perpetually in such a state of infectious near-catastrophe, women would never have survived, evolutionarily speaking. The narrative of a dirty vagina did, however, fit the societal goal of female oppression.

For many years, discussing female sexuality in the doctor's office was taboo. Much of women's health, especially sexual health, was deemed unimportant or irrelevant because that is how women were viewed.

A male-dominated profession, a male-dominated society with little interest in women's experiences and opinions about their own bodies, a penis-centric view of female sexuality and the belief propagated by Freud's work that the clitoris was unimportant - those are a lot of obstacles to overcome.

In addition, the clitoris, being largely internal, is also harder to study than the penis, practically speaking. Eventually, anatomic studies using female cadavers to dissect the clitoris were allowed, but it is important to note the limitations of the work. Cadavers are expensive and not readily available.

Many cadavers are also older subjects, and clitoral volume reduces after menopause; in one cadaveric study, all subjects were between 70 and 80 years old. The preservation process also distorts the clitoris.

Before the advent of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), it wasn't really possible to know exactly how the clitoris in a living woman was positioned or how it engorges with blood in response to sexual stimulation.

Anatomic knowledge has come a long way. While I don't remember each anatomy lecture from medical school and residency, I still have my textbooks. The two that are specific for OB/GYN are anatomically correct, clitoris-wise, but the general anatomy book (published in 1984) devoted three pages of illustrations (two in colour) to the penis, with the clitoris relegated to an inset image in an upper corner - and the entire structure is the worst shade of puce. It's also called a "miniature penis."

As if.

Before we had microscopes and testing, before we had X-rays or other imaging, we struggled to make real medical diagnoses. And of course, without knowing what is actually wrong, it is hard to prescribe the right therapy.

As women were denied an education and, because of social mores, could not get an exam from a male physician, they often had to make do with female healers, who likely did the best with what they had.

I often wonder what these women would think of this modern trend of eschewing science for so-called "natural" and "ancient" remedies. I truly believe they would favour modern diagnostics and therapies such as vaccines and antibiotics as opposed to crystals and poultices. I believe they would look at anti-fungal medication for yeast and call it magic.

Undoing medical mythology is hard.

In some cases, we see or hear the misconceptions repeated so often that we believe there must be some truth to them - the "illusory truth effect" (repetition being mistaken for accuracy) is real.

Additionally, women, who have historically been dismissed by the medical establishment, have an extra incentive to distrust it and turn elsewhere for help - especially if the person they turn to is welcoming and actually listens.

So here's a list of "old wives' tales" - although some are not so old.

Apple cider vinegar to balance your vaginal pH: Vaginal pH is controlled by healthy vaginal bacteria, not food or the environment. This basic misunderstanding of the vaginal ecosystem drives a lot of misinformation, such as this apple cider vinegar scam.

Vinegar has approximately the same pH as stomach acid, so how a shot of vinegar could balance your pH, but the acid floating around in your stomach doesn't, is never explained. I mean, come on. You can't change your blood pH with food because your kidneys and lungs control blood pH, and when they don't you get very ill and die. So the idea that vinegar could impact vaginal pH is, biologically, simply absurd. What drinking apple cider vinegar will do is damage the enamel of your teeth.

Birth-control pills cause weight gain: This has been well studied, and the answer is no. This is not disbelieving women; this is the exact opposite.

This is taking what women report about weight gain and studying it.

These data really reflects doctors listening to women. Several studies have shown no link between birth-control pills and weight gain. One study even compared women who took birth-control pills with women who had a copper IUD inserted - so no exposure to hormones. Both groups gained the same amount of weight. The life situation associated with starting new contraception may be associated with weight gain, but the pill is not.

Coffee enemas (rectal!) for anything: Dear God, no. People, even some doctors, promote this to treat depression! I. Just. Can't. Even. First of all, this is a waste of good coffee. But, medically speaking, to believe coffee in your rectum could treat anything is ludicrous. I mean, why is that different from drinking it? Chasing the origin of this myth led me down a rabbit hole of epic proportions (think clandestine Facebook groups, e-mails to medical historians, museum curators digging through archives). This myth started relatively recently. The only medical reference is in the 1944 Royal Army Medical Corps training manual during the Second World War, and it was used to keep men awake. I'll say! Just don't. And run from anyone who tells you this will help.

Hormonal contraception causes "infertility": Nope, but the patriarchy trying to scare you away from controlling your reproductive health is invested in this myth. Sadly, many "natural" health proponents also capitalize on this fear as well. Whether the infertility myth is from ignorance or misinformation (many bloggers writing about reproductive health don't fact-check or have little to no science background) or intent (disinformation: Think religious reasons or someone trying to scare you away from prescription contraceptives to sell you a menstrual-cycle tracking app), you will have to ask them. With the injection, fertility can be delayed several months, but by one year, all women are back to baseline. With all other methods of contraception, once stopped or removed, you are good to go, pregnancy-wise, the next month.

Lifting your arms over your head while pregnant will cause the cord to wrap around your baby's neck: Nope.

This isn't a vagina myth, but OB/GYNs hear it all the time, so I thought I would include it. This is just not biologically possible, and if pregnancies were that fragile, we would have died out years ago. I wonder if this myth serves the patriarchal ideal of the "delicate woman" or if it is simply born out of pregnancy fears.

Parsley in the vagina: The sprig.

Stuffed up the vagina each night for three to four nights to induce a period.

Look, I don't make this stuff up, I just report on it. Apparently some people - people who are wrong - think it could stimulate uterine contractions. There is no evidence vaginal application of parsley can do that to the uterus, but even if it could, that would not make you have a period. Progesterone withdrawal causes a period, not uterine contractions. Please don't put parsley in your vagina.

Steaming the vagina: This is promoted to "cleanse" the uterus. This ties into the destructive myth that the uterus is unclean because of menstrual blood that has been used by many cultures to exclude women from society - it's a defining characteristic of the patriarchy. So this idea is promoting a patriarchal idea. Some "health" bloggers promote losing weight to the point that periods stop to prevent the accumulation of these so-called "menstrual toxins." This is harmful on so many levels.

If you are dieting to the point your periods have stopped, you may be underweight, and if that continues, you could suffer real health consequences, such as osteoporosis (thinning of the bones).

Vaginal tightening sticks: These are promoted as Japanese in origin; whether they are or not I don't know. However, Western cultures are often guilty of exoticizing other cultures, so I would be wary when a specific culture or country is used as part of a marketing strategy.

Anything offered to tighten your vagina is an astringent that will likely damage the tissue that lines the vagina, as well as the protective vaginal discharge. It is also part of the patriarchal idea that a "used" vagina stretches and is undesirable. This mythology harms women medically and emotionally, and people who promote it should be ashamed of themselves.

Yogurt for yeast infections: It doesn't contain the strains of lactobacilli that are important for vaginal health. When a woman puts yogurt in her vagina, she is putting other bacteria there, as yogurt has live cultures, and the consequences are unknown. It may feel soothing because it is cream-like, but the risks are unknown and it will be ineffective.

Zinc to increase your libido: Zinc is apparently appearing in nutraceuticals intended to increase libido. In one study, zinc supplementation made male rats thrust more during sex (sexxxy!) and generally increased their "sexual competence." However, injecting zinc directly into dog testicles contributed to subfertility. I am going to have to go with a big no on this one, as there are no studies in women - although Sexual Competence of Rats could be the name of a punk band that never made it out of their parents' basement because their first single, Thrusting, failed to chart.

Power and health are inseparably linked. You can't be an empowered patient and get the health outcomes you want with inaccurate information and halftruths. Even if the information is correct, you also can't be empowered when the person or source informing you is making you feel bad or is not listening to your concerns.

When, in the past, I have come out against the misinformation presented to women, I have been attacked for diminishing the choices available to them.

But to me, the idea that women can take away what serves them from the morass of half-truths and lies about their bodies is the greatest perversion of choice. True choice - the ability to analyze information and make personal risk-benefit assessments based on it - requires facts.

And it is this quest to supply women with the facts that keeps me up at night. It is why I keep fighting.

I want every woman to have the power that comes with knowing how her body works and knowing how to look for help when her body may not be working as she hoped it would. I want all women to know when there is bias and medical subterfuge, when there are lies and when the patriarchy is just invested in keeping them frightened about their own normal (and, I might add, glorious) bodily functions.

The patriarchy and snake oil have had a good run, but I'm done with how they negatively affect women's health.

So I am not going to stop swinging my bat until everyone has the tools to be an empowered patient and until those who seek to subjugate women through enforced ignorance have shut up and taken a seat in the back of the class.

That's my vagenda.

Associated Graphic

Obsessions with reproductive-tract purity and cleansing date back to a time when a woman's worth was measured by her virginity.

KAMELEON007/GETTY IMAGES/ISTOCKPHOTO

Today, physicians and sex educators can print out accurate 3-D models of the clitoris, but for much of medical history no one had a clear idea what it looked like.

FACEBOOK/ODILE FILLOD

Zinc: Great for your rock collection, not so much for your libido.

DAVID MERCADO/REUTERS

You can't change your vaginal pH with vinegar, or any other food product.

ISTOCK

Parsley will not help you induce a period.

PAUL J. RICHARDS/GETTY IMAGES

As rents rise across Canada, tenants are forced into subpar conditions or driven out of markets altogether. It's a complicated crisis - without a quick fix
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By MATT LUNDY
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B6


Amy Silliker knows where she's living the next six months. Beyond that, it gets murky.

After many years out of province, she snagged a great job as a paralegal in Summerside, PEI, taking her back to her hometown nearby in February, and where she's been house-sitting as she gets settled.

Six months into her rental search, she's found nothing. She checks Kijiji every day, but listings are out of her budget. She's on every apartment waitlist imaginable, and calls each month to see whether anything has opened up. Nothing has. A single mother, Ms. Silliker has heard a harsh refrain from some landlords: They don't want children.

The clock is ticking - and Ms. Silliker isn't all that confident.

"I hope that I wouldn't have to [leave] because I love my job," the 25-year-old says. "But I mean, I can't be homeless either."

Welcome to the birthplace of Confederation, now home to arguably the worst market in the country for renters.

Prince Edward Island's apartment vacancy rate plunged to 0.3 per cent in 2018, according to the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. (CMHC). Just five years earlier, it was 7.1 per cent.

After years of anemic construction and growing demand - thanks to an 8-per-cent population bump since 2014 - the average rent on a one-bedroom unit has climbed 16 per cent in five years. The vacancy rate for three-bedroom apartments on the island? Zero.

"We are using the word 'crisis' without exaggeration," says Hannah Bell, an MLA for the provincial Green Party.

Toronto and Vancouver tend to hog the spotlight when it comes to discussions of the country's rental crisis, with vacancy rates in both metro areas sitting at around 1 per cent.

But renters - who account for more than 30 per cent of Canadian households - are struggling to find suitable housing in cities and towns from coast to coast. In Kelowna, B.C., the average rent on a twobedroom apartment shot up nearly 10 per cent in 2018 from a year earlier. In nearby Revelstoke, B.C., a popular ski destination, the mayor says seasonal workers are sleeping 15 to a house. In Prince Edward County, Ont., homes are being converted into Airbnbs to accommodate floods of wine-drinking tourists, taking the homes off the rental market.

All of this means renters are often forced to stay in substandard, abusive or cramped conditions - or they're being driven out of markets altogether, taking them away from jobs, family and friends.

There's no one issue to blame for the crisis. Instead, it springs from a combination of policy changes and tax reforms that have made rental construction less appealing, demographic shifts that mean demand is growing faster than supply, and a seemingly unstoppable housing market that has put home ownership out of reach for all but the wealthiest.

And there's no quick fix.

Demand for rentals is "overwhelming the supply that's coming online, and I just don't see any silver bullet that's going to change the supply equation overnight," Michael Waters, the chief executive officer of Ottawa-based Minto Apartment real estate investment trust (REIT), said in a May earnings call.

"This will take quite a long time to remedy."

Canadian developers used to build loads of apartments, but it has become much less appealing.

During some peak years in the 1960s and '70s, more than 100,000 new rental units were completed, far greater than today's construction levels.

Tax policies encouraged rental investments. Notably, owners could claim high levels of depreciation (up to 10 per cent annually) against a rental property's income, helping to drive down taxable income during a building's early years, when startup costs are higher and rents are lower. Owners could then use a property's "paper loss" to reduce other sources of taxable income.

But in the early 1970s came a major tax overhaul with the primary goal of closing loopholes in the country's tax structure. Rental incentives were collateral damage.

"There was little, if any, consideration of the adverse consequences on the flow of private capital" into rentals, economist Frank Clayton wrote in a 1998 report for the Canadian Federation of Apartment Associations.

As a result, allowable depreciations were reduced and the "paper loss" scheme eliminated. Sellers of rental buildings were also now subject to capital gains taxes, among other adverse changes.

Later on, Brian Mulroney's Conservative government cut funding for social housing, leading to a sharp decrease in new affordable units in the 1990s.

At the same time, market dynamics were changing. Though the 1990s kicked off with a recession, the ensuing years saw robust economic growth.

Home prices were modest and mortgage rates had declined precipitously, from double digits in the 1980s to about 7 per cent by the late nineties for a five-year rate. Canadians jumped at the opportunity to become homeowners, and the number of renters declined between 1996 and 2006.

To satiate demand, developers turned their attention to another form of high-rise: condominiums.

Condo construction exploded. Since 1990, condo starts nationwide have averaged 46,500 a year, compared with 21,000 for rental housing. Toronto provides an extreme example: Over the past decade, about 80,000 new condo units have come onto the market, compared with just 4,500 purpose-built rentals, according to a city report from January.

From a developer's standpoint, there are obvious reasons to build condos. For one, you can presell the units, helping to secure part of the necessary financing.

"It's simply easier to build condo product: presell 70 to 80 per cent of the units, build the building and then move on to your next project and collect a fairly large profit along the way," says Paul Morassutti, vice-chairman at real estate services firm CBRE Ltd.

Of course, condos can be a lucrative to momand-pop investors - the average two-bedroom condo in the Toronto area rents for roughly $2,400 a month, according to CMHC, and about $2,000 in Metro Vancouver - and many units end up on the rental market. Depending where you look, they contribute significantly to a city's new rental supply: About one-third of the Toronto area's condos are used as rentals, compared with 19 per cent in 2007.

But from a renter's perspective, condo living - indeed, living in any unit that's not purpose-built - can be precarious. Eventually, the owner may opt to move in, or decide to lock in profits and sell.

"It doesn't allow renters to have confidence that their rental unit is theirs as long as they continue to pay rent on time," says Graham Haines, research manager at the Ryerson City Building Institute.

Then there's the Airbnb effect. Increasingly, owners are bypassing the rental market entirely. A recent McGill University report found more than 31,000 homes (including condos) were rented out so often on Airbnb in 2018 that they were likely removed from Canada's long-term rental supply. (The company disputes the figure and the study's methodology.)

What's clear is that condos, increasingly, aren't places where families can live and grow.

The median size of condos built in Ontario from 1981 to 1990 is just more than 1,000 square feet, according to Statistics Canada; for those built in 2016 and 2017, it is 665 square feet. In B.C., it declined to 775 square feet from 922 square feet.

"We're building condos not based on what the rental market needs, but what the investors who want to buy one condo will want instead," Mr.Haines says.

Rental demand is strong, and it's only getting stronger.

Since coming into office in 2015, the federal Liberals have pursued higher levels of immigration to help stoke economic growth and ease long-term demographic concerns. Canada welcomes more than 300,000 immigrants annually, and Ottawa is targeting higher intakes in coming years. This has led to some of the country's strongest population growth

in decades.

It's a policy rooted in sound economic theory.

But most newcomers also rent, and combined with decades of meagre rental construction, the result is that demand has overwhelmed supply.

"We just haven't been building traditional apartment buildings to keep up with expansions in population," says David Macdonald, senior economist at the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA).

Consider PEI. To help boost its fortunes, the province has pursued an "aggressive population growth strategy," says Ms. Bell, the MLA, seeking out both immigrants and luring native islanders back home.

Over the four years that ended in mid-2018, PEI's population grew 6.2 per cent, the highest among the provinces. In addition to immigration, rental demand has been topped up by those moving to Charlottetown from rural areas, Ms. Bell says.

But with lacklustre construction, and a vibrant short-term rental market, vacancies have all but dried up.

"We are genuinely concerned that we are going into yet another fall and winter where we have people who are in crisis," Ms. Bell says.

The problem is magnified in major employment centres such as Toronto and Vancouver, which are hubs for newcomers.

Indeed, in the 12 months ending July 1, 2018, the Toronto region's population grew by roughly 125,000 people, or 56 per cent higher than the previous 10-year average, Statistics Canada reports. For both the Toronto and Vancouver areas, population growth was entirely owing to international migration, including permanent residents and foreign students.

It all adds up to a national vacancy rate for purpose-built apartments of 2.4 per cent in 2018, down from 3 per cent in 2017, according to CMHC, which cited immigration as a key factor in the decline.

In turn, rents are shooting up. The average apartment rate in Victoria climbed 7.4 per cent in 2018 from a year earlier, CMHC data show. In Peterborough, Ont., rents climbed 6.9 per cent. And for the average two-bedroom in the Oshawa area, rates rose 6 per cent.

It's no surprise that Toronto and Vancouver are exceptionally pricey. The average two-bedroom apartment in the Toronto area runs $1,467 a month, with Metro Vancouver at $1,649. Want a bigger space, or condo, in the city? Be prepared to spend more. And bear in mind, new listings command far steeper rates. The median asking rent in July for a two-bedroom unit in Toronto was $2,850 a month, according to rental site PadMapper. In Vancouver, it topped $3,000.

No wonder rising rents are stretching wallets.

CMHC says housing is "affordable" when a household spends less than 30 per cent of its pretax income on shelter. In the previous census, close to 1.8 million tenant households spent in excess of that threshold.

By that measure, a full-time worker would need to earn $35.43 an hour to afford an average two-bedroom in the Vancouver area, according to a recent CCPA report. (The think tank used CMHC's prices in its calculation.) It was $33.70 an hour for the Toronto area, and $22.40 an hour for Canada over all.

Meanwhile, Statscan data show that roughly 29 per cent of Canada's 13.8 million full-time workers are earning less than $20 an hour.

The consequence is that "households don't have as much money for other priorities and buying other things in the economy," Mr. Macdonald says.

To avoid financial strain, many have little choice but to hunker down.

Nava Dabby and her family are a prime example.

She and her husband live in what's billed as a twobedroom apartment in Toronto's St. Clair West area.

But their 16-month-old son's room is cramped, with a "teeny-tiny, little window."

Ms. Dabby, a 34-year-old yoga studio manager, would love more space, but at $1,450 a month, her current rent is half what she would pay for a larger place in the same neighbourhood. They've looked into buying. To that end, they've socked away $75,000 for a down payment and have been preapproved for a mortgage of roughly $450,000 - a sum that falls well short of going rates for houses in the city.

"If I ever magically saw this $500,000 house, I would probably buy it," Ms. Dabby says. "But I haven't seen one in the last two years that I've been getting real estate e-mails."

Ryan Aird, 29, finds himself similarly stuck. After a bitter dispute with the landlord, he and his girlfriend looked to move out of their one-bedroom apartment near Toronto's High Park, which costs just more than $1,500 a month..

But four years after they moved in, the market had changed drastically. "Prices have gone just so high now that we'd be downsizing or moving into a basement unit, and still paying more than we pay now," Mr. Aird says.

Like most renters in Ontario, Mr. Aird is covered by rent control, which ties his unit's annual price hikes to provincial inflation. But once a unit is vacated, landlords can set the price. In Mr. Aird's building, for instance, identical one-bedrooms are being listed for at least $2,000 a month.

For obvious reasons, renters largely support rent control, because the predictable and relatively modest increases give them long-term financial stability. The downside, however, is that many tenants end up enduring nasty landlords, noisy neighbours, poorly kept buildings and even abusive relationships to hold on to rent-controlled rates.

Moreover, economists typically agree that rent control scares off developers and crimps new supply, thereby making rental markets tighter and pricier.

In 2017, the previous Ontario Liberal government expanded rent control to all units; it had earlier covered units built before 1991. The expansion was roundly criticized on Bay Street. "There is a clear risk that the broadening of Ontario's rent-control policy may worsen rental stock availability," a Toronto-Dominion Bank research report said.

Finally, the math is getting better for developers.

From a financial standpoint, developing rentals is still challenging, given rising construction costs and pricey land, especially in big markets. But owning them long-term? That's an increasingly attractive asset - and some big names want a piece.

RioCan REIT, better known for shopping malls, started leasing units in Toronto and Ottawa this year. Oxford Properties, the property arm of Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System pension fund, is trying to build a four-acre development near the CN Tower that includes 800 rental units in two towers. And Minto has added buildings in Calgary, Montreal and elsewhere to its portfolio.

"The front-end returns are somewhat skinny," Mr. Morassutti of CBRE says. "But all of those owners feel that, over time, especially if you've got a 30year horizon, the overall return will be quite healthy, as rents continue to grow."

The construction data reflect this growing appetite. The number of rental starts climbed to nearly 50,000 units in 2018, nearly double the previous 10year average, CMHC says. More than 10,000 new units are under construction in the Greater Toronto Area alone, and another 44,000 are planned but have yet to break ground, according to research firm Urbanation.

The policy climate appears to have improved for developers, as well. Ontario's current Progressive Conservative government has scrapped rent control on new units completed after late 2018, and will allow developers to postpone development charges for rental and non-profit housing by five years, easing startup costs.

More broadly, governments at all levels have dedicated billions toward rental development, much of it in affordable housing. Through a series of programs, CMHC is looking to deliver more than 110,000 new units by 2027-28. Its Rental Construction Financing Initiative provides low-cost loans to developers, and 23 projects have been announced to date.

As for tenants, some relief is on the way: The Canada Housing Benefit, which launches next year, will provide an average rent subsidy of $2,500 a year, and eventually reach 300,000 families.

But with rip-roaring population growth, it might not be enough.

"We're still under-building [in Toronto]," says Shaun Hildebrand, president of Urbanation. "Even though we're seeing the level of development ramp up, it's coming off of a depressed level, right? So the numbers all look very exaggerated."

Mr. Hildebrand says three times as much rental construction is needed to satisfy Toronto's demand.

And what's being built isn't for everyone. Ottawa is seeing a spate of high-end rentals come to market with one-bedroom units at $2,100 a month.

As such, "increased rental starts have not been due to public funding or tax incentives, but rather answer a demand for new, mostly luxury rentals for people priced out of the housing market," the CCPA report said.

So, how can Canada unlock a flood of new, purpose-built rentals, including affordable units?

Many municipalities are hampered by zoning bylaws that restrict high-density development. In Vancouver, for instance, city council recently turned down a rezoning application to build 21 rental townhomes in the Shaughnessy neighbourhood.

The project was opposed by an end-of-life hospice next door.

Now, the lot's owners are planning to build a single, 12,000-square-foot mansion.

The situation is much the same in Toronto. "I think it's utterly insane that, in 2019, if you're building a building that's within a pitching wedge of a subway station, that you should have to scratch and claw just to build nine or 10 storeys," Mr. Morassutti says.

As for the Canada Housing Benefit, it will reach just a fraction of the millions of Canadians who are now spending too much on rent. Likewise, though funding for social housing has picked up, construction sits below heyday norms, suggesting even more cash is needed.

Tax reform, including a reinstatement of some bygone incentives, would turn heads in the private sector. Tighter regulation of short-term rentals - in particular, cracking down on commercial Airbnb operators - could free up supply and, where rules are in place, tougher enforcement is needed. (Quebec has struggled to clamp down on explosive Airbnb growth.) Taxes on uninhabited homes could help, too, in places where they don't already exist.

But all of this will take time.

Laura Cappell, for one, will be watching to see how all this pans out from afar. A communications freelancer, she felt like she was "being held hostage" by rent prices in Toronto. So she decided to move - all the way to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Her fully furnished three-bedroom house (pool and most utilities included) costs just less than $1,400 a month, or about $350 less than her one-bedroom apartment in midtown Toronto.

"You know, Toronto will always be home," Ms.Cappell says. "But I don't have to live there."

Associated Graphic

Nava Dabby and her husband live in what's billed as a two-bedroom apartment in Toronto's St. Clair West area. But their young son's room is cramped. Ms. Dabby would like more space, but at $1,450 a month, her current rent is half what she would pay for a larger place in the area. They've put away $75,000 for a down payment for a home, but have only been preapproved for a mortgage of roughly $450,000 - well below going rates for a Toronto home.

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

'Is it really 50 years?' David Milgaard on justice, faith and freedom
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In 1969, he was arrested for a murder he didn't commit and spent 23 years in prison as an innocent man. Today, David Milgaard talks about living in the shadow of a wrongful conviction and what it means to be free
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By JANA G. PRUDEN
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A10


COCHRANE, ALTA. -- David Milgaard's garden sits on the edge of a sweeping valley. It's not much, but enough for what he needs. Tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries for the kids. Some parsnips and wild flowers grown from seed.

His yard is small but boundless, a thin patch of grass that turns quickly wild, then dips into a valley and stretches out to the horizon beyond. It's the expanse that made him want to live there. Vast and open. Endless. You can see the Bow River snaking by, and at intervals, trains clatter and squeal on the tracks alongside. He hasn't always liked trains, they remind him more of captivity than freedom, bringing to mind for him the dark purposes they've served in history, how they carried people away to captivity and worse.

"I try not to think about that," he says. "I'm getting used to them." Mr. Milgaard is 67 years old. His name, like his face, is deeply familiar, a part of our history and our culture. His story is one of Canada's most egregious wrongful convictions and it is never out of the news for long, even now. On the day I arrive at his townhouse outside Calgary, it is almost 50 years to the day since he was arrested and charged for a murder he didn't commit.

"Is it really 50 years?" he says, when I mention the anniversary to him, and he pauses for a moment to do the math. Then his voice grows soft.

It is difficult for him to talk about even now. But he knows he cannot stay silent.

"I just feel sad, you know, that the situation has been in my life the way that it has for so long," he says. "And I wish it wasn't that."

Saskatoon police issued a warrant for Mr. Milgaard on May 26, 1969, and he turned himself in four days later in Prince George. It was a Friday, the spring before the Summer of Love. The story of his arrest ran on the front page of the Saskatoon Star-Phoenix alongside pictures of the Earth taken during Apollo 10, the "dress rehearsal" for the first moon landing, then still to come. He was 16 years old.

It was a tumultuous time. In California, a group of young people were attempting to seize control of a town and set up "the first hippie government in the United States," and in a Montreal hotel, John Lennon and Yoko Ono were holding a "bed-in" for peace.

In Saskatoon, the police department investigating the murder of young nursing assistant Gail Miller was already battling allegations of police brutality and "irresponsible conduct." Amid that scrutiny, the arrest of Mr.

Milgaard was a win, a huge step forward in a case that had profoundly disturbed and upset the Prairie city for months: A young woman sexually assaulted and murdered on her way to work, her body discarded in a snowbank in the cold.

Mr. Milgaard had been travelling through the city with friends, a free spirit and an outsider, a long-haired hippie of the kind that had been questioning the establishment and authority everywhere. "The type of young man who gave police officers the shivers," his mother would later say, "especially if they had daughters."

There had been tremendous pressure on police to solve the case. By the first weeks of 1970, Mr. Milgaard was standing alone in the prisoner's box of a Saskatoon courtroom, watching as the jury's decision was passed to the judge. He heard his father groan, something deep and guttural, and saw the big man collapsing before his eyes.

"I don't remember much after that," Mr. Milgaard says now. "Everything just seemed to fog up and I was lost."

He was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison.

But Mr. Milgaard steadfastly declared his innocence, and his mother, Joyce, believed him. For the next 23 years, she fought tirelessly to see him released and then worked seven years more for him to be exonerated and compensated.

There were investigations and documentaries, books and movies, even the hit song, Wheat Kings, by the Tragically Hip. An inquiry that lasted almost two years and cost more than the $10-million, Mr. Milgaard finally received in compensation.

The real killer, Larry Fisher, was arrested for Ms. Miller's murder in 1997, after evidence sent by Mr. Milgaard's defence team to England for DNA analysis linked Mr.

Fisher conclusively to the crime. Mr. Fisher died in prison in 2015.

Mr. Milgaard is waiting at the door when I arrive at his home in Cochrane, Alta., half an hour outside Calgary.

His townhouse is modest, but he loves the view and it is what he can afford. His settlement money is long gone.

The bulk split between the lawyers' payments and a gift to his mother, who for decades gave everything she had to fight for him. The rest spent, given away, invested in things that didn't work out.

He gives me a tour: living room and small kitchen downstairs, a bathroom and three bedrooms on the floor above, for him and his two children. The house is dotted with their clothes and toys, with notes that record their goals and rules and accomplishments and Mr.

Milgaard's as well.

His son is 13. His daughter, 11. He and his wife have lived apart for the past four years and while their custody arrangement is flexible, Mr. Milgaard has the children with him most weeks. He and his wife met in Romania, and although he was married to another woman then, they fell in love. They married in her hometown, then came to Canada for the birth of their son. Mr. Milgaard says they tried hard to make it work and have been doing better as co-parents.

As we sit down on the couch, he asks me what my name means.

"Gift from God," I say.

"My name, David, means most loved by God," he tells me. "But I doubt that. I really do."

The thing Mr. Milgaard wants you to know is that it could have been you. That it could be you. He wants you to know that this story isn't just about what he's been through - 23 years in prison for a murder he didn't commit, then 27 more dealing with the consequences - but that it could just as easily be your story. It could be the story of your friend or your brother or your wife or your son, charged and tried and convicted and sentenced for something they did not do.

He wants you to know that there are people in prison right now who are facing the same thing he faced, innocent people kept in cages while the true perpetrators are out there, free. And most important, he wants you to care enough about the wrongfully convicted that measures will be taken to protect them, in ways that he himself was not protected.

"I would have been freed 15 years earlier, maybe even more. I was 17 when they had information on Larry Fisher," he says, his voice growing tight. Then he stops. "I'm upset now."

The anger is always there, waiting in pockets of his memory. By now he knows to watch for it, to tamp it back down when it comes. It is guaranteed in certain situations. In a room full of the wrongfully convicted, it comes out quickly. The anger is part of their shared reality, the almost unimaginable experience of being held responsible for something you did not do.

There is anger and frustration at those who allowed it to happen, at those who participated or obstructed or were complicit in your conviction; at those who allowed it to stand while you suffered. There is anger at those who knew the truth. At the real perpetrator, who let you pay for their crime. At those who didn't believe you. At those who would not listen.

There is anger over what it was like for those you loved, how they were treated and how they suffered, and over what was lost.

The days and years, the moments, the relationships that can never be regained. All that beauty and life that happened while you were in a cell.

There are many torments, too many to list even if you wanted to. But Mr. Milgaard says the worst thing was having people think he had done it. Knowing people believed he could be capable of doing something so horrible and what that meant for him and his family.

Mr. Milgaard says he would never admit to doing something he didn't do, and he maintained his innocence even though it meant he would be denied parole. At one point, he was believed to be the country's longest-serving inmate, serving far longer as an innocent man than he would have if he accepted responsibility for the crime.

Mr. Milgaard was 39 when he walked out of Stony Mountain Institution on April 16, 1992, carrying everything he owned in two duffel bags and four cardboard boxes and telling reporters: "It feels good to be out forever."

But the reality proved more complicated.

He'd grown up inside prison, been there most of his life by then, and he says getting out felt like landing on the moon.

Everywhere he went, Mr. Milgaard felt like people were looking at him. At that point, he had not yet been exonerated, with the Supreme Court saying only that he should have a new trial. Police and justice officials in Saskatchewan either maintained he was guilty of the murder or said the matter should simply be put to rest.

"There's nothing more to be done with it," Robert (Bob) Mitchell, then Saskatchewan's attorney-general, said at the time. "It is something I think we should all just try to put behind us and carry on with life."

Instead of finally being free, Mr. Milgaard came to feel as though he would always be a prisoner.

He had run-ins with the law and struggled with his mental health, at one point falling into a depression so severe he was hospitalized. He drank too much for a time, until he woke up in a hotel in Kelowna, B.C., one day and realized alcohol was a poison and he had to stop. His first wife helped him dry out, get on track, find steadier footing in the outside world.

For a while, he tried to distance himself from the issue of wrongful conviction, unable to navigate the tightrope between leaving the emotions of his past behind, and his desire - really his need, his calling - to help other wrongfully convicted people.

He says the first time he got involved trying to help a wrongfully convicted person, it was like he was back inside prison fighting for himself and it became so intense he had to stop. It is a cruel irony that the way he feels most compelled to help is the way that hurts him most.

He travelled - Turkey, Argentina, India, Spain. From a life so constrained, he went to 35 countries, collecting stories about the special moments in people's lives. He studied astronomy, worked as a community support worker in Calgary, then as a companion. But at some point, he knew he had to go back to the issue that defined his own life and fight for the wrongfully convicted.

"You can't do nothing, when you can do something," he says. His mother taught him that.

This spring, Mr. Milgaard took the stage inside the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg. He was joined by David Asper, one of the lawyers who worked to free him and overturn the conviction, and two journalists, Cecil Rosner and Carl Karp, who wrote

a book about the case. I had been asked to moderate the panel.

"It's time for me to wake you all up," Mr.

Milgaard told the crowd, in a speech at the beginning of the event. "This can happen to you. Either you or your children."

He stressed, as he always does, the need for an independent board of review, which has been recommended in previous inquiries into wrongful convictions, including his own.

The current system, in which government lawyers assess cases and make recommendations to the federal justice minister, was established in 1993 in part because of Mr. Milgaard's wrongful conviction, but the process has been criticized for extremely long delays, and Mr. Milgaard says it's not working. (In the emerging wrongful conviction case of Glen Assoun, who was released after 17 years in prison, a recommendation for a new trial has been reported to have sat without action for 18 months and a report as early as 2014 showed there had likely been a miscarriage of justice.)

Mr. Milgaard feels passionately about the creation of an independent board to review cases and it's something he repeats over and over, believing it could have made a difference of years - even decades - in his own life.

But while wrongful-conviction stories have proved popular fodder for true-crime podcasts and documentaries, organizations that advocate for the wrongfully convicted, such as Innocence Canada, struggle for funding, and the formation of an independent board of review seems to Mr. Milgaard to find little traction or political will.

"It's more than frustrating," Mr. Milgaard says. "I am so upset inside my heart, that these people, the senior administrators of justice in this country, are unable to see the truth in this situation."

Speaking events, such as the one in Winnipeg, can be difficult. Sometimes, people ask very personal questions, such as his feelings about Mr. Fisher, and one of those pockets of anger and pain opens up for a moment, deep and black. Sometimes, there are families of other wrongfully convicted people present and it hurts to know he can't fix everything for them. Whether they expect him to help, he wishes he could. He knows how much they are suffering.

"It's tough on me. It's tough on how I feel, even though I've done it so many times," he says. "You would say that maybe it's not something you would be feeling so much, but it's really hard to not feel the emotions. Feeling how bad, how horrible, it was to be inside prison."

But the money Mr. Milgaard gets from honorariums is necessary to support himself and his family, so he couldn't give it up even if he wanted to. And there are parts of the talks he enjoys: It feels good to connect with people sometimes, to think that maybe speaking to them could help raise awareness of wrongful conviction or make change. Even give someone else hope, no matter what their own challenges might be.

After the panel at the human-rights museum, Mr. Milgaard greeted the crowd waiting to speak with him. There were old friends and family; others who have been touched and moved by Mr. Milgaard and his story. There was Brian Anderson and his family, who are still fighting to prove Mr. Anderson was wrongfully convicted of murder 45 years ago.

Mr. Milgaard signed copies of The Rabbit's Paw, a book of poetry he wrote inside prison.

People waited in a long line to shake his hand, hug him, pose for a picture, talk. Later, Mr.

Milgaard went and stared at his own picture on display in the Canadian Journeys gallery.

He stopped to gaze for a moment at his much younger self, thinking about the man he was then, so long ago.

Sometimes, in dreams, he's back there. It's always mixed up, with time and people and places all muddled together, but always he is back inside a prison cell, fighting to get out.

He doesn't like to call them nightmares and he tries to focus not on the dreams but on how good it feels to wake up.

The past is always with him in ways large and small, as deeply present as the ammunition that remains lodged in his lower back. He had been out on a pass with family in the summer of 1980 when he went on the run, spending 77 days at large before being shot by the RCMP while being recaptured in Toronto that fall. A doctor told him he would barely walk and never run, but he proved that wrong. When the injury starts to hurt, he tries not to think about it.

Instead, he pushes himself always to look forward, trying to chart a positive direction for himself and his family. He plans to start painting again, and he has an easel and canvas already set up in his bedroom. He wants to exercise more and he's trying to trim down on a diet he learned in prison. (No bread, no potatoes, no dessert and just a few fries once a week.) He wants to do more for the wrongfully convicted, to press the issue of the independent review board, to advocate for the humane treatment of all prisoners. He always feels he could be doing more.

The kids can be a challenge and most of all, more than anything, he wants to be a good dad for them. They are his greatest happiness, the thing that brings him back when he feels adrift.

"I work hard to be a good father," he says. "I work hard for my life to be okay, to be something that I'm happy with."

This summer, he went on a road trip back to Manitoba with the kids to see his sisters and mother. She is elderly and not the way she once was, but Mr. Milgaard says she is loved and cared for. When he needs direction or help, he still looks to her.

"Joyce Milgaard fought everyone for me.

Without her, I would still be in prison, rotting away," he says. "I don't know where a person gets that inspiration, that sense of direction."

It is still not easy for him, 50 years later. But Mr. Milgaard has found that the things that saved him inside prison help him on the outside, too. There is the purpose he finds in his concern for social issues, First Nations and environmental issues; the strength he finds in his faith. There is the hope in the fact that people around the country cared so much about him and about justice. The love that comes from knowing his story mattered to so many people and that it matters still.

And there is the place he has found after a long and difficult path. A modest spot atop a sweeping valley, where he can raise his children and look out at the horizon, trying his best to be a steward and a gardener, planting things that will grow.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO BY TODD KOROL/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In counting domestic-violence deaths, Canada's jumble of rules and record-keeping doesn't add up
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To stop Canadians from being killed by their partners, researchers and policy makers need a full picture of the problem, but statistical blind spots and varying provincial standards leave many deaths unaccounted for
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By MOLLY HAYES, ELIZABETH RENZETTI
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Tuesday, August 20, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A8


TORONTO -- Nadia El-Dib was 22 years old, the middle child of four daughters, lively and outgoing. She was studying to be a legal assistant at the South Alberta Institute of Technology. She dreamt about going to law school.

On March 25, 2018, Ms. El-Dib left a Calgary shisha bar with Adam Bettahar, an ex-boyfriend she had found overly controlling.

Her body was found hours later in a suburban backyard. She had been shot twice and stabbed more than 40 times. Four days later, after a warrant for first-degree murder was issued for his arrest, Mr. Bettahar was killed in a shootout with RCMP officers near Edmonton.

Her family didn't know that Mr.Bettahar had been stalking and harassing her after their breakup: She didn't want to burden them with her worries, they later learned. Other women in her circle said that Mr. Bettahar had also displayed troubling behaviour toward them, but they didn't take it seriously enough to report him to police.

"Nadia didn't fit the stereotypical box of who gets murdered in a domestic-abuse situation," said her sister, Racha El-Dib.

"It's a lesson to learn since it's happening a lot more out there, especially with the statistics of one in every six days a woman is murdered in Canada," she said.

"Nobody talks about it. Nobody ever thinks, 'It's going to be me.' The reality is it can be anybody."

Ms. El-Dib's family would like her death to serve to raise awareness of, and hopefully prevent, future incidents of domestic violence. But the way that statistics on these crimes are collected in Canada leaves no guarantee that every incident can serve this purpose.

It is possible, but not certain that Ms. El-Dib's killing will be reviewed by Alberta's Family Violence Death Review Committee. If it is, then it will be one more piece in a puzzle for researchers to study and analyze so that they can try to prevent similar tragedies.

Such investigations have led to legislation to protect domestic violence survivors in workplaces, better co-ordination in the criminal justice system and the identification of red flags - warning signs that a romantic partnership might turn violent.

But, even with the existence of these committees, there are any number of holes in the way domestic homicides are recorded and investigated in Canada, researchers say. As many as 20 per cent of domestic-violence deaths may be overlooked because they involve dating relationships or same-sex partnerships. Murdersuicides, which make up nearly one-third of partner homicides, are not examined to the same degree as one where a perpetrator is still alive. Researchers are working to compile a comprehensive national database of domestic homicide statistics, but are stymied by different privacy legislation and recording standards across provinces.

What they would like to see is a system like Australia's. Australian officials, acknowledging that "a solid national evidence base is required" to effect change, began in 2017 to collect comprehensive data on domestic violence on a national level, rather than relying on a patchwork of inconsistent information from multiple regions.

Canadian researchers, by contrast, must sometimes rely on court documents and media reports, neither of which is totally reliable, to compile information.

According to Statistics Canada, there were 960 domestic homicides - in which the victim was a current or former spouse, common-law partner or dating partner of the perpetrator - between 2003 and 2013. Of those, 747 of the victims were women, and the largest demographic group was women in their twenties.

But that data, provided by coroners' offices or police reports, aren't enough for domestic-violence researchers and advocates who want to prevent similar crimes in the future. For that indepth insight, they rely on domestic violence death review committees (DVDRC), a system that is picking up steam across the country, but is still patchy and inconsistent in its evidence-gathering.

A DVDRC is a multidisciplinary group - some combination of law enforcement, Indigenous advisers, community workers, academics and policy planners - convened by a provincial government to examine the killing of intimate partners or family members. So far there are DVDRCs in six provinces: Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, Manitoba and British Columbia. A new committee is being launched in Quebec, and there has been movement on establishing a regional committee in Atlantic Canada. The purpose of the committees is to study some or all of the intimate partner murders in their jurisdictions, detect patterns, flaws or missed opportunities, and make recommendations.

"DVDRCs are the one mechanism now in place, in jurisdictions that have them, that put a comprehensive eye on system responses and see how we can do things better in the future," says Myrna Dawson, director of the Centre for Social and Legal Responses to Violence at the University of Guelph.

Dr. Dawson and Peter Jaffe of Western University are partners in the Canadian Domestic Homicide Prevention Initiative, a multidisciplinary project to gather better data for homicide prevention, especially among groups who face a higher risk of violence, such as children, Indigenous women, immigrant and refugee groups, and women in remote and rural communities.

Canada's first DVDRC was struck in Ontario in 2003, in response to three domestic killings that had prompted inquiries in the previous five years: two murder-suicides and one instance of a husband murdering his wife and four children.

Some DVDRCs are more rigorous, and therefore more valuable, than others. For example, Ontario's committee examines every homicide and files a report every year. From 2003 to 2017, Ontario's DVDRC reviewed 445 deaths; twothirds were homicides and onethird were murder-suicides. Because the review looks at every death, every year, patterns become apparent: In three-quarters of the cases, there had been a history of domestic violence. In twothirds, the couple was separated or in the process of separating.

The latest report provided a summary of the most common risk factors, including a perpetrator who was depressed or unemployed, who had previously been violent and who had shown signs of controlling behaviour.

"I think in terms of the data aspect, [the DVDRCs] are extraordinarily valuable," Dr. Dawson said.

"For example, we have a risk factor checklist with something like 40 or 41 risk factors. So you can monitor trends in risk factors over time and start to see if there are different risk factors emerging."

Other provinces' committees are more cursory, often lumping several years of homicides together and not examining each case individually. Alberta's Family Violence Death Review Committee began in 2014, and its latest report examined 15 deaths in 2016 (as of the end of 2016, the committee had completed four "in-depth" reviews. Some cases, for example those that are still before the courts, are ineligible).

Saskatchewan, which has one of the highest rates of family-violence homicide in the country (48 homicides and nine related suicides from 2005 to 2014 - 15 of whom were children) has had one DVDRC review, in 2018, which examined nine years' worth of murders and suicides.

Still, even the limited data in Saskatchewan's DVDRC was revealing: 30 of the adult victims had been in intimate-partner relationships with the perpetrator, and two-thirds of those victims were women; one third of family violence victims were under 21; and half were Indigenous. The Saskatchewan report also identified a number of risk factors, including a history of violence and drug or alcohol abuse, but also the impact of colonization and residential schools in cases involving Indigenous people.

A DVDRC will often make recommendations based on those risk factors or failures within the system, some of which are adopted and some that never see the light of day. Saskatchewan's report recommended the implementation of "Clare's Law," based on similar legislation in the United Kingdom, which would allow police to warn romantic partners of a person's violent history. Saskatchewan introduced the Clare's Law legislation, the first of its kind in Canada, in November, 2018.

The review committees are patchily convened across the country because they are costly and labour-intensive: "You have a dilemma," said Dr. Jaffe, director of the Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women at Children at Western University. "To actually do a detailed review and talk to friends and family and co-workers and go through all the medical and social service records as Ontario does, that would be very time-consuming. That is a challenge. Every jurisdiction has that struggle."

And yet, he points out, the committees' findings are invaluable because they can lead to real changes. For example, Lori Dupont was a nurse who was stabbed to death by her ex-boyfriend, a doctor, in 2005. Her case, along with that of Theresa Vince, who was killed by an employer who'd sexually harassed her, led to fundamental changes in 2010 to Ontario's workplace laws to protect victims of harassment and violence. The review of the 2006 murder of university student Natalie Novak by her boyfriend led to new policies around safety for women on campuses.

As well, the investigations reveal patterns that can be taken together as warning signals. Some of the most prevalent indicators in domestic-homicide cases include a prior history of abuse, the couple's separation and the perpetrator's history of depression.

As a result, Dr. Jaffe said, mentalhealth professionals have been sent directives about potential indicators to watch for in their clients.

In addition to the frequency of their reviews, these committees also differ in terms of their scope.

For example, in Alberta, all familial homicides are eligible for review - including those committed by children or parents.

In Ontario, the DVDRC only looks at homicides perpetrated by intimate partners. This means that the February murder-suicide of Roopesh Rajkumar and his 11year-old daughter Riya, for example, will not be reviewed - despite the undeniable lessons to be learned from that case.

Other cases can be missed because they fall into a grey area. For example, the February, 2018, murders of Ulla Theoret, her mother and her son, by a neighbour named Mark Jones who had briefly courted and then violently stalked Ms. Theoret for several years, is still being considered for review. The eligibility of this case is up in the air - even though Ms.Theoret reported to police just months before Mr. Jones murdered her, that he had previously sexually assaulted her. And because Mr. Jones also killed himself, the Theoret family will not get answers through a trial.

These discrepancies in scope also pose challenges for researchers trying to compare these cases province to province.

There are other shortcomings in the collection of domestic-violence statistics. For one thing, researchers may rely on media reports to identify crimes at a time when the number of local news outlets is shrinking across the country. This deficit was highlighted in a December, 2018, report from the Domestic Homicide Prevention Initiative, which relied on court documents and stories from media outlets to examine 418 domestic homicides in Canada between 2010-15. "We are still working with limited information, extracted from court decisions and media reports," the report stated. "This raises challenges in terms of consistency, thoroughness and accuracy of data for some of the cases. Many cases have missing information."

Privacy concerns can also impede the sharing of information, especially across provincial borders. Individual names and other identifying features are kept out of DVDRCs. Yet a wariness about revealing details, out of respect for the victims and survivors or possibly out of fear of lawsuits, is still one of the main roadblocks to comprehensive reporting around domestic homicides.

"We're living in an environment where people are hyper-vigilant about lawsuits," Dr. Jaffe said.

"But this is not a blaming exercise. It's like a plane crash. You want to find the black box. You want to know what the problem is, if it's pilot error or weather conditions. You want to be able to put a memo out to all airline manufacturers. That's our analogy in the death review committee, we're not pointing fingers. But the reality is that most institutions and systems are afraid of lawsuits."

The problem of secrecy extends to some police forces, which may refuse to release even the names of homicide victims in the case of murder-suicides. Controversy erupted in Alberta last year after some police departments refused to release the names of women who'd been killed by their partners in murder-suicides, citing the families' privacy concerns and saying that sharing the identity of the victims "did not serve an investigative purpose." In return, anti-violence advocates argued that more information was needed about every violent death in order to educate the community about what was going on in its midst. (Edmonton Police recently reversed their position on withholding names.)

What researchers would really like to see is a comprehensive national database of statistics - and they know it's possible because one country has led the way.

While the United States, Britain and New Zealand all use DVDRCs to better understand domestic violence and to shape future policy, one country stands out for the comprehensive way it collects data: Australia.

In May, 2018, the Australian Domestic and Family Violence Death Review Network issued its first report, establishing a national system for collecting, coding and sharing information around domestic homicides - a system that had previously, like Canada's, been a hodgepodge of provincial classifications. A similar national database in Canada would help identify and reduce violence against women and girls, researchers say.

Meanwhile, there are families that have waited years for a better understanding of the tragedy that robbed them of a loved one.

Adam Arreak Lightstone is a member of the legislative assembly in Nunavut, which, along with Canada's other territories, does not have a domestic violence death-review committee.

Eight years ago, Mr. Lightstone's sister and her children were killed by her husband. To this day, he still struggles to talk about his sister's death.

Sula Enuaraq was 29 years old when she was murdered by Sylvain Degrasse in Iqaluit in 2011.

Mr. Degrasse also killed their seven- and two-year-old daughters before killing himself. Ms.

Enuaraq had told her family members that she was in an abusive relationship and was planning to leave her husband a few days before she and her daughters were killed.

Mr. Lightstone was studying in Ontario at the time of the murders, and for years afterward coped by telling himself that his sister had moved away to China.

In June, 2018, Mr. Lightstone decided to speak publicly about her murder and share a review that had been done into her death with help from the Ontario coroner's office.

That review, which was completed in 2015, had come up with recommendations to prevent such deaths in the future. Although it was shared with Ms.

Enuaraq's family, it had never been made public. Mr. Lightstone felt that if it was going to be of any use, this information needed to be available to everyone.

The recommendations related to public education, health care, law-enforcement services, women's shelters and firearms access.

The report called for better training for police and health-care providers, more funding for women's shelters and increased public education around firearm safety.

Mr. Lightstone said he would like to see this process done for every case of domestic homicide in the territory.

Nunavut has a high rate of domestic violence, and Mr. Lightstone said it is not uncommon in downtown Iqaluit to spot a woman with a black eye. Last year, two women were killed in murder-suicides there. We should be learning from these tragedies, he argues, not sweeping them under the rug.

"Unfortunately ... I think it's easier for Canada to forget about all the issues facing us here in Nunavut," he said. "Domestic violence is an issue here in the territory that no one seems to want to talk about."

For the past year, Racha El-Dib has worked to ensure that her sister's murder has meaning. Her family launched Nadia's Hope Foundation to spread awareness of domestic abuse and teamed up with Calgary charity Gems for Gems to create an educational scholarship for women who have fled violence. If other young women can learn about the warning signs of domestic abuse through her sister's story, perhaps they'll be able to escape her fate.

There is hope, too, for future improvement in the data-collection system, with better co-ordination across provinces. Dr. Jaffe said a comprehensive national database of domestic-homicide statistics might be possible within the next five years, an invaluable help to researchers and policymakers. "Most domestic homicides are predictable and preventable with hindsight if the whole village had worked together."

Associated Graphic

Racha El-Dib, seen looking at a portrait of her sister Nadia El-Dib in her Calgary home, began a charity with her family called Nadia's Hope Foundation to spread awareness of domestic abuse after her sister was killed by an ex-boyfriend in 2018.

PHOTOS BY LEAH HENNEL/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Racha El-Dib visits Nadia's grave in Calgary. Nadia's killing may be reviewed by Alberta's Family Violence Death Review Committee, and if it is, it would be one more piece in a puzzle for researchers to analyze so they might prevent similar tragedies.

SOURCE: 2017 DVDRC ANNUAL REPORT

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Correction

A Tuesday news story about domestic violence death review committees incorrectly said that Ontario only reviews cases where the homicides are perpetrated by intimate partners, and that the February murder-suicide of Roopesh Rajkumar and his daughter Riya would not be reviewed. In fact, the DVDRC reviews all homicides that involve the child of an intimate partner or ex-partner and will be reviewing their deaths.

Paramount Killer of Humankind
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Bloodthirsty mosquitoes carry an arsenal of biological weapons, and climate change means they are about to extend their deadly reach. Is Canada ready?
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By TIMOTHY C. WINEGARD
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Print Edition, Page O1


Author of The Mosquito: A Human History of Our Deadliest Predator

As a tourism campaign, marketing your city as the "Mosquito Capital of the World" flies in the face of all logic. Mosquitoes are generally not a big-ticket attraction. I imagine there are not too many people who'd put a mosquito-themed vacation on their bucket list.

Nevertheless, in 1984, the buzzing town of Komarno, Man., located roughly 70 kilometres north of Winnipeg, did just that: Embracing its reputation - its name means "mosquito infested" in Ukrainian - the town proudly erected a menacing, 15foot-tall statue of a mosquito with a wingspan approaching 17 feet - the largest mosquito on the planet. While Komarno's title as the mosquito capital is unofficial, Canada garrisons the largest national contingent of the 100 trillion or more mosquitoes circling almost every inch of the globe. As a country we are, quite literally, the mosquito capital of the world.

With a vast labyrinth of rivers and lakes comprising 20 per cent of the world's fresh water (a vital ingredient for the reproduction of mosquitoes), Canada is a mosquito wonderland. In fact, the oldest mosquito fossil on record, dating to about 80 to 100 million years ago, was unearthed in Canada. From the Arctic tundra to the Great Lakes, Canada is consumed by mosquitoes.

Even the austere Arctic and its nomadic animals are not spared from being hounded and probed by hungry hordes of mosquitoes.

"There aren't a lot of animals for them to eat in the Arctic, so when they finally find one, they are ferocious," says Lauren Culler, an entomologist at Dartmouth College's Institute of Arctic Studies. "They are relentless.

They do not stop. ... You can be completely covered in a matter of seconds." Ravenous swarms literally bleed young caribou to death at a bite rate of 9,000 a minute - or by way of comparison, they can drain half the blood from an adult human in just two hours. For Canadians, and perhaps for our caribou, mosquitoes are as pervasive and generic to our culture as hockey, Tim Hortons and butter tarts.

But what we consider to be a mild, albeit infuriating, annoyance could soon have far more fatal consequences for our caribou and ourselves. A team of public-health experts writing in the Canada Communicable Disease Report recently acknowledged that "climate change is anticipated to have significant effects on Canada's endemic mosquito populations and thus on MBDs [mosquito-borne diseases]. ... The expected climate-induced changes in mosquitoes and MBDs underline the need for continued surveillance and research to ensure timely and accurate evaluation of the public health risks to Canadians. Public health professionals and clinicians need to promote awareness among Canadians of this important public health risk."

Climate change means that the diseases carried by mosquitoes (and itinerant vectoring mosquito species) are expanding their reach, penetrating more northerly ecosystems.

That statue still stands in Komarno. The tongue-in-cheek, larger-than-life tribute to our national pest could one day be seen as far more ominous.

While groundhog Wiarton Willie may predict the onset of spring, the arrival of summer is signalled by the flight of the famished female mosquito. Her buzz has been one of the most universally recognizable and aggravating sounds on Earth for more than 100 million years.

Although you heard her droning arrival, she gently lands on your ankle undetected. She conducts a tender, probing, reconnaissance, looking for a prime blood vessel. She steadies her crosshairs and zeroes in with six sophisticated needles.

She inserts two serrated mandible cutting blades and saws into your skin, while two other retractors open a passage for the proboscis, a hypodermic syringe that emerges from its protective sheath. With this straw she starts to suck your blood, immediately excreting its water while condensing its protein content. All the while, a sixth needle is pumping in saliva that contains an anticoagulant, preventing your blood from clotting at the puncture site.

This shortens her feeding time, lessening the likelihood that you feel her penetration and splat her across your ankle. The anticoagulant causes an allergic reaction, leaving an itchy bump as her parting gift. With this single bite she can also transmit one of several diseases. For the mosquito, she simply needs your blood to grow and mature her eggs.

Please don't feel singled out.

She bites everyone. This is just the nature of the beast.

Unfortunately, 85 per cent of your mosquito-seducing charm, including chemical and bacteria levels in and on your skin, your body odour, blood type and the amount of carbon dioxide you discharge, is prewired in your genetic circuit board. Although she has her favourites (type O blood, for example), she's not a finicky eater. At the end of the day, she will attack any exposed target of opportunity.

Unlike their female counterparts, male mosquitoes do not bite. Their world revolves around nectar and sex. While males will mate frequently in a lifetime, one dose of sperm is all the female needs to produce numerous batches of offspring. She stores the sperm and dispenses them piecemeal for each separate birthing of eggs. Her short moment of passion has provided one of the two necessary components for procreation. The other ingredient is your blood.

The bloodthirsty females carry an arsenal of lethal and debilitating biological weapons, including malaria, West Nile, Zika, dengue, elephantiasis (filariasis) and yellow fever, making the mosquito the planet's deadliest human predator. Researchers suggest her total body count approaches half of the 108 billion human beings who have ever lived throughout our relatively brief 200,000-year or more existence.

While statistics vary across a wide range, since 2000 the average estimated number of human deaths caused each year by the mosquito has hovered between roughly one and two million. We humans come in a distant second, responsible for 475,000 deaths, followed by snakes (50,000), dogs and sand flies (25,000 each), the tsetse fly and the assassin/kissing bug (10,000 each). The fierce killers of lore and Hollywood celebrity appear much further down our list. The crocodile is ranked No. 10 with 1,000 annual deaths. Next on the list are hippos with 500, and elephants and lions with 100 fatalities each. The much-slandered shark and wolf share the No. 15 position, killing an average of 10 people per annum.

Of course, the mosquito does not directly harm anyone. It is the diseases she transmits that cause unrivalled desolation, suffering and death. Without her, however, these sinister pathogens could not be vectored to humans. You cannot have one without the other. Imagine for a moment a world without deadly mosquitoes - or any mosquitoes for that matter. Our history and the world we know, or think we know, would be completely unrecognizable.

As the paramount historical killer of humankind, she has played a greater role in shaping our story than any other animal with which we share our global village.

Karl Marx recognized in 1852 that "men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please." The insatiable mosquito manipulated and determined our destiny, scratching her indelible mark on the modern world order.

We tend to forget that history is not the artifact of inevitability.

We can shoulder some of the blame, as humans have aided and abetted in the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Historically, our migration patterns, domestication of plants and animals (which are reservoirs of disease), advancements in agriculture, deforestation, climate change (natural and artificially encouraged), global wars, trade and travel have all played a part in nurturing the ideal ecologies for the proliferation of mosquitoborne illnesses. The mosquitoes and diseases that have accompanied traders, travellers, soldiers and settlers around the world have been far more lethal than any manufactured weaponry. She has decided the fates of empires and countries, razed and crippled economies and commanded the outcome of pivotal wars by laying waste to the greatest armies of her generations. From helping to orchestrate the rise and fall of the Roman Empire to operating as a sinister agent of the Columbian Exchange and the transatlantic African slave trade and reinforcing the victors of the American Revolution and the Civil War, among an accomplished résumé of other events, the mosquito has had her way with our global history. Canada did not fly under her sweeping historical radar.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, for instance, the bustling port cities of Halifax and Quebec City were home to sporadic yellow fever epidemics spread by infected sailors and stowaway mosquitoes disembarking from ships in transit from Caribbean colonies. This dreaded virus produces fever-induced delirium, jaundice owing to liver damage and bleeding from the mouth, nose and ears. Internal corrosion induces vomit of bile and blood the consistency and colour of coffee grounds, giving rise to the Spanish name for yellow fever, vómito negro (black vomit), which can be followed by coma and death. The latter might well have been the last pleading wish of many victims. To make matters worse, yellow fever was often accompanied by unbridled malaria. These toxic twins determined the fate and imperial future of Canada during the Seven Years' War.

For France, the war in Europe and the defence of her lucrative Caribbean colonies far outweighed the security of Quebec's portfolios of fish, timber and fur.

France's concerns for her Caribbean sugar, coffee and tobacco plantations, however, were costly. Within the first six months, yellow fever and malaria killed half of newly arrived French defenders deployed to Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique and other, smaller islands. Troops were siphoned from Quebec to these besieged outposts. As a result, Caribbean mosquitoes starved French Canada of men and munitions. The ability of French commander Marquis de Montcalm to co-ordinate any meaningful defence of Canada was stymied.

"Unseasoned" French reinforcements were continuously shovelled into and burned in the mosquito-stoked furnace of the tropics, leaving Canada exposed and vulnerable. The fragile dominion of the French over Canada came undone in September, 1759, with British Major-General James Wolfe's swift victory over Montcalm's beleaguered and outnumbered forces on the Plains of Abraham at Quebec City, paving the way for the creation of modern Canada.

In the wake of General George Washington's mosquito-broker-

ed victory during the American Revolution, some 90,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States for Canada to uphold personal political loyalties, escape persecution or seek asylum from some of the worst yellow fever epidemics in American history.

While these Loyalists carried British culture and convictions to Canada, they also brought malaria. Mosquitoes and their diseases do not respect international borders. In 1793, for example, the wife of John Graves Simcoe, the governor of Upper Canada and a prominent British officer during the revolution, contracted malaria in the provincial capital, Kingston. Located on the shores of Lake Ontario, the city also operated as the southern terminus for the Rideau Canal, with its point of origin in Ottawa.

In a forgotten footnote of Canadian history, malaria went on a rampage in Ottawa during the construction of the 201-kilometre-long Rideau Canal between 1826 and 1832. Each year from July through September - known to the builders as "the sickly season" - roughly 60 per cent of the work force contracted malaria. After the malaria season of 1831, chief contractor and engineer John Redpath wrote that "the exceeding unhealthiness of the place from which cause all engaged in it suffered much from lake fever and fever & ague [malaria], and it has also retarded the work for about three months each year." Redpath himself "caught the disease both the first and second year missed the third but this year had a severe attack of Lake Fever - which kept me in bed for two months and nearly two months more before I was fit for active service." Not to worry.

Redpath survived his malarial fits to create Canada's largest sugar company in 1854.

During the construction of the Rideau Canal, approximately 1,000 workers died of disease, including 500 to 600 from malaria.

At the Old Presbyterian Cemetery in Ottawa, a commemorative marker honours their sacrifice: "Buried in this cemetery are the bodies of sappers and miners who took part in the construction of the Rideau Canal at this isthmus during the years 18261832. These men laboured under appalling conditions and succumbed to malaria. Their graves remain unmarked to this day."

The canal malaria also spread to local communities, where it is believed to have killed 250 civilians.

While malaria, the historical scourge of humankind, remains our archnemesis, infecting 200300 million people a year, new mosquito-borne diseases, including West Nile and Zika, are on the move. In the United States, for example, the first domestic cases of chikungunya, dengue and Zika have been reported from Florida and Texas. Unlike all other mosquito-borne diseases, Zika can also be sexually transmitted between humans. Currently, roughly four billion people around the world are at risk from mosquitoborne diseases. Global warming has allowed the mosquito and her diseases to broaden their topographical range. As temperatures rise, disease-carrying species, usually confined to more tropical regions and lower altitudes, creep both north and south and into higher elevations.

As global warming consumes our planet, her reach is growing. Previously untapped regions, formerly free of mosquito-borne diseases, are warming up to her presence.

West Nile, for example, invaded the Western Hemisphere in 1999 through New York. Roughly 80 per cent to 90 per cent of those infected will never know and will show no symptoms. Most of the remainder will usually only experience a mild flu-like illness for a few days. But an unlucky 0.5 per cent or so will develop full-blown symptoms that can lead to swelling of the brain, paralysis, coma and death. Within a decade of its debut in the Big Apple, West Nile went viral across the United States, Southern Canada and South and Central America, announcing itself as a global disease.

The first Canadian cases of the virus occurred in Quebec and Ontario in 2002. Since its migration to Canada, annual West Nile infection rates straddle a high of 2,215 in 2007 and a low of five in 2010. Last year, there were 367 confirmed cases. While West Nile has visited every province save Newfoundland and Labrador, the hardest-hit areas, accounting for roughly 90 per cent of infections, remain the Great Lakes regions of Ontario and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec.

West Nile, however, is not flying solo. Other mosquito-borne diseases are also making the rounds.

The Jamestown Canyon and Snowshoe hare viruses, weaker cousins of West Nile, have appeared across Canada, and Eastern equine encephalitis made its first domestic human appearance in Ontario in 2016.

Over the past 20 years, the incidence of mosquito-borne disease in Canada has increased 10 per cent. If warming trends continue, public-health officials and researchers at the National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases warn that local pockets, including Southern Ontario, home to more than 12 million people, may develop ecosystems "that are conducive to the survival of exotic mosquitoes and the transmission of exotic MBDs" and the emergence and establishment of invasive, and comparatively lethal, "new strains of mosquitoes and new mosquitoborne diseases." The rest of Canada is not immune, as "climate change will increase the risk of endemic mosquito-borne diseases" across the country.

For the town of Komarno, its self-proclaimed reign as the enigmatically touristy "Mosquito Capital of the World" may be coming to an end. With climate change pushing the northern limit and boundaries for mosquito populations and mosquitoborne disease, new Canadian challengers may emerge to contest that title. Whether these towns and cities construct a towering monument to the mosquito is quite another matter altogether.

Associated Graphic

ANTAGAIN/GETTY IMAGES

There are few animals in the Arctic for mosquitoes to eat, entomologist Lauren Culler says, 'so when they finally find one, they are ferocious.'

DANNY O'DONNELL

A British doctor in India holds the enlarged spleen of a young child afflicted with malaria in the 1920s. Malaria is one of the most prominent and deadly diseases that female mosquitoes carry.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Manitoba town Komarno, which means 'mosquito infested' in Ukrainian, erected a giant statue of a mosquito in 1984 to pay tribute to the region's signature insect.

La Mal'aria, a painting from the late 1840s by Antoine Auguste Ernest Hébert, shows an Italian peasant family escaping by boat from a malaria epidemic.

PUBLIC DOMAIN

A Soviet poster from 1942 shows a listless, glassy-eyed malaria patient and a chart of the disease's characteristic fluctuating fever.

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

Anti-malaria messages featured prominently in U.S. propaganda during the Second World War, when the disease was a deadly risk for Allied troops in the Pacific campaigns.

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

SNC affair began with 2016 meeting between PM, company
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By KATHRYN BLAZE BAUM
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A1


The seeds for the SNC-Lavalin affair were sown more than three years ago. In early 2016 - long before the resignations and caucus ejections of this year - Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and a senior adviser met with the Quebec engineering giant's then-CEO.

They discussed the company's legal woes and the potential fallout should it be convicted of fraud and bribery.

The meeting, which has not been publicly disclosed until now, is among a series of startling revelations contained in the report released Wednesday by federal Ethics Commissioner Mario Dion.

Many of the actors in the SNCLavalin controversy have given a public account of events as they saw them, whether through press conferences, written statements or testimony before the House of Commons justice committee that probed the matter earlier this year.

And yet, much is revelatory in the report, based on the testimony of 14 witnesses - including, for the first time, Mr. Trudeau and the examination of hundreds of pages of evidence.

Among the findings: Consistent communications between top government officials and SNC-Lavalin representatives that grew more intense at key legislative and corporate junctures, including as it related to board meetings and fluctuations in share price.

A lobbying effort that reached into Switzerland and China.

The involvement of three former Supreme Court judges, including two who provided outside legal opinions that were shared with cabinet ministers, unbeknownst to the former attorney-general.

The introduction of new players, including former Treasury Board president Scott Brison, who is now a vice-chair at the Bank of Montreal, and BMO chairman Robert Prichard, who is described in the report as legal counsel for SNC-Lavalin.

There was also the revelation that others, namely Finance Minister Bill Morneau, played a more significant role than previously known in the effort to avoid a conviction for SNC-Lavalin.

The commissioner's investigation concluded that Mr. Trudeau contravened a section of the Conflict of Interest Act by using his position of authority over then-attorney-general Jody Wilson-Raybould to try to get her to override the decision of the independent Director of Public Prosecutions to proceed with a trial in the SNC-Lavalin case.

The report offers the clearest picture yet of what happened when, and who, exactly, did what.

The story begins in early 2016, with the Prime Minister's meeting with Neil Bruce, at the time SNC's CEO. Although a Globe analysis of the federal lobbying registry published last month showed that the company registered 81 interactions with government officials on the issue of "justice and law enforcement" between early 2016 and early 2019, the company's meeting with Mr. Trudeau is not listed.

(The company registered a Feb.

18, 2016, meeting with Mathieu Bouchard, the senior PMO adviser.)

In his meeting with Mr. Bruce, Mr. Trudeau learned of SNC-Lavalin's desire for a made-in-Canada legal tool that would allow prosecutors to suspend criminal proceedings against companies charged with white-collar crimes in exchange for a negotiated settlement. This is often referred to as a deferred prosecution agreement (DPA). Around this time, Mr. Trudeau told Mr. Bouchard to pay attention to the SNC-Lavalin file and "identify existing levers that could lead to a positive outcome for everyone."

Given the task of keeping an eye on the SNC-Lavalin matter, Mr. Bouchard started seeking information on DPAs from officials in various federal departments at the beginning of 2016. The PMO also asked the Privy Council Office to organize multidepartmental meetings to discuss the concept of a DPA regime "as well as SNC-Lavalin's legal issues," the report says. While it was previously unclear what prompted the 2017 public consultations on the potential enactment of a DPA law, the report says it was at these meetings that a consensus emerged that Ottawa would run a consultation process on the matter.

Soon after the consultation process closed in December, 2018, Mr. Bruce met with the Finance Minister and his policy director, Justin To, while in Davos, Switzerland, at the World Economic Forum. This Jan. 23, 2018, meeting, which had been requested by SNC-Lavalin representatives, is not listed on the federal lobbying registry and has not been publicly disclosed until now. (Only arranged conversations must be logged. It is the lobbyist that must register the conversations. There is no evidence that SNC-Lavalin did anything illegal in its quest for a DPA.)

SNC-Lavalin would not comment on the commissioner's findings and declined to say why it did not log its 2016 meeting with the Prime Minister on the lobbying registry.

Mr. Morneau told the commissioner that while he did not recall what was discussed, he believed that the company would have raised its desire for a DPA law. Mr. To provided more details, based on a conversation he had with the Finance Minister about the meeting: "According to Mr. To, Mr. Morneau generally noted SNC-Lavalin's view that the government should proceed with the implementation of a [DPA] regime ... Mr. Bruce described potential negative economic impacts if SNC-Lavalin were unable to reach a remediation agreement."

Mr. To met again with Mr.Bruce in Ottawa on Feb. 2, 2018 another meeting that does not appear to have been registered.

Here, the company presented Mr.To with a confidential document that said, among other things, that the implementation of a DPA regime would increase the chances of the company maintaining its head office in Canada.

(The commissioner's report notes that, according to a 2017 article in Le Devoir newspaper, SNC-Lavalin agreed to the Caisse de depot's terms of financing for an acquisition that said the company had to maintain its headquarters in Montreal for the subsequent seven years).

Later that month, the Liberals announced through their budget plan that a DPA law would be forthcoming. On Feb. 2, 2018, even before the consultation results were announced, SNC-Lavalin presented finance officials with "the possibility of including the [DPA] regime in the 2018 budget implementation bill as a means to expedite the process."

Hasty passage was in the company's interest, given that a trial on the fraud and bribery charges was looming. As a Globe investigation revealed last month, Ms.Wilson-Raybould questioned the effectiveness of DPAs and was concerned that they were being pushed by a powerful company with a history of legal issues. Ms.Wilson-Raybould, The Globe reported, wanted nothing to do with the legislation and certainly did not wish to take the lead on it. She did not appear before the finance committee studying the budget bill, nor did she accept an invitation from the Senate legal affairs committee to testify on the matter.

Come mid-August, Mr. Morneau's office continued its efforts on the SNC-Lavalin file. Ben Chin, who was at the time the Finance Minister's chief of staff and is now a senior PMO adviser, contacted Ms. Wilson-Raybould's then-chief of staff, Jessica Prince, to discuss the company's situation. This meeting, too, was previously unknown, as Ms. WilsonRaybould's testimony before the House justice committee studying the SNC-Lavalin affair covered the period beginning in early September, 2018.

At this meeting, the report says, Mr. Chin stated that he had been speaking with SNC-Lavalin and that the "company's perception was that the process of negotiating a remediation agreement was taking too long." He asked whether anything could be done to expedite the process. By now, the DPA legislation had not yet even come into force. It would become law on Sept. 19. In a follow-up e-mail, Ms. Prince informed Mr. Chin that the Public Prosecution Service of Canada had previously told Ms. WilsonRaybould's staff that they could not seek an update on the file; simply asking for an update, Ms.

Prince wrote, would be perceived as - and might well be - improper political interference. Mr.Chin forwarded the e-mail to Mr.Morneau and Mr. To. The Finance Minister told the commissioner that he did not recall reading that e-mail.

The pressure campaign continued even after Sept. 4, when Ms. Wilson-Raybould was informed of Director of Public Prosecutions Kathleen Roussel's position that SNC-Lavalin would not be invited to negotiate a DPA.

This is well-known, and was documented before the House justice committee, albeit with competing perceptions of the events articulated by Ms. Wilson-Raybould and then-clerk of the Privy Council Office Michael Wernick as well as then-principal secretary to the Prime Minister, Gerald Butts.

What was not definitively known, however, was the Prime Minister's reaction to Ms. Roussel's decision. The report states that Mr. Trudeau was "puzzled" by the development because, in his mind, "SNC-Lavalin was precisely the kind of candidate for which the [DPA] regime was designed: one that had taken significant steps to reform itself and whose conviction would harm many people who had been involved in the wrongdoing." Mr.Butts, the report says, would later tell Ms. Prince that the government had created the DPA law for SNC-Lavalin's benefit.

Mr. Trudeau asked his staff for "existing options to move the file forward." He also told the commissioner that he would have advised his staff that it was important for Ms. Wilson-Raybould to take into consideration the potential negative impact on Canadians - an allusion to the economic impact of a conviction, which could lead to a 10-year debarment from federal procurement and job losses. The DPA law, as passed, outright bars prosecutors from considering the "national economic interest" in cases of alleged foreign bribery.

Mr. Morneau's office snapped into action, too. As a result of Ms.Roussel's decision, senior Finance and PMO staff contacted Ms. Wilson-Raybould's office to discuss what, if anything, could be done. As with Mr. Trudeau, Mr. Morneau was "extremely surprised" by the director's decision.

He told the commissioner that he did not believe Ms. WilsonRaybould had done her "due diligence" on the matter.

Knowing that whatever course she took would be scrutinized by the PMO and others, Ms. WilsonRaybould sought advice from several attorneys-general on the matter. But when it came to seeking advice on an actual prosecutorial decision - which would require allowing an outside person to access confidential information regarding the case - Ms.

Wilson-Raybould was not on board. Seeking such advice, the report says, would have been unprecedented.

Much of what transpired in the ensuing weeks is on the public record, including a meeting between Mr. Trudeau, Mr. Wernick and Ms. Wilson-Raybould, at which the former attorney-general says the Prime Minister reminded her that he was a Member of Parliament in Quebec and Mr. Wernick brought up the impending election in that province.

The report, though, fills in some of the details. It says that the PMO and Finance officials who raised concerns with Ms.Wilson-Raybould and her staff were at the same time "engaging in discussions with SNC-Lavalin representatives and their legal counsel to assist the company in finding solutions in order to initiate negotiations toward a [DPA]." For example, according to SNC-Lavalin, the company presented a draft PowerPoint document to Finance officials, who "suggested possible additional factors relevant to the public interest." The PowerPoint presentation also outlined a "Plan B," which would be executed should the company not be invited to negotiate a DPA.

And while SNC-Lavalin was soliciting meetings with government staff, at least one of those interactions came at Mr. Morneau's own request - a new detail in this chain of events. The Finance Minister told the commissioner he does not recall whether Mr. Bruce, who stepped down as the company's CEO in June, asked that he or anyone in his office take actions on SNC-Lavalin's behalf.

Also new to this narrative is the involvement of Mr. Brison, who was at the time Treasury Board president but was in February named a vice-chair at BMO.

In mid-October, the report says, Mr. Brison met on an unrelated matter with Kevin Lynch, a former Privy Council Office clerk who is one of BMO's vice-chairs and is also now SNC-Lavalin's chair, and Mr. Prichard, the BMO chairman who is described in the report as legal counsel for SNCLavalin. According to the report, Mr. Brison said Mr. Lynch and Mr.Prichard raised SNC-Lavalin's position on DPAs.

By November, SNC-Lavalin ratcheted up its communications with government officials, the report says. The company prepared two legal opinions, including one by former Supreme Court justice and SNC-Lavalin legal counsel Frank Iacobucci. Mr. Iacobucci's opinion outlined the legitimacy for Ms. Wilson-Raybould to intervene in criminal matters. The report reveals that while the legal opinion was shared with several cabinet ministers, it was not provided to Ms. Wilson-Raybould.

Ms. Wilson-Raybould also told the commissioner that she did not see a second legal opinion crafted at the behest of SNC-Lavalin by former Supreme Court justice John Major. Mr. Major's opinion centred on whether the failure of Ms. Roussel to provide reasons for her refusal to negotiate a DPA with SNC-Lavalin was unlawful and whether the refusal itself was unlawful. In new evidence to the commissioner, it has come to light that an SNCLavalin representative hand-delivered a copy of Mr. Major's opinion to Mr. Chin and senior PMO advisers.

In further new evidence, the commissioner also reported that, at the request of SNC-Lavalin, Mr.Morneau and Mr. Brison each had a meeting with Mr. Lynch while they were in Beijing for a conference in mid-November.

Mr. Lynch, the report says, described the company's ongoing concerns about Ms. Roussel's position. Mr. Morneau told the commissioner that Mr. Lynch "may have brought up the idea" of having former chief justice of the Supreme Court Beverley McLachlin act as a third-party expert on the matter.

At a meeting between PMO advisers and Mr. Prichard at the end of that month, Mr. Bouchard noted a proposal that had been suggested by SNC-Lavalin: that Ms. McLachlin would be asked to preside over a settlement conference between Ms. Roussel and SNC-Lavalin, and the government could appoint the former chief justice to support the negotiation of a DPA.

Mr. Trudeau testified to the commissioner that he had not heard of this idea, which only came to light in Wednesday's report. Ms. McLachlin, the report said, expressed to Mr. Iacobucci some reservations with the proposal and said she did not want to be retained by the government. Ms. Wilson-Raybould said she was not aware of these discussions until the commissioner mentioned it to her in an interview for the report.

Although a dinner meeting between Ms. Wilson-Raybould and Mr. Butts, then-principal secretary to Mr. Trudeau, at the Château Laurier in early December made headlines across the country months ago, what is new in the commissioner's report is this: After the dinner meeting, an SNC-Lavalin representative texted Mr. Bouchard and asked for an update ahead of the company's board meeting the following day.

Soon after the Château Laurier meeting came the now-widely known call between Ms. WilsonRaybould and Mr. Wernick, which the former attorney-general recorded and released as evidence to the House justice committee probing the SNC-Lavalin affair. For the first time, publicly, Mr. Trudeau addressed the controversial call, telling the commissioner that he never directed Mr. Wernick to speak to Ms. Wilson-Raybould in such stark terms, nor did he intend to threaten the former attorneygeneral.

But the Ethics Commissioner rejected that assertion, saying "it is difficult for me to imagine that Mr. Wernick would have acted without a full and clear appreciation of Mr. Trudeau's position on the matter."

Associated Graphic

Former Supreme Court justice and SNC-Lavalin legal counsel Frank Iacobucci

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Supreme Court chief justice Beverley McLachlin

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mathieu Bouchard, senior policy adviser to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau DAVE CHAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Minister of Finance Bill Morneau

SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Treasury Board president Scott Brison

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former SNC-Lavalin CEO Neil Bruce

PAUL CHIASSON/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Supreme Court justice John Major

JONATHAN HAYWARD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Senior adviser to the Prime Minister Elder Marques 2014

RETAIL WEST CONFERENCE

Robert Prichard, legal counsel for SNC-Lavalin J.P.

MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Friday, August 16, 2019

Correction

A Thursday news article on the SNC affair incorrectly dropped the word "not" from the following quotation from the Federal Ethics Commissioner's report. The report said "SNC-Lavalin was precisely the kind of candidate for which the [DPA] regime was designed: one that had taken significant steps to reform itself and whose conviction would harm many people who had not been involved in the wrongdoing.The article also incorrectly said the consultation process ended in December, 2018, when it was December, 2017.

WITH MODI'S NEW MAP OF INDIA, HINDU NATIONALISTS CHART BOLD COURSE
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In a long-contested border region with Pakistan, India's Prime Minister has tilted the balance of power, left Muslims' future uncertain - and electrified his political base
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Print Edition, Page A14


KATRA, INDIA -- Late one morning in this holy town in northern India, several dozen men held high the country's tricolour flag, chanting as they marched down the narrow streets, past vendors selling puffed rice for offerings and images of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

They had come to mark the country's 73rd Independence Day on Thursday, a cohort of middle-aged men with triumph on their faces as they walked through the religious centre in Jammu and Kashmir.

But theirs was no normal celebration, and this was no ordinary Independence Day.

"Kashmir is ours! All of Kashmir is ours!" they cried. Their voices echoed up the narrow street, which opened to a view of the cloud-draped Trikuta hills that Hindu pilgrims climb to worship at the Vaishno Devi temple, the second-busiest religious shrine in India.

"Victory for Mother India!" the men shouted in unison. "Brother Narendra Modi, our pride!"

Less than two weeks earlier, Mr. Modi, a leader steeped from childhood in a potent ideology of Hindu nationalism, had at a stroke redrawn the national map of India, ending the special status that had provided a measure of autonomy to a contested region with 12.5 million people who live between the Himalayas, the Karakoram Range and the Indus valley.

His government stripped the national constitution of the provisions that had allowed Jammu and Kashmir its own flag, its own constitution and its own laws, placing it directly under New Delhi's control.

Hours before the announcement, technicians cut phones and internet while troops fanned out, imposing a broad curfew.

His unilateral move - bifurcating the area into Jammu and Kashmir on one side, and on the other, Ladakh, an area to which both India and China lay claim - has prompted the United Nations Security Council to meet to discuss the region for the first time in decades.

The Kashmir decision, hailed by the public as unifying the country, stands among the most consequential decisions of Mr. Modi's rule, and cements him as an ideological leader who, fresh off an election win that further augmented his power, is prepared to pursue a Hindu nationalist agenda. In doing so, he is remaking the country in pursuit of objectives that have for decades been the dream of the country's far right wing.

Mr. Modi has said he intends to bring new development and new peace to Kashmir, making the region, which has witnessed two wars and a 30-year insurgency that has left 47,000 dead, into a fragile drafting board for the India he envisions.

At the same time, he risks provoking new forms of conflict, with India's nuclear-armed neighbours and with its own minority peoples.

By the end of this week, the curfew had been lifted in Jammu, where Hindus form the largest group and the former state's flag was nowhere to be seen. But Muslimdominated Kashmir remained in a state of lockdown, with armed soldiers patrolling empty streets, past intersections blocked with coils of razor wire and homes where residents took refuge without any form of electronic communication.

In Katra, a place Mr. Modi has visited twice as Prime Minister, the curfew was never imposed in the first place.

Trains continued to deliver the faithful, Hindus who make up 80 per cent of India's population and who have found in Mr. Modi a powerful ally. In a poll released this week, Indians ranked him the country's best prime minister of all time, eclipsing even the Nehru and Gandhi dynasty.

Observers and former colleagues say Mr. Modi sees himself restoring Hindu greatness and relegating to history centuries of slavery under the Muslim Mughals and the British.

"Thursday marked Jammu and Kashmir's first Independence Day," beamed Katra hotel owner Rakesh Sharma. Nearby, photo studios give life-size cut-outs of Mr. Modi more prominence than backdrops with the Hindu deities that draw crowds here.

Critics, however, have taken a much dimmer view of Mr. Modi's sudden move in Kashmir, and what it shows about his intentions for his second term.

"There's more to come," said Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay, a journalist and author who has written a lengthy biography of Mr. Modi, as well as a history of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the rightist group that the Prime Minister first joined at the age of 8. "He definitely is going to pursue the Hindu nationalist agenda to the limits."

Mr. Modi regularly salts his talk with references to "one nation," saying this week after the Kashmir decision that "the spirit of 'One Nation, One Constitution' has become a reality and India is proud of that."

But in doing so, Mr. Mukhopadhyay said, he has transformed India's slogan of "unity in diversity" into "unity in oneness."

Early each morning, a group of men gathers on the manicured lawn of Pushp Vihar Sector 5 Park in New Delhi to exercise before the heat of the day. Often, they assemble by 5 a.m., a show of discipline in keeping with the rigours of the group they belong to: the RSS, a sprawling nationalist volunteer group founded in 1925 that possesses the features of a religious order, debate club and army cadet program.

At Push Vihar park, the men gather for yoga, wrestling, boxing, sports and discussion. "We talk about Indian culture, nationalism and how each and every citizen has to be patriotic and give something to the country," says Surender Singh Rawat, who heads the morning gatherings here.

They talk, too, about Mr. Modi, a leader who immersed himself in the RSS from his primary school days, and whose ascension has made these gatherings much more popular.

"There's a boom," Mr. Rawat says. More people have come, too, after the Kashmir decision, aligning themselves with a foundational ideology of a popular prime minister.

Mr. Modi has at times distanced himself from the RSS. But his "vision for India is the vision of the RSS," said Yashwant Sinha, a former high-ranking official in the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) who served as a finance and foreign minister two decades ago. "Which is basically Hindu ascendance within the country."

An early leader of the RSS, Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, sought to define the group's vision in Bunch of Thoughts, a book that prescribes a rejuvenation of the "Hindu nation" as a curative to Western permissiveness.

Mr. Golwalkar lists Muslims, Christians

and Communists as "internal threats," describing Muslims as a menace whose communities amount to "miniature Pakistans" inside India's borders. Last year, the RSS released a new edition that elides some of the book's sharpest rhetoric. It still describes Islam as intolerant and "capable of horrific genocide.

Mr. Modi himself has been accused of bias against Muslims. As a boy watching war between India and Pakistan in 1965, he was "voluble on how all Pakistanis should be decimated," a hometown acquaintance told biographer Andy Marino.

The darkest stain on Mr. Modi's political career came in 2002, when he was chief minister of Gujarat state during race riots between Hindus and Muslims that left roughly 1,000 dead, and raised questions about whether Mr. Modi had done enough to prevent the slaughter of Muslims.

Mr. Modi has said the 2002 violence left him "shaken to the core," and, in late July of this year, bowed before a copy of the constitution before saying "there should be no discrimination over caste or religion."

Yet, his tenure as Prime Minister has been marked by a rash of mob lynchings, an outbreak of violence in which people suspected of illegally slaughtering cows have been dragged by their beards and forced to chant praise to Hindu gods before being killed. Indian officials do not gather hate crime statistics, but data journalists in the country say roughly 90 per cent of such crimes in the past decade have taken place since Mr. Modi came to power.

Mr. Modi has condemned vigilantism, saying "mob lynching is a crime, no matter the motive."

But vulnerable groups - Muslims and members of lower castes alike - are under such threat that extraordinary efforts are under way to respond.

Since July 26, Mehmood Pracha, an accomplished corporate lawyer, has trained 15,000 people in how to apply for gun ownership, guiding them through the process of filling out forms. It is all perfectly legal - and, to many in India, shocking.

Mr. Pracha would prefer his students not to actually arm themselves. But he hopes the impression of a populace seeking firepower dispels their image of vulnerability. And he feels compelled to act.

In his view, fault for the lynchings lies squarely at the feet of the Modi government, which he accuses of weakening protections for the country's weakest members. "That is the soul of our constitution, which they are hell-bent upon destroying," he said.

Mr. Modi swept into power in 2014 with promises to tackle corruption, light a fire under the economy and inaugurate a new era of job growth.

His economic record, however, has been mixed. Though the national GDP has surged, India last year fell from fifth to seventh place among the world's largest economies. Car sales in July plunged 31 per cent. Unemployment is the worst it has been in 45 years.

Officials have said a new way of measuring jobs makes proper historical comparison impossible, but there is reason to doubt official statistics. Mr. Modi's own former long-standing economic adviser has publicly accused the government of dramatically inflating growth.

Where Mr. Modi has unquestionably succeeded, however, is in redirecting the course of the country, and his role in it - and, critics say, in using his nationalist agenda to distract from economic woes.

Observers, critics and former colleagues say the second-term list of priorities for Mr. Modi is likely to include issues that have been core to the RSS for decades: the construction of a Hindu temple on the site of a Muslim mosque at Ayodhya (a potential religious flashpoint that has already given rise to deadly riots) as well as the creation of a uniform civil code (doing away with special legal provisions for religious groups); and perhaps even limiting births (in a country where Muslim families fall under suspicion of having many children).

Mr. Modi himself hinted at the latter in an Independence Day speech this week, referring to the "consequences of the uncontrolled population growth" and calling it "an act of patriotism" to have few children.

Such a proposal might stir a revolt elsewhere. But Mr. Modi has skillfully woven his political persona with the Hindu character of the country, making him "the embodiment" of the nationalist spirit he has helped to curry, said Mr. Sinha, the former BJP minister who quit the party last year and has now become an outspoken critic.

"Modi is India," he said. "It gives him enormous powers."

Mr. Sinha worries that "we are moving in the direction of single-party rule for many years to come."

Mr. Modi's agenda has made for potent politics. He enjoys broad support in the country's media, entertainment and corporate sectors. Even politicians from smaller opposition parties have in recent weeks defected to Mr. Modi's BJP.

But he has also courted danger, critics say. Internally, if nationalist impulses foment further violence against minorities, "at some point he may want to get off the tiger and not be able to control it," Mr.

Mukhopadhyay, the biographer, said.

In Kashmir, the threat is more imminent. Observers warn that insurgent activity could return when the curfew lifts, a possibility that places Indian leadership in a delicate situation as it seeks the peace it has promised in Kashmir.

Indian and Pakistani troops have already exchanged fire, with Pakistan reporting three dead soldiers.

Pakistan claims all of Kashmir, and its Prime Minister, Imran Khan, has vowed to "fight until the end" against aggression from India.

"India has sprayed Occupied Kashmir with gasoline and is playing with matches," Mosharraf Zaidi, a Pakistani international affairs analyst, warned on Twitter.

Kashmir has long been a place of deep contrasts: a land of rushing rivers, stunning mountain vistas and bloody violence; a Muslim region in a Hindu country; an agricultural region caught between nuclear powers.

In 1947, at the partition of the British Raj, the royal rulers of Kashmir wavered in choosing between Pakistan and India. They opted for the latter only when raiders from the former pushed deep into Kashmir, arriving on the outskirts of Srinagar, its capital. Even then, Kashmir has accepted only partial Indian rule. New Delhi took control of foreign policy, defence and communications, but Jammu and Kashmir retained the right to its own constitution and the ability to bar outsiders from owning property.

Almost immediately, some in India began to call for abolishment of those provisions, which were "not in the interest of either India or the people of Jammu and Kashmir," said Abha Khanna, media director for the Jammu Kashmir Study Centre, an organization that has dedicated itself in part to providing documentary proof of ancient Indian ownership of Kashmir.

And it has involved formulating a template for integrating minorities into the mainstream definition of what it means to be Indian.

The problem in Kashmir, Ms. Khanna believes, is a fundamentalism that has poisoned the populace. She accuses local leaders, teachers and journalists of occupying a "separatist-terrorist-political nexus" that has spread a "narrative that India does not feel for the people of Kashmir."

The solution, she said, lies primarily in changing people's thoughts, using rhetoric similar to that employed in China amidst a campaign to re-educate Muslims - though she does not advocate the use of force. But "the education system has to incorporate the feel of India," Ms. Khanna said.

In the meantime, the lockdown on Kashmir is unfortunate and unavoidable, she said. She recalled seeing a puppy once whose foot had become infected with maggots. Only painful intervention could remove the rot. "The puppy is going to scream," she said. "But it has to be done to be able to save his foot." In Kashmir, "it is something similar."

Indian authorities aren't keen to have others see what that looks like. Though they have pledged to begin easing the lockdown in coming days, foreign journalists are barred from Kashmir.

Even in Jammu, signs of the government chokehold remain.

Soldiers and heavily armed police stand every few dozen metres on roadsides, some at posts next to mounted rifles pointing at oncoming traffic. Though mobile phone service has been restored, mobile internet remains completely black.

Kashmiris here are hesitant to criticize the government. Muslims in India have been attacked under Mr.

Modi, but "these things take place in every country. In America, sometimes white men attack black men," said Hilam Sanaie, founder of AlHilal International School, an Islamic boarding institution.

Fear nonetheless ripples through the city's Muslim community. With their home now under the control of the central government, there is worry that outsiders will move in, seizing jobs and bringing crime. "They feel that if people come here, our women won't be safe," Mr.Sanaie said.

Naveeda Rehman, a Kashmiri woman in Jammu, speaks darkly about the direction India is taking. "I don't feel like it's a democratic country any more, because we can't ask for what we want," Ms. Rehman said.

And if India is indeed one, "why is only one religion being targeted?" she asked.

"A terrorist is someone who spreads fear," she says. "These days, who is the one spreading terror?"

Associated Graphic

Top: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi attends celebrations in honour of the country's 73rd Independence Day on Thursday. Above: Members of the rightist group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, which Mr. Modi joined as a child, take part in a drill in Ahmedabad.

TOP: PRAKASH SINGH/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE: SAM PANTHAKY/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Kashmiri residents leave their house in Srinagar on Wednesday during government-imposed restrictions. Curfew was recently lifted in Jammu, but Muslim-dominated Kashmir has remained in a state of lockdown, with armed soldiers patrolling empty streets and residents taking refuge without electronic communication.

DANISH SIDDIQUI/REUTERS

Above: A 14-year-old is tended to in a hospital in Srinagar after being trampled in a stampede when Indian forces opened fire on demonstrators on Aug. 9. Below: Indian paramilitary soldiers patrol Srinagar on Thursday.

ABOVE: ATUL LOKE/NYT; BELOW: DAR YASIN/AP

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Print Edition, Page B16


PETER MICHAEL FO RRISTAL

Peacefully at his residence surrounded by his family on August 13, 2019, Peter Forristal passed away at age 67. Beloved husband of Laurence Pellan for 40 years. Loving father of Annik Forristal and Chantal Forristal (Maciej Gebczynski). Dear brother to John (Jan) Forristal, Tim (Kathy) Forristal and Greg (Sandy) Forristal, and brother-in law to Denis (Christiane) Pellan.

He will be missed by his nieces and nephews.

Peter worked at Imperial Oil for 35 years. He loved to spend time with his family, converse, wine and dine, travel, hike, and read.

Visitors will be received at the John T. Donohue Funeral Home, 362 Waterloo Street at King Street, London, on Sunday afternoon from 2-5 o'clock. Funeral Mass will be held at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica, 196 Dufferin Avenue, London, on Monday morning at 10 o'clock with inurnment to follow in St. Peter's Cemetery, London.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Cure PSP (http://www.psp.org) would be appreciated.

DANIEL GABRIEL FOY

April 13, 1994

Passed away suddenly in Toronto.

Dearly loved and cherished son of Christine and Larry. Beloved brother of Kevin. Predeceased by his grandparents Raymond and Ruth Domleo and Fred and Glenna Foy. Also predeceased by his uncle David Domleo (Karen). Loved nephew of Debra Hopkins (Paul), Catherine Schryer (Franz), Ted Foy (Peggy), Mary Clare Argiropoulos (Constantine), Brian Foy (Colleen), Eileen Foy, Elizabeth Foy and Margaret Foy.

Dan will be fondly remembered by his many cousins.

Daniel was engaging, charming and witty. He sought challenges.

Dan was an intense friend, a passionate chef and an excellent sailor and snowboarder. He bonded closely with his canine and feline companions.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., on Saturday, August 17, 2019 from 1 p.m. until time of the Chapel Service at 3 p.m. Cremation has taken place. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery at a later date.

As an expression of sympathy donations to CAMH, The George Hull Centre or Jack.org would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca Goodbye Dan - we'll always love you.

IRA MICHAEL FRIEDMAN

On August 14, 2019, on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia.

Cherished son of the late Jack and the late Helen Friedman. Beloved brother and brother-in-law of Susan and Edward, Karen and Jay and Debra and Robert. Dear uncle to Rebecca and Marc, Jesse and Katie, Rachel, Sarah, Zachary and Jessica, Emma and Ella, Nathan and Elise, Joseph and Eli. Greatuncle to Sam, Rose, Isaac, Annie, Lylah and Jack. Good friend and trusted advisor to many. He was a researcher and sailor who navigated life with curiosity, knowledge and a dry wit. Funeral took place on August 14, 2019 at Victoria Jewish Cemetery. Shiva will took place at at Chabad Victoria and will then continue in Toronto on August 16 at 18 Sala Drive, Richmond Hill, from 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. and on August 18th and 19th from 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. and from 6:30 p.m.

to 9:00 p.m. Condolences may be offered at http://www.sandsvictoria.ca SANDS OF VICTORIA 250-388-5155

BRUCE DAVID GILLINGHAM

June 28, 1929 August 13, 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Bruce Gillingham at the age of 90 at the Carpenter Hospice in Burlington. Born and raised in Montreal to Thomas and Winifred Gillingham he later met his future wife, Beverley while skiing in Saint-Sévère and they shared an incredible journey for more than 64 years. Bruce leaves behind his beloved wife, Beverley and children Derek (Deborah), Brent and Stephenie along with his adored grandson Aaron and nieces Catherine, Carolyn and nephew Gregory.

Bruce graduated from Lower Canada College in 1947 and earned a Bachelor of Commerce degree from McGill University in 1952.

He loved his work as a professor at Northern College in Kirkland Lake and Sheridan College in Brampton and Oakville where he taught business, marketing and economics. He also served as Chairman of the Business department at Sheridan College until his retirement. He loved teaching and took great pleasure in nurturing and supporting the many students in his classes.

Bruce was an avid gardener who in later years successfully re-established native plants, ferns and wild flowers along the beachfront trail in Burlington.

He is also remembered as a music lover whose records filled the home with the sounds of Duke Ellington, Frank Sinatra, Benny Goodman, Dave Brubeck and Louis Armstrong. He was also a founding member and drummer of "The Gloworms". Bruce loved to travel and his visits to England and Italy with Beverley were among his favourites. His children fondly remember their many impromptu road trips across North America in the family station wagon.

The Gillingham family would like to extend their gratitude to the staff and volunteers at the Carpenter Hospice, Joseph Brant Memorial Hospital and the Juravinski Cancer Centre for their kindness and care. A private celebration of life will be held at a future date in Montreal. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a contribution to the Carpenter Hospice or Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Foundation.

JOHN MCNAB MILSOM

November 25, 1920 June 17, 2019

John McNab Milsom born November 25, 1920 (Flt. Lt. RCAF/ RAF) passed away peacefully June 17, 2019 at age 98. He is survived by his wife, Judith (nee Enid V.

Paris) of 74 years, and sons, Brian (Svetlana) and Jeremy.

A veteran of WWII, he volunteered with the RCAF, graduated as a GR pilot and was posted in Gibraltar and North Africa with the RAF (48 Squadron) escorting convoys and hunting U-Boats. Once his first tour (over 600 Hours/ 90 missions) was completed he was sent to Turnberry, Scotland, to train pilots converting onto Hudsons and Venturas, aircraft he knew well.

More than anything, he wanted to convert onto the DeHavilland Mosquito. He joined Banff Strike Wing (248 Squadron) in 1944 and flew 17 more combat missions from Banff sinking Nazi ships and destroying enemy infrastructure.

After V-day, his last mission was to escort a Norwegian squadron for the triumphant return of King Haakon and his government from Great Britain back to Oslo, Norway. He then flew back to Britain and parked his airplane.

The war was over.

Once back in Canada, John returned to the University of Toronto, completed a degree in Engineering and Business, was employed with CGE and the North York Board of Education. He retired in 1985.

A celebration of his 98 years will be held on September 9, 2019, from 2 p.m. until 5 p.m. at the Toronto Cricket, Skating, and Curling Club on Wilson Avenue.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

STEPHEN JOSEPH O'ROURKE MD, FRCP(C)

Just shy of his 94th birthday, Steve died peacefully on August 11, 2019 surrounded by family in the Palliative Care Unit at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Steve is mourned by the love of his life, "Breid" (Brigid Conlon of Belfast), children , William (Janice), Patrick (Theresa), John (Catherine), Kit (Randall), grandchildren, Patrick (Kelly), Liam (Jackie), Sean, Caitlin, Eamonn, Rosie, Maggie, Eden, Austin, Ella, Maddie, greatgrandchildren, Tiernan and Maeve and many nieces, nephews and cousins around the world.

Born on a farm in Bruff, Co.

Limerick, Ireland, Steve graduated medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in 1949. As a Captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps he served in the Korean War and later in Fort Churchill, MB. He then joined the Department of Anaesthesia at St.

Mike's in Toronto where he gave anaesthetics for more than four decades, was a highly respected teacher and mentor to countless medical students and residents, pioneered spinal anaesthesia and was instrumental in advancing obstetrical epidurals.

A life-long horse racing fan, Steve rarely missed attending The Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate. Steve and Breid were founding members of St.

Bonaventure's Parish. They loved to entertain and hosted many celebrations throughout the years. Their endless hospitality and fun-loving nature warmed many hearts.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 1:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 15th. A Funeral Mass will be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, on Friday, August 16th at 10:30 a.m. If desired, donations to St.

Michael's Hospital Foundation, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, http://www.stmichaelshospital.com, would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

REINHILDE SPERLICH WALWYN "Ronnie" Reinhilde "Ronnie"

Sperlich Walwyn, 93, died peacefully on July 25, 2019 in Aurora, Ontario.

The cause of death was peripheral vascular disease.

Ronnie was born in Judenburg, Austria on September 4, 1925, the first born child of Rudolf and Hildegard (Grill) Sperlich. She came to Canada in August of 1952 and was married to John Pearce Walwyn, a stock broker, in October of 1954.

Ronnie enjoyed many happy years living in Toronto, travelling and spending many summers at Faith Island on Lake Joseph in Muskoka. After the death of her beloved JP in 1976, Ronnie maintained close contact with many friends in Toronto although she chose to move up to King Township where she lived for over forty years at Angus Hill Farm. In 2015, she moved to Hollandview Trail Retirement Residence in Aurora.

Ronnie made a great number of friends in her almost 94 years.

She was a true and loyal friend, a unique human being, genuine and always kind. She loved family gatherings, both on visits to see family and friends in Austria and in Canada, where she regularly hosted holiday family gatherings and cooked traditional meals for often more than thirty people.

She truly believed in lifelong learning over the years. She took French language courses, painted with the same group of amateur artist friends over a number of years, joined Toastmasters and delivered a fine speech at her 80th birthday party, and learned computer skills to email and Skype. Taking a few writing courses led to the successful completion of Lots of Goodbyes, her story as a young woman coming to a new land. In the mid '80s, she studied for her real estate license and ventured into the business world, purchasing Snowball Place, a small country mall west of Aurora. With some real estate partners, she opened The House of Brougham, a pine furniture franchise and a few years later, she and her good friend, Joan Davies opened The J R Room, a store with stylish women's clothing. (J was for Joan, R was for Ronnie!) Ronnie was also a member of the congregation at All Saints Anglican Church in King City where she joined in regularly for services and volunteered for many activities.

She was actively involved with her Investment Club in Toronto, was a long term member of the Wine Tasters Guild of Aurora and the Aurora Probus Club and also volunteered for Hospice King/ Aurora and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection.

She enjoyed playing Bridge, especially with her friends at Hollandview. Another passion in her later years was to play Poker, especially Texas Hold 'em, and to those who knew her well, this came as no surprise! Throughout the years, she travelled extensively. Her last big adventure, in December 2017 at the age of 92, was a trip by plane and then hi-speed train to Xian, China to see the Terra-Cotta Army of Dreams. Well done, Ronnie! Ronnie was very kind to the many animals on the farm. She loved all the cats and dogs, especially her first miniature Schnauzer, Erika. Ronnie was always keen to head down to the barn to watch the birth of a foal and she always marvelled at the miracle of that new life.

Ronnie is survived by and will be terribly missed by many close family members including her brother, Rudi Sperlich; niece, Gudrun Hodl; step-mother, Stefi Sperlich; half-sisters, Ute Wagner and Sieglinde Logar; half-brother, Volker Sperlich, all from Austria; cousin, Horst Sperlich from Germany; nephew, Klaus Sperlich; step-son, John Walwyn; step-granddaughter, Jennifer Walwyn, all from the USA; niece, Barbl Goldring; stepdaughter, Suzanne Winchell; stepgrandchildren, Cathie Bowden, Stephen Goldring, Christy Gunton, Laurie Gunton, Luther Winchell, Christopher Winchell; and her close friend, Marjorie O'Donnell, all from Canada.

Ronnie was predeceased by her husband, JP Walwyn; her stepdaughters, Louise Goldring and Gilda McPhedron; and her stepgranddaughter, Shelley Gunton.

Special mention and thanks go to the wonderful staff and residents at Hollandview Trail Retirement Residence for all the love and support given to Ronnie during this difficult time and throughout her four years at Hollandview.

A celebration of Ronnie's life will be announced at a later date.


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