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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B21


MICHAEL GLEN ADLAM

June 21, 1949 May 13, 2018

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of our Mike on May 13, 2018, surrounded by family at Hospice Wellington in Guelph, ON.

Predeceased by his parents, George and Laura; and his twin brothers, Rob and Reg. Survived by his wife, Ruth (nee Gomer); loving father of Doug (Jennet) and Dan; adoring grandfather to Azalea; brother to Sherry Newton (Ernie),Ted (Sandra), Bud (Linda), and Laurie McLeod; brotherin-law to Julia Adlam, Penny Adlam, Peter Gomer (Carol), Ann Sunahara (Dave), Joan Murphy (Jim), and Sue Marshall; uncle to Calvin Foston, Kris Foston (Lumi), and many more nieces and nephews.

Mike's ease with people and his gift for conversation led him to a long career in real estate in Mississauga, which became his home for more than 50 years.

Mike had fond memories of a brief time growing up in Parry Sound, where later in life he kept a boat to revisit the waters of Georgian Bay. He spent some time as a hockey coach, had a passion for building homes, appreciated art, and loved golfing with the "Jimmys" and others.

He was a wonderful father and influence to his boys, was never afraid of a challenge, only looked on the bright side, and enjoyed his friends and family immensely.

Mike loved to laugh and always had a joke or two ready, some admittedly corny, and he kept his great sense of humor right to the end. He went much too soon and will be greatly missed.

From 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. on Sunday, June 24, 2018, there will be a celebration of Mike's life in the "Canadian Open Room" at the Glen Abbey Golf Club in Oakville, ON. Remembrances will take place at 3:00 p.m.

Donations to the Canadian Mesothelioma Foundation or Hospice Wellington would be appreciated.

VINCENT GYLDING BORCH

November 1,1934 June 5, 2018

Vincent Gylding Borch passed away on June 5, 2018 in Courtenay, BC at the age of 83 years.

Vince is survived by his loving wife of 60 years, Carol; his children, Graham (Linda), Lisa (Tim), Nelson, and Michael (Andrea); his siblings, Gerald (Hilary), Michael (Flo), David (Claire), and Nancy (Bill); his fourteen grandchildren; his great-grandson; and many nieces, nephews, and friends.

Vince was predeceased by his parents, Ole and Dorothy Borch, and his daughter, Cynthia Borch.

Vince was born in Calgary, AB in 1934, and moved to Nelson, BC in 1948. He graduated from Nelson High School in 1952 and from UBC Engineering in 1958. His long, accomplished career spanned Construction and Municipal Engineering and culminated in Consulting with Associated Engineering Ltd., where his contributions remain integral.

Vince was foremost a family man, who adored his wife Carol and took immeasurable pride in the accomplishments of his children and grandchildren. Vince and Carol's retirement years were filled with a balance of travel and hospitality, and their home was a gathering place for family and friends. Vince was known for his sharp mind, his love of books, and his passion for music. He had a gift for speaking at the right moment with wisdom and humour and was a trusted source of advice, guidance, and direction. Where he went, order followed. Vince will be dearly missed, and remembered with love, respect, and admiration by all who knew him.

Vince's family wishes to thank the excellent staff at Comox Valley Hospital; Drs. Davyduke and Camacho; and Vince's favourite people, the nurses, whom he held in high esteem.

A Memorial Service and Reception will be held at Comox Valley Funeral Home at 1101 Ryan Road, Courtenay, BC, on Saturday, July 7, 2018 at 2:00 p.m.

HELEN MARGARET CRAIG

Helen left our world on Wednesday, June 13, 2018 with grace, dignity and strength of spirit. Helen Margaret Reid was born in 1930, growing up in Ottawa with her parents, William and Margaret Reid; brother, Donald; and sister, Marion. At a young age, she lost two siblings, Gordon and Doris. She attended Glebe Collegiate. Helen met Jim, the love of her life, at Glebe - but didn't realize it until graduating from Queen's University with a BA/BPHE and attending Teachers College in Toronto. Jim and Helen married in 1956. Partners in life, travel (trekking on five continents), adventure, and bridge, they created a cherished world for their family and friends.

Helen was a strong woman who followed and shared her passion and commitment to a full life through her work, family and friends. She obtained a second degree in horticulture and became a horticulturist at the Civic Garden Centre. After retirement, she remained engaged in the horticultural community as a judge and volunteer. Helen founded a bridge club with her friends in 1955 and they shared their lives for over sixty years. Helen expressed her care and love through doing. She volunteered throughout her life at the Bloorview MacMillian Centre; Lawrence Park Community Church; Toronto Garden Club; and Canada Blooms.

Over 50 summers were spent at Camelot, on Lake Simcoe. Helen brought her competitive spirit to badminton, shuffleboard, and many rousing card games. Helen welcomed all with graciousness, humour, and a warm thoughtful presence. Some of her happiest times were with Jimbo in their sailboat. She made Camelot a happy destination for all.

She was our centre, supporting and grounding us throughout our lives. Her thoughtful spirit, keen intellect, and encompassing love will be deeply missed by her family. Her husband, Jim; children, Shelley (Jeff), Geoffrey (Susan), and Wendy; grandchildren, Emma (Chris), Gillian (Andrew), Nicola, Leah, Marcus, and Sophie; and step-grandchildren, Megan (Todd), Melinda (Adam), and Finn, will carry her in our hearts always.

We are deeply grateful to her caregivers: Mina, Dolly, Sarah, and the Temmy Latner Centre.

Please join us in celebration of Helen's life at The Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Avenue, Toronto on Monday, June 18, 2018, at 2:30 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, you may wish to donate in Helen's memory to the The Garden Club of Toronto, 777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, ON M3C 1P2, 416-447-5218, office@thegardencluboftoronto.ca , http://www.thegardencluboftoronto.ca.

Funeral arrangements entrusted to the Newediuk Funeral Home, Kipling Chapel 416-745-7555.

MARGARET M. ENGEL

Passed away peacefully at the age of 89, on Sunday, June 3, 2018, with family by her side.

Beloved wife of the late Robert Engel (2006). Loving mother of John (Emily) and Jeff (Julie). Cherished grandmother of James and Liam.

Visitation will be held at Forest Grove United Church, 43 Forest Grove Drive, North York, on Friday, June 22nd from 10 a.m. until the time of the Funeral Service at 11 a.m.

Reception to follow immediately after service.

Private family Interment.

Donations may be made to Shepherd Lodge, (http://www.shepherdvillage.org).

Condolences at http://www.rskane.ca.

BETTY JANTINA FRASER (nee Veenstra)

Born July 25, 1929 in Toronto, Ontario. Passed away at her home on May 29, 2018 in her 89th year. Betty is survived by her sister, Hilda Veenstra; nephews, Tim Beattie (Laura) and Leslie Beattie; greatnephew, Kenneth; and greatniece, Janine. Predeceased by husband, Russell; sister, Dora; and parents, Miendert and Hilsje Veenstra.

As per Betty's wishes, cremation and private family service has taken place in Brampton. A celebration of life will take place Tuesday, July 17, 2018 2-4 p.m. at the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club where Betty was an active member for many decades. In lieu of flowers, Betty has requested donations be made to the Canadian Cancer Society or The Heart and Stroke Foundation.

GERDA GOTTLIEB

On Friday, June 15, 2018 at Mackenzie Health. Beloved wife of the late Maximilian. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Vera and Malcolm Glube, Rita and Ben Gerstein, Tom and Dorann Gottlieb. Devoted grandmother of Mark and Deanna, Sharon and Sol, Francine and Daniel, Joshua and Janice, David, Michael and Tamara, Erica and Tally, greatgrandmother of Andrea, Daniel, Noah, Kayla, Marcus, Braden, Jonas, Samson, Ever, Joshua, Lauren, Louis, Leo, Lilly, and Ella.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, June 17, 2018 please call for further information.

Shiva 7071 Bayview Avenue, Thornhill. Memorial donations may be made to Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Maximilian and Gerda Gottlieb Endowment Fund, 416-665- 8054.

PHYLLIS GENEVIEVE HILL (née Kokko)

Peacefully June 10, 2018 in Scarborough, ON, age 69.

Survived by son, Graeme Hill (Stephanie); Graeme's father, Clark Hill; brothers, Eric Kokko (Marion), Greg Kokko; nephew, Paul Kokko; niece, Anne Kokko; predeceased by mother, Helen Kokko (née Moloney); and father, Vilho Kokko. Phyllis had a long distinguished career in education from Teacher to Superintendent in East York and Toronto.

Funeral service at Saint Martin's, 513 Ennis Road, Ennismore, ON K0L1T0 Saturday, June 23 10:00 a.m., interment at Saint Martin's, gathering at the Parish Hall to follow. A celebration of life will also occur in East York, details to be announced. In lieu of flowers, donations to Heart & Stroke Foundation will be gratefully appreciated. Messages may be left at http://www.aftercare.org.

G. GARTH JACKSON

Peacefully, at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre on Monday, June 11, 2018, at the age of 75. Beloved husband of Margaret. Loved father of Greg, Tim and Kelly (Lucas). Proud grandfather of Emily, Aryeh, Maya, and Vivienne.

Garth devoted his career to creating pathways to the celebration of diversity and inclusion in post secondary education in Canada. In Ontario's colleges and universities he served as Vice-president Academic, George Brown College; Executive Vice-president, Centennial College; and President, Canadore College. In the Ontario Public Service he served as Assistant Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Education, Colleges and Universities; and as President and CEO of the Ontario Training and Adjustment Board.

Internationally, he played major roles in several education projects.

In Costa Rica he led a university capacity-building project at the Tecnológico de Costa Rica. Upon the election of Nelson Mandela to the presidency of the New Republic of South Africa, he led Canada's participation in the new government's transformation of education, resulting in the creation of the South Africa Qualifications Authority. More recently, Garth presided over the creation of the Canadian University of Dubai, where he also served as the permanent Canadian member of the Board of Trustees of the University.

In 2012 Garth was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal for distinguished service in Canada and internationally, and in 2018 received an Honorary Doctorate from the Canadian University of Dubai.

A celebration of Garth's life will be announced at a later date.

Donations in his memory may be made to the Garth Jackson Memorial Scholarship at Centennial College: 416-289-5000 x7113. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

GORDON PHILLIPS JACKSON

June 1, 2018, died quietly, following an incident of congestive heart failure compounded by vascular dementia, having been in the company and care of his two children and the palliative team at Elisabeth Bruyère Hospital.

Born and raised in Toronto, Ontario, Gordon made Montreal home throughout his professional and family years, embracing the people and spirit of the city. His past 25 years as Elizabeth "Liz" Kane's loving and devoted partner in travels, dinner parties, and life at their home in New Edinburgh, Ottawa were among Gordon's happiest.

Stockbroker, consummate host, golfer, fly fisherman, barbecue enthusiast, sporter of bow ties, Gordon will be missed and warmly remembered by his friends and family. Predeceased by his brother, Dr. James H. Jackson, and recently bereft of Liz, Gordon was a gentleman to the end.

Survived by his children, Catherine and Phillip Jackson; their spouses, Anthony Abrahams and Claire Martin; granddaughter, Rachel Abrahams; niece, Dominique Jackson, Liz's sons, Graeme, Adam and Oliver Kane, and their families. "Scuto Amoris Divini" Gordon will be interred in a private family ceremony at Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa and a Memorial Service will be held at Church Of St. Bartholomew's June 21st, 12 p.m., followed by reception.

The family would encourage any donations made in Gordon's name to The Alzheimer Society, Cancer Society, or Atlantic Salmon Federation.

ROLANDE OLWEN LATTA (nee Medlicott)

Peacefully on Monday, June 11, 2018 at the Edinburgh Retirement Home at age 94. Beloved wife of the late Kenneth. Loving mother of Robert "Bob" and Hilary (Donald Hébert). Daughter of the late George and Mary Medlicott.

The family would like to express their thanks to the staff of the Edinburgh for the care Rolande received. Friends are invited to visit at the Central Chapel of Hulse, Playfair & McGarry, 315 McLeod Street (at O'Connor) Ottawa on Monday, June 18 from 10 a.m.

until time of Funeral Service in the Chapel at 11 a.m., followed by a reception. Donations in memory of Rolande to a charity of choice would be appreciated.

Condolences/Tributes/Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

ELIZABETH JEAN McEWAN

May 14, 1924 - June 6, 2018 Peacefully, on Wednesday, June 6, 2018, at the Village of Humber Heights, at the age of 94. Beloved wife of the late James G.

McEwan. Cherished mother of Janice McEwan, Mardine Steiner, Catherine McEwan and the late Dr. Brian McEwan. Adored grandmother of Jessica (Dave), Tristan (Catherine) and Tara.

Loving Great Grandmother to Quinn, Seren, Lily and Emrick.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere, east of the Jane subway, on Monday, June 25, 2018 from 7 - 9 p.m. Funeral service will be held at Royal York Rd. United Church, 851 Royal York Rd., Etobicoke, on Tuesday, June 26, 2018 at 11 a.m. If desired, remembrances may be made to the Village of Humber Heights or Royal York Rd. United Church.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

RUSSELL JAMES McDONALD D.V.M. "Rusty" Passed away peacefully in Kitchener in the early hours of Saturday, June 9, 2018 at Lanark Heights Long Term Care, in his 96th year.

Predeceased by his parents, William J. McDonald and Sarah Jean McMillan; his wife, Helen in 2002; his sisters, Helen Tuckey in 1953 and Marilyn in 2007; and his brother, Bill in 2013. Dr. McDonald is survived by his daughters, Jean Reilly (Robert) of Kitchener, Catherine Jones (Robert) of Lawton, Oklahoma; and son, John McDonald (Teresa) of Caledonia; as well as grandsons, Michael Reilly and Matthew and Andrew Jones.

He was a graduate of the Woodstock Collegiate Institute and the Ontario Veterinary College at the University of Guelph. He maintained an active role for many years in both the O.V.C .and U. of G. Alumni and served as Chair of the U. of G. Alma Mater Fund.

Professionally, Rusty was recognized both nationally and internationally as a pioneer in the commercial application of artificial insemination of dairy cattle. He was the founding General Manager of Oxford and District Cattle Breeders Association which, as the result of merging with three other breeding associations, became Western Ontario Breeders Inc. (WOBI).

He retired from that position in 1988 to become Executive Director of the Canadian Association of Animal Breeders and served for many years as Chair of the Board of Directors of Semex Canada, the organization responsible for most of the Canadian livestock semen exports. These positions involved considerable national and international travel.

He was a member as well as Chair of many organizations associated with veterinary medicine and agriculture including the College of Veterinarians of Ontario, the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association and the American Dairy Science Association. He was a founding member of the Ontario Agricultural Hall of Fame and a Director of the Royal Winter Fair as well as the Ontario Agricultural Research Institute.

Rusty was the recipient of numerous awards including the University of Guelph Alumnus of Honour in 1979, the Ontario Veterinary Association Award of Merit in 1994 the same year he was inducted into the Canadian Agricultural Hall of Fame and received the Ontario Veterinary Association Award of Merit.

He held executive positions on an impressive number of local organizations and institutions including the boards of the Woodstock YMCA, the United Appeal, Woodstock General Hospital, Chalmers United Church and was a founding member of the Woodstock Curling Club and Craigowan Golf and Country Club. He was a big supporter of the Woodstock Athletics hockey team and president of the Woodstock Minor Hockey Association at a time when Bobby Hull was playing for one of the local teams.

While he enjoyed golf, curling and skiing, one of his favorite "hobbies" was electioneering. As a "dyed in the wool" Liberal whose favourite slogan during elections was "Vote as you like but vote Liberal". Rusty was the campaign manager for numerous federal and provincial candidates in Oxford county. It's entirely possible the result of the recent Ontario provincial election hastened his passing.

The family wishes to thank the staff at Lanark Heights Long Term Care for the exemplary care they gave our father for close to seven years.

Cremation has taken place. A private family graveside interment will take place mid-summer in Woodstock.

As expressions of sympathy, donations to to the University of Guelph - O.V.C. Pet Trust, University of Guelph Alumni Fund, or the Woodstock Hospital Foundation can be arranged through the Erb & Good Family Funeral Home, 171 King Street South, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 1P7, http://www.erbgood.com or 519-745-8445.

WILLIAM GLEN MCINTOSH

It is with deep regret that we announce the death of Bill McIntosh on June 6, 2018, after a lengthy illness. He was preceded by his parents and seven siblings; survived by Ethel, his loving wife of over sixty years; his three children, Doug, Rod (Linda), and Lisa; and three almost perfect grandsons, Liam, Stuart, and Colm.

Bill was born in Rossburn, Manitoba on July 31, 1929. The day after he graduated from high school he started work at the Bank of Toronto where one of his first duties was to fill the ink wells and put out clean blotters. By the time he retired as senior vice president Pacific Division of The Toronto Dominion Bank computers had entered the banking system.

He loved banking and had a successful career which he always attributed in large part to the great people he worked with. Next to his family and banking Bill loved sports - he played baseball and hockey as a boy and was always proud to tell people that his team won the Junior B championship 1947-48. He was a fast if not exactly smooth skier, he regularly shot his age on the golf course and he was a much sought partner on the dance floor. As for his bridge game, it was something else.

We will miss him more than words can tell.

A celebration of life will be held at Shaughnessy Golf and Country Club, on Sunday, June 24th from 2 p.m. - 4 p.m.

Online tributes may be expressed at http://www.kearneyfs.com.

JUNE M. MCKILLOP (nee Ablett)

Passed away June 9, 2018 at Dorothy Ley Hospice at 88 years of age. Loving wife to the late Donald (2009); mother to Brian (Jean) and David; sister to Dick and Anne; and grandmother to Jennifer.

Special thanks to June's caregiver Miliça and the great staff at the hospice. Your presence we miss, your memory we treasure, loving you always, forgetting you never.

At June's request, there will be no visitation or funeral.

The family would appreciate donations in June's memory to the hospice or a charity of your choice.

DIANNE MARY MEREDITH

After a determined struggle, with family at her side, Dianne passed away on Friday, June 15, 2018 at her home in Toronto. Beloved wife of the late Paul Meredith. Loving mother and friend to her daughter Sandra, and son-inlaw Matthew Halder, and to her sons and daughters-inlaw, Scott and Elizabeth Boyd, Gregory and Audrey and Bradley and Karen. Proud and devoted grandmother of Lindsay, Kristen, J.P., Cameron and Georgia.

Devoted and loving daughter of the late John and Kathleen Proctor.

Dianne was a loyal, compassionate and selfless woman who touched the lives of many. A family graveside service will take place on Wednesday, June 20, 2018 at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto. In accordance with Dianne's wishes and to honour the way that she lived, family and friends are invited to a reception to celebrate Dianne's life at the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club, 141 Wilson Avenue West, 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., also on Wednesday, June 20, 2018.

Dianne's family is grateful for the kindness and exemplary care provided by Dr. Sandy Buchman of the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care, the team at Spectrum Health and also Magdalena (Len), Madeline and Ailyn.

If desired, donations in Dianne's memory to the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care or the Canadian Cancer Society would be most appreciated by the family.

ANNE CATHARINE McNEVIN

Passed away at her residence on June 13, 2018. Anne McNevin, daughter of the late Dr. Frank P. McNevin and the late Kathleen McNevin and Agnes F. McNevin. Loving sister of the late Maureen McNevin and the late Helen Murphy. Dear Aunt of James Murphy of Calgary, the late Mrs. Kathleen Stewart of Ft.

Lauderdale and Theresa Stewart of Toronto.

Friends may call at Blessed Sacrament Church, 24 Cheritan Ave. Toronto, on Monday, June 18th at 10:30 a.m. A Mass of Christian Burial will follow in the Church at 11:30 a.m. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery.

HENRY HEINZ NOLTING

On Sunday, June 10, 2018 in his 92nd year at Dufferin Oaks Nursing Home, Shelburne, Ontario, peacefully with his prime caregiver, Lynn Paltooram, by his side. He was predeceased by his wife of nearly sixty years, Ilse; and will be sadly missed by his sister, Christine Taylor (Don) of Reston, Virginia, USA; and his nephew, Tim.

Former President and CEO of Cooper Canada and long-time member of St. George's Golf and Country Club, Toronto, Canada. Cared for by his longtime friends, John and Mary Beaton. Many thanks to his neighbour, Mary Carinci and caregiver, PETA who looked after him in his home in Etobicoke.

Any donations can be given to St. Michael's Hospital Foundation or a charity of your choice.

Arrangements entrusted to Dods & McNair Funeral Home, Chapel & Reception Centre, 21 First St., Orangeville, ON. Condolences may be offered to the family at http://www.dodsandmcnair.com.

DEREK SAMUEL POLLOCK

December 2, 1926

Carrickfergus, Ireland

June 5, 2018

Mississauga, ON

It is with profound sadness that the family of Derek Pollock announce his sudden passing.

Beloved and loving father of Linda, Sandra and predeceased by loving daughter, Dianne in 1990 and loving wife, Frances in 2015.

Father-in-law to Milo and Glenn.

Forever remembered by his grandchildren, Rena, Jessica and her husband, Ryan, Derek and his partner, Chloe, Brendan and his fiancé, Sarah; also many family and friends from around the world (especially Ireland).

He had a lifelong passion for sailing through which he won numerous trophies. He loved animals especially his dogs; found joy in dancing and singing and was especially proud of singing with The Redmen Group.

Derek was an honourable man, always ready to share a joke or tell a "wee" story.

Because of these qualities he was immensely liked by all who were lucky enough to know him.

He maintained his sharp wit, twinkle in his eye and a keen zest for life right till the end.

A memorial service will be held at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto, Funeral Centre (enter through east gate). 11:00 a.m. - 2:30 p.m.

A brief time of refreshments and fellowship will follow the service.

WALTER GEORGE PITMAN

"The arts are, above all, how we express the finest elements of our humanity - our understanding, our compassion, our caring, and our love."

Walter was a remarkable man who led a remarkable life. Keen, vibrant, and insatiably curious, he supported the arts, social justice, environment, and education - everything that is good and right. A man of rare integrity, he fought passionately for equality and justice. And he did so with compassion, kindness, and joy.

Walter was born in 1929 in Toronto to Ernest and Elsie (Kendrick) Pitman. In 1952, he married the love of his life, Florence Ida Collinge (1925-2016). They lived a life of great beauty, generously supporting artistic communities and cultural institutions; almost every day of the week attending opera, film, galleries, museums, symphony, theatre, book launches, and choral concerts. Their home was both a gallery and meeting place, celebrating their commitment to creativity and family. Ida herself was a master spinner and weaver, and together they sought out craftspeople all over the world.

Always on the go, Walter was an avid marathoner, skier, sailor, piano player, and choir singer. With Ida, he was a dedicated member of the Trinity St. Paul's church.

Walter and Ida had four children, their pride and joy: Wade (Mary), Cynthia Lynn (Don), Mark (Jeanne-Marie), and Anne (James). They adored their grandchildren: Matthew (Esmaralda), Lisa (Sascha), Dan (Alison), Jeremy (Heather), Diana, Jaclyn, Blair, Josh (Jennifer), Zoe, Alexandre, Jared, Kieran (Charlie), Noah (Taylor). They were beyond delighted to welcome greatgrandchildren: Sebastian, Callista, Xavier, Keagan, Mackenzie, Dexter, Walter, Julian, Isla, and Kai. Adam and Val were cherished family, found later in life.

Walter Pitman began his career as a dedicated high school history teacher at Kenner Collegiate in Peterborough, quickly becoming the head of the History department at Langstaff Secondary School in Richmond Hill. In 1960 he made history by becoming the first New Democratic Party (New Party) Member of Parliament for Peterborough, where he and Ida made their first family home. Passionate about education, he became the Dean of Arts and Science at what was then, a new Trent University. In 1967, he was elected as a member of the Ontario Legislature for the NDP where he became a well respected Education Critic, chair of the NDP caucus, and, in 1970, Deputy Leader of the Ontario NDP. After a short time, he turned back to education where he eventually was offered the Presidency of Ryerson Polytechnic Institute (now Ryerson University). Here, he immediately brought his penthouse office down to the ground floor in order to more accessible to students. Pitman Hall, a residence at Ryerson, was named after both Walter and Ida, at Walter's insistence. After Ryerson he moved on to be Executive Director of the Ontario Arts Council and then Director of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. He was a proud Member of the Order of Ontario and an officer of the Order of Canada. He was the Chair of Elderhostel Canada, Ontario Education Association, Canadian Association for Adult Education, Energy Probe, Arts Education Council, Canadian Civil Liberties Association, Project Ploughshares, and Interim Waste Authority. Walter was a Member of the Board of National Ballet of Canada, Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, Toronto Children's Chorus, and Campaign Against Child Poverty, and was one of the founders and on the steering committee of For Our Grandchildren. He wrote for the Peterborough Examiner and submitted a weekly column at the Toronto Star. In "retirement," he became an accomplished author of five books, supporting arts in education, and official biographer for Louis Applebaum, Harry Freidman and Mary Morrison, Elmer Eisler, and Victor Feldbrill. Walter's awards and accolades are just too many to mention.

Walter died gracefully, in love, surrounded by his family.

To honour Walter's lifelong generosity of spirit, please consider a donation to The Stephen Lewis Foundation, Orpheus Choir Toronto, For Our Grandchildren, or the Parkinson's Society.

A celebration of Walter's exemplary life will take place on Friday, June 22 at 7 p.m. at Trinity St. Paul's United Church at 427 Bloor Street West, Toronto.

Reception to follow.

DONALD C. POSTERSKI

Don Posterski died at home surrounded by family, June 13, 2018 at the age of 76. He is survived by his wife of 56 years, Beth; son, Jeff (Diane); daughter, Brenda (Mike); grandchildren, Kyra, Caleb, Rowan, Kieran, Skye; sister, Donna; and brother, Brian (Kai).

"Life doesn't always go in a straight line," was one of Don's many invented expressions of wisdom and insight. Known for his leadership and influence in the Christian church community, Don was an extraordinary teacher, speaker, writer, leader and mentor, as well as a wonderful husband, dad and grandpa.

Memorial service is on Sunday, June 24, 2018 at Tyndale Chapel, 3377 Bayview Ave, Toronto.

Visiting with family and friends is at 2:00 p.m., with service at 4:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations in Don's honour may be made to Christie Refugee Welcome Centre, Tyndale University College & Seminary or World Vision Canada.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

INNA RUVINSKAYA

P.Eng.

Our beloved mother, sister and grandmother, Inna Ruvinskaya, P.Eng., passed away gracefully on Sunday, May 13, 2018. Born July 2, 1936 in Leningrad (St.

Petersburg), Russia, she survived WWII in a livestock barn, rose to national rank as a gymnast and earned a Masters degree in Electrical Engineering from Leningrad Polytechnical University.

In 1977 Inna made the courageous decision to start a new life along with her two young children in Canada where she met Fred Thoms, her husband of 30 years.

Together they raised children and grandchildren, travelled the world, skied, and cruised offshore on their sailboat.

Inna was the first woman from the USSR to become a Licensed Canadian Professional Engineer and she earned a place in The Who's Who of Canadian Women.

Her extraordinary strength, elegance, and daredevil sprirt shaped every moment of her life, through her last.

Inna will be terribly missed and will forever inspire her children, Vladik (Oksana) and Alisa (Tad); her siblings, Lubov, Elena, Boris; and her grandchildren, Renee, Iliya, Joseph, Jesse and Fiona. A memorial service will be held for close friends and family on Inna's 82nd birthday, July 2nd, on her beloved Georgian Bay.

JOY SCHREIBER

Joy Lillian Louise Levitt Schreiber, born in Montreal in 1925. She died peacefully in her sleep on June 14, 2018 - ever dignified. Beloved wife of the late Louis Schreiber.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Hinda and Joel Miller, Bruce and Sherri, Sydney and Cathy, and Tuvia and the late Chaya/ Clare Heller. Dear sister of the late Monty, Eric, and Adrian Levitt.

Devoted grandmother of 11 and great-grandmother of 10. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, June 19, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. Interment in the community section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 111 Avenue Road, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to The McCord Museum Foundation 514-861-6701 ext. 1237. Devoted to family, she was a passionate lover of history, art and culture.

Her final motto was "Don't act it, live it."

LYNNE MARGARET TATE (nee Jarvis)

Passed away peacefully on Thursday, June 7, 2018 at the Bridgepoint Health, Toronto with her family at her side, at the age of 77.

Beloved partner of the late Gary Vasey. Dear mother of Alan Tate and Heidi, Liz Tate and Chris LeBer and Peter Tate. Loving grandma of Ella.

Dear sister of Ross and predeceased by Alan and Dale. Fondly remembered by the Vasey family and by her family and friends.

Friends are invited to visit the family at the Gordon A. Monk Funeral Home Ltd., 127 Bobcaygeon Rd., P.O. Box 427, Minden, K0M 2K0 on Saturday, June 23, 2018 from 11:00 a.m. until the time of the Service to Celebrate Lynne's Life at 1:00 p.m.

Reception to follow in the Monk-Cray Family Centre at the funeral home. Cremation has taken place.

Memorial Donations to the Community Living Haliburton County would be appreciated by the family.

CHRISTOPHER DAVIDSON TOVELL

May 3, 1957 - May 1, 2018 Chris Tovell, of Denver, Colorado, brother of Daniel Massey Tovell of Dahlonega, Georgia, son of the late Dr.

Harold M.M. Tovell and Elizabeth Davidson; predeceased by his brothers, Harold and Craig. Chris grew up in Bronxville, NY. In adulthood he lived in Tucson, AZ and later Denver, CO.

Chris was an aspiring writer, an ardent environmentalist and a committed Democrat.

He is fondly remembered as a generous, thoughtful and very sweet man who made every effort to keep in touch with his far-flung family. As well as his brother Dan, he leaves behind his Canadian cousins Denton Tovell, Susan Moogk, Marianne Muir, Rosemarie Tovell, Pat Skahan and Peter Tovell as well as members of his Davidson family of Toronto.

Interment will take place at a future date at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto.

GILL TRAYNOR (née Greig)

Passed away on June 11, 2018 at the May Court, Ottawa.

Nurtured along the Welland Canal, Gill early showed a genius for friendship which, later in life, stood her in good stead wherever she and husband Tim lived or travelled around Canada and the broader world.

She attended Port Colborne High School and Trinity College at the University of Toronto. Later, in her many family travels, she was adept behind the wheel of any car from Enniskillen to Istanbul.

Friendship was uppermost in her varied life. Devoted mother to Patrick and Adam, she worked as a school teacher in London, England, as a real estate agent, and as a member of teams investigating climate change (BOREAS) and police futures.

She was an art lover and volunteer for Ottawa causes.

Born into a world at war, she knew loss as a child; her stoicism would hardly be expected from her sunny demeanour. Her reserve of stoicism helped sustain her through her lengthy struggle against ALS. She never lost her lightness of heart through that ordeal. Her courage touched the many friends as well as medical and supportteam members who assisted her in ways large and small.

She took particular comfort from the many kindnesses of her niece, Lisa.

Her passing is a grievous loss to her husband and sons; her granddaughter, Georgia; daughter-in-law, Linda; and brother, Ted.

A remembrance of Gill's life will take place at the Billings Estate, 2100 Cabot Street, in Ottawa, between 1:30 p.m.

and 4:00 p.m. on June 28.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the ALS Society of Canada would be welcome.

MICHAEL GERARD ANTHONY VANIER

Peacefully, on Wednesday, June 13, 2018, at Wesburn Manor, Toronto, at the age of 76. Beloved husband of Janet (nee Hardaker) for 38 years. Loving father of Michelle and André, proud and loving grandfather of Sarah and Hannah, dear brother of Clare (Kelly), Anita (Elson), Peter, all of Mississauga; Alan (Lorna) and Bernard (Jill), of England; and Dohne of the U.S.A. Michael will be missed by his many nieces and nephews, by his sister-in-law, Jennifer, and by his friends from Barclays Bank and CIBC.

Special thanks to all the staff at Wesburn Manor for their exceptional care and support.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy. 10, N. of QEW) on Monday from 6 - 9 p.m. Funeral Service to be held in the Chapel on Tuesday, June 19, 2018 at 3 p.m. If desired, remembrances may be made to the Alzheimer Society. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

"I'm going where the sun keeps shining through the pouring rain, going where the weather suits my clothes."

JOHANNA WAGNER "Hanna"

June 10 2018, Toronto

Hanna died as she wished, at home with her family, engaged with the work and people she loved. Her colleagues and career at Environics Analytics brought her joy. Role model, immensely capable lifelong learner, a woman of so many skills and accomplishments - but to us, Hanna was firstly the loveliest mother, wife, and friend. Hanna leaves her children, Julia and Michael; her husband, John (Brady); mother, Elfriede and father, Anton (d. 2013); sisters, Barbara (Paul), Nancy (late Lorne Cave, Charles); and brother, Anthony (Janet).

Hanna loved her Irish family and relished their company Elizabeth, Marie and Michael, and families. Hanna lived many years with cancer under the devoted care of Dr. Zibdawi and doctors and nurses in Newmarket and Toronto. Unstinting in her love, her beautiful personality never dimmed but shone through always. Minutes before she left us, Hanna was organizing flowers on our patio. A celebration of her life will take place in the near future. Condolences only please at https://basicfunerals.ca/obituaries or bostun@gmail.com.

LOUISE WILLS (nee Pinard)

Born November 13, 1932 in Trois Rivieres, Quebec. Passed away on June 13, 2018 in Toronto following a long illness. Beloved wife of the late Ian Malcolm Wills (2000). Loving and much loved mother of Tina (Jeff Green) and Marion (Stephen Robinson). She leaves cherished memories as "Grand" for her grandchildren, Kathryn, Hannah, James and Andrew. She is also survived by her brothers, Raymond (Estelle) and Jean (Helene).

Louise was happiest when she was hosting regular Sunday night dinners with her family, where she showed her considerable skills as a chef and baker. She could often be found on the golf course or at a bridge table, and was a past Ladies Captain at St.

George's Golf and Country Club.

She will be missed by a wide circle of friends at St. George's, Quail Ridge Country Club in Florida, and Royal Montreal in Ile Bizard, Quebec, where she and Ian continued to travel for many years following their move to Toronto. The family would like to extend our gratitude to the staff at The Village of Humber Heights for the care they provided to Louise, especially over the last several months.

As per Louise's wishes, a private family service will take place. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Alzheimer Society (http://www.alz.to) would be appreciated. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

SAILLE BROCK ABBOTT

December 3, 1962 June 16, 2008

A life of love, Compassion and Generosity Never forgotten, Always missed Mum and Dad, Heather, Jenn and Andie "May the beauty you love, be what you do"

COLIN GEOFFREY BOONE

Born in Toronto, Ontario on April 27, 1977, and died on Georgian Bay, Ontario on June 16, 2012.

His father, Geoffrey, sister, Jennifer, loving family and friends honour Colin's courage, wisdom and goodness.

Colin was raised by his parents, Geoffrey and Elaine in Toronto, Canada and then in Hilton Head, South Carolina before his return to Canada. Colin found fulfillment and achieved in sports, Outward Bound, the arts and academic pursuits. He was brilliant and charming. Also a natural helper and led by his love of children, Colin created a high school mentoring program for younger students. He graduated Salutatorian of his class and attended McGill University.

Early in adulthood Colin's life was changed by the onset of a devastating mental illness that he fought with immense resourcefulness and bravery. Even in the face of terrific emotional hardship, Colin could draw from within himself love, fortitude and grace. He extended kindness to strangers and had a deeply felt desire to create a better world.

In Colin's life and in his last stand to create peace out of chaos, he was heroic.

Now through the night there shines the light of a spirit that is free... to fly. Gone forever but never forgotten and always will be in our hearts.

-The Boone Family

LAURAK ATHERINE GRAHAM

November 27, 1997 June 18, 2016

Unable are the Loved to die For Love is Immortality...

Emily Dickinson With love, Mom, Dad and Matt

HARRY MITZ C. G.

June 17, 1913

Tomorrow, Father's Day, would have been Harry's 105th birthday. We remembered him in the Globe on June 17, 2013, and again on June 24, 2014, sharing many Harry "Mitzizms." You would have been very lucky to have known Harry. He was one of a kind. His enduring legacy of good deeds and life lessons live on forever.

Love, Hilda, Lewis, Wendy, Melanie, Barry, Jeffrey and Sephi, 10 grandchildren, 11 great-grandchildren, 3 dogs, (Sunny, Mitzi and Bailey).

"For those who dream there is no such thing as impossible."

ROBERT LAVOIE

June 14, 1946 June 17, 2017

We little knew that evening, 1 year ago today, God was to call your name.

In life we loved you dearly, In death we do the same.

It broke our hearts to lose you, You did not go alone.

For part of us went with you The day God called you home.

You left us beautiful memories, Your love is still our guide, And though we cannot see you, You are always at our side.

Our family chain is broken And nothing seems the same, But as God calls us one by one, The chain will link again.

With all our love, Your cherishing family, devoted wife, Suzanne; adoring children, Michel and Marie-Claude; loving son-in-law, Adrian; admiring grandchildren, Ava, Brandon, Liam and Olivia; and caring stepchildren, Philippe and Paul.

SARAH BETH THERIEN

In loving memory of our precious Sarah Beth. We miss you each day and are thankful for the wonderful memories. You still live on through your legacy of organ donation, being the first donor after cardiac arrest (DCD) death in Canada.

From June 17, 2006 to May 31, 2018 there were 1,540 lives saved by DCD donors in Ontario. During that same period there were 689 DCD donors in the province. In 2017, DCD donors accounted for 31% of the deceased organ donors in Ontario. All of this because of something that started with your kindness and caring spirit! Way to go Sarah Beth! Forever loved-Mom, Dad, Chris, Diana, Isabella, Ava, Alexa and Chris Jr and the Bowie and Therien families.

Thanks to the commitment of Trillium Gift of Life Network, Ontario's government agency responsible for organ and tissue donation and transplantation, more lives are being saved than ever before. However, despite the increases in both donation and transplant, the need continues to outweigh the number of organs available for transplant.

Today, 1,500 people in Ontario are waiting for a lifesaving organ transplant, and every three days someone dies waiting because they didn't receive a transplant in time. But there is something every Ontarian can do to help -register as an organ and tissue donor at http://www.BeADonor.ca.

ISABEL KATHARINE WARREN

June 25, 1994 - June 16, 2009 Our loss is the Father's gain.

Missed every moment of every day.

Love Always Mom, Dad, Joss and Theo 'Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged; the Lord God will be with you wherever you go.' Joshua 1:9

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B17


SALLIE ANN CATY May 30, 1942 - June 19, 2018

It is with profound sadness that Sallie's family announce her passing at home in her bed after a long and determined battle with pancreatic cancer.

Sallie was the best friend, soul mate and wife of Charlie to whom she was married for 54 years. She was the loving mother of Julie (Jeff Roy), Nicole (Angelo Perri) and Charles. She was Nana to Pierre and Nathalie Roy. She is survived by her brother, Barry (Jane) of St John's, NL.; and sisters, Heather Shortus (Keith) of Australia and Gail Krija (Peter) of Hamilton, ON.

She was the eldest daughter of Scott and Lorraine Mackay (native Montrealers) and was born in Fredericton and raised in Rothesay, N.B. She graduated from Netherwood in 1959 and from the Montreal General Hospital in 1961 as an X-Ray technician.

Sallie was well known for her positive attitude, inner strength and self discipline and yet she cared a great deal about people. She maintained life-long friendships with her grade school and Netherwood friends as well as with the people she met and roomed with in Montreal. She loved her extended family and worked hard at maintaining regular contact with all of them.

How she handled her 14 month battle with cancer is a lesson for all: she was so courageous and never once complained about the fate that had befallen her and maintained an incredible attitude through it all. From the very beginning her motto was: "It is what it is."

She will always be remembered as a very accomplished duplicate bridge player having become life master many years ago. She enjoyed playing competitive bridge and had many partners. Many of these go back 43 years from a group better known as the DDD. She participated in many Canadian and American National and Regional tournaments and truly enjoyed the rush that these provided.

Sallie enjoyed many sports and for many years was an active curler and tennis player. She was a longtime member of the Caledon Ski Club and golfed regularly at Mississaugua Golf & Country Club, where she served a term as Lady Golf Captain and the Bellair Country Club in Florida where she spent 25 glorious winters at her gulf-side condo on Sand Key, Clearwater.

Sallie and Charlie travelled extensively. Over the years, they visited 47 countries, every Canadian province and 38 US states. This was done by way of 15 ocean and river cruises and numerous land tours.

A private funeral service will be held for immediate family members only. A celebration of life reception will be held at the Mississaugua Golf & Country Club at 3 p.m. on August 12, 2018.

The family would also like to thank the Oakville Palliative team and Doctor Lynne Benjamin and Nurse Angela Tranquilla in particular for their compassionate support during these trying times.

In lieu of flowers, the family would ask you to consider making a charitable donation to the Wellspring Cancer Support Foundation of Oakville or to Ian Anderson House. Online condolences may be left at http://www.koprivataylor.com.

DIANE ELIZABETH ETTLES

April 27, 1937 - May 10, 2018

On Thursday, May 10, 2018, in Victoria we said goodbye to our Beloved Diane Ettles (Gigi).

Diane was born on April 27, 1937 in Welland, Ontario. After a wonderful teaching career in Toronto, Diane moved to Sidney, BC to enjoy her early retirement.

In the Spring of 1993, Diane moved to Quadra and settled on the Loop with her beloved dogs, Jazzy and Singer. Although Diane was retired, she wasn't one to sit still for very long. Soon after arriving and building her new house, she organized the branch of the Arthritis Society Group for Quadra Island and volunteered many hours. She enjoyed music, traveling, gardening, crosswords and sports. She was an avid reader and visiting the library was one of her favourite outings. We met Diane just as her new house was being finished.

Diane had never married nor had children of her own so we simply adopted her! She became an important part of our lives and over the years never missed the special events. She moved back to Sidney to be closer to the kids once they left home to go to college. Sidney was perfect for her. We continued to visit and spending time with her regularly over the years.

When two grandchildren were added, Diane became "Gigi."

Weekly visits with the little ones were exciting for her. She looked forward to reading to them, expanding their knowledge like a great teacher would do.

Diane may have been challenged by her Rheumatoid Arthritis for many years but didn't let it slow her down. She taught us so many great lessons in dealing with life and its many challenges, it was remarkable. Her health may have let her down the last few years, but Diane was ready to tackle whatever came next with the same spirited energy, courage and determination.

Her passing may create a void in our heart, but she will be loved forever! She leaves behind one sister, Barbara, and her adopted family, Jason, Alexandra, Tommy, Lilianne, and her darling Marina and Ethan! Arrangements entrusted to Island Funeral Services/Elk Falls Crematorium, Campbell River, BC, 250-287-3366.

J. PETER GIFFEN

James Peter Giffen passed away on June 14, 2018, after a brief illness.

Peter began his 82 year adventure as "Pete," starting life above the Giffen family hardware store in Port Hope, Ont., with his parents, Jim and Marie, older sister, Joan and soon to be joined by his cousin, Betty. Peter attended Trinity College School in Port Hope, where he excelled at hockey and football.

He attended the University of Toronto followed by Osgoode Law School, where he graduated and was called to the Bar in 1963.

After practising law in Toronto, the family moved to Kitchener in 1966 where Peter practised with Sims, Giffen McKinnon, and subsequently, founded Giffen Law in 1981, where he mentored until his retirement in 2006.

Peter was named a Queen's Counsel in 1975, and was certified in civil litigation. His love of the law was a natural fit for his love of debate and analysis, both in the court room, including the Supreme Court of Canada, and around the dinner table.

He had a love of family, friends and life; whether it be the years on Georgian Bay, skiing the world, canoe trips, family road trips, mastering the patio, if not the course at Westmount Golf Club, his famous Sunday night dinners on Corfield Road in Kitchener, or the farm outside of Kincardine.

To Peter nothing mattered more than family and friends.

If there was a need, he figured out a way to fill it. He did the little things, and through that, accomplished much in his life.

He dedicated countless evenings and weekends to academic and charity boards, as well supporting political causes and candidates, from local to federal.

His love, guidance, wit and neverending advice will be remembered everyday by his wife, Kathryn; and his three children, Heather (Lorna), James (Maria), and Julie (Paul). He will be missed by his grandchildren, Sam, Emmy, Paige, and Ainsley; his sister, Joan; cousin, Betty; his former wife, Mike; as well as his California and Quebec nieces and nephews. Peter was a man not soon forgotten.

Beati Mundo Corde.

In the spirit of Peter, the family will share a toast to his life on Wednesday, June 27th from 4 - 7 p.m. at the Charcoal Steakhouse, 2980 King St E., Kitchener.

Please visit http://www.henrywalser.com Peter's memorial.

DEANNA KAMIEL

Passed away in her lovely apartment in New York City, on Thursday, June 14, 2018. Beloved daughter to the late Morris and Helen. Dear sister and sister- inlaw of Mitchell and Caroline, and Jeffrey. Loving Aunt of Ella and Barry, Chandra and Daniel, Aaron and Shannon, and Sarah and Shelly. Beloved great-aunt to Andrew, Alexis, Jacob, and Jesse, and great-great-aunt to Ahliya.

She will be sadly missed by her students and collegues at The New School and past students at SUNY Purchase. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West(3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, June 20, 2018 at 11:30 a.m. Interment in the Community section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Memorial donations my be made to The Deanna Kamiel Memorial Fund c/o Benjamin Foundation 416-780-0324 http://www.benjamins.ca.

DR. LALIA ANGELA JOHNSTON

It is with great sadness that we express the loss of Dr. Lalia Angela Johnston.

She passed away peacefully surrounded by her family in Halifax, Nova Scotia on the evening of June 11, 2018 at the age of 82.

Lalia was named after her grandmothers - Lalia May (Mason) Dauphinee and Susan Angela Cecelia (Devlin) Morash. She was known to many as either Sisser, or Duff as her name was often a challenge for some to pronounce.

She was born at home in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia on April 6, 1936 to proud parents, Gertrude and Wesley Dauphinee. She remained a loving sister, mother, grandmother, aunt, great-aunt and friend. She was the sister of the late Charles Dauphinee and survived by her sisters, Joyce Boland, Eileen Irwin and her husband, Artie, and her sister-in-law, Sharyn Dauphinee. Lalia was the loving wife of the recently deceased, Dr. Dennis Johnston. They were married on September 3, 1960 spending nearly 60 years together.

She grew up being an enthusiastic athlete with a particular love of swimming, tennis, skating and baseball. She was also an accomplished violinist. Above all else Lalia was known for her love of fashion. Whether she was going to a lavish event or just hanging around home, she was dressed to the nines. She was bold and elegant with her fashion choices which was a reflection of her personality in general. It should also come as no surprise that her hair and nails were perfectly polished for her grand entrance into Heaven.

Lalia was an active member in student affairs at Greenvale Dartmouth High School. She was the President of Students' Council, Editor of the Spectator Yearbook and Glee Club. She was awarded the IODE Scholarship to Dalhousie on graduation. At the age 17 Lalia started her Bachelor of Science at Dalhousie University. In her last year, she applied to Dalhousie Medical School and was accepted right away. She graduated from Dalhousie Medical School in 1962, receiving the Dr. R.O. Jones Award for "Distinction in Psychiatry" at the graduation ceremony. Lalia met her husband Denny at Dalhousie University while she was completing her Bachelor of Science. Denny had convinced her to apply for Medical school and in 1956 she became one of four women in the class with over 80 men. She was a true trail blazer, completing medical school and going on to practice at the Nova Scotia Hospital for her entire career. One of her other major accomplishments were being a wonderful mother to Dennis, Stephen and Susan while working full time, a rarity in her day. She was an active participant in the Junior League and an active member of the First Baptist Church and became its first female Deacon in 1976. She remained and avid and world-traveling skier as long as she could.

She loved travelling with Denny and they had many exciting adventures.

She remained an avid traveler well into her 70's. She took her diagnosis of Parkinson's in stride and tackled it with her usual tenacity with which we are all familiar. As Lalia's Parkinson's progressed, it became more difficult for her to travel with Denny and she would often express how much she missed him while he was away. When Denny took a turn for the worse in Barbados earlier this year, she got ready to see him at the hospital as if she were getting ready for their first date. Denny was Lalia's first true love and after his death she said she was unsure of how she would go on without him. Ironically, Denny died four months to the day before Lalia. The unmeasurable love that they shared is truly admirable and we can all find peace in knowing that their souls are once again connected in harmony. Denny and Lalia will be not only be missed individually but will be missed as a whole.

Lalia handled aging with grace and dignity and enjoyed life until the end.

She was an incredibly strong and resilient woman but was also a kind and thoughtful person with a generous heart. Lalia was so proud of her family.

She enjoyed watching her children grow up to become accomplished adults, knowing that they were an extension of her. She was known to protect them at any cost. Lalia's loyalty was deeply felt by those close to her. Her determination to stay connected to those she loved was uncanny.

She recently advanced her technological capabilities so she could FaceTime her friends and family on a regular basis on her iPad.

Lalia will be deeply missed by her sons, Dennis and Stephen; and her daughter, Susan; daughters-in-law, Monica and Rebecca; grandsons, Jack, Scott, Spencer and Austin; her step-granddaughter, Melanie and her husband, Travis and their children, Aidan and Liam.

A celebration of her life will be held on Tuesday, June 26th at 2:00 p.m. at the First Baptist Church located at 1300 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

A reception will follow in the church parlor. If you wish, donations may be made to Parkinson's Society. Pease send any wishes or condolences to the Johnston family to the following email address - family@johnston.gs.

JOSEPH R. LEFORTE

Passed away peacefully on June 14, 2018 in Toronto, Ontario, at the age of 82 years. Born in New Waterford, son of the late Simon and Mary (Dewan) LeForte.

Joseph is survived by sister, Mary McNamara; and sister-in-law, Margaret LeForte. Joe is held firmly in the hearts of many nieces and nephews in Nova Scotia, as well as his extended family and close friends in Toronto.

Until his retirement, he was engaged in Human Resources.

His ability to listen was a singular quality of his success.

Joe was a gentleman and will be remembered with admiration and respect for his love for family and close-knit friends, for his gentle grace, and the warmth of his humour. He loved to travel, especially to the British Isles, and found his entrance to music through his passion for opera. He will be greatly missed. Joseph was predeceased by parents; brother, Greg; and brother-in-law, Charles McNamara.

A Requiem Liturgy will be celebrated, at a later date, in his home parish of St. Lenard's Catholic Church, New Waterford, Nova Scotia.

THEODORE JOSEPH MUYSTRA "Ted" April 29, 1930 June 16, 2018

It is with deep sadness that the family announces Ted's peaceful passing at home after a lengthy and valiant battle with pancreatic cancer.

Ted was the loving and beloved husband of Lorraine for twenty years. Cherished and devoted husband of Jenny (nee Buraski; d. 1992). He will be lovingly remembered by his children, Stephen Muystra (Donna), Christina Muystra (Sergio Medina) and Karen Mackay (James); grandchildren, Andrew Muystra, Peter Holland and Gabriella Medina and Jennifer Mackay and Valerie Hetherington (Michael).

Also adoringly remembered by his sister, Janet Marshall (David, d. 2008) and niece and nephews, Elizabeth Greenway (Ken), Anthony Marshall (Ai) and Glen Marshall (Anita) and their children, Nathan, Teerah and Eisa, and Trevor. Ted's stepchildren Andrea Murphy (Jeffrey) and Matthew Cooper (Meredith Cossitt) will miss him dearly, as will his grandchildren Emma, Lauren and James Murphy.

Ted was a warm and generous person who loved to laugh and bring joy to everyone around him. We will miss his stories and kind heart. Rest in peace, Tadju/ Dad/Gigi/Teddy. It was certainly a life well lived.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W. (East of the Jane subway) on Friday, June 22, 2018 beginning at 10 a.m. until the time of the Funeral Service at 11 a.m.

Reception to follow at the Yorke Chapel. Private family interment at Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

Flowers gratefully declined.

As expressions of sympathy, donations to The Princess Margaret Hospital or The Dorothy Ley Hospice would be sincerely appreciated.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

MIRIAM JEAN NIXON (nee Loheed) March 22, 1924 - June 18, 2018

Miriam was born and raised in Toronto. She received her public education at Forest Hill Village School, and the University of Toronto (University College). In May 1943 she joined the Women's Royal Canadian Navy Service (WRENS), where she was trained as a Wireless Telegrapher SO.

She spent the remainder of the war monitoring German coded messages to their U-boats, and occasionally outgoing messages.

She vividly recalled and told the story many times about the night a U-boat was detected in the St. Lawrence River on her watch.

In October of 1945 she was honourably discharged from the Navy to attend the University of Toronto. After graduation with a B.A. Miriam had a career in the fashion industry and in 1948 she married John Ridgeway (Hank) Nixon. John predeceased her in November, 2007. She is survived by their four children, Brad (Carol) of Toronto and Niagara on the Lake, Craig (Shirley) of Calgary, Kerri (Graham Sant) of Bath, England and Niagara-on-theLake, and Kathy (Garth Stapon) of Hamilton; grandchildren, Leslie, Lauren, Kristen, Sean, Claire, Brenna, Kenneth and Meredith; and great-grandchildren, Willa, Dechlan and Ainsley. Her brother, Gordon of Unionville, Ontario predeceased her in January of 2007. She is fondly remembered by his children, Stewart, David (Ursula) and Mardi.

John and Miriam raised their family in Don Mills and in 1970 the family moved to Winnipeg where Miriam lived until October 2009 when she moved to Niagara-onthe-Lake. Throughout her life Miriam was an avid volunteer in many organizations in Toronto and Winnipeg. In Toronto her volunteer activities included the United Church Women (Life Member) and the Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples. In Winnipeg she was a volunteer with the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, United Way of Winnipeg and St. Andrews River Heights United Church. At the age of 52 in 1976 she joined the staff of the United Way of Winnipeg for ten years, following that she worked for the Canadian Mental Health Association and retired in 1994. On arrival in Niagaraon-the-Lake, Miriam joined Grace United Church and was an active member.

Miriam will always be remembered for her many valued friendships, her significant contribution to the community and as a dedicated and loving wife, mother, grandmother and great-grandmother.

Special thanks to Irene and Helen of LHIN Home and Community Care, and the staff at Hospice Niagara.

Donations, in lieu of flowers, can be made to your local United Way, Hospice Niagara or the charity of your choice.

A memorial service will be held Saturday June 23, 2018, 1.00 p.m. at Grace United Church, Niagaraon-the-Lake.

GORDON F.R. NORTON

P. Eng Peacefully on Monday, June 18, 2018 at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre Residence in his 94th year. Predeceased by his beloved wife, Charlotte and his brothers, Robert and Stan. Loving father and fatherin-law of Catharine (Timothy Hann), Chris (Noelle), and Paul. He leaves cherished memories as "Pops" for his grandchildren, Patrick (Kristy), Doug, Carolyn (John Critchley), Cole, Blaire and Greer. Pops will be dearly missed by his greatgrandchildren, Jaxon, Taylor, Summer, and Brodie.

Growing up on the Toronto Islands shaped his lifelong love of sailing. Devoted friend, former Olympian and past Commodore of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club.

The family would like to extend their sincerest gratitude to the entire staff at Sunnybrook with special mention of the exceptional care provided by Carlene, Andrew, Diane, and Alvin and also by PSW Modupe. Friends may call at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. W. Toronto, from 6-8 p.m. on Thursday, June 21, 2018. Private family service will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, donations to Sunnybrook Foundation (416-480-4483) (donate.sunnybrook.com/ tribute) or to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

STEPHEN PRIME

Passed away on Saturday, June 16, 2018 at age 62. Cherished husband of 40 years to Mary (Marshall), the love of his life. Loving father of Allison, Eric, and Heather (Scott Sinclair). Son of the late Joan and late Eric Prime. Dear brother of Jan (Tim) Bryant, Dave (Linda), Andrew (Lisa Verdon), and Anne (Mike) Donald. Adored uncle of 15 nieces and nephews.

Steve was born in Ottawa, Ontario in 1955. He received an Economics degree from the University of Western Ontario in 1977 and a Masters in Economics from Queens University in 1978. He had a fulfilling 30 year career at the Royal Bank of Canada before retiring in 2010.

Steve was a Christian leader who committed himself to worship and education at Kingsway-Lambton United Church, his community from which he received so much in return. His calling was to serve individuals both near and dear to him and strangers the same. He will surely be missed by all those whose lives he touched.

Right up until the final day of his life, Steve was dedicated to music, specializing as a violinist and recently exploring the mandolin and ukulele. He was a hard-core cyclist who climbed with his beloved Mary in Gatineau Park, Quebec, the Pyrenees in France, and everywhere in between. He was a hockey teammate on the Flying Magoos, a hockey coach for the Humber Valley Sharks, an avid reader, and a mentor to many.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W. (East of the Jane subway) on Thursday from 2 - 4 and 6 - 9 p.m. Funeral Service will be held at KingswayLambton United Church, 85 The Kingsway, Toronto on Friday, June 22, 2018 at 1 p.m. If friends so desire, memorial donations may be made to KingswayLambton United Church, Connect Leadership Ministries, or to Hockey Helps the Homeless.

Flowers graciously declined.

M. ELIZABETH WILSON

Passed away peacefully at the Birchmere Retirement Home, Orillia on Sunday, June 17, 2018 at age 78. Beloved wife of Henry Wilson for 51 years.

Loving mother of David (Petra) and Myles. Proud grandmother of Lukas. Dear sister of Patricia Howard (Bill) and Margaret Scheuneman (John).

Visitation will be held Tuesday, June 26, from 2 to 4 p.m. and 7 to 9 p.m. at Mundell Funeral Home, 79 West Street North, Orillia, (705)325-2231.

A funeral service will be held at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, 99 Peter St. North, Orillia, Wednesday June 27th at 11 a.m. Interment service at 2 p.m. for extended family at St. George's Fairvalley Cemetery, Coldwater.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Soldiers Memorial Hospital (Dialysis unit), 170 Colborne Street West, Orillia.

RD REID

Was born on September 22, 1944 and died on June 20, 2017. He was a writer, actor and director. He was the beloved youngest son of Marion D. Reid. Remembered forever in the hearts of his family with love and respect.

Funeral arrangements later.

My beloved RD, light of my life. 27 years ago you captured my heart and soul forever.

Love always, Heather Lee.

Blowing smoke and making deals
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Terry Booth wants to make Aurora Cannabis the biggest marijuana grower in the country. The question is whether he's a visionary, or an overambitious spendthrift riding one of the most thrilling bubbles since the dot-com era
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By CHRISTINA PELLEGRINI
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B6


Cannabis entrepreneur Terry Booth wants to be the king of pot. Today, he is more like a Trumpian master of superlatives.

Ask him about the quality of marijuana his company produces and he'll assure you it's "the best bud without a doubt." His cultivators? "The best growers in the world." His executive team? "Better than anyone else's." Everything is the best or the biggest.

Uncouth and unapologetic, the 54year-old chief executive officer of Aurora Cannabis Inc. is miles apart from your typical public-company executive overseeing a business with a market capitalization worth $5-billion. Mr.

Booth peppers his often hyperbolic speech with expletives. He talks candidly about drinking and getting high.

He never misses Vancouver's 4/20 bash, the annual protest against prohibition that doubles as the country's biggest pot party.

He is not shy about admitting that this is his second turn as a marijuana dealer; his first was in high school. But the stakes are a lot bigger this time around. Aurora is regulated by Health Canada. It employs more than 900 people. It sells its cannabis to thousands of patients suffering from ailments ranging from cancer to chronic pain and will soon expand into Canada's recreational pot market.

It has raised an eye-popping $779million from investors, who are hoping that Mr. Booth's company is positioning itself to win big in the looming global green rush. By stock market value, Aurora is the country's secondlargest marijuana producer; it's worth more than long-established Canadian firms such as Maple Leaf Foods Inc.

and global auto-parts maker Linamar Corp. It's even larger than the parent company of the Toronto Stock Exchange.

It already seems like a lot for a company that, two years ago, was languishing on a junior market as a penny stock and that has generated revenues of less than $50-million in the past 12 months. But for Terry Booth, too much is never enough.

Fuelled by investors' giddy excitement about the potential of the global cannabis market, Aurora is using its easy access to capital and inflated valuation to finance an epic run of deals and expansion moves in Canada - where it now has production facilities in Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan and Alberta - as well as overseas. It has also snapped up a bunch of ancillary businesses, such as a greenhouse design firm and a German cannabis distributor, and taken partial stakes in others, including three rival producers, a chain of liquor stores in Alberta, a lab for testing cannabis and soft-gel and wafer makers.

Mr. Booth's extraordinary shopping spree is making enemies, winning friends and turning heads. In January, Aurora bought CanniMed Therapeutics Inc., Canada's oldest medicinal marijuana supplier, for a record $1.2billion after putting its target into play with a hostile bit. Then in April, he dwarfed that deal by purchasing MedReleaf Corp., one of the largest producers, for $3.2-billion. Aurora is on track to overtake Canopy Growth Corp. for the No. 1 spot.

Mr. Booth has proven he's a great salesman. He's done big deals, raised a pile of money and acquired patients in Canada's already highly-competitive medical marijuana business. He talks a big game about Aurora's potential.

He boasts about selling billions of dollars of pot.

But as the Canadian industry braces for legalization of recreational marijuana in the coming months, some wonder whether the company is stretching itself too thin. In any industry in which the money is flowing easily and investors are bullish - and that certainly applies to the pot industry right now - there are CEOs who use the moment to make a series of splashy acquisitions. Often, it doesn't end well.

All these deals have left Mr. Booth with a mixed bag of assets. Finding a way to successfully integrate them, while also amping up production at an evergrowing roster of facilities, could prove challenging for a CEO who has already shown he's prone to a short attention span.

"There's a lot going on," says Jason Zandberg, an analyst at PI Financial Corp. "If the integration turns into a distraction, then they have fewer resources to put forward to capture market share."

Privately, others put it this way: It's not clear yet whether Booth is a pot-industry visionary or an overambitious spendthrift who is cashing in on one of the most thrilling bubbles that investors have seen since the dot-com boom and bust.

What is clear is that the time for talking is coming to an end. As Canada prepares to legalize recreational pot, Aurora and its competitors need to prove they can grow enough product, attract enough buyers and make money in the process.

But Mr. Booth isn't done talking.

He's too caught up in the rush that comes from running a company that's become the new darling of the TSX.

Where others see bubbles, Booth sees a massive, global market that's his for the taking. "It's about winning," he says. "It's about being the very best cannabis company in the world."

In mid-March, Aurora's flagship facility on land leased from the Edmonton airport is a muddy and busy construction site. You can drive around all 800,000 square feet - beware of the 200 workers and their dozens of moving trucks - but the best way to really see it all is from 1,000 feet in the air.

From the front seat of a rented helicopter, the $135-million building looks massive. Dubbed Aurora Sky, the place is a big jump for Aurora, whose first and, for the longest time, only, facility an hour outside Calgary is about 55,000 square feet.

When it starts operating at full tilt sometime in 2019, Sky is slated to yield 100,000 kilograms of weed a year. And it will do it with just three times the work force of its Calgary-area facility, as machines automate much of the work.

Mr. Booth can't resist describing the new facility in world-beating terms.

"It's not only the very best cannabis greenhouse in the world," he says. "It's the best greenhouse in the world." he brags. (Later, the company clarifies that, technically, Sky is not a greenhouse, but an indoor facility with a glass roof.) He may not sweat that detail, but he goes out of his way to say that the facility is unlike anything else in agriculture, anywhere in the world, and uses technology imported from Europe that has never before been used to grow cannabis.

"I'm getting excited," he says.

"Aren't you?" Five years ago, Mr. Booth didn't expect to be leading an enterprise like this one. He was semi-retired and playing golf five times a week. An electrician by trade, he made his money as an entrepreneur, and in 2013 he was still the co-owner and president of an Alberta permit and inspection outfit.

That spring, Mr. Booth's long-time business partner, Steve Dobler, had an idea for a new investment: a small medical marijuana grower in the tiny village of Cremona, just northwest of Calgary, called Releaf. Mr. Booth thought he was joking.

But Mr. Dobler pressed the issue. Releaf was producing cannabis in a barn for a few patients and it was looking to grow as a new legal regime was about to come into effect that would expand the medical market. Ottawa was on the verge of blessing a slew of new medical marijuana growers after court decisions forced patient access to the drug, and the Cremona startup was looking for some cash and advice.

Mr. Booth saw the potential, and he and his partner decided to find out more. But they did so in markedly different ways. Mr. Dobler, who now serves as Aurora's president, ran a search on Google. Mr. Booth, on the other hand, embarked on what he calls "his pilgrimage." He reached out to "people who know people who know people who know people" to see first-hand how Canadians grow, sell and use pot.

He wasn't averse to sampling. At a stop at the Vancouver studios of YouTube channel Pot TV, Mr. Booth was offered a hit from an inhalation device called the Subliminator. "I'm not going to say no," he explains. "You can't say no to activists, whacktivists and advocates when they're offering."

It took a couple tries for Mr. Booth to get the Subliminator right. "You have to create the Dyson effect," he explains. "The smoke has to go up in a turbo." The effect? "I was just locked in a smile. I couldn't speak." Then, he says, he walked back to his hotel in the rain in a daze, phoned his wife and "laughed my ass off" watching the news.

On his months-long odyssey, Mr.

Booth toured marijuana operations big and small, legal and illegal, and even some legal operations that abused the medical system by selling product on the side.

In Kelowna, B.C., he saw pot being cultivated in buried shipping containers. "I remember walking down and saying 'Wow, this is cool,' " he recalls. "I was about to take out my camera and then one of the guys says, 'No pictures!'" The most important discoveries, though, were made in B.C. dispensaries. He didn't find stoners inside. Instead, he saw sick people turning to the illegal market for relief. Inside, it was mostly the elderly using canes, walkers and wheelchairs to get around; patients in pain, battling diseases and out of other options.

"I wasn't going to cut a cheque if this was for a bunch of potheads," he says.

"I validated in my own mind that this is truly a medicine. It was an eye-opener."

Sold on the medical marijuana business, he and Mr. Dobler each invested $3-million in Releaf and raised more cash from family and friends. By 2014, the company - which would later be named Aurora - was starting to build what would become its "Mountain" facility in Cremona. In February, 2015, Aurora was licensed to produce cannabis.

In its early days, Mr. Booth drew on the connections he'd made during his pot pilgrimage to cultivate customers in illegal B.C. dispensaries. The company also courted Alberta customers with a promise of same- or next-day delivery. But in order to really grow in Canada's medical market, it needed to access a steady flow of patients.

Mr. Booth recognized the inefficiency of going door-to-door to pitch physicians and nurses about a product they weren't necessarily familiar with, so he set out to acquire clients another way: by buying a pot-counselling service called CanvasRx Inc. Based within a chain of cannabis-focused clinics, the service offered advice to patients about strains of cannabis (individual brands paid to have their pot sold through CanvasRx).

CanvasRx had a patient based of about 10,000, through 17 clinics, most of them in Ontario. Purchasing it would give Aurora access to a sizeable chunk of the market - and an inside look at its competitors' sales within that chain of clinics. But at the time, money was tight. Aurora was burning through cash as it ramped up production, and by early 2016, he was paying his 40 or so employees out of the bank account of his other business, the inspection company he co-owned with Mr. Dobler.

"I couldn't raise $50 - except from my friends and family," Mr.

Dobler recalls. Lenders, such as banks, wanted nothing to do with the sector, and retail investors weren't lining up around the block yet.

But then things started to change. New Prime Minister Justin Trudeau began to outline in 2016 his government's plans to legalize the recreational use of the drug.

Hedge funds entered the fray and started writing big cheques to cashstarved growers such as Aurora. In exchange, the funds demanded concessions that made these trades a lot less risky than just buying shares in the open market. Much of Aurora's cash has been raised by selling debt that could eventually turn into stock at a set price. The holder of the debt gets paid interest along the way, and either gets their money back or converts the loan into shares of a rising stock at a lower price.

In 2016, Canaccord Genuity Inc. led a $23-million financing at 40 cents per

Aurora share. The deal was pivotal for both companies: It marked the first time a weed offering was brought to market by Canaccord, now a dominant investment bank in the space.

And the money helped to finance the purchase of CanvasRx.

That fall, Messrs. Booth and Dobler lent nearly 10 million of their personal shares at no cost to an investor who was buying into two of Aurora's convertible debt deals, according to regulatory filings. Borrowing stock lowers the risk for these investors because it gives them shares they can sell for cash to hedge against falling prices. Stock loans can be pricey and called back at a moment's notice. These ones were free and long term. (The loans are still outstanding, almost two years later.)

"Do I like the fact that I had to lend my shares to them? No," Mr. Booth concedes. "But it was all legal and that's what they needed. It's insurance on the price of the stock - in case the market crashed."

By late 2016, marijuana shares were on a roll. Flush with some cash and fresh off the CanvasRx deal, Aurora's prospects were brightening. But, behind the scenes, its only production facility was in total disarray. Over the course of six harvests, the firm's cultivator had watched their yields tank, from 45 grams per plant to 20 grams.

A maintenance worker who'd spotted rusty valves in the growing rooms had ripped them all out and ordered new ones, but replacements couldn't be delivered for six weeks. In the meantime, Aurora's pot plants lost a much-needed carbon dioxide supply.

Making matters worse, its crops also had thrips, little bugs that can damage plants by blocking light from penetrating during photosynthesis.

It took at least four months to clean up the mess and reach previous production levels.

(Since then, it has improved yields at its various facilities further - in some cases, it's getting 100 grams a plant.)

Many of Aurora's strains sell quickly, Mr.

Booth says. "When we put our Ghost Train Haze, our L.A. Confidential and our Catatonic on our shelves, it's gone," he says, naming three of Aurora's most popular strains of plants. In keeping with his penchant for hyperbole, he added that Aurora's plants are "healthy, big, thick" and way better than what Ontario-based rivals Canopy and Aphria Inc. offer to patients.

"I'm not trying to [crap] on them, but they're not where we are in the grow."

This is a small taste of chest-pounding world of Canadian weed, where Mr.

Booth - and to be fair, many other cannabis executives - are high on at least one thing at any particular time: hubris.

It was an investment in Aurora's biggest rival in the market, Canopy, that may have helped spark investor interest in Aurora itself - and ultimately, fund Mr. Booth's future buying spree.

Last October, global alcohol giant Constellation Brands Inc. bought a stake in Smiths Falls, Ont.-based Canopy, a signal of confidence in the cannabis sector that spurred a memorable, months-long rally in marijuana stocks.

Aurora's shares more than doubled in price in a matter of weeks as new investors rushed in. Emboldened by the rise, Aurora made an unsolicited bid for CanniMed that quickly turned hostile, a battle that Aurora would win by January but one that proved costly because the deal was struck at the top of the market. But Mr. Booth didn't stop there, again using his stock in May to acquire MedReleaf.

The acquisitions fuelled a growing rivalry between Mr. Booth and Canopy CEO Bruce Linton, who made it clear in interviews that he wasn't pleased to see Aurora benefiting from the Constellation deal. When the MedReleaf acquisition was announced in May, the sector's biggest deal to date, Mr.

Linton says it was like spending "a dollar to buy a dime."

Mr. Booth counters the snipe with characteristic swagger. "You don't think the other [licensed producers] were after MedReleaf? Of course they were," he says, singling out one in particular: Canopy. "C'mon man, you were in the game but you fell short.

They didn't like you as much as they liked us. We were a better fit."

For his part, Mr. Linton says he's not looking to buy any more Canadian growers. "I don't wish to have the distraction of trying to integrate disparate assets when the biggest game's starting," he says. "Our big race is to make sure that we ship all the products to all the provinces who said they want it."

Canopy has been busy signing agreements to supply governmentrun store operators with 25,000 kg of non-medical pot a year, announcing deals with three Maritime provinces, Quebec and the Yukon. It's also planning to operate its own stores in provinces where it is legal to do so, such as in Manitoba.

In its bid to keep pace, Aurora has also signed a deal with Quebec, which has asked Aurora to earmark a minimum of 5,000 kg a year of cannabis to fill its stores.

So far, Canopy's leads the industry in terms of production and sales, with 34,569 kg harvested since 2015 and $110 million in recorded sales, compared with 7,000 kg and $62-million for Aurora.

But these growers aren't stopping at the Canadian border. They have their sights set on conquering the world by making inroads in countries that are now legalizing medical marijuana. It's how they justify their outsized valuations, and why they say they won't be dampened by falling prices at home, should legal supply exceed demand in the years to come.

Mr. Booth's goal, however, isn't just to be a big cannabis producer; it's to own a slice of the supply chain. That's why he's bought so many pot-industry companies. But that's where the integration issues could arise.

"It's a significant amount of cultures and operations to integrate under one umbrella," warns Mr. Zandberg, the analyst.

To tackle this tall task, Aurora is relying on André Jérôme, who joined the company this February after Aurora bought his company to lead its integration efforts. Mr. Jérôme is a lawyer who spent decades in the telecom industry, helping giants like Vodafone integrate their acquisitions. "I used to worry about it a lot," Mr. Booth says. "I don't worry about it as much, now that we have the team."

Mr. Booth admits the cultures at CanniMed and Aurora have clashed.

CanniMed is a "regimented company that did everything by the book and never changed," he says. He's assured investors that the MedReleaf transition will be smoother.

Canada's largest marijuana growers are each known for something.

Big and first, that's Canopy. Leamington-Ont.based Aphria is setting the bar for growing cheaply. Aurora is the acquirer, led by a storyteller. And MedReleaf, known for nurturing a patient base that's willing to pay more for its bud, is a big opportunity for Aurora. It has registered revenue of $94-million from selling about 9,100 kg of pot, of which every gram was grown by MedReleaf.

Aurora has been rushing to add more growing capacity as part of its international push. A race is under way to establish a global presence before the U.S. moves to ease restrictions that have thus far kept most global behemoths in the world of pharma, alcohol, packaged goods and retail out of the marijuana sector.

But right now, Aurora says it is having trouble keeping up with demand from Canadian patients alone. It's counting on supply from CanniMed and is expecting its 40,000-squarefoot facility in Quebec to be issued a sales licence within weeks.

Next up is Sky, the new Edmonton facility, but there are still doubts about the grow-op. It's behind schedule - the first harvest will occur this month but it was supposed to take place early this year - and slightly over budget. Then there are worries about quality.

Aurora chief corporate officer Cam Battley admits that three analysts in one week recently told him they heard from speaking with unnamed rival growers that Sky has to be torn down because the cannabis is being polluted by jet fuel and stunted by structural vibrations, caused by being so close to the runway, claims that Mr. Battley says are "demonstrably not true," adding that, "These are active attacks on us and I think I know why: We're shaking things up and making people nervous."

Sky's next test will come in mid-July, when Aurora is scheduled to host analysts and investors for tours. Then, the market will be waiting to see how long it takes Health Canada to issue a sales licence. Proving that Sky actually works should quell fears about two ongoing and even bigger construction projects by Aurora, one in Medicine Hat, Alta., and another in Denmark.

"The best answer to the rumours is just opening up Sky," Mr. Battley says.

"Nobody's going to be able to throw any criticisms at us once we show them the product we are producing."

For Mr. Booth, questions, doubts and criticisms come with the territory.

After all, settling for second best isn't his style.

"We're all these trailblazers, knocking down these doors," he says. "When you're the one knocking down the doors, you know why they were knocked down. It's different than just coming through it afterwards; you didn't even know there was a [expletive] door there."

Associated Graphic

Aurora CEO Terry Booth freely admits this is his second turn as a marijuana dealer; his first was in high school. He is seen with marijuana plants at his company's facility in Edmonton.

PHOTOS BY JASON FRANSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

An Aurora employee tends to marijuana plants. As Canada prepares to legalize recreational pot, Aurora and its competitors need to prove they can grow enough product, attract enough buyers - and make money.

Brian Garland, right, and Mark Oppenheimer prep marijuana clones at Aurora's Sky facility in Edmonton.

JASON FRANSON./THE GLOBE AND MAIL

An Aurora representative talks pot at the O'Cannabiz Conference & Expo held in Toronto this week.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV /THE GLOBE AND MAIL

MATT LUNDY, THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: AURORA CANNABIS

CHRISTINA PELLEGRINI, THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: BLOOMBERG

CARRIE COCKBURN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCES: COMPANIES; BLOOMBERG

CANADIAN WINEMAKER ACCUSED OF SEXUAL MISCONDUCT
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A Globe and Mail investigation reveals a wide-ranging pattern of alleged sexual advances and sexual harassment by vintner Norman Hardie, a major player in Canada's food and wine industry
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By ANN HUI, IVY KNIGHT
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


TORONTO, MONTREAL -- They call him the "King of the County."

In his nearly three decades in the wine business - first as a sommelier at Toronto's Four Seasons and more recently running his namesake winery in Ontario's Prince Edward County - Norman Hardie, 52, has risen to the very top of Canada's food industry, and emerged a superstar in the world of wine. Prince Charles and wife Camilla stopped at the winery during an official royal tour last year. So did Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and his wife, Sophie. Even Barack Obama sampled Mr. Hardie's wines, during a dinner with Mr. Trudeau in Montreal.

An investigation by The Globe and Mail, however, including interviews with more than 50 people (most of them in the wine and food industry), reveals a troubling picture of Mr. Hardie's behaviour.

Many of those interviewed allege gross misconduct took place both within his business and outside of it.

Three women described unwanted sexual contact by the winemaker - instances of groping or kissing while they were working at the winery or at restaurant-industry events.

Eighteen additional people described behaviour that could be characterized as sexual harassment. In interviews, they described requests for sex, lewd comments about sex acts or remarks about their bodies and clothing. Several of them described being deliberately exposed to pornography. A few of the women said it was Mr. Hardie's behaviour that ultimately led them to leave the winery.

In a letter, Mr. Hardie denied many of the allegations.

In regards to the accusations of groping or sexual contact, he wrote, "I do not physically grab people or touch them against their will." (In a later letter, he admitted to one of the claims, from a former employee who told The Globe he tried to kiss her on her first day of work).

He also acknowledged that he may have acted unprofessionally: "I have been made aware [in recent years] that our workplace was not as professional as it should have been, and I realize that it made some people uncomfortable."

He apologized "to those who my behaviour negatively impacted."

'WHO CAN I SAY ANYTHING TO?'

Heather Bruce first met Mr. Hardie in 2011 while working at a downtown Toronto restaurant.

She was responsible for buying the restaurant's wine at the time, and the winemaker would pay regular visits and strike up conversation.

She knew of his experience as a sommelier, of his time spent studying in France and of the buzz he was beginning to receive from international wine critics. She began to view him as a sort of mentor.

By 2015, he'd recruited her to move out to Prince Edward County, about two hours east of Toronto, to work as a manager at the winery's busy pizza restaurant.

Even before she officially began working at the winery, she had volunteered during harvest. On those occasions, Ms. Bruce said, the winemaker made comments asking her to have sex with him.

She laughed off those requests.

Once she began working at the pizza restaurant, however, she said, his behaviour worsened.

On one occasion in October, 2016, she said she accidentally spilled some wine, and apologized to the winemaker. He responded, she said, by saying, "I'll forgive you if you let me grab your boobs." Then, she said, he reached out and grabbed one of her breasts.

And at a party at the winery last summer, she said she was in the midst of greeting the winemaker.

"I was like, 'Hey Norm,' and gave him a hug. And he grabbed my ass."

In his statement, Mr. Hardie said he did not recall the incidents. He called the allegations untrue.

A friend of Ms. Bruce told The Globe that Ms. Bruce told him Mr. Hardie had touched her inappropriately at the time.

But she never reported Mr. Hardie to anyone at the company. She kept the incidents to herself and eventually left the winery.

Sarah Reid stayed quiet about her run-in with Mr. Hardie, too.

Ms. Reid was just 18 years old when she began working at Joe Beef restaurant in Montreal. She considered herself lucky to land a job so young, and at such a celebrated restaurant. Joe Beef is widely regarded as one of Canada's best restaurants. Its owners, David McMillan and Fred Morin, are celebrities in their own right.

So in January of 2016, when the then-20-year-old found herself face-to-face with Mr. Hardie at a tasting event for his wines in Montreal, she was excited. She understood the constellation of influence - the network of Toronto and Montreal restaurateurs - that had Mr. Hardie at its centre. By then, Mr. Hardie's winery had become a clubhouse for celebrity chefs and food-industry power players. Even her boss, Mr. McMillan, who was at the event but on the other side of the room, was a well-known friend of Mr. Hardie's.

She jumped at the chance to talk to the winemaker. "I was young, and trying to soak up as much information as possible," she said.

As they sat talking at a table, Ms. Reid said, the winemaker put his arm around her. A few moments later, she said, he untucked her shirt, and put his hand up her shirt. After that, she said, he slipped his hand down the back of her pants.

Ms. Reid was stunned. "I'm looking around like, 'Who can I say anything to?' " she said.

" 'What am I supposed to do?' "She didn't want to cause a scene.

After Mr. Hardie excused himself to use the restroom, she scrambled out with a friend.

"We ended up leaving the bar, and then I cried to my dad on the phone for, like, an hour."

Her father confirmed details of her account with The Globe.

Another friend whom Ms. Reid confided in a few months later also confirmed the details.

In his letter, Mr. Hardie acknowledged attending the event, but denied the rest of Ms. Reid's account. "I do not recall the person you refer to, but I did not do what is alleged," he wrote.

Like Ms. Bruce, Ms. Reid never reported the incident to Mr. McMillan or to her managers.

She no longer works at the restaurant.

"He's a man. He's much older than I am. He's in a position of power," she said. "It felt and still feels like I have no power in that situation. It doesn't feel at all like my voice would be recognized."

She worried that speaking out against a well-loved figure such as Mr. Hardie would get her blacklisted within the restaurant world.

Ms. Bruce felt the same. She recalled how a friend told her it would be "career suicide" to come forward.

"That's kind of the understanding," she said. "If you go against Norm, you're kind of going against your entire industry." Of the dozens of people interviewed by The Globe - most of them food and beverage industry insiders, who described a range of experiences - the vast majority requested anonymity, citing similar fears as Ms. Bruce and Ms. Reid.

Both women, and the dozens of others interviewed for this story, said Mr. Hardie's behaviour was notable even for an industry in which harassment and abuse is frequent and normalized. Such abuse is tolerated, they said, because employees feel they're replaceable. Many of them are young. Others depend on the jobs for their livelihoods, or to put them through school.

In an interview, Mr. McMillan said it was "gutting" to hear the allegation by one of his former employees. Mr. McMillan said that he only began hearing stories of misconduct surrounding Mr. Hardie earlier this year - around the time The Globe began its investigation.

Since then, he's cut all business ties. His restaurants have removed the wines from their menus. The wine agency that Mr. McMillan has a stake in, Vin Dame-Jeanne, until earlier this year was the importer and distributor of Mr. Hardie's wines in Quebec. It no longer represents Norman Hardie.

"I'm horrified and disappointed in Norman," he said. "I'm just really deeply saddened."

He said he's never witnessed the type of behaviour described by Ms. Reid. But he acknowledged that he has heard Mr. Hardie make inappropriate comments directed at winery staff.

He said he rolled his eyes at such comments.

Now, he regrets not having done more.

'HEDONISM' Back in 2002, when Mr. Hardie and his business partner, mining executive Oliver Lennox-King, bought the properties, "the County" was relatively unknown to outsiders - an untouched rural headland dotted with lavender farms and weathered barns decorated with folk art. The combined price of the two properties was just more than $130,000.

In the years since, they've planted acre after acre of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay vines.

They've also built a busy pizza restaurant on the property.

The prestige of Mr. Hardie's business is largely credited for attracting other wineries and businesses to the area, and helping to turn the County's wine industry into what it is today: the cool young upstart next to the established but staid Niagara. The boutique hotels that dot the summer playground these days offer yoga classes and rotating art exhibitions between rosé tastings and $16 bourbon cocktails.

For employees who landed at Mr. Hardie's winery each season, it seemed the ideal summer job: a free place to stay in Mr. Hardie's home in a room filled with bunk beds, dubbed the "Normitorium" - set among rolling vineyards and dusty country roads. Most of the employees were in their 20s.

Many had been hand-picked by Mr. Hardie from Toronto and Montreal restaurants.

They were expected to work hard, but were rewarded with free food and drinks. After the business shut down at night, they enjoyed extravagant meals cooked by Mr. Hardie or his celebrity chef friends. The drinks were free-flowing. Mr. Hardie would sit at the head of the table, pouring wine.

Other times, he would invite restaurant workers to the winery for elaborate parties. Many nights, the party would continue with a school bus taking them to a "secret beach" nearby. The guests who couldn't find space in the "Normitorium" set up tents and slept outdoors on the property.

Jenny Smith paid her first visit in 2013 with hopes of a career in winemaking. By then, she was already a veteran of the restaurant industry, and had seen her share of raucous behaviour. But the scene at the winery surprised even her.

"Everyone got way too drunk, way too fast" - including, she said, herself. "It seemed like hedonism," she said. "Like, what happens in the County, stays in the County."

She was invited to return the following weekend to work at the pizza kitchen.

After her first shift, she said, Mr. Hardie invited her out to the vineyards. She was excited, thinking he was singling her out for her restaurant experience.

But once outside, he tried to kiss her. She resisted, and he kept trying. Eventually, she said, she pushed him off.

Ms. Smith continued to work casually throughout that summer, hoping to prove to the winemaker that she should be taken seriously.

But instead, she said, he made constantly degrading comments.

Once, when she was a guest at the winery, he noticed she had scratches on her knees and asked loudly in front of others whether it was from giving oral sex all night. Another time, he made a comment suggesting she have sex with dogs belonging to a colleague.

Months after she vowed never to return, she wrote him an email.

"Despite my knowledge and experience and my eagerness to be part of your team, I have never felt as though I was respected," she wrote. "Instead, I am consistently objectified, you always only say things about my body ... It is pretty awful, crippling even, especially when it is connected to a field in which you hope to find employment and is someone you look up to."

About an hour and a half later, he e-mailed back: "What tel number can i reach you at".

When they spoke over the phone, she said, he dismissed her concerns and told her "I'm a nice guy."

The Globe reviewed copies of the e-mail exchange, and spoke with one of Ms. Smith's friends who witnessed some of these incidents and corroborated her version of events.

In a letter to The Globe and Mail, Mr. Hardie described the accounts as "not true." He did not say which details were untrue.

In a second letter a month later through his lawyer, he acknowledged trying to kiss the former employee. "I incorrectly believed she was interested in me," he said. "She quickly and clearly informed me she was not, and that was the end of the matter." He also acknowledged receiving her e-mail all those years ago, and said he'd apologized to the woman at the time.

Many other former staffers - 18 additional people - described similar treatment A number said they were subjected to comments about their bodies and clothing - in several cases, about his thoughts on their undergarments. Others said he asked repeated questions about their sex lives.

He also spoke at length about his own sex life, they said - about whether the women around the winery might be willing to date or sleep with him.

"Norm couldn't have a conversation without bringing up sex," said Ms. Smith, the former winery staffer.

A former frequent winery guest described a game she would play with an employee.

Each time Mr. Hardie began speaking, they would count the seconds before he made a comment about sex - usually a remark about "banging" someone.

The average, she said, was 10 seconds.

Such behaviour served as a further deterrent for women entering the already traditionally male-dominated industry of winemaking, the employees said.

Several restaurant employees recalled an incident the morning after a party at the winery in 2013.

As they sat on the winery's patio, they said, Mr. Hardie walked over to a couple and deliberately dropped a pornographic magazine on their table in front of them.

The woman, who was white, and her boyfriend, who was black, looked at the magazine in front of them. It was opened to an image of a black man and a white woman having intercourse.

"'Look familiar?' " they said the winemaker said to them.

In his statement, Mr. Hardie said he believes that the "overwhelming majority of our staff and employees" would attest to an "open, respectful, equal and inclusive" environment.

Still, he acknowledges that he might have crossed the line.

A few years ago, "I was approached by some of my trusted colleagues, who raised concerns that the work environment was becoming too familiar, and that the socializing needed to be more clearly separated from work," he said.

"I deeply regret if my behaviour at any time has made anyone uncomfortable, and I am truly sorry to those who my behaviour negatively impacted."

But he was adamant that all of this was in the past.

He said he has "worked hard" to change his behaviour, but did not specify what behaviour, or what changes he has made, beyond reducing the number of parties thrown at the winery. After The Globe began its investigation, he said, the winery had hired an independent auditor to review the workplace environment.

Despite this, several former employees said they witnessed inappropriate or lewd behaviour as recently as this past summer.

And, they said, there wasn't much they could do.

Johannes Braun, the winery's operations manager, was in charge of human resources. He told The Globe he's never witnessed any inappropriate behaviour or received any complaints of harassment.

Several former managers drew attention to the business's sexual-harassment policy, which they said has been in place since 2009. But of the dozens of former employees interviewed, only a handful said they were aware of it.

Many said Mr. Hardie's behaviour was common knowledge.

But if wine buyers and restaurant owners had heard the stories, the knowledge didn't appear to sway them, even with Mr. Hardie's name scrawled across each and every label.

Jacob Wharton-Shukster, the owner of Toronto's Chantecler, is one of the only restaurateurs approached by The Globe who stopped carrying the wine years ago because of the behaviour. At a winery party years ago, Mr. Hardie told Mr. Wharton-Shukster's then-girlfriend to remove her shirt in exchange for wine, he said. After that incident, he said, he encountered many other stories like it.

"I've realized where I want to send my money, and the kinds of things and people I want to support," he said.

In addition to Mr. Hardie's behaviour, many of the former employees - 12 in total - also voiced concerns about their wages.

Rather than each server keeping their tips, as is the practice in most restaurants, under Mr. Hardie, tips were collected and redistributed as "bonuses" at the end of the year. But many employees had serious concerns over the accounting.

This became the focus of a complaint at the Ontario Ministry of Labour last year, launched by former employee Trish Pitman. The complaint was investigated, and ultimately dismissed.

As an employee, Ms. Pitman didn't have access to full financial records to make her case.

And since then, an additional 11 employees - two of them former managers of the pizza kitchen - told The Globe they, too, had concerns.

(In his statement, Mr. Hardie called the tip pool system "a fair and equitable system.") Others said that, across the County, talk of inappropriate behaviour was widespread. But many appeared to turn a blind eye.

Thanks to Mr. Hardie's influence, Prince Edward County was attracting attention from the likes of wine critic Jancis Robinson and Vogue magazine.

No one wanted to mess with that, said a former frequent guest of the winery. "Everyone wanted the County to succeed because it's so precarious and it's such a short season. And so many people's livelihoods relied on his reputation."

'AN ATMOSPHERE OF INCLUSIVENESS'

Not everybody's experiences were negative. Of the more than 50 people interviewed, 14 said they had only good things to say about their time at the winery.

Even some of those who said they were subject to inappropriate behavior by Mr. Hardie were hesitant to come forward, saying that they'd also experienced generosity from him.

Many men spoke glowingly of their experiences. Many women, too, said they never witnessed inappropriate behaviour. They added that Mr. Hardie was genuinely supportive of their careers.

"I have worked in many wineries, in many countries over the past seven years since I worked for Norm, but none of my past experiences had an atmosphere of inclusiveness, generosity, enthusiasm and intellect like his winery provided," said Mara Ambrose, who now works in California.

Another friend and former employee, Sheila Flaherty, said to The Globe in an e-mail that, in her "hundreds of occasions" of visiting the winery, she never witnessed any behaviour of concern.

"Year after year, devoted staff return to work at Norman Hardie's winery, which is a true testament to the business and its leadership," she said.

Several others spoke of jobs in far-flung countries at prestigious wineries that Mr. Hardie helped to line up for employees. "He'll be sure the people who work for him get jobs somewhere else," said a former employee.

But it's this same influence - his ability to make or break a young person's career with a single phone call - that many of the women cited as the reason they stayed quiet for so long.

#METOO If not for the #MeToo movement and the related continuing public discussions, many of the women interviewed by The Globe said they likely would have continued to remain silent about Mr. Hardie.

Some said they hoped to prevent others from being mistreated by Mr. Hardie. Others said that, by speaking out, they hoped it might give strength to other women to speak out about their own abusers.

Ms. Reid, the former Joe Beef worker who said she was groped by Mr. Hardie, said she weighed the potential risks of being blacklisted from the restaurant industry before coming forward.

"I could maybe get some heat," she said. "But I don't want to be working with people that would blacklist me because I was abused by someone."

For years, she said, the attitude has been to tolerate the abuse and harassment that she said happens almost on a daily basis - "you know it's something that's going to happen, and you don't say anything about it, and you just live with it," she said.

"It's like no other business that I know. And it's accepted like no other business I know," she said.

"The fact that someone's bringing it up? Thank God. It's about time."

With a report from Rick Cash Ivy Knight is a freelance journalist and long-time food-industry professional. Several of the people interviewed in the reporting of this story were friends or acquaintances of Ms. Knight's. These relationships were disclosed to The Globe from the outset. In those instances, it was Ann Hui, The Globe and Mail's national food reporter, who conducted the interviews.

Associated Graphic

Norman Hardie's winery in Prince Edward County helped put the area on the map as a destination for Canadian wine. But there are a number of allegations that he used his position of power to sexually harass.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Norman Hardie

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Norman Hardie of Norman Hardie Winery in Wellington, Ont.

LARS HAGBERG/THE CANADIAN PRESS

The Norman Hardie Winery.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tanks inside the Norman Hardie Winery.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The Norman Hardie Winery in Wellington.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Thursday, June 21, 2018

FAMILY TIES
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To start new lives in Canada, Filipino parents such as Rina Romanos, above, are at the mercy of Kafkaesque and ever-changing policies that often separate them from their children for years - and even for the kids who make it, like her son Ricky, the reunion isn't always the happy ending they hope for
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By DOUG SAUNDERS
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


SURREY, B.C. -- International affairs columnist for The Globe and Mail s classes draw to an end A this month, most high schools are a giddy mix of excitement and impatience.

Among some clusters of students who hang out in the hallways and open-air library of Guildford Park Secondary School in suburban Surrey, B.C., you find a rather different mood, anxious and almost mournful.

For many of these FilipinoCanadian teenagers, the days leading up to school holidays are often a difficult time, they and their teachers say. They don't want to leave the school. The rest of the year, these kids linger long after classes have ended, staying together in the library, chatting with one another and their social-media friends across the ocean, often until the doors are locked at 10 p.m. The rented rooms and tiny apartments many of them live in, and the mothers they rarely see, don't feel like real life. The school does.

"The holidays are so hard for these kids - they don't like being away from the school," says Kristin Dorey, an English teacher who works closely with these students (Filipinos are about a fifth of the school's 2,000 students) in an after-school peermentoring program, and who has long encouraged them to record their experiences in journals.

"The school is comfort and security, they have access to food and each other. The holidays are rough. They don't feel at home anywhere but here."

These teenagers, and their unique emotional traumas and challenges, are part of a far larger generation of young FilipinoCanadians, likely numbering in the tens of thousands and populating every major city, whose family lives have been ripped in two and held in limbo as a result of a serious flaw in Canada's immigration policies.

Many of them have spent most of their lives without seeing their parents more than once or twice - and then have suddenly been plunged into a family life far more difficult than they'd grown up expecting.

Most of these kids' parents (more often than not mothers) had left their small children in the Philippines to come to Canada on longterm work visas - most commonly on what was formerly known as the Live-In Caregiver Visa.

Those visas carried a guarantee of eventual pathways to permanent residence and family reunification. But a set of confusing changes to the system, and serious flaws in Canada's credential-recognition procedures, mean that thousands of these Filipino parents every year have their children denied access to Canada.

Many are forced to wait many years, often more than a decade, before they're able to jump through the hoops necessary to bring their kids over. The result can easily mean a decade of separation.

This is not a marginal problem - the Philippines is, most years, the largest source of immigrants to Canada; more than 40,000 Filipinos settled here last year, and there are now almost a million Filipino-Canadians. But their situation is not noticed, because Filipinos tend to be spread out across major cities (this section of Surrey, along with a neighbourhood along Toronto's northern border, are exceptions).

"When I first landed here, I cried myself to sleep for a week," writes Paolo, a Grade 12 student who moved to Canada just as he was entering middle school (and adolescence), after being raised for a decade and a half by his grandparents, his father and his extended family in the Philippines. Now, it's just him and his mom. "Knowing that I did not get to see them every day was hurtful ... It is a completely different environment without them."

To understand how Canada keeps families apart, listen to Rina Ramanos. She came to British Columbia from the southern Philippine island of Mindinao in August of 2014. She had earned a college diploma in nursing in the Philippines, and she was joining a circle of five friends from her nursing school who'd come to Canada two years earlier, in hopes of eventually pursing a career at a medical institution.

There were a couple good reasons to come to Canada - and the biggest was that there was a good chance of eventually bringing over her son Ricky, who was born in 2005. (Like many Filipino mothers who work internationally, she lives apart from her husband; marital breakup and estrangement are frequently the result of these work arrangements, although divorce is illegal in the Philippines.)

She'd already worked for four years in Saudi Arabia and two in Hong Kong, neither of which offered any pathway to residency or family reunification for Filipino workers - only Canada did. And Canada has big shortages of nursing and medical workers.

Like many educated Filipinos, however, she knew that her only chance of gaining entry to Canada was to work at least two years as a caregiver or nanny, under what was then known as the LiveIn Caregiver Visa (a high proportion of Filipina domestic workers in Canada have postsecondary educations). At that point, Canada guaranteed permanent residency (the first step on the pathway to citizenship) to people who'd completed two full years of work during the four years of the visa. That would give her time, she assumed, to upgrade her nursing credentials to Canadian standards and bring her son over.

Shortly after Ms. Ramanos arrived, Canada got rid of the LiveIn Caregiver visa. The reasons for this change were good - the visa left workers dependent on the family who'd hired them, leaving them open to abuse and exploitation. It was to be replaced with a two-year temporary work visa that also offered various pathways to permanent residency - at least in theory.

Ms. Ramanos was luckier than some: Grandfathered on the old visa, she completed her two years of work, sending two-thirds of her $1,500 per month back to her town, and got permanent residency. After another year of waiting, she was able to sponsor Ricky's immigration in 2017, when he was 12. She moved into a low-rent apartment (her live-in employer offered to let her stay with her son, but she felt that the huge house in the middle of nowhere would leave Ricky alone and isolated). He was overjoyed to see his mother - they'd had only a few visits over a decade - and fell in love with his school and its playing fields.

But Ricky soon found that life was not what he had expected.

Ms. Ramanos is forced to keep working as a caregiver as she struggles to get the year of community college she needs to get her nursing permit. To try to save the tuition fees (more than $1,000 a month for foreign students), she has added a night job at Tim Hortons to her all-day caregiver duties.

When I met Rina and Ricky, a bus ride from their house at the Surrey library, they were still visibly delighted to be with each other after so many years - but both lamented that they rarely are actually together. "I like being here, but it's hard that my friends are over there and my mom isn't around very much - it's really different," he says. He knows her as someone who is always headed out to her next job.

"Why do you keep running all the time?" he asked his mother.

"To jobs, to the bus, to the mall."

She nodded in agreement, but told him: "In the Philippines I could die working and I still couldn't send you to a good school. Here, it is possible. They were so, so poor there."

She was comparatively lucky: Getting her son over only took a year. Thousands of other Filipinos who arrived before the visa system changed in 2014 are waiting under bureaucratic delays that sometimes mean they don't see their children for four to six years after they arrive in Canada.

They often discover once they've spent months getting their kids' immigration documents that they require a medical certificate in the Philippines, which can take a year to obtain; by the time they have it, their immigration documents have expired and they have to apply for a new medical certificate - a cycle that can repeat itself over several years.

For Filipino immigrants who arrived after November, 2014, things are even tougher. The new two-year work visas only offer a possibility, not a guarantee, of permanent residency. That possibility is far from certain, with ever-changing requirements for education and language credentials, whose assessment is farmed out to private companies of varying quality.

Worse, many Filipinos discover that they won't know if they qualify for permanent residence, or what changes they'll need in order to apply, until the two years of work is finished - at which point you are expected to leave the country.

"We're in a kind of weird situation right now where the legal landscape is a mess," says Deanna Okun-Nachoff, a Vancouver immigration lawyer who spent years running a non-profit agency whose clients were Filipina caregivers.

"Hurdle No. 1 is that the first day you qualify to apply for permanent residence is the day your work permit expires - so you're legally supposed to leave the country before you can get your application through. And hurdle No. 2 is they had language and educational requirements that weren't there when you applied for your work permit in the first place."

That's proving a huge barrier to reunifying these families. Canada's immigration system generally requires postsecondary education and English or French fluency - something people such as Ms. Ramanos assume they have, as Filipinos tend to be easily conversant in English (their country was an American colony). And most Filipino immigrants today have postsecondary education.

So they assume, with good reason, that getting permanent residence is just a matter of waiting and applying.

But they very often are shocked to be told, on the day their work permit expires, that they don't really have the qualifications. Because high-school graduates in the Philippines only have 10 years of education (versus 12 in Canada), the first two years of university are only counted by Canadian officials as high school years. And the English-fluency test (which can only be taken after this last day) has rigorous standards that often require additional fluency training even for comfortable speakers.

"They come, they're university educated and they speak the language and they think they're okay," Ms. Okun-Nachoff says.

"Then they get the work permit, they get their two years of work experience, and then at the end of this process they have this kind of awakening. They're told, 'We consider your Filipino twoyear degree equivalent to Canadian high school, not to one year of postsecondary.' Then, on their minimum wage, they have to pay international student fees [typically $20,000 to $30,000] to get one year of postsecondary education. And to boot, there's this other rule that says if you're studying full-time, we won't give you credit for your work experience.

You're kind of damned if you do and damned if you don't."

According to Canadian immigration data tabulated by Philip Kelly, a York University professor of geography who specializes in Philippine migration patterns, of the more than 7,000 people who are in Canada each year on caregiver visas, only about 500 to 600 each year have been able, in recent years, to make the transition to permanent residence. (Both numbers have plummeted in the past year, probably because Filipino workers know that the current visa system is set to expire in 2019, and are waiting for a less frustrating pathway.) As of the beginning of 2018, there was a backlog of more than 30,000 Caregiver Visa holders awaiting a decision on permanent residence.

Canada's immigration officials often use this dilemma as a reason to refuse admission of children - if the parents' qualifications haven't been met, why should family-reunification take place? Ms. Okun-Nachoff says the great majority of Filipina immigrants she has dealt with since 2014 have failed to get their children sponsored.

And even after meeting the qualifications and becoming permanent residents, Filipino workers discover that huge backlogs in the processing system mean it can take many years before children can come - this year, the backlog in family-reunification visas for caregivers is more than 20,000. Immigration Minister Ahmed Hussen pledged last year to reduce the backlog to zero by the end of 2018, but it still means Filipino families are enduring delays of many years.

"The real tragedy comes with the relationship with the children," Ms. Okun-Nachoff says, "because it takes so many years,

and those relationships have to endure in some way."

So the kids of Guildford Park are among the lucky ones - their mothers have jumped through a Kafka-esque sequence of bureaucratic hoops, and often waited a decade, to get their kids over. But those kids are discovering that their parents are often not around, and are barely surviving on multiple jobs, and have other emotional lives. No wonder they prefer the school-library company of one another, and the lush overseas life their friends post about on their smartphones.

To some extent, the challenges they face are those of most kids who immigrate as teenagers - but with added complications. The Guildford Park Filipinos, and kids in similar positions in Winnipeg and Toronto and Halifax, find themselves trying to adapt simultaneously to a very different culture and climate, to the new stresses and difficulties of highschool life and of adolescence, to the loss of the tight-knit households that cared for them, and to a new household that's nothing like what they thought it would be. No wonder they want to stick around the school.

This is not a story of failed integration - not in the usual sense.

The Filipino kids arrive fairly fluent in English and easily adapt to Canadian customs. They tend to breeze through the integration tests newcomers take at the school's welcome centre. Their mothers place high expectations on their kids. So they generally stay in school, though their academic results are, on average, below those of most kids - in good part because their lives have been split between two countries.

"They seem okay," Ms. Dorey says. "They have a culture of not complaining. But their journal entries give it away."

She began getting her Grade 9 English students to chronicle their personal lives in journals in 2011, and soon noticed the extraordinarily difficult emotional lives of the Filipino students.

Around the same time, she got to know a lot of them more closely through the peer-mentoring program she ran.

"Before, I was thinking I wanted this life, these opportunities and freedom," Grade 12 student Carmella writes in her journal.

She describes, in detail, the freedom she enjoys in Canada - she can cut her hair short and have a girlfriend - "but I'm not that happy, because every day feels like nothing. I don't have anyone to talk to - everyone's busy working - but in the Philippines, I always had someone to talk to, I would go to my neighbours' house and talk to them the whole day, and it's not boring, it's fun, and I feel like I have a purpose every day, even if I don't have money to buy food."

The experience of having been kept from their parents for such an unusually long time leaves them disjointed and unsure of themselves - and this sometimes reflects in school results, in psychological distress and in their ability to thrive.

"A lot of them have one foot back in the Philippines and one foot here. There's a sense of serious guilt for living here - they have left their friends behind and they get to live in Canada," Ms.

Dorey says. "And they have a huge sense of responsibility - a duty to be successful here," because their far poorer Filipino relatives are counting on their financial support.

A lot of these kids face even deeper shocks. If their mothers work as live-in caregivers for children, seniors or severely disabled people, they have often become an integral part of a de facto family. Canadians are not in the habit of referring to their domestic servants as "servants" - they often prefer to refer to them as family members, and sometimes treat them as if they were. The emotional bonds become tight.

And when the caregivers' actual children finally move in after more than a decade apart, they face two shocks: First, discovering that their mother is not the wealthy and generous benefactor she was said to be in the village; second, learning that she's rarely around, often because she's with kids who've spent far longer knowing her love.

"There's a process that's a lot like grief - leaving someone behind," says Cynthia Adams, Guildford Park's principal.

"There's the difficult process of being reunited with their parents because they're raised by different people - so have become used to different parenting styles.

They were used to living very independently. And not seeing the hardship and poverty around them makes them feel guilt and sadness."

Later this year, the federal government will begin reviewing the caregiver-visa system. It is to be replaced, eliminated or folded into some other immigration category before it expires in 2019. It's an opportunity for Ottawa to end a grotesque flaw in our immigration system, one that left Canada's largest immigrant group struggling to hold together families that, in the case of other immigrants, would have been able to move to Canada together. Even as we worry about the prospect of single, unaccompanied people crossing the border into Canada, our policies are turning intact families into atomized individuals, divided by an ocean.

The Filipino kids, in their journals, show an admirable ability to cope and adapt, and an optimism that rises above their situation.

Francesca, one of the first of Ms.

Dorey's students to write a journal, says that staying late at night in the school library was a way to build a third family to substitute for the two others that had been denied her by Canadian policy.

"Growing up without an extended family meant that I had to recreate my own meaning of family here in Canada. I'm lucky today to be able to call certain people 'family' even though I am not related to them by blood," she says.

Many of these students have triumphed over extraordinary emotional separation - a separation that was an unnecessary side-effect of bureaucratic disorder.

Associated Graphic

PHOTOGRAPHY BY DARRYL DYCK

DARRYL DYCK

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Thursday, June 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B17


DONALD ALAN CORKIN

71, of Quincy, formerly of Scituate and Brookline, died on June 17, 2018. He leaves his three siblings, Charles (Bud) Corkin, his wife, Mary of St. George, UT; Jane Corkin of Toronto, Canada; and Patricia (Sparky) Kennedy, her husband, Jake Kennedy of Salem, NH. He was a beloved Uncle for Joseph Z. (Zac) Corkin; Damon Corkin and his wife, Angela; Jocelyn Corkin and her husband, Peter Mortimer; Jake Corkin and his wife, Amber; Averill Corkin; Alyse Kennedy Maybee and her husband, Ryerson; Zachary Kennedy and his wife, Samantha; Dean Kennedy; and Sean (Chippy) Kennedy. He also leaves behind his grandnieces and nephews, Charles (Trey), Colette and Wesley Donald Corkin, Olivia and Stella Corkin, Pia and Xavier (Xavi) Mortimer, Johnny and Charly-Marie Corkin and Amelia Frances Kennedy.

The second son of the late Joseph Z. Corkin and Frances D. Corkin, Donald grew up in Brookline.

Donald was known for his mastery in backgammon, uncanny ability to remember birth and wedding dates, and his riddles and jokes, which can best be described as enticingly platitudinous. An avid Red Sox fan, Donald famously predicted that the Red Sox would win the World Series in 2004. Lost to the annals of history is the fact that he predicted their win every year they didn't. Donald was a fixture at Tony's Clam Shop on Wollaston Beach in Quincy where he could be seen eating clam rolls with his nieces and nephews, and at Zaftig Delicatessen in Brookline, MA, where he is still lamenting how they changed their potato latke recipe. His birthday phone calls and endless positive energy will be missed.

As a young man, Donald survived two brain tumor extractions.

He spent his whole life raising awareness and funds for the Brain Tumor Society and could be seen every October at the Boston Brain Tumor Walk. In lieu of flowers, memorial contributions can be made in his honor to the National Brain Tumor Society, braintumour.ca.

Relatives and friends will gather for Donald's funeral at the Sharon Memorial Park Chapel Thursday, June 21, at 10 a.m., 40 Dedham St. Sharon MA 02067. The chapel is at the administration building.

Shiva will be held on Thursday at 35 Lakeshore Rd Salem, NH, from 1 p.m.-8 p.m. For more info: http://www.sharonmemorial.

com/ Sharon Memorial Chapel.

Phone: (781)-828-7216 Email: info@sharonmemorial.com.

NORMAN HARRY EDMONDSON

Norman Harry Edmondson died at home in Oshawa on Wednesday, June 13, 2018, with his beloved wife, Judith and daughter, Anne, by his side. He is also survived by his much loved elder daughter, Jane and son-in-law, Fred Stinson; his brother, Paul and sister-inlaw, Janet; and numerous nieces and nephews.

Norman was born on October 13, 1934 in Oshawa, where he received his early education. While taking his B.A. at Queen's University, he pursued his interest in drama, culminating in his performance as Hamlet.

Tempted to try his luck as an actor, he chose instead to pursue a career in law, to which end he earned his LLB at the University of Toronto Law School. Still his interest in drama continued. In 1959, he auditioned for the role of Mirabel in The Way of the World, produced by the University Alumnae Dramatic Club. Judith Teague was cast opposite him as Millamant. In 1961, following Norman's call to the Bar, the two were married on August 12th.

They have loved, cherished, and supported each other for nearly 57 years.

Norman practiced law, first in Whitby and then in Oshawa.

During this time, he served on the Whitby Ruddy Hospital Board, as Chairman of the Board of Education for the town of Whitby, and when it was amalgamated with Oshawa and became the Ontario County Board of Education, he served for several years. He also served on the board for the Whitby Station Gallery and had an ongoing active membership in the Oshawa Little Theatre. All this came to an end in 1974, when he was appointed a Judge of the Provincial Court in Durham Region, where he presided until 2009.

Norman's funeral will be held in St. George's Memorial Church, 51 Centre St. S, Oshawa on Saturday, June 23rd at 11 a.m. There will also be a visitation on Friday, June 22nd, from 5-8 p.m. at McIntoshAnderson-Kellam Funeral Home, 152 King St. E, Oshawa (905-4335558). In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to World Vision or Doctors Without Borders.

Online condolences can be shared at makfuneralhome.com.

MICHAEL LAYTON

It is with great sadness that we regret to announce the passing of Michael Layton. Michael, 75, died Sunday, June 17, 2018 at the Credit Valley Hospital Palliative Care Unit in Mississauga following a courageous battle with leukemia.

He leaves behind his loving wife of 46 years, Angeline (nee Dugas) Layton; his son, Douglas Marc Layton and wife, Amanda D'Arcy Layton-Malone; his son, Charles-Francois Layton and wife, Molly Rae Layton; his beloved grandchild, Chase Alexander Layton; and many close friends.

Born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Douglas and Elizabeth Layton (Ladanyi), the family immigrated to Canada in 1950.

In his early years, he was an enthusiastic collector of sports cards, a pastime that led him to become a lifelong fan of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers and New York Rangers. After graduating from Loyola High School in Montreal, Quebec, he attended McGill University, graduating in 1967 with a Bachelor of Commerce degree.

He met his beautiful wife, Angeline Dugas, in 1970 and they were married two years later at St. Kevin's Holy Catholic Church.

His first son, Douglas Marc was born in 1974, and his second son, Charles-Francois, was born in 1976. During this time, the family moved to Mississauga, Ontario, where Michael resided for the remainder of his life. For 30 years, Michael proudly served the Canadian Federal Government as a Certified General Accountant.

He had a passion for travel which he shared with his wife, visiting numerous locales throughout the world. An avid bridge player and instructor, he was a longtime member of the MississaugaOakville Community Bridge Club where he thoroughly enjoyed spending time with his wife and fellow players.

Friends may call at Turner & Porter "Neweduk-Erin-Mills" Chapel, 1981 Dundas St. W., Mississauga (east of Erin Mills Pkwy), on Friday, June 22, 2018 from 2-5 p.m. Funeral mass will be held on Saturday, June 23, 2018 at 11 a.m. at St. Francis of Assisi Church with a burial to follow at Assumption Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada at http://www.llscanada.org/.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

JOHN MOUNTAIN

(LL.B.,MBA)

1956-2018 Passed away peacefully at his home in St. Marys, Ontario on June 18, 2018, hours ahead of a scheduled Medical Assistance in Dying, with metastatic pancreatic cancer nipping at his heels.

Surrounded by his husband, Greg; mother, Lois; sisters, Pam, Ruth, Liz, and Janet; brother, Eric; nephew, Nimi; and their cats, Sophia, Ariel, and Hastings.

Predeceased by his father, Bob.

John was passionate about all things: He loved his family and friends, good art, architecture, opera and theatre. He loved good food, whether snuggling in with a bowl of pasta at home with Greg on a cold winter night or dining out in a fancy restaurant he sure loved fancy restaurants.

And he loved to travel. John loved his work. He was thrilled to rejoin the Ontario Securities Commission two years ago to help make investing in funds better for everyone; he enjoyed the commitment to action he found - he liked action. He worked at the OSC with the best team ever - smart and committed, with a wonderful sense of humour. He deeply respected the leadership his former company showed on ESG matters, and his role in that. John always believed that by leading his life as an openly gay man, exerting pressure from inside where he could, and from outside where it was needed, he helped make it easier for younger LGBTQ people.

He was so proud of being able to give back with his volunteer and charitable board work over the years. John loved his connection with Windsor Law, and the opportunity it gave him to meet a whole new generation of young lawyers through teaching securities regulation there. He felt he got far more from his students than he was ever able to give them back. But most of all, John loved Greg. He thanked the stars for introducing them in 1991 and told anyone who asked that it was the luckiest day of his life. For 27 years, through thick and thin, Greg brought John joy every single day. The fact that John was able to marry Greg in 2003 made him even prouder of his Canadian identity. He is so proud of the travel blog that he and Greg started in 2003, http://www.followsummer.com. John and Greg thank so many people for their help through John's brief illness, but in particular Jacqueline Jordan, who just knew what was needed at all times.

Donations in lieu of flowers to the John Mountain Law Scholarship are welcomed.

Please send to Karen Momotiuk at Windsor Law, 401 Sunset Ave, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, or reach Karen at karenm@uwindsor.

ca. Celebrations of John's life will be held in Toronto and St.

Marys. Details will be shared later through the Andrew L. Hodges Funeral Home, St. Marys, website http://www.hodgesfuneralhome.ca.

MIRIAM JEAN NIXON (nee Loheed)

March 22, 1924 June 18, 2018

Miriam was born and raised in Toronto. She received her public education at Forest Hill Village School, and the University of Toronto (University College). In May 1943 she joined the Women's Royal Canadian Navy Service (WRENS), where she was trained as a Wireless Telegrapher SO.

She spent the remainder of the war monitoring German coded messages to their U-boats, and occasionally outgoing messages.

She vividly recalled and told the story many times about the night a U-boat was detected in the St.

Lawrence River on her watch.

In October of 1945 she was honourably discharged from the Navy to attend the University of Toronto. After graduation with a B.A. Miriam had a career in the fashion industry and in 1948 she married John Ridgeway (Hank) Nixon. John predeceased her in November, 2007. She is survived by their four children, Brad (Carol) of Toronto and Niagara on the Lake, Craig (Shirley) of Calgary, Kerri (Graham Sant) of Bath, England and Niagara-on-theLake, and Kathy (Garth Stapon) of Hamilton; grandchildren, Leslie, Lauren, Kristen, Sean, Claire, Brenna, Kenneth and Meredith; and great-grandchildren, Willa, Dechlan and Ainsley. Her brother, Gordon of Unionville, Ontario predeceased her in January of 2007. She is fondly remembered by his children, Stewart, David (Ursula) and Mardi.

John and Miriam raised their family in Don Mills and in 1970 the family moved to Winnipeg where Miriam lived until October 2009 when she moved to Niagara-onthe-Lake. Throughout her life Miriam was an avid volunteer in many organizations in Toronto and Winnipeg. In Toronto her volunteer activities included the United Church Women (Life Member) and the Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples. In Winnipeg she was a volunteer with the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, United Way of Winnipeg and St. Andrews River Heights United Church. At the age of 52 in 1976 she joined the staff of the United Way of Winnipeg for ten years, following that she worked for the Canadian Mental Health Association and retired in 1994. On arrival in Niagaraon-the-Lake, Miriam joined Grace United Church and was an active member.

Miriam will always be remembered for her many valued friendships, her significant contribution to the community and as a dedicated and loving wife, mother, grandmother and great-grandmother.

Special thanks to Irene and Helen of LHIN Home and Community Care, and the staff at Hospice Niagara.

Donations, in lieu of flowers, can be made to your local United Way, Hospice Niagara or the charity of your choice.

A memorial service will be held Saturday June 23, 2018, 1.00 p.m.

at Grace United Church, Niagaraon-the-Lake.

CHARLES ARTHUR PETRIE

Peacefully, on Monday, June 18, 2018, at the age of 82. Beloved husband of Montserrat for 54 years. Devoted father of Helen Hermary (Darcy) and Scott (Brenda). Adored grandfather of Forrest and Sierra. Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere, east of the Jane subway, on Friday from 7-9 p.m.

Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel on Saturday, June 23, 2018 at 1 p.m. If desired, remembrances may be made to the Salvation Army. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

MICHAEL KELK PORTER

July 14, 1945 June 14, 2018

Mike passed away, at the age of 72, after a heroic eight month battle with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Mike, son of John and Phyllis (Kelk) Porter, was born and raised in Toronto, ON. He attended Upper Canada College with continued studies at the University of Western Ontario Business School, making life long friends along the way.

An entrepeneur pursuing many business opportunities, he eventually retired in Collingwood, ON. Mike loved to ski; boat the waters of Georgian Bay, at his cottage in Killarney, ON; walk the beaches of Southern Florida and enjoy a glass of good Cabernet Sauvignon. Mike's clear blue eyes and beautiful smile lit up a room.

Mike is survived by his wife of 40 years, Deb Porter (nee Austin); his children, Blair (Zach) Brajuha, Austin (Nicole) Porter and Jeffrey Porter; and his grandchildren Kaia, Finn and Axel. Mike was a kind and caring husband, father and friend to many. The Porter Family will never be the same without him.

Mike will be greatly missed by all those who knew him.

Memorial donations in Mike's name would be appreciated at RVH's Simcoe Muskoka Regional Cancer Centre. Please visit http://www.fawcettfuneralhomes.com for Mike's Online Book of Memories and to leave a note for the family.

BARBARA ANN SHIELLS

We are saddened by the sudden passing of Barbara (Waters) Shiells. Barb passed away on Sunday, June 17, 2018 as a result of complications following surgery.

She will be missed by her husband, Bill; brother, Barry; sister-in-law, Paddi; nieces, Debbie and Emily; and nephew, Thomas.

Barb was a long term employee of Manulife Financial. Barb's greatest joy came from interacting with her many colleagues, friends, neighbours and anyone who shared a smile or a kind word.

Special thanks to Dr. Sameena Uddin and the entire ICU staff at Credit Valley Hospital who worked tirelessly to help Barb.

Funeral service on Monday, June 25 at 11:00, preceded by visitation at 10:00, at Central United Church, 1 King Street, Weston. In honour of Barb, memorial donations may be made to The Salvation Army or The Scott Mission.

Condolences may be left in the Book of Memories at http://www.wardfuneralhome.com.

WILLIAM JOSEPH SIMPSON

B. A . , L L . B, Q. C . , LS M .

February 12, 1940 June 17, 2018

It is with great sadness that we announce the death of William J. Simpson, Q.C., LSM.

on Sunday, June 17, 2018. After a long and courageous fight, Bill died peacefully at home surrounded by his loving wife, Rosemary Simpson; daughter, Karyn Simpson; and sister-inlaw, Kathryn Vondette. Bill and Rosemary had just celebrated their 56th Wedding anniversary the day before his death and he had been determined to meet that significant milestone.

During his 50 year career as a lawyer and member of the Bar, he was committed to serving his profession, whether in various activities within the Bar in Ottawa (County of Carleton Law Association Past President (1980), Co-Founder and Chair of the CCLA Annual Civil Litigation Update (1981 to 2015), Founding President of the Medical Legal Society of Ottawa), in the Provincial sphere with the Ontario Bar Association (President from 1997-1998), or as a Bencher of the Law Society of Upper Canada from 1999 to 2007.

Bill received his BA from St.

Patrick's College followed by an LL.B from the University of Ottawa. He was called to the Ontario Bar in 1967. He received the Queen's Counsel in 1980. In 1994, at the height of his career he received the prestigious Law Society Medal (LSM) awarded for services in accordance with the highest ideals of the legal profession. In 1999, Bill was further honoured by receiving the County of Carleton Law Association (CCLA) Medal.

In addition to his extensive volunteer work for the legal profession and his many years on the Board of the Gloucester Swim Club, Bill had a successful legal practice as a civil litigator emphasizing personal injury and medical malpractice as a partner with the distinguished law firm of Binks, Chilcott and Simpson from 1968 to 2004. After the firm dissolved in 2004, Bill spent two years practicing with Soloway Wright, then found a home as counsel with Tierney Stauffer from 1996 until just recently.

During his last term as a Bencher with the Law Society, he was Chair of the Paralegal Task Force and spent a great deal of time and energy leading up to our Task Force Report, passed by Convocation in September 2004, and then leading up to the passing of legislation in October 2006.

In recognition of his unique contribution to the regulation of paralegals, an annual provincial prize for the most distinguished paralegal was instituted by The Law Society of Ontario and named for Bill, the William J. Simpson Distinguished Paralegal Award.

Bill also found the time to coauthor the text book "creditors Rights and Bankruptcy" and was the subject of a new biography authored by Lynne Cohen entitled "Let Right be Done."

Friends are invited to visit at the Central Chapel of Hulse, Playfair & McGarry, 315 McLeod Street (at O'Connor) on Thursday, June 21 from 2-4 and 6-8 p.m. Funeral Mass will be held at Our Lady of Fatima Church, 153 Woodroffe Avenue on Friday, June 22 at 10 a.m., followed by a reception in the church hall. A donation in honour of Bill would be appreciated by the family to The Ottawa Hospital Foundation - Dr.

Rebecca Auer Cancer Research.

Condolences / Tributes / Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

Wave of asylum seekers floods Toronto's shelters
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Thousands of migrants who entered Canada from Manitoba and Quebec are gravitating to the country's largest city, straining the emergency housing system
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By TAVIA GRANT
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Thursday, June 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


TORONTO -- He could take the threatening phone calls, intimidation attempts, a home break-in by a military officer, and several arrests. But when his family was threatened, Freddie Makaka-Mugerwa realized that the best way to keep them safe was for him to leave Uganda.

He's now living alone at a shelter in Toronto, and can't sleep at night because he worries about his family, who have gone into hiding.

"Canada has been on record as being welcoming, and that is crucial for anyone making a decision" on where to go, he says, adding that he ruled out the United States due to higher risks of being forcibly returned home.

Canada's approach to asylum seekers has been markedly different from the United States, sparking an influx of recent arrivals. Some refugee claimants are arriving at airports, while more than 9,000 have crossed from the U.S. border into Quebec (and, to a much lesser extent, B.C. and Manitoba) this year.

And that has added to a crowding crunch, pushing shelters over capacity and driving up costs.

After Montreal said in April that it would not accept more refugee claimants into its shelters, and because many are from Nigeria, and speak English, a wave of asylum seekers has descended onto Canada's largest city.

Many of them are families. All are in need of housing, adding pressure to Toronto's already-strained shelter system in a high-priced city with limited affordable housing. To deal with the pressure, the city asked two colleges to open their student dorms to refugee claimants for the summer and there are plans to erect four tent-like structures in the city to serve as extra shelter space later this year.

The treatment of asylum seekers has leapt into the spotlight in recent weeks.

In the United States, the forced separation of more than 2,300 children, including toddlers, from their parents at the Mexican border has sparked a national and international outcry. On Wednesday, U.S. President Donald Trump signed an order to end the practice, although children already separated from their parents will not be immediately reunited with their families.

In Canada, which doesn't have a policy of prosecuting all adult migrants who unlawfully enter the country, Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale last November issued a directive to border services to "as much as humanly possible, keep children out of detention and keep families together."

Around the world, a record 68.5 million people were forcibly displaced as of the end of 2017, of which a record 25.4 million are refugees, according to data released this week by the United Nations refugee agency. Canada was the ninth-largest recipient of asylum claims in the world last year.

"Globally, we're seeing unprecedented levels of displaced people - and now we're just experiencing an impact that Europe has already experienced," says Debbie Hill-Corrigan, executive director of Sojourn House, which runs emergency shelter and transitional housing services for refugees in Toronto. She doesn't see this increase in Toronto as a short-term blip.

In Canada, an influx in claimants has caused backlogs to balloon; as of April, there were 55,360 pending claims.

Last year, the number of refugee claims received by the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada doubled year-earlier levels, hitting the highest level since record-keeping began in 1989.

The waiting time for decisions has stretched to a projected 20 months, from 16 months last September.

"We are at the beginning of this new normal, the very beginning," says Francisco Rico-Martinez, co-director of the FCJ Refugee Centre, who expects more arrivals from Central and South America - people fleeing violence who no longer see the United States as an option.

With pressures likely to grow, "we have to get ready," he said, by adjusting long-term planning and viewing this shift with a global perspective.

In Toronto, which last year reaffirmed its status as a sanctuary city, all residents receive full access to city services, regardless of their documentation status. Children can attend school, families can access health care or social assistance and people can apply for work permits while waiting for decisions on their claims.

It's a difficult balance, however, between remaining a welcoming, inclusive place where all newcomers are treated with dignity - and coping with a surge of asylum seekers, knocking at the door.

Toronto has seen a spike in refugee claimants in shelters this year, with average nightly numbers climbing to 3,191 this month - more than six times the level of two years ago. Toronto Mayor John Tory has issued increasingly urgent calls for additional funding from federal and provincial governments. He says 41 per cent of those in the city's already-strained shelter system are now refugee claimants; by November, this share is projected to hit 54 per cent. As a result, for the first time, the city is temporarily housing people in student residences at two community colleges, spaces that are filling up fast.

Many recent asylum seekers are from Nigeria, fleeing violence, conflict and political strife at home. And while a common image may be of single young men, a growing share of recent claimants are families with children.

This wave is such that Canada's Immigration Minister Ahmed Hussen has been meeting with U.S. officials, and last month travelled to Nigeria to ask officials there to spread a "deterrence" message.

They're also still coming from other parts of the world, service providers say: Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Uganda, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan and Iraq. The reasons for leaving range from domestic or family violence and the threat of female genital mutilation to religious or minority group persecution, threats to LGBTQ people, corrupt political regimes and civil war.

Not all claims will be accepted; many from Haiti and Nigeria have been rejected this year. In the first quarter of the year, 471 Haitian claims were rejected and 105 accepted; 359 Nigerian claims were rejected versus 178 acceptances (the backlog of Nigerian cases numbers nearly 8,000).

The #WelcomeToCanada message of early last year has since been tempered; a federal government tweet this month notes "Canada's refugee system isn't for those seeking a better economic life; it provides protection to refugees who have a well-founded fear of persecution."

Toronto has experienced waves of refugee claimants before, in 2001 and 2007. Several factors make this time different: The United States has all but closed its doors to refugees, causing many asylum seekers to set their sights on Canada. And these pressures come as housing costs in the city have skyrocketed, sparking urgent questions about how to shelter new arrivals - particularly families - with limited means.

Rent in Toronto has jumped 16 per cent in the past year alone; house prices have soared almost 60 per cent in the past five years. Housing affordability in Toronto, relative to income, is now among the worst in the world, according to the consultancy Demographia.

"Affordable housing is the major issue here," says Mario Calla, executive director of COSTI Immigrant Services, which has served 1,700 claimants in Toronto in the past year. The pressures are such that a co-ordinated regional plan is needed, so people can be moved to other cities that have shelter spaces or more affordable rent.

(Toronto was already grappling with a lack of shelter spaces for its homeless population; in response, this month the city said it will establish four temporary tented structures as emergency shelters next winter, each capable of housing 100 people - a sign the city doesn't expect these pressures to abate any time soon.)

Toronto isn't alone in seeing a recent influx in claimants. In Hamilton, Micah House says it's seeing more large families from Nigeria; it had to turn aside 506 requests last year owing to capacity constraints. In Waterloo, the Welcome Home Refugee House has seen an "exponential" increase in new arrivals this year, particularly families with children. Refugee claimants are coming to Waterloo due to space shortages in the shelters in Toronto and because apartments are cheaper than in the Greater Toronto Area, program director Sharon Schmidt says.

There have also been growing numbers of LGBTQ refugee claimants, who fled their countries due to persecution at home. The 519, which runs support programs for them, saw a 27per-cent increase, to more than 1,200 LGBTQ claimants, in the most recent year, spokesperson Soofia Mahmood said. Recent arrivals are from Nigeria and Turkey, and the most common regions of origin are African and Caribbean countries.

"Many of our program participants report of deep trauma - emotional and/or physical - after which they take the big step of leaving everything behind and starting over," Ms. Mahmood said. "They come to Canada looking for a safer and inclusive space where they could live their lives openly and with dignity; where gender identity and sexual orientation are protected grounds."

For Lex Miller and his partner Ralanda Mitchell, a trans woman, several factors spurred their decision to leave their home country of the Bahamas: a string of brutal murders of gay men there for which the perpetrators were not convicted; threats and dis-

crimination from family, landlords, co-workers and employers; and, one day, watching a YouTube video of Justin Trudeau, dancing in a Pride Parade.

"The clincher for me, when it came to choosing between Canada and Europe, was when I saw Prime Minister Trudeau in the Pride Parade. I was like - did I just see that right? We both were in awe when we saw that."

Mr. Miller had wanted to run for political office, but as an openly gay man, he couldn't get nominated. He had proposed to Ms. Mitchell in 2016, back in Freeport, but they were not allowed to marry.

"We had to keep our relationship secret, in order to have a roof over our heads. We weren't free. We weren't free in our personal lives, we weren't free in church, in society," said Mr. Miller, 29. "We feared for our safety."

They arrived in May and are living in a homeless shelter currently, doing volunteer work for the 519 in the Gay Village. They'll be marching in their first Pride Parade this weekend. They hope to marry and pursue new careers (in politics and social work) if their claims are approved.

"I love the inclusiveness here," Ms.

Mitchell said.

The Red Cross, which is running the shelter services and orientation at Centennial College and Humber College, until August, says most arrivals are either single mothers or two-parent families with children. In another contrast to conditions south of the border, Centennial has opened its soccer pitch for kids and has World Cup screenings; at Humber, children have access to a community pool and the local library.

At Humber, there are currently 184 refugee claimants in residence; 60 of them are under the age of 18. Centennial has 350 people staying there; about half of these residents are children.

Refugee shelters are at full capacity - to the point where in some instances, people are sleeping on a pullout couch in Karen Francis's administrative office in the basement. She is the executive director of Matthew House, which runs four homes, two of which are dedicated to refugee youth who are as young as 16.

They have capacity to shelter 40 people (who are currently from countries such as Eritrea, Afghanistan, Sudan and Mexico). They connect people with mental-health supports, English lessons and job skills training, and have expanded a program that helps refugee claimants prepare for their hearings by holding a simulation hearing so they know what to expect.

"We see that folks arrive here with a high degree of motivation, and a positive attitude and gratefulness to a country that has welcomed them," she says, stressing that they are resilient and want to give back to society.

Past residents have gone on to careers in law, medicine and teaching.

But in the near term, the influx is straining city finances. The city says it has incurred $64.5-million in additional costs of shelter for recent claimants, last year and this year, and that at this rate, it expects a $25-million operating budget shortfall for 2018 - prompting the mayor to ask federal and provincial governments for funding. The federal government earlier this month pledged $50-million to Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba, of which $11-million was earmarked for Ontario, to offset housing costs. Questions about further provincial assistance, sent to the office of premier-designate Doug Ford, were not answered.

It has also affected other services.

Ontario Works, for example, says a growing share of people receiving social assistance are refugee claimants.

Since the late 1980s, the city has used motels, when needed, to increase the capacity of the family shelter system. That's happening now - visits along Kingston Road in east Toronto, to places such as the Roycroft Motel and the Lido Motel, show what living in limbo looks like: Parents sit on patio chairs outside their rooms, laundry hanging up to dry on a fence.

A toddler zooms on a wheeled toy car; an older boy wanders by on a narrow patch of grass.

Mr. Calla, of COSTI, says most recent refugee claimants in Toronto are from African countries, mainly families, who crossed the border from the United States into Canada. "For them to make that journey ... it takes significant personal resources, research, planning and then execution. Consequently what we're seeing is people with very high human capital," he said, adding that 97 per cent of those from Nigeria speak English, and 73 per cent have postsecondary education.

"They are highly motivated to work; they're really anxious to get their work visas and integrate."

To address the backlog, the federal government plans to speed up the handling of files from people who cross at unofficial ports of entry, partly by hiring dozens more Immigration and Refugee Board staff to process claims.

Quebec and Manitoba have seen waves of such crossings in the past two years, although numbers have eased more recently. The biggest single month for these crossings in recent years was last August, when 5,712 people crossed, most of them into Quebec, prompting the province to open the Olympic Stadium for temporary housing. No similar measures have been necessary so far this year.

Manitoba had growing numbers last year, but so far this year that has subsided.

The number of people crossing in Quebec - as tracked by RCMP interceptions - eased in May from April (to 57 people a day on average compared with 83 people a month earlier). Mr.

Hussen said preliminary figures show the downward trend continuing in June.

As for Mr. Makaka, 43, he was a political activist leading an otherwise rooted, middle-class life before he left Uganda. He was university educated, had been an area sales manager at Barclays, and co-founded and ran a successful green-energy firm, travelling as far as China to do business.

He had protested issues such as high unemployment and the removal of presidential term limits. It is a dangerous country in which to speak out.

Uganda is ranked 151 of 180 in Transparency International's corruption perceptions index; Human Rights Watch says its government continues to violate free association, expression and assembly rights, while security officials still use excessive force, with impunity.

Now in Toronto, Mr. Makaka wants to move off social assistance and be economically self sufficient as quickly as possible. He hopes - first and foremost - to bring his family over, and eventually, to start his own business in Canada.

He pulls out his phone and shows pictures of his children; the youngest of seven is a six-month-old daughter, who is learning how to crawl.

It wasn't his preference to leave his family, culture, career and home. He felt that he had no choice, after a printout from a Facebook photo of his wife and kids was placed on the windshield of his car, with red crosses marked on their faces. He dreams of being reunited with wife and children. He hopes his claim will be allowed, that the decision makers "understand that no person would want to leave their country. This is a situation where it would save lives."

With a report from Les Perreaux in Montreal

Associated Graphic

Ugandan refugee Freddie Makaka-Mugerwa says Canada's inclusiveness is a 'crucial' factor for asylum seekers who are considering where to go.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TORONTO.CA; IMMIGRATION AND REFUGEE BOARD OF CANADA

Ugandan refugee Freddie Makaka-Mugerwa sits in a Toronto shelter on June 9. Mr. Makaka was a business owner and political activist in Uganda when threats against his family drove him to flee his country in a bid to keep them safe. Now living alone in the city and unable to sleep at night due to concern for his family, he aims to be economically self-sufficient as quickly as possible so he can bring his family to Canada and start his own business.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Bahamian refugees Ralanda Mitchell, left, a trans woman, and Lex Miller, her fiancé, enjoy a day together in Toronto on June 13. Fearing persecution in their home country, they fled and eventually arrived in the city in May. 'I love the inclusiveness here,' Ms. Mitchell says.

GALIT RODAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: UNHCR

COLOMBIA'S NEW SEASON OF FEAR
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In 2016, an agreement between rebel forces and the government ended five decades of war. But it also created a power vacuum where rival militias, assassins and drug cartels are terrorizing locals. Stephanie Nolen reports
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By STEPHANIE NOLEN
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Monday, June 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


CALOTO, COLOMBIA -- Fighters of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the FARC, began to gather near here and hand over their weapons to the United Nations back in January, 2017. For decades the guerrillas were the ruling power in this green valley in southwest Colombia, and people here, the civilians who were caught in the middle of the FARC's brutal war with the Colombian state, will tell you they watched them disarm with hope. Hope, and flickering optimism - and no small amount of dread. The FARC were going, but who would replace them?

Of all of those feelings, the dread turns out to have been the most prescient.

"We thought there would be peace - but it's worse here now," said Manuel Ul.

Mr. Ul's cousin, Marcos, was assassinated in late January - shot point-blank in a crowded tavern on a Sunday afternoon in the nearby town of El Palo. The criminal-for-hire who shot him has been identified, but not arrested - and the family has no idea who ordered the killing, or why, Mr. Ul said.

It's like that, here, these days: The war has ended and the guerrillas have abandoned their weapons. But instead of a new era of peace, there are armed groups all around, battling for control of the territory and the business once held by the FARC. Those groups include other leftist guerrillas; bands of dissident FARC; right-wing paramilitaries; and, perhaps most ominously, a range of non-ideological groups, including Mexican and Brazilian drug cartels. There are death threats for community leaders every few days, and killings, such as Marcos Ul's, every week. Colombians vote today in a presidential election that right-wing candidate Ivan Duque seems likely to win; he is a critic of the peace deal, who has offered no plans to reduce the violence in these areas.

Marcos Ul was a campesino - a subsistence farmer - and a member of the Nasa Indigenous Guard, the de facto security force for the largest group of First Nations people in this area. Even before the war ended, the Guard had violent confrontations with paramilitaries hired by sugarcane plantation owners, whose farms line the bottom of the valley on land the Nasa people claim as their own.

Members of the Guard frequently receive death threats these days. And, since the peace deal, Mr. Ul was also a critic of neighbours who grew coca and marijuana on their small farms and sold it to narco-traffickers, his cousin said. So the narcos might have ordered his death.

But he was a mild-mannered father of six, not a particularly prominent figure in the community. So maybe this was just a killing of convenience - one more broad-daylight murder intended to terrorize the Nasa and others who live in the valley. His execution may have been intended to remind his community that the state cannot or will not protect them (there was a military battalion and a police post less than half a kilometre from where he was killed) and that powerful interests are battling to become the new authority here.

"Before, we knew the conflict and who they were - who's pursuing us," Manuel Ul, 52, said. "Before, it was paramilitaries or the rebels. Now, there are 12 groups and you don't know where the bullets are coming from. This killing - we don't know why they did it."

On a recent afternoon, sitting sheltered from a light rain on the porch of Marcos's small cement-block house, Mr. Ul spoke quietly and at length about his family's fear.

His cousin's widow, Elvia Tenoric, sat listening nearby, while tears ran down her cheeks. Beside her was her son Norberto, 28, who was with his father when he was killed.

They explained that, of course, the situation is complicated; no one here is nostalgic for the war. They lived through aerial bombardments by the army, and night raids by the FARC, who swept through in search of supplies - and sometimes children to fight with them. But that was war, and this is, supposedly, peace.

Yet still their leaders are dying, and the new landscape is chaotic. It's not just the murders; they also mourn their expectations.

While his community neither liked nor trusted the FARC, they were a known quantity, Mr. Ul said, with a clear ideology and a leadership structure the Nasa could appeal to - if, for example, there was fighting too near a school. "It was clear that we weren't aligned with a group and we were the territorial authority here, and they respected that.

These ones have no respect and will come and kill you."

Marcos Ul was the 15th "social leader," as they are called here - a group that includes humanrights defenders, environmental activists, proponents of the peace deal - to be murdered in Colombia this year. Ninety-one more have been killed in the weeks since his death, according to the records kept by the human rights organization Somos Defensores, or We are Defenders.

Such leaders were always targets for violence during the war - but they are no safer in peace. In 2017, the first full year after the peace agreement was signed, Colombia's homicide rate fell to its lowest level in 30 years - but the rate of killings of these community leaders spiked, to 173.

That was more than double the number of such killings the year before, and the number is set to be considerably higher this year, according to the United Nations.

Exactly as people in the valley feared, the departure of the FARC created a vacuum that a great many interests are fighting to fill.

And the state, despite all the warnings, has largely left them to it.

Implementation of the peace deal with the FARC has been slow, caught up in congressional delays and red tape - but has had some key successes. Nearly all 12,800 fighters demobilized and handed over their weapons, and are in the process of reintegrating into civilian life. Most have been granted an amnesty, and FARC leaders will be tried by a special tribunal that will soon begin hearings. The FARC competed in national elections as a political party in March and appears largely to have gotten out of the narco-trafficking business that fuelled its guerrilla operation. Large swaths of country have been rid of landmines.

But the grisly string of murders of leaders from Colombia's most marginalized communities is emblematic of the ways the peace process is failing. The agreement was built on a commitment to rural development and land redistribution, and the provision of state services in the most neglected areas - to addressing inequities that, for decades, helped to fuel support for the FARC and other leftist groups. Both sides agreed that a rapid movement of the state into FARC-controlled regions would be key for success.

It didn't happen. "The FARC had a large physical presence here, places where the state couldn't go - but the FARC left and the state still didn't come here," said Edwin Capaz, 32, the human-rights co-ordinator for the regional association of Indigenous councils.

Rodrigo Rivera, the government's Commissioner for Peace, who oversees the implementation of the deal, said the very success of the process - how swiftly and thoroughly the FARC was disarmed - is now working against it due to the resulting vacuum. And he said the government is responding, with the largest military deployment on the continent, some 80,000 soldiers and national police-force members deployed to former FARC-controlled regions.

"But they cannot go there with the same practices of FARC: They have to go there with the rule of law," he said in an interview in Bogota. "They cannot go there killing people or abusing people. The way to apply democratic institutions in those places is very different to the way that FARC used to exercise their authority there. So we have an institutional challenge and it's going to take time."

Carlos Guevara, a co-ordinator at Somos Defensores, said the murders of activists and leaders are a direct result of state failure to act on an entirely predictable problem - and he does not expect the situation to improve, despite Mr. Rivera's pledges.

Many of the murders, he said, are hits carried out by a local thug (as Mr. Ul's was) but authorized by someone politically powerful: the owners of plantations or the heads of illegal gold-mining businesses, or corrupt police in league with drug traffickers. That means the crimes don't get investigated, and instead are chalked up to personal disputes and "blamed on financial or romantic problems."

The goal of the killings is clear, he said: "They're attacking local leaders from the base - it shatters the community, creates fear, and sends the message to others to withdraw - the point is to shatter solidarity." More men than women have been killed, but women are frequently subjected to brutal torture and sexual violence before they are killed, he said. "They want to kill hope."

Dissident FARC members who don't support the peace deal are also killing people, as are the ELN and the EPL, two smaller leftist rebel groups; there is also the Clan de Golf, a huge rightwing paramilitary force, and other smaller paramilitaries; some criminal gangs; and narco-traffickers. The Peace and Reconciliation Foundation in Bogota says there are roughly 5,000 armed people in criminal or extrajudicial political organizations today.

All of them seek to establish their authority by killing prominent figures. They are recruiting new members, with the promise

of steady salaries in places where there are few other economic opportunities, or, sometimes, taking new members, including children, by force. They are funding themselves, much as FARC once did - with illegal mining, drug trafficking, and extortion of residents.

Cultivation of coca and marijuana has surged in the postFARC vacuum; the government stopped spraying coca fields with herbicide, and instead implemented a program to pay farmers to substitute other, legal, crops. But that program reached just 30 per cent of its goal last year, and has not come to this valley at all. Mr. Capaz, the Indigenous leader, said the new actors are competing for control of the drug businesses, and of transport corridors that cut through territory belonging to his people and other First Nations communities.

It's almost enough to make his people nostalgic for the FARC, he said. "These ones, they're more unpredictable, reckless and more violent. They respect nothing."

But their targets are clear: The Indigenous councils are seen as an obstacle to their profits, he said, and so are any individuals who speak out. Eighteen Nasa leaders have received death threats so far this year, he said.

(If Mr. Ul was warned, he did not tell his family.) Conflict among the new armed actors themselves, and between them and the state, has caused a new wave of displacement - one of the main sources of suffering during the war.

Rossana Mejia, 44, has received so many death threats that she struggles to recount them in order. She is a prominent representative of the AfroColombian community, campaigning for territorial recognition for the land around the town of Caloto that her ancestors worked as slaves, and that pits her against a range of interests.

During the war, the guerrillas and the right-wing paramilitaries both threatened her, she said, each accusing her of collaborating with the enemy. She was an active champion of the peace deal - but since its signing, the threats are even more frequent, she said.

They have come by e-mail, by phone and on pamphlets, distributed in the streets, that warned her to stop her activism.

They come from the ELN, from paramilitaries, and from people whose affiliation she could not discern. One was delivered by a burly man in a mask with a huge butterfly tattooed on his bicep.

He burst into her house, where she was sitting with her thenfive-year-old son, put a gun to her head and said, "I don't know why you don't stay quiet and I don't know why I didn't get the order to kill you." She shuddered at the recollection, adding, "I know the risks of doing this work but I didn't know how it would feel in that moment - in that moment you don't think like a leader, you think like a woman and a mother."

For years, Ms. Mejia has led her community in opposition to gold mining and sugar plantations.

Now, they are opposing a plan for gas fracking. She said she has come to feel that the peace deal was ultimately intended as a way to open up Colombia to international business interests. After the first threats, the government gave her a bulletproof vest (that didn't fit) and a cellphone (that never had a signal) as part of its national security plan for targeted leaders. Recently, she was assigned a diffident bodyguard. But she no longer has any belief that she will be safer in the era of peace - the same economic interests that are putting pressure on her community have the explicit backing of the state, she said.

"There are more people who know and are asking for their rights now," she said. "But also, there are more actors for whom they are a problem."

Mr. Rivera, the peace commissioner, said the government is working on several fronts to improve security in Caloto and other former FARC-controlled areas.

There are peace talks with the ELN, which are proceeding fitfully, but about which he said he is "cautiously optimistic." There are also programs to build up local institutions and to expand the crop-substitution program that is paying farmers to switch to growing coffee or vanilla or other, legal, plants instead of coca and marijuana - which will weaken the hold of narco-traffickers.

"I can assure you, the way we dismantled the biggest drug cartels in the world, the Medellin cartel, the Cali cartel, the way we dismantled the paramilitary groups, the way we have solved the problem of FARC, we are going to solve this problem as well," he said. He acknowledged that this is cold comfort for a family such as Marcos Ul's. "But we have the capability and we have the political will to be successful against these threats."

Mr. Capaz said the approach of Mr. Rivera and his colleagues is doomed to fail because it's backward. "The government acted as if peace was something they could come and deliver to us - instead of using the existing, very strong social structures to try to fill the gaps," he said. The government views the army as the only substitute force, and has ignored organizations such as the Indigenous Guard - of which Mr.

Capaz is part, and in which Marcos Ul also served - even though the Guard has better intelligence and more credibility locally, he said. "The wrong way to the fill gap was with the military. People don't trust the military either."

Manuel Ul has no faith in the soldiers or police, who were just down the road when his cousin was shot. "Security is going to have to come from our own communities, from one another," he said. "Because it's never going to come from the state."

The night after she buried her husband, Mr. Ul's widow was lying in bed when she heard an eruption of barking from the family dogs. Someone pounded on her front door. "I thought, maybe now they've come for me as well," recalled Ms. Tenoric. She didn't answer, and eventually the yard fell quiet again. But still she lies awake at night, she said, frightened, yet not even sure whom it is she fears.

Associated Graphic

Elvia Tenoric's husband was assassinated by a criminal-for-hire in January. Now she wonders who the next target will be among her family and neighbours.

CHRISTIAN ESCOBARMORA/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A member of the Indigenous Guard stands in front of the Corinto offices of the CRIC, the governing council for the Cauca region's First Nations people. The Guard is the de facto security force for local Indigenous people.

PHOTOS BY CHRISTIAN ESCOBARMORA/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Rossana Mejia, leader of an Afro-Colombian community group, has received death threats as she campaigns for territorial recognition of land where her enslaved ancestors lived.

Indigenous Colombians in the offices of northern Cauca's Indigenous association in Santander de Quilichao.

Rural areas of Colombia, such as this one near Corinto, have seen deadly disputes over land between plantation owners, the armed guards they hire and the Nasa people, who claim their land has been illegally seized by agro-industry.

Manuel Ul, left, sits at the family home with Marcos Ul's widow, Elvia Tenoric, second from left, as well as her son and other family members.

Students pass snack vendors in the streets of Corinto. Towns in this area were the site of some of the worst fighting of the war and civilians had high hopes for a new era of peace.

When strongmen stick together
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In the past decade, might-makes-right nationalism has made a comeback such as the world has not seen since the 1930s. For now, some are praising and supporting one another - but what happens when the tough guys start fighting among themselves?
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By MARK MACKINNON
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A12


LONDON -- t was a good week for autoI crats. The dizzying stretch began with U.S. President Donald Trump honouring North Korea's violent dictator Kim Jong-un with a head-to-head summit in Singapore, and ended with Russian President Vladimir Putin - a man the West has spent years trying to isolate - playing the beaming master of ceremonies at the planet's most-watched event, soccer's World Cup.

Combined with Mr. Trump's table-upending performance at the G7, it was hard to escape the conclusion that the post-Cold War international system - which developed large cracks two years ago as Mr. Trump was swept to the White House and the European Union began to fracture - has come further unglued.

The shape of a chaotic new order is emerging, an era in which might-makes-right strongmen stand tallest on the international stage: Mr. Putin, Mr. Trump, Chinese President Xi Jinping, and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, to name only a few. It's a very different cast of characters from just 10 years ago, before the 2008 financial crisis that launched a decade of turmoil.

The new strongmen share a disdain for the rules, and for liberal democracy, and embrace a common concept of patriotism that bleeds into ethnocentric nationalism. We've seen this pattern before - economic collapse, followed by the rise of authoritarian rulers - most poignantly in the 1920s and 1930s.

Some are concerned that once again having so many "tough guys" in power at the same time - each whipping up nationalism among their supporters - increases the possibility of another conflict between great powers. Witness the proxy war in Syria, where Turkey, Russia and the United States all have military forces on the ground, as well as the gathering trade war between the United States and China.

"When you get these authoritarian regimes, I think [the leaders] tend to personify the regime, and so their relationships with other similar heads of state tend to matter," said Margaret MacMillan, a historian who has authored bestselling books on the origins of the First and Second World Wars. "I think it makes it more combustible because [the leaders'] pride is at stake, their reputation is at stake."

What's clear is that the old system, which saw the West deploy tools ranging from economic sanctions to the threat of military might to get "rogue" countries to play by the rules, has broken down, thanks largely to the disruptors-in-chief, Mr. Putin and Mr. Trump. Mr. Putin, by repeatedly breaking the rules, has made rogue behaviour the new normal around the world. Mr. Trump, meanwhile, has actively undermined multilateral institutions - see his refusal to sign last week's uncontroversial G-7 communiqué - while simultaneously withdrawing the United States from its long-time role of global policeman.

In praising Mr. Kim - a dictator who presides over a system of labour camps and who has used nerve agents and anti-aircraft guns to murder his political rivals - as a "tough" leader who "loves his people," Mr. Trump made clear niceties such as human rights are not a priority for him.

What matters is whether he gets along with the leader of any given country (which can change in a 280-character tweet, as Canada and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau discovered this week).

And so we're left to stare at Mr.

Putin's World Cup triumph: His speech on Thursday welcoming visitors to Russia "an open, hospitable and friendly country" was cheered by the 81,000 fans who packed into Moscow's Luzhniki Stadium, and watched by millions more around the world.

Forgotten for the moment, were Mr. Putin's wars in Ukraine and Syria, as well as the allegations of Russia's involvement in the shooting down of a Malaysian airliner, and the nerve agent attack on an ex-KGB agent and his daughter in the English town of Salisbury just three months ago.

(The collective amnesia was best captured in a photograph of Mo Salah, an Egyptian who is one of soccer's biggest stars, clasping hands with Ramzan Kadyrov, the reviled pro-Putin ruler of Chechnya, who stands widely accused of assassinations and torture.)

The British Royal Family is staying away from Mr. Putin's World Cup to protest the attack in Salisbury - British Foreign Minister Boris Johnson compared it to the 1936 Olympics in Hitler's Germany - but calls for a wider boycott fell so flat that it was a British pop star, Robbie Williams, who opened the tournament with a medley of his greatest hits.

Mr. Putin watched the Russian team's opening 5-0 victory over Saudi Arabia in the company of Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, another brooks-nodissent strongman who has been throwing his weight around on the international stage as he seeks to remake his country and the wider Middle East. Mr. Trump gave Mr. Putin another triumph when he suggested last week that the Russian leader should have been invited to the G7 meeting in Quebec. It didn't seem to matter to Mr. Trump that Russia had been expelled from the club just four years earlier over the annexation of Crimea, the first hostile takeover of territory in Europe since the end of the Second World War.

Next week, it will be Turkish President Tayyip Recep Erdogan's turn to flex in the international limelight if - as is widely expected - he is re-elected on June 24 to another term with expanded, Putinesque powers. Like the Russian President, Mr. Erdogan has cowed the media, crushed the political opposition, ignored the humanrights lobby, whipped up a dangerous nationalism and emerged as his country's most powerful leader in several generations.

"He is part of the generation of rising nativists," said Suat Kiniklioglu, a former MP from Mr. Erdogan's AK Party, in reference to those who take an anti-immigrant stance. "He is an aggrieved nativist who wants to change the status quo. He obviously is more comfortable with strongmen or autocrats such as Putin, Trump and Xi Jinping, as he does not need to worry about value-based issues such as human rights, freedom of expression and proper democratic credentials ... he deals with them as he would if he was the head of a Turkish company - transactional."

It's striking to consider how much the world has been remade over the past decade. Ten years ago, Barack Obama was headed to the White House to begin his first term in office, full of talk about remaking America's relationship with the world and ridding the planet of nuclear weapons. The Nobel Committee was getting set to welcome him with a Peace Prize that would prove very premature.

The internationalist Dmitry Medvedev was in the Kremlin, with Mr. Putin pushed into the theoretically junior role of prime minister. China's rise was being managed by the colourless tandem of Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao.

Mr. Erdogan was prime minister of Turkey in 2008, but he was then still viewed by most as a modernizer and a democrat.

Then came the financial crisis that began in September, 2008.

The 18-month Great Recession set in motion a series of destabilizing events - the Arab Spring, the war in Syria, the showdown between Russia and the West over Ukraine, the migration crisis, and the rise of nationalist politicians including Mr. Trump - that are still unfolding.

Only German Chancellor Angela Merkel remains from the pre-2008 era, and she finds herself acrimoniously at odds with both Mr. Trump and Mr. Putin, while the European Union - long seen as a bulwark of stability - creaks under the strain of the migration crisis, Britain's vote to leave the EU, and the rise within the bloc of Putin-admiring populists such as Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban.

"We scraped through the [2008] crisis and I don't think we realized how lucky we were. I think a lot of democratic leaders failed to recognize the sense of alienation and frustration that a lot of people in their own societies had, and failed to deal with it," said Ms. MacMillan, who teaches at both the University of Toronto and Oxford University in England.

"During times when lots of things seem to be going wrong

and people aren't sure about things, strong people come who along with often very simplistic slogans are very appealing. Mussolini was appealing in the twenties, Hitler was appealing later on, because they gave simple answers to complex questions."

In the wake of the Cold War, Western leaders frequently spoke of democracy spreading around the globe. Many believed that such an outcome was inevitable.

Today, it's authoritarianism that appears to be hopping from one country to the next as politicians, looking for a formula to sell to their anxious populations, eye the easy solutions that one-man rule - preferably accompanied by a rubber-stamp parliament and a pliant judiciary and media - appears to offer.

Turkey's election next weekend will be the first since a 2015 coup attempt that very nearly toppled Mr. Erdogan. He has since been merciless at home, jailing tens of thousands of perceived political opponents and driving many others into exile. Mr. Erdogan's Turkey has also been adventurous on the world stage, where it stands accused, like Mr. Putin's Russia, of seeking to restore the dominion it once held over its neighbours.

Mr. Erdogan has sent the Turkish army into Syria and Iraq - two former chunks of the Ottoman Empire before its collapse a century ago - to combat Kurdish fighters he says are aligned with Kurdish separatists inside Turkey.

Last month, Mr. Erdogan raised eyebrows in another former Ottoman territory when he held a rally in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, a country deeply divided between its Muslim, Serb and Croat populations. (Mr.

Putin has been accused of backing Bosnia's Serbs as the country's fractures have begun to deepen.)

Like Mr. Putin's move into Crimea, which recalled Russia's imperial history and distracted from stalled efforts to reform the country's economy, Mr. Erdogan's military adventurism plays well at home. In Turkey, as in Russia, patriotism is increasingly equated with support for the army and its commander-in-chief.

After 18 years in power, Mr. Putin has become something of a leader among the strongmen, providing not only a model of governance but also economic, military and diplomatic support to the likes of Mr. Orban, Serbian President Aleksandar Vucic and Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro. North Korea's Mr. Kim and Philippines' President Rodrigo Duterte, meanwhile, defer primarily to their nearest patron, Mr.

Xi.

But while the new strongmen may admire each other, their egodriven behaviours also raise the risks of confrontation between them.

In Asia, Mr. Xi has made himself into China's strongest leader since Mao Zedong, clearing away the constitutional hurdles to seeking more than two consecutive terms in office, opening the way for him to remain in power indefinitely. China's military is also expanding rapidly in terms of its ability and ambition.

That growing strength poses a challenge - and potentially justification for copycat moves - to the likes of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, two other nationalistic Asian leaders who have thus far been constrained by the fact they lead democracies.

It also raises the risks of confrontation in the South China Sea, which China claims sovereignty over, but the United States and other countries see as international waters in which they have freedom of movement. (Mr.

Trump has repeatedly sent warships into the South China Sea in recent months to back the U.S.

contention.)

Battle lines are hardening in the Middle East, too, where headstrong leaders such as Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu seem to be preparing for a region-wide conflict against the hardline rulers of Iran. The informal Israel-Saudi coalition is already waging a proxy war against Iran and its allies in Syria, a brutal seven-year-old conflict in which Mr. Trump and Mr. Putin also back opposing sides.

"I am not sure whether we could see [wider] conflict but I certainly believe the risk is higher than before," said Mr. Kiniklioglu, the former Turkish MP. "We also see a lot more exploitation and manipulation of external affairs and security issues for the benefit of domestic politics. Autocrats are very capable in playing these things in their favour. " In a time of strongmen, those perceived as weak are often pushed aside, their concerns ignored. Jihyun Park, a 49-year-old North Korean refugee who survived two stints pulling farm equipment in the Kim dynasty's labour camps, watched the Singapore summit this week with mixed emotions.

On one hand, she delighted in Mr. Trump's pre-summit mixture of threats and coaxing, which she said had forced Mr. Kim to break with his family's hermitic traditions and travel - on a plane provided by Mr. Xi - to the Singapore meeting. "It is Trump who made Kim Jong-un come out [to Singapore]," Ms. Park told a panel in London. She hoped that exposing Mr. Kim and his entourage to more of the outside world would help bring change to her country.

But Ms. Park, who now lives in the English city of Manchester, said she was angered by the Singapore summit's narrow focus on nuclear weapons and other military issues, and the near-complete absence of human rights and the well-being of ordinary North Koreans from the agenda.

"Maybe if this meeting is a success, Kim Jong-un will bring back a lot of rice. [Most North Koreans] think only about that. They don't think about denuclearization issues," she said hours before the summit began. She was also bothered by how the Western media seemed to be softening its portrayal of Mr. Kim and the regime he leads. "He is still the same dictator."

Another Britain-based exile watching global events from the sidelines this week was Vladimir Ashurkov, a close ally of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny.

Mr. Ashurkov fled Russia four years ago as police escalated their pressure on those close to Mr. Navalny (embezzlement charges against Mr. Ashurkov, a banker, are widely viewed as trumped up).

The 46-year-old Mr. Ashurkov said he was happy to see Russia hosting the World Cup because it was a positive outlet for the growing nationalism in his country.

"It's much better to be proud of hosting a World Cup than to be celebrating the annexing of the territory of another country," Mr.

Ashurkov said, referring to the crowds who gathered on Red Square four years ago to cheer Mr.

Putin as he declared the formal annexation of Crimea.

But the month-long soccer tournament is nonetheless another gain for Mr. Putin. "It's a moment of pride, a moment when he can really boost support for himself and the regime," Mr.

Ashurkov said.

An even bigger win looms, he said, if Mr. Trump - who many believe won the 2016 presidential election with help from the Kremlin - and his populist allies in Europe continue to tear down the old, Western-led international system.

"Russia and Putin will use any kind of disagreements and controversies within the Western world to try to advance its own agenda ... for his game of trying to install chaos in the Western political system, the Western political order," Mr. Ashurkov said.

"I hope that Western governments and Western political systems are resilient enough," he added, "so that the values of freedom, democracy and peaceful cooperation prevail - and the world will remain stable."

Associated Graphic

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, observe a guard of honour during a welcoming ceremony at the Presidential Palace in Ankara earlier this year.

KAYHAN OZER/GETTY IMAGES

What a difference a decade makes. At top left, in 2008, Chinese president Hu Jintao welcomes U.S. president Barack Obama to Beijing. At right, their modern equivalents, Xi Jinping and Donald Trump, meet in China's capital in 2017.

At bottom left, at a Moscow concert in March, 2008, Vladimir Putin stands beside Dmitry Medvedev, then-newly elected as Russia's new president. Fast-forward to 2018, at right, where Mr. Putin, once again president, stands beside Mr. Medvedev at the World Cup match between Russia and Saudi Arabia in Moscow.

TOP: AP, AFP/GETTY IMAGES; BOTTOM: REUTERS, AP

Supporters cheer and listen as Mr. Erdogan speaks at a rally in Sarajevo on May 20.

OLIVER BUNIC/GETTY IMAGES

U.S. President Donald Trump, fourth from left, stands alongside Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and other world leaders at the G7 summit in La Malbaie, Que., on June 8.

YVES HERMAN/REUTERS

At the Seoul Railway Station, South Koreans watch a news report on the meeting between Mr. Trump and Kim Jong-un in Singapore.

CHUNG SUNG-JUN/GETTY IMAGES

Analyzing Canada's largest mutual funds: 'Mediocre is kind in some cases'
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A look at the fees and returns of the 100 most popular funds
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By ROB CARRICK
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B14


Judge by hype alone and you might think that dividend stocks and exchange-traded funds are all Canadians invest in.

But mutual funds are still the investment of the masses. The data analysis firm Strategic Insight says there was roughly $4.5-trillion in financial wealth in Canada at the end of 2017 - and almost 36 per cent of it was is in mutual funds, more than either bank deposits (including guaranteed investment certificates) or individual stocks and bonds.

"In Canada, household assets in mutual funds are significantly higher than in many other jurisdictions," said Paul Bourque, president and CEO of the Investment Funds Institute of Canada (IFIC). "For example, Canada is the highest country in the [Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development] in terms of household assets invested in mutual funds."

Canadians trust mutual funds to help them achieve their investing goals. But how do fund companies repay this loyalty? For answers, we analyzed the 100 largest mutual funds by assets as of Dec. 31, 2017, with a 10-year history at least. With help from Fundata Canada Inc., we looked at their long-term returns, and we looked at how these funds fit into the wave of fee-cutting that the entire investing industry has seen in recent years. We found big funds that really deliver for investors, but also many that do not.

Mr. Bourque sees a good news story for investors in the overall numbers.

"In spite of the investing climate and low returns and other challenges that we face, we still have good, respectable returns, for the past 10 years."

But the numbers also show the investment of the masses is failing its customers in some ways. Fees for the top 100 have barely moved in the past five years on average, funds with billions of dollars invested in them have delivered weak returns in some cases.

And, at the banks that dominate fund sales, there's a growing trend of streaming clients into "portfolio" funds that often come with hefty fees and underwhelming results.

"I would say the majority of products are not worth investors' money," said Dan Hallett, a long-time mutual fund analyst who is now vice-president at HighView Financial Group.

"There's a lot of really mediocre product, and mediocre is kind in some cases. That's what it comes down to."

Mutual funds haven't been a glamour investment since the 1990s, when a strong bull market for stocks helped created a temporary cult of star managers. Criticized at times for high fees and disappointing returns, the fund industry lost some of its brand value in the ensuing years. And yet, the top 100 funds alone had a colossal $567billion in assets as of Dec. 31, 2017, or 38 per cent of the industry total.

The importance of mutual funds is magnified by the extent to which they're relied upon by everyday Canadians to meet financial goals, such as a comfortable retirement. IFIC says investment advisers licensed to sell mutual funds serve 56 per cent of households, or nine million households in total. According to Strategic Insight, the average account size for people who use an adviser licensed to sell mutual funds is $53,181.

"Funds are a way for the average Canadian to participate, in a low-risk, well-managed way, in equity market returns," Mr. Bourque said. "That's critical if Canadians are going to save what they need to save for retirement."

Investing in funds can theoretically reduce risk by providing diversification and professional management.

This is the appeal of funds, along with the fact that you can start an account with as little as $100 in some cases and often pay zero in fees or commissions to buy and sell. Also, the fees associated with most funds cover the cost of having an adviser. You can't analyze fund performance without including this in the conversation.

Let's take a closer look at what the top 100 can tell us about the job funds are doing as the investment of the everyday Canadian: RETURNS Returns for the particular fund versions shown in the Top 100 were analyzed over the 10 years to Dec. 31, 2017, which is long enough to include strong and weak market conditions.

On average, these returns came in 0.85 of a percentage point below the benchmark indexes chosen by Fundata. (Note: Fund firms may use different benchmarks for their products and disagree with the choices made by Fundata.)

On the surface, underperformance by top 100 funds validates criticism of mutual funds that they chronically lag indexes you can invest in directly at low cost using ETFs. But putting mutual fund and ETF returns side by side is an unfair comparison. Most mutualfund fees include a "trailing commission," which goes to advisers and dealers who sell funds to cover continuing service to clients. A mutual fund investing in stocks would typically have a trailing commission equal to one percentage point built into its fee, while a bond fund would be at 0.5 per cent. ETFs usually have no trailing commissions.

Add trailing commissions back to fund returns and you end up very close to the results you'd get from an ETF portfolio. Mr. Hallett said mutualfund managers themselves don't chronically underperform indexes. It's only after fees are applied that fund returns lag.

"Investment skill exists - there's no doubt about that in my mind," he said. "It's that retail fees dilute most of that skill. They just eat away at it."

Trailing commissions - the cost of advice - explain a lot of fund underperformance, but not all of it. Slightly more than half of the top 100 funds underperformed over a 10-year period, the benchmark chosen by Fundata by more than one percentage point annualized, which is generally the maximum for trailing commissions. About one-third of the funds underperformed by two percentage points or more. The difference between earning 4 per cent and 6 per cent on a $10,000 investment over 20 years is $10,160 - a total value at the end of $21,911 compared with $32,071.

There are also some funds on the list that flat-out beat their benchmarks, and several of them are Canadian dividend funds offered by big banks such as Royal Bank of Canada, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Bank of Nova Scotia and Bank of Montreal through their branches. Independent fund firms that stand out: Fidelity Investments Canada, with five outperformers among its nine funds on the list, and Mawer Investment Management, which went three for three in having its funds on the list outperform.

RBC Asset Management dominated the top 100 with 19 funds, a minority of which beat their benchmark. Doug Coulter, president of RBC GAM, said the company's funds have done very well against comparable passive investments like index-tracking ETFs.

"More than 80 per cent of our assets outperformed their passive equivalents in a five-year period," he said.

FEES Over the past five years, the investment industry has seen an unprecedented decline in fees of all types. One notable exception is mutual fund fees.

The average five-year decline in management expense ratios (MERs) for the fund versions shown in the Top 100 round out to 0.05 of a percentage point, which works out to 50 cents on an investment of $1,000 over a year.

Mr. Hallett said fund companies have recently started to address fees in a limited way. Some have trimmed management fees, which are a component of fund MERs, and some firms now offer cheaper Series D versions of their funds for do-it-yourself investors who don't need advice.

"It's only in the past couple of years that we've started to see lower-fee fund versions available and cuts in management fees," he said. "Ten years ago, that was unheard of. They didn't cut fees because they didn't have to.

Returns were strong and people were buying the products without any fee cuts. There really was no motivation or pressure or anything along those lines to push them to compete on fees."

Pressure to cut fees is everywhere in the investing industry today. Robo-advisers charge roughly 0.5 of a point to manage a portfolio of low-cost ETFs.

Add another 0.25 to the cover the cost of owning ETFs and you end up at 0.75 per cent or less. That's much less than half the average 1.99-per-cent MER for the top 100 funds.

There has even been some fee-cutting in the full-service investment advice business. According to a recent report from McKinsey & Co., 30 per cent of advisers lowered prices in 2017 compared with the previous year.

The most intense fee-cutting in the investment industry can be seen in ETFs, which are lower-cost funds that are bought and sold like stocks. The MER for one of the country's largest bond ETFs, the $2.4-billion iShares Core Canadian Universe Bond Index ETF (XBB-T), has fallen to an estimated 0.11 per cent from 0.33 per cent in 2013. The MER for the $3.7-billion BMO S&P/TSX Capped Composite Index ETF (ZCNT) has fallen to 0.06 per cent from 0.17 per cent.

Analyst Daniel Straus of National Bank Financial sees fee competition in the ETF business as a reflection of the sector's relative newness compared with mutual funds. "That deep level of pitched competition for growth, market share and assets is felt far more keenly among ETF participants than mutualfund participants, which are a stodgier, older, more established business," he said.

IFIC says 28 fund companies cut fees of one kind or another between 2015 and 2017. IFIC's data on MERs for A-Series funds show an asset-weighted decline of 0.05 of a point between 2013 and 2016 for Canadian equity funds, 0.24 for foreign funds, 0.05 for domestic balanced funds and 0.01 for Canadian bond funds. (Asset-weighted means giving big funds more emphasis than small ones.)

PORTFOLIO FUNDS Almost one in five of the top 100 mutual funds are fund-of-fund "portfolio" products that give investors the opportunity to buy a diversified basket of underlying funds with one purchase. The fund arms of the big banks dominate the list in this category, but other companies are players as well.

Common to many of these funds are returns that were well short of the benchmarks assigned by Fundata and fees that barely moved in the past five years.

"I'd say that in almost every case, these would not be products I would want friends to invest in," said Mr. Hallett of HighView Financial Group.

Investor advocate Ken Kivenko marvelled at the size of these funds and wondered whether they would be so huge if investment advisers across the country were under an obligation to work to the best interests of clients.

Currently, advisers need only decide that a product is suitable for a client.

"If it were on a best-interest standard, these funds would not be able to get to that size," Mr. Kivenko said.

Portfolio funds are popular because of smart marketing that appeals to unsophisticated investors. The funds are typically labelled along the lines of "conservative," "balanced," "growth" and "aggressive growth." Clients fill out a risk tolerance questionnaire in a bank branch that streams them into one of these categories.

"It's really easy for the salesperson/ relationship manager when they take you through the risk profiler to just match that up to a portfolio that has a very similar, if not identical, label," said Amelia Young, founder of Upside Consulting Group. "They can say, 'this portfolio solution has everything you need.' " Ms. Young, who has worked extensively with banks, said these portfolios appeal to investors because they offer instant diversification. "Consumers love the idea of getting a little bit of this and a little bit of that," she said. "It gives them a lot of comfort."

Mr. Kivenko says it's convenience that accounts for all the money in these funds; as of Dec. 31 there was a stunning $55.4-billion in RBC Select Balanced Portfolio and RBC Select Conservative Portfolio combined, which rank first and second in the top 100 by a huge margin. "People can go into the branch once a year, they get their 45 minutes or an hour [with a planner] and they don't have to do anything else," he said. "But to get that hour, you're spending close to 2 per cent."

RBC's Mr. Coulter describes his company as a leader in mutual fund fee-cutting: "Certainly, the majority of our funds are below the industry average." However, the Select Balanced Portfolio has the same 1.94 per cent MER it had five years ago and the conservative portfolio has fallen just 0.01 of a point to 1.84 per cent.

Mr. Coulter said the fee for these funds includes tactical rebalancing (over- and underweighting sectors to take advantage of market shifts), which has added to returns. Also, investors get access to as many as 29 underlying funds through the RBC portfolios. "We think those [portfolio] funds are appropriately priced," he said.

INVESTOR TAKEAWAYS IFIC says about 85 per cent of mutualfund purchases were made through investment advisers. The substantial number of dud funds in the top 100 raises questions about how advisers select the funds they recommend to clients.

People who own funds that appear in a bad light in the top 100 should have a conversation with their adviser about alternatives. For every category of fund in the top 100, there are both strong and weak options based on returns and commitment to keeping fees reasonable. There are also many smaller funds to consider.

To find quality funds, consider the A+ FundGrade ratings maintained by Fundata. "An A-plus grade means that, within its fund group, a fund has outperformed its peers on a risk-adjusted basis," said Brian Bridger, Fundata's vice-president of analytics and data. High risk-adjusted returns mean a fund hasn't taken on a lot of risk in the securities it holds while generating competitive returns.

Consistency of returns is also factored into the A-plus FundGrades.

Some strong top 100 members that made the grade are: Black Creek Global Leaders, Cambridge Canadian Equity Corporate Class, Compass Conservative Balanced Portfolio, Dynamic Equity Income, Fidelity Canadian Growth Company, Fidelity Canadian Large Cap, Manulife Monthly High Income, Mawer Balanced, Mawer Canadian Equity, Mawer International Equity, RBC North American Value and TD Monthly Income (full disclosure: the author owns the Mawer funds).

Two funds in this list also earned a thumbs up from Mr. Hallett: Black Creek Global Leaders: "[Fund manager] Bill Kanko has been lead manager on global equity funds very similar to this one for more than two decades. His record is solid but performance can be streaky for this concentrated global fund."

Mawer International Equity: "Mawer is a terrific firm that has long offered quality products at low fees."

There is also the ETF option if your mutual funds are letting you down.

DIY investors have embraced low-cost ETFs, and an increasing number of advisers are using them as well to build all or part of client portfolios. The 2018 Globe and Mail ETF Buyer's Guide (tgam.ca/ETFguide) can help you get started.

85% Approximate number of mutual-fund purchases made through investment advisers $4.5-trillion Aproximate financial wealth in Canada at the end of 2017 $567-billion Assets under management of the top 100 funds as of Dec. 31, 2017 1/3 Number of funds that underperformed by two percentage points or more

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

A Wolfpack built from the rugby heartland
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British and Australian players discuss why they believe North America may be the sport's next big frontier
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By RACHEL BRADY
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S12


TORONTO -- Ashton Sims is often compared to Thor, and as the affable, long-haired, broadshouldered Australian rugby league star strolls into a Toronto coffee shop, it's easy to see why.

The towering Aussie settles onto a leather sofa next to another brawny rugby lad, Scottish national Matty Russell. They're built exactly as you'd expect of international-calibre players in the fast, bonecrushing sport of rugby league: muscled, formidable, intimidating. Both are recent big-name signings of the expansion Toronto Wolfpack, a club of pro athletes quite unlike any this city has ever called its own.

Sims tells of growing up on the coast of New South Wales, playing rugby and cricket with his brothers and sisters in the yard before all five scattered across the globe competing in elite rugby leagues.

The gregarious 6-foot-4, 244pounder is known for his explosive carries and punishing physicality, his tattoos and his zeal for heavy metal. He's played in Australia's National Rugby League, in Super League and in a Rugby League World Cup with his mother's native Fiji.

Russell, a strapping 5-foot-9, 196-pound winger from southwest Scotland, moved to northwest England as a kid and got swept up in the fervour for the storied local rugby-league club, the Wigan Warriors. He would become a young gun at Wigan Athletic Academy, star in Super League and suit up for Scotland in the World Cup. Oh, and he had his teeth knocked out three times in six months.

The coffee shop is a short stroll from the residence at George Brown College, where the team is living for the next couple of months. Every man on this Wolfpack squad - comprising mostly Brits and Aussies - has left a rugby-league heartland to come play for the first transatlantic professional sports franchise. They were lured to Canada by adventure or friendship, to reinvent their careers or to blaze a trail in North America, what they see as a sports-crazed continent that could be the next frontier for rugby league.

"I'd never been to Canada before now," Russell says. "But I have ESPN and I watch a lot of different contact sport and I know what's attractive to watch. Watching the NFL, I get a bit bored with all the breaks. When people see rugby league, they often say, 'I can't believe you guys don't wear pads.' I think rugby league could be massive with fans in North America."

"Some rugby-league purists might not like it, but we're trying to grow the sport we love," says 33year-old Sims, who also saw coming to Toronto as a unique cultural experience for his wife and four kids.

Last year, in their debut season, the Wolfpack began in the bottom-tier league governed by the Rugby Football League (RFL), Kingstone Press League 1. The team drew good crowds (albeit often by giving away some free tickets), trounced British teams full of semi-pros with day jobs, suffered just one loss, won a title and earned automatic promotion to the Betfred Championship, the second tier. Now this ambitious startup is shooting for another promotion, this time to the top tier, Super League. Adding talents such as Sims, Russell and several other big names for Year 2 was part of the plan to fortify Toronto's roster against stiffer competition in this year's Championship.

Due to Canada's long, cold winter and the resurfacing of the field at their Toronto home, 10,000seat Lamport Stadium, the Wolfpack have been at their Manchester training base until now and played the first half of their fixtures in Britain, save for one match at much smaller Fletcher's Fields in Markham, Ont. They're beginning June in Canada, sitting at first in their league and kicking off an eight-game home stand in finally warm Toronto.

Days later, the Wolfpack make their much-anticipated entrance to open-air Lamport Stadium on a hot and sunny Saturday afternoon. As the players wrap their arms around one another for O Canada and God Save the Queen, thousands of fans are still stuck outside in long queues that snake around the aging building.

The crowd has been snagging free Wolfpack T-shirts and vuvuzela horns out front while a brass band plays and a group of diehard supporters with drums, flags and black smoke canisters make their way inside. Once the announced crowd of 7,384 filters through the tiny cement concourses and up into the concretebench stands - on tickets as low as $25 for adults and $12.50 for kids - the place awakens.

Many are packed into a craftbeer garden in the north end zone, while others gather for food and table tennis matches in the east end, beneath the old-school digital scoreboard. It's a refreshing departure from the glitz and deafening noise of most Toronto sporting events. There are no video boards or in-stadium hosts hollering into microphones. The venue is so intimate, you can hear the bodies colliding at high speed and the grunts of competitors as they super-man over the goal line for a try. Fans are welcome to belly up to the end-zone barriers, little more than an arm's length from the howling, jubilant players as they bear hug their teammates after a score.

On this day, the Wolfpack treat the crowd to a steady stream of tries in a 32-12 win over the London Broncos for their 12th straight victory in league play, much to the chagrin of the small pockets of Broncos fans who have travelled from England or surfaced from within Toronto. Two Wolfpack tries come from new acquisition Cory Patterson, a bald, tattooed, 30-year-old, 6-foot-5 back-row forward from Australia who has also worked as an actor and boxer and has tried out for a couple of NFL teams as a kicker.

"It's a weird setup - they're right on top of you," Patterson says of his first game at Lamport.

"It's a great experience. They're so passionate. I had local people tweeting at me this week, saying, 'We don't really know the rules and what's going on, but we love it.' " Rugby league is a different code of game than the rugby union brand most commonly played in Canada and overseen by its national and provincial bodies. Rugby league originated in Northern England and employs a fast, physical style with 13 a side and fewer scrums.

Sims starts the game, but the Toronto crowd sees the Australian on the field for just a few minutes before he suffers a calf injury that will sideline him for a few weeks. Keeping the Wolfpack's perfect league record alive becomes more challenging without him in the lineup.

Victory isn't in doubt on this day, however. The last Wolfpack try comes from English-born scrum half Ryan Brierley, a Super League-experienced player back for a second year in Toronto.

Brierley then kicks the conversion between the posts, and - unavoidably at small Lamport - it sails amusingly right into the parking lot brimming with vehicles.

Within minutes of the matchover handshake, easygoing Brierley is reaching over barriers to shake hands with fans and sign autographs. It's not the quick, half-hearted sort of fan interaction you've seen from some pro athletes as they dash out the tunnels. The Wolfpack players do a loop of the stadium, casually chatting with everyone from rugby-loving British expats to eager kids and groups of selfie-seeking women, thanking - yes, thanking - people for coming.

"It's a culture thing. We go around and thank the fans for their support. And at first, I'm not sure they understood what we were doing," Brierley says. "I went to a Raptors game in Toronto, and after, the players just walked off so quickly and it seemed bizarre to me. The fans paid their hardearned wages to come. Why wouldn't you show you appreciate them? It's the way we were brought up back home - win, lose or draw, we go around and thank the fans."

It's also poles apart from what players experience at matches in Britain, where they often take abuse as they make the rounds.

"It's completely different here.

You've got 7,500 fans cheering and supporting as opposed to 7,500 fans hammering you in the negative. It's a different vibe here, a positive vibe," says Wolfpack head coach Paul Rowley, whose résumé includes Championship titles with the Leigh Centurions and playing stints internationally for England and in the Super League. "There's obviously a little lack of understanding for the core rules here, so the chants for different penalties and stuff doesn't come along with it as it does in England. It's more of an organic noise than a direct chanting - which can be personal at times.

It's a good noise."

Afterward, down in the bowels of Lamport, the Wolfpack locker room shakes with the rumble of players jumping and hollering out the victory song they wrote themselves for the franchise.

After addressing a handful of local reporters, Rowley walks out of the stadium, totally unidentified by lingering fans still learning the club's personalities. He hops into a Volkswagen parked on the street and is soon joined by more big RFL figures from Britain, who make up the backbone of this Toronto venture: assistant coach Simon Finnagan and director of rugby Brian Noble, who doubles as the colour analyst on TV broadcasts.

No one wants to look too far ahead, but the Wolfpack is in a promising position. At the end of the regular season, the top four finishers in the Championship face the bottom four from Super League in a round-robin playoff called the Super 8s (a format the league plans to change in 2019).

The best four finishers there qualify for the Super League next season. That quest could see the Wolfpack hosting playoff games against Super League sides in Toronto this August and September.

It's an odd journey that has sped along at a breakneck pace since Toronto-born Wolfpack founder and chief executive Eric Perez first watched rugby league on TV, while working in advertising in England, and thought Canadians would love this hard-hitting sport. He assembled a consortium of businessmen to fund it - including Australian mining millionaire David Argyle - and was granted an RFL franchise at the bottom level. He then enlisted Noble and Rowley, who were intrigued by the chance to build a club from scratch.

A condition of their entry was that the Wolfpack pay for the travel of opposing teams to and from Toronto - a hefty financial burden they still shoulder, with help from sponsor Air Transat.

The team's business office is thinking ahead, though, preparing for what Super League could mean. Promotion next year would give the Wolfpack access to a share of the broadcast deal the league has with Sky Sports in Britain. The club believes it would make Toronto a popular travel destination for Super League fans.

It also sees a bigger home stadium down the road and is interested in helping develop Lamport.

"Hockey dominates this market, but there is a really strong undercurrent of rugby heritage in Canada. The sport of rugby league is very attractive and has some synergies with the CFL and NFL, and it's a great product," says Scott Lidbury, the Wolfpack's Australian-born general commercial manager. "Rugby league is traditionally a very working-class sport from its heartland in the North of England and Australia.

We respect the heritage of the game, which is more than 100 years old, but we have an opportunity in Toronto to create a whole new interpretation of it."

The club is trying to tap into rugby enthusiasm in the area, working with Rugby Ontario, which reported 11,367 registered rugby union participants in 2017 (including coaches, referees and players of all ages). They co-operated on a corporate flag rugby event in Toronto's Nathan Phillips Square the day before the home opener and together they hope to develop a centre for rugby excellence in the province.

Still relatively undiscovered, the team struggles for media attention and can't compete with the marketing power of other Toronto sports clubs. It has found some clever ways to get noticed by Torontonians, especially in the heart of youthful Liberty Village.

Players have gotten on stage at the Second City, popped up a booth at a women's craft-beer festival, filmed their own behindthe-scenes show, bared their muscles for a team calendar and invited fans (and visiting fans) to a pub night.

The Wolfpack will be back at Lamport Stadium each Saturday for the next seven weeks, trying to remain atop the Betfred Championship League table and continue their climb to the summit.

If RFL can thrive in Toronto, the club has visions of more teams in North America.

"There's the rumour of New York getting a team going and we've proved so far here that expansion can work," says Liam Kay, an Irish international star winger who was the first player signed to the Wolfpack last year. "For me, the main thing is getting the kids playing in Canada and the potential for that is massive. If rugby league could take off in North America, I think it could be as big as the NFL eventually. That's the vision I have - that's why I signed up for this."

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The Toronto Wolfpack's Ryan Brierley gives out his autograph in Toronto on June 9. 'It's a culture thing. We go around and thank the fans,' Brierley says. 'I went to a Raptors game ... the players just walked off so quickly and it seemed bizarre to me.'

PHOTOS BY J.P. MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The Wolfpack's Liam Kay hugs a fan in Toronto on June 9. 'There's the rumour of New York getting a team going and we've proved so far here that expansion can work,' the Irishman says of rugby in North America.

From Canada, to our U.S. friends: Might is not always right
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America's security lies in doubling down on a renewed rules-based international order
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By CHRYSTIA FREELAND
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O9


The following is adapted from an acceptance speech by Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland on receiving Foreign Policy's Diplomat of the Year award on June 13.

In the late 1980s and 1990s, I studied and worked as reporter in what was first the USSR and, while I was living there, became independent Ukraine and Russia.

My experience of watching from the inside as this vast authoritarian regime crumbled profoundly shaped my thinking.

It was a euphoric moment - and one when it was tempting to imagine that liberal democracy was both inevitable and invulnerable.

Now, we harboured no illusions that institutions such as the WTO, or the International Monetary Fund, or the World Bank, or the United Nations, were perfect. Or that our own democracies at home - with their sausage-making methods of legislating and governing - were without flaw.

But there was a broad consensus that the Atlantic nations, plus Japan, led an international system of rules that had allowed our peoples to thrive, and which would surely continue to do so.

Critically, this was built as a system that other nations, emerging powers, could join. And join they have. The past 25 years have seen the rapid rise of the Global South and Asia as major economic powers in their own right. We created the G20. Russia was invited into the G7, making it the G8, in 1998, and the WTO in 2012. China has been a WTO member since 2001.

In Latin America, in the Caribbean, in Africa and in Asia, developing countries have joined these institutions and accepted their rules - and that has delivered evergreater living standards to their people.

But although this was and remains a broadly positive evolution, one assumption about this global shift turned out to be wrong.

This was the idea that, as authoritarian countries joined the global economy and grew rich, they would inevitably adopt Western political freedoms, too. That has not always happened. Indeed, in recent years, even some democracies have gone in the other direction and slid into authoritarianism - notably and tragically Venezuela. And some countries that had embarked on the difficult journey from communism to democratic capitalism have moved backwards. The saddest example for me is Russia.

Even China, whose economic success in lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty is one of the great accomplishments of recent times, stands as a rebuke to our belief in the inevitability of liberal democracy.

And within the club of wealthy Western nations, we're seeing homegrown antidemocratic movements on the rise.

Whether they are neo-Nazis, white supremacists, incels, nativists or radical antiglobalists, such movements seek to undermine democracy from within.

Liberal democracy is also under assault from abroad. Authoritarian regimes are actively seeking to undermine us with sophisticated, well-financed propaganda and espionage operations. They seek to suborn smaller countries, those wavering between democracy and authoritarianism.

The idea that democracy could falter, or be overturned in places where it had previously flourished, may seem outlandish.

But other great civilizations have risen - and then fallen. It is hubris to think we will inevitably be different.

Why are our liberal democracies vulnerable at home?

Here's why. Angry populism thrives where the middle class is hollowed out.

Where people are losing ground and losing hope - even as those at the very top are doing better than ever.

When people feel their economic future is in jeopardy; when they believe their children have fewer opportunities than they themselves had in their youth; that's when people are vulnerable to the demagogue who scapegoats the outsider, the other - whether it's immigrants at home or foreign actors.

The fact is, middle-class working families aren't wrong to feel left behind.

Median wages have been stagnating, jobs are becoming more precarious, pensions uncertain, housing, child care and education harder to afford.

These are the wrenching human consequences - the growing pains, if you will - of the great transformative forces of the past 40 years - the technology revolution and globalization.

So what's the answer? I think we are agreed that it is not, as the Luddites unsuccessfully proposed at the start of the industrial revolution, to stop the march of technology. We all love our smartphones too much! Overwhelmingly, the chief answer to the legitimate grievances of the middle class lies in domestic policy.

The middle class and people working hard to join it need the security that comes from education, health care, good jobs and dignity in retirement. Perhaps most importantly we need to ensure a 21st century in which capital is global, but social welfare is national, that each of our countries has the durable tax base necessary to support the 99 per cent.

But setting our own house in order is just one part of the struggle. The truth is that authoritarianism is on the march - and it is time for liberal democracy to fight back.

One device strongmen use to justify their rule is the Soviet trick of "whataboutism" - the strategy of false moral equivalency which holds that because democracies are inevitably imperfect they lack the moral authority to criticize authoritarian regimes.

It is possible, indeed necessary, for liberal democrats to acknowledge that our democracies aren't perfect.

But admitting our mistakes doesn't discredit us. On the contrary, it is one of the things that make us who we are.

Authoritarianism is often justified as a more efficient way of getting things done.

No messy contested elections; no wrenching shift from one short-termist governing party to another; no troublesome judicial oversight; no time-consuming public consultation. How much more effective, the apologists argue, for a paramount leader with a long term vision, unlimited power, and permanent tenure, to rule.

We need to resist this corrosive nonsense. We need to summon Yeats's oft-cited "passionate intensity" in the fight for liberal democracy and the international rules-based order that supports it.

Now, I'd like to speak directly to Canada's American friends.

For the past 70 years and more, America has been the leader of the free world. We Canadians have been proud to stand at your side and to have your back.

As your closest friend, ally and neighbour, we also understand that many Americans today are no longer certain that the rules-based international order - of which you were the principal architect and for which you wrote the biggest cheques - still benefits America.

We see this most plainly in the U.S. administration's tariffs on Canadian steel and aluminum imposed under a 232 national-security provision.

We share the world's longest undefended border. Our soldiers have fought and died alongside yours in the First World War, in the Second World War, in Korea, in Afghanistan, and in Iraq. The idea that we could pose a national-security threat to you is more than absurd - it is hurtful.

The tariffs introduced by the United States are illegal under WTO and NAFTA rules. They are protectionism, pure and simple. They are not a response to unfair actions by other countries that put American industry at a disadvantage. They are a naked example of the United States putting its thumb on the scale, in violation of the very rules it helped to write.

Canada has no choice but to retaliate - with a measured, perfectly reciprocal, dollar-for-dollar response - and we will do so. We act in close collaboration with our like-minded partners in the EU and Mexico. They too are your allies and they share our astonishment and our resolve.

No one will benefit from this beggar-thy-neighbour dispute. The price will be paid, in part, by American consumers and by American businesses.

The price will also be paid by those who believe that a rules-based system is something worth preserving. Since the end of the Second World War, we have built a system that promoted prosperity and prevented smaller and regional conflicts from turning into total war. We've built a system that championed freedom and democracy over authoritarianism and oppression.

Canada, for one, is going to stand up in defence of that system. We will not escalate - and we will not back down.

We remember a time when the United States believed great international projects like the Marshall Plan, or the reconstruction of Japan, were the path to lasting peace; when America believed its security and prosperity were bolstered by the security and prosperity of other nations - indeed, that America could only be truly safe and prosperous when its allies were too.

This vision was crucially dependent on the rules-based international order and the postwar institutions built to maintain it. It was based upon the willingness of all, especially the strongest, to play by the rules and be bound by them. It depended on the greatest countries of the world giving up, collectively, on the idea that might made right.

Now, the Second World War was over 70 years ago. It is reasonable to ask whether our grandparents' hard-won wisdom still applies today. I am certain that it does - and for some new reasons.

After the devastation of the Second World War, the United States was the unquestioned colossus, accounting alone for half of the world's economy. Today, the U.S.

economy stands at just under a quarter of the world's. Together, the EU, Canada and Japan, your allies in the G7 and beyond, account for just a little bit more. China produces nearly 20 per cent of the world's GDP, and in our lifetimes, its economy is set to become the world's largest.

Now, that is not necessarily a bad thing.

Americans, Canadians and Europeans are much richer and healthier and live longer than our grandparents did.

The rise of the rest has been a chapter in the story of our own increased prosperity.

And it is only natural that the 85 per cent of people who live outside the industrialized West should over time account for a greater and growing share of the world's wealth.

But that shift leaves the Western liberal democracies with a dilemma. How shall we behave in a world we no longer dominate?

One answer is to give up on the rulesbased international order, to give up on the Western alliance and to seek to survive in a world defined not by common values, mutually agreed-upon rules and shared prosperity, but rather by a ruthless struggle between great powers, governed solely by the narrow, short-term and mercantilist pursuit of self-interest.

Canada could never thrive in such a world. But you, still the world's largest economy, may be tempted. That, of course, is your sovereign right. But allow me, as your friend, to make the case that America's security, amid the inexorable rise of the rest, lies in doubling down on a renewed rules-based international order. It lies in working alongside traditional allies, like Canada, and alongside all of the younger democracies around the world - from the Americas, to Africa, to Asia, to the former Soviet Union - who are so keen to join us and who yearn for leadership.

You may feel today that your size allows you to go mano-a-mano with your traditional adversaries and be guaranteed to win. But if history tells us one thing, it is that no one nation's pre-eminence is eternal.

That is why the far wiser path - and the more enduring one - is to strengthen our existing alliance of liberal democracies. To hold the door open to new friends, to countries that have their own troubled past, such as Tunisia, Senegal, Indonesia, Mexico, Botswana, Chile or Ukraine. To reform and renew the rules-based international order that we have built together.

And, in so doing, to require that all states, whether democratic or not, play by common rules.

This is the difficult truth: As the West's relative might inevitably declines, now is the time when, more than ever, we must set aside the idea that might is right. Now is the time for us to plant our flag on the rule of law - so that the rising powers are induced to play by these rules, too.

Our friends among the world's democracies - in Europe, in Asia, in Africa and here in the Americas - are shoulder to shoulder with us. We all know we will be strongest with America in our ranks - and indeed in the lead. But whatever this great country's choice will turn out to be - let me be clear that Canada knows where it stands. And we will rise to this challenge.

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Minister of Foreign Affairs Chrystia Freeland TODD KOROL

In North Korea, a budding free market sows seeds for nuclear concessions
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


BEIJING -- Read through North Korea's constitution and you will discover a place where the state claims sole ownership over "all the natural resources, railways, airports, transportation, communication organs and major factories, enterprises, ports and banks."

But the lofty ambitions of a socialist paradise have long since dimmed into a reality that the individual drive for profit offers a more reliable way to extract resources and meet peoples' basic needs. North Korea has in many ways become a market-driven economy. It's a fundamental change that has altered its dynamics of power and, some scholars believe, stands to push supreme leader Kim Jong-un toward nuclear concessions in order to boost his country's economic prospects and maintain his own domestic authority.

On Tuesday, Mr. Kim and U.S. President Donald Trump are expected to meet in Singapore for the first summit between sitting leaders of the two countries. The U.S. President arrived in Singapore on Sunday following an acrimonious G7 summit and an ongoing war of words with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Mr. Trudeau's criticism of the President over his protectionist trade agenda was seen by Trump advisers as an attempt to make the U.S. leader look weak ahead of the Singapore summit. Mr. Trump has said he will settle for nothing less than a verifiable plan for complete denuclearization.

Among the most pressing questions hanging over their conclave is whether Mr. Kim's intentions are different from his predecessors, who oversaw periods of détente, and even willingness to abandon atomic weapons, that invariably crumbled into acrimony and renewed nuclear terror.

The language Mr. Kim has used differs little from that of his father, who already in 2005 agreed to the "verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner."

Thirteen years later, however, a few things have changed. Mr. Kim can now, with some degree of confidence, claim to have a completed nuclear program and the ability to deliver such weapons to the United States, something his father never possessed.

But the young dictator also presides over a country that has undergone a transformation in the past two decades, largely leaving behind the centrally planned model of old, with its state-appointed jobs and rationed food. The changes began after a devastating famine in the 1990s, but have arguably accelerated since the third-generation leader took power in late 2011, constraining Mr. Kim's ability to act in economically damaging ways, such as pursuing a nuclear program that results in choking sanctions.

"Denuclearization could have a real chance this time," said Byung-Yeon Kim, a scholar at Seoul National University and author of Unveiling the North Korean Economy.

He estimates that sanctions have hit North Korea hard enough to shrink its economy last year by 2 per cent, enough to provoke unhappiness among local elites and entrepreneurs.

"Outside pressure can be translated into big internal discontent, which could be dangerous to his power," Prof. Kim said.

That economic discontent, if sanctions continue and it is sustained, could be enough to force Mr. Kim to give up nuclear weapons, he believes, lest he jeopardize his own position by angering his people.

Once the land of the "passive man," North Koreans "have been born again, to be real individuals nowadays," he said.

In modern-day North Korea, workers bribe officials so they can forgo the minuscule pay at their state duties in favour of more lucrative employment in mines and factories. Large numbers of people rely on their own ability to earn a private salary rather than the meagre rations doled out by the state. Department stores sell imported fridges and televisions to consumers with their own cash. Well-heeled investors pour cash into companies that are state-owned in name alone. Local academics turn to foreign consultants for guidance in product marketing.

In some places, property rights change hands in a de facto real estate market.

"Every part of the economy that is actually working is marketized," said Justin Hastings, a scholar at the University of Sydney. "And that includes state enterprises. That includes how state officials approach their own jobs. Everyone has to make money to support themselves."

It's a radical shift from the country envisioned by North Korea's founders.

Under Soviet influence, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, its formal name, began collectivization of agriculture and nationalization of companies immediately after the armistice that halted fighting in the Korean War. North Korea's industrial policy in the following years borrowed from China and East Germany to build what Prof. Kim has called a "mass-mobilized, centrally planned economy." But it depended heavily on support and oil from the Soviet Union, whose collapse exposed North Korea's economic weaknesses.

After floods in 1995, the country plunged into a three-year famine that local propagandists termed the "Arduous March."

More than 500,000 people died.

For many who lived, survival came through selling and bartering in ways that had previously been strictly forbidden.

It marked a turning point, one scholars called the "forced marketization" of the country under the leadership of Mr. Kim's father, Kim Jong-il.

In the years that followed, North Korean authorities loosened restrictions on individual market activities and began to open a series of special economic zones to encourage foreign investment.

"It was really under Kim Jongil that institutional changes in the economy began, and markets really came to the fore under his rule," said Benjamin Katzeff Silberstein, associate scholar at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. By 2010, research based on interviews with refugees found that nearly half had secured their entire income from sources outside the state.

But "it's clear that Kim Jongun is more interested in economic development than his father," said Andray Abrahamian, a researcher who frequently travelled into the country in his former role as executive director of Choson Exchange, a group working to train North Koreans in business. Under Mr. Kim, North Korea has "made a number of really important changes to the rules in their economy that have allowed for more creativity, more entrepreneurship, more freedom of action for individuals."

The changes have left an obvious mark on the country, said Thomas Fisler, who led the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation in Pyongyang for four years before leaving last fall.

In that time, there was visible growth in the number of goods on offer at department stores, and in the number of neighbourhood markets - in Pyongyang and smaller centres alike. There was "clearly an increase. And also, families' cash flow has increased."

While the public distribution system for rations remains in place, it only provides 330 grams of cereals per person per day, "not sufficient to survive," Mr. Fisler said.

That means "every family is engaged in economic activities," he said. In the countryside, people might sell honey or raise goats. In cities, poorer people might sew dresses or repair shoes. Those who work at state factories might take home shoes to resell, or skim money off foreign-currency transactions for trade.

"All of that together makes for a fairly well-functioning market economy. Because the market is there. The demand is there and the goods as well," Mr. Fisler said.

The relative abundance of homes with solar panels and, to a lesser extent, televisions and refrigerators, has persuaded him that it's not uncommon for a family in the capital to earn US$200 to US$800 a month.

North Korean scholarly literature contains clear confirmation of the transformation under way.

Seoul-based researcher Peter Ward, a graduate student at Seoul National University, recently travelled to Pyongyang, where he purchased local economic journals. He has also read through a list of local laws.

"There's so much in there," he said.

"There have been big changes under Kim Jong-un."

The state continues to assert control over the economy - and there are indications that Mr. Kim has overseen an effort to gather back private market activities under the state umbrella.

At the same time, there are provisions for companies, even if they are formally state-controlled, to accept investment from citizens. "It's basically admitting the existence of private capital," Mr. Ward said.

In addition, "enterprises have been told they should produce whatever they like - they should find good products to produce, set prices and trade amongst themselves," Mr. Ward said.

"Competition is a thing in official North Korean economic policy now."

Makers of consumer goods such as alcohol, and even individual shops, are creating brands and competing on price. Na Jung Won, a scholar in North Korean Studies at Korea University, wrote in a recent article for DailyNK that local academics have even discussed the use of a tool called the Boston Consulting Group Matrix for strategic product planning.

"Since Kim came to power, he's had a stated objective of economic reform," said Phill Hynes, head of political risk and analysis for Intelligent Security Solutions Ltd. He has travelled to Pyongyang numerous times to discuss foreign investment in the country, including in recent months, and pointed both to Mr.

Kim's Premier, Pak Pong-ju, a septuagenarian known as a proponent of economic reforms.

Mr. Kim has also changed his rhetoric. In late April, he said that the conclusion of North Korea's nuclear program meant "the party's [new] strategic course is to focus all of its energy on building a socialist economy."

North Korea's byungjin, or "parallel advance" of pursuing both economic gain and nuclear weapons had been a central political ambition, and the shift signalled important change.

Days later, Mr. Kim agreed with South Korean President Moon Jae-in to work together on improving North Korean road and rail infrastructure. Shortly thereafter, Mr. Kim asked Chinese President Xi Jinping for investment in four North Korean economic zones, according to a recent report in South Korea's JoongAng Daily.

North Korea has spent more than a decade studying "the different models of reform and opening up that have been executed by various developing countries," Mr. Hynes said, examining places such as Mongolia, Vietnam, China and Myanmar.

Now, Mr. Kim faces pressure to achieve something. "Having staked a lot of his political legitimacy on economic development, he's at least expected to do something," Mr. Katzeff Silberstein said.

But, he said, "it's still unclear what that something is"- and he doubts Mr. Kim's power hangs in the balance. "In North Korea, the supreme leader is in full control almost no matter what other things happen."

Still, the country's economic changes are important enough to have a bearing on Mr. Kim's conduct at the coming summit.

North Korea's "marketization has gotten to the point where Kim Jong-un needs the sanctions to back off to a certain extent," said Mr. Hastings, whose book A Most Enterprising Country catalogues North Korea's economic development. Otherwise, Mr. Kim risks "a situation where the elites are losing all their moneymaking opportunities and maybe starting to withdraw their support from him."

The fact that Mr. Kim has been willing to publicly discuss denuclearization "is proof that he wants to transform his nation and connect his country to the outside world," said Lu Chao, director of the Border Study Institute at the Liaoning Academy of Social Sciences, and one of China's foremost experts on North Korea.

"But his ambition is just ambition, at least for now. It's not something he can realize on his own. It depends largely on the future of the relationship between North Korea and other countries."

Nevertheless, he added, "Kim Jong-un is undoubtedly an ambitious person." With reporting by Alexandra Li

Associated Graphic

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: MADDISON PROJECT DATABASE 2018

TRISH McALASTER / THE GLOBE AND MAIL; SOURCE: REUTERS

North Koreans are seen carrying thread for socks, left; gathering at the entrance of a Pyongyang department store, top; operate machinery at a Pyongyang silk factory, middle; and passing a factory in the industrial city of Chongjin, above. After floods in 1995, the country plunged into a three-year famine, during which survival came through selling and bartering in ways that had previously been strictly forbidden. It marked a turning point, one scholars called the 'forced marketization.' LEFT: WONG MAYE-E/ASSOCIATED PRESS; ABOVE: ED JONES/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Lepage upon Avon
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While the festival is Canada's pre-eminent theatre institution devoted to Shakespeare and Robert Lepage is the country's best-known director of the Bard's plays, they are only now teaming up for the first time
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By J. KELLY NESTRUCK
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


'When you do a Shakespeare play, you don't do it once.

You hack at it a few times until you understand it."

Over the next year, director Robert Lepage - who speaks from experience, having hacked at Shakespeare more than any other playwright over his long, celebrated career - is about to take two giant whacks at the same tragedy in quick succession.

This week, Lepage's Coriolanus officially opens at the Stratford Festival - and then, in January of next year, his Coriolan, a French-language version, opens at the Théâtre du Nouveau Monde in Montreal.

While both are highly anticipated, it's Lepage's official debut at Stratford that is the dream Shakespeare matchup - a decades-overdue pairing of director and repertory theatre company that many are surprised to learn hasn't happened yet.

Internationally, the Stratford Festival is the country's best-known theatre institution devoted to Shakespeare or otherwise for more than 60 years - and, likewise, Lepage has been our best-known director of Shakespeare or otherwise since the 1980s.

But both had to compromise their unique rehearsal processes to finally bring a collaboration to the stage - and the result is a production of Shakespeare that could bridge two divergent understandings of him in Quebec and the rest of Canada: as a great storyteller and a great poet.

And Lepage also hopes to put forth another understanding of Shakespeare with his Coriolanus as well: as a playwright who somehow seemed to foresee the problems that social media would pose for democracy.

Lepage's twin productions of Coriolanus/Coriolan will not only provide a rare opportunity to see how the tragedy changes from one language to another, but to reflect on how Shakespeare himself shifts in meaning from one of Canada's supposed solitudes to the other.

Both will have the same strikingly cinematic design created in collaboration with the wizards at his own theatre company Ex Machina - but the first will feature Stratford stars speaking Shakespeare's own words, while in the second, a team of Quebec stage and screen giants will speak Michel Garneau's streamlined translation of the play into French.

The director expects Coriolanus and Coriolan to be "radically different" from one language to the next - just as he is. "I have a very different personality when I speak English and when I speak French," he says.

So does Shakespeare. While the playwright has been at the heart of English Canadian professional theatre since the Stratford Festival was founded as its foremost institution in 1952, his plays only found a place at the heart of Quebec theatre, strangely enough, during the Quiet Revolution.

Nationalist theatremakers in English Canada rebelled against Shakespeare (or Stratford, anyway) in the 1970s, but nationalist theatremakers in Quebec were embracing him.

According to scholar Leanore Lieblein, there were only 11 Shakespeare productions in French in Quebec in the 25-year period between 1945 and 1970 - but, in the following quarter century, his popularity more than tripled, with at least 38 French-language productions of his works.

At the same time that Quebec was battling to protect its distinct culture from "la langue de Shakespeare," the province's theatre companies increasingly began to embrace Shakespeare himself - the reason being that they started to stage him in distinctly Québécois translations.

Until 1968, Shakespeare was performed in Quebec only in translations imported from France - mainly the florid 19thcentury versions penned by François-Victor Hugo, son of the novelist Victor Hugo. Lepage, for his part, recalls watching Hugo's Romantic take on Shakespeare in productions that "went on forever." "We avoid those translations now," he says.

Exactly 50 years ago this year, however, Théâtre du Nouveau Monde (TNM) co-founder JeanLouis Roux - who had performed at the Stratford Festival in Michael Langham's bicultural Henry V in 1956 - penned what's considered to be the first homegrown Shakespeare translation in French, of Twelfth Night.

That revolutionary year of 1968 was also when Jean Gascon - who had co-founded TNM with Roux - was appointed artistic director of the Stratford Festival, the first Canadian-born artist to hold the post and one who made Stratford feel like a truly national theatre.

Lepage notes that many artists from Montreal would come to work in Stratford at the time - and forged a deeper connection to Shakespeare that they brought back with them.

"He's not necessarily associated to the English culture: Shakespeare is a fundamental," Lepage says. "It's what he writes about that's interesting, not necessarily the language in which he writes."

Artists who grow up with Shakespeare in fresh translations - not having to deal with the same language barrier that English readers and listeners have, grappling with a 400-year-old vocabulary - often appreciate this on a different level. "It's the stories, the extraordinary stories and incredibly cinematic-before-cinema way of telling stories," Lepage says. "If your first brush with Romeo and Juliet or Timon of Athens is in German and you're a German speaker, chances are you understand everything."

That's not to say all Quebec translations of Shakespeare are alike: Michel Garneau - whose versions Lepage has championed since the 1990s - made the Bard's stories most relatable in Quebec with the Macbeth, The Tempest and Coriolanus he started working on in the 1970s.

Garneau translations varied based on the content of the play.

He invented an archaic Québécois French influenced by Picardy and Normandy dialects for his Macbeth; had Prospero and his daughter, Miranda, speak a "proper" French, and the creatures and sailors and drunks speak popular joual in his La tempête; and had the Roman elites speak a similarly elite internationalized French that Lepage calls français normatif in his Coriolan.

Lepage directed all three of these Garneau translations for a Shakespeare Cycle that he toured around the world starting in 1992 - but only now, in 2018, is approaching Coriolanus in English for the first time. "It was really cool for me to having staged ... the Garneau translation years and years ago to come to Stratford and to see what they think it's about," the director says.

Although Coriolanus is far from Shakespeare's best-known play, it's gaining relevance in our time as populism has been on the rise around the world.

The tragedy concerns Roman general Caius Marcius, a.k.a. Coriolanus - played in Stratford by André Sills. Coriolanus is triumphant on battlefields, but struggles with politics when he's convinced to enter them: He is disliked by the plebeians, the common people of Rome - and the feeling is mutual.

The general famously describes them as "the beast with many heads" and asks why Rome allows "crows to peck the eagles."

When Lepage first worked on Coriolan in the 1990s, he was not on his side at all. "I was very propeople and pro-plebeian," he says.

But now, a quarter of a century later, Lepage began to examine the play anew with the Stratford cast - "They're amazing actors, just fantastic, at their best. You can dig into the many layers of their characters, of the script, of the situation" - and discovered that he had begun to find the title character more sympathetic.

And there's one reason why: the rise of social media.

Like many of us, Lepage is turned off by Twitter mobs (and the Twitter President south of the border). In the play, for example, the people eventually turn on Coriolanus, and he teams up with Rome's enemies.

Lepage also rues replacement of professional arts criticism with emphasis on how many likes an artist gets on Facebook.

In his research, the director was fascinated to discover how direct the connection was between social media and the Roman republic. Online forums, of course, get their names from Roman Forums - but the Republic also had a wall, not unlike the virtual ones on Facebook, where people scrawled messages and replies. Likewise, the YouTube "like" - a thumbs up or a thumbs down - links viewers of online videos to the spectators at gladiatorial matches.

"From the moment you give the people their free opinion, allow them to express it, that's fine - everybody should be allowed," Lepage says. But he worries about letting the mob determine what is right and what is good. "Huge chunks of Coriolanus's speeches are about that exactly about that," he says.

Lepage's 1992 production of the play was noted for the physical frame that he placed around the action as if looking at a movie - a design he says he invented at the time to make up for the fact that he didn't have a big enough cast to fill the stage for the play's many crowd scenes.

But now, even with the entire company of Stratford at his disposal, Lepage has returned to the idea of the frame and a (relatively) small cast of 17 - since "the people" tend to congregate online rather than in the streets.

And he's pushed the cinematic aspect even further - creating a hyperrealistic production full of "shots." Motorized panels allows for different parts of the stage to be blocked off and the audience's attention to be focused as in a film.

"It's very anti-Elizabethan in style, because you don't offer the world of the play, you control the audience's point of view on it," Lepage says. "That's the big difference between theatre and film - in film, you choose what the audience is going to look at."

Ironically enough, the trailer for Lepage's Coriolanus that shows off its cinematic nature - and, indeed, makes it look like a blockbuster thriller - is the most popular on Stratford's YouTube channel so far this season, beating out even the Rocky Horror Show in views.

The main question about Lepage's directing at Stratford is: What took so long?

It's not the language barrier: All the way back in 1992, Lepage tackled A Midsummer Night's Dream in its original English at the Royal National Theatre in London - indeed, becoming the first North American to direct Shakespeare there.

Until now, Lepage's work has only been seen once before in Stratford - in a tent outside the Festival Theatre, where a bilingual production of Romeo and Juliet, on which he and director Gordon McCall collaborated, visited from Saskatchewan for two weeks in 1990 (and that featured Tom Rooney, now a Stratford Festival star).

The simple, but complex reason is the Stratford Festival and Ex Machina, the company Lepage founded in 1994, work in startlingly different ways.

Stratford's repertory system has actors rehearse two shows at once, six days a week - usually over a period that runs twelve weeks.

Ex Machina, on the other hand, likes to spread 10 weeks of rehearsal over years - a five-day workshop here, two weeks of rehearsal there, with lots of room for an artist's subconscious, or as Lepage puts it, "the rendering farm" to do work in between.

At Stratford, creative teams usually come up with the design of a show well before the beginning of rehearsals, while at Ex Machina, the design comes out of rehearsal process. Indeed, at his base in Quebec City, Lepage has actors rehearse morning and evenings, so that his technological wizards can come up with technical prototypes in the afternoons.

For too long, Stratford's system was too "rigid" for Lepage to work within - but artistic director Antoni Cimolino has "softened that down," the director says. With the help of a New Chapter grant from the Canada Council, the two Shakespearean solitudes were able to compromise: Two workshops in Quebec City on Lepage's turf, were followed by two rehearsal periods in Stratford.

"They have their rules, their ways of doing things, their unions and all that," Lepage says with a smile. "That's fine - I respect that once I'm in their walls."

Associated Graphic

Robert Lepage, a quarter-century after first working on a French version of Coriolanus, says he finds the title character more sympathetic in the wake of social media's emergence.

NAM PHI DANG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Meet the war-vet, dad and Rotarian who taped Canada's last Beatles concert
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By BRAD WHEELER
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R1


On Aug. 17, 1966, amid the din and hullabaloo of what would be the last-ever Beatles concert in Canada, nobody seems to have noticed the middle-aged man in the stands with a reel-to-reel tape recorder. He was George K. Drynan, QC, a day-tripping father of three, war veteran and sedan-owning Rotarian who travelled to Toronto's Maple Leaf Gardens from Oshawa, Ont., with his wife - the accomplished organist, composer and choirmaster Margaret (Peggy) Drynan - and a family friend. The oldest son, John, handled the driving.

Younger son James also attended the show, but had arranged separate transportation.

George Drynan was a colourful, outspoken fellow who carried a cane he used more as a gestural exclamation point than for assistance in walking. Set against the horde of screamfaced teenyboppers at a sweltering Beatles concert, the tie-wearing man couldn't have stood out more.

And yet, Drynan at the Gardens was left to his unlikely business, which was, when all was said and done, to unwittingly document an essential slice of Canadiana and record one of the most absorbing bootleg tapes in rock 'n' roll history.

The recording was recently acquired by the University of Toronto Libraries.

Admittedly, the listenability of the performances themselves - including a short set by the Beatles and those of opening acts that included the Ronettes - is not exceptional. If rugged material such as Long Tall Sally struggled to be heard, the more delicate Yesterday and Nowhere Man stood no chance at all.

What are remarkable are Drynan's off-the-cuff interviews with St. John Ambulance attendants and crowd members, all of whom assumed he was a reporter owing to his buttondown appearance and professional manner.

Even more captivating are the pre-concert and post-show observations of the Drynans. Paul was the one who added a "flash of youth" to the Beatles, according to the husband.

John is hairy. Is George the "gaunt" one?

He was.

The Beatles performed a pair of concerts that August day, with the Drynan family attending the second of the two - the "evening show." It was a simpler, gentler, Ozzie-and-Harriet time. "It's 7 p.m. on a beautiful evening," Drynan is heard saying, in a high, nasal voice as the family made its way to the concert. "We're on our way..." That they were, on their way - and so, too, were the Beatles, who never toured again after the summer of 1966. The year also marked a turning point in cultural and societal history. Things switched from black and white to colour, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet went off the air and families stopped going to rock 'n' roll concerts together.

The recording made by Drynan on his German UHER portable deck is often referred to today as "the Amos Tape" among bootleg collectors. John Amos was an American collector who purchased the tape and the original recorder from James Drynan, who came into their possession when his father died in 2000.

Amos had promised to pay the Drynan son $10,000 for the tape and deck (still in its original leather case), but ultimately coughed up much less. "I was foolish," James Drynan told The Globe and Mail last month. "I shouldn't have done it."

That was in 2007 or 2008. Not long after that, when the tape and recorder were back on the market, Library and Archives Canada considered obtaining them. After it backed out of acquiring the pieces of pop-culture Canadiana, the Toronto-based Beatles historian Piers Hemmingsen stepped up and purchased them himself in 2008. "It's an amazing piece of Canadian history, and it belonged here," Hemmingsen says today.

After holding onto the tape and tape deck for nearly a decade, Hemmingsen, author of The Beatles in Canada: The Origins of Beatlemania!, recently donated them, for a tax receipt, to the University of Toronto Libraries. "I think it was the right time. You can't keep everything forever."

If possessions are transient, so are eras. Some of the commentary on the tape was quite prescient in regard to changes soon to happen. The father remarks that the "bloom was off the peach" for the Beatles, which was an assessment backed up by Globe and Mail reporting at the time. "It was certainly a far cry from their first two appearances here," wrote the concert reviewer, who noticed less excitement from the crowd.

"It almost seemed that what could be the Beatles' last appearance in Toronto might fall flat on its crumpet."

It had been a rough year for the band. In July, tour dates in Manila were a disaster after the Beatles snubbed an invitation to the state palace by the noted shoe enthusiast and dictator's wife Imelda Marcos. Singing Help! on stage became an authentic plea from the foursome when they barely made it out of the Philippines with their mop tops intact after an angry mob of nationalists roughly hassled them on the way to the airport.

In March, 1966, Lennon, the hairy one, had made his infamous "we're more popular than Jesus" remark to a British newspaper. The comment lay dormant until the Beatles hit North America in August, where religious zealots in some markets protested the band aggressively.

Add to all that, in the mid-1960s the business of rock 'n' roll touring was relatively unsophisticated. The sound quality in arenas and stadiums was unsatisfactory for both audiences and musicians; twisting, shouting and fanatical shrieking further added to the disharmony.

None of that infringed on the Drynan family's Beatles experience at Maple Leaf Gardens. On the tape, Dad notes he was held in "great prestige" among younger members of his office staff for attending the concert. The family friend judges the Beatles as a "great singing group," and thought it would be "very interesting" to see them live. After the show, Drynan suggests refreshment: "I think we should stop somewhere for a cup of tea."

Drynan had been an officer in the Canadian Army during the Second World War and was wounded in Italy. Being a lawyer, he was involved in the warcrimes trial in postwar Germany of Kurt Meyer, a German Panzer officer who ordered the execution of Canadian prisoners of war in Normandy. Returning home from Europe, Drynan was a dedicated Liberal well known in Oshawa.

"George was always definite about everything," Oshawa MP Ivan Grose told the House of Commons, upon Drynan's death on Sept. 28, 2000, the same day Pierre Trudeau died.

"We knew where he stood and damn the torpedoes. He called me regularly with advice I was to convey to the Prime Minister, Minister of Finance and Minister of Justice. I passed on to these ministers a great deal of what George said and, amazingly,

some of it bore fruit."

(If Drynan was colourful, Grose was Technicolor. In his 20s in the 1950s, bored out of his mind as a telephone-company salesman, he decided to rob a bank - as one does. Less than streetwise, he was easily caught by a pistol-waving bank manager and served 19 months of a threeyear sentence. At present, he is the only convicted bank robber ever to serve in the House of Commons.)

The Beatles show at the Gardens was the first concert for the youngest son James Drynan. His older sister, who lived in England at the time, had bought him an outfit of pinstripe pants, a psychedelic shirt and a spiffy jacket and tie on Carnaby Street in London.

Speaking from his home in Gatineau, Drynan tells a story that gets to the sheer hysteria brought on by a Beatles appearance. Talking to a girl in the stands as the main act was about to hit the stage, he bet her $1 that she wouldn't be able to refrain from screaming for a full minute when the Beatles appeared.

The girl took the wager.

A few minutes later a roadie adjusted Ringo Starr's drum kit.

According to Drynan, the girl instantly screamed, fainted and was quickly taken away by ambulance attendants. She missed the show, the Beatles were soon finished as a live band and Drynan never got his dollar. An era was done; all bets were off.

"Things changed after 1966," says Fergus Hambleton, a Toronto musician who, as a 16-year-old, attended the same Beatles concert. "Walls went up between parents and their children. The drugs and the music got harder. There was protest music before, but it didn't have the nihilistic anger that came later."

John Macfarlane, who covered the Beatles concert for The Globe and Mail, agrees. "In 1966, I couldn't have imagined anyone like Jimi Hendrix. He had a raw, and to my mind anyway, angry energy."

By 1968, Macfarlane (the future editor of magazines Toronto Life and The Walrus) was the Toronto Star's entertainment editor. It was in that capacity that he assigned features writer David Lewis Stein to cover the riotous 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. "I think the fact that an entertainment editor, two years after that Beatles concert, was commissioning a writer to attend that convention, shows you how quickly culture had become politicized."

The senior Drynan also attended the Democratic convention.

Upon his return, when he downplayed the significance of the events there, his youngest son took exception.

"What they did there was try to stand up, and they got beaten down by the Chicago police force and Mayor Richard Daley," says James Drynan, who by that time had become a guitarist and moved to Toronto, where he played in bar bands even though he was underage. "The establishment was trying to put the youth back in its place."

Son and father argued the cross-generational disputes that were common in the late 1960s.

"We didn't get along as well after that," recalls James Drynan. "The world was changing."

Asked about the Beatles concert at Maple Leaf Gardens, Macfarlane says he doesn't remember all that much, mostly because of all the crowd noise. "If you went hoping to hear the music rather than to experience the fervour, it was kind of a disappointment."

The Beatles, feeling the same way, pulled themselves from the road. Less than a year later came Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, an elaborate studio album on which they sang something of a curtain call: "We hope you all enjoyed the show."

Beatlemania was finished, and an uncomplicated kind of culture was gone as well. On the Drynans' famous family bootleg recording, one can hear it all happening. But what were heard as screams at Maple Leaf Gardens then should be interpreted, in retrospect, as the last gasps of a dying era.

Associated Graphic

The Beatles attend a news conference at Toronto's Maple Leaf Gardens on Aug. 17, 1966. The Beatles performed a pair of concerts that August day, with the Drynan family attending the second of the two - the 'evening show.'

FRED ROSS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

John Lennon sings on Aug. 17, 1966, at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, in what would become the last Beatles concert in Canada.

GRAHAM BEZANT/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The myth of Stephen Fry
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It's a strange experience, and really only the lot of a critic, to watch a show centered on a celebrity who means nothing to you, J. Kelly Nestruck writes
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By J. KELLY NESTRUCK
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Thursday, June 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A14


Stephen Fry's Mythos at the Shaw Festival is precisely as advertised.

Over three nights, the English comedian, author and quiz-show host simply tells ancient Greek myths - first focusing on the Gods; then on Heroes such as Heracles and Theseus; and finally on Men off to fight the Trojan War or trying to return home afterward.

Fry does so mostly seated in a wingback chair, his sonorous voice amplified by a microphone to fill the 856-seat Festival Theatre and make us feel like we're at his feet by the hearth.

It's storytelling. It's lecture. It's a live podcast. It's durational performance art. But is Mythos theatre? And is it a sign of an intriguing new direction for the Shaw Festival - or of the desperation that leads to a dependence on stars that has nearly killed drama on Broadway?

It's a strange experience, and really only the lot of a critic, to watch a show centered on a celebrity who means nothing to you.

To the Shaw spectators who are paying hundreds of dollars to see his trilogy, Fry is an admired figure from his comedy, books, Harry Potter audiobook narration or advocacy efforts regarding mental health and gay rights.

I, however, had little relationship with the 60-year-old performer. In the context of theatre, Fry was best known to me for a legendary episode of stage fright that led him to flee a West End production and, indeed, England back in 1995 - which he later spoke of as a total breakdown that led to his discovery that he was bipolar.

I needed to be convinced of the merits of a major Ontario theatre company long known for its ensemble anchoring its season around solo shows by an imported famous fellow with limited theatrical experience. Here's the odyssey my thoughts went on over seven-and-a-half hours.

DAY 1: GODS Watching the first episode of Mythos, my doubts as to whether Fry is up to the job quickly evaporate. He and Tim Carroll, the artistic director of the Shaw Festival now in his sophomore season, have tailored these shows perfectly to his non-theatrical talents and around his persona, as one British critic put it, "teacher-cumquizmaster."

Fry - who, impressively, seems to shape his stories in real time rather than to have memorized a script - begins with the Greek origin story of the universe out of chaos and quickly moves on to tell of the first entities, the Titans that followed them and the 12 gods who eventually ruled from Mount Olympus. It's surprisingly enthralling, rather than exhausting.

Every so often, a round of "Mythical Pursuit" interrupts Fry's straightforward storytelling.

Six coloured categories appear on screens hanging in a semi-circle at the back of the stage - and audience members are encouraged to shout one out. Fry then stretches his legs as he extemporizes on, for instance, how a story he has just told relates to his personal history, or psychology, or technology, or the English language.

In one of these endearing asides, Fry, born in 1957 in London, relates the roots of his obsession: discovering a book called Tales from Ancient Greece as a young boy, then reading it over and over in a home without television.

This perhaps explains why Fry's interests in the myths still lean toward those of a precocious prepubescent boy. He gets giddy about the gruesome bits - returning frequently to Kronos chopping off his father Ouranos's clockweights, for example. He's often silly about sex.

And he's more interested in adventure than emotion: In his telling of King Midas, the ruler shrugs off turning his wife and daughters into gold, the gravity of his gift from the gods only hitting him over breakfast when he clunks his teeth against an apple.

What is Fry's goal? Rather than aiming to rescue the Greek myths from the myths built up around them or putting an original spin on them, Fry professes - in his introduction to the book Gods is based on - to be "only concerned with telling the stories" rather than explaining or investigating them.

I think this really means that he is only concerned with telling these ancient tales in the tradition he was told them - that is, likely in fairly recent retellings by other, mostly white, British men. You'll find, for example, that Fry speaks regularly in Mythos of women being "ravished" - a tellingly dated verb that puts cotton balls around its meaning. (And this from a fellow who just debated against "political correctness.") Fry's filter is most audible in his allocation of a variety of English, Irish, Welsh and Scottish accents - impeccably mimicked - to the gods, heroes and men in his stories.

This will certainly appeal to the tourists visiting Niagara-on-the Lake for whom the Shaw Festival has always seemed not a Canadian theatre, but Britain on a budget.

But to others, it might seem like a recolonization of the imagination at a time when, for instance, our Anne Carson is the translator of choice for Greek tragedy in London and New York.

And yet: Fry is undoubtedly charming and funny, and it is very easy to fall under his storytelling spell. As I leave the first night, I find myself won over by his magnetism and passion for passing on these tales, if not yet the underpinnings of the enterprise.

DAY 2: HEROES The second night of Mythos focuses on heroes - and you may very well wonder how Fry fits 12 labours of Heracles and another half-dozen of Theseus into a mere 120 minutes.

Well, Carroll, the director of the shows, is a proponent of mild audience participation that he calls "two-way theatre" - and that pops up in segments called Doorways of Destiny where Fry selects an audience member to choose which quests we will hear about.

On this night, a volunteer picks door No. 4 of 10 for Heracles: The Erymanthian Boar.

While the device is a chance for Fry to show off how much he has crammed in his formidable noggin about these brave (but, let's face it, slightly boring) heroes, it also opens the door to that question hanging over Mythos in general: Why are we hearing this particular selection of myth and legend? Surely, we should be listening to the slices Fry considers the most crucial, not ones that he considers optional. His knowledge may be encyclopedic, but his project shouldn't feel like a series of encyclopedia entries: short and superficial.

At the end of his section on Heracles, Fry mentions the hero's second wife, Deianira, who accidentally kills her seemingly invincible husband out of insecurity (and thanks to the skullduggery of a nasty centaur named Nessus).

She passed as a blip. I longed for that dramatist named Sophocles, who saw in Deianira, her jealousy and fear of losing love, the basis of an entire gut-wrenching play: Women of Trachis.

No guts are wrenched by Fry's approach, only splayed by weaponry.

Oddly, he makes us feel most for a monster: His version of Theseus and the Minotaur is memorably mournful in its depiction of the tormented bull-man at heart of the labyrinth. Carroll's staging of this episode, too, pulls Fry out of his easy chair (and habits) and is captivating in its simplicity.

Suddenly, some showing rather than telling - a theatrical moment that helps the Shaw's new Scheherazade avoid execution by this critic on this night.

DAY 3: MEN The virtues and failings of Mythos are most apparent in its final installment - which gives us a onehour precis of The Trojan War and then The Odyssey.

These stories are still very well known, especially in theatre where bits and pieces have been broken off and dramatized, adapted or deconstructed from Aeschylus to Atwood.

Fry's lack of a take, then, is problematic - and he seems to have bitten off more than he can chew in condensing the war to 60 minutes. He spends a great deal of time relating the backstory of Paris - and then rushes through the rest once he runs away with Helen. Achilles, similarly, is set up at length, then bumped off. The Trojan Horse is a mere shadow projected on the wall.

After intermission each show, Fry returns as "the Oracle of DelFry" to answer a question emailed in from an audience member. At Men, it is from a young woman who wonders: "Why didn't Helen just go home?" A big laugh ensues, but it's a great question - and the only time I see Fry stumped.

In this moment, I yearn for a Euripides to take us into the mind of Helen (or any of The Trojan Women he dramatized). But, again, this is Mythos only as advertised: It's not Goddesses, Heroines and Women.

And the second half of Men is strong, despite a few technical glitches. Carroll earned his international reputation directing what is called "original practices" Shakespeare - performances in a style meant to approximate how the Bard's plays might have been presented in Elizabethan London.

During Fry's retelling of The Odyssey, however, it occurs to me that we are watching "original practices" Homer. These myths were originally transmitted orally before they had an author, if indeed they had an author. Fry is continuing that tradition of passing them down, to use the Homeric phrase, through "winged words." If the result is idiosyncratic and limited by the teller, well, that tells us something in itself.

Fry indulges us with a bit of sentiment at the end, too - focusing on Odysseus's desire to reunite with his beloved, Penelope. A final bit of etymology our English egghead imparts in that context is that nostos, Greek for homecoming, combined with algos, the word for pain, gives us the word nostalgia.

Here the motivation behind Mythos snaps into focus: Fry's desire to return not only to the stories of his youth, and also, through them, to an ostensibly simpler time and ways of telling.

These are bedtime stories for nostalgic grown-ups, not a new generation - which explains why he peppers them with the occasional lecture about distracting digital devices and families not eating dinner together enough.

In the end, Mythos did satisfy a nostalgic desire in me as a theatregoer - to return to when a festival really was a festival. The Shaw calls itself one, but, no longer focused on a particular playwright or period, feels more and more like any other regional theatre company, just one that, for some reason, gets more private and public funding.

Spending three days contemplating the Greek myths and how deeply embedded they are in our source code felt like an occasion, the Shaw a destination. It whet my appetite for more such events and, indeed, another trilogy based on myth coming to Niagara-on-the-Lake next year: The Mahabharata. Will Fry's fans return when the God fame is gone?

Associated Graphic

Stephen Fry performs in Mythos, a three-day spectacle in which the celebrity regales the audience with Greek myths, interjected with his own ideas and anecdotes.

DAVID COOPER

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B20


SIGRID INGEBORG ADES (nee Scheel)

Loved by all that met her, Sigrid was born in Lubeck, Germany on August 19, 1951. She passed away peacefully on June 12, 2018.

Sigrid came to Canada at the age of 24, and went on to become a successful business woman in the Canadian mining industry. She loved the outdoors, and became an accomplished Mountain Hiker, canoeist and swimmer. She leaves behind her heartbroken husband, David. She has two loving brothers, Bernd with his wife, Uschi and their son, Philip; and Jens with his wife, Wiebke; and two loving sisters, Edith and Karin, and their many children and grandchildren. She dearly loved her stepson, Ralph and his wife, Susan and their children, Raphael and Camille; as well as her stepdaughter, Shelly and her husband, Clive Merritt.

Her fight with cancer was long and hard. Sigrid will be sorely missed by all who knew her. Very special thanks to Dr. Andy Smith for his moral support, Dr. Calvin Law and Dr. Eric Leung at the Odette Centre, including Dr. Toupin and Nurse Laura DAlimonte as well as Dr. Kirshen at Home Care and the Palliative Care team. The doctors and nurses at Sunnybrook Emergency at the Intensive Care unit were angels of compassion.

They tried so hard for her. In lieu of flowers, please make any donations to The Sunnybrook Foundation Odette Centre. May God Bless her Soul.

Services will be held at Jerrett Funeral Home, on Monday, June 18, 2018 at 3 p.m. with visitation one half hour prior.

Jerrett Funeral Home "North York Chapel" 6191 Yonge St, North York, ON M2M 4K4.

HELEN MARGARET CRAIG

Helen left our world on Wednesday, June 13, 2018 with grace, dignity and strength of spirit. Helen Margaret Reid was born in 1930, growing up in Ottawa with her parents, William and Margaret Reid; brother, Donald; and sister, Marion. At a young age, she lost two siblings, Gordon and Doris. She attended Glebe Collegiate. Helen met Jim, the love of her life, at Glebe - but didn't realize it until graduating from Queen's University with a BA/BPHE and attending Teachers College in Toronto. Jim and Helen married in 1956. Partners in life, travel (trekking on five continents), adventure, and bridge, they created a cherished world for their family and friends.

Helen was a strong woman who followed and shared her passion and commitment to a full life through her work, family and friends. She obtained a second degree in horticulture and became a horticulturist at the Civic Garden Centre. After retirement, she remained engaged in the horticultural community as a judge and volunteer. Helen founded a bridge club with her friends in 1955 and they shared their lives for over sixty years. Helen expressed her care and love through doing. She volunteered throughout her life at the Bloorview MacMillian Centre; Lawrence Park Community Church; Toronto Garden Club; and Canada Blooms.

Over 50 summers were spent at Camelot, on Lake Simcoe. Helen brought her competitive spirit to badminton, shuffleboard, and many rousing card games. Helen welcomed all with graciousness, humour, and a warm thoughtful presence. Some of her happiest times were with Jimbo in their sailboat. She made Camelot a happy destination for all.

She was our centre, supporting and grounding us throughout our lives. Her thoughtful spirit, keen intellect, and encompassing love will be deeply missed by her family. Her husband, Jim; children, Shelley (Jeff), Geoffrey (Susan), and Wendy; grandchildren, Emma (Chris), Gillian (Andrew), Nicola, Leah, Marcus, and Sophie; and step-grandchildren, Megan (Todd), Melinda (Adam), and Finn, will carry her in our hearts always.

We are deeply grateful to her caregivers: Mina, Dolly, Sarah, and the Temmy Latner Centre.

Please join us in a celebration of Helen's life at The Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Avenue, Toronto on Monday, June 18, 2018, at 2:30 p.m. In lieu of flowers, you may wish to donate in Helen's memory to the Toronto Botanical Garden (Garden Club of Toronto).

Funeral arrangements entrusted to the Newediuk Funeral Home, Kipling Chapel 416-745-7555.

Online condolences at newediukfuneralhome.com

NEIL RICHARD FINKELSTEIN

Neil Richard Finkelstein, age 66, passed away peacefully at home on Tuesday, June 12, 2018 in the arms of his family. He was born September 5, 1951 at in Montreal.

Neil met and married Marie Alison Helfield at McGill Law School. They have loved, supported, and cared for each other for 40 years. He leaves behind his cherished wife, Marie; his children, Jonathan and Natasha, Emily and Rocky, and Sara; his grandchildren, Ty and Jacob Neil; as well as his brother and sister-in-law, Michael and Karen. He was predeceased by his brother, Eric; and his parents, Edward Lawrence Finkelstein and Helene Grossman.

After becoming a Chartered Accountant, Neil attended McGill Law School, where he graduated in 1979 with six prizes and two scholarships.

He completed a Master of Laws at Harvard Law School and clerked for the Right Honourable Bora Laskin, Chief Justice of Canada, from 1980-81. He was called to the bar in 1982 and practiced law at Blake Cassels, Davies Ward, and McCarthy Tetrault. In 1984-5, Neil was Senior Policy Advisor to Ian Scott, Attorney General of Ontario.

He was also the Constitutional Advisor to Newfoundland Premier Clyde Wells on the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords. Throughout his 35-year law career, Neil argued many of Canada's landmark cases on Charter rights, Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Contracts Law, Competition Law, Securities Law, Class Actions, and Aboriginal Law. He argued 30 appeals before the Supreme Court of Canada, 58 appeals in 9 courts of appeal, 102 trials and hearings in 8 provinces, two Commissions of Inquiry, and two international arbitrations.

Neil was co-counsel to the Gomery Commission into Sponsorships and Advertising by the Government of Canada in 200405. When he examined Prime Minister Paul Martin, it was the first time a sitting prime minister of Canada had been examined at a public inquiry since Sir John A.

MacDonald at the Canadian Pacific Railway Commission in 1873. Neil took on many pro-bono cases.

He was elected as a Bencher of the Law Society of Upper Canada from 1991 to 2007, and served as a Life Bencher. He was a fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers and an honorary fellow of COMBAR (UK).

He also organized, with Justice Patrick Monahan, the Raoul Wallenberg International Human Rights Symposium. He authored, co-authored, or edited 7 books and 32 articles and cases comments on a wide variety of legal subjects. Of particular note, Neil authored the 5th edition of Laskin's Canadian Constitutional Law at the specific request of Chief Justice Bora Laskin to the publisher.

Neil always said law was a mentoring profession. He invested much time and energy in his role as mentor to young lawyers at Blakes, Davies, and McCarthys, as well as others with potential who came across his path.

Neil enjoyed teaching law as Adjunct Professor at Osgoode Hall Law School and the University of Toronto and taught two courses at the University of Ottawa Law School. On June 20, 2017, Neil received his Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, from the Law Society of Upper Canada.

Service was held at Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, on Thursday, June 14, 2018. Interment in the Habonim section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery.

Shiva at 515 Vesta Drive, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to The Gerry and Nancy Pencer Brain Trust Fund c/o Princess Margaret Foundation 416-946-6560.

BETTY JANTINA FRASER (nee Veenstra)

Born July 25, 1929 in Toronto, Ontario. Passed away at her home on May 29, 2018 in her 89th year. Betty is survived by her sister, Hilda Veenstra; nephews, Tim Beattie (Laura) and Leslie Beattie; greatnephew, Kenneth; and greatniece, Janine. Predeceased by husband, Russell; sister, Dora; and parents, Miendert and Hilsje Veenstra.

As per Betty's wishes, cremation and private family service has taken place in Brampton. A celebration of life will take place Tuesday, July 17, 2018 2-4 p.m. at the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club where Betty was an active member for many decades. In lieu of flowers, Betty has requested donations be made to the Canadian Cancer Society or The Heart and Stroke Foundation.

ANNE CATHARINE McNEVIN

Passed away at her residence on June 13, 2018. Anne McNevin, daughter of the late Dr. Frank P. McNevin and the late Kathleen McNevin and Agnes F. McNevin. Loving sister of the late Maureen McNevin and the late Helen Murphy. Dear Aunt of James Murphy of Calgary, the late Mrs. Kathleen Stewart of Ft.

Lauderdale and Theresa Stewart of Toronto.

Friends may call at Blessed Sacrament Church, 24 Cheritan Ave. Toronto, on Monday, June 18th at 10:30 a.m. A Mass of Christian Burial will follow in the Church at 11:30 a.m. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery.

MICHAEL ARTHUR SOLBY

Michael Arthur Solby died peacefully at St. Michael's hospital in Toronto on June 11, 2018, at the age of 80.

He is survived by his loving wife, Beverlee; and his three sons, Paul (Geni), Marc (Carolyn), and Bruno (Sheila); as well as grandchildren, Robert, Maggie, Kalli, Hannah, Jackson, and Sienna.

Michael was born in New York on August 19, 1938 as the only child of Austrian immigrants, Dr. J. Bruno Solby and Gertrude (Trudy) Konigstein. He attended the elite Manhattan public school Bronx High School of Science in anticipation of becoming a physician like his father. Instead, he found his passion in an acting class at the University of Vermont and went on to study drama at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts in London, England.

Later in life, he returned to his original desire to contribute as a healthcare practitioner and attended the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education where earned a Doctor of Education Psychology Counselling (Ed.D).

He was also a Diplomate in the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress & The National Centre for Crisis Management.

He went on to a long second career as a psychotherapist and counselled many grateful clients until his recent illness.

Michael, known as 'Fluffy' to friends and family as a result of his signature beard, was an avid Brooklyn Dodger fan from yesteryear, loved to garden, spend time with family and friends - especially his grandchildren, and relished his daily Double Doubles from Tim Horton's. We shall all miss his broad smile, hearty laugh and warm hugs.

Our family invites those who wish to join us in celebrating Michael's life to drop in on Monday June 18 between 4:006:30 pm at the Solby residence (Kingsway Condominiums, 2855 Bloor Street West, Toronto - event room main floor). Donations may be made to St. John Ambulance Therapy Dogs, Toronto Pack at torontotherapydogs@on.sja.ca.

To make online condolences, please visit basicfunerals.ca.

SHIRLEY RUTH KUIPERS (Martin)

A Celebration to Honour the Life of Shirley Kuipers, who died on February 10, 2018, will be held at 11:00 a.m., Tuesday, June 19, 2018 at St. James United Church, Dartmouth, NS.

Transparency, and CEO pay, on the rise
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A Globe and Mail review of the past decade shows reformed practices has increased visibility for shareholders along with executive compensation
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By JANET MCFARLAND
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Thursday, June 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


When shareholders of Canada's big banks opened their proxy voting forms in early 2008, they found a striking new proposal on the ballot. Submitted by a small ethical mutual fund company, the resolution called on banks to give investors an annual vote on how executive pay was designed.

Bank boards initially opposed the motion as an intrusion into boards' powers to set executive level pay. But within a year, a wave of companies bowed to pressure and agreed to introduce the votes, ushering in a decade of change in executive compensation design in Canada.

Since the financial crisis, measures have been introduced to increase transparency, better align executive returns with those enjoyed by shareholders and curb the worst excesses in chief executive pay.

A Globe and Mail review of the past 10 years of compensation trends reveals these efforts have shown signs of success. More executive pay features are tied to performance than in the past, and companies are providing clearer explanations to justify their pay decisions.

At the same time, CEO compensation has soared well beyond the increase in wages for employees.

While boards tout the emphasis on performancebased pay, critics complain the performance features appear to pay out generously in most cases, suggesting performance hurdles are easily met. In many cases, compensation has also become more short-term in focus even as shareholders call for a longer-term horizons.

CEOs at Canada's 100 largest companies earned average total compensation of $7.6-million last year, an increase of 49 per cent from $5.1-million in 2008. (The averages only include CEOs who were in their jobs for two years in each period, helping ensure pay was for typical full-year compensation.)

The increase is more than triple the rate of inflation during the period, and more than double the average 20-per-cent rate of wage increases for employees in Canada, but is roughly aligned with increases in total shareholder returns during the period.

Thomas Lemieux, an economics professor at the University of British Columbia, said CEOs have bargaining power to advocate for the most optimal pay programs, but the unequal wealth growth is breeding resentment across society. It is also inefficient, he says.

"A big share of our GDP that used to be going somewhere else is now going to the people at the very top," he said.

Canadian regulators changed executive pay disclosure rules in 2008, requiring companies to disclose the cost of all elements of pay, including shares and stock options. That means 2017 is the first year it is possible to do a 10year look-back using comparable pay data.

David Macdonald, senior economist at the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, said reporting changes were expected to curb pay growth by drawing shareholder attention to the full cost of compensation. Instead, he believes companies used the disclosure to benchmark against peers and justify constant increases.

"A lot of advocates thought it would shame CEOs into reducing their pay, but it turns out there isn't a lot of shame in the C-Suite," he said. "They're perfectly happy to use the data to increase their pay."

GROWTH IN SHARE-BASED GRANTS, BONUSES One of the most significant changes in CEO pay over the past decade has been the increasing use of share-based grants as the preferred way to align executives' interests with those of shareholders.

The average value of share units granted to CEOs grew by 146 per cent to $2.58-million in 2017 from $1.05-million in 2008, accounting for a big part of the increase in total pay over the decade. Share units typically track a company's common share price, but pay out in cash at the end of a three-year period.

An analysis by Global Governance Advisors shows 77 per cent of the top 100 companies also granted "performance" share units last year, which require CEOs to achieve an additional financial performance target before they pay out. The idea is that when share prices are rising broadly, a company must outperform its peers.

At the same time, companies reduced the use of stock options because of concerns that they encouraged executives to manipulate share prices higher to quickly cash out. The average value of option grants fell by 7.6 per cent between 2008 and 2017, but CEO grants still averaged $1.3-million last year.

There has also been significant growth in the cash bonuses most CEOs receive.

With greater shareholder pressure for performance-based pay, companies have curbed increases in base salaries, which climbed 30 per cent on average (and just 24 per cent at the median) for a typical CEO over the past 10 years.

Instead, many companies shifted more cash into CEO's annual bonuses, which climbed 66 per cent on average over the decade - and 100 per cent at the median - even as performance conditions became more elaborate.

Compensation consultant Ken Hugessen, who advises boards on pay design, said shareholders are happier with rising bonuses than with rising base pay.

"We hear pretty consistently from shareholders that if you're going to increase pay, it is better that it be variable pay," he said.

"THE RISK OF GETTING RICH IS VERY HIGH" Pay may now have more variable elements, but there is concern that the programs are not nearly as "at risk" as they appear.

Companies often tell shareholders that 85 per cent or more of a CEO's pay is at risk, because every major element is variable except for the base salary. But cash bonuses at many companies will pay out at some level even if only a fraction of the performance goal is met. Regular share unit grants, meanwhile, retain value unless the share price goes to zero.

Michel Magnan, an accounting professor at Concordia University who specializes in pay analysis, said compensation appears more performance-based with all the features that have been added, but the real measure of risk lies in how difficult the targets are to reach.

Given that management often has some input in setting the targets, and given the evidence of growing annual cash bonuses, he believes there is less risk in the pay system than would appear to be the case.

Instead, he said, "the risk of getting rich is very high, especially if [share] awards become annual events."

SHIFTING PERFORMANCE GOALS The shift into share units over the past decade also means that compensation rewards shorter-term performance, despite frequent discussion about the importance of focusing management on longer-term, sustainable growth.

Stock options are typically exercisable over 10 years, creating a long time lag between granting and cashing out, while share units typically pay out in cash at the end of three years.

Whether an unintended consequence, or simply an unavoidable trade-off, the shift into share units has reduced the definition of "long-term" compensation.

Yvan Allaire, chair of the Institute for Governance of Private and Public Organizations who wrote a recent paper on pay trends, believes share units provide a medium-term incentive at best, and a muddled short-term incentive at worst.

With most CEOs getting share unit grants each year, a portion is also vesting each year, so executives never have a single discrete three-year performance cycle. Instead, the performance goals are constantly shifting as a new target comes to fruition each year.

His proposed solution is to offer one grant of units every three years, allowing the performance goals to play out before a new incentive is added.

But compensation consultant Paul Gryglewicz, senior partner at Global Governance Advisors, said it is getting harder - not easier - for companies to deliver a large grant of share units in a single year and tell shareholders it is intended to cover several years.

"Mega grants" are more often opposed by shareholders, he said, who see them as excessive compensation in a single year.

Current tax rules make it unappealing to provide cash-settled share units that pay out over more than three years, Mr. Hugessen said, and grants of common shares are not tax deductible as a compensation expense. That means it is more costly - but not impossible - to build longer-term pay using share units or shares.

Creating a longer-term program would require different pay designs at a time when many boards feel little encouragement to innovate.

Ryan Resch, a board compensation adviser from Willis Towers Watson, said some companies have worked hard to develop their own alternative pay models, but it takes a lot more work to sell them to shareholders. Many, he said, just try to "check the boxes" to stay within proxy advisors' guidelines.

"I think that tends to create a very narrow perspective on how the pay program should be designed."

One of the most significant shifts in compensation in the past decade has been the standardization of pay design across companies as boards try to win the support of powerful proxy advisory firms such as Institutional Shareholder Services, which helps many institutional investors with their pay voting decisions.

While many shareholders urge companies to tailor compensation programs to their own unique strategies and time horizons, boards complain it is risky to deviate from the pay models favoured by the proxy advisers.

"The incredible convergence in compensation systems across companies is absolutely mindboggling," Mr. Allaire said.

"You read them, and it's almost the same text from one to the other. ... We've converged on a process which has received the blessing of proxy advisers and large investors, and boards feel safe when they apply that particular process."

A GOLDEN EXAMPLE In the end, perhaps the clearest benefit of the say-on-pay era is that it has reined in the outliers, or "mitigated the most egregious cases," according to Mr. Magnan.

The gold-mining sector illustrates the impact, with several major producers - Barrick Gold Corp., Yamana Gold Inc. and Eldorado Gold Corp. - all losing sayon-pay votes in past years when pay spiked and performance was weak. They introduced changes to their pay programs, and got positive votes.

Mr. Gryglewicz said even a few examples of failed votes led to broader reforms in the mining world. In 2017, median total compensation fell 1.4 per cent at mining companies, according to Global Governance Advisors, while median total shareholder returns rose 17 per cent.

"These directors have some institutional memory," Mr. Gryglewicz said. "When you speak to a director who has been bitten by [proxy advisory firms] ISS and Glass Lewis once, they're more reluctant to repeat those decisions again in the future because they understand the ramifications of the new reality."

Associated Graphic

With greater shareholder pressure for performance-based pay, firms have curbed increases in base salaries, which climbed 30 per cent on average for a typical CEO over the past 10 years.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: GLOBAL GOVERNANCE ADVISORS

How will the world overcome its largest-ever energy crisis? Slowly
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By RICHARD RHODES
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O1


Pulitzer Prize-winning author and historian whose latest book, Energy: A Human History, has just been published nergy transitions take time.

E Across the past 400 years, as the world has transitioned from wood to coal, to oil, to natural gas and nuclear power, the average transition time from zero to 50-per-cent market penetration has been about 100 years. Enthusiasts who promote the wonders of new energy sources often fail to grasp that hard truth.

A new energy source isn't just a windmill or a solar farm. It's infrastructure and social learning as well. Both add drag.

Tesla automobile entrepreneur Elon Musk's determination to produce electric cars on a Detroit scale offers a classic example of the complexities of developing a new energy infrastructure. At the beginning, a new system looks straightforward: Build the machine or tap the source and you're off and running. But there's much more to it than that.

A new technology is inevitably crude, the economist W. Brian Arthur points out. "In the early days," he writes, "it is sufficient that it work at all." Mr. Musk told his shareholders in 2016 that the early Tesla Roadster "was completely unsafe, broke down all the time and didn't really work."

After a technology's first incarnation, Mr. Arthur goes on, "the nascent technology must now be based on proper components, made reliable, improved, scaled up, and applied effectively to different purposes." All this development takes time.

So does building infrastructure. When Mr. Musk began his quest, batteries large enough to power an automobile were hard to manufacture and prohibitively expensive. (For his Roadster, he used a pack of several thousand laptop batteries.) He had to build a vast battery factory as well as to invent new uses for large batteries (home and grid renewable energy storage) to improve supply and mass-produce down the price.

Even so, current electric car batteries have limited storage capacity, restricting the Tesla's range. Recharging them is slow. (Turn-of-the-20th-century steam-powered cars, or "steamers," faced a similar limitation: They needed 20 minutes or more to build up a sufficient head of steam. The solution for the steamer was a pilot light to keep the water hot, not something feasible for electrics.) Unlike gas stations, few commercial battery-charging stations yet exist outside California, further limiting the Tesla's range. In consequence, California accounts for almost half of Tesla sales, the other half spread thinly among the remaining 49 U.S. states and Canada. Plug-in electric vehicle sales in Canada last year totalled about 18,000 for a national electric fleet total of 47,800 in a country with 24.3 million vehicle registrations.

Electricity - a transfer agent rather than a source - is plentiful, and recharging electrics at home at night actually improves the economics of electricity production, at least from traditional sources.

Solar energy isn't available after sunset, however, nor is there much in the way of wind. To smooth out delivery of solar and wind electricity requires storing it during daytime peaks, a complicated and expensive challenge. Battery installations on the scale of an entire grid have only begun to be developed. Less expensive, but environmentally challenging, is using excess daytime electricity production to pump water into hilltop storage lakes from which it can be released at night to generate hydropower. Canada's extensive hydropower resources make solar a better bet than it is in most of the United States.

Nuclear power is a more reliable source of baseload electricity than intermittents, but many consumers are phobic about radioactivity. Nuclear has been burdened with such expensive restrictions that it is actually in decline in the United States.

Germany is phasing it out and attempting to replace it with renewable wind and solar while, in the meantime, burning highly polluting brown coal.

Canada has a better record of developing nuclear power, beginning with its early work on naturaluranium reactors moderated and cooled with heavy water. Heavy water - water in which hydrogen is replaced with a rare hydrogen isotope, deuterium, each atom of which carries an extra neutron - is expensive to distill from ordinary "light" water. Canadian hydropower eases that cost. With heavy water, which absorbs fewer neutrons than light water, natural uranium rather than enriched uranium can serve as fuel. That in turn eliminates the extremely expensive step of enriching uranium. Canada operates 18 Candu reactors, all but one of them in Ontario. A number have been sold to countries around the world.

In contrast to the West, East and South Asia currently operate 128 nuclear-power plants. Of 68 reactors under construction worldwide at the start of 2016, 45 were in Asia, as were 39 of the 45 reactors that have been connected to the electricity grid since 2005. China is going nuclear primarily to deal with the choking air pollution of coal burning - familiar from photographs of gloomy Beijing, which looks much like London in 1900 or Pittsburgh in 1940. Both India and China have vast coal resources, however, making continued use of coal financially tempting despite that fuel's short- and long-term pollution hazards. China's response to this temptation so far has been to sell its coal abroad, effectively voiding the CO2 benefits of its nuclear plant.

The International Atomic Energy Agency predicts that by 2030, nuclear capacity worldwide will grow about 2 per cent in the low case and about 70 per cent in the high case. "The role nuclear power plays in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is getting wider recognition," the IAEA observed in its 2016 annual report. The agency said nuclear power had "already made a sizable contribution to climate change mitigation by avoiding nearly 2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide every year."

Energy transitions take more time than a world faced with global warming may have. The West has experienced repeated energy transitions across the past four centuries. Coal replaced wood for residential heating in Elizabethan England when firewood, carted to London from greater and greater distances as the trees came down, priced itself out.

Pennsylvania petroleum brewed kerosene for lighting when the Civil War blocked southern shipments of camphene lamp fuel distilled from Carolina pines. Natural gas cleared the urban air of coal smoke beginning in the middle of the 20th century when pipeline technology matured.

In the 1970s, Cesare Marchetti, an Italian physicist and futurist, and his colleagues at the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis in Austria (IIASA) examined about 3,000 historical examples of energy transitions. They found, in Mr.

Marchetti's words: "The time a new source takes to make inroads into the market is very long indeed, about a hundred years to become dominant starting from scratch."

In numbers, Mr. Marchetti specifies 100 years from zero market penetration to about 50-per-cent market penetration. That rate remained slow and steady across the entire hundred years of the IIASA study regardless of wars, depressions or changes in energy prices. Mr. Marchetti argues that the adoption of a new energy source involves social learning and diffuses from person to person, much as a disease epidemic does.

The IIASA investigations are not merely interesting in themselves. They are also predictive, and what they predict is the impossibility of any new energy source that had not reached 1-per-cent market penetration by the year 2000 achieving a dominant market share before mid-century. Which sources don't make the grade? Any of the renewables: wind, solar, biomass, tidal - none of which has reached the 1-per-cent threshold to this day.

"This fact," Mr. Marchetti wrote some 40 years ago, "rules out the possibility of having fusion or solar energy covering a sizable fraction of the energy market before the year 2050 and leaves us with a narrow choice: go nuclear or bust."

But Mr. Marchetti's projections from historical data turned out to be more limited than they seemed back in 1977. The Arab oil embargo of the late 1970s froze market shares of all the major energy sources. Rather than coal and wood continuing their historic decline, while oil peaked and natural gas and nuclear power continued upward, each energy source maintained its market share.

Coal and oil levelled off, as did natural gas. Nuclear actually declined, dropping to a less than 6-percent share in the West since 2000, although new nuclear is burgeoning in Asia.

Former U.S. secretary of energy Steven Chu told me recently that natural gas, newly abundant in the United States from fracking, will continue to supply a major share of energy in the foreseeable future for the U.S. and for export. That abundance is both good and bad news. The good news is that burning natural gas produces much less air pollution and only about 50 per cent as much CO2 as does burning coal. The bad news, of course, is that 50 per cent as much CO2 as coal is far more than renewables or nuclear produce. Yet a major reason nuclear is in decline in the United States is the low cost of natural gas compared to the high cost of building new nuclear plants.

Meeting world energy needs while coping with global warming appeared possible in 1977. Today, managing the two challenges together appears uncertain. And because, unlike in the past 400 years of energy transitions, no new source has even crossed the 1-per-cent line, there is no quick fix.

The world today faces the largest of all energy crises historically: limiting global warming while simultaneously providing energy for a world population not only increasing in number (to an estimated level-off of 10 billion by 2100) but also advancing from subsistence to prosperity. And though environmentalists may wish it so, there is no prospect that alternative energy sources can substitute for traditional sources in time.

It's increasingly clear that the only possible road to a successful transition away from carbon-based energy sources is all of the above: continuing to build out renewables, use nuclear (which has about the same carbon footprint as solar power) for baseload energy and continue to burn natural gas. One of the pressing questions about Canadian nuclear power is what will happen to the Pickering, Ont., plant, which could close as soon as August, after its licence expires. It would certainly seem to this U.S. observer an important contribution to reducing global warming for Canada to maintain its current nuclear power capabilities.

One recent number dramatizes the challenge: In August, 2015, the heat index - temperature and humidity combined - in northern Iran reached 165 F.

That's the temperature of a roasted chicken.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: BRYAN GEE. SOURCE IMAGES: ISTOCK

CANADA'S GREATEST BRIDGE PLAYER OF THE 20TH CENTURY
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While he built his own successful law firm, he also distinguished himself as a top player of the card game, winning 14 North American championships with his partner
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By FRED LANGAN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B19


Eric Murray was the greatest Canadian bridge player of the 20th century, according to his bridge partner, many of his opponents and the Canadian Bridge Federation, which describes him as "the greatest Canadian bridge player ever."

Mr. Murray, who died last month at the age of 90, dominated bridge tournaments in this country for four decades while building his own successful law practice in downtown Toronto. He and Sami Kehela won 14 North American championships during their three-decade-long partnership.

The two men had different styles at the bridge table. "Sami was a chess player, and I was a poker player. It was an interesting combination," Mr. Murray said in a videotaped interview with the American Contract Bridge League (ACBL), the governing body of bridge in North America.

Mr. Kehela, who is 83 and retired from bridge, was born in Iraq and lived in London, England, where he played the game at the top level with the likes of Omar Sharif (the movie actor was also a bridge star) and Terence Reese, the best British player of his day. Mr. Kehela described Mr. Murray as "first among equals" and agreed that he and his former partner had contrasting styles.

"He was difficult to play with because he was sort of adventurous at the bridge table. His strategy was to make life difficult for the opponents. In fact, he used to muck them around in the bidding and so on. I, on the other hand, was the complete opposite. I tried to avoid errors, so we complemented each other," Mr. Kehela said.

Although they played together for 30 years, they seldom met outside the bridge world. They even travelled to tournaments on separate planes.

"I wouldn't say we were friends. We weren't enemies either, but we seldom socialized," Mr. Kehela said. "I think that's one of the reasons our partnership lasted so long - because we were both difficult to get along with. If we had spent more time together away from the table, I think it would have made our bridge relationship more difficult."

One thing the two men had in common was cigars. They both smoked at the bridge table until it was forbidden. When asked if he smoked cigarettes, Mr. Murray replied, "No, it's a filthy habit." He smoked cigars for 60 years.

Bridge, one of the world's most popular card games, involves four players who are split into two teams, with partners seated opposite each other. If you have ever played hearts, you have an elementary understanding of the game: Bridge is like hearts on steroids.

"It is the most interesting and challenging card game that has ever been invented," said Ray Lee, the owner and publisher of Masterpoint Press, which publishes books on bridge. "It is on a par with chess and Go for complexity."

There is bridge played among friends, sometimes called kitchen bridge, and there is competitive bridge, called duplicate. The latter is what Mr. Murray and Mr. Kehela played at the international level representing Canada, including at the Bermuda Bowl, which is the World Series of bridge. In duplicate, each team plays the same hand as their opponents, so making an extra trick or making your opponents' life a misery is key. Inflicting misery was Mr. Murray's forte.

On Friday, April 29, 1966, in Saint-Vincent, Italy, the Canadians, Mr. Murray and Mr. Kehela, were up against the Italians, including the brilliant player Giorgio Belladonna. Mr.

Murray liked to mislead his opponents with what he called psych bids to throw off their game. On this occasion, the Italians should have made a top score but didn't, because they failed to sniff out their Canadian opponent's deception.

"Sami Kehela leaned over to Belladonna and said, 'What's the matter, Giorgio, your nose not working so well today?' " Mr. Murray recounted many years later. The one-liner was a put-down, mocking the Italian for not spotting the ruse.

The two teams had one of the greatest rivalries in the international bridge world. Mr. Murray came second in the Bermuda Bowl four times (three of those times while paired with Mr. Kehela). In each case, the top spot was taken by the Italians, the most successful bridge team of the 20th century, known as the Italian Blue Team.

"The Italians were simply the best bridge players in the world for a couple of decades," said Tom Healy, a retired banker who played international bridge for Ireland before immigrating to Canada. "It was Murray and Kehela's bad luck to be playing in the era when the Italians were so dominant."

The Canadian pair would chain-smoke cigars at the bridge table to annoy Mr. Belladonna.

Mr. Murray juggled his bridge life with a successful career as a lawyer; his business card read Eric Murray, QC (Queen's Counsel). Having such an active life outside bridge is unusual for top players, most of whom are professionals. Mr. Kehela, a pro, made his living writing bridge columns, teaching and conducting bridge cruises. Professional bridge players can also earn large sums of money playing in private games for high stakes.

"[Mr. Murray] was a very good lawyer and had a very good brain, and bridge came naturally to him," Mr. Kehela said.

"Most successful bridge players are only bridge players, so they spend more time and effort in reaching the heights. Eric did that even though he had a second life, which was his legal career."

Mr. Murray was as passionate about the law as he was about bridge. One of his greatest legal victories was in a lawsuit against the birth-control company Ortho Pharmaceuticals. The plaintiff was a young woman who had suffered a debilitating stroke, one of the possible side effects of the drug. "The defendant was negligent in failing to warn of the risks of oral contraceptive use," wrote Justice R.E. Holland of the Ontario Superior Court in April, 1984. The woman was awarded more than $1-million in damages.

"I knew Eric as a bridge player, though I wasn't in his league, and as a lawyer," said Justice John Laskin, now a judge with the Ontario Court of Appeal. "I always admired his passion for his clients, many of whom were underdogs."

One of his former colleagues at his firm, Genest Murray, who asked not to be named, said Mr. Murray refused to represent insurance companies. "But he was happy to act against them. The other partners were not happy about him turning down big files."

Mr. Murray was a founding partner of Genest Murray, and his wife, Helen Murray (née Burden), also a QC, was a lawyer there as well. Ms. Murray ended her legal career as an adjudicator for the Law Society of Ontario.

In one unusual case, Mr. Murray acted as an expert witness, rather than a lawyer, when the defence called upon him to share his deep knowledge of the game. In 1966, the Toronto police raided the North York Bridge and Social Club expecting to find an illegal poker game. Instead, the inhabitants were playing bridge. The owner was charged with running a game of chance.

Mr. Murray testified that bridge was a game of skill, not chance. The lower court ruled, however, that bridge was a game of chance because the cards were dealt randomly. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court, which upheld the verdict. After the judgment, Mr. Murray quipped: "If I played bridge like those judges, I would agree it was a game of chance."

Eric Rutherford Murray was born April 31, 1928, in Hamilton, and started playing bridge in his final year of high school. At McMaster University, he began to play at a competitive level, and ran the university's bridge club. He teamed up with a man named Harry Bork, whom Mr. Murray later described as "the best player in Hamilton." The secret of bridge success is for a weaker player to find a strong partner.

Mr. Murray found Agnes Gordon, a Canadian who lived in Buffalo.

"We joined up to play the National Mixed Pairs [in 1963], and we won it with the highest score that has ever been recorded in ACBL history," Mr. Murray recalled. He represented Canada at the World Team (Bridge) Olympiad every year from 1960 to 1988, except 1984.

His next great partner was Doug Drury, after whom the Drury Convention is named. (Conventions are bidding systems in bridge, and new ones are named after the person who first came up with them.) They played together for a few years, but the partnership ended when Mr. Drury moved to the United States. It was with his next partner, Mr. Kehela, that Mr. Murray built Canada's most formidable bridge partnership.

At bridge clubs across North America, people play every week, hoping to win masterpoints, which are awarded for each victory, with regional and national tournaments weighted more heavily. The objective for many serious amateur players is to accumulate enough points to be deemed a Life Master, an accomplishment that once required 300 masterpoints, but now requires 500. Mr. Murray was a Grand Life Master with somewhere upward of 10,000 points.

"There has been inflation in masterpoints. They are easier to get, and you can earn them in online games," Mr. Lee said.

"When Eric and Sami were playing, it was one point here, one point there and more at tournaments. His total really meant something."

Mr. Murray was once on the board of directors of the ACBL and was inducted into its Hall of Fame, among numerous other awards. Early in his playing career, he helped organize competitive bridge in Canada.

Mr. Murray died on May 19 in Barrie, Ont. He had been in a car crash several years ago and his health never fully recovered. He leaves his three sons, James, John and Fraser; and several grandchildren. His wife, Helen, predeceased him in 2008. His older brother, William, died in 1944 on a mission to Hamburg with the Royal Canadian Air Force.

To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

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Associated Graphic

Eric Murray, right, is seen in an undated photo. Although he did not smoke cigarettes, Mr. Murray smoked cigars for 60 years, including at the bridge table until it was forbidden.

COURTESY OF THE MURRAY FAMILY

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Correction

A Monday obituary of bridge player Eric Murray incorrectly said he was born April 31, 1928 (a date that does not exist), but he was actually born on Aug. 31 of that year. His age at death was 89 - not 90, as published.

Let the music move you
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From Calgary to California, Brad Wheeler offers six unique events guaranteed to hit the right notes for the discerning musical traveller
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By BRAD WHEELER
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P12


Music lovers trekking to summer festivals often incorporate more adventures into their trips than just the weekend events themselves. With that in mind, a guide to six unique annual happenings comes complete with music-friendly hotels, melodious places for food and drink and other diversions guaranteed to hit the right notes for the discerning musical traveller.

ARROYO SECO WEEKEND Come for Jeff Goldblum and the Mildred Snitzer Orchestra, stay for Neil Young, Jack White, Kings of Leon, Gary Clark Jr. and Alanis Morissette. Run by Coachella promoters Goldenvoice, the second annual event leans to guitar rock - a genre somewhat out of fashion these days. Excellent alternatives come in the form of New Orleans soul queen Irma Thomas, country singer-songwriter Margo Price and the likable actor Goldblum, whose jazz-piano side hustle has just earned him a record deal with the classic Decca label. June 23 to 24, Brookside at the Rose Bowl, Pasadena, Calif., arroyosecoweekend.com Where else to go: Not only is McCabe's Guitar Shop the spot for acoustic and folk instruments in the beachfront city of Santa Monica, the music store also hosts intimate concerts. While past performers include Jackson Browne, Joni Mitchell and Stan Rogers, this summer's schedule accommodates Tom Paxton, Peter Case and Joan Shelley.

Where to eat and drink: Pappy & Harriet's Pioneertown Palace is worth the drive to the desert, both for the barbecue and for the live music. (Nearby Joshua Tree National Park is a place of rugged natural beauty well-known to fans of U2 and Gram Parsons.)

Where to stay: Recommended local lodging includes The Langham Huntington and the Bissell House Bed & Breakfast, but rock 'n' roll enthusiasts with a sense of history might wish to hunker down at Los Angeles's Sunset Marquis (which has its own recording studio) or the Andaz West Hollywood, a Hyatt property known as the Riot House when members of the Rolling Stones, the Who and Led Zeppelin were throwing televisions off balconies. Presumably the reception is better these days.

WILLIE NELSON'S 4TH OF JULY PICNIC Suitably, the man who wrote On the Road Again hosts an annual Independence Day concert that has moved around the Lone Star State a bit since its inception in 1973.

This summer, the 85-year-old Red Headed Stranger invites not only country-music mavericks Sturgill Simpson and Margo Price to Austin, Tex., but also seventies holdovers Asleep at the Wheel, David Allan Coe, Ray Wylie Hubbard and Billy Joe Shaver. This isn't "new country" or "bro country." This is old country and weird country and apple-pie-and-pass-the-doobie country. July 4, Circuit of the Americas racetrack, Austin, Tex., circuitoftheamericas.com Where else to go: No doubt temperatures will be hotter than a $2 pistol when the country music icon holds his annual shindig.

Things will have cooled down in early October when the Austin City Limits Music Festival hosts a diverse lineup scheduled to include Paul McCartney, Metallica, Camila Cabello, Childish Gambino, Brandi Carlile and Arctic Monkeys over two threeday weekends in Austin. (Oct. 514) Where to eat and drink: At CBoy's Heart & Soul, the hot dogs are free on Sundays, which is when the juke joint offers its healthcode-be-dammed game of chance involving random chicken droppings and bingo. The birds are back in the coop for the rest of the week, allowing for regular appearances by such blues legends as Jimmie Vaughan, Paul Oscher and Miss Lavelle White.

Where to stay: Rooms at Hotel Saint Cecilia come with essential amenities - and by "essential," we mean Rega turntables and Geneva Sound System stereos. A lending library is stocked with vintage LPs and a collection of rock biographies, and a concierge can arrange a guitar loan. Buddy Holly never had it so good, but you can.

CALGARY FOLK MUSIC FESTIVAL Like its counterparts in Vancouver, Winnipeg and Edmonton, the convening in Calgary defines "folk festival" in the broadest of terms. Mainstage attractions this summer include the retro-folkduo harmonies and banter of the Milk Carton Kids, the breezy guitar-pop innovations of Bahamas, the hip hop and electronica of A Tribe Called Red, the Steppin' Out eloquence of Joe Jackson and the defiant, compelling voice of singer-songwriter Neko Case. As well, intimate workshop collaborations between artists make for one-of-a-kind experiences. July 26 to 29, Prince's Island Park, calgaryfolkfest.com Where else to go: Satisfaction and musical interaction is guaranteed at Calgary's National Music Centre, a five-floor place of exhibitions, concert venues and a mobile recording studio once owned by the Rolling Stones. Big, Big Love: k.d. lang on Stage, a new temporary exhibition celebrating the Constant Craving singer, is unveiled on July 11. (nmc.ca) Where to eat and drink: Sadly, the beloved Wine-Ohs Bistro & Cellar is now closed. Still, the city's downtown "Music Mile" is flush with alternatives, including the Ironwood Stage & Grill, a venue for nightly live music with a concert-themed menu. (ironwoodstage.ca) Where to stay: The festival offers special rates for attendees at a variety of downtown hotels, including the Westin Calgary, which is where the performers often stay and where after-show parties have been to known to happen.

MO POP, DETROIT Some call Detroit "Motown," a portmanteau of motor and town, and the name of a hit-making record label of the Smokey Robinson kind. Kiss, on the other hand, named a song Detroit Rock City.

Whatever its nickname, Michigan's largest city is home to a riverside festival of indie-rock heroes and select representatives from the worlds of hip hop and R&B. Headliners include Bon Iver and the National (both of midwestern origin), along with Canadian imports Alvvays and the ascendant Daniel Caesar. July 28 and 29, West Riverfront Park. (mopopfestival.com) Where else to go: The headquarters of Motown Records was once called "Hitsville U.S.A." for the label's string of chart toppers in the 1960s. Today, the office and studio where it all happened is in such remarkably preserved condition at the Motown Museum one can almost detect the sweet waft of Marvin Gaye's cologne. (motownmuseum.org) Where to eat and drink: Baker's Keyboard Lounge claims to be the world's oldest operating jazz club.

And while Chicago's Green Mill Cocktail Lounge would dispute that boast, Baker's piano-shaped bar, catfish-favouring menu and history of legendary artists is legitimate.

Where to stay: Detroit's downtown has undergone a revival of late. New hotels satisfying the need for rooms include the Foundation Hotel (in the former Detroit Fire Department Headquarters) and the Siren (occupying the former office building of Wurlitzer, makers of organs and jukeboxes). Further afield, on Mackinac Island in northern Michigan, the luxurious Grand Hotel (where Thomas Edison's newfangled

phonograph was first demonstrated) has jazz and classical musicians on staff.

SAWDUST CITY MUSIC FESTIVAL Cozy in size and charm, the second-annual cottage-country event offers a unique multivenue experience in the heart of Ontario's Muskoka region. Canadian artists Rose Cousins, Royal Wood and the Good Lovelies are among the singer-songwriters and rootsmusic artists performing in a park, a music barge and the town's historic opera house. Patrons investing in the VIP package are invited to a cottage-set concert by a secret performer - last summer, it was the Skydiggers.

Aug. 3 to 5, Gravenhurst, Ont., sawdustcitymusicfestival.com Where else to go: The legendary Kee to Bala concert venue and bar located on Lake Muskoka has played host to everyone from Count Basie to the Tragically Hip.

This summer's schedule includes patio-lantern appearances by Kim Mitchell, July Talk and, on the August long weekend, the Trews.

Where to eat and drink: The owner-operators of The Oar restaurant are dedicated music supporters who just happen to offer a mean wild boar, venison and blueberry burger on their menu.

Live music is common, as are wedding receptions.

Where to stay: The acoustic guitar in the common room of the Inn on Bay bed and breakfast in Gravenhurst is in tune and available for strumming.

NEWPORT JAZZ FESTIVAL Established in 1954 by socialite Elaine Lorillard, the Newport Jazz Festival has a storied past that includes an incident in 1960 involving blues artist Muddy Waters, the National Guard and a disturbance caused by spectators. Waters performed Goodbye Newport Blues, and, for one year, the festival was suspended. Returning in 1962, the white-tent affair now welcomes bebop and other jazz artists, along with innovators in other genres. Among this summer's performers are newcomer Andra Day, Robert Glasper, Pat Metheny, the Nat King Cole enthusiast Gregory Porter and legendary drummer Tony Allen. Also on board is George Clinton & Parliament Funkadelic, zooming in on the mothership for what funk-maestro Clinton says will be his final trip ever with the group. Aug. 3 to 5, Fort Adams State Park, Newport, R.I., newportjazz.org Where else to go: Newport Jazz's sister event is, of course, Newport Folk Festival (July 27 to 29). Highlights include Valerie June, St.

Vincent, Jason Isbell and the ubiquitous Margo Price, along with Canadians Colter Wall and Tamara Lindeman's Weather Station.

Where to eat and drink: Seafood is plentiful in town, but for spirits try Newport Craft Brewing and Distilling Company, the first distillery in 135 years in a state rich in rum tradition. Beer and rum tastings cost $9 and $10, respectively; Yo-ho-ho's are complimentary.

Where to stay: Yachting capital Newport is not without impressive lodging options. For something more melodious, the Verb Hotel, 99 kilometres away in Boston, is a music-themed boutique inn near Fenway Park, a historic baseball stadium also used for concerts. Up to bat this summer are Jimmy Buffett, Foo Fighters, Billy Joel and Pearl Jam.

Associated Graphic

The Arroyo Seco Weekend festival leans to guitar rock, with headliners including Neil Young, Jack White and Kings of Leon, though you can also catch some jazz and New Orleans soul.

JULIAN BAJSEL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Basia Bulat performs at the Calgary Folk Music Festival in 2017.

JAMES STANGROOM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Gravenhurst, Ont., is offering a unique multivenue experience, including a music barge, above, at its Sawdust City festival.

THE GLOBE AND MAIL

'I didn't fall in love with cars until I fell into the car business'
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Laura Schwab discusses her personal - and unexpected - journey into the automobile industry, and Aston Martin's ambitious Second Century Plan at the official opening of a new luxury dealership in Toronto
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By PETRINA GENTILE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D6


Laura Schwab, 44, is president of Aston Martin the Americas. Her down-to-earth demeanor and unconventional leadership style is helping to drive the British marquee record sales growth. But her rise to the top of the male-dominated auto world didn't come without pitfalls. Schwab, who grew up in Kentucky, discussed her personal journey, and Aston Martin's ambitious Second Century Plan at the official opening of Grand Touring Automobiles, a five-floor dealership that's home to Aston Martin and six other luxury brands, in Toronto.

Were you a car girl growing up?

I wasn't. I was a sports girl. I loved sports since I was a kid. As a threeyear-old, I would sit on my dad's lap, watch baseball and steal sips of his drink. I begged my parents to play tennis because they played tennis and I wanted to be like them. I was obsessed with tennis and all sports. I really didn't fall in love with cars until I fell into the car business.

How did you fall into the car business?

I went to the University of Notre Dame on a tennis scholarship. I was captain of the team in my senior year and, like anyone who doesn't know what to do with a government and Spanish degree, I went to law school at the University of Kentucky. After I graduated from law school I started practising law; I was a contract lawyer.

I'm 24 and I realized this is not for me ... I had friends in Southern California and I used their address and started applying for jobs in California - I had no experience. I lost jobs because I sounded too southern.

I got an interview in San Diego with a digital startup company in the late 1990s. They sold cars online - they built configuration technology and had a reverse auction marketplace. I'm thinking - there's no way I'm getting this job.

I know nothing about cars. I know nothing about the internet. I got a law degree. I went to leave and the CEO who interviewed me told the HR manager don't let her get to the door. I was the 11th employee.

We were going to go public and I was going to be a multimillionaire by age 26, which clearly did not happen.

And then you end up at Land Rover - that's a big jump?

I had worked with a guy, who had been a mentor, and he had a job at Land Rover. He said, 'If you're lucky, I can get you a job at Land Rover. They have a website, but there's no configurator on it. They want to presell cars online and they need a project manager.

You're the only person I know that can actually do this job.' So I went to an interview. It wasn't a full-time job; it was a contract. I got the job and I wrote my contract for employment. So when my parents said I never used my law degree, they're actually wrong. I used it once in my life and it was my first contract for employment at Land Rover. And that's how I got my foot in the door at a manufacturer.

Was it hard to fit in at Land Rover?

The first year or so was hard because I wasn't a full-time employee. I looked like a little kid back then. I was 26. I was told to get a project team together with a timeline for the configurator. I got this team together, introduced myself as the project manager for the configurator and preselling online program, and this guy looked at me and said, 'What could you possibly know about any of this? You basically look like you're 12.' I finished the meeting, got in my car, drove to Taco Bell, I had two Nacho Bellgrandes and a large drink and I cried. Then I went back and went right up to him and said, 'You're going to be part of this project because I actually need you. And I do know what I am talking about.' You moved up the ranks fast becoming the marketing director for Jaguar Land Rover in Britain - how was that transition as a woman and foreigner in a new country?

I was living in New York at the time. I packed my bags and left. I landed in Heathrow, looked out the window and thought, 'What the hell have I done to myself? I've got to drive on the other side of the road. I don't know anybody.' I underestimated the transition, culturally. I wasn't going to be living in London where there are lots of Americans. I was out in the Midlands, one of few female directors with, apparently, an American accent. That was really hard at first. I felt like I didn't fit in.

It took me a good year before I fit in.

How do you end up at Aston Martin?

I was working in the U.K. for almost five years for Jaguar Land Rover - I loved it. And the chief marketing officer for Aston Martin is a friend of mine, a guy named Simon Sproule. We had worked in California and after all these years, he contacted me. We were both situated in the Midlands. He asked, 'Would you want to come and see the Aston Martin factory?' Who is going to say no to that?

The morning of the factory tour, I was going to Lord's Cricket for a cricket match. I had never been to a cricket match. I wore all white because cricket players wear white and that must be what everyone wears when they watch, which clearly is not the case. I drink a few glasses of champagne and then take the train to the factory. I walk in and meet up with Simon. He starts explaining how the cars are handcrafted, how they take 250-300 hours to handbuild, and how the badge in the front is a piece of jewelry made in the jewelry district in Birmingham. I was blown away.

And then, Simon says, 'Here's our CEO, Andy Palmer.' I'm so casual. Andy starts telling me about the Second Century Plan and his vision for Aston Martin. And he said, 'We would like you to consider coming to work for Aston Martin - we want you to be president of Aston Martin the Americas.' I said, 'Oh wait. This is a job interview? I'm not looking for a job.' I go home and tell my husband, who is British. He looked at me and said, 'That is the coolest blankin' job in the world. Sounds like we're moving to the United States.' He didn't skip a beat.

Didn't say we need to think about it. My husband is an important and crucial part of my life and my success.

Looking back, what's the biggest challenge you faced in your career?

I got pregnant five weeks after I started my job at Aston Martin. I wasn't that young [42]. I had to call Andy Palmer and tell him I'm pregnant. The company was amazing. But I went through all of this guilt. Are they going to be disappointed that they hired me?

Then I had flashbacks. I had lots of women work for me and they got pregnant - did I ever make them feel badly? Was I supportive?

What was hard in my career was looking for other female role models. It was hard not having female role models. I had to believe in myself and create my own personality. I'm a bit unconventional.

Has your husband and daughter made you a better leader?

My whole life, I was convinced there was no room for anyone else in it. If someone wants to come along for the ride, great. But I had to stay focused. On paper, guys thought I was great - loves sports, loves cars, doesn't want to text often. But Nick is the first person I felt truly understood where work fit for me. He made me step away from it, which is good. Once I met him, I didn't want to sit and work all weekend - the people who work for me don't want to get e-mails from me on Saturday and Sundays. I didn't think there was anything I was looking for until I met him.

What's in store for Aston Martin's future?

We're knee-deep in our Second Century Plan - seven cars in seven years. It started when we launched the DB11 in 2016. Then we introduced the V-8 versions with the V12. The Volante, which is the most beautiful convertible I've ever seen, is just about to go on sale now. The Vantage goes on sale this summer. Then in the fall, we introduce the DB11 V12 AMR.

We are also getting ready to reveal the DBS Superleggera, the replacement for the Vanquish at the top of the range, later this year. It's a pretty active 2018. That's unparalleled in the automotive world.

We'll reveal the SUV next year and it'll go on sale in 2020.

But aren't you late to the party with your SUV?

No. I think the timing is perfect.

Sometimes being first is really hard as well. There's a lot to learn from what our competitors have done - what works and what doesn't work. So the timing is perfect. It was crucial to get the core products right. That's our core focus first and then it's about how we expand our portfolio. We're really getting the business right. It's the most loved and coolest brand in the world.

Associated Graphic

Laura Schwab, president of Aston Martin the Americas, attends the official showroom launch at Grand Touring Automobiles in Toronto on May 31.

GALIT RODAN/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

An Aston Martin DB11 sits on display at a media event ahead of the Formula One Grand Prix at Albert Park in Melbourne, Australia, in March.

CLIVE MASON/GETTY IMAGES

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B17


G. RONALD BELL

The family of G. Ronald Bell is deeply saddened to announce his peaceful passing in Halifax Nova Scotia on the morning of June 8, 2018, at the age of 90.

He was born in York, England on March 30, 1928 and immigrated to Canada in 1953. He worked in the patent and trademark section of a large legal firm in Ottawa before establishing his own very successful business in March 1969. With a strong international practice, Ron was a vibrant force in intellectual property, directing his offices until his passing.

While he enjoyed his career and had a rich, full life, it was his family that brought him his greatest joy. He is survived by his beloved wife, Shirley; daughters, Karen, Sandra, Victoria; and son, David. Ron was also a proud and loving grandfather to Evan, Austin, Andrew, and Cameron, and cherished father-in-law to Martin and Robin.

There is to be a memorial service in Halifax on Friday, June 22nd at 2:30 p.m.

DENISE EDGE

At Humber River Hospital in Toronto on June 12, 2018, in her 70th year.

Loving wife of John, sister of Graham Middlehurst, sister-inlaw of Judy Peddle, (Murray) Kate Davies (David) and David Edge (Carol).

Cremation has taken place. A memorial service will be held at a later date. No flowers please. if desired, donations may be made to Toronto Humane Society and Canadian Mental Health Association.

ANNE EVERY

On Monday June 11, 2018, in her 98th year, this beautiful, kindhearted, gentle yet strong woman, who nurtured and loved us throughout our lives, passed peacefully in the arms of her daughter Sharon. Anne was the cherished wife of the late Ted Every (50 years) and the beloved mother of the late Allan, Joan (Howard), Brian (Lina), Barb (Garth), and Sharon (Harry). She was the most excellent grandmother of Karina, Erik (Torie), Stephen (Yoshimi), Jennifer (Randy), John (Sandi), Ann (Alfred), Kristen, and Emily;and the greatest greatgrandmother of Gabriella, Juliet, Ryan, Madison, Henry, Isabelle, and Emma. She will be remembered with love and respect by her family and all who knew her.

Anne was fortunate to have received exceptional care from many healthcare providers over the years, some for decades, as well as invaluable support from the staff and services of local agencies. We would like to express our gratitude to them for their dedication. The combined efforts of all helped Anne "stay on her feet" for as long as she did.

Visitation will take place Tuesday, June 19, 2018 from 4 - 8 p.m. at Turner & Porter - Butler Chapel, 4933 Dundas Street West, Etobicoke. Private family service will be held at a later date.

Donations in Anne's memory may be made to Etobicoke Services for Seniors, Storefront Humber Inc., or the charity of your choice.

J. PETER GIFFEN

James Peter Giffen passed away on June 14, 2018, after a brief illness.

Peter began his 82 year adventure as "Pete," starting life above the Giffen family hardware store in Port Hope, Ont., with his parents, Jim and Marie, older sister, Joan and soon to be joined by his cousin, Betty. Peter attended Trinity College School in Port Hope, where he excelled at hockey and football.

He attended the University of Toronto followed by Osgoode Law School, where he graduated and was called to the Bar in 1963.

After practising law in Toronto, the family moved to Kitchener in 1966 where Peter practised with Sims, Giffen McKinnon, and subsequently, founded Giffen Law in 1981, where he mentored until his retirement in 2006.

Peter was named a Queen's Counsel in 1975, and was certified in civil litigation. His love of the law was a natural fit for his love of debate and analysis, both in the court room, including the Supreme Court of Canada, and around the dinner table.

He had a love of family, friends and life; whether it be the years on Georgian Bay, skiing the world, canoe trips, family road trips, mastering the patio, if not the course at Westmount Golf Club, his famous Sunday night dinners on Corfield Road in Kitchener, or the farm outside of Kincardine.

To Peter nothing mattered more than family and friends.

If there was a need, he figured out a way to fill it. He did the little things, and through that, accomplished much in his life.

He dedicated countless evenings and weekends to academic and charity boards, as well supporting political causes and candidates, from local to federal.

His love, guidance, wit and neverending advice will be remembered everyday by his wife, Kathryn; and his three children, Heather (Lorna), James (Maria), and Julie (Paul). He will be missed by his grandchildren, Sam, Emmy, Paige, and Ainsley; his sister, Joan; cousin, Betty; his former wife, Mike; as well as his California and Quebec nieces and nephews. Peter was a man not soon forgotten.

Beati Mundo Corde.

In the spirit of Peter, the family will share a toast to his life on Wednesday, June 27th from 4 - 7 p.m. at the Charcoal Steakhouse, 2980 King St E., Kitchener.

Please visit http://www.henrywalser.com Peter's memorial.

MARY ANN HEARY

October 28, 1954 June 14, 2018

It is with deep sadness we share the news of Mary Ann Heary's passing at the age of 63 after losing her valiant battle with cancer on Thursday, June 14th.

Survived by her loving husband, Harvey Soicher; her brothers, Basil (Debbie) and John Heary (Ann); predeceased by her parents, John William (Bill) Heary and Helen Gertrude Sanford; her sister, Vivian; and two wonderful furry children, Skippy and Casper.

Mary Ann grew up in Port Credit Ontario where she went to Humber High School. She spent her early adult life working in Toronto and Calgary and settled in Vancouver for her remaining 30 years. Mary Ann worked in the Relocation Management and Sports Fashion Industry and was a shining star throughout her career. She was adored by many of her clients.

Mary Ann's loves were hiking, going to the gym, skiing, golfing, travel and spending time with those she loved. She touched everyone she met with a smile and had a gift of making all whose lives she touched feel special and valued. She will be sorely missed by all but her spirit will live on in all those that knew her.

A special note of thanks goes to the amazing care by the staff of the BC Cancer Agency, the Vancouver General Hospital Palliative care unit as well as the staff of the South Granville Hospice where she spent her final two weeks.

Mary Ann lived her life, as described by those that knew her, as Inspirational, caring, a bright light, a role model, one in a million! She was truly loved by so many! A funeral service will be held 11 a.m. Thursday, June 28th at the Chapel of Skinner and Middlebrook, 128 Lakehore Rd. E., Mississauga, ON.

A celebration of life will be held 1 p.m., Wednesday, July 25th at The University Golf Club 5185 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Mary Ann's favorite cause is the UBC and VGH Functional Neurosurgery Research Fund. If you wish to contribute please send donations to: UBC and VGH Functional Neurosurgery Research Fund #8105 - 2775 Laurel St., Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9.

SAM PACHT

Holocaust Survivor - On Saturday, June 16, 2018 at the age of 100 years old, at his home. Sam Pacht beloved husband of the late Rose Pacht. Loving father and father-inlaw of Ben and Adrienne, Larry and Marilyn, Michael and Martine, Lisa and Nik. Dear brother of the late Yisroel, Yitzhak, Michael, Zelig, Shiel, Tsiporah. Devoted Zaidy of David and Cindy, Evan and Jason, Corey and Sasha, Ashley and Jason, Ryan and Casey, Kimberly and David, Chloe, Melissa and Jay, Austin, and Tabitha, and Great-Zaidy of Brooklyn, Sienna, Brody and Taylor. Will be sadly missed by many nieces and nephews and friends. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (three lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, June 19, 2018 at 1:00 p.m.

Interment in the Beth Emeth Bais Yehuda Synagogue Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 11 Evita Court, Thornhill. Memorial donations may be made to the Sam Pacht Memorial Fund c/o the Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324, http://www.benjamins.ca or to the charity of your choice.

LISA WEINTRAUB

59, died at home on June 18, 2018, surrounded by her dearest ones. She lived a life that was full and rich, and ended much too soon. She will be missed by so many, as she was the heart of a community of people who loved her and believed passionately in what she stood for. In keeping with her lifelong commitment to choice and dignity, Lisa chose to have a physician-assisted death. A lifelong social justice activist and a fierce feminist, her career and her life were dedicated to the prevention of violence against women and children and all those in the world who are vulnerable and at risk. Her creed was kindness, and she filled the spaces in her world with immeasurable acts of love. Lisa's professional laurels are numerous, but at the heart of everything she did was her devotion to family and friends.

She is survived by her lifelong partner, Robert Lewis; her son, Yonah Lewis and his wife, Sandra Baumander; her son, Lev Lewis and his partner, Erin Gaudette.

She is also survived by her parents, Marvin and Rita Weintraub; her brother, Mark Weintraub and his partner, Julia Roudakova; her brother, John Weintraub; her niece, Abby Delouya, her husband, Elie Delouya and their three sons, Yitzhak, Daniel and Aryeh; her niece, Michelle Friedman and great-nephew Ezra; and her nephew, Daniel. She was predeceased by her sister, Laura Weintraub; her niece, Dani Weintraub Grand; and her sistersin-law, Sari Zack and Leeanne Lewis. She will be deeply missed by family, friends and a broad community who have been touched by her dedication and love. Donations in Lisa's memory may be made to COPA (Centre Ontarien de prevention des agressions), the child abuse prevention organization she cofounded in 1995. Donate at infocopa.com/memoriam.

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B20


ARLENE BARLIN

A loving and inspiring mother, daughter, sister and best friend, Arlene passed away peacefully and surrounded by her family on Sunday, June 10, 2018. She remains in the hearts of daughters, Chloe, Aliya and Mica Daniels; their father, Zev Daniels: sisters and brothers- in-law, Elly and Peter Daniels; Laurie and Mark Rosenfield; and Sharron and Shelly Fruitman. She is already missed by nieces and nephews, Courtney and Michael, Zachary, Maya and Esmé Howells, Jonathan, Alexander and Arthur Rosenfield; and Olivia and Lily Daniels. Arlene was a caring daughter to her late parents Zelda and H. Scotty Barlin.

Intelligent, curious, dynamic and free- spirited, Arlene lived her life fully and fearlessly. Without prejudice, she gave love to everyone who crossed her path.

Her warm and caring spirit created an extended family of friends, spanning the world, of like- minded, open and beautiful souls.

An eternal teacher and guide, Arlene had the ability, with just her smile or a few wise words, to set someone on their true and right path. She introduced her friends and family to yoga and spirituality, sharing compassion and curiousity for a greater good through her perspective. Her creativity, imagination and engaging persona added to her impact on those around her. It didn't get cooler than Arlene.

Arlene held a welcoming home and space for all, and her family and friends will forever be grateful and feel blessed for her presence in their lives.

Arlene traveled the world trying new and innovative cancer treatments. Immense gratitude is given to all those near and far who provided care.

We will remember Arlene sitting out on the deck at her home in the Bahamas, listening to music, looking up at the stars and out over the clear ocean water, chanting Om Namah Shivaya.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Ave. West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday June 12, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Interment Temple Sinai Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 270 Forest Hill Road. Donations may be made to the Arlene Barlin Memorial Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324 http://www.benjamins.ca.

DUARTE BELO

Passed away peacefully on June 11, 2018 at the age of 65. Loving husband of Sue, proud father of Jamie and Daniel. Cherished by his siblings, nieces, nephews and family. Faithful companion to three fiercely loyal dogs.

Visitation on Wednesday, June 13th from 12-2 p.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre (375 Mount Pleasant Rd). Graveside service to follow at 2:30 p.m.

Following the service, friends and family are invited to gather and celebrate Duarte's life at the family home.

DARRYL ROGER FERGUSON

Of Winnipeg, MB, husband of Carol Garmaise, and loving father of Jacob, Nathan and Leanne, passed away Monday, June 4, 2018 at the age of 53 years. Darryl was born in Saskatoon, SK on June 16, 1964, and he was raised and educated in Moosomin, SK.

He left home in 1982 to further his education, graduating with a degree in commerce from the University of Saskatchewan in 1986, then later graduated from law school at Osgoode Hall Law School, York University in 1990.

He would go on to practice law with the firm of McCarthy-Tetrault until 2012. In more recent years he practiced law for the City of Winnipeg until his passing.

Darryl was predeceased by his mother, Beverly; and his grandparents, William and Margaret Ferguson, and Roy and Evelyn Ganyo.

Darryl is lovingly remembered by his father, Alan; wife, Carol; children, Jacob, Nathan, and Leanne; brother, David; sister-inlaw, Glenda; nieces and nephews, Louise, Marcus, and Joshua Ferguson; aunts and uncles Darlene and Jim Kraus, Lee and Marlene Ganyo, Ray and Sandy Boughen; and numerous cousins, friends, and colleagues.

A service to celebrate Darryl's life will be held at the United Church of Moosomin on Thursday, June 14 at 1:00 p.m. If friends so desire, a donation in Darryl's name may be made to the Toronto General Hospital via the website https:// http://www.tgwhf.ca/card-builder/.

Arrangements are in care of Brockie Donovan Funeral & Cremation Services, Brandon, MB, (204) 727-0694.

JOHN SCOTT DEACON

71 - Our loving and beloved father, grandfather, brother, uncle and friend passed on June 7, 2018.

Born into a large and loving family, Scott was a bright and kind spirit who touched all he knew with his thoughtfulness and loyalty. His charm, selflessness and dash of mischief will be missed by all who loved him.

Whether professionally, socially or randomly, he was quick to befriend those who crossed his path; always lending an ear, his time and support - and more often than not acting as the IT support desk! Friends new and old were always nearby, and his family was dear to him. Scott was the first to remember and celebrate the accomplishments of others and the first to raise a glass of red wine in their honour. Over the years, Scott was a contributor to the communities of Branksome Hall, Caledon and Beaumaris, forging memories and friendships along the way. His enjoyment of music was perhaps only rivaled by the companionship of his four legged friends over the years; Basil, Sophie, Roscoe and Fergus, each playing large roles in various chapters of his life. For many he will be remembered happily on the water in his beloved Landrover.

Scott will be dearly missed by his three devoted daughters and two sons-in-law; Emily, Norah, Tim, Grace, and Morris; and will forever be 'Pop' to his five grandchildren, Henry, Samuel, Cecily, Rosemary, and Frederick.

Scott is also survived by siblings, Peter, Barbara, and Susan.

In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations be made to the Parkinson's Society of Canada or to Dancing with Parkinson's.

The family would also like to extend a special thank you to the staff at Bradgate Arms, his caregivers and the extended medical teams of nurses and doctors who took such great care of Scott over the last few years.

Details of a celebration of Scott's life for his family and friends will be shared in the coming days.

IDA JOANNA QUAN (nee Ing)

We are saddened to announce the death of Ida J. Quan (neé Ing) at the age of 96 years. Her passing took place on June 8, 2018 at Humber River Hospital. She was predeceased by parents, Henry and Mary Ing; brothers, Harry and Raymond; and sister, Dorothy.

She is survived by dear husband of 66 years, Dick; sons, Gary and Brian; brother, Albert; sisters, Amie and Jean; and many nieces and nephews.

Upon graduating from Morrisburg Collegiate Institute, Ida pursued a nursing career and received her R.N. from Herbert Reddy Memorial Hospital in Montreal, Quebec. Post graduate studies at USC Berkeley, California followed for her certificate in Obstetrics. Upon her return, she was employed at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario.

Dick and Ida were married in Vancouver, British Columbia in September 1952, and eventually settled in Toronto, where she worked at Toronto Western Hospital. She temporarily stopped work to raise her two sons.

Then she returned to nursing at Humber Memorial Hospital and York-Finch Hospital. Ida was a very kind, generous and refined lady, who will be truly missed by all who knew her. She will be remembered with much love.

Ida's visitation will be on Thursday, June 14, 2018 from 6-8 p.m. at Newediuk Funeral Home, Kipling Chapel, 2058 Kipling Avenue (North of Rexdale Boulevard).

In lieu of flowers, a donation to the Cardiology Unit of your preferred Hospital "In memory of Ida Quan" would be most appreciated. Online condolences at newediukfuneralhome.com.

HARRY TAYLOR SEYMOUR

Harry passed away after a brief illness Friday, June 8, 2018, surrounded by his loving family; wife, Lillian; daughters, Jeanette, and Sasha; and her partner, Yotam. We are heartbroken.

Harry was born in Hamilton in 1936, raised in Ottawa and educated in Ontario where he met Lil, the love of his life. They had 54 wonderful years together, travelling, golfing, playing tennis, skiing and enjoying friendships.

They brought out the best in each other and kept each other young with their interest in the arts and in lifelong learning.

Harry raised two devoted daughters to whom he was not only father, but champion and hero. He was an extraordinary father and the love he had for his girls was limitless and unconditional. Harry ("Mr.") Seymour was a wonderful friend to Yotam, with whom he argued over the cheque, shared an avid interest in the field of technology and enjoyed a round of golf.

He spent his working life as a Professional Engineer, financial researcher and analyst, entrepreneur and philanthropist.

He had a keen interest in education and was a quietly generous donor to Branksome Hall, various hospitals and community programs. Harry was Past President of the Empire Club and an active Member of the Board of The York Club. He was awarded the Canada 125 Medal for community service, and most recently devoted his time and talent to the Rosedale United Church.

Harry will be remembered by everyone who met him for his kindness, generosity, curiosity and humility; for having a handshake to be reckoned with, a twinkle in his eye and a laugh that could be heard across a crowded room. He was a true gentleman.

As Sylvia Cape said, "We lost a bit of ourselves with Harry gone."

The family welcomes friends of Harry at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Wednesday, June 13th from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. Please note, additional parking during the visitation is available on the St. Cuthbert's Anglican Church lot.

The funeral service will be held in Rosedale United Church on Thursday, June 14th at 2:00 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made, if desired, to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, St. Michael's Hospital or the charity of your choice. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

Canada can't win a trade war, but here's how investors can profit
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By GORDON PAPE
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B8


Editor and publisher of the Internet Wealth Builder and Income Investor newsletters. For more information and details on how to subscribe, go to buildingwealth.ca et's get one thing clear from L the outset. We cannot win a trade war with the United States. We can impose all the retaliatory tariffs we like. We can boycott American products until our wallets scream. The U.S. won't even notice.

Sure, a few companies may experience sales declines and some folks may be laid off. But in the grand scheme of the American economy, it will be about as much nuisance as a pesky fly.

In a report earlier this month, the C.D. Howe Institute looked at two scenarios. The first was potential impact of a 10-per-cent tariff imposed by the U.S. on all goods and services. The second projected the economic impact of Canadian retaliation, where Canada implements a similar 10per-cent tariff on U.S. goods and services in response.

In the first case, the likely effect would be a reduction in Canadian GDP of 0.9 per cent. That would be bad but not disastrous.

In the second scenario, which would see Canada hitting back with similar tariffs, the result is much worse. Our national GDP would fall by 2 per cent, according to the report. Since our GDP is currently growing at an annual rate of 1.3 per cent, according to Statistics Canada (first-quarter results), a hit like that would tip us into recession.

Essentially what these numbers are telling us is that Canada should sit quietly by and let Donald Trump and his protectionist followers do their worst. To retaliate would only harm us, not them.

However, political realities make that impossible. Imagine how opposition politicians and the Canadian public would react if Prime Minister Justin Trudeau adopted a say-nothing, do-nothing approach to American trade provocations. His Liberal Party would disappear from the landscape the next time voters go to the polls.

That leaves the Prime Minister in a political bind. He has to stand up to U.S. President Donald Trump for the sake of his own image, self-esteem and political survival. But doing so, even in a mild way ("We won't be pushed around"), enrages the thinskinned President to the point that he threatens that Canadians will pay dearly for Mr. Trudeau's comments.

Expect that to happen. Mr.

Trump is a vindictive man when he feels his ego has been harmed.

And he holds a grudge for a long time - he is still going after Hillary Clinton, for heaven's sake.

So unless something unexpected happens, it appears we are faced with an escalating trade war we cannot win. If Mr. Trump follows through with his threat to slap tariffs on cars, it would really get ugly.

A reader wrote to ask what companies might be relatively immune from tariffs if things go from bad to worse. Here are three Canadian firms that might qualify, but let me preface this with a major caveat. If the trade war escalates to the point of recession, all companies will suffer, whether or not they are export-oriented. However, these may be less impacted than others.

CGI Group (GIB.A-T, GIB-N).

Not even Mr. Trump is likely to figure out a way to put tariffs on knowledge, and that's what Montreal-based CGI deals in. It is the fifth-largest independent information-technology and business consulting-services firm in the world. Its services include systems integration, IT outsourcing, data centres, cloud computing, internet security and more. The company employs about 73,000 professionals in offices and delivery centres across the Americas, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. Annual revenues are $10.8billion.

Second-quarter 2018 results (to March 31) continued to be strong.

Revenue came in at $2.95-billion, a year-over-year increase of 4.9 per cent on constant currency basis. Net earnings were flat with the year before at $274.4-million but were better on a per-share basis, coming in at 94 cents (fully diluted) compared to 90 cents last year. This was due to a drop of about 12.6 million shares, thanks to the company's aggressive buyback program.

CGI's backlog at the end of the quarter was just over $22-billion, which is well distributed internationally. In terms of client geography, 28 per cent of the business comes from the U.S., 16 per cent from Canada, 15 per cent from France, 12 per cent from Britain, 7 per cent each from Finland and Sweden, and 15 per cent from the rest of the world.

Tariffs are not a direct threat to this business but they could have an indirect impact if clients have to cut budgets because of lagging sales. As I mentioned, no one is safe if economic growth slows.

WSP Global (WSP-T). WSP is an international engineering and design firm that provides a wide range of services, from urban planning to environmental remediation. Based in Montreal, the company employs approximately 43,000 people, including engineers, technicians, scientists, architects, planners, surveyors and environmental specialists, as well as other design, program and construction-management professionals. It has 550 offices across 40 countries, on five continents.

Here again, we have a knowledge-based company with a strong international presence that is not involved in a tariff-vulnerable business (although many of its clients may be). The company is growing at a steady rate, with first-quarter net revenue of almost $1.5-billion, up from $1.3-billion the year before.

Net earnings were $49.7-million (48 cents per share, fully diluted), compared to $47.6-million (47 cents per share) the year before. Backlog at the end of the quarter was $6.7-billion, up 12.3 per cent from the same period in 2017.

A look at the distribution of the backlog illustrates the geographic diversity of the company's business. The Canadian total is only 15.3 per cent while the Americas account for 35 per cent.

Europe, the Middle East, India and Africa (EMEIA) make up 31.6 per cent while Asia-Pacific (APAC) is just over 18 per cent.

Algonquin Power and Utilities (AQN-T). A Canadian-based company that has almost all of its assets in the U.S. seems relatively safe from Mr. Trump's tariff threats. The company provides rate-regulated natural gas, water, and electricity generation, transmission and distribution utility services to over 750,000 customers in the United States. It focuses on clean energy through its portfolio of wind, solar and hydroelectric generating facilities, representing more than 1,600 MW of installed capacity.

This is a smaller company than CGI or WSP and does not have their global reach. But the nature of its business, with what amounts to a captive client base, puts it in a relatively secure position in a trade war. The main potential area of vulnerability is that tariffs will drive up the cost of the materials used to expand its business.

First-quarter results showed a 17-per-cent increase in revenue to US$494.8-million (the company reports in U.S. dollars). Adjusted net earnings were US$141-million (32 cents per share), compared to US$66.5-million (19 cents per share) the year before. The directors approved a 10-per-cent dividend increase, which shows a high degree of confidence in the company's future.

Here are other sectors that have little or no tariff exposure, but that could incur other types of risk in a trade war.

BANKS A sharp decline in business investment resulting from uncertainty over access to the U.S. market would hurt business. The CEO of Royal Bank has already voiced this concern. On another level, banks would face increased risks of mortgage default if unemployment rises because exporting companies scale back.

REITS Real-estate investment trusts might appear at first glance to be sheltered from trade storms. But if those storms result in a recession, shops will shut down, offices close and manufacturers go out of business, leaving millions of square feet of vacant space.

UTILITIES Most of their business is regulated and they have a stable clientele - we all need our electricity and natural gas even if the economy is in the dumps. However, these companies face potential tariff hits on the materials they import to build new facilities or maintain existing ones. In this case, higher costs would eventually be passed on to consumers.

About the only sector I can think of that bears little risk if the situation escalates is gold companies. No one is talking about tariffs on gold imports and the price of the metal is likely to rise if the economic situation worsens and investors seek safe havens.

But unless you're in the gold business, a trade war will hurt almost every Canadian in some form or another. Based on Mr.

Trump's remarks, he'd be happy to see that happen. As far as he's concerned, our Prime Minister said some disrespectful things about him, so he wants to punish us all as a result. He has the power to do just that.

Follow Gordon Pape on Twitter at twitter.com/GPUpdates and on Facebook at http://www.facebook.com/ GordonPapeMoney

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U.S. President Donald Trump has Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau in a political bind: Mr. Trudeau must stand up to Mr. Trump for the sake of political survival. But doing so enrages the President to the point that he threatens that Canadians will pay dearly.

KEVIN LAMARQUE/REUTERS

'Growth coalition' kept foreign cash flowing
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UBC professor says governments courting outside money led to unaffordability crisis in Vancouver
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, June 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H7


VANCOUVER -- All levels of government have courted foreign money and actively encouraged it for decades, and we are seeing the consequences of that policy in Vancouver's unaffordable housing market today.

That's the general message from University of British Columbia professor emeritus David Ley, who filed his expert opinion on behalf of the province in response to a lawsuit submitted by young Lower Mainland property owner and Chinese citizen Jing Li.

The lawsuit launched against the government's foreign-buyer transfer tax is a pivotal, potentially costly case for British Columbians. In the past few months, both sides have been requesting expert opinions to support their case.

The province sought out a report from Dr. Ley, and affidavits from Simon Fraser University adjunct professor Andy Yan and citizen activist Justin Fung. The plaintiff's lawyers also questioned Prof. Yan and Dr. Ley in recent examinations for discovery, which are part of the pretrial process. For many years, Prof.

Yan and Dr. Ley have been sounding alarm bells about the impact of foreign capital pouring into the region's housing market.

They offer the Crown's defence years of formidable research into the origins and scope of the crisis.

Ms. Li's lawsuit could become a much bigger class action against the province. Her lawyer, Luciana Brasil, says there is a long list of foreign buyers backing her claim that the tax discriminates against Chinese nationals, and it's a move that the province did not have the legal power to make. Ms. Li says she was forced to pay an additional $83,850 after the foreign-buyer transfer tax was introduced, when she purchased a townhouse in Langley. The Burnaby resident says her family and friends helped her buy the property.

Local experts have already submitted affidavits on behalf of the plaintiff and the crown as part of a summary trial scheduled for the weeks of June 25 and July 16.

In the second wave of affidavits, Dr. Ley and Prof. Yan were asked by the province's lawyers to prepare responses to expert opinions submitted on behalf of the plaintiff. They responded to opinions given by University of B.C. professors Tom Davidoff, Henry Yu and Nathanael Lauster, as well as Jens von Bergmann, a mathematician and consultant.

The plaintiff's lawyers are setting out to prove that the tax is discriminatory, did not achieve the intended result of lowering property values and that it is not within the province's power to implement such a tax.

UBC economist Tsur Somerville has already provided an affidavit on behalf of the crown, as did Simon Fraser University finance professor Andrey Pavlov.

Dr. Ley doesn't mince words in his expert opinion. He draws a direct line between the development industry and past governments that courted foreign investment. Government enthusiastically invited foreign capital, he says, and today, we see the consequences.

He explains that B.C. governments, facing a declining resource-based economy, have sought out East Asian investment since the 1980s. Starting with the sale of the Expo 86 site in 1988, the province made it abundantly clear that it was open to doing business with Asia, particularly in residential-property development, says Dr. Ley.

"This policy has been attractive to BC development and real estate companies, and they have formed an informal growth coalition with government," he writes. "In the face of growing public criticism, the growth coalition has engaged in various discursive tactics to preserve capital flows to property and disqualify dissenting voices. One tactic has been to allude to racist motives when reference is made to East Asian sources of property capital in the Vancouver region."

In regard to Dr. Lauster and Dr. Yu, who argue that the foreignbuyer transfer tax is part of a legacy of historic racism in Vancouver, Dr. Ley concurs with their historic account. However, he says, "in Vancouver's challenging housing market, Chinese Canadians are equally subject to acute affordability pressures and are among the leaders in urging solutions. Unlike the colonial period, there is no ethno-racial divide that neatly separates, homogenizes, and penalizes populations of East Asian origin."

Dr. Ley has been a professor of urban geography at UBC since 1972, specializing in housing markets and immigration from Greater China. His research culminated in his 2010 book, Millionaire Migrants. He also studied housing bubbles in Vancouver, Hong Kong, Singapore, Sydney and London, and how global capital has shaped property markets in those cities.

Dr. Ley had been asked by Crown attorney Karen Horsman to respond to expert reports prepared on behalf of the plaintiff by Dr. Lauster and Dr. Yu.

Dr. Ley also addressed government's continuing desire to keep the foreign money flowing into the region, as part of the "growth coalition." Dr. Ley explained in an email that sociologist Harvey Molotch had coined the term "grown machine" in 1976 to describe the alliance of politicians and developers.

"I'm using the term 'growth coalition' to describe that convergence of political and land development interests, both of them pursuing growth for overlapping but not identical reasons," Dr. Ley says.

British Columbia, he says, has been particularly active in its trade tours to Hong Kong and China's Mainland cities, "to prime the pump of economic relations." The province has become dependent on the fees generation by the Business Immigrant Program (BIP) and real estate tax revenues. He cites the NDP opposition to the federal government's effort to get tough with tax evasion in the 1990s, with tougher enforcement of the BIP. The development community also reacted.

"It seemed that more important than accurate reporting of global income was the imperative to keep the money flowing into B.C.," he writes.

Prof. Yan is director of the City Program at SFU, adjunct professor in Urban Studies and UBC's School of Community and Regional Planning, and a registered planner and housing data analyst who regularly speaks on housing issues in the media and at conferences worldwide.

The plaintiff's lawyers questioned Prof. Yan on May 25 for about four hours. In his submission, he addressed reports already submitted by Professors Yu and Lauster and Dr. von Bergmann. He took the experts to task for failing to address the hyper-commodification of housing as well as immigrant-settlement patterns in the region, property type, period of construction and the impact of unaffordability on Chinese Canadians. He cited the first data set provided by the federal government on non-resident ownership in Metro Vancouver, released in December, 2017. The National Housing Statistics program showed that foreign nationals had purchased 4.8 per cent of all property types in Metro Vancouver. However, of all condos built between 2016 and 2017, foreign national buyers accounted for 7.6 per cent in Vancouver, 10.9 per cent in Richmond, and 23 per cent in Coquitlam.

"The lack of detail can greatly affect what is assumed as the state of non-resident ownership in Metro Vancouver," he said in his submission. "Conclusions should not be drawn from the NHSP without careful consideration of the context and geographic scale of the details of the data."

He critiqued Dr. Yu's and Dr. Lauster's reports for disregarding the vast documentation and media reports on the globalization of residential real estate.

"Governments around the world have implemented policies including taxes to limit the role of foreign nationals in [the] local residential real estate market," he writes. "These reports also fail to acknowledge the agency of Chinese Canadians and other visible minorities as political and social actors who have actively and publicly advocated for policies to deal with foreign ownership and capital in Vancouver."

In his examination for discovery, Prof. Yan cited Justin Fung and Eveline Xia, who launched the #donthave1million campaign, as some of the most vocal of that group.

Mr. Fung is a Vancouver-born Chinese Canadian who works in the tech industry. He founded the non-profit group, Housing Action for Local Taxpayers (HALT), which takes the position that the affordability crisis is due largely to offshore wealth buying into the region's housing market.

It's wealth that has been "facilitated by a powerful property development and real estate lobby that have too long influenced government policy and have profited significantly off this foreign investment and housing affordability crisis," Mr. Fung writes in his affidavit, on behalf of the crown.

HALT supports the foreignbuyers tax as a necessary measure to address the affordability crisis. The group has gone as far as supporting an outright ban on foreign ownership of residential property.

Many members of the group are visible minorities, including Asians, Mr. Fung said in an interview.

"One of the reasons why I personally became involved in HALT and started speaking out was because I saw that others who were publicly citing the role of foreign buyers in price escalation - in particular, the role of wealthy Chinese foreign buyers - were attracting accusations of racism... I considered that I was in a position to contribute usefully to the public discourse, without the fear that others might have of being labelled racist," he says.

He says that public concern about Chinese wealth flowing into Metro Vancouver is not about race. Instead, he argues, "the concern is fundamentally about class and wealth inequality... if left unchecked, the inflow will create serious wealth inequity in Canadian society which in turn will exacerbate stereotyping and racism towards Chinese Canadians."

Associated Graphic

SFU professor Andy Yan, seen in Vancouver in 2013, is among several experts sought out by B.C. in a lawsuit launched against the government's foreign-buyer transfer tax.

DARRYL DYCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Rising land values spur demolitions
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It's estimated almost half of all existing detached houses in Vancouver will be torn down by 2050
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By KERRY GOLD
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H6


VANCOUVER -- As sky-high housing prices and rents in Vancouver continue to make life miserable for many residents, the idea that the city should rezone areas currently reserved for detached housing has continued to gain traction.

It came up repeatedly at a recent Urban Development Institute (UDI) debate, where academic John Rose called it "the biggest supply question" and "the most controversial." And it is included in a frightening new University of British Columbia study on Vancouver's unhealthy construction frenzy, co-authored by architecture professor Joe Dahmen.

The study shows the wastefulness of Vancouver's rampant house demolitions. It points out that it would take an average of 168 years for the energy-efficiency gains of a newly constructed single-family house to make up for the negative environmental impact of the materials used in construction.

Despite radical efforts to build homes to a more efficient standard, the teardown cycle means we're adding, not reducing, greenhouse gas emissions. The demolition craze is fuelled by rising property values, with people tearing down homes and building bigger ones, often to house fewer people.

Mr. Dahmen says that if we're throwing so many perfectly good houses into the landfill and increasing overall greenhouse gas emissions in the process, then we might as well replace them with rowhouses, townhouses and condos to house more people.

He's not saying to tear down all houses, because it's not a singlesolution problem, he says. But the higher the land price relative to the building on it, then the higher the probability of demolition.

A multiunit building would be more financially valuable, and therefore less likely to be demolished, he says.

"This is a complex issue and we don't want to eliminate zoning for single-family houses and go row-housing everywhere. It needs to be done carefully, judiciously, with great regard for design goals," Mr. Dahmen says.

"The question is, can we afford to have the attitude that everywhere there is a single-family house we only want another single-family house? We have to think about what we want to protect and what is off limits.

"Let's not forget that one in four houses being bought and sold right now in Vancouver is being torn down and replaced with something new."

Misha Das, an architecture student who co-authored the study, which was funded by the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies (analyst and supply advocate Jens von Bergmann also collaborated), estimates that about 32,000 detached houses in Vancouver will be torn down by 2050.

"It's mind boggling," Mr. Das says, especially because that number represents almost half the detached housing stock.

Clearly, we're not doing enough to preserve the historic homes, he says.

"For me, it's very important we consider all the costs associated with rebuilding the city - because the city is being rebuilt whether we like it or not," he says. "It will be a very different place 20 years from now.

"Growth, for the most part, isn't a very green process."

A greater selection of housing makes sense in a city where residents need to earn about 35 times the average household income to afford the benchmark price of a detached house.

But if the city followed through and blanket rezoned single-family for denser housing, would it actually translate into affordable housing? And would we end up with a livable city - or a city beset by overcrowding and never-ending gridlock?

These were the questions posed at the UDI debate by Josh Gordon, assistant professor at Simon Fraser University's School of Public Policy, and John Rose, instructor at Kwantlen Polytechnic University's department of geography. Mr. Gordon and Mr. Rose argued that speculative demand, driven by global wealth sloshing into the Vancouver region's housing market in the past several years, had created a crisis.

They argued that merely rezoning areas and building more market supply won't solve the problem, and could end up exacerbating the crisis. Mr. Rose questioned why communities would buy into the idea.

"I highly doubt you will find neighbourhoods willing to embrace densification if they do not see the anticipated benefits and affordability," he said. "[People will ask] 'Why are we densifying if this is just going to be purchased by speculative investors and prices are going to be jacked up so local residents can't live in any of it?' " "It's not about 'anti-supply' or 'anti-densification.' In the context of where you have speculative investment, it is, 'How do you sell this?' But pro-supply groups say land-consuming detached housing is a major barrier to affordability. Fifty-seven per cent of the city's land mass is zoned for onefamily dwellings, according to housing analyst Andy Yan (it should be noted that the overwhelming majority of houses are used to house more than family, so "single family" is a misnomer).

Even UBC economist Tom Davidoff, who supports rezoning, didn't sound confident at the debate that affordability for the average-income earner would be on the menu.

Instead, Mr. Davidoff saw foreign wealth, when it was at its peak, as a boon for the economy and a way to get money out of the land and subsidize housing for locals. He also said a market flooded with multifamily housing would result in lower prices, and even if only high-income earners could afford it, that's better than nobody.

And because of the NDP government's new tax measures, which were partly based on a proposal put forward by a large group of local economists, including Mr. Davidoff, there's now more money on the table for locals.

"If somebody from overseas wants to buy a condo and leave it empty, good for them," he told the audience, made up of young people in the development industry. "They are going to pay 20 per cent up front in [foreignbuyer] tax, 1 per cent for the city's empty homes tax and 2 per cent for the provincial speculation tax, so on a $1-million condo, they are going to pay $200,000 upfront and $30,000 a year for an empty box. That's a great deal for the city. ... So the beauty of the new tax regime is, regardless of what was driving things, what's the objection now to getting more affordable stuff built? If people want to pay us taxes for nothing, great.

"I just don't see a loss in adding multifamily, especially if the city [increases] community amenity contributions while doing approvals."

Mr. Rose asked: "Is the purpose of densification to increase tax revenue or to provide affordable housing to local residents?" And Mr. Gordon later said: "You can sell off Vancouver and all the land to wealthy buyers - but will you get affordability?" In a follow-up interview, Mr.

Gordon said we would need a policy framework that captures some of the profits ("land lift") that would result from blanket rezoning - in the form of community amenity contributions, for example. Otherwise, land owners, realtors and developers would simply pocket the substantial gains and create housing that remains out of reach for locals.

He cites redevelopment of detached houses into major projects along Cambie Street, which are unaffordable for most locals.

"There are people who own 20 detached houses on the west side who are tapping their fingers, waiting for municipal governments to [rezone detached houses], on the basis of affordability, when it won't generate that," Mr. Gordon said. "We need to be very, very cautious about rezoning single-family detached areas."

Mr. Gordon suspects that the development industry is behind a lot of the talk for more supply.

Last fall, UDI chief executive officer Anne McMullin called for municipalities in the region to remove single-family restrictions, for consumers and developers.

And Mr. Gordon notes that there is a civic election coming up, and people are pushing their agendas.

"They are trying to rezone Vancouver and they are trying to do it without the proper mechanisms for land lift in place, and it will not generally deliver affordability as they maintain it will," he says. "This is a concerted effort on the part of the development industry and associated industries and speculators, to try to make a big windfall profit.

"There needs to be a bigger conversation about what kind of a city do we want to be. Do we want to be a highly dense city like Singapore or Hong Kong? Or do we want to preserve the livability of the city and not try to cram tens of thousands of people into a small amount of space? For obvious reasons, the development industry wants the highrise strategy."

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A house waits to be demolished in East Vancouver in November, 2015. A UBC study suggests it would take 168 years for the energy-efficiency gains of a newly constructed single-family house to make up for the negative environmental impact of the materials used in construction.

JOHN LEHMANN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

GIFTED STORYTELLER WROTE OF HIS LIFE OF CRIME
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After a string of bank heists and a long jail term, he settled down and became a husband, father, author and law-abiding member of his community, but he found it impossible to leave his past behind him
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By IAN BAILEY
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B24


Much of Stephen Reid's life was a quest for redemption, undermined by pernicious addictions he eloquently analyzed but could not always overcome. The dedicated husband and parent, also a skilled and evocative writer, had a dark side as a prolific bank robber, who exercised his criminal acumen in heists across North America.

As Mr. Reid himself once wrote, recalling the moments before a chaotic 1999 job at a bank in Victoria, B.C. with an accomplice, "I've been a hold-up guy so long I've learned the words for 'On the floor!' in five languages and two dialects - Mandarin and Cantonese, for the casinos."

During the 1970s, he was legendary for his skill as one of three members of the Stopwatch Gang, who were eventually caught by the FBI after robbing about $15-million from 100 banks. While serving a 21-year prison sentence at the Kent maximum-security institute in Agassiz, B.C., Mr. Reid wrote the novel Jackrabbit Parole, a story that touched on aspects of his life experience whose manuscript came to the attention of Susan Musgrave, a poet and novelist who married Mr. Reid in 1986, a year before he was released.

After years of married life, becoming a father and serving on boards of such organizations as the John Howard Society and PEN Canada, in 1999, Mr. Reid, charged up into what his lawyer described as a "complete, cocaine-induced psychosis," robbed a bank with a frenzy that was at odds with his previous finesse. During the robbery, Mr. Reid pointed a loaded shotgun at employees and customers in the bank, opened fire with a .44 Magnum handgun on pursuing police and shot at - but missed - a woman who was an innocent bystander. Mr. Reid was soon captured.

"I committed the worst bank robbery in my life, an unprofessional, unprovoked act of violence. It cost me an 18-year sentence, and nearly cost some people their lives," Mr. Reid wrote in an essay in A Crowbar in the Buddhist Garden: Writing from Prison, a collection published in 2012.

Allan Forrie, whose Thistledown Press published the book, says he isn't sure Mr. Reid ever reconciled the two sides of his nature. "I think he was constantly struggling to find a way to redeem himself and I don't think he ever reconciled his criminal activities and his desire for a normal life," Mr. Forrie said.

Mr. Reid's swing between grace and sin ended this week, three years after he received statutory release on his sentence for the Victoria robbery, with his death on Tuesday at the age of 68.

In a statement, Ms. Musgrave said he had been admitted to hospital in Masset, where they lived, on June 8, and diagnosed with lung infection and heart failure.

By the time an air ambulance was available, Mr. Reid was in thirdstage heart block. "Despite the best attempts by Masset medical staff and Vancouver paramedics to save him, he was gone," wrote Ms. Musgrave, who was married to Mr. Reid for 31 years.

"The day he was admitted to the hospital, seven killer whales came in to the inlet. The Haida First Nations belief is that when a killer whale is seen in the inlet, it means that someone is going to die. On Friday, there were seven," said Ms. Musgrave, who did not respond to a request for further comment.

Singer Terry Jacks, well known for his 1974 hit song Seasons in the Sun, got to know Mr. Reid because he lived near Mr. Reid's family. "Anytime, I ran across him, we'd shake hands and say, 'Hi,' and do small talk. He was very friendly and likeable," Mr. Jacks said.

The singer was aware of Mr. Reid's criminal history, but says it was a non-issue in their encounters. "His past speaks for itself. That doesn't mean people can't change."

Mr. Reid was born on March 13, 1950, in Massey, a Northern Ontario community, according to The Canadian Encyclopedia, which also says he was the second of nine children of Douglas Reid and Sylvia Shiels.

His father was often away, initially in the army, then in northern lumber camps, and then in the mines. Of his mother, he wrote that she was "buried in a pile of laundry." She was also a teacher's aide at the local elementary school, according to The Stopwatch Gang, an account of the gang's illegal efforts, written by Greg Weston.

Living on the Haida Gwaii islands in northwestern B.C., Mr.

Reid appeared to be in grace and is remembered as an affable member of the community.

Mr. Reid writes that he was introduced to drugs - morphine - by a doctor, who began sexually abusing him when he was 11. He had been an A student, but eventually, as a teen, travelled to Vancouver for drugs, returned to Ontario and engaged in criminal activity to support a heroin and cocaine addiction.

In the early 1970s, Mr. Reid met Patrick Mitchell and Lionel Wright and they decided to become the Stopwatch Gang - a tag they earned because of their habit of wearing stopwatches to help them execute their robberies in under 90 seconds.

"We stole millions of dollars, racked up nine escapes between the three of us, and made the Most Wanted list in two countries," Mr. Reid wrote. The FBI caught him in Arizona in 1980. He was eventually returned to Canada to serve a sentence for an Ottawa gold robbery worth $750,000. He was granted full parole in 1987.

"He was a devoted family man and prisoner advocate for decades until suddenly, because of his addictions, he wasn't, and ended up in prison again. It broke our hearts," Denise Bukowski, Mr.

Reid's agent, wrote in an e-mail exchange.

Although he was granted day parole in 2008, it was revoked in 2010 after he was caught driving an uninsured vehicle with bags of contraband U.S cigarettes.

"In my opinion, he never learned how to live outside prison. That last crime he committed was, to me, a cry for help, a plea to be taken back where he was most comfortable," Ms. Bukowski wrote.

Mr. Reid has written that his Victoria heist in 1999 came after a renewed embrace of drugs that included a trip to Toronto to secure cocaine from friends there.

In 2013, while serving his final sentence, he was awarded the City of Victoria Butler Book Prize for Crowbar. The three-member jury praised Mr. Reid's work as "prison ethnography taut with wit and humanity." Mr. Reid was granted statutory release in 2015.

Mr. Reid says he could not fully escape the grip of narcotics. "I have quit heroin to become a better thief. I have quit heroin to become a better father, a better husband, a better friend, a better citizen.," he wrote. "I have maintained these clean and good intentions for years at a stretch, but I have never stayed quit."

He wrote that he had always returned to the needle and spoon with a "childish thirst, a self-centred insistence that I can attain utopia." But he added that he had never been able to find sustained utopia or grace.

"I had moments where grace visited. It came unexpectedly, and remained ever so briefly," Mr. Reid wrote.

The lawyer who defended Mr. Reid on the Victoria charges said Mr.

Reid stood out from other clients in the sincerity of his relentless contrition.

"A lot of times you act for people of that ilk and pretty much everything is, in some way or another, everybody else's fault," Dennis Murray said in an interview.

"In my dealings with him, once he sobered up, he felt terrible for pretty much everything he had done. He couldn't believe he had done it. I thought it was genuine."

Mr. Murray said Mr. Reid exemplified the reality that good people can do bad things. "That's a pretty universal truth for all of us, but his was a more extreme example. I think that's what people ought to remember."

Mr. Reid leaves his wife, Ms. Musgrave; daughters, Charlotte Musgrave and Sophie Reid Jenkins; and granddaughters, Beatrice Musgrave and Lucca Musgrave.

To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

Stephen Reid, right, and his wife, Susan Musgrave, cut their wedding cake with their daughter Charlotte, centre, at the Kent Institution - where Mr. Reid was serving a 21-year prison sentence - in Agassiz, B.C., in 1986.

ALEX WATERHOUSE-HAYWARD/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Stephen Reid was one of three members of the Stopwatch Gang, which robbed about $15-million from 100 banks, but he was also remembered as an affable member of the community in northwestern B.C. after his release from prison.

RICK COLLINS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Galloway opens up, says 'life is destroyed'
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Former chair of UBC's creative-writing department gives first interview since being accused of misconduct
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By GARY MASON
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A4


VANCOUVER -- teven Galloway's life the past S two years-plus can be summarized aptly: a brutal firestorm. It's included near-constant suicidal thoughts as he's confronted the prospect of bankruptcy, being shunned by swaths of a literary community of which he was once stood at the shining centre and, worst of all, being depicted as a sexual predator.

While he takes responsibility for certain actions that preceded his firing as the chair of the University of British Columbia's creative-writing department, the acclaimed author also believes that what happened to him is unconscionable - not just the abysmal, ham-fisted way in which he believes the university handled the allegations levelled against him, but also the fact that charges he's insisted all along were groundless have left his reputation in ruins.

"It's darn near killed me," Mr. Galloway told The Globe and Mail in the first interview he has granted since his ordeal began in the fall of 2015. "And truthfully, I still think about killing myself on a daily basis. I just don't see much of a future for myself. I'm trying. I'm fighting it. But it's hard."

On Friday, an arbitrator awarded Mr. Galloway $167,000 stemming from a grievance launched by the UBC faculty association over the former chair of the creative-writing department's firing in the summer of 2016. The arbitrator found that certain communication by the university disseminated at the time of Mr. Galloway's dismissal contravened his privacy rights and caused harm to his reputation.

While Mr. Galloway is satisfied with the award, it is a bittersweet victory. He says it doesn't give him back the single greatest thing he lost in this whole saga - his name. And he believes that's something that's gone forever.

He insists that the allegations of sexual misconduct made by a student he had a two-year affair with were always untrue and that many of the other complaints against him were frivolous.

When the allegations from the main complainant (MC) first surfaced in November, 2015, the university hired former B.C. Supreme Court judge Mary Ellen Boyd to investigate. She concluded that "based on the balance of probabilities" the incidents likely didn't happen. She looked into a handful of other complaints as well, including everything from allegations of crude jokes to abusive behaviour. They were also disregarded by Ms. Boyd.

She did find he was wrong in having an affair with a student in his department. Nevertheless, despite being cleared of many of the charges, he was still fired for what the school called "a record of misconduct that resulted in an irreparable breach of trust." The school said it took into consideration allegations which were not subject to Ms. Boyd's investigation and were never disclosed.

"People call it a witch hunt, but that's almost a trite way of describing it," said Mr. Galloway, sitting in the oak-panelled living room of his home in suburban New Westminster, B.C. "It's a totalitarian state when a finger pointed is automatically guilt. It's just absurd and even to this day there are people out there who have the audacity to say I got away with it. Got away with it?

"I haven't got so much as an e-mail about writing in two years.

I have no publishing prospects. I will never teach again. We've [he and his wife have four children between them] been living on a credit line. I'll be bankrupt as soon as this thing is settled. I will have to sell my house. I didn't win anything. I've won a moral victory, but my life is destroyed."

He accepts there are some, perhaps many, who will feel little sympathy for him. He accepts that his Thursday night beerdrinking gatherings with students in his program opened him up to problems. He concedes now it was likely a mistake to treat his students "as friends and adult equals" instead of as people in his charge that he was there to teach. Some of his complainants called him petty, vindictive and mean-spirited. While he rejects those characterizations of him, he doesn't dispute he could get angry sometimes and maybe let small issues become bigger than they should have.

For the first time, Mr. Galloway detailed the three separate incidents of sexual assault that MC levelled against him. He said she accused him of choking and trying to rape her aboard a sailboat he co-owned and doing the same thing in his office after an end-ofterm party. In a third charge, MC said she woke up naked on the floor of his office in the late afternoon one day in a disoriented state, leaving the door open to the suggestion he drugged and raped her. Mr. Galloway was allegedly watching a hockey game on his computer when she opened her eyes.

He turned over more than 200 pages of text messages he says undermined the credibility of MC's story. For instance, she's alleged to have said that during the incident on the sailboat, she thought Mr. Galloway was going to kill her and throw her body overboard. But he presented Ms.

Boyd with messages and postings after the incident was said to have occurred in which future outings were discussed. (He says there were many.) After the three alleged incidents, the pair went on to have a two-year affair, which MC never denied. However, she explained this as a form of Stockholm Syndrome known as "traumatic bonding." Justice Boyd had reservations about various aspects of her story, although she was careful not to call her a liar.

In 2013, Mr. Galloway broke off the affair. He says while MC was initially extremely upset, they eventually established a friendship that included occasional conversations at school and over the phone.

Two years later, Mr. Galloway believed that MC was about to tell school authorities about their affair. He left her a couple of phone messages, including one in which he used the phrase "turn myself in." He says he was talking about confessing to their affair to his superiors, not to any alleged abusive behaviour. He says those words got twisted by his accusers, who suggested it was him admitting to raping MC.

Mr. Galloway says the voice messages were later played at an offcampus meeting held by members of the creative-writing department faculty to discuss the allegations against him. He would be suspended shortly afterward.

"This is the meeting where people were told there would be as many as 19 complainants coming forward with allegations against me, which of course would never happen," Mr. Galloway said. "Nevertheless, after that the lynching was on."

He doesn't dispute the affair was wrong. "Even if she was five years older or had a decade of teaching experience, it doesn't matter," he said. "It was unethical and a stupid thing to do. But that morphed into something completely different and wrong and I will likely be paying the consequences of it for the rest of my life."

Mr. Galloway feels horrible that his case ignited an ugly, internecine war in the CanLit community, with prominent authors and poets choosing sides. Margaret Atwood was drawn into it.

Many signed a letter posted on a website called UBC Accountable.

It mostly demanded an investigation into UBC's atrocious handling of the matter, although it was seen by some as the literary establishment taking sides with one of its own, against his young accusers. The feud still simmers.

Seeing the fallout from that has plunged Mr. Galloway into some of his darkest times. He was moments away from a suicide attempt when his wife discovered him. She has taken him to the hospital when she has felt he might do himself harm. He's on anti-depressants. The job of keeping him alive, and keeping the house running, has fallen to his wife, Katie.

"We have four kids that have to be looked after," she said, after taking a seat beside her husband.

"You have to try and pretend nothing's happening although that's difficult when they hear us crying behind closed doors, talking about money. It's impossible to shield them from everything."

She has cried in public places.

When she thinks things can't get worse, they do. She wants to believe they can now start getting their lives together, but is afraid to.

Mr. Galloway knows he's not the only one who has been affected by this entire matter. It has touched many lives. There will be books written about it one day, he thinks.

He doesn't know what he's going to do now.

"The only thing I know is I have a limited amount of time to figure it out," he said.

Associated Graphic

Steven Galloway

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Monday, June 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B18


ANNE EVERY

On Monday June 11, 2018, in her 98th year, this beautiful, kindhearted, gentle yet strong woman, who nurtured and loved us throughout our lives, passed peacefully in the arms of her daughter Sharon. Anne was the cherished wife of the late Ted Every (50 years) and the beloved mother of the late Allan, Joan (Howard), Brian (Lina), Barb (Garth), and Sharon (Harry). She was the most excellent grandmother of Karina, Erik (Torie), Stephen (Yoshimi), Jennifer (Randy), John (Sandi), Ann (Alfred), Kristen, and Emily;and the greatest greatgrandmother of Gabriella, Juliet, Ryan, Madison, Henry, Isabelle, and Emma. She will be remembered with love and respect by her family and all who knew her.

Anne was fortunate to have received exceptional care from many healthcare providers over the years, some for decades, as well as invaluable support from the staff and services of local agencies. We would like to express our gratitude to them for their dedication. The combined efforts of all helped Anne "stay on her feet" for as long as she did.

Visitation will take place Tuesday, June 19, 2018 from 4 - 8 p.m. at Turner & Porter - Butler Chapel, 4933 Dundas Street West, Etobicoke. Private family service will be held at a later date.

Donations in Anne's memory may be made to Etobicoke Services for Seniors, Storefront Humber Inc., or the charity of your choice.

JOSEF KATES

May 5, 1921 - June 16, 2018 It is with deep sadness that we announce the passing of our dear father, grandfather and uncle at Bridgepoint Hospital. He was predeceased by his loving wife, Lillian Kates (nee Kroch) and is survived by his children, Louis (wife Goldie), Naomi (late husband Steven and children, Roshaya and Ben) and Celina (daughter, Hilary); and his daughter-in-law, Tayva Graham (nee Milner), wife of his late son, Philip (sons, Jordan and Elliot). He was also predeceased by his loving second wife, Kay Hill; and survived by her children, David (wife, Peggy and children), Margaret Smith (husband, Steven and children), and John. He was also predeceased by his siblings: sister, Gretl Katz; sister, Cornelia (Nelly) James and her husband, Jack (and survived by their children, Peter James, wife, Lara, and Genevieve, husband, Andrew Lawson and their children); brother, Herman and his wife, Anita (and survived by their children, Valerie Jacobs, husband Gerald and children, and Martin), sister Lola (Suzi) Jeremy, Olga (Ollie) Shuttleworth and her husband Fred (and survived by their children Yvonne Baab, husband John and children, and Paul, wife Jacki and children) and sister Erika Foxman and her husband Louis. He was also predeceased by his parents, Baruch and Chana Katz. Born in Vienna, he fled from Nazi persecution to England from where he was sent to an internment camp in New Brunswick and despite coming to Canada with nothing, through determination, intellect, energy and creativity earned advanced degrees in Mathematics and Physics from the University of Toronto where he built the first computer in Canada and subsequently founded and led a series of companies focused on computing and consulting, which achieved a number of world firsts including the first computerized traffic control system, the first computerized land use system and other achievements. He was honoured with an Order of Canada (2011), Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal and was named Chancellor of the University Waterloo (1979 - 1985).

Beyond his many accomplishments, he was the most generous and caring individual to friends, family and society. He was an eternal optimist, always enthused about the next project. And he was just such fun to be with, always injecting his sense of humour and zest for life into any situation. The family appreciates and is grateful to the many Doctors, nurses and staff at Christie Gardens, Toronto Western and Bridgepoint Hospitals during the past months.

He will be forever missed and forever remembered by all of us.

At Temple Sinai, 210 Wilson Avenue (East of Bathurst) for service on Tuesday, June 19, 2018 at 1:30 p.m. If so desired, memorial donations can be made to Jewish Child and Family Toronto, or University of Waterloo or Bridgepoint Health Centre. For shiva information, please see http://www.benjamins.ca

PAUL HERBERT MARSH

Peacefully on Saturday, June 16, 2018, at the Credit Valley Hospital in his 87th year with his family by his side. Paul, beloved husband of Anne.

Loving father of Michael and loving step-father of Victoria and her husband, Ted DeWildt, and Stewart and his wife, Ewa Grant. Devoted Baba to Christopher, Adam, Alexander, Madeline, James, Dayton, and Daniel. He will be lovingly remembered by his family and friends.

Visitation will be held on Tuesday, June 19, 2018, at the Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville (one block East of Kerr Street) from 2 p.m. with a funeral service to follow at 3 p.m. If desired, remembrances to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or the Oakville & Milton Humane Society would be appreciated.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.koprivataylor.com.

DIANNE MARY MEREDITH

After a determined struggle, with family at her side, Dianne passed away on Friday, June 15, 2018 at her home in Toronto. Beloved wife of the late Paul Meredith. Loving mother and friend to her daughter Sandra, and son-inlaw Matthew Halder, and to her sons and daughters-inlaw, Scott and Elizabeth Boyd, Gregory and Audrey and Bradley and Karen. Proud and devoted grandmother of Lindsay, Kristen, J.P., Cameron and Georgia.

Devoted and loving daughter of the late John and Kathleen Proctor.

Dianne was a loyal, compassionate and selfless woman who touched the lives of many. A family graveside service will take place on Wednesday, June 20, 2018 at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto. In accordance with Dianne's wishes and to honour the way that she lived, family and friends are invited to a reception to celebrate Dianne's life at the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club, 141 Wilson Avenue West, 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., also on Wednesday, June 20, 2018.

Dianne's family is grateful for the kindness and exemplary care provided by Dr. Sandy Buchman of the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care, the team at Spectrum Health and also Magdalena (Len), Marlene and Ailyn.

If desired, donations in Dianne's memory to the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care or the Canadian Cancer Society would be most appreciated by the family.

MICHAEL GERARD ANTHONY VANIER

Peacefully, on Wednesday, June 13, 2018, at Wesburn Manor, Toronto, at the age of 76. Beloved husband of Janet (nee Hardaker) for 38 years. Loving father of Michelle and André, proud and loving grandfather of Sarah and Hannah, dear brother of Clare (Kelly), Anita (Elson), Peter, all of Mississauga; Alan (Lorna) and Bernard (Jill), of England; and Dohne of the U.S.A. Michael will be missed by his many nieces and nephews, by his sister-in-law, Jennifer, and by his friends from Barclays Bank and CIBC.

Special thanks to all the staff at Wesburn Manor for their exceptional care and support.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy.

10, N. of QEW) on Monday from 6 - 9 p.m. Funeral Service to be held in the Chapel on Tuesday, June 19, 2018 at 3 p.m. If desired, remembrances may be made to the Alzheimer Society. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

"I'm going where the sun keeps shining through the pouring rain, going where the weather suits my clothes."

LOUISE WILLS (nee Pinard)

Born November 13, 1932 in Trois Rivieres, Quebec. Passed away on June 13, 2018 in Toronto following a long illness. Beloved wife of the late Ian Malcolm Wills (2000). Loving and much loved mother of Tina (Jeff Green) and Marion (Stephen Robinson). She leaves cherished memories as "Grand" for her grandchildren, Kathryn, Hannah, James and Andrew. She is also survived by her brothers, Raymond (Estelle) and Jean (Helene).

Louise was happiest when she was hosting regular Sunday night dinners with her family, where she showed her considerable skills as a chef and baker. She could often be found on the golf course or at a bridge table, and was a past Ladies Captain at St.

George's Golf and Country Club.

She will be missed by a wide circle of friends at St. George's, Quail Ridge Country Club in Florida, and Royal Montreal in Ile Bizard, Quebec, where she and Ian continued to travel for many years following their move to Toronto. The family would like to extend our gratitude to the staff at The Village of Humber Heights for the care they provided to Louise, especially over the last several months.

As per Louise's wishes, a private family service will take place. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Alzheimer Society (http://www.alz.to) would be appreciated. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

La Presse move to non-profit status faces resistance in Quebec legislature
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By TIM SHUFELT
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Thursday, June 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


A showdown in the Quebec legislature over the future of La Presse, the Montreal French-language digital news outlet, has cast doubt on a plan to transform one of the country's oldest daily news organizations into a non-profit.

On one side are the publisher's executives who ultimately want to convert the company to a registered charity, which could provide some relief from the financial strains that have beleaguered the Canadian news industry.

But La Presse first needs approval from the provincial legislature. And there are skeptics in Quebec's National Assembly who are raising questions about La Presse's finances, its governance, whether its employees' jobs will be secure, and the publication's connections to the billionaire Desmarais family, who have owned it for more than 50 years.

Blocking the paper's path to non-profit status would amount to an "affront to democracy," La Presse's publisher, Guy Crevier, told a provincial parliamentary committee last week.

Martine Ouellet, an independent member of the National Assembly, shot back, saying she and her colleagues were not La Presse's "puppets."

The countdown for a resolution is on, with the current legislative session - the last before an October general election - scheduled to end on Friday.

After that, the bill now being debated would not be revisited for several months - time that La Presse says it simply does not have. "We've been working for months on this plan. We're all in," said PierreElliott Levasseur, president of La Presse.

"If it doesn't go forward, we'll have to go back to the drawing board. And any other plan will not be as good for our employees, it won't be as good for the unions, it won't be as good for Quebec," Mr. Levasseur said.

Last month, La Presse announced that it intended to split away from the Desmarais family, ending a 50-year relationship with a promise to contribute $50million to the foundation set up to own the news outlet.

In addition to losing its wealthy benefactor, the move set La Presse on a course largely uncharted in Canada: news publishing as charity. The idea is that donations can form the basis for a new stream of revenue in an industry that has had difficulty finding a sustainable financial model in the digital age.

With severe losses to advertising and circulation revenue crippling many metro dailies across the country, philanthropy is an untapped potential source of financial relief for Canadian news publishers struggling to plug budget holes, La Presse included.

"I think there is money in Quebec to support La Presse, from the general public, from large companies, from significant donors," Mr. Levasseur said. "The model has to change. The status quo is just not working."

La Presse stopped being a newspaper in the traditional sense when it killed off its print edition last year to concentrate exclusively on distributing its news through digital platforms, primarily its iPad app. Now it also wants to leave behind the business model that has sustained newspapers in Canada for well more than a century.

Although journalism has not been one of the traditional avenues for charitable giving in Canada, the federal government has recently indicated it is open to considering new business arrangements for media organizations.

"This could include new ways for Canadian newspapers to innovate and be recognized to receive charitable status for notfor-profit provision of journalism, reflecting the public interest that they serve," the 2018 federal budget said.

Changing the charity laws to enable philanthropic support for journalism was one of the recommendations of Shattered Mirror, a report on the future of Canadian media written by Edward Greenspon, a former editor-inchief of The Globe and Mail.

Charitable status would allow a media organization to solicit donations in the same way as any other charity and to issue receipts that donors could use to claim tax credits.

For La Presse specifically, the first step toward a philanthropic structure is the repeal of a private law requiring legislative approval for a change in the paper's ownership. That law was adopted in 1967, the year Paul Desmarais Sr.

acquired the paper.

The Quebec Liberal government supports the change in law, but the repeal requires unanimous approval, including from independent MNAs. That gives Ms. Ouellet, who says she still has unanswered questions about La Presse's finances, an effective veto.

Mr. Crevier stressed to the committee considering the bill that a not-for-profit structure, combined with the cash on offer from Desmarais-controlled Power Corp., is needed to "save La Presse."

Across Canada, the business of producing and distributing news has been thrown into disarray over the past decade, as U.S. tech giants have come to dominate digital advertising.

With deep wells of personal user data, the likes of Facebook and Google can offer the kind of precise targeting advertisers crave over the mass distribution of traditional media. As a result, those two companies alone pocket at least two-thirds of the digital advertising spend in Canada, according to the Shattered Mirror report.

La Presse does not divulge its own finances, and Power Corp.

has never split out the newspaper's performance, but rumours of steep annual losses were dismissed by Mr. Crevier as "folklore" at a recent news conference.

With advertising revenue currently at about two-thirds of 2010 levels, La Presse says its own ad losses have been much less severe than those of some large public media groups. "Is that enough to support a newsroom the size of La Presse? Maybe not.

That's why we need to go seek other sources of revenue," Mr.

Crevier said.

Different pools of donors could be targeted in different ways under a charitable model.

British news outlet The Guardian, for example, has reportedly raised millions by asking readers to pay as little as £5 ($8.70) a month. For decades, The Guardian has been supported by a charitable trust designed to help fund the paper's operations "in perpetuity." Small gifts from readers are meant to reduce the toll of annual operating losses on the trust.

La Presse says it thinks it could raise about $3-million each year in a similar way. And that's not counting larger donations from foundations, corporations and wealthy individuals.

In Canada, there is no newspaper with a longer history of philanthropy than Le Devoir. The paper's not-for-profit group, Friends of Le Devoir, which raised $600,000 last year, was established in its original form in 1915 to help the paper survive an early brush with death.

"Every time things are not going well at Le Devoir, we turn to our readers in the French-speaking community and ask for help," said Brian Myles, the newspaper's publisher. Support comes from online campaigns seeking small monthly donations, as well as larger contributions through more targeted, personal appeals.

And it's the bigger donors who want that tax receipt. "If you want to go beyond the $25,000 threshold, for instance, it becomes an issue," Mr. Myles said, adding that charitable status could see the paper's donations quickly double.

But counting on fundraising to fill large gaps in a budget is probably too optimistic, said Michel Nadeau, executive director of Montreal's Institute for Governance of Private and Public Organizations. "It's very difficult to get something like $10-million from a corporation or a wealthy family.

And they would have to get it every single year."

For gifts of that magnitude, journalism is a tough sell against the likes of children's hospitals and cancer researchers, Mr. Nadeau said.

Large donors are not typically enthusiastic about supporting operating costs at organizations that are losing money, said newsindustry analyst Ken Doctor of Newsonomics. "They see it as a money hole." Big donations are more often aimed at specific projects providing some sort of social good, Mr. Doctor said.

The Globe currently has an application before the federal government proposing the establishment of a charitable foundation that could receive gifts to support certain journalistic pursuits.

"I've had individuals and foundations in Canada who've approached me and said they think there should be more of this kind of journalism - say, environmental journalism," said Phillip Crawley, publisher of The Globe.

"But they won't do it until they know they can get a tax receipt," Mr. Crawley said. Unlike La Presse's plan, The Globe is arguing that this model fits into the existing charity laws, as a not-forprofit foundation with an educational mandate.

These kinds of options are likely now being discussed in newsrooms across the country, Mr.

Greenspon said. "A lot of people are going to be exploring philanthropic models, for sure." With reports from Nicolas Van Praet in Montreal

Another look at a written-off auteur
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Instead of associating the director with her historic flop Ishtar, TIFF's retrospective on Elaine May highlights her small but rich catalogue of films
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By TINA HASSANNIA
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page R10


'The only safe thing is to take a chance." That was Elaine May's motto, according to her one-time comedic partner Mike Nichols, and it served the trail-blazing comedian, actress, screenwriter and director well. For a while. In 1987, her comedy Ishtar became one of the worst-received financial flops in Hollywood history, and tragically ended May's short run as a director.

This month, May is receiving the retrospective treatment at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in a series titled Funny Girl: The Films of Elaine May, running June 8 to 30. Local film programmer Alicia Fletcher's curation of all four of May's directorial efforts, plus a handful of the films she wrote, is a well-researched commemoration of the formidable talent. Ideally, it will not only introduce a new generation of cinephiles to May's work, but also re-examine and legitimize May's troubled and storied career and invite more efforts to rewrite the film canon from the perspective of the female creative.

In the 1970s, May was granted artistic freedom at a time when exceptionally few women were allowed to direct studio films. Before May, only two women - Dorothy Arzner and Ida Lupino - had directed movies in Hollywood since the pre-1930s silent era.

May made four films - only four. A New Leaf (1971) is a black romantic comedy satirizing lavish lifestyles, starring Walter Matthau and May herself. The Neil Simonscripted The Heartbreak Kid was released the following year, another rom-com that acerbically skewers Jewish identity. In 1976, May directed Peter Falk and John Cassavetes in Mikey and Nicky, a tragic take on the male-buddy comedy that nearly tripled its US$1.6-million budget.

May didn't direct for another decade, until Warren Beatty and Dustin Hoffman - for whom she had previously written or co-written screenplays (Heaven Can Wait, Reds and Tootsie) - revived her career using their clout and privilege. Yet the trio's project, Ishtar, was a financial and critical disaster. Some have argued its unflattering portrayal of ignorant Westerners in the Middle East may have sunk it, but multiple media reports about its troubled production didn't help, either. The movie quickly became a metonymy for Hollywood financial disasters caused by excess or creative perfectionism.

With her directing career permanently over, May returned to acting (In the Spirit, Small Time Crooks) and writing screenplays, sometimes uncredited (The Birdcage, Primary Colors, Dangerous Minds and others). Most recently, she's tied to a coming Broadway production by Kenneth Lonergan, co-starring Michael Cera.

Much has been made of May's perfectionism; it's a trait we admire in auteurs such as Stanley Kubrick, but May's legacy - or lack thereof - suggests that we haven't reached a point where we tolerate it from female artists.

On the set of Mikey and Nicky, May was known to keep the camera rolling to capture Falk and Cassavetes in a more candid state, and in one case, the film kept rolling for hours after the actors had left the set. She shot an imprudent 1.4 million feet of film, resulting in power struggles between studio Paramount and the director, who stole the finished print as leverage to have final cut on her film.

She was equally spendthrift on Ishtar, doing 50 takes of a scene involving vultures and requesting an extensive and eventually abandoned search for sand dunes in the Sahara Desert. The poor management of the production - only partly her fault, as fights and drama broke out between all players on set - delegitimized her reputation for control over a studio production.

When May directed her own screenplays, she was equally uncompromising. Her original script for A New Leaf, starring Matthau as a once-wealthy socialite intent on marrying then murdering a woman for her wealth, involved killing off two other characters. When Paramount cut these scenes from May's final version, she no longer wanted to be associated with the project (one wonders whether a director's cut will ever be found).

Creative perfectionism has a double standard in Hollywood; where male auteurs including Alfred Hitchcock and Kubrick - who worked inside or outside of the studio system - are revered for their artistic rigour, May's stubbornness only tarnished her reputation as a capable, serious filmmaker.

This is a shame, as motifs across May's work suggest auteurism and the work of a visionary.

Consider her adept use of props and costumes, such as the ridiculous headbands and outfits in Ishtar, or the sudden, flamboyant introduction of an electric pepper mill in A New Leaf. Her use of repetitive dialogue as a gag is existential - the "40 to 50 years" line in The Heartbreak Kid, for example, is haunting enough to turn anyone off long-term relationships. Her visual storytelling was recognizable and fully realized from her very first film, a unique satire that made romance painful to watch.

Given May's well-known battles with the studios, it's no surprise her public presence oscillated between a love for the spotlight and an aversion to publicity (the last in-depth interview she did was in 2013 for Vanity Fair). Her reluctance to protest her fate as a director is perhaps an act more telling of the industry that washed her out than of May herself. Yet the short, bitter end to her directing career is tragic, given her tremendous talent; equally lamentable is the sheer inaccessibility of her work. Of her four films, only the worst and best are available on Blu-ray and iTunes: Ishtar's Blu-ray has no special features, but Olive Films' beautiful transfer of A New Leaf comes with a smorgasbord of keenly researched supplements that gives May her due.

In hindsight, reading about May's career can provoke anger toward the entertainment hegemony that belittled her. The public discourse of #MeToo and contemporary feminism has empowered women in the most competitive industry in the world to speak out about the difficulty of being taken seriously in Hollywood in any role, and in directing most of all. When a woman is given a chance to direct, as May was 49 years ago, the odds seem stacked against her efforts to establish a creative vision without undue scrutiny, and with the same confidence, patience and opportunities granted to male directors.

Not much has changed: Last year, women made up only 8 per cent of directors of the 100 topgrossing films. The number of total Hollywood directors in May's time was 0.9 per cent between 1949 and 1979.

Despite May being that rare woman in the industry, the content of her films has been criticized by feminists, particularly her unmistakable sympathy toward male protagonists, who dominate her narratives. Her unsettling ambivalence toward female characters - more a cruel, frank portrayal of how men see women as unlikeable, unflattering or weak - would likely make today's audiences uncomfortable, given our desire to see more films and series with female perspectives that endear us to their plights.

Yet film scholar Barbara Quart suggests that May's focus on male-centric stories may have been a way to appease studios reluctant to let a woman direct. Another reading is to see her sharp comedy, which enables us to understand male characters' appalling selfishness and feeble-mindedness, as a deeply cynical perspective on human nature. In A New Leaf, Matthau's Henry wants to kill his wife, Henrietta. In The Heartbreak Kid, Charles Grodin's Leonard ditches his new bride on their honeymoon for a gentile blonde. These comedies are more agonizing than their dramatic premises and suggest that compared to drama, comedy is closer to real life.

Arguably, May is the most gifted when she's onscreen herself, as the unforgettable, unwieldy, scatterbrained botanist Henrietta in A New Leaf. If she'd been given a fraction of the time and opportunity to finesse her craft as a director as she had as a comedian, who knows what kind of films she could have created?

"If you can't be immortal, why bother?" Henry asks in A New Leaf, a film that challenges gendered notions of authorship, notably when the naive Henrietta romantically chooses to name the species of plant she has found after her contemptuous husband instead of herself.

Today, we can help May "achieve a small slice of immortality," as Henry puts it. Instead of associating her name with the notoriety of Ishtar, let's reconsider her small but rich and underappreciated body of work.

Funny Girl: The Films of Elaine May runs through June 30 at the TIFF Bell Lightbox (tiff.net)

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Elaine May's 1971 film A New Leaf, a black romantic comedy satirizing lavish lifestyles, stars Walter Matthau and the director herself.

IN HER SHOES, AFTER SHE GOT ON HER FEET
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With the Shoe Project - a series of writing workshops, performances and exhibits - women write about their immigration to Canada through a central metaphor: a pair of shoes
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A14


VANCOUVER -- Rawan Nassar was wearing a pair of brand-new pink and grey sneakers when she left her home in a Syrian refugee camp. The previous night, she had just returned from a trip to Lebanon when an explosion shook the building where she lived with her family.

Tanks surrounded the camp, and that night, soldiers stormed into the Nassars' house. In the morning, Rawan and her sister fled for Lebanon, the first of many legs of a long journey to safety.

Separately, in Iran, Sara, a Kurdish journalist and women's rights activist, had begun to get death threats. They came by phone, by text and by e-mail. But when a new threat suggested her place of residence had been identified, she knew she had to leave. Her husband bought her a bright pair of pinky-orange sneakers and it was in these that she took her first steps to freedom. (The Globe and Mail is withholding Sara's real name for her safety and that of her family.)

Sonam Chozom, who is Tibetan, remembers most the shoes that she had to wear when she was sent to a Tibetan children's village school: black rubber, standard issue, just like all the other students.

These days, in Vancouver, where she immigrated - as did Nassar and Sara - she prefers white Converse.

These women's three paths finally converged in a classroom when they all enrolled in the same creative-writing workshop for refugees and immigrants. The Shoe Project, founded by novelist Katherine Govier, is a workshop that asks the women to tell their stories of arrival in Canada through a central metaphor - a pair of shoes. Nassar, Chozom and Sara were among the 10 women who participated in the first Vancouver workshop.

"We were taking people who astonished us with the stories they had to tell," says author Caroline Adderson, who mentored them for 10 weeks in the writing portion of the program. The women will eventually read their essays aloud at a public event.

"Though I've taught workshops for 25 years, never have I encountered a group whose stories have so moved me," Adderson told me.

With the event approaching, she and three of the women gathered at a Palestinian restaurant in Vancouver to talk about their experiences and their essays.

THREE WOMEN, THREE STORIES Over large platters of hummus, falafel, kibbeh and other Middle Eastern delicacies that reminded her of home, Nassar, 30, talks about leaving her parents behind.

Her father predicted she and her sister would be back three days after they set out for Lebanon. His daughter was less hopeful. They made a bet, each predicting when the violence would be over and the sisters could safely return.

"We wrote the date on the wall," Nassar says, "thinking that the wall would last."

That was July, 2012.

"I just got pictures," Nassar says now, taking her phone out of her bag. "Nothing is there. My dad owned the whole building and it's all on the ground."

Sara, 32, arrives at the restaurant with her husband and baby. In her essay, she reflected on the difficult decision to leave Iraq for the United States and the difficulty of sneaking over the border to Canada, through blackberry bushes and darkness.

"It's just a road, a road between two big countries. It's the first time we are doing something illegally, but we don't have any choice. ... Over there, Canada seems like a terrifying jungle. But my mind is still on the unforgettable night that I left my family," she wrote.

Sara chose Canada primarily because of its proximity to the United States. She knew very little about this country previously. "I googled it," she says.

Chozom, 23, who shyly selected a corner seat at the restaurant, ended up here thanks to the Tibetan Resettlement Project, which allows stateless Tibetans to immigrate to Canada. In her essay, she wrote about her shock at being left at a boarding school by her father at the age of 4.

Nassar says she had always wanted to live in Canada. "I would watch the news and they were giving gay rights, gay marriage and [other rights]. You can have a say and you're heard," Nassar says. "You could send an e-mail to the Prime Minister."

LIFE IN CANADA Their troubles did not magically disappear when they reached Canadian soil.

The integration was often gruelling.

Extreme isolation can come with living in a new country without family, wrenched from the only life you knew: your home, your friends, your possession, your career, your language.

In the first class, they each told their story.

"A lot of tears, I remember," Adderson says. Her lesson plan for that class went out the window. But over the following 10 weeks, they crafted their essays.

Sara drove with her husband and baby from Abbotsford for every session, never missing a single class. "Caroline helped us a lot, even emotionally, because all of us were very sad and I had very bad depression for a while, actually."

She has a gentle smile even as she recounts the most devastating details of her story. "It is so hard. You can't even imagine. Because it's not just leaving. It's a lot of things that you left - especially parents," she says, twisting her hair and looking down at her hands.

The colourful runners that she escaped in became an important symbol - "kind of linked with my future, I think, because it's bright," she says. "They bring me to here and I can find a point to, how do you say, go back to my path."

The Shoe Project was a balm for her, and the other women.

"The first day I got there and I saw all these awesome women and listening to their stories, it was magnificent," says Nassar, who goes by the first name Rory in English.

"I was also depressed and I felt that we were all in the same spot somehow, like, stuck - and trying to break out of some sort of glass that's in front of us. We needed to break out. Something was inside that needs to get out. Because we all had something that needs to go out to the light."

MOVING FORWARD Nassar arrived at the restaurant in black lace-up boots, not her favourite footwear - work boots, she calls them.

And there is work: She is now employed at an immigration-services organization in the suburbs and lives in an apartment downtown. She wants to continue her work empowering women.

The Shoe Project gave her "a big, big push forward," she says. "You have no idea," she adds, turning to Adderson.

Chozom is at school, and plans to study nursing. She lives with roommates in Burnaby, B.C. They are all Tibetan, but speak English to one another at home. After the Shoe Project, she began writing in a journal again - in English. "It's a good way to release your stress," she says.

Sara, after being laid off from a menial job at a window factory, is a stay-at-home mother. She is eager to return to journalism, but first she feels she needs to work on her English. She feels stuck. In her new life, her experiences and accomplishments as an important voice who fought against rape, honour killing and female genital mutilation are completely unrecognized.

The Shoe Project was an enormous help. "I thought I was alone. It's just me that has this story," she says. When she heard the other women's stories, she felt empowered. "It gives me hope that women can do something here, all of us," she says. "It helps me to feel okay. It's not just me. It's lots of stories."

And at the most basic level, it started her writing in English - a strong, moving story that ends with freedom in a peaceful land she once thought of as a jungle: British Columbia.

"These women have such potential; they have so much to offer this country," Adderson says. "This was more than just a creative writing class. It's more than that.

It's hopefully a step through the door," she says. "Through this program, if Sara became a journalist again," she continues - and the other women achieve their dreams - "then I feel I did my job. It wasn't about 600 words to me."

The Shoe Project: Walk in Their Shoes is at the Museum of Vancouver on June 22 at 7 p.m.

Associated Graphic

Participants from the Shoe Project show off their current footwear in Vancouver on June 5.

JACKIE DIVES/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Rawan Nassar

Sonam Chozom

Caroline Adderson

Sunnybrook hospital celebrates 70 years of veterans' care
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By NADINE YOUSIF
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A10


In June of 1948, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King officially opened the doors to Sunnybrook Hospital in Toronto, with a mission to treat First World War and Second World War veterans. On Tuesday, the hospital celebrates its 70th anniversary.

"Sunnybrook Hospital symbolizes the sacrifices made by those members of the armed forces whom this hospital aims to serve and seeks to honour," Mackenzie King said at the time.

Sunnybrook has since expanded to become a general hospital, but it continues to house Canada's largest veterans care unit, with 475 veterans from the Second World War and the Korean War under its care. The average age of veterans is 94. These are some of their stories.

Name: John Milsom Age: 97 Military title: Long Range Coastal Fighter Pilot with the Royal Canadian Air Force Before the war, John Milsom recalls driving his motorcycle up to Baker Field in Toronto's Yorkdale with his best friend Bruce. It was then a civilian, privately-owned airfield and Mr. Milsom was curious about flying.

A few years later, Mr. Milsom went on to fly one of the fastest aircraft in existence at the time, a wooden bomber-aircraft named the Mosquito. He said he trained as a general reconnaissance pilot, and partook in countless missions during the second World War as part of the Royal Canadian Air Force.

"I went to flying school, got my wings ... I took just about every course in between so I was never idle," Mr. Milsom recalled. His first mission, he said, was part of the North African Campaign in 1941.

He ended his military career with more than 600 hours of flying, all carefully documented in his logbook. His last mission was to escort the King of Norway back to safety in Oslo after the war ended in May of 1945, he said. For Mr. Milsom, his service to Canada was about doing "whatever was necessary."

He also acted as a flying instructor at various points during the war. He once taught at the famous Turnberry golf course in Scotland, where he met his wife, Judith, then a meteorologist with the Britain's Royal Air Force. "I joined the forces because, naturally, it was something we felt that we needed to do, it was an adventure," Ms. Milsom said, describing the wartime as worrying, but intriguing.

The couple were married in England in June of 1945. Ms. Milsom recalls wearing a simple, blushpink dress. It was a wartime wedding, and "nothing like a wedding gown was available," she said. "Everything, even clothing, was rationed."

Still, it was a new adventure for the couple, who moved back to Toronto after the war to start anew. Mr. Milsom went on to study mechanical engineering at the University of Toronto.

"We started from scratch in Canada after the war, but people here in Canada were all very good to us," Mr. Milsom said. He added he always found good help and accommodation, even today at Sunnybrook Hospital, where he has lived for the past three years.

Name: Jean Vanwart Age: 98 Military title: Private with the Canadian Women's Army Corps When news of the war broke out, Jean Vanwart (née Coulter) knew she had a duty to help.

"We were all interested in saving the country, and we all wanted to do what we could," Ms. Vanwart said. Then 22 years old, Ms. Vanwart went to Carleton University in Ottawa to sign up for the Women's Army Corps, without telling her father.

"He was quite proud of me all this time, he sent my picture to the papers and I was so surprised because I thought he wouldn't think it was lady-like to join the army," Ms. Vanwart recalled.

After that, she became part of the driving unit in Ottawa, often travelling between the capital region and Gatineau, Que., as part of her job. "I drove the cutest little Jeep you can imagine," she said, and added she also steered big trucks and station wagons.

In 1942, Ms. Vanwart was sent overseas to England. She worked as a clerk typist, but recalled she wasn't satisfied with her position, and instead transferred to be part of the driving unit across the street. This is where she met her husband, Elgin Vanwart, after he was wounded on the battlefield and sent to England for treatment.

She fondly remembers moments when she and Mr. Vanwart would ride around on bikes across England. Once, they rode by a church with its door open. "We went in, and there was a sunbeam straight down to the altar," Ms. Vanwart said.

"When we came out, [Elgin] said to me 'When is it going to be?' And I said, 'When we go home I guess.' " They returned to Toronto in 1946, and married shortly after. Mr. Vanwart spent his final years at Sunnybrook alongside Ms. Vanwart, before he died in October of last year.

Ms. Vanwart's service during the Second World War is documented in a book titled, Extraordinary Women, Extraordinary Times, by Sherry Pringle. Though, she maintains there was nothing extraordinary about her service.

"We joined up, we did our job and nobody seemed to think anything of it," Ms. Vanwart said.

Ms. Vanwart now spends most of her time at Sunnybrook painting. She was also a flag-bearer for the Invictus Games, held last September in Toronto. Her only regret, she joked, was never getting the chance to meet Prince Harry.

Name: Ron Beal Age: 97 Military title: Private Ron Beal was part of the military before the Second World War began, and was automatically enlisted in 1939. He was part of the Bugle Band, his wife Marjorie Beal recalled as he sat by her side.

"That was his interest, music and the military," Ms. Beal said, recalling much of her husband's life as he is too frail to speak. The war brought along difficult times for Mr. Beal. He was part of the Dieppe Raid, which saw over 1,900 troops captured by Germany as prisoners of war. Mr. Beal was one of them.

"If you weren't killed on the beach in Dieppe, you were taken prisoner," Ms. Beal said, and added that her husband's time at the prisoner of war camp was disturbing, but he remained hopeful that he would be freed. One day, Mr. Beal and the rest of prisoners awoke to no guards on the premises.

"All of a sudden, American jeeps came up and [they were] loaded with loaves of white bread," Ms. Beal recalled. "They said 'Boys, for you the war is over, come and get some bread.' " The bread, Mr. Beal had told her, tasted just like cake.

Mr. Beal was then treated in a hospital in England for three months before returning to Canada. Later, he discovered that he had developed what is now known as post-traumatic stress disorder from the war.

Upon his return, he met Ms. Beal in Toronto, and they were married shortly after. "I liked him right away, and he never felt sorry for himself; he never dwelt on anything," Ms. Beal said. "He was just so grateful to be home."

Mr. Beal has lived in Sunnybrook for the last seven years. He has received care for his PTSD from psychologists at the hospital, and he often partakes in activities such as flower arranging or crocheting - a skill he picked up in the German PoW camp.

"[Crocheting] was the best therapy he could've used for himself," Ms. Beal said, and added he practised it for years after the war, making blankets, shawls and scarves for his family members.

"Our life has been a very wonderful life. We've travelled extensively, we camped, we've been to so many places, a few cruises for a little bit of luxury," Ms. Beal said.

"We've had a life that I could say, 'no regrets.' " Ms. Beal said her and husband always made sure to have two things: faith in God and a good attitude. "A good attitude - that pulls you through, and I believe that with all my heart," she said.

Associated Graphic

Left: John Milsom, 97, and his wife, Judith, pose at Sunnybrook Hospital in Toronto on June 6. Right: The pair at their wedding in England in 1945.

Left: An old newspaper clipping of veteran Jean Vanwart, now 98. Right: Ms. Vanwart sits for an interview at Sunnybrook Hospital on June 6.

Left: Veteran Ron Beal, 97, at Sunnybrook Hospital on June 6. Above: An old picture of Mr. Beal taken after he was released from a hospital in England.

PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Millennials finding their 'sweet spot'
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Young buyers make bold moves in Calgary's rocky housing market
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By TIM QUERENGESSER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H1


CALGARY -- Shenneile Henry was 19 when she and her partner, also a millennial, bought their first condominium in Calgary. They bought their second just two years later, in 2015. And earlier this year, as Ms. Henry turned 24, they bought their third.

"I think now is the time to invest, when you're young, because by the time you're 40, you for sure have some equity built up, which is the great thing about real estate - typically, it tends to appreciate," says Ms. Henry, who works in financial services.

"I've always been on top of the real estate market.

For the past couple of years when the economy was high, and low, I've been doing my research to see what the prices are for reselling, what prices people are willing to pay for rent."

Ms. Henry is living out a real estate dream long forgotten by anyone younger than a baby boomer in most markets and certainly next to romantic fiction for a millennial buyer in Toronto and Vancouver. Indeed, the average price across all housing types in Toronto has fallen 30 per cent since 2017, yet remains a still-unattainable $767,818. Meanwhile, the benchmark price in the Greater Vancouver region just hit $1,094,000 - a record.

With median incomes for 25- to 30-year-old Canadians - known as "peak millennials" - sitting at just $38,142, according to a recent Royal LePage study, it's not surprising that many younger residents are writing breakup letters with Vancouver or screaming about average rents in Toronto hitting more than $1,800 a month.

But Ms. Henry is in Calgary and the topsy-turvy nature of its real estate market in the past few years has allowed her to buy downtown condos in preconstruction sales at sharp discounts. She's been able to capitalize on the continuing slow recovery, which is seeing many flock to rentals such as hers, to build her investments.

"I am constantly researching the condo market, visiting show homes, learning about various developers and staying up to date with resale values and rental rates in the community," Ms. Henry says.

And it seems her timing has been impeccable, too.

The city's "new normal," according the Calgary Real Estate Board, is a market muted by the still-recovering provincial economy in which federal mortgage rules have stunted the buying power for peak millennials by roughly $40,000.

But Dawn Maser, a real estate agent with Royal LePage in Calgary, says that has created something of a Goldilocks market: not too hot, and not too cold.

Housing prices are stagnant but not falling, demand is stable but supply, especially of condominiums, is more than able to keep up - all while jobs, wages and optimism are recovering.

"I would say 90 per cent of my clients are peak millennials and they're purchasing," Ms. Maser says. "We're in a sweet spot right now."

Ms. Maser says average home prices in Calgary are in the low $400,000 range and that peak millennials are purchasing twostorey detached homes in the suburbs as a way to increase affordability over more central areas.

She says similar money in the suburbs of Vancouver will get you a tiny one-bedroom condo. Indeed, Ms. Maser says several buyers have come after abandoning the too-hot B.C. market for a cooler yet still big-city opportunity in Calgary.

"We're seeing a recovery [but] it's just not happening really fast," she says. "So, people are getting their jobs back and there is a bit more stability in the job market. Because the house prices are very slowly improving - it really means they're not continuing to fall - it's giving people that opportunity to get into the market now."

Job numbers are up in Calgary, by 2 per cent so far in 2018 and 3 per cent in 2017 (the city's job growth only went into negative territory in 2016, losing about 1 per cent), according to a Calgary Real Estate Board report. Population is up, too, by nearly 2.5 per cent in 2018 and by more than 7 per cent in 2017, according to the report.

But several experts say Calgary's housing prices (and rental rates) remain flat because the city is still recovering from the highs of US$100-a-barrel oil in 2014 and then the sharp, double-digit housing-price crash that followed. Oil prices dropped to below US$40 a barrel in 2015 and more than 6,000 residents left in 2016. Calgary's office vacancy rate still hovers at a startling 27.7 per cent.

"Over all, fundamentals are supporting a modest recovery to span over the next two years," the Calgary Real Estate Board report says.

On the ground, that's led to guarded optimism among some millennials that real estate is a strong investment. But for others, finding their way back to where they were in the days of Alberta with US$100-a-barrel oil is proving tougher.

Jayne McKay, an analyst with Urban Analytics in Calgary, a firm that tracks the rental market, says lease rates for dedicated rental properties are up significantly since last year, with high-rise rental properties 96 per cent leased, up from 83 per cent in 2017. "Over all, it's a number of factors [behind the trend], including a renter's current employment situation, flexibility, price point, proximity to employment or an LRT station, and specific project offerings such as building amenities."

Jessalyn King would likely agree.

The 32-year-old freelance graphic designer is renting a twobedroom townhouse with her partner in Airdrie, a Calgary suburb. She says she's doing so partly for affordability and partly for Airdrie's proximity to the Calgary airport, where her partner - who's a pilot - has just secured his first "job-job," as she puts it, after several years of contract work in different cities.

Because of the nature of both their jobs, Ms. King says, buying is a luxury that has to wait until more permanent "job-job" type stability materializes. "We will buy, because we do want a house at some point," she says. "The question is really just when - when we end up saving up enough and where we're settling."

Ms. King says she is renting her townhouse from its owner. And statistics in Calgary show nearly 40 per cent of rental properties are similar.

One example is Ms. Henry. She moved back to Calgary after living in Toronto and Montreal, where she rented. When she arrived, she says the city saw several preconstruction condos in the downtown core for sale. By purchasing preconstruction condos at a discount, then waiting to move in (her first property took a year; her second took two), she says the units accumulated value by the time she and her partner took possession. And, she says, by buying at these discounts and calculating rents in the areas the condos are in over a 10-year span, she is certain her and her partner's mortgage payments are covered.

Today, the two rent their first condo, Airbnb their second in the East Village and live in their third, a 650-square-foot two bedroom downtown.

"There's still a lot more land [downtown] and room for new buildings to come up and that's the area that I personally have focused on, preconstruction, whereas in bigger cities the market is a lot more mature, so you're not going to find a lot of the preconstruction," Ms. Henry says.

"Because Calgary's growing, there's a lot more opportunity to get a great price."

She also says that while she "a hundred per cent" knows she's an outlier when compared with millennials in larger centres in Canada, she doesn't feel like that in Calgary. "People are investing in my group of friends; definitely, the short answer is yes," she says.

"Despite there being an economy that's slow, from a buyer's perspective, there's a lot of room for opportunity.

"I think millennials are full of passion, [are] intelligent, innovative - and risk takers."

Associated Graphic

Just 24, Calgarian Shenneile Henry already owns three homes. 'I've always been on top of the real estate market,' she says.

TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Shenneile Henry, pictured at one of her apartments in Calgary, counts herself among the millennials who are willing to take risks on the housing market.

With job numbers and oil prices up, real estate observers believe the 'fundamentals are supporting a modest recovery' in the Calgary housing market.

PHOTOS BY TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Naturally quiet
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With the new ES 350F Sport, high-end car maker Lexus seeks to provide its most relaxing ride yet
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By MARK RICHARDSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D6


NASHVILLE -- 2019 Lexus ES 350F Sport $45,000 (BASE ESTIMATED)

Engine: 3.5-litre V-6; 2.5-litre i4 with electric motor

Transmission/Drive: Eight-speed automatic/front-wheel Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 10.9/city, 7.5/hwy

Alternatives: Lincoln MKZ, Audi A6, Mercedes E-Class, Buick LaCrosse

Sometimes, it's best to just shut yourself away and tune everything out, especially when you're stuck in stalled traffic. If so, a Lexus is one of the best vehicles for tuning everything out because it's known for being quiet inside - sometimes too quiet. Bob Lutz, the former senior executive of both General Motors and Chrysler, once referred to the "tomb-like silence" of a Lexus and he wasn't meaning to be kind.

And so, when I found myself in Nashville recently, stuck in traffic that was waiting for the President's motorcade to pass, and with the torrential rain of subtropical storm Alberto pounding the city, I was happy to be sitting in the seventh generation of the now-all-new Lexus ES. In fact, it was the F-Sport edition, a sporty model never before available with the mid-sized sedan, which includes "active noise control" to add some growl to the engine. All I could hear was rain.

Lexus went to quite some trouble beforehand to tell me about the attractive redesign of the new ES, but those subtle changes were totally lost on everyone outside the car, which is usually the case.

The distinctive silhouette and sleek roofline mean little to most people - unless it's a lime-green Lamborghini, few cars will attract the attention of someone who is not interested. Even more so in a rainstorm.

The engineers also told me about how they'd retuned this car for a more acceptable state of quiet. After all, says Hirotaka Tsuru, who was responsible for the NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) levels of the ES, too much silence can give you a headache.

"I would target cars in a higher class, then lower the total overall sound," he says. "But if you just simply reduce all sound, it becomes this vacuum of sound and you actually start to feel sick. So, we used a preset frequency that we call 'natural quietness' and we'd continually target that frequency. The key is to find which frequency, at which level of quietness, provides the most comfortable ambience."

Some of that ambience was achieved by increasing the sheer quantity of sound-proofing in the new car: Apparently, sound-absorbing materials in the old ES used to cover 68 per cent of the floor, but now they cover 93 per cent and almost all of the dash panel. The target is for the driver to be able to speak with a passenger in the rear seat without having to raise their voice or turn their head.

I was alone in the car, in the traffic, in the rain, so I couldn't test this, but earlier in the day, when the sun was shining and the country roads outside town were gloriously clear and I was driving the hybrid-powered ES, I carried a passenger and we chatted with no problem at all. As well, Lexus tells me, I was apparently more relaxed because I was making fewer eye movements: Everything is a little better lined up for the driver's field of view. I didn't notice to vouch for this. Perhaps I was too relaxed.

There are 10 different versions of the new ES: a regular V-6 engine and a hybrid engine, each with four available trim levels, as well as two levels of the F-Sport package. The F-Sport isn't any more powerful, but it does include active suspension and 19inch wheels, as well as Sport and Sport Plus drive-mode settings to add to the regular car's three drive modes.

There are no prices announced yet, however. Lexus is holding back on committing to price for another month or so, with the ES scheduled to arrive in showrooms in September. There's plenty of competition in this segment, so the base price is not likely to be too much more than the current $45,000. Where it goes up from there, though, is anyone's guess.

The writer was a guest of the auto maker. Content was not subject to approval.

RATINGS LOOKS

The new ES is built on the new Global Architecture - K platform, which gave designers more space all around: It's a little longer and wider and has a lower roofline, with a wheelbase that's about five centimetres longer. The hood is lower and the A-pillar pulled back, which apparently improves the driver's sightlines, although I didn't notice a difference. New for this generation is the F-Sport edition, which is no more powerful but does look more the part of a sporty car. The grille is massive and polarizing; regular versions get near-vertical slats while the F-Sport has a more attractive mesh pattern.

INTERIOR

Truly premium, as you'd expect, and now a little more legroom in the rear seats than before, which was a criticism of the previous ES. The seats are redesigned to provide a better posture, and the seats in the F-Sport have a little more support in the sides, likely for holding you snugly while you're throwing the car through the curves. The more expensive trims have a huge 12.3-inch central display screen, as well as a 10.2-inch heads-up display that can actually be seen through polarized sunglasses. Standard models have to settle for an eight-inch central display screen.

PERFORMANCE

This is the real question: How does the ES drive with its sportier platform? And the answer is: fine. Not great, not poor, but fine. The new eight-speed transmission seems nothing special, and I could never quite find the right combination of gear and speed when I tried shifting for myself with the paddles, so I gave up and left the car to make nice, sensible decisions.

There's more power in this new engine - 302 horsepower and 267 lbs.-ft. of torque - which is a boost of 34 hp and 19 lbs.-ft. from before. Even the hybrid makes an additional 20 hp and 12 lbs.-ft. But the peak torque doesn't hit until 4,700 rpm and there's not much excitement to the acceleration.

Around corners, though, the ES holds flat and - most important for any road car - when you suddenly come across a tractor in the middle of a blind curve, the car stops straight and true with no fuss at all. Don't ask me how I know this.

TECHNOLOGY

Technology always improves with every generation and the ES is no exception. It now includes Apple CarPlay, the first Lexus to do so as the company finally accepts that people want this connectivity to their iPhones. There's no Android Auto yet, but it will probably happen within a year and when it does, it's retrofittable software.

Safety is improved, too, with better camera and radar sensors that can now detect cyclists and help prevent collisions. Also, the forward sensors can now follow the vehicle ahead, if set to do so, and help take over in congested traffic. This is taken straight from the more expensive LS sedan, which is already about as autonomous as any of the German cars that lead the way with this technology.

CARGO

There's 473 litres of luggage capacity in the trunk, which is a hefty jump up from the 430 litres of the previous generation.

It's much more of a boost for the hybrid model, which used to have a 343-litre capacity because its battery took up space in the trunk. The new ES300h now has a smaller (but more efficient) battery that's stored under the rear seats, so it has the same trunk capacity as the ES350.

THE VERDICT

8.0 A lovely car, certainly, and an improvement on the previous generation, but we can't know if it's competitive in its class until Lexus announces the price.

Associated Graphic

Sound-absorbing materials in the old Lexus ES used to cover 68 per cent of the floor, but now, in the 2019 model, they cover 93 per cent, and almost all of the dash panel.

DAVID DEWHURST PHOTOGRAPHY

Clinton gets literary with an assist from Patterson
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The veteran author and former president have crafted a workmanlike thriller about a terrorist's plot to destroy the United States
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By ELIZABETH RENZETTI
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Thursday, June 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A16


The President of the United States is a war hero, a former Army Ranger who was tortured by the Iraqis, but gave up no secrets. He is a former baseball pitcher who was one injured shoulder away from the majors, thanks to a tumble from a Black Hawk helicopter. He is an uxurious mate, devoted to his one and only love.

In other words, that president is certainly not Bill Clinton. President Jonathan Duncan, "a war hero with rugged good looks and a sharp sense of humour," is instead a fictional construct, a product of Clinton's imagination - perhaps the subterranean bit labelled "Wish Fulfilment/Revenge on My Enemies."

Specifically, this fictional commander-in-chief is at the centre of a new novel, The President Is Missing, a thriller written in collaboration between Clinton and bestselling author James Patterson. That sounds like the weirdest mashup since Snoop Dogg started cooking with Martha Stewart, unless you think about this as a meeting of two box-office names, both of them 71 years old, one who loves reading thrillers and the other who loves creating them. Then the book assumes more of a Reese's Peanut Butter Cup inevitability: Insider access meets inside the bestseller list.

With powerhouse New York lawyer Robert Barnett acting as their matchmaker, the man who has sold 350 million books (and even wrote many parts of them) began talking with the man who had been the 42nd president of the United States. They had met years earlier over breakfast in Florida and liked each other. Clinton had always wanted to write a mystery; Patterson, who has produced more than 150 books in 40 years, from thrillers to youngadult novels, was an ace at outlining and collaborating. You could hear the cash registers from Mars.

As Patterson, over the phone from his home in New York State's Hudson Valley, says of his new writing partner: "He had a lot of respect for the books I'd written and I had a lot of respect for him for the job he did as president. He's a very good storyteller and he's smart and he's interesting to listen to. It worked out great. We had a ball doing the thing."

"The thing" is a 513-page novel composed of 127 of Patterson's signature tiny and zippy chapters.

Patterson is foxily vague about exactly who did what, except to say that he came up with the title and "we went back and forth on the outline - what could happen, what's possible." A collaborator named David Ellis is thanked before the book even begins. Hillary Clinton provided unspecified notes.

In the novel, the President of the United States is required to thwart a terrorist's plot to destroy the republic with a computer virus, while also hunting down a traitor in the White House and battling his own body (his rugged good looks are accompanied by a debilitating blood disease). Aspects of the Washington landscape will seem familiar - the President's foes are dangerous partisan hacks - but others, such as a presidential motorcade gun battle on a bridge over the Potomac River, are drawn more from the oeuvre of Michael Bay than from presidential history.

Still, if you're going to write about the Secret Service's routines and weaponry, there's one author you want as your co-pilot - and that's the guy who rode with them. "What separates this book from most anything I've read is the authenticity," Patterson says. "If there was the worst possible attack on the States, this is how it could happen. If there's an attack on a presidential motorcade, this is how it could happen.

If there's a traitor in the White House, this is how it could happen."

A reader looking for authenticity of the spiritual or emotional variety is bound to be disappointed. For instance, there is little sense of what it feels like to be the most powerful man in the world, betraying his wife with a young intern in the Oval Office and nearly losing his job over it. (Clinton was asked about his affair with Monica Lewinsky during a Today Show interview about the novel, and became testy: "Nobody believes that I got out of that for free," he said, pivoting with the dexterity of LeBron James. "I left the White House US$16-million in debt.") Ah, what a novel that would have been! Alas, this is not that novel. There are no glimpses of penitent Bill Clinton here. Nor are there many hints of the literary Bill Clinton, the one who loves Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Marcus Aurelius and Max Weber, and can cite whole passages of William Faulkner by heart. Did Clinton campaign for a more literary bent as they wrote? "He really pushed to make the characters as flesh and blood as possible," Patterson offers. A seductive assassin, for example, was given a back story rooted in Bosnia's war to explain her lethal coldness. (The Balkan crisis was one of the earliest tests of the Clinton administration's foreign policy, which is perhaps where this idea took hold.)

Read one way, The President Is Missing is a workmanlike thriller about what happens when the President puts on a ball cap, lets his beard grow and miraculously becomes invisible outside the White House. If you read between the (short, declarative) lines, though, it's quite a fascinating grudge letter written by a former president to the world: "It's a battle as old as humanity," muses the fictional President, who I came to think of as DunClinton. "Us versus them. In every age and time, individuals, families, clans and nations have struggled with how to treat the 'other.' " Later, President DunClinton delivers a speech lamenting political polarization, intolerance and the untrustworthiness of the media.

"What does it mean to be an American today?" the fictional President wonders in a lengthy address to the nation, just as his real-life creator once did.

So it's a bit odd to hear Patterson say, "We were very careful not to make it political." Um, really?

"Well," he concedes, "everything is political." But, he stresses, "We're not talking about Republicans or Democrats, current or past presidents." A bit later, he elaborates: "It's not about President Trump. If [Clinton] wants to get into that in non-fiction, that would be his choice. We didn't want to do that." I'm willing to take that at face value and to forget about the scene where President DunClinton, having grown tired of Moscow's shenanigans, personally expels the Russian ambassador to the United States with the words: "Do not ever test me again, Andrei. Oh, and stay out of our elections. Now get the hell out of my country." Although I can see George Clooney saying that line; the TV rights have been sold to Showtime, and Clinton indicated in an interview with the BBC that he could see the actor taking on the role of the ruggedly handsome President who knows how to handle a Glock.

Patterson is keeping quiet about who he'd like to play the President: "We don't want the character to be vanilla, but we also don't want him to be like the president in House of Cards, where he's pushing women off subway platforms. That would be bad."

Speaking of bad, I ask Patterson to put aside his apolitical stance and consider their fictional President's plea for a united America: Does he feel optimistic about the country's future? There is a long silence followed by a sigh.

"I'm optimistic that in this country if things get out of balance, we have a habit of recognizing that and putting it more in balance. That has been our history. Obviously, things are a bit out of balance now, or a lot out of balance, depending on your point of view. I would hope we begin to balance again."

Chaos, it seems, is good for the blueprint of a thriller, but not so great for the blueprint of a nation.

James Patterson and Bill Clinton appear in conversation in Vancouver on June 29, deepoceansky.com.

Associated Graphic

Former U.S. president Bill Clinton partnered with author James Patterson to write the novel, The President is Missing.

BEBETO MATTHEWS/AP

Toyota vs. Honda: Which is for you?
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With similar design and target markets, it comes down to finer details and options available
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By MARK RICHARDSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D10


t's the constant dilemma for I buyers who want a capable and proven SUV, with the fabled reliability and resale values of both Toyota and Honda. The two are equally sensible choices for sensible people, after all, with hardly any risk involved in either. Both are designed to do pretty much the same thing, by Japanese engineers with years of experience.

They both cost about the same, too, although they offer different options in their trim packages.

And both are built in Canada, where the Toyota outsells the Honda, but in the United States, the Honda outsells the Toyota. So which is for you?

Toyota RAV4 $27,750 (BASE) $41,990 (AS TESTED) Engine: 2.5-litre i4, or 2.5 litre with electric motor (176 hp, 172 lb.-ft.

torque; 194 hp hybrid) Transmission/drive: 6-speed automatic, or CVT (with hybrid) Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 10.5 city, 8.3 highway (AWD); 6.9 city, 7.8 highway (Hybrid) Honda CR-V $27,290 (BASE) $38,690 (AS TESTED) Engine: 1.5-litre turbo i4 (190 hp, 179 lb.-ft. torque) Transmission/drive: CVT Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 8.7 city, 7.2 highway (AWD) LOOKS Toyota: You know what it looks like: There are hundreds of thousands of RAV4s on the road, covering four generations since its introduction here in 1995. Back then, it was a stubby little thing, but it's grown with each generation, offering more space inside and more advanced technology. It finally copied Honda's rear cargo door with the current generation, in 2013, moving the spare wheel to under the floor and hinging the door at the top instead of the side.

There are nine trim levels available, including hybrid versions, but all look pretty much the same. However, the all-new fifth generation, to go on sale this December, will have three choices of appearance: regular, rugged or sporty.

Honda: You know this one, too, and you've often mixed it up for the Toyota. It also started small when it debuted here in 1997 and it, too, has grown with each generation, but it's been in its fifth iteration for a year already.

To some, it looks a little sleeker than the RAV4, thanks to its (now) shallower headlights and slightly lower roof. But both vehicles have the same split front grilles, a taller ride that allows easier access and exit into the seats, and large rear cargo doors.

INTERIOR Toyota: The RAV4 has the lead here in my book, because it still has tactile buttons and knobs for common features instead of burying them in the central touch display screen. Want to change the volume on the radio? Turn the knob on the centre dash. Want to change the station? Turn the other knob, just like the good old days. You can do all this by voice control once the computer recognizes your accent and you can use the steering-wheel controls, but the knobs are still there and easy to use with gloves. All but the base model include a heated steering wheel as standard, though, so you won't need gloves.

Honda: The CR-V's controls can be frustrating because so many are now found only through the central touch display screen. For example, let's say yesterday was a hot day and the airconditioning was on, but this morning, it's cold: When you get in the CR-V and start the engine, the air-conditioning will blast away and you must press the climate button to bring up the controls on the screen. You can then adjust the temperature and the fan, provided you're not in a hurry and have not already put the transmission in reverse, which brings up the rear-view camera on the screen instead of the controls. You get the idea. It's a multistage process instead of a simple, mechanical adjustment.

PERFORMANCE Toyota: I still miss the power of the old V-6 RAV4 (actually, I don't really because my wife owns one), but the 2.5-litre RAV4 powertrain is designed for economy and reliability. If you want to tow a boat, upgrade to the bigger engine of a Highlander. It's not an exciting or particularly fun drive and even less so for the hybrid, but it gets you there with no fuss.

And in the winter, with good winter tires and AWD, the RAV4 is unstoppable.

Honda: Also underwhelming, the CR-V has a significantly smaller engine for better fuel economy, but it's turbocharged to bring it up to the equivalent of the RAV4. There'll be no corner-carving in this little truck, but you will benefit from improved fuel consumption compared to the RAV4: It's almost 20 per cent better than the conventional Toyota, though still not a patch on the more expensive Toyota hybrid. And it's also well-equipped for winter with decent tires and AWD.

TECHNOLOGY Toyota: There's an impressive amount of technology in the RAV4 - this is Toyota's bestselling vehicle, after all, and the company wants to make sure as many owners experience it as possible.

Almost all of the safety and driver's assistance technology is available from the base model up, and this includes active cruise control (above 40 km/h), precollision warning with pedestrian detection and lane-departure alert with steering assistance. You have to go up a level to get blind-spot detection and rear cross-traffic alert. There is no Apple CarPlay or Android Auto for better connectivity with your smartphone, but the Avalon now includes Apple CarPlay, so you can be sure it's coming in the next generation.

Honda: For all the impressive gadgets in the Toyota, the Honda's tech is better. It includes everything the RAV4 offers (although sometimes, it's not available on the base FWD model), plus Apple CarPlay and Android Auto to keep your phone out of your hands. It also has an active cruise system that follows the vehicle in front and lets the CR-V come to a complete stop in traffic - you can resume the drive with a tap on the throttle - as well as Honda's Lane Watch system that points a camera into the blind spot on the passenger side, and shows the image whenever you activate the right-side indicator.

This is really only good for watching for cyclists in the city, but for that, it's great.

CARGO Toyota and Honda: There's really not much between the two, although the Honda has a little more cargo capacity: The CR-V offers 1,100 litres behind the rear seats and 2,146 when those seats are flat, compared with the RAV4's 1,087 and 2,078 litres, respectively. The hybrid is even less, at 1,008 and 1,999 litres.

Both are easy to load with luggage, although both are also fairly high for dogs to jump into and from. For passengers, there's a bit more room in the front of the Toyota and a bit more room in the rear seats of the Honda, but chances are you won't notice unless you're studying the spec sheets.

VERDICT Toyota: 8 Tried and true, the RAV4 is a dependable SUV that will hold its value well and give years of comfortable, capable service. It's also the only compact SUV that offers a hybrid alternative and when the fifth generation is introduced late this year, that hybrid will be marketed as the sporty model. But for now, it comes up a little short against the more recently updated Honda.

Honda: 9 The winner on paper, the Honda generally offers a little more with all the choices that matter - it's a generation ahead of the current RAV4, after all. This will change at the end of the year when the new RAV4 hits dealerships, and it's possible the price of the Toyota will drop against the strong-selling Honda to clear out the 2018 models, but don't count on it.

Associated Graphic

The Honda CR-V, top, and the Toyota RAV4 are equally sensible choices for sensible people, but the CR-V generally offers a little more with all the choices that matter.

This list is lit
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With some of the year's biggest books coming out in the throes of summer, why not pick up a literary blockbuster for the beach? Prepare to laugh, cry and get a little introspective with Becky Toyne's fiction picks
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By BECKY TOYNE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P10


FOR DARK HUMOUR AND A FAMILY MYSTERY Mama's Boy by David Goudreault (BookThug, 200 pages) A major success in the author's native Quebec, Mama's Boy is a darkly comic novel about a young man in search of his mother after a childhood spent in foster care. Taking the form of a confession, the book is translated from the French by JC Sutcliffe. Expect gritty humour, bizarre characters and a tale both tender and violent.

FOR THE BLISS AND TORMENT OF ORDINARY LIFE AND LOVE Ordinary People by Diana Evans (Doubleday Canada, 336 pages, June 19) Published to effusive reviews in Britain this spring, Ordinary People, the third novel by Diana Evans (26a, The Wonder), is a story of marital angst in the face of parenthood and approaching midlife. With their relationships now settled into routine domesticity, the spouses in this story lament the agony of ordinary life that lies beyond the first blush of new romance.

FOR A KAFKAESQUE STORY OF TURBULENT TIMES The Traitor's Niche by Ismail Kadare (Counterpoint, 208 pages, June 22) Forty years after its original publication in Albanian, Man Booker International Prize-winner Ismail Kadare's book is finding an enthusiastic readership in English. Translated by John Hodgson, this allegorical novel of tyranny and rebellion is set in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire, but its story of subordination to the state is timeless. "Kafka on a grander political scale," the London Sunday Times said.

FOR A STORY OF MARRIAGE, FAITHFULNESS AND FAITH The Paper Lovers by Gerard Woodward (Picador, 320 pages, July 12) The story of two married couples and one affair, Gerard Woodward examines the crisis of identity that might follow a betrayal.

Through the transgressions the novel explores, Woodward (an acclaimed author of novels, short fiction and poetry) asks what it means for our identities to be faithful - to yourself, your spouse, your god - and what it means to have deceived.

FOR LIFE ON THE AMERICAN FRONTIER My Name Is a Knife by Alix Hawley (Vintage Canada, 400 pages, July 17) Dubbed "Cormac McCarthy's young heiress" by Joyce Carol Oates, Alix Hawley won the Amazon Canada First Novel Award for her debut, All True Not a Lie in It. In her sophomore novel, Hawley returns to fabled frontiersman Daniel Boone, this time to tell the end of his story, in which Boone must choose between his white and Shawnee families, and decide whether to kill or be killed in the fighting he knows must eventually follow.

FOR SOME BELLY LAUGHS AND A KNOWING WINK AT OUR PREOCCUPATION WITH FAME Hits & Misses by Simon Rich (Little, Brown & Co., 240 pages, July 24) Simon Rich is really funny. A past writer for Saturday Night Live, The Simpsons and Pixar, Rich is also the creator and showrunner of Man Seeking Woman and Miracle Workers, both of which are based on his previous books. His latest is a collection of laugh-out-loud stories with our obsession with fame and fortune at their heart. The stories are inspired by the author's experiences in Hollywood.

FOR A FETED DEBUT ABOUT THE FINE LINE BETWEEN FAITH AND FANATICISM The Incendiaries by R.O. Kwon (Riverhead Books, 224 pages, July 31) A coming-of-age story that explores the lines between faith and fanaticism, passion and violence, R.O. Kwon's debut has received two thumbs up from writers including Lauren Groff and Jenny Offil. While mourning the death of her mother, a young Korean American woman gets drawn into domestic terrorism by a cult tied to North Korea. Advance reviews have called it "dazzling." FOR AN IMMIGRANT-IN-AMERICA STORY ABOUT STICKING OUT WHILE TRYING TO FIT IN Immigrant, Montana by Amitava Kumar (Penguin Canada, 320 pages, July 31) In the vein of Teju Cole and W.G. Sebald, and with advance praise from Cole, Hanif Kureishi, Viet Thanh Nguyen and others, Immigrant, Montana is a story of cultural misunderstanding and love, from the perspective of a young new immigrant to the United States from India, dubbed AK or AK-47 by his new American friends. This promises to be a moving story of a young man trying to fit in across a cultural divide.

FOR AN UNPUTDOWNABLE BOOK YOU MAY NOT WANT TO READ AFTER DARK Foe by Iain Reid (Simon & Schuster Canada, 272 pages, Aug. 7) Iain Reid's first two book were memoirs - about his parents' hobby farm and his gran, respectively. But having lulled his readers into a sense of comfortable security, Reid performed a plot twist with his own career. His third book, I'm Thinking of Ending Things, was a scare-your-pants-off thriller. Expect more of the latter with Foe, a page-turner about space and confinement, about familiarity and the unknown, and about ... well, you'll have to read it and see.

FOR A HAUNTING STORY ABOUT THE GHOSTS OF MEMORY The Saturday Night Ghost Club by Craig Davidson (Knopf Canada, 272 pages, Aug. 14) Canada Reads-nominated for his non-fiction, and with a deftness for the dark and creepy in his horror (published pseudonymously as Nick Cutter), Craig Davidson is back with his first literary fiction since his Giller-nominated, bestselling Cataract City. Davidson returns to magical, seedy, slightly haunted Niagara Falls (a.k.a. Cataract City) for a story about childhood adventures, the human spirit and the haunting mutability of memory.

FOR A SEND-UP OF HIGH SOCIETY AND SOME ARMCHAIR TRAVEL TO FRANCE French Exit by Patrick deWitt (House of Anansi, 248 pages, Aug. 14) For his fourth novel, Patrick deWitt focuses his funny on Paris in a tragedy of manners and a riotous send-up of high society. Readers can expect the unexpected as the author of Ablutions, The Sisters Brothers and the underrated and hilarious Undermajordomo Minor introduces an Upper East Side widow, her son and her aging cat - who may harbour the spirit of her dead husband - and sets them on a voyage for a new life in the City of Light.

FOR THE FINAL WORDS OF A BELOVED CANADIAN STORYTELLER Starlight by Richard Wagamese (McClelland & Stewart, 256 pages, Aug. 14) Unfinished at the time of the author's death in 2017, Starlight is the final novel from Richard Wagamese, the bestselling author of Indian Horse and Medicine Walk. An abused woman on the run finds refuge on a farm owned by an Indigenous man with wounds of his own in a story about compassion and the land's ability to heal. Starlight promises to be a moving read for Wagamese fans old and new.

FOR SOMETHING SMALL-TOWN AND STRANGE Heartbreaker by Claudia Dey (HarperAvenue, 288 pages, Aug. 21) Playwright (and design label Horses Atelier co-owner) Claudia Dey makes her long-awaited return to fiction (her only novel, Stunt, was published in 2008) with Heartbreaker, a coming-of-age story that is magical, sinister and strange. Seventeen years after falling from a stolen car into a remote northern town, Billie Jean Fontaine goes missing. "I want Van Halen to write the soundtrack and the Coen brothers to make the movie," Leslie Feist says.

FOR THE POWER OF FEMALE CONVERSATION Women Talking by Miriam Toews (Knopf Canada, 240 pages, Aug. 21) From Miriam Toews, the beloved author of devastatingly sad yet heart-warmingly witty modern Canadian classics including A Complicated Kindness and All My Puny Sorrows, comes a timely, necessary new novel. Written as an imagined response to a true event, Women Talking, tells the story of a group of women gathered in secret to decide whether to stay or leave after being drugged and assaulted by men in their remote Mennonite community.

FOR AN EROTIC AWAKENING AND AN EX'S UNEXPECTED RETURN Queen Solomon by Tamara Faith Berger (Coach House Books, 160 pages, Sept. 1) Tamara Faith Berger's Maidenhead provided a smart, literary alternative to Fifty Shades of Grey and its copycats back in 2012. In Queen Solomon, Berger - who wrote porn stories for a living before publishing her first book in 1999 - explores the erotic awakening and mental disintegration of an intense young man. Teenaged Barbra terrifies and captivates the young narrator in equal measure. When things go wrong, Barbra leaves, but unexpectedly turns up seven years later to once again mess with the young man's mind.

Towers modernized to ensure they continue standing out
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Iconic structures are undergoing major renovations to remain focal points on the skyline, popular tourist destinations and sources of civic pride
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By GAIL JOHNSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B6


Vancouver architect Michael Geller has seen some remarkable buildings around the world during his decades-long career. Most recently, he visited Astana, which is home to the newly built Bayterek Tower.

The structure is 97 metres tall, its height representing the year 1997, when Astana was named Kazakhstan's capital. At the top is a golden sphere surrounded by pointed spires, a reference to a local folktale about a bird that lays its egg in the sacred tree of life, a story about new beginnings and finding happiness.

"It looks like an egg caught in the branches of a tree," says Mr.

Geller, president of Geller Group and adjunct professor at Simon Fraser University's Centre for Sustainable Development in Burnaby, B.C. "One of the focal points of that city, like so many cities in the world, is this tower; it was one of the first things they built. It's got a lot of symbolism."

Although the Bayterek Tower doesn't hold any world height records, it attracts and inspires Kazakhs and visitors alike, with an observation deck within its golden orb that allows people to see a modern-day, master-planned city within a region steeped in history.

"Even going back to the Middle Ages, towers were seen as a symbol of prestige and power, and I think that that tradition has continued over the centuries," Mr. Geller says.

The current world title for the tallest skyscraper goes to Dubai's Burj Khalifa, at 828 metres. But it will be knocked off its throne in 2020 when the kilometre-high Jeddah Tower opens in Saudi Arabia.

In this age of escalating heights, there's a push in North America to keep existing towers relevant, to ensure their significance isn't reduced.

Take the Space Needle in Seattle. Last year, its owners announced extensive multiyear renovations to preserve and update the 184.4-metre-tall tower, which was constructed for the 1962 World's Fair.

The US$100-million first phase is nearly complete, with slanted floor-to-ceiling windows and an outdoor observation deck featuring open-air glass walls and glass benches. Two interior observation levels will be connected by a striking wood, steel and glass staircase, the lower level being the world's only rotating glass floor, meaning you can stare down the tower itself all the way to the ground. Look out and you have 360-degree views of the city and Puget Sound.

Karen Olson, Space Needle chief marketing officer, notes that the upgrades all had to be approved by Seattle's Landmarks Preservation Board. This was to ensure that the tower's profile wouldn't be altered, given its instantly recognizable profile with its saucer-shaped top.

In addition to the need for physical and electrical upgrades, a driving factor for the enhancements was to keep the Space Needle's status and significance entrenched. Nonresidents know it as a tourist attraction, but to the people of the Emerald City, it's much more.

"We wanted to ensure it's just as relevant in 2062 as it was in 1962," Ms. Olson says of renovations that are being called the Century Project. "When it was built in 1962 it was modelled after the Eiffel Tower, in that it really marks the skyline. Seattle in the late '50s was a growing city, but we weren't well-known at all. ... The idea was to put the city on the map.

"It's a real identifier; it's a symbol of the city," she continues. "It's also a symbol of the entrepreneurial side of the city, the innovation and ingenuity. When the Needle's design was approved, they had no land, no funding, no permits; 400 days later it was built. It's that can-do attitude; big ideas, big aspirations. Then from the city came Microsoft, Amazon and Starbucks. It's a physical symbol of the city but also a symbol of the spirit of the city, where anything's possible."

Canada's most iconic structure, Toronto's 553-metre-tall CN Tower, is also being refreshed, with a complete overhaul of its main observation level. New floor-to-ceiling glass window walls have been installed to open up views that stretch out to Niagara Falls and Rochester, N.Y. Multiple food hubs have replaced a single restaurant. There's not one but two glass floors, with one on top of the other.

The tallest free-standing structure in the Western hemisphere, which was built in 1976 by Canadian National Railway and is now owned and managed by Canada Lands Co., has had technological upgrades as well.

Neil Jones, vice-president and chief operating officer of the CN Tower, looks to social media as one way to get a sense of CN Tower's place in the city and in people's minds. "Some of your biggest feedback is on Instagram and Twitter daily," Mr. Jones says.

"When people are flying in to Toronto, they see the tower lit up and they say, 'I'm home.' It's a home beacon to them. It really resonates with the people of Toronto."

To connect with people across the country, the tower is illuminated on any given night in different colours to support various events or causes, from Canadian Football League and National Hockey League victories to National Aboriginal Day, Canadian Forces Day and health-related awareness campaigns; some nights, two organizations are recognized by the tower glow.

"You've got to stay relevant," Mr. Jones says. "You have to be updating constantly and building the guest experience. We don't want to rest on what we've done in the past but look forward to where we're going."

It seems to be working. Last year, the tower experienced its busiest year on record, with approximately 1.98 million visitors.

The CN Tower not only marks the Toronto skyline but has also become a symbol of the entire country.

"In the old days, if I wanted to know what people thought was important about their city, I would look at the postcard rack in the tourist shops," says Mr.

Geller, the Vancouver architect.

"If you look at postcard racks in Toronto, they still feature the CN Tower."

Mr. Geller notes that what distinguishes structures such as the CN Tower, the Space Needle and the Calgary Tower from office buildings that boast great heights -- such as the Petronas Towers, twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur -- is that they're open to the public.

"Some of the tallest buildings tend to be private; they don't have observation decks so they're not publicly accessible," Mr. Geller says. "Many people can relate to the fact that you go into the lobby of a very tall office building and there, beside the elevator, is a sign that says, 'No public viewpoint.' ... And so for that reason these public towers continue to play an important role in the architecture of a city."

This year celebrating its 50th anniversary, the Calgary Tower is wrapping up improvements to its observation deck and will soon unveil a new, immersive multimedia feature. In 2014, exterior LED lights were added, allowing for the same kind of colourful acknowledgments that the CN Tower displays, whether it's to cheer on the CFL's Calgary Stampeders or to raise awareness of certain kinds of cancer.

"The lighting helps re-establish the sense of community the tower brings to the rest of the city," says Calgary Tower president and chief executive officer Greg Guatto.

"We've been investing in this property because we're proud of it. Citizens of Calgary are proud of it. It really is right in the centre of the city, and you can see those lights from anywhere. If you watch Hockey Night in Canada, it's always on the opening segment.

"It's earned its spot of being relevant," he adds. "It's become an icon of the city skyline."

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The extensive renovations to Seattle's Space Needle had to pass through the city's Landmarks Preservation Board to ensure the recognizable profile wouldn't be altered.

ELAINE THOMPSON/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

The Needle's US$100-million renovation included adding glass panels to the exterior for better views.

ELAINE THOMPSON/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Osuna facing an uncertain future
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Assault charge looms large over Jays closer's career
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By ROBERT MACLEOD
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S5


TORONTO -- Roberto Osuna is used to being in high-pressure situations, having established himself as an elite closer for the Toronto Blue Jays before reaching the age of 24.

The native of the Mexican state of Sinaloa is about to begin a court proceeding that will test his resolve.

Toronto defence lawyer Dominic Basile will appear on Osuna's behalf in a downtown Toronto courtroom on Monday to answer to a criminal charge of assault levied against the pitcher last month by Toronto police.

Osuna won't appear - it's not required - and the session is largely for administrative purposes, to allow Basile to collect the evidence the Crown has gathered against his client.

"On Monday, it's likely to be remanded two to three weeks, and I'm going to have a meeting with the Crown attorney in the interim," Basile said.

That court appearance will initiate a legal process that could take months to resolve should the matter go to a trial.

Even if the case is settled out of court, as anticipated, the outcome could have huge ramifications for Osuna's baseball career, according to legal experts.

"I can't speak to the Osuna case directly, but I can speak to these kinds of cases generally," Peter Brauti, a noted Toronto defence lawyer, said in an interview.

"There is a wide range of possible sanctions, everything from counselling and a withdrawl [of the charge] to a conditional discharge to a suspended sentence - or even jail if there are significant injuries."

Osuna could also face restrictions in travelling between Canada and the United States if he receives a criminal conviction, an obvious problem if he wants to continue playing.

"The mere fact that he's been arrested poses some problems, just logistically, to be able to get himself around," Toronto immigration lawyer Brian Dingle said.

There is the potential loss of endorsement deals with sponsors.

And, of course, there's the bigger, corporate picture. "I don't ever think he'll pitch for the Blue Jays again, unfortunately, no matter what happens," Toronto criminal lawyer Alison Craig, a self-described Blue Jays fan, said. "With a corporation like Rogers, they have to think about all that stuff."

Team owner Rogers Communications Inc. is responsible for the US$5.3-million salary Osuna will make this year. He will have earned more than US$8.3-million from the baseball organization by the end of the 2018 season.

The Blue Jays have voiced displeasure over the allegations against Osuna, stating at the time of his arrest that "the type of conduct associated with this incident is not reflective of our values as an organization."

Osuna has already missed significant playing time, having been placed on administrative leave with pay by Major League Baseball immediately after he was charged. The sanction was levied under the league's domestic violence, sexual assault and child abuse policy established in conjunction with the Major League Baseball Players Association in 2015.

MLB can act independently, regardless of the outcome of any criminal proceeding. It is anticipated that Osuna will face a considerable suspension, without pay, whenever commissioner Rob Manfred makes his ruling.

The suspension can include time already spent on administrative leave; in that case, Osuna would have to pay back the salary he received during that time.

Osuna is the 10th player to be investigated by MLB under the policy. It's the first time an alleged offence has taken place in Canada.

Of the nine investigations MLB has concluded under the policy, the harshest suspension has been the 100 games levied last week against San Diego Padres reliever Jose Torres. The penalty, which covers the rest of the season, stems from an incident on Dec. 29 in Phoenix, where Torres was charged with assault with a deadly weapon, criminal damage and intimidation at a home he shares with a woman.

Torres has pleaded not guilty to the charge and the case is still pending.

Osuna's charge stems from an altercation he had with a woman at a downtown Toronto apartment building. He was charged in the early hours of May 8, following an off-day for the Blue Jays, having just returned from Florida with the team.

As part of the conditions of his release, court documents stipulate that Osuna is barred from possessing any weapons as defined by the Criminal Code and from purchasing, possessing or consuming alcohol.

He has also been barred from coming into contact with the alleged victim or coming within 100 metres of the downtown Toronto building that is listed as his home address.

Since the alleged incident, Osuna has been in Florida, where he continues to work on baseball activities at the Blue Jays' minor league training complex in Dunedin, according to the club. He is paying for his own legal services.

His absence from the back end of the Blue Jays bullpen has created a noticeable void this season for a team that continues to play poorly.

Before he was placed on leave, he earned his fifth save of the year on April 10 against Baltimore. It was No. 100 of his four-year MLB career, becoming the youngest pitcher in league history to reach that milestone.

He surpassed the previous mark held by Francisco Rodriguez by more than one year - and Rodriguez is a strong candidate to make it to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

But first Osuna must deal with the serious matter at hand.

In his experience, Brauti, the Toronto defence lawyer, said this type of an assault charge involving celebrity or high-profile public figures rarely progresses to the trial stage.

"It often gets settled without a trial and that's usually because the individual is of significant means and can afford good counsel," he said. "Good counsel can tend to be creative in coming up with solutions that avoid a trial.

"For example, if there's no significant injury [to the victim] and an accused like Mr. Osuna was prepared to do a lot of hours of community service, that may go a long way to resolving the matter without a trial."

Craig said she is not so certain of a quick resolution of the matter.

"It seemed to be these things used to be resolved faster when a public figure was involved," she said. "It seems to me more things have been finding their way to court more recently."

The publicity surrounding the case could diminish potential sponsorship revenue.

So far, his portfolio has been somewhat modest. Last year, he had deals with both Gatorade and a Jaguar dealership - promotions that both came to an end at the beginning of 2018, before he was charged.

Currently, he has an ongoing business relationship with Pfaff Automotive. There was a picture on his Instagram account, which is not private, that shows him leaning against a Porsche sports car at a dealership in York Region.

In a story posted on the Newstalk 1010 radio website in early May, Pfaff marketing director Melanie Somerville said the deal was still active - even though the company was not happy to learn of the allegations against Osuna.

Vijay Setlur, a marketing instructor at the Schulich School of Business at Toronto's York University, said that even if Osuna beats the criminal charge, it will be difficult - but not impossible - for him to repair the damage to his reputation.

"We have this sort of phenomena now, the public court of opinion," Setlur said. "And sometimes just saying someone's alleged to have done this, whether they are found guilty or not, you can't really win in the end."

The key will be Osuna's behaviour and performance if and when he returns to the game.

"If he continues to do well on the field and combines that with community work, strong messaging and a devotion to his craft he ... should be able to rehabilitate his brand.

"But it's going to take a lot of work off the field as well."

Associated Graphic

Toronto Blue Jays pitcher Roberto Osuna walks off the field after a game in 2017. Osuna was placed on administrative leave after he was charged with assault.

FRED THORNHILL/THE CANADIAN PRESS

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, June 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B21


CHARLES CURRAN "Chuck"

Passed away suddenly on Monday, June 4, 2018 in his 65th year. Survived by his loving wife Ellen (née Dickson), devoted father of Tyler, "my wonderful boy," and Samantha, "my Baby Girl." Much loved brother to Gary (Lanis) and Brian, and brother-in-law to Cathy Dickson, Shelagh Noble (Kerry), and Pat Dickson (Dan Miller). Cherished uncle to Lindsay Curran, Kyle Curran, Heather Silverthorne (Greg and Lily), Alison Noble and Julia Filer (Derek). Chuck also had a wonderful relationship with his mother and fatherin-law, Florence and the late Bob Dickson.

Chuck enjoyed his many years of work at Ryder, Alcatel, Canadian Tourism Commission and ICBC.

Upon his retirement he loved traveling with Ellen - walking the hills of Italy and France and cycling in Bhutan and Thailand.

As well, he enjoyed renovating their new house.

Chuck was a large figure in everyone's lives. He had that wonderful combination of humour, energy, intelligence and goodwill. He was the guy who would happily do anything for you and showed his love with a warm hug. The love of his life was Ellen - "My Honey," "My Beautiful Bride" - and they built an extensive network of friends in Ontario and Vancouver. Chuck was a supportive and caring husband, devoted father and loyal friend, known for his warmth, sense of humour, kindness, generosity and hard work. Chuck will be forever missed but his incredible legacy will live on through his loving family and the relationships he had throughout his life.

With friends and family in both Vancouver and Ontario, there will be two gatherings. In Vancouver, on Saturday, June 16th the family will receive friends at the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club, from 1:00 - 4:00 p.m. In Ontario, the family will receive friends on Saturday, July 7th at the Roseland Park Country Club, 3079 Princess Blvd, Burlington, from 1:00 - 4:00 p.m.

If desired, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

INGEBORG FEIERABEND

Peacefully, on June 9, 2018 in her 90th year. Beloved mother of Martina; Dear sister of Elsbeth Kment; Aunt of Dr. Axel Kment.

Visitation will be held at Jerrett Life Celebration Centre, 8088 Yonge St., Thornhill (south of Hwy 407) on Thursday, June 14, 2018 from 6-9 p.m. Funeral Service will be held at 10 a.m. on Friday, June 15, 2018 at St. Luke's Parish, 39 Green Lane, Thornhill.

If desired, donations may be made to the Scarborough and Rouge Hospital Foundation.

http://www.jerrettlife.com

JOHN SCOTT DEACON

71 - Our loving and beloved father, grandfather, brother, uncle and friend passed on June 7, 2018.

Born into a large and loving family, Scott was a bright and kind spirit who touched all he knew with his thoughtfulness and loyalty. His charm, selflessness and dash of mischief will be missed by all who loved him.

Whether professionally, socially or randomly, he was quick to befriend those who crossed his path; always lending an ear, his time and support - and more often than not acting as the IT support desk! Friends new and old were always nearby, and his family was dear to him. Scott was the first to remember and celebrate the accomplishments of others and the first to raise a glass of red wine in their honour. Over the years, Scott was a contributor to the communities of Branksome Hall, Caledon and Beaumaris, forging memories and friendships along the way. His enjoyment of music was perhaps only rivaled by the companionship of his four legged friends over the years; Basil, Sophie, Roscoe and Fergus, each playing large roles in various chapters of his life. For many he will be remembered happily on the water in his beloved Landrover.

Scott will be dearly missed by his three devoted daughters and two sons-in-law; Emily, Norah, Tim, Grace, and Morris; and will forever be 'Pop' to his five grandchildren, Henry, Samuel, Cecily, Rosemary, and Frederick.

Scott is also survived by siblings, Peter, Barbara, and Susan.

In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations be made to the Parkinson's Society of Canada or to Dancing with Parkinson's.

The family would also like to extend a special thank you to the staff at Bradgate Arms, his caregivers and the extended medical teams of nurses and doctors who took such great care of Scott over the last few years.

Details of a celebration of Scott's life for his family and friends will be shared in the coming days.

IDA JOANNA QUAN (nee Ing)

We are saddened to announce the death of Ida J. Quan (neé Ing) at the age of 96 years. Her passing took place on June 8, 2018 at Humber River Hospital. She was predeceased by parents, Henry and Mary Ing; brothers, Harry and Raymond; and sister, Dorothy.

She is survived by dear husband of 66 years, Dick; sons, Gary and Brian; brother, Albert; sisters, Amie and Jean; and many nieces and nephews.

Upon graduating from Morrisburg Collegiate Institute, Ida pursued a nursing career and received her R.N. from Herbert Reddy Memorial Hospital in Montreal, Quebec. Post graduate studies at USC Berkeley, California followed for her certificate in Obstetrics. Upon her return, she was employed at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario.

Dick and Ida were married in Vancouver, British Columbia in September 1952, and eventually settled in Toronto, where she worked at Toronto Western Hospital. She temporarily stopped work to raise her two sons.

Then she returned to nursing at Humber Memorial Hospital and York-Finch Hospital. Ida was a very kind, generous and refined lady, who will be truly missed by all who knew her. She will be remembered with much love.

Ida's visitation will be on Thursday, June 14, 2018 from 6-8 p.m. at Newediuk Funeral Home, Kipling Chapel, 2058 Kipling Avenue (North of Rexdale Boulevard).

In lieu of flowers, a donation to the Cardiology Unit of your preferred Hospital "In memory of Ida Quan" would be most appreciated. Online condolences at newediukfuneralhome.com.

AL SPIEGEL

Peacefully in his 95th year surrounded by his loving family on Monday, June 11, 2018. Al Spiegel survived by the love of his life for the last 70 years, Daisy. Loving father and father-in-law of Linda Spiegel and Murray Teitel, Corrine Spiegel and Jonathan Kearns, and Michelle (Mimi) Spiegel. Dear brother of Harvey Spiegel (Diane Pollack). Cherished grandfather of Rachel, Darrah, Ezra, Carly, Zachary, Joshua, Joanna, David, and Daniel.

Great-grandfather of Lewis, Julius, Lia, and Miriam.

Memorial donations may be made to Beit Halochem Canada 905-695-0611, Aid to Disabled Veterans of Israel.

LORI LEVINE (nee McGilvray) 1945 - 1998

Twenty years ago, your life ended far too soon. A single mom to an only child - you gave me everything.

The past two decades, I've tried to pass on your mettle, kindness and love to everyone worthy.

You'd be so happy to see the family your tenacity helped to create. My wife Melissa, and children Landry Jackson (2 years) and Tatum Lorraine (2 months) are named after you and your father. We speak of you fondly and often. I see your vibrancy in them every day and miss you sweetly.

OLIVER MARTIN June 29, 1982 - June 13, 2008

It is now ten years since Oliver and his best friend, Dylan were ruthlessly shot to death. The emotional road for family and friends since then has been difficult and often painful.

Oliver's personal life was rich and loving with his sisters, mom and step-dad, many close friends and extended family in PEI. The remarkable success trajectory of his professional life remembered by many.

We all share a loss which has diminished our lives, but are motivated by memories of his smiling enthusiastic challenges to all of us to live life to the fullest.

We continue to be enriched by the impact and recollections of our wonderful Obie, his love and his appreciation of life and those he cared about.

FOREVER LOVED, MISSED AND MOURNED.

MARJORIE MARY ALICE SHARPE June 5, 1931 - June 13, 2016 Always in our thoughts and hearts.

Love always, Your family and friends

Larysa Kondracki put women first while filming new miniseries
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The Canadian director of Picnic at Hanging Rock added two more innovations on set: A strict no-jerks policy and wine bribes
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By JOHANNA SCHNELLER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A15


At the beginning of the three-month shoot for her new miniseries Picnic at Hanging Rock, in the environs of Melbourne and the wilds of Victoria, Australia, the Canadian director Larysa Kondracki thought to herself, "Okay, we're a group of people locked up on the other end of the world, talking about teenage hysteria. This could go one way or the other."

Kondracki, who in a phone interview speaks in a dry, wry tone that conveys brains and drollery, had put in her time on a lot of sets. Her 2010 film The Whistleblower, starring Rachel Weisz, had been nominated for six Genie Awards, and she'd directed episodes of (among others) The Americans, Better Call Saul, Legion and The Walking Dead. She had learned which way she wanted things to go.

On most series, writers stay put, while directors drop in, do an episode or two, and leave. To be any good, a director has to quickly suss out which way the wind blows. "You see which shows work, and how to run a good show," Kondracki says.

"Vince Gilligan on Better Call Saul and Noah Hawley on Legion run happy, respectful places. They're entirely aware of their story and what their show is, but they're so open to collaboration and ideas."

Picnic at Hanging Rock, which arrives June 17 on Bravo, was Kondracki's first outing as showrunner, so she took everything she had learned and added two innovations of her own: A strict no-jerks policy and wine bribes (the craziest ideas that make it on screen earn bottles of wine).

It worked. "The cast and crew - 70 per cent of whom were women - got really into it," Kondracki says. "We rehearsed at night, on weekends. Production there is tough - it's hot, the weather is unpredictable. We had Game of Thrones level ambition, with a fraction of the budget. Everyone was running, everyone pitched in."

Picnic at Hanging Rock is an emotional thriller set in 1900.

Students and teachers from a strict but out-of-the-way girls' finishing school, run by the mysterious Hester Appleyard (Natalie Dormer), go on an outing to the famous rock. A teacher and three students - Miranda (Lily Sullivan), a willful free spirit; Irma (Samara Weaving), a beautiful heiress; and Marion (Madeleine Madden), who is bright and mixed-race - set out for a walk and vanish without a trace. Eventually, one turns up, but can remember nothing.

Kondracki was initially leery about taking it on. She'd analyzed Peter Weir's 1975 movie in her graduate film program at Columbia University. She also knew that Australians are "cuckoo bananas" about the 1967 source novel by Joan Lindsay: "It's like The Great Gatsby and Shakespeare and the Bible rolled into one," she says. "They study it in school; it's part of their folklore.

It begins with Lindsay saying to the reader, 'It's up to you whether you think this is a true story.' There's a choose-your-own-adventure aspect to it. In the 1970s, for example, everyone was like, 'A spaceship took them.' "After reading the miniseries' scripts, by Beatrix Christian, Kondracki was hooked. "Bea says so much with so little, it's almost poetic," she says. "As with the book, she's emotionally specific, but it's really open to interpretation. It's about the disappearance, but it's more a chance to talk about who these girls were, and give them agency. It asks the questions, 'What is it like to be a girl?' and 'What kind of girl do you want to be?' Which also apply to contemporary, adult, professional women. It's about control versus rebellion."

Kondracki's ideas for it encompassed everything from John Wayne in the doorway at the end of The Searchers ("frames within frames") to The Breakfast Club ("You've got the jock and the beauty and the brain, and there's this hope that maybe one person can be all those things.") She wanted to use the kind of "big, muscular lenses" that directors such as Michael Mann use for closeups on Robert DeNiro and Al Pacino, to make it "Stanley Kubrick meets Heathers."

The wine bribes resulted in some haunting images - girls hanging from clotheslines by their hair; sheets of rushing water; shots of the ground shaking and the world spinning - "these in-camera tricks that give it a crunchy, retro, low-fi vibe that separates it from the heavy visual-effects stuff that's happening everywhere now," Kondracki says. She also mixes in modern sounds - typewriters, computer pings and race-car engines, "a Jetsons spaceship under water with a cat moaning" - to throw the viewer out of time.

As well, she wanted to bring the story to an emotional conclusion without turning it into a whodunit. "It's about who the girls were and why they wanted to run away," she says. "I have a theory - and people should argue about this - that the whole story happens in Hester's head.

These are all the types of girls she could have been."

Characters get their periods, bathe each other and curl up together in bed, but Kondracki moves the mood away from psycho-sexual hysteria toward exploration and acceptance of the self. "So rather than sexuality, it becomes about confidence and ownership," she says, "about finding your inner beauty, strengthening that and figuring out how to manifest it on the outside." She also had a blanket rule: no female frontal nudity, only male.

Her casting process was "taxing and lengthy," Kondracki says.

"Miranda is an iconic character.

It's like casting Jesus." But she felt she'd found the perfect actresses - until she saw them in full hair and makeup. "I had a freakout," she admits. "As a female filmmaker, I was thinking, 'These girls are way too beautiful, everyone who sees this is going to feel awful about themselves.' " Her department heads had to talk her down. She realized if she made the world around them as beautiful, it would ground them.

"I ended up thinking differently of myself as a woman," Kondracki says, chuckling. "I bought a lot more clothes and makeup."

As a woman in a mostly male profession, "You think you have to be a certain way, but then you think, 'Well, why can't I?' Yeah, it adds more time to your day, but you do walk around with just a little more confidence and optimism. It taught me a lot."

She plans to continue producing and showrunning; her next project is a six-part limited series based on Anne-Marie MacDonald's 2003 novel The Way the Crow Flies.

"We're in the middle of setting it up. I'm meant to direct all six," Kondracki says. "The story is so powerful, and the adaptation is glorious. It becomes this Terrence Malik-type thriller, but underneath it's a meditation on life.

It has elements of Big Little Lies and The Night Of, but also Stand by Me. I want to make Canadiana special, in an art/poetic way."

Kondracki's takeaway from Picnic at Hanging Rock is simple, but that doesn't mean it's easy: "I've learned that you have to be your happiest self," she says.

"With experience comes confidence. Directors tend to think they need to know 100 per cent what's happening, and you have to have a strong kernel of that.

But if you're inclusive, you generally get a better result. Otherwise, you're just announcing what's in your head, and you rob yourself of what others can bring." Call that a female sensibility if you will. I call it the right way to go.

Associated Graphic

In the show, students and teachers from a strict, out-of-the-way girls' school, run by the mysterious Hester Appleyard (Natalie Dormer), go on an outing to the famous Australian rock and vanish without a trace.

Canadian Larysa Kondracki, who has directed episodes of The Americans and Better Call Saul, makes her debut as showrunner with a miniseries adaptation of Picnic at Hanging Rock.

MATT DOYLE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Akira Back sets the bar high for Asian chefs
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By JASON CHOW
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Thursday, June 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A15


Akira Back

LOCATION: 2ND FLOOR, 87 BLUE JAYS WAY

Price: Cold sharing plates, $16-$45; hot sharing plates, $7-$39; mains, $28-$49; sushi rolls, $12-$20 Atmosphere: Dark room with thumping house music and a party vibe.

Drinks: A short cocktail list ($16-$30), an extensive sake menu ($45-$165) and a 14 wines by the glass ($14-$35).

3 Stars

Has Toronto become the new battleground for the globetrotting superstar Asian chef?

Quietly, our city has turned into a mini-hub for celebrity Asian restaurateurs. The latest to arrive: Akira Back, the chef behind the modern Japanese-Korean izakaya at the gaudy and loud downtown Bisha Hotel.

With an empire of 11 eponymous restaurants in 10 cities, Mr. Back is developing a chain of global outposts, just as other world-renowned chefs have done, including Joel Robuchon, Daniel Boulud and David Chang.

And he's serving up precise food with a confident execution that's unseen at most new restaurants in the city.

Not long ago, Toronto was a cursed destination for visiting celebrity chefs. Nobody wanted to set up shop and those who dared were chased out of town. (Remember Scott Conant?) But Mr. Chang changed all that in 2012 when he chose Toronto as his second Momofuku outpost outside of the United States. Other Asian chefs followed: Hong Kong-based Alvin Leung partnered with Masterchef Canada winner Eric Chong to start R&D in 2015. Pick 6ix opened this year with Antonio Park, a Korean-Canadian chef known for his LatinoAsian-inflected food. Nobu Matsuhisa, chef of the global Nobu chain, is the name behind the Nobu condo-hotel-restaurant project on Mercer Street, slated to open in 2022.

The megatrend of New Asian cuisine, mashing styles and traditions from across the continent, keeps morphing, multiplying and spreading.

Although his brand lacks the name recognition of Momofuku or Nobu, Mr. Back fits into this culinary zeitgeist. Two reasons he's lesser known: Mr. Back first established his name in Las Vegas, a city that the United States' top critics still look down upon, and he doesn't have a restaurant in New York or Los Angeles. And unlike Momofuku's Mr. Chang, Mr. Back is awkward and stilted in media appearances - he's unlikely to appear on a Netflix series or a podcast discussing the American immigrant experience any time soon.

Born in Korea (his real name is Baek Seung Woo), Mr. Back moved to Colorado when he was 14, took up snowboarding and became a pro. Injuries sidelined that career, so he turned to the kitchen, working in Aspen, Colo., and Japan. He was recruited in 2003 to open Matsuhisa (part of Nobu Matsuhisa's empire) in Aspen, but his big break came in 2008 as the head chef launching Yellowtail at the Bellagio Hotel in Las Vegas. Following the accolades for Yellowtail, Mr. Back has opened restaurants bearing his name around the world, in Hanoi, Jakarta and Dubai, among others.

He earned his first Michelin star last year for Dosa, a contemporary Korean restaurant in Seoul.

Here in Toronto, Akira Back reflects the tastes of local impresario Charles Khabouth, who signed up Mr. Back for a secondfloor restaurant at his Bisha hotel.

Like Mr. Khabouth's other joints, the music is loud, the lighting dark, the men are soaked in cologne and the women teeter in the highest of heels. The stairway to the second-floor restaurant is decorated in gold leaf and the toilets are jet black.

While some of Mr. Khabouth's previous forays were beset by service issues, Akira Back is strong out of the gate, thanks to a solid kitchen.

The large izakaya menu is meant for sharing, with plenty of sushi as well as hot dishes. This can wreak havoc on an unprepared kitchen, but here, the dishes came out promptly and in proper order. Sitting at the chef's table with full view of the kitchen crew (mostly veterans from the Jakarta branch, I'm told), I saw an efficient and quiet team banging out dishes for a packed house.

Servers were equally effective.

Reading the menu can feel like the culinary equivalent of rewatching a season of The Sopranos - an experience that would have been revolutionary a decade ago but these days can seem dated and cliché, verging on nostalgia for the George W. Bush era (kimchi and bacon fried rice, anyone?). But after a few bites, you stop thinking too hard about it because, for the most part, the food is very delicious.

The tuna pizza ($22) is one of Mr. Back's classic dishes from Yellowtail and it's a mishmash of a decade's worth of restaurant trends, with thinly sliced fish atop a crisp tortilla with micro shizo and a drizzle of truffle oil (an ingredient overused as an umami crutch). Sounds like a dish from a chain such as Cactus Club or Earl's, right? So I thought, until I tasted it: The dish works with each ingredient in balance. Even the truffle oil, very subtle, didn't bother me.

Yellowtail serrano ($22), again, is one of those Latino-Japanese mash-ups that is on menus everywhere and yet the version here is among the best: Generous slices of high-quality yellowtail was matched with yuzu soy sauce and the thinnest section of jalapeno pepper, which didn't overpower the fish like it does at most other places.

The chef gets playful at times.

There's a tuna and crab roll ($15) with pop rocks (yes, the candy), so you get the bubbling sensation while eating the fish. I was highly skeptical - two Kardashian-styled ladies who sat next to me recommended it between selfies - but it turned out to be a fun bite and a convincing argument to use candy as a texture accent on savoury dishes.

Other plates demonstrated the sort of techniques applied at top French restaurants. The croquette ($26) is a truffle-potato ball, fried, topped with a marinated raw shrimp and sea urchin and served over a rich potato purée.

On the menu, it sounds like two ingredients too many, but it's a layered portrait of contrasting temperatures, textures and flavours.

Not everything was balanced: Grilled king crab legs ($32) are smothered with a sweet-spicy gochujang mayo (think of a Korean version of McDonald's special sauce) that is tasty on first bite but quickly gets tiresome. Seared salmon tataki is surrounded by a miso-mustard sauce that is far too tilted toward the latter. But these mistakes are forgotten when the ribeye ($49) arrives.

Atop the sliced beef is a kizami wasabi butter, a fantastic green condiment that tasted like a Japanese cousin of chimichurri.

Despite my best efforts, I still barely scratched the surface of this gigantic menu of more than 80 items during my visits. Few restaurants in this town can pull off a menu this vast and yet Akira Back did with such ease that I wondered if my food was being made by AI-enhanced robots. It was very good and consistent, but there was a slight mechanical feel to it - the impossibly smooth potato purée that appears on multiple dishes; the desserts that were perfect spheres; the steak that was a magical cut free of tendon or excessive fat. Top international chains often project this sort of cold competence. Mr. Robuchon's dishes, for example, have an impressive but soulless consistency.

Ditto for Nobu. I haven't been to Akira Back's other restaurants, but I'd imagine it'd be similar.

I'm nit-picking here. Akira Back, even with its clichés, has established a high bar for the globetrotting Asian chefs in our city.

Next up among this rarefied league: Mr. Chang, whose Momofuku remake just opened earlier this month. Can Mr. Chang top Mr. Back? We shall eat and see.

Associated Graphic

Akira Back's large izakaya menu is meant for sharing, with plenty of sushi as well as hot dishes.

JEFF WASSERMAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

SHOW DOWN
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As trade war looms, G7 leaders, Canadian, U.S. politicians rally around Trudeau
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By ROBERT FIFE
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


An all-out trade war looms as Donald Trump and his advisers lashed out at Prime Minister Justin Trudeau for declaring Canada won't be "pushed around" by the U.S. President over the contentious tariff dispute on steel and aluminum.

An infuriated Mr. Trump called the Prime Minister "very dishonest and weak" on Twitter Saturday, threatened to impose tariffs on automobiles and dispatched top aides to U.S. network shows on Sunday to lambaste Mr. Trudeau as a "backstabber" who deserved a "special place in hell."

In the wake of the confrontation, G7 leaders, Mr. Trudeau's political opponents at home and a number of U.S. politicians rallied around the Prime Minister.

Mr. Trudeau avoided the media on Sunday, but Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland told reporters in Quebec City that Ottawa would not engage in a war of words with the Trump administration. Ms. Freeland spoke to U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer on Sunday, and is expected to meet with him again on Wednesday in Washington.

"Canada does not conduct its diplomacy through ad hominem attacks. We don't think that that is a useful or productive way to do business," Ms. Freeland said. But she said Ottawa won't be bullied and will hit back with $16-billion of retaliatory tariffs if the U.S. doesn't rescind its penalties on steel and aluminum imposed last week.

"Our retaliatory tariffs will come into effect - perfectly reciprocal, perfectly measured, a dollar-for-dollar response - on July 1, which is Canada Day, perhaps not inappropriate," she said.

Mr. Trump continued his Twitter attacks Monday on the Prime Minister, saying that "Justin acts hurt when called out." The U.S. President also claimed that Canada had bragged about making "almost 100 Billion Dollars in Trade" with the United States, while failing to specify what document he was citing.

Mr. Trump's top economic adviser, Larry Kudlow, told CNN on Sunday that the President was furious after he left the G7 summit early and learned that Mr. Trudeau had told a wrap-up news conference that Canada would not be "pushed around."

In an extraordinary assault on one of America's closest allies, Mr. Kudlow accused the Prime Minister of betraying the U.S. President and making him look weak on the eve of the historic summit with North Korea.

"He really kind of stabbed us in the back," Mr. Kudlow said and emphasized that the President "is not going to let a Canadian prime minister push him around. ... He is not going to permit any show of weakness on a trip to negotiate with North Korea. ... Kim must not see American weakness."

Mr. Trudeau, along with other G7 leaders, had endorsed the President's gamble to denuclearize North Korea.

White House trade adviser Peter Navarro was even harsher, telling Fox News that there "was a special place in hell for any foreign leader that engages in bad-faith diplomacy with Donald J. Trump and then tries to stab him in the back on the way out the door and that is what Justin Trudeau did."

In his Saturday tweet, Mr. Trump threatened to impose the same stiff tariffs on automobile exports from Canada and Europe - which would cripple the Canadian auto industry. Mr. Trump's advisers warned that the North American free-trade deal was also in jeopardy.

"That was one of the worst political miscalculations in Canadian history," Mr. Navarro said, while Mr. Kudlow added: "How many times has the President said 'if you hit me, I will hit you back.' "

A senior Canadian official said that Mr. Trump's outburst came out of left field, since Mr. Trudeau had already announced reciprocal tariffs last week.

Canada is uncertain whether the dispute could lead to a trade war and is particularly concerned if the U.S. imposes tariffs on Canadian autos, which the official said would be disastrous for both countries.

Ms. Freeland brushed off the White House tirades and discounted the threat that NAFTA is dead.

Mr. Trump said on Saturday that a deal was "close" on a sunset clause that would reopen NAFTA after five years, but Mr. Trudeau later refuted the President, saying Canada could never agree to that provision.

"A trade deal with a sunset clause is not a trade deal and therefore we will not accept a sunset clause of five, ten or whatever duration that is proposed by the President," Mr. Trudeau said.

The U.S.-Canada rift erupted after Mr. Trump left the G7 summit to head to his much-anticipated meeting with North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un.

At a news conference, Mr. Trudeau condemned the President's steel and aluminum actions as destructive and even illegal. Mr. Trump was on Air Force One en route to that meeting in Singapore on Saturday when he fired off two blistering tweets.

He ordered U.S. officials to pull out of a joint G7 communiqué that spoke about fair and balanced trade and told them to examine the imposition of tariffs on foreign automobiles coming into the U.S. market.

"PM Justin Trudeau of Canada acted so meek and mild during our @G7 meetings only to give a news conference after I left saying that, 'US Tariffs were kind of insulting' and he 'will not be pushed around.' " Mr. Trump tweeted.

The senior Canadian official said other G7 leaders have rallied behind Mr. Trudeau. Key U.S. politicians and Canadian political opponents are also backing the Prime Minister.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel said that Mr. Trump's withdrawal from the G7 communiqué "via Twitter is of course sobering and a little depressing "and warned that Europe will forge ahead with reciprocal tariffs like Canada.

The office of French President Emmanuel Macron said: "International co-operation cannot be dictated by fits of anger and throwaway remarks."

U.S. Democratic Senator Diane Feinstein called Mr. Trump's outburst "a big mistake," while Republican Senator John McCain said the President's behaviour toward his G7 allies was wrong.

Appearing on Fox News on Sunday, former prime minister Stephen Harper urged Mr. Trump to stop picking trade fights with Canada and join forces to push China to open its markets.

"Us fighting over our trade relationship when the Chinese have a four-to-one imbalance with both of us is, in my judgment, just the wrong priority," he said.

NDP MP Charlie Angus called Mr. Trump a "small-minded man not fit for public office. Canada will not be pushed around by his circus-thug bluster." Incoming Ontario Conservative premier Doug Ford said he "stood shoulder to shoulder" with Mr. Trudeau as did Alberta's United Conservative Party Leader Jason Kenney.

Mr. Trump, who arrived late and left the G7 summit, in La Malbaie, Que., early, was unmoved by concerted efforts to persuade him to reverse his tariffs. He warned that Canadian and European reciprocal tariffs aimed at U.S. goods and services would be met with new levies.

"We are like the piggy bank that everyone is robbing and that ends," Mr. Trump told reporters on Saturday.

Before departing for Singapore, Mr. Trump again called for Russia to be reinstated in the G7.

Mr. Harper, who led the charge to oust Russia from the G7 in 2014 after its annexation of Crimea, said President Vladimir Putin should not be allowed back into an alliance of liberal democracies.

"This is a man who kills his political opponents. There is not a place around an allied table for a man like that," he said.

With reports from Associated Press

Associated Graphic

U.S. President Donald Trump boards Air Force One as he leaves the G7 summit to head to Singapore, where he will meet North Korea's Kim Jong-un on Tuesday.

DOUG MILLS/THE NEW YORK TIMES

Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland, speaking in Quebec City after the G7 summit on Sunday, played down the U.S. President's Twitter outburst and fears of an intensified trade war.

YVES HERMAN/REUTERS

CRA cracks down on tax cheating by real estate flippers
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Since 2015, $43.7-million in real estate-related penalties have been handed down
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By SHANE DINGMAN
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Friday, June 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H5


TORONTO -- With the recent announcement of more than $100million in new tax reassessments it's clear the federal government remains intensely interested in catching real estate flippers in Toronto and Vancouver. And some tax professionals and real estate insiders believe this is merely the beginning as the Canada Revenue Agency targets players in the property market who may have been cheating on their taxes for years.

"I know lots of guys - some of the things they've done I can't believe," says Jamie Johnston, broker of record for Re/Max Condos Plus Corp. in Toronto. "They measure risk and reward, and that's why they cheat."

It is extremely rare for Canadians to be convicted or sent to jail in tax evasion: for example there are about 29 million tax filings annually in Canada and there were 37 convictions between April, 2016 and March, 2017; that's about 0.0001 per cent.

It's a little less rare in the United States, where the Internal Revenue Service that sees about 151 million filings a year and had 2,672 convictions in 2016 (0.001 per cent). "In Canada you never go to jail, so the rewards are high and the risks are small. I think there's a systemic problem, a whole bunch of people are not paying," Mr. Johnston says.

But in the past two years the CRA has been sending a different signal: We are paying attention and the monetary risks are real.

Last week, CRA issued a release that summarized its recent enforcement efforts. Since 2015, $592-million in additional taxes related to real estate have been discovered, in the most recent year alone another $102.6-million was reassessed and $19.2-million in penalties for false claims have been levied (since 2015 it has levied $43.7-million in penalties).

The government is now reviewing about 10,000 real estate-related cases a year and it can take its time to find cheaters: it can review a filing for up to four years after it is submitted.

"While the Canada Revenue Agency has always had a presence in the real estate sector, we have increased the focus on the sector to address growing concerns of non-compliance," says Jeremy Ghio, press secretary for the office of Minister of National Revenue, Diane Lebouthillier.

"Over the last few years, the economic factors in the Greater Toronto Area and the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, such as high-valued markets combined with rapid price increases, have further increased the risk of tax non-compliance in the real estate sector. " In a previous era of lax enforcement, some condo and detached home flippers have been able to own multiple properties and sell them off without declaring all the eligible taxes. Now, many are discovering the CRA has some very powerful tools in its enforcement box. The CRA can follow land registry and other data sources, locate suspicious looking transactions that went unrecorded or under-reported on tax filings and then file a reassessment. If disputed, the CRA can compel developers, utilities, banks and telecom providers to hand over data about a home that is under suspicion.

"You're guilty till your proven innocent; that's how the CRA's model works," says Justin Kutyan, a partner and tax litigator with KPMG Law LLP, an arm of accountancy giant KPMG in Canada. "Even in tax court, the onus is on taxpayers to disprove the Minister's assumption of fact.

Our tax system is based on a selfreporting system - it's based upon honesty and integrity - and they have a lot of tools to doublecheck that you're honest. It becomes difficult, especially when they have the objective evidence: you barely showed up to the condo ever, you never swiped your card, you don't buy hydro, your mail's not forwarded there, Rogers has you listed at another house."

One area the CRA has turned its attention to is filers who improperly claimed a GST rebate for a new or substantially renovated home. Even though the maximum rebate is $24,000 it's only eligible for a primary residence and falsifying this can be a clue of other activity.

"On GST, they are just crazy at CRA. They are going after it hard," says Mr. Kutyan, who is a long-time tax litigator and who previously argued cases for the CRA before switching to the defence team with white-shoe law firm Osler, Hoskin and Harcourt LLP, and now KPMG. "I think those are creating leads on the income tax side."

Take the example of Gideon Margolin, a real estate broker who recently lost an appeal on a GST case involving the 2012 purchase (and 2014 sale) of a newconstruction house at 116 Riding Mountain Dr. in Richmond Hill, Ont. Mr. Margolin declined to comment on his case when reached by The Globe and Mail, but the court documents fill in some of the details. Justice Randall Bocock's ruling at the Tax Court of Canada found Mr. Margolin and his spouse, "did not intend to occupy it as their primary residence ... [and] neither of them actually used the ... property as their primary place of residence."

The Crown introduced into evidence readings from the gas and electricity meters that effectively showed little consumption of those utilities in the five months between when the house was completed by the builder and when Mr. Margolin sold it.

Mr. Margolin had several properties that he shuttled between, but movers and his cleaning lady testified that he essentially used Mountain Drive as a storage locker.

He also did not disclose that he bought and sold another newconstruction house in Vaughan, Ont. referred to as "Lynvest" in the ruling, until asked by the Crown lawyers during the trial.

"The Lynvest property was closed only 45 days before the acquisition of [116 Riding Mountain] and Lynvest was sold mere days before [116 Riding Mountain] was acquired, all escaping Mr. Margolin's initial recall," Justice Bocock wrote. The ruling notes that those other houses are not part of this case, even though Mr. Margolin told the court he was seeking to avoid "trouble" on them.

During all this time, and to this day, it appears Mr. Margolin primarily lived in a $2-million house on an 11-acre lot in King City, Ont.

These $24,000 GST rebates seem like small potatoes for the government, but once proved, they become the thin edge of the wedge to pry open and reassess the tax status of those flipped properties.

Most homeowners are aware that if they sell a newly purchased primary residence within one year they might be subject to capital gains taxes on 50 per cent of any profit they make on the sale. But if the CRA finds that the owner to be a habitual flipper, who doesn't live in the homes and that they are bought and sold as an occupation, they will assess those proceeds as business income and apply a tax rate to 100 per cent of the profits on any property. Not to mention, if tax filings are incorrect, the government can assign penalties - with interest compounded monthly - that back-date to the time of the original incorrect filing.

That's why Mr. Kutyan is seeing a lot more home flippers coming to him for legal advice and representation.

"We've been successful for some of these flippers to somehow at least get the penalties dropped and at least get a capital gains treatment," he says. His advice for flippers is to plan ahead and budget to pay your taxes.

"What's that saying? 'Pigs get fat and hogs get slaughtered?'"

Associated Graphic

A real estate broker recently lost an appeal on a GST case related to this house at 116 Riding Mountain Dr., in Richmond Hill, Ont. The judge found the owner never intended for the house to be a primary residence.

Craft brewers reach for the can
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Aluminum is on a roll as small, independent producers embrace a once-maligned container long associated with Big Beer
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By BEPPI CROSARIOL
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P17


Since opening its doors 2½ years ago, the Exchange Brewery in Niagara-on-theLake, Ont., distinguished itself with an eye-catching packaging format, a 750-millilitre, black, Italian-style sparkling-wine bottle.

Robin Ridesic, the craft operation's owner and chief executive officer, says her beers are made using pricy ingredients and are designed to accompany a meal, even to improve in the cellar. The heavy, elegantly curved bottle seemed apt. "We want that experience of sharing, an experience similar to what you have with wine, where you pair it with food and have the bottle on the table," she said.

As of last month, though, those containers have been joined by some unlikely company in the brewery's retail space: cans.

When Ridesic launched two wheat beers for summer, a Berliner weisse and a hefeweizen, she turned not to glass but to aluminum. Cans, she said, seemed like a better fit for a duo of refreshing, lower-alcohol styles that would likely be consumed more casually in the outdoors.

With that move, the Exchange Brewery is also riding a major wave in the craft-beer industry.

Frowned upon for decades by beer snobs, the proletarian can once closely associated with global megabrands has increasingly become the vessel of choice for small, independent producers.

"Historically, it was the macro brews, it was the Coors and the Buds of the world, but now we're seeing craft brewers who are saying, 'You know what? We can put a better beer in a can but still appeal to that same casual usage occasion,' " Ridesic said.

In the trend-setting U.S. market, cans in the craft-beer segment grew to 28.5 per cent of packaged production last year, up from about 12 per cent in 2012, according to the Boulder, Colo.based Brewers Association, which represents more than 4,000 small and independent producers.

"Increasingly, a lot of the growth in the market is coming from the smallest brewers," said Bart Watson, chief economist for the trade group. "And we're seeing more of the smaller brewers go initially heavily into cans, which certainly wasn't the case a few years ago."

In Canada, cans advanced by 28 per cent between 2013 and 2017 versus a decline of 31 per cent for bottles in the same period, according to Luke Harford, president of Beer Canada, a trade association. Much of that growth, he added, has occurred east of Manitoba, where the format was less entrenched than in the West. Nationwide, cans now represent 60 per cent of beer sales by volume versus 46 per cent in 2013 (although Beer Canada's numbers include big producers and imports as well as small players).

Elsewhere in the craft world, from Europe to South America to Australia, aluminum is on a roll.

In Britain, where the metal cylinders go by the slang term "tinnies," sales of craft beer in cans shot up 327 per cent between January, 2017 ,and August, 2017, according to market tracker Nielsen. Cans in Britain now represent a quarter of craft beer sold at retail.

Credit much more than barbecue-and-picnic "usage occasions" for the sea change. Producers list a litany of other advantages that have struck a chord with millennials in particular, including, not least, the extra space on cans for punchy graphics, which also offer brewers a point of differentiation in the crowded craft-beer market.

Some, playing the virtue card, boast that metal is infinitely recyclable and that lightweight aluminum results in a smaller carbon footprint as beer gets trucked to market.

Arguably most compelling of all is flavour, a point that might surprise die-hard bottle fans illogically afraid of a "metallic" taste.

"Beer in cans will stay fresher for 30 more days than in a bottle," said Ben Reeder, a co-founder and marketing manager of Backcountry Brewing, a 14-month-old producer in Squamish, B.C., which committed exclusively to cans for its packaged product as a core part of its business plan. That consideration can be especially important for heavily hopped styles such as trendy India pale ales, which quickly lose their aromatic appeal.

Reeder adds that canning lines make it possible to fill to the brim with virtually no air gap, protecting against the ravages of oxidation. And metal, being opaque, is the perfect sunblock for ultraviolet light, another flavour foe.

Advantages aside, the boom likely would not have occurred without the rise of an enabling technology, the microcanning line. Smaller systems have suddenly rendered affordable a tool previously available only to industrial giants.

Microcanning's self-proclaimed inventor is Cask Brewing Systems of Calgary, which has installed more than 875 lines in 46 countries, including the United States, Australia, Chile, South Africa, New Zealand and Bolivia.

Many companies now also operate mobile canning lines, permitting tiny breweries, such as the Exchange, to set up for a day to package small batches without having to invest in permanent equipment.

In the craft industry, perhaps no brewery has done more to put the can on a pedestal than one of Cask's early customers, the revered Oskar Blues Brewery of Colorado. Ironically, that state also is home to Coors, the multinational brand that introduced the 100per-cent recyclable all-aluminum two-piece can in 1959, later famously dubbed the "silver bullet." In 2002, Oskar Blues launched what it calls "the original craft beer in a can," a heavily hopped potation named Dale's Pale Ale. Three years later that beer was chosen as the best of 24 American pale ales by a New York Times tasting panel, vying against other U.S. offerings packaged in bottles, some of which were dismissed as less than fresh.

Then in 2003, a Vermont brewpub called the Alchemist was born, and it would take the can manifesto to a new, and controversial, extreme. The establishment, located in the village of Waterbury, better known as the home of Ben & Jerry's ice cream, soon blossomed into a full-scale cult brewery on the strength of a hop monster called Heady Topper, now widely ranked among the best beers in North America.

In a claim often dismissed by beer geeks and hipster brewers as nothing but shrewd marketing, Alchemist founders John and Jen Kimmich insist Heady Topper tastes better when sipped, yes, straight from the pop top. Indeed, around the rim of every tallboy they produce is a bold commandment: "Drink from the can!"

Amusingly, even some finedining restaurants in Vermont have bought in, as I discovered on a recent visit to an upscale Waterbury establishment called Michael's on the Hill before making my pilgrimage to the Alchemist, where I loaded up the trunk with a couple of cases of fine brew.

Spotting Heady Topper on the restaurant's drinks list, I placed my order. Then it came, a single can, no stemware, carried to the table on a tray, eventually set before me on the crisp white tablecloth.

Half expecting to be scolded by the waitress, I asked if, as a wine nerd, I might be permitted to have a clean glass for comparison tasting's sake. She acquiesced. "If you want one, I'll bring you one."

Dutifully, I alternated, sipping from the can and from the fine, tulip-shaped glass. The beer was superb, so mind-bendingly and oddly herbal that I flashed back to the cannabis cloud of a 1978 Eric Clapton concert at Maple Leaf Gardens.

You know what? Heady Topper tasted better from the can.

Associated Graphic

Backcountry Brewing, a 14-month-old producer in Squamish, B.C., uses cans in part because beer stays fresher in them compared with bottles.

'Grenfell Forever in our Hearts': After the blaze
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Deadly fire left deep scars and generated profound anger within the community and across England
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By PAUL WALDIE
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A13


LONDON -- Mohammed Hakim stood quietly near the back of the crowd, clutching a poster filled with pictures of his family and thinking about how he lost everyone in a matter of minutes.

Mr. Hakim's father, mother, two brothers and his sister all perished when flames and smoke filled their apartment on the 17th floor of the Grenfell Tower socialhousing complex on June 14, 2017.

The fire had started behind a refrigerator in an apartment on the fourth floor shortly before 1 a.m.

and it quickly spread throughout the 24-storey building, killing 72 people.

On Thursday, Mr. Hakim joined hundreds of people at the foot of the tower to mark the first anniversary of the fire, the worst tragedy to hit London since the Second World War. Many wore green scarves - the colour adopted by the local community - and carried heart-shaped balloons, while others brought flowers.

There were tears and hugs as the names of the 72 people who died were read out and also during 72 seconds of silence. The tower, still standing, soared above them, coated in white plastic with a giant green heart at the top and the words: "Grenfell Forever in our Hearts."

"It means a lot that everyone has turned up," said Mr. Hakim, who had shared a meal with his family that night before returning to his own home before the fire started. "A year on, obviously it's just as difficult as the day that it happened. It will always be as painful and as raw as it was the day it happened. Being the only living family member is something that I'll have to live with for the rest of my life and it will be extremely painful and hard for me."

The fire has left deep scars and generated profound anger within the Grenfell community and across the country. Several investigations are still under way to figure out what happened, including a public inquiry with more than 500 core participants and a police probe that's looking into possible charges of corporate manslaughter. Prime Minister Theresa May has also been forced to apologize for her government's slow response to the fire, and the local council, which managed the building, has faced intense criticism from residents for allegedly cutting corners on renovations and ignoring repeated warnings about fire safety at Grenfell. There have also been calls to change construction regulations, ban the type of flammable cladding used at Grenfell and reform firefighting procedures.

Grenfell has also come to symbolize Britain's rising economic inequality and its ever-present class divide. The building was part of a collection of socialhousing towers in the northwest corner of Kensington and Chelsea, one of the wealthiest boroughs in Britain and home to Kensington Palace, Notting Hill and some of the most expensive properties in the world. Many of the residents of Grenfell were refugees from Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria, and they've spoken out about how they felt disconnected from the council and the rest of the borough.

They've also noted that even now, one year later, the council has yet to rehouse all of those affected by the fire. Of the 203 Grenfell households needing new homes, only 82 have been rehoused and the remainder are still living in temporary accommodation, such as hotels and serviced apartments. Another 129 families who lived in adjacent buildings that were damaged by the fire also need rehousing, but so far only one family has been moved. The borough has committed £235-million (about $410million) to buy new properties, but a report released this week by the North Kensington Law Centre, which provides free legal advice to former Grenfell residents, found that many of the houses bought by the council need repairs. The report said that "the fact that so much of this housing stock lay empty for up to six months, as it is being made habitable, is illustrative of the fact that many of these purchases were not suitable." The report also criticized the council for taking a "tick-box" approach to assessing families instead of trying to understand their needs.

There's also been growing discontent about how Grenfell residents were treated on the night of the fire. Many were told by firefighters to stay in their apartments even as the fire was sweeping up the outside of the building. That "stay put" advice has been the practice of the London Fire Brigade for decades and it's based on the notion that highrise buildings are built in "compartments," meaning that if a fire breaks out in one section of a building it will be contained there long enough for firefighters to either put it out or evacuate residents. The "stay put" order is also supposed to prevent mass evacuation, which can hamper firefighting and cause injuries.

However, the Grenfell fire quickly developed into an unprecedented blaze that, according to investigators, overwhelmed firefighters.

Many firefighters have told the public inquiry in questioning that they'd never experienced a fire like that and investigators have found examples of a lack of co-ordination and communication between fire crews and commanders. And yet the "stay put" order was not lifted for nearly two hours, raising questions about whether more lives could have been saved had residents been told to evacuate earlier. A report done for the public inquiry has found that by the time the order was lifted, at 2:47 a.m., there were 107 people still in the building. Only 36 got out and 71 died (another survivor died months later from injuries).

However, 187 people ignored the "stay put" order and got out safely much earlier. "Someone in charge was clearly telling the Fire Brigade operators to tell us that firefighters were coming to rescue us," Marcio Gomes, who lived with his family on the 21st floor, told the inquiry. The delay in telling us to evacuate nearly killed us and it did kill my baby son. I have no doubt of that."

Many people such as Virginia Sang, who lives in a building next to Grenfell, hope the investigations will get to the truth about what happened and lead to changes in social policy. "We've just got a big fight ahead of us.

We've got to put all our strength and energy into that fight because we are fighting for decent homes," said Ms. Sang, a publichealth worker who has lived in the complex for 40 years. As she left Thursday's memorial service, Ms. Sang said she was still grieving for the many friends she lost.

"A part of us is gone," she said.

"Our heart is so broken I don't know whether it will ever be mended." When asked what she'd like to see come out of the public inquiry, Ms. Sang paused and said sternly: "Justice. Justice and some people going to prison."

Associated Graphic

On Thursday, people take part in a procession to Grenfell Tower as part of commemorations on the first anniversary of the deadly fire in west London.

DANIEL LEAL-OLIVAS/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

A couple look at tributes left at a memorial wall near Grenfell Tower on Thursday.

SIMON DAWSON/GETTY IMAGES

Police block a road as fire engulfs the Grenfell Tower on June 14, 2017. Several investigations into the blaze are still under way.

DANIEL LEAL-OLIVAS/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

People take part in a silent march commemorating the Grenfell fire victims.

DANIEL LEAL-OLIVAS/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

A woman hugs a firefighter during a silent march on Thursday. Grenfell has come to symbolize Britain's rising economic inequality.

DANIEL LEAL-OLIVAS/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

U.S. commits weight of foreign policy on gut feeling N. Korea will act in good faith
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The U.S. President leaves a historic summit in Singapore with big promises, but little in the way of details
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
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Wednesday, June 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A8


When Donald Trump looks at videos of North Korean artillery drills, he sees beach-front real estate that would make for great condos.

When he reads a vague promise by the rogue state to "complete denuclearization," he sees a firm vow to dismantle a deadly weapons capacity decades in the making.

And when he looks Kim Jongun in the eye, he sees a young dictator he can trust to make real change, despite Mr. Kim formally agreeing only to broad commitments little different from those in the past that have produced few results.

"I know when somebody wants to deal, and I know when somebody doesn't," Mr. Trump said Tuesday, after spending nearly five hours with the North Korean supreme leader in Singapore for an unprecedented summit between sitting heads of the two countries.

"I just feel very strongly, my instinct, my ability or talent - they want to make a deal," Mr. Trump said.

It was on those grounds that the U.S. President said Mr. Kim will not only order the destruction of a missile engine-testing site, but also tear apart his hardwon nuclear arsenal and development program, working together with United States and international experts to verify progress "as fast as it can be mechanically and physically done." The United States, too, Mr. Trump said, will halt joint military exercises with South Korea, a major concession to North Korea.

None of those commitments are contained in a joint statement signed by the two leaders, the formal record of commitments completed Tuesday that includes a new promise by North Korea to repatriate the remains of American soldiers who died in the Korean War, but otherwise lacks the specificity even of documents signed by Pyongyang in years past. It contains no timelines nor any reference to the "complete, verifiable, irreversible denuclearization" that the White House has insisted it must obtain.

Instead, both countries agreed to "join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean peninsula." Mr.

Trump "committed to providing security guarantees to the DPRK," without providing details of what those might be.

Mr. Trump has nonetheless committed the weight of American foreign policy to a gut feeling that North Korea, a country that has frequently threatened the nuclear destruction of the United States, is prepared to act in good faith far beyond the specific text of its agreement. "We're prepared to start a new history," Mr. Trump said, echoing a statement by Mr. Kim that "the world will see a major change."

Mr. Kim's regime is accused of perpetrating atrocities on its impoverished populace and executing rivals. But Mr. Trump flattered the North Korean leader as "very talented," a rare person able to "run it tough" when handed the reins of a country at a young age.

Although Mr. Trump insisted he had also raised human-rights issues, his compliments capped an extraordinary day for Mr. Kim, who met the U.S. President in front of a backdrop of red, white and blue flags, North Korea's single star interspersed with the stars and stripes of the American banner. Both men appeared to revel in the making of historic images, smiling, repeatedly shaking hands and taking turns placing hands on each other's backs.

Mr. Trump at one point gave Mr. Kim a thumbs up.

"In this summit, Kim Jong-un is a big winner, I have no doubt about that," said Chun Yung-woo, who was Seoul's top representative at international denuclearization talks a decade ago.

"He gained legitimacy for his tyranny, his rule." In addition, by striding onto the global stage "with Trump on an equal footing, he got all the international recognition that North Korea has been striving for for many decades. In that regard; what Kim Jong-un got was very clear. What the U.S. has gained is unclear."

Indeed, the formal agreement between the two leaders is "a big disappointment," said Han Seung-joo, a former South Korean foreign minister and ambassador to the United States.

"There's no there there, at all.

Just one very weak sentence on denuclearization."

The Singapore statement is "much, much less than a binding deal. It's nothing new, just a reaffirmation of an existing document (already negotiated!)," Michael McFaul, former U.S. ambassador to Russia, wrote on Twitter.

"We gave up a lot for nothing."

Observers, too, remain skeptical that North Korea will actually lay down its nuclear arms, particularly since its attainment of a workable atomic weapon, in addition to long-range missiles believed capable of reaching North America, contributed to Mr. Kim's success in securing talks with a current U.S. president - an achievement that eluded his father and grandfather.

"Kim got to this point of appearing as an equal with an American president because he has nuclear weapons, and because that deterrent has solidified," said Adam Cathcart, a lecturer at Britain's University of Leeds who is founder and editor of Sino-NK, an online publication for academic discussion of issues around North Korea.

Still, more discussion is expected between the two countries. Mr. Trump said he would invite Mr. Kim to the White House if more progress is made. Sung Kim, a U.S. ambassador who has worked on the recent talks with North Korea, acknowledged that "there's a lot of work left," but said the "two sides are committed to working intensively."

"Let's keep in mind that this is just the very beginning. We don't need to be too critical about the summit or call it a waste of time," said Lu Chao, director of the Border Study Institute at the Liaoning Academy of Social Sciences, and one of China's foremost experts on North Korea.

"From my perspective, ceasing the long hostility toward the U.S. could be North Korea's biggest accomplishment today." The agreements made in Singapore "pave the way for the coming stable process of denuclearizing the peninsula," he said.

Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi cheered a meeting that created "a new history."

"This is exactly the goal we have hoped for," Mr. Wang said Tuesday.

If nothing else, both Mr. Kim and Mr. Trump appeared to enjoy their time together, and the immense attention it received.

Sitting down for a lunch of avocado salad, fresh octopus, short rib and braised cod, Mr. Trump called out: "Getting a good picture everybody? So we look nice and handsome and thin? Perfect."

At another point, as the two leaders walked through the luxury Capella Hotel that hosted the summit, television cameras caught the North Korean interpreter relaying remarks from Mr.

Kim: "Many people in the world will think of this as a ... form of fantasy ... from a science-fiction movie," he told Mr. Trump.

With reporting by Alexandra Li

Associated Graphic

North Korean leader Kim Jong-un and U.S. President Donald Trump both appeared to revel in the making of historic images - smiling, repeatedly shaking hands and taking turns placing hands on each other's backs.

DOUG MILLS/ THE NEW YORK TIMES

A North Korean aide places a cleaned pen, above right, for North Korea's Mr. Kim to sign a joint agreement, top, with Mr. Trump at the Capella Hotel in Singapore on Tuesday. Photos from the event made it to front pages around the world.

TOP: SAUL LOEBSAUL LOEB/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE LEFT: CHUNG SUNG-JUN/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE RIGHT: JONATHAN ERNST/REUTERS

Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim take a walk after their lunch. Both leaders agreed to 'join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean peninsula.'

DOUG MILLS/THE NEW YORK TIMES

Parliament ends decades of cannabis prohibition
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Historic vote paves way for recreational marijuana to be sold in September
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By DANIEL LEBLANC, LAURA STONE, MIKE HAGER
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


OTTAWA, VANCOUVER -- In a historic vote, Parliament has changed Canadian law to lift the 95year-old prohibition on cannabis and free millions of adults to openly smoke, ingest or grow the drug without fear of a criminal record.

The adoption in the Senate of Bill C-45, the Cannabis Act, means that a legal, multibillion-dollar industry is set to appear in Canada, which will join Uruguay as one of the few countries where cannabis is legal nationwide.

Illegal since 1923, cannabis for recreational use is expected to go on sale in early or mid-September, with cabinet setting a final date after the legislation receives royal assent.

In the meantime, the act will allow licensed producers to start shipping dried cannabis to approved retailers across the country and to set up mail delivery.

The government has said its goal is to remove a profitable product from the hands of organized crime, educate children and youth on the dangers of the drug and give adults a safer supply.

The Conservatives in the House of Commons and the Senate had vigorously opposed the legislation, which will fulfill a Liberal promise from the 2015 federal election. The measure was supported by the NDP in the House and a majority of independents in the Senate. In the last stage of the legislative process, senators adopted the legislation in a vote of 52-29 on Tuesday evening.

"It's been too easy for our kids to get marijuana - and for criminals to reap the profits," Prime Minister Justin Trudeau tweeted on Tuesday night. "Today, we change that. Our plan to legalize & regulate marijuana just passed the Senate. #PromiseKept" While they bowed to the wishes of the House of Commons, some independent senators were angry that the federal government rejected their proposal to allow Quebec and Manitoba to ban home cultivation of cannabis.

"Even though I am convinced of the benefits of legalization, I would have wished for it to be done while respecting the point of view of all parties," independent Senator Raymonde Saint-Germain said before voting for the bill. "We have witnessed a lack of openness and flexibility on the side of the federal government."

Manitoba Premier Brian Pallister said his government still plans to ban growing the plant at home for recreational purposes because police have warned that homegrown cannabis could be diverted to the black market.

"We have the right to make our laws. We'll make them and we want people to abide by them because we think it's in the best interests of all," he said.

The federal government is scheduled to offer an official reaction to the adoption of the legislation on Wednesday.

The next steps will include releasing the regulations for the cannabis trade, including approving edible products within a year, and working with Indigenous communities to smooth out the negative consequences of the transition to legal cannabis.

In addition, the government will start to look for a way to clear the criminal records of hundreds of thousands of Canadians who were convicted of simple possession under prohibition. The Conservatives confirmed that if they win the next election, they will not return to prohibition.

"Once it's been implemented, it's like the toothpaste will be out of the tube. And so it will be left to the Conservative Party to clean up the mess," Conservative MP Marilyn Gladu said, citing concerns about traffic deaths related to drug impairment and workplace safety.

Proponents of legalization have been advocating for looser drug laws in Canada for decades, but the government opted for a strictly regulated market for cannabis. Critics have argued the changes will promote increased use of the drug among all age groups, boost the number of impaired drivers and endanger young consumers.

Jeremy Jacob, president of the Canadian Association of Medical Cannabis Dispensaries, welcomed the new law, but said the legal regime will still have much to improve upon. Mr. Jacob, whose organization represents about 65 illegal marijuana shops in Western Canada, called for separate retail access for medical cannabis patients and removing the excise tax on this medicine.

"We're happy that it's happening - we think it's the best thing for our society to destigmatize this plant, normalize it and use it for all its benefits," said Mr. Jacob, who co-founded Vancouver's illegal Village Bloomery dispensary just weeks before the Liberals swept to power in 2015.

Bill C-45 was shepherded throughout the legislative process by Liberal MP Bill Blair, a former chief of the Toronto Police Service, who is the parliamentary secretary to the Ministers of Health and Justice. In a recent interview, he said Canadian law is simply catching up to the fact that thousands of Canadians smoked cannabis daily.

"When a third of the population is ignoring the law, you really have to look at the law," he said.

Bill C-45 was heavily influenced by a 2016 report from a ninemember task force chaired by former Liberal cabinet minister Anne McLellan, which consulted widely in Canada and looked at the experience of Washington state and Colorado, where cannabis use is legal.

"This is a big change for this country," Ms. McLellan said in an interview. "The change is as much a change in thinking, in the psychology around almost 100 years of prohibition and criminalization of this plant called cannabis."

Brent Zettl, who headed a Saskatoon-based company that grew marijuana under federal regulations for the past 16 years, said implementing the massive policy shift will be challenging.

"There still is a lot of people within the government who simply don't agree with it, and it's because there are so many uncertainties that we're not really ready for," said Mr. Zettl, whose CanniMed Therapeutics Inc. lost a takeover battle with rival producer Aurora Cannabis Inc. earlier this year. "As we roll this out there's going to be lots of pain everywhere."

Mr. Zettl said Canada should have reformed its medical system first to allow patients to buy their products through pharmacies - not just Health Canada's mail-order system. As the bill stands, patients will have to continue to buy cannabis products through the mail or use recreational retail outlets.

Quebec's Minister Responsible for Canadian Relations said it was "extremely disappointing" that Ottawa has not respected the province's ban on home growing, which was passed into provincial law last week and will go ahead.

"Federalism allows for solutions to differ from one region of the country to the other," JeanMarc Fournier said in a statement.

"The federal government would thus have been better advised to respect the different approaches that will allow us, in 3 or 5 years, to agree upon those that will have brought the best results."

All producers of cannabis will have to be licensed by Health Canada, while provinces will oversee the distribution of the dried cannabis and oils to the retail market.

Canadian adults (the minimum age varies by province) will be able to carry up to 30 grams, with stiff new penalties for providing the drug to minors.

Revenues from the legal market are expected to be used, at least initially, to cover costs related to policing, enforcement, setting up public distribution networks and creating public-awareness campaigns. Cannabis will be subject to an excise tax of $1 a gram, or 10 per cent on sales of more than $10, with Ottawa keeping 25 per cent and the rest going to provinces and municipalities.

Associated Graphic

Jeremy Jacob and Andrea Dobbs stand on Tuesday in Vancouver's Village Bloomery dispensary, which they co-founded in 2015.

BEN NELMS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tim Hortons franchisee group threatens protests over licence renewal dispute
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By MARINA STRAUSS
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


Some Tim Hortons franchisees are threatening a public protest if management does not agree to overturn a decision to revoke the licence of a restaurant owner who was critical of the company.

Dissident franchisees are drawing a line in the sand over the case of Mark Kuziora, a restaurant owner who this spring became a flashpoint figure in the escalating battle with the coffee-and-donut chain after the company decided not to renew his licence when it expires in August.

A long-time Tim Hortons franchisee, Mr. Kuziora is active in the Great White North Franchisee Association (GWNFA), formed last year by unhappy restaurant owners to take on the company's austere management practices, which franchisees say is at risk of damaging the brand and their bottom line.

Mr. Kuziora signed his name to a GWNFA lawsuit alleging the company misused franchisee advertising funds. In April, he sued the company over the revoking of his licence.

Now, franchisees are warning they will protest at the company's head office in Oakville, Ont. on June 20 - potentially hurting the brand further - if Alex Macedo, the new president of Tim Hortons, refuses to meet an association representative to try to find a middle ground in their dispute and reverse the Kuziora decision.

"Keeping in mind your refusal to acknowledge the GWNFA and its franchisee members, I believe we are at a point where it is crucial that a resolution be [found] as soon as possible," Donna Willett, a Tim Hortons franchisee and a director of the GWNFA, said in a letter Friday to Mr. Macedo and Daniel Schwartz. Mr. Schwartz is chief executive of Restaurant Brands International Inc., which was created in late 2014 by Brazilian private equity firm 3G Capital to merge its Burger King chain with newly acquired Tim Hortons.

"Our brand has been damaged, we can't change that, both sides have made mistakes, we can't reverse that either, but we still have a strong brand and we have a future," Ms. Willett said.

"We can continue to pull each other through the mud, point fingers and watch as our sales plunge and competent franchisees exit the chain, or we can act responsibly, and with everyone's best interest at heart and take the steps necessary to begin to resolve this."

The clock is ticking for the two sides to find some common ground. Sales have weakened at existing restaurants, and Mr.

Schwartz has vowed to improve Tim Hortons's performance with renovated restaurants, improved product quality and better communications.

"We still have plenty more work to do," Mr. Schwartz told the parent company's annual meeting last Thursday. "We don't think that we're going to be able to fix things overnight. But we are very confident that with the team we have in place and strong restaurant owners, we're going to drive this business forward."

The dissident franchisees say they want the company's executives to make good on their pledge to work more closely with restaurant owners.

Mr. Macedo had initially agreed to meet this Tuesday with association president David Hughes, acting as an individual franchisee and not as the association's leader. But Mr. Macedo cancelled the meeting last Thursday after he found out The Globe and Mail was aware of the rendezvous.

The company has criticized its franchisees for speaking to the media. It has refused to recognize the association and has instead worked through an elected franchisee advisory board. But the association says the board is simply a rubber stamp for corporate decisions and has no real voting power.

Company spokesman Patrick McGrade said management has planned several meetings with the advisory board in the next two weeks on key elements of its "winning together" plan, including working together on new advertising, packaging and menu options. He said the board votes on some matters, but its goal is to come to a consensus on issues about which management seeks advice.

"The elected advisory board is the only representative voice for all restaurant owners - which is why we work with them extensively to make our plans better," Mr. McGrade said in an e-mail.

"These meetings are where all the decisions are being made with restaurant owners about delivering the best guest [customer] experience and growing the brand here in Canada.

"We really believe in the value of the elected advisory board and their prominence, governance and role in the business.

Alex has committed to an open line of communication with all our restaurant owners, through their elected advisory board and through regular conversations with individual restaurant owners. It is not our practice to share the details of any individual meetings or conversations with the media."

But the association is pleading with the company to work with it to resolve their differences and reverse its decision on Mr. Kuziora or face a public protest that nobody wants or needs.

"Mark Kuziora's licence should not have been revoked," says the letter from franchisee Ms. Willett. "We all reviewed Mark's evaluations dating back to 2014 and all agreed that there were no significant issues in his locations that would lead our corporate office to make the decision they did.

"Franchisees feel strongly about Mark and the decision RBI made! ... If this decision does not get reversed they will be there on the 20th. I think this would be disastrous, for the brand."

A company executive has said Mr. Kuziora's licence renewal was denied because of "a documented history of problems ... including food-safety violations and not meeting a number of other Tim Hortons operating standards." Mr. Kuziora refutes that.

Meanwhile, Mr. Macedo, a former Burger King executive who helped patch up tense relations with those franchisees, says he's keen to do the same at Tim Hortons, vowing to work collaboratively with restaurant owners through the advisory board.

There's a business case for Tim Hortons to find a resolution.

Peter Sklar, retail analyst at BMO Nesbitt Burns, said he's concerned that Tim Hortons's restaurant economics could remain a prominent issue for franchisees.

"One of the primary contentious issues with franchisees has been the recent deterioration of store economics, particularly in Ontario, where minimum wage increased 22 per cent at the beginning of the year," Mr. Sklar said last week.

Franchisees did not get corporate approval to increase their prices enough to cover steeper costs, Mr. Sklar said, while arch rival McDonald's Canada raised its menu prices to offset higher costs.

But Mr. Schwartz said that franchisees are enjoying better financial results. He said last week franchisees' average profit increased 12 per cent to $320,000 since the end of 2014 when 3G Capital acquired Tim Hortons to form Restaurant Brands.

Mr. Hughes, who owns four Tim Hortons restaurants in Lethbridge, Alta. (after handing back a fifth one to the company this year), said he's disappointed that Mr. Macedo cancelled their Tuesday meeting.

"We are still hopeful that he will reschedule, since we believe it is imperative that at some point in time RBI will see the logic in recognizing our association, which represents well over half of the Tim Hortons chain," Mr.

Hughes said.

Associated Graphic

Dissident Tim Hortons franchisees are asking the company to work with them to resolve their differences and to reverse its decision to revoke a licence for one restaurant owner.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A man passes a Tim Hortons restaurant in Toronto in 2016. BMO Nesbitt Burns retail analyst Peter Sklar says he's concerned that Tim Hortons's restaurant economics could remain a prominent issue for franchisees.

EDUARDO LIMA/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Some assembly required
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Is the future of furniture flat-packed? Matthew Hague reports on a growing sector of the furnishings industry that is relying on DIY to deliver high-quality pieces at affordable prices
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By MATTHEW HAGUE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P6


Last year, Amanda Durepos realized it was time to make an important change. She was living in a city she loved, Montreal, had a job she loved as a marketing professional and had a nice place in a classic Montreal triplex, the kind with a wrought-iron stoop that twists up from the street. But, after reaching her late 20s, she knew it was no longer okay to be using an old, threadbare sofa. "It was quite gross," she says. "It was handed down from friends, who had it handed down to them from other friends."

Durepos's replacement piece, which she describes as her "first, real adult furniture," is a significant step up. Midnight-blue with mid-centurymodern lines and upholstered in a plush, tufted velvet, the couch is more than seven feet long, so it can comfortably seat several of her friends, and is immaculate.

And although the price, at just over $1,500, wasn't cheap - "I saved for it," she says. "It took six months before I finally took the plunge" - for the same construction and durability, it could have easily cost $2,500 or more at a traditional bricks-and-mortar retailer.

Instead, Durepos made the purchase sight unseen from a Vancouverbased online retailer called Article, which shipped it flat-packed for her to put together herself. This some-assembly-required approach, popularized over the past half-century by Swedish manufacturer IKEA, was once exclusively synonymous with massproduced, relatively flimsy goods. But now, even high-design, top-quality furniture makers, many of which only sell online, are adopting the model for its numerous benefits.

Flat-packing tends to be the cheapest, easiest and fastest way to ship something, which therefore reduces the price of the furniture - even when it's made from expensive materials.

And furniture that can be easily assembled, disassembled and moved multiple times is critical for a generation of globe-trotting nomads. Lastly, when the furniture is a kit of parts, if one piece gets damaged, the whole thing doesn't become waste - making it more sustainable.

According to Lauren Kase, head of marketing for Detroit-based furniture business Floyd, "there is a broken model of frustration around furniture," she says. "You basically have two options. Drive out to somewhere suburbanesque and Tetris your car up with things that are cheap and not built to last. Or buy something highend design that takes 14 weeks and is superexpensive."

Floyd offers a different solution. Its minimal, industrial-style furniture, most of which costs less than US$1,000, is made from hearty materials - Baltic birch, linoleum, painted steel - for long-term durability. It's all sold online, can be delivered in as little as four to seven hours in major U.S.

centres, such as New York and San Francisco and is engineered to be assembled, disassembled and moved multiple times without breaking down. The Floyd table, for example, looks like weighty wood but has a hollowed-out top so that it's light to carry around.

"I think the whole landscape has changed so much," Kase says. "More young people are living in cities, moving more frequently and need the convenience of fast deliveries and easy assembly and disassembly. But a lot of people are also moving away from a culture of disposability. It's amazing for people to have long-lasting pieces - to be able to say, here is my grandmother's design." Floyd is only one of a dozen or so companies that have opened in the past five years offering high-end, flatpacked furniture. The incentive for such businesses is clear. In Canada alone, the overall furniture market was $11.4-billion in 2017, which represents a strong 8.6-per-cent growth from three years earlier, according to federal statistics. Sales are dominated by flat-pack giants - IKEA sells 19 per cent of Canada's furniture, and Leon's Furniture Ltd. (which owns Leon's and the Brick) sells close to 23 per cent - but any company that can offer a similar convenient product, perhaps at a higher quality, stands to gain as the market continues growing, even if the prices are higher.

Vancouver-based Article, where Durepos bought her couch, was founded in 2013 by four software engineers who wanted to streamline the often cumbersome process of picking, purchasing and waiting for new, high-end furniture. Everything is made with durable materials (oak, marble) and arrives a few weeks after ordering.

So far, the company's success has been staggering. After only three years in business, it reached $100-million in sales. This year, the company is projected to double that volume to $200million.

Part of the winning formula is that the furniture is well-considered, not just aesthetically, but in terms of the at-home, DIY construction process.

"We are always testing assembly of our products in our office," says Maureen Welton, Article's vice-president of creative and design.

Durepos's sofa was easy to put together. "A friend offered to help, but I put it together myself," she says. "It came with Ikea-like diagrams and took less than 15 minutes."

Creating highly durable, easy-to-assemble pieces also interests San Francisco-based designer Ros Broughton.

His family has been manufacturing furniture for four generations.

But while his forebears used to make heirloom-worthy, solid-wood pieces - the kind that came preassembled and couldn't be broken apart without destroying them - the proliferation of globalized, cheap yet disposable goods in his lifetime rendered that obsolete. Or maybe not.

At his company, Fyrn, he maintains his family tradition of working with the best hardwoods - oak, walnut - often by hand. But he's also created a proprietary, highly standardized, kitof-parts system called Stemn, which consists of sleek steel fasteners that make for easy at-home assembly and disassembly (not to mention an unusual aesthetic - the mix of metal and wood looks like Shaker craftsmanship updated with a Robocop twist).

The pieces are built to last - to date, most of the customers have been restaurants and bars, which tend to be hard on furniture. "The hardware is exquisite," notes restaurateur Margherita Sagan, who has used Fyrn chairs in two establishments, San Francisco's Noon All Day and Piccino. "And the chairs themselves are the most comfortable and customizable I have ever come across."

But the modularity is also practical: If one piece breaks, you don't have to throw the chair out, you can simply order a replacement part.

Fyrn's pieces and parts can be expensive. One stool, the Stanyan, costs US$615 each. David Charne, Fyrn's cofounder and business manager, would like to scale the manufacturing process so that the price can come down. "I hope that, eventually, middle-class homes will have these pieces," he says.

"Especially because they don't have the same hidden costs, in terms of workers' rights and environmental damage." (Fyrn manufacturers everything in San Francisco.)

For Durepos, the higher price of her sofa wasn't an issue in the end. She would "100-per-cent" buy more highend, flat-packed furniture, she says. Instead, the problem is that upgrading her couch had the "unintended effect of making everything else in my place look bad in comparison," she says. "My IKEA coffee table, for example. I think it's going to be hitting the curb soon."

Associated Graphic

This couch from Article, top, arrives flat-packed for customers to put together themselves. Other design-forward flat-packed furniture from the company includes, above from top to bottom: the Mira lounger, Madera oak desk, Clarus walnut coffee table and Sven sofa.

Is Ronaldo about to definitively push Messi into second place?
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If you miss your moment at the World Cup, the fans will happily turn on you
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Thursday, June 21, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B14


TORONTO -- As his shift ended on Wednesday, Cristiano Ronaldo began strolling around the pitch with a little smirk, amiably patting the shoulders of men still working around him.

That's a new one. We're used to a different sort of Ronaldo near the end of World Cup games - scowling Ronaldo, arms-flapping Ronaldo, shrieking Ronaldo.

But things are going exceedingly well this time around. Ronaldo is busy adding to his best-in-history credentials. Just as important, his only rival is in the process of chipping away at his own.

There are 736 participants at this World Cup, but only two really matter. Ronaldo and Lionel Messi have been that matched pair for a decade.

Nothing separates them in terms of skill and achievement, but a reputational gap is starting to appear in Russia. Is this the summer Ronaldo definitively pushes Messi into second place?

You won't hear either of them say anything about it. These two are like certain old, married couples - they no longer speak, but have resigned themselves to the fact they're stuck together forever.

Messi has always been the easier to like, largely because he is so inscrutable. All we know about him is what we see on TV: the cheeky grin, the weeble-wobble walk, the on-field bursts. He's sport's Charlie Chaplin - pure and endearing physicality.

By contrast, Ronaldo talks. A lot.

"Too much humility isn't good," he once said. The line ought to be carved on his tombstone.

We've reached a point of consensus on how good they are, if we still disagree strongly on how they make us feel. Dedicated contrarians may twist themselves into rhetorical knots comparing eras, positions and bulk weight of trophies, but if this is a "Who would you choose first?" proposition, these are the top two names in history under consideration. Statistically, they are near perfect contemporaries. But until a couple of years ago, most would have picked Messi as slightly the better.

He has a more alluring backstory, hobbled in childhood by illness. His was the more anticipated arrival, a youth academy legend long before he toddled onto the global stage. He debuted for the greatest team ever, FC Barcelona in the mid-aughts.

The first act of his professional sporting life could not have been smoother.

Ronaldo had a tougher time of it. He came up hard in rural Portugal, and arrived with a reputation as a whiner. On his Manchester United debut, he had ribbons tied into his hair - presumably to create an equestrian effect as he sprinted - and became a running joke.

His first couple of years in England were a qualified bust. Here was another theatrical sort from the continent more concerned with doing stepovers than anything useful. Even his name was a problem - there was already a famous Ronaldo.

First impressions are resilient. They followed both men well into their late 20s.

Messi was an uncomplaining professional.

Ronaldo was a perpetual child who did not like sharing his toys.

Perhaps that's why no one discusses Messi's built-in advantages. He'd lived in Spain since he was a grade-schooler. He went up the ranks with the same tight group of friends. He's never played on a middling or even mildly struggling club team. Though he was demonstrably the best among his peers, he was not expected to carry the burden of leadership. All he had to do was score goals and appear humble.

Ronaldo had an itinerant childhood, functionally raising himself from the age of 12.

At 18, he moved away and had to absorb a new culture and a different language. Those first United teams were good, but not great.

Ronaldo dragged doubt around behind him like an anchor for a long time. He didn't arrive as a truly elite player until he was 23. Three years his junior, Messi had got there first.

Ronaldo moved to Spain in 2009.

Though now in direct competition, each continued to pretend the other did not exist. When trapped into commenting, they'd hide behind "we bring out the best in each other" banalities.

A more telling story - after the 2012 season, Ronaldo, as is his annual habit, began musing about leaving Madrid. The club's president threatened to spend the club bankrupt buying Messi to replace him. Ronaldo decided to stay.

The rivalry settled into stasis. They traded scoring titles and silverware. Neither man made a definitive impression in a World Cup. Few observers felt bothered to change their initial assessment.

But in the past while, Ronaldo has begun to inch ahead. He's been named world's best player in four of the past five years. Portugal won an unlikely European Championship in 2016, just as Messi's Argentina was once again pooching its South American equivalent. Things were beginning to tip the other way.

Russia 2018 was set up as the final measuring stick. If neither man separated himself from the other during their last chance to do so while in their primes, we'd agree to disagree from then on.

Ronaldo scored three goals in his first game - as many as he had in the previous four World Cups combined. Messi was a peripheral figure in his first outing and missed a penalty.

Fifteen years of uninterrupted fawning went out the window. Suddenly, Messi was a choker incapable of rising to the occasion.

His poor mother had to come out on his behalf, saying she had seen him "suffer and cry" over his international disappointments.

His countryman, Hernan Crespo, ran to his defence and, in doing so, got his feet all tangled.

"How many great players didn't win [the World Cup]?" Crespo said. "I don't remember Johan Cruyff or [Michel] Platini doing it?" So now Messi is comparable to a guy who's not even the best French player ever?

On Wednesday, Ronaldo scored the game's only goal early. Portugal's midfield then took the rest of the afternoon off while Morocco swamped them for 90 minutes. Nevertheless, Ronaldo appeared delighted at the way things had gone.

The poverty of support tended to highlight the richness of his own talent. Also, he knows the screw is turning.

On Thursday, Argentina will face an inform Croatia team. It feels absurd to say it of a player of Messi's accomplishments, but his reputation is in play here. People have begun pressing against the pedestal, testing its solidity. If Messi goes over, he has a long way to fall.

This could all flip again with one grand performance. Whatever the case, it will be hard to take anything substantive from this tournament unless one of them wins a world championship. That's the only thing that would end the either/or argument.

It's probably best that we continue to live in doubt. It would be the fair thing.

But it does go to show that iconography is a fickle business, and especially so in soccer. You can do everything right for years - better than anyone's ever done it - and people will love you.

But if you miss your moment at the World Cup, they will happily turn on you.

Ronaldo already knows how that feels.

He's been the villain of the piece for the entire length of this rivalry.

In fact, that feeling may be the only thing that separates him from the enemy who has done more than any friend to define him.

In Germany, a different kind of migrant crisis
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Merkel's coalition teeters as key partner pushes for strict border controls
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By ERIC REGULY
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


ROME -- The new refugee crisis is stretching the frayed ties that bind the European Union and may ultimately cost German Chancellor Angela Merkel her government.

Over the weekend and into Monday, Ms. Merkel scrambled to broker a short-term peace agreement with her coalition government's partner in Bavaria, the Christian Social Union (CSU), which triggered the biggest threat to her reign since the start of her premiership 13 years ago.

CSU Leader Horst Seehofer wants to close Germany's borders to any asylum seekers already registered in other EU countries and, as Germany's interior minister, has executive power to do so. Ms. Merkel, who opened Germany's borders to more than one million refugees in 2015 and 2016, many of them fleeing the Syrian civil war, opposes the idea.

If Mr. Seehofer goes ahead, Ms.

Merkel may have no choice but to fire him and bring in a more pliable minister. If she did, her three-party coalition government may disintegrate, triggering a new election and possibly a leadership race in Ms. Merkel's party, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

By late Monday, it appeared that Ms. Merkel has bought some time by convincing Mr. Seehofer to wait until the EU summit at the end of the month before making his final decision on whether to close Germany's borders. By then, Ms. Merkel aims to have the outline of a new EU-wide asylum system in place or, failing that, a series of bilateral deals with the countries on the front lines of the migration crisis - Italy, Greece and Spain. Her first bilateral meeting on Monday was with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, whose populist, anti-migrant government has shut Italy's ports to migrant ships.

In a Monday column in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Mr. Seehofer agreed that an EU solution was preferable but that "I must have the right to turn people away" if no solution is found. He said the EU summit must "guarantee an effective protection of the external borders and a fair distribution of residency rights, as well as a speedy return of people without residency rights."

Ms. Merkel's gambit may not work. Two weeks is not a lot of time to negotiate a single deal, let alone an EU-wide one. The EU has struggled for years to implement a common migration policy and has failed. "I'm of the view that it will be very hard to achieve a European solution in the short- to medium-term," Stephan Mayer, a top CSU parliamentarian, told German radio on Monday.

In the absence of an EU solution, it is the national governments that are implementing their own harsh migration policies. No one more than Ms. Merkel understands the risk to the European project of a piecemeal approach. "I see [migration] as one of the most decisive issues in holding Europe together," she said over the weekend in her weekly podcast.

In some countries, the politicians advocating anti-migrant positions are rising at the expense of the centrist parties and the EU. The current star among the anti-migrant crowd is Matteo Salvini, Italy's deputy prime minister, interior minister in charge of migration policy and leader of the xenophobic League party. In May, the far-right party formed a coalition government with the anti-establishment Five Star Movement (M5S).

Mr. Salvini, the dominant force in the populist government, even though he is not Prime Minister, used a Donald Trump-inspired "Italians first" message to propel himself to fame and power in a country that has absorbed more than 600,000 undocumented or illegal migrants in recent years.

Last week, Mr. Salvini, in an unprecedented move, stopped a rescue ship laden with more than 600 African asylum seekers from docking in an Italian port. The ship was stranded at sea for several days as it ran short of provisions. A humanitarian catastrophe was avoided when the new Spanish Prime Minister, Pedro Sanchez, allowed the ship to tie up in Valencia. Since then, Mr.

Salvini has told two other rescue ships that they are not welcome in Italian ports.

It is not known whether Ms. Merkel can strike a migrant deal that would satisfy Mr.

Salvini, Mr. Seehofer, her own party and the EU policy makers.

Mr. Salvini wants no more migrants, arguing that burden on the Italian state is excessive and disproportionately large among EU countries. Ms. Seehofer wants asylum seekers in Germany registered elsewhere in the EU (such as Italy, Greece and Spain) to be returned to the countries where they landed, a scenario that Mr. Salvini could never accept. Italy and the EU want an EU-wide deal that would see its migrants dispersed across the bloc. But some countries, notably Poland and Hungary, are already furious that the EU is trying to force them to take migrants they do not want.

Caught in the middle is Ms. Merkel. She does not want to stop migration, although certainly wants it controlled, given the political hammering she took after she opened Germany's borders to the Syrian refugees in 2015. As the champion of the European integration project, her goal is to keep the Schengen system of internal EU borders open. If the borders are closed, she fears that an EU already buffeted by nationalist forces could reach a breaking point.

On Monday, she told reporters that "the European project is at risk."

Francesco Galietti, chief executive of Policy Sonar, a political consultancy in Rome, doesn't see how Ms. Merkel can pull off an easy win on the migration front, given the wildly divergent views across the EU.

"Merkel has a lot to lose; Italy does not," he said. "For Italians, Schengen is already mostly dead because France and Austria have closed their borders to migrants coming from Italy."

In the meantime, the pressure on Ms.

Merkel is proving relentless. At stake is not only her own government, but her legacy as a uniting force. Might the woman who prevented the EU and the euro zone from shattering at the height of the European debt crisis in 2011and 2012 see the migration crisis pull the EU apart? She might, much to the delight of the anti-migrant populists not just in the EU, but also in the United States, chief among them Mr. Trump.

In a Monday tweet, Mr. Trump, himself under pressure for the policy of separating children from their parents at the U.S.-Mexican border, attacked Ms. Merkel and her migration position. He said "the people of Germany are turning against their leadership as migration is rocking the already tenuous Berlin coalition" and that "crime is way up" because of the wave of migrant arrivals.

Crime, in fact, is at the lowest level since 1992 in Germany. But never mind. Ms. Merkel has better things to worry about than Mr. Trump's tweets. The EU is on the cliff edge once again and she needs to figure out a rescue plan, fast.

Associated Graphic

Migrant children are pictured at a Tornillo, Tex., detention centre near the Mexican border on Monday. U.S. President Donald Trump has defended his hard-line approach on immigration, saying Germany and Europe's political crisis is a cautionary tale for U.S. lawmakers.

MIKE BLAKE/REUTERS

Asylum seekers sit next to bodies of dead African migrants on a ship off the Libyan coast on Monday.

MAHMUD TURKIA/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Probe questions payments to Bombardier, Chinese firm
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South African law firm report says 'vast and peculiar' advances made for locomotives
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By GEOFFREY YORK
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


JOHANNESBURG -- An investigation by a South African law firm has found that a state-owned freight company made "vast and peculiar" payments to Bombardier Inc. and a Chinese supplier for hundreds of locomotives that still have not been delivered.

The advance payments, which were later questioned by the company's auditors, were cited by the law firm as examples of apparent "impropriety" and illegality in the locomotive contracts. It says the government should consider suspending the contracts.

Bombardier says it cannot comment on specific details in the report, but it says the report did not find any wrongdoing by Bombardier.

So far it has delivered 13 of the 240 locomotives that were required under the four-year-old contract.

The freight monopoly, Transnet, awarded a US$1.2-billion contract to Bombardier in 2014 to produce 240 electric locomotives within four years. The contract was supported by US$450-million in financing from the Canadian government's export bank, Export Development Canada.

Shelley Maclean, an EDC spokeswoman, would not comment on the law firm's report, but she said EDC is now "actively reviewing" its financing agreement with Transnet.

By March of last year, Bombardier had been paid 38 per cent of the contract amount (about US$450-million) but had not delivered a single locomotive, according to an audit obtained by The Globe and Mail.

The audit by KPMG is an annex to a confidential report by the Werksmans law firm, which was retained by Transnet to investigate allegations of corruption and waste in the controversial US$5-billion locomotive project, the biggest in South African history.

The project was divided among Bombardier, General Electric, China North Rail and China South Rail.

South African media have reported that the two Chinese suppliers made payments to littleknown consulting firms that had close connections to the Gupta brothers, business partners of the son of former president Jacob Zuma, who resigned in February as corruption allegations swirled around him. The Guptas, now the targets of arrest warrants and police raids, were central players in South Africa's biggest postapartheid corruption scandal.

The Guptas gained heavy influence over the management of Transnet in the years leading up to the locomotive contract. An official investigation by South Africa's anti-corruption ombudsperson found evidence of dozens of phone calls between the Guptas and Transnet's chief executive officer, who presided over the locomotive deal.

The Guptas also obtained US$41-million in financing from EDC to purchase a luxury jet from Bombardier, in a sale that Bombardier approved just weeks before the locomotive contract was announced. EDC cancelled the airplane financing deal this year and is now embroiled in a court case against the Guptas to recover the jet.

When the locomotive project was announced in early 2014, it was nearly 40 per cent more expensive than the amount estimated by Transnet's own experts just a few months earlier.

"There is support for a conclusion that the transaction is cloaked in corrupt and reckless activity," the Werksmans report says in its conclusion about the US$5-billion project.

"An appropriately empowered judicial inquiry is required to be instigated by Transnet to properly investigate the various suggestions of bribery and similar unlawful conduct."

The Werksmans report has not been officially released, but The Globe has obtained a copy of the report and the nearly 1,600 pages of documents in its annexes.

The Werksmans report calls for a police investigation to find the reasons for the mysterious increase in the project's cost and to help recover any unlawful payments.

Much of the cost increase "appears inexplicable, unreasonable and excessive," the report says. It cited "various instances of suspicious conduct suggesting at the very least wasteful expenditure or a wilful disregard for the interest of Transnet and a cavalier waste of vast sums of money."

The Werksmans report and the KPMG audit found that the advance payments to Bombardier over the past four years were larger than the original contract had specified. Bombardier's contract had authorized an advance payment of 27 per cent, compared with the 38-per-cent advance payment that it had received by March of last year, the reports said.

Among the payments questioned by the Werksmans investigators was a payment of about US$60-million to Bombardier to compensate it for relocating its locomotive assembly to a Transnet factory in Durban, instead of the earlier planned Transnet factory in Pretoria. A similar payment of about US$60-million was made to China North Rail (CNR) for its own relocation to Durban.

These payments were never verified or approved by Transnet's auditors, the Werksmans report says. An official of CNR had earlier suggested that the relocation cost would be less than US$1-million, the report said.

The audit by KPMG last year warned that Bombardier might need a further payment of about US$200-million because of its "financial difficulty" with the relocation to Durban.

Another Transnet auditor told Werksmans last year that it had identified several "red-flag" items in the relocation cost estimates, supporting the suggestion that the estimates were "not sound." Minority shareholders of CNR told Werksmans that the Chinese company had "significantly misrepresented" the cost of the relocation.

Olivier Marcil, vice-president of external relations at Bombardier, says the company will not comment on the Werksmans investigation because Transnet has not publicly released the report.

"Bombardier was not contacted by Werksmans nor asked by Transnet to participate in any manner," he told The Globe.

"Based on what has been reported in the media, we understand that the report does not suggest any wrongdoing by Bombardier," Mr. Marcil said. "Nevertheless, Bombardier stands ready to assist with any formal inquiry into the project, and we stand behind the integrity of our work."

The rising cost of the locomotive project was "aligned with our client's own choices and requirements," he said.

"The advanced payment structure is a standard practice across the industry, especially in contracts of this type that require critical investments in human capital, tooling and infrastructure from the manufacturer." Bombardier delivered its first locomotive under the contract last December and today has delivered 13 of the planned 240 locomotives, with another 15 in production, the company says.

South Africa's new president, Cyril Ramaphosa, who replaced Mr. Zuma, has vowed a clean-up of corruption in state-owned companies. His minister of public enterprises, Pravin Gordhan, replaced the entire board of directors of Transnet for failing to act on the Werksmans report.

Police investigators and criminal prosecutors are reviewing the evidence from the Werksmans report and other forensic reports on state-owned companies, Mr.

Gordhan said. "At Transnet, governance structures were repurposed to enable corruption and rent-seeking," he said.

In the locomotive project, the corruption allegations have largely focused on China South Rail, one of the two Chinese manufacturers (now merged) that won contracts. China South Rail paid about US$320-million in "consulting fees" to a Guptacontrolled company in Hong Kong to help it win the locomotive contract, according to leaked e-mails reported in South African media.

The Werksmans report found a copy of the consulting contract between a China South Rail affiliate and the Gupta-linked company, signed by a senior Gupta business partner. It concluded that there was enough evidence of bribery in the China South Rail contract to warrant a full investigation.

Where there's smoke
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The Yukon's culinary scene is one of the most unique in the world right now, reports Charlene Rooke. It's the result of a fresh infusion of food-preneurs and a long-time tradition of Indigenous-inspired sustainability
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By CHARLENE ROOKE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P15


The smell of fire: In late spring in the Yukon, it's the warm, smoky whiff of the woodburning stove in a log cabin at Sky High Adventures, warming you after a dog-mushing sprint.

It's the collegial, marshmallowtoasting lick of a campfire at Northern Tales' aurora borealis viewing site one dark midnight.

And it's the welcoming aroma of fish, bread and meat cooking over a huge fire pit behind the Carcross Learning Centre, as tattooed chefs and white-coated culinary students dance around the flames, preparing to serve 150 people at the inaugural First Nations Fire Feast, an offshoot of the late-summer Yukon Culinary Festival. Indigenous Canadian chefs - including Chopped Canada alum Shane Chartrand from Edmonton's Sage and Christa Bruneau-Guenther from Winnipeg's Feast Café Bistro - and local talents are collaborating to celebrate the food and culture of a place that festival organizer Eric Pateman calls "one of the most unique food cultures in the world."

"Seal is probably the most ethical and sustainable protein in the country," Pateman says of one of many featured foodstuffs, long valued by Indigenous people, now being discovered by a new generation of chefs who employ modern techniques and ideas on the plate. From cookbook authors to caterers, from foragers to brewers, they're bringing innovative new tastes of the North to Yukon tables - and hopefully sharing what they learn about collaboration and sustainability with the rest of the country.

For a city of about 30,000, Whitehorse has diverse foodie cred: Within a few downtown blocks, you can eat an elk sausage roll at The Deli, find beer bread made from Winterlong Brewing's spent mash at The Alpine Bakery, drink Firebean coffee from a local bicycle-powered roaster, peruse Uruguayan wine and Japanese whisky at the pocket-sized shop Corked, and pick up some Crottin de Chavignol goat cheese at neighbouring Cultured.

You can eat a triple-A strip at glittering G & P Steak House, dig into Trinidadian comfort food at homey Antoinette's or sip a craft cocktail at Woodcutter's Blanket, a tiny, log-cabin drinking den.

Yet it's impossible to forget that as much as 97 per cent of northern food is trucked in, according to FirstWeEat.ca, the site where retired physician and Dawson City filmmaker Suzanne Crocker is documenting her oneyear experiment - feeding a family of five on 100-per-cent local food. Her exploration of foraging, farms, livestock and producers shows just how difficult but rewarding it can be to eat and celebrate local in the North, a culture that's still developing.

"These are some of the most pristine places in the world, with the cleanest soil and clearest water, and what they're growing is phenomenal," says Pateman, who describes a Dawson City tomato he ate last year as the best he's ever had anywhere. In January, the Yukon hosted its first Meet Your Maker, a local version of the B.C.-based culinary networking event that brings together local food producers and buyers, making local products more available to mainstream retail and dining outlets.

A strong voice of the local food movement, self-styled boreal chef Michele Genest writes for North of Ordinary and authored two boreal cookbooks, plus the recent Cold Spell: Cocktails and Savouries for a Northern Winter, cowritten with retired pilot Jennifer Tyldesley, the creator of Free Pour Jenny's cocktail bitters.

Genest describes Yukoners as natural hunters and gatherers, following the example of Indigenous people who have been practising sustainable food culture for generations. Genest co-authored Vadzaih: Cooking Caribou from Antler to Hoof (vadzaih is Gwich'in for caribou), published by the management board for one of the largest migratory herds on the continent. It makes even the less-appealing parts of the animal accessible to a new generation of hunters through globally inspired recipes for caribou-heart tacos and pulled caribou neck, along with instructions for fielddressing, skinning and traditional preparation of the head.

"The whole idea [for Vadzaih] was collaboration and learning from each other," says Genest, who sees much local inspiration happening among home cooks, food entrepreneurs and local caterers. The Wandering Bison's chef, Luke Legault, served a welcome meal including bison sliders for the 2016 Royal Visit of William and Kate; the Twisted Gourmet's Deborah Turner-Davis created herb and spice blends; and the Wayfarer Oyster Bar team have shucked at catering and pop-up events since 2015, and now are opening a restaurant.

Genest tells me where to look for northern products. For instance, birch syrup was used to glaze the stuffed mushrooms listed on the chalkboard menu at Cafe Balzam, a sophisticated postdip nosh at Takhini Hot Springs, north of Whitehorse.

Spruce tips infuse a pale ale at Winterlong Brewing, a craft-beer haven just south of town. "Living in Vancouver, we always tried to eat local, and up here we try to do the same," says former software engineer Marko Marjanovic, who founded the brewery with his wife, Megan. "The Yukon has that really fierce local support. It's a great breeding ground for entrepreneurs."

Despite the country's largest annual per-capita consumption of beer, Yukon has just two craft breweries: Yukon Brewing was the granddaddy, opening 21 years ago. "There sure seem to be a lot of products that are locally produced now," says co-founder Bob Baxter of today's artisan food wave. "I don't think that they were following our lead necessarily, but it is nice to be part of the movement."

Just don't call it "new." Carson Schiffkorn, proprietor for 23 years of Inn on the Lake at Marsh Lake, 50 kilometres southeast of Whitehorse, says, "This whole movement of local and foraged and game [food] seems new and up and coming, but it's been happening for hundreds of years."

Born in the Yukon, he grew up hunting, fishing, foraging and preserving, then created a hospitality experience based on "very true, grassroots type experiences." At one big communal table in his restaurant, tourists find as much pleasure in dishes such as butter-poached elk as they do in the company of local diners.

From wild low-bush cranberries to sage or turnip greens, "we're always discovering different things that we've never used before," Schiffkorn says. Products that "come from the land or the lakes" and natural cooking methods, including "the flavours of fire, including smoking" define northern Canadian cuisine, he says. Outside the constraints of long-established food cultures such as the mother cuisines of Europe and Asia, "Canada and Yukon are poised in a unique position, because we're experimental by nature," he says.

The cross-pollination of chefs and culinary inspiration from around the world is also a crucial ingredient in today's mix. Yukon College culinary program students were among the 16 local talents pitching in at Fire Feast.

While roasting her rare bison tenderloin, Whitehorse's Coast High Country Inn Kitchen chef Georgette Alsaican says, "It's nice to work with the upcoming culinary class and see what's coming. I'm discovering lots of cool stuff I didn't learn."

Associated Graphic

At the Carcross Learning Centre in Whitehorse, chefs and culinary students prepare to serve up to 150 people at the inaugural First Nations Fire Feast, an offshoot of the late summer Yukon Culinary Festival.

FIRE FEAST

A 'healing' return to the home of Ruth Lowe
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The songwriter behind hits by Frank Sinatra left traces of herself in this ranch-style house in midtown Toronto
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By DAVE LEBLANC
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H11


TORONTO -- 'When I was younger, she had - oh God, this is bringing back some memor... "Tom Sandler stops mid-word as his voice cracks.

"She had bought me a record player," he resumes, scanning his former childhood bedroom. "It was in the shape of a jukebox and it would glow. And my first record was a baseball record with Dizzy Dean or something like that, then Honeycomb by Jimmie Rodgers."

It's likely Mr. Sandler's mother, Ruth Lowe (1914 - 1981), brought that record home for her towheaded, rambunctious son in the early autumn of 1957, after it had hit No. 1 on the Billboard chart. Of course Ms. Lowe knew a winner when she heard one: 17 years before, her masterful I'll Never Smile Again, as performed by Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra and crooned by a fresh-faced Frankie Sinatra, reached No. 1 in July and stayed there until October.

In the fall of 1957, the SandlerLowe family had been living in their ranch-style home in Toronto, just north of Eglinton and Bathurst, for less than a year.

They'd come from Chiltern Hill Road, a street just south of that same intersection. Mr. Sandler, then seven-years-old, remembers staying at his aunt and uncle's house for the weekend, then his uncle driving him 'home' to an unfamiliar place. It would become very familiar, since young Tommy - who was named after Dorsey - wouldn't leave until his parents sold the place in early 1973.

Today, Mr. Sandler, an accomplished photographer, is standing with the son of the couple who bought the place, Lawrence Cohen, who, ironically, was given the same bedroom when his family moved in, and his wife of 39 years, Judi Cohen. Mr. Cohen, a real estate lawyer, and Ms. Cohen, a travel professional, moved into the house in 2000 after Mr. Cohen's father passed away and they're listening, rapt, to Mr.

Sandler's reminiscences.

"It was a great house for parties," is one such memory. Another is: "My mom was incredible, she had the whole house wired for speakers - way before stereo, this was high fidelity!" Mr.

Sandler says with a smile.

Indeed, when the Cohen family bought the house, Ms. Lowe's enormous, mono Wharfedale speaker was right where she'd left it. A third memory is that she had a "trippy" way with interior decorating, with rugs-upon-rugs, banana-shaped cushions in the basement rec room, lots of colour, "artsy" cork-ball drapes in the kitchen, and paintings on practically every wall. "She was not boring," he admits. "I don't know if it's because she came from such poverty, but she was having fun."

It was Ruth Lowe's father passing away at a young age that threw the family into poverty, and, ultimately, put her on the path to becoming one of the most celebrated songwriters of the 20th century. As it has been told many times, Ms. Lowe quit school at 16 and began demonstrating songs on the piano at the Song Shoppe on Yonge Street.

When she was 21, she became an emergency fill-in when bandleader Ina Ray Hutton came to town and one of her all-women Melodears fell ill. Ms. Lowe so impressed Ms. Hutton that she was asked to join the band permanently and toured with them for two years. In Chicago, she met Harold Cohen, a music publicist, and, after a whirlwind romance, the two were married in 1938.

A year later, Mr. Cohen died during a routine kidney operation and the grief-stricken, 25year-old widow returned to a small, rented flat in Ernsbert Court at 723 Bloor St. W. that she shared with her mother, Pearl, and sister, Muriel, known by all as Mickey. It was there that her most famous song poured from her fingers, providing catharsis (the building is still there and if there was ever a place for a Heritage Toronto plaque, this is it!).

Ruth Lowe got in at the CBC and met composer Percy Faith; Mr.

Faith listened to the song and first performed it on his radio show. Ms. Lowe would go on to write Too Beautiful to Last (used in the 1941 movie Ziegfeld Girl) and lyrics to another Sinatra signature song, Put Your Dreams Away (For Another Day), which was so important to Mr. Sinatra that it was played at his 1998 funeral.

While Mr. Sinatra has come up between Mr. Sandler and homeowners Judi and Lawrence Cohen - most music historians agree it was Ms. Lowe's song that changed his focus forever from bandleader to vocalist - right now Mr. Sandler is convinced the Cohens have changed his mother's master bathroom: "I swear it was yellow," he says, shaking his head. Well, the toilet and sink are still yellow and original to the period, but Mr. Sandler isn't sure about the light blue and mauve Vitrolite on the walls: "Maybe I'm wrong," he admits after Ms. Cohen insists the room has never been renovated. The downstairs powder room, all agree, is just as Ms. Lowe and her second husband, Nat Sandler, left it: dove grey Vitrolite (just like Eglinton subway station, the last to retain the original 1954 Vitrolite tiles) with burgundy sink and toilet.

Standing in the foyer now, Mr.

Sandler explains that long-time Honest Ed manager and antique expert Russell Lazare secured the Gothic, stained glass window (the two were great friends) that his mom had installed in the wall between kitchen and foyer. Walking into the living room, Mr.

Sandler stops as he faces the Cohen's couch: "That's where the piano was," he says. "I still have it."

He scans the wide-open living room and remembers a game called "Slide Guitar" that he and his brother would play: "We'd get Pledge and wax the bottom of the guitar and we'd stand back here, like curling, and we'd see if we could get it to the edge of the carpet," he laughs. "But my mom, she loved being creative and inventive ... she thought it was just wonderful that you were expressing yourself."

And speaking of expressing oneself, while the house has undergone a few changes since 1973 - a wall has opened up; the I Love Lucy twin beds are gone from the master bedroom; a back stair was removed; one of the three bathrooms was renovated; and a pool was added to the backyard - there is still much from the LoweSandler era. "We've respected the vintage [parts] of the house," Judi Cohen says matter-of-factly.

Something much more esoteric remains also: music. Lawrence Cohen, who worked at Sam the Record Man as a young man, is an audiophile, and he cranks his stereo up often, filling the home with everything from Sinatra to Sade.

"It's very healing being here," finishes Mr. Sandler, smiling. "I think mom would be very happy."

Associated Graphic

Above: A 1942 picture of Frank Sinatra, left, Ruth Lowe and Tommy Dorsey. Left: The house retains the 1954 Vitrolite tiles, the same ones used in Eglinton subway station. Bottom: Ware's son, Tom Sandler, left, presents current homeowners Lawrence and Judi Cohen a framed copy of Lowe's hit song I'll Never Smile Again.

TOP: COURTESY OF TOM SANDLER; MIDDLE: DAVE LEBLANC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; BOTTOM: ALINE SANDLER

Almost entirely love
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How becoming a father taught Mark Sakamoto to be a son
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By MARK SAKAMOTO
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O3


Author of Forgiveness, which won the CBC's Canada Reads

Nearing the end of his life, the American poet Hayden Carruth left us a wondrous breadcrumb when he penned, in his poem Testament, that "Now/ I am almost entirely love."

I remember reading those six words, strung together like a dare. They seemed a million miles away. A foreign country. A Martian land.

What would it feel like to be almost entirely love? How could I possibly reach that destination with all that life demanded? It seemed a fool's errand.

I became obsessed with this task, but for the longest time, I failed miserably. I was so very far away from almost entirely love. I was so very far away from my mom. I would go months without thinking of her. I wish I were taking creative licence, but this is a statement of fact. It is so very clear to me now, but her absence created an emotional vacuum within me.

When my mother was 51 years old, she drank herself to death in a windowless, derelict basement apartment in Medicine Hat, Alta.

I would do anything to be able to delete that sentence from reality.

Sixteen years on, I can still hardly write it. I hate that sentence so much. I hate what it did to my family. I hate what it did to me.

Losing my mother the way I did left me with an open wound.

It is always on me. You forget it, or try to ignore it, for a time, but then you sip a cup of Scottish Breakfast tea with a dash of full cream and it stings. You walk by a record store and catch a bar or two of Brothers in Arms and you break down right there on the corner. The pain is so bad, you pack everything away. All the light, too. And therein lies the heartache: You lose all the light.

And my mother had so much light. Not really a maternal, soft light; more like a match being struck. In my hometown, she was known as the champion of the underdog, and this was a town full of underdogs. She knew and loved them all. And they her.

When Diane MacLean was healthy, she was almost entirely love. Although it was a tough love. It was a love that demanded her two sons be the best that they could be. She was part mommy, part drill sergeant.

When her illness invaded, it must have been an overwhelming assault to defeat her mighty heart. I have never known why she was unable to offer herself the same light, the same tough love, that she so freely gave those around her. To a person, those around her basked in it.

I'm ashamed to admit it, but after my mom died, I packed her memories up and stashed them away with the few remaining items in her possession. I had no empathy for her plight. I felt as though I used it all up after those years of neglect. Thinking of the happy always invited an onslaught of the hurt. And I was so damned tired of hurting. Once the funeral was over, I left her without saying goodbye. I don't think it even dawned on me to look back.

Without a mother's watchful gaze, it is hard to gauge how you're doing. You have to watch yourself. That can be tricky. You lie to yourself. You cheat. You let yourself off the hook. You turn a blind eye from the feelings you wish you didn't have. You ignore the words you should not have uttered. You bury the pain you feel. It is so difficult to unearth all that. But, you can't get anywhere in the dark.

The first cracks of light were offered to me at St. Joseph's Hospital in the west end of Toronto.

My wife, Jade, just gave birth to our first daughter, Miya Mitsue Sakamoto.

Miya was breach, so Jade opted for a scheduled cesarean delivery. Once it was over, the room quickly emptied. Jade was wheeled off to post-op by the nurses while the surgeons scrubbed out, leaving me with my swaddled newborn and my open wound. I was crying, but they weren't tears of joy. I was, in large part, sad. Sad that my mother was not there to witness, and hold, and love, this newborn child. God, she would have loved her. Miya would have been my mother's whole world. I know that fact fully. I torture myself wondering if it might have been enough to save her if she could only have held on long enough.

Through my tears in that operating room, I had one singular thought: For the next short while, my heart is this little girl's emotional home.

It clearly needed some cleaning out.

In that empty operating room, I came to understand that nothing in my daughter's life would impact her more than the quality of her father's love. I had never before felt such certainty. I had never before felt such weight.

That realization anchored and directed me.

I needed to be almost entirely love. For her.

So I sat with my grief. I meditated on it and in it. Like a bathtub filled with scalding water, it was terribly uncomfortable. It hurt. It made me sweat. So many times, I wanted to get out. But, slowly, slowly, the bath cooled. It began to feel good. I had never thought about working on love. I always thought of it like a bolt of lightning. A force unto itself.

Thinking of love as a practice utterly changed my life. I think it changed the trajectory of Miya's, too.

I wish you could meet her. She is such a light. Miya is the kind of kid who, at bedtime, says "I love my family" just in case anything should happen while she's asleep. At eight years of age, Miya is already almost entirely love. I hope someday I can catch up to her.

It turns out, I needed that little being more than I ever could have imagined. Her love taught me that there is only here and now. Becoming a father taught me how to love my mom again.

It took me on a journey that led me to remembering and honouring my mother for all that she was.

Opening myself up to my mom again - letting her back in to my life after so many vacant years - allowed her into Miya's journey as well. Miya will grow up knowing that the only thing that alcoholism could not rob her grandmother of was the love and devotion she had for her two sons. She will grow up knowing that her Grandma Diane was a community activist, someone who left her town better off for her being there. Miya will know that she, too, could do the same.

As it turns out, I needed to become a father to remember how to be a son. What a strange twist in life.

And I am grateful that on this Father's Day, I know in my heart I am slowly inching closer toward being almost entirely love.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY JEREMY LEUNG

In B.C., a growing tax revolt of (housing) millionaires
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By BRENT JANG
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


VANCOUVER -- It's the great tax revolt of 2018, Vancouver-style.

British Columbia's plan to target owners of highly valued properties for extra tax revenue has triggered an uprising by millionaires who don't feel rich.

Thousands of B.C. properties, including more than 30,000 detached houses in the Vancouver region, will be hit by a new surtax to be imposed starting next year on homes valued at more than $3-million.

Anger has been steadily rising since the provincial government first announced the annual property surtax in its February budget.

Since then, homeowners have been doing a slow burn, belatedly banding together at recent protests.

B.C. Attorney-General David Eby, who represents the VancouverPoint Grey riding, has tried to quell complaints, defending the new surtax in a March letter to constituents.

That merely elicited more anger in April, and prompted Mr. Eby to cancel a May 1 meeting with 300 residents hours before the scheduled start time, citing security concerns.

The surtax has been the focal point of one town hall in late May and another two so far in June.

Homeowners are crying foul because they believe they have been unfairly targeted by the annual property surtax on their nest egg.

Take Maarten Mulder and his wife, Wendy Hales. Mr. Mulder works part time as an electrical site reviewer for an engineering firm, while Ms. Hales teaches geography part-time at a local college.

The couple will need to pay an extra $870 a year as a result of the BC NDP government's property surtax, an unwelcome surprise when they already have mounting bills and three children to raise: Tom, 14; Elleke, 12; and Ian, 11. Two of the three kids have special needs - Tom is in a wheelchair and Ian has a learning disability.

In the backyard, there are two wooden storage sheds assembled by Mr. Mulder and an old used barbecue. Parked on the street are the family's two minivans: a 2007 Toyota Sienna and a 2015 Dodge Caravan.

"We're not looking for sympathy, but it's bad tax policy," Mr. Mulder said last week as he stood on the sidewalk with the family dog, Tyske, in the Kitsilano neighbourhood on Vancouver's pricey west side. The land value alone exceeds $3million for every single lot on his street and also nearby blocks.

The couple bought their place in 2006 for $1.3-million.

Their property's total assessed value surpassed $3.4-million last year, although the 82-year-old house itself is technically worth only $68,200 - considered by developers to be a teardown.

Premier John Horgan's NDP government has drawn the ire of homeowners caught in the web of what is formally called an "increased school tax."

The school tax label is a misnomer because the extra money raised each year will go into the province's general revenue, say B.C. protesters, who look on in envy at California, where long-time homeowners sitting on valuable properties pay low property taxes.

Critics wonder why the NDP government is targeting people living in principal residences, most of whom are many years or even decades away from selling.

They say the NDP has overstepped its bounds in introducing what is seen as an asset tax that won't help with housing affordability for first-time buyers, and doesn't tax income or consumption.

"The concern is that people's savings are under attack. It's really an NDP tax grab," said Andrew Wilkinson, leader of the BC Liberals, the official opposition.

But Mr. Horgan blames the previous BC Liberal government under Christy Clark for failing to take enough measures to intervene during a real estate boom that has resulted in skyhigh prices and created an affordability crisis. The Liberals implemented a 15-per-cent tax on foreign buyers in the Vancouver region in August, 2016. Four months ago, the NDP increased the rate to 20 per cent and also expanded the foreign-buyers tax to cover other urban areas in the province.

On June 4, Mr. Eby finally held his constituency's town hall at a community centre in his riding, with his supporters cheering him. "This meeting today was a much better reflection. The true feeling in the community is that people are divided," he said later.

The actual amount to be paid, effective for property tax bills in 2019, will be based on BC Assessment's valuation on July 1, 2018. A 0.2-per-cent tax will be imposed by the government on the portion valued above $3-million and up to and including $4-million; for the portion above $4-million, a 0.4per-cent rate applies.

For example, the owner of a property assessed at $4-million will fork over extra taxes of $2,000 next year, while the owner of a $6-million home will cough up an extra $10,000.

The NDP advises people who are cash-strapped, including seniors on fixed incomes, to defer their property taxes, which would then become payable upon the sale of a property.

"My 82-year-old mom stocks up on toilet paper when it's on sale. She would never think of deferring the tax. Taking on debt is not in the mindset of many seniors," said Phil Moore, president of the Real Estate Association of Greater Vancouver.

But the anti-surtax movement hasn't swept up every homeowner in the $3-million club.

Retired lawyer Joan Rush, 66, attended the first two gatherings, showing up in support of the NDP's tax policy. At the first event, she was one of only two people who publicly backed the surtax, saying homeowners have enjoyed windfall gains and should count their blessings.

After an anti-surtax homeowner heard that Ms. Rush believes in the new tax, the scene deteriorated.

"The elderly woman beside me was so angry that she was practically spitting at me," Ms. Rush recalled. "She actually got the people in the rest of our row to all move over a seat so that she could move one seat away from me."

Ms. Rush and her 70-year-old husband, Dennis, own a Point Grey property assessed last year at nearly $4.7-million, a huge leap from the $570,000 that they paid in 1990. They say they will gladly defer their taxes, including an estimated $4,800 in annual surtax.

The average price for detached homes sold within the City of Vancouver hit $3,080,563 last October, just shy of the record high in April, 2016. "It has been a housing freak show," Mr. Rush said.

Pro-surtax resident Wolfgang Tolkien owns two properties with his wife, Sabine Bartels-Tolkien, with each place worth roughly $2.2-million. While the new tax doesn't affect them, they pledge to proudly pay it if the government were to lower the threshold in the future.

"Nobody likes new taxes, but we have an obligation to give back to society," said Mr. Tolkien, who disrupted an anti-surtax protest, held before one of the town halls. "Other people have a mindset that they're not rich. They've become accidental millionaires."

Associated Graphic

Residents voice their disdain over a proposed increased school tax in Vancouver on June 4.

BEN NELMS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A matter of trust
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No single individual can solve the issue of fake news alone, but perhaps humans and computers working together can find a way to combat disinformation
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By THOMAS W. MALONE
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O8


Professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, founding director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence and author of the new book Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together hat can we do about the W rise of fake news? Of course, no single individual can solve a problem like this alone; it requires groups of people - and often computers.

One name for these groups is superminds - groups of individuals and computers acting together in ways that often seem intelligent.

There are five types: hierarchies, markets, communities, democracies and ecosystems. Perhaps the most obvious way superminds can deal with fake news is by using the hierarchical organizations of the socialmedia companies themselves - such as Facebook and Twitter - to police the content on their sites. Most social-media companies today use a combination of computer algorithms and human judgment to eliminate objectionable content from their sites. Interestingly, some companies may have overestimated the capabilities of artificial-intelligence algorithms for this purpose and underestimated the need for human judgment. Facebook, for instance, recently announced that it was planning to hire an additional 10,000 members to its content-review team by the end of the year.

But there is a problem with having these sites filter out fake news themselves: These companies are strongly motivated to think about what news items will increase their own long-term profit from advertising, not about what news items are most accurate or most helpful for the broader society. In other words, markets don't necessarily provide the right incentives to deal with fake news.

A possible way of dealing with this conflict-of-interest problem is to use laws enforced by hierarchical governments. But it's not obvious how to actually do this in a way that would be acceptable in most modern democratic societies. There are certain specific situations (such as libel and perjury) in which it is illegal to lie, but in general, the law does not require you to tell the truth. And in societies in which freedom of speech and freedom of the media are bedrock principles, it is a slippery slope to try to legislate what people are allowed to say and what they aren't.

Another possible way to deal with fake news is with a mechanism that is critical in communities: reputations. If you have a good reputation in a community, your views are more credible and influential. When most of us lived in small towns or other similar communities, we knew the reputations of most of the people we dealt with and that helped us know who was credible.

In the world of social media, we are all like people from small towns visiting a big city for the first time. It's hard to know whom to trust. Over time, however, people who live in big cities usually learn pretty well how to tell who is trustworthy and who isn't. And we now need to develop effective ways of doing that online.

One possibility is to have sites such as Facebook and Twitter display credibility ratings (that is, reputations) for different journalists and publications. Elon Musk recently proposed an intriguing way of determining such ratings using a kind of online democracy. His basic idea was to let online users vote on (that is, give ratings to) the different news sources to gauge their credibility.

There are at least two potential problems with this.

For starters, readers' and viewers' opinions about the credibility of media sources is likely to depend, in part, on their pre-existing biases. For instance, if a country is so polarized that liberals only find liberal journalists credible, and conservatives only find conservative journalists credible, then the ratings on a site such as this wouldn't be a good gauge of what is true - they would just be an opinion poll of participants' political preferences. And it would be possible to game the system by encouraging lots of people (or even automated bots) who agree with you to register their opinions on the site.

The second - and much deeper - difficulty concerns how we decide what is true. Just because many people believe something is true doesn't necessarily mean that it is. History is full of examples of things that many people once believed, but which most people now think are false: The Earth is flat; the sun moves around the Earth, evil spirits cause disease.

Philosophers know that questions of what is true and how we know it are extremely subtle and complex. But for practical purposes, different communities have developed their own methods of determining what is true that go beyond just trusting majority opinion. Scientists, for instance, have developed methods for doing carefully controlled experiments, and mathematicians have honed the art of making rigorous logical arguments.

Fortunately, there are analogous standards for responsible journalism. Journalists, for example, are expected to verify "facts" they hear from one source by corroborating them with other sources. They are expected to identify the sources of information they report and to give subjects of unfavourable news coverage an opportunity to respond. It's reasonable to assume that these standards lead to journalism that is more accurate and objective. But using these standards to judge journalistic credibility requires knowledge and skill - not to mention time and effort.

Crowdsourcing of the sort Mr.

Musk proposes can work well when the knowledge, skill and motivations needed to do a task are widely distributed in the crowd. But it's probably not reasonable to assume that most members of the general public would be willing and able to apply these journalistic standards effectively.

A promising alternative, however, would be to create independent hierarchical organizations, perhaps non-profits, that make it their business to rate the credibility of news sources based on these criteria. There are already independent fact-checking organizations, such as snopes.com, politifact.com, factcheck.org and hoax-slayer.com, and if some groups such as these can manage to be credible to most people of both political persuasions, then they could have a very substantial and positive effect on media credibility.

The online media companies could then pay these ratings agencies for the right to display their ratings. And I suspect that if broadly trusted ratings of media credibility were actually available, many users would want to see these ratings with their news. Then providing such ratings might well become necessary for the online media companies to be more profitable - not to mention the fact that it could bolster their reputations as responsible corporations.

There is also, however, a pessimistic possibility. If a national dialogue becomes so polarized that no single source of information or ratings is credible across political lines - even with ostensibly independent organizations involved - then none of the methods I discussed here would work very well. Biases, real or imagined, would breed the perception that no media is to be trusted. And then there would not really be a single national community any more. In that case, decisions would likely be made primarily by the last kind of supermind: an ecosystem, in which the law of jungle prevails and decisions are made purely on the basis of who has the most raw power.

That would be a bad omen, indeed, for the future.

A reboot for BlackBerry's former offices
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The tech giant's decline left millions of square feet vacant. But other companies have moved in over the past two years to take advantage of affordable leases and the Waterloo region's deep talent pool
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By JENNIFER LEWINGTON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B8


WATERLOO, ONT. -- When BlackBerry Ltd. divested about three million square feet of real estate in Waterloo, Ont., and area in 2014, some out-of-town naysayers warned of a calamitous office space glut in a region once dominated by the former tech titan.

"With 2.8 million square feet coming back on the market, there was a significant reluctance from the out-of-town investor to consider buying real estate in the Region of Waterloo," says John Whitney, owner and chief executive officer of Whitney Commercial Real Estate Services. A fourth-generation Waterloo real estate broker, he helped BlackBerry decades earlier to acquire some of the same buildings that went on the chopping block. He says the skeptics told him, "You are crazy; you will never deal with all that space."

It took about two years to upend the gloomy predictions.

Over 26 months, public- and private-sector entities scooped up 2.3 million square feet of BlackBerry's 2.8-million-square-foot portfolio over 21 buildings in the Waterloo area. After a 10- to 20per-cent dip in 2014-15, lease rates began to recover last year.

Several factors helped fuel the absorption, including: packaging the real-estate assets in bulk; supportive municipal economic development officials; and a soon-to-open light-rail transit line with a stop by the BlackBerry buildings beside the University of Waterloo. Most significant, though, was the role of talent, including a cadre of laid-off BlackBerry engineers, in attracting new employers to high-end office space near desirable university graduates.

Among those who saw talent's potential as a magnet was John Grassi, CEO of Spear Street Capital, a San Francisco-based privately owned real estate investment firm that purchased BlackBerry's holdings in Waterloo, Mississauga and Ottawa for $305million in 2014.

New to Canada, Spear Street had a track record in the United States of buying and repurposing excess real estate from technology companies experiencing what he describes as "a change of life."

Citing Google's recent arrival in Waterloo and others who followed, Mr. Grassi said their location decision is "really about the talent." In the United States, he notes, "Google is huge in Pittsburgh," home to Carnegie Mellon University. "It's a great marriage.

"We thought the same thing about Waterloo. The university is there and the talent is there and a lot of these people don't want to leave Waterloo."

Karl Innanen, managing director of the Kitchener, Ont., office of Colliers International, says Waterloo shared similarities with technology hub cities such as San Francisco, Boston and Austin, Tex.

"We had always heard that when a big company moves out or is in decline, it [renewal] is more about the human capital than the real estate. ... Companies came in to capture the people, the great talent and then repopulated the buildings with people."

At its peak, BlackBerry's holdings represented one-third of Waterloo's office inventory, according to Ryan Mounsey, senior economic development advisor for the city, overshadowing others competing for choice space.

"In some ways, BlackBerry's demise was the best thing that happened to every other company in town," he says.

A former BlackBerry building at 455 Phillip St., which Mr. Whitney had sold to the company in its heyday decades earlier, exemplified the renewal challenge. At 150,000 square feet, the building "was one of the better pieces of real estate we acquired and we fixed it up and spent a fair amount of money on it ... but it sat for a period of time," says Mr. Grassi.

Spear Street made improvements designed for smaller-scale tenants -- removing drop ceilings to create a funky industrial feel, subdividing the space, and taking out high office partitions that blocked light and gave a sterile, corporate look.

In turn, the City of Waterloo rebranded Phillip Street as part of an "Idea Quarter," including a startup accelerator and the David Johnston Research and Technology Park (opposite the University of Waterloo), to lure technology, retail and service industries.

A few kilometres away, a Waterloo-founded but now Australian-owned engineering and environment construction and consulting company was poised to consolidate six offices in the same area.

"Somebody's tragedy is somebody else's gain," says John Ferguson, managing director of 560employee GHD Ltd. , who toured multiple BlackBerry buildings before negotiating a long-term lease for 100,000 square feet at 455 Phillip St. One-third of the building remains vacant.

Its location, a stone's throw from the university and a future light-rail transit station stop, matched Mr. Ferguson's office checklist. "We need to be in sight of the University of Waterloo," he says. "We need to be able to attract talent and we want our people to be able to see the benefit of having the LRT."

In May of 2018, GHD fully moved into its new quarters, utterly transformed from the building that Spear Street opened for a realtor tour three years ago. The stylish interior embodies the latest in workplace design - agile seating, retractable glass-paneled meeting rooms, a gym, a prayer and wellness room, on-site catering and cafés on two floors offering gourmet coffee, tea and soft drinks.

"We left a Pinto and now we are driving a Ferrari," quips Mr. Ferguson.

The talent factor also loomed large when former senior exBlackBerry employees, reluctant to leave Waterloo, decided to use their résumés to import their next employer.

David Starks led a cadre of senior managers laid off from BlackBerry in early 2014, contacting major cellular radio companies to locate in Waterloo.

He and his colleagues were determined to stay for the reasons that first brought them here: housing, quality of life and the public school system. "We can stay here and we have a road map for all our kids' futures," he says.

At the same time, Texas-based Coherent Logix Inc., a semiconductor startup innovating in lowpower, high-performance chips, had an immediate need for top engineers with the expertise of Mr. Starks and a dozen or so of his colleagues. Soon after leaving BlackBerry, they were hired to open Coherent Logix's first Canadian office, a well-equipped former BlackBerry shop on the doorstep of the University of Waterloo.

"Talent and space all came together," says Mr. Starks, now director of wireless software at Coherent Logix's Waterloo office.

PROPERTY METRICS 5.7%

Biggest one-week gainer among REITS: American Hotel Income Properties 4.4% Biggest one-week gainer among real estate operating companies: Sienna Senior Living 4.6% Biggest one-week decliner among REITs: Northview Apartment 2.7% Biggest one-week decliner among real estate operating companies: Dream Unlimited Corp.

CIBC

Associated Graphic

Engineering and environmental consultancy GHD Ltd. consolidated six of its Waterloo, Ont., and area offices into a 100,000-square-foot space once owned by BlackBerry, just one of several examples of how the tech giant's former lands have been repurposed.

GHD LTD.

GHD's leased space at 455 Phillip St. is part of what used to be a 150,000-square-foot BlackBerry facility. The building's new owner, Spear Street Capital, says it spent 'a fair amount of money' renovating to make it suitable in size and aesthetics for new tenants

GHD LTD.

Washington is back
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If the U.S. capital itself is a marsh, drowning in its own cesspool of greed and corruption, the city beyond is reclaiming itself as joyous, stylish, and proud - in spite of who lives in the White House
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By ANDREW COHEN
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page O5


WASHINGTON -- Journalist, professor and author of Two Days in June: John F. Kennedy and the 48 Hours That Made History here was a parade here the T other day. That is nothing unusual in a throbbing city that's always celebrating, commemorating or protesting something.

But this was saluting the Washington Capitals and the Stanley Cup, an oxymoron for decades until last week, when they shocked everyone and won the whole thing.

Tens of thousands of Washingtonians donned their scarlet hockey jerseys and flooded downtown. A red tide overwhelmed Constitution Avenue and spilled onto the National Mall. Revellers drank and danced like it was 1992, the last time a professional sports team (the Washington Redskins) won a championship.

The scene was joyous and genuine, as much about the city as its victorious athletes. Unconsciously, hockey has become an emblem of a place reclaiming itself after decades of decline.

Winning the cup says: Washington is back.

I came to Washington for the first time on a high-school class trip in 1972. Having worked here three times over 46 years, I have never seen Washington look better than today. It is safer, cleaner, richer, younger. It is more edgy and more stylish. Once stuffy, stolid and forlorn, Washington is enjoying a new season of affluence, elegance and relevance, as dazzling as the newly scrubbed dome of the U.S. Capitol.

Curiously, Washington's ascent has nothing to do with Donald Trump's arrival; if anything, the city thrives in spite of him.

Unlike presidents who served in Congress, Mr. Trump has no past in this town and no fondness for it. He flees whenever he can.

Mr. Trump calls Washington "a swamp" - a cesspool of corruption, greed and vanity among "a small group in our nation's capital."

In fact, the legend that Washington was a swamp when it was founded in the 18th century will never go away and often, it feels like one. Its humid, scalding summers induce fever dreams among politicians.

But if the capital is a marsh, the city beyond is a meadow. The splendour of postcard Washington has long been its shimmering white-washed monuments and neo-classical courthouses and office buildings, all limited in height. Beyond them lie gracious neighborhoods of sturdy homes, leafy streets and shady parks with names such as Silver Spring, Chevy Chase and the Palisades.

The story here is renewal. The city is renovating and rebuilding public libraries, improving parks and extending public transit, while the federal government continues to erect memorials and museums and private money expands the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.

For years, the story was urban blight, white flight and black despair.

Fifty years ago, Washington was ablaze. When Martin Luther King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, riots broke out near the White House. They destroyed much of U and H streets and 14th Street. White residents left and by 1971, Washington was 71-percent black.

As cities across the United States fell into poverty and crime - New York almost went bankrupt in the 1970s - Washington suffered, too. Its population dropped and its leadership faltered; Mayor Marion Barry went to jail on drug charges.

When I was sent to Washington with United Press International in 1983, 15 years after the riots, the downtown was a wasteland, beyond the governmental precinct.

On either side of our new offices at 14th and I streets were massage parlors with women sitting in storefront windows and junkies and hustlers on the sidewalks.

When I returned to live here in 1997, 30 years after the riots, Chinatown was full of crack houses and shooting galleries.

There were still charred buildings and abandoned lots. One of my early assignments was writing about the construction of the new hockey arena downtown.

The trend then was to move sports palaces in from the suburbs, exemplifying the renaissance of the American city. The MCI Arena, as it was originally named, remains the home of the Capitals. But now it anchors a kicking entertainment district.

In past decades, F Street was adorned with majestic department stores, the city's commercial thoroughfare. The buildings fell into disrepair. People have been returning downtown, drawn by the new arena. Now F Street rocks.

A few blocks away, something otherworldly: CityCenterDC, a mixed development of condominiums, a luxury hotel, tony restaurants and exclusive boutiques, such as Burberry, Hermes and Gucci.

It smacks more of glitzy New York than cerebral Washington, but reflects Washington's new wealth. There is a growing tax base, fuelled by a burgeoning federal government. There are some 120,000 more people in Washington now than in 2000, bringing the population to almost 700,000. Many are young; the median age is nearly 34, four years below the national average.

Commuters complain about the metro but it is clean, safe, affordable and generally reliable.

It serves Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, which evokes a 1930s aerodrome, and goes deep into Maryland and Virginia, soon to reach Washington Dulles International Airport.

The library system is expanding. The main branch is closed for three years while the city renovates it, at an estimated US$200-million. Many of the 25 branches have been redone.

They are bigger, with quiet rooms and community space.

Branches are open long hours every day and offer all patrons up to 20 free copies a day, so lowincome users can print out resumes and scan documents.

That's thoughtful.

Institutions of higher learning including Georgetown and American Universities grow like kudzu. They enrich the intellectual life of a community with scores of embassies, research institutes and think tanks.

What is particularly striking about Washington is the revival of its no-go neighbourhoods.

This comes home in the southeast, where the Washington Nationals play baseball in a charming stadium near the Anacostia River, now lined with bicycle paths. Hotels, restaurants, condominiums and new businesses are springing up nearby.

For residents, Washington feels like more a 21st-century city and less of an imperial capital.

Rowers on the Potomac, cyclists wheeling through Rock Creek Park, kites flying near the Washington Monument. Retirees, many of them former civil servants, faithfully attend lectures and talks, many held in local bookstores.

Washington is imperfect, struggling with crime, race, inferior schools. Chinatown is largely gone. Bad things happen. It is an unmistakably American city - loud, brash, swaggering and anxious. Sirens wail and emergency lights flash incessantly. The national security state is everywhere, particularly in the proliferation of metal detectors in public buildings, manned by burly men in Kevlar vests, packing heat. There is the characteristic friendliness, frankness and informality.

My Washington has always been personal: the National Zoo in the afternoon and the gleaming Jefferson Memorial after dark. Arlington Cemetery. Roosevelt Island. Saturdays at the National Portrait Gallery. Oysters at midnight at Old Ebbitt Grill.

Baseball at Nationals Park.

A visitor's affection for this city is as deep as that of its natives.

It's why everyone joined that parade the other day. Donald Trump has his Washington - and we have ours.

Associated Graphic

Washington Capitals' Alex Ovechkin, of Russia, holds up the Stanley Cup during the NHL hockey team's victory celebration on June 12 at the National Mall in Washington.

JACQUELYN MARTIN/ ASSOCIATED PRESS

A CHAMPION OF FASHION
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A man of many hats - both literally and figuratively - he founded TOM* and TW, Toronto events that showcase the work of Canadian designers, and built a career in marketing and TV production
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By LISA FITTERMAN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B18


The first time Julia Gignac met Jeff Rustia, she was walking into Toronto's Shangri-La Hotel when a stranger approached her and exclaimed: "You look fabulous! Look, we're wearing similar jackets! And you look like Glenn Close! We're going to be the best of friends!"

And they were, said Ms. Gignac, a hair, fashion and makeup artist who would work alongside Mr. Rustia for six years. She would come to know the former media entrepreneur and founder of TOM*, or Toronto Men's Fashion Week, as determinedly happy, even when things didn't go his way - a flamboyant whirlwind and party giver who spoke in exclamation points, went to church every day and was wont to wear a glitzy, gold-sequinned jacket because he loved how it sparkled.

Mr. Rustia died on May 17 while sitting beside his brother, Mike, on a bench outside the Toronto hospice that in his last days became his home. That morning, frail and wasted from the pancreatic cancer he was diagnosed with the year before, he insisted on taking a shower and donning a T-shirt that had TOM* printed across the front before venturing outside with his walker to turn his face up toward the sun.

He was 50 years old.

"Jeff lived more in his 50 years than most of us would live in a hundred of them," Ms. Gignac said.

"He didn't stop until he had to - and even then, he had a smile on his face."

Jose Jeffrey Rustia was born in the Philippines on April 22, 1968, the elder of Armando and Melinda Rustia's two sons.

The family moved constantly when the children were young, as the father worked for a multinational company that stationed him in various countries throughout Asia. Then, one day, when they were living in Bangkok, a world atlas was placed on the dining room table.

"[My father] pointed at Canada and asked all of us what we thought about living there," Mr. Rustia told the Philippine Canadian Inquirer, a newspaper, in 2015. "My brother, Mike, and I asked if there was snow and upon his resounding yes, we all screamed for joy and happily agreed to move there."

The family officially immigrated to Canada in July, 1982, the same year the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was enshrined. It was one of the things Mr. Rustia loved about his adopted country; he was an ardent banner carrier for multiculturalism and for reaching out over cultural divides.

In 1992, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Toronto, then moved to Japan to work as an English teacher. It was there he discovered MTV Asia and his media calling, producing primetime TV programs that were broadcast throughout Asia, Australia and Arabia.

Three years later, he moved to Singapore to become a producer in the broadcast advertising promotions unit of HBO and Cinemax. In 1997, he returned to Toronto for good, making it his sometimes-snowy base as he established his name as a creative consultant and marketer. And, in 1999, he founded Front TV, a branding agency that leveraged the very concept of multiculturalism for an international list of clients that included Nickelodeon, the Discovery Channel and Global TV Indonesia.

"Canadian multiculturalism is our staple resource," Mr. Rustia told this newspaper back in February, 2006. "When we hear about a contract to rebrand a TV network anywhere in the world, we can be almost certain we can hire people here at home to help us decode the culture of that place for the client."

In 2014, Mr. Rustia, whose collection of custommade hats became a signature for the many figurative ones he wore throughout his career, turned his attention to men's fashion, creating TOM* to fill a perceived void in the market and promote Canadian fashion on a global scale. There was controversy from the get-go, when a men's wear designer accused organizers of homophobia after they cancelled his show at the last minute, allegedly because the clothes were too feminine.

"Ridiculous," Mr. Rustia countered. "The workmanship needs to be improved. He needs to work harder on his collection."

In 2016, he started TW, or Toronto Women's Fashion Week, again to fill a void left when IMG announced it was pulling the plug on the event, which it had operated twice yearly for four years.

Roger Gingerich, who was recently appointed to take over as executive director of TOM*, said that where others in the business are exclusive, catering to a select clientele, Mr. Rustia was the most inclusive person he'd ever met, hands down. He celebrated difference and he celebrated having fun, no matter the circumstance.

"Fashion weeks in general have changed, marketing themselves to the industry more than anything else. But Jeff wanted to make the fashion week he created a joyous party, where the public is able to buy tickets, get their hair done, drink fabulous cocktails and watch as a designer is being interviewed on the stage," Mr. Gingerich said.

Each fashion week was put on, not with the help of provincial or federal monies, but through the contributions of private sponsors and a cadre of dedicated volunteers, whom Mr. Rustia would toast in speeches so long that his friends would sometimes have to cut him off. And the last show at each TOM* fashion week was always a celebrity fundraiser for a cause dear to Mr. Rustia's heart: the Kol Hope Foundation, named for his son, who was born with a fatal genetic condition called Trisomy 13 and given only a few months to live. Against the odds, Kol, who was never able to speak or walk and had to be fed through a tube, lived until he was 14 years old, passing away in October, 2011.

The boy lived alternately with his father, Mr. Rustia, and mother, Lisa Miyasaki. When Kol was at Mr. Rustia's house, they would dance around and around in the living room, the son held close in the father's arms.

Mr. Rustia's faith sustained him and he believed that "444" was his "angel number," a combination that would turn up whenever something good in his life was happening. It could be a licence plate on a car after getting a positive phone call from a potential sponsor or the address of a beautiful fashion week venue at what Mr. Gingerich called an "insanely good price."

Even when he was sick, Mr. Rustia didn't complain.

"If we ever ventured to say something negative about the cancer, he'd tell us it was part of his journey," Ms.

Gignac said. "And he never failed to say 'I love you.' " Mr. Rustia leaves his mother, Melinda Rustia; and his brother, Mike Rustia.

To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

Jeff Rustia, seen in 2015, was known as a party giver who spoke in exclamation points, went to church every day and was wont to wear a glitzy, gold-sequinned jacket.

GEORGIA ESPORLAS

Casa Loma house with a lofty view
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Film producer and designer use a conveniently located home as their canvas
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By CAROLYN IRELAND
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H8


TORONTO -- 331 Walmer Rd.

TORONTO

Asking Price: $2.78-million

Taxes: $12,119.04 (2017)

Lot Size: 21-by-137-feet

Agent: James Warren, Chestnut Park Real Estate Ltd.

The homes on a quiet stretch of Walmer Road in Toronto were built in the 1920s and 1930s on land that once formed part of the grounds of Casa Loma.

The Toronto landmark was built as an opulent 98-room home for the industrialist and financier Sir Henry Pellatt.

But years before construction began in 1911 on the Gothic revival pile, the wealthy tycoon began assembling land on the brow of the escarpment above Davenport Road.

Walmer Road was the site of a hunting lodge and ornate stable complex where Sir Henry's champion show horses were sheltered in mahogany stalls with Spanish floor tiles. The redbrick complex included greenhouses, gardens, stables and orchards.

Sir Henry and his wife reportedly lived in the hunting lodge while Casa Loma was under construction.

The couple only lived in the house for about 10 years before Sir Henry's fortune collapsed and he abandoned the property to his creditors. In the 1930s, the city seized Casa Loma for unpaid taxes.

In 1937 the stables were opened to the public as a heritage attraction.

In 1941, signs went up declaring the complex closed for repairs.

The public didn't know at the time that the stables were a topsecret facility and the workers coming and going were really engaged in work on an early form of sonar. After the original London production facility was bombed, the assembly of antisubmarine technology was moved to Toronto. Allied naval vessels used the technology to search for and destroy enemy submarines.

Today the stables are a tourist attraction once again - joined to Casa Loma by an 800-foot underground tunnel.

From the front porch of 331 Walmer Rd., owners Lewis Chesler and Fariba Cain-Chesler have a full view of the castle's elaborate annex. Through the imposing gates, they often catch glimpses of the horses being led around the grounds in the summer months.

THE HOUSE TODAY Many of the homes that were built on the tree-lined streets north of the castle were purposebuilt to house more than one family or were turned into multiplexes later.

Real estate agent James Warren of Chestnut Park Real Estate Ltd. points out that the one-way stretch of Walmer north of the castle ends at a ravine and therefore receives very little through traffic.

"It's almost a cul-de-sac."

The Cheslers' house was a four-plex until 2009, when a builder turned it into two semidetached family homes.

The Cheslers purchased the semi at number 331 in 2014 and began their own redesign.

Mr. Chesler is a film and television producer who spent much of his early career working for a large Hollywood studio and then U.S. cable networks such as HBO and Showtime. Ms. Cain-Chesler, who was born in Iran and moved to Britain in her youth, studied landscape architecture and fashion design.

While living in the United States, she designed interiors for private jets.

Mr. Chesler and his partner were pioneers in Canada-U.S. coproductions, he says. They often produced holiday and romancethemed movies - using Toronto, Hamilton and surrounding areas as a backdrop.

When he flew into Toronto, Mr. Chesler often stayed at the Four Seasons in Yorkville in order to be close to the company's development and financial offices. But over the years, he had grown increasingly exasperated with the Los Angeles traffic and sprawl.

"You're so isolated in that city.

The distances are just extraordinary."

He saw his business partner arriving to work in Toronto after a short walk and decided he would like that lifestyle for himself.

When the couple decided to buy a house in the city, Ms. CainChesler found a location within a quick walk of Yorkville - including the steep staircase from the top of the escarpment to Davenport below.

"I walk to work every day," he says. "I do that staircase twice a day."

The two were also attracted to the house for its high ceilings and plentiful wall space for hanging Mr. Chesler's art collection.

The contemporary interior suited the furniture and objets d'art the couple brought from Los Angeles.

Mr. Chesler brought the furniture and Ms. Cain-Chesler added the hits of colour.

"Working with colour is my favourite thing."

Guests arrive to a living room with a bay window facing the street. A gas fireplace was closed in to accommodate the couple's curving, modern sofa.

The dining room, in the centre of the main floor, has a round table under a large chandelier.

"It's got a New York vibe to it," Mr. Warren says of the mainfloor layout, which includes a staircase in the centre. "It's an efficient use of space."

At the rear, a large kitchen and eating area overlook the garden.

The couple put in a new semiindustrial kitchen designed by the Italy-based denim and fashion label Diesel S.p.A. The design house collaborated with Scavolini to create the kitchen under the brand Diesel Living.

"It's literally the people that make your jeans," Mr. Chesler says.

Upstairs, two bedrooms have ensuite bathrooms. One large guest room at the front of the house has a cathedral ceiling and views of the stables and the streetscape.

"They went right into the attic here so you've got these lovely, tall ceilings," Mr. Warren says.

The master suite at the rear of the house has a cathedral ceiling and doors opening to a Juliette balcony in the treetops. The ensuite bathroom has a soaker tub, walk-in shower, and a marble floor.

The lower level has a home gym, a bathroom and a cedarlined sauna.

The media room has extra sound insulation and a walk-out to the garden.

Mr. Chesler says the couple has held screenings of his company's titles there and at other times the two just relax on their own with a film on the big screen.

Outside, Ms. Cain-Chesler used her background in landscaping to create a backyard with a relaxing deck and perennial gardens.

"I experimented with the plants here," she says, after years of living in California.

The back garden sits under the shade of two oak trees original to the area.

"This whole area was the forest for Casa Loma," Mr. Chesler says.

Ms. Cain-Chesler says she enjoys learning the history of Toronto because she moved to Canada only eight years ago.

THE BEST FEATURE At the rear of the house, the Chesler's have a private garage in a line of brick garages along the back lane. The converted structure was once the stables for the "lesser" horses of Casa Loma, Mr.

Warren says.

The lesser horses were the work horses that didn't enjoy the same pampering as Sir Henry's show horses, he explains.

Associated Graphic

A recent renovation included the creation of a semi-industrial kitchen designed by the Italy-based fashion label Diesel.

PHOTOS BY ALEXANDER J. ROTHE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

THE VELVET VOICE OF VANCOUVER HOCKEY
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He was the public-address announcer for the Canucks for more than three decades and was also a long-time radio announcer on CKNW
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By TOM HAWTHORN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B21


John Ashbridge, the public-address announcer for hockey's Vancouver Canucks for more than three decades, was an unseen but omniscient presence.

From his perch high above the ice, he announced goals, assists, penalties, lineups, attendance and the "last minute to play in this period" in a baritone so rich it was compared to that of James Earl Jones, a basso profundo. On august occasions, he recited the accomplishments of star players. Sometimes, he scolded fans for throwing debris or otherwise misbehaving.

Mr. Ashbridge, who has died three days before his 72nd birthday, served as the Voice of God for hockey fans on the West Coast, fulfilling a role in an elite fraternity whose membership has included such revered figures as Paul Morris in Toronto and the late Claude Mouton in Montreal, a bilingual broadcaster after whom a street has been named not far from the Olympic Stadium.

Mr. Ashbridge's stentorian tones were a familiar part of the experience for patrons at the Pacific Coliseum and GM Place (now Rogers Arena). He was also the voice of the Vancouver Giants junior hockey team and served as a hockey announcer during the 2010 Winter Olympics.

In the 2004 movie Miracle, which starred Kurt Russell as the coach of underdog American collegians who defeat stern Soviet skaters, Mr. Ashbridge played the role of "American Announcer," providing play-by-play for scenes filmed on the ice at the Pacific Coliseum. "Talk about being typecast!" he quipped in mock outrage.

The announcer was known for rarely flubbing his lines, though a goal in 2007 by Milan Lucic from Wacey Rabbit and Michal Repik proved to be a tonguetwister. On a second try, the announcer properly enunciated the goal by MEElan LOO-sihk with assists to WAY-see RA-biht and MEE-kahl REH-pihk.

For his part, Mr. Lucic, who was born in Vancouver and currently plays for the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League, said hearing his name called by Mr. Ashbridge was a dream come true.

John Edward Ashbridge was born on June 8, 1946, in southeast England in the town of Hastings. "As in Battle of," he liked to say. The former Florence Elizabeth (Betty) Sparks and Edward Ryder Ashbridge, a carpenter, immigrated to Canada before the boy's second birthday. They lived in Ontario before settling on Vancouver Island, where he attended school in Lantzville, Nanaimo and Victoria.

As a 13-year-old Victoria High student, he hung out at radio station CJVI, where he was an unpaid gofer for two years, often assisting engineers with small tasks and on occasion being allowed to operate the board.

He was still an underclassman when he got his first onair experience at station CFAX, where it was his job to offer live updates to the time and weather against a sing-song recorded track. He also had to enunciate without error the sponsor's name, Miss Frith Millinery, a challenging combination of consonants.

Just days after his high-school graduation, Mr. Ashbridge moved to Vancouver at the age of 17 to read and report news for CJOR, a radio station with studios in the basement of the Grosvenor Hotel on Howe Street.

A year later, he was hired by CKNW in the suburb of New Westminster, a popular news-and-talk station which accurately billed itself as Top Dog in the Vancouver market.

CKNW would be his home for almost four decades.

He spent an ill-fated three months as news director at rock station CFUN and a more successful three-year stint in the same role at CJCI in Prince George.

In 1980, he emigrated to Australia because he felt he had reached his professional peak in Vancouver and did not want to work elsewhere in Canada where "they have 10 months' snow and two months' ice," as he told a Sydney newspaper. He found a job reading the evening news for radio station 2CH, including a 10minute bulletin at 10 p.m. The station received complaints about his accent, which was mistakenly described as American. He then bounced over to Seven Sydney News as a producer before being fired a few months later. "It's a bit like a team which is down," he said, "and the coach being fired." He landed at radio station 2SM as a breakfast newsreader and senior news editor, but was soon back in Vancouver with CKNW.

Mr. Ashbridge filled in as the announcer at Canucks games for CKNW co-worker Jon McComb. The pair soon after switched shifts at the radio station - Mr. McComb working evenings, Mr. Ashbridge days - freeing the latter to take over as full-time announcer for the 1987-88 season. He added the junior Giants to his workload in 2004 and retired from the station the following year.

He flew to Japan in 1997 and again in 1998 to be the English announcer for NHL games played at Yoyogi Arena in Tokyo.

An omnipresent character at charity events, notably those of the Canucks Alumni Team, Mr. Ashbridge was the voice of Crime Stoppers in Vancouver, once saying of a wanted drug dealer, "It would be a good idea to get Mr. Swales out of circulation as quickly as possible."

In 1970, he also voiced a fictional newscast of the Crucifixion on behalf of Protestant churches.

He was an occasional announcer at Vancouver Canadians minor-league baseball games.

Mr. Ashbridge volunteered on a local hospital board and recorded the safety and emergency messages to be heard on CHNW-FM, the four-watt, city-operated emergency information radio station.

On news of the death, many Vancouver-area broadcasters praised the announcer for his generosity as a mentor.

Mr. Ashbridge died on June 5, a few months after receiving a cancer diagnosis. He leaves Yvonne Eamor, his wife of 34 years, a well-known Vancouver broadcaster. He also leaves two daughters from a previous marriage, two grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. He was predeceased by daughter Wendy Jean Goss, who died of cancer at the age of 37 in 2006.

In his hockey career, he announced a Memorial Cup junior championship, a World Junior championship and gold medals for Canada's men and women at the Olympics. What he had most hoped to witness - a Stanley Cup victory by the Canucks - eluded him.

He was asked how he coped with seeing so many underwhelming games by underachieving Canucks squads. He acknowledged he had seen his share of stinkers, yet considered himself fortunate.

"They're paying me to do this," he once told the Nanaimo Daily News. "I have a front-row seat, I have an unobstructed view, I've had a pregame meal, they've provided me with parking. Does it get any better than this?" To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

John Ashbridge, the Voice of God for hockey fans on the West Coast, announced goals, assists, penalties, lineups and attendance in a rich baritone.

JEFF VINNICK/VANCOUVER CANUCKS

Julianna Margulies on the #MeToo reckoning
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The actor, who plays the narcissistic villain in AMC's new Dietland, says women are finally being heard
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By JOHANNA SCHNELLER
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A18


Last October, when the Harvey Weinstein scandal broke in The New York Times, Julianna Margulies was in a wardrobe fitting for her new, 10-episode AMC series, Dietland.

Talk about fitting. Dietland - created by Marti Noxon (UnREAL, To the Bone), and based on the 2015 novel by Sarai Walker - is set in a parallel present where women have had it. Its heroine, Plum Kettle (Joy Nash), who answers letters at a teen magazine called Daisy Chain, is sick of being fat-shamed, especially by herself. She's recruited by an underground female-empowerment group, Calliope House, while at the same time, a vigilante collective known as Jennifer is exacting revenge on abusive men. (One, a fashion photographer who drugged and sexually assaulted 31 women and girls, bears a striking resemblance to real-life alleged abuser Terry Richardson.)

AMC, a network that knows a thing or two about the zeitgeist, almost immediately bumped up Dietland's premiere from September to June 4. And Margulies, who plays Plum's boss/nemesis Kitty, Daisy Chain's nasty, narcissistic, bone-thin editor-in-chief, couldn't be happier about it all.

"Everything this show is saying are the things we've all been wanting to say for so long," Margulies, who turned 52 on June 8, says in a phone interview from her home office in Manhattan.

"For decades, women were told they were lying. Look what they put Anita Hill through. Look how brave she had to be. Now that we're finally being heard, we're starting to roar. Rightfully so ... Let us roar. And the people who are running scared? They should be running scared. Shame on all of them."

Strong words from an actor who's famous for playing (and being) nice, as nurse Carol Hathaway on ER and lawyer Alicia Florrick on The Good Wife. Margulies is the first to acknowledge how lucky she's been, but she's also suffered some of the inevitable consequences of living on Earth as a woman: Harassed while wearing a skirt on the New York subway in her youth, she switched to pants for her commutes. ("I thought, 'Okay, that's the way it is,' " she recalls. "You get immune to your place.") As a fledgling actor taking meetings with powerful men, she barely flinched when producers or agents would say, "You'll be alone in the room with him; wear something sexy."

She admits that, 20 years ago, a boyfriend would back her into a corner and yell at her. (She never names names.) At their one couples' therapy session, the therapist told him, "When you take a step toward her, that is a threat, because you're so much stronger than she is," Margulies recalls. "She said, 'A threat is abuse.' That stayed with me for 20 years."

Even on the set of The Good Wife, where she was the co-producer and three-time Emmywinning star, doing her job meant that certain crew members would label her "a bitch," she says.

"I don't want someone to think of me as bitchy. I want them to think of me as smart, strong and caring. But I really had to move past that and say, 'I am going to continue what I'm doing, and call it strong leadership.' " Age 50 was a turning point. "I love not caring any more what other people think," Margulies says. "I know my value to my family and friends. Those opinions I value. Whereas when I was younger, I spent so many years sweating what other people thought of me that I wasn't being present with myself. When I got to 50, I felt I'd earned the right not to care."

A lifelong perfectionist, Margulies spent seven seasons on The Good Wife working 14-hour days, then cooking, doing housework and schoolwork with her husband, the lawyer Keith Lieberthal, and their son, now 10.

When the series ended, she collapsed. "I spent three weeks in bed, unable to move," she says. "I had to learn that it's okay to ask for help, and okay to say, 'I can't.' " A friend once said to her, "If I was as hard on you as you are on you, you wouldn't be my friend." She wrote that down and pinned it to her bulletin board; she's looking at it as we talk.

"I'm quoting Oprah here, but I really have found that not giving any power to negativity makes my life richer," Margulies says.

"Especially in the toxic waste bin of politics in the United States right now."

As an actor, she throws her weight behind projects that mean something to her. She's executive producing and starring in an as-yet-unannounced television series about truth in journalism centered on two Pulitzer Prize winners; and she's developing a miniseries based on the book War Torn, about female journalists on the front lines of the Vietnam War.

"This stuff about fake news is so upsetting, I thought, 'How can I help?' " she says.

As a citizen, she supports organizations that make "a positive difference," including Planned Parenthood, the ACLU and Erin's Law, a public school initiative that teaches kids the difference between good and bad touching, good and bad secrets.

"Maybe if this law was around 50 years ago, #MeToo wouldn't have had to happen," she says.

Dietland points out how women also mistreat themselves, which Margulies applauds.

"There's no difference between Plum saying, 'When I get to be a Size 6, I'll start living my life,' and women who are Size 6 saying, 'When I meet the right guy...,' " Margulies says. "When this, when that - this is a great moment for us to ask, 'Why aren't we happy now? What are we waiting for?'" She found a lot of freedom in playing a villain. "What made Kitty tick for me was that she sees her meanness as a right she earned," she says. "She asks Plum, 'Do you have any idea what it took to get me here? The sexual favours were nothing compared to all the placating and humouring and ego stroking I had to do to men, the whole time knowing I was better at the job.' We also see her in a board meeting full of white men over 60, telling her what she can and can't do to her magazine. I don't think there's one woman in any kind of business who can't relate to that."

And when the producers gently asked if, to enhance Kitty's preternatural smoothness, they could do a little postproduction tinkering to erase some of Margulies's wrinkles, Margulies laughed - she has a great, raucous laugh - acknowledged the irony and said yes.

Dietland premiered on June 4 on AMC.

Associated Graphic

Julianna Margulies, an actor famous for playing nice characters such as ER's Carol Hathaway and The Good Wife's Alicia Florrick, says she's found a lot of freedom playing mean on AMC's Dietland.

Storage wars escalate with on-demand delivery
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As living spaces dwindle in size, a move to find places for all the 'stuff'
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By SHANE DINGMAN
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H5


TORONTO -- Whether you're downsizing or have found your living space can no longer accommodate your growing hoard of gear, Canadians haven't had much in the way of options for self-storage until recently.

Where once your only option was to schlep a couple van-loads of boxes to a dingy warehouse in an industrial wasteland, the selfstorage industry is experimenting with new on-demand and service-oriented ideas to destress your decluttering.

Even though storage is a huge market in North America (estimates range between $20-billion and almost $40-billion in revenue), it's also incredibly fragmented. There are roughly 3,000 self-storage facilities in Canada, and the largest five operators own just 10 per cent of the market, according to David Allan, vice-president of development at family-owned Apple Self Storage and also the president of the Canadian Self Storage Association.

While most of the storage operators are private companies, the financials of Canada's largest player, publicly traded StorageVault Canada Inc., give a sense of the industry dynamics. In 2017, StorageVault spent $485-million to acquire a total of 42 new selfstorage facilities - the largest purchase was a $396-million deal to swallow 24 locations from Sentinal Self Storage - bringing StorageVault's total to 90 owned and 148 managed lots under multiple brands across Canada. That portfolio earned $61.9-million in revenue in 2017 and the company expects to spend another $90million on acquisitions in 2018.

Still, the vast majority of storage sites are what you might call hobby storage, according to Mr.

Allan; a small number of lockers attached to an ancillary business.

There's only about 150 "investment-grade" facilities left to be bought up, he says, and with land prices and acquisition prices so high, industry players are rolling out new models to differentiate on service instead of just cost and location.

Mr. Allan has a list of 50 companies that have tried and failed to launch the concept of "valet storage" where condo dwellers can store as little as a movingbox worth of stuff and access it on demand (his own company piloted the idea and recently abandoned it). But while the idea has been kicking around in the United States and Britain since at least 2008, one of the longestlasting Canadian options is Vancouver-based Alluster, founded in 2015 and expanded to Calgary and Toronto the past year. According to Alluster chief executive Rob Buchanan, this more flexible storage option has seen triple-digit customer growth.

Alluster's prices scale up or down depending on if you have four boxes or four couches you need to get out of your home.

The service is built on convenience but it has trade-offs to traditional storage: The pickups or returns happen within 24 hours of request and each time, it costs you $25. Also, you're not allowed to visit their warehouse, which means you can't go access your junk at a moment's notice. There are very cheap prices for small amounts of storage: $10 a month for smallish items (such as a bicycle, suitcase or crate of Halloween decorations), but if you have an existing locker you'll find you're paying a premium (for example, Apple Self Storage's Erindale site in Mississauga charges $128 for a five-by-ninefoot locker while Alluster charges $143 a month for the equivalent five-by-10-foot space).

"You need to take a look at the value you're getting," Mr. Buchanan said. "You don't have to haul the stuff yourself or invite your sweaty friends and bribe them with pizza. Who wants to move a sofa into a storage unit?" He's also seen a lot of local competitors try and fail to copy the model: "A lot of people try to do this and don't realize how much hard work it is."

Mr. Buchanan's outfit also needs far less space for his operations, which means he's not in the capital-intensive real estate business like most of the storage industry.

Mr. Allan's critique of valet storage is that it doesn't fit the needs of most storage customers, who he says store things for one of the four "D" reasons: death, disaster, divorce and dislocation.

Those people need storage immediately, and they are motivated by price and availability.

Stephen Creighton, senior vice-president with the Dymon Group of Companies, represents the other way storage is evolving behind those four Ds, by going upscale in terms of services offered on-site.

More than 40 per cent of its customers are businesses that make use of flexible storage options, sheltered drive-in loading docks, free moving trucks and on-site amenities including office space and meeting rooms.

"We are continuing to evolve the storage offering, we've got shredding services and parcel pickup, mailboxes, a vault, we have a lot of services," Mr. Creighton said.

Over the past 12 years, Dymon's storage concept has captured more than 80 per cent of the Ottawa-area's storage market with big, brightly lit and multipurpose storage "stores."

Dymon is also in the middle of a massive assault on the Greater Toronto Area market; it's planning on adding 10 to 15 million square feet of new storage to the GTA in the next six to 10 years, spread across as many as 80 facilities. One concept under construction is a massive 500,000square-foot showstopper in Etobicoke, and others in Oakville and Oshawa are more like 150,000 square feet and can be hidden away inside a mixed-use residential complex. Mr. Creighton says it takes a population of 50,00070,000 people to support one of its facilities, and from Hamilton, to Barrie, to Whitby, the GTA has more than six million potential customers. That Etobicoke megastore will also include a special wine cellar with on-site sommelier and a tasting lounge. A far cry from the parking lot surrounded by chain link fence typical of traditional suburban and rural storage sites.

"They are doing something nobody else can figure out or replicate; it's a very expensive product but they aren't charging more for it," Mr. Allan says.

Mr. Creighton says the companies economies of scale let it offer "Ritz Carlton" level service for storing your velvet portraits and vintage skateboard deck collections with rates at an industrystandard Motel 6-level price.

Mr. Allan's worry is that some of the new players could flood the storage market based on rosy assumptions of customer growth continuing forever. "You're having a lot of newcomers come to the market to pay prices we haven't seen. They are assuming they can fill them up faster at rates than we think they can do," he said. "We don't know exactly how that's going to shake out."

Associated Graphic

Vancouver-based Alluster's storage-services business is all about convenience, a strategy that CEO Rob Buchanan says has led to triple-digit customer growth.

ALLUSTER.COM

Former rivals are now Argos' QB brain trust
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By RACHEL BRADY
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S9


TORONTO -- As Ricky Ray drops back in the pocket at practice and looks down field for an open receiver, Anthony Calvillo stands right behind him, knowing every footstep the Toronto Argonauts quarterback will take and every rapid-fire decision Ray will make in the next few seconds.

There are few people who know exactly what the 38-yearold veteran quarterback is feeling, seeing and hoping to accomplish on every play the way Calvillo does. He and Ray are considered two of the greatest CFL quarterbacks ever, share a profound expertise for the offence of coach Marc Trestman and know the intricacies of playing dominant football deep into the twilight of a long career.

Believe it or not, Ray and Calvillo hardly knew one another over the years they repeatedly met in Grey Cups, vied for Most Outstanding Player Awards and showed up at the same league events.

But this year, the two greats are joining forces.

Calvillo, who retired in 2014 as the CFL's all-time passing leader, along with three Grey Cup titles and three Most Outstanding Player Awards, is now wearing the colours of a team other than the Montreal Alouettes for the first time since 1997. At 45, he joins the staff of his old coach Trestman as the Argos' quarterbacks coach, trying to help Ray win his fifth Grey Cup as the new season kicks off this week.

Ray's 2017 campaign was his best passing season in nine years and the second-best of his 16-year career. He threw for 5,546 yards and took the Argos to a stunning Grey Cup victory over the highly favoured Calgary Stampeders. For two months after that snowy triumph in Ottawa, he contemplated retirement. He decided he's still able - and having way too much fun to quit.

Calvillo had planned to take this year off after three seasons as an assistant in Montreal and 16 seasons there as a player. But then the coach with whom he won a pair of Grey Cups came calling, down a body on his staff after Marcus Brady left for the NFL's Indianapolis Colts. The chance to work with both Trestman and Ray was too tempting to pass up.

"I was really looking forward to seeing how Ricky prepares and how he conducts himself in practice and around the guys, and it's been exciting for me," Calvillo says. "You remember a lot of great competitors, and he was at the top of the list. We competed for many years in the regular season and Grey Cups. I have so much respect for him, and now that I'm able to spend more time with him, I'm getting a new appreciation for him."

He rolls up one sleeve of his navy Argos shirt and consults the quarterback wristband he's wearing, one just like Ray's, full of tiny printed plays. Trestman has added new wrinkles to the offence since "AC" ran it in Montreal.

"And they're big plays for us," Calvillo says, "so I wish we'd had them back in the day."

He makes efficient use of the short periods in practice when his quarterbacks aren't lined up with the offence running plays. From his own career, he knows what else a pivot needs to feel comfortable come game day.

Between those periods, he has Ray and the other quarterbacks busy. They sometimes run sprints across the width of the end zone to build conditioning so they can simulate what it's like to run plays while fatigued. They zip passes into mesh targets or practise footwork while Calvillo lurches toward them waving his arms in their faces. He ensures they practise those little-used hot throws they may need late in a close game, wanting them to become second nature.

"Anthony thinks ahead and considers the things we as quarterback are not getting during the week in practice and he's very detail-oriented," Ray says. "As quarterbacks, we're actually not running very much in practice. We're just taking our drops. He said, 'Late in a game, you may need to scramble and you're going to be tired, so you have to make a good decision.' That comes directly from his experience."

Ray's Edmonton Eskimos got the best of Calvillo's Alouettes in two of the three Grey Cups in which they squared off. Ray remembers what used to go through his mind when he watched film of Calvillo.

"I remember at the time watching him and thinking, 'Man, I hope I can do what he's doing when I'm in my late 30s," Ray says.

Studying the innovative ways that older athletes train and extend their careers is of great interest to Ray. He has implemented ideas he's learned about Tom Brady's training philosophies. Rather than lift heavy weights often, like he did earlier in his career, he does much of his strength work with elastic exercise bands. The Argos occasionally have a yoga instructor run classes for players, and Ray takes part. He has also begun using a foam roller on his muscles twice a day, then meticulously stretches to achieve - as Brady recommends - long, soft, pliable muscles. Ray even got his own personalized throwing program from Brady's throwing coach, Tom House.

Calvillo is another source of valuable information on the topic, having played until 40 and survived a brush with thyroid cancer along the way. In his last five years as a player, he cut all gluten, dairy and refined sugar free from his diet. He too relied heavily on bands to strengthen - and preserve - his shoulders. Ray wanted to ask about a special treadmill workout he'd heard Calvillo used to do. The retired QB was happy to share his old conditioning trick.

"It was a great machine called the HiTrainer and it really kicked your butt," Calvillo says. "I did it for many years, and it helped me get in great shape. It was a threeminute workout in which you sprint for five seconds and then walk for 10 seconds on a non-motorized treadmill. It's all computerized and shows your peak for each sprint, so you can't dog it."

Trestman has enjoyed watching the two quiet leaders work together and provide a rare learning environment for Toronto's young backup quarterbacks.

"It's a very engaging, very stimulating experience to be in our quarterbacks room every day," he says. "Ricky and Anthony are very similar in how they prepare and operate and in their emotional intelligence in the meeting room and on the field. We've got two of the best to ever play quarterback in this league. What is evolving is very stimulating."

Associated Graphic

Toronto Argonauts' new quarterback coach Anthony Calvillo works with veteran pivot Ricky Ray during practice at York University in Toronto on Monday.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

U.S. lawmakers warn Canada about Huawei
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Chinese telecom giant a national security threat to Western allies, senators say
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By ROBERT FIFE, STEVEN CHASE
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Monday, June 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


OTTAWA -- Senior lawmakers on U.S. intelligence committees are warning the Trudeau government that Chinese smartphone maker Huawei - which has turned Canada into a key research centre for next-generation mobile technology - is a national-security threat to a network of Canada's allies.

Republican Senator Tom Cotton and Democratic Senator Mark Warner told The Globe and Mail that the Chinese telecom giant is a grave cybersecurity risk and its smartphones and equipment should not be used by Canada and other Western allies.

Of paramount concern is an allout drive by the Chinese technology conglomerate to become a world leader in the next-wave 5G telecommunications technology, which is expected to bring near-broadband speeds to smartphones and enable such breakthrough technologies as driverless cars.

A spokesperson for Mr. Cotton, who has tabled legislation to ban the U.S. government from dealing with Huawei, said he instructed the director of the National Security Agency, Lieutenant-General Paul Nakasone, to "engage with Canadians" and other members of the "Five Eyes" intelligence-sharing community "to educate them on the threat" and keep Huawei out of their 5G networks.

Five Eyes is an intelligence-sharing network among Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Britain and the United States.

Huawei is largely shut out of the U.S. market and Australia is currently considering blocking the Chinese national tech champion from supplying equipment to the construction of 5G telecommunications infrastructure - a move that would further frustrate the Shenzhen-based company's ambition to be the world leader in this technology.

In Canada, a Globe and Mail investigation last month revealed that universities, governments and phone companies are helping Huawei - now the largest telecommunications equipment manufacturer in the world in the Broughton Archipelago - to develop the ultrafast wireless technology, which it is using for hundreds of patent filings. Canadian universities are a pipeline for intellectual property that bolsters the company's 5G market position.

Chiefs of six U.S. intelligence agencies and three former heads of Canada's spy services recently said that Huawei is one of the world's top cyberintelligence threats and its 5G technology could be used to conduct remote spying and maliciously modify or steal information or even shut down systems.

"Certainly this threat demonstrates the need for a concerted, co-ordinated response among allies," Mr. Warner said in a statement to The Globe. "The significant U.S. presence - government, corporate and citizen - in Canada, the vulnerabilities telecom equipment and infrastructure can present, should underscore that concern, as does China's use of coercion, forced co-operation and co-option to acquire sensitive technologies."

Mr. Nakasone, who heads the U.S. signals intelligence agency, told the Senate intelligence committee that he would not use Huawei products because the company answers to the ruling Communist Party. Article 7 of China's 2017 National Intelligence Law says that Chinese companies must "support, co-operate with and collaborate in national intelligence work, and guard the secrecy of national intelligence work they are aware of."

Two senior members of the intelligence committee in the House of Representatives - ranking Democrat Adam Schiff and Republican Mike Conaway - said national-security concerns should raise alarm bells in any country where Huawei products are sold and could compromise Five Eyes intelligence. "Given the integration of the U.S. and Canadian economies, Huawei equipment used in Canada is likely to affect both our countries - to our detriment," Mr. Schiff told The Globe.

Mr. Conaway said: "Huawei poses a serious national-security threat to U.S. government communications. Because of the high level of intelligence sharing between Five Eyes countries, I have concerns that the presence of Huawei in any of these countries could present a significant risk to our co-ordination, and ultimately, U.S. national security as a result." Despite these concerns, all major Canadian telecom carriers are now heavily promoting Huawei's latest smartphone, and Canadian universities have defended the work they do with Huawei, saying they haven't been told by Canada's national-security agencies to avoid producing R&D for the Chinese behemoth.

Michael Wessel, a commissioner on the U.S.China Economic Security Commission, a watchdog that reports to Congress, said Huawei has "dramatically expanded" its relationships with universities around the world, hoping to harvest the best research. "Huawei's involvement with Canadian universities raises serious questions as well in light of the strong relationship between U.S. and Canadian technology and telecommunications firms, the integrated nature of our technology infrastructure and the cutting-edge research being done in Canada," Mr. Wessel said. "Canada, through its recent rejection of the purchase of Aecon by a Chinese state-owned entry, has shown an increasing sensitivity to Chinese security threats and should act, as the U.S. should, to have their universities quickly sever their ties to Huawei."

Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale did not respond to a request for comment and instead referred The Globe to the Communications Security Establishment, which collects foreign security intelligence and seeks to protect Ottawa's information systems from cyberattacks.

"While we are unable to comment on specific companies, products or service providers, Canadians can be assured that the Government of Canada is working to make sure the strongest protections are in place to safeguard the systems Canadians rely on," spokesman Evan Koronewski said.

Huawei vice-president Scott Bradley said his firm has been working "openly and transparently" with the Canadian government and domestic telecoms for a decade to satisfy nationalsecurity concerns. He has noted Huawei does not bid on government telecommunications contracts. "From the outset, we have understood fully as an incoming vendor in the area of telecommunications, let alone a telecommunications company based in China, we would need to work under certain parameters and guidelines to meet the requirements of the government and Canadian operators," he said. "Similarly, we have had to address these issues in other major markets around the world, including all other G7 nations. In all of these countries, except the United States, we have been able to find a way to meet and address these issues."

Last week, Mr. Goodale announced $500-million over five years for the establishment of a new Canadian Centre for Cyber Security, measures to help small businesses boost their cyberdefences and the RCMP to tackle online crime.

The plan is mostly silent about foreign-owned telecommunications companies such as Huawei. Former Canadian Security Intelligence Services directors Ward Elcock and Richard Fadden, and John Adams, the former head of this country's CSE, have told The Globe that Huawei products and 5G technology could provide China with the capacity to spy on Canadians.

Since arriving in Canada a decade ago, Huawei has committed about $50-million to 10 leading Canadian universities to fund 5G technology, which it used as the basis for hundreds of patent filings. The amount the company gives to universities is expected to grow to about $18million this year alone.

WITH A REPORT FROM SEAN SILCOFF

Going back to Cali
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Los Angeles is on the rise as a fashion centre, thanks to the ease of doing business there. Olivia Stren meets a trio of brands based in the city and learns what the locale means to their collections
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By OLIVIA STREN
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P7


Whenever I think of Los Angeles and fashion, a scene from Annie Hall springs to mind. Annie and Alvy are at a party at Paul Simon's cocaine-hued bungalow (Simon plays a sleazebag record producer), a young, gumchewing Jeff Goldblum is on the phone frantically talking to his guru and everybody is wearing the hell out of high-waisted white pants.

Today, as I wander around the city's Silverlake neighbourhood, I feel I might be in Annie Hall's Los Angeles. Here, bougainvillea swathes hillsides and avocado-toast-fed locals, with their beards and high-waisted jeans, all look like millennial versions of Alvy's best friend, played by actor Tony Roberts.

I'm on my way to meet designer Clare Vivier at her company's headquarters in L.A'.s Frogtown, a blink-and-you'll-miss-it riverside neighbourhood surrounded by citrus tree-scented bike paths, the kind of artist lofts destined for features in Dwell, an outpost of New York's La Colombe coffee, where regulars nurse nitro cold brew spiked with oat milk. Vivier, who debuted her handbag collection 10 years ago with a vegetable-tanned leather tote called La Tropezienne, is among an ever-growing community of local designers propelling the city's fashion renaissance and exalting it to fashion-capital status. The company now has seven stores, employs about 55 people, counts Christy Turlington, Rashida Jones and Keri Russell as devotees and continues to seduce with an eminently charming menage of French refinement and California cool.

Vivier's handbags and apparel - all fresh enough to inspire envy in a Breton stripe - channel a utopian version of Paris without the grisaille. The company, much like the L.A. fashion scene in general, is enjoying its moment in the sun. "Cities have ebbs and flows. And now L.A. is having a really beautiful burgeoning moment," says Vivier, who speaks with a disarming softness. "The Annie Hall period was a really cool time to be in L.A. And today, Los Angeles fashion hearkens back to that seventies glamour. There's a simplicity, an earthiness and an appreciation of natural materials."

If the 1970s was a golden age, the city's fashion scene took an unfortunate turn in subsequent decades when L.A. "style" became associated with trucker hats, Ugg boots and Juicy Couture velour tracksuits.

Now, there's a buoyancy and an easeful elegance defining the city's most beloved labels, change Vivier chalks up to something of a creative migration. "An easy thing to point out is that a lot of people from New York are moving to Los Angeles," she says.

Designers such as Marysia Reeves, whose scalloped-edged bathers are the maillots of the moment, have moved from Manhattan to Venice Beach, and even cultish indie boutiques are also looking west. Bird, which operates four locations in Brooklyn, opened a 5,000-square-foot space in Los Angeles county's Culver City last year. New York brand Apiece Apart just opened its second shop on Venice's Lincoln Boulevard.

But Los Angelenos have more than New Yorkers to thank for the city's sartorial rehab and rebirth - it's largely due to a new generation of designers committed to local production and craftsmanship and taking a grassroots approach to brand-building.

Vivier, who is originally from St. Paul, Minn., arrived in Los Angeles in 2001 with her husband, Thierry Vivier. "I think what's interesting about L.A. is that artists are always the first people to go into uncharted territory and it's usually about space. L.A.

has space and light - two things the design world wants." In the same way that Matisse sojourned to Morocco and architect Frank Lloyd Wright settled in Arizona, designers are adopting Los Angeles as their blue-skied atelier because there is, literally, room to be creative and grow.

"Being in Los Angeles is more about what you're not inspired by," says Justin Kern, who co-helms luxury brand Co with his wife, Stephanie Danan. The couple started the company in 2011 after years of working in the film industry (she was a producer; he was a screenwriter), and their signature 1940s-inspired, waist-whittling, full-skirted silhouettes are long on golden-age Hollywood glamour. The alienating sprawl of L.A., Kern suggests, is both artistic and psychological boon, affording them the freedom from creative comparison. "What's so great about this scene is that nobody is doing the same thing as anyone else and that's very specific to Los Angeles. You can selfseclude yourself in the world you want to create without overlapping with anyone," Kern says.

"There's more room for individuality, here," Danan says. "We design in our own little bubble." That bubble is an industrial loft downtown. It's surrounded by gardens lush with silvery olive trees and a forest of bamboo. A resident cat, Lala, reclines in sunlit grasses greener than Vivien Leigh's drapery dress in Gone with the Wind. It's all a bit preposterously idyllic to the point that I occasionally have trouble hearing Danan and Kern speak over the symphony of birds chirping.

"There is space here, and also space for a lot of different points of view," says Emily Current, who creates the ready-to-wear line The Great with Meritt Elliott. When I meet them at a café in Beverly Hills, the duo explain that the paradox of L.A.'s vastness, in fashion at least, is that it nourishes a real camaraderie among designers.

Current and Elliott are best friends who met at as students at UCLA. Both from Northern California, they grew up reading the Boxcar Children's series and shopping for work boots and Levis 501s at the local tractor supply stores. "We are West Coast people, but our aesthetic doesn't reference beach culture. It's about looking towards the mountains, the big pastures," Elliott says. "We grew up with all of that outside our windows."

The Great's clothes - gauzy, embroidered and meant for gamboling through poppyflecked meadows under denim blue skies - conjure a certain Gold Rush-chic. Their nostalgic, barn-to-Barney's designs are almost entirely handmade, garment-died or knit in Los Angeles, and keeping production local keeps them close to the city's fashion community. "It's not a competitive landscape here," Current says.

"We talk to each other and support each other. Things are working in a softer easier way."

After a few days, it's time for me to return to my own bubble. But, spoiled with space and sunshine, I'm reluctant. Maybe I need to call my guru.

Associated Graphic

Designs from Co's Fall 2018 collection were inspired by golden-age Hollywood glamour, top. Claire Vivier has her accessories company's headquartered in Los Angeles's Frogtown, middle. Justin Kern and Stephanie Danan find inspiration in the city for their brand, Co.

Trump halts South Korea war games in surprise concession to Kim Jong-un
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By STEVE HOLLAND, SOYOUNG KIM, JACK KIM
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REUTERS
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Wednesday, June 13, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


U.S. President Donald Trump made a stunning concession to North Korean leader Kim Jong-un on Tuesday about halting military exercises, pulling a surprise at a summit that baffled allies, military officials and lawmakers from his own Republican Party.

At a news conference after the historic meeting with Mr. Kim in Singapore, Mr. Trump announced he would halt what he called "very provocative" and expensive regular military exercises that the United States stages with South Korea.

That was sure to rattle close allies South Korea and Japan. North Korea has long sought an end to the war games. Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim promised in a joint statement to work toward the "denuclearization" of the Korean Peninsula, and the United States promised its Cold War foe security guarantees. But they offered few specifics.

The summit, the first between a sitting U.S. president and a North Korean leader, was in stark contrast to a flurry of North Korean nuclear and missile tests and angry exchanges of insults between Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim last year that fuelled worries about war.

Highlighting the change in tone, North Korea's state-run news agency reported early on Wednesday that Mr. Kim and Mr. Trump had accepted invitations to visit each other's countries. No dates were disclosed.

Noting past North Korean promises to denuclearize, many analysts cast doubt on how effective Mr. Trump had been at obtaining Washington's pre-summit goal of getting North Korea to undertake complete, verifiable and irreversible steps to scrap a nuclear arsenal that is advanced enough to threaten the United States.

Pyongyang's Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) reported that Mr. Trump offered to lift economic sanctions on North Korea.

Mr. Trump "expressed his intention to halt the U.S.-South Korea joint military exercises, which the DPRK side regards as provocation, over a period of goodwill dialogue between the DPRK and the U.S., offer security guarantees to the DPRK and lift sanctions against it along with advance in improving the mutual relationship through dialogue and negotiation," it said.

While suggesting Pyongyang would take mutual goodwill measures, KCNA made no mention of abandoning the country's nuclear program.

Critics in the United States said Mr. Trump had given away too much at a meeting that provided international standing to Mr.

Kim. The North Korean leader had been isolated, his country accused by rights groups of widespread human-rights abuses and under UN sanctions for its nuclear and ballistic missile programs.

If implemented, the halting of the joint military exercises would be one of the most controversial moves to come from the summit.

The drills help keep U.S. forces at a state of readiness in one of the world's most tense flashpoints.

"We will be stopping the war games which will save us a tremendous amount of money, unless and until we see the future negotiation is not going along like it should. But we'll be saving a tremendous amount of money, plus I think it's very provocative," Mr. Trump said.

His announcement was a surprise even to President Moon Jaein's government in Seoul, which worked in recent months to help bring about the Trump-Kim summit.

The presidential Blue House said it needed "to find out the precise meaning or intentions" of Mr. Trump's statement, while adding it was willing to "explore various measures to help the talks move forward more smoothly."

There was some confusion over precisely what military cooperation with South Korea that Mr. Trump had promised to halt.

U.S. Senator Cory Gardner told reporters that Vice-President Mike Pence promised in a briefing for Republican senators that the Trump administration would "clarify what the president talked about" regarding joint military exercises.

"VP was very clear: regular readiness training and training exchanges will continue ... war games will not," Mr. Gardner later wrote on Twitter.

Pentagon officials were not immediately able to provide any details about Mr. Trump's remarks about suspending drills, a step the U.S. military has long resisted.

One South Korean official said he initially thought Mr. Trump had misspoken.

"I was shocked when he called the exercises 'provocative,' a very unlikely word to be used by a U.S. president," the official said, speaking on condition of anonymity.

Current and former U.S. defence officials expressed concern at the possibility the United States would unilaterally halt military exercises without an explicit concession from North Korea that lowers the threat from Pyongyang.

The U.S.-South Korean exercise calendar hits a high point every year with the Foal Eagle and Max Thunder drills, which both wrapped up last month.

U.S. military drills have been dialled back previously to encourage Pyongyang to co-operate. U.S. president George H.W.

Bush agreed to cancel the huge "Team Spirit" joint military drills in 1992 in hopes the North would implement inspections agreements. The drills were eventually phased out.

In a Twitter post as he returned from Singapore, Mr. Trump hailed his "truly amazing visit" and insisted that "Great progress was made on the denuclearization of North Korea."

Later, he tweeted: "There is no limit to what NoKo can achieve when it gives up its nuclear weapons and embraces commerce & engagement w/ the world."

Republican Senator Lindsey Graham, who said Mr. Trump called him from Air Force One, praised the President's leadership at the summit.

"The President has given Kim Jong-un a way out that is good for him and the world. I hope Kim is smart enough to take it. Well done, Mr. President," Mr. Graham said on Twitter.

But concerns persisted about the vague nature of the public agreements.

The Republican chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Bob Corker, said in a statement: "While I am glad the president and Kim Jong-un were able to meet, it is difficult to determine what of concrete nature has occurred."

World stock markets were little changed on Tuesday, while the U.S. dollar rose slightly against an index of major currencies, as investors brushed aside the summit.

The two leaders smiled and shook hands at their meeting at the Capella hotel on Singapore's resort island of Sentosa, and Mr.

Trump spoke in warm terms of Mr. Kim at his news conference.

Just a few months ago, Mr. Kim was an international pariah accused of ordering the killing of his uncle, a half-brother and hundreds of officials suspected of disloyalty. Tens of thousands of North Koreans are imprisoned in labour camps.

The leaders' joint statement did not refer to human rights. Mr. Trump said he had raised the issue with Mr. Kim, and he believed the North Korean leader wanted to "do the right thing."

Mr. Trump said he expected the denuclearization process to start "very, very quickly" and it would be verified by "having a lot of people in North Korea."

Holt Renfrew resizes strategy to focus on core markets, brands
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By MARINA STRAUSS
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Monday, June 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


TORONTO -- When Mario Grauso took the top job at Holt Renfrew & Co. in 2016, one of the first things he did was meet with dozens of its customers, one by one, to get their feedback. He got an earful.

They wanted more clothing sizes - especially bigger and smaller ones - more half-sizes in shoes, more denim wear and more guidance on keeping up with trends. They told him they were overwhelmed with the choices on the store racks, and frustrated that Holts, the country's dominant luxury fashion retailer, sold so little of its marquee merchandise online.

Almost two years later, he has overhauled the retailer and is retooling for a digital age. Holt Renfrew will bet big on fewer brands - Chanel, Gucci and Prada, for instance - ditching marginal lines in a bid to focus on hard-to-find items. It will also complete some posh renovations and unveil a more vigorous e-commerce presence, starting in the fall with footwear and rolling more out gradually over two years.

A seasoned luxury goods executive, Mr. Grauso arrived at Holts at a time when the retailer was feeling the pressure of a more crowded premium fashion market. Upscale U.S. department stores Nordstrom and Saks Fifth Avenue had started to open stores here while other luxury players - some of them Holts's most important suppliers - were expanding with their own standalone stores and e-commerce sites. Big foreign retailers were bolstering their online selling while Holts struggled in that sphere.

Mr. Grauso acted quickly. He replaced almost all of Holts' top executives and other corporate staff with fresh talent and dropped almost 40 per cent of the brands the retailer carried, including cosmetics specialist Clinique and fashion label Michael Kors. He cut back parka purveyor Canada Goose, phasing out the men's coats, because they were popping up in too many other chains.

He also slashed about 80 per cent of Holts' e-commerce merchandise categories, leaving just beauty items, as he prepared for an online return with upgraded technology and inventory that better reflected goods in its stores.

For the first year or so under his leadership, Holts grappled with softer sales growth as the chain underwent the makeover. But today it is beginning to see the fruits of his team's work, he said in an interview.

"We certainly had to up our game here in the corporate office," said Mr. Grauso, clad in casual-chic of a grey Brunello Cucinelli jacket over a sweater and shirttails stylishly hanging out over dark Acne jeans, rolled up at the bottom, and Prada loafers. ("I'm good friends with Brunello," he says.)

"Have we lost customers? Perhaps. Are the customers we retained buying more? Perhaps. One way or another, we've got double-digit growth and two competitors entered the market."

In its push to emerge a winner in Canada's luxury wars, Holts is pouring $400-million into remodelling and expanding four of its nine stores in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver along with new technology over a four-year period to 2020, he said.

Owned by the private company of the wealthy Weston family, which also controls the country's premier grocer, Loblaw Cos. Ltd., and the No. 1 drugstore chain, Shoppers Drug Mart, Holts is returning to a simpler business model. It has shed ancillary businesses such as its discount chain and done away with underperforming stores, private labels and fur salons.

"It shows the commitment that the group has in this brand to the market in the face of competition," said Mr. Grauso, who previously headed Loblaw's Joe Fresh apparel line and before that was an executive at luxury goods suppliers.

The luxury fashion market is growing in Canada, bolstered by more players, a stronger economy and favourable currency shifts, said Randy Harris, president of researcher Trendex North America. The industry has also been helped by millennials making their first luxury purchases; more e-commerce; and a pickup in the chi-chi casual and streetwear segment, he said.

While total Canadian retail apparel sales dropped 2.1 per cent to $30.6-billion last year, sales of luxury clothing rose 4.2 per cent to $2.3-billion in 2017 and will climb 3.7 per cent this year, according to Trendex estimates.

"If there were any losers in the luxury apparel market last year, it had to be both Holt Renfrew and the Bay," Mr. Harris said, adding that Holts did benefit from beefing up its beauty business. While Holts has begun to update its stores, "it should have started much earlier," he said. And delaying by a few years the launch of its combined new Holt Renfrew/Ogilvy store in Montreal to replace two separate ones "will only ensure the retailer could be in danger of being lapped in the Canadian luxury apparel market," he said.

Mr. Grauso countered that Holts has capitalized on more customers shopping in Canada rather than in other countries.

"I've heard a lot of customers say to me they have less reason to shop elsewhere, meaning outside of Canada. You want to keep your core customer shopping in your town."

He said annual sales at privately held Holts have increased to more than $1-billion from an estimated $800-million in 2013, enjoying a double-digit lift at existing stores so far this year (and single-digit gains last year after a year of no growth in 2016). That's despite having closed three stores in Ottawa, Quebec City and Winnipeg as well as its two HR2 discount outlets and most of its e-commerce over the past few years, he added. But heavy investments in the business are eating into profits.

Today the retailer is investing in markets and categories in which it thinks it can profit most, including Montreal, where neither Nordstrom nor Saks operates, and Vancouver, where Saks doesn't have a store.

Within the next two years, Holts will close its sole men'sonly store in Toronto - which opened in 2014 and, Mr. Grauso said, was too small and never meant to be permanent - while introducing a men's section with double the space in its nearby flagship store.

He's also bulking up on fast-growing categories of casual and athletic wear to cater to well-off millennial shoppers, as well as footwear, beauty, handbags, outerwear and overall edgier designs. Departments of more formal wear such as suits and ties have been scaled back. Holts has dropped private labels (which are made specifically for a retailer and are usually less expensive) as it focuses more on big brands.

To bond more with customers, Holts has increased by 30 per cent the number of "personal shoppers" since Mr. Grauso arrived. The retailer now employs more than 40 of those advisers.

"There's still more to do," he said. "I certainly don't want anyone to feel that we're done."

'It's like having 100 toddlers': Herd of goats helps Alberta cities keep weeds at bay
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By MARTY KLINKENBERG
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A8


LACOMBE, ALTA. -- Jeannette Hall walks beside a pond in central Alberta, a friendly old goat named Midnight baahhing behind her.

She waits for it to catch up, then gives the 11-year-old nanny a drink from a water bottle.

All around, there are goats. A Boer here, a Lamancha there.

Here an Angora, there a Kiko.

They amble along a path ahead of her, stopping to bite tops off tansies and scarf down scentless chamomile. They stand on their hind legs to prune leaves on aspens and scrape bark off poplars.

They climb hills and perch atop rocks and then leap off, like kids at a playground.

"It's like having 100 toddlers," Ms. Hall says. "But these guys won't grow up."

For the past three years, she and her husband, Dan Vandenberg, have operated Baah'd Plant Management & Reclamation.

They travel all over Alberta with a herd of 400 goats that are trained to eat noxious and invasive weeds. Last week, they bedded down in Calgary, where their mission was to rid Confluence Park of the scourge of leafy spurge. This week they begin a gig in Edmonton, chowing down on bothersome burdock and removing dead grass at Rundle Park.

It is the second year the city has engaged the goats as an organic alternative to using chemicals. Not only do the animals mow down a variety of problem plants, but they also churn up soil and then fertilize it naturally.

"I don't do this because I love goats," Ms. Hall, 33, says. "I do it because I love the environment."

At 19, she had fake nails, a spray-on tan and highlights in her hair. She was an aspiring actress and college student until she saw environmentalist David Suzuki give a lecture at Calgary's Mount Royal University about living a balanced life.

He was heckled at the end - for driving a diesel automobile - and it got her thinking. Later that night, she told her mom, "I am going to live in the bush for two years."

She wanted to see how close to being carbon-free she could get, and lived on a parcel of her grandfather's land in a 12-foot by 15-foot cabin without electricity or heat.

She snowshoed in, in the dead of winter.

She cooked on a camp stove, cleansed herself with sponge baths and used an outhouse.

"I lived in snowpants and slept with my dog to keep warm," Ms. Hall says. "I will never forget trying to sleep on the first night. I was shivering and watching my breath."

She moved back to Calgary two years later to pursue a diploma in environmental technology at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. She was employed in the oil and gas industry and as a habitat co-ordinator for a conservation organization before going to work for Alberta Parks, where she met her husband, a maintenance supervisor at the Bow Valley Campground at the time.

They have been married for five years, and have been shepherding goats around for the past three. The herd they acquired had previously been used as part of a land-management research project.

"We didn't just buy random goats," Ms. Hall says.

They sold all of their belongings, sinking every cent into their business. They downsized from a four-bedroom house into an eight-foot by 16-foot cabin in southern Alberta, where they live off the grid. They travel with the goats from work site to work site, sleeping in a motorhome with the weed-eaters corralled in pens at night.

"We are the only ones doing it on a scale like this," she says.

"Keeping them on the weeds is the trick. You have to be present and manage them."

The goats' mothers teach them which plants to eat, and Ms. Hall reinforces it by hand-feeding them noxious weeds as babies.

"It is like training a dog," she says. "You have to pick a whole lot of weeds until they start eating them intentionally."

Ms. Hall writes daily reports and takes soil samples wherever they are working. She studies the nutrient content in an attempt to determine what causes the weeds to grow there.

She and her husband have a growing list of clients, including farmers, property owners that engage the goats to eat brush that could fuel fires, and companies clearing the way for pipelines and power transmission lines. They happily graze on oxeye daisy and yellow toadflax, Canadian thistle and dandelions, and create a sensation wherever they go. In Calgary and Edmonton, park use soars.

"We shut down Deerfoot Trail once," she says of the busy thoroughfare in Calgary. "Too many people turned out to see them.

There was no place to park.

"It was great."

The goats will arrive in Edmonton sometime this week, and will return to Rundle Park two or three times over the summer. The duration of the stays depend on the weeds' tenacity.

The city is planning two "Meet and Bleats" with the herd some time in July.

Last week, Joy Lakhan, Edmonton's goat co-ordinator, was preparing for their stay. Tanks with 2,000 litres of drinking water were hauled in, as were loads of mulch for their bedding.

"I really enjoyed the time I got to spend with them last summer," Ms. Lakhan says. "They are extremely friendly and amazing to watch. There is a certain simplicity and brilliance in what they do."

Before travelling to Edmonton, Ms. Hall and Mr. Vandenberg and their goats made a quick stop last week in Lacombe, Alta., where the herd was tasked with eating weeds around sewage-treatment lagoons.

The pair walk along with the goats, and have cattle dogs that help keep them in line. They also have a 160-pound Great Pyrenees dog named Suzuki who protects the goats from coyotes and other predators.

The goats follow closely behind Suzuki as he keeps a careful watch for trouble.

When the goats begin to wander too far afield, Ms. Hall hollers.

"Get back!" she shouts.

The herd turns and comes back, following her command like a bunch of puppies.

"You can't do that with a bunch of farm goats," she says.

Associated Graphic

Jeannette Hall and her husband have operated Baah'd Plant Management & Reclamation for the past three years. They travel all over Alberta with a herd of 400 goats that are trained to eat noxious and invasive weeds. Their herd was previously used as part of a land-management research project. 'I don't do this because I love goats,' Ms. Hall, 33, says. 'I do it because I love the environment.'

Above left: Suzuki, a Great Pyrenees dog, protects the goats from coyotes and other predators. Above right: The Baah'd goats graze at Confluence Park in Calgary last Tuesday.

PHOTOS BY JEFF MCINTOSH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

'Creativity without booze has been tremendous'
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Leslie Jamison gets candid with The Globe about exploring her battle with alcoholism in her new book
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By GAYLE MACDONALD
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Monday, June 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A15


At the end of American writer Leslie Jamison's 2014 acclaimed collection of essays, The Empathy Exams, there is a line that foreshadows the next book she would write: "Suffering is interesting, but so is getting better."

Published this April, The Recovering: Intoxication and Its Aftermath is Jamison's memoir about her own battle with alcoholism.

The book explores her long-held fascination with what life would look like without booze and, equally important, what creativity looks like without booze.

While studying for her master of fine arts in creative writing at the Iowa Writers' Workshop, she became captivated by the works of famous alcoholic writers John Berryman, Jean Rhys, Raymond Carver and John Cheever, many of whom - like her - closed bars on Dubuque St. in Iowa City.

They are peppered throughout her book as a way to study the alcoholic narrative and our obsession with romanticizing the boozy, tortured artist.

Now 34 and sober almost eight years, the Yale PhD, New York Times bestselling author, teacher at Columbia University and mother of a five-month old talks about how sobriety has challenged, changed and ultimately strengthened her. And, she thinks, has made her a better writer. "I was writing when I was drinking, but it was hard for me to imagine expansively when my own life felt locked into certain tight psychic spaces," she tells The Globe and Mail. She "writes toward the questions that obsess [her]" and she hopes that the book feels like company to people who are trying to get sober.

Very few people in recovery can pinpoint the root cause of their addiction. Did the process of writing the book help you answer some of your own questions?

As much as anything, I was - and am - suspicious of the impulse to locate a single smoking gun when it comes to the roots of addiction: the absent father, the negligent mother. I think that usually the truth is more complicated: a combination of trauma and/or genetic predisposition and/or personality and all the facets of upbringing that shape personality.

In the case of my own life, I certainly think that the strong history of alcoholism in my family suggests a genetic basis - or at least, susceptibility - and I certainly experienced the drinking as relief from certain facets of my sense of self - insecurity, intense need for affection, fear of abandonment - that were shaped by the way I grew up.

But ultimately, I didn't want to write a book that was blaming my parents - who are loving and devoted and always have been. I wanted to write a book that was honest about the complexity of causes, suspicious of the impulse to peg addiction too definitively on any single cause and curious about the various ways people have narrated the causes of their addiction and resisted the logic of causality.

That was exploring, in essence, why are we always so hungry to conclusively answer the question of cause?

You were an extremely highfunctioning alcoholic - getting your PhD, writing a book, The Gin Closet, and holding down several jobs. Do you think "functional alcoholic" is an oxymoron?

I don't. Not surprisingly, because I identify as one. I think it's pretty mind-boggling the extent to which people can lead lives that look completely functional from the outside, but whose innards are corroded by fear, emotional absence, shame, obsession.

I've never wanted to conflate my experience of addiction with the experiences of people who have suffered more external consequences, but I think it's deeply important to recognize the many ways addiction can manifest: that it doesn't just look one way.

In recovery, it was important to me to see the stories of people whose lives looked like mine, externally, and the stories of people whose lives didn't look like mine at all.

You've met good friends in AA, and you share some of their stories (anonymously) in the book.

Whose story impacted you and why? I still remember hearing my second sponsor speak for the first time: how she described packing a magnum bottle of wine in her bag when she went to rehab. That made sense to me - that even when you knew you needed to give up booze, you still craved it more than anything.

She really reinvented her life in sobriety: moved from the suburbs into the city, left a marriage that wasn't working, created a new network of friends and sense of purpose. And that willingness to create a new life - while still being honest about the pain of missing the old one - really struck me and was a daily source of inspiration.

You juxtapose the stories of alcoholic authors with "regular" people. Why include both?

Part of what I love about recovery meetings is the way they create - each time - a chorus of stories, and I wanted to do that with the book: to enact the logic of recovery - a turning-outward of attention - in the very structure of the book, rather than simply describing it. I knew from the beginning that I didn't want to write a traditional memoir that focused solely on my own life, because I wanted the book to be a manifestation of the way recovery is about connecting to the lives of others, and I wanted that outwardness reflected in the DNA of its form.

The book ended up with four major narrative strands: my own personal story; the stories of various famous writers who have struggled with addiction; the particular stories of ordinary strangers trying to live their lives in sobriety; and the cultural history of how addiction has been narrated in 20th-century America, thinking about how this history has been shaped by race and class.

What does life look like without booze? What does creativity look like without booze?

Life without booze is richer and more expansive than life when I drank - which had become, by the end, quite claustrophobic and repetitive. I'm more alive to the world, more aware of my own life as one life among millions, more able - I hope! - to stay inside difficult situations, rather than simply trying to flee them.

There's still plenty of wonder: conversations on long walks with friends, lying in the shade with my infant daughter, waking up early to follow the buzz of a new essay. Which is to say, creativity without booze has been tremendous.

I do much more interviewing and reporting, more outward investigation, but I also think I bring a different sort of honesty to the personal writing I do, more levity, more oxygen.

Associated Graphic

Author Leslie Jamison poses for a photograph in New York in 2017. In her memoir, The Recovering: Intoxication and Its Aftermath, Jamison writes about her long-held fascination with what life and creativity look like without alcohol.

BEOWULF SHEEHAN/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

TRAILBLAZING JUDGE EMBODIED ETHICS
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His employment options opened up after he served in the army during the Second World War, leading to his pioneering career in law
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By JOHN LORINC
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Monday, June 18, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B19


In the early 1930s, when George Carter was attending Hester How Public School in Toronto's Ward neighbourhood, teacher Julia Gribble, the principal's assistant, contacted his parents with a pressing question. Their son, she told the couple, immigrants from Barbados, had become an extraordinarily voracious reader. How, she asked, did they plan to keep him supplied with books?

Ms. Gribble soon came up with her own solution, paying for reading materials for her young charge out of her own pocket.

By the time George reached Harbord Collegiate, his interest in language had further expanded. He soaked up Latin, German, French and even some Yiddish, which he learned from friends in the predominantly Jewish Kensington Market area. "He would have loved to be a teacher," daughter Linda Carter recalls. But George's father, John, wanted his eldest son to aim for another profession: the law.

The boy took his father's advice and went on to become not only one of Toronto's first black lawyers, but also this country's first Canadian-born black judge. A member of the Order of Ontario and a Queen's Counsel, he died in Toronto on June 7 at the age of 96.

Justice Carter loomed large among black lawyers and judges, and also in Canada's legal profession generally, observes Toronto criminal lawyer Selwyn Pieters. "He exuded the ethical principles and professionalism lawyers strive to live by. He was a role model and a trailblazer."

George Ethelbert Carter was born in Toronto on Aug. 1, 1921, a date that coincided with the annual Emancipation Day celebrations commemorating the formal abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1834. He was the eldest of 14 children (11 of whom survived past infancy). His parents, John and Louise, came to Toronto just after the First World War, when a small but growing number of immigrants from the Caribbean were coming to Canada. Most were restricted to blue-collar jobs, such as railway-car porters and domestic workers.

John Carter worked in a foundry and the family later moved from the Ward to a home in the College/Spadina area - a community teeming with newcomers.

"As a little fellow, the big thing I remember was that I was always with my mother, going up the aisle at some Anglican church," he recalled.

But because of his knowledge of Yiddish, Ms. Carter recounts, his friends asked him to come to synagogue to help make quorum.

Mr. Carter completed his undergraduate studies at Trinity College, at the University of Toronto, graduating in 1944. But with the war in Europe raging, he was called up for active service, reporting to the Canadian Forces base in Ipperwash, Ont. After months of intensive preparation, Mr. Carter was on a train heading for a transport ship to Europe when his group learned that the Nazis had surrendered.

As a person of colour who had served in the army, Mr. Carter realized that professional doors once closed were now opening up for him. "Before that, a lot of positions, you couldn't get into," he recounted in an oral history project. "The war just threw the whole thing open."

After returning to civilian life, Mr. Carter enrolled at Osgoode Hall Law School, graduating in 1948. After being called to the bar in February, 1949, he soon found a position practising with a small firm led by B.J. Spencer Pitt, one of Toronto's first black lawyers.

By then, he was also married to Kathleen Violet DaCosta, a young woman from Saint Kitts. They met during one of the many social functions held at the United Negro Improvement Association hall at 355 College St. Founded by the American black nationalist Marcus Garvey, the UNIA "was the gathering place of the black community at the time," Ms. Carter said. "That was the only place to go." The couple had four children.

Mr. Carter built his practice, took on legal-aid cases and became a driving force in the Toronto Negro Business and Professional Men's Association.

In early 1980, when he was 58, provincial officials began sounding him out for a position on the bench. In a recent interview, Mr. Carter recalled the racial overtones of those early inquiries and being told, "You understand these people. You've been through all those back alleys with those guys. They know you." Soon after, then-attorney general Roy McMurtry, a future Ontario chief justice, asked to talk to Mr. Carter and made it clear the historic appointment was on its way.

He was called to the bench in 1979 and served for 16 years on the Ontario Provincial Court and was later appointed to the Ontario Court of Justice.

Mr. Carter didn't break the colour barrier on Canada's judiciary: That distinction belongs to Maurice Charles, a Guyanese lawyer appointed in 1969. Mr. Carter, however, was the first Canadian-born black lawyer to make the leap. In that regard, he belonged to a generation of pioneering black Canadians in public life, among them distinguished figures such as former Ontario lieutenant-governor Lincoln Alexander, Leonard Braithwaite, Canada's first black provincial legislator, and Zanana Akande, Canada's first black female cabinet minister.

Life on the bench was busy: He estimated that he heard about 3,000 cases a year, some of them well-publicized trials involving high-profile figures, such as Argos quarterback Condredge Holloway, who faced a drunk-driving charge in 1985.

While Mr. Carter was a hard-nosed judge, his compassion was frequently on display, including during a 1986 sexual-abuse trial when he excused an evidently traumatized seven-year-old victim from testifying.

After he stepped down at the mandatory retirement age of 75, he "literally presided over the dining room table" in his Etobicoke home, Ms. Carter says. "So many people came to him [asking him] to help them out with their legal problems," she says. The table was constantly strewn with legal documents and stacks of newspapers. He was proffering his counsel until well into his 90s.

Mr. Carter also participated in a public oral history project founded by Kathy Grant, documenting the lives and experiences of Canada's surviving black veterans. While Mr. Carter was in his mid-80s when Ms.

Grant began interviewing him, she says, he had a "photographic memory," recounting the rich details of the working-class immigrant community where he grew up. "There was a picture of his classmates at Hester How and he could identify everyone, including where they lived."

Mr. Carter was predeceased by his wife, Kathleen, who died in 2011. He leaves his sister Doris Book; four children, Linda, Evan, Jacqueline and Ralph; six grandchildren; and one great-granddaughter.

Associated Graphic

Judge George Carter, right, talks with then-Ontario attorney-general Roy McMurtry in 1980.

BARRIE DAVIS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Correction

A Monday obituary of Justice George Ethelbert Carter incorrectly said he was the first Canadian-born black judge. In addition, the article included an incorrect spelling for his sister Doris Brook, not Book as published.

Always beach ready
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Feeling despondent about swimsuit season? It's time to think differently about our bodies and ourselves
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By NATHALIE ATKINSON
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page P8


It's summer, which means swimsuit season, which means we should be on high alert for fatphobia. Dr. Melissa A. Fabello is a body-positive mental-health advocate and expert in the intersection of body politics and social justice. Through her PhD in human sexuality studies, she researches how the onset of eating disorders affects psycho-sexual development, and she believes that thin privilege, weight stigma and the "phony concern" for fat people's health has got to stop.

Social environments that place an importance on weight control or endorse thinness lead to body dissatisfaction, low self esteem, sexual dysfunction, poor mental health, even depression. I spoke with Fabello about the rampant anti-fat bias woven into medicine, why understanding and dismantling fatphobia has reached a crisis level of importance, and what it really means to believe that "all bodies are good bodies."

Let's start with unpacking one statement you made in your newsletter, about the way the medical establishment treats and is failing fat people: "Sometime in the future ... we are going to look back on how we treated fat people today as a human-rights violation."

To a lot of people, that is a radical, wild thing to say. But one of the places it comes from is that obviously there's been a huge shift in where we place our faith in society. Religion has died, overarchingly, I mean, and science became the thing people put their faith in. So when you suggest to people that science is wrong, they can't handle it. What it all comes down to is that we culturally think of doctors as holding power and being pillars of science. Science is also something we put on a pedestal. Often the general public doesn't understand that it's ever-changing and subjective. Doctors aren't infallible - they're just people and people have biases and prejudices.

Doctors are just as racist, sexist and fatphobic as anybody else. A lot of the research shows that doctors, nurses and those who work in medical fields actually have incredibly high rates of fatphobic thoughts, and think of those patients as less worthy of care.

I'm still learning all the facets of it, but I think of fatphobia as insidious and extended gaslighting.

That whole health concern trolling thing is basically gaslighting.

The idea of anyone saying you don't really know what's happening in your own body. And now that, instead of religion, people think of health as a virtue and as a value, saying that fat people aren't healthy, telling people in their life what they should do with their bodies, people believe they're doing a great, virtuous thing. Even something like The Biggest Loser: People loved that show but what they put those people through is dangerous. It's mind-blowing to me that people didn't see that it was harmful.

There are dozens of great books with nuance that tackle the subject of fat acceptance - you often recommend body acceptance advocate Dr. Linda Bacon's Body Respect and Health at Every Size, for example - but how does this issue get more attention? Are there any mainstream pop-cultural products aside from books that you consider good places to start a conversation?

A really good documentary called Fattitude [about fat shaming and fat hatred] has finally gone out in the world with screenings in different cities. I think that it is a start. Mostly, I think about books. It's unfortunately really hard: Even documentaries in the past couple years about health don't really address fatness in the way I think they should (if they address it at all) and that's part of the problem. Dietland [AMC's new series, based on the 2015 Sarai Walker novel] might be helpful.

Despite the surreal revenge-fantasy aspects, the show seems to critique and explore pretty much every aspect I've ever read around fatphobia: from body hunger and internalized self-loathing to mainstream medicine and hollow body positivity. One character even calls women's magazines "the dissatisfaction industrial complex." Do you think it's possible to opt out of the toxic messaging from fashion and beauty advertising?

It's not a media problem. It's a social problem. The medium - whatever it is - reflects what's going on in the world, in a feedback loop that's constant. Not reading women's magazines off the newsstand doesn't mean you're not bombarded with those same images and messages everywhere you go, and by the people are who are influencers on Instagram, and billboards. You can't really escape it. I think it's good that we can create our own media, and that has an effect for sure, and that we're diversifying the way we take in media, but I think the people who get the most attention are still going to be thin, white and pretty because that's how we place value on people.

We're now back in "beach body" season. Looking back at the recent coverage, there's still plenty of blatant weight-loss pressure, but the buzzwords now seem to be "healthy" and "strong" - a dedication to health and fitness instead of narrow ideas of beauty and thinness.

But that is just as damaging. It is still wrapped up in a beauty ideal.

You can call it health all you want, but if you're defining health as someone who is thin then that's just another aesthetic.

You haven't actually changed anything by saying "Let's be healthy." I get what people are going for, to teach people to have healthy relationships with their body, with food, with fitness and so on - that is a positive thing.

But when you look at the staggering numbers of gym memberships over the past 10 years, it's very clear that you're just creating a new way for industries to make money.

If the problem is not in us but in a culture that assigns value to certain ways of being (slim) and less value to others (fat), how do you centre fat back into body politics?

What's your strategy? Whether or not you define [yourself] as a feminist or an activist, I am a fan of taking an inside-out approach to these things. Working on your own stuff, the stuff you've internalized is important.

To think about the ways I've been taught to think about fat or race and work on that. Not that that work is ever done - it's a continual thing. We can't lose sight of the fact that the reasons we feel bad about our bodies are sociopolitical. That perspective is necessary. It's a domino effect.

Associated Graphic

KIRN VINTAGE STOCK/CORBIS VIA GETTY IMAGES

Republican Senators vow to renew push against tariffs
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Freeland condemns levies as 'protectionism' in Washington trip to rally opposition
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By ADRIAN MORROW, GREG KEENAN
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Thursday, June 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


WASHINGTON; TORONTO -- A bloc of Republican senators is vowing to push forward with an attempt to lift President Donald Trump's tariffs on Canadian steel and aluminum and end a mounting trade war between the United States and its northern neighbour.

The pledge came on Wednesday as Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland led a full-court press to rally opposition to the tariffs in the U.S. capital and find a way forward in deadlocked North American freetrade agreement negotiations.

Ms. Freeland met with the Senate foreign relations committee, whose chairman has been leading congressional efforts to stop Mr. Trump's tariffs. She was scheduled to speak with Robert Lighthizer, the President's trade chief and NAFTA point-man, on Thursday. Ms. Freeland condemned the tariffs in some of her strongest language to date, calling them "protectionism, pure and simple" and warning that the United States was attacking the liberal international order it has led since the end of the Second World War.

"The idea that we could pose a national security threat to you is more than absurd - it is hurtful," Ms. Freeland told a dinner held by Foreign Policy magazine, which gave her its diplomat of the year award at a Washington hotel on Wednesday evening. "They are a naked example of the United States putting its thumb on the scale, in violation of the very rules it helped to write."

Finance Minister Bill Morneau, meanwhile, sat down with Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, who is said to favour a quick resolution on NAFTA. And Flavio Volpe, the head of Canada's auto parts industry lobby, met with the staff of Mr. Trump's economic adviser.

Mr. Trump imposed tariffs of 25 per cent on steel and 10 per cent on aluminum imported from Canada, Mexico and the European Union this month. The President used Section 232, an obscure trade rule that allows him to impose levies for "national security" reasons.

Bob Corker, a Tennessee Republican who last week tabled legislation that would give Congress the ability to stop Mr.

Trump from bringing in national security tariffs, invited Ms.

Freeland to the committee.

Mr. Corker's initial attempt to bring the legislation forward as an amendment to an unrelated bill appears to have floundered as Republican leaders refuse to bring it to a vote for fear of angering the President. But on Wednesday, Mr.

Corker said he was determined to try again.

"It's an abuse of presidential authority to use the 232," he said after emerging from the afternoon meeting with Ms.

Freeland in the U.S. Capitol. "I am looking to have a vote and take action, and so we're beginning to think of other ways."

Mr. Trump's tariffs touched off a trade war, with Canada vowing equivalent tariffs on American goods starting next month, and drove bilateral relations to a historic low, with Mr. Trump and his aides unleashing a string of personal insults on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau last weekend.

The United States is using the tariffs as leverage in NAFTA talks, demanding that Canada and Mexico agree to a revised trade pact - with new protectionist measures benefiting the United States - as a condition of having the levies lifted.

Arizona Senator Jeff Flake, also a Republican, said his party was solidly behind Canada and had to find a way to get a vote on Mr. Corker's legislation. "I know that the majority of Republicans feel this way, agree with us on tariffs," he said.

Democrat Bob Menendez said he told Ms. Freeland that Americans do not agree with Mr.

Trump's actions and that it was wrong for the United States to "give the back of your hand to some of your closest allies."

Meanwhile, one lobby group called Republicans Fighting Tariffs launched an ad campaign on Fox News declaring the levies a "tax on Americans" and calling on viewers to sign a petition demanding Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell bring Mr. Corker's bill to a vote. "These tariffs are terrible for our businesses, for your communities, for our workers and for our economy," an announcer says over images of factories.

NAFTA talks have been deadlocked over U.S. demands for a "sunset clause" that would terminate the deal in five years unless all three countries agree to extend it, and the abolition of Chapter 19, a dispute-resolution process Canada has successfully used to challenge U.S. tariffs on softwood lumber. Canada has said it will not agree to either proposal.

Mr. Volpe, who met with representatives of Mr. Trump's key economic adviser Larry Kudlow in Washington on Wednesday, said Mr. Kudlow's staff told him that Canada, the United States and Mexico are close to agreeing on new automotive content rules - one of the toughest parts of the NAFTA talks.

He said U.S. officials assured him the two countries will weather the current rough patch in Canada-U.S. trade relations. But he said he got "no indication of when we pick back up" on negotiations.

Antonio Ortiz-Mena, a former Mexican trade official who helped negotiate the original NAFTA, said Canada and Mexico have worked hard to get to a deal and it was up to the United States to show flexibility to break the logjam.

"I do believe that if the U.S. maintains impossible demands, it will be impossible to reach a deal. I don't think there's bluffing going on here," he said in a trade roundtable at Washington consultancy Albright Stonebridge Group last week.

Ms. Freeland's visit is part of Canada's chief trade strategy of putting pressure on the administration directly as well as mobilizing trade-loving Americans to push the White House to change course.

Saskatchewan Premier Scott Moe, who visited Washington last week to meet with White House officials and members of Congress, said the main message is that the United States is hurting itself with the trade fight. He used the example of a piece of slab steel manufactured by the Evraz plant in Regina: The steel is shipped to Oregon to be turned into a plate, then to Alberta to be formed into oil and gas pipeline, then shipped back to the United States.

"We have product waiting on the docks in Western Canada. We have projects in Oklahoma and Texas that are ready to go, waiting for their product and it's not arriving because they're trying to figure out who's going to pay this tariff," he said in an interview at his Washington hotel. "Who is impacted by that? The U.S. economy. They are not getting this infrastructure built."

Associated Graphic

Chrystia Freeland, right, stands with IMF managing director Christine Lagarde, left, and Foreign Policy's editor-in-chief Jonathan Tepperman in Washington on Wednesday.

NICHOLAS KAMM/ASSOCIATED PRESS

DENSE AND DURABLE
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Edmonton home is a refreshing take on ecofriendly construction
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By SIMON LEWSEN
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H1


EDMONTON -- Euna Kang met Jesse Soneff, the guy who built her home, when she showed up at his door. In 2015, Ms. Kang, an Edmonton-based graphic designer and art director, bought a crumbling house in the Garneau, one of the city's oldest communities. The dwelling, which once belonged to the region's first preacher, might've been a candidate for heritage preservation had it not been ruined through a series of botched renovations. "I felt bad taking the old house down," Ms. Kang says, "but, realistically, there was nothing I could do."

In its place, she committed to building a home that would be a long-term asset to the neighbourhood. Instead of looking to the past, she looked to the future. Or rather, down the street, to a gabled duplex, which, because it was cleaner and more contemporary than its peers, seemed like a model for what she sought to do. "I knocked on the door," Ms. Kang recalls. "When Jesse answered, I said, 'Who built your house?' He said, 'I did.' I hired him right away." Mr. Soneff is the project manager for ArtHouse Residential, a firm he co-founded in 2015 with his childhood friends Scott Wilson and Alex Primrose.

The company does infill builds in mature Edmonton neighbourhoods and has a refreshing take on ecofriendly construction - insights they brought to bear on Ms. Kang's house.

For Mr. Soneff, environmentally conscious design is reduceable to two principles: density and durability. When people brag about the greenness of their homes, they're often discussing gadgetry - heat recovery ventilation systems, electric car charging stations, and other devices that can reduce day-to-day expenditures. But daily energy consumption is only part of a bigger picture. Home construction is, inescapably, a carbon-intensive undertaking. It requires energy to excavate stone, mill wood, and manufacture concrete - and to transport these materials to a building site. That's why most houses already have a massive carbon footprint long before the first utility bill shows up in the mail.

If home construction imposes an ecological cost, Mr. Soneff argues, developers have a duty to make it worthwhile. That's where density and durability come in. Imagine a large dwelling that houses four people at a time over a lifespan of 40 years. Now imagine a smaller dwelling with a capacity of eight or nine occupants and a lifespan of two centuries.

The construction of each house would require immense energy expenditures, but the payoff on the second would be larger than on the first. It hardly matters, therefore, which home has the most high-tech systems; the second is surely greener. To work responsibly, Mr. Soneff believes, contractors must build for many people - and they must do it well.

The house he built for Ms.

Kang (at a price of $780,000) is something of an outlier in the Garneau, a neighbourhood with two main typologies: craftsman homes, with hipped roofs and asymmetrical façades, which bear the influence of the Prairies and Pacific Northwest, and new builds, with kitsch dormers and stucco pillars, which bear the influence of HGTV. Mr. Wilson, who handles design for ArtHouse, steered clear of the latter aesthetic and embraced the former only subtly. The house is modern and clean, with its boxy structure and dark metal cladding, but it has folksier elements - a gabled roof, cedar slats on the front exterior - that nod to the local pioneer-craftsman aesthetic.

"I wanted the architecture to be relevant to the region, but not to imitate the streetscape," Ms.

Kang says. "The house is a Prairie barn over a box. It's the simplest form I can think of. The wood, the heavy massing and the strong lines reference elements you see in nature: open fields and aspen forests."

As with most ArtHouse projects, the dwelling is a duplex, or, more specifically, a pair of stacked bungalows, with a footprint of approximately 1150 square feet. There's a groundfloor basement suite, which Ms.

Kang rents to four University of Alberta students, and an upperlevel home (a flat with an attic), which she shares with her boyfriend and her two sons. "Three people lived in the house that used to be here," Mr. Soneff says.

"Now there are eight people on the same piece of land."

In a building with a low ratio of floor space to occupants, the service areas must perform double or triple duties. One enters Ms. Kang's dwelling through a side door at the only place where the upper unit touches ground.

The front foyer is also the back foyer: around the corner from the entranceway is a door leading to the yard.

The second level (i.e. the main level) has a kitchen-living area in the front and bedrooms at the back; connecting these regions is an airy passageway, which is also a dining room and library. The third-floor landing doubles as a walk-in closet and links a bathroom to the master bedroom, which sits beneath the pitched attic roof.

Remarkably, the home doesn't have hallways. Spacious rooms are necessary, because they make the interiors liveable. But empty passageways? Regions whose sole purpose is to transfer people from one room to another? Limited square footage, Mr.

Wilson reasoned, can be put to better use.

Efficient space needn't be cold. Ms. Kang arranged the interiors according to classic graphicdesign principles, whereby colourful features are set against an airy, neutral background: oak floors and white walls without baseboards. The lively furnishings include a pair of Eames rocking chairs, which Ms. Kang will give to her sons when they leave home and a trio of Muuto pendant lights above the kitchen island; their jewel-toned colours match a nearby abstract painting by David Cantine, one of the greats of postwar Alberta modernists.

The standout features in the home, however, are those you don't see. There's gadgetry, suich as the heat-recovery system and cool-air pump, which even out temperatures and reduce energy costs. (Such features won't turn an energy-inefficient house into a green one, but they will make a green dwelling even greener.)

And then there's the building itself, with its ultrasturdy concrete foundation, state-of-the-art water-proofing system, and tightly sealed envelope. If the house is to last, Mr. Soneff argues, the construction must be as durable as the architecture is timeless.

"The greenest home," he says, "is the one you don't tear down."

Associated Graphic

When Euna Kang wanted to revamp her Edmonton house, she found the perfect builder just down the street.

PHOTOS BY CARMEN BACHEZ/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

ArtHouse Residential built this Edmonton house with the intention of making efficient use of space by eliminating hallways.

PHOTOS BY CARMEN BACHEZ/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The World Cup is great - if you aren't organizing it
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Eight years gives us a long time to turn simple renovations into financial disasters, and accumulate a lot more bad blood between the host countries, but Canada will be rewarded with first-round games between mediocre teams
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Thursday, June 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A12


Try to picture our world in eight years time.

Donald Trump is partway through his third term as U.S. President. Shut out of American markets, Canada is moving toward an entirely dairy-based economy. Mexico has given up and built its own wall.

Then the World Cup arrives.

Hooray! That's what starts the war.

That's one possible, Margaret Atwood-y way of looking at how things will work out. Recent history suggests we should err on the side of disaster.

World Cups seem like an okay idea in extreme foresight. Never great, but okay. They have almost always turned into a terrible one by the time they've arrived.

On Wednesday, FIFA awarded the 2026 World Cup to the socalled "United 2026" bid of Canada, the United States and Mexico.

Because these three countries have never seemed closer.

For the first time in the organization's history, the vote was public. Because of that, also possibly for the first time, there was no suggestion that voting was rigged.

North America had two things going for it with its World Cup bid. It promised a wildly - some might say hallucinatorily - profitable event. Also, no other sensible country wanted the thing.

The only other would-be host was Morocco - a country with a per-capita GDP in line with Bhutan and Guatemala. I don't want to tell them their business, but Moroccan taxpayers should be out in the streets lighting off fireworks to celebrate their loss.

In the lead-up, it was suggested that Mr. Trump's shenanigans would cost the continent the bid.

But as it turns out, money talks.

Even money you don't like as a person.

The big reveal went poorly. FIFA boss Gianni Infantino - marshalling all the theatricality the Swiss are famous for - blurted out the winner without preamble.

The soccer bureaucrats in charge of the United 2026 bid rose uncertainly from their seats and began hugging one another in an awkward, moving circle. Remember that image. When stadium repairs are running 4,000 per cent over budget in five years time, it will be used against them.

U.S. Soccer president Carlos Cordeiro seemed in danger of crying as he began his remarks.

He should get used to that.

Right now, the feeling is jubilation. Everyone has time-travelled to the future and is imagining themselves in the stands as the world's biggest sporting event gets under way. And, yes, that will be fun.

What they're not yet considering are the eight years in between. If we go back just a little ways, the portents are not good.

Germany had such a torrid experience with the 2006 World Cup that when the next host wobbled, they publicly pronounced their intention never to hold the thing again.

South Africa 2010 was meant to be a vast, nation-building effort. It turned into a Ponzi scheme. Several of the venues built specifically for that tournament lie in effective ruins today.

The country still hasn't paid off its soccer debts.

As Brazil 2014 kicked off in Sao Paolo, an angry mob was outside the stadium's security cordon fighting riot police. This was Brazil, for God's sake - the game's romantic home. After regular people had gotten a look at what it was costing them, a clear majority wanted nothing to do with the World Cup.

That won't happen in Canada.

We absorb our defeats much more meekly. And since there is less to gain, there's also less to lose.

Three Canadian cities (Edmonton, Montreal and Toronto) will host 10 first-round games.

That's it.

If you're looking forward to that big-time, England vs. Argentina vibe, belay that hope. Canada will get Canada (as automatic qualifiers). And maybe Azerbaijan or Luxembourg. By 2026, the tournament will have expanded to 48 teams and they'll be letting anyone in. Canada will get the dregs.

The infrastructure improvements required seem simple, which almost certainly means they will not be. One of the hallmarks of a World Cup is an overweening ambition to do things bigger than they have been done before, which inevitably turns into a financial boondoggle.

Then there is the relationship between the co-hosts. As you

may have read, it's been better.

We may hope that, by 2026, the American leadership has been tilled-over a few times and diplomacy has returned to normal operating temperature, but that's not certain.

In the interim, you can envision several depressing ways the U.S. administration might turn its new sports toy into an international cudgel.

Mr. Trump had to go so far as to send FIFA a signed letter stating the United States would not deter any country or its citizens from attending. No one has ever been asked to do that before. Not even Russia.

Would you be surprised if these three best friends fell to fighting before the event starts?

No. Would you bet your next three paycheques they will?

Probably.

By this point, that's an unknown known. There are also the known unknowns.

Eight years is a long time for people to begin wondering about why their money is being used to refurbish perfectly good, existing stadiums. Or who is getting the contracts to do so. Or what major domestic priorities are being put aside to make sure the country looks spiffy for strangers for a couple of weeks a hundred years from now. Get ready for that, because it's all coming.

So much lead time engenders incentives for governments to run amok. When the bill comes due, they may well be out of office. Then it's another politician's problem.

That's how the World Cup sausage gets made. If North America manages to get most of this right, they'll be the first.

But right now, nobody's thinking about that. For the next month, they'll watch the games in Russia and say, "How lucky are we?" That's another thing everyone should try to remember. It's going to be the high point for a long time.

In a short while, Canada and its partners will be confronting the bride's dilemma - the realization that big parties are great, as long as you're not the one who has to organize them.

Associated Graphic

Carlos Cordeiro, president of the United States Soccer Federation, addresses the 68th FIFA Congress in Moscow on Wednesday after the announcement that the 2026 FIFA World Cup went to the 'United 2026' bid from Canada, Mexico and the United States.

CATHERINE IVILL/GETTY IMAGES

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: FIFA

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: FIFA

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: CANADIAN SPORT TOURISM ALLIANCE

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: CANADIAN SPORT TOURISM ALLIANCE

How dysfunctional are the Ottawa Senators? Let us count the ways
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By ROY MACGREGOR
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B11


OTTAWA -- Of all the awful and ridiculous and simply unbelievable things that have happened to the Ottawa Senators over the past year, it is the smallest that most delights the comics and headline writers.

Earlier this month, with the Senators' annus horribilis supposedly behind them, Health Canada issued a recall for red infant "onesies" that feature the team logo on the front and are fitted with small metal clasps.

The reason for the recall: choking hazard.

Barely a year earlier, the Senators had come within a Game 7 double-overtime goal of reaching the Stanley Cup final. One season later, they finished 30th - the singular bright note being that they were not quite the worst team in the league, a dubious honour that fell to the Buffalo Sabres.

But they were, without any doubt, the most dysfunctional. As respected TSN commentator Ray Ferrero put it recently, "They're the laughing stock of the league.

There's nobody more comical, in a sad way, than Ottawa is now."

Let us, then, count (some of) the ways - each one a step toward the June bombshell that makes all earlier team explosions appear as mere firecrackers: After team owner Eugene Melnyk fired long-time and popular team president Cyril Leeder, supposedly for lagging ticket sales that continued even into the 2017 playoffs, the solution offered by his replacement, Tom Anselmi, to tarp over 1,500 seats in Canadian Tire Centre, backfired. Instead of increasing demand, the covered-over seats only underlined the growing disenchantment with everything from hiked parking fees to the team's style of play under coach Guy Boucher.

After only a year as president, Anselmi left and was replaced by Melnyk himself.

A fall trade of popular forward Kyle Turris was poorly received. General manager Pierre Dorion picked up a good player from the Colorado Avalanche in Matt Duchene, but it also cost the supposedly rebuilding team future first- and third-round draft picks. Turris, who ended up in Nashville in the three-way deal, and his wife, Julie, openly blamed Melnyk, not Dorion, for forcing the deal in order to save on future salary.

On the eve of Ottawa's outdoor game, supposedly to celebrate Canada's 150th birthday and 100 years of the NHL, Melnyk hinted he might be forced to move the team should ticket sales not improve. It would not, the NHL was quick to respond, be his decision - but the mere suggestion outraged the fan base.

Fans raised money through crowdfunding to put up billboards around the city with the hashtag #MelnykOut. Melnyk may have saved the club from bankruptcy in 2003, but many fans were now of the opinion they had to save the franchise from him.

Daniel Alfredsson, the beloved former team captain who had returned to the team in an executive role, only to leave pretty quickly, was quoted by a local political blogger as wanting Melnyk gone and a new owner in. Alfredsson said he and Mayor Jim Watson were agreed on this point.

Watson had clearly grown impatient with Melnyk's commitment to his partnership in a billion-dollar development on LeBreton Flats that would include a new arena. The residential-retailentertainment project is expected to revitalize the barren grounds west of Parliament Hill and, in no small part, justify Ottawa's $2.1-billion light-rail transit (LRT) line that is to be completed this fall.

Assistant general manager Randy Lee was charged by police in Buffalo at the end of May with harassing a 19-year-old hotel shuttle driver by rubbing the young man's shoulders after being asked not to do so, and making suggestive remarks. The alleged incident occurred while Lee was attending the league's scouting combine for young prospects. Lee has pleaded not guilty, but the team has suspended him until the court rules on the non-criminal violation charge.

All this, however, was nothing compared with what came next.

A week ago, news broke that Melinda Karlsson, wife of captain Erik Karlsson, the team's best player and face of the franchise, had filed an order of protection against the girlfriend of forward Mike Hoffman, alleging that Monika Caryk had undertaken a covert cyberbullying campaign against the Karlssons, including anonymous attacks on their baby son, who was stillborn in March.

In the application for a peace bond, Melinda claimed that the attacker wished her dead, as well, and hoped that someone would "take out" Erik's legs to "end his career."

Caryk and Hoffman were quick to deny any involvement and, while police are said to be investigating, no charges have been laid.

Hoffman and Karlsson had, ironically, combined little more than a year ago on what will likely stand as the Senators' most glorious single play: a soaring Karlsson saucer pass from beside his own net that flew three-quarters of the way down the ice before landing, perfectly, on the tape of Hoffman's stick, allowing him a clear breakaway in which he deposited the puck, one-handed, behind Boston Bruins goaltender Tuukka Rask.

But all that is in the past. This is the ugly present and, no matter what the legal outcome, the hockey outcome was never in doubt: one or the other, perhaps even both, would be leaving town - and most assuredly not going to the same destination. Hoffman seemed, by far, the most likely to go, as Karlsson is considered the cornerstone of any future return to respectability for the team.

Fans are fearful that instead of being offered a rich extension to stay on beyond the end of his current deal, Karlsson could be dealt elsewhere.

On Tuesday, three days before the NHL gathers in Dallas for the 2018 entry draft, where the Senators have the fourth overall pick, Dorion traded Hoffman to the San Jose Sharks, with the Sharks then handing him off to the Florida Panthers in a subsequent deal.

In exchange for the 28-year-old Hoffman - a proven goal scorer - along with a minor prospect, Ottawa received Mikkel Boedker, a versatile 28-year-old forward who is Denmark's highest-drafted player, and a minor-league defenceman.

Initial reaction in Ottawa was lukewarm to cool regarding the hockey sense the trade makes - something that cannot possibly be known for some time.

In common sense, however, the trade's value was immediate.

Never before in the game's history, perhaps, has a trade announcement emphasized off-ice value above on-ice potential.

"Today's trade," Dorion said in a telling statement, "showcases our determination to strengthen the future of the team by improving chemistry, leadership and character in the locker room and on the ice."

As of the moment, the on-ice concerns of this troubled team, deep as they are, are not the immediate concerns.

Battle of American light heavyweights
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Chevy Equinox and Ford Escape play to different strengths, the former with better tech and the latter ahead on cargo space
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By DAVID MILLER
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 8, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D7


The 2018 Chevrolet Equinox and 2018 Ford Escape, two American light heavyweights residing in the heart of the popular crossover segment, are in their third generation. The Escape, in its fifth year since a refresh, remains a consistent top seller in Canada, while the Equinox resides in the middle of the pack just one year after its most recent update. The top-of-theline models are reviewed here:

LOOKS

Chevrolet Equinox: The Equinox shaved 400 pounds from its previous iteration, but still clocks in as one of the largest offerings in this segment. You wouldn't know it from its front, thanks to an aggressive chrome grille and LED-headlight combination that produces a bold stance, enhanced by 19-inch aluminum wheels and dealer-installed roof-rack cross rails. From the side, a sleek design takes shape, even though the elongated rear end comes off as more minivan than cute hauler.

Ford Escape: Compared with the smooth lines of the Equinox, the Escape's boxier approach is reminiscent of its other SUVs, the Explorer and Flex. The style doesn't show its age, a big reason for the consistent sales. The angle from the side shows off rakish cut lines at the beltline and rocker, as well as roof-rail crossbars for an additional $150 and 19-inch black aluminum wheels that are part of the sport appearance package for another $1,200.

INTERIOR

Chevrolet Equinox: If there's one major disparity between the two vehicles, it's on the inside.

The Equinox features a modern horizontal layout that's simple and sophisticated, elevated by perforated-leather seating and a leather-wrapped steering wheel.

(Keep in mind, these become cloth seating and plastics down the trim line). Rear passengers have ample head and legroom, as well as a fully flat floor to assist that middle-seat passenger. A plethora of plug-in outlets plus heated seats are provided, although the driver's seat has just eight power positions.

Ford Escape: In contrast to the exterior, its cockpit has not held up well over the years. Competitors have upped their game by focusing on luxury, and the Escape's top Titanium trim shows its age with a thin, firm 10-way power driver seat that only uses leather as a trim. It was difficult to find a comfortable driving position owing to upright, stiff seating and less space all around than the Equinox.

PERFORMANCE

Chevrolet Equinox: Chevrolet offers two turbo-four gas engines in 1.5- and 2.0-litre forms, as well as a 1.6-litre turbo diesel. This tester came with the bigger gas engine, producing 250 horsepower through a nine-speed automatic transmission (smaller units get six gears). It's easy to drive and is calm and quiet, with a smooth ride and precise handling. Fuel economy in the 1.5 litre and diesel are near top of pack in the segment, but the nine-speed gearbox still helps it achieve an official rating of 10.9 litres/100 km in the city and 8.3 litres/100 km on the highway. Recommendation of premium fuel for the 2.0 litre may draw scoffs from drivers.

Ford Escape: The Escape has three engines as well, but no diesel. An older 2.5 litre is its base to allow for a starting price at $22,699, followed by the latest 1.5and 2.0-litre EcoBoosters. To match up against the larger Equinox engine, Ford provided the 2.0-litre twin-scroll EcoBoost version with 245 hp mated to a sixspeed automatic transmission. It can zip around with precision, showing early-gear quickness and responsiveness to steering inputs. However, fuel ratings are a distant 11.5 litres/100 km in the city and 8.8 on the highway, and our real-world combined test turned up a margin of 1.5 litres/100 km in favour of the Equinox.

TECHNOLOGY

Chevrolet Equinox: From the base trim, consumers are treated to a large MyLink infotainment screen that starts at seven inches and goes up to eight. The value continues with standard features that include Apple CarPlay and Android Auto capability, OnStar, 4G LTE with a built-in WiFi hot spot, heated front seats, a parental-control safety system called Teen Driver and a rear-vision camera. Premier trim adds two USB ports in the back, heated seats throughout, ventilated seats in front, wireless charging capabilities that also act as a handy slot holder for your smartphone and plenty of safety technology.

Ford Escape: Moving from MyFord Touch to Sync 3 infotainment was a major step forward for the Escape. Unfortunately, the eight-inch Sync 3 touch-screen system featuring Apple CarPlay and Android Auto only comes standard at the third-tier SEL trim, while base Escape owners deal with a miniscule 4.2-inch screen that features voice recognition. Those paying for Sync 3 (also available as an option on second-tier SE for $1,500) will enjoy how easy it is to understand and even more important, its instant responsiveness. All infotainment aside, the SEL trim provides torque-vectoring control, heated front seats and dual-zone automatic climate control. Similar to the Equinox, driver-safety technology is only found at its top tier, along with a heated steering wheel.

CARGO

Chevrolet Equinox: With 847 litres of cargo space in the trunk and 1,798 litres behind the first row, it possesses plenty of space for a family of four to travel, but the second row doesn't fold fully flat. An additional 79 litres of storage space are beneath the rear load for other valuables, as well as a hands-free power liftgate in the Premier trim that can be activated by a waving foot.

Ford Escape: If you're looking for that extra space and a fully flat second row, the Escape has the Equinox beat, with 962 litres of trunk space and 1,926 litres behind the first row. The Escape can also be opened by a foot-sweeping motion.

VERDICT

We were able to bring in two vehicles at nearly the same price ($43,890 for the Equinox and $42,689 for the Escape). The 2018 Equinox was favoured for style, technology and connectivity as well as fuel economy, while the Escape won out on cargo capacity.

As for performance, it comes down to wanting a smooth ride in the Equinox or one with a little more pep in the Escape.

Associated Graphic

The boxy look of the 2018 Ford Escape, left, doesn't show its age, a big reason for its consistent sales. Chevrolet managed to shave 400 pounds off the 2018 Equinox, right, though you wouldn't know it from the front thanks to its aggressive chrome grille.

DAVE MILLER /THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Unauthorized Banksy show scrubs art of its power while cashing in on its fame
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One-time agent Steve Lazarides may no longer have a relationship with the anonymous street artist, but that hasn't stopped him from bringing some well-known works from walls to wallets in Toronto
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By KATE TAYLOR
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Thursday, June 14, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A19


The unwary consumer who decided to spend $35 to enter the Banksy exhibition making its North American premiere in a Toronto warehouse will see lots of the prints that the anonymous British street artist has sold to underwrite his graffiti activism. One is Festival, a bitter image that shows music fans lining up to buy $30 T-shirts bearing the slogan Destroy Capitalism. The irony of this exploitative show unauthorized by the artist is enough to make a critic gag.

The Art of Banksy, which has grown in scale since first stops in Melbourne, Amsterdam, Tel Aviv and Auckland, is organized by art dealer Steve Lazarides, who was Banksy's close collaborator and agent from 1997 until 2008, as well as concert promoters Live Nation and Starvox Exhibits. The organizers stress it contains no art ripped from the street; rather, it features about 80 works on loan from collectors who bought them online or at Banksy's own commercial shows.

But Lazarides has no current relationship with Banksy and told The Globe and Mail the artist did not respond to a message when first informed of the show, which started touring in 2016. Apparently, neither Banksy nor his management have complained so far; the artist's website says only that he is not represented by Lazarides. The dealer argues that Banksy belongs to the public and the public has a right to see the work, but when asked whether the artist would like the show, the dealer replied "Absolutely not."

Under both Canadian and British copyright law, artists have moral rights in their work. When you buy a painting from a living artist you don't buy the right to reproduce it on greeting cards. At this show, the gift shop stuffed with Banksy merch as well as promotional material featuring Banksy's famed image of a girl with a balloon and the cartoonish face of a rat all seem to violate that principle. Furthermore, in Canada, an artist's exhibition rights are also enshrined in law - work cannot be exhibited without the artist's permission. The standard practice in Canadian museums, and in many international ones, is to pay artists fees for shows.

Of course, Banksy, who routinely lifts historic and pop-culture imagery himself, has never asked anyone's permission to stencil his political cartoons on walls and buildings in Britain and around the world. You could argue he has forgone traditional artistic rights in his practice and when asked about the gift shop specifically, a Live Nation representative replied the work was in the public domain. There's no question the internet is rife with unauthorized Banksy T-shirts and fridge magnets, but if the organizers want to create a legitimate retrospective of the artist's work, they might consider setting a higher ethical standard than that of the online hawkers.

Certainly, you don't inspire confidence in a curatorial project by playing fast and loose with international exhibition standards.

Mounting a Banksy retrospective is bound to be a tricky proposition from an artistic perspective because the most important pieces, to the extent they survive defacement and demolition, are out in the street: Perhaps it's not surprising, given its dubious credentials, that The Art of Banksy fails to rise to the challenge.

Street, site-specific and environmental artists will often create limited-edition multiples based on their larger works because they need something to sell to fund the projects. This show contains many such minor pieces, both prints and a few similar limited-edition canvases in which Banksy reprised images he had created for the street. The scene from Pulp Fiction, the children saluting a shopping bag and the Laugh Now monkey are all here. There is some documentary value in bringing these works together, but frankly, if you want to see lots of Banksy images, try Google and save yourself the price of admission.

There are also a handful of more significant pieces including a large cutout of the smiley-faced riot officer, a banner of the protester hurling a bouquet of flowers and a metal storefront shutter stencilled with the artist's naughty image of Queen Victoria sitting on a naked woman. Removed from its urban context, the shutter looks lonely and bland; Lazarides's own photographs of Banksy's work in situ are more informative. The show also displays some of the work from an L.A. exhibition Banksy mounted in 2006, which includes Flag Wall, a large painting on wood that turns the iconic Iwo Jima flag-raising image into a picture of two youths raising the stars and stripes in a junkyard.

That's about the closest you come here to street art, rather than mere reminders of it and, like most of Banksy's images, it's a visual joke. Lazarides says this himself in one of several chatty videos dotted around the show.

"... His brand of politics is very simplistic. ... He is taking very, very complicated situations and boils them down to a pithy oneliner which is what, I think, people want."

That dismissive but accurate assessment of Banksy's work explains why it isn't an obvious subject for a museum-style show.

Banksy is not the most sophisticated of street artists - for example, the French photographer JR, who Lazarides does represent, makes far subtler interventions into the public realm - but if Banksy's simple work does have power, it is out in the city where its subversion works its quick magic in the double take of a passing pedestrian. It is work to be glimpsed rather than savoured.

So, having stripped Banksy's art of its power while cashing in on its fame, The Art of Banksy finishes with its most impressive loan - a seven-metre-high version of Forgive Us Our Trespassing, a group graffiti project created in the shape of a stained-glass window - before moving visitors directly into the gift shop.

Yes, aping the title of Banksy's 2010 documentary about street art, the show actually does ask us to literally Exit Through the Gift Shop. Lazarides said he liked the pun. The 50,000 people who bought tickets to The Art of Banksy before the show even opened can decide whether this last bit of chutzpah represents astounding cynicism or breathtaking naiveté. The rest of the world would be well advised to stay away.

The Art of Banksy continues at 213 Sterling Rd. in Toronto until July 11.

Associated Graphic

The Art of Banksy in Toronto is made up mostly of prints and a few limited-edition canvases in which Banksy reprises images he had created for the street - including the girl with a balloon, middle right, and the scene from Pulp Fiction, above.

PHOTOS BY CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A cool blend of connectivity and safety
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The new 2019 Kia Sorento offers an impressive mix of features
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By PETRINA GENTILE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page D4


MINETT, ONT. -- 2019 Kia Sorento

$27,995 (BASE)

$48,86 5 (AS TESTED)

Engine: 2.4L 4-cylinder with 185 hp and 178 lb-ft of torque or 3.3L V6 engine with 290 and 252 lb-ft of torque.

Transmission/Drive: 6-speed automatic transmission or 8-speed automatic/FWD or AWD drive Fuel economy, 2.4-litre AWD (litres/100 km): 11.2/city; 9.0 highway Alternatives: Honda CR-V, Nissan Rogue, Toyota RAV4, Hyundai Santa Fe, Ford Edge ia, reputed for value pricK ing, is instead emphasizing connectivity and technology features in its revamped 2019 Kia Sorento. Besides standard items such as Apple CarPlay and Android Auto smartphone integration, the mid-size SUV has a built-in wireless charging station.

"One thing we fought really hard to have on the Sorento was the wireless charging station," said Ryan Yu, manager of product planning at Kia Canada. "It's a convenient feature - everybody has a cellphone. You don't need to have cables. You just charge it by putting it onto the pad."

Wireless charging stations in other vehicles in the past haven't seemed to function consistently, but this one does, immediately lighting up and charging within seconds of placing the iPhone onto the wireless charging pad. It's a small feature, but a welcome one.

The station isn't available on the base model, but you can get it on the next models up, starting with the LX AWD trim.

Another tech feature is the UVO Intelligence system, which allows you to connect to your car via smartphone. Download an App onto your phone and you can start the Sorento remotely by pushing a few buttons on your phone. You can lock or unlock your doors remotely from anywhere in the world because it has no range limit. If you forget where you've parked, it can find your car using the app.

A collision-notification system automatically calls for help if you get into an accident. And if you have car troubles - for example, a check-engine light comes on - you can remotely scan your vehicle with your phone, get the diagnostic Trouble Code and send it to your dealership for more info.

The UVO system is free for five years. Like a warranty, it can also be transferred to another owner.

However, it's available only on the V-6 models.

A long list of safety features are available, too, many found on luxury cars including smart auto high beams that dim the headlights as needed, depending on oncoming traffic, and driver-attention alert, which warns you to take a break when driver fatigue sets in.

Lane-keeping assist, also new, detects if you're getting too close to the white lane markers and applies corrective adjustments to keep the vehicle from drifting.

Advanced smart cruise control maintains a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you by automatically adjusting the throttle and braking as needed - even in stop-and-go traffic.

These safety tech features are available exclusively on the SXL V-6 Limited, and with MSRP of $48,865.

Blind-spot detection and rearcross traffic alert, which warns of traffic when you're reversing, is on a mid-model EX V6 AWD trim, which costs $38,365.

When it comes to safety tests, the 2019 Sorento excels. In crash tests from the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, it received top marks - a Top Safety Pick+ designation, the highest ranking in crash tests, for front, side, roof strength and head restraint tests.

While the safety, technology and connectivity features are impressive, they can push the price up fast from the affordable and attractive $27,895 base model price. So it's not the "deal" that Kias are generally known for, but the Sorento remains a competent SUV with pleasant road manners and seating for up to seven people.

The writer was a guest of the auto maker. Content was not subject to approval.

RATINGS

LOOKS Could be bolder in its exterior design. Still, it's nicely sculpted with a redesigned front fascia, new LED headlamps, LED tail lamps and wheel designs. Its body is long - about 40 mm longer than the last version. Too bad it wasn't available in more vibrant colours besides white, black and grey so it can really stand out from the crowd of SUVs on the market.

INTERIOR Clean, uncluttered interior that's well laid out with a restyled steering wheel and gear shifter knob. My tester's eight-inch screen is useful and easy to navigate through; the graphics are sharp and the touchscreen makes it quick to access functions. Traditional dials and buttons for the HVAC system, heated steering wheel, and heated seats are a welcome addition. Cruise-control buttons on the steering wheel are well placed and easy to use. Love the option of having a five- or seven-seat configuration. The second row is tight for adults; better suited for kids. As an adult, it's hard to get into the third-row seats as well.

PERFORMANCE Two engines are available: a 185-horsepower 2.4L fourcylinder engine and a 290horsepower 3.3L V6 engine. The new eight-shift automatic on the V-6 changes gears smoothly and seamlessly. It also helps save fuel - up to 8 per cent, according to Kia executives. Pleasant road manners on the V6 with a quiet, comfortable cabin. The 3.3L engine also has a towing capacity of 5,000 lbs.

TECHNOLOGY Plenty of cool connectivity technology such as UVO Intelligence, wireless charging and Apple CarPlay and Android Auto.

Nice to see more-expensive tech, such as lane-keep assist and advanced smart cruise control, trickling into cheaper, mainstream vehicles. Too bad it's not offered on all trims.

CARGO Cargo capacity in the five-seat version is 1,099 litres; in the seven-seater its 320 litres with all three rows in use and 1,077 litres when you drop the third row. The rear seats fold down easily by pulling on a long tab and then pushing it down. It creates a long, flat cargo floor. A hidden compartment under the floor also stores the cargo cover securely, when it's not needed.

THE VERDICT 8 Pleasant road manners, practical seating for up to seven, and filled with cool technology. But cut the number of trims (currently there are eight) to half and add more safety items to the entry-level models, and Sorento would be a home run.

Associated Graphic

In addition to wireless charging and other smartphone connectivity features, the 2019 Kia Sorento also has a long list of safety features available, from smart auto high beams to lane-keeping assist.

PETRINA GENTILE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Builder rides rise in seniors housing
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Offering the right mix of facilities, a Montreal developer shows private sector can play a role in retirement-home market
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By BERTRAND MAROTTE
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page H7


MONTREAL -- Réal Bouclin has over the past three decades built a mini-empire of seniors' housing in Quebec.

His company Réseau Sélection is vying with Chartwell Retirement Residences - Canada's biggest operator by far in the sector - for the top spot in the province.

He's also on the cusp of expanding outside Quebec, with projects for Toronto and Ottawa as well as plans for toeholds in British Columbia, the United States and even China, in the coming years.

A key element of his out-ofprovince growth strategy is to export what he calls Réseau Sélection's trademark "Montreal Style" - a focus on hotel-like, à-la-carte services and choices on offer to residents. That's in contrast to the package approach, which can come at a higher cost, more common in the rest of Canada.

Réseau Selection, based in Laval, Que., is also betting big on future growth based upon so-called intergenerational living spaces: residential complexes that incorporate a variety of housing formats to accommodate empty nesters, families and young people.

One of the company's marquee intergenerational projects is District Union, in the rapidly growing off-island suburb of Terrebonne, northeast of Montreal. Phase 1 includes an 18-storey tower for active seniors in the 55-and-up age bracket. Plans also call for younger residents to be housed in apartment units clustered around common areas, such as kitchens and bike workshops.

"What we've achieved is all inside the buildings," Mr. Bouclin says. "As I tell my team: 'Real estate for real estate's sake doesn't really interest me. It's successfully creating a community life.' "That's what we want to export outside Quebec: The Montreal Style that's based on socializing, service, wellness, security. You feel like you're living in a hotel, yet you still have the security, you have the activities, you have the recreologist, you have the doctor, the nurses, but you don't feel the presence of those elements."

Besides the obvious demographic of an aging population and the resulting healthy rise in demand for seniors' housing, Réseau Sélection's timing is opportune for a key reason. Its growth in the province over the past 20 years corresponds to an increase in the Quebec government's reliance on the private sector to fill the rapidly growing need for seniors housing.

Critics say leaving such a critical component of social and health policy largely to the private sector ends up hurting the less-well-off and vulnerable because they simply can't afford to pay for much of the housing being built by commercial interests.

On the other hand, proponents of a robust private retirementhome market contend it is more efficient than the public sector.

The free-market-friendly Montreal Economic Institute recently published a study warning that the shortage of spaces in Quebec's public system will likely get worse in the coming years, notably because of the lag in the government's reaction time to increases in demand.

"Senior housing and care centres run by entrepreneurs already respond successfully to the needs of tens of thousands of seniors housed in private residences in Quebec," MEI president and CEO Michel Kelly-Gagnon said in a news release.

Last December, just over 2,500 people in Quebec aged 75 and over were waiting - in some regions for an average of 15 months - for a housing spot in public long-term-care facilities to open up, according to the institute, citing figures from the Health and Welfare Commissioner.

Private residences currently account for two-thirds of seniors' housing spaces in the province, according to the institute.

Montreal geriatric consultant Bonnie Sandler says that, for many seniors, moving into a retirement residence is simply not an option. "For some seniors, they just find the cost prohibitive," she said.

Demand for seniors' housing is not expected to fall any time soon. By 2036, seniors aged 65 and over will account for one quarter of Canada's population, compared with 14 per cent in 2011, according to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. In Quebec, seniors who are 65 and over currently represent about 16 per cent of Quebec's population; that figure is expected to hit the one-quarter mark by 2031.

Réseau Sélection has targeted clinching about one third of the 60,000 new units expected to be built in Quebec over the next 10 years; the company's growth is fuelled not only by construction of new buildings but by acquisition as well.

Figures from the end of last year compiled by CBRE Limited indicate that privately owned Réseau Sélection had 36 seniors' residences, for a total of 9,214 units, in the province; publicly listed, Mississauga, Ont.-based Chartwell had 9,810.

For the industry as a whole, "the pace of development in Quebec has certainly accelerated over the last few years," said Sean McCrorie, senior director of the seniors housing and health-care group at CBRE.

The province's seniors have traditionally been much more receptive to the notion of living in a retirement residence relative to their peers in the rest of Canada, he said.

Past studies have indicated that about 17 per cent or 18 per cent of people aged 75 and over in the province live in seniors' housing, compared with an average of about five per cent across North America.

In Quebec, there is a wider capture by the industry of independent seniors at a stage in their lives where they are not yet in need of assisted care, whereas in Ontario - for example - the tendency has been for seniors to opt for retirement-home living later on, when assistance is more likely to be required, Mr. McCrorie said.

"Maybe [Réseau Sélection] can bring some unique insights and deploy that [à-la-carte] independent seniors' apartment model in Ontario," he said.

Mr. Bouclin, a former director of finances at a drug addiction centre who bought his first triplex in 1989 on a $10,000 line of credit, says Réseau Sélection is nimbler and more efficient than most of its rivals by dint of its vertical integration. The company builds, owns and operates its facilities and has its own construction firm, market analysis team, management group and other units.

"We think we're the only one in Canada to be so vertically integrated," he said.

Among Réseau Sélection's major investors are Ottawa-based pension-fund giant PSP Investments and Stephen Bronfman's Montreal-based private equity firm Claridge Inc.

Associated Graphic

Réseau Selection's District Union project in Terrebonne includes an 18-storey tower for active seniors and apartment units for younger residents.

THE BUSINESS OF TAKING A VACATION
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Experts will tout the benefits of going offline while on holiday, but it's easier said than done. Gayle MacDonald investigates how to stay connected while still giving your mind and body a rest
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By GAYLE MACDONALD
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A14


Next time you're sitting on a plane, have a good look around before take off. Chances are many of your fellow passengers will have their noses in their phones.

Many so engrossed they have to be told multiple times to turn off their devices before they do.

The health benefits of going offline - even just for a week - are numerous. They can include lowering stress levels, improving mental acumen, and increasing creativity and productivity. "You'll get your mojo back," says Eileen Chadnick, a work/life coach and author of Ease: Manage Overwhelm in Times of Crazy Busy.

"Your whole being will regenerate. Only when you completely disconnect, can the best of you re-emerge."

But that's often easier said than done.

Technology is such an integral part of our daily routines that it's rare for employees not to check in multiple times with the office when they're away on vacation and supposed to be winding down.

And that's despite the health benefits of giving your mind and your body a rest.

"Canadians tend not to take our vacations well," says Chadnick, founder of Big Cheese Coaching in Toronto. "There's so much insecurity about letting go and stepping back. We're very poor at unplugging."

Monica Ruffo, a former advertising executive who recently started her own organic supplement company, Well Told Health, would never dream of going dark.

"I've never unplugged. Not when I worked in advertising and especially not since starting my new company," she says.

"When you're in a senior position, there are people who report in to you and who depend on you. To not be reachable is putting a really big burden on them," says Ruffo, who is also a single mother of two teenagers. "I'm not saying I want them to call me all the time. I don't. But to me, [going incommunicado] is not fair.

I believe that the freedom of one person begins when someone else's ends."

However, she's quick to qualify that she makes a commitment to her family to minimize her phone/screen time.

Ruffo has developed a work-vacation balance system that keeps her colleagues, herself and her kids happy. She sticks to a strict schedule when she's away. "I only check e-mails twice a day - midday and end of day. I also only answer the ones that require immediate attention. The others get filed away to deal with later."

She also tries to stay off the phone. "I don't usually welcome calls when I'm off, but if someone needs to speak to me urgently, I will try to schedule calls around 5 p.m., after our day's activities and before supper, so it's not quite as disruptive."

If you must have a lifeline between you and the office, Chadnick has some advice on how to blend the two.

Establish boundaries with yourself first. Understand what you are willing to do when you're away, and what you're not.

Set clear and careful boundaries with your workplace and colleagues. If you're not going to answer e-mails, let people know. Tell them that you are really trying to unplug, but if a situation escalates, to call you only at specified times. Tell your family, so they can help keep you accountable.

Delegate to people you trust. They will feel empowered because you've given them responsibility, and you will have peace of mind that someone else is keeping an eye on details that could have been overlooked.

Try to get most of the heavy lifting done before you leave so you don't get buried with work when you get back.

And if you can, stay off social media when you're supposed to be lolling on a beach or playing in the pool with the kids. Ask yourself: Do I really need to document every hour of my holiday on Instagram?

Be mindful that this commitment requires discipline and discernment.

"We all feel very indispensable and sometimes we are," Chadnsick says.

"But we're so used to thinking everything is urgent and an emergency that we forget there are others who are extremely capable and willing to step up in your absence.

It takes guts and self-management to let go."

Samantha Olivera, a partner at boutique branding and design firm the Workhouse Inc. in Toronto, makes work-vacation compromises, only checking e-mails once a day when she's away, typically later in the afternoon.

"I try not to talk on the phone because I want to be there for my kids," says Olivera, who has two girls, aged 7 and 5. "My check-ins are through e-mail and text - and you can do that undercover without the kids knowing.

"My husband and I both have our own businesses so we can't take more than one week at a time. Our holidays with the girls are precious," Olivera says. "They deserve their vacation as much as I do, and I want them to have my undivided attention as much as possible."

Brian Scudamore also used to stay connected to the office. But 10 years ago, the founder of 1-800-Got-Junk? and other companies hung up an "On Vacation" sign, and completely pulled the plug during his holidays.

The 48-year-old Vancouverite asked his assistant to change his password before he left the office for a trip with his wife and three children so that he couldn't check his e-mail. He also didn't call the office. And he's never looked back.

"It's something I've done for years, and it's been fundamentally life-changing not to be bound to a cellphone and e-mails, and to not feel that pressure," Scudamore says. "I come back refreshed, with more energy and better ideas. And believe it or not, my business survives without me."

He's encouraged his managers and 500employee workforce to follow suit.

"We're trying to push everyone in our company out of their comfort zone, and to go offline. We can't force them but it's a philosophy that's been growing through the company organically. We want people to have work-life balance," Scudamore says. "E-mail and social media can be like a drug. All-consuming. We want them to break out of that tunnel vision.

"The people who go dark in my company come back smile-ier, their productivity and creativity is better and they just seem happier," Scudamore says.

"I firmly believe you build a business to have a great life, not just to have a good business."

Associated Graphic

ISTOCK

THE KINDNESS OF STRANGERS KEPT ME GOING
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Turns out I needed to travel to a remote place to remind me of the beauty of human connection, Jennifer Knoch writes
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By JENNIFER KNOCH
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A18


The year I turned 30, my friend Erin and I decided to hike Newfoundland's East Coast Trail - 215 kilometres between Cappahayden and St. John's. We'd been dazzled by reading Wild, Cheryl Strayed's memoir of her 1,100mile solo hike on the Pacific Crest Trail.

Neither of us had backpacked longer than three days and now we were in for 13, but we were excited: Nature! Strength! Perseverance! Character! Our hike would give me all of those things in cruel abundance but there was one take home I didn't anticipate: proof of the astonishing kindness of strangers.

As a shy girl schooled in the perils of stranger danger, I'm not one to open up to people I don't know. In the city, I don't chit-chat with my seatmate on the subway or in a grocery line, and I certainly don't ask for help unless I'm desperate. But, on this hike, I had to learn new ways to cope.

Over our first two days we covered less than 30 kilometres, most of it in the rain. What had been a gentle mist when we started evolved into a driving downpour by the second day. Nothing dried overnight, everything was sodden. The trails were rugged, with muddy patches so deep that stepping in the wrong place meant mud to mid-calf, which is to say over and into your boots. We squelched with every step.

The East Coast Trail isn't one uninterrupted wilderness trek but a series of trails stitched between villages down the province's east side. You end up pounding a considerable amount of pavement, too. On our second day, as we emerged from one trail looking like cats left in the rain, a woman and her parents making their way from car to house caught sight of us and took pity. "Would you," one of them said, "like to come in for a cup of tea?" A brief respite from the rain, a warm beverage not heated over our wobbly camp stove, chairs to sit on - it was too good to pass up. We hurried to the cottage, where we stripped off as much soaking, muddy gear as possible, so as not to totally defile their lovely home. As the kettle boiled, we talked about the hike, where we were from and learned more about our rescuers - Jenny, a woman originally from Ontario, and her parents, who'd come to visit. The offer of tea turned into an offer of a shower. The hot shower turned into an offer of a hearty brunch: bacon, eggs, coffee and so many things that were not a part of our daily diet of instant oatmeal, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches and dried noodles. I remember that brunch as merry, with great conversation about canoe trips and other outdoor adventures, about being a come-from-away in Newfoundland. My memories of that lunch are saturated with a kind of warm, golden-hour glow, though it would have only been early afternoon.

After brunch, rocks were heated in the oven to dry out our boots and our sodden clothes got a warm tumble in the dryer. But the rain still sheeted down. Soon enough, it was happy hour: Jenny made gin and tonics, and we lounged on couches, listening to the CBC, flipping through books and making casual conversation. I have been in less relaxed environments with people I have known for years.

When the rain did not relent and calls to the woman in town who rented a spare room went unanswered, we were encouraged to stay. "Surely you can't go back out in that and camp," they said.

"You'll be soaked again in no time." And so Erin and I enjoyed a beautiful dinner, too, with food from the local market and more good conversation, and then we retired to twin beds. That night, I had no nightmares of our tent being blown off a cliff. That night, I slept soundly.

The next morning, Jenny made us breakfast, packed us plums and vegan power oatmeal for the road, and drove us through town to the next trailhead. We said a fond goodbye and tackled the next 23 km of hilly terrain with new energy - it was one of our most challenging segments of the trip. As we hiked through evergreens so thick we couldn't see the trail at our feet, we rehashed details of the day before, trying to hang onto our good fortune just a little longer.

We'd encounter more generosity on the trip: A family let us camp in their field and use their showers. A taciturn octogenarian drove us to his house for badly needed water and eventually opened up about how Newfoundland had changed since Confederation. Another woman gave us a welcome lift between trailheads.

(At home in Ontario, I'd never dream of hitchhiking, but here, I welcomed the rides.) At the trail's end, we met Bob Angel (his real name!), who took our triumphant photo and drove us the few kilometres back to St. John's, which would have been an unwelcome (and anti-climactic) bonus hike.

Back in civilization, we sent Jenny a text telling her we'd made it - and that maybe we'd made it because of her. The hardest hiking days had been the handful after we'd met her - when the trails were in the worst shape and so were we, and when the finish line was unfathomably far off. What if we'd not had a chance to rest, to dry out, to refuel with real food? What if we hadn't been reminded of human kindness and generosity?

We'd wanted to immerse ourselves in nature, and when the fog of exhaustion and discomfort occasionally cleared (and the actual fog, too), we savoured it. But of all the sights of the trip, I remember that warm glow inside Jenny's cottage as by far the most beautiful.

I knew that the trip would change me: I'd get stronger and tougher, and I'd have new faith in myself. But I didn't expect this trek to teach me about trust, about kindness, about generosity. To help me break down that hard city-bred barrier of distrust toward strangers. Turns out I needed to travel to a remote place to remind me of the beauty of human connection.

Jennifer Knoch lives in Toronto.

First Person is a daily personal piece submitted by readers Have a story to tell? Please see the guidelines on our website tgam.ca/essayguide, and e-mail it to firstperson@globeandmail.com

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY DREW SHANNON

Small businesses feel pinch of rising gas prices
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Soaring fuel costs come amid increasing wages, new payroll taxes that are already challenging business owners
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By BRENDA BOUW
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Special to The Globe and Mail
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B3


The rising cost of gasoline is forcing small-business owners to cut costs in order to cope with what experts say will be the new normal for fuel prices.

Gasoline costs have risen by about 15 per cent year-over-year for Jason Boyne's Goodbye Graffiti business. Mr. Boyne owns three of the franchises, including two in the Vancouver area and one in the Ottawa region.

His company uses gasoline to fuel his eight heavy-duty Ford F350 and Dodge 3500 trucks and the power washing equipment he uses to remove graffiti. The burner used to heat the water uses diesel, which has also risen in price.

"The biggest cost for us is filling up the trucks," says Mr. Boyne, who says his business now pays about $160 to fill up each truck in the Vancouver area, where gasoline prices hit a record of $161.90 at the end of April.

While gas prices are highest in B.C.'s Lower Mainland, the price at the pumps is climbing across Canada.

The spike in fuel prices comes alongside other rising costs for small-business owners, ranging from wages and new payroll taxes to increased costs from suppliers as a ripple effect moves across the supply chain.

"All of that gets translated to higher costs for our consumers," says Mr. Boyne, who recently increased his minimum rate by $10 to $199.

"It also affects my ability to give raises to my staff," says Mr. Boyne, who has shelved a plan to provide his employees a registered retirement savings plan program this year.

To offset higher gasoline prices, Mr. Boyne tries to fill the trucks when prices dip and when the vehicles are outside of Metro Vancouver, where prices are lower because they don't include a local transit authority levy. "But it's not always convenient," he says.

"I'm not going to send my truck out [of the area] just to fill up."

Buying new, lower-emission vehicles isn't possible either, given the huge capital expense. "The only thing we can do is raise our prices," Mr. Boyne says.

Business owners across Canada are paying about 15 per cent to 20 per cent more for fuel this year versus the same time last year, driven largely by the rising price of oil, says GasBuddy senior petroleum analyst Dan McTeague. A weaker Canadian dollar, limited refinery supplies and a new carbon price in provinces such as B.C. mean the price is expected to remain high - at least for the coming months.

"If you're a business ... this is definitely going to bite," Mr.

McTeague says. "This is the new normal - these higher prices remain firm."

With both consumers and business owners paying more at the pumps, there's an expectation that both groups will spend less on goods and services, which in turn will also hurt businesses.

"Look for people to keep whatever products they have longer and for capital expenditures to be repurposed or redevoted towards accommodating this increase," Mr. McTeague says.

Half of small-business owners in Canada say rising fuel and energy costs are a "major cost constraint that is limiting their ability to grow and be successful," according to Dan Kelly, the head of the Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB), based on a business outlook survey of its members released in May.

Given the other rising costs for businesses across Canada, Mr.

Kelly says governments should consider slowing down their planned carbon-tax increases. Ottawa plans to raise the price of carbon to $50 a tonne by 2022, which would add 11.6 cents a litre to the cost of gasoline, while the four largest provinces - Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia - have adopted some form of carbon pricing.

"There's not much the provincial or federal government can do about the international oil price, but there is a lot they can do with respect to the tax component," Mr. Kelly says.

At BigSteelBox Corp., a Kelowna, B.C.-based company that provides steel storage and shipping containers at 27 locations from B.C. to Ontario, higher fuel prices have forced it to rethink its delivery routes to reduce time on the road. For instance, in the past, a delivery or pickup would be done at any time, often separately.

Now, pickups and deliveries are co-ordinated, says the company's director of operations, Brian Hawkins.

Mr. Hawkins says the company uses diesel to fill up its delivery trucks, and, because they aren't big enough to buy in bulk, they fill up at gas stations for the same price as other smaller businesses and consumers. "We are feeling the same ebb and flow as the average consumer," Mr. Hawkins says.

He says the company isn't raising prices to offset the higher fuel costs, "but for sure it's getting tougher," with diesel representing about 10 per cent to 15 per cent of overall delivery costs for each store, each month.

HelloFresh Canada, a division of the international meal-kit company HelloFresh SE, has been dealing with steadily rising fuel prices for its delivery trucks since the business launched in Canada in 2016.

Fuel is a "significant component of our logistics costs," says Ian Brooks, chief executive of HelloFresh Canada. That includes gasoline used in the vehicles that deliver its meal kits to consumers, as well as to pick up the ingredients from local farms and suppliers.

To help offset the rising costs of fuel, Mr. Brooks says the company has reduced its packaging and the weight of its meal-kit delivery boxes by a total of about 45 per cent over the past couple of years. That has helped prevent it from increasing its costs to consumers.

"When we reduced the size of our box at the beginning of 2018, we were able to work with a logistics partner to avoid an [approximate] 10-per-cent increase in delivery costs, a significant portion of which was driven by rising fuel prices," he says.

The company is also set to launch a new fully compostable, plant-based cooling pouch. The lightweight pouches will reduce the need to use heavier ice in the boxes, and so help decrease fuel costs.

Keep up with the latest entrepreneurship news by signing up for the free Report on Small Business newsletter: globeandmail.com/newsletters.

Associated Graphic

Goodbye Graffiti owner Jason Boyne, seen in Surrey, B.C., on June 4, says his biggest cost is fuelling his eight heavy-duty pickup trucks. To offset higher gas prices, he tries to fill the trucks when prices dip and when the vehicles are outside of big cities.

DARRYL DYCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

White House ties border wall to migrant family separations
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As immigration vote looms, Trump demands funding before easing hard-line policy
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By TAMSIN MCMAHON
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Tuesday, June 19, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A1


SAN JOSE, CALIF. -- The White House has rejected the idea of legislation that would end its policy of separating migrant children from their parents unless it also includes broad immigration reform and funding for a wall along the border with Mexico.

"The President doesn't just want to see a Band-Aid put on this," White House press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders told reporters on Monday.

"This isn't something we can tinker with. We have to actually fix the entire system."

Images of children housed in tent camps and lying on mats on the floor of a shuttered Walmart along the Texas border have become a flashpoint in the country's debate over immigration reform, drawing widespread condemnation as the House of Representatives prepares to vote on two competing Republican immigration bills this week.

Lawmakers in both parties rushed on Monday to devise a targeted legislative fix.

GOP senators said they were considering legislation that would keep migrant families together, provide additional judges to shorten waits for detained families, and provide facilities for the migrants to stay in.

California Senator Dianne Feinstein said she had the backing of the Democratic caucus for a bill would that prohibit the separation of migrant children from their parents except in cases of child abuse or trafficking.

But the White House signalled it would oppose any narrow fix.

Ms. Sanders said President Donald Trump's priorities, such as funding a border wall and tightening immigration laws, must also be fulfilled as part of any legislation. "We want to fix the whole thing," she said. "We don't want to tinker with just part of it."

The policy, part of a zero-tolerance approach to illegal border crossings that Attorney-General Jeff Sessions announced earlier this year, separated nearly 2,000 migrant children from their parents between mid-April and the end of May, according to Department of Homeland Security figures.

Speaking at a meeting of the National Space Council in Washington, Mr. Trump blamed "horrible laws" for the policy, but said Democrats are obstructing Republican efforts to reform immigration.

He pointed to the political crisis engulfing German Chancellor Angela Merkel's coalition government over migration as a cautionary tale for U.S. lawmakers. "The United States will not be a migrant camp and it will not be a refugee holding facility," he said. "You look at what's happening in Europe, you look at what's happening in other places. We can't allow that to happen to the United States. Not on my watch."

The Trump administration's hard-line stand on immigration has drawn sharp criticism from across party lines.

All living former first ladies, both Republican and Democrat, have opposed the policy. In an oped in the Washington Post, Laura Bush called family separation "immoral. And it breaks my heart." Melania Trump issued a statement through a spokesperson that she "hates to see children separated from their families and hopes both sides of the aisle can finally come together to achieve successful immigration reform."

Republican Senator Lindsey Graham told CNN that Mr. Trump "could stop this policy with a phone call."

Mr. Trump is set to meet with House Republicans on Tuesday to

discuss two recent proposals for immigration reform legislation. The White House has said the President would sign either bill that makes it to his desk.

Both pieces of legislation aim to meet Mr. Trump's "four pillars" for immigration reform: ending a diversity visa lottery, building a border wall, limiting family-based migration and ensuring a pathway to citizenship for young people known as "Dreamers" who were brought to the United States illegally as children and were granted work permits under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.

The fate of the Dreamers has deeply divided the Republican Party. A conservative bill written by House Judiciary Committee chair Bob Goodlatte proposes deep cuts to legal immigration, would authorize spending of US$124-billion for border security over five years, and grant Dreamers renewable residency permits rather than green cards, limiting their prospects for citizenship.

A second bill put together late last week by Republican leaders, moderate Republicans and White House officials would also clamp down on legal immigration, but would allow many Dreamers to qualify for green cards eventually, and proposes US$25-billion for construction of a border wall with Mexico. It also seeks to prohibit children from being separated from their parents while they are in federal custody. The bills will face a tough hurdle in Congress. Democrats are expected to vote against them, meaning a successful bill would require support from all but 18 of the 235 House Republicans. Either bill would also face a divided Senate that has already rejected several immigration proposals this year.

Senior White House officials have scrambled to respond to the growing outcry.

Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen said at a White House press briefing that the federal government does not separate families that claim asylum at official ports of entry. She defended the administration's policy toward asylum seekers detained at illegal border crossings, and called the conditions at holding centres for children "humane."

"Parents who entered illegally are by definition criminals," she said. "Here is the bottom line: We are enforcing the laws as they exist on the books.

As long as illegal entry remains a criminal offence, DHS will not look the other way."

Ms. Nielsen said the family breakups will continue until Congress changes laws to make it possible to keep families together while they are detained and to deport them more easily. "Apprehension without detention and removal is not border security," she said, calling Congress "cowardly" for criticizing the administration's policies.

Federal policies have been on the books for years allowing illegal migrants to face criminal prosecution, although previous administrations have made exceptions for families and children who claimed asylum.

With reports from Adrian Morrow and the Associated Press

Associated Graphic

A son and father from Honduras are taken into custody by U.S. Border Patrol agents near the U.S.-Mexico Border on June 12 near Mission, Tex. The asylum seekers were then sent to a U.S. Customs and Border Protection processing centre for possible separation.

JOHN MOORE/GETTY IMAGES

People who have been taken into custody sit in one of the cages at a facility in McAllen, Tex. U.S.

CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Protesters participate in a demonstration against the separation of families in Otay Mesa, Calif., on June 10.

SANDY HUFFAKER/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

U.S. Border Patrol agents prepare to take a group of asylum seekers into custody on June 12 near McAllen, Tex.

JOHN MOORE/GETTY IMAGES

A preening Putin sets the tournament's tone
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Soccer may not matter to Russia's President, since he only had to show up once and hope things worked out
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Friday, June 15, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B15


TORONTO -- Less than 14 minutes after it started, the 2018 World Cup already had its defining image. It came shortly after Russia scored the first of (shuffling papers) hundreds of goals against Saudi Arabia.

In the stands, Russian President Vladimir Putin shot an amused look at his seatmate, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

The pair began to shake their heads and waggle their hands in unison - the international gesture for "Do you feel as cartoonishly evil as I do right now?" Putin reached out for a handshake. Prince Mohammed received the offer warmly.

A couple of years ago, their two countries were effectively fighting each other in a proxy war in Syria.

Now, apparently, they're pals. One looks forward to the weepy McDonald's ad about the power of sport to turn bitter enemies into best friends.

The sports headline out of Thursday's opener is "Russia - not as bad as all that."

The more compelling take was "Vlad's Big Day."

Putin paid a fortune in treasure and credibility to bring this tournament to Russia. In recent months, that was beginning to look like a miscalculation.

Russia's global reputation was at low ebb. The Russian team was terrible. The only reason to host a World Cup is marketing your country to the rest of the planet.

This World Cup was instead putting all of Russia's faults into sharper relief.

But on Thursday at least, all that tension bled away. So what if the West's major leaders had taken a pass on attending? That only left more room at the broadcast buffet for the star of the show. As the world stopped to watch him preen, Putin must have felt his wager paying off.

Crucially, the soccer part turned out right - 5-0 for Russia. Since Russia hadn't won a game in eight months, that was far from given.

Looming over the encounter was the fact that no host had ever lost the opening game of a World Cup.

Aesthetically, the match was atrocious. The Saudis played like a bunch of very fit men who'd first heard a week ago that there is this thing called "soccer."

(In fairness, this is a country that banned playing the sport until the fifties and whose powerful clerics have repeatedly issued fatwas against it, so they have some ground to make up.)

The Russians weren't a whole lot better, but they did seem to understand the basics - the ball goes forward, you should not let people run by you unhindered, probably smart to jump when everyone on the other team is jumping, etc.

After each goal, Putin would turn to Prince Mohammed. The Saudi grew increasingly less receptive to these "friendly" gestures. As the last goal went in, Putin was still waggling his hands, but Prince Mohammed was staring dead ahead, planning a change to his route home.

The Crown Prince already owns a $400-million house in France and a $650-million yacht in Bermuda. Perhaps he can detour up to Rome and inquire about the price of the Italian national football team. Because the Italians aren't using it at the moment.

You could forgive Putin his celebratory excesses. Things were going much better than the last time the world watched him watching something.

That was at the Sochi Olympics.

Putin had the habit of drifting into hockey games after they'd started, taking a seat up near the rafters of the Bolshoy Arena.

Russia lost to the United States in the opening round as Putin looked on grimly. He took a pass on the quarter-final and was spared an up-close look at the Finns ending his gold-medal dream in the sport he cares most about.

Soccer matters less, perhaps not at all, to the Russian leader. He only had to show up once and hope things worked out.

As per usual, the opening ceremony was an expensive, incoherent mess.

It featured jugglers, rock 'n' roll harpists, a ball they shot up to the International Space Station and the best musical talent rubles can buy (so, Robbie Williams, time warped in from 1997).

These preshows never change, creating the impression that the World Cup is held in some neutral, imaginary venue. You began to forget who was hosting and allowed yourself to relax into the narcotic comfort of the Big Show.

Reading from a lectern, Putin spoke at length beforehand. He welcomed the world to "an open, hospitable and friendly country" filled with people visitors will find "share the same values."

It didn't quite jibe with a country involved in three ongoing foreign wars, but it sounded nice.

He got a nice petting from Swiss soccer boss Gianni Infantino. This was Infantino's big international TV debut. He managed to strike the traditional FIFA tone - somewhere between smug and servile.

"As of today, for one month, football will conquer Russia," Infantino said, pointing into the crowd as if he'd just won a Daytime Emmy. "And from Russia, football will conquer the entire world."

It was an oddly martial way of putting it. One presumes Infantino was attempting to speak in terms his audience-of-one understands.

(Putin must have been channelling Stalin as he heard this - "How many divisions does soccer's pope have?") If it was a bit tacky, that was the point. After all the bogeyman talk in the lead-up, Russia was allowed to look just as gauche a party planner as its Western critics.

Williams - who was raked beforehand by activists for "selling his soul to a dictator" - captured the mood by flashing a raised middle finger at the camera. Maybe they paid extra for that.

Putin needed no rude gestures to make his point. All he had to do was sit there and look agreeable.

By the end he appeared positively mirthful, like the cat that got the cream.

It's difficult to say how much these events cost, especially in countries that aren't transparent with their finances.

Sochi was something in the region of $60-billion. The World Cup is a bargain by comparison - $14-billion or so.

It's still an awful lot of money.

But when you have for years been someone people fear and suspect, it may seem like a fair price to enjoy one whole day as the belle of the world's ball.

Associated Graphic

Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, FIFA president Gianni Infantino and Russian President Vladimir Putin watch the opening match between Russia and Saudi Arabia at Luzhniki stadium in Moscow on Thursday.

HASSAN AMMAR /THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Remarks on Trudeau suit Navarro's style
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He once battled real estate developers, now he's advising one on trade at the White House
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By TAMSIN MCMAHON
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A3


SAN JOSE -- Long before he became one of the Trump administration's most vociferous critics of free trade, Peter Navarro was an academic and aspiring politician in San Diego who ran for Congress as a Democrat, championed the environment and led a campaign to stop the city's powerful real estate developers.

Mr. Navarro, a 68-year-old Harvard-trained economist, has taken an unlikely path to the White House as Mr. Trump's top trade adviser. The lone academic on the President's economic advisory council, his polarizing views on China's trade policies have alienated him from many mainstream economists and antagonized more moderate factions of the Trump administration.

Yet Mr. Navarro has emerged as a key figure in his country's escalating trade disputes. He was a strong opponent of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which Mr.

Trump pulled out of in his first month in office.

He has also supported Mr.

Trump's threats to walk away from the North American freetrade agreement and pushed for the imposition of 25-per-cent tariffs against US$50-billion in Chinese goods, which Mr. Trump approved on Friday.

Former colleagues and political associates in California say they were shocked to find Mr. Navarro had reinvented himself as an ardent supporter of a Republican real estate tycoon. But they were less surprised by his comments on the heels of last weekend's Group of Seven meeting in Quebec that there is "a special place in hell" for Prime Minister Justin Trudeau - comments for which he later apologized.

They say Mr. Navarro shares not only the President's stridently protectionist views on trade, but his penchant for the spotlight and his combative persona. "It was pretty classic Peter Navarro," says Lisa Ross, who worked on several of Mr. Navarro's political campaigns in San Diego. "Articulate hyperbole, and the perfect sound bite that played all week."

A long-time business professor at University of California, Irvine, Mr. Navarro spent the better part of the 1990s focused on political issues in San Diego, where he headed a group pushing to slow the city's growth and helped to successfully defeat a proposal to open up 5,000 hectares of green space for development. "He was the guy waving his arms in front of the bulldozers," Ms. Ross said.

He ran for political office five times, including for San Diego mayor, attracting attention through provocative statements and publicity stunts, losing every campaign, often narrowly.

In his 1996 bid for Congress, he positioned himself as a brash, anti-establishment outsider who could sway independent voters in a district considered a prime target for Democrats looking to retake the House.

Hillary Clinton, then first lady, campaigned for him in California.

In San Diego Confidential, a tell-all memoir Mr. Navarro wrote about his bid for public office, he called Ms. Clinton "one of the most gracious, intelligent, perceptive and, yes, classy women I have ever met." Decades later, Mr. Navarro would refer to her on the Trump campaign trail as "the job-destroyer Hillary."

In his writings, Mr. Navarro chalks up his multiple political defeats to the power of San Diego's business establishment and his opponents' dirty tricks, although polls and focus groups turned up that many voters were put off by his aggressive personality and his fierce attacks on his opponents. "Everything is a war with him," one voter told his pollsters.

At UC Irvine, Mr. Navarro's expertise was in energy deregulation, not trade. He began to focus on trade with China around 2004, when he noticed that many of the students in his part-time MBA program for working professionals began losing their jobs. "All roads quickly pointed to China," he wrote in the San Francisco Chronicle in 2016.

Mr. Navarro has published three books on China since 2006, pointing to the country's entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001 as the primary trigger behind the decline of U.S. economic dominance. He portrays China as dedicated to stealing U.S. jobs and undermining the country's defence industry, even as it pollutes the environment and harms consumers with its defective manufactured goods.

"The research he did for writing his books changed him," says Michele Nash-Hoff, who runs a manufacturing sales agency in San Diego and is a member of the Coalition for a Prosperous America, the industry group that supports a hard-line stand on tariffs and NAFTA negotiations.

His 2012 documentary, Death By China, depicts China as a cartoon knife plunging into a bleeding map of the United States, while its economic policies are shown as bombs and missiles described as "weapons of job destruction."

Many China experts take issue with Mr. Navarro's lack of deep experience working in China.

"Asking Peter for advice on trade relations with China is a little bit like asking a plumber to take out your appendix; there's a little bit of knowledge there but not much," says John Graham, a retired professor of international business who worked with Mr.

Navarro at UC Irvine for 25 years.

While economists and foreign policy experts do agree with some of Mr. Navarro's complaints against China, including its export subsidies and its environmental and human-rights abuses, they largely disagree with his view of global trade as a zero-sum game where the winners are countries such as China, Canada and Mexico, and the loser is the United States.

"I think five years ago, Navarro would have been seen as way out of consensus," says Ian Bremmer, president of political research and consulting firm Eurasia Group, who has known Mr. Navarro for years. "Now the consensus is moving closer to him."

More troubling for analysts such as Mr. Bremmer is Mr. Navarro's vision of what the Trump administration should do about U.S.

trade imbalances. Mr. Bremmer argues that rather than tariffs and protectionist policies, the White House should focus on shoring up domestic industry through investments in research and development, while cultivating stronger ties to the United States' global allies if it wants to retain its influence over the global economy.

"I think Navarro's view is we can do it ourselves," he says. "And I think that's a problem. Because China is a lot more powerful, and is getting so every day."

Associated Graphic

Peter Navarro listens in on a news conference earlier this month in the White House rose garden. He is the lone academic on the U.S. President's economic advisory council and a former Democrat from San Diego known for his polarizing views and harsh language.

CHIP SOMODEVILLA/GETTY IMAGES

Can the U.S. Congress stop the President from killing NAFTA?
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By ADRIAN MORROW
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Wednesday, June 20, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


WASHINGTON -- In the opening weeks of Donald Trump's presidency, his advisers came to the government department responsible for trade negotiations with a question: How could they pull the country out of NAFTA?

Lawyers in the Office of the United States Trade Representative, according to a former official who was close to the discussions, told them it was complicated because Congress may have the power to block such a move.

Over a period of weeks, the career civil servants at USTR dissuaded Mr. Trump's most nationalistic aides, Steve Bannon and Peter Navarro, from trying to terminate the trilateral trade pact with Canada and Mexico, the official said.

The administration determined to renegotiate the North American free-trade agreement instead.

The power of lawmakers to rein in Mr. Trump has loomed large over his increasingly aggressive trade agenda during his 17 months in office.

The President has ignored the pleas of his free-trading Republican (GOP) caucus, sticking with protectionist NAFTA demands and imposing hefty tariffs on Canadian and Mexican steel and aluminium.

Now, one GOP senator is leading a legislative push to stop Mr. Trump's metal tariffs. The move has divided caucus and raised two crucial questions, with more than $1-trillion in annual trade hanging in the balance: Can Congress stop the President from tearing the world's largest freetrade zone asunder? And does it want to?

The U.S. Constitution's commerce clause gives Congress the power to regulate trade. Congress has delegated some of this power to the President through various pieces of legislation. One is the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, Section 232 of which Mr. Trump has used to bring in the steel and aluminium tariffs. Another is the Trade Promotion Authority of 2015, which gives him the ability to negotiate trade deals.

For more than a year, the GOP and business leaders have tried to use the power of persuasion to talk Mr. Trump out of his trade protectionism. Republican members of Congress have cajoled him in private and written open letters, while Corporate America - most vocally the U.S. Chamber of Commerce - has publicly condemned his moves. Mr. Trump, however, has charged ahead.

Earlier this month, Senator Bob Corker, a Tennessee Republican who chairs the foreign relation committee, tabled legislation to give Congress the ability to veto Mr. Trump's Section 232 tariffs. It was tacked on as an amendment to an unrelated bill, but GOP leaders stopped it from coming to a vote: Even though they largely agreed with the measure, they did not want to anger Mr. Trump or his base ahead of congressional elections in the fall.

"I don't think this is a time to pick a fight with the President," Senator John Cornyn, the No. 2ranked Republican in the Senate, told reporters.

Mr. Corker has vowed to find another way to get similar legislation passed, even as he vented his frustration at fellow Republicans for abandoning the party's freetrade ideals to stay on Mr. Trump's good side.

"It's almost becoming a cultish thing, isn't it?" he said last week.

"It's not a good place for any party to end up, with a cult-like situation as it relates to a president that happens to be, purportedly, of the same party."

Laurence Tribe, a Harvard University constitutional law expert, said Congress could amend the Trade Expansion Act to take away or restrict Mr. Trump's ability to levy tariffs under Section 232. But legislators cannot give themselves the power to block individual tariffs imposed by the President, because of a 1983 U.S. Supreme Court ruling on an immigration case, which removed Congress's ability to veto decisions by the executive branch of government.

"Congress could at any time repeal or limit the application of Section 232, but it cannot retain for itself a legislative veto over presidential determinations of what he claims to be national security exemptions under that section," Mr. Tribe wrote in an e-mail.

So far, Mr. Trump has held back from his more extreme threat of tearing up NAFTA. If he does try, the legal complications would be even tougher to sort out than the tariff fight.

Even the USTR office remained unsure about Congress's power to stop the President from unilaterally pulling out of the deal, after studying the question for Mr. Bannon and Mr. Navarro. The former insider, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the NAFTA deal itself and the Trade Promotion Authority appear to say two different things. While the pact on its own gives the President the power to end the deal, the TPA suggests Congress must be involved.

Messier still is the NAFTA Implementation Act, which was passed by Congress to put the provisions of the deal into effect.

The act directly implements some pieces of the deal, including the Chapter 19 dispute-resolution system, but also delegates power to the President to implement others, such as setting some specific tariff rates. This means that, if Mr. Trump pulled out of NAFTA, he could unilaterally reverse some of the deal while other portions of it would stay in effect unless Congress repealed the act.

"The President can withdraw under the agreement, but that legislation would still be in place," said Thomas Bollyky, a Georgetown University law professor and former trade negotiator.

"No one wants to arrive at that point where you have a zombie NAFTA."

Congress's broad constitutional jurisdiction over trade means it could pass legislation curbing Mr. Trump's power, he said - the question is more political: "I don't think we're there politically, yet, where the majority wants to take those actions. But they certainly have the ability to."

Businesses and other outside groups, for their part, are stepping up the pressure. One political action committee called Republicans Fighting Tariffs aired ads on Fox Business and CNBC last week calling on Congress to step up. "These tariffs are terrible for our businesses, for our consumers, for our workers and for our economy," an announcer intoned.

Scott Lincicome, a trade expert at the libertarian Cato Institute who is advising the group, said pressure from the forces of free trade may have failed to completely hold Mr. Trump back but argued they have at least mitigated the damage, such as by stopping him pulling out of NAFTA.

"Nobody would say that we're in a good place on trade, but the business community has had some success in making sure we don't go off the cliff," he said.

"We're still standing with our toes on the edge."

Investors pick fight with HBC over Baker's pay package
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Teachers, Calpers to vote against $54.8-million compensation for executive chairman as retailer struggles with losses and disappointing stock price
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By MARINA STRAUSS, JANET MCFARLAND
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B1


Some of the country's biggest institutional investors are opposing the $54.8-million pay package of Richard Baker, executive chairman of Hudson's Bay Co., amid the retailer's weak performance and disappointing stock price.

Mr. Baker's pay, including $37.2million in share-based awards, was one of last year's single highest executive compensation plans among Canada's publicly traded companies.

Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan and British Columbia Investment Management Corp. (BCIMC), two of Canada's largest pension-fund managers, said they are voting "no" in HBC's say-on-pay vote at the retailer's annual meeting on Tuesday, as is the California Public Employees' Retirement System (CALPERS), a U.S. pension giant.

"In this case, we do not feel that the awards have been sufficiently justified," Ontario Teachers, which is HBC's third-largest shareholder with almost 10 per cent of its stock, said in a recent statement.

Governance experts also see a mismatch. "It seems very odd that you would have such excessive pay when there's such under-performance," Richard Leblanc, associate professor of law, corporate governance and ethics at York University, said in an interview.

HBC has struggled with losses and often sluggish sales as it embarked on an aggressive expansion into Europe while having to invest heavily to catch up in its crucial digital business.

The retailer posted losses of more than $500-million in each of the past two fiscal years, and its share price has tumbled by more than half since mid-2015.

Mr. Baker led a group that acquired the retailer in 2008, oversaw its turnaround and took it public in late 2012. Under his leadership, the company profited from some real estate deals, but in the past few years has grappled with a fastchanging retail landscape and rising e-commerce competition.

Now, the company is rewarding him to ensure he stays on, including share-unit and stock-option grants totaling $46.9-million under a new "realignment program" for him, according to HBC's shareholder proxy circular for its annual meeting.

The revamped program, which also redesigns pay for other executives, "is long-term focused, highly performance-based, and focused on the company's strategic direction for the next several years," the filing says.

"In order to secure Mr. Baker's services to the company for the coming years, to motivate him and the company to achieve ambitious goals, and to demonstrate the board's confidence in his leadership in a period where there have been executive transitions and volatility in the company's performance, the [human resources and compensation committee] developed this program under which the next four years of equity grants would be granted at one time." It says a major part of Mr. Baker's pay is stock options and performance-share units, which will have value to him only if the company's stock price appreciates at specified levels.

HBC spokesman Andrew Blecher said on Monday the HBC board worked with an outside compensation adviser "and approved an executive compensation package heavily weighted on performance-based long term incentives that seeks to align executive pay with the interests of shareholders. It is important to note that these grants will vest only if performance targets are achieved."

He added that proxy advisory firm ISS recommended voting in favour, noting that HBC's executive compensation program is primarily performance-based.

Ontario Teachers said it also has concerns over other aspects of the company's compensation plan, notably the use of a short performance period under the long-term incentive plan.

Teachers also is voting against approving new stock-option and restricted share unit plans at HBC, which each allocate up to 15 per cent of the company's shares for granting, and automatically refreshes the number of shares available to grant under both programs as they are used. Teachers said it does not support plans with "rolling maximums" and said they could contribute to share dilution above its preferred level. It also said the company's annual grant rate of share units and stock options has exceeded "our threshold maximum."

BCIMC is voting against the two new option and share unit plans, as well as the compensation, and withholding their votes on all of the non-independent directors on the Hudson's Bay board, except chief executive Helena Foulkes. The fund manager said the compensation program "is structured in a way that does not sufficiently align pay with performance and contains features that are not in line with best practices."

CALPERS did not provide an explanation for its voting decision.

Proxy advisory firm Glass Lewis & Co. LLC, which advises institutional investors on how to vote their shares, recommended opposing the company's pay practices this year, saying Mr. Baker is already one of the five largest shareholders in the company and information was insufficient on why he needed a retention grant.

"We believe that a more detailed explanation for the size and structure of his awards was needed to give shareholders a better understanding of their necessity," Glass Lewis said in its voting recommendation report.

Glass Lewis also said it is concerned about the structure of Mr. Baker's large performance share unit grant, which would pay out based on whether the company achieves compound share price growth rate targets of 8 per cent, 10 per cent and 10 per cent during 90-day periods in coming years.

Glass Lewis said the goals could be reached by "relatively brief (albeit significant) spikes in performance" rather than sustained long-term growth.

"Altogether, we believe shareholders should generally be wary of awards granted outside of the standard incentive schemes, as such awards have the potential to undermine the integrity of a company's regular incentive plans, the link between pay and performance, or both," it said. "We generally believe that if the existing incentive programs fail to provide adequate incentives to executives, companies should redesign their compensation programs rather than make additional grants."

Meanwhile, the California State Teachers' Retirement System (CALSTRS), another major U.S. pension plan, also is voting "no" to HBC's say-on-pay vote and the proposal to approve its new share unit and stock option plans, while withholding its votes for all the company's directors.

Associated Graphic

Hudson's Bay executive chairman Richard Baker, in Toronto in 2016, received one of last year's single highest executive compensation plans among Canada's publicly traded companies.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Hudson's Bay executive chairman Richard Baker speaks during a news conference in Amsterdam in 2016.

ROBIN VAN LONKHUIJSEN/EPA

Disarray not always a bad thing
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Spain will need to overcome, or ignore, organizational chaos surrounding the team
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Saturday, June 16, 2018 – Print Edition, Page S3


On the eve of the knockout rounds at the 1974 World Cup, Helmut Schon, the manager of West Germany, blew a mental fuse.

The Germans had been in disarray for most of the tournament, turned inside out by a dispute over bonus money. Schon had already threatened to send the lot of them home and play a team of substitutes instead.

Then they lost to East Germany. The game didn't mean much in terms of the standings, but Schon was devastated. The next morning, he refused to come out of his room. He skipped an afternoon press conference. Players later described his malady as a sort of nervous breakdown.

Team captain Franz Beckenbauer became the de facto manager, coaxing Schon out into public and assuming most media duties. Schon was a passenger the rest of the way. West Germany still won.

All that to say that organizational chaos is a regular occurrence at the World Cup and not always a bad thing.

Some teams embrace it (Italy winning at Germany 2006 while several players were caught up in a nationwide match-fixing scandal). Some burst into flames (France going all aux barricades against each other in 2010 and being sent home in the most awful possible manner - forced to fly coach).

The early favourite for basket case of this tournament is Spain.

Hours before the opener, they fired their manager, Julen Lopetegui, because he'd agreed to take the top job at Real Madrid without bothering to tell anyone.

The head of the Spanish federation found himself in an ugly tussle with Real's gleefully unhinged president, Florentino Perez.

"Some people will do anything to hurt the image of Real Madrid," Perez said at Lopetegui's rushed unveiling back home. You were beginning to understand why Spain had a civil war.

Former international Fernando Hierro was air-dropped onto the Spanish bench, largely because people recognize him and he looks good in a tight, white shirt. Hierro's rally-the-troops message boiled down to "Managers don't do much anyway." Assuming he would like to hold the job for a while, it's an odd interview technique.

Spanish national teams were once famous for this sort of nonsense, habitually undone by bickering along tribal lines. The Real players hated the Barcelona players. The Catalans hated the Castilians who hated the Andalucians and so forth. The usual result was a group of marvellous individual talents who refused to pass the ball to one another.

After decades of underperformance, the Spaniards finally buried their grudges and began winning major trophies. The iteration between 2008-12 may be the greatest national side ever.

The Spain squad that has shown up in Russia is the hind parts of that generation - in roster flux and still great, but no longer a sure thing.

On Friday, they faced an ersatz version of themselves in Portugal. This was meant to be the Big Event of the group stage in Russia - usually a sure sign that it will be an unwatchable slog. That was the first surprise.

The major decision facing Hierro going into the game was choosing the replacement for injured fullback Dani Carvajal.

From three options, he chose Nacho (the man, not the chip, and Real's Nacho as opposed to Arsenal's Nacho). The thinking seemed to be that as one of his club teammates, Nacho was best suited to mark Cristiano Ronaldo.

Two minutes into the game, Nacho was taken by surprise when Ronaldo tried to go by him with a step over. That would make him one of the three or four people on the planet who did not see that one coming.

Nacho left a leg dangling. Ronaldo tripped over it. Penalty. After Ronaldo scored, he stroked imaginary chin whiskers - a cheeky reference to GOAT (greatest of all time) and a symbolic shot across the bow of his nemesis, Lionel Messi.

Just before the half, Spanish goalkeeper David de Gea - considered by many the best in the world at his position - palmed a Ronaldo shot into his own net.

The winds of change, they were blowing.

And in the very late going, Ronaldo chipped in a ludicrous free kick curveball that, on replay, seemed to cast the whole idea of physics into doubt.

So, to recap, Ronaldo had a hat trick, including a golazo, off two egregious Spanish errors. His ego must now be close to attaining its own gravity.

And yet the game still ended 3-3.

Spain's Diego Costa, the world's strongest baby, had two goals. Nacho made up for his mistake with a lovely long-distance tally picked out of the air.

It is generally the case that the tone of a World Cup is set in the very early going. If the first few teams out of the chute play with aspiration, others feel compelled to match them.

On that basis, this tournament is shaping up as a treasure. All three games played on Friday were won dramatically in the final minutes. Even Morocco-Iran - on paper, the equivalent of two guys Jell-O wrestling - captured the imagination.

But Spain-Portugal operated on a level so different that it would be wrong to say they were in the same building.

It would not be a disappointment if this turned out to be the most entertaining encounter of the whole shebang. It was a game so good, Iberian hill people will be writing songs about it.

A draw puts both teams in good position, but it felt like a win for Portugal. Outside Ronaldo, they weren't great. But Ronaldo is all they need.

The main thing missing from his GOAT résumé is a memorable run through a World Cup. On Friday, in his fourth try, he finally looked the part.

If Ronaldo was the evening's winner, then Spain must be the losers. They looked it, hang-dogging around the pitch afterward, patting at each other noncommittally. You could see the rivets that have held this team together for a decade beginning to loosen.

You felt sure then that there are two possible ends for Spain in Russia: a deep and mythic run à la West Germany or a humiliating, early collapse in the French fashion. Either way, the sure winners are neutral viewers and soap-opera aficionados.

Associated Graphic

Portugal's Cristiano Ronaldo scores his third goal of the game from a free kick to complete his hat-trick during a World Cup game against Spain in Sochi, Russia on Friday. Spain and Portugal tied 3-3.

UESLEI MARCELINO/ REUTERS

MANDELA: STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM REIMAGINED
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The famous exhibition just debuted at Winnipeg's Canadian Museum for Human Rights, powerfully confronting visitors with the shock of apartheid
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page A16


WINNIPEG -- hen it opened in 2008, W the Nelson Mandela exhibition at Johannesburg's Apartheid Museum was meant to be a temporary show. A decade later, it is still there - so popular that the museum built a new wing. Mandela, who died in 2013, toured through the original exhibition in a golf cart with museum founder and director Christopher Till.

"I drove him through his life," Till says. "He was amazed."

The museum created a touring version that has travelled to institutions all over the world. Now, for the first time, another museum has taken the exhibition and made not only small adjustments to suit the location and language, but reimagined it, creating something essentially new from the original South African bones.

Mandela: Struggle for Freedom has just opened at The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) in Winnipeg, a few weeks ahead of the centenary of Mandela's birth. It not only adds a Canadian context to the exhibition, but looks beyond Mandela the man in order to contextualize his astonishing achievements.

In its research, CMHR officials learned something surprising that helped shape the show: Canadians were widely familiar with Mandela, the iconic anti-apartheid activist who spent 27 years in prison and later became president of South Africa. But a shocking number of survey respondents had never even heard the word "apartheid."

Apartheid - "apartness" in the Afrikaans language - was the race-based political and legal system brought in by the National Party, elected in 1948, by an almost exclusively white electorate in a country with a large black majority.

"It's really important to keep this type of history in the common vocabulary. Otherwise, how can we learn from mistakes in the past?" says Helen Delacretaz, CMHR's director of exhibitions.

"This isn't distant past. This is very recent past."

The show's lead curator, Isabelle Masson, can attest to that.

Back when she was a CEGEP student in Quebec, she took time off to travel, and ended up in South Africa - where she walked into history. It was 1994; the country was holding its historic democratic elections. She stayed for nearly a year. It was "absolutely, completely" life-changing, she says.

"That had a profound impact on me. It really gave me a passion for politics that's never died since.

... It took a long time to build this show, but the passion kept me going."

Walking into the exhibition, the visitor is immersed immediately in the shock of apartheid, confronted by a blown-up photograph of a white boy and a black woman - his family's domestic servant. He is sitting on a bench marked "Europeans only." The woman is relegated to leaning on the bench behind him.

In front of the photo is an actual green bench with "Europeans Only" in the same all-caps font. It's a reproduction, but still powerful.

Entering the space and seeing that "was traumatic for me," says Dolana Mogadime. Prof. Mogadime, daughter of an anti-apartheid activist, was born in South Africa, moved to Canada as a child in the 1970s and is now an associate professor of education at Brock University. "I didn't know that I was going to feel that way when I saw it, but it just brought up all those emotions of a world that's separate." Around the first corner, the visitor is stopped in their tracks by a dramatic "wall of laws" - a nearly five-metre-high barrage of racist signage, pointing to segregated bathrooms, beaches, staircases, taxi stands; and excerpts from restrictive legislation, such as laws that prohibited white and nonwhite people from marrying - or even having physical relations with each other.

The show highlights Canadians' role in the fight against apartheid. Canada was a vocal critic - evidenced by strong speeches by former prime ministers John Diefenbaker and Brian Mulroney, and video interviews with human-rights activist Stephen Lewis and Prof. Mogadime's mother, Caroline Goodie Mogadime.

"As Mandela says, they regarded us as animals," she says in the video.

Nearby is Canada's Golden Book signed by Mandela during his June, 1990, visit, just a few months after his release from prison. "Canada has given the people of South Africa enormous strength and courage," the handwritten message begins.

It is one of three Mandela artifacts in the show; there is also a letter he wrote to an anti-apartheid activist from prison, and a notebook from 1991, during negotiations for democracy with the government of former president F.W. de Klerk. "If de Klerk is not committed," he wrote, "we must make him committed."

The exhibition starts entirely in black and white, with colour slowly added through each of its five sections.

The first zone, "Apartheid," establishes the context for the struggle and Mandela's rise. "Defiance" features a young Mandela in a clandestine television interview conducted while he was living underground to avoid arrest.

"Repression" deals with Mandela's trial and incarceration, including his difficult separation from his wife, Winnie, and his children. This section includes a technologically enhanced, visitor-activated replica prison cell, the exact size of the tiny Robben Island cell where Mandela was confined for 18 years. Walking in triggers a silhouette projection on the wall - the shadow of a man (meant to be Mandela) boxing, pacing, reading; followed by short films using Mandela's own voice.

The penultimate zone, "Mobilization," is a walk through contrast: to the left, a large video screen feels alive with singing, colourful protestors on the move; to the right is an enormous armoured military tank. It is stationary, stuck in a different time.

The final section, "Freedom," is meant to project hope, but also a strong sense that the struggle is not over - neither in South Africa or elsewhere.

"We need to hold up the mirror to ourselves and measure it against what was taking place.

Are we any better?" says Till, attending the show's opening in Winnipeg. "What are you going to do about what you've seen here?

Because this isn't a history lesson," he continues. "It's actually a wake-up call."

Mandela: Struggle for Freedom is at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg until Jan. 6, 2019.

Associated Graphic

South African born Canadian Dolana Mogadime, pictured sitting on a bench marked 'Europeans Only' as an active resistance at Mandela: Struggle for Freedom, says seeing the exhibit was 'traumatic' for her and 'brought up all those emotions of a world that's separate.'

MARSHA LEDERMAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The accolades keep coming for tennis's undisputed king of clay
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By CATHAL KELLY
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Monday, June 11, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B11


TORONTO -- In 2001, former Wimbledon champion Pat Cash was in Mallorca playing in an exhibition tournament.

He was scheduled to face Boris Becker in the closer, but the German withdrew with an injury. Organizers suggested Cash play a local high-school freshman instead.

Cash was 36 years old - retired, but still in his prime.

The kid won the first set. The Spanish crowd was irritatingly delighted. Cash buckled down and won the second. The third set went to a tiebreaker. The kid won.

"I came in the locker room after and the guys sort of looked at me, just to see my reaction," Cash later said. "And my reaction was I'd just lost to a 14-year-old."

Of course, the kid was Rafael Nadal.

In the years since, Cash has retroactively amended his disappointment: "I took heart by thinking I had lost to a future Roland Garros champion."

Losing hurts, but it must hurt a lot less when you do it to Nadal on his favoured surface and in Paris. You can't regret failing to achieve something you never had a chance at doing.

Nadal won his 11th French Open title on Sunday. Despite hand cramps, he steamrolled Austria's Dominic Thiem 6-4, 6-3, 6-2.

Thiem, 24, is the flag bearer of tennis's next generation. That may sound young, but it isn't in tennis terms. Bjorn Borg retired at 26.

The problem is Nadal and his friendly nemesis, Roger Federer.

As long as those two continue on as they have, tennis's next generation is in danger of becoming the Prince Charles of global sport - aged out of their inheritance.

Along with Tiger Woods, Federer is the emblematic athlete of the 21st century. Nadal is instead all of history's great specialist.

His winning percentage at the French Open is .977. His 11 championships at Roland Garros alone tie him for fifth-most Grand Slams among mens' players.

It is now conceivable he will end his career having won more French Opens that any man but Federer has won majors.

Observers have spent years trying to dissect what exactly makes Nadal so good on clay. He has many advantages - having been raised on it; left-handedness; remarkable movement; his second serve; a mathematician's ability to construct points and so on and so forth.

But by now, Nadal's key edge is that he does not believe he can lose. More important, no one else believes they can win.

Federer has conceded the issue by giving up on the clay-court season altogether. At this stage of the Swiss's career, why bother playing if you're doing it for money rather than trophies?

Federer managed to sneak in a single French Open title in 2009.

That year, Nadal had one of his two - two! - tournament defeats.

The man who beat him, Robin Soderling, won 10 ATP titles and made US$10-million in prize money over his career, but he's best known for a single act of giant killing.

Had he not done it, Federer might not posses a career Slam, and might not now be considered the greatest player ever. It would at least go from an undeniable fact to a decent bar argument.

(Federer owns plenty of houses. He ought to give Soderling one of them.)

With Federer having one-third retired from the game, Nadal has tightened his hold on that piece of territory.

He's been blighted by injuries throughout his career, but they have not often afflicted him at this time of year. It's as if his body knows it has to pull things together for a few weeks in May and early June, and is free to fall apart once summer arrives.

After he won for the first time in France 13 years ago, Nadal told The New York Times his greatest concern was losing his grip on reality.

"I hope this all won't change me," he said. "I would like to stay the same as I have always been."

He's managed that. Although not particularly charismatic off the court, no great modern athlete seems nicer than Nadal. He's never feuded with anyone, or rubbished an opponent or seemed angry during play at anyone but himself.

In interviews, he has retained the shy courtliness of a wellraised teenager. Most athletes who arrive in their youth get polished up by the star system. By their 30s, they have the shiny look of the professionally styled.

If anything, Nadal, 32, has become less groomed over time. The same crooked smile; an unwillingness to concede he's losing his hair; an approaching gauntness that suggests he will not fatten in middle age, but wither slightly.

He's got a 50-year-old head on a 21year-old body, in both the literal and metaphoric senses.

He has grown more wistful over the years. These victories get hold of him in a different way. His celebrations were muted on Sunday. He cried, but just for a moment.

The closest he came to flashing some edge was in congratulating Thiem: "I'm sure you will win here ..." - an almost imperceptible pause - "... in a couple of years." In other words, "whenever I decide to call it a day."

There was a moment around 2016 when it appeared Novak Djokovic was the new king of clay. But the Serb fell off and Nadal reappeared. He's not just playing as well as he ever has. He's playing better than that.

Getting to 10 French Open wins last year was one sort of finish line. It has allowed Nadal some emotional distance.

"I know the years are going quick," he said before Sunday's final. "There is not 10 more chances to keep playing here."

But surely four or five? Once he feels the end rushing up on him, he can pull a modified Federer - giving up on grass - or hard-court majors in order to hoard his strength for just one.

Whatever he decides, his legacy is already secure. Titles are only part of it.

Perhaps more than any player of his generation, Nadal did not allow stardom to change him. He was tapped for greatness at 14. All he's done in the two decades since is prove people were right.

Associated Graphic

Rafael Nadal raises his hands in celebration after triumphing over Austria's Dominic Thiem in the men's French Open final in Paris on Sunday.

PASCAL ROSSIGNOL/REUTERS

How Canada's bid for the 2026 World Cup came together
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By NEIL DAVIDSON
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THE CANADIAN PRESS
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Tuesday, June 12, 2018 – Print Edition, Page B15


TORONTO -- It started in November, 2010, with a meal at Vancouver's Il Giardino restaurant.

Victor Montagliani, then vicepresident of the Canadian Soccer Association, and Peter Montopoli, the association's general secretary, were sharing a meal with mentor Walter Sieber - directorgeneral of sports at the 1976 Montreal Olympics and a man plugged into the world governing body of soccer.

"We were in the middle of our [2015] Women's World Cup process bidding and Walter looked