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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page B15


November 5, 1940 Toronto, Ontario July 6, 2019 Calgary, Alberta Martha slipped away quietly after a battle with COPD complicated by pneumonia.

She was born in Toronto, Ontario, raised in Alliston until she finished high school at Banting Memorial, then returned to Toronto where she worked as a title searcher out of City Hall.

Once she retired she moved to Calgary where she enjoyed cards at her seniors group, cruises to Alaska and Mexico, trips to the casino, Stage West & Vertigo Theatre and watching her beloved Toronto Blue Jays. Martha was adored by her many friends in both Toronto and Calgary.

She was predeceased by her parents Bruce and Phyllis Anderson and her younger sister Shirley Stewart.

Martha is survived by her sister Cindy, nephews Bruce (Juliana) and Ross, her niece Emily (John), brother-in-law Alex and her grandnieces and nephews Luka, Cera, Adelaide, Gordon and Jack.

Martha's last weeks were spent at the Peter Lougheed Centre in Calgary. She made instant friends with the nurses and staff who were beyond wonderful, caring and gentle from the ER to Units 39 and 44. It's impossible to fully express her family's gratitude to these wonderful staff members for their honesty, dedication, compassion and expertise.

At Martha's request there will be no memorial or funeral service. Should you wish to remember Martha, memorial tributes may be made directly to Calgary Health Trust - Peter Lougheed Centre, Suite 800, 11012 Macleod Trail S.E., Calgary, AB T2J 6A5, Telephone: (403)943-0615,


It is with great sadness that the family of Gordon Bale announces his passing on June 26, 2019, at the age of 85 years. Gordon is lovingly remembered by his son Dougal, daughter-in-law Alison, and grandchildren Cameron and Robyn. He was predeceased by his beloved wife Maureen.

Gordon was born in 1933 in Hamilton, Ontario, to Cecil and Christine (Nichol) Bale. He attended Stamford Collegiate in Niagara Falls and later studied at Royal Roads and Royal Military College, graduating with the top academic standing in his class.

From there, he pursued postgraduate work in economics at McGill University and the London School of Economics.

After teaching economics at RMC, he then completed a Law degree at the newly founded Queen's University Law School where he subsequently returned to teach for the rest of his career.

In the late 1960s, Gordon met Maureen, the love of his life. They were married at Dunfermline Abbey, Scotland, on December 26, 1970. They soon built a home on Treasure Island where Gordon worked steadily to transform a rocky bare site into an idyllic waterfront garden. They lived happily on the island for over 40 years, frequently entertaining both old friends and new friends made during their many travels.

Over the last years of his life, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy limited his mobility and led to dementia, but despite these frustrations, Gordon remained ever the gentleman. The family is grateful for the dedicated care provided by Deb Brennan as well as Leo Cordona, Laarni Lim, and many other caregivers from Bahay Caregiver Services. We would also like to thank the caring staff at Arbour Heights.

A private memorial service will be held at Cataraqui Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Heart and Stroke Foundation to help fund Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy research.


Of Coral Springs, FL son of Gerald and Joan Base was born 15 October 1948 and died on July 7, 2019. He is survived by his partner Gary Snow, sister Jennifer Mellalieu, Lindy (deceased), brothers John (Casey) and Rick (Debbie deceased) and numerous nieces and nephews.

Tom graduated in 1974 with an MBA from Queens University, retired from a successful career as an automobile executive and a dedicated human rights activist and currently President of his HOA. Most of all he was a lover of dogs and cats, great cook and an avid orchid aficionado.

Tommy will be remembered at a "Celebration of Life" being planned at the Dauer Classic Car Museum in the City of Sunrise, FL on August 3, 2019 at 2:00 p.m.

JUNE BLAKE (née Adams)

June Hilda Blake, age 74, of Stratford, Ontario and formerly of Mississauga passed away peacefully on June 19, 2019. June was born in Hamilton, Ontario, daughter of the late Joseph and Sadie Adams. June is survived by her long-time friends James Robertson and Ian Duncan, by her sisters Noreen Reid, Jeannie Easterbrook (Bruce Singleton), Josephine Holden (Rai Lauge) and Brother Robert Adams, and their families.

Special thanks must be made to James Robertson and Ian Duncan for their care and commitment over her final years.

June had a 30 year teaching career included are, the City of Hamilton, Ontario, the Borough of York, Ontario, the City of Mackay, Queensland, Australia and the City of Stratford, Ontario.

She will be remembered for her love of travelling, the outdoors and her generosity to those less fortunate than herself.

A private interment will be followed by a Celebration of Life in the Reception Centre of the W.G.

Young Funeral Home, 430 Huron Street, Stratford on Monday, July 22, 2019 between 2 and 4 p.m.

with words of remembrance starting at 2:30 p.m.

Expressions of sympathy, in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Stratford/ Perth Humane Society, House of Blessing or Spruce Lodge Foundation, through the Funeral Home at 519-271-7411


Passed away peacefully at home in Toronto on July 9th at the age of 82, attended by her son. Born and raised in Ottawa, the daughter of Manada and V. N. Bruce, she graduated from Glebe Collegiate and McGill University, winning an award for Occupational Therapy. After moving from Montreal to London, England, she settled in Toronto where she became Head of the Department of Occupational Therapy at Toronto General Hospital and simultaneously completed a BA in sociology from the University of Toronto.

Barbara was gifted with natural intelligence, grace and a deep curiosity about the world around her.

She was interested in music, current affairs and the arts. She was devoted to Canadian artists and for many years was active in the volunteer programs at the Art Gallery of Ontario and the Gardiner Museum.

At the age of 39 Barbara put her career on hold to raise three sons with her husband Dr. David Elliott (predeceased). In her mid-fifties she began a successful second career as a real estate agent, a field in which she gained respect for her integrity and her dedication in helping many clients find the right house to make a home.

She developed many lifelong friendships before retiring in 2012.

Above all Barbara was a woman of endless generosity who took great joy in helping others, her family, friends, neighbours, clients and colleagues alike. She was never happier than when she was giving of her time or her talents. Random acts of kindness were her daily routine. She will be truly missed.

Barbara is survived by her sister, Phyllis; brother-in-law, Dr. Gotham Clements; cousins, Johanna, Brian, Edith, Vincent, Lorraine and Jack. She is lovingly remembered by her sons Michael, Marc, and Robin Elliott, by her daughter-in-law Christine Zadorozny, by Sean Arnold, and by granddaughters Vivienne, Michelle and Fiona.

A celebration of her life is planned for an upcoming date and will be announced. If you wish to be notified please write to

If desired, donations can be made to The Friends of the Wellington Library, at the Prince Edward County Public Library, 208 Main St. Picton, Ont., K0K2T0.


Born April 21, 1951 Died July 8, 2019 In loving memory of Dr. Susan Wendy Campbell.

Susan is survived by her spouse and family by marriage.

Susan loved nature and animals, particularly feathered ones. Her house is full of birds and chinchillas, all of which were rescued and orphaned before Susan provided a home. She fashioned her yard into a natural habitat for wild critters as a little retreat from asphalt and urban lawns.

Susan will be fondly remembered by all she touched with her passion for nature and her concern for animals caught in an uncaring human environment.


86 years old, son of the late Nathan Cohen and the late Sarye Jessel Cohen. Passed away on July 11, 2019 at Cummer Lodge, surrounded by his wife, Judy; daughter, Michelle; and son, Jonathan. Other mourners are nieces, Kathi Cohen-Hovey and Natalie Cohen; nephew, Michael Hovey; grandnephew, Kyle Ethan Hovey and Kyle's partner, Sarah Dykstra. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, July 15, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. Interment in the Anshei Minsk section of Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park. Shiva at 3181 Bayview Avenue, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to Baycrest Foundation 416-785-2875 or Cummer Lodge 416-392-9500.


It is with heavy hearts we announce the passing of our beautiful mother in Vancouver, BC on July 3, 2019.

Born October 16, 1932 in New Westminster, Morag grew up in Fraser Mills, then known as Maillardville, and spent lazy summers at Crescent Beach winning numerous swimming medallions as a youngster. The family later moved to Adera Street in Vancouver. One of three women, Morag graduated from UBC earning a Commerce degree in 1956. It was at UBC she met Mike (predeceased) her husband of 60 years. Fond memories were created in the Town of Mount Royal - with life long friends established on Beverley Avenue and on the ski hills in the Laurentians.

Fifty years of adventure would follow in Oakville with weekends skiing in Ellicottville, many house renovations, gardening work and dinner parties hosted at the 'Guest House' and Cox Drive.

A modern-day explorer, Morag travelled the globe with Mike and friends. A fountain of knowledge, Morag was recognized by the Ontario Provincial Government for her 36 years of service devoted to researching, assisting with script writing, and leading tours at the Royal Ontario Museum.

Her home was filled with stacks of research notes in every room - her favorite writing tool was her pencil. Extremely well read, she was known for her attention to detail, historical knowledge in a variety of subject matter, and ability to recount every date and detail of her travels she had an uncanny ability to remember even the smallest tidbit of information. Morag will forever be remembered for her (long) red hair, exotic jewelry, and unique, well thought out table centerpieces. Gracious, loyal and loving; she was stoic with a razor-sharp intellect and loved a good debate with varying viewpoints. She was a veritable "Renaissance Woman" with lots of 'moxie'. Morag is greatly missed by her three children: Lisa (Robert), Heather and Peter (Charlene), and her four grandchildren whom she adored: Hailey, Dexter, Sydney and Max.

Special thanks to her doctors in Oakville and the many wonderful staff at VGH. In accordance with her wishes, cremation has taken place and there will be no funeral service. In lieu of flowers, tribute gifts can be made to support the Palliative Care Fund at VGH & UBC Hospital Foundation at or the Royal Ontario Museum ways-give Condolences for the family may be left at


July 1, 1935 July 4, 2019 In Loving Memory of Rosemary Elizabeth Faye Cozens.

Feminist psychotherapist; passionate advocate for human and animal rights; Nature lover and avid reader; good food and tai chi enthusiast. Rosemary adored all her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. She was a spunky (and sometimes opinionated), ardent trailblazer looking deeply into life, ceaselessly exploring the human shadowlands as well as the bright and beautiful - she just loved the adventure of traveling, both on the planet and inside the human experience.

She passed away peacefully in her home. Rosemary, may you walk in Beauty, no matter where your travels take you next. You are dearly missed by so many.

Beloved mother of Susan of Orillia, deb of Orillia and Kinmount, Robyn (and Frank) of Oshawa, Scott of Toronto.

Previous wife and lifelong dear friend of Bob Svanefelt. Loving Gran to Andrea, Lee, Jeff, Chris, David, Allison, and Great-Gran to Tavish, Yevette, Savannah, Amelia, Gwendolyn and Rowan.

Cherished sister of Elaine, and fondly remembered by Randy.

Friends are invited to join the family at the Kinmount United Church, 15 Cluxton St., Kinmount on Saturday, July 20, 2019 for a Service to Celebrate Rosemary's Life at 1:30 p.m. Reception to follow in Royal Canadian Legion Br. 441 (upstairs), Kinmount.

Cremation has taken place.

Memorial Donations to the SPCA or to World Vision would be appreciated by the family and can be arranged through the Gordon A. Monk Funeral Home Ltd., P.O. Box 427, Minden, Ontario K0M 2K0.


April 7, 1963 - July 7, 2019 Susan Diane Graham passed away suddenly at Lake of the Woods her favourite place in the universe doing what she loved with her cherished husband, Adam Pankhurst. Beloved mother of Kaitlyn and Robert Scott, brother of Bruce Graham, Aunt to Holly and Fisher and lifelong friends with Lisa Fraser and Lynn Savage, Sue will be missed more than words can express.

Sue was predeceased by her parents Diane (née Wilson) and Robert, whose example guided and inspired her throughout her life.

In all that she did - whether as Head girl of Balmoral Hall, completing her BA of recreation from the University of Manitoba, raising funds to build the Canadian Museum for Human Rights and to support the Health Science Centre Foundation - Sue acted with integrity, respect, and kindness.

Sue had vision and commitment, working at Medallion Milk Co and serving on the Board of Cancer Care Foundation at the time of her passing.

Known for her open-hearted hospitality, Sue was easy to talk with and offered fair and wise counsel without judgment.

Profoundly grateful for all she had in her life, Sue's laugh was contagious and she inspired those around her to become the best they could be.

Sue will be deeply missed but will be remembered with joy wherever her people gather.

A celebration of Sue's life will be held on Friday, July 12th at 11:00 a.m. at The Gates on Roblin, 6945 Roblin Blvd, Headingley, MB.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Sue's honour to Health Sciences Centre Foundation PW112-700 William Avenue Winnipeg, MB R3E 0Z3.

Thomson "In The Park" 204-925-1120 Condolences may be sent to


It is with deep sadness that the family of Paul Harris announces his passing on Thursday, July 11, 2019, at the age of sixty-eight.

Beloved husband and best friend of Lenore Cohen.

Adored father and hero to Michelle Harris and Jonathon Luft, Kenny Harris and Ari Crudo, and Andrew Harris.

Devoted son and son-in-law of the late Brina Harris and the late Dr. Mortimer Harris, Ruth and the late Edgar Cohen.

Proud Papa of Mia and Harlow Luft; Ella and Evan Harris.

Cherished brother and brother-in-law of John Harris and Susan Guttman, the late Barry Harris, Judy Cohen and Michael Jacobs, Andrew Cohen and Mary Gooderham.

Devoted uncle of Maggie Harris, Molly and Joanna Harris, Jesse Jacobs, Alexander and Rachel Cohen.

Paul will be fondly remembered by his cousins, friends, and colleagues.

Special thanks to Virgie and his extraordinary caregivers at the Jewish General Hospital.

Funeral service from Paperman & Sons, 3888 Jean Talon St. W., Montreal, on Sunday, July 14 at 11:30 a.m.

Burial at Congregation Shaar Hashomayim Cemetery, 1250 ch. de la Forêt. Shiva private at his home. Contributions in his memory may be made to the "Paul Harris Memorial Fund" c/o the Jewish General Hospital Foundation, (514) 340-8251.


July 12, 2019 Born in Halifax, N.S., December 17, 1923, second son of Col.

William Grasett Hagarty, D.S.O.

and Mary Kinney of Boston, MA.

Predeceased by his wife, Evelyn Joan Reilly, RN, (2006); his three brothers, John, Ted and Ken; sister, Jacqueline Riddell; and son, Gerard. Survived by his youngest sister, Mary Sue Strain (Terry) of Calgary, Alberta and sister-in-law, Elaine Hagarty (Ted); brother-inlaw, Jack Riddell; his five children, Maura Bannon (Murray), of South Carolina, Megan Hagarty Smith (Geoff), of Oakville Ontario, Sean, Catherine of London, Dr. Sarah Hagarty (Dr. Kevin Draxinger) of Rockford, Illinois; 11 grandchildren and one great-grandchild.

Bill served three years in the Royal Canadian Artillery as an observation pilot in WWII in Holland and Germany. He returned safely with his brother Ted and good friend Cal Smith (both paratroopers). After some further flying shenanigans involving a dare to fly under the bridge at Western Road, with "Chickens at 1000 feet" per the newspaper headline, and a near fatal car accident with the three of them on their way to a ski trip, he often said he wondered why he had survived all that. He went on to study law at Osgoode Hall.

With a deep regard of philosophy and theology, he studied a further four years at St Peter's Seminary in London. Luckily for all of us he decided that wasn't the life for him and he left to practice law.

After a blind date at the Sertoma Club, he met and married the love of his life, Evelyn Joan Reilly. He spent 55 years plus practising law in London Ontario. His religion and strong belief in a willingness to serve others less fortunate were a strong part of his daily life, volunteering to bring the sacraments to those were unable to leave home. His faith was a great comfort to him. Happily retiring at 89, still driving, he discovered and enjoyed many new friendships at both Richmond Woods and Parkwood Veteran's Hospital. He particularly enjoyed sitting in the gardens and listening to the birds and nature all around him. A well loved Uncle Billy to his many nieces, nephews, and their families.

Visitation at John T. Donohue Funeral Home, 362 Waterloo St., London Ontario, Sunday July 14, 2-4 p.m., Funeral Mass at Holy Family Catholic Church, 777 Valetta St, Monday at 10 a.m., light luncheon to follow in parish rooms, and interment afterwards at St. Peter's Cemetery, 806 Victoria Street.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Occupational Therapy, Veterans's Care Program, St Joseph's Health Foundation would be appreciated.


In the evening of June 30, 2019, Mary Kathleen Hummelen (Copeland) passed to be with God. She joins her husband, Remmelt, and together they will continue to watch over their treasured son, Brendan (Christine Hansen). Kathleen is also the daughter of Aubrey and Hazel Copeland, now deceased, and sister of Muriel (Bill Boryk).

Kathleen was devoted to her family and friends worldwide, and was a loving, caring connector of people, creating community wherever she went. Her concerns were for social justice, respect, equality, honesty, and she lived her values with passion, courage and a great sense of humour. She was deeply loved and will be deeply missed.

A Celebration of Kathleen's Life will be held on Saturday, July 27 at Friends' House, 60 Lowther Ave., Toronto, Ontario, at 1:30-4:30 p.m. If you wish to make a charitable donation in her memory, the Princess Margaret Cancer Research Centre, the Princess Margaret Hospital, or the Red Cross would use it well.

"Death is not extinguishing the light; It is putting out the lamp because the dawn has come." - Tagore


July 8, 2019 Vince Keyes was born the seventh of eight to Josef and Emily Keyes on Brock Street in Gananoque, Ontario in March 1930. Although part of a big loving Catholic family, he always said that the last thing anybody needed at the start of the Depression was another mouth to feed. Named Norman Vincent Keyes, he was Vince, Vin, or around town Vinny. Being from a large family, from a small town, born into tough times shaped his life.

He left town to make his way in the world, first to Scotland in 1949 to play professional hockey; certainly one of the great periods of his life. He loved all of it; the people, Mrs. Cavendish's boardinghouse, and Saturday night dances. And although he said that he had to take a penalty just to get off the ice, he loved that too.

His career and the work he did for all his days began with IAC in Kingston, the only company he ever worked for. He soon went to Kirkland Lake which started a purposeful journey across Canada going to Edmonton, Medicine Hat, Lethbridge, Winnipeg, Toronto (twice) and finally Vancouver (twice again). He rose to become the Senior Vice President of one of Canada's chartered banks, a source of great pride for all his family. The mosaic of people that came into his life over that time is remarkable, something he cherished and would recount with amazing detail until the very day he left us.

However, his greatest feat was the creation of his own family. It started when he met and instantly fell in love with Merle Jean Adams, his one true soulmate. So much so that when she was gone too early in 2003 he never remarried, never finding her equal. Kids - Four: Susan, Jim, Helen and Peter, who then gave him grandchildren to delight in. When retirement came, he and Merle settled on a mix of the life that they had lived, sharing time between Vancouver, Florida and their favorite place, the cottage on Howe Island, barely a stone's throw from those humble beginnings on Brock Street. His service in Gan is planned for mid-August. He kept the troubadour pace until his last year really remarkable. He had come full circle, living life on his own terms and don't we all want to say that.


Dr. Edward Levinson, born February 9, 1925, died July 10, 2019, son of Harry Judah and Bertha Levinson (Echenberg) of Montreal. A great man, patriarch and humble source of advice for many. He served as navigator in the RCAF, World War II, graduated McGill University as MD '53. Highly regarded in adult psychiatry, his work with children, and Holocaust survivors. He held many positions: at McGill University Medical School, and as Clinical Chief of Psychiatry, Jewish General Hospital.

Survived by his wife of 69 years, Lorraine (Engel); their children, Yehuda, Sara, Seth, Risa and Beth; 3 grandchildren and 9 great-grandchildren.

Donations in his memory may be made to The Jewish Public Library (Montreal) or Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto).


De Montigny Marchand, distinguished senior Canadian public servant and Ambassador died in Victoria on June 24, 2019.

He leaves in mourning his loving companion and wife of forty years Marie-Andrée Beauchemin. He is sorely missed by his devoted and much-loved children from his first marriagetothelateNathalieClift,Julie, Emmanuelle, Charles and his wife, Noom; and his adored grandchildren, Anne-Sophie, Marie-Claude, JeanChristophe (Goulet), Adèle, Laurent, Renaud (Chiricota), Sémira, EmilieSasi, Prom (Marchand). He will also be much missed by his sisters, Marie (Marc Filion) and Francine (Robert Clarenc); his sister-in-law, Francine Beauchemin; and his nephews, nieces, cousins, and many other members of his extended family.

De Montigny was born on March 19, 1936 in St-Jérome, Quebec, the son of Jean-Charles Marchand and Françoise Magnan. A graduate of the University of Montreal where he obtained his law degree, he also attended Boston University where he pursued postgraduate studies in communications.

Having served as Secretary General of the University of Montreal (19671969), de Montigny joined the federal public service where he rose rapidly to the highest ranks, serving as the Privy Council's Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet during the government of Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.

Senior appointments followed as Deputy Minister of Political Affairs at External Affairs, as Deputy Minister of Communications, of Energy, Mines and Resources and as Under Secretary of State for External Affairs. During these years he served also as the Prime Minister's Personal Representative for several G7 Summits, including Versailles (1982), Williamsburg (1983) and London (1984). De Montigny also served as Canada's Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva (198789) and as Ambassador of Canada to Italy (1991-96).

Throughout his career, de Montigny played a key role at the nerve center of government as both a proud Quebecker and as a defender and promoter of federalism and bilingualism during challenging years for the country.

After living the first phase of their retirement in Tuscany for 12 years, de Montigny and Marie-Andrée moved to Victoria in 2014 where he maintained his life-long interest in international affairs and greatly appreciated the closer vicinity to his family and year-round golfing at the Victoria Golf Club.

De Montigny was an exceptional gentleman, a charming lover of family, music, wine, golf and baseball (especially the Boston Red Sox) and a great raconteur. He will be greatly missed but fondly remembered by his family and many friends in Canada and abroad.

Celebrations of his life will be organized in Victoria and Montreal in September. Condolences may be offered to the family at


It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of our father, David Leslie McInnes, within weeks of losing Winifred, his life partner of 66 years. David passed away May 16, 2019.

David will be deeply missed by his children, Patricia (Barry), John, Kim (Constance), and Donald. Also missinghim will be his grandchildren Derek (Roseanne), Kathryn (Kyle), Callum and Elizabeth (Lucy, mother of Callum and Elizabeth), great- grandchildren Skyler and Hudson as well as nieces, nephews and the many other relatives and friends whose lives David has touched. David was appointed as an Ordinary Seaman in 1947 and served in the HMCS Discovery from 1947-1951. He was appointed naval cadet and sublieutenant with seniority dated 1951. David graduated from the Faculty of Forestry at U.B.C. and followed a career in the forest industry beginning with McMillan Bloedel on Vancouver Island and culminating with him becoming President and Chief Executive Officer of Weyerhaueser, Canada.

David chaired and volunteered on numerous industry committees.

His contribution to the forest industry and to the Forestry Faculty was recognized by naming the Undergraduate Student Lounge inthe Forest Science Centre at U.B.C. after him.

David was a loving, devoted father who made the family a priority. He spent time with family and friends through entertaining at home, travelling extensively throughout the world and boating and fishing on the West Coast.

David once said "If anything is to happen to us inour travels, always remember we have had an amazing life!"

If friends so desire, in lieu of flowers, a donation may be made in David's name to the Nature Trust, British Columbia or to a charity of your choice.


October 10, 1963 July 1, 2019 Our Karen was a beautiful person, daughter to Lenore and Kelly, big sister to Jackie (Stuart) and Joe (Alli), best friend to Robb (Adam), amazing aunty to Caroline, Sarah, Emily and Luke. Karen loved her family and her friends, a network, vast and deep, stretching back to childhood family cousins and the Glenrose Ave kids, through the UTS and Trinity College U of T years, to her book club gang, Sheraton/Marriott work colleagues, PWA volunteers and all the people, and at least one cat (Tasha), she met along the way. Karen loved to read. Nobel prize winners, airport bestsellers, anything with words, a trait she has passed on to her nieces and nephew. She also loved to travel, the last big trip being to Italy, with her Mom and sister, and a more recent getaway in May, with the entire family. It was a special time.

Karen was the calm O'Connor.

She never raised her voice. Her laugh was pure joy. She always put others ahead of herself. She "loved fearlessly." She was happy, and she died, peacefully, at home, another place she loved to be. A celebration of Karen's life will be held in the Fall, her favourite season. In lieu of flowers, please feel free to make a donation in Karen's name to the charity of your choice.


1940 - 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of our beloved wife and mom, Gail, on Saturday, July 6, 2019. She was 78 years old.

Gail leaves behind her loving husband of 51 years, Douglas Moshoian. She was the caring, generous mother to Andrew and Heather (David). Gail was an incredibly devoted 'Nanny' who was adored by her five remarkable grandchildren, Matthew, Charlotte, Rachael, Sarah, and Leah.

Gail was the eldest daughter of Wellington and Audrey Tyers, and in her adult years, was the matriarch of the Tyers clan, including her three siblings, Judy (Bob) Ferguson, Jane (Ken) Weeks, and Robert (Shelley) Tyers; and her nieces and nephews whom she loved as much as her own children, Kimberley, Kyle, Byron, Keegan and Stuart.

When Gail and Doug married in 1967, she was welcomed with love and affection by his family living in Brantford and St. Catharines, ON.

Ron, Dolly (Sam Manoogian (D)), Susie (Jack Dardarian (D)), and Gerry (D) loved her like a sister, and all of her nieces and nephews, Tom, John, Pauline, Paul (Narges), Patty and Mark each had close and trusting relationships with Gail.

She was known for her generosity and fierce loyalty, supporting and inspiring others as a big sister, aunt, confidant, mentor, and devoted friend. She happily gave her time to listen, share, and help shape the future of so many people.

She was the glue that held our friends and family together. She left us too soon, and we will miss her tremendously.

A memorial service will be held on Wednesday, July 17th at 1:00 p.m. at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville), followed by a reception at the same location.

In lieu of flowers, and to honour the love Gail had for children and animals, please consider donating in her name, to the Hospital for Sick Kids or The Toronto Humane Society. Condolences may be forwarded through


In loving memory of my mother, Francine Okuda.

Mom was born April 10, 1946 in Phalsbourg, France. The adopted daughter of Charles Marcel Lacom and Margerite Keller. She is survived by her daughter, Isabelle; son-in-law, Mike; and granddaughter, Samantha McAllister living in San Diego. Her cherished friend, Nick Alipheris of Toronto; friends, Jenny and Torben Wittrup; and family Simeon, Annie, Ludovic, Stephane, Beatrix, Julian, Audrey, Paul and MarieJeanne in France.

Mom received her Bachelor of Arts in Strasbourg, France, a Masters in English Literature from Moravian College in Bethlehem, PA and her teaching certification from the University of Toronto. She worked as a translator and teacher at Ryerson in Toronto. She loved to travel, talk, quilt, do stained glass and was gifted with languages. Mom suffered from Alzheimer's for the past 4 years. She died peacefully July 11, 2019 while resting.

Grateful for the caregivers and staff at Vermont Square and Ewart Angus.

Private cremation. Online condolences may be left at

May you find peace Mom, we love you dearly.


In his 84th year, peacefully at his home, Edward passed away on Thursday, July 11, 2019. During his remarkable life, he influenced and motivated innovation. He was a Patent and Trademark Agent, with a long and distinguished career working for Westinghouse, G E Canada as well as his own practice. When he was not in his office, you could find him working on his fruit trees, vegetable garden or working on his Volkswagen cars. He was an active member in his community with Rockton Agricultural Society and a supporter of the Arts in Hamilton. Ed was a lover of music and sang for many years in the Burlington Welsh Choir and Canadian Male Orpheus Choir. Ed truly never recovered the loss of his wife, Frances Janet Oldham four years ago.

He was the proud father of Kym, Scott, Heather (Doug) Spence and Charlene. His true joy, were his grandson's, Gregory and Tyler Spence and Jacob Oldham.

He was the son of Ewart and Margret Oldham, brother to Jean (Jella) Nauta and late sister Ruth (Ritchie) Swan. He was the brother in law to Bill Richardson, Noreen Richardson, Don and Lois Richardson and Peter and Laurie Sturm and many nieces and nephews. His last four years of life where supported by some very special people but most of all Mark Pangowish and Bernadette Gamboa. It is because of their help, support and love for Ed that he had such a great quality of life.

Visitation will be held at Turner Family Funeral Home, 53 Main Street, Dundas, on Tuesday, July 16th from 2-4 p.m. and 7 - 9 p.m. Followed by a visitation on Wednesday, July 17th at St.

Andrews Presbyterian Church, 115 St Andrew's Rd, Scarborough, at 11 a.m. with a Funeral Service to follow at 12 p.m. Donations, in memory, can be made to Rockton Agricultural Society or the Kidney Foundation. Please sign Ed's online Book of Condolence at


(Pete) Passed away suddenly July 3, 2019. Peter is survived by his three children, Madison Palmer, Kayla Palmer, Luke Palmer; their mother, Paula Ellis; his parents, Peter and Rose Marie Palmer; uncle, Pat Cipriano (Jennifer); uncle, Steve Palmer (Catherine); aunt, Lynn Hamber (David); and several cousins.

Peter was a free spirit who had a passion for the outdoors and anything to do with nature. He attended Hillfield Strathallan College as well as Guelph University and Humber College following which he very much enjoyed developing a landscaping lawn maintenance business.

Peter's primary focus in life was centred on his three wonderful children who loved to be with him always.

A private family service has taken place. A celebration of life reception will follow on Tuesday, July 30, 2019 for family and friends at the Tamahaac Club, 180 Filman Road in Ancaster from 2 to 4 p.m.

The family would like to thank the Hamilton EMS team and the St. Joseph's Hospital emergency team for their extraordinary efforts.

Donations in lieu of flowers may be made to the Hamilton Community Foundation or a charity of your choice.


Of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador passed away peacefully at home on July 2, 2019 in his 89th year.

Born in Plymouth, England in 1931, Ivan was the son of the late Harley and Olive (Bett) Palmer, and brother of the late John Palmer.

He is survived by Ann, his wife of 64 years.

Ivan will be deeply missed by his children: Elizabeth (Luc) of London, England; Matthew (Elda) of Boston; Richard (Manita) of Ottawa; Steven of Windsor, Ontario; and Louise (Stephen) of Greenwich, Connecticut; and grandchildren Zachary, Ava, Chloe, Sophia, Emil, Giorgio, Ghilenn and Beatrice.

Generous, creative, witty and well rounded, Ivan enjoyed the world and all it had to offer. He was a fine writer and discerning reader who delighted in good company and lively conversation.

Ivan was educated at Kirkham Grammar School in Lancashire.

He played on the school's first eleven cricket team and became Head Boy.

He graduated with a BSc in Chemistry from the University of London, and began his career at British Drug Houses.

Ivan immigrated to Montreal in 1956 where he joined BAShawinigan (later Gulf Oil Canada) as an industrial research chemist and worked at its Montreal East, Shawinigan and Varennes plants. In the early 1970s he was a senior research and development manager for Johnson & Johnson Canada.

In 1974, Ivan joined the Newfoundland government's Department of Development where he oversaw projects in the oil and gas sector, the Labrador Sea and Lake Melville Ice Management programmes, and numerous ventures with local development corporations.

After retiring as an Assistant Deputy Minister, he worked as a consultant for clients that included the Labrador Inuit Development Corporation and the Music Industry Association of Newfoundland and Labrador.

He was a fellow of the Canadian Society for Chemistry.

Ivan loved to sing, and lent his rich baritone voice to several St. John's-based choirs. He was a keen gardener and member of the Horticultural Society, and a dedicated watercolourist who studied and exhibited with Diana Dabinett's art group, "Monday's Company".

Cremation has taken place.

Funeral service will take place at the Carnell Memorial Chapel, 329 Freshwater Road, Friday, July 19th at 2 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations in his memory may be made to Doctors Without Borders.

To send a message of condolence, please visit


1930 - 2019

It is with profound sadness we announce the passing of our dearest Don Robinson on June 22, 2019. Son of the late Norman and Helen Robinson of Toronto.

He will be greatly missed by his three children and four grandchildren.

Don was educated at Upper Canada College. Formerly a member of Rosedale Golf Club and the Granite Club. Don was once National VP for the Canadian Ski Patrol. He will be dearly missed by his many friends in the Brewing, Malting and Filtration industries. Don was a member of the Master Brewers Association of the America's since 1954. Don was their longest serving member.

Funeral arrangements are under the direction of Munro & Morris Funeral Homes. A service will be held Saturday, July 20, 2019 at 2 p.m. in St. John The Evangelist Church, South Lancaster, ON.

Condolences welcomed at


September 10, 1931 July 6, 2019 Sheila died peacefully at her cherished family home, 'The Knoll.' Beloved wife of Ronald Neil, daughter of Theodore 'Ted' and Marjorie Graham.

She is lovingly remembered by her children, David (Kelly), Neil (Tricia), Sarah (Garth), Colin (Amy); and grandchildren, Kate, Ella, Nan, Molly, Cooper, Rosie, Jessica, Grey, and Tessa. She is survived by her brother, Donald Graham (Betty).

Sheila was born and educated in Toronto and received her BA from Victoria College, University of Toronto. After her marriage to Ron in 1957, Sheila dedicated her life to her home and family where, with wit, wisdom and tolerance she raised her four children and then welcomed their spouses and the nine grandchildren who gave her such joy. Sheila's life was also greatly enriched by a variety of animals-dogs, cats, and horses-who were companions and friends. Her other great focus was the arts in which she pursued a life-long interest, especially through classes at the University of Toronto and work as a volunteer docent at the Art Gallery of Ontario. She conveyed to her children and all around her a great love for reading, music, and theatre. Sheila was fully engaged in her community both in Toronto, as part of her Veritas and TSO friends and in Inglewood, where she was a member of the UCW, the Friends of Caledon Library, and the Inglewood Garden Club.

She lived a life informed by a curiosity that took her and Ronmostly travelling in style-to many places around the globe often with their dear friends Malcolm and Sheila. While much of her life was spent raising her family in Toronto, The Knoll was her true home, and she returned there to live full-time in retirement with Ron. In her final years, and after Ron's death in 2011, she received wonderful care from the many Personal Support Workers, especially Theresa Daubney, who enabled her to continue living with comfort at The Knoll.

Family and friends will be received on July 21, 2019 from 12 Noon with a funeral service to follow at 1:00 p.m. at Inglewood United Church, 15673 McLaughlin Road, Inglewood with reception to follow. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Halifax Humanities Society: http:// http://www.halifaxhumanitiessociety.

ca/home Please visit the Book of Memories at


Passed away peacefully at Arbour Trails, Guelph on July 5, 2019 in her 93rd year. Beloved wife to Frank (d. 2012) for 59 years.

Loving mom to Frank Jr. (Gayle), Jim (Diane) and Sue (Blaire). She will be tenderly remembered by her 8 grandchildren and 8 great-grandchildren. Predeceased by her sister Jane Lovering.

A graduate of St. Clement's School in Toronto and U of T, Mary will be remembered for her love of life, family and friends, her piano playing and teaching, as well as her beautiful smile and blue eyes! The family would like to thank Arbour Trails, for their care of Mary during her last few years.

A private family service will take place. If desired, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation. Online condolences may be made at www.


Peacefully in Toronto on July 11, 2019 at age 95. Loving mother of Irene Haras (Orest) and Chrystyna Kozak. Beloved grandmother of Anna Ochrym (Alexander), Katryna Haras, Adrian Kozak (Emma), Natalka Haras (Dimitri Gagnon Morris), and Alex Kozak (Ashley). Dear greatgrandmother of Theodore, Marcus, and Roxane Ochrym; Isabel and Zoe Kozak; Matilda Gagnon Haras; and Remi and Quinn Kozak. Predeceased by her late husband of 67 years, Hryhorij "Harry" Swerhun, she also leaves behind her sister, Anastasia, and many friends and relations in and around her home village, Sukhostav, Ukraine.

Born in Yabluniv, Ukraine on March 2, 1924, Kataryna Kowal was displaced as a forced labourer in Germany during the Second World War.

In 1945, she and Hryhorij married in Rothenburg ob der Tauber and in 1949, they immigrated to Canada with their daughter Irene and settled in Toronto, where Chrystyna was born.

Kataryna's love for her family, homeland, and for Canada touched many lives through her work in many community organizations and her beautiful traditional embroideries "vyshivanky;" in 2017, she received an Ontario Volunteer Service Award for 60 years of service.

Visitation will take place on Monday, July 15 from 5:00 9:00 p.m. with Panakhyda at 7:00 pm at Cardinal Funeral Home, Annette Chapel, 92 Annette Street, Toronto.

Divine Liturgy will take place on Tuesday, July 16 at 10:00 a.m. at Saint Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, 4 Bellwoods Avenue, Toronto followed by interment at Park Lawn Cemetery. To honour Kataryna's life, donations may be made to Saint Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, the Canada-Ukraine Foundation, or the charity of your choice.

PAUL ROBERT SWYER M.A, M.D. (Cantab), F.R.C.P. (C), F.R.C.P.(L), D.C.H.

1921 - 2019 Neonatologist, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, passed away peacefully, fulfilling his final wish to die at his home, on July 8, 2019. Paul leaves his beloved wife and best friend of 73 years, Fernande (née Rumbaut) and two loving daughters, Sandra (Dennis) and Michèle (Senechal).

He will be mourned by son-in-law Alan Dennis and grandchildren, Jonathan Senechal, Elijah Senechal, Jessica Dennis (Boucher), Jeremy Dennis and Gregory Dennis as well as three great grandchildren.

Paul was born on May 21, 1921 in London, England, the only child of the late Dr. Robert Swyer and Kathleen Swyer (née Rodwell).

After attending Bedford School, he entered Cambridge University just as war was breaking out in 1939.

Graduation with a medical degree followed in 1943, after which he was enrolled in the RAMC and landed in France in June, 1944.

Paul was a medical officer in the front-line field ambulance clearing stations with the advancing Allied troops in the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, known as the Polar Bear Division. These troops fought their way across France, Belgium, Holland and finally, into Germany. His division became part of the First Canadian Army towards the end of 1944. During the grim winter of 1945 Paul forgot these hardships having met the love of his life, Fernande, at a liberation ball in Belgium in 1944.

They were married in June, 1947.

After the war, Paul specialized in paediatrics at the Hospital for Sick Children Great Ormand Street, London England, and then emigrated to Canada in 1952. He joined the Hospital for Sick Children (HSC) in Toronto in 1953 and set up the first intensive care unit for sick newborns in 1961. Paul became a full professor at the University of Toronto in 1975. During the 1970's, the 7G unit at HSC became a model upon which worldwide Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) were developed. Paul influenced the international scene further through his training of many fellows from abroad, and also spent time in China with the World Health Organization in 1988.

Numerous neonatology fellows have been influenced by his knowledge and enthusiasm and learnt from his clinical acumen.

Paul retired from HSC in 1987, but continued to play an active role as one of the founders of the International Perinatal Collegium, and in committee work for the WHO and for the Provincial Ministry of Health (Ontario).

He will be deeply missed by his family, friends and medical colleagues.

In lieu of flowers, Dr. Paul Swyer has made a wish that donations in his memory, should be made to the SickKids Foundation - Division of Neonatology, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8.

Link: http://my.sickkidsdonations.

com/DrPaulSwyer Private funeral arrangements were made with the Humphrey Funeral Home at 1403 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, M4G 3A8 with a private cremation. A memorial service and Celebration of Life for friends, colleagues and family will take place at The Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club, 141 Wilson Avenue, Toronto M5M 3A3 from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. on Thursday, July 18, 2019.


March 17, 1938 - July 4, 2019 Passed away peacefully in Toronto.

Loving wife of the late Owen Ray Tilley. Sadly missed by her children Karen (Mark) and Craig (Katherine), devoted grandma to Anna, Joe, Owen and Spencer. Partner to Don Kowalinski.

Born in Winnipeg, Patricia spent her life in Toronto and at her beloved Kushog Lake.

She will be remembered for her devotion to family, her sharp sense of humour and her love for the outdoors, travel and the arts. Patricia lived her life to the fullest.

Service was family only.Donations may be made to The Scott Mission in her memory.


Passed away unexpectedly at Toronto Western Hospital on June 13, 2019, at age 67.

Beloved wife of Eric Trimble, daughter of Melva Burns, sister of David Burns (Cathy Sloane), mother of Blair (Jesse Stanchak) and grandmother of Anna Stanchak, all of whom miss her terribly.

She was a strong guiding force in all our lives. Karen had a successful career in marketing, and later in real estate, and was passionate about all things equine.

A Celebration of Karen's life will be held in the Atrium of 21 Shaftesbury Ave., Toronto at 1:00 p.m. on July 20. In lieu of flowers, donations in Karen's memory to Community Association for Riders with Disabilities would be appreciated.


Joe passed away peacefully at Trillium-Mississauga Hospital on July 9, 2019 at the age of 92.

He was predeceased by his loving wife, Mary Kosters, and dear son, Eric. Joe is survived by his daughter, Ingrid (Manuel Costa), his grandchildren Paul, Kevin, and Caroline and his sister, Joan (Luke Neaven). Dear brother-in-law of Fred and Florence Kosters and John Malick.

Joe enjoyed a rewarding career at Northern Telecom for over 35 years in Engineering and Marketing.

His family will privately celebrate Joe's life. We have honoured his wishes for cremation and no funeral.

Donations in memory of Joe to Trillium Health Partners would be gratefully appreciated. Many thanks to his long-time physicians Dr.Michael Gitterman, and Dr.George Wu, and to the compassionate nurses and doctors at Trillium who cared for Joe on his final day.

"When death comes for you, my dear let him take you like a candle flame that is taken from its wick by a gentle stir of wind smelling of lilac" -Irving Layton WILLIAM JOHN WHELAN CA, CPA June 4, 1928, Perth, Ontario July 6, 2019, Calgary, Alberta Bill passed peacefully into the arms of God at home while Margaret, the love of his life and wife of 66 years, held his hand. His family surrounded him with love, returning to him the same love that he had nurtured over a lifetime of devotion to them.

Bill was a highly respected executive, entrepreneur, mentor and advisor in the oil and gas industry. He served faithfully in many church communities, including Thornhill United Church and most recently Living Spirit United Church. Bill delighted in his time with his friends, often intersecting with his love of golf, for example at the Summit Golf and Country Club and Canyon Meadows Golf and Country Club.

He gave freely of his time, talents and wisdom, and kept close to his heart many charities, most often with children and people with special needs as their focus.

Bill brought his compassion, love and leadership to every aspect of his life.

He was lovingly cared for over the last several years by many wonderful people, including Dr.

Tom Szabo.

Bill is survived by Margaret (née Harris); his brother, Jim; his children, Jerry (Pam), Blair (Rochelle), Tom (Michelle), and Elizabeth Broeke (Roger); and many treasured grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

A family service was held on July 11th and a Celebration of Life will follow in September.

Memorial tributes may be made in support of Brain Health to the Alberta Children's Hospital Foundation.

Condolences may be forwarded to the family by visiting www.

e d e n b r o o k c e m e t e r y. c a .

Arrangements entrusted to Eden Brook Funeral Home and Reception Centre, 24223 Twp. Rd.

242, Calgary, AB, T3Z 3K2.


We announce with sorrow the passing of Robert Benjamin Weeks in his 83rd year after a short battle with cancer at North York General Hospital on June 24, 2019. Robert will be dearly missed by his loving wife of 55 years, Catherine; and son, David of Montreal. He was predeceased by younger son Alan in 1991. He will be equally missed by his surviving sibling, Beryl, and his many nieces and nephews and their children around the Bristol area in England.

Robert was born at Longwell Green, Bristol in 1935. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Wales, Cardiff, and enjoyed playing rugby and cricket during his time there. He came to Canada in 1962, arriving in Montreal, where he met Catherine. They married in 1964 and moved to Kingston where for a year he worked for DuPont.

From there, they moved to Toronto where Robert worked at Canada Wire and Cable, finally in the position of vice president of the Power and Control division in Leaside. Later, he was president of Graham Fiberglass in Erin, Ontario. Before retiring, Robert was a management consultant to numerous clients.

Robert was a very kind-hearted, compassionate person who always made time to listen to others and give of his time where it could provide the most benefit. As a long-time member of the North York YMCA, he spent many hours volunteering there, served on the board at the Toronto East General Hospital, as well as giving time to various other organizations throughout the years. For his contributions, Robert was a recipient of the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee medal in 2012.

The family would like to thank the compassionate and professional care provided by the cardiology and palliative care teams at North York General Hospital.

A private family service has taken place.

Donations in Robert's memory may be made to the Canadian Cancer Society, or a charity of your choice.


BGen (retired) - Canadian Army It is with great sadness that we share the sudden passing of our father, William Yost in his 93rd year, on July 5, 2019. Born May 20, 1926 in Caledonia, ON, he was the son of the late Arthur Yost and Rose Wagner. He is survived by his children Alison Clohessy (Australia) and son David Yost (Caryn) (Virginia USA). Adoring Grandfather to Jon and James Clohessy (Australia) and Samantha and Victoria Yost. Bill was predeceased by his loving wife of 64 years Elizabeth "Betty" Yost in 2017, along with stepmother Alma Yost, brother Gerry Yost and sonin-law Kim Clohessy.

A Visitation will take place at Beechwood, Funeral, Cemetery and Cremation Services (280 Beechwood Avenue, Ottawa), on Wednesday, July 17th from 10am to 2pm followed by the Funeral Service and Reception. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a donation to the Canadian War Museum.

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He was IndyCar's fastest-rising star, a natural talent who seemed destined for greatness before a horrifying crash nearly killed him, and left his body shattered. A year later, Canadian Robert Wickens is embarking on one of the most extraordinary comebacks in sports. But first he must learn to walk again

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page S6

Last August, Canadian racecar driver Robert Wickens opened his eyes after a marathon sleep. He was on vacation in England, spending time with his fiancée, Karli Woods. They were to be married in a little more than a year. Life was good.

After years of sacrifice, Wickens had broken through into the highest echelons of his sport, emerging in 2018 as one of the world's best drivers and executing the most dominant rookie season IndyCar has seen in decades. He thought about getting up and going for a run. It had been a few days since Wickens had hit the gym.

A voice told him he couldn't.

Why not? "I was running, like, two days ago," Wickens said.

"No, Robert, you weren't."

Lying in bed, Wickens was confused. What was going on? He was groggy and disoriented.

"Robert, your legs don't work - you're paralyzed."

At that moment, everything he thought was real - the trip to London, his training at the gym - was just a drug-induced hallucination, a cruel vivid dream spun by the powerful painkillers coursing through his body.

In reality, the 30-year-old from Guelph, Ont., had just spent 10 days in a medically induced coma.

His spine was broken, his neck was broken, both hands and legs were broken, along with an arm, an elbow and four ribs. His lungs were severely bruised and he was badly concussed.

His family - his mom, dad, brother and fiancée - stood ashen-faced around his hospital bed, fighting back tears, and trying to explain the situation to a man who refused to accept it.

"One of the first things I remember is them basically telling me that I was paralyzed - and I just couldn't understand," Wickens said.

"I was just like, 'No - you're wrong. You're wrong!' "And then people would cry and leave the room, because I guess I was being stubborn."

Less than two weeks earlier, Wickens's car flew off the track and slammed into the catch fence at Pennsylvania's Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, Pa., a few hours north of Philadelphia, destroying the vehicle and bringing his burgeoning career to a sudden halt. In a matter of seconds, Wickens went from rookie sensation to a man trying to piece his life back together.

But against incredible odds and warnings from doctors that his injuries might be insurmountable, Wickens is now trying to engineer one of the most remarkable comeback stories Canadian sport has seen - even if he knows it defies all logic.

This weekend, he will watch from the sidelines of the Honda Indy Toronto, a race he dreamed of winning as a young boy. Without the full use of his legs, he will lead the warm-up lap before the event using a specially equipped car controlled entirely with his hands, guiding drivers at halfspeed around the track as they warm up their tires. Then, sitting in his wheelchair, he will don a headset in the paddock and provide strategy to his teammates during the race.

It is a ceremonial return, but it's not enough. Wickens has bigger plans. Less than a year after the sport nearly killed him and in the midst of a brutal recovery process that sometimes leaves him defeated and in tears at the end of the day, he is vowing to get back into a race car.

First he must teach himself to walk again, one step at a time, then eventually he wants to race for real.

He doesn't expect people to understand the compulsion to return. He is well aware that the risks of the sport involve worstcase scenarios such as this. But the terms of his comeback are non-negotiable.

"I need to get back to racing. I need to get back to IndyCar," he said.

'THE ONE THING THAT I WAS UNSURE ABOUT' It began with a few dollars, some asphalt and the stench of motor oil. Robert Tyler Wickens was 6 or 7 when his parents paid his admission at a roadside GoKart track in Grand Bend, Ont., to let him try it out. The kid had been transfixed by race cars for as long as he could remember. When he was three, Wickens spotted a Formula One race on television and became entranced. He ignored other toys, playing only with miniature cars, and begged his parents to let him see the movie Days of Thunder. Eventually, his grandfather made Robert a copy with the racy parts edited out, and he watched it non-stop.

Those first few turns around the GoKart track only confirmed it. He wanted to be a race-car driver. Tim and Lise Wickens acquiesced, allowing Robert to enroll in junior racing for a year.

After that, they figured he'd probably move on. He never did.

By the time Wickens was a teenager, he was winning championships and pegged as one of Canada's brightest rising stars, alongside his good friend James Hinchcliffe. But racing isn't like other pastimes; it takes huge resources to pursue a career in a sport in which drivers eventually have to bring in sponsorships or pay their own way.

The Wickens family wasn't rich. His mother drove a school bus. Tim, a heavy-machinery mechanic, and older brother Trevor helped keep his kart tuned up.

When Robert got older, the family sold their house in Guelph and moved in with relatives to keep him going.

Hailed as a racing prodigy, he was often talked about as one of Canada's next great Formula One drivers. But talent alone wasn't enough. Wickens was unable to muster either the sponsorship dollars or the vast personal bankroll needed to catch on with a team at that level.

He spent the bulk of his mid-20s driving various European circuits, beating out drivers who later moved up to Formula One and IndyCar. Meanwhile, Hinchcliffe, of Oakville, Ont., had become an established driver on the IndyCar circuit in North America and, in early 2018, lobbied to bring Wickens over to his squad, Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports.

With two Canadian drivers behind the wheel, they were dubbed Team Canada, and Wickens did not disappoint.

Before his first race in St. Petersburg, Fla., last spring, he surprised the field as a rookie by taking the pole position in qualifying. Even Wickens himself seemed taken aback, joking that - after years of focusing on Formula One - he'd have to brush up on IndyCar's rules on how to start the race because he was going to be at the front.

The race itself was just as surprising. Had it not been for a collision with two laps to go, Wickens would have won in his very first outing. He seemed destined for IndyCar greatness. Over the first 13 events of the 2018 season, Wickens rattled off seven top-five finishes, including four trips to the podium - one of them a dramatic third place in Toronto, the only Canadian stop on the schedule.

"His rookie season was really one for the history books," Hinchcliffe said. "He obviously came in with a wealth of racing experience, having driven at an incredibly high level for over half a decade, but his ability to adapt and apply that experience to what was a very unfamiliar environment was astonishing."

IndyCar is unique. Drivers must display more versatility than any other racing series, which makes it extremely challenging. Formula One courses tend to be tight and twisty, mixing heavy braking with all-out acceleration. NASCAR drivers race around oval speedways for all but a few events, but the design of the stock cars means the speeds are not as extreme.

IndyCar - the top level of openwheel racing in North America - is a hybrid of the two. It flips back and forth between both kinds of tracks, using cars designed for maximum speed. One week, drivers might be cornering left and right on a claustrophobic street course, the next race they could find themselves screaming counterclockwise around a banked oval track, where physics matter most and speeds regularly top 230 miles an hour.

"To be a champion in that series, you have to be a great allround driver," Wickens said. "It's not just the same type of circuit over and over and over again."

The wide-open nature of the oval speedways has led drivers from disciplines such as Formula One to steer clear of IndyCar. At those speeds, the margin of error while hurtling around a banked oval, such as Pocono, is just too slim for some to risk it.

"There's no denying it, a superspeedway is not particularly designed for an IndyCar," Wickens said.

Having competed in Europe, Wickens knew he could handle the street courses. The ovals? He was never one to back down from a challenge.

"I'd never driven an oval before," he said.

"I wasn't saying, like, 'No, absolutely not, I'm going to hate these.' I just didn't know anything about them, so I wasn't super excited about it."

"It was the one thing that I was unsure about."

'TELL KARLI I LOVE HER' It was his fifth oval race. Wickens remembers very little of the crash.

For him, most of the details of the accident in the ABC Supply 500 on Sunday, Aug. 19, have been pieced together after the fact.

He saw a photo of the crash in hospital and noticed his right hand protruding from the car as it spun violently through the air before slamming into the catch fence.

"That must be how my arm broke," he thought.

Aside from a relatively minor collision in Texas, Wickens had looked extremely comfortable on the speedways. He took second in Arizona, fifth in Iowa and ninth at the Indy 500. But Pocono would be different.

As wrecks go, there has never been another crash like it. Never in the history of IndyCar has the black-box data recorder that sits beneath the driver's legs been destroyed - along with whatever measurements it was taking at the point of impact. The last bit of data collected by the recorder before it went dark suggested Wickens was travelling slightly

faster than 184 miles an hour and hurtling through the air when his car came apart.

"To be honest, I don't really remember anything of the whole day," Wickens said. "I have seen photos of James and I goofing off at the autograph session before the race, and I've heard a lot of fans saying, 'I got to meet you right before the crash.' I don't really have any recollection of any of it."

Pocono is one of IndyCar's superspeedways - though from above it's more of a triangle with rounded corners. It's fast and, at times, demonstrably deadly. In 2015, IndyCar driver Justin Wilson was killed at Pocono when debris from a car accident ricocheted off the track and struck his helmet.

Wickens was entering Turn 2, seven laps in, jockeying for position with Ryan Hunter-Reay. He went to pass on the inside, but Hunter-Reay, on his right, had more straightaway speed. Their wheels touched for a split second.

Suddenly, Wickens was airborne.

His low-slung car, which was roughly 16 feet long and weighed more than 1,600 pounds, spun like a propeller into the catch fence, a mixture of wires and poles designed to keep cars from careening into the grandstand or, in this particular turn, smacking into a grove of trees. The fence acted as a net, but its metal construction also had the effect of a cheese grater, shredding the vehicle to pieces.

The on-board camera affixed to Hunter-Reay's side mirror shows Wickens's car vaulting over top, coming so close that Hunter-Reay later said he had to "shrug down" to avoid being hit.

Wickens's car tore a swath in the fence before hitting a pole and spinning back onto the track, disintegrating before the TV cameras as it came to a rest on the inside of the speedway. When it finally slid to a stop, all that was left of the car was the cockpit - the small capsule that houses the driver.

Almost everything else had been shorn off or crushed.

At home in Indianapolis, Karli was watching the race on television with Hinchcliffe's fiancée, Becky. The two couples were planning a fall trip to Germany, and the women were looking online for coats. Karli glanced up from her laptop just in time to see Wickens spinning out of control. She knows the sport is dangerous, but in that moment she had no idea what she was seeing.

"Initially I was like, 'Aw no, he's out of the race.' Because I know how mad he gets when he doesn't do well," Karli said.

"I just thought, 'Nothing hit his head, he's fine.' I'd seen other really crazy crashes and people walked away."

"But then they kept showing it over and over again."

She remembered something Wickens once told her about televised racing: If they stop showing live pictures of the driver - it's probably bad.

She kept waiting for the NBCSN broadcast to show Wickens being pulled from his car, or loaded onto a stretcher - anything. But there was nothing, just the replay, over and over in slow motion.

"They never showed Rob again.

And he always told me that wasn't good. ... So I was just like, 'Okay, now it's getting bad.' "Her phone rang. It was Trevor, Robert's brother.

"What do you know?" Karli recalls him asking, thinking she was trackside at Pocono. From where she sat, she didn't know much. The Wickens family knew a lot about racing though. "His parents, they all thought that he died instantly," Karli said.

When emergency crews arrived at the car, they expected the worst, but they found Wickens conscious.

He remembers none of it, but according to the briefing he later received from IndyCar officials, the conversation was strangely calm.

"Are you okay?" they asked.

"Yeah, I think so."

What's your name?

"Robert Wickens."

What track are you at?

"Pocono International Raceway."

Do you know what turn you are in?

"Turn 2."

Wickens seemed lucid.

But the question about the racetrack was a dead giveaway that something was wrong.

Never in his life had Wickens referred to the track by its full name: Pocono International Raceway. "I would never call it that," he said.

Wickens was in shock. He was favouring his arm. The emergency crews could see it was broken.

Then they looked down beneath the steering wheel. Inside the battered car, both of his legs were mangled.

Wickens spoke again: "Actually, my back's really starting to hurt, and I can't feel my legs."

"And that's when things escalated really quickly."

He was taken to an on-site hospital. He started blacking out.

The paramedics revived him with oxygen, and a few seconds later he passed out again. Then, more oxygen.

Karli's phone rang again. Amid the chaos, a woman inside the medical facility - the wife of another driver who happened to be a nurse - had found her number. She yelled across the room at Wickens: I have your fiancée on the phone, is there anything you want to say?

"Tell Karli I love her," Wickens said.

That was when Karli knew it was bad. He never talked that way.

Those sounded like last words.

As emergency crews prepared to airlift Wickens to a nearby hospital, a member of the Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports team staff went over and sat next to Wickens.

Karli couldn't be there. His family couldn't be there. Somebody had to be at his side.

"So that he didn't die alone," Karli said.

'THOSE ARE YOUR LEGS' Wickens was flown by helicopter to the emergency room at nearby Lehigh Valley Hospital. He was delirious. Before they put him under for the trip, he pleaded with the doctors: "Am I paralyzed? Am I paralyzed?" But no one would answer. Aboard the helicopter, out cold, he nearly died choking on his own blood until paramedics were able to get a breathing tube down his throat.

Karli boarded a plane to Pennsylvania. Wickens's family drove south from Guelph. None of them knew what they would find when they arrived in Pennsylvania.

"This is for sure the hardest part," Hinchcliffe said. "The waiting bit is terrible."

In 2015, Hinchcliffe nearly died in a crash during practice in Indianapolis, severing a major artery when a rod on the bottom of the car broke through and punctured his seat. Paramedics held the artery closed long enough to get him to the hospital, which was the only thing that kept him from bleeding out.

"My parents had to get on a three-hour flight with no internet, with the last thing they heard being, 'We hope he pulls through.' " Hinchcliffe said.

"In a similar way, Rob's family drove through the night to get to the hospital and at times, through the country, would lose signal for a few minutes at a time. Those moments can be agonizing."

When Karli arrived from the airport, the prognosis was bleak.

Wickens couldn't move his legs.

There were serious spinal and neck injuries, broken legs, a broken arm and head injuries. He would need multiple surgeries.

But doctors weren't sure if, given all his injuries, he would survive the first spinal procedure, which had to be performed with him laying face down. The family was handed papers to sign acknowledging he might die on the operating table.

"I knew he was alive, but they didn't know if there was brain damage, they didn't know if he would be the same, they didn't know how paralyzed he was," Karli said.

For the first few nights she slept on a couch in his hospital room.

Eventually, family and friends insisted she get some rest at a nearby hotel.

"I can't sleep. I'm just staring at the ceiling. That's the moment where you are like, I am completely alone right now," she recalled. "I just wanted him to wake up. ... I just wanted him to say, it's going to be okay."

When Wickens did eventually wake up, he could barely talk. The heavy painkillers he was on - fentanyl, an opioid 100 times more powerful than morphine - kept him foggy and confused. When he was awake, he hallucinated. Items hung on the wall would vanish before his eyes. He heard a baby crying. He imagined he was somewhere else - in London. Once, Karli came to visit him and he didn't recognize her.

"I didn't know what was real or what was fake," Wickens said.

Even after being told of his injuries, he failed to fully grasp the situation.

When his brother came to see him, the two were talking at his bed and Wickens felt a big lump beneath the sheets, which he thought was a pillow. That's odd, he thought.

"Trevor what is this?" Wickens said through the haze of the fentanyl, pawing at the blankets.

"What do you mean? Rob - those are your legs."

For all the things he can't remember, it's one memory he'll never forget. That was the moment it all sunk in.

"I couldn't feel anything," he said.

A NEW REALITY If Wickens was to have any hope at recovery, the first thing he figured he needed to do was get off the painkillers immediately. He needed his brain back.

"How am I going to walk again if I don't even know I have freaking legs in the first place? I need to at least know that they're there," he said. "I need to be in a good, conscious mental state to get through this."

He quit the fentanyl cold turkey and switched to less-powerful painkillers, but it plunged him deep into withdrawal. He had the shakes, cold sweats and debilitating nausea. One minute he had five fans trained on his bed trying to keep him cool, the next he'd be buried in blankets, teeth chattering.

But in that moment, he made a choice. He was determined to focus solely on rehabilitation.

In the early days soon after the crash, IndyCar issued a statement saying that Wickens had suffered "orthopaedic injuries." It was a vague term that served to underplay the trauma he was in. Little else was known publicly about how bad the situation was.

Talk soon spread on social media that Wickens was, in fact, doing well and would be back at the track in no time. It wasn't true, but the rumours proliferated and gained believability. As pundits and news sites picked up on the chatter, the myth took root: Robert Wickens was fine.

It spun false hope and added to the emotional toll on his family, who were confronting reality inside the hospital. Less than three weeks after the crash, the Wickens family issued an unusual public statement in response, looking to set the record straight. It was unapologetically blunt.

"As unverified sources immediately following Robert's accident inaccurately and without permission portrayed his condition as less than severe, in an effort to remain transparent and open, we are providing a list of Robert's injuries to truly showcase the severity," the statement said.

In professional sports, where injury details are guarded like state secrets, it was an unprecedented disclosure. The bulletpoint list read like a medicalschool text book: thoracic-spinal fracture, spinal-cord injury, neck fracture, tibia and fibula fractures, fractures in both hands, fractured right forearm, fractured elbow, four fractured ribs and a pulmonary contusion. He also sustained a concussion.

Doctors told Wickens about the body's ability to sometimes rewire itself after a spinal-cord injury, to reroute and re-establish nerves, to repair itself. He clung to this. With enough will, he thought he could get there. But he didn't know what he was in for.

"We had no idea what rehab actually entailed," Wickens said.

"We thought that when I went to rehab it would just be short term, I would learn how to walk and I would go home."

He admits he was naive. Wickens had to learn the basics of paralysis. Things he once took for granted were now monumental chores - moving from a chair to the bed, avoiding bedsores, and even the most rudimentary daily bodily functions. Having lost the feeling in his bowels, he needed a catheter to urinate.

"It was pretty eye-opening at the beginning, just how much of this rehab was about your bladder and your bowels," he said. "Everyone knew everything, everyone was asking you questions that you would have never been asked before the injury - family members, everyone - because they were so involved at the early stages of my recovery they were in the loop on all those things. It got to a point where I was just like, stop. I need privacy. I need my own space again."

Robert and Karli were given some key advice from Sam Schmidt, co-owner of Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports, and his wife, Sheila. Schmidt, a former driver, went through a years-long recovery following a crash in 2000 that left him a quadriplegic. They told the young couple to do their best to keep such things separate from their relationship. It would be better in the long run.

"Because we're young and we want romance to stay," Karli said.

It meant she had to fight her natural inclination to help him with everything.

Schmidt has been around paralysis almost his entire life.

"My father was paralyzed racing when I was 11 years old, so unfortunately, our family had been through it before," he said.

His advice to Wickens was to tap the mental and physical energy that made him successful on the track and redirect them into his recovery.

"If he put as much thought, energy and perseverance into his rehabilitation as he did into driving, there was no reason he couldn't walk again without assistance and, God willing, race again," Schmidt said.

Focusing on a goal helps. So Wickens wrote his down on a piece of paper: I want to walk again.

Karli asked him if he wanted to postpone the wedding, slated for the fall. He refused. It was something else to strive for - a new finish line.

Yet, psychologists cautioned him to be realistic. Some patients slip into depression if they set their expectations too high. "They always kept saying, we just have to prepare you for the worst, in case it doesn't get better," Wickens said.

"I'm like - but it will."

He was told not to expect any sensation or movement in his lower body for the first six months after the injury. But five weeks in, something extraordinary happened.

Lying in his hospital bed, immobilized by a neck brace, back brace and casts on his broken legs, Wickens felt a twitch.

Something moved. It was his leg - a muscle in his inner left thigh.

Did he imagine that?

He peered under the covers, He thought about moving the muscle. It flickered again.

"Come look at this," he shouted frantically across the room at Karli.

"And then I did it again - and it worked."

They both broke down.

"Like it was the happiest day of our lives," Wickens said.

LEARNING TO WALK Wickens grips the handles on his walker and pushes himself, slowly, out of his wheelchair. He takes a second to steady himself and, ever so gingerly, slides one foot forward, then another.

They are baby steps. More of a shuffle, really. His legs shimmy and shake, but his eyes don't waver. Staring forward, he looks like a man concentrating on every nerve synapse, however faint.

Sometimes he has a therapist helping him, bracing his ankles, holding his knees. Other times, he does it on his own.

It is nine months after the crash, and Wickens has moved to a specialized rehabilitation facility in Denver. Bit by bit, he has regained some of the feeling he lost.

He can feel his abs, his glutes, he can move his legs, ever so tentatively. He is one of the lucky ones.

His nerves are slowly trying to rewire themselves around the injured part of his spine.

On the six-month anniversary of the crash, he surprised Karli by forcing himself into a standing position from his wheelchair and taking a few steps toward her.

They embraced. He shuffled a bit.

He joked that they were practising the first dance at their wedding.

In March, pining for the racetrack, he travelled to the first race of the IndyCar season, in St. Petersburg. Two therapists helped him climb the stairs to the plane, one holding his legs, the other bracing his hips. By mid-May, when he travelled to the Indianapolis 500, he made a point of climbing the stairs himself, shaking like a leaf as he urged each limb forward in slow motion.

They are massive strides, but for Wickens it's not enough. He wants to walk cleanly again, so that no one knows he was injured.

"People looking at my MRIs early on basically told me that they saw almost no hope for me to regain anything, and I've gotten as far as I have," he says. "So I like to think that my mindset and my work ethic and everything is playing a large part."

While in Denver, he and Karli live in a hotel near the rehabilitation centre. The days begin around 6 a.m. as he transfers himself from the bed to his wheelchair and then to a shower chair.

"It's the same morning ritual that I think any person has. But everything just takes a little while longer," he said.

From bed to being out the door, he's cut it down to an hour and a half. Six days a week, he's at the centre doing four to six hours of therapy a day. There are treadmills, spin bikes set to minimal resistance, pool workouts, muscle stimulation with electrodes, boxing and weights to put back 35 pounds he lost in the hospital. He is working harder than he ever has.

There have been major setbacks - unexpected surgery to correct an injured left ankle and an infection from a small scratch that spread throughout his entire body and could have turned fatal.

But his progress has been better than expected. Still, he finds himself glancing over at other patients with the eye of a seasoned competitor. If someone is walking better, he wonders what they are doing that he's not.

"The hardest thing about this is that you can't compare to another injury, because every spinal-cord injury is entirely different," he said.

The scrutiny that comes with being a professional athlete has not necessarily been kind. People who Karli has never met reach out on social media with comments and criticism.

A few months in, a woman contacted Karli on Instagram and told her she was strong for persevering. The woman added she was surprised Karli was sticking around.

The message gutted her. Of course she was sticking around.

What was presented as a compliment felt backhanded and condescending.

"I don't think I'm strong. I don't. We break down," she said.

"It's the hardest thing we've ever done. I feel like we're just trying to go day-by-day to get through everything."

'RISK MANAGEMENT' Sam Schmidt has already told Wickens that his No. 6 car will be there for him if he is able to drive it.

Wickens knows it may sound reckless to want back into racing, having narrowly cheated death already. But he can't help it. The lure of competition helps keep him going, particularly on bad days, when the rehab gets difficult.

Hinchcliffe understands what Wickens is going through. When he nearly died, he couldn't wait to drive again.

Drivers have one of two psychological responses to a horrific crash, he said. Either they decide it's not worth it and never get back behind the wheel again, or they see their return to the car as a healing force.

"If you're the first driver, you don't ever have to battle the psychological part, because you'll probably never drive again," Hinchcliffe said. "If you're the second driver, you are counting the seconds until you get the chance to drive again because without it you feel incomplete. Getting back behind the wheel makes you whole again."

Drivers know they are risking their lives. Some call it a compulsion, a form of addiction.

"I think we have a way of blocking out whatever part of the brain controls self-preservation, and we are willing to put ourselves into dangerous situations," Hinchcliffe said.

"Racing isn't a want, it's a need.

It's all we know, and we don't want to live without it."

Still, Wickens's crash has given a few drivers pause. Wickens has heard rumblings that some who were looking to make the jump to IndyCar are now reconsidering that decision.

In June, 28-year-old British Driver Max Chilton, a former Formula One racer who made the switch in 2016, said he would no longer race ovals and stick exclusively to road courses, effectively pulling himself out of four of the remaining nine races on the calendar at the time, including Pocono.

Chilton didn't go into detail about the decision, but said "risk management is a central consideration."

Wickens tries not to dwell on what went wrong. Despite his injuries, he maintains the car absorbed the crash exactly how it was designed to. After ripping an 80-foot hole in Pocono's catchfence, the car crumbled around him, leaving the driver's cockpit - though not the driver - mostly intact.

"This tested new boundaries of what an IndyCar is capable of.

Pieces of my car failed in the correct manner," he said.

It took clean-up crews nearly two hours to clear the debris from the track. When the race finally got going again, the remaining drivers sped past the gaping hole in the damaged fence every time they rounded the second turn.

But the race went on.

Asked later how he dealt with such a chilling reminder of the crash, the eventual winner, American driver Alexander Rossi, said he had no choice.

"You've got to compartmentalize," Rossi said. "Deal with that emotion after the race."

FEAR OF FAILURE Not everything has been about racing. One afternoon this spring, Wickens mustered all his strength, gripped the edge of his walker and pushed himself up into a standing position.

As he stood bracing himself, a tailor measured him for the wedding tuxedo he'll wear this fall.

Less than a year ago, just standing there would not have taken the enormous amount of strength it does now.

"It's a new perspective on everything," he said. "You just have to press reset, and what I could do before is in the past. Now it's just trying to rebuild and regrow."

Karli tells a story of a time, early on, when Wickens was still suffering from delusions brought on by the painkillers. Sitting at his bedside, she had taken his hand and held it gently. Her hair was still wet from a shower and looked darker than usual. When Wickens opened his eyes, he stared blankly into her face. He had no idea who she was.

"'You know, you shouldn't be holding my hand,' Karli recalls him saying. "'My fiancée is upstairs and she's going to be really upset that you're holding my hand."

Wickens laughs now at how out of it he was.

For Karli, it was a small comfort. "He knew he had a fiancée.

He's loyal. He just didn't know it was me."

With every small improvement Wickens makes he inches closer to his goal. He is starting to gain more feeling in his body. Last month, he sneezed for the first time since the accident.

Even if he never races again, he is determined to walk down the aisle, stand for his vows and dance with the woman who's helped take care of him all these months.

Wickens biggest fear now is failure. He's not giving up.

"I don't want to fail for myself," Wickens said. "Most importantly, I don't want to fail for Karli."

Associated Graphic

Ditching painkillers and teaching himself how to walk again, Wickens has made massive strides in his recove

An eight-year-old Wickens, in his first year of racing, participates in an event at the Waterloo Regional Kart Club in Ontario in 1997.


ry. But it's not enough for the racer. He wants to walk cleanly again, so that no one knows he was injured.

Left to right: Wickens is photographed with Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports team owners Sam Schmidt, Ric Peterson and Penni Peterson on April 7, 2018. A former driver, Mr. Schmidt was in a crash of his own in 2000 that left him a quadriplegic


Wickens's fiancée, Karli Woods, says his rehab has been 'the hardest thing we've ever done,' and they are both taking things day by day.

Schmidt advised Wickens to tap into the mental and physical energy that made him successful on the racetrack and direct it toward his rehabilitation.

Wickens attended Indianapolis 500 events at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in May. INSTAGRAM

Woods asked Wickens if he wanted to postpone their wedding, but he refused. They plan to tie the knot this fall, and he plans on dancing.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Canada's junior miners hammered by a string of technical blunders

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page B6

Even though the price of gold bullion had tumbled by more than a third from its 2011 peak, and many of his competitors were struggling, his company was defying the odds.

Guyana Goldfields Inc. had managed to raise US$700-million from investors and put a high-grade gold mine into production in early 2016.

Mr. Caldwell, an avuncular mining engineer with a soothing tone, was happy to promote the company's Aurora mine, located in a remote Guyanese rain forest, as a cash machine.

Indeed, at the prevailing gold price of US$1,200 an ounce, Guyana looked like a surefire winner.

"A little less than US$800 an ounce [cost], US$400 an ounce margin," he said during a segment on Business News Network (BNN). "Pretty easy to figure out how we're going to do."

The company's share price soared as it ramped up production, and its market capitalization crested above $1.5-billion.

But last October, seemingly out of nowhere, the wheels came off. Guyana shed half its stock-market value in one trading session after the company raised doubts about the geology at Aurora.

A technical report, upon which the mine was built, had vastly overestimated the amount and grade of gold at Aurora. This past March, Guyana cut its reserves by more than 40 per cent, after releasing an updated study on the mine.

Guyana's chairman, René Marion, later admitted in an interview that some 1.5 million ounces of gold assumed by Guyana to be in the ground were "never there."

Ten months on, Guyana's share price is down 87 per cent from its peak. Its founder and almost its entire legacy management and board of directors have left. Mr. Caldwell will step down once a replacement is found. Nobody is sure whether the company can weather the crisis.

The meltdown at Guyana's isn't a one-off. Over the past few years, several other mining companies have shocked the market with nasty technical surprises.

Vancouver-based Pretium Resources Inc. has seen its share price whipsawed on multiple occasions by geological setbacks at its erratic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia; Toronto-based New Gold Inc. saw the economics of its Rainy River mine in northwest Ontario go up in smoke last year after it fell short on grade; and shareholders in Rubicon Minerals Inc. were almost completely wiped out after its deposit in Ontario's Red Lake camp turned out to be not mineable at all.

Virtually all of the incidents are occurring at technically demanding ore bodies that require exhaustive study.

While seniors, such as Goldcorp Inc. (now owned by Newmont Mining Corp.), haven't been immune to technical blunders, this is mostly a small company problem.

Many juniors have little or no experience in building mines and lack the technical talent that might head off calamities in advance.

Small mining companies rely heavily on external consulting firms that prepare resource models. The bigger companies have reams of inhouse talent - geologists, metallurgists and engineers - who vet the work of consultants. But juniors often don't have the same level of expertise to be able to push back if something seems off.

"[Smaller gold companies] don't have the human expertise to be able to steer away from those disasters. They don't have the technical bench strength.

They don't have people that can look at it and say, 'hey, this is wrong.' "said Andrew Kaip, mining analyst with BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc.

"They're reliant on external advice and that can be flawed. It can have wildly bad outcomes."

The industry's recent flops also raise the issue of accountability when things go wrong. It's very easy to blame the consultant when the mine plan falls apart, but the management and boards of troubled companies, often responsible for making questionable decisions, are no angels either.

"In order for these things to collapse, half a dozen constituents of people have to not do their jobs," said John Tumazos, chief executive of New Jerseybased Very Independent Research.

"And the reason they don't do their jobs is that no one wants to kill the golden goose, the gravy train. Even when the project sucks." Compared with almost any other mineral, gold is a geological nightmare - harder to find, harder to model and harder to mine. There is no MRI machine for finding gold. Prospectors still have to identify a promising property, drill test holes, send samples to a lab for analysis and cross their fingers.

Even if you find gold, invariably there will be hardly any of it in the ore. The term "high grade" is actually misleading. Eight grams of gold in a tonne of rock is considered high grade. That's eight parts per million. Low grade is one part per million - a grain of salt in a giant bag of Doritos.

The gold industry is perhaps unrivalled in its wastefulness. A producer has to dig up about 20 tonnes of ore for enough gold to make a wedding ring.

Sometimes gold plays nice, occurring as a fine powdery-like substance in rock, with consistent grades throughout the entire ore body - specks of salt uniformly spread across the Doritos. If drill samples confirm that consistency over and over, such deposits can be fairly straightforward to model.

But gold deposits can also be "nuggety" - low grade in most spots, but with the occasional highgrade cluster. And often there is no discernible pattern - like finding a random pretzel in the Doritos.

These ore bodies are among the toughest to model, because geologists can't be entirely sure whether the high grade is a statistical fluke, or a pattern across the entire deposit.

Since it's financially feasible to drill only a tiny proportion of any potential gold deposit, experts have to take sample data and try to figure out what the rest holds.

Correctly modelling a mine, based on a sample that is perhaps only 0.13 per cent of the total mineralized rock, requires immense skill. Such work is typically done by a select group of independent mining consultants. Combining geological field work, and a branch of mathematics called geostatistics, the job is a blend of art, science and luck.

In 2012, SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc. produced a model for Guyana's Aurora property. Like all gold deposits, Aurora had its charms and its challenges.

Early drilling revealed it was a little nuggety.

One way geologists deal with the presence of high-grade gold in what appears to be a mostly lower-grade deposit is to assume it's an anomaly. In constructing a geological model, consultants will routinely disregard high-grade drill samples above a certain level.

This practice, known as "capping," is supposed to prevent consultants from overestimating the overall average grade. But here's the rub. If a deposit is capped too low, that can kill the financial case for building the mine.

In 2012, SRK capped a section of Aurora, called Rory's Knoll, at 80 grams of gold per tonne. That meant Guyana could expect to find a certain amount of high-grade ore when it mined the area.

But last year, as it mined Rory's Knoll, the high grade simply wasn't there.

"We weren't seeing the grade that we thought we would, based on the original 2012 model," Guyana's CEO, Mr. Caldwell, told The Globe and Mail earlier this year.

Guyana's chairman, Mr. Marion, pointed the finger squarely at SRK. The consultant was "very aggressive" in capping the deposit, he said.

Late last year, Guyana asked another consultant, Roscoe Postle Associates (RPA Inc.), to redo the technical report on Aurora from scratch. In its report issued in March, RPA capped Rory's Knoll at just 35 grams per tonne. Guyana's current management team maintains that RPA's capping is much more appropriate.

But SRK isn't taking any of this on the chin. The consultancy points the finger back at Guyana. After an internal review earlier this year, SRK concluded that its 2012 report on Aurora was technically sound based on data available at the time.

Adam Nott, general counsel with SRK, disputes any notion that the consultancy was aggressive in its modelling. The report was produced when Aurora was at an early stage, and was never meant to be relied upon for the construction of the mine, which came some four years later.

SRK would have had discussions with Guyana about the need to update the model and get lots more data before building Aurora. That would have required more drilling and the outlay of significant amounts of additional capital from Guyana. "For whatever reasons, internal to Guyana Gold, that update wasn't done until 2018, when new management came in," Mr. Nott said.

If SRK had access to the same data RPA did in 2018, including three years of actual mining, the consultancy "probably would have come to different results," he added. Of course, any allegation that a consultant was too aggressive in its interpretation of the geology of a deposit hits a nerve in the Canadian mining industry.

Consultants are supposed to provide an unbiased and impartial view of an orebody. But the reality is more nuanced.

"Some [consultants] look at deposits and imagine all kinds of good things happening, and others, and we're among them, try to be more realistic," said Graham Farquharson, veteran mining consultant with Strathcona Mineral Services Ltd. in Toronto.

(In the late 1990s, when doubts arose about Bre-X Minerals Ltd.'s 70-million-ounce gold find, the industry turned to Strathcona to investigate. Mr. Farquharson himself later made what he calls the "sixbillion-dollar phone call," to Bre-X's board, definitively declaring Busang a hoax.)

There is also an inherent conflict of interest. Because consultants are paid by the mining companies, they face financial pressure to be positive. Having a negative stand on a project, even if it's spot on, can result in the consultant getting canned.

"It's a very hard battle telling your client that we think they need to go back to the drawing board," SRK's Mr. Nott says. "Especially when the clients know there are other consultants who are willing to use those [data points] and say that's within a reasonable range."

Mr. Nott added that SRK has lost work to rival consultants who were willing to provide a more bullish outlook on a deposit.

The technical reports themselves are also heavily influenced by clients. Consultants and management go back and forth on many issues, such as appropriate capping levels, the distance between drill holes and what long-term gold prices to assume in projecting returns.

Sometimes technical reports aren't as thorough as they could be, either, and that is often because of money. A client may not want to spend more on drilling and will choose to live with the added risk that entails. "SRK, in a lot of ways, is driven by what the client is willing to pay for, and what the client feels its risk-reward balance is," Mr. Nott said.

Most of the time, these kinds of behind-closeddoors discussions between consultants and mining companies are kept secret. But once in a while they become public. High up in the mountains of northwest British Columbia, Pretium Resources' Brucejack property was an enigma from the get-go. Early work in 2012 pointed to an extremely high-grade gold deposit. Some drill holes came back with as much as 41,000 grams of gold per tonne.

Despite extensive drilling, Brucejack was incredibly difficult to pin down. "You could come back with one sample that would have spectacular results and then 10 samples all around it that had nothing," said Mr. Farquharson, whose consultancy did a bulk sample on the deposit.

In 2013, Pretium shares shed half their value within two weeks after it revealed that Strathcona's analysis didn't square with a far more optimistic study by an Australian firm, Snowden Mining Industry Consultants. Strathcona insisted that Pretium disclose the discrepancy to its investors, then resigned in the aftermath.

Pretium, in turn, stuck with Snowden and trashed Strathcona's work as subpar.

Snowden felt Brucejack had similarities with deposits in the South Pacific with similarly eccentric geology. The consultant used a mathematical model called multiple indicator kriging (MIK) to predict the grade and location of the high-grade gold.

MIK is well suited to "mosaic" deposits such as those at Brucejack, where extremely high-grade gold occurs next to low grade, or even no grade, said international geologist Ashley Brown, who's now based in Kazakhstan. But MIK is extremely challenging. "The implementation of MIK is very difficult," he said. "It's easy to screw up."

What struck Mr. Brown as odd about Brucejack is that Snowden decided against capping the grade. By forgoing capping, SRK allowed the pockets of high-grade gold samples to strongly influence the average grade for the entire deposit. Brucejack's reserve grade was pegged at 14.4 grams per tonne, which made it among the highest-grade gold mines in North America.

Snowden's approach didn't sit well with Haywood Securities Inc.

analyst Kerry Smith, either. A former mining engineer, he's seen his fair share of geological goofs in his almost 40 years in the business.

About four years ago, Mr. Smith attended an information session with Snowden about Brucejack.

"Snowden spent the whole day trying to rationalize why they should model it the way they did, which was basically to model those high-grade numbers and use them to influence the ore around it," Mr.

Smith said. "I came away thinking 'I wouldn't do that. That makes no sense,' because these numbers are not going to have any continuity."

Mr. Smith was right to be wary. In January of last year, Pretium said Brucejack's grade was only corresponding 75 per cent to Snowden's model. The stock lost more than a quarter of its value.

"The high-grade mineralization was in narrower corridors than originally thought," Pretium CEO Joseph Ovsenek said in an interview.

Earlier this year, after undertaking a review of Brucejack, Pretium cut the mine's grade to 12.6 grams per tonne, increased its cost projections by 12 per cent and reduced its expected mine life by four years.

Snowden declined an interview request from The Globe. Ivor Jones, who had responsibility for the technical report on Brucejack, also declined to comment beyond saying, "It is easy to criticize other people's work. Especially something as challenging as Brucejack."

Pretium's CEO meantime refuses to play the blame game. Mr. Ovsenek instead points to the baffling geology, calling Brucejack a "beast."

"I can tell you from talking to a lot of people in the industry and others, there is no orebody like ours out there," he said. "I challenge anyone to say that they could have done better."

While Pretium has been wounded, even with a materially lower grade, Brucejack is still plenty profitable. Over the past 18 months, amid a recovery in bullion prices, the company's share price has regained most of its losses since early 2018. The trouble for many other juniors is that they don't have deposits with grades that come anywhere close to Pretium's Brucejack, or the financial cushion to recover from geological setbacks.

It is possible for a gold producer to make lots of money from a low-grade mine if costs are kept in check and the geology is sound. But it's crucial that there be a margin for error built in, in case things go wrong. Otherwise, a small slip can spell big trouble.

New Gold Inc.'s Rainy River mine is exhibit A.

Midway through 2018, less than a year into production, New Gold said it was seeing a roughly 11per-cent shortfall in the grade at Rainy River. With that, the mine's profit margin vanished.

New Gold also made a basic engineering error in designing the tailings dam at Rainy River and had to build a drastically strengthened structure. The episode blew its capital budget to smithereens.

New Gold now loses hundreds of dollars on every ounce of gold it produces at Rainy River, its debt load is US$780-million and it isn't expected to produce any free cash flow until 2021.

"Some of these things should just never ever get built. That mine was one of them," said Rob Cohen, manager of the Dynamic Precious Metals Fund.

If Rainy River's economics were so dicey, why did it get built? A close reading of the mine's technical report would have shown how thin the margins were. The projected average grade was just 1.12 grams per tonne and the return on mine was forecast at 11 per cent. But technical reports for the most part are impenetrable, and few investors are skilled enough to understand them. Reports can be penned by as many as a dozen authors, run 700 pages or more and are laced with terms such as "kriging" and "variogram."

Here's a passage from New Gold's 713-page report in 2014, describing Rainy River: "The volcanic rocks have been intruded by a wide variety of plutonic rocks including synvolcanic tonalite-diorite-granodiorite batholiths, younger granodiorite batholiths, sanukitoid monzodiorite intrusions and monzogranite batholiths and plutons."

The seeds of some mining disasters are buried in technical reports, there for the world to find them before a cent is spent on a mine. But these reports are written by geeks for geeks. The common investor doesn't stand a chance. New Gold declined an interview request for this story. In addition to technical challenges, however, an old chestnut plays a role in some, if not all, of these cautionary tales. The gold industry is renowned for its culture of exaggeration, hype and promotion, and even the smartest among us can fall victim.

Gold mines are almost always built off a feasibility study (FS), which entails extensive drilling to confirm the existence of gold.

But Rubicon Minerals built its Phoenix underground mine in Northern Ontario off a preliminary economic assessment - a much more rudimentary early stage study.

Despite the obviously materially higher risk profile, Rubicon raised more than half a billion dollars from investors. It even attracted one of Canada's most sophisticated institutional money managers: The Canada Pension Plan Investment Board put $50-million into the miner.

In late 2015, mere months after starting production at Phoenix, Rubicon suddenly halted production, citing complications with the geology. Over time, it emerged that Rubicon hadn't done nearly enough drilling to confirm the gold was actually in the ground. The company, which at one point was worth $1.2-billion, never recovered.

Shareholders lost almost everything. In this case, they should have known better.

While most of these catastrophes involve small mining companies, there are a few outliers in the junior and intermediate sectors that have demonstrated both geological prowess and sound judgment.

In 2011, junior gold company Osisko Mining Inc. put what is now Canada's biggest gold mine into production. While the Canadian Malartic mine in Quebec is low grade, it is very profitable.

The technical team behind Osisko did their homework, including drilling the deposit like crazy. Two of the company's top three executives were geologists and the other was a mining engineer. (Osisko was acquired by Agnico Eagle Mines Ltd. and Yamana Gold Inc. for $3.9-billion in 2014.)

Vancouver-based B2Gold Corp. is another example. Founded in 2007, the company acquired, developed and built Fekola in Mali, now one of the world's most profitable gold mines. Instead of outsourcing mine construction to external engineering firms, as is industry practice, B2 builds its own mines with a tight-knit staff CEO Clive Johnson has worked with for decades.

But of all of Canada's gold miners, Toronto-based senior Agnico Eagle Mines probably has the strongest reputation for technical excellence over the long term. Over more than 60 years, the company has never experienced a serious geology mistake, despite dealing with many technically demanding orebodies.

To access ore at its LaRonde mine in Quebec, the company mines three kilometres underground. Agnico built two mines in Nunavut, despite having no access to power, or roads, and operating in a brutally harsh climate. In Finland, the company deals with complex metallurgy.

Agnico is known for its conservative approach. It's stacked with technical staff, and renowned for its airtight chain of command that starts at the top, with CEO Sean Boyd, and extends through the entire organization.

"Sean Boyd knows how to delegate responsibility. He understands the importance of his technical guys, understands about getting the mine engineers talking to the metallurgist, talking to the electricians.

Everyone," Dynamic's Mr. Cohen said.

"That's what brings success to these projects. Having a sharp pencil and being no nonsense." A decade ago, Pretium, Guyana Goldfields and New Gold might well have been bought by a bigger miner, well before major problems occurred. Within a technically stronger and better capitalized senior, basic geology mistakes could have been averted or minimized.

But in 2012, the mergers and acquisitions (M&A) market in mining went into a deep freeze.

A vicious gold bear market in the first half of this decade, and terribly timed acquisitions during the most recent bull market, forced the majors onto the sidelines.

Smaller companies have been forced to hang around as stand alones longer than before. That has forced many of them into the uncomfortable terrain of building mines by themselves - often for the first time.

The risk of something going wrong was always going to be higher.

While M&A has taken off again in a limited way among the seniors, for the most part it's crickets further down the ladder. If that dynamic doesn't change, more mines will invariably be built by the tenderfoot, and investors will be left to wonder where the next geological shock lies.

Associated Graphic

Before being acquired by Agnico Eagle Mines and Yamana Gold, Osisko Mining put the country's biggest gold mine, the Canadian Malartic, into production in Quebec.

Despite being faced with challenges from the start, Pretium Resources' Brucejack mining operation in British Columbia is still profitable.

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Obstacles to abortion: Why women still lack access
Two years ago, Canada was one of the last developed countries to make available a drug hailed as a safe alternative to surgical abortion. But it's still out of reach for many beyond the major cities, a Globe analysis has found. Carly Weeks reports

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page A10

Doctors across Canada are refusing to write prescriptions for the abortion pill, forcing many women to travel to out-of-town clinics to get a prescription, according to a Globe and Mail analysis that reveals provincial access barriers and widespread reluctance on the part of medical professionals to provide abortion care.

Mifegymiso is the name for two oral medications, mifepristone and misoprostol, that safely and effectively terminate pregnancies in 95 per cent to 98 per cent of cases. When the medication first came on the market in Canada in 2017, it was heralded by abortion-rights advocates as a safe, less invasive way to terminate a pregnancy compared to surgery. And since any family doctor or, in most provinces, nurse practitioner can prescribe the abortion pill, many believed its arrival would make abortions more accessible - fewer women would need to travel to a clinic, pay out of pocket for costs or take time off work to end a pregnancy.

But The Globe's investigation shows that in eight provinces where detailed data was available, at least 69 per cent of the 10,092 Mifegymiso prescriptions dispensed last year came from abortion clinics located mainly in large urban centres. Interviews with clinic employees, physicians, researchers and abortionrights advocates across the country suggest that many primarycare providers avoid prescribing the abortion pill.

While ethical objections to abortion are a factor for some physicians, nearly two dozen people, including the heads of 10 abortion clinics, said the most significant issues are a professional reluctance to be seen as an abortion provider and a perception that the pill is too complex to administer. Health Canada introduced the drug with a number of onerous restrictions, including a requirement that the first of five pills be swallowed in the presence of a doctor. These restrictions have since been lifted, but clinic directors, abortion providers and abortion-rights advocates said that many still believe the process to be too complicated.

Abortion-pill access is not tracked in Canada, so The Globe and Mail collected raw data from each provincial government and contacted more than 80 publicly known abortion clinics in Canada to determine how many prescriptions they wrote since Mifegymiso came on the market.

Some provinces have more severe access issues than others. In Alberta, 73 per cent of all abortion-pill prescriptions last year came from a single abortion clinic in Calgary, hundreds of kilometres from many of the province's cities and towns.

And in New Brunswick, at least 72 per cent of prescriptions came from three urban hospital-based abortion clinics, according to the data collected by The Globe. (The actual figure is likely higher, as the province's private clinic declined to provide its prescribing figures.)

In some provinces, government policy is an added barrier.

Manitoba only covers the cost of the abortion pill for women who get it from one of three abortion clinics: two in Winnipeg and one in Brandon, large cities that encompass 60 per cent of the province's population. As a result, last year, 95 per cent of all Mifegymiso prescriptions in Manitoba came from those three clinics, meaning women who live in one of the province's four dozen other population centres would have had to travel to a clinic - in many cases, hundreds of kilometres away. (Statistics Canada defines a population centre as a community with more than 1,000 residents.)

The Globe's data set is incomplete because some abortion providers refused to provide data or did not have it available. Most abortion clinics in Ontario and Quebec did not provide information. But interviews with about a dozen clinic employees and primary-care providers suggest women in those provinces also face access barriers.

Three Ontario abortion clinics that agreed to speak to The Globe said they regularly see women travelling from hundreds of kilometres away to get an abortionpill prescription after they were unable to obtain one from a primary-care provider closer to home.

In Quebec, which has the highest number of abortion clinics of any province, about 90 per cent of pregnancy terminations are still surgical and prescribing rates of Mifegymiso are low. There were 253 abortion-pill prescriptions dispensed from community pharmacies in Quebec last year, although that number does not include pills dispensed directly by abortion clinics. Still, experts say access to the abortion pill is difficult, in part because the Quebec regulatory college for doctors requires physicians to attend an in-person training course before becoming a prescriber.

With doctors across the country turning away women's requests for the pill, many abortion clinics say it is increasingly challenging to keep up with the patient load, resulting in wait lists and delays of up to three weeks in some cases.

This is a serious problem because the pill can only be prescribed in the first nine weeks of pregnancy, and research shows most women don't discover they are pregnant until around six weeks. After nine weeks, surgery becomes the only option. (Across Canada, surgery remains the most common way to end a pregnancy, representing approximately 80 per cent of the 97,000 abortions performed in 2018.)

Access barriers to abortion care also pose health risks. Research shows the greater distance a woman has to travel to get an abortion, the higher the likelihood of carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term, getting an unsafe abortion outside of the health-care system or having an abortion at a later gestational age.

Some abortion clinics are already developing workarounds, finding ways to offer the pill to women in smaller, rural and remote communities by introducing new services such as phonein prescriptions. But most agree that the medical community - including the professional colleges that oversee provincial standards - needs to do more to ensure universal access.

"It should be something we're all comfortable with prescribing," said Michelle Cohen, a family doctor in Brighton, Ont., who has publicly advocated for better abortion-pill access. "It should absolutely be part of the basic education for anyone going into the primary-care specialty."

Canada was one of the last developed countries in the world to approve Mifegymiso, which came onto the market in China and France in 1988 and in the United States in 2000.

Alberta's government has covered 100 per cent of the cost of the pill since it was first introduced, which abortion-rights advocates say should help broaden access for women throughout the province.

But The Globe's data show that more than 70 per cent of the 2,826 Mifegymiso prescriptions dispensed in Alberta last year were written at one facility in Calgary: the Kensington Clinic. (The province has two other abortion clinics - one in Edmonton that prescribes the pill in small numbers and another in Calgary that doesn't prescribe it.)

Women in other communities struggle to access Mifegymiso.

Hibo Farah, a 26-year-old University of Lethbridge student, is a real-world example of how challenging it can be to get a prescription for the abortion pill without having to travel out of town. Ms.

Farah discovered she was pregnant last November and went to her doctor seeking a prescription.

She says her doctor refused to write one, citing ethical beliefs, and suggested Ms. Farah travel to the Kensington Clinic, more than two hours away by car.

"As a patient, I felt judged and I felt unsafe," Ms. Farah said in a recent interview. "I shouldn't have had to go or be told to go two hours into Calgary to get this pill."

At the time, Ms. Farah belonged to an abortion-rights group in Lethbridge, so she reached out to her contacts to see if they knew of another provider in the area that could help. Through word of mouth, they eventually found Jillian Demontigny, a physician based in Taber, about a 30minute drive from Lethbridge.

Dr. Demontigny decided to start writing prescriptions for Mifegymiso in the fall of 2017 after she learned how difficult it is for many women in Alberta to get the drug.

"I've seen people coming from Lethbridge who have been turned down by doctors with varying levels of empathy for the patient," she said. "The patient is left with nowhere to go."

She said she typically offers abortion services after the regular clinic hours, as her colleagues don't want to be affiliated with pregnancy terminations. "Some of my colleagues feel that it's a bad reflection on our group for me to be pro-choice and actively speaking about this and doing the work," Dr. Demontigny said.

"They say it takes away from my regular clinic work, they'll see that as ammunition to get me to stop doing it."

The current situation is unlikely to change, she said, unless more doctors step up and take leadership over this issue.

"I think we, as individual prescribers, can do a better job as a group putting our patients' care needs ahead of our own," she said.

Most of those interviewed say that one of the biggest disincentives to prescribing the pill is the perception that it's an involved process that's better left to abortion clinics.

It takes skill and training to prescribe the pill. Primary-care providers must understand the risks, ensure there is a system in place for patients who may experience excessive bleeding or other serious side effects and be available for the necessary follow-up care.

But many in the abortion community say these issues are relatively easy to deal with if someone is interested in taking time to learn.

The Society for Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada has an online training course on the abortion pill that offers stepby-step prescribing advice (the course used to be mandatory, but is now optional, although Health Canada recommends prescribers complete it). But as of June, only 505 family physicians out of the roughly 43,000 in Canada had completed the training.

Dr. Demontigny said prescribing the abortion pill is easier and carries fewer risks than caring for patients who are pregnant or postpartum, something that family providers regularly do.

Michael Kam, chief executive of Onyx Urgent Care in Kitchener, Ont., said there was an initial learning curve involved with prescribing, but his clinic easily made the necessary adjustments.

He started prescribing the abortion pill out of his walk-in clinic when he saw a "deficit" of prescribers in the community. The demand for the pill has been high since they started prescribing in 2017, said Cait Desilets, the clinic's director of operations.

"We have women that travel sometimes two hours to come to us," she said.

Lyndsey Butcher, executive director of the Shore Centre, a sexual-health resource centre in Kitchener that offers the abortion pill, said the prescribing rules are straightforward and could easily be done by any primary-care provider. But her clinic routinely sees women travelling from around the region, up to a few hours away, because their family doctor wouldn't prescribe it.

"It's been incredibly disappointing to see the lack of primary-care providers willing to learn about Mifegymiso and provide the prescriptions for their patients," Ms. Butcher said.

The lack of prescribing means clinics such as the Shore Centre often struggle to meet demands for service.

Because the Shore Centre faces such high demand, typical wait times for an appointment to get the abortion pill at the clinic is two weeks, but can stretch to three weeks.

Ms. Butcher said she has spoken to dozens of physicians who have referred patients to her clinic and tried to persuade them to prescribe the abortion pill themselves. In almost every case, the doctors have turned her down.

"I talk to them about the hardship and the burden of travelling into our community, in some instances from two hours away," Ms. Butcher said. "There's no physician exam. There's nothing magical that happens in our clinic that couldn't happen in any primary-care office across the province."

Ms. Butcher and other women's health advocates say in order for the situation to change, the country's medical leadership bodies should make abortion care a priority.

"There is a role to play for the medical community," she said.

"There's no reason why a primary-care provider should be reluctant to provide it to their own patient."

Some say abortion care should be part of medical school curriculum and that residency programs should include a training component to help physicians feel comfortable prescribing it. Dr. Cohen said not every doctor will go on to prescribe the pill, but since it is a common medical service, it makes sense to offer education and training.

It's unclear whether any medical organization is prepared to take leadership to encourage more doctors to prescribe the pill.

Provincial regulatory colleges are responsible for setting and maintaining physician practice standards, but many said it's not their responsibility to ensure doctors are familiar with the abortion pill or how to prescribe it.

The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan, for instance, declined an interview but said in an e-mail statement that the abortion pill "is a clinical decision between physicians and their patients."

The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) is responsible for creating standards for training and offers continuing medical education courses for doctors throughout their careers.

The college has offered some training courses for physicians interested in prescribing Mifegymiso.

Sally Mahood, a Regina-based abortion provider, said she regularly sees women travelling from eight to 10 hours away and that more needs to be done to improve access. Dr. Mahood co-authored a letter published in the CFPC's medical journal last year calling on the organization to incorporate abortion training in medical residency programs in Canada.

College spokeswoman Jayne Johnston declined an interview request. When asked about the reluctance of some physicians to prescribe the pill and what should be done about it, Ms.

Johnston said it "is not something that we have information about, nor is it part of the CFPC's mandate to monitor family physician prescribing trends."

Dr. Cohen said she is "especially disappointed" in the CFPC's response because their mandate includes improving education.

"The leadership on this issue is definitely lacking," she said.

When the abortion pill became available in Canada in 2017, patients were told they had to swallow the first pill in the presence of their doctor, and physicians had to register with the drug company before they could prescribe it.

Those, and a series of other restrictions, were removed months later following a public backlash.

But the head of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) said they added to the atmosphere of confusion and uncertainty that has contributed to the reluctance by physicians to prescribe the pill.

"It does create an aura," said Jennifer Blake, CEO of the SOGC.

"Once you've created an aura, it's really hard to undo it."

Earlier this year, more rules were relaxed - ones that abortion-rights advocates say have the potential to help expand pill access outside of abortion clinics.

Manitoba and Saskatchewan pledged to cover the cost of the pill, meaning the medication will soon be funded in every province. Health Canada also announced that women are no longer required to undergo an ultrasound before getting the pill.

This is a significant change because in many communities, wait times to get an ultrasound can stretch for weeks and in some places, there is no immediate access to an ultrasound machine.

In the meantime, some abortion clinics are finding ways to work around the lack of community-based physician prescribing to ensure women that want the abortion pill can get it in time.

In B.C., like other provinces, most of the abortion-pill prescribing is done at urban abortion clinics. In that province last year, two-thirds of the Mifegymiso prescriptions were written at three out of five abortion clinics that offer the pill (two clinics declined to release their figures).

But unlike in most provinces, women don't necessarily have to leave town to pick up a prescription from one of the clinics.

That's because the Willow Women's Clinic in Vancouver has developed a robust telemedicine service that connects patients to care providers. All of the necessary counselling and prescribing is done over a secure video conference that allows patients to remain at home and still get the medication.

"I see people in their cars and homes," said Ellen Wiebe, director of the Willow Women's Clinic.

"It works for all of us."

She said other provinces could follow suit, but the system only works if there is the will to develop such a network and if there are billing codes in place that physicians can use to charge for their time. One easy solution would be to create a universal licence for doctors in Canada, which would allow the Willow Women's Clinic to prescribe across the country.

Under the current system, doctors must get licensed in every province where they want to practice, which is a costly and time-consuming endeavour.

Another way to increase Mifegymiso access is for more nurse practitioners to start prescribing.

Claire Betker, president of the Canadian Nurses Association, said the organization supports abortion-pill prescribing, but that more work may be needed to ensure they feel comfortable prescribing.

The Athena Health Centre in St. John's has created an ad hoc system to help women avoid travel. Rolanda Ryan, the clinic's owner and manager, said she often encounters doctors that don't want to prescribe the abortion pill. So instead, she asks them to order the patient's blood work and ultrasound. The clinic's doctor takes care of the prescribing, and the clinic ships the medication to patients by mail or an interprovincial bus line. Ms. Ryan gives patients her cellphone number and acts as the 24-hour emergency line they can call in the event of excessive bleeding or another problem.

Ms. Ryan said the lack of prescribing isn't a big issue, as long as doctors do the necessary groundwork.

"There are doctors out there ... who are very supportive of women's choice," Ms. Ryan said. "They just don't personally want to prescribe it."

Despite these solutions, abortion rights advocates say what's needed is better abortion access across the country.

Sandeep Prasad, executive director of Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights, said abortions should be viewed as any other health service, with providers trained and equipped to provide the service.

"We're talking about every primary health professional as a provider," he said. "That's what we need to be moving toward."

In Alberta, Ms. Farah hopes for the same thing. She was able to obtain the abortion pill before the cutoff of nine weeks. But if access was a challenge for her, someone with connections in the abortion-advocacy community, she wonders how much worse the situation may be for others.

"It actually makes me very angry and worried," she said. "If we become a little bit too complacent, people start to take away rights, bit by bit."

Associated Graphic

Hibo Farah, a 26-year-old University of Lethbridge student, says that when she discovered she was pregnant and sought the abortion pill, she shouldn't have been told by her doctor to seek Mifegymiso at a clinic in Calgary, two hours away from where she lives.


Jillian Demontigny started prescribing Mifegymiso in 2017 after learning how inaccessible it was for many in Alberta.


Lyndsey Butcher, executive director of a Kitchener, Ont., clinic, says her facility often sees women travelling from hours away.


Rolanda Ryan holds the two medications that compose Mifegymiso at her clinic in St. John's in March. Ms. Ryan's clinic offers a service that sends the pills by Canada Post to women in rural areas who do not have a doctor willing to perscribe the medication.


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Home is where the heart is. But it's also where housing solutions lie
The data are clear: Renting out rooms, including ones vacated by children, can help address the housing crisis. But even the most logical mind can be conquered by human emotion

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O1

Chief executive of the Keesmaat Group, working with corporate and political leaders to advance change in cities around the world. She is the former chief planner of Toronto.

Last fall, my husband, Tom, and I dropped our daughter Alexandra off at her new dorm at Western University, and as she negotiated the arrangement of her books, coffee maker and laundry hamper with her roommate, making her bed and nervously plumping her pillows, we stood, large and awkward in the tiny room, unsure of whether it was time to leave or if we should linger a little longer. I surveyed the cool greys of the cinder block as she began madly taping photos to the wall to ease the sterility, and it hit me: She doesn't live with us anymore.

And when we came home, like so many other parents at this stage of life, I became acutely aware of the quiet, empty bedroom down the hall. Her door, as always, was left ajar. I peeked in and the light caught the jumble of rowing, running and ski-racing medals dangling from her bedroom mirror, a little testament that she did live, and lived large, here. A memento of childhood - a scuffed pair of toddler's shoes - sat neatly on her book shelf beside a photo of a gaggle of girls trying hard to look grown-up at prom, anticipation filling their youthful faces. But her bed was rumpled from the previous night's rest - and maybe for the first time I was glad to see it left unmade; I knew she was here.

But now she's not. It was deeply unsettling, these remnants of her life, held in abeyance, waiting for her return.

Until these sad moments, there wasn't really a square inch that we didn't use in what we called our "forever home" when we bought it 13 years ago. Our main floor was a perpetual cacophony of neighbours popping by, kids pounding out their homework and dinner being pulled together on the fly. Our basement was a triple threat: laundry, playroom and office combined. We didn't really have a place for our bikes, so house guests would sometimes have to weave around them just to get through the front hall.

We liked it that way. Both Tom and I had been raised in the suburbs, where there was space to spare, but we had moved into the heart of the city to be near transit and to have the option of living with just one car. We had grown up with the long commute and we were prepared to do anything to try and avoid it. We had visions of our kids walking and taking transit to school, and we knew a different kind of home than what we grew up with would be a part of that package deal.

Our daughter had left home with strict instructions to leave her room exactly as it was. She would be back, she said, first for summers to work in the city, and then for grad school; it was still her room, she insisted. Her little brother, of course, almost immediately descended and created a Fortnite haven for his 13-year-old friends.

Secretly, though, I was relieved that the space was being used. It took the edge off knowing that we had an empty bedroom, despite the fact I knew full well that empty rooms such as hers could offer real relief to a major issue I touched almost every day in my work: the housing crisis in our region.

According to a report by the Canadian Centre for Economic Analysis, there are five million empty bedrooms just waiting to be filled in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area today; more than two million of them are in Toronto alone. In a city that often feels like it's bursting at the seams, that's a lot of empty living space.

Eighty-five per cent of Canadians over the age of 65 in Canada, meanwhile, are moving less frequently and remain in a house that's too big for them, and while we've lauded the idea of aging in one place, doing so can mean an undue burden of a home for those least able to maintain it, both financially and otherwise. If these unused bedrooms could be put to use, through policy that encourages and rewards renting out existing rooms - or, taking that logic further, adding more rooms to existing homes, or turning one house into multiple homes - we could add a significant amount of affordable living space to the region, at a relatively modest cost.

We frequently lament the lack of affordable housing in our cities, and yet rooms in existing homes are an underutilized opportunity hidden in plain sight.

Even if only a fraction of the millions of empty bedrooms across the country were introduced into the market and made available as a viable housing opportunity, it would far exceed the paltry amounts of new affordable housing that municipalities have been able to deliver. And providing rooms to rent helps in two ways: It makes housing more affordable for people living alone with rooms to spare, as it does for those looking for a place to call home.

Overhousing is, in part, driven by the immense market demand for detached housing in cities, and the capacity of the wealthy to both protect this housing and gentrify existing stock. But it's also partly driven by what is probably the most compelling argument against this data- and trend-driven logic: emotion.

These vacated rooms and these family homes are suffused with stories and sentiment - how could we think about renting these out to strangers?

I know this feeling keenly, because the data I look at in my professional life collide painfully with my home life, where I miss my daughter every day, and the emotional weight of that emotion is convincing, hard facts or not.

So the only antidote might require another argument from the heart in favour of this housing solution - and for this, I look to the story of my grandparents, Alexandra's great-grandparents, who share a story similar to so many Canadians across the country in moving here to find a better life for their families, and whose willingness to share a home allowed them, and others, to live out the Canadian dream.

My grandparents moved here from the Netherlands in the early 1950s and they, like other immigrants in those times, longed to own their own home. But they were not wealthy people.

The Second World War, in which my grandfather fought as a resistance fighter, was less than a decade behind them and it had devastated them economically.

At one point, they sold the family silver just to buy food to survive. They came here with nothing but a dream and little kids in tow. Still, they were able to work hard, save for a down payment and buy a home. They were among the many, however, who couldn't afford the mortgage payment on their own. So they did what they found sensible: They took on boarders to help pay the bills.

Households were bigger back then, and more flexible. People lived with more people, and less space. There were just more than three million households in Canada at the time, and of those, fewer than 10 per cent consisted of only one person, while just more than 30 per cent consisted of five people or more; the rest consisted of a roughly equal share of two, three or four people. People were having more children, yes, but these numbers were so high because it was not uncommon to have multiple homes within a house: multigenerational households, households that included extended family members or households that included boarders.

Today, this is almost completely reversed. There are now just more than 14 million households in Canada, and while the proportion of two-person households has grown over the past century, from around 20 per cent to 34 per cent today, and the number of three- and four-person households has stayed relatively consistent at around 15 per cent each, the number of oneperson households has more than tripled, to 28 per cent; the number of five-person households has tumbled to around 8 per cent. The number of one-person households has been higher in Canada than the number of five-person households since at least 1981. And while programs such as Toronto HomeShare, which matches older adults with spare rooms with renters who can help around the house, offer a partial solution, they don't tackle the reality and the growing trend: Nearly one in three Canadians live alone.

When families such as that of my grandparents sought to fill gaps in their budgets with boarders - a practical approach borne of necessity to take advantage of their biggest asset - it happened to also create a significant stock of affordable housing for people who otherwise couldn't afford (or didn't want) a place all to themselves.

There are additional social benefits, too, as researchers find that solo living, exacerbated by trends around high-rise housing, can breed social isolation and threaten quality of life in cities - with some doctors arguing that loneliness, especially among seniors, has become a burgeoning public-health crisis. One of our first tenants in the first home that Tom and I bought had grown up just down the street, with her grandparents on one floor, her family on another, and an aunt and uncle and two kids on a third, an arrangement that effectively provided eager and cost-free childcare. And to this day, my 98-year-old grandmother has a long list of pen pals around the world - boarders, who, as they passed through, became dear friends.

So what's changed, to make boarding so much less appetizing over the decades? By and large, it's our expectations around what we need. A postwar mentality that more stuff, more buying and therefore more suburban sprawl to house it all meant a healthier economy dug deeply into the collective psyche.

Growing wealth among middleclass families allowed for luxuries such as increased quiet and privacy to catalyze into baseline asks when buying a new home.

Despite the Small Is Beautiful movement of the 1970s, which was intrinsically linked to the rise of environmental awareness and a recognition that we are overconsuming the resources of the planet, we live with the contradiction today of knowing that the average size of a detached house in Canada is roughly twice as big as in the 1970s, with our household sizes considerably smaller.

A more palatable option than boarding or room rental, for those who can afford it, might be splitting existing houses into duplexes, triplexes and beyond, offering more privacy to all involved while still unlocking housing space for renters in an effective, relatively simple way.

And yet debates around "secondary suites" in existing housing often focus on the suggestion that renters in some way compromise the character of a neighbourhood, or that less space is inherently a bad thing. Battles over housing policy have come to reflect that attitude. In a recent Toronto City Council debate, councillors went so far as to draft and approve a motion restricting entrances to secondary suites from being visible from the street - as if having renters is shameful and ought to be hidden from view.

Meanwhile, population is growing and declining across Toronto and other cities like it.

While the overall population in Toronto continues to steadily increase, huge swaths of it have seen population declines, sometimes significant ones. According to Canadian Centre for Economic Analysis CEO Paul Smetanin, 52 per cent of Toronto's land mass has seen a decline in population of about 201,000 people over the past 18 years, while other parts have grown by 492,000. Said another way: While Toronto is the fastest-growing city in North America based on population growth, most of the land area in the city is actually experiencing population decline. Just as the Vancouver region and Toronto are both spiky and flat in their physiognomies, with tall and super-tall towers surrounded by an unrelenting sprawl of low-rise housing, our density is spiky and flat when charted out, too: Some parts of the city are absorbing significant amounts of growth, while others are bleeding density.

Concentrated hypergrowth comes with pressures on local infrastructure such as water mains, parks, schools and roads. The areas of the city that are losing density, meanwhile, become home to infrastructure that sits stagnant. Emptying schools and flailing bus services become hard to justify, since there's simply not enough demand for them. A contradiction emerges that makes infrastructure delivery inherently inefficient: The highgrowth parts of the city, defined by an unending stream of towers, suffer a shortage of the infrastructure that is necessary to ensure livable communities, while elsewhere, infrastructure is underutilized and, in the case of schools, even disposed. Without a policy intervention of some kind, this trend will continue, as will the traffic congestion and imbalanced service levels that accompany it.

This is part of the story of downtown Hamilton. Despite years of claims about a civic renaissance, reinvestment in downtown Hamilton has actually caused population there to crater. That's because detached housing in the core that once served as duplexes and triplexes - housing multiple households - has been converted into "singles," resulting in overall population loss. This kind of gentle or hidden density offered a muchneeded kind of affordable housing, and its loss is significant, requiring new approaches and strategies for housing people who are displaced.

That highlights a generational shift in the meaning of shrinking populations in a particular area: Where once it signalled a neigh-

bourhood in decline, it's now a problem of concentrated wealth, in which the wealthiest few live in greater and more desirable space, while others struggle to access any housing at all.

This is often referred to, by urban-density advocates, as "missing middle housing." But while this type of housing is needed - for seniors, singles who don't want to live in a condo in the sky, and families interested in renting or owning in walkable neighbourhoods that already have an excellent mix of services, shops, parks and schools - it's not missing. It already exists, in houses we need to be willing to share.

Ironically, while we praise ourselves for living in a sharing economy powered by Silicon Valley, five million bedrooms sit empty, practically begging to help solve a systemic need.

But here's the catch: While cohousing programs have found some success, they do not exist at a meaningful scale. Airbnb and other tech titans like it, meanwhile, only facilitate short-term rentals, which actually remove bedrooms and even entire homes from the rental market and exacerbate the housing affordability crisis in our cities. McGill University researchers estimate that more than 31,000 homes across Canada were rented out in the shortterm so often that they were likely removed from long-term rental supply.

Airbnb's origins in the sharing economy have long become warped by profit margins. But it doesn't need to continue to be.

By encouraging longer-term rentals and focusing on users in need of housing rather than hotel rooms, the company could be a tool for good, facilitating access to the millions of empty bedrooms across Canada, generating access to more affordable housing options for millions of people and restoring population in neighbourhoods where it has declined. Yes, the cost of housing is through the roof. Yes, we need more supply. But we also have a solution that is entirely within reach: existing bedrooms in existing homes in existing neighbourhoods that currently sit empty.

Which brings me back to the hole in our home - the hole in our family's heart, really. While summer has temporarily filled it, we're still musing about what our home might look like once Alexandra leaves for good, and her brother joins her. We started thinking about our original vision for our lives - how, after a couple of years living in my inlaws' basement to save for a down payment on a mortgage for the home we bought before this one, we had bought a place where we were able to rent out the main floor and the basement, and live upstairs, an arrangement not that dissimilar from my grandparents, a generation before. Other than some construction, nothing is stopping us from doing the same thing with our forever home - other than the expectation of our neighbours and some city policy, which, with political will, could easily be changed with the stroke of a pen.

Granted, this is a bit more radical; where we were at one point just musing about renting out a single room, we've started rethinking need altogether - not around stuff, but around fit. And if our children wanted to start their lives, where would be a better place to start than here, where they can enjoy support, space, help with child care, a neighbourhood they love, and their intimate knowledge of every overworked square inch?

What better way for our children to live out the best principles of our practice, get a start on their own Canadian dream and help Tom and I achieve a better housing fit for our needs? Finally, we felt: logic and emotion were working together toward the same goal.

So I put it to my daughter: Would she want to turn the house into a duplex, and raise her family here one day?

"Probably not," she responded. "Too tiny. Can you even do that - build another kitchen? No, I'm not interested."

Rethinking housing, and what people's needs really are, will require us to reconsider how we define home. Even in this house.

Associated Graphic


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As Chinese loans fuel booming economy, Djibouti risks falling into Beijing's 'debt trap'

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Wednesday, July 17, 2019 – Page A1

Red-and-gold Chinese banners hang outside the headquarters of Djibouti's freetrade zone, adding a splash of colour to the dusty desert gateway of this hugely ambitious project, the biggest of its kind in Africa.

Inside the building, Chinese businessman Robin Li stands over a scale model of the freetrade zone, telling a Ghanaian delegation that the Chinese investors will control just 40 per cent of the project. "We leave the money behind," says Mr. Li, the vice-president of China Merchants Port. "No return!"

Everyone laughs uproariously, and then a local official tries to clarify the profits that could flow to the Chinese state-owned companies. "They don't take big money," he assures the Ghana delegation. In fact, nobody quite knows what benefits Beijing will extract from Djibouti's free-trade zone - a Chinese-financed project that could cost US$3.5-billion over the next 10 years, covering a vast 48 square kilometres. But money is only one of the commodities in these transactions. Political influence and commercial power are the implicit commodities in China's financial drive.

Countries across Africa and Asia are wrestling with the same dilemma as Djibouti: How to accept Chinese money without accepting Chinese control.

Beijing's loans are accelerating the construction of the ports and railways that poorer countries desperately need. But the price could be steep: rising debts, a potential weakening of sovereignty and a possible loss of key assets if they default on their loans.

Djibouti is strategically located at the crossroads of Africa and the Middle East, on a narrow strait that controls access to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. It has become a crucial hub in China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): a multitrillion-dollar plan to build modern infrastructure to connect at least 68 countries to Chinese trade routes.

John Bolton, national-security adviser to U.S.

President Donald Trump, has alleged that the BRI is a predatory Chinese strategy, deliberately deploying "bribes, opaque agreements and the strategic use of debt" to hold African countries "captive to Beijing's wishes." The Trump administration has even produced YouTube videos attacking the initiative and urging countries to seek U.S. investment instead. "Don't get caught in the debt trap," the videos warn in ominous tones.

China has denied the debt-trap accusation, insisting that the loans benefit both sides. Some analysts say the allegation of predatory behaviour is exaggerated, since China has often ended up cancelling the debts of poorer countries, and a majority of the debt in most African countries is still held by non-Chinese lenders.

Djibouti, a tiny country of fewer than a million people on the Red Sea, is a prime example of the risks. It has enjoyed a booming economy in recent years, fuelled by huge Chinese loans and investment in ports, railways, warehouses, industrial parks and even a secretive military base. But critics have warned that the country is falling into a Chinese "debt trap," in which the loans could overwhelm its economic independence.

The International Monetary Fund recently estimated that Djibouti's public and publicly guaranteed debt has climbed to 104 per cent of its GDP - and the vast majority of this external debt is owed to Beijing. The Chinese loans have "resulted in debt distress, which poses significant risks," the IMF said.

A separate study by the Center for Global Development, a Washington-based think tank, estimated that China has provided nearly US$1.4billion for Djibouti's major projects, leading to a sharp increase in the country's external debt.

Djibouti is one of eight countries worldwide where the rising debt from BRI projects is "of particular concern" because of the heightened risk of debt distress, the study concluded.

Djibouti's Finance Minister, Ilyas Moussa Dawaleh, says the Chinese loans are crucial for preventing an eruption of protest among Djibouti's poor and unemployed. "If we let the youths stay unemployed, tomorrow they will create instability, and some devil will come and make use of their frustration," he told The Globe and Mail in an interview. "We thank the Chinese for our infrastructure development, and we want our other partners to help us - not just tell us about the Chinese debt trap. Maybe they think they are attacking China, but they are disrespecting Africans. We are mature enough to know exactly what we are doing for our country."

Beijing has poured money into Djibouti in recent years. It gave a US$250-million loan for Djibouti's free-trade zone. It provided about US$500-million in financing for the Djibouti portion of a new 756-km railway line between Djibouti and Ethiopia. And it lent a further US$400-million for a new container port in Djibouti.

In addition to the loans, Chinese state-owned companies have made equity investments in the Djibouti projects and have won management contracts in the ports and railway.

GATEWAY TO THE WORLD, TETHER TO CHINA At the Doraleh Container Terminal, an ultramodern port on the edge of the capital, Djibouti cancelled a Dubai company's contract to run the port, nationalized the terminal and then has reportedly allowed China Merchants to help operate it. (The government denies that China Merchants is the official operator of the port.

The Dubai company has launched legal proceedings to challenge the takeover.)

In exchange for its loans and investments, China has gained crucial influence over the shipping lanes that flow past Djibouti to the Suez Canal - the same lanes that provide oil supplies for Chinese importers and vital routes to Europe for Chinese exporters. And if Djibouti is unable to repay the loans, China could end up with a bigger stake of the infrastructure.

Djibouti insists it is retaining a majority stake in each project. But when China finances the projects and holds a significant chunk of the equity, along with short-term contracts to manage and operate the railway and some of the ports, the Chinese influence can be massive.

"China is adept at converting developmentminded investment dollars into geopolitical power and influence," said a recent report by the Australian Centre on China in the World, based at the Australian National University.

"Djibouti's future is now more tied to China than to any other partner," it said.

Across the African continent, China has provided about US$130-billion in loans over the past two decades, and it promises a further US$60-billion over the next several years as its BRI strategy gains momentum.

But the exact terms of these loans are routinely kept secret. Africans often don't know the repayment terms or the potential loss of collateral, including infrastructure or future resource revenue, if the loans aren't repaid. Many of the benefits flow to China, since almost 90 per cent of BRI contractors are Chinese companies, which often hire Chinese workers rather than local workers.

"Countries rich in natural resources, like Angola, Zambia and the Republic of Congo, or with strategically important infrastructure, like ports or railways such as Kenya, are most vulnerable to the risk of losing control over important assets in negotiations with Chinese creditors," said a report by Moody's credit agency late last year.

Chinese loans to African countries have soared to more than US$10-billion annually in recent years, compared with less than US$1-billion in 2001. This is contributing to a growing crisis in Africa, where most countries are heavily indebted and some are unable to service those debts.

In Kenya, for example, the Chinese share of the national debt has been escalating rapidly. In total, Kenya owes more than US$5-billion to China today, a fivefold increase in just five years.

China persuaded the government of Kenya to build a costly new 485-km railway between Nairobi and the port city of Mombasa for about US$4-billion, rather than repairing an existing line for about a quarter of the cost. The project became one of the most expensive rail projects in Africa.

After opening in 2017, the railway lost US$100-million in its first year of operation, carrying far less freight than expected. The economic benefits to Kenya were limited, since Chinese contractors did most of the construction work. And the project left Kenya saddled with US$3.2-billion in debt to China. Kenyan media have reported that China could seize Kenyan assets, including the port of Mombasa, if the loan is not repaid. They also reported that the loan agreement requires any disputes to be arbitrated in China.

By 2019, the railway was continuing to lose money on each of its passenger and cargo trips, while Kenya's loan repayments to China were sharply increasing. The government insisted that the loans weren't harmful. "China is not seeking to colonize us, but they understand us and our point of need," President Uhuru Kenyatta told local journalists.

The Kenyan railway - like the similar Chinese-funded railway between Djibouti and Ethiopia - has been a publicity bonanza for Beijing, creating highly visible Chinese branding on the trains.

The Kenyan railway is operated by a Chinese company, and Chinese workers have taken many of the top jobs as conductors, engineers, managers and drivers. In each carriage, a Chinese flag is displayed. The stations are filled with Chinese signs and pamphlets, and the Mombasa station even features a bronze statue of a Chinese hero, the explorer Zheng He, who led a maritime expedition to East Africa in the 15th century.

In Djibouti, too, the new train terminal is filled with Chinese signs and banners, and most of the conductors are Chinese. Even the clocks on the wall are from China.

Chinese rail companies were hired to manage the US$4.5-billion Djibouti-Ethiopia electric railway for six years after its completion in 2017.

"Of course, if the investment is coming mainly from China, we will see sometimes Chinese signs and communications," says Mr. Dawaleh, the Finance Minister. "We need to bring global talent."

Others are more critical. "How can Djiboutians see this railway as their own if everything they see is Chinese?" asks Abdirahman Mohamed Ahmed, an economic and environmental consultant in Djibouti.

"China is doing the same as what we criticized the former colonialists for doing," he told The Globe. "China should be more sensitive.

They should be different from other empires."

Ethiopia and Djibouti have both struggled with their heavy debts to Chinese financiers for the railway, and both have sought to renegotiate their loans. Late last year, China allowed Ethiopia to extend the loan repayment period from 10 years to 30.

The concerns over the railway loans are part of a growing international anxiety about China's BRI strategy. Countries such as Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Malaysia have delayed or cancelled Chinese projects. Others, such as the Maldives, have sought to renegotiate or reduce their Chinese loans.

Many observers, including Africans, were alarmed by Sri Lanka's loss of a Chinese-built port, Hambantota, after the South Asian country was unable to repay more than US$1-billion in debt to Chinese banks. Sri Lanka was obliged to hand over the port to China on a 99-year lease.

Djibouti officials, however, insist they aren't at risk of suffering a similar fate. "We are always the majority shareholder," said Aboubaker Omar Hadi, chairman of Djibouti's ports and free-trade authority, who had made the comment about China not taking "big money."

"The mistakes in Sri Lanka were made by the Chinese contractors, pushing for the contract and short-cutting the process to get the Chinese bank loan and leaving the debts behind," he told The Globe.

"It was giving a bad name to China. The Chinese government was unhappy, so it disciplined those contractors. They've stopped these contractors from promising everything."

IN CHINA'S DEBT At a summit of BRI member countries in Beijing in April, the IMF's managing director, Christine Lagarde, warned that China's BRI policies must be fixed.

"History has taught us that, if not managed carefully, infrastructure investments can lead to a problematic increase in debt," she said. "The Belt and Road [Initiative] should only go where it is needed [and] where it is sustainable, in all aspects."

Chinese officials at the BRI summit tried to ease the fears of debt-trap loans by promising to ensure that the "debt sustainability" of the borrowing countries is always taken into account.

But concerns about Chinese loans persist. In South Africa, there has been fierce debate over a US$2.4-billion loan by the China Development Bank to the state-owned electricity monopoly, Eskom, which has been desperate for loans to stave off the need for more cuts to the country's power supply. The opposition Democratic Alliance party has argued that the loan "could very quickly result in a debt trap where repayments cannot be met and the Chinese start to take ownership of South Africa like they have done in Sri Lanka."

Those concerns deepened this year, when the first tranche of the Chinese loan was unexpectedly delayed for reasons that weren't fully explained, forcing Eskom to scramble for fresh sources of money.

While analysts worry about the loss of sovereignty or the loss of key assets, there are other concerns, too. In some countries, such as Djibouti, the massive flow of Chinese loans is helping to prop up authoritarian regimes. The financing is ultimately a greater benefit for autocratic rulers than for ordinary people.

"Nobody consulted Parliament on these Chinese loans," said Zakaria Abdillahi, one of the few independent human-rights lawyers in Djibouti. "The government made these decisions unilaterally. The Chinese debt is very opaque, and there's a risk to the sovereignty of Djibouti.

The loan conditions are dictated by China."

Djibouti has been under the firm control of one family for the past four decades. Ismail Omar Guelleh has been President since 1999, and his supporters have amended the constitution to allow him to extend his rule. He was hand-picked by his uncle, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, who had ruled the country since its independence in 1977.

The boom in Chinese loans and investment has allowed Djibouti to become more repressive than it was in the past, Mr. Abdillahi said.

The loans and investment are providing revenue to an autocratic government, helping it to prolong its rule and stifle any push for democratic reform.

As a lawyer, Mr. Abdillahi has tried dozens of times to defend journalists or union leaders or political activists who are arrested for protesting against the government - but the police refuse to let him meet the detainees. "When they see me coming, they just shut the doors," he told The Globe.

When he is invited to international events, the police at Djibouti's airport routinely prevent him from departing. Nor do they allow him to register his human-rights organization, prohibiting the organization from having a bank account or a membership list. "Everything is forbidden or controlled," he said.

At the same time, the Chinese loans don't offer much help for the majority of the population in impoverished countries. Despite years of high GDP growth in Djibouti, more than 70 per cent of its population is living on less than US$5.50 a day, and half of families have no access to basic sanitation facilities, according to World Bank data.

"A lot of money is coming in, but you don't see any trickle down," said Mr. Ahmed, the consultant. "People feel excluded."

Aden Ali, a 40-year-old labourer, has been hauling sacks of cement and sugar in Djibouti's ports and docks for the past 16 years. His arms and fingers are covered with scars and bumps from cuts and broken bones, caused by accidents in his work. He lives with his wife and three children in a shabby two-room house with a leaking roof in Balbala, a sprawling slum on the outskirts of Djibouti City where children play barefoot in dusty streets with rubble and scrap metal around them.

Mr. Ali recently began working overnight shifts at one of Djibouti's new Chinese-built ports. "It's impressive, but we don't get anything from it," he says. "Nothing has really changed for us. Our life is still in black and white."

The new port has allowed him to work more days in a month, increasing his income by perhaps US$50 or US$100 a month, but that's barely enough to keep up with the soaring cost of living, he said.

"The Chinese don't help us to survive," Mr.Ali said. "The work has become harder. The conditions are bad. If we drop something, they yell at us. Only God knows how much pain we feel."

Associated Graphic

Far left: Holding the Chinese and Djiboutian flags, people gather on July 4 before the launch of a 1,000-unit housing project. The venture is supported by the state-backed China Merchants, which also reportedly helps operate the Doraleh Container Terminal, left, and will partly control the forthcoming free-trade zone, below.


Far left: China took control of the Hambantota port it built in Sri Lanka on a 99-year lease when the South Asian country couldn't repay its debts to Chinese banks.


Left: Chinese train workers look out for passengers during the inaugural run of a new railway linking Djibouti to Addis Ababa in October, 2016.


Above: Djibouti President Ismail Omar Guelleh greets Chinese President Xi Jinping during a 2018 meeting in Beijing. Independent human-rights lawyer Zakaria Abdillahi says Chinese loans and investment have helped Djibouti to become more repressive than it was in the past.


Thursday, July 18, 2019


A map with a Wednesday news feature on Djibouti incorrectly labelled the Mediterranean Sea as the Dead Sea.

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Award-winning psychological thriller Milkman is no doubt a masterpiece, but it's an exhausting book to read, Ian Brown writes. Readers shouldn't be afraid, though - it's yet another work that is elevated by the art of the spoken word

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page R8

The best thing about Milkman, Anna Burns's Man Booker Prize-winning novel, is that it's a superbly detailed moment-by-moment chronicle of an 18-year-old's inner thoughts as she navigates the treacherous complications of life in Belfast during the deadly Troubles of the late 1970s.

The worst thing about Milkman, Anna Burns's Man Booker Prize-winning novel, is that it's a superbly detailed moment-bymoment chronicle of an 18-yearold's inner thoughts that is 352 pages long. Demanding literary novels told from a single interior point of view are all the rage these days (thank you, Rachel Cusk).

Milkman's interior tunnel is long and narrow. It does not conform to standard paragraph form. There are no comforting blocks of dialogue, only conversations remembered within the mental monologue of the girl narrator, who is unnamed. No one in the book has a name, in fact, but is referred to as Somebody McSomebody or Tablets Girl or Maybe-Boyfriend or Eldest Sister, reflecting the paranoia of Belfast's factionalized residents, who fear the consequences (death at the hands of roving paramilitary squads) of naming names and thus being branded informers.

These secrets in turn make everyone suspicious of (and gossip about) any behaviour that doesn't conform to local customs.

In other words, Milkman is a dead-on portrait of the claustrophobia of an adolescent mind within the even more oppressive claustrophobia of a totalitarian state.

It's a brilliant book. It's also exhausting to read. Describing a closed society requires dense, closed writing, and on the page, Milkman can be as impenetrable as Kevlar. Passages of great beauty alternate with wads of glue. Thirty pages was the most I could manage at a sitting, but even five could render me unconscious.

The good news? The audiobook's a breeze! A deft narration by 64-year-old Northern Irish actor Brid Brennan transforms Burns's writing into a spoken yarn.

When Brennan says a word such as "round," her lemonrinsed Belfast accent puckers it into at least four separate syllables.

You can feel the hard bite of Northern Ireland in every sentence, and the city's psychological pace in the flurry of her diction: People here need to get all their words out before it's too late.

The high-minded difficulty of Milkman's written text evaporates, leaving only a funny, intelligent voice behind.

How does that happen? And why is it happening so often these days? Audiobook sales shot up more than 37 per cent last year (the third year in a row), driven by downloading and ever more artful vocal staging. (Physical book sales were up a puny 5 per cent and e-books fell.) Nearly 50,000 new audiobooks are released every year in North America alone.

Sloggish masterpieces now enjoy robust afterlives as ripping digital yarns. There are already classics of the genre and go-to narrator/readers. The Word of Promise audio Bible (New King James Version) features sound effects, an interactive score, Marisa Tomei as Mary Magdalene and Jason Alexander (George on Seinfeld) as a nebbishy Joseph.

It's 98 hours long, costs $61.33 and is like listening to your own conscience as it wanders through the Teletubby version of Galilee. I recommend it.

The soon-to-be released talkie version of Karl Ove Knausgaard's six-volume My Struggle is even longer, at 133 hours.

Abridged readings, common 20 years ago, no longer exist; skilled single narrators who voice every word of every character in a story (as is the case in Milkman) now compete with full troupes of actors reading individual parts.

Do not misunderstand, daring reader: I'm not suggesting books can be replaced by audiobooks. I often like to bang my head against a difficult but rewarding slab of text.

For instance, I motored through Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization, a book that ought to come with a helmet and an insurance policy. But life is short. Maybe reading doesn't have to be that much agony. Because here's the really wild thing: Even in the formal parlour of highbrow literature, still one of the stuffiest rooms in contemporary culture, listening to a novel is now as acceptable as having read the monster.

Milkman is a psychological masterpiece, no one's denying that.

The narrator, a watchful young woman, commits the cardinal sin of being different in a culture that has forbidden difference.

She has a single eccentric habit: She reads books while she walks.

This is deemed aberrant, therefore suspicious, thus the subject of gossip, which brings her into the sights of the Milkman, an older, high-ranking paramilitary.

The Milkman wants the young female narrator as his lover and begins to stalk and isolate and coerce her. He insinuates that her boyfriend, the aforementioned Maybe-Boyfriend, has committed a sin punishable by car bomb.

Maybe-Boyfriend's crime? He collects car parts, and owns a supercharger hood that bears a decal of a British flag.

In Belfast during the Troubles, you could be ratted out for

drinking the wrong lager or supporting the wrong football team or liking James Bond. If you did watch James Bond, "you didn't make a point of saying so; also you kept the volume very, very low."

Milkman is a novel about competing moralities and all of them are mendacious.

Burns's depiction of the way Belfast's bullied burghers think is sharp and tight and often funny. But it's work. Losing the thread in Milkman left me again and again in a deep, dark wood, afraid I would never be found again: I kept tracking back, to ferret out where I had drifted off course. But when the story is read in Brennan's lilting voice, the narration carries you forward on a wave.

You may not know how long it has been since you fell off the surfboard, but you're still swimming.

Neurological research suggests there are reasons for this.

Reading symbols on a page engages the crowded and ultra detailed visual cortex, which produces very specific (and sometimes overwhelming) word associations. Listening to a text, on the other hand, leaves fewer details stuck in one's memory, but produces a readier grasp of the passage's deeper meaning.

Listening is our evolutionary default mode. Shakespeare is easier to understand onstage than he is on the page.

That ease is one reason booklistening has a less-than-serious reputation compared with upwardly mobile, middle-class book reading. Thomas Edison dictated Mary Had a Little Lamb onto a tinfoil cylinder as early as 1877, but it wasn't until the 1930s that the first audiobook records were produced, specifically for blind readers. (The first seems to have been a recording of Joseph Conrad's Typhoon, although the Gospel of St. John - in which Jesus cures a blind man - wasn't far behind.) When Matthew Rubery, a professor of modern literature at London's Queen Mary University, started work on The Untold Story of the Talking Book, published in 2016, colleagues turned up their noses and refused to write letters of reference. He traces their disdain to the 1920s, to the rise of modernism in university English departments - "the notion that literature should be difficult." The result, Rubery explained recently, is that "audiobooks are the Rodney Dangerfields of literature.

They don't get no respect."

Meanwhile, he claims, "the audiobook is the only form of reading that has consistently increased in the past decade."

Dumbing down didn't do it; driving did, along with commuting and the widespread use of smartphones starting in 2010.

"I don't think there is any single kind of reading," Rubery added. Each method has its pleasures. Reading Milkman, you understand the book from the point of view of the writer - which Nabokov said was the deepest way to understand fiction. When you listen to a book - say, Nabokov's Lolita, narrated by Jeremy Irons, already a classic in audiobookland - you understand it from the point of view of the characters. Ian Pearson, who read 80 novels a year as Peter Gzowski's books producer on the CBC Radio show Morningside and now ingests about 40 audiobooks per annum, still recalls listening to Sabbath's Theatre, Philip Roth's filth-strewn account of a sex-obsessed 64-year-old.

"You're walking quietly around town, looking like an ordinary old man and meanwhile, thanks to this great narration of this compelling story in your head, you just feel like the biggest pervert in the world." The secret thrill of doing one thing with your mind while appearing to do something else entirely with your body is part of the new charm of audiobooks. You feel like you're wearing a cloak of invisibility. Listening to a book turns out to be as private as reading one.

I called Pearson because he's one of the most widely read people I know. He developed his audiobook habit three years ago because he owns two energetic dogs and has to walk them for an hour or two every day. Before he took up listening to novels, his fiction intake had declined dramatically. His eyes were getting weaker, limiting the time he could read.

Then there was the distraction factor.

"When I'm reading at home, I'm so distracted by the internet or by my phone, music, TV. But when I'm walking and listening, I have no other distraction. Audiobooks enforce that attention span. So audiobooks have completely revived my enjoyment of fiction."

He loved audio Milkman. "It's one of the best ones I've read," he said.

"I mean, listened to. The narrator is so perfect for that writer's voice. What might be somewhat difficult stream-of-consciousness on the page becomes natural and accessible when it's spoken aloud."

She also performs the male voices in the book in such a way that Pearson knew they were males - a talent the audiobook narrator of, say, Michael Redhill's excellent novel Bellevue Square doesn't share.

"Even though the narrator is a woman, there're a lot of men in that story," Pearson said. "And she couldn't do them convincingly."

A couple of years ago, - the Amazon-owned company that produces more than 90 per cent of North America's audiobooks - had a sale, and Mr. Pearson picked up a shelfload of classics. (He's also a fan of the Toronto Public Library's free audiobook borrowing app.) It took him three months to listen to all 12 volumes of Anthony Powell's Dance to the Music of Time. "That was a book I'd started a couple of times and never got engaged in. I owned the whole set. And it's one of those things that just stares you down. But when you're listening, it's not as intimidating."

That's the first commandment of the audiobook kingdom: If you have always wanted to read a classic, but could never engage, try listening to it instead. It doesn't always work: Fact-filled non-fiction can be a dry listen (especially if it's verveless, stylistically), and some novels don't translate well to audio. Olga Tokarczuk's Flights, a novel about a woman who travels incessantly, is too aphoristic to work in the ear.

But it's a sharply funny read.

The old view, the traditional, serious, High Lit view, was that reading one's writing aloud was cheating; it encouraged the addition of emotional inflection where possibly insufficient inflection existed, "making what I've written seem for the moment better than it is," as Nicholson Baker once put it. (He nevertheless narrates the audiobook of one of his own later novels, Traveling Sprinkler, to good effect.)

But that point of view is now so old-fashioned, so starkly predigital and non-commercial, that it ought to have its own diorama in a museum. Here's the new, alternative approach: If an audiobook gets you to ingest War and Peace or Elena Ferrante's Neapolitan quartet and surrender to points of view other than your own, so much the better.

The choice of narrator can make or ruin an audiobook. Sometimes, an author is an even more compelling reader than she is a writer - Tanya Tagaq's performance of her memoir Split Tooth is riveting - and sometimes she is not (Anakana Schofield reading Bina). Canadian audiobooks are increasingly ambitious: Wayne Johnston's First Snow, Last Light features four readers, including David Ferry, Mary Lewis and Gordon Pinsent.

Classic narrations already exist in the audio genre. Martin Jarvis, performing P.G. Wodehouse (Eddie Izzard also does a brilliant set of Jeeves tales, but they are on CD, and hard to find); Jim Dale, the literal wizard who narrates all the Harry Potter novels; Tom Stechschulte, whose rasp of a voice reading Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian and The Road makes you think this is the final task he is going to shoulder before he takes the last steps of his life: He will read this book and then he will be gone, will be no more. Julia Whelan (Gone Girl, Otessa Moshfegh's My Year of Rest and Relaxation, many others) has more or less copyrighted the voice of the Witty Ironic Female Observer.

One of Pearson's favourite narrators is Juliet Stevenson reading Middlemarch. "She could do any voice, male or female, low class or high, rustic or city.

And she didn't get all Masterpiece Theatre, class-in-England about it, either."

The book that kicked off the most recent boom in extra-ambitious audiobooks was George Saunders's Lincoln in the Bardo, the Man Booker Prize winner, originally written as a play, about Abraham Lincoln's long, strange mourning of the death of his beloved 10-year-old son, Willie.

The book has 166 characters, and the audiobook has that many speaking parts. Some people hate reading the book and love listening to the recording, others vice versa; some do both at once, book on lap and earphones in.

Kelly Gildea directed and produced Lincoln in the Bardo for Penguin Random House after Saunders phoned her and said he couldn't handle reading the entire work himself, as he had his past collections of stories.

(He's a really good reader.) Gildea, who studied film and directing at college, admits she was at first "a little panicky" about the project. "How the hell am I going to do this?" Her usual approach is to find a perfect narrator, "because a narrator can save something or absolutely tank it. It's acting, but it's also storytelling. The job is truly finding people who have both skills." But Bardo needed 166 narrators.

The result was "a broad spectrum of voices" - including celebrities such as Lena Dunham and David Sedaris - "which I think is the point of the book," Gildea says.

She needed five months to record 71/2 hours of acceptable tape: Every voice was recorded separately, and "the edit was just a beast unto itself."

Her goal in any audiobook is to produce a new version of an existing work, one that has its own intrinsic value, that brings a new kind of pleasure to a writer's fans.

"I hope that's what Bardo is.

The fact that there are so many actors in the book who are famous today makes it a document."

Her next project is an all-cast recording of Charlotte's Web, in which Meryl Streep reads the narrative and a roster of as-yetundisclosed actors read the voices of the characters. Purists will object. But try to imagine how many copies that will sell.

That may be the most radical development of the recent audiobook surge.

Listening isn't reading, but it's increasingly as good as reading, and sometimes better, and it's way more satisfying than watching the movie. "I believe if you listen to the audio," Gildea says, gently, "you have experienced the book. You don't have to use the verb 'read.' But you experienced the book."

As the heroine of Milkman comes to understand, the longer someone accepts her life in a totalitarian culture, the more likely she is to become totalitarian herself, one whose resigned motto is, as Burns puts it: "What's the point? There's no use in having any point."

What's required to break the totalitarian grip of incessant judgment, and of the conformity it breeds, is someone daring enough to stop separating the world into black or white, right or wrong, Catholic or Protestant, ours or theirs, afraid or not afraid, literary or non-literary, read or heard. When that happens, Burns says, a new motto emerges: "Attempts and repeated attempts, that's the way to do it."

Break the tradition and listen to the book you always meant to read.

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We are caught in an endless cycle of mindless consumerism and throwing things away. But there is a better way, argues Benjamin Leszcz. Making do is about taming the reflex to discard, replace or upgrade; it's about using things well, until they are used up

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O1

Benjamin Leszcz is a partner at Whitman Emorson, a design studio in Toronto. He worked previously as a magazine writer and editor.

Several years ago, while living in London, my wife met Prince Charles at an event associated with the Prince's Foundation, where she worked. She returned with two observations: First, the Prince of Wales used two fingers - index and middle - when he pointed. Second, Charles's suit had visible signs of mending. A Google search fails to substantiate the double-barrelled gesture, but the Prince's penchant for patching has been well documented. Last year, the journalist Marion Hume discovered a cardboard box containing more than 30 years of off-cuts and leftover materials from the Prince's suits, tucked away in a corner at his Savile Row tailor, Anderson & Sheppard. "I have always believed in trying to keep as many of my clothes and shoes going for as long as possible ... through patches and repairs," he told Ms. Hume. "In this way, I tend to be in fashion once every 25 years."

As it happens, double-breasted suits are rather on-trend. But more notable is Charles' sartorial philosophy, which could not be timelier.

The Prince comes from a tradition of admirable frugality - the Queen reuses gift-wrap - but his inclination to repair rather than replace, to wear his clothes until they wear out, is an apt antidote to our increasingly disposable times. Most modern consumers are not nearly so resourceful: The average Canadian buys 70 new pieces of clothing each year, about 60 of which ultimately wind up in a landfill. (Thrift stores only sell one in four pieces of donated clothing.) According to a British study, the average article of women's clothing is worn seven times before it's discarded.

Our bloated culture of consumption extends far beyond clothing.

Each year, Canadian adults spend about $9,000 for consumer packaged goods - about twice as much as 25 years ago. We replace our smartphones every 25 months. We swap out TVs like toothbrushes. We browse for Instant Pots, pet-hair-removal gloves and spa bath pillows when we're at dinner, when we're driving and when we're drunk.

Shopping isn't just convenient; it's inescapable. The shiny and new is seldom more than a click and a day away.

Unsurprisingly, we are drowning in stuff. Despite the average Canadian home doubling in size over the past generation - and family size shrinking - the self-storage industry is booming, with nearly 3,000 jam-packed facilities nationwide. And that's just the stuff we keep: Landfills are overflowing. China has stopped taking much of our recycling. Africa is refusing our used clothing. And the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is one-and-a-half times the size of Ontario - and growing.

Worse yet, we are spending money we don't have: The average Canadian has about $30,000 of non-mortgage debt. Ralph Waldo Emerson put it best: "Things are in the saddle, And ride mankind." We are increasingly desperate for a way out. For many, salvation has come via Marie Kondo, author of The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up. Ms. Kondo's KonMari method centres on a now-famous question: Does this thing I own spark joy for me? If not, it is to be discarded. Others have found emancipation via figures such as Leo Babauta, Dave Bruno and Tammy Strobel, avowed minimalists who own 50, 100 and 72 things, respectively.

It is easy to understand the appeal of these alternative ideologies of consumerism, both of which reflect the same fundamental truth: All this stuff isn't making us happy. Minimalism is simple but extreme; KonMari has broader appeal, promising a more fulfilling relationship with things, once we've purged ourselves of the non-joy-producing inventory. But KonMari asks both far too much of our things, and not nearly enough. When Prince Charles opens his closet, surely he does not ask if his fine doublebreasted suit sparks joy. Instead, he asks: "Does this fine doublebreasted suit fulfill my need for today, which is to wear a fine double-breasted suit while pointing at my subjects with two fingers?" It is a profoundly simple question, the spirit of which has been lost entirely today. In asking this question, Charles affirms his position as an unlikely champion for the forgotten virtue of making do.

Making do is a deeply pragmatic philosophy. It means asking of our things the only question we should ever ask of them: "Can you fulfill your intended use for me?" The answer - if we can be honest, and resist a moment of discomfort, inconvenience or boredom - is, extraordinarily often, yes. Making do is about taming the reflex to discard, replace or upgrade; it's about using things well, and using them until they are used up. Taken literally, it simply means making something perform - making it do what it ought to do.

If Marie Kondo delights in discarding, making do is about agonizing over it, admitting that we probably should not have bought that thing in the first place. Instead of thanking our outgoing goods for their meagre service, per Ms. Kondo, making do means admonishing ourselves for being so thoughtless in the first place.

Ditching something costs us, ecologically and cosmically; it should sting. And it should teach us to think more carefully about the real value of things.

As Juliet Schor writes in Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth, "We don't need to be less materialistic, as the standard formulation would have it, but more so." By becoming more materialistic, in this deeper sense, we can radically reorient our relationship with things. In this way, we can not only mitigate the high cost of thoughtless consumption, saving us money and the planet harm, but also, we might just wind up a whole lot happier.

Making do, in times of scarcity, is straightforward: If our weekly sugar ration is 200 grams, then we get by. In the context of abundance, it's complicated. How do we set limits when more, or new, is easily within reach?

The challenge, of course, is that making do is at odds with human nature. As products of evolution, we are predisposed to seek novelty, variety and excess; now, we hunt for bargains, not mastodons. Even Adam Smith, the forefather of homo economicus - that perfectly rational, utilityseeking consumer of classical economics - wrote in The Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759 that "frivolous objects ... [are] often the secret motive of the most serious and important pursuits."

In other words, to be frivolous is to be human. To aspire to pure pragmatism - to own only necessities - is misguided. "The fundamental question of what is essential and what is not has been a moving target, at least since the 15th century," says Frank Trentmann, author of Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers. "Every generation complains that the lower orders are suddenly wanting things that their parents or grandparents didn't have." Making do accommodates for this kind of hedonic adaptation; it allows for wideranging materialism, provided it is thoughtful, critical and honest.

For me, making do is an aspiration; I often fall short. I succeeded, however, with my previous television, an off-brand, earlygeneration flatscreen. Friends mocked me, but in an era in which we happily watch threeinch screens, I deemed my 12year-old Olevia adequate. (My company recently replaced its boardroom TV; I took the cast-off home, and gave the Olevia to a friend.) It was a small but meaningful victory, especially for household appliances, which tend to visit our homes briefly en route to the landfill.

As a parent, in an era in which toy companies have stretched commercials to 22-minute-long episodes, temptation is everywhere. Still, I'm a hardcore proponent of the cardboard-box theory of toys (the box - and later, the unboxing - trumps the contents). I virtually never buy toys.

When my kids ask, I say, "We don't really buy stuff like that."

(My eldest is 5; wish me luck.)

My wife rejected my pitch for our kids to wear potato sacks until the age of 12, presumably because most potato sacks are paper nowadays. Still, we opt for hand-me-downs or second-hand where possible. And we supplement with fast fashion, seeking clothes that last, at least, until they cease to fit anyone in our home.

For grown-ups, however, our relationship with clothing is perhaps the most unhinged. The novelist Ann Patchett, in her terrific New York Times column about giving up shopping for a year, recounts interviewing Tom Hanks before a large audience: "Previously, I would have believed that such an occasion demanded a new dress and lost two days of my life looking for one. In fact, Tom Hanks had never seen any of my dresses, nor had the people in the audience. I went to my closet, picked out something weather appropriate and stuck it in my suitcase. Done."

By disavowing shopping, Ms.

Patchett embraced the spirit of making do. Had she snagged that dress on a nail that evening, she could have made do on an even higher level. Getting the most out of things often requires investment, and the economics of repair can be challenging: It may be cheaper to buy a new sweater, made in Bangladesh, than to pay a Canadian tailor to fix an old one. Ideally, we'd mend it ourselves - a basic repertoire of DIY repair skills is wonderful way to make do - but either way, there's deep value in reviving the thing.

Never mind that a mended garment is perfectly functional; it's often improved, imbued with a hint of effortless imperfection.

Worn clothing can be a marker of status in its own right, as it is for The Bonfire of the Vanities' Sherman McCoy. Tom Wolfe describes the Master of the Universe's "worn but formidable rubberized British riding mac ... after the fashion of the Boston Cracked Shoe look." (The look references a historical style, among New England patricians, to wear wellcared-for but dramatically aged shoes.) To certain elites, then, making do is familiar as a style if not an ethos. The Official Preppy Handbook advises, "Never replace anything until you have exhausted all possibility of repair, restoration or rehabilitation. No matter what it is, they don't make it as well as they used to." The key to a making-do revolution, of course, would be for the style to sweep the country. "I've always thought, there may come a point where the way to distinguish yourself and signal status is precisely by getting away from this increasing acceleration of consumption," Mr. Trentmann says. "To stand out because you drive an old car."

Until that day comes, getting mileage from our things should at least engender a sense of pride, and of mastery. This is a more difficult proposition with electronics, appliances and cars, for which technology has largely rendered repairs of any kind impossible.

Still, making do means making an effort to preserve or repair, and spending more than simple economics might justify.

The corollary here is that making do means avoiding in the first place products that aren't worth repairing. The problem of durability preoccupies Dieter Rams, the designer of Braun's most iconic mid-century products. Mr.

Ram's mantra is "less, but better," and in the recent documentary about his career, he rails against "thoughtless design and thoughtless consumption." For Mr. Rams, it is incumbent on designers to make products that endure. (It's a cruel irony that Apple, whose product design owes so much to Mr. Rams, has become a paragon of built-in obsolescence.)

Byron and Dexter Peart, who made their names as fashion-accessory designers, are following Mr. Rams with Goodee, an online marketplace of ethically produced housewares. Goodee products "are meant to be used everyday and passed down for generations," the twin brothers say.

"For products to be essential, they must be designed with rigour and built to last, both from a standpoint of quality manufacturing, as well as a timeless aesthetic."

Many fashion brands lure customers with the promise of enduring essentials, from the luxury house Bottega Veneta (former creative director, Tomas Maier: "I want to own one suit") to the women's wear line Cuyana ("Welcome to fewer, better things").

Luxury watches do it, too: "You never actually own a Patek Philippe. You merely look after it for the next generation." (Though my $50 Timex keeps on ticking, too.) Of course, for people with the means, places such as Anderson & Shepard, or the shoemaker Church's, perform miraculous repairs as a matter of course. Roche Bobois and Stickley make furniture that retains its value - if it doesn't appreciate. Making do can mean embracing luxury, transforming our conception of heirlooms from relics of the past to ambitions for the future. But it also means patronizing more accessible brands such as LL Bean, Filson, Barbour, Patagonia, Arc'teryx and the North Face, all of which repair their goods, and some of which buy back, refurbish and resell worn garments.

Even more accessible is Uniqlo, whose unadorned designs eschew trends (and whose $30 oxford-cloth dress shirts are my uniform of choice). In The Atlantic this year, Gillian B. White wrote, "in an era of disposable fashion, a Uniqlo garment, made from hearty materials and cut in a timeless style, can feel like an investment piece." It's an overstatement - my shirts, at least, depreciate steadily - but it underscores the role of design in reshaping consumption.

Another key to making do is scratching our acquisitive itch in creative ways. Thanks to my kids, I have become reacquainted with the Toronto Public Library, where I can indulge my impulse to acquire books I think I'll read. (Typically by the third renewal, my deluded literary ambitions dissipate.) Following Rent the Runway, scores of clothing-rental services are launching, from mass brands such as Express to local startups such as STMNT, which was founded by a pair of Western University grads. Even IKEA is launching a rental program in 30 countries.

Purchases, such as tattoos, are permanent decisions based on temporary feelings; renting, or borrowing, is often a better response.

As we become increasingly dismayed by our limitless consumption, positive alternatives abound. But too often, alternative modes of consumption simply become additional modes of consumption. In pursuit of fewer, better, we sometimes end up with more, more. Of course, Mr. Rams is correct: Disposability is a design problem. But more than that, it is a psychology problem.

Making do has a societal scope, but it is a profoundly personal project.

In the final pages of The LifeChanging Magic of Tidying Up, Ms.Kondo writes, "I can think of no greater happiness in life than to be surrounded only by the things I love." It is a powerful statement, entirely on-brand for Ms. Kondo.

It's also a bleak reflection of how distracted our stuff makes us from the things that actually make us happy: a sense of belonging, of community, of purpose. Time with family and friends. Great books. Long meals.

We know all this, and yet: We are living amidst an unprecedented epidemic of loneliness, experiencing friendships through Instagram; consuming culture through Netflix; and walking alone through our neighbourhoods, AirPods in place, our faces illuminated by Amazon's frictionless mobile shopping experience. We are isolated and unmoored. And with nothing to tell us who we are, we shop and shop and shop, filling our carts when we really just want to fill our lives.

Laurie Santos, who created Yale University's most popular course, Psychology and the Good Life, often says, "Our intuitions about what to do to be happy are wrong." This simple truth is at the heart of making do, which emphatically reminds us that our things will never make us happy.

Our things are a healthy, normal, inevitable part of life, but in the end, they are just things. By asking of them only what they can give us - not love, or joy, or a sense of purpose or connection - we are far more likely to get it.

That doesn't guarantee happiness, but it clears the path, highlighting an essential, unmissable truth: The stuff of life isn't stuff at all.

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Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Thousands of transit passengers target of sexual violence between 2013 and 2017, Globe analysis finds
But data gaps from Canadian transit agencies mean extent of sexual misconduct incidents likely much higher
Special to The Globe and Mail

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Tuesday, July 9, 2019 – Page A1

TORONTO -- Grace Wilson was on a bus to Vancouver when a man sitting behind her began masturbating, following the rattled 17year-old as she changed seats.

Hailey, a young software developer, caught a man surreptitiously taking photos up her skirt as she sat on a Toronto subway on her way to work.

Nineteen-year-old Adoncia Cayouette was thrown to the ground, groped and battered after she refused to perform oral sex on her attacker while waiting for a bus in Calgary.

All three women reported their experiences to transportation workers. In Hailey and Ms. Cayouette's cases, the police were also alerted. But the transit systems did not record any of these incidents in their statistics on sexual assault and unwanted sexual acts on transit, The Globe and Mail has discovered - some of the many data omissions uncovered in the newspaper's investigation of how the country's 22 largest public transit systems track and handle sexual misconduct. The information gaps are troubling and point to a larger problem, said Holly Johnson, an expert on sexual-assault statistics and a retired University of Ottawa criminology professor.

"If we are going to address sexual harassment and sexual violence in all of its forms, we need much more detailed data and we need accurate data," she said. "We can't address it if we keep denying that it is happening."

The Globe's analysis, based on statistics obtained through dozens of Freedom of Information requests, offers the most comprehensive examination of sexual violence on the country's municipal buses, trains and subways. No national study of the issue has ever been done.

According to The Globe's examination, almost 4,000 incidents of sexual assault or harassment were recorded on Canada's 22 largest systems between 2013 and 2017.

Ninety per cent of the incidents were perpetrated against women by men.

A separate set of data from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, focused solely on criminal activity, reveals that across the country, 507 incidents of sexual crimes on public transit involved passengers under the age of 18 during the same period.

For a variety of reasons, these numbers are likely much lower than the actual number of incidents of sexual harassment and sexual assault that took place on those systems at that time. In some cases, the property where an incident took place - for instance, a bus stop - was considered municipal and not the agency's responsibility. In other cases, the harassment was not recorded as sexual in nature, or did not reach the legal threshold of criminal behaviour. Finally, individual transit employees may not correctly inform women how to report what happened to them, or may not be responsive to complaints.

Transit officials should take heed of the findings, said Amina Doreh, public education co-ordinator for the Sexual Assault Support Centre of Ottawa. "They should be very concerned if their ridership does not feel safe or if there is sexual harassment going on or that women feel threatened, because for many women this is their only form of transit," Ms. Doreh said.

Indeed, in Canada's major cities, women make up the majority of transit riders, often out of necessity and lower incomes. Yet the issue is worse than the official statistics indicate, and few transit systems are doing anything to get a true sense of the scope of the issue.

Around 10 p.m. in March of 2016, a man entered a bus shelter on a Calgary street and asked Adoncia Cayouette when the next bus was due. She was alone and headed to an aunt's house, a brand-new pair of dark-rimmed glasses framing her face and a longboard under her arm.

As they waited, he suddenly put his hand down her top and grabbed her breasts. When she told him to stop, she remembers him saying, "'This is how this is going to work, you give me a blow job or I break your jaw.' " When she resisted, he punched her in the face, knocking her to the ground. He continued to hit her while putting his hands up her skirt, groping her breasts and repeatedly slamming her head into the pavement, breaking her jaw and glasses and battering her face.

The attack only ended when the bus they had been waiting for arrived and the man ran off.

Across the country, some of the most violent sex crimes associated with public transit have taken place at bus stops. In Montreal, a string of attacks on women between 2002 and 2004 led perpetrator Michel Cox to be dubbed the "bus stop rapist." In Calgary in 2014, brothers Cory and Cody Manyshots abducted a 17-year-old girl from a stop and, over a 12-hour period, raped and sodomized her. Last year in Toronto, police say a woman was dragged from a bus shelter near York University and sexually assaulted in a nearby field.

Notwithstanding the severity of these crimes, most transit systems do not track sexual violence at bus stops and shelters.

The attack on Ms. Cayouette was not included in the statistics provided to The Globe because data collected by Calgary Transit do not include crimes at bus terminals.

Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris is a professor of urban planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, who has studied busstop crime and women's experiences on transit. She said knowing where and when bus-stop crimes are happening is critical to preventing them. "Having this data is the best way to say, 'Here is a problem that you need to address.' " To assist The Globe's research, a Vancouver Police Department data analyst did a manual search of the department's data on transit sex crimes and found 51 of the 110 incidents recorded between 2013 and 2017 were committed at or near Skytrain stations or bus stops.

Brian Whitelaw, superintendent of Calgary Transit public safety and enforcement, said the agency is working to improve its data-collection methods as a result of issues brought forward by The Globe's reporting.

The Globe found evidence of other incidents missing from the data on sexual harassment and sexual assault kept by Canadian transit agencies.

The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) encourages riders to report sexual misconduct. So when Hailey, who asked that her last name not be used, saw a man surreptitiously taking photos up her skirt, she grabbed his phone and ran toward a transit worker. She said transit enforcement officers told her that the photos were not strong enough evidence to charge the man with voyeurism. Instead, he received a fine of $235 for "interference with ordinary enjoyment of transit system."

Despite reporting the event to both the TTC and Toronto police, Hailey's 2017 experience never made it into the statistics that either agency keeps on sexual misconduct on transit. The incident was instead coded as a "general occurrence."

Stuart Green, a spokesman for the TTC, said: "We are satisfied that when we are aware of an incident through a complaint or report to transit enforcement, we are capturing that information satisfactorily." In this case, he added, "the detective we consulted did not feel the threshold for a criminal offence was met."

In Edmonton, Janae Jamieson reported being forcibly kissed by an unknown man at a bus stop in 2015, but her case was also missing from both the police and transit data. An analyst at the Edmonton Police Service said the incident was misclassified as an assault instead of a sexual assault, and the record has since been corrected.

Ashley, a Calgary receptionist, reported to transit authorities what she describes as one of the most terrifying moments of her life, but her case went uncounted as well.

In 2015, she was followed onto the CTrain by two men who cornered her in a booth-style seat and talked about wanting to rape her while grabbing at her hands and thighs. Afraid of what might happen, she slipped off her heels as she neared her stop, pushed past the man sitting beside her and bolted off the train. For three blocks, she ran to her office in stocking feet. The men chased her, she said, though they never caught up.

She reported the incident, but it was never recorded by Calgary Transit or the police in their official statistics obtained by The Globe - a gap that shocks Ashley, who asked that her last name not be used.

"What would have had to happen for this to be taken seriously? Would I have had to have been beaten up or raped or taken?" she questioned.

The Globe's inquiries have led Calgary Transit to review the file.

Most transit systems that The Globe surveyed, including Toronto and Vancouver's, only keep information on criminal acts, meaning the most common forms of sexual harassment, such as inappropriate comments, leering and propositioning, are not counted because they are not considered crimes under the Criminal Code.

A Freedom of Information request on reports made to Toronto's SafeTTC app reveals the type of complaints not tracked in official data on sexual misconduct.

"A twenty-year-old man sat down next to me and started to talk to me. He asked me how old I was, I told him 15. He then asked how old I would go for a man. He suggested 20. I got up and walked away. He then started to follow me while yelling that he was a virgin. I exited the station and went to a store and called my dad. He waited for me on the corner," read one report to the app from October, 2017.

Another woman wrote: "This man followed me from Bayview station all the way to Bloor (2 different lines and I tried multiple times to lose him). Walking several train cars down, and he would come and find me and stand close or across the train from me. Leering at me, staring but not approaching or communicating."

Mr. Green said as a result of The Globe's inquiries, the TTC has had internal discussions that have "revealed we have an opportunity to revise and improve collection and analysis of data related to customer-on-customer incidents of sexual harassment."

The discussions, however, have not yet led to policy changes.

Non-criminal sexual harassment is missed when systems rely only on police statistics. In more than a third of the transportation systems surveyed by The Globe, including Montreal, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Brampton, transit authorities keep none of their own data on sexual misconduct, instead relying on police.

Among the data collected by transit agencies, The Globe found particularly low numbers reported in some Quebec cities.

Longueuil, Laval and Gatineau systems each reported one incident of sexual harassment or sexual assault from 2013 and 2017, despite each having a ridership of more than 19 million a year.

A spokesperson from Le Réseau de transport de Longueuil said the agency was satisfied with its tracking system and that only one incident was reported because, "Longueuil is a suburban area composed of rather quiet and safe cities." La Société de transport de Laval said an absence of crime was the reason for its low number.

Gabrielle Bouchard, president of the Fédération des femmes du Québec, disagrees.

"I think it's silly to say such a thing. It's closing your eyes to the reality to what women and women's organizations have been

saying for many years," she said.

Transit systems across the country have run public campaigns to encourage riders to report sexual assaults and harassment, but at times, their own workers have discouraged passengers from filing complaints or didn't know how to help them report, The Globe's investigation found.

That was Grace Wilson's experience. At 17, while taking a bus to Vancouver from Tsawwassen, B.C., she spotted a man behind her with his penis out of his pants and masturbating. Unnerved, she changed seats, but he followed her several times.

When they arrived in Vancouver, she told the bus driver about the incident and asked if there was a hotline to report what had happened. Despite Vancouver having various ways to report such incidents on transit, the driver said he didn't know. "I just took that as gospel truth and was like, 'Okay, I guess there is no line and got off the bus,' " said Ms. Wilson, who added she was terrified at the time that the man would follow her.

In Toronto, nearly 40 people complained about front-line workers ignoring reports made to them between 2013 and 2018, according to information released through a Freedom of Information request. The reports include a woman who complained that she received a rape threat while taking a Toronto bus.

"The customer told him that she was being harassed and the operator told the passenger to exit the bus and he could not do anything about it," according to the notes of the complaint.

TTC spokesman Mr. Green said the transit system would look into any reports of an employee discouraging reporting and would "take appropriate action."

On a chilly day in April, 2018, Ms. Cayouette and her mother returned for the first time to the bus stop where Adoncia was assaulted.

Ms. Cayouette had asked the courts to waive her right to a publication ban so that she could be named and tell her story. She wants to send a message to Calgary Transit: It must do more to improve safety at bus stops.

"It has been two years and there still hasn't been one change," the exasperated 22year-old said. "C'mon, please take these things seriously, and make some changes so other people can actually be safe and so that this is less likely to happen."

After the brutal attack, her mother asked Calgary Transit to cut down the trees that blocked the view of the shelter from nearby homes, to put in an emergency button and to install CCTV cameras.

The transit agency reviewed the measures but opted against making changes, contending they would not significantly improve safety at the stop, said Mr.Whitelaw, superintendent of Calgary Transit public safety and enforcement.

"We are doing a risk-based assessment of which places need these things first," he added, stressing that Calgary's transit system treats "all incidents seriously." Data analysis by Michael Pereira, The Globe and Mail

Associated Graphic

In March, 2016, when she was 19 years old, Adoncia Cayouette, above, was violently attacked at a Calgary bus shelter after resisting a man who attempted to force himself on her. Now 22, she has allowed her name to be published in hopes of sending a message to Calgary Transit about the need to make bus-shelter safety a priority.


Despite the severity of the crimes, many transit agencies across the country do not track incidents of sexual violence that occur at bus terminals such as those seen below in Calgary. Ms. Cayouette's case, for instance, was not included in data provided to The Globe and Mail.

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Chinese overhaul of Greek port opens gateway to Europe

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Monday, July 8, 2019 – Page A1

PIRAEUS, GREECE -- The union members were shouting, "No more workers' blood!" at a protest at the Port of Piraeus, just outside Athens, on a warm weekday morning in late May. A worker had been killed in a scaffolding accident two days earlier, and the Metal Workers Union of Attica was directing its anger at China COSCO Shipping, the Chinese state-owned logistics giant that controls the port.

Was the Port of Piraeus, notorious for crippling strikes and protests until the last decade, once again turning into a hotbed of dissent?

If anything, the protest proved the opposite.

It was small - maybe 100 workers showed up - and a rarity.

Chinese and Greek government officials consider Piraeus, which was a broken-down mess of a port for decades, a showpiece investment in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Beijing's infrastructure-based global development strategy that is sometimes known as the New Silk Road.

Under Chinese ownership, Piraeus has emerged as the second-biggest container port in the Mediterranean and Europe's biggest passenger port.

It has allowed China to establish a firm foothold in a prominent European Union and NATO country, one that could be used to extend Chinese influence throughout the Mediterranean countries and into the Balkans.

The port's success may be too much of a good thing for the White House and for the EU strategy officials in Brussels, as rivalries between China and the West take on the flavour of a new cold war. Already, there are rumours that a recent freeze on further port development by COSCO, which is ultimately controlled by the Chinese Communist Party, was the result of back-channel U.S. and EU pressure.

In March, the EU labelled China a "systemic rival," marking a hardened tone on Beijing's ocean-hopping industrial and security ambitions. Chinese naval vessels have been welcomed at Piraeus, a sight that must be anathema to the White House and commanders of the U.S.

Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean.

Piraeus is generally viewed as a winning investment by COSCO, the Greek government, the shipping companies and economists.

"The Chinese made Piraeus competitive," said Miranda Xafa, a Greek economist who is a senior fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation and a former member of the International Monetary Fund's executive board. "Jobs there used to be inherited. They used to retire at age 50 with lump-sum payments. No more. This is a privatization that has worked."

But COSCO is suddenly no longer getting a free ride in Piraeus. In April, without warning, Greece's powerful Central Archaeological Council and Museums (KAS) declared much of Piraeus an archeological site. The decision froze big portions of COSCO's plan to invest another 600-million ($880.9-million) in Piraeus with the addition of luxury hotels, a shopping mall, warehouses and a very expensive cruise-ship terminal. In early July, Greece's Port Planning and Development Commission conditionally accepted, but did not approve, COSCO's expansion plans.

The expansion may go nowhere until well after Greece's snap election on July 7. On Sunday night, results showed the ruling radical-left Syriza party headed for defeat at the hands of the opposition conservatives. New Democracy is expected to support additional Chinese investments in the Port of Piraeus.

As a matter of pride, Greeks tend to be highly political - and a few are prone to conspiracy theories. Some say the Americans encouraged the Greek government to put the brakes on COSCO's expansion plans, although there is zero evidence to support this theory. In early June, a small but well-known Greek newspaper, Liberal, implied that the KAS decision was indeed political. "The government, in doing a favour for the U.S.A., has come up with so-called archeological obstacles in Piraeus," it said.

The timing was certainly curious. The KAS decision came just after China welcomed Greece into the club of Central and Eastern European countries, 11 of them EU members, known as the 16+1 group (the 1 being China). It is now the 17+1 group. Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, who once opposed COSCO's presence in Piraeus - as some of his radical-left Syriza party members still do - has since become an enthusiastic backer of the shipping giant and the BRI and has made three visits to China since becoming Prime Minister in 2015. If the KAS decision sticks, a diplomatic row is inevitable, and the Chinese embassy in Athens is already demanding answers.

The Port of Piraeus stretches almost 30 kilometres from the ferry-passenger and cruise-ship terminals in the heart of gritty Piraeus to the ship repair yard to the northwest.

The waters just off the port were the site of the first great naval battle in recorded history. In 480 BC, during the Greco-Persian wars, Greek triremes crippled a much larger Persian force in the strait between Piraeus and the island of Salamis.

Since the 19th century, Piraeus has been instrumental to Greece's development. The Piraeus Port Authority (PPA) was established in 1930, and Pier 2, the port's biggest container terminal, was completed in 1997.

Five years later, the PPA joined the Athens stock exchange, although the government kept a majority stake.

During those years, the port was, by all accounts, barely functioning. "Before COSCO got there, it was a congregation of wasp nests," said Konstantinos Katsigiannis, the Athens lawyer who is president of the HellenicCanadian Chamber of Commerce. "There were strikes, demonstrations and clashes - you name it. It was unbelievably inefficient and crooked." Nektarios Demenopoulos, the deputy manager of public and investor relations for the PPA, remembers that some dockworker strikes were, by design, so severe that they could trigger economic hardship in Piraeus and Athens.

"Strikes used to be a very big problem because the unions had monopoly power to close the biggest port in the country," he said.

"Sometimes the supermarkets had a deficiency of products because of the strikes."

By 2008, the Greek government was fed up with the strikes and the decrepit state of the container port, whose main pier was running at half-capacity, and Athens faced a crippling financial crisis that would prevent it from investing in Piraeus.

The port's two biggest container operations - Pier 2 and Pier 3, the latter only partly constructed - were put up for auction. The long-term lease was won by a COSCO company called Piraeus Container Terminal. The Chinese revolution at Piraeus was about to begin even before "Belt and Road Initiative" had entered into the global development lexicon. The takeover of the piers would launch one of China's biggest investments in Europe.

Kriton Valleras, adviser to the General Secretariat of Ports of Greece's Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Insular [Island] Policy, said the piers had enormous potential as a key destination for cargo ships arriving from Asia through the Suez Canal. "The piers needed a lot of improvement," he said.

COSCO sunk about 600-million into Piers 2 and 3 to make them among the biggest and most automated in the Mediterranean and a hub for transshipment - the transfer of containers from large vessels to smaller ones so the cargo can be sent to smaller ports. Unlike many BRI projects around the world, no "debt trap" was created for the Greek state - the funds were raised and spent by COSCO, not loaned to Greek agencies.

The overhaul has turned the port's container operations into a competitive force.

In 2007, Piraeus did not rank among the top 15 Mediterranean container ports. By 2017, it was eighth, measured by the total throughput of 20-foot equivalent containers, known as TEUs, according to data from Europe's PortEconomics site. Last year it had climbed to sixth position, behind Valencia, Spain, with a throughput of 4.9 million TEUs.

COSCO officials boast that Piraeus will surpass Valencia by the end of this year and keep on going, although the top three ports - Rotterdam, Antwerp and Hamburg - are so big they seem unassailable.

Today, the Piraeus container port sees, on average, 7.5 ship arrivals a day, some of them greenhulled monsters from China Shipping Container Lines. The port's towering cranes - 31 at last count - can unload 4,000 containers in 24 hours. The newest cranes remove two 40-foot containers at once, lifting them side by side. Last year, Piers 2 and 3 reported a net profit of 44.1-million on revenues of 56.2-million - this is a business with high profit margins. The smaller Pier 1, under separate control within the COSCO group, is losing money.

COSCO claims the Piraeus container port has not lost a day of work to industrial action since it first invested in the vast operation in 2008. Yes, there have been strikes by dockworkers, as there were last year, but none was big enough to cripple the port. "We proudly say we have offered uninterrupted services for the last 10 years," said Tassos Vamvakidis, the commercial manager for the container port.

COSCO got lucky about four years ago when the Greek gov-

ernment, under pressure from the European Commission, the European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund - the "Troika" overseeing the Greek bailouts - insisted that Greece ramp up its privatization program. Part of that effort would see the rest of Piraeus privatized, including the ferrypassenger, cruise ship, ship repair and car terminals, all of which were held under the PPA.

The privatization effort triggered a crisis in Greece, whose governments have long opposed privatizations, as did the unions, which considered them an invitation to mass layoffs and nonunionized workers. "There were lots of strikes at Piraeus in response," said George Pagoulatos, a political economist and vicepresident of the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP). "It was a typical left-wing reaction to the privatization of a strategic asset."

But Greece was desperate for foreign investment, and the privatization went ahead. In 2016, COSCO bought 51 per cent of the PPA for about 300-million. It has the option to raise its stake to 67 per cent once it completes some 293-million of "mandatory investments," the biggest being the expansion of the ferrypassenger port (136-million) and the overhaul of the ship repair yard (55-million). Many additional investments, including the hotels and the cruise-ship terminal, are in limbo because of the KAS freeze on their development.

The takeover of the PPA has not made everyone happy. The unions have complained that COSCO is loading up with nonunionized workers (the company declines to say what the split is between unionized and nonunionized workers). The Association of Passenger Shipping Companies has complained about the lack of COSCO investment, so far, in the ferry terminals. "Nothing has been done for the ferries," association president Michalis Sakellis said. "We don't talk much to COSCO."

And the job-creation numbers, while encouraging, are hardly breathtaking. Mr. Demenopoulos, the PPA's public and investor relations manager, said the port, excluding the core container business, had 1,700 employees a decade ago. Today, the number has fallen to a little more than 1,000. But the container business has created 2,000 new positions since COSCO leased Piers 1 and 2 in 2008.

Mr. Pagoulatos, the ELIAMEP economist, said COSCO's investment in Piraeus has been a big win over all for Greece. "It was a very positive investment," he said. "It turned Piraeus into one of the largest shipping centres in the world, a great opportunity for Greece."

The investment may be buying more than piers and cranes.

In 2017, a year after COSCO took majority ownership of the PPA, Mr. Tsipras's government vetoed an EU condemnation of China's human-rights record at the United Nations. The government denied the veto was payback for the Piraeus investment.

Certainly, China seems to be digging its economic claws into Greece by going after strategic investments. In 2016, China State Grid, the world's biggest utility, bought 24 per cent of Greece's power grid operator. China is one of the main backers of the redevelopment of Athens's abandoned Hellinikon international airport, an enormous project that has been stalled for years.

COSCO is said to be considering the purchase of other Greek ports and has signalled that ports in Italy - which this year officially joined the BRI, the first Group of Seven country to do so - will be next. The success of the Piraeus investment will certainly burnish China's lobbying power in Italy, the euro zone's third-largest economy.

Mr. Pagoulatos says the BRI investments in Greece and elsewhere in Europe are part of China's plans to raise its global political clout. "China wants to retain their trade flow and they will couple it with political influence so that these markets do not get closed to them," he said.

Greece is still anchored to the EU and has been kept intact within the euro zone with copious amounts of European bailout money. But its affection for China is growing and, at some point, that is bound to set off alarm bells in Washington and Brussels, if it hasn't already. If a full-blown cold war does erupt between China and the United States, Greece's allegiance may not be easy to predict.

Associated Graphic

China has sought economic footing in Greece by going after strategic investments. Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras once opposed China COSCO Shipping's presence in Piraeus, but he is now an enthusiastic backer of the shipping titan, as well as China's Belt and Road Initiative. Since becoming Prime Minister in 2015, Mr. Tsipras has made three visits to China, including one seen above.




China COSCO Shipping has invested about 600-million ($880.9-million) into Piraeus's Piers 2 and 3, making them among the largest in the Mediterranean. The piers are also a hub for transshipment, which involves moving containers from large vessels to smaller ones so cargo can be shipped to smaller ports.


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Since Neil Armstrong's 'one small step for man' in 1969, humans have trod on only a small part of the lunar surface. Now, the moon is attracting a new generation of space explorers and entrepreneurs

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Friday, July 12, 2019 – Page A8

Next month, Christy Caudill, a doctoral student at the University of Western Ontario, will be playing the part of a robot as she picks her way across a rock-strewn terrain of hardened and broken lava. She and her team will carry a set of scientific instruments built to examine the geology of another world. At the same time, in a mission control room in London, Ont., other colleagues will study the images and data streaming in from those instruments, as though they are receiving them from the Schrodinger basin, a 320 kilometre wide impact crater on the far side of the moon that has attracted the attention of planetary scientists because of its intriguing volcanic features.

For two weeks, both sides of the exercise will be immersed in a simulation called CanMoon, designed to test procedures for operating a Canadian-built lunar rover. Only after a 10 hour shift each day will Ms. Caudill and her colleagues allow themselves to remember that they are on Lanzarote, one of the Canary Islands, which features some of the same rock types as the rover's potential landing site.

"It's all about gaining insight into how people think when they're seeing through the rover's eyes and to really discern what's going on as they try to meet their mission goals," said Ms. Caudill, a veteran of several previous simulations. "As far as I'm concerned, we won't be on Lanzarote, we'll be on the moon."

That sense of actuality reflects the moon's recent return to prominence as a destination for space explorers, almost 50 years after Neil Armstrong and Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin stepped and hopped across its surface.

For Ms. Caudill, who has participated in real-life robotic missions to Mars, there is a certain wistfulness in this. As a scientist, Mars is undeniably her destination of choice, she said. But human missions to Mars remain a distant goal fraught with unsolved challenges, including what to do about the heavy doses of radiation astronauts will be exposed to during a long interplanetary flight.

The moon has the advantage of being Earth's celestial companion. While it is still a thousand times farther than the International Space Station (ISS), it presents more manageable risks for humans and a genuine business case for entrepreneurs looking for a stake in the next phase of space exploration.

Already this year there is a sense of acceleration toward the moon. In January, China became the first country to place an unmanned lander on the moon's far side, another step toward its own manned mission. In June, India launched its first lunar lander. And in April, SpaceIL, an Israeli non-profit, narrowly missed becoming the first privately funded organization to successfully place a spacecraft on the moon's surface. All of this suggests that after years of uncertainty about where deep-space exploration is heading, the extraterrestrial compass needle is swinging back toward Earth's nearest neighbour. And unlike what happened after the Apollo program ended, the politics, economics and technology of space are lining up for something more permanent.

"The way in which it continues to be discussed is that we're not going to go back to visit, we're going to stay this time," said Mike Greenley, president of MDA, which built and supports the Canadarm 2 aboard the ISS.

MDA is now part of Coloradobased Maxar Technologies, the company recently tapped by NASA to supply the first component of a smaller orbiting space station called the Lunar Gateway.

In February, Canada became the first country to commit to the Gateway as an international partner. MDA is a leading contender to build Canada's contribution: a more autonomous, artificial-intelligence-guided version of the arm that currently appears on the back of the $5 bill.

But while the Gateway - like the ISS before it - is expected to grow gradually through international agreements between national space agencies, the real catalysts in the new push toward the moon are the increasing ranks of private companies looking to do it for themselves. "As the Earth's economic sphere grows, people are realizing the moon is an asset," said Christian Sallaberger, president and chief executive of Canadensys Aerospace, a space-technology company based in Bolton, Ont., that has seen moon-related projects taking up a growing share of its business.

LESSONS LEARNED Poets and engineers alike have reflected on the enduring allure of the moon. Once a metaphor for the unattainable, it became an ever-present focus in the early days of space flight, as the United States and the Soviet Union vied to be the first to land humans on the lunar surface. So intense was the race that it's hard to imagine how the first chapter of space exploration would have unfolded had fate not provided Earthlings with such a visible and tantalizing prize.

As the U.S. Apollo program wound down after six manned landings from 1969 to 1972, NASA moved on to the space shuttle and then the ISS. The new theatre of operation was low Earth orbit, and the new paradigm was all about making space routine accessible to many more individuals from many more countries, including Canada. Over the years, this second chapter of space history had its share of tragedies and setbacks. Yet, its outcomes have included almost two decades of continuous human presence in orbit, along with some key lessons about how the next chapter is likely to unfold.

The first lesson is about the importance of robots. This comes courtesy of the Canadarm 2, which has become indispensable to operations on the ISS. When the arm was still on the drawing board in the 1990s, some were skeptical that it would be of much use after the station was complete. Now, it seems to be used for almost everything, including catching visiting spacecraft. According to MDA, the past three-month period has been among the busiest in the Canadarm's history.

"We've learned a lot of things operating a robot on the station for the past 18 years," said Gilles Leclerc, director-general of space exploration for the Canadian Space Agency.

Canada's track record with the arm has set the stage for its contribution to the Lunar Gateway.

But the second lesson to come from the space-station era, the expanding role of the private sector as an accelerator of space exploration, is having an even

larger impact. The trend began in 2006, when NASA, already looking to decommission its fleet of space shuttles after two disastrous accidents, began inviting industry players to take over the job of ferrying supplies to the ISS.

This opened the door to a new cadre of space service companies, including Elon Musk's SpaceX.

Using the same blueprint, NASA recently awarded contracts to three companies to carry scientific payloads to the moon in the next two years. One of them, Pittsburgh-based Astrobotic Technology, has also inked an agreement with Canadensys to send some of the Ontario company's gear to the lunar surface. The developments are a further sign that the envelope of commercial activity in space is expanding and that entrepreneurs are getting serious about developing their lunar strategies.

DOUBLE VISIONS Canada's decision to join the Lunar Gateway project came after months of lobbying from the industry as well as from NASA chief administrator Jim Bridenstine. Yet, within weeks of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announcing the commitment, the White House appeared to upend the entire plan by declaring that it wanted American astronauts walking on the lunar surface again by 2024 - the final year of what would be U.S. President Donald Trump's second term.

The announcement caught even NASA by surprise and it raised questions in Canada about whether the Gateway had effectively been sidelined by politics.

Last month, NASA unveiled a retooled moon program to follow through on the Trump directive.

Symbolically dubbed "Artemis" - the twin sister of Apollo in Greek mythology - the plan explicitly includes landing the first woman on the moon as part of its inaugural crew. The news immediately attracted more attention than the Gateway, which is designed to operate for long stretches without any human presence.

Despite this split objective, Mr.

Leclerc said the message from NASA is that Canada's contribution to the Gateway is still needed by its originally planned 2025 delivery date - and sooner if possible. One reason is that it still requires a significant amount of energy to fly straight to the lunar surface and back. In such a mission scenario, even the fuel for the return trip has to be brought down to the landing site and lifted back up again. Apollo missions got around this by sending a combined lander and an orbiter to the moon. For Artemis, the plan includes docking with the Gateway as the transfer point for astronauts en route to a lunar landing.

There are serious questions about whether NASA can make the 2024 deadline for its U.S.-only lunar landing. For one thing, the lander itself has not yet been designed and tested. And it is easy to imagine how budget battles with Congress or a change in administration could delay the plan.

The Gateway also has its detractors, but proponents say that if the overarching goal of the lunar program is establishing a long-term presence beyond low Earth orbit, then an orbiting platform that can serve as a test bed for deep-space missions is the way to go. That perception is reinforced by expectations that Europe, Japan and Russia will join the United States and Canada as partners in the Gateway, which would make the project harder to kill.

"History has shown that international collaboration fosters a more persistent activity," MDA's Mr. Greenley said.

WHEELS ON THE GROUND At the same time, businesses that are looking to the moon as an economic opportunity are not waiting for the Gateway to be built and are not thinking only of lunar orbit. For example, next month, Canadensys will begin road-testing a wheel designed for a lunar rover. The test involves hours of rolling the wheel on a turntable covered with simulated lunar soil. Similar projects are under way by aerospace companies looking to develop moonready hardware, including cameras, sensors and drills.

To boost Canada's presence in the expanding moon market and its technological spinoffs, this year's federal budget included a $150-million injection dubbed the Lunar Exploration Accelerator Program (LEAP). In the first stage of the program, Mr. Leclerc said that as of last month, the space agency had received more than a hundred pitches from various companies and collaborations, of which a smaller number will be invited to submit formal proposals.

Scientists, too, are anticipating new opportunities for lunar exploration. While the moon is not Mars, it is full of mysteries that have lingered since the Apollo era. Over the years, researchers have developed long lists of possible landing sites they would like to explore - with both robotic and manned spacecraft. The missions would combine two research goals: studying the moon's long-preserved geologic record for clues to the deep history of Earth and the rest of the solar system; and sussing out resources that could be valuable to an expanding lunar community, including ice near the moon's poles and gases such as hydrogen and oxygen, which could be trapped in minerals and used for energy and life support.

This is why next month's CanMoon simulation in Lanzarote, run jointly by Western and the University of Winnipeg, was designed with a specific mission opportunity in mind. That mission, known as Heracles, would be a combined European, Japanese and Canadian effort to put a small lander with a rover on the moon in the coming decade, once the Gateway is in place.

For Cassandra Marion, a PhD student at Western who is managing the simulation, the exercise is not just about developing technologies and procedures, but above all about producing a cohort of Canadian-trained scientists who are qualified to run lunar missions.

Whether those missions are done in partnership with other countries or as private ventures, she said, "we'll have people to donate to the cause." Join science reporter Ivan Semeniuk and a panel of experts for a live discussion about Canada's future on the moon, this coming Monday at 7 p.m. (ET) at The Globe and Mail Centre in Toronto (free for subscribers). Register at

Associated Graphic

Top: This lander model will be part of a joint European, Japanese and Canadian robotic mission, Heracles, going to the moon in the next decade.


Tuesday, July 16, 2019


A Friday news feature on the moon landing incorrectly said India's first lunar lander was launched in June.

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Monday, July 15, 2019 – Page B15


Passed away at 81 years of age in Guelph, ON, on July 12, 2019.

Beloved husband of 57 years of Carol and cherished dad and father-in-law of Lesley and David Chernos, John and Heather, and Paul and Kristen. Adored grandpa of Naomi, Mattie, Betsy, Alex, Charlotte, Kaleigh and Emily.

Jack was born in Elora as a much loved son of Jean and Reg and brother to Joanne Harris.

A University of Toronto, McMaster and California (Berkeley) graduate, Jack was a dedicated teacher and enthusiastic coach for many years at Centennial C.V.I.

In memory of Jack please build a basement fort with your children, paddle and portage a canoe, perfect your loon and moose call, run up Mole Hill, sing joyfully and walk on a beach. Laugh heartily with new and old friends, cook and relish a wonderful meal and follow with keen interest your grandchildren's lives. Most importantly, look at your wife with the same light in your eyes as the day you met her and tell your family and friends you love them.

The family is grateful for all the support received from staff of ParaMed, Bayshore, Arbour Trails, Guelph General Hospital and Hospice Wellington. A family memorial service will be held at a later date.


Peacefully on Friday, July 12,2019 surrounded by family. Karyn Kalef. Caring daughter of Shirley and Marvin Latchman and Daughter-in-law Shirley Sobel and Cheryl Kalef and the late Harvey Kalef. Beloved wife of Randy.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Shael and Jennifer Kalef, Ryan and Jessica Kalef, Jared Kalef, and Laura Kalef and Daniel Kornblum.

Dear sister of Linda Stein and Eric Mack, and Wendy Teperman and Bobby Grossman. Devoted grandmother of Logan, Alyssa, Noah, and Makenna Kalef. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, July 15, 2019 at 2:30 p.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park.Memorial donations may be made to The Karyn Kalef Memorial Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324.


July 20, 1934 July 10, 2019 Dad left life's dance floor with gentle grace, smiling goodbye to all who had accompanied him. We will fondly remember his Lancaster shuffle. Dad hoped growing old would take longer, but his dance with cancer over the past six years caused the music to stop. Life for Dad was not about accomplishments (although there were many), his life was about celebrating cherished moments with family and friends. He was always there for those that needed him and was a business mentor to many. His life-long passion for waterfowl hunting and fishing began on the St. Lawrence River in Lancaster. Sharing these activities with family and friends, along with crib and tall tales, continued right up to the end. Dad gave back more than he took by raising money for wetland preservation through Ducks Unlimited for 35 years. He felt his greatest blessings were his four children, Heather (Ed), Lori, Jody, and David (Sylvia).

Dad thanked us for being who we are and gave us unlimited love, respect, inspiration, values, and guidance. He was Bapa to Megan, Riley, Bronte, Taylor, Graydon and Jude, all of whom he adored.

Also important to Dad were his stepdaughter Trish, her husband Greg, and his niece Shelley MacPherson of Ottawa. Dad loved spending hours restoring antiques, bringing them back to their original beauty and sharing them with all. He will be remembered by his many friends for his hard work, his kindness, wonderful sense of humour and stories, which endeared him to anybody he met.

He never heard a pun that he could not expand upon. He was an avid skier and part of the community at Caledon Ski Club and played tennis until the end. Dad is survived by his lovely wife, soulmate, and best friend Johanna and by his first wife of 40 years who he also loved very much, Jean, wonderful mother of Heather, Lori, Jody, and David. At Dad's request there will be no funeral service but rather a Celebration of Life at a date to be determined.

Details will be available on w w w. fo r r e s t a n d t a y l o r . c o m If the measure of a good life is that it is lived for others, then Dad lived a wonderful life. We are better people for knowing him.

Memorial donations to Southlake Regional Health Centre Foundation: Regional Cancer Programs or Delta Waterfowl would be appreciatedbythefamily. Memorial condolences may be made at


G. Lorne McMorran died on Saturday, July 13, 2019 at the age of 88 years old with his family by his side. He leaves behind his wife Barbara, his two daughters, Deborah (& partner Jim), Valerie (& husband Bruno) and his two grandchildren, Sarah and David.

Brother of four surviving siblings, Marilyn, Alvin, Carol and Gloria, Lorne will be fondly remembered by his family and friends as loving husband and father as well as forty prideful years as a practicing dentist and Professor of Dentistry at U. of T.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, July 17th. Condolences may be forwarded through:


1934 - 2019

It is with great sadness the family of Paul Palmer announces his passing on Thursday, July 11, 2019. Paul died peacefully in his home at Amica Bayview Gardens, with family and his beloved dog Pandy, with him.

Paul was born in Barrie, Ontario to Goldie (née Grey) Palmer and Hartley Ramsay Palmer. Paul is lovingly remembered by his sons Tony (Donna) and Ian Palmer, daughter Heather Palmer, step sons Rob and Bill (Kim) Leak and his grandchildren Emily, Will, Mac, Hayley and Charlie.

He always said he felt lucky to have fallen in love twice, first to Mary (nee Breckenridge) Palmer (1936-1989) and then to Catherine (nee Dauphinee) Leak.

Paul went to Barrie District Collegiate Institute and was among the first group of students to graduate the Bachelor of Commerce program at University of McMaster in 1955. Upon graduation he joined Clarkson, Gordon & Co in Toronto and in 1959 he graduated from the Ontario Institute of Chartered Accountants. In 1962 he left Clarkson, Gordon to hold senior executive positions at York Steel Construction, Kilmer Van Nostrand Co. Limited, Denison Mines and a collection of wholly and partly owned subsidiary companies.

In 1976, he joined Norcen Energy Resources, moved to Calgary, Alberta in 1985 and retired as Chief Financial Officer in 1995.

Paul was a mathematical whiz who was honoured as a fellow twice: Fellow of the Certified Professional Accountants (FCPA) and Fellow of the Chartered Accountants (FCA). He also shared his accounting and business skills as Chairman of the Canadian Accounting Standards Board, being a major force in revising and re-writing the modern standards that exist today. After retirement Paul sat on several Boards.

Paul was passionate about golf.

He started young, and while he played all over the world, he most enjoyed his courses and golf friends in Florida, Toronto, Calgary and Muskoka. However, he always had the greater good in his heart, and was instrumental in the conversion of a golf course to Earl Bales Park, which is the largest public park in North York, actively enjoyed by families yearround.

Above all else, Paul was a family man. He loved unconditionally and was fiercely proud of his children, in particular the manner in which they love and support each other. All who knew Paul would comment on his quick witted, often subtle, somewhat zany sense of humour and tendency towards practical jokes. The stories are plentiful as laughter was the medicine for everything, even at the end of life.

Paul was supported by a wonderful care team from Amica Bayview Gardens, Living Assistance Services, VHA Home Healthcare, Randi Lazarus Companion Care and Dr. Nunes Vaz. Special mention goes to Titzia and her team who supported the ability for Pandy to continue to live with Paul. Thank you to all.

A Celebration of Remembrance (aka story sharing and belly laughing) will be held at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, July 23, 2019 at Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville). A private family internment will immediately follow at Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, if desired, a donation can be made to a charity of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through


Lorraine passed away peacefully on July 9, 2019 at Leaside Retirement Home, at the age of 88. Predeceased by her husband, Christopher B. Paterson, and her sisters Dorothy (Sydney) Gordon Buck and Gert (Irving) Neamtan. Dear stepmother to Susan (Martin), Douglas (Donna), and Claire (Cameron) Reed. Nana to Kristin, Alex, Kelsey, Reed, and Corby. Aunt to Paula (Larry) Goldenberg, Stuart (Louise) Gordon, Karen (Howard) Gordon, Donna (Charles) Gordon Zuckerman, Susan Gordon, Janet (Rod) O'Reilly, Judith (Rick) Neamtan, and Nancy (Victor) Neamtan. Great-aunt to 10 nieces and nephews.

Lorraine received a B.A. from University College in 1952, and an LL.B. from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1959. She was called to the Ontario Bar in 1959, and became a partner at McMillan, Binch and then Kingsmill, Jennings.

She was appointed Queen's Counsel 1973, and was awarded the Jubilee Medal in 1977. She was appointed a judge of the Ontario District Court, served on the General Division of the Ontario Court of Justice and, after her judicial career, as a member of the federal Pension Appeals Board.

Lorraine's professional and personal accomplishments were remarkable.

She was a trailblazer in the legal profession, and the first woman to be elected President of the Ontario Bar Association. She held many volunteer positions, including the Ontario College of Art and the Board of Trade of Metropolitan Toronto, and was a member of the Women's Law Association of Ontario, the Medico-Legal Society of Toronto, the Empire Club of Canada, the Royal Canadian Yacht Club, and the Toronto Golf Club, among others.

Lorraine had many interests, such as skiing, piano, languages, and horseback riding. She arranged picnic trips to the theatre in Stratford and Niagara-onthe-Lake. She loved music, taking her grandchildren to "The Nutcracker," and providing them with dance and violin lessons. Lorraine accepted her increasing frailties with grace and dignity, keeping her good humour right to the end. The family will hold a private cremation. Friends and family are invited to a reception at the Rosedale Golf Club on July 25, 2019 from 4-6 pm. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Lorraine's name to Parkinson Canada.


Peacefully at Sunnybrook Hospital on July 13, 2019, surrounded by loving family. Caring husband of the late Ethna Ann Plashkes and the late Yaffa Fremes. Loving and devoted father of Ron and Dan, daughters-in-law Elizabeth and Julie. Dedicated and adoring grandfather to Simon, Tova and Grant, Jonathan, Sandy, Jackie, and Natasha. Great-grandfather to Ephraim. He will be very deeply missed and fondly remembered by his friends and colleagues in Toronto and San Diego. Robbie's parenting, mentorship, and legacy will survive many generations. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, July 16,2019 at 10:00 a.m.

Interment in the Community section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 10 Old York Mills Road, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to the Plashkes Family Endowement Fund c/o North York General Hospital, 416-756-6944.


On Friday, July 12, 2019 at Sunnybrook Hospital.

Beloved husband of Pearl.

Loving father and father-inlaw of Avie and Aida Seetner, Mita and Andy Hoffer, Carolyn and Dennis Kalish, Jenine Seetner. Devoted grandfather of Michelle and Guy, Jordan and Ashley, Elliot, Darryl, Ronnie, Eva and Yitzi, and Julie, and great-grandfather of Ethan, Emunah, Eliana, and J.J. Dear brother of the late Sam Seetner. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, July 15,2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 72 Sawley Drive, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to Magen David Adom, (416) 780-0034.

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Watching the Hong Kong protests from afar, Kevin Chong reflects on how the demonstrations are exposing tensions between Canadians of Chinese descent

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O3

Kevin Chong is the author of six books, most recently The Plague, and a dual citizen of Canada and Hong Kong.

Watching the recent student-led protests in Hong Kong, I thought about my dad. Although he emigrated to Canada in 1977, and was Canadian enough to play host to Grey Cup parties and drink Tim Hortons, a piece of his heart remained in the former British colony that shaped his identity.

Returning to his Facebook profile, which I've kept hidden since he passed away five years ago, I see his political views described as "anti-commy" - anti-Communist. I was a teenager on June 4, 1989, when students campaigning for democracy were violently subdued by Chinese military forces in Beijing. My father tried getting me to attend an event in support of the students. I don't recall the reason I gave for declining - at 13, hanging out with my dad felt equally as awkward as going to a candlelit vigil - but I remember his reaction. "I guess you see yourself as Canadian," he said with resignation.

This week in Hong Kong, protesters have achieved their goal of scuttling a contentious extradition bill in its legislature, which detractors consider a Trojan horse that exposes Hong Kongers to Beijing's party-controlled legal system. (Hong Kong is currently insulated from the China's more onerous restrictions on civil rights through a "One Country, Two Systems" policy that runs until 2047 but which nevertheless feels threatened by efforts like the extradition bill.) On Tuesday, Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam declared the bill "dead" - although Ms. Lam's ambiguous wording in Cantonese, and the relentlessness of the Chinese Communist Party, mean no end to the struggle.

I have little doubt Dad would be cheering on the protesters.

But not all Chinese Canadians are pleased. And I'm curious about what he'd make of the diversity of opinions about these protests among the nearly 1.8 million Canadians of Chinese descent - the largest non-white population in the country - and how these fractures expose generational and subethnic tensions that are complicated by our experiences in the East and West.

For many of us, butting out, claiming we don't have a role in the issue, might be considered an honourable attitude - if our support weren't being courted. In June, Hong Kong activists raised more than a million dollars to post newspaper ads seeking international support for their movement. Christopher Chien, a Hong Kong-born Canadian and academic, no longer feels unwelcome weighing in on issues relating to his city of birth. "It's interesting that there's more of this transpacific solidarity," he notes.

"Local Hong Kong people want to make these ties. And Hong Kong diaspora are feeling more welcome."

Meanwhile, the Hong Kong government has also found (or perhaps sought) support overseas. Ads were placed in both Vancouver Chinese-language dailies that criticized the protesters as "radicals" threatening Hong Kong's prosperity. Signed by more than 200 Chinese-Canadian groups in Vancouver, the notice was paid for by Chinese Benevolent Association of Vancouver (CBA).

I default to taking the side of my cousins who marched in Hong Kong. Stories of relatives tortured by Communist soldiers make up our family folklore. Indeed, immigrants from Hong Kong, especially those who came in the 1990s before the 1997 handover of the city to China, form the majority of the support for local pro-protester groups.

Those with deeper ties to mainland China, either newer immigrants or those who arrived during the Cultural Revolution, are seemingly more likely to back the Beijing-controlled Hong Kong government.

"As Hong Kongers, our values are different from those of mainland China," observes Mabel Tung, the chair of the Vancouver Society in Support of Democratic Movement. "We already had freedom when we were born. We were no different from Canadians. Unlike the people from mainland China."

This distancing from mainland Chinese evokes tensions in Vancouver, where the most recent wave of Chinese immigration has been blamed for unaffordable real estate and money laundering, and has created a sense of disenfranchisement among other populations - including Chinese from earlier waves of migration.

Ms. Tung suggests that mistrust of the Chinese Communist Party motivates many Hong Kong Canadians in her group, which recently organized two events that, in total, united nearly 3,000 democracy supporters in Vancouver.

At one of these pro-democracy events in Vancouver, with its programming entirely in Cantonese, Leo Yu began to wonder how a younger, broader group of Asian diaspora members could support the students and their democratic aims. A conversation among friends resulted in an open letter, written with three peers and published in the Toronto Star under the byline Asian Diaspora for Hong Kong.

The letter invokes their identities as Asian "settlers" in Canada and further denounces China's "human-rights abuses," including the detainment of more than a million Muslims. "The Baby Boomer generation of Chinese Canadians needs to realize that young people see global issues through an intersectional lens," explains Mr. Yu, whose parents were raised in Hong Kong.

For Hubert Yiu, the Hong Kong-born president of the Chinese Benevolent Association, the freedom and democracy extolled by Asian Diaspora for Hong Kong are Western concepts that can't be superimposed on a Chinese issue. In the top floor of an old Chinatown walk-up hang centuryold portraits of the six founders of his organization, which since 1906 has advocated for voting rights and appealed racist immigration laws. The group currently organizes Chinatown community events such as the annual spring festival.

"We cannot use Western political systems in China," Mr. Yiu says. Among the supporters of the Hong Kong government, economic prosperity and stability are key arguments, with the city already negatively affected by the U.S.-China trade war.

Social media further inflames disagreements, confirming biases. A friend opposed to the protests sent me a Facebook-sourced clip of a protester throwing "acid bombs" at the police. Conversely, activists warn of China's ability to create reality through their iron grip of the Chinese media.

After watching a video clip of a Hong Kong police officer attacked by "10 or 15" protesters, Mr. Yiu felt compelled to issue a statement. The CBA statement urges Chinese Canadians to come together "based on the idea of blood being thicker than water" to "[oppose] any separatist attempts by extremist groups."

While Mr. Yiu says that his group receives no funding from Chinese government groups, Eleanor Yuen, a member of prodemocracy group Vancouver Hong Kong Forum Society, suggests that the clan associations and freemason groups that signed the letter have "very intense links to China."

Ms. Yuen is a retired librarian at UBC's Asian Library who emigrated from Hong Kong in 1990.

While she and Mr. Yiu share a birth city, their identification with Hong Kong differs drastically. The CBA president sees himself as a Chinese-Canadian and Hong Kong as a part of China.

When asked about her identity, Ms. Yuen describes herself as a "Canadian first and foremost," but continues to label herself as a "Hong Kong-Canadian. My formative years were in Hong Kong but my values are very Canadian.

And I think it's very typical of people who came around my time."

The notion of Hong Kong identity originates from around the time of the 1997 handover. A 2014 poll of 810 Hong Kong Chinese saw those who identified as "Hong Kongers" nearly triple the number of respondents who described themselves as "Chinese."

This past summer, I've seen Hong Kong patriotism play out in the social media of my extended family. A younger cousin posted a series of images that illustrated the differences between Hong Kongers and mainlanders. One image shows a man bowing in front of a Chinese Communist official. Under it a caption that reads: "Chinese love to be enslaved and manipulated by the Chinese Communist Party." By contrast, the image of the communist official standing next to a figure raising their middle finger bears a caption suggesting that Hong Kongers are a threat to the Hong Kong government and the Chinese Communist Party.

"The rush to be starkly xenophobic and nativist - that feels part of the youth culture [in Hong Kong]," observes Christopher Chien, whose doctoral thesis at the University of Southern California concerns Hong Kong's Cold War relationship with the United States.

While Mr. Chien is supportive of the protest movement as a whole, he's troubled by the "scattershot" way in which student protesters solicited the support from Donald Trump for outside intervention and what he sees as a "middle-class Han" - the predominant Chinese ethnic group - "movement." He uses the example of the Vietnamese refugee crisis in the 1980s - when refugees were detained in prison camps until they could be repatriated - as an example of how abuse of ethnic minorities has been overlooked.

"I've seen stories about the 'police state' - people's bags being searched," Mr. Chien adds.

"Ethnic minorities, queers, poor people have been stopped and asked for ID for decades. Many Hong Kong people are only aligned against the police now because they are being included in the brutality."

In contrast to Mr. Yiu's critique of the protesters, Mr. Chien's take on the protests is informed by principles of social justice. Like Mr. Chien, a Canadian-born friend of mine living in Hong Kong says that this activism fails to address more urgent issues: That Hong Kong is a place of great inequality, and that people should push for higher minimum wage, public housing, and residency for migrant workers.

My friend is also wary of the naiveté of protesters, many of them born after the handover, who nostalgically invoke Hong Kong's past by waving the Union Jack under the mistaken belief that colonial rule was more democratic.

As a Hong Kong-born Canadian, navigating issues of affordability and inequality in Vancouver, I can't escape viewing this situation with my Western lens. But after some thought, I think, is that really wrong? I know enough about Hong Kong to realize that a dual perspective, in a city with 300,000 residents who hold Canadian passports, is not unusual.

"Immigration is not just a migration of people," Eleanor Yuen says, "it's a migration of ideas.

When people choose to immigrate to Canada, their mentality has been changed because of their Canadian experience."

In my daily life, I like to think that my own emotional reserve stems in part from my cultural heritage. I resist complaining in order to to preserve group harmony. When I suggest that Confucian attitudes might result in pro-government support, Fenella Sung, a member of the pro-democracy group Canadian Friends of Hong Kong, tells me how "in Chinese culture, you respect those in authority; even if you think they're wrong, you don't challenge them."

The trouble with respecting authority is that "it sucks you into a black hole so you don't dare to express your own opinion."

Adds Ms. Sung: "I would say that's one great challenge for people like myself. In terms of fundamental issues, I feel I have to stick up for myself and those who don't have a voice. And that's the Canadian side of me."

In sticking up for themselves, then, are Hong Kongers expressing a less traditionally Chinese way of being?

Looking at my father's Facebook profile picture, taken from a trip we took to Hong Kong and Shanghai in 2009, I recall how he engaged his identity during that visit. China was a place to practise his Mandarin and visit historical sites that he knew from classical literature. But Hong Kong was about personal history. Riding the train in Kowloon, he pointed out the old Lutheran school where he taught English.

In a red taxi, we passed the bank that he once managed.

It was my first trip to my city of birth as an adult. I'd left for Canada before I'd turned 2 and, dragged from place to place by my parents as a teenager, Hong Kong had felt like an endless shopping mall. Through my father's eyes, I saw in the skyscrapers and neon a place of memory, a place with stories - a place that lived in my blood.

Associated Graphic

Anti-extradition-bill protesters march to West Kowloon Express Rail Link Station in Hong Kong's tourism district on July 7.


Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Tuesday, July 16, 2019 – Page B15


November 20, 1929 July 14, 2019 Died peacefully at Humber River Hospital in his 90th year.

Beloved husband of 65 years to Mary (Pezzack). Dear father to John (Patricia), Karen (Christopher), Nancy (Christian) and Janet (Luis).

Proud of his grandchildren, Matthew, Stephanie, Laura, Tyler, Sarah, Lyndsey, Katie, Shawn and Ryan.

Great-grandfather of Emily, Dylan, Natalie, Stephen and Cameron.

Grandfather-in-law of Jessica, David M., David O., Logan, Sean, and Justin. Lovingly remembered by the Pezzack in-laws.

Norm lived a full life. He played his final golf game one day before entering the hospital. Norm was a student and teacher at University of Toronto Schools. He was School Captain in 1948 and taught from 1968 until his retirement in 1991.

He had a passion for sports, jigsaw puzzles, food (ice cream) and travel that he joyfully shared with his family.

He will be deeply missed by all whose lives he touched.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church: Special Project Capital Campaign, Doctors Without Borders or Covenant House.

Visitation to be held on Thursday, July 18, 2019 from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. at R. S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge Street, Toronto.

Funeral Service to be held on Saturday, July 20, 2019, at 11:00 a.m. at St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church, 80 George Henry Boulevard, Toronto.

Condolences may be left at www.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

ABBYANN DAY LYNCH C.M., O.Ont., L.M.S., Ph.D., LL.D (Hon.), D.S.L. (Hon.)

1928 - 2019 Our hearts are heavy knowing that Abby, who was mother, grandmother and great grandmother to her extended Toronto family, and sister, aunt and great aunt to her large U.S. family, passed from this life on July 14, 2019, acquiescing gracefully and bravely to Alzheimer's disease.

A pioneering woman with a brilliant mind and gentle soul, Abby believed in setting a high bar, working hard, sharing her thoughts by being a prolific writer and academic, and making a difference, especially in the lives of vulnerable children and the elderly. As a philosopher, she fearlessly blazed many trails.

Born in Hackensack, New Jersey, and a graduate of Manhattanville College, her first journey was north to Canada, moving from New York to Toronto to pursue a Licentiate in Medieval Studies at the Pontifical Institute (University of Toronto, St. Michael's College).

In Toronto, she became one of Canada's leading experts in biomedical ethics, standing up in particular to protect the rights of children. Towards the end of her career path, she was President of Associated Medical Services and consultant on biomedical issues to various hospitals, health organizations and regulatory bodies. For all these contributions, she was honoured to receive the Order of Canada.

More than anything, Abby loved her husband, Lawrence E. Lynch, who predeceased her in 2001. After saying their vows in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, in 1953, their family grew quickly and today includes their beloved children, their spouses, grandchildren and great-grandchildren: Lisa (Andrew, Domenica, Sophia, Luke; Jeffrey); Mimi and her husband Stephen (Katherine, James, Madison, Jack; Mark, Nadia, Nathan, Evelyn); Edward and his wife Rose (Mike, David, Kerri); Paul and his wife Sheila (Abigael, Isabel); Martha; Chris and his wife Anna (Alexander, Emilia).

There wasn't a mystery book Abby hadn't read, an ice cream cone she let sit for too long, a piano score she hadn't memorized, or a challenge she didn't stare down, sometimes with outsized idealism. She loved Canada, and over the years she balanced her fondness for her adopted country with pride in her native country. Born into a long line of Republicans, she became a staunch Democrat, strongly supporting the election of President John F. Kennedy, and fully committed more recently to the politics of President Barack Obama. She kept her family grounded in its roots, traveling with them extensively and sharing her love of New England, the sea and the shore, most summers spent in Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Looking at the world through her eyes was to see wonder, hope, gratitude and always a dream to leave the world a better place. Hearing it from her perspective as a gifted concert pianist was to sit in the second balcony, eyes glued to the keyboard, listening to music by her favourite composers, Schubert, Chopin, and Beethoven.

The family wishes to thank Abby's personal support workers, Eloisa, Marichelle and Jeanette, and the many PSWs at Cedarhurst Dementia Care Centre, for their love and attentiveness to Abby during the past three years. A Mass of Christian Burial will be held at Our Lady of Lourdes church on Thursday, July 18, 2019, at 1:30 p.m. Visitation is on Wednesday, July 17 from 5-9 pm at the Rosar-Morrison Funeral Home, 467 Sherbourne Street, Toronto. The family welcomes friends to stop by Our Lady of Lourdes parish hall after the funeral Mass for refreshments. A celebration of life will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, kindly consider a donation in Abby's name to Alzheimer Society of Toronto (

May Abby rest in peace, in the loving embrace of her maker, in the hope of life eternal.


1934 - 2019

It is with great sadness the family of Paul Palmer announces his passing on Thursday, July 11, 2019. Paul died peacefully in his home at Amica Bayview Gardens, with family and his beloved dog Pandy, with him.

Paul was born in Barrie, Ontario to Goldie (née Grey) Palmer and Hartley Ramsay Palmer. Paul is lovingly remembered by his sons Tony (Donna) and Ian Palmer, daughter Heather Palmer, step sons Rob and Bill (Kim) Leak and his grandchildren Emily, Will, Mac, Hayley and Charlie.

He always said he felt lucky to have fallen in love twice, first to Mary (nee Breckenridge) Palmer (1936-1989) and then to Catherine (nee Dauphinee) Leak.

Paul went to Barrie District Collegiate Institute and was among the first group of students to graduate the Bachelor of Commerce program at University of McMaster in 1955. Upon graduation he joined Clarkson, Gordon & Co in Toronto and in 1959 he graduated from the Ontario Institute of Chartered Accountants. In 1962 he left Clarkson, Gordon to hold senior executive positions at York Steel Construction, Kilmer Van Nostrand Co. Limited, Denison Mines and a collection of wholly and partly owned subsidiary companies.

In 1976, he joined Norcen Energy Resources, moved to Calgary, Alberta in 1985 and retired as Chief Financial Officer in 1995.

Paul was a mathematical whiz who was honoured as a fellow twice: Fellow of the Certified Professional Accountants (FCPA) and Fellow of the Chartered Accountants (FCA). He also shared his accounting and business skills as Chairman of the Canadian Accounting Standards Board, being a major force in revising and re-writing the modern standards that exist today. After retirement Paul sat on several Boards.

Paul was passionate about golf.

He started young, and while he played all over the world, he most enjoyed his courses and golf friends in Florida, Toronto, Calgary and Muskoka. However, he always had the greater good in his heart, and was instrumental in the conversion of a golf course to Earl Bales Park, which is the largest public park in North York, actively enjoyed by families yearround.

Above all else, Paul was a family man. He loved unconditionally and was fiercely proud of his children, in particular the manner in which they love and support each other. All who knew Paul would comment on his quick witted, often subtle, somewhat zany sense of humour and tendency towards practical jokes. The stories are plentiful as laughter was the medicine for everything, even at the end of life.

Paul was supported by a wonderful care team from Amica Bayview Gardens, Living Assistance Services, VHA Home Healthcare, Randi Lazarus Companion Care and Dr. Nunes Vaz. Special mention goes to Titzia and her team who supported the ability for Pandy to continue to live with Paul. Thank you to all.

A Celebration of Remembrance (aka story sharing and belly laughing) will be held at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, July 23, 2019 at Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville). A private family internment will immediately follow at Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, if desired, a donation can be made to a charity of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through


March 20, 1926 - July 14, 2019 Born in Toronto, adored only son of Charles and Eva (Crummer) Wynne. JB leaves behind his soulmate of 73 years, wife of 67 years, Patricia (O'Day); his four daughters, Kathleen (Jane), Evie Honeyman, Ann (Peter) and Marie Hodgson (Doug); his grandchildren, Amy, Chris, Jessie, Maggie, Katy, Charlotte, Tim, Lizzie, Isaac and Myles; and three great-grandchildren, Livie, Claire and Hugh, beloved by each and every one.

John grew up in North Toronto attending John Ross Robertson Public School, Crescent School, and graduating from St. Andrew's College School just as WWII ended. He studied Medicine at University of Toronto and began as a family physician in 1952 where he practiced for 40 years.

JB loved life. He was an athlete-boxing, hockey and cricket as a teenager; hockey, golf, curling, tennis, running, walking into the final days of his life. He was a piano player and a photographer. He loved Dave Brubeck, Myles Davis, Louis Armstrong and Ella Fitzgerald. He was a reader. He loved W.O.Mitchell, Dylan Thomas and Henning Mankell. In the early years he joined the Lions Club and started a 'sock hop' for local kids and in the 60's he supported Pat's volunteer work with youth. He got elected to the board of the Ontario Medical Association to work to keep the connection between doctors and their patients in the early days of Medicare. He cared deeply about politics, was a lifelong Liberal and was actively distressed by the rise of right wing populism.

But of all the things he loved in his life, there were two that surpassed the rest. The first was Pat. He loved his Bahamian girl completely. The second was cutting through the morning mist on Lake Opeongo in his canoe. The tackle box and the fish were an excuse.

JB's family is very grateful to all the nurses and doctors on the stroke floor at Mackenzie Health and to the palliative team. Thank you all for your fine care.

If you would like to make a donation in JB's name, he would love you to support the Friends of Algonquin Park or the Mackenzie Health Foundation.

We will hold a service in JB's memory in September.

Arrangements entrusted to Marshall Funeral Home, Richmond Hill, ON.


1941 - 2019

With deep sadness we announce the death of Peter Welsh. He died suddenly at home in Cuernavaca, Mexico, July 10, 2019 at 1:20 a.m. after a fierce battle with cancer. His wife, Judy, and sister, Anne, were at his side. Visitation was held that afternoon in Cuernavaca allowing close friends and neighbours to pay respects and say adios.

A memorial will be held in Canada at a later date. He is survived by Judy, soulmate and beloved wife of 53 years, daughter Laura (Mike), grandchildren Mia and Andrew, son Michael (Jane); sisters Anne (Peter), Cathy (Gord), Patti (John), brother John, (Jim predeceased); sisters-in law Mary (Dick predeceased), Pam (Mike), and Susan (Ao) and many nieces, nephews and cousins.


January 11, 1951 - July 16, 2007

May the winds of love blow softly, And whisper so you'll hear, We shall love and miss you always, And wish that you were here.

Love, all your family


Medal of Bravery 1957 - 1998

MARILYN CHAN 1955 - 1998 Sadly missed and lovingly remembered by family and friends

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Marcus Gee speaks with Canadians who have lost loved ones to drug overdoses. For those left behind, tattoos keep them close

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Friday, July 5, 2019 – Page A8


In 2008, Helen Jennens's son, Rian, was in a motorcycle crash that crushed his leg from toe to hip. He took painkillers to get through the recovery and more drugs for insomnia and depression. Ms. Jennens would take him food, do his laundry and play cards with him. One day, he didn't pick up when she called. She threw a sweatshirt over her pyjamas and rushed over. She found him sitting lifeless on his bed with his computer on his lap. It was Aug. 21, 2011. He was 37.

Another son, Tyler, ruptured his Achilles tendon playing football, took prescription opioids for the pain and became dependent on them. When Rian died, he stepped up to heroin. After five years of extreme substance use, he was going to Alcoholics Anonymous and seemed to be doing better. Then one day he bought what he believed was heroin and used it in his ex-wife's apartment.

It turned out to be pure fentanyl.

Ms. Jennens followed a fire truck to the apartment and rushed in.

She was at Tyler's side as paramedics tried to revive him. It was Jan. 14, 2016. He had just turned 40. Ms. Jennens, 65, is raising his two children: Mac, 15, and Talay, 10.

She has a tattoo on each foot, one for each son. The tattoo for Rian says: "A child of my heart you will ever be." Tyler's says "beloved son" in Thai. He learned the language while running a dive shop in Thailand. Some of his ashes are mixed into the tattoo ink. Ms. Jennens's only surviving child, Brie, has a memorial tattoo of her own for her brothers.

"The loss of a child - the grief never goes away," Ms. Jennens says. "It's a permanent state. The best you can do is learn how to manage it day by day. I just wanted to do something to recognize that grief is forever long."


Angela Welz didn't think she was the type for tattoos: "I am 57 years old. I am not a rebel in any shape or form." But she felt the need for a connection to her daughter, Zoe.

Zoe was an A student, a fast runner and a keen soccer player. She loved to draw when she was little and always had crayons in front of her. But the family went into a tailspin when her father was diagnosed with cancer and his mother, Zoe's grandmother, died. Reeling from the loss and suffering from low self-esteem, Zoe turned to drugs and left home. Her mother took every chance to warn her that fentanyl kills. Zoe always told her not to worry, "I'm going to be careful." One day, Ms. Welz got a call from the hospital: Zoe was on life support. She had overdosed from fentanyl in the hallway of the place where she had lived. She died on Nov. 7, 2016, at the age of 18.

Zoe's heart, lungs liver and kidney were donated, helping to save four lives. Ms. Welz says the heart drawn on her pulse point helps her to cope. "When I look at it or touch the heart I can feel my heart beating and that makes me feel closer to her. In that moment, I really feel her life within me." ANGIE ALLEN ORILLIA, ONT.

Angie Allen says her son, Tyson, was "quite a little devil" as a boy. "Right from when he could barely speak he was cracking jokes and making you laugh," Ms. Allen says. He would always be climbing the highest tree and loved his Spider-Man outfit. "I think he wore that costume for about three years." Artistic and musical, Tyson learned to play a mean guitar and could perform Led Zeppelin's Stairway to Heaven without a hitch.

When he was little, he had several surgeries. As he got older, he suffered from anxiety and depression. For release he turned to marijuana, then crack cocaine and then liquor. He was 19 when he died of an overdose at a drug dealer's place on Oct. 3, 2017. The drug was carfentanil, a synthetic opioid so powerful veterinarians use it to tranquilize elephants.

Ms. Allen had her tattoo done this March 6, on what would have been his 21st birthday. It shows a blue gull feather, because a gull was his favourite bird and blue his favourite colour. The line through the feather is Tyson's heartbeat when she was giving birth to him. Ms.

Allen went back to the hospital and was amazed to find it still had the fetal-monitor readout. The elaborate signature, which he created for himself, comes from papers she found in his room.

T he opioid crisis is killing an average of 12 people a day in Canada, leaving friends and family struggling for ways to cope with a deep and sudden loss. One way is to record it on their skin.

Tattoos that show the name, signature, fingerprint or heartbeat of the person who died are becoming increasingly popular as the crisis grinds on. Some are ornate and rich with symbolism, others are strikingly simple. A few even incorporate a trace of the person's remains by mixing their ashes with the ink.

"It's like a talisman that a person can hold onto," says Leslie McBain, who co-founded Moms Stop the Harm, which represents the families of victims. She has a raven on her right arm in memory of her son, Jordan Miller, who died of a drug overdose in 2014, when he was only 25. A trickster - smart, funny, sometimes loud and naughty - he had many of the raven's qualities, she says.

For Helen Jennens of Kelowna, B.C., who has lost two sons to opioids and has memorial tattoos on both feet, the tattoos are also a way to shatter the stigma those suffering from drug addiction often carry. "If I am not afraid to brand myself in a way - to acknowledge I don't have any shame - it's showing that my boys had a chronic, relapsing disease, not a moral failing, and I'm not afraid to talk about it."

The Globe and Mail spoke to people across the country about their tattoos and those that they honour.


Mary Sumann's fiancé, David Powell, was a free spirit who spent years hitchhiking back and forth across Canada. Though he never finished high school, he taught himself to read music and play the mandolin. He had a knack for fixing things - cars, bikes, anything mechanical - and loved dogs. When the couple found themselves with no place to live one summer, they took the ferry to Salt Spring Island, set up camp in the bush and raised the puppies born to David's dog Deliah.

When they foraged for food, David taught Ms. Sumann to spot edible plants such as lamb's quarters and horsetail.

David had suffered from depression since his teenage years and often turned to drugs. He had been clean for five years when he relapsed and started using again.

He ended up in a hospital psychiatric ward. He overdosed two weeks after being released. When Ms. Sumann couldn't reach him, she sent police to his house.

There was a kit with the overdose-reversing drug naloxone there, but no one to use it on him.

Ms. Sumann's tree of life tattoo includes David's thumbprint, because "he left his print on my soul." The tattoo took several sessions to complete. Getting it was painful - "I have screamed, I have cried," Ms. Sumann says - "but nothing compared with losing David. I tend to bottle things up, so this has been a way to get it out."

NICOLE INEESE-NASH TORONTO Nicole Ineese-Nash grew up in Toronto in a family from the Constance Lake First Nation in Northern Ontario, north of Timmins. Her mother struggled with alcoholism and, after a bad fall, prescription opioids. Parties at their house could go on for three or four days. Her big brother Conway, 11 years older, always looked out for her, putting her to bed when a party was raging. Once, when a mean drunk with a baseball bat was coming up the stairs, Conway stood in his way. "He would have my back no matter what."

He showed her how to skateboard. He took her tobogganing, using cardboard boxes to slide on.

When she was only 5, he taught her to play Metallica's Enter Sandman on the guitar. Although he had a demons of his own, and spent time in jail, to her "he was like a big friendly bear."

He encouraged her when she made progress at school. Ms. Ineese-Nash is working on a PhD in social-justice education at the University of Toronto. "He was the one who always believed in me," she says. "He would always tell me: 'You can do this. You're so smart.' " Conway overdosed from a mix of cocaine and methadone on March 29, 2018, at the age of 39.

Ms. Ineese-Nash and her partner, artist Nyle Miigizi Johnston, have been raising his two small children. She feels he is looking down on her as they struggle with their new responsibilities. Her tattoo, designed by Mr. Johnston, shows her standing with their family under a guardian tree, which is protecting them as he protected her. The stars stand for his oversight. "Those stars are always going to be there and he's always going to be there watching us," she says.


Christian Forget and his best friend, Luke Martin Kitson, "basically grew up together," Mr. Forget says. At sleepovers, they would build blanket forts and play video games. Mr. Forget says his best memories of his friend are from family camping trips to Massasauga Provincial Park on Georgian Bay. Luke loved sitting around the campfire and making s'mores. "That was his favourite part. We used to run around the fire and say: 'My butt's on fire, my butt's on fire.' His laugh was the best. It was contagious."

The boys were separated when Luke moved away in high school. Luke struggled with drugs.

One morning, his mother went to wake him for church and found him dead. It was Mother's Day, 2017.

"I got the tattoo on my side mostly because I didn't need people to see it," Mr. Forget says. "I just personally know that it's there and that my opinion of him will never change, no matter the kind of stuff he got into. It's not that he was a bad person, it's just a bad world."

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Wednesday, July 17, 2019 – Page B14


Lida Alexanian, age 86, of Dundas Ontario passed quietly at St.

Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton on Monday July 15, 2019 after a brief, noble battle with cancer.

Lida (née Bostanjian) was born in Istanbul, Turkey in 1932. In a storybook encounter she was introduced to future husband Aram Alexanian, by his father Aris, who was acquainted with her family. Aram and Aris - the founder of the Alexanian family carpet business - were passing through Istanbul en route to the Middle East to buy oriental rugs. The couple bonded and Lida moved to Canada in 1953 and married Aram shortly thereafter. They settled in Ottawa for many years, raising their three children: Alene, Richard and Allan. Eventually the family moved to Dundas, Ontario - much to the disappointment of their Ottawa friends.

Lida and Aram were very social in the Hamilton area and were pillars of the Armenian community through St. Mary Armenian Church in Hamilton. After Aram died in 1988, Lida expanded that legacy and served as treasurer, fundraiser, and event organizer.

She was an energetic host of family gatherings and became the matriarch of the Alexanian clan.

Her ever evolving New Year's Eve parties at her welcoming home were an annual ritual.

Lida's many interests shaped the beautiful fabric of her life. With a love of the piano since her youth she took it up again with a passion at age 66 and cultivated a likeminded circle of musical friends.

She supported music, theater and arts organizations in Hamilton and Toronto. Lida always had tickets to something. She was an amazing cook, and her version of Armenian classics like dolma, borek, choreg, and baklava were legend. Lida loved to travel, she was an avid gardener, and an incredible swimmer. Well into her 80's she could manage a kilometer swim at the lake. She was adventurous and unpredictable. She was a martini aficionado, cat lover, sun worshipper, card player, backgammon pro, gracious host and stylish dresser.

Lida was overjoyed with the arrival of grandchildren, and her time spent with them was treasured.

Noah, Mara and Ara from Alene and husband John Farr, and Nevan and Kira from Allan and wife Wendy. She also maintained a closeness to her nieces and nephews: on the Alexanian side the children of Albert and Nancy, and the late Armen and Jane and the children of her late sister Nadia, and Fred Sirotek.

Her strength of character - her generosity and compassion - her great beauty and resilience - and her spirit of forgiveness - defined her. Her parting wishes were for everyone to get along.

Special thanks to the team at St.

Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton for their outstanding care through a difficult time.

In lieu of flowers please donate to St. Mary Armenian Church - 8 Mayhurst Ave, Hamilton, ON, L8K 3M8, or your charity of choice.

The family will receive friends at the JB Marlatt Funeral Home, 615 Main St. E, Hamilton: on Friday, July 19th from 2 to 4 p.m. and 6 to 8:30 p.m. with prayers to follow.

A private funeral will be held at St.

Mary Armenian Church.


November 20, 1929 July 14, 2019 Died peacefully at Humber River Hospital in his 90th year.

Beloved husband of 65 years to Mary (Pezzack). Dear father to John (Patricia), Karen (Christopher), Nancy (Christian) and Janet (Luis).

Proud of his grandchildren, Matthew, Stephanie, Laura, Tyler, Sarah, Lyndsey, Katie, Shawn and Ryan.

Great-grandfather of Emily, Dylan, Natalie, Stephen and Cameron.

Grandfather-in-law of Jessica, David M., David O., Logan, Sean, and Justin. Lovingly remembered by the Pezzack in-laws.

Norm lived a full life. He played his final golf game one day before entering the hospital. Norm was a student and teacher at University of Toronto Schools. He was School Captain in 1948 and taught from 1968 until his retirement in 1991.

He had a passion for sports, jigsaw puzzles, food (ice cream) and travel that he joyfully shared with his family.

He will be deeply missed by all whose lives he touched.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church: Special Project Capital Campaign, Doctors Without Borders or Covenant House.

Visitation to be held on Thursday, July 18, 2019 from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. at R. S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge Street, Toronto.

Funeral Service to be held on Saturday, July 20, 2019, at 11:00 a.m. at St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church, 80 George Henry Boulevard, Toronto.

Condolences may be left at www.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159


On Monday, July 15, 2019 at her home. Beloved wife of Sherman.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Laura Hans and Mitch Steinman, and Loren Altman and the late Samantha Hans. Lovingly remembered by Jennifer Appleby. Dear sister and sister-inlaw of Betty and Irv Nitkin of B.C.

Devoted grandmother of Jake, Ben, Dylan, Emily, Erin, and Jordan.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Thursday, July 18, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva 17 Wembley Road. Memorial donations may be made to the Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation, 416-946-6560 or to Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care, 1-877-565-8555.

ABBYANN DAY LYNCH C.M., O.Ont., L.M.S., Ph.D., LL.D (Hon.), D.S.L. (Hon.)

1928 - 2019 Our hearts are heavy knowing that Abby, who was mother, grandmother and great grandmother to her extended Toronto family, and sister, aunt and great aunt to her large U.S. family, passed from this life on July 14, 2019, acquiescing gracefully and bravely to Alzheimer's disease.

A pioneering woman with a brilliant mind and gentle soul, Abby believed in setting a high bar, working hard, sharing her thoughts by being a prolific writer and academic, and making a difference, especially in the lives of vulnerable children and the elderly. As a philosopher, she fearlessly blazed many trails.

Born in Hackensack, New Jersey, and a graduate of Manhattanville College, her first journey was north to Canada, moving from New York to Toronto to pursue a Licentiate in Medieval Studies at the Pontifical Institute (University of Toronto, St. Michael's College).

In Toronto, she became one of Canada's leading experts in biomedical ethics, standing up in particular to protect the rights of children. Towards the end of her career path, she was President of Associated Medical Services and consultant on biomedical issues to various hospitals, health organizations and regulatory bodies. For all these contributions, she was honoured to receive the Order of Canada.

More than anything, Abby loved her husband, Lawrence E. Lynch, who predeceased her in 2001. After saying their vows in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, in 1953, their family grew quickly and today includes their beloved children, their spouses, grandchildren and great-grandchildren: Lisa (Andrew, Domenica, Sophia, Luke; Jeffrey); Mimi and her husband Stephen (Katherine, James, Madison, Jack; Mark, Nadia, Nathan, Evelyn); Edward and his wife Rose (Mike, David, Kerri); Paul and his wife Sheila (Abigael, Isabel); Martha; Chris and his wife Anna (Alexander, Emilia).

There wasn't a mystery book Abby hadn't read, an ice cream cone she let sit for too long, a piano score she hadn't memorized, or a challenge she didn't stare down, sometimes with outsized idealism. She loved Canada, and over the years she balanced her fondness for her adopted country with pride in her native country. Born into a long line of Republicans, she became a staunch Democrat, strongly supporting the election of President John F. Kennedy, and fully committed more recently to the politics of President Barack Obama. She kept her family grounded in its roots, traveling with them extensively and sharing her love of New England, the sea and the shore, most summers spent in Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Looking at the world through her eyes was to see wonder, hope, gratitude and always a dream to leave the world a better place. Hearing it from her perspective as a gifted concert pianist was to sit in the second balcony, eyes glued to the keyboard, listening to music by her favourite composers, Schubert, Chopin, and Beethoven.

The family wishes to thank Abby's personal support workers, Eloisa, Marichelle and Jeanette, and the many PSWs at Cedarhurst Dementia Care Centre, for their love and attentiveness to Abby during the past three years. A Mass of Christian Burial will be held at Our Lady of Lourdes church on Thursday, July 18, 2019, at 1:30 p.m. Visitation is on Wednesday, July 17 from 5-9 pm at the Rosar-Morrison Funeral Home, 467 Sherbourne Street, Toronto. The family welcomes friends to stop by Our Lady of Lourdes parish hall after the funeral Mass for refreshments. A celebration of life will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, kindly consider a donation in Abby's name to Alzheimer Society of Toronto (

May Abby rest in peace, in the loving embrace of her maker, in the hope of life eternal.


"Wally" April 16, 1929 July 9, 2019 Wally passed away suddenly while on a camping adventure in the beautiful BC wilderness. He was 90 years young.

Wally was predeceased by his loving wife of 54 years, Patricia (Paddy) Mackay, and is survived by his children, Elizabeth Armer (Douglas), Robert (Marilyn), Brian (Christene), Fiona (Bob Lloyd), Ellen (Stuart Cole) and James (Max), and his grandchildren, Ceilidh, Aaron, Shaun, Madeline, Jennifer, Tara, Evan, Alden, Calum, Claire, Heather and Molly.

Wally was born in Kempsey, Australia, and immigrated to Canada to work as a Chemical Engineer in Northern BC where he met and married Paddy, the love of his life. Wally's career took him from his home in West Vancouver to every continent on earth.

Wally's boundless energy and unmatched zest for life was the stuff of legend - always on the go, always learning, charming everyone he met with his warmth, humour and a never-ending trove of stories. He modeled faith, kindness, generosity, fun and adventure and filled our lives with joy. He was a loving father, a dear friend and an ever-present mentor and role model. He will be dearly missed.

The funeral Mass for Wally will be at 1 p.m. on July 19, 2019 at St. Anthony's Catholic Church at 2347 Inglewood Avenue, West Vancouver. Prayers will be held at 8:30 p.m. on July 18, 2019. In lieu of flowers, contributions to the Canadian Cancer Society in Wally Mackay's name would be gratefully appreciated.

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Gaps in science leave Canada unprepared for a changing relationship with wildfires
The country is spending more than ever to combat blazes, but our precautions are inconsistent and out-of-date, with many borrowed from the U.S. and mostly untested here. As climate change makes fires bigger and costlier, scientists say the dearth of knowledge is a danger we can no longer ignore

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Thursday, July 18, 2019 – Page A8

Thousands of homes and vast swaths of forest were consumed by the Horse River Fire that ripped through Fort McMurray in 2016. But if the scale of the destruction was shocking, the fire's extreme intensity and the speed with which it overwhelmed the Northern Alberta city illustrated a stark risk that experts had worried about for years.

Some of the tens of millions of dollars Alberta spent on wildfire prevention that year helped fund efforts to thin trees around the city, plant less-combustible hardwoods and clear brush from homes, according to a postincident report.

Such precautions are in use across Canada, yet they are based primarily on technical guidelines developed in the United States; few have been validated by scientists to gauge how effective they are in northern, boreal forests.

"What that means is that people really don't know, because it hasn't been done," said Brian Stocks, a wildfire-science specialist and one of several investigators hired to assess the Fort McMurray blaze for the Alberta government.

That knowledge gap is just one of a growing number of blind spots that scientists say jeopardize millions of people and billions of dollars of infrastructure as more intense and frequent wildfires chew through larger tracts of Canada's forests each year.

Canada has never spent more to combat wildfires, yet efforts to understand and adapt to the fast-evolving hazards have faltered, hampered by the attrition of key researchers and acute funding constraints.

As a result, the country lacks a comprehensive framework for assessing risks. There is no national system that maps where cities, towns and infrastructure are in relation to vegetation, what the fuel loads are and what sort of fire behaviour they may generate.

To be sure, large wildfires serve a natural role in helping to regenerate forest ecosystems.

But a combination of climate change, pest infestations, urban development and decades of fire suppression has increased the threat and cost of extreme events, especially in droughtprone Western Canada, researchers say.

This spring's fires in Alberta burned an area almost twice the size of Prince Edward Island, forced thousands from their homes and led to severe air-quality warnings that affected millions of people in Edmonton and Calgary.

Similarly, British Columbia is bracing for a long, dry summer after consecutive years of recordshattering fires that scientists say were exacerbated by climate change.

Costs to suppress fires have jumped roughly $120-million a decade since the 1970s and now approach $1-billion or more every year, posing a major challenge for cash-strapped governments at all levels. But the primary tool used by provincial wildfire agencies and crews to predict and respond to daily threats, the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, has not been updated in several decades.

That means it does not account for multiyear droughts or the spread of the mountain pine beetle, an infestation fuelled by rising temperatures that has transformed vast stretches of B.C. and Alberta into a tinderbox.

"The way that fire is playing out in our landscape has changed, and it's changed in the last decade," said Lori Daniels, who studies wildfires at the University of British Columbia. "And we really, really need the fundamental science and the applied tools updated so that we can keep up with this problem, so that we can literally adapt as the climate is changing around us.

It's really essential."

Guidelines designed to keep communities safe are a case in point, although they are far from unique. Known as FireSmart, they are based on U.S. National Fire Protection Association standards that are "untested in northern (boreal forest) conditions," according to documents published by the non-profit that administers the program in Canada. The recommendations are designed to slow or contain, rather than stop, a fire at the surface before it climbs to the treetops, where it's almost impossible to corral. In practice, stands of black spruce could be thinned or replaced with leafy aspen, or a fire break could be carved into the forest. While better than doing nothing, researchers say, there's no telling how effective such measures will be.

"It's not tied to science," said Mr. Stocks, who studied fire behaviour for 35 years with the Canadian Forest Service (CFS).

"That's basic work that hasn't been done."

In Fort McMurray, investigators found that "vegetation management" in some cases reduced the spread of flames, but was mostly overwhelmed by the fire's extreme intensity. About 2,600 homes were razed and 80,000 people evacuated in what became Canada's costliest natural disaster, with insured damages hitting $3.8-billion.

The devastating fire occurred about a decade after the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers agreed to develop a national strategy for combating wildfires, including a pledge to bolster applied research. That commitment was renewed in 2016, but a federal report last year said critical questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to understand links between intensifying fires and Canada's commitments under the Paris climate accord, for example. Enhanced smoke modelling could inform public-health decisions and emergency planning.

"Canada's capacity to address these current and emerging challenges is inadequate," said the report, a 10-year research outlook published by Natural Resources Canada and titled Blueprint for Wildland Fire Science in Canada. "The national capacity for research must increase to ensure that Canada is prepared for a more complex relationship with wildland fire."

Despite those concerns, researchers say money remains scarce, delaying badly needed upgrades to key information systems. "You have to scrounge around," said Mike Wotton, a CFS researcher and adjunct professor who is leading an effort to update the danger-rating system.

"What could get done in a year takes five years of just waiting for the right combination of resources and time."

The federal government has committed $6-billion to science and innovation, including $1.2billion for granting councils and research institutes and $140-million for universities.

Conservative Party Leader Andrew Scheer has pledged to bolster wildfire detection, but offered no new funding in his environment platform.

Most research today is conducted by a dwindling number of academics and by scientists within the CFS, which operates five research centres across the country.

The federal agency employs about 30 scientists, but direct investment in fire has steadily declined since the seventies to about $3.8-million a year, according to Michael Norton, directorgeneral with the CFS Northern Forestry Centre in Edmonton.

The bulk of that pays for salaries, he said in an interview.

By comparison, the U.S. Forest Service devoted about US$22million to wildland fire and fuels research in 2018 and is on track to spend the same this year, a spokesperson said. About US$300-million of its overall budget is allocated to research.

In Canada, Mr. Norton said, there are no accepted or consistently applied methodologies for quantifying fire risks, and spatial data on fuels remains spotty - a major deficit given the total area burned each year has more than doubled since the seventies. "In some areas it's good, and in other areas it's almost non-existent," he said.

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) last year awarded about $4.6-million in purported discovery grants for fire research. That's about double the levels from a decade ago, but still a fraction of the $600-million total handed out by NSERC.

"You have to remember that we're covering all the natural sciences and engineering disciplines," said Marc Fortin, NSERC's chief operating officer and vice-president of research partnerships, in an interview.

"We really rely on the researchers themselves to put forward proposals," he added.

Several scientists said NSERC lacks expertise in fire and too often assesses grant applications through a narrow economic lens.

In June, 2017, UBC's Prof. Daniels and her colleagues wanted to understand and quantify how suppression, climate change and other human interactions with the forest were leading to more intense fires in B.C. But their grant application was rejected.

"One of the responses was there was no economic benefit to the rest of Canada to study this problem in British Columbia," she said.

B.C. would ultimately spend $568-million that year to combat 1,500 fires that forced more than 65,000 people from their homes.

"It's a long process to try to get funding and to try to get buyin for doing the kind of research that you think is important," said Jen Beverly, an assistant professor of wildland fire at the University of Alberta.

One project for which Prof.

Beverly is seeking continued funding involves outfitting fire crews with mobile cameras to rapidly assess fuel loads in northwestern Alberta.

"We don't have models to really tell us what fire's going to do in a thin stand versus a more dense stand," she said.

Mr. Fortin would not discuss specific proposals, but insisted that applications are evaluated against a broad set of criteria. He said a new grant system will make it easier for researchers without industry partners to access funds.

Scientists say the need is pressing.

Studies show fires are starting earlier in the year and burning hotter in tinder-dry forests that are increasingly primed for extreme events.

In some areas, fires are so intense and frequent that researchers are now studying a phenomenon called regeneration failure, which sees fewer trees growing back.

Yet, there remain gaps in understanding the potential impact of such changes on everything from wildlife to timber harvests and carbon sequestration in forests - and on cities such as Fort McMurray, as they push ever deeper into the Canadian wilderness.

"They might have a beautiful community with 80,000 people in it, but it's still surrounded by black spruce forest, which is born to burn," Mr. Stocks said.

Associated Graphic

Above left: The 2018 Snowy Mountain fire is seen from Cawston, B.C. An infestation of mountain pine beetles, driven by rising temperatures, is among the factors that have made vast regions of B.C. and Alberta more vulnerable to fire.


Above: Lori Daniels, who studies wildfires at the University of British Columbia, works at a prescribed fire site in Vaseux Lake, B.C.


Left: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Fort McMurray Fire Chief Darby Allen, centre right, examine the remains of a burnt-out car during Mr. Trudeau's visit to Fort McMurray in May, 2016.



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Whether it's to distract from deeper problems or to promote nationalism - or provincialism, in Alberta's case - scare tactics around NGOs and foreign funding are well-worn political tools

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O9

Author of The Devil's Curve: A Journey into Power and Profit at the Amazon's Edge and The Oil Man and the Sea: Navigating the Northern Gateway

Until he e-mailed me a couple of weeks ago, asking if I knew of any NGOs that could help him out, I hadn't heard from Joel Shimpukat in almost a decade.

A lot had changed since the last time I saw him, deep in Peru's northern Amazon, where he was hiding from a federal arrest warrant. He'd helped organize a protest against a Vancouver-based mining company that was looking for gold in the sacred headwaters upstream from his Awajun nation; that protest, in turn, was part of an Amazon-wide Indigenous uprising against the freetrade agreements that Peru's then-president had just negotiated with Canada and the United States - negotiations to which no Indigenous representatives were invited.

The Awajun mobilization was one of the largest and most sustained in Peru's history. For two months, around 3,000 men and women blockaded a critical highway linking the rain forest to the outside world. On June 5, 2009, Peru's president, Alan Garcia, lost patience and sent the army to clear them out. But the predawn raid went horribly wrong. The soldiers panicked and opened fire, killing three protesters and shooting almost 100 more, most of them in the back as they tried to run away. Others fought and killed 25 soldiers, which led Mr.

Garcia to call the botched operation a "genocide against the police." Mr. Shimpukat wasn't accused of killing anyone, but his role in organizing the blockade was enough to get him charged with sedition. And so he fled back to his home in the jungle, where he knew the army wouldn't follow.

The debacle scandalized the country, but Mr. Garcia refused to back down. "We watched this disaster come on little by little," he said in a public address. "It was brought on by the desperate appetites of those hungry for power, inspired by foreign interests that want to slow the velocity of our development." Peruvians, he declared, ought to ask themselves: "Who does it suit for Peru not to use its gas, not to find more oil, to be unable to better exploit its minerals?" In a thinly veiled jab at Peru's regional rivals, Bolivia and Venezuela, he concluded: "International communists."

In saying so, Mr. Garcia joined a rich international tradition of leaders beseeching their people to beware of foreign money and ideas.

"We must act as Zimbabweans, think as Zimbabweans, be masters of our own destiny," Robert Mugabe said back in 2008, after he'd expropriated the country's white-owned farms to give to his generals. The policy bankrupted his country, led to the world's highest level of hyperinflation since Germany's Weimar Republic and caused the exodus of three million Zimbabweans. When NGOs and church groups did what they could to stanch the humanitarian disaster, Mr. Mugabe shut them down, too. "What are we expected to do," he said when they complained, "and how are we expected to judge you when you act behind our backs and go and report outside?" The international community was indeed pressing him for reforms, but Mr.

Mugabe - a master of invoking the country's colonial history - wouldn't have it. "We know their tactics," he said of meddlers such as Britain's leaders. "They will find people in our midst, those who can be easily bought, those who offer themselves for sale."

In Myanmar, back when Aung San Suu Kyi was still under house arrest in her dilapidated lakefront mansion, an American tourist swam uninvited to her house. She let him in so as to kick him out the front door, which doubled her trouble. "It is no doubt that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has committed a cover-up of the truth by her failure to report an illegal immigrant to the authorities," the country's deputy defence minister said. "Thus there was no option but to open legal proceedings in accordance with the law." Miraculously, she beat the charges and was soon running for Myanmar's equivalent of prime minister. Believe it or not, her greatest liability in the campaign was the suspicion she was too fond of Myanmar's Muslim minority, who are perceived as outsiders. The military's commander-in-chief, running against her, played this up, along with the fact that she'd married a British academic and hired several foreign advisers. "The leader of the country," he warned voters, "should be one who ... is able to righteously and systematically take care of your own race and religion; and is not associated with, or under the influence of, foreigners, foreign countries or foreign agencies."

More recently, Chinese leaders and the newspapers they control have responded to the historic protests in Hong Kong by asking who's really behind them. "It's a pity that some Hong Kong people and organizations have been used as pawns," one of the city's officials said. "It is very noteworthy that some international forces have significantly strengthened their interaction with the Hong Kong opposition in recent months," agreed another editorial.

It isn't just tyrants who speak this way. None other than George Washington himself once said: "Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence ... the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government."

Washington did speak from experience, having relied on French military assistance to win the revolution. And who can deny the success, or at least the influence, of the United States' interventions in other countries ever since? Against that kind of record, the hi jinks described in the Mueller Report come off as bushleague, at best.

Speaking of which, let's not forget the law that Russian President Vladimir Putin passed in 2012 forcing any NGO with a penny of foreign funding to label itself a "foreign agent," which is just as synonymous with "traitorous spy" in Russian as it is in English. "Any form of pressure on Russia, our allies and partners, is unacceptable," Mr. Putin said.

Speaking a bit more directly, the deputy head of Russia's Security Council lambasted "the destructive activities of various non-governmental organizations, especially the foreign ones, that never stop their attempts to destabilize the situation in our country."

The same year that Mr. Putin signed his law on foreign agents, Canada's own natural resources minister, Joe Oliver, wrote his famous open letter warning of "environmental and other radical groups" who "use funding from foreign special interest groups to undermine Canada's national economic interest." The radicals weren't afraid to "take a quintessential American approach: sue everyone and anyone to delay the project even further."

I used to think this kind of talk was a sign of nationalism. But Jason Kenney has enlightened me otherwise: it turns out it can be a sign of provincialism, too. Last week, he launched his inquiry into the "foreign-funded special interests" that he claims have perpetuated, through environmental groups, a "political propaganda campaign to defame our energy industry and to landlock our industry."

It's also true that we radical foreign-funded environmentalists are just as quick to denounce foreign funds and influence as Mr. Kenney. We have noticed, for example, that the oil and gas industry is 42.9-per-cent foreignowned, according to 2016 Statistics Canada data, and that foreign investment in the sector comes to more than $100-billion. That's a touch more than climate activists are pulling in. Against those odds, it's no wonder the movement's success in blocking pipelines is driving Mr. Kenney to distraction.

Distraction, after all, is the name of the game. For some rulers, it's corruption that they want to prevent the public from noticing. For others, it's human-rights abuses. For the "Un-Albertan Activities Committee," as energy journalist Markham Hislop called it, it's the fact that an economic boom is winding sharply down, while a much darker age of ecological collapse has just begun - and no one has a plan for this new reality. Rather than come up with one, Mr. Kenney has discovered "a premeditated, internationally planned and financed operation to put Alberta out of business."

Albertans should at least be aware of the global trend they're joining. A recent Amnesty International report found that crackdowns on civil-society groups are rising all over the world. More than 50 countries have put such laws in place in recent years. They aren't backwaters, either. In India, the world's largest democracy and among the most exposed countries on Earth to climate risk, 20,000 NGOs have been stripped of the right to receive foreign funding since 2014, a great many of them environmental; a leaked Intelligence Bureau report accused Greenpeace and others of "serving as tools for the interests of Western governments," and being part of a "growth-retarding campaign." In Brazil, where 57 environmental activists were killed in 2017 alone, President Jair Bolsonaro has promised to "supervise, co-ordinate, monitor and accompany" the country's NGOs, and "put a final stop to all forms of activism." And in the United States, at least 17 states have recently proposed bills to limit environmental protests.

This long history does, as the saying goes, veer from tragedy to farce, but it's never far from slipping back to the former. In Peru, allegations eventually came out that the former president, Mr.

Garcia, had been taking bribes from the infamous Brazilian construction company Odebrecht all along. When police finally showed up at his house to arrest him three months ago, he shot himself in the head.

But my old friend Joel Shimpukat had the charges against him lifted long before that. He's now the mayor of a small town in the jungle. The region is resourcerich but cash-poor; Joel has some ideas about how to generate employment without destroying the rain forest, but the kind of investment he needs is hard to come by in Peru. If only there were a foreign-funded NGO that could help.

Associated Graphic

Alberta Premier Jason Kenney, seen on Wednesday, has tapped into a global trend of scare tactics concerning NGOs and foreign funding.


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One in three Toronto condos is investor-owned
New data reveal scale of investment activity in residential market

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Friday, July 5, 2019 – Page H9

More than one third of Toronto's condo market is owned by people who do not live in the units, but prefer to rent them out, use them as secondary residences, or leave them empty instead.

The situation is not as drastic as Vancouver's condo market, where about half of all units in the city are investor-owned, but it's still a significant share of the condo market.

The findings are the result of a recent data release by Statistics Canada, as part of the federal government's new Canadian Housing Statistics Program (CHSP). The program was launched in response to a lack of data on housing and as a result experts and academics have been digging deep into the data sets and helping residents understand the markets in which they live. The recent new data batch sheds light on the scale at which condos are being purchased for straight out investment.

Toronto and Vancouver, the two hottest and least affordable markets, have particularly benefited from the data. Vancouverbased planner Andy Yan, director of Simon Fraser University's City Program, analyzed the data set for the top five most populated municipalities in the GTA, for The Globe and Mail. He'd conducted similar analysis on such condos in the Vancouver market.

Markham has the highest rate of non-owner occupied condos at 38.7 per cent, followed by Toronto city at 37.9 per cent, Mississauga at 35.6 per cent, Richmond Hill at 31.6 per cent, Brampton at 29.9 per cent and Vaughan at 29.7 per cent. The average for the Toronto area is 36.6 per cent of condos that are not owner-occupied.

The analysis fits with the findings of John Pasalis, president of Toronto's Realosophy Realty Brokerage and analyst of the Greater Toronto Area. Mr. Pasalis believes most Toronto condo investors buy pre-construction and hang onto them for rental income or flip them after completion. The other major investor type are those who move into bigger places but hang on to their condos for rental income because of strong demand. Mr. Pasalis has found that Toronto condo prices rose significantly since the federal government introduced new mortgage "stress test" rules in 2016. Because first-time buyers were shut out of the detached house market, they turned increasingly to the condo market, driving prices up.

In January, 2012, the average price for a condo was $321,475 and after the new stress test rules, prices climbed to $429,407 in October 2016 - a 34-per-cent increase. By April, 2018 the average price rose to $559,343.

Mr. Pasalis sees the new government data program as "a big step forward." He says work by Vancouver researchers such as Mr. Yan, and Josh Gordon, assistant professor of public policy at SFU, has shut down any doubt by government agencies and others, that non-resident buyers were having an impact on the markets. Prof. Gordon recently released a study that used the CHSP data to show a decisive relationship between non-resident ownership and high house prices in the Vancouver area. Prior to the new data, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation [CMHC] had held the position that non-resident ownership had little impact on the affordability crisis. Mr. Pasalis is now considering how he might use the data for his own GTA analysis.

"The fact that [the CHSP data] has forced CMHC to take back their long-standing position on non-resident purchases in Vancouver is noteworthy," he says.

Mr. Yan says the new data are crucial to the dialogue around housing and in determining public policy.

"Data projects like the CHSP are critical in nurturing, building, and informing Canadian liberal democracy and a modern housing system," Mr. Yan says.

Mr. Yan and other academics and experts have waited many years to get their hands on reliable data. Now that the data are finally being rolled out, he has a wish list for the agency that's not in any way complete. So far it includes numbers on investorowned condos that are operating as rentals, the source countries of the investors, the patterns of investor ownership by neighbourhood and the age of the buildings preferred by investors.

Statistics Canada chief JeanPhilippe Deschamps-Laporte says that while he can't comment on how the data sets are being used, he is very pleased that the agency's work is being embraced by academic researchers. For the past two years, the agency has been approaching data collection in an entirely new way, by looking at administrative information, including Canada Revenue Agency information, land titles and property assessments, in order to answer questions about home ownership, rental housing, and other key questions.

The agency works closely with all levels of government in every province. There are quality assurance controls in place and the error rate is extremely low, says Dr.

Deschamps-Laporte, who is chief of analysis and dissemination of the new Ottawa program.

"We are confident in the data we publish," he says. "When we see these people using [the data], I feel that maybe we are on the right path. In no way is it perfect, in no way are we publishing information on all the questions, but over the two years out of a five-year development phase, we have the room to address future emerging questions as well.

"Better decisions are what we are after for all parties. Particularly in B.C., there are a number of policies that have been rolled out. And even at the federal level, housing has been a consistent topic in the last three or four budgets.

"All these policies need the proper data to be designed appropriately. It is our hope that this information can be used by different levels of government to make the right decision."

A question that lingers for academic Mr. Gordon involves foreign ownership of housing over time. For example, the agency could look a properties purchased for more than $1-million in recent years and determine what percentage had been bought by people who'd paid less than $50,000 total in Canadian income taxes. Such data would give Canadians in unaffordable markets a clearer picture of the decoupling of local incomes from the housing market and the role that high-income low-income-tax-paying non-residents play in driving up prices.

"Long story short, what is needed is better 'flow' data on foreign ownership over time and this could be achieved by looking at the non-resident data that have already been gathered and trying to figure out when properties were purchased through title or transaction records," Prof.

Gordon says. "They could potentially sample something like that in certain jurisdictions to make the task more manageable."

In fact, Dr. Deschamps-Laporte, who has a PhD in economics, says that the agency is particularly interested in non-resident ownership of Canadian housing, as well as income tax reporting.

In September, they will be releasing data at the municipal level, although he couldn't reveal any details.

In the past, the agency relied on household surveys in order to collect housing data, but surveys don't work when the homeowners are non-residents. It's required a new strategy.

"One of the flagship components of this program is analyzing non residents," he says. "For instance, we want to know if people are born in this country. Statscan, with agreements with the provinces and territories, has access to hospital data, and we can [determine] if a person was born here. So we are integrating all these sources.

"Why would I need that data to analyze housing? Well, it's quite important, if you are asking questions about residency. So there are these new sources."

It's a new day for data collection for another fundamental reason, he says.

"To be frank, we are dealing with hundreds of gigabytes of data, and if you go back 10 years, the processing capacity to deal with this enormous amount of information was simply not there, so there are advances in computing and methods."

As for the revelation that Toronto and Vancouver markets have a hefty share of investorowned condos, Mr. Pasalis and others agree that it's not an ideal situation if purpose-built rentals aren't coming online at the same time. Investor-owned condos often sit empty, or underused, and are easily utilized for short-term rental, all of which takes away from local housing. And even when rented out to locals, investor owned condos aren't secure rental housing.

Purpose-built rental buildings offer far greater security because they aren't at the whims of market forces. Investor-owned market condos are susceptible to shifting markets and their use as rental stock can ebb and flow, Mr.Pasalis says.

"I definitely see it as problematic that virtually all of the rental stock built in the GTA over the past 15 years has come from condominiums versus purpose-built rentals.

"It's problematic for a number of reasons. Firstly, those tens of thousands of units are not permanent - many of the condos that are currently used as rentals now are being sold to end users, which shrinks the pool of rental units.

"Finally, if condo prices take a bit of a hit in the near future, we could very well see a decent number of mom and pop investors rush to dump their units, which could make what would have been a modest cool down into a more severe decline.

"End users don't rush for the exit when prices dip a bit, but investors are less tied to their units so are more likely to take their cash and run if they see a decline in the near future."

Associated Graphic

Toronto's downtown has plenty of condos, but experts are concerned as a large percentage of those units are non-owner occupied. Even if those units are rented out to locals, they aren't the secure rental housing badly needed in the city.


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In Newfoundland and Labrador's opioid crisis, a flying doctor lifts rural residents' hopes of recovery
For many patients in far-flung towns, Todd Young is the only option to get treatment fast - but getting to them takes determination, effort and a pair of wings

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Monday, July 15, 2019 – Page A8

It is an hour or so before midnight when Dr. Todd Young's truck peels onto the unlit strip of asphalt paved into a remote section of woods.

His pilot and plane are already waiting.

This night's flight was planned for tomorrow, but warnings of early-morning fog have set off an urgent race to get Dr. Young up into the sky - and back down more than 500 kilometres south in Marystown - to ensure he can see the dozens of addictions patients registered to see him.

Prescription pads, specimen containers and patient files are hurriedly loaded into the Piper's snug fuselage by the scant light of a half moon. Seatbelts click. Laughter over the mention of checking the dark airstrip for moose (although it is not actually a joke) ends when the 50-year-old plane's twin-engines roar to life. The Piper picks up speed as it scuttles down the runway and pushes skyward, advancing one of the most ambitious rural medical efforts under way to provide opioid replacement therapy along the country's easterly margin.

Dr. Young, a physician based in Springdale, the rural town of 3,000 where he was born and where his father is still the local barber, has his own plane and is flown into eight (and counting) small Newfoundland and Labrador towns each month to provide treatment for opioid addiction. In most of those places, he is the only doctor willing to prescribe opioid-replacement medication - methadone or Suboxone - and he often has to convince pharmacists to dispense the medication.

In all but one of the towns he flies to, he is the only doctor who offers rapid access to treatment, meaning a patient asking for help is usually seen within five days (elsewhere in the province, patients wait an average of one month, although in rural areas, if there is a doctor who offers opioidaddiction treatment, waits are often much longer).

Newfoundland has struggled in recent years to counter a growing opioid epidemic that, as in other provinces, has ensnared people from all walks of life. Even Liberal Premier Dwight Ball has spoken publicly about his own daughter's struggle with addiction. The province was recently slammed for having the country's highest opioid prescription rate per capita - and the country's only increasing rate of opioid prescriptions - in a report published last year by the Canadian Institute for Health Information.

Apparent opioid-related deaths in the province have decreased, from 33 in 2017 to just 10 in 2018, according to provincial statistics. But addiction-treatment advocates fear those low numbers belie the full extent of the local opioid problem. Approximately 2,700 Newfoundlanders were prescribed methadone or Suboxone in 2018, according to provincial statistics.

The number of doctors willing to prescribe the medication nearly doubled between 2017, when there were just 54 prescribers, and 2018, which had 98.

Still, accessing that treatment remains a challenge. That is particularly acute outside the three urban centres - St. John's, Cornerbrook and Gander - that have what the province calls "Opioid Dependence Treatment hubs."

"This is not a popular form of medicine in Newfoundland," said Dr. Young, who said many physicians "look at addictions patients as problem patients." Thus, it is not uncommon for him to show up to work to find a patient who has hitchhiked hundreds of kilometres to beg for treatment, or another waiting in her truck before office hours begin, trembling with the onset of withdrawal and the determination to get help.

"Every nook and cranny is affected by addiction," Dr. Young said. "People are suffering in the smallest of towns."

Marystown is one of them. A Burin Peninsula hub with a population of 5,300, the town's shipbuilding heyday is long over; hard times have befallen many and the spread of opioid addiction has deepened the desperation. Until Dr. Young set up his monthly clinic there last year, the closest opioid-addiction treatment option was in St. John's, a six-hour journey with the return.

Getting there and back while trying to battle addiction, maintain a job, care for a family and pay the cost of travel was, for many, nonsensical.

On the early June day that Dr. Young is in town, close to 50 patients file in to see him. The earliest are Kim Boland and Steven Stacey, a young couple whose fiveyear-old son, Steven Jr., tags along.

"If it weren't for methadone, I don't know where I would be to," said Mr. Stacey, an autobody mechanic with a thick Bayman accent. "We were the worst of the worst. We was bad drug addicts for five solid years," he said, glancing at Ms. Boland, who nodded.

Steven Jr. was removed from his parents' custody when he was eight months old, an act that Ms. Boland painfully recalls being grateful for. In the throes of her addiction, she could only concentrate on how to get her daily fix. "I wished somebody would come and take him - we never thought we'd get clean. We were going to put the kid in foster care," she said, adding: "We weren't there for his first birthday."

The pair served jail terms for stealing and petty theft.

Dr. Young, though, has helped them turn their lives around. He has Ms. Boland and Mr. Stacey on methadone. They have their son back and are planning for a summer full of family activities.

Next, Emma Foote talks in her appointment about weaning off methadone. She started on the treatment five years after moving to Ontario to get treatment. Then, she was told she would have to wait nine months for methadone in Newfoundland.

"I was like, 'I'll probably be dead in nine months'," she recalled. "I was so desperate. I felt near dead."

Ms. Foote recently moved home to Marystown, but only because she could continue treatment with Dr. Young.

He currently manages about 600 patients that range in age from 15 to 94. That list grows daily because of a never-say-no policy Dr. Young adopted at the insistence of his best friend, Craig Wiseman. A former intensive-care nurse, Mr. Wiseman works with Dr. Young as a "recovery coach." That job involves sharing with patients his own struggle with opioid addiction, which began more than two decades ago.

Bored in a St. John's hotel room after a patient transfer, Mr. Wiseman injected morphine. The addiction was instant.

"I was a nurse on top of my game, two little babies at home, everything to live for. I didn't really fit what most people would consider the stereotype," he recalled ruefully. "But there's no set mould or pattern of people. What I did was I experimented and I got caught."

Mr. Wiseman got help after abandoning plans to commit suicide while hunting in the woods; he reached out for support from Dr. Young, who he met in nursing school (Dr. Young was a nurse before he became a doctor).

Years later, it was Dr. Young's turn to ask his friend for help. In 2015, in a deep depression, the doctor was battling alcoholism, a broken marriage and a licence suspension from the provincial College of Physicians and Surgeons for having inappropriate relationships with two patients.

"Things just spiralled down," Dr. Young said. "What happened to me can happen to anybody given the right set of circumstances."

Out of that dark period, in which Dr.Young himself struggled to get doctors to agree to treat him, came a new commitment to helping vulnerable patients who have few options - and few willing doctors - to turn to.

He and Mr. Wiseman agreed to team up to treat opioid addictions, a problem Mr.Wiseman fears is far greater than government statistics reflect.

"The optics are not accurate. We only hear tell of the diagnosed overdoses, but no one would have thought of me, if they had come into the woods and found my body, as an opioid addict," Mr. Wiseman said. "But it would have been related to opioid use. The sickness is even bigger than it looks."

Dr. Young hopes that his willingness to treat it will eventually entice other physicians.

"My goal with all these clinics everywhere ... is for people to have their own physicians take care of them," he said.

"I'm not special in my knowledge base.

Every family doctor is quite capable of managing addiction," he said.

What sets him apart, perhaps, is his social conscience and his approach to addiction ("It is just another chronic disease," he said).

"For me, the most socially responsible thing I could do is focus on mental health and addictions," he said, adding: "The easy thing would have been to stay in my office in Springdale and work nine-tofive."

Tackling the rural opioid epidemic doesn't strictly require a personal plane, although having the Piper has cut down on long highway commutes.

"It makes it a bit of an adventure," Dr.Young said, grinning.

Associated Graphic

Todd Young, centre, and Craig Wiseman, right, carry charts and luggage off a small airstrip after landing in Clarenville, N.L., for their second clinic of the day.

Kim Boland, below, holds her son, Steven Stacey Jr., as she and Steven Sr. meet with Dr. Young in Marystown, N.L. 'If it wasn't for methadone, I don't know where I'd be to,' Mr. Stacey says.

Dr. Young stands on the wharf in front of his grandparents' home in Springdale, N.L., the rural town of 3,000 where he was born and still practises.

Mr. Wiseman, left, and Dr. Young prepare for takeoff on a small airstrip outside Marystown. The two both helped each other during tumultuous periods in their lives before teaming up to treat opioid addictions.

Dr. Young has his own plane and is flown into a number of Newfoundland and Labrador towns each month to see about 600 patients. That list grows daily because of a never-say-no policy.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Wednesday, July 10, 2019 – Page B17


1954 - 2019

It is with deep sadness we announce the death of John Bate who died unexpectedly at home July 4, 2019.

He leaves behind his wife, Susan and stepson, Alex (Chloe). John was predeceased by his mother, Diane Walden (Jack) and father, Gord Bate (Sylvia). He is survived by his aunt, Faye Hope (Jack) and uncle, Harry Lines (Sharon). He will be missed and fondly remembered by his many cousins. He will always be loved and remembered for his creative spirit and kind heart.

We will celebrate John's life and his homecoming with the Lord, on Friday, July 12, 2019 at 3:00 p.m. with visitation from 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m., at Dods & McNair Funeral Home, 21 First St, Orangeville, Ontario. Donations in his memory can be made to Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation - University Health Network (UHN) in Toronto.

Condolences may be offered to the family at


April 7, 1963 - July 7, 2019

Passed suddenly at her favorite place, Lake of the Woods.

A Celebration of Life will be held on July 12th , at 11:00 a.m, at the Gates on Roblin, 6945 Roblin Blvd, Headingley, MB.

A full obituary will follow on Saturday.



Condolences may be sent to


On July 8, 2019 in her 92nd year.

Wife of the late Hubert Oliver Jack, mother of Katrina, Colin and Peter, mother-in-law of Denise, grandmother of Amanda.

A service will be held in the chapel of the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. West, on Thursday, July 11th at 2 p.m. Reception to follow the service. If desired, a donation may be made to the Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation (


November 13, 1935 - July 4, 2019 An ode to Kay: My love and soul mate for nearly 50 years, Kay passed away peacefully in her sleep on July 4, 2019. She was an exceptional person with great inner strength that never wavered in her support for me, her family, and friends. I shall miss her dearly but am grateful for countless laughs, smiles, and adventures we had together.

She was born in St. Louis, MO., November 13, 1935, to Joseph and Millie Roddy and is survived by her sisters Judith Kahlmeyer and Joyce Roddy. We met in the late 60's in New York City, where she was thriving as a 'Mad Man" in the advertising business. Her quick wit, agile mind, and big heart, melted my own. We were married in 1970, and shortly thereafter moved to my native Switzerland. Kay embraced her new life, culture, and language. Here she formed lasting and deep friendships which she held dear. Our adventure continued after the birth of our beloved son Joergen onto Japan. Again, Kay embraced and cherished every new experience and took every opportunity to explore her new world.

In the late 1970's, we made our final move to Toronto where we called the Beach our preferred home. Here we enjoyed every minute of raising our son and filled our life with countless visits from family and friends, countless laughs and chats with neighbours, and lots and lots of hockey with Joergen.

Always wanting a lot of children our wish was granted in the form of Joergen's closest friends. Our home was the hub and open for all. Kay was always available for a hug, a talk, or a game of Bubble Bobble.

About 15 years ago we moved from the beach to downtown Toronto. Kay loved being in the thick of it, surrounded by bright lights and the big city. We explored every restaurant worth exploring and walked every street worth walking. It was here that Kay became a dog lover and enjoyed long walks in the local parks with her grand "puppy", Kali. Kali is our bit of Switzerland in Toronto being a Bernese mountain dog.

Kay's insatiable appetite for knowledge and learning was apparent by the copious amount of books she virtually devoured. One or two in a week was no exception but it had to be in hardcover or paperback and no e-device. Along with books she loved a good crossword puzzle, with which everywhere surrounded us. Cruelly, all of this ended a few years ago when she began to lose her sight and reading became an impossibility. Kay never dwelt on this hardship and frustration and never complained about the hand she was dealt. If you had asked her, she would have said she was dealt a pretty fabulous hand. She had her own prayers list and if she knew you well you undoubtedly were on it. So she likely was thinking of you at least once a day as well.

Kay and I thoroughly enjoyed each other; our relationship was simply built on love and respect. Oh yes, we also had our ups and downs but that never broke our close bond. We were there for each other through thick and thin.

Never did Kay distract from our son Joergen. He was the center of her life and we are ever so grateful to have him. The addition of his love Courtney and ultimately our grandson Raef Alexander made her final years complete.

A memorial will be held in the near future, please contact Joergen at for details.


Passed away peacefully at home at age 90 after a life spent challenging conventional thinking about societal change, economic development and urban design.

Born in South Africa and trained first as an architect, he was forced to leave all behind for his beliefs.

Working and teaching in London, England, he embraced urban planning and founded the School of Urban and Regional Planning at Ryerson University which is now in its 50th year. Driven by his passion, he led the establishment of a score of institutions that play a role in Canada's economic and urban development. In retirement, Michael represented Ontario for nine years at the National Capital Commission in Ottawa contributing to the design of our nation's Capital and was particularly proud of the Canadian War Museum. He is survived by his three children and grandchildren, wife Sherrill Burns and stepson Jarrett Burns. To honour Michael, contributions to the Michael Kusner Scholarship Fund would be appreciated.

Condolences may be left at


Peacefully on Saturday, June 22, 2019, Maxwell John Miller, FRIBA, FRAIC, Past President, Ontario Association of Architects and longtime chief architect for Simpsons and Sears. Happily married to Evelyn Miller (nee Lamb) for over 59 years before her death in 2012. Much loved father of Henry (Lynn) and Avarina and loving grandfather of Sebastian (Lauren), Victoria, Emily and Juliana.

Friends may visit at RosarMorrison Funeral Home & Chapel, 467 Sherbourne St.

on Thursday, July 11 from 2 - 5 and 7 - 9 p.m. Mass of Christian Burial at Our Lady of Lourdes Church, 520 Sherbourne Street, on Friday, July 12 at 10 a.m. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to St. Michael's Hospital Foundation. Heartfelt thanks to Sabrina and all at Integracare. Condolences


De Montigny Marchand, distinguished senior Canadian public servant and Ambassador died in Victoria on June 24, 2019.

He leaves in mourning his loving companion and wife of forty years Marie-Andrée Beauchemin. He is sorely missed by his devoted and much-loved children from his first marriagetothelateNathalieClift,Julie, Emmanuelle, Charles and his wife, Noom; and his adored grandchildren, Anne-Sophie, Marie-Claude, JeanChristophe (Goulet), Adèle, Laurent, Renaud (Chiricota), Sémira, EmilieSasi, Prom (Marchand). He will also be much missed by his sisters, Marie (Marc Filion) and Francine (Robert Clarenc); his sister-in-law, Francine Beauchemin; and his nephews, nieces, cousins, and many other members of his extended family.

De Montigny was born on March 19, 1936 in St-Jérome, Quebec, the son of Jean-Charles Marchand and Françoise Magnan. A graduate of the University of Montreal where he obtained his law degree, he also attended Boston University where he pursued postgraduate studies in communications.

Having served as Secretary General of the University of Montreal (19671969), de Montigny joined the federal public service where he rose rapidly to the highest ranks, serving as the Privy Council's Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet during the government of Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.

Senior appointments followed as Deputy Minister of Political Affairs at External Affairs, as Deputy Minister of Communications, of Energy, Mines and Resources and as Under Secretary of State for External Affairs. During these years he served also as the Prime Minister's Personal Representative for several G7 Summits, including Versailles (1982), Williamsburg (1983) and London (1984). De Montigny also served as Canada's Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva (198789) and as Ambassador of Canada to Italy (1991-96).

Throughout his career, de Montigny played a key role at the nerve center of government as both a proud Quebecker and as a defender and promoter of federalism and bilingualism during challenging years for the country.

After living the first phase of their retirement in Tuscany for 12 years, de Montigny and Marie-Andrée moved to Victoria in 2014 where he maintained his life-long interest in international affairs and greatly appreciated the closer vicinity to his family and year-round golfing at the Victoria Golf Club.

De Montigny was an exceptional gentleman, a charming lover of family, music, wine, golf and baseball (especially the Boston Red Sox) and a great raconteur. He will be greatly missed but fondly remembered by his family and many friends in Canada and abroad.

Celebrations of his life will be organized in Victoria and Montreal in September. Condolences may be offered to the family at

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Leveraging fame and a vast fortune amassed in business, the brash Navy man's forays into national politics, and focus on the federal deficit, left a lasting imprint

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Wednesday, July 10, 2019 – Page B18

DALLAS -- Henry Ross Perot, the colourful, self-made Texas billionaire who rose from a childhood of Depression-era poverty and twice ran for president as a third-party candidate, has died. He was 89.

Mr. Perot, whose 19 per cent of the vote in 1992 stands among the best showings by an independent candidate in the past century, died early on Tuesday at his home in Dallas surrounded by his devoted family, family spokesman James Fuller said.

As a boy in Texarkana, Tex., Mr. Perot delivered newspapers from the back of a pony. He earned his billions in a more modern way, however. After attending the U.S. Naval Academy and becoming a salesman for IBM, he went his own way - creating and building Electronic Data Systems Corp. (EDS), which helped other companies manage their computer networks.

Yet the most famous event in his business career didn't involve sales and earnings; he financed a private commando raid in 1979 to free two EDS employees who were being held in a prison in Iran.

The tale was turned into a book and a movie.

"I always thought of him as stepping out of a Norman Rockwell painting and living the American dream," said Tom Luce, who was a young lawyer when Mr.Perot hired him to handle his business and personal legal work. "A newspaper boy, a midshipman, shaking Dwight Eisenhower's hand at his graduation, and he really built the computer-services industry at EDS."

"He had the vision and the tenacity to make it happen," Mr. Luce said. "He was a great communicator. He never employed a speech writer - he wrote all his own speeches. He was a great storyteller."

Mr. Perot first became known to Americans outside of business circles by claiming that the U.S. government left behind hundreds of American soldiers who were missing or imprisoned at the end of the Vietnam War. Mr. Perot fanned the issue at home and discussed it privately with Vietnamese officials in the 1980s, angering the Reagan administration, which was formally negotiating with Vietnam's government.

Mr. Perot's wealth, fame and confident prescription for the country's economic ills propelled his 1992 campaign against president George H.W. Bush and Democratic challenger Bill Clinton. Some Republicans blamed him for Mr. Bush's loss to Mr. Clinton as Mr. Perot garnered the largest percentage of votes for a third-party candidate since former president Theodore Roosevelt's 1912 bid.

During the campaign, Mr. Perot spent US$63.5-million of his own money and bought 30-minute television spots. He used charts and graphs to make his points, summarizing them with a line that became a national catchphrase: "It's just that simple."

Mr. Perot's second campaign four years later was far less successful. He was shut out of presidential debates when organizers said he lacked sufficient support. He got just 8 per cent of the vote, and the Reform Party that he founded and hoped to build into a national political force began to fall apart.

However, Mr. Perot's ideas on trade and deficit reduction remained part of the political landscape. He blamed both major parties for running up a huge federal budget deficit and allowing American jobs to be sent to other countries. The movement of U.S. jobs to Mexico, he said, created a "giant sucking sound."

Mr. Perot continued to speak out about federal spending for many years. In 2008, he launched a website to highlight the country's debt with a ticker that tracked the rising total, a blog and a chart presentation.

Henry Ross Perot was born in Texarkana on June 27, 1930. His father was a cotton broker; his mother a secretary. Mr.Perot said his family survived the Depression relatively well through hard work and by managing their money carefully.

Young Henry's first job was delivering papers in a poor, mostly black part of town from his pony, Miss Bee. When the newspaper tried to cut his commission, he said he complained to the publisher - and won. He said that taught him to take problems straight to the top.

From Texarkana, Mr. Perot went to the U.S. Naval Academy, even though he had never been on a ship or seen the ocean.

After the Navy, Mr. Perot joined International Business Machines in 1955 and quickly became a top salesman. In his last year at IBM, he filled his sales quota for the year in January.

In 1962, with US$1,000 from his wife, Margot, Mr. Perot founded Electronic Data Systems. Hardware accounted for about 80 per cent of the computer business, Mr.Perot said, and IBM wasn't interested in the other 20 per cent, including services.

Many of the early hires at EDS were former military men, and they had to abide by Mr. Perot's strict dress code - white shirts, ties, no beards or mustaches - and long workdays. Many had crew cuts, like Mr. Perot.

The company's big break came in the mid-1960s when the federal government created Medicare and Medicaid, the health programs for seniors, the disabled and the poor. States needed help in running the programs, and EDS won contracts - starting in Texas - to handle the millions of claims.

EDS first sold stock to the public in 1968, and overnight, Mr. Perot was worth US$350-million. His fortune doubled and tripled as the stock price rose steadily.

In 1984, he sold control of the company to General Motors Corp. for US$2.5-billion and received US$700-million in a buyout.

In 2008, EDS was sold to Hewlett-Packard Co.

Mr. Perot went on to establish another computer-services company, Perot Systems Corp. He retired as chief executive officer in 2000 and was succeeded by his son, Ross Perot Jr. In 2009, Dell Inc.

bought Perot Systems.

Forbes magazine this year estimated Mr. Perot's wealth at US$4.1-billion.

Mr. Perot was not immune to mistakes in business. His biggest might have been a 1971 investment in duPont Glore Forgan, then one of the biggest brokerage houses on Wall Street. The administration of president Richard Nixon asked Mr. Perot to save the company to head off an investor panic, and he also poured money into another troubled brokerage, Walston & Co., but wound up losing much of his US$100-million investment.

It was during the Nixon administration that Mr. Perot became involved in the issue of U.S. prisoners of war in Southeast Asia. Mr. Perot said then secretary of state Henry Kissinger asked him to lead a campaign to improve the treatment of POWs held in North Vietnam. Mr. Perot chartered two jets to fly medical supplies and the wives of POWs to Southeast Asia.

They were not allowed into North Vietnam, but the trip attracted enormous media attention.

After their release in 1973, some prisoners said conditions in the camps had improved after the failed missions.

In 1979, the Iranian government jailed two EDS executives and Mr. Perot vowed to win their release.

"Ross came to the prison one day and said, 'We're going to get you out,' " one of the men, Paul Chiapparone, told the Associated Press. "How many CEOs would do that today?" Mr. Perot recruited retired U.S. Army Special Forces Colonel Arthur (Bull) Simons to lead a commando raid on the prison. A few days later, the EDS executives walked free after the shah's regime fell and mobs stormed the prison. Mr. Simons's men sneaked the executives out of the country and into Turkey. The adventure was recalled in Ken Follett's bestselling book On Wings of Eagles and a TV miniseries.

In later years, Mr. Perot pushed the U.S. Veterans Affairs Department to study neurological causes of Gulf War syndrome, a mysterious illness reported by many soldiers who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war.

He scoffed at officials who blamed the illnesses on stress - "as if they are wimps" - and paid for additional research.

Mr. Perot received a special award from Veterans Affairs for his support of veterans and the military in 2009.

Mr. Clinton and former president George W. Bush praised Mr. Perot's patriotism and support for veterans.

Mr. Clinton said Mr. Perot wanted to tackle budget deficits and rising national debt that kept interest rates too high for middle-class Americans. Mr. Bush said he "epitomized the entrepreneurial spirit" and "gave selflessly of his time and resources to help others in our community."

In Texas, Mr. Perot led commissions on education reform and crime. He was given many honorary degrees and awards for business success and patriotism.

Former president George W. Bush said in a statement that "Texas and America have lost a strong patriot."

"Ross Perot epitomized the entrepreneurial spirit and the American creed. He gave selflessly of his time and resources to help others in our community, across our country, and around the world," Mr. Bush said. "He loved the U.S. military and supported our service members and veterans.

Most importantly, he loved his dear wife, children, and grandchildren."

While he worked at Perot Systems in suburban Dallas, entire hallways were filled with memorabilia from soldiers and POWs that Mr. Perot had helped. His personal office was dominated by large paintings of his wife and five children and bronze sculptures by Frederic Remington.

Several original Norman Rockwell paintings hung in the waiting area, and Mr. Perot once told a visiting reporter that he tried to live by Mr. Rockwell's ethics of hard, honest work and family.

Associated Graphic

As an independent candidate for president, Henry Ross Perot, seen on the campaign trail in Austin, Tex., in 1992, achieved a historic 19 per cent of the vote, drawing the rancour of some Republicans who blamed him for George H. W. Bush's loss to Bill Clinton. AP

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Canadian maker of military vehicles for Sudan operates beyond reach of Ottawa's rules

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Tuesday, July 16, 2019 – Page A1

KHARTOUM OTTAWA -- On the streets of Khartoum, the tan-coloured military vehicles are easy to spot: armoured personnel carriers, built by a Canadian-owned company, deployed in key locations around the city in support of the regime that seized power in a military coup this year.

The machines, with machine guns mounted on top, do not have any external markings. But experts have helped The Globe and Mail identify them as Cougar armoured vehicles, manufactured by Streit Group, a company owned by Canadian businessman Guerman Goutorov.

The vehicles are part of a growing debate in Sudan: the role of foreign companies, including Canadian manufacturers, in providing support for the latest military regime and, before it, the authoritarian government that ruled Sudan for 30 years. The massacre of pro-democracy protesters by Sudan's security agencies in June has made the issue even more urgent, critics say.

Linked to this is a separate debate: What can countries such as Canada do to regulate its companies when they provide militaryrelated assistance to repressive regimes, especially those subject to sanctions? New Canadian regulations to crack down on arms brokering are being introduced this year, but it remains unclear if they will make any real difference on the ground.

The federal government has called for democracy in Sudan, demanded a transition to civilian rule and criticized the military regime for its violence against protesters.

But a Sudanese pro-democracy leader, Amjad Farid, says he detects a whiff of hypocrisy in official pronouncements from Canada and other Western governments. As long as their private businesses are providing valuable support for Sudan's military regime, their government statements are mere rhetoric, he says.

Two Canadian-owned companies - Streit and lobbying firm Dickens & Madson - have had a high-profile role in Sudan this year. The lobbyist has provided strategic and diplomatic advice to the military rulers, promising to help obtain funds and equipment for their armed forces, while Streit is the manufacturer of a number of the armoured vehicles the regime has used to maintain its grip on power.

For the pro-democracy protesters, this foreign business partnership with Sudan's military regime has fuelled their mistrust of Western governments and their cynicism about the official statements of support.

"The international community has more than one face," said Mr.Farid, spokesman for the Sudanese Professionals Association, one of the main organizers of the mass street protests that have persisted in Sudan since last December.

"They're not sincere when they say that they oppose tyranny," he told The Globe in an interview earlier this month in Khartoum.

He questioned the military regime's decision to spend US$6million on a contract with the Canadian lobbying company.

Canada has federal regulations in place to enforce United Nations sanctions against Sudan, including an arms embargo that prohibits the sale of most types of "military and paramilitary equipment." But there are ways for Canadian companies to avoid the impact of those rules, analysts say.

Last week, the federal government asked the RCMP to investigate Dickens & Madson for possible violations of the sanctions on Sudan. The company's president, Ari Ben-Menashe, has denied any.

Streit, meanwhile, could run afoul of new federal regulations on Canadian "arms brokers" who sell weapons to countries under sanctions. But it is unclear if those regulations would halt the export of Streit vehicles to Sudan, experts say. The company's chairman and owner, Mr. Goutorov, is a Canadian citizen. But because his factory was located in the United Arab Emirates, rather than in Canada, he is beyond the reach of existing rules.

The Globe reported in 2016 that the RCMP was investigating Streit for possible violations of Canadian sanctions regulations on Sudan, but there is no indication any action was taken.

A related Streit company, Streit Manufacturing, has a presence in Canada. Mr. Goutorov is registered as its president and treasurer in Ontario government records and the company manufactures armoured vehicles at a facility in Midland, Ont.

Toronto trade lawyer Cyndee Todgham Cherniak, an expert in export controls, said her understanding is that the 2016 review was closed because the Streit vehicles are being manufactured overseas in the UAE and Canadian authorities couldn't find evidence that any parts originated in Canada. "It's possible to avoid Canadian law if you have a foreign subsidiary do the work," she said.

Three years ago, The Globe reported that Streit had sold 30 Typhoon armoured trucks to Sudan's security agencies. Some of the vehicles, manufactured at Streit's UAE factory, ended up in the Darfur region, where Sudan's military and paramilitary forces have committed atrocities that have led to war-crimes charges at the International Criminal Court.

A report in 2016 by a UN panel of experts concluded that the import of the Streit vehicles was a violation of the UN arms embargo on Sudan. While the manufacturer sold the vehicles to a local broker, it "almost certainly" knew that broker was not the "end user" and that the broker was making false claims about the destination of the vehicles, the report concluded.

Streit did not answer many of the UN panel's questions about the Typhoon vehicle deal, nor did it respond to questions from The Globe about its Cougar vehicles in Khartoum. In the past, when asked about a similar deal in South Sudan, it has argued that the vehicles are not military equipment because they are not exported with weaponry attached to them.

Independent researchers, including Amnesty International experts, have verified that several military vehicles photographed by The Globe in Khartoum this month are Cougar armoured personnel carriers, manufactured by Streit Group.

Alex Neve, secretary-general of the Canadian branch of Amnesty International, called for an "urgent investigation" of Streit's role in Sudan.

The presence of Streit vehicles in Sudan's military forces this year, three years after criticism of its earlier deals, "would seem to indicate that regard for human rights and international law does not figure prominently in the company's business decisions," Mr. Neve told The Globe.

He said it was "particularly troubling" to learn that Sudan's security forces are using Streit vehicles at a time when they have been employing violence and military weaponry to repress the pro-democracy demonstrations.

Even if the Streit vehicles were manufactured outside Canada, any involvement by Canadian citizens in the company "raises serious questions about violations of sanctions," Mr. Neve said.

Starting Sept. 1, Canadians in the arms-brokering business will be subject to licensing requirements. Brokers are defined as those who arrange or negotiate a transaction for moving arms between two foreign countries. Canadians in this business are required to apply for a permit to make these deals, but Ottawa would not grant one where the goods in question could undermine peace and security or be used to commit serious violations of humanitarian or human-rights law.

Ms. Todgham Cherniak, the Toronto lawyer, said Canada has enacted these new rules to comply with the UN's Arms Trade Treaty, but their arrival doesn't necessarily mean Mr. Goutorov will find himself charged with breaking Canadian law.

"Someone in this position and Streit knows they're under the microscope - would look at the Canadian rules very carefully and see if there is any way to get around the rules," she said. "If you can structure your affairs to avoid the application of the law, that's still legal." Arms-trade watchers believe Streit sells its vehicles to middlemen - local companies in the Middle East that then resell them to African buyers. In this case, Streit wouldn't technically be the broker. "If it can't be shown he arranged a sale, than he did not engage in brokering," Ms. Todgham Cherniak said.

A Canadian source with knowledge of Canada's arms-control monitoring, however, said the government is going to look at the full cycle of an arms transaction - to determine the ultimate end user - rather than just the initial consignee of a controlled good.

The source was granted anonymity by The Globe because they were not authorized to speak publicly on the matter.

The source said that in challenging cases it may be necessary for various government departments and authorities to work together to find a solution that could include going after offenders in court.

Ms. Todgham Cherniak said one solution for the Canadian government in difficult cases would be to team up with a jurisdiction that has more funding and authority to investigate overseas, such as the United States. In Canada, she said, "we don't have sufficient resources allocated to export controls and economic sanctions."

Associated Graphic

Soldiers with Sudan's Rapid Support Forces patrol Khartoum last month. The militia evolved in part out of the Janjaweed forces formed in the 2000s to suppress the Darfur insurgency.


Above: Demonstrators flood the streets of Khartoum on June 30 in a rally against ruling generals. For some pro-democracy protesters, foreign business partnerships with Sudan's military regime have fuelled mistrust of Western governments.


Experts identify this armoured vehicle, deployed in Khartoum by Sudan's ruling military regime, as being manufactured by Streit Group, a company owned by Canadian businessman Guerman Goutorov.


Left: Crowds gather again for a rally in Khartoum on Saturday to mourn the dozens of demonstrators killed in a raid on a protest camp in the capital early last month.

Above: A man at the rally raises a picture of a fellow protester killed in the crackdown. More than 100 pro-democracy protesters were massacred by Sudan's security agencies in June.


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Bombardier raises questions about 'commercial viability' of Thunder Bay plant

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Thursday, July 11, 2019 – Page A8

Bombardier Inc. is raising concerns about the "commercial viability" of its Thunder Bay railcar plant should it not secure new work, even as the Ontario and federal governments took turns blaming each other for impending job losses at the facility.

Bombardier said the 550 jobs, or half the plant's work force, would be lost beginning in November as contracts with its two biggest customers - Ontario's Metrolinx and the Toronto Transit Commission - come to an end this year.

Bombardier said in a statement Wednesday that it "remain[ed] hopeful that we can secure new work to ensure the [plant's] commercial viability."

News of the cuts led to suggestions that a proposed 36-car order from Metrolinx for its GO Transit system could help show Bombardier the plant should be kept alive. But the deal is not complete, with Bombardier asking for a sizable price increase, according to two sources from Metrolinx.

And the province's desire to take delivery of the cars gradually makes it a drop in the bucket effectively too little, too late, says the union that represents workers at the plant.

"We're building those cars at a rate of one car every two working days," Dominic Pasqualino, the head of the Unifor union at Bombardier's Thunder Bay plant, said Wednesday. "The idea of 36 more GO trains at the rate we're working now is 72 working days.

That's not going to carry us. We need a bigger order. We need an order 10 times that amount," he said.

Premier Doug Ford seemed to characterize the 36-car Metrolinx order as a done deal. "As soon as I found out there might be a layoff, we put our money where our mouth is," he told reporters at a briefing in Saskatoon, where he's attending a conference of provincial and territorial premiers. "We put $130-million, immediately, into this plant. We have the potential to keep this plant going for years."

Ontario's Economic Development and Job Creation Minister Vic Fedeli said Wednesday that there's more money on the horizon: The province is on the verge of a $28.5-billion transit plan, he said, and he urged the federal government to commit its share - up to 40 per cent - before the October general election.

"We're committed to this $28.5-billion in transit, we're committed to [what] we're negotiating right now to the additional GO Transit cars, and we're saying to Bombardier, continue with these discussions with Metrolinx and continue to work to a viable solution to protect those jobs in Thunder Bay," Mr. Fedeli said in an interview.

Yet the ordering of "rolling stock," or railcars, for a new transit project is typically timed so they are delivered relatively close to its opening, not years in advance, and not before the money is approved.

Federal Employment Minister Patty Hajdu, who also represents the riding of Thunder Bay-Superior North, said Ontario still needs to submit an application and details for its $28.5-billion transit plan in order to secure federal funding. "If you don't get the process started, then nothing happens. And in fact, that's what we're seeing right now. So we see chaos, confusion and paralyzation."

"The idea that they would be able to continue to produce cars without an order is ludicrous," she added. "And anybody in business would understand that there's no ability for a company to just on spec produce vehicles or any kinds of product without understanding who and where their customer is."

The Metrolinx and TTC contracts have been fraught with problems - including missed deadlines, late deliveries and defective products. In December, 2017, Metrolinx cut in half a $770million deal with Bombardier, reducing the number of vehicles to 76 from 182, and brought in Bombardier competitor Alstom SA as a supplier. The next year, the majority of the streetcars delivered to the TTC were sent back to the plant for repairs.

Bombardier said in a statement Wednesday that it has been in talks with Metrolinx over the past three weeks about the possibility of making those 36 cars, but no contract has been signed. "We appreciate the provincial government support and look forward to a successful outcome in the very near future," Bombardier said.

Sources within Metrolinx, granted anonymity by The Globe and Mail because they were not authorized to speak publicly about the talks, said that Bombardier was seeking a 35-per-cent premium over previous pricing for the vehicles.

Metrolinx CEO Phil Verster, who would not comment on the negotiations, including how each vehicle might be priced, said the agency was looking to pay a fair cost. "We are doing everything possible to encourage Bombardier to do the work at a reasonable market price," he said in a phone interview Wednesday.

Bombardier spokesman Eric Prud'Homme said the company would not discuss contract negotiations in a public sphere, but said the 35-per-cent figure was not true. He also said the additional vehicles would have "more content" than the ones previously ordered.

Mr. Prud'Homme said that in general, changes in the exchange rate over time can cause changes in pricing, and the economics of a smaller order would naturally yield a higher price than a larger one. "When you have an order, at the end of it, there are two options: continuity, where you keep the plant open and can add more vehicles, or discontinuity, which means your supply chains are shut down and you need to start over again. There's a question of volume: If you're talking about an order of 1,000 cars, versus 100, or 36, anybody should understand that because there are fixed costs, the cost will not be the same."

"Right now, we are in discontinuity," he said. "We've had those conversations with the government since last fall, so this is a flag that's been raised a long time ago."

Meanwhile, Bombardier owes the TTC 38 more streetcars from the 204-vehicle order scheduled to wrap up at year-end. TTC spokesman Stuart Green said that the agency had put a request for information out to the market late in 2017 to see what companies could supply 60 to 100 new streetcars. The responses included one from Bombardier.

He said that it was too early to know when the agency would make a formal purchase recommendation to its governance board. Mr. Green acknowledged that Bombardier's production and reliability issues have caused problems for the TTC and its riders. But he also said that has to be weighed against the fact that the company appears likely to meet its ultimate deadline, and that it may be more efficient to continue an existing contract rather than sign one with a new supplier.

Bombardier said it has spent more than $20-million to double its delivery rate to the TTC and it is "fully committed" to fulfill the 204-car order by the end of the year. "The Thunder Bay Plant has increased its performance significantly since 2016, and the vehicles they are producing are safe, comfortable and reliable."

As for the potential Metrolinx order, Mr. Pasqualino of Unifor says the province wants to take delivery of the 36 cars much more slowly than the current pace of production. "They don't want a car every two days, they want this to stretch out for three years. If you've got 36 cars and three years to do it, you're talking a car a month." Barbara Mottram, spokesperson for Transportation Minister Caroline Mulroney, declined to comment on the timetable, saying the contract is still being negotiated.

Bombardier also said U.S. "Buy American" rules on local content for infrastructure - the threshold is now 65 per cent and is increasing to 70 per cent - are a factor in the layoffs. "A company like Bombardier has no choice but to have an American manufacturing footprint and supply chain.

Therefore, we cannot fully leverage our Canadian manufacturing footprint and expertise."

Canada's premiers used their annual meeting in Saskatoon on Wednesday to call on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to lobby the United States for changes to Buy American rules.

"We are very concerned about the trade barriers with the United States. We had a concrete example yesterday with the layoffs at Bombardier," Quebec Premier François Legault told reporters, speaking in French. He said companies like Bombardier are finding it easier to relocate factories to the U.S. to satisfy Buy American provisions.

With reports from Justin Giovannetti

Associated Graphic

News of Bombardier's job cuts has led to suggestions that a proposed 36-car order from Metrolinx for its GO Transit system could help show Bombardier that its Thunder Bay railcar plant, above, should be kept alive - but the deal is not complete.


Bombardier says 550 jobs, or half the work force at its Thunder Bay railcar plant, will be cut starting in November as contracts with its two biggest customers - Ontario's Metrolinx and the Toronto Transit Commission - come to an end this year. Both contracts have been fraught with problems, including missed deadlines, late deliveries and defective products.


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Two Pages vie for stages in Stratford and N.Y.
Canadian singer-songwriter Steven and son Ben channel their passion for musical theatre with near-simultaneous projects on two sides of the border

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page R3

Since he went solo from the Barenaked Ladies a decade ago, Steven Page has also been working behind-the-scenes on a secret passion - composing songs for a number of musicaltheatre projects for Broadway and the Stratford Festival But the 49-year-old singersongwriter is about to be beaten to a full Page stage production by a nose - by his son.

Ben Page, a 20-year-old Sheridan College student in musictheatre performance, has written the songs for a show called Leaving Eden, having its world premiere at the New York Musical Festival this week.

Steven's much-anticipated first musical, Here's What It Takes, meanwhile, won't open until at least the 2020 season at Stratford.

It is not a huge surprise for Page senior, however, that the middle of his three sons has scored first with a score for a musical. The former BNL front man used to do what he calls "that dad thing" where, driving his boys around, he'd musically educate them with an iPod connected to the car stereo, putting on something by Stephen Sondheim from Company or Merrily We Roll Along - but the student quickly became the teacher.

"You know, I was guiding my kids the right way," Steven recalls.

"And, all of a sudden, Ben laps me with a Wikipedia-like knowledge of contemporary musical theatre and Golden Age musical theatre."

Music had been a part of life in the Page household from birth for the boys - their mother, Carolyn Ricketts, Steven's ex-wife, is a musician, too - but here was the way for Ben to distinguish himself in his teens. "There was always music, but when I found, you know, my cast albums that I love, they were mine," he says, listing William Finn's Falsettos as his favourite.

The Pages spoke to The Globe and Mail about their shared love of musicals on a conference call - the father in Calgary, where he had performed a Canada Day concert, and the son in New York, where he was working on lastminute rewrites. ("Love you, Ben"; "Love you, too.") Leaving Eden is the long-in-development project of a Canadian lyricist and book writer named Jenny Waxman. ("Book" is jargon for the script in a musical, for those of you who haven't attended Sondheim school in a car with your dad.)

It retells the myth of Lilith, said to have been Adam's first wife in the Garden of Eden, alongside a story about a modern couple with infertility issues. It's a conundrum of creation, tackled from two angles.

Ben first got involved with Leaving Eden last summer, cast in the role of "ancient Adam" for a workshop in Hamilton, shortly after a previous composer left the show (Ada Westfall is still credited with "additional music").

One Adam song was still only lyrics - and Ben was supposed to simply speak them. Instead, he went home after rehearsal and composed a setting for the words - a bit of bravado that so impressed Waxman, she brought him on to write the rest of the score.

Now, Leaving Eden is being performed at a festival attended by major Broadway producers, where musicals such as Next to Normal and [title of show] first garnered buzz.

The New York Musical Festival, it could also be noted, is a place where a couple hundred musicals that were never heard of again made their debuts, too.

The stakes are higher for Page senior's forthcoming debut as composer/lyricist at Stratford: Here's What It Takes will be the (some would say well-overdue) first original musical to open there in Antoni Cimolino's tenure as artistic director. Donna Feore, director of many hit revivals at Stratford, is attached and the book is by Siminovitch Prize-winning playwright Daniel MacIvor.

It will show whether Stratford can play a meaningful role in the renaissance of Canadian musical theatre exemplified by Come From Away - or if Canada's largest not-for-profit theatre will continue to sit in the wings and watch.

While the Stratford Festival can't confirm when Here's What It Takes is being mounted, Page says it is in the mix for next season, which will officially be announced in August. He has his "fingers crossed."

The musical's plot follows two friends through the rise of their band in the eighties to its eventual break-up. "It may sound familiar, but it's not," says Page, who has already released versions of many of its songs on his 2016 and 2018 albums, Heal Thyself Pt. 1: Instinct and Discipline: Heal Thyself, Pt. II. "It's definitely not the story of my old band, but I certainly drew on my experience."

What the two Page shows have in common, Steven points out, is the question: What is the cost of creation?

There are some composing dynasties in musical theatre - for instance, Richard Rodgers, of Rodgers and Hammerstein fame, was the father of Mary Rodgers, composer of Once Upon a Mattress, who was the mother of Adam Guettel, composer of The Light in the Piazza. A father and son having their first musicals premiere within a year of one another would be unheard of, however.

Both Pages trace their interest in the form back to their early teens. Steven was in a Scarborough community-theatre production of Oliver! in Grade 8 - and remembers it as the moment he came out of his shell and the beginning of his love of singing. He, of course, took that love in a different direction for a few decades, feeling that musical theatre struggled to channel the pop or rock sound he liked.

Ben was likewise bitten by the Broadway bug in middle school, performing in Into the Woods, but it was only after following friends to an extracurricular theatre program that he became a fullfledged musical nerd. Soon he was competing to track down the best new off-Broadway show and having in-depth debates over Company cast recordings.

Says his father, hearing this, nostalgically: "That's exactly how I was at that age, but with punk and indie rock and finding obscure 45s and flexi discs."

Although his true musical-theatre debut will come second to his son's, Steven has been building a solid theatrical résumé for a while now. He first composed music for a 2005 production of As You Like It directed by Cimolino, and, since, has collaborated on several other Stratford productions with the lyricist William Shakespeare (and one with Ben Jonson).

Page père has had dalliances with Broadway producers, too. At one point, he was approached to write songs for a musical of the 1982 movie, Diner (Sheryl Crow ended up attached). In 2011, he worked on another show with some "New York people" that eventually "ran out of money"; he says he has to be vague about it.

"It's much more fun to just work on my own stuff," he says.

Steven also seems to be having fun supporting his son's nascent career. Just as Victor Page, a drummer and Steven's dad, founded the indie label Page Publications in the eighties to distribute Barenaked Ladies' early cassette tapes, Steven has been helping spread the word about Leaving Eden.

Father and son have collaborated on a couple of music videos for the show. For the song Universe, they sneaked into a Sheridan College studio after hours to shoot, while the song Three Weeks got a more straightforward video of the two performing in Ben's student apartment. "It's been three weeks since I've gotten out of bed / gotten off the couch / put a comb to my head," Steven croons as Ben strums guitar behind him, both wearing bigframed glasses and checkered shirts. (If the lyrics make you think of classic Page-sung BNL tracks One Week and Brian Wilson, it's only coincidence; the words are by Waxman.)

Ben can't wait to bring Leaving Eden back to Canada - and is mostly bullish on the renewed energy surrounding musical theatre in this country these days.

But he still thinks it's sadly the case that "Canadian musicals don't happen in Canada until they go to the States first." Spending four weeks in New York working on his festival show, he's realized that the resources south of the border are at a "totally different level."

This, like sneaking into studios at night and teen debates over albums, flashes Steven Page back to his youth. "Canadian musical theatre hasn't had its Tragically Hip or Arkells yet," he says. "The ones who can actually make a living and gain popular acceptance at home alone without having to make it somewhere else first."

Associated Graphic

Ben Page, left, has written the songs for a show called Leaving Eden, set to have its world premiere at the New York Musical Festival this week. Meanwhile, father Steven, right, has been building a solid theatrical résumé for a while now, and is hard at work on Here's What It Takes - which could open as soon as next year at Stratford.

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A level playing field
Meant to be a source of fun, playgrounds can alienate children with disabilities. Matthew Hague reports on the innovations in accessible playground design that enable play for all
Special to The Globe and Mail

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page P8

Until Hannah Houghton started Grade 3 in September, 2017, she had never romped on the playground of her school, McGirr Elementary in Nanaimo, B.C. In fact, she had never been on any of the 20-plus jungle gyms and adventure parks in her hometown.

Houghton had friends to pal around with and, similar to most kids her age, enjoyed being outside. What stopped her, however, was that none of the playgrounds in her vicinity were wheelchair accessible. As a baby, she was diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy type 2. It left her without the ability to walk across the shifty gravel that separated her from her classmates.

"Starting in kindergarten, I used to see my daughter sitting on top of the hill overlooking the playground at school, with no one around except her adult supervisor," Hannah's mom, Mabel Houghton, says. "She would simply be watching her friends play. So I made a promise to her. I said: 'You are going to get on that playground.' " There's no reason Hannah shouldn't have been with her friends sooner, especially these days. According to Easter Seals, more than 5.3 million Canadians, almost 16 per cent of the population, have some form of disability. Among that number, almost 200,000 are school-aged children such as Hannah. Many more are parents. That's a large number of people who either can't take in the simple pleasure of a park, or supervise their own kids at a park, unless the space is properly designed to accommodate them. Which they should be.

These days, novel designs are making it much easier for people of all abilities to enjoy recreational spaces that until recently were restrictive. That often means wheelchair accessibility, but also goes well beyond it. New materials and thoughtful equipment are also removing barriers for those with vision impairments, hearing deficiencies, social anxieties, autism and sensory development delays.

The benefits of such innovations are potentially huge. According to a study by education journal Physical & Health Canada, children with disabilities are almost four times less likely to get exercise outside of school than other children. In addition, more than half of young ones with disabilities have few to no close friends. Both issues are in part owing to difficulties accessing the venues - parks, camps, gyms, schools - where socialization and physical activity often take place.

Imagine the isolation that's inevitable if all a child can do is watch their peers have fun.

Inclusive play spaces are an invitation to belong. Plus, even for the fully able, they add surprising, often beautiful new components to scamper over. Quite literally, everyone has more fun.

One of the biggest challenges for accessible play is the ground surface. Although some wheelchairs can manoeuvre over a bed of wood chips, which are American Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant, sand, gravel and other uneven, unstable materials tend to be hazardous. For the design of Mississauga's Jaycee Park, which was named by Today's Parent magazine as one of Canada's best accessible playgrounds, Torontobased Earthscape Playgrounds used a poured-in-place rubber surface. Not only is it more vibrant than little grey stones - at Jaycee, it's done in a swirling composition of green, blue and orange - it creates surreal, Dr. Seuss-like mounds and has a springy, plush quality that's a joy to bounce around on.

Toronto-based designer Adam Bienenstock, founder of Bienenstock Natural Playgrounds, doesn't specialize in wheelchair accessibility. He often employs large, reclaimed tree stumps - about 400 years old, many that fell over naturally, all still covered in their rough and weathered bark - that are meant to encourage kids to climb all over. "The average child these days spends 48 minutes per day outside versus 7.5 hours on screen," Bienenstock says. "I'm trying to provide playgrounds that give them experiences they aren't otherwise getting."

But subtly layered within most of the structures are elements that broaden inclusiveness. The textures of the designs - the gnarly bark versus smoother wood surfaces - help those with underdeveloped sensory systems better engage their sense of touch, depth perception and hand-eye co-ordination. One park, called Pasquinel's Landing Park in Denver, offsets a communal play area with a more secluded enclosure for quiet alone time - something that can be necessary for those with autism spectrum disorder.

"These environments not only help kids engage their environments," Bienenstock says, "they also help some kids relax."

Which isn't to suggest that a playground can't be both wheelchair accessible and sensitive to the many needs kids might have. Currently across Canada, a series of remarkably inclusive playgrounds are being built by Jumpstart, a charity run by Canadian Tire with the mandate to improve recreational opportunities for kids of all backgrounds. Their plan is to spend $50-million and install at least one universally enjoyable playground in every Canadian province and territory by 2022.

One of their most recent structures is in Toronto's $1.2-million Earl Bales Park. The structure, which opened in spring 2019, overflows with thoughtful details to ensure that no one is left out. Braille signage helps the visually impaired. Tall back rests and chest harnesses on the swings help those who lack upper-body strength feel comfortable. There's a more secluded area for kids who want alone time (replete with oversized xylophones where they can practise their music skills). And although there are plenty of ramps, the ramps are extra-wide and gently sloped, meaning people in wheelchairs can climb to the top, side-by-side, where platforms with special benches allow them to transfer themselves out of their chairs and onto slides (there are benches at the bottom of the slides as well to transfer safely off).

Even the slides themselves are thoughtful. "They are made of rollers," says Marco Di Buono, associate vice-president of programs and operations for Jumpstart. "It's a feature that most people wouldn't think of. But they are intentionally designed not to create static electricity, which would otherwise interfere with a child's hearing device."

According to Kelly Arbour, a kinesiology professor at the University of Toronto who is working with Jumpstart to study the success of the playgrounds so far and make recommendations for future improvements, such thoughtful details can be hugely impactful. "So far in our early findings, we've heard from families that say they no longer need to divide and conquer," she says. "They can finally take all their kids to one place, not separate their kids based on ability."

"This creates a value opportunity where siblings can have unstructured play together," adds Ron Buliung, a geography professor at the University of Toronto, Mississauga. "We often forget about the siblings who might want to play with their brother or sister on a playground, but can't."

Importantly, then, such playgrounds also have to be engaging for able-bodied children as well as a variety of ages. To wit, playground critic Dana Wheatley, along with her three young kids, rates adventure parks for her website, the Calgary Playground Review ( Recently, she took her family to Jumpstart's new Calgary outpost.

"It's fantastic on every level," she says. "None of my kids, who range in age from four to 10, wanted to leave."

Jumpstart is ultimately what helped Hannah Houghton get onto her playground at McGirr Elementary in Nanaimo, B.C. The school was one of the charity's first test locations; they got involved after Mabel sent an e-mail to Jumpstart vice-president Marco Di Buono, trying to find a way to pay for a more inclusive play structure and fulfill the promise that she made to her daughter.

McGirr now has a fully accessible playground, one with a colourful rubber surface, a quiet corner for kids who want alone time and accessible swings with heavy-duty harnesses.

In addition to Hannah, children come from all over Vancouver Island to enjoy the space. It's also become popular with parents who have accessibility requirements, allowing many of them to interact directly with their kids on a playground for the first time.

One of the most popular elements is an accessible merrygo-round, which is wide enough for a wheelchair to roll on.

Hannah particularly loves twirling around, and her mom loves watching her have fun. "Seeing Hannah on the merrygo-round, screaming with the other kids - it's amazing," Mabel says. "It's just so great to see her be a part of the group with all the other kids."

Associated Graphic

Bienenstock Natural Playgrounds uses the textures of natural materials, such as rough bark on trees, to help those with underdeveloped sensory systems engage with its play sets, top and above, while Jaycee Park in Mississauga, designed by Earthscape Playgrounds, employs a colourful rubber surface instead of gravel to make the grounds accessible to those who use mobility devices.


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Anti-abortion film a disgusting piece of propaganda
In a climate in which the rights of women are being actively rolled back, Unplanned feels particularly weaponized

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Friday, July 12, 2019 – Page A12

Unplanned CLASSIFICATION: 14A; 106 MINUTES Written and directed by Chuck Konzelman and Cary Solomon Starring Ashley Bratcher, Brooks Ryan and Robia Scott NO STARS

Unplanned opens with one truth and one lie, both unintentional.

In a sunny voice-over, the film's hero, the American antiabortion activist Abby Johnson, informs the audience that "my story is not a neat and tidy one. In fact, it's probably going to make you squirm a bit."

The first half of that narration requires a correction. Johnson's real-life story, adapted here from her own memoirs, is presented in a remarkably neat and tidy fashion. Simply put, the anti-abortion activist is right, and everyone who thinks otherwise is wrong and responsible for the "dehumanization" of the modern world.

But I'll give Johnson a point for the squirming: Unplanned will make you writhe in agony over how such an ugly, malicious and potentially dangerous piece of religious and political propaganda could have made its way into this world.

If Unplanned were merely preaching to the converted - as is the case of its U.S. distributor Pure Flix's other "faith and family" titles - then it would only be a bothersome nuisance. Just another treacly, prayer-driven affair like Do You Believe?, In the Blink of an Eye and the God's Not Dead series - cheap, relatively harmless pseudo-movies that rarely escape the evangelical market. But Unplanned is designed to go further than that. The writing and directing team of Chuck Konzelman and Cary Solomon use their slickly produced and handsomely shot film to spread outright lies that could endanger the health of women.

In a climate in which the rights of women are being actively rolled back - where the U.S. VicePresident can be confident enough in this newly enabled hostility that he can tweet his support for an anti-abortion film - this movie feels particularly weaponized. In multiple U.S.

states, governments are pushing to restrict access to abortion and succeeding. Sometimes, as in Alabama, even pregnancies that are the result of incest or rape cannot be legally terminated. With Unplanned, these laws are glorified through the undeniable power of the cinematic medium, lending a romance to the anti-abortion movement that the law alone cannot provide. And like all bad movies, Konzelman and Solomon's work strips away nuance and complication in favour of something that feels like a moral triumph, when in fact it denies the countless lives ruined and even ended by these retrograde laws.

The film opens with Johnson (a wooden Ashley Bratcher, familiar to the faith-forward film circuit for her roles in War Room and 90 Minutes in Heaven) enjoying her career as a Planned Parenthood director in Texas. Her sunny days are filled with feminism-first energy and little patience for the protesters gathered outside her clinic. Until, that is, the moment she helps participate in an on-site abortion for woman who's 13 weeks pregnant. It's during this procedure, shot like a horror film, where Johnson not only watches in terror as a doctor makes a "Beam me up, Scotty!"

joke while his patient cries in pain, but becomes transfixed by an ultrasound display showing a fetus fighting for its life.

Never mind that the Texas Monthly has questioned whether this abortion, which Johnson cites as a perspective-flipping moment, even took place. Just know that the scene, as dramatized, is a fiction. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, fetuses are unable to perceive pain, let alone perform such purposeful resistance movements, until at least 24 weeks' gestation.

Yet Konzelman and Solomon have their on-screen fetus fight off the doctor's cannula like the doomed victim of Jason Voorhees.

Planned Parenthood, meanwhile, is brazenly sketched as a greedy for-profit behemoth whose bottom line relies on selling abortions, with one villainous character hissing to Johnson that "abortion is what pays for your salary, abortion is what pays for all of it!" Yet the organization, which has decried Unplanned's "many falsehoods and distortions," is in fact a non-profit whose abortion services account for just 3.4 per cent of its mostly free sexual- and reproductivehealth treatments, according to its 2017-18 annual report.

When Unplanned isn't making PP's doctors look like ghoulish supervillains, it's busy making abortion itself akin to Grand Guignol-esque torture-porn, with zonked teenage girls (almost every patient here is a young, innocent, white teen or co-ed) covered in copious amounts of blood. It's either that, or they're going into shock thanks to the clinic's incompetence. In reality, a first-trimester abortion is one of the safest medical procedures in the United States, with major complications occurring less than 0.5 per cent of the time.

The naked hostility toward women's bodies goes on and on - with a bonus anti-Semitic dogwhistle to George Soros obsessives - but Unplanned is not only a crass right-wing manifesto. It is also a potentially dangerous call to extremism.

At one point in the film, Johnson learns of the 2009 murder of Kansas abortion-provider George Tiller. This would be a prime opportunity for the filmmakers to disavow such violence, but Unplanned merely shrugs. Johnson, at this point in the story still on the wrong side of morality, gets a quick line where she's aghast that someone could shoot a man in the head "at church!" but barely anyone else says a peep.

Later on, Johnson befriends a kindly, clean-cut anti-abortion protester who casually likens Planned Parenthood's activities to slavery and the Holocaust. At another, Johnson, now fully converted to the anti-abortion cause, is tempted to assault a former Planned Parenthood colleague.

"Is it wrong if I want to go over there and punch her in the face?" she asks her husband, who replies: "Yes, it's wrong. That's my job."

Who, the filmmakers seem to be asking throughout Unplanned, would dare sit on their hands knowing what hell was raging inside Planned Parenthood's doors?

The film never explicitly asks its audience to meet violence with violence, but it doesn't exactly instruct the righteous to forgo such tactics, either. Consider the title card placed at the end of the film: "Your life matters. If you're a woman or a man who wants to talk with someone about your abortion, your pregnancy, or taking action to support life ... text HOPE to 73075."

Whose life, then, doesn't matter? And though Unplanned never asks this, I will: What action might some of the film's more intellectually susceptible audiences be inspired to take?

Which leads to the question of whether exhibitors should be playing host to such a work.

Cineplex, which will screen Unplanned in 14 theatres across the country starting on Friday, has defended its programming decision, passing the buck to provincial film-review boards and the whims of the market.

"It is up to each of us to decide whether or not we want to see it," Ellis Jacob, chief executive of Canada's largest exhibitor, said in a statement this week.

"In Canada, we have that option and I think it is an important thing to remember."

On the one hand, audiences should be able to freely access Unplanned, if only to witness how confidently polished this type of evangelical cinema has become - and to discover what kinds of films are being applauded by those with the power to change the law.

Anti-abortion rhetoric values the life of the fetus over the right of a woman to decide what to make of her life, of her body.

Those who want to deny women abortions may genuinely believe a murder is taking place, or they may just be driven to control women's bodies.

Either way, the issue is deeply complicated - far more so than Unplanned would ever deign to admit.

Fundamentally, though, this movie suggests, through fictionalization and manipulation, that cruelty lies behind the act of abortion, rather than a deep respect for the uncomfortable choices women sometimes have to make.

Would Cineplex, or Landmark or the handful of independent theatres playing host to Unplanned this weekend, program a film that specifically mounts a campaign to roll back the rights of one race, or ethnicity, or sexuality? Women's rights, it appears, are cheaper and easier to ignore. Give it to Unplanned for revealing one undeniable truth.

Unplanned opens July 12.

Associated Graphic

Ashley Bratcher, right, stars in Unplanned, a movie based on the experiences of American anti-abortion activist Abby Johnson. The film paints Planned Parenthood as a greedy for-profit behemoth and abortion procedures as little more than torture porn.

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In Mexico, asylum seekers to U.S. left in limbo
The country is struggling to accommodate thousands of returned migrants but its biggest challenge may be that most remain desperate to escape back across the border

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Friday, July 12, 2019 – Page A1

CIUDAD JUAREZ, MEXICO -- Marlene Diez Padron slipped into a drainage ditch separating Mexico from the Texas border nearly two months ago, believing she was reaching the end of a perilous journey from Cuba and the start of a new life with her daughter in Miami.

Instead, after three days in a U.S. detention centre, Ms. Diez Padron was sent back to the Mexican border community of Ciudad Juarez with a sixmonth work visa and a growing uncertainty about whether she will ever make it to the United States.

Ms. Diez Padron is among more than 17,000 migrants who crossed the U.S. border to claim asylum only to be told they had to return to Mexico to await their court proceedings, driven largely by an agreement signed between the two countries.

Mexican officials rushed to sign onto the arrangement after President Donald Trump threatened to slap tariffs on exports unless the country quickly stemmed the flow of migrants to the border. The influx this year has reached its highest in more than a decade.

Asylum seekers crossing the border has been a major political and humanitarian issue in the U.S.

for years, with no clear resolution. The Trump administration has been particularly aggressive in implementing harsh measures, such as separating families, mass detention and now requiring migrants to wait in Mexico.

But the measures have done little to deter thousands from making the long and dangerous journey north.

The surge of asylum seekers travelling through Mexico to the U.S. border has strained relations between the two countries and forced the Mexican government to send thousands of soldiers to its northern and southern borders. In addition, it has had to dramatically expand its fledgling asylum system. With Mr. Trump planning mass deportations starting as early as this weekend, that could mean the potential for thousands more people flowing back across the border into Mexico.

Returned migrants, meanwhile, say they feel stuck in limbo. Mexico has been welcoming, "but we have no business being here," Ms. Diez Padron says. "We have family in the U.S. We have a life that we want to build. We're stuck here and we don't understand why."

Mr. Trump has cheered the agreement, known as the Migrant Protection Protocol and often referred to as Remain in Mexico, as a major success. Apprehensions at the U.S. border fell almost 30 per cent last month, although they remain near historic highs.

Mexico has also sought to frame the agreement as a win for President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador's six-month-old government.

Officials argue that migrants represent an economic opportunity for the country.

They also contend that treating asylum seekers humanely will help build international support for its proposed development plan for Central America. "This has elevated Mexico's position on an international level," said Juan Carlos Loera, the elected representative for Juarez who belongs to Mr. Lopez Obrador's National Regeneration Movement. "It's a demonstration of the diplomatic talent of the Mexican government."

The Remain in Mexico agreement has long-term implications for the country.

Many migrants can expect to stay in Mexico for months, if not years. Officials in Juarez say some migrants have returned with U.S. court dates as late as October, 2020.

In Juarez, which has received more than 8,600 returned asylum seekers - the most of any border city - government leaders announced plans this week to speed processing of work permits, social-security numbers and bank accounts for migrants.

Local businesses say they hope migrants can fill thousands of job vacancies, many of them in maquiladoras - exportoriented factories that line the border. "If they're able to work, many of them are going to be willing to stay here and wait their turn," said Enrique Valenzuela, director of a state-run migrant-assistance centre in Juarez. He added that if many ultimately choose to settle permanently in Mexico, it could be a turning point in the migrant crisis.

Analysts and religious leaders, however, warn that the country's immigration system remains ill-equipped to handle the influx of asylum seekers. They worry that Mr.

Lopez Obrador's government acceded too quickly to U.S. demands without negotiating any financial assistance to support migrants waiting in the country. In addition, they accuse the Trump administration of abandoning the U.S. commitment to international treaties that protect the right of those fleeing persecution to claim asylum when they reach the United States.

"It sets the precedent that Mexico will do what the U.S. will ask for without really demanding much in return," said Jesus Pena Munoz, a researcher in Juarez with the Northern Border College, a Mexican research institute specializing in border and migration.

Despite agreeing to accept thousands of U.S. asylum seekers, the Mexican federal government cut transfers this year to state governments for migration and border programs, Mr. Valenzuela says.

And criminal gangs are taking advantage of the influx. Church leaders say migrants are frequent targets of exploitation, kidnappings and rapes by gangs. Many asylum seekers released at the Mexican border turn down offers of rides to local shelters, saying they are waiting to be picked up by family members. Then they call their polleros - human smugglers - to arrange to be taken back across the U.S. border.

The problem is so rampant, some shelters now require migrants to hand over their cellphones to prevent them from contacting smugglers.

"The migrants are like a river full of big juicy fish and all the fishermen are getting together to make a profit," says Sister Maria Guadalupe Velasco, whose Catholic church is among a network of faith groups who travel twice daily to the border to greet returned migrants.

Migrants themselves say they have struggled to find work and to afford the soaring costs of hotels or makeshift accommodation in the city.

Since being returned to Juarez, Ms. Diez Padron has started passing out flyers for a restaurant in the city centre. She earns 150 pesos ($10.30) a day, barely enough to cover her rent.

So far, public sentiment in Juarez has been positive toward migrants, Dr. Pena Munoz says. Whether that remains the case will depend largely on how successful the Mexican government is at integrating migrants into society. That will require overhauling the country's immigration system - historically designed to help Mexican nationals deported from the U.S.

"As soon as people start looking at migrants as a negative thing, all the doors will shut," he says. "We've seen it in Europe what happens when people's opinion of migrants turns negative."

But the biggest challenge to Mexico's plans to integrate returned asylum seekers may be that most migrants remain desperate to get to the United States.

Local officials in Juarez don't have estimates of how many returnees may have already crossed back into the U.S. illegally, but suggest that it's a high percentage.

Pollsters in Mexico say that nearly 90 per cent of migrants surveyed tell them they have no intention of staying in the country. The strong drive to get to the U.S.

is likely to undermine Mr.Trump's push to demand both Mexico and Guatemala become safe third countries for asylum seekers, Dr. Pena Munoz said.

Rather than deterring migrants from claiming asylum in the U.S., many say the long waits to cross and the Mexican National Guard soldiers stationed along the border, are instead pushing migrants toward more risky illegal crossings through deserts and swift-flowing rivers.

Ms. Diez Padron says the prospect of her first court appearance, set in El Paso, Tex., next month, has motivated her to keep waiting in Mexico for now. But she is less certain of how she will feel after that. Last weekend, she learned she will likely be returned to Juarez to await future hearings.

"Even though I'm staying in one place now, I feel like I'm still in the middle of the journey," she said. "This isn't the place I want to be."

With reports from Luis Miranda

Associated Graphic

Since being returned to Juarez, Marlene Diez Padron now passes out flyers for a restaurant to earn 150 pesos ($10.30) a day, barely enough to cover her rent.


Cuban native Marlene Diez Padron attempted to enter the U.S. from Mexico, but was caught and sent to Ciudad Juarez, where she has stayed for nearly two months. She hands out flyers for a restaurant now, earning $10.30 a day.


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Birth and death notices

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Monday, July 8, 2019 – Page B14


Bill died peacefully at Toronto General Hospital on July 2, 2019, just a few hours shy of his 82nd birthday. He will be dearly missed by his loving wife of 55 years Pat Crawford; their children Cindy (Brian Denega), Julie (Liza Yukins), Ian (Kate Crawford) and Patrick (Janet MacLean), and his 9 adoring grandchildren.

He will also be missed by his siblings in England, Jean, Nick and Hamish, and their children, and by the extended Martin clan, his loving in-law family.

Bill embraced everyone he met and those who knew him will remember him for his warmth, generosity, sense of humour, intelligence and integrity. Born in Nakuru, Kenya in 1937, Bill studied at Glenalmond College in Scotland and at Jesus College, Cambridge University. An outstanding athlete, some of Bill's fondest memories were of playing cricket and rugby in the UK and Canada. He immigrated to his adopted home in Toronto in 1961, and met Pat soon after arriving.

Bill was a respected tax partner at Clarkson Gordon (and later, EY), where he practised for 36 years.

Throughout his career Bill was known for his tireless dedication to continuous learning, outstanding client service and energetically mentoring others. After his 'retirement', Bill continued a busy and fulfilling career as a tax advisor, first with EY in Barbados for 6 years, and then in Toronto until just recently.

As devoted as he was to his career, most important to Bill were his wife Pat and the family and life they built together. Over 45 years, the Farm, initially a labour of love and an escape from Bay Street, was a place where Bill felt able to really connect with the most important people in his life. His presence will always be felt and cherished there.

A memorial service, followed by a reception, will be held at 11 a.m. on Thursday July 11 at Lawrence Park Community Church (2180 Bayview Avenue, Toronto).

In lieu of flowers, donations can made to AmRef Health Africa ( and L'Arche (, charities close to Bill's heart.


July 3, 1933 - July 5, 2019 With great sorrow we announce the passing of David Glenn of Elora, Ontario, at the age of 86.

He passed away peacefully at his home with family by his side.

David is survived by his loving children Karen and her husband Joshua, Gorden and his wife Corina and Bev and her husband Dan, his two grandchildren, Samantha and Ryan, and many close friends.

As an immigrant to Canada from Ireland in the early 1960's, David worked hard to provide for his family and build a good life for his children and by all accounts he succeeded. David enjoyed spending time with family and friends and was most happy when everyone gathered at his home.

As he liked to remind us, his door was never locked. Sadly, on the evening of July 5th, we had to say good bye one final time and lock the door to his home. David's immense strength, humour and love of life, family and friends will be greatly missed by all of us and we will love him forever.

There are no words to properly thank the staff at the Hearthstone and the SRT MedStaff for their compassion and professional care which was so much appreciated.

At David's request, there will be no visitation or service. A private family celebration of life will be held at a later date. Funeral arrangements entrusted to Ridley Funeral Home, Toronto, 416259-3705. To send expressions of sympathy please visit


On June 30th at 93, after a courageous battle with illness, loving husband, father and grandfather Walter Bruce Kippen died on the holiday weekend he helped create.

As a founding member of the Canada Committee which grew to become the Council for Canadian Unity, Bruce Kippen was among the handful of Montrealers that included Jocelyn Beaudoin and Anthony Malcolm who launched a plan during the months following Expo '67 to replace what was then called Dominion Day with the national holiday we call Canada Day/ Fête du Canada.

Starting as part of Canada Week, July 1st became known as Canada Day/ Fête du Canada during the early 1970s before officially designated as the national holiday in 1982. Mr. Kippen's work during this time earned him the Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Medal.

In a career that included building Calgary's first car-wash, serving as CEO of investment firm Kippen & Co. and co-founding oil exploration company First Calgary Petroleum, Mr. Kippen was also a contributor and driving force in 1967 behind publishing Option Canada: The Economic Consequences of Quebec Separatism, projecting financial changes that would unfold in Quebec during the 1970s and 80s.

Mr. Kippen served as a pilot with the RCAF during WWII. When the European war ended before he could see action, he hopped freight trains and hitchhiked to California to join the U.S. air battle in the South Pacific. He arrived in Los Angeles just a week before the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs ended that war.

During this time in Los Angeles Mr. Kippen met Milton "Gummo" Marx - the theatrical agent among the famous brothers. Marx invited Mr. Kippen to his office adorned with framed photos of numerous stars and pointed out young Fred MacMurray, saying, "You can be the next MacMurray."

Instead, Kippen returned to Montreal to enroll at McGill where the admissions director shook a file-box listing the flood of incoming war vets saying, "You'll end up like the rest of them.

Gone by Christmas." Mr. Kippen graduated with honors.

On the day he died, Bruce Kippen was writing an historic-novel called Lords of the Frontier about three ambitious young men from different parts of Canada at the turn of the 20th century setting out to carve big names in Ottawa, on Bay Street and building Canada's railroads.

He is survived by his loving and devoted wife Elfride, children Alexander, Francesca and David Kippen; grandchildren Zurielle and Arabella Kippen; Caspar, Benedict and Leila Ruane. Mr.

Kippen's family is especially thankful to Maude and Grace for their great skill and dedication.

For any of you wishing to remember Mr. Kippen's life and his work for youth in Canada, please donate to ... Student Support Encounters with Canada 1805 De Gaspé Avenue Ottawa, ON K1K 0A4 Canada Attn: Val Amigo 613-744-1290


1927 - 2019

Peacefully at Terrace Lodge Nursing Home, Aylmer on Tuesday, July 02, 2019 John "Jack" Henry Fleming Whitmore of Tillsonburg.

Predeceased by his loving wife, Ruth (2013). Survived by nieces, Sandra (Fred) Gallant, Jane Pine, Mary Anne (Ian) Marshall; and nephews, Dr.

William (Barbara) Pine, and James (Susan) Pine; and by goddaughter, Barbara Gibbs.

Predeceased by his parents, George and Nellie.

Jack graduated from the College of Pharmacy at University of Toronto in 1952.

He married Ruth Muddiman in 1962 and they moved to Tillsonburg in 1965. They bought an independent pharmacy from R.A. Hillburg and it became Whitmore Pharmacy on Broadway with his partner Gord Reynolds.

Jack was very active in the community and was awarded the Citizen of the Year award.

Jack was a member of the Tillsonburg Lions for many years. He was a member of VON Canada and Avondale United Church, Tillsonburg.

A Celebration of Jack's life will be held on Tuesday, July 16, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. at Avondale United Church, 60 Harvey St., Tillsonburg. The family will receive visitors before the service from 9:30 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. at Avondale United Church. A private family interment will be held at the Tillsonburg Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, memorial donations (payable by cheque) may be made to Avondale United Church; Port Perry District Memorial Hospital Foundation, or VONCanada would be appreciated by Jack's family.

Funeral arrangements have been entrusted to Ostrander's Funeral Home Limited, 43 Bidwell St., Tillsonburg (519) 842-5221. Personal condolence and favourite memories of Jack may be made at http://www.ostranders


December 28, 1994 July 8, 2009

All who had the privilege of knowing Emma will always remember her unique abiding spirit and unfailing generosity.

We miss and love her so very much, and are grateful that the passage of time has not diminished our vivid memory of her.

Emma is forever in our hearts.

Love Dad and Mom, Mimi, Jack and Henry

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Push is on to rebuild Vancouver-Chilliwack line
In the face of a Lower Mainland real estate boom, a new campaign is under way to resurrect a long-dormant intercity link in B.C.'s Fraser Valley

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Friday, July 12, 2019 – Page H2

VANCOUVER -- Imagine a modern regional tram that could get people out of their cars and connect communities between Surrey and Chilliwack, similar to the passenger lines that have long existed in European cities.

The line already exists. It's the old interurban track that was built by the British Columbia Electric Railway (BCER) and completed on Oct. 3, 1910, when thenpremier Sir Richard McBride drove the last spike. The Lower Mainland was undergoing a real estate boom at the time, and construction of the interurban rail line and streetcars opened up major new opportunities. The cars were bigger than streetcars, and ran from Vancouver to Chilliwack.

But regional trams and city streetcars couldn't compete with cars and buses, and the last interurban passenger service on the line was discontinued in 1958.

Now, with another major boom under way, and the search on for affordable housing in walkable urban communities, there is a campaign afoot to bring it back to the Fraser Valley.

"It's getting worse by the day - the traffic is almost impossible, and the big difficulty is, if you keep widening a freeway and build more overpasses, a freeway simply creates more sprawl and more need for transit," says Bill Vander Zalm, the former premier whose government ensured that the ownership of the interurban line would stay as publicly owned land. Mr. Vander Zalm is one of the spokespeople helping to launch the South Fraser Community Rail campaign.

"With proper transit, if you look at where SkyTrain was built ... wherever there is a station, there is a hub of housing. It happens at stations. So if we take the Fraser Valley community rail to Chilliwack, we are going to get development hubs, more affordable housing - it will prevent sprawl, keep the green space and agricultural land. It's all a good thing."

As a kid, Mr. Vander Zalm lived in Bradner, a small community near Abbotsford along the old interurban line, and he would ride the tram to Langley. Passenger rail service was integral to the region's growth, and the interurban was a massive undertaking at the time.

In his 1948 history of the BCER, Lighted Journey, author Cecil Maiden wrote: "The conception was a bold one, yet if a line could be driven to Chilliwack, 64 miles up the Valley, it might prove an inestimable boon to the growing farm communities then moving in substantial numbers into the district."

Mr. Vander Zalm says that after many of the interurban rail lines around North America were decommissioned in the latter half of the 20th century, displaced by an expanding highway system, it was routine for jurisdictions to sell off the land. But when the B.C.

government sold off BC Hydro's freight rail division to an American company in the 1980s, it retained ownership of the land.

"We wouldn't allow the sale of the track," he said. "We would allow the sale of the freight rights, and we had a provision that if ever we needed the track for transit, for moving people, they'd have to give it up immediately, and make sure it was in good shape, etc." "We saw it coming - this is 30 odd years ago - and it took a long time for it to materialize, but I think the time has come.

"I think we were the only ones in the whole of North America that kept a train track for moving people."

With increasing home prices, the Fraser Valley has grown far beyond a farming region, as people "drive until they qualify" for home ownership. Highway 1, which connects the valley communities, is overwhelmed with daily gridlock. According to the 2016 Census, 11 per cent of workers, or 130,405 people, commute for more than an hour a day in Metro Vancouver.

The return of an existing rail line - one that's in good shape and already owned by the province - for passenger service has been an idea kicked around by various groups for a couple of decades - but relatively few people are even aware the line exists. The newly formed South Fraser Community Rail Society has put forward a proposal to resurrect the old line as a means to better connect the Fraser Valley and promote growth in the region in a way that's more livable. A new interurban transit line would create hubs around which density could grow, and walkable communities could link up with other transit services.

Former Langley mayor Rick Green, who is spearheading the proposal, says the group is selffunded and apolitical. It includes retired politicians and community activists, and supporters such as Mr. Vander Zalm and the University of British Columbia's Patrick Condon, who is professor of architecture and landscape architecture.

Mr. Green got interested in 2006 and mobilized significant interest, but then in 2011, he failed in his re-election bid and the proposal lost momentum. He and a few other advocates decided to take another run at it, particularly with talk of extending SkyTrain into Surrey. For a meeting with The Globe and Mail, Mr. Green arrived with massive binders of documentation, including a B.C. government news release from 1988, which states that the sale of BC Hydro's freight division "does not include land under or either side of the rail bed nor does it include air rights above Hydro's rail corridor. These have been retained in order to accommodate future rail passenger, real estate or other developments along former B.C.

Electric Railway routings in the Lower Mainland." The fact that it remained within the public domain all these years is huge, he says.

"It's amazing how many people weren't aware of it, and as we have over the last couple of decades talked to people at various candidate celebrations, and everything else, you put up your maps, and 99 per cent of people who look at it say, 'why aren't we doing it?' " Mr. Green says.

"The explosion in the population, the exponential growth out to the valley, is far greater than we anticipated, and why did that happen? Growth of property values. Everybody wants a home they can afford," he adds.

Over the next few weeks, the group is officially launching their campaign and spreading the message that the interurban rail will serve the bulk of the population south of the Fraser, as well as key job centres along Scott Road, Newton, Cloverdale, Langley and beyond. Mr. Green is armed with data, such as the estimation that it would cost $200-million a kilometre to build a SkyTrain line from Surrey Centre to Langley City, as opposed to the $12.5-million a kilometre they say it would cost to reactivate the interurban line from Scott Road to Chilliwack.

He says the interurban project would connect 16 existing communities, 14 postsecondary schools, the Abbotsford International Airport, several industrial parks and bring students closer to several postsecondary campuses.

There are almost 1.2 million people living in the Fraser Valley region. It is growing faster than Vancouver, UBC's Prof. Condon says, and traffic will only worsen as people seek affordable housing. His students did analysis and found areas where they could easily fit half a million housing units, he says. Modern passenger rail cars that run on hydrogen, as used in Europe, would offer a pollution-free alternative to the automobile, he says.

"I think it's an almost immediate solution to a critical problem," Prof. Condon says. "If we can establish this now, it will help to organize the future land uses around transit as opposed to the automobile.

"Most of the lands that the interurban goes through are previous industrial areas, and I would call them almost derelict now, not being used to maximum capacity - and they are perfect candidates for high intensity, mixed-use, walkable areas with housing and jobs within a 10-minute reach of the interurban line."

His theory on why the idea hasn't been taken more seriously is a "Vancouver-centric" view of transit and land use. But times have changed, and it's not all about Vancouver any more, he says.

"Over 70 per cent of the car trips that originate south of the Fraser River stay south. So the idea that everybody is crossing the river to get to jobs is no longer true."

Associated Graphic

A 1923 map shows the route of the interurban train line between Vancouver and Chilliwack. The line was operated until 1958 by the British Columbia Electric Railway.


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Thursday, July 18, 2019 – Page B15


With broken hearts, we announce the passing our dear Dad, on Tuesday, July 16, 2019. He lived his life to the fullest and never saw an obstacle that he couldn't master. Known for his charm, quick wit and mastery of the written word, he will be be deeply missed by his family and many friends. He leaves his sons, Jacob and William and daughter, Charlotte, brother David and cat Kali. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Thursday, July 18, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. Interment to follow at South Line Union Cemetery in Badjeros, Ontario at 1:30 p.m.

Shiva 290 Westmoreland Avenue, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to the Bridgepoint Sinai Health Foundation, 416-4618252.


R.N. Western 1952 Peacefully, after a long struggle with COPD, and just a week short of her 90th birthday. (Darn!) Marg was a great believer in Community Service: Meals on Wheels, Vietnamese Boat People, I.O.D.E., A.C.W. etc. She was a sweet and giving soul. Beloved wife of Harry (D. 2007), Mother of James (Marie Louise) and Stephen.

Grandmother to Alexandra and Aunt to Paula Frost, Karl Greene and David Doritty.

Memorial Service will be held at St. Mark's Anglican Church, 5 First Ave., Orangeville on Saturday, July 21, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. with visitation staring at 10:00 a.m. with reception following. Interment at Forest Lawn Cemetery. Donations to St. Mark's Anglican Church would be appreciated.

Condolences may be offered to the family at

ABBYANN DAY LYNCH C.M., O.Ont., L.M.S., Ph.D., LL.D (Hon.), D.S.L. (Hon.)

1928 - 2019 Our hearts are heavy knowing that Abby, who was mother, grandmother and great grandmother to her extended Toronto family, and sister, aunt and great aunt to her large U.S. family, passed from this life on July 14, 2019, acquiescing gracefully and bravely to Alzheimer's disease.

A pioneering woman with a brilliant mind and gentle soul, Abby believed in setting a high bar, working hard, sharing her thoughts by being a prolific writer and academic, and making a difference, especially in the lives of vulnerable children and the elderly. As a philosopher, she fearlessly blazed many trails.

Born in Hackensack, New Jersey, and a graduate of Manhattanville College, her first journey was north to Canada, moving from New York to Toronto to pursue a Licentiate in Medieval Studies at the Pontifical Institute (University of Toronto, St. Michael's College).

In Toronto, she became one of Canada's leading experts in biomedical ethics, standing up in particular to protect the rights of children. Towards the end of her career path, she was President of Associated Medical Services and consultant on biomedical issues to various hospitals, health organizations and regulatory bodies. For all these contributions, she was honoured to receive the Order of Canada.

More than anything, Abby loved her husband, Lawrence E. Lynch, who predeceased her in 2001. After saying their vows in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, in 1953, their family grew quickly and today includes their beloved children, their spouses, grandchildren and great-grandchildren: Lisa (Andrew, Domenica, Sophia, Luke; Jeffrey); Mimi and her husband Stephen (Katherine, James, Madison, Jack; Mark, Nadia, Nathan, Evelyn); Edward and his wife Rose (Mike, David, Kerri); Paul and his wife Sheila (Abigael, Isabel); Martha; Chris and his wife Anna (Alexander, Emilia).

There wasn't a mystery book Abby hadn't read, an ice cream cone she let sit for too long, a piano score she hadn't memorized, or a challenge she didn't stare down, sometimes with outsized idealism. She loved Canada, and over the years she balanced her fondness for her adopted country with pride in her native country. Born into a long line of Republicans, she became a staunch Democrat, strongly supporting the election of President John F. Kennedy, and fully committed more recently to the politics of President Barack Obama. She kept her family grounded in its roots, traveling with them extensively and sharing her love of New England, the sea and the shore, most summers spent in Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Looking at the world through her eyes was to see wonder, hope, gratitude and always a dream to leave the world a better place. Hearing it from her perspective as a gifted concert pianist was to sit in the second balcony, eyes glued to the keyboard, listening to music by her favourite composers, Schubert, Chopin, and Beethoven.

The family wishes to thank Abby's personal support workers, Eloisa, Marichelle and Jeanette, and the many PSWs at Cedarhurst Dementia Care Centre, for their love and attentiveness to Abby during the past three years. A Mass of Christian Burial will be held at Our Lady of Lourdes church on Thursday, July 18, 2019, at 1:30 p.m. Visitation is on Wednesday, July 17 from 5-9 pm at the Rosar-Morrison Funeral Home, 467 Sherbourne Street, Toronto. The family welcomes friends to stop by Our Lady of Lourdes parish hall after the funeral Mass for refreshments. A celebration of life will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, kindly consider a donation in Abby's name to Alzheimer Society of Toronto (

May Abby rest in peace, in the loving embrace of her maker, in the hope of life eternal.


June 26, 1929 - July 6, 2019

With family by his side, John Angus MacNeil passed away peacefully in South Lyon, Michigan. John Angus was born in New Waterford, Nova Scotia to Anna Mae and John Alexander MacNeil. He attended Saint Francis Xavier University (B.Sc. '53) where he was a standout athlete, including captain of the X-Men rugby team '51-52. While at St F.X., he met his wife, fellow B.Sc.

student, Viberta Marie MacLean, from Port Hawkesbury, NS. They enjoyed 63 years of marriage and raised four children while residing in Oakville, ON, Holden, MA and Brighton, MI.

He is survived by Viberta and their four children: William (Pamela) of Byron Bay, Australia, John (Diana) of Toronto, ON, Mary Patricia Harding (Blair) of Brighton, MI. and Peter (Kerry) of Brighton, MI.; by seven grandchildren: John Michael (Berkeley CA.), James Angus (Sydney, Australia), Laura (Toronto, ON), Catherine and Carolyn Harding (Brighton), and Riley and James (Brighton); by his sister Theresa of Halifax NS, brother Robert of Barrie, ON, sister Agnes of Alliston, ON, brother Michael of Burlington, ON; and by many MacNeil, Laffin, Birmingham and MacLean nephews and nieces. His sisters, Anne and Bernadette, and his brother, Charles, predeceased him.

Though a patriotic (naturalised) American, John Angus was always proud of his Cape Breton roots and Scottish heritage. After working his way through university in the coal mines of New Waterford, John Angus entered the pharmaceutical industry and enjoyed great success throughout his career and, finally, as President of Vortech Pharmaceuticals Limited of Dearborn, MI, a company he co-founded with Viberta. A devout parishioner of St.

Patrick Catholic Church, a longtime member of Oak Pointe Country Club and a staunch supporter of the Republican Party, John Angus was happiest when entertaining friends and family with his wife, 'Bert', at their home, 'Braigh Mohr', outside Brighton, MI. He will be greatly missed by his family, Vortech employees, classmates, neighbours, business colleagues and many friends.

A Funeral Mass and a memorial service will be held at a later date.


July 17, 1924 - July 16, 2019

Holocaust survivor, born in Lodz, Poland. Died peacefully at Baycrest. Beloved wife of the late Saul Morowicz. Dear mother and mother-in-law of Hanna and Karol Goldman, and Jolanta Morowicz.

Cherished baba of Jessica and Bram Rothman, Natalie Goldman and Allan Eisen, and Pauline Girouard and Doug Leech, proud and loving great-grandmother of Oliver, Miles and Henry Rothman and Theo and Arlo Eisen. Eva's family is very grateful to the Apotex 7th Floor North staff and her devoted companions Leda and her friends. Special thanks to Dr. Rosen and Ocia Henry. A graveside service will be held on Thursday, July 18, 2019 at 12:00 noon in the Community Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery, 10953 Dufferin Street, Maple.

Memorial donations may be made to the Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center/Holocaust, 416-864-9735 or The Baycrest Foundation, 416-785-2875.

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Where are you from?
To be a Canadian is to accept that the story has more than one thread, more than one character, more than one point of view

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O7

Award-winning author based in Victoria. Her most recent novel is Washington Black.

Back in 2006, I went to live for a year at an artist colony on the outskirts of Stuttgart, Germany, a city nearly obliterated during the Second World War. I remember the blue thread of the Neckar River running along it in the fine bright air, so that from our residence overlooking the city, we could almost imagine only wilderness lay below.

It was the year Germany played host to the FIFA World Cup. Among the young artists who had arrived from all over the world, an excitement had taken hold. We were eager to be a part of things, to take in as much as we could of this moment.

There was among the German artists, especially, a kind of mild shock at their countrymen's outpouring of emotion for their nation.

For the first time since before the war - which is to say, since before their lifetimes - it had become socially acceptable to hang the national flag from windows, to fly it from cars, to drape it over shoulders in the streets. Visual symbols of patriotism were something I took for granted in Canada, so that I was surprised when, walking the Stuttgart town centre with a friend, I heard her draw a sharp breath at the sight of a child turning a tiny plastic flag in his fingers. For her, it was truly a new era.

I remember so much about those days. How a group of us would spend hours in the beer gardens dotting the city to watch on massive screens matches taking place in all parts of the country. How lightly the sun fell, cupping our foreheads in a warmth that was like the touch of a human palm. How, sometimes, the air in the gardens would reek sharply of shredded grass. And how one evening, during a match between Germany and France, the weather suddenly turned black and churning and vicious, slinging thick braids of water into our faces, so that we opened our mouths.

There was so much beauty in those hours. I recall us all walking home after that rainy match and hearing a damp susurration from beyond the path. My friend, Eugen, parted the long grasses to discover an enormous frog. We passed the frog from hand to hand, and I remember so vividly the feel of it in my careful fist - a pulsing damp shudder, like a living heart. The wonder that came over me then was like a physical shock - I felt as if anything could happen in that moment, as if the world were made of the strange and the unexpected, that it was a place of great openness and possibility.

Then, as we continued on, something happened that drew me up short. We had all been complaining about the French soccer team, but Eugen began to mock them viciously, beginning with their names. His biggest complaint was the fact that so many of them were brown or black men, children no doubt of immigrants who'd settled in France from its former colonies. "How were any of those people actually French?" he said, and then he met my eye: "And you, Esi, how are you Canadian?" It had been a question that had defined my life, although I would not then have expressed it so. For years I had travelled in search of the place I would feel most at home - indeed, my time in Germany was part of that search - but it was slowly dawning on me that the answer had been clear from the moment I first left home, that I had been stubbornly refusing to look at it.

What became so clear to me with Eugen's question was how much I had taken a certain kind of multiculturalism for granted, and how much, until those years of travel, I'd come to surround myself with people who also took that plurality for granted. I had always believed that there were many different pathways to citizenship and fealty and belonging beyond the single one suggested by him, which was, of course, blood. In a country in which the population of black people has never exceeded 3.5 per cent (and in British Columbia, where I've lived for 20 years, it is less than 1 per cent), the idea of my being able to claim anything like true Canadian-ness was, to him, ridiculous.

My parents were Ghanaian immigrants who'd met, not in Canada, but in San Francisco, as students; a mutual friend was hosting a party to watch the moon landing on his black and white television. Six months later they were married, and my brother was born a year after that. They settled eventually in Alberta, first in Edmonton, where my sister was born, then in Calgary, where I was born. They often used to joke that they stopped moving to avoid having more children.

Migration is rarely a clean narrative. Alongside the joys, stories of migration often contain the loss of treasured things, and also the gaining of things not wanted. At the centre of these stories is often risk. And indeed, when I think of my mother's case, what I'm struck by is how much she had to risk to gain an education. She was a young woman in an African society where women did much of the work and held little of the power, and as her secondary school years were coming to an end, she was left floundering at the starkness of her choices. She chafed at the expectation that she would keep her father's house until she found a husband.

She wanted to become a nurse. In order to do so, though, she would have to leave home. And what amazes me is that she managed to do it.

I sometimes ask myself what might have happened if she had never made the choice to leave. If my father had also stayed and by some whim of chance they'd met and married in Ghana? Her nearfate as an uneducated mother and wife could well have been my own fate, too. The life given to me is lived in the shadow of that other possible life. I marvel even now at the strange combination of circumstances that had to come about for me to be here.

To be a Canadian is to accept that the story has more than one thread, more than one character, more than one point of view. It has become a near cliché to say it, but it's true: We are a nation of many narratives and histories, and it is in the attempts to harmonize our various stories that our culture lives.

These negotiations can sometimes be fraught, but they are ours. Within my own family, there is a multitude of stories: one of my sisters-in-law immigrated to Edmonton from Hong Kong when she was eight years old, while the other is from the Coast Salish tribes of Vancouver Island, whose people have lived on the land for generations. My brother-in-law is French-Canadian. My husband's aunt, who was born and raised in Guyana, has commented that when we sit down to holiday dinners we look like a UN summit. I think, though, that the variety that strikes her as an international feature is actually a very national one. And it is in our struggle to forever negotiate and align these stories that our identity is made and shaped and reshaped. The failure to come to a consensus on a single narrative - the hesitation and uncertainty about having one dominant story - is what the culture has become.

What do we see as features of our future stories, going forward? What is it we can be? The image returns to me of that rainy walk home in Stuttgart, the feel of that tiny life in my hands - how unexpected and full of wonder that moment was, how much it made the world feel boundless and without limits, as if the miraculous lay within reach. That feeling is what we need to harness, it is what I want my children to feel. The sense that nothing is closed to anyone, not because of race or gender or religious belief, that everything is open and full of startling possibility, regardless of who we are.

Associated Graphic


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As demand shifts to the SUV, even high-end features are unlikely to save this one-time family staple
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Friday, July 12, 2019 – Page D1

Minivans are so not in. Sales steadily slide, even as quality and versatility reach a high watermark. The minivan is the great family vehicle that no one seems to want any more - left at the car-lot altar, as buyers storm en masse to SUVs and SUV-like crossovers.

Consider, for example, Fiat Chrysler's frustrating attempts to sell the Pacifica, even going so far as to revive the Voyager nameplate for the cheaper versions of the 2020 minivan. (That name was last seen in their minivans in 2003.) Polished and accomplished, the Pacifica is what the minivan drivers should want when they outgrow the more basic Grand Caravan. In its full-dressed Limited configuration, the Pacifica oozes comfort, refinement and capability. Yet, as with the other major brands, few Canadians are buying the Pacifica.

FCA Canada reports that sales were down 18 per cent in June, 2019, with year-to-year sales sliding from 731 in June of last year to 599 for the same month this year. Just 2,216 of the vans were sold in the first half of 2019. That's 49 per cent fewer than the 4,340 sold in the same time period in 2018.

Sales are so slow that the company announced it would end the third shift at the Windsor minivan assembly plant on Sept. 30, eliminating 1,500 jobs.

Similar problems are plaguing other minivan brands. Honda's Odyssey saw a 33-per-cent drop in sales in the first quarter of 2019. The only silver lining is that minivan sales are not dropping as fast as sedan sales.

Michigan-based auto analyst firm IHS Automotive, a subsidiary of IHS Markit in London, predicts that the market share of minivans will drop to just 2.2 per cent by 2024 from the 2.8 per cent this year, as automakers invest heavily in adding features and model choices to SUVs and crossovers. Combined, SUVs and crossovers comprise 48 per cent of the market, according to IHS Automotive.

"The move to crossovers is permanent," IHS analyst Tom Libby says.

IHS Automotive defines SUVs as heavier vehicles built on frames, such as the Ford Explorer, Chevrolet Suburban and Nissan Titan. Crossovers look similar, but are lighter vehicles with the carlike unibody construction, such as the Toyota RAV4, Chevy Blazer and Honda CRV.

Ford, General Motors, Hyundai, Nissan and Mazda have all dropped minivans because of poor sales. Only Fiat Chrysler, Honda, Kia and Toyota still sell minivans in North America.

Minivans are not necessarily cheap these days.

The top-of-the-line 2019 Pacifica I drove listed at nearly $64,000. It comes well equipped with a premium Harman/Kardon sound system, 20-inch black aluminum wheels, trailer towing package, integrated vacuum, Uconnect entertainment group with a 25-centimetre screen and all kinds of safety tech features, such as lane-departure warning and active braking. Blind-spot warning system with rear cross-traffic assist is standard, but forward automatic emergency braking is optional.

The second-row entertainment system features two independent screens mounted to the backs of the front seats, and it has a power liftgate, side doors and the so-called stow-and-go seat system that makes the second- and third-row seats disappear into the floor. In the Limited, the back row can be stashed with the push of a button.

Fiat Chrysler has announced a 35th anniversary edition (for the minivan, not Pacifica) for 2020. It features an embroidered logo on the front floor mats. The Red S appearance package has also been added, offering red Nappa leather seats with gray contrast stitching, unique silver door and gauge accents, gloss-black exterior accents and 20-inch wheels.

Yet, for all its refinement, even the high-end Pacifica can't make market inroads. Libby says consumers favour SUVs and crossovers for several reasons. The vehicles have a higher seating position, which many drivers prefer for improved visibility.

They have versatility and flexibility, and they almost universally offer all-wheel drive. (In minivans, only the Toyota Sienna has an AWD option.) Reading the shift away from sedans and minivans, automakers are "fuelling the fire" by investing heavily in adding models and features to crossovers and SUVs, according to Libby.

The range of models now available on the market are, he says, "what cars used to be."

At GM, Chevrolet alone has six sport-utility vehicles and crossovers, but hasn't made a minivan in 10 years.

To deal with the fuel-economy challenge - long a knock against SUVs - automakers offer crossovers in every size, with engines as small as three cylinders, or four cylinders with cylinder deactivation and stop/start technology. "That fuel-economy argument doesn't hold much water any more," Libby points out.

Nor can the once-derogatory "soccer mom" image be blamed for minivans' failing fortunes.

Such notoriety would almost be considered a blessing. "There really isn't an image any more," Libby says. "To be frank, it's almost non-existent."

Minivans have long been seen as the most family-friendly vehicles and the newest models are even more so. Several models come with built-in vacuums. They have superior second-row entertainment systems and lots of USB plugs to keep the kids occupied. Their lower floor height also makes getting in and out and loading cargo easier than with SUVs.

Minivans also tend to be more spacious than SUVs unless you opt for the largest and most expensive SUVs.

The Pacifica has a volume of 2,478 litres behind the second-row seats for example, while the Dodge Durango SUV needs to have its second-row seats folded flat to accommodate 2,392 litres. You can still fit a 4x8 sheet of plywood or drywall inside a Pacifica or Grand Caravan.

The Kia Sedona minivan has 2,220 litres of cargo space behind its second row and is 23 centimetres shorter than Ford's less fuel-efficient Expedition, which has just 1,628 litres of cargo space.

Minivans also have the edge on price in an apples-to-apples comparison of passenger capacity. The relatively budget-friendly Pacifica L model, which will soon be rebranded Voyager, can carry eight and starts at $32,245. Pricing details for the Voyager haven't been released yet. The eight-passenger Odyssey starts at $35,490. The Kia Sedona, which can be configured for eight, starts at $28,495. In SUVs, you need a full-size SUV to match that passenger capacity - a Toyota Sequoia SUV starts at $61,365 and the Chevy Suburban starts at $59,200.

That is why my daughter's family, who recently moved from Toronto to Kitchener, opted for a Grand Caravan - after vowing they would buy an SUV.

With three young boys, they need as much space as they can get and at an affordable price.

Yet, the space advantage doesn't seem to matter to consumers, Libby says, and that's why automakers are not investing in minivan development.

It doesn't make sense for them to spend the money to develop AWD for minivans because there's not enough return on the investment.

"They're obviously putting the money in the 48-per-cent [market share] rather than the 2 per cent," he says.

He also says most drivers in southern Canada don't really need AWD, but they want it anyway. "It's the peace of mind knowing you have it. It gives them a feeling of comfort."

Libby predicts the automakers that are producing minivans will continue to do so because there are fewer competitors than when minivans were hot, so they get a bigger share of a smaller pie. But barring a "miracle," he sees no chance for a consumer shift back to these handy vehicles - even with new features.

Says Libby, "I don't believe there would be more of an uptick."

Associated Graphic

Chrysler has joined the likes of other automakers in its struggle to sell its minivan models, such as the Pacifica, which few Canadians are buying. FCA

Newer minivan models have become even more family friendly over the years, with several containing built-in vacuums and superior entertainment systems. They are also more spacious- the Pacifica, above, has a volume of 2,478 litres behind its second-row seats. FCA

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Creativity helps mid-priced hotels thrive in pricey cities
Adapting rooms to fit current needs is the key to optimizing property use, cutting costs and maintaining a city's economic momentum
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Tuesday, July 9, 2019 – Page B6

The owners of the modest and quirky Victorian Hotel in Vancouver get offers all the time for their property, with potential buyers offering astronomical figures just to get a small piece of real estate in the downtown area.

Formerly a low-rent residential hotel, the space was taken over by its current owners in the 1990s before renovating and relaunching it as a three-star-hotel that caters to business clients.

For now, the owners of the Victorian Hotel are staying put.

"The business is doing so well," manager Brian McLauchlan says. It's almost always at full capacity, even at current rates of $200 to $350 a night and even though it's in a transition zone between the central business core and the Downtown Eastside.

Not all who have ventured to establish hotels in this area have fared so well. Mr. McLauchlan acknowledges that over the past decade, quite a few other small-hotel owners ended up selling, and he says others are likely to cash out during the next year or two.

"If you don't have deep pockets, you have to sell," says Mr. McLauchlan, who has managed other smaller hotels in Vancouver.

IT'S HARD TO BE A HOTEL The pressure on hotels, particularly small to mid-sized properties, has turned into a significant problem for Vancouver. The issue is serious enough to attract the attention of both city planners and individual entrepreneurs, both of whom are now working together to find a solution.

As with so much else in the city, the lower-priced, more affordable rooms are disappearing.

Between 2010 and 2017, Vancouver lost 1,598 hotel rooms in the three-star or below categories, and another 438 in the fourstar category.

During the same time, almost 1,200 new five-star rooms were created. Well-known luxury brands, such as Marriott and Executive Hotels and Resorts, staked a claim in Vancouver's downtown core in late 2017 and 2018, but with a one-night stay on a weekend costing $400 or more, these new hotel options don't cater to a large segment of visitors.

The impact of lost rooms in these more affordable price brackets means that hotels are full or near capacity far more often - and that says a lot for a city where hotels tend to dominate the downtown core. On average, the national occupancy rate hovers around 65 per cent. Between June and September of last year, Vancouver's 13,000-plus rooms had a 90-per-cent occupancy rate. Clearly, there are an insufficient number of rooms to meet the city's demand. This isn't good if you're a city planner who is counting on tourism growth as part of the city's future economy.

"If we don't deal with our hotel supply, we're won't be able to grow our visitor economy," says Ty Speer, chief executive officer of Tourism Vancouver. "We will have visitors that want to come and will not be able to."

SHORT-TERM RENTALS HELP Mr. Speer concedes that the only reason this problem isn't worse is the presence of Airbnb and short-term rentals.

"The slack has been picked up by short-term-rental sites and home-sharing," he says. "Without that, we would have been in trouble much sooner. But what we're seeing now is that Airbnb - the flexible supply of rental rooms - is tightening up a lot across the province and in the city."

Feeling the heat, City of Vancouver planners introduced a new policy in mid-2018 that opens up three specific areas in the downtown area to allow for the construction or redevelopment of commercial structures for hotel use.

As well, planners asked councillors to support other measures to protect existing rooms or encourage the construction of new ones, including allowing smaller room sizes, nudging developers to replace lost hotel rooms with new ones and allowing strata buildings that have only one owner to be converted to hotels in commercial areas. Finally, smaller changes to the overall design requirements of hotels - including not requiring a standard lobby, for example - were included.


Vancouver's hotel problem is a direct result of all the other real estate and housing issues that have hit the city in recent years.

Some hotels are being lost because owners have sold out for high purchase prices offered by condo or office developers. The Landmark on Robson Street and the Quality Inn on Howe Street are two examples.

The city's aggressive effort to deal with its homelessness problem also plays a role. Vancouver bought or leased several midrange hotels to provide transitional or permanent housing for its always-growing number of homeless people.

The Biltmore Hotel, once a mainstay for out-of-town visitors in Mount Pleasant, is now leased by the city. The former Ramada Inn on Kingsway is now home to the people who used to live in the Continental Hotel on Granville. And another Ramada on East Hastings was purchased in 2013 for transitional housing.

Other hotels, including the Pacific Palisades on Robson, the Plaza 500 across the street from City Hall and the Coast Plaza Hotel on Denman, are in the process of conversion or have already been converted to rental apartments.

Finally, as a result of Vancouver's soaring land prices, the only kind of new hotel space that's currently being built is in the luxury segment.

SOLUTIONS ARE POSSIBLE, BUT REQUIRE CREATIVITY Commercial broker Hamir Bansal at Colliers International says one alternative is a mixed-use development where the hotel only occupies part of a building, which may also include condos, offices and retail space. The Exchange Hotel, in the city's central business district, is a prime example of this mixed-commercial-use development.

Prima Properties is also looking at developing a 47-storey tower on the former site of a gas station at Burrard and Davie, which would have 236 condo units and 50 hotel rooms.

Then there is a convergence of ideas that offers a unique take on the mixed-commercial approach. This is the direction the Sonder hotel is taking. As a San Francisco-based company with a McGill University student from Montreal as a founder, Sonder has been billed as a challenger to the short-term-rental space because of its aim to combine the Airbnb experience with hotel efficiency and standardization.

"We used to call ourselves the deconstructed hotel," spokesman Mason Harrison says.

"Hyatt can't make an eight-unit hotel work, but a tech-enabled hotel can do that."

The company has about 4,500 rooms in 22 cities.

It is currently opening its first major Vancouver project in a former Arts and Crafts-era office building on Seymour Street. The project will create 36 hotel rooms, but there will be no lobby or visible hotel-type services. Instead, Mr. Harrison says, Sonder's on-call Vancouver operations team will provide guests with concierge and housekeeping functions.

"When you look at the cost of real estate in Vancouver, it's crazy to use it for lobby and back-ofhouse functions," he says.

The company has faced blowback in Vancouver and elsewhere for appearing to operate single, Airbnb-type units in residential buildings.

Mr. Harrison says those are old listings that the company had prior to their regulation of short-term vacation rentals.

Now, he says, the company has dropped those and works to comply with city regulations.

That's just one of the challenges this new hotel model faces - in every city, but perhaps especially in real estate-jaded Vancouver, Mr. Harrison says.

The city has a lot of rules meant to ensure that renters don't get displaced. It's not a problem, he says, since his company works hard to find spaces that fit with existing company goals and current city by-laws.

"We believe this mixed-use model is good for the city."

Associated Graphic

Vancouver's Victorian Hotel, a former low-rent residential hotel, was relaunched as a three-star hotel that is now almost always at full capacity. But a manager at the Victorian says over the past decade, quite a few small-hotel owners in the area have sold their properties.


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Thursday, July 11, 2019 – Page B17


July 11, 2017 Dear Mum, Two years, too long. Miss you. xo


On Wednesday, July 10, 2019 at North York General Hospital. Arthur Lundy, beloved husband of Loretta of 66 years. Loving father and father-in-law of Karen Lundy and Joe Laufer, Ellen Lundy, and James Lundy. Cherished Zaidy of Benjamin and Kristin, David, Trevor, Matthew, and Joshua.

At Steeles Memorial Chapel, 350 Steeles Ave., W., on Friday, July 12, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment Pardes Shalom Cemetery, Community section. Shiva 215 Burbank Drive. Memorial donations may be made to Dr. Solomon Jacob and Kate Woolfson Foundation c/o The Baycrest Foundation at 416-785-2875, or the North York General Hospital Foundation at 416-756-6944, or the charity of your choice.


Age 77, son of Betty and Jack, died of cancer in Hamilton.

on July 9, 2019, at the Dr. Bob Kemp Hospice.

Jack was born in Maidstone, SK, and raised in Victoria, BC. He graduated from four universities, receiving his Ed.D from the at University of British Columbia.

Jack taught and coached football in Leamington, ON, until returning to BC where he taught at Vancouver Community College and Fraser Valley College while he studying for his Ed.D. He was a Director for the Ministry of Skills Development, for Centennial College, and Director of the Learning Centre for LIUNA.

He played rugby from college until his 30s, when he became a referee. He played the baritone sax and bass clarinet in three bands. He loved to talk and always had stories to tell.

Left to celebrate his life are his wife, Sylvia; their daughter, Shannon McLaren and her husband, Phil Rohtla; his grandchildren, Jack and Jessica Rohtla of Ottawa; and his uncle and aunt, Bruce and Lida Paxton of St. Catharines.

We have honored Jack's wishes for cremation and no funeral.

A reception for family and friends will be held Friday, July 12th, the 50th anniversary of the day Jack and Sylvia met in 1969. Please come celebrate his life with us from 2-4 p.m. at the Legion Branch 163, 435 Limeridge Road E., Hamilton.

In lieu of flowers, the family would appreciate gifts made in Jack's honor to either the Cancer Assistance Program, or to the Dr. Bob Kemp Hospice.

SYLVIA JEAN LI (née Douglas)

Systems analyst, daughter, sister, wife, mother, reader, creator, tech and role-playing game aficionado.

Died peacefully as dawn broke on July 5, 2019, at age 75. Born January 3, 1944 to Donald George Douglas (nuclear physicist, storyteller), and Anna Catherine Fife (teacher, mother, caregiver, maker of pies). She spent her early childhood in Montreal, before the family moved to Winnipeg.

Sylvia read voraciously, studied violin. The first thing she did when she got to the University of Manitoba was join CUCND (Combined Universities Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament).

She marched in Ban the Bomb demonstrations, graduated with a double-major in Math and Physics - with some music and history courses squeezed in - and got her first job programming computers, which turned into a lifelong career of programming and systems analysis. This was back in 1965, when very few universities in the world offered degrees in computer science.

On September 18, 1965, she married Robert Shiu-Ki Li scholar, musician, engineer, a multi-talented adventurous spirit who can construct anything you might want with only cardboard, masking tape, and a quick trip to the dollar store.

Sylvia was a tireless mother, raising two children with Robert: caringly soothing their physical and emotional hurts, patiently helping with homework, and implicitly demonstrating the importance of a career outside the home. As an early programmer, she had a front-row seat to the industry's rapid development, from punched cards through to IBM mainframes, to early languages such as COBOL and RPG - experience which came in handy in the late 1990s, when she came out of retirement to work for Telcordia in New Jersey, to help save the world from an imminent Y2K-bug meltdown.

She had an extraordinarily rich life of the mind and impressive catholic tastes, gulping down novels by the cartful. Raised on the classics, she fell hard for speculative / science fiction and fantasy, discovering SF&F fandom in her mid-40s. And she tried her hand at it, too, joining the Better Than Hockey writing group in Winnipeg, and, later in life, completing the not-yet-published SF novel, High City.

In her 40s and 50s, she found a group of like-minded creative spirits in the Big House, enjoying their company through the year and especially during the Winnipeg Folk Festival, where she was a charter member of BaggieCon. With Robert and the kids, Sylvia enjoyed road trips to many of Canada's provinces and nearly all of the U.S. states. And she thrilled at the trip of a lifetime to China, as Robert proudly shared his homeland with her.

But not all of her travel involved going somewhere in the physical world. In her late 30s, Sylvia shared many Saturdays with her son, running a Dungeons & Dragons campaign at the University of Manitoba as Dungeon Master. In the last decade of her life, Sylvia became an integral member of the Improbable Island online community, first as a player and soon thereafter being appointed a Moderator. She loved the challenge and sense of humour, helping to guide the tone. If she learned wisdom late in life, she said, it was there.

Sylvia spent the last five weeks of her life at Toronto's Kensington Hospice, lovingly cared for by the staff, whose team of experts and volunteers allowed family and friends to provide her with emotional support rather than exhaust themselves as caregivers.

There, she continued with her creative outlets, taking whimsical still-lifes with her iPhone that she shared with family.

Sylvia was predeceased by her parents and her youngest brother, Donnie. She leaves her husband, Robert Li; her brother, Rob Douglas, and his wife, Marie D'Iorio, of Ottawa; her children, Rosemary Li-Houpt and Christopher Li and their respective spouses, Simon Houpt and Jamie McDaniel; and her adoring grandchildren, Sascha, Michal, and Zoe Houpt, and Cybil Li. Family and friends are invited to gather in Sunderland Hall of Toronto's First Unitarian Church, 175 St. Clair Ave. W., on Saturday, July 13th at 3 pm for a celebration of Sylvia's unique life. Donations may be made in her memory to the Kensington Hospice at the Kensington Health Foundation.


Peacefully on Saturday, June 22, 2019, Maxwell John Miller, FRIBA, FRAIC, Past President, Ontario Association of Architects and longtime chief architect for Simpsons and Sears. Happily married to Evelyn Miller (nee Lamb) for over 59 years before her death in 2012. Much loved father of Henry (Lynn) and Avarina and loving grandfather of Sebastian (Lauren), Victoria, Emily and Juliana.

Friends may visit at RosarMorrison Funeral Home & Chapel, 467 Sherbourne St.

on Thursday, July 11 from 2 - 5 and 7 - 9 p.m. Mass of Christian Burial at Our Lady of Lourdes Church, 520 Sherbourne Street, on Friday, July 12 at 10 a.m. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to St. Michael's Hospital Foundation. Heartfelt thanks to Sabrina and all at Integracare. Condolences


Peacefully, in his 87th year, surrounded by family, at North York General Hospital on Saturday, July 6, 2019. Beloved husband for 59 years of Wanda van Wassenaer (Sulkowska).

Proud father of Nicole van Wassenaer (Glenn Elliott) of Toronto, Philip van Wassenaer (Violet) of Mississauga and Valerie van Wassenaer of Collingwood.

Cherished grandfather of Erik, Lucas, Julia, Jacob and Philip.

Floris will be sadly missed by extended family and friends.

A Celebration of Life will be held on Saturday, July 20th at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W.

Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) at 3:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, memorial contributions in Floris' name to the North York General Hospital (7 North) or the Toronto Dementia Research Alliance would be gratefully appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through

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As outlook for commodities weakens, CN looks to container shipping to fill the void

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Monday, July 8, 2019 – Page B1

Jean-Jacques Ruest, the head of Canadian National Railway Co., has been thinking a lot lately about the U.S. consumer. As volumes of coal, oil and other industrial commodities fluctuate or wane, Mr. Ruest is leading an acquisition strategy to ensure Canada's largest railway moves more T-shirts, barbecues and batteries.

CN wants to "ride the back of a very strong U.S. consumer, who's got a job, who's spending," Mr. Ruest said. "He may not be generating freight as if he's a factory but he's generating freight because he's consuming products. That freight moves around in a container."

The Montreal-based company has expanded its reach into container shipping with three non-rail deals since October, not including a failed joint bid by the company and a partner to buy a container terminal at the Port of Halifax.

The deals - two container trucking businesses and a container-ship port project - underscore CN's attempt to safeguard its revenues as the business of hauling commodities, such as coal and oil, is expected to see volume declines within a few years.

Its $250-million plan to expand its container business in southern Ontario, however, has run into local opposition and is the subject of a federal review.

CN's planned rail-to-truck container terminal on 160 hectares in Milton, Ont., west of Toronto, was proposed in 2001, dropped, and then resurfaced in 2015. CN says the yard is needed to serve the growing population of Toronto and the surrounding area and to relieve the nearby intermodal yard in Brampton, which is at capacity.

Many area residents and politicians oppose the project, saying it will create noise, pollution and road congestion while adding few new jobs.

North American demand for coal has slumped in part because of tougher environmental rules, and a switch by power plants to cheaper, cleaner natural gas. Carloads of coal pulled by train fell by a third between 2010 and 2018, even as overall rail volumes were little changed, according to the American Association of Railroads, which includes U.S.

operations of CN and Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd.

The percentage of electricity generated from coal in the United States has decreased to less than 25 per cent from nearly 45 per cent over the past 10 years, and coal railcar volumes have followed a similar trend, said Fadi Chamoun, a stock analyst at Bank of Montreal's capital markets unit.

CN's coal revenues between 2010 and 2018 rose by just $60million to $660-million. Intermodal container sales, meanwhile, almost doubled to $3.4billion, accounting for one-quarter of CN's revenue and making it the biggest division by revenue.

Although Canadian crude-byrail volumes recently set records, Mr. Ruest sees a slowdown coming. "At some point over the next two or three years the rail industry will start to lose some of the business that makes us profitable," he said at a recent investors' conference in New York. "As much as crude by rail should be exciting over the next 24 or 36 months, eventually a pipeline will be built and the crude will go back in the pipeline. So two and a half years from now, when ... coal and crude start to slow down, what will we have to make sure we have some growth out there? That's why we have this effort on inorganic growth."

Walter Spracklin, a stock analyst at Royal Bank of Canada's capital markets division, said CN's additions of non-rail assets will "feed the beast," bringing in new volumes of container traffic to a rail network that has spare capacity in Eastern Canada, a region where heavy manufacturing has been in decline for years.

"We continue to view this strategy favourably and believe that these new deals will increase volumes and that these deals complement CN's rail business as opposed to compete with it," Mr. Spracklin said.

CN's recent deals include the acquisition in October of Winnipeg's TransX Group, a trucking company with 3,000 employees, for an undisclosed amount. CN said the privately held TransX strengthens its refrigerated container business used to ship food.

In May, CN bought the container shipping business of H&R Transport Ltd., an Alberta-based trucking company, and later that month joined with Hutchison Ports to reach a deal with the Quebec Port Authority to build and operate a new deep-water container terminal on the St.

Lawrence River. CN did not disclose how much it will invest in the $775-million project, known as Laurentia, but Desjardins analyst Benoit Poirier estimated the amount at about $190-million over several years.

Mr. Poirier noted Hutchison is an experienced port operator, handling some 11 per cent of the world's containerized trade at 51 global ports. However, he noted the port will likely not be operating until 2024.

Keith Reardon, CN's vice-president in charge of the consumer product supply chain, insists the moves don't mean the company is any less interested in the industrial goods it has hauled for 100 years.

"We want to grow the whole economy, whatever that brings to us. Whether it's the consumer economy that is becoming more prevalent in North America or it's the heavy industrial that's done us very well over the years," Mr. Reardon said.

CN has for years been considered among North America's best-performing railways, capitalizing on a long-haul network that touches three coasts and employing the lean, precision railroading model established by Hunter Harrison during his time there between 1998 and 2009.

Christian Wetherbee, a stock analyst at Citigroup Inc. in New York, said the focus on adding new revenues and customers is one that began in the post-Harrison years, and is in line with Mr.

Ruest's background as CN's head of marketing.

"I feel like this is just a continuation of the strategy [although] obviously M&A is new," he said by phone.

He said there is a risk CN's new deals dilute profit margins and operating ratio, which compares sales with costs. Key to this is ensuring CN's expansion doesn't include a new move into the broader trucking business, as opposed to the intermodal part of that industry.

"You don't want to be in a highly competitive, low barrierto-entry business because that would sort of ruin the value proposition of being a railroad," Mr. Wetherbee said. "They're saying all the right things but those are the things you need to watch."

CN is the only railway to serve the ports of Halifax and Prince Rupert, B.C., and shares access at Vancouver with CP and BNSF Railway of the United States.

Much of CN's container business growth has been fed by shipments from Asia arriving at Prince Rupert, which saw container volumes rise by 12 per cent in 2018. Those shipments reach the West Coast port in 11 days, compared with 14 days to Los Angeles and 13 days to Seattle.

And from Prince Rupert, it takes another four, or four and a half days to reach the key markets of Chicago and Toronto, respectively. Due to the railway's path through remote and congestionfree areas, this is at least one day sooner than from the U.S. West Coast ports.

It's the reason why two-thirds of the Prince Rupert cargo volumes are destined for U.S. markets - and the U.S. consumer that Mr. Ruest is banking on.

But the surge in freight volumes has come at a cost - CN last year spent a record $3.5-billion on locomotives, railcars and track expansion to relieve congestion after complaints from customers about poor service.

Mr. Reardon, CN's vice-president, said the recent deals will add container traffic to CN's eastern network, which is underutilized and not at risk of congestion, nor in need of expensive upgrades.

Associated Graphic

CN's coal revenues between 2010 and 2018 increased by $60-million to $660-million, while intermodal container sales nearly doubled to $3.4-billion.


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Capturing tonnes of carbon and conservatives' climate hopes
Projects in Alberta and Saskatchewan are global leaders, but technology's efficacy and viability still needs more work

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page A14

ESTEVAN, SASK. -- One of Canada's largest science projects is humming away on the south Saskatchewan Prairie, capturing thousands of tonnes of climatewarming carbon dioxide every month and storing it underground where it should remain buried for eons.

The idea behind carbon capture and storage is simple in theory, but it has faced years of teething problems and cost overruns at the facility next to the Boundary Dam power station to get the project working. Now, a small and unremarkable brown pipe - warm to the touch even in a freezing Prairie wind - juts out of the hulking building and disappears into the ground, carrying a constant stream of carbon dioxide and the hopes of a growing number of Canada's conservative politicians.

Half of provincial governments are now in the hands of conservative premiers opposed to carbon pricing, arguing instead that technology - to reduce emissions and then capture and store what's left over - is a better solution to climate change. Saskatchewan has been committed to carbon capture and storage for nearly a decade and the government spent $1.5-billion building the facility at Estevan, the world's first at a coal-fired power plant.

Premier Jason Kenney in neighbouring Alberta is also considering pouring more money into carbon capture, adding to the two projects already functioning or nearing completion in the energy-rich province.

Turning the stream of pollutants coming off burning coal into carbon dioxide that can be sequestered underground or sold to boost fading production from nearby oil wells, is a difficult prospect. The plant at Boundary Dam uses enormous amounts of chemicals, cooling towers the height of an office tower and enough electricity to power a small town. The Saskatchewan plant was also poorly designed for the region's low-quality coal, leading to years of painful lessons as much of the plant had to be periodically disassembled to clean out unexpected buildups of ash and other contaminants.

"It's the joys of coming first," said David Jobe, the director of carbon capture at Boundary Dam, as he walked through the structure. He says carbon capture is now a proven technology that the provincially owned utility could sell to sequester the emissions from hundreds of coal-fired power plants in China and India.

"We've proven it can work.

Now we need to make it cheaper," he added.

THE PRICE OF PROGRESS At $1.5-billion, the bill for the facility would be about $1,300 for each of Saskatchewan's 1.1 million residents.

The Parliamentary Budget Office has warned the plant could lose $1-billion over 30 years, which could drive up electricity bills in the province. SaskPower has also not paid a dividend to the provincial treasury in recent years because of the expense of large projects such as Boundary Dam.

The plan now runs near 94per-cent efficiency, capturing nearly all the pollutants coming off a single boiler at Boundary Dam. However, grinders and welders are still a daily sight after nearly five years of operations - despite the fact that the facility was designed to be unstaffed.

Because of carbon capture, one of the boilers at Boundary Dam will remain open for decades after the federally mandated deadline to close all coal-fired power stations by 2030. The project will sustain coal-mining jobs in southern Saskatchewan and help local energy companies increase oil production through a process known as enhanced oil recovery, according to Saskatchewan Environment Minister Dustin Duncan.

"We wanted to see whether we could be part of the solution, by continuing to use these assets over the long term in a way that would significantly reduce their emissions," Mr. Duncan told The Globe and Mail. While Premier Scott Moe's government has ruled out adding more carbon capture at Boundary Dam, the provincial government is still debating whether to build another facility at a nearby coal-fired power station. That decision will be made midway through the next decade.

Mr. Duncan notes the numerous problems the plant experienced in its first five years or so, in particular needing to periodically dismantle and clean the whole facility.

"It's been frustrating at times, but we knew all along that this was really first-generation technology, it was the first of its kind in the world on a commercial scale using postcombustion emissions, particularly from a coal-fired power plant. I think we all went into it with eyes pretty wide open," Mr. Duncan said.

Estevan Mayor Roy Ludwig has expressed his frustration at the lack of new carbon capture in the province and has called for Mr. Moe's government to expand the technology's use. The region around Estevan is dominated by rocking oil pumpjacks and the towering steam from Boundary Dam hangs in the air like a storm cloud, visible from kilometres away. The carbon-capture plant has been toured by a number of prominent business leaders and politicians from around the world and is one of the area's best shots to continue producing coal and oil, according to the mayor.

"We're cautiously optimistic that we can continue for some time with clean coal technology, but that's obviously tempered by what's going on in Ottawa," said Mr. Ludwig. He's concerned that Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's government hasn't shown much enthusiasm for carbon capture and has instead focused on a Canadawide carbon tax system to curb climate change.

SUBSIDIES OR MARKET MECHANISMS Two carbon-capture projects in Alberta have also received $1.24billion in financial support from that province's government.

Near Edmonton, Shell's Quest carbon-capture project has stored four million tonnes of carbon dioxide, the most of any comparable facility in the world, according to the company. The Shell project, which began operations in 2015, captures one-third of the emissions from a nearby upgrader, an energy facility that turns bitumen into synthetic crude oil.

A larger project is the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line, a pipeline for carbon dioxide under construction linking the industrial facilities of the Edmonton area to an underground storage location about 200 kilometres to the south near Red Deer. The line, which is expected to finish construction at the end of this year, is designed to allow facilities that adopt carbon capture to tap into it over the next few decades.

Mr. Kenney's government is now prepared to look at future projects, according to Alberta Environment Minister Jason Nixon.

"We're currently exploring options to help companies reduce emissions with cleaner technology. For example, revenue generated from the [government's proposed technology] fund could be used to support research and investment in carbon capture, utilization and storage," the minister said in a statement.

Carbon capture works in some instances and is effective, according to Duncan Kenyon with the Calgary-based energy think tank Pembina Institute, but there are often cheaper ways to get similar reductions in carbon emissions.

"This is exactly what is needed as part of a meaningful climate strategy and we do need to put a ton of money into research, but here's what's missing: Do you need the government to throw a few billion at carbon capture or do you just put in a market mechanism that does the same thing without subsidization? Because that's exactly what a carbon price is," he said.

Falling prices for renewables have made a number of carboncapture projects uncompetitive, according to Mr. Kenyon. However, he said a carbon tax, along with a project like the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line, which would allow an industrial facility to adopt carbon capture more cheaply and avoid paying the tax, could work.

"We don't just need to throw out public money at this. We can also support these innovations through carbon pricing and just letting a financial incentive work," Mr. Kenyon said.

Associated Graphic

David Jobe, director of carbon capture at SaskPower's Boundary Dam power station near Estevan, Sask., says the technology is now proved and the provincially owned utility could sell it to sequester emissions from hundreds of coal-fired power plants in China and India.


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The Montreal native, remembered for his tough-guy attitude, fought beside his brother and headlined local matches at a time when the province couldn't get enough of the sport

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page B19

Beneath bright lights, the two wrestlers clashed in the middle of the ring.

Jacques Rougeau Sr., wearing black trunks, repeatedly slammed his fist into his opponent's face. It may have been a show, but soon the man's eye turned black and his face red. Neither seemed to be acting.

"Unbelievable!" the commentator roared as Mr. Rougeau pummelled the other man through the ropes.

The hometown crowd roared.

This was Montreal, where, in the early 1970s, wrestling matches at the Montreal Forum and other arenas frequently sold out. At the top of the game were the Rougeau brothers, heads of a dynasty of wrestlers whose family name is synonymous with wrestling greatness.

"The Rougeau family is considered the royal family of Quebec wrestling. They've been on the wrestling scene for over 70 years," said Patric Laprade, a play-byplay announcer for wrestling on TVA Sports, historian and author of multiple books on the subject.

On July 1, Jacques Rougeau Sr.

died of pulmonary fibrosis at a palliative care centre in SaintJean-de-Matha, surrounded by family. He was 89.

He was born in Montreal on May 27, 1930, and was raised in the Villeray-Rosemont neighbourhood. His mother, Albina Auger, was a businesswoman who operated a hat store and a salon. His father, Armand Rougeau, worked in the meat industry.

When Jacques Sr. was a boy, his father taught him to box and he picked up the sport quickly, winning the coveted Golden Gloves title as a young teen. But the pugilist chose to make the change to wrestling.

His uncle, Eddy Auger, introduced Jacques Sr. and his brother Jean - known as Johnny - to wrestling. They trained in a basement academy run by Tony Lanza, a bodybuilder, wrestler and photographer. It was there that the two brothers learned to lift weights and throw other men around the ring.

In the mid-1950s, a star wrestler named Yvon Robert ran the wrestling scene in Montreal. At the time, Mr. Robert was almost as popular as famed hockey player Maurice (Rocket) Richard, according to Mr. Laprade.

"It was very hard for French Canadians to actually break [into] that roster," he said.

Mr. Robert chose Johnny as his successor to follow in his footsteps as the local wrestling star.

Johnny was charismatic, and his wrestling was flashy and elegant, in contrast to his stoic and quieter brother Jacques, whose toughguy attitude was more of a personality trait than an act.

Johnny, with his greased hair and handsome face, went on to become Montreal's star wrestling personality. Jacques Sr. quit the sport soon after he started in the 1950s. Promoters were less willing to take a chance on the quiet tough-guy. He also injured himself while practising; Jacques Sr.

was spinning in circles with another man on his shoulders - to disorient him - when his leg caught on a mat and broke in three places.

His leg healed but he stayed away from the sport for a time, instead working odd jobs, including a doorman gig at his brother's nightclub, the Mocambo.

"He was one of the best doormen in town. You wouldn't mess with Jacques Rougeau or you would regret it," Mr. Laprade said.

"That reputation followed him when he came back into wrestling."

In 1965, Johnny started a promotion called All-Star Wrestling and asked his brother to wrestle with him.

"My father, one of his greatest qualities is that he's loyal and if he loved you there's nothing he wouldn't do for you," his son, Raymond, said.

So began the next chapter of a wrestling career that took him across Quebec, Ontario and the Northeastern United States, and even to Japan.

One of his tag-team partners, Gino Brito, remembered those days and the long drives from show to show alongside the stoic Jacques Rougeau Sr.

"We got along good," Mr. Brito said. "Sometimes we'd drive to Chicoutimi, [Que.]. Maybe out of the five-hour drive, we were lucky if we spoke half an hour."

The Rougeau Brothers were headliners at a time when wrestling was booming in Montreal and Quebec. Hundreds of thousands of people tuned in to watch wrestling on television.

"We were on TV Sunday mornings and nobody was in church.

Everybody was watching wrestling," Mr. Brito said.

Thousands turned up weekly at the Montreal Forum to watch the Rougeaus battle against the likes of the Russian Bear (Ivan Koloff), the Sheikh (Ed Farhat) and Abdullah the Butcher (Lawrence Shreve).

One of Jacques Sr.'s rivalries was more violent than the others.

Dick (Tugboat) Taylor, a U.S.

wrestler, battled Jacques Sr. twice in heated bouts. A rubber match was scheduled for the Montreal Forum in 1973, but Mr. Taylor didn't show up.

The resulting frenzy is the stuff of legend. According to Mr. Laprade, to prevent the 20,000 fans from rioting, Mr. Taylor's manager stepped into the ring as a sacrificial lamb. Jacques Sr. gave him a theatrical walloping.

The fans went home somewhat appeased, but the story goes that Jacques Jr. heard a rumour: Mr. Taylor was lounging in a bar downtown with his championship belt.

"He took the Leduc brothers with him and went to that bar ... he waited for Taylor ... and beat the heck out of him," Mr. Laprade said. "Taylor was never seen in the wrestling business in Montreal again."

At the height of their popularity, in 1972, the Rougeau Brothers sold out Jarry Park stadium, then home of the Montreal Expos baseball team. More than 26,000 fans turned up.

Jacques Sr. battled against the Sheikh that night and won the Montreal title in front of the roaring crowd.

His son, Raymond, was the third Rougeau on that card. He remembered his father as someone who always made good on his promises.

When Raymond was just a boy, Jacques Sr. asked him if he wanted to be a wrestler.

"I said I don't know," Raymond said. "It intrigued me, but I never thought I could compete with those guys and my father asked me, 'Do you trust me?' " Jacques Sr. promised Raymond that with the proper training he'd compete in his first wrestling bout by the age of 16. He delivered on that promise. Raymond had his first match three months after his 16th birthday.

Jacques Sr. had five children, four of whom went on to become heavily involved in the world of professional wrestling.

Raymond and Jacques Jr. became popular wrestlers in the World Wrestling Federation, now called World Wrestling Entertainment, and competed together for a time as the Fabulous Rougeaus.

Armand's wrestling career was cut short by an injury. Joanne, Jacques's daughter, worked as a promoter for the WWF in the 1990s.

Jacques Sr. retired from the sport in 1976, but he occasionally returned to the ring. He wrestled with his sons in 1984 and continued to be involved in the sport through them.

Jacques Jr. continued wrestling until 2018. His sons Émile, Cédric and Jean-Jacques also wrestled.

"Jacques Rougeau Sr. is probably why the family is considered a dynasty," Mr. Laprade said.

After wrestling, Jacques Sr.

ventured into real estate, buying and selling property. He spent his summers in Rawdon, Que., where his family lived, and his winters in Florida. He and Mr. Brito remained friends.

Jacques Sr. leaves his wife, Louise Parizeau; three sons, Raymond, Armand and Jacques Jr.; two daughters, Joanne and Diane; 10 grandchildren, including former NHL player Denis Gauthier Jr. and 12 great-grandchildren.

Jacques Sr. was a quiet man, according to those who knew him, but he was dependable, solid and honest. Despite the fame he achieved as a wrestler, he preferred to stay out of the spotlight.

"He had a presence. When he entered a room, even if he didn't speak, everyone turned," Raymond said. "He was a success but despite all that he stayed very reserved, very simple, very humble."

Associated Graphic

Jacques Rougeau Sr. retired from wrestling in 1976, but his sons and daughter turned his career into a dynasty by also getting involved in the sport.


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NDP's Robinson re-enters the federal fray with a green message

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page A13

BURNABY, B.C. -- For Svend Robinson, there was no better place to denounce the Trudeau government's Trans Mountain pipeline policy than the constituency office of Liberal MP Terry Beech.

Since 2015, Mr. Beech has been MP in the Burnaby North-Seymour riding Mr. Robinson wants to win for the New Democrats in this fall's federal election, launching the second act of his political career after 15 years in private life.

Mr. Robinson describes the riding as "Ground Zero" for the pipeline expansion because it's the location for the tank farm that will store bitumen shipped from Alberta. Also, tankers will pick up that energy product for shipment.

So the former New Democratic MP and now party candidate summoned the news media earlier this summer to Mr. Beech's office, and levelled his criticism over Ottawa re-approving the pipeline expansion. At the time, Mr. Beech was away, in Ottawa.

"You've got to be creative," Mr.Robinson said of taking the fight to his political foe's doorstep.

"You have got to find creative and effective ways of getting your message out."

Fifteen years after his career as a high-profile MP came to a dramatic end, Mr. Robinson is trying to get back into the House of Commons. And he sees the environment as a crucial issue for his and his party's chances this fall - something that has already brought him into open conflict with his own party.

Mr. Robinson is now 67 and two years past retiring from a consultant's role in Europe with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. His career after leaving politics in 2004 also included a stint with the Public Services International global trade-union federation.

In April, 2004, Mr. Robinson abruptly quit his post as a Burnaby MP after stealing a $21,000 ring at an auction. The incident prompted him to open up about mental-health issues.

Now, he says he has been inspired to give politics another shot by the climate-change crisis as well as the housing crunch that's putting reasonable accommodation out of the reach of many Canadians.

Mr. Robinson made headlines in May after the NDP lost a federal by-election in Nanaimo, where the party previously held the seat, to the Greens. He took to Twitter to warn that the results were a "wake-up call" that the party must be bolder on climate change and other environmental issues, such as natural-gas fracking and new petroleum infrastructure. It was seen as a direct challenge to the party and its leadership.

Mr. Robinson now casts himself as a loyal trooper for the NDP cause and has kind words for party Leader Jagmeet Singh. He also says he's content with the NDP's platform, which includes a $15billion climate plan. "I am quite comfortable taking this into the election and riding on this," he said.

He acknowledged NDP troubles, including departing incumbents and discouraging poll numbers, but said Mr. Singh has a few months to turn things around as national leader of the party. He also dismissed the suggestion that he might be interested in seeking the leadership.

The fight to win the riding in October has plunged Mr. Robinson into some of those challenges facing the party, which is attempting to stay relevant against the Liberals and Greens on the left. The party is also seeking to overcome dismal fundraising and the exit of such high-profile MPs as Nathan Cullen.

The expanded Trans Mountain pipeline, which the federal Liberals bought and recently reapproved after it became stalled in the courts, would mean more tanks at a complex in the riding, and increased tanker traffic off its shores. Mr. Robinson is betting that the Liberals will pay a political price for supporting the pipeline expansion.

Anita Kuttner, the riding's Green Party candidate, says the former MP may be out of synch with the times. "He came in, a similar age to me coming in now and did a great job. There's no reason I can't do tha,t too," said the 28-year-old astrophysicist.

"In the political sphere, Svend did a lot and it's wonderful, but we're in a new era and there are new topics to be discussed."

In saluting Mr. Robinson, Ms.Kuttner is referring to an expansive record. The critic of U.S. foreign policy once heckled Ronald Reagan while the U.S. president was speaking in Parliament. He was with Sue Rodriguez, grappling with ALS, when her fight for physician-assisted suicide ended with a doctor helping her take her life, raising the profile of the issue. He spent 14 days in jail for peaceful civil disobedience protesting against logging of oldgrowth forests in B.C. The advocate for LGBTQ issues was the first openly gay parliamentarian.

He was admired, and disliked.

He knows that well.

"When you take a stand on issues, there will be people that passionately support you and people that equally passionately despise you," he said.

Even when he lived and worked abroad, Mr. Robinson said he maintained his roots in Canada. "Obviously, I was based in Switzerland but my partner Max and I have always had a place on Galiano Island, and came back as often as we could," he said.

Graeme Truelove, author of a 2013 biography of Mr. Robinson - Svend Robinson: A Life in Politics - says it was never inevitable that the former MP would try to return to politics, but that it's not entirely surprising.

"This is somebody who was never going to retire to a beach with a good book," Mr. Truelove said.

This is Mr. Robinson's second attempt to get back into politics.

In 2006, Mr. Robinson ran in the Vancouver-Centre riding held by incumbent Liberal Hedy Fry. Ms.

Fry won with 44 per cent of the vote compared with 29 per cent for second-place Mr. Robinson.

He speaks of the exercise with a visible distaste. "It was too early. I shouldn't have run there.

It was too early after the ring."

When Mr. Robinson was last an MP, just before the 2004 federal election, Jack Layton was leader of the NDP at the forefront of a 14-member caucus. Paul Martin was the Liberal prime minister.

Today, the NDP has 41 members among 335 in Parliament. In British Columbia, they have 13 of 41 seats, just behind the Liberals with 17. There are eight Conservatives, two members of the Green Party and one independent.

However, one recent Angus Reid survey suggested the NDP were fourth behind the Greens in B.C.

Of the Greens, Mr. Robinson said the NDP's best tactic to counter them is to emphasize its long, hard work on social- and economic-justice issues. "I think the NDP brings more to the table [than the Greens] on those issues," he said.

In 2015, Mr. Beech won Burnaby North-Seymour by six percentage points over the secondplace NDP. The Conservatives were close behind. This year, the Conservatives are running Heather Leung, an occupational therapist who previously ran for Burnaby city council. In 2015, the Greens won 5 per cent of the vote.

Mr. Robinson and Ms. Kuttner agree that 2015 saw voters shift to the Liberals and Justin Trudeau to head off the re-election of Stephen Harper and his Conservatives.

"No one speaks of Trudeaumania now," Mr. Robinson said.

Mr. Beech was not available for an interview.

Mr. Robinson said he would like to see the NDP elect enough MPs to hold the balance of power "along with a few Greens" in a minority parliament.

And if this second attempted comeback fails? He is too focused on campaigning to consider the possibility, he says. "I am not making any plans beyond Oct.


Associated Graphic

Svend Robinson will run as the federal NDP candidate for Burnaby North-Seymour in the 2019 election. Below: He attends a Canada Day celebration at a non-profit housing project for low-income seniors in Burnaby.


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Dr. Charles Best, the co-discoverer of insulin, invited him to Toronto, where he studied the effects of exercise on the disease and the production of glucagon in the body

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Thursday, July 18, 2019 – Page B16

The internationally renowned scientist Mladen Vranic possessed a certain quality that helped him make great strides in diabetes research: He kept probing until he got answers.

His widow says his powerful resolve dated back to his childhood, when he narrowly survived the Holocaust with his family.

Originally from Croatia, he fled with his parents and grandmother to Italy during the Second World War because of their Jewish heritage. But the Nazis followed close behind and arrived in the same part of Italy where the family had taken refuge. When the Vranic family fled, they ended up detained in a camp.

Despite the poor conditions there, young Mladen still went to school and played sports.

"I took classes in Latin," Dr. Vranic told a graduating class at the University of Toronto in 2011, while accepting an honorary degree. "My teacher, in despair, told me that I might be better suited to milking the cows."

When the Nazi threat grew, Dr. Vranic's family received word about a rescue boat and waited on a pier for it to arrive. They were fortunate to make it aboard and escape to safety. A few weeks later, Nazis entered the Italian camp and sent everyone inside to Auschwitz. Only two of the camp's inhabitants survived.

Dr. Vranic was lucky to escape and would carry the experience with him wherever he went.

"The experiences of coming so many times to almost be captured, of losing all their properties and art made him just be a fighter," said Linda Vranic, his widow. "He would not give up on anything."

Dr. Vranic would make the most of the remaining years in his life, going on to become a distinguished diabetes researcher at the University of Toronto with numerous accolades in Canada and abroad.

He died on June 18 in Toronto of congestive heart failure at the age of 89.

Dr. Vranic was the last postdoctoral fellow to work with Charles Best - the scientist who co-discovered insulin. Dr. Vranic studied how exercise affected diabetes, and he changed the prevailing thinking in the scientific community when he found that the hormone glucagon can be produced outside of the pancreas, in the stomach. The discovery helped determine the role of glucagon in diabetes.

"He could be relentless in sticking with an issue that he was interested in and wanted to accomplish," said John Dirks, former dean of the faculty of medicine at the University of Toronto. "He was very focused and he wouldn't let go, but all for good reason." Dr. Vranic was born on April 3, 1930, in Zagreb, the only child of Vladimir and Ana Vranic. His father taught mathematics at the University of Zagreb, but couldn't get an academic appointment because of his Jewish background.

After the Second World War, his father returned to the University of Zagreb as a professor and dean. Vladimir brought the first computer to the university despite the views of his colleagues that "computers represented a prostitution of pure mathematics," Dr. Vranic wrote in a career retrospective in 2010. "I have tried to apply the same tenacity to my own research endeavors."

After finishing medical school at the University of Zagreb, Dr. Vranic pursued graduate studies in physiology, where diabetes was the only research topic in the department at the time. Coincidentally, his father developed Type 2 diabetes at the same time.

After finishing his PhD in 1962, Dr. Vranic reached out to the University of Toronto for an opportunity to work with Dr. Best, who was then head of the university's Banting and Best Department of Medical Research. Dr. Vranic's thesis was published in the journal, Diabetes, and Dr. Best was pleased with his work. He invited Dr. Vranic to work with him as a postdoctoral fellow.

Dr. Vranic began developing a new way to measure the production of glucose in the liver separately from glucose utilization in the muscles. Researchers used his method for years, eventually leading them to determine the roles of insulin and glucagon in the body.

Under a different teacher, Dr. Vranic tested the impact of exercise on diabetes, determining when exercise is beneficial and when it's not. This led him to organize the first symposium on the subject in California, where participants were engaged in discussions until well into the night. This work would eventually bring researchers to a major eureka moment when they found exercise can actually prevent Type 2 diabetes.

As a testament to his contribution to diabetes research, in 1991, the American Diabetes Association recognized Dr. Vranic with the prestigious Banting Medal, which is awarded to one researcher in the world each year whose work has advanced the understanding of diabetes.

The same year, Dr. Vranic was appointed chair of the department of physiology at the University of Toronto. Dr. Vranic had recently recovered from a stroke. "I was a little concerned as to whether he was able to do the job," said Dr. Dirks, who appointed Dr. Vranic. "He assured me that he would be fine. And he was."

He received an honorary degree from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden in 1992.

In 2005, he received the Albert Renold Award from the American Diabetes Association for his work training diabetes researchers. He also received the Canadian Diabetes Association's inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award in 2007 and was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame two years later. In 2010, he was appointed to the Order of Ontario and named an officer of the Order of Canada.

Despite his numerous awards, Dr. Vranic would think about recognizing others instead of himself.

"He would often like to discuss with me who we should nominate for awards in the community," said Daniel Drucker, who worked alongside Dr. Vranic in the department of physiology at U of T. "Many of us are always thinking about how we can nominate ourselves for awards."

His students remember the scientist as someone who was calm and capable of diffusing tension.

"Sometimes the lab got totally chaotic," said Patricia Brubaker, a former postdoctoral fellow working under Dr. Vranic, noting that his lab had students from all parts of the world and diverse personalities. "I never saw him angry ever."

If there was a conflict, "he would go into his office and close the door, and just have a discussion," continued Dr. Brubaker, who is now a professor in U of T's departments of physiology and medicine. "It was always very calm and measured and personable rather than confrontational."

And he was as curious about people as he was about science.

"When visiting scientists would come, he would bring them into his office and he would speak to them about what their backgrounds were, and how they got involved in science," Dr. Brubaker added. "He would try to understand the whole person."

Dr. Vranic wouldn't retire until his 80s and, in 2015, helped co-found a company researching a cure for hypoglycemia.

He leaves his widow, Linda; their daughters, Claire and Anne; Iva, his daughter from his first marriage; and a grandson.

About a month before he died, he published an autobiography, titled Between Scylla and Charybdis: A Life Retrospective.

Although his physical movement was limited in his final months, his wife took him to the opera about a month before he died.

In his career retrospective about his work over the previous 50 years, Dr. Vranic quoted Robert Frost's The Road Not Taken: "A scientist is always facing choices ... focusing on specific areas of research, selecting students, fellows, and collaborators.

"The [road] 'less travelled' offers the opportunity of originality, which in my opinion is the key goal in all aspects of arts and science."

Associated Graphic

Mladen Vranic, a Croatian Holocaust survivor and groundbreaking medical researcher, is seen in his office at the University of Toronto in 2009. Colleagues and former students describe Dr. Vranic as a patient, generous man who often sought to elevate the achievements of others.


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Penguin Random House's Strange Light imprint makes its debut with Sara Peters's I Become A Delight To My Enemies - an experimental work about trauma and terror, told through a multitude of disembodied narrators, that might just make for the most audacious audiobook yet

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page R6

Sara Peters is on the phone, talking about I Become A Delight To My Enemies, her voice by turns hesitant, pointed, self-deprecating, dark, funny. "I think of it as a novel, I suppose," the 36-year-old begins, when asked how she would categorize the work. "I wanted this book to be poly-vocal and I wanted the form of each piece to be reflective of the speaker," she says. "I was also thinking of how to undermine any notions of linearity."

A mixture of poetry and prose, with no page numbers, the book marks the debut of Strange Light, a new imprint at Penguin Random House (PRH) that illuminates "experimental" and "boundary-pushing" works. (As part of its debut, Strange Light also published Max Porter's second novel, Lanny, a story about a boy who is drawn by a menacing force and vanishes from an idyllic English village.) A brainchild of the editorial team behind Hazlitt, the awardwinning digital magazine at PRH, Strange Light is a bold, creative gambit - an indiestyle initiative in the bosom of the largest trade publisher in the country.

The subject matter, while in some senses timeless, is also very much of the present moment. I Become is a book of voices, disembodied, all of its characters from a nameless town where they experienced sexual abuse and terror. Contributing to the sense of secrecy and shame, some of the text appears occasionally as marginalia, like whispered comments from the periphery of a town's main square. No two pages are alike. The text is often in fragments, abruptly cut, as if the speakers are hesitant about how much they should say.

If the print version was a work of meticulous design the audio version was a leap of faith, weaving the voices of 15 actors to create the feeling of an agitated, toxic town.

"Trauma leaves gaps and is prismatic," Peters explains when discussing the unconventional approach to her subject.

Asked about how people respond to "experimental" work in any media, she says, "I think it's really important to never condescend to people's appetite for art."

She, too, speaks in fragments - growing silent at times, and in other moments blurting out how she feels in surprising admissions.

The eldest of seven children, she was born in Antigonish, N.S. At the age of 5, she wrote simple things about "the moon and water," she recalls with a laugh. But now, "I really hate and resent writing most of the time. I feel compelled to do it. I do. I wish I just went joyously forth."

After an undergraduate degree from Concordia University in Montreal, she completed an MFA from Boston University and was a Stegner fellow in poetry at Stanford.

I ask if I Become took a long time.

"About four years. I write very little and I rewrite endlessly." A silence falls between us for a moment. And then she offers: "I do things like set time limits for myself. Like, 48 minutes."

The time limit is "totally arbitrary," she explains.

How many times does she do these 45minute writing stints?

"Probably five units of 48 minutes a day."

In between, she might go for a walk, eat something or take a nap. Mostly, she likes to work in a library.

"I really like Robarts [library] at U of T because it feels very anonymous ... and I'm shamed by the industry of the undergrads around me," she says with a small laugh.

Her first book, 1996, a collection of poetry, was published in 2013. Since I Become was completed a year ago, she hasn't written anything. "I feel very, like, scraped out," she admits.

After the print version was finalized, the audio version got under way. "The amount of attention that was taken in figuring out each character and thinking about them and how they would be embodied ..." Peters says, trailing off. "I felt honoured by the sensitivity and the precision of it."

Of its adult list, PRH Canada publishes nearly 90 per cent of its titles in audiobook versions (with the exception of cookbooks). In house, it has produced 130 audiobook titles, while others are co-publications in collaboration with colleagues in other countries.

By far, I Become was the most challenging project Ann Jansen - the book's director of audio production - had tackled at PRH. Jansen has produced spoken versions of numerous titles since the department was launched two years ago. "Sound has found its renaissance. It never went away," says Jansen. "It's that pleasure of hearing a human voice tell a story."

For I Become, the audio version is a radio play - in many ways, the truest iteration of its concept. "We wanted layers of voices, almost crashing into each other. Which is realistic if you were to take any sliver of any town in Canada," Jansen explains.

"It was a great experiment," says Sonia Vaillant, associate producer and studio manager, who has a background in theatre.

"But there was never a moment when I thought it wouldn't work."

Much of the work was in pre- and postproduction. The team met with Peters to discuss the tone each of the characters should have and "how to capture the range of femininity," Vaillant says. Then, the actors were brought in one by one over the course of four days to be recorded in studio.

"Sara's words were so alive, so precise,"

says Tess Degenstein, one of the voice actors. "I was leaning so hard on her words."

She allowed the structure of the pieces she read - the spaces between the lines on the page, the punctuation and fragments of words - to inform her reading.

In one of the poetic pieces Degenstein read, Oracle, she took her cue from the slashes in the text. "As an actor, all of these breaks are a sort of innate conflict of wanting to move forward, wanting to drive through, but being stopped at every turn when there was something really important that was to be said. The text created its own emotionality."

For other parts of the book, a number of actors would individually read an entire passage and then, later, in postproduction, different voices were used for different lines - whichever seemed to best suit the words - so that the whole was a tonal tapestry of voices. Caleb Stull, the sound engineer for PRH audiobooks, spent weeks putting I Become together in collaboration with Beverley Cooper, a freelance director.

Many of the actors identified with the female anger in the characters of the book.

"For me, personally, it was less about tapping into a cultural moment and more about tapping into my own physical body and my own experiences," Degenstein says.

Similarly, Peters didn't write the book in reaction to #MeToo. She tells me that she has been thinking about the subject matter of I Become - "specifically how marginalized people experience violence" - since the age of 10 or 11. Questioned about why a girl as young as 11 would be aware of sexual violence, she answered simply, "I am a woman, and I was brought up with the particular set of hideous expectations for people assigned female."

And those are? "How we expect women to look and act and behave and how much they are allowed to speak and how much they are silenced."

Listening to I Become is an aural immersion in a town of people who need to speak out, to reveal truths, to push back against the shame, to hold out hope. And in that way, it's a powerful reflection of #MeToo, whether that was Peters's intention or not.

The voices are literally heard.

Associated Graphic

The actors behind the audiobook: 1. Paloma Nunez 2. Justin David Miller 3. Angela Asher 4. Amanda Cordner 5. Tess Degenstein 6. Martin Roach 7. Nicole Stamp 8. Maggie Huculak 9. Amy Nostbakken 10. Norah Sadava


Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Leonard heads to L.A., Butler to Miami after weekend of free-agency deals

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Monday, July 8, 2019 – Page B9

Toronto said farewell to Kawhi Leonard. Miami said hello to Jimmy Butler. The Lakers finally have Anthony Davis.

Free agency became real Saturday.

The four-team trade that sent Butler to the Heat - with a new US$142-million, four-year contract - was one of the first big moves to get done once the league's off-season moratorium ended. But many of the other massive moves, such as Leonard's signing with the Los Angeles Clippers and the trade to have Paul George join him, remained in the paperwork stage.

Butler acknowledged that his long-time friend, fellow former Marquette star and now-retired Heat guard Dwyane Wade "may have had a little bit of something to do with" his move to Miami.

"I don't think anybody can take over the role that Dwyane Tyrone Wade Jr. had for this organization and for the game of basketball here," Butler said when asked about taking over as a leader in Miami. "I'm just fortunate and blessed enough to be able to call him a friend, mentor, role model.

He's done so much for me."

There was no real worry about pending transactions around the league: Some deals, including a few that got agreed upon very quickly when the negotiating window opened on June 30, simply needed to be slotted in a certain order to make the NBA's money rules work. Others could get done as soon as the NBA said the new league year was officially underway at 12:01 p.m. Eastern on Saturday.

"I think it's going to be a really exciting season," said Portland's Damian Lillard, who wasn't a free agent and won't be for a long time after signing a US$196-million, four-year extension that could keep him with the Trail Blazers until 2025. "Obviously, it's exciting to see players change teams. You know people love that."

Not all people. Not always.

Toronto awoke to the news Saturday that two starters from this past season's NBA champion Raptors - Leonard and Danny Green - were moving on. Leonard picked the Clippers and will sign a US$142-million, four-year deal, and George will be joining him in a massive trade that will send Danilo Gallinari, Shai Gilgeous-Alexander and five draft picks to Oklahoma City in a blockbuster deal that shook up both conferences.

Green is joining the Lakers on a two-year deal.

"Teams are making moves to win now and that's obvious," said Heat forward Meyers Leonard, who left Portland and is part of the four-team Butler deal. "The Clippers, for example, they're in 'win-now' mode. They played well last year in the playoffs. They go and get Kawhi and PG and all these other players. OKC has to be thinking, 'Okay, we just got a ton of draft picks.' So, people are positioning themselves in different ways."

The Clippers and Thunder couldn't talk about their deal until it was finalized.

The Raptors didn't have to adhere to such rules.

"On behalf of the Raptors, I say a very heartfelt thank you to Kawhi and to Danny, and we send them and their families nothing but good wishes," Raptors president Masai Ujiri said. "As an organization, the Raptors will focus on the future and continue our pursuit of a second championship."

Davis wasn't a free agent, but the Lakers' move to get him surely played a role in plenty of other moves during free agency.

The Lakers' trade for Davis got done Saturday night, and it cost L.A. a ransom. Lonzo Ball, Josh Hart, Brandon Ingram, the draft rights to De'Andre Hunter, two first-round picks, a first-round pick swap and cash went to the Pelicans - and then the Lakers had to send Isaac Bonga, Jemerrio Jones, Moritz Wagner and a future second-rounder to Washington.

The Wizards sent cash to the Pelicans.

"Anthony Davis is arguably the most dominant all-around young player in today's NBA," Lakers general manager Rob Pelinka said. "Anthony represents everything we stand for, with his unwavering commitment to excellence both as a person and an athlete."

The sign-and-trade that will have Kevin Durant leaving Golden State for Brooklyn as well as Kyrie Irving's signing with the Nets were both still pending Saturday night. Golden State's deal to keep Klay Thompson around at nearly US$190-million for five years also wasn't immediately announced, although there would seem to be little rush there.

Boston completed a sign-andtrade with Charlotte, a deal to send all-star Kemba Walker (four years, US$141-million) to the Celtics and Terry Rozier (three years, US$58-million) to the Hornets.

"Kemba has excelled in this league for many years while consistently playing at a level among the NBA's elite," Celtics president Danny Ainge said.

Davis was back for the second straight night at NBA Summer League in Las Vegas alongside James and Lakers guard Kyle Kuzma. James chatted for a couple minutes with Clippers consultant and NBA legend Jerry West - before the Lakers and Clippers met in a summer matchup.

Also at summer league were a trio of young Atlanta stars - Kevin Huerter, John Collins and Trae Young.

"I'm super excited," Young said when asked about the moves across the league. "Some of the trades and where people are landing at is just kind of different. It's kind of a surprise a little bit, but it's good [because] now the league is even more wide open."

Butler left Philadelphia via a sign-and-trade for Miami, with Josh Richardson leaving the Heat for Philadelphia. Hassan Whiteside left the Heat for Portland as part of that deal, while Moe Harkless left the Blazers for the Clippers in another part of the same massive trade.

"Jimmy's leadership, tenacity, professionalism, defensive disposition and his ability to create his own shot will improve our roster immediately," Heat president Pat Riley said.

Butler said Wade told him for years that Miami was the right fit for him.

Among the other deals that got done: Free-agent forward Rondae Hollis-Jefferson has agreed to a one-year deal with the Toronto Raptors, according to multiple reports. Hollis-Jefferson spent his first four seasons with the Brooklyn Nets. He became a free agent last month when Brooklyn declined to make him a qualifying offer.

Brooklyn completed the signing of centre DeAndre Jordan. "As a veteran centre with All-NBA and All-Defensive Team honours on his résumé, DeAndre will provide us with the type of defensive mindset, toughness and leadership that are needed to compete at the highest levels of the NBA," Nets general manager Sean Marks said.

The Phoenix Suns have traded Josh Jackson and De'Anthony Melton to the Memphis Grizzlies for guards Jevon Carter and Kyle Korver.

Phoenix also parted with a 2020 second-round pick and a conditional 2021 second-round selection in Sunday's deal.

The Lakers added DeMarcus Cousins and Quinn Cook, and kept Rajon Rondo, Kentavious Caldwell-Pope and JaVale McGee.

Orlando completed the signings of its top two free agents, Nikola Vucevic and Terrence Ross.

Indiana's sign-and-trade acquisition of Malcolm Brogdon from Milwaukee was completed.

"Having started on the team with the best record in the NBA last year, we value the leadership he'll bring to our team, as well as his great ability to play multiple positions," Pacers Kevin Pritchard said.

Forward Davis Bertans has been traded to the Washington Wizards by San Antonio, as part of a three-team deal that allowed the Spurs to acquire DeMarre Carroll from the Brooklyn Nets.

Associated Graphic

Raptors starters Kawhi Leonard, above, and Danny Green have signed with separate LA. teams.


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McIlroy walks a fine line as he returns to Northern Ireland
The only place where what the golfer says or does really matters is on this island but, as a Catholic, his status in Portrush is freighted with history - he'll want to show well, without assuming ownership

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Thursday, July 18, 2019 – Page B10


Rory McIlroy's first round at Royal Portrush was a gift for his 10th birthday.

The course is about an hour's drive from where he was raised in Belfast.

He'd seen his father play there.

At 16 years old, he set the course record here - a remarkable 61. As the course has since been redesigned, it will stand forever.

McIlroy claims to still remember every one of those 61 shots.

If we were making a movie about his career, that's where it would start. What's happening right now would feature somewhere near the denouement.

McIlroy, 30, has been a prodigy and the next big thing. He's been a failure and a major champion. In between, he's helped sell a lot of clubs, though less than had been hoped.

The Golf Industrial Complex wanted McIlroy to be the next Tiger. Instead, he's a Tom Watson or a Seve Ballesteros - a star, but no more or less than a half-dozen of his peers.

He hasn't transcended the sport.

The only place where what McIlroy says or does really matters is on this island. That hasn't rested easy with him. He is a Catholic which, in these parts, makes you more Irish than British. McIlroy spent his 20s dodging questions about his loyalties.

That hasn't stopped people from assuming the answers.

From the outside, it's assumed that McIlroy is an avatar of this nation, of its people and of this specific place. He is, but not in the "isn't-it-cool-to-be-a-Canadian-playing-inCanada" way that we take for granted.

It's something much heavier and more freighted with history.

To be "from" somewhere in Northern Ireland is a complicated business. You are from a city or a county, but not really. Where you're really from is a block on a particular estate in this section of which end of that city. Belonging is highly localized. That's what happens when everyone looks the same.

You can't make up where you're from or move on because your accent - something that can shift perceptibly (to natives, at least) in the space between two bus stops - gives you away. You're from where you're from, forever.

McIlroy has played Portrush, loves Portrush, feels he was weaned in Portrush, but he is not "from" Portrush. While trying to be breezy about all this attention, he was at pains to get that clear on Wednesday.

"Portrush has been - the golf club at least - has been a very big part of my upbringing," he said.

It's not hard to imagine that McIlroy's connection to this place is a large part of what made returning the British Open to Northern Ireland possible. It's certainly a significant part of the interest in this tournament. It's what makes this occasion so romantic, in the soggy, sitting-bythe-fire way Ireland does better than anywhere.

The frenzy is so high that people have paid as much as $800 a night for "luxury" tents a 25-minute walk from the course. Those 25 minutes will seem like 25 hours when the rain is coming in hard, as it was Wednesday.

"It's a warm rain," a gentleman named Nigel explained to me, lest I be afraid.

The Irish have a lot of words for rain - misting, spitting, bucketing, pelting and you most definitely should stay home when it's hammering - but there is no such thing as a "warm" rain. At least, not once you've been out in it for as long as it takes to come up through the soles of your shoes.

Someone I know from this part of the world sent along a note hoping I'd be lucky enough to "experience all five seasons in a day."


"The fifth is always a surprise."

That's hard to pack for.

Amid all that charm, there's McIlroy. He's not particularly charming. He's spent years living in the United States. His accent has flattened. From the look to the idioms, he strikes you as more transcontinental than Irish.

He's one of those Davos types - a high-earning, rootless citizen of the world. A global salesman.

This week he's selling home.

It's only in golf that a player can truly be said to "come home." A goalie from Mississauga may end up on the Toronto Maple Leafs, but he didn't grow up playing house league at Scotiabank Arena. McIlroy learned golf in this place. By our standard, he's playing in his backyard. Any North American athlete would be making an absolute meal of this - out on the town and selfies for days.

Though he has the history, McIlroy seems a little light on stories. Mostly, he talked about the golfing considerations - what the wind does, where to aim at the second hole, why you should trust what you know rather than what you see. There was nothing about the place itself. You could feel his discomfort in this regard.

When asked how it's been to be out and about in Portrush over the past couple of days, McIlroy said, "To be honest, it hasn't felt any different than any other Open Championship."

It sounds like the wrong answer, but it is the correct one if you don't feel you have the right to speak on behalf of this place.

And to say something like, "I'M THE PRINCE OF THE CITY," would sound uppity, which is seriously not on in Ireland.

So there's poor Rory, caught in an awful bind. He wants to show well for Northern Ireland, while not seeming to take ownership of Northern Ireland, knowing that some people here still do not believe he represents Northern Ireland.

That's a lot to ask from a diplomat, never mind a golfer.

Then, as it had to, the news conference on Wednesday turned treacly - to the meaning of this event and its legacy and what it's all about, really. Not the Open. Life.

Now drawing on his adult experience as a man of the world rather than his childhood one as a kid from Belfast, McIlroy was more comfortable. Two ideas console people in that larger arena - that we are all the same, and that the magic of free-market forces will protect us from harm.

"It's a different time," McIlroy said. "It's a more prosperous place."

A couple of questions later, he was really warming into it.

"Forty years on, it's such a great place, no one cares who they are, where they're from, what background they're from, but you can have a great life and it doesn't matter what side of the street you're from."

It's probably a bit easier to have a great life when you're worth a hundred-million bucks, but he has every right to his lived experience.

But in speaking this way, McIlroy was solving a problem. He was showing well for the country, but in terms so non-specific they cannot possibly offend anyone. It was a diplomat's answer. It's the sort of answer that looks great in promotional material. So, landmines avoided and mission accomplished.

The second part of McIlroy's job is easier. All he has to do is win a golf tournament.

Associated Graphic

Rory McIlroy plays a shot during a practice round at Royal Portrush Golf Club in Portrush, Northern Ireland, ahead of the British Open. At 16, he set the Royal Portrush course record - a remarkable 61. As Cathal Kelly writes, it's not hard to imagine that McIlroy's connection to this place played a part in the Open's return.


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He and a group of other businessmen started with just $20,000 from the federal government to distribute Maple Leaf flags and help create nationwide parades, which grew bigger each year
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Wednesday, July 17, 2019 – Page B15

Back in 1968, Dominion Day wasn't popular in Quebec, to say the least. As the annual commemoration of Canada's being granted dominion status by the British empire, the holiday didn't go over well in a province riven by language and class wars that featured the Front de libération du Québec's increasingly violent campaign to separate from the rest of the country.

Into this cultural morass stepped W. Bruce Kippen and a few other English- and French-speaking stalwarts of the business world, who had formed a group called the Canada Committee four years earlier. Their goal was simple: to do away with Dominion Day and create a "Canada Week," with July 1 called "Canada Day."

It was, Mr. Kippen once said, as if they were proposing heresy. For swaths of French Quebec, the notion of a holiday that celebrated Canada as a whole was anathema.

And the federal government wondered why it should tinker with something that was such an entrenched tradition.

"We met with someone in Ottawa who was a muckymuck in what would become Heritage Canada," he recalled. "They gave us a cheque for $20,000 - a pittance - and basically expected us to go away."

But they didn't. Instead, the following year saw them prudently using that $20,000 to distribute Maple Leaf flags and leaflets, and helping to create parades across the country. The events were small at first, to be sure, but they grew bigger each year. Ottawa eventually took note of their efforts, and the holiday officially became "Canada Day" in 1982.

Mr. Kippen, who earned a Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee medal for his efforts, died on June 30 in Montreal of cancer-related causes. He was 93 and had entered palliative care only three days earlier.

"It's fitting that Dad died the day before the holiday he helped to name," said Alexander Kippen, his eldest son. "It's his legacy for the country and we can't be prouder."

Walter Bruce Kippen was born in Montreal on Jan. 30, 1926, the younger of Eric and Marguerite Kippen's two sons. The father owned a small investment firm, while the mother ran the household, an apartment in the centre of the city. The parents were saving to build a country house in Como, then a village on the Lake of Two Mountains west of Montreal; construction had begun when the Great Depression hit and the father ran out of money. The family ended up living on the property for at least a year in tents.

"This was not a bad thing for my dad," Alexander Kippen said. "He was thrilled to be living in a tent on the water. He loved showing me a photograph of a garden shed, saying that he had built it."

After a childhood that honed his love of the outdoors, fishing, hunting and camping, Mr. Kippen yearned for more. During the Second World War, he signed up for the Royal Canadian Air Force as soon as he could - at the age of 161/2 - so desperate to be deployed overseas that when the force announced it no longer needed pilots, he said he'd become a mechanic, and then, when the force said there was no need of them either, a tail gunner.

"Tail gunners were the first to be killed in combat because they sat in that little glass bubble at the back of the plane," Mr. Kippen's son said. "Dad was willing to take the risk and signed up. But at over six feet, he turned out to be too tall."

Victory in Europe was declared soon after, in May, 1945, and a frustrated Mr. Kippen was granted leave from the air force and hitchhiked to Southern California, figuring he would join the American force and fight in the South Pacific. Again, his timing was off, as the U.S. detonated nuclear bombs over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki just as he got to the West Coast.

While in California, he was at a bar one night chatting with some women when a man sauntered over and introduced himself as Milton (Gummo) Marx, a theatrical agent.

"You may know of my brothers," Mr. Marx said, referring to Groucho, Chico, Harpo and Zeppo.

"Well, yes," Mr. Kippen replied.

The agent, who had performed with his brothers early in their career as vaudevillians, wondered if Mr. Kippen was an actor and asked him to visit his office the next day. When the younger man went, he was struck by all the publicity shots on the walls of stars he recognized.

"You know this guy?" Mr. Marx asked, pointing to a photo of an actor with curly hair, a square jaw and craggy features. "I see you as following in his footsteps, the next Fred MacMurray."

Although Mr. Kippen took his card and agreed to consider the offer, it seemed too unreal. So he hitchhiked back to Montreal, where he did a commerce degree at McGill University and proceeded to reinvent himself over and again, first as an oil-rig worker in Alberta, where he made enough money to build a successful car wash in Calgary, and then, in the late 1950s, as an investment whiz back in Montreal who expanded his father's small firm to New York and Toronto before selling it in the midseventies, at least partly because of the ascendance of the Parti Québécois in Quebec.

By that time married to Elfride Audley, who he'd met on a visit back to Montreal in the late fifties while running the car wash, and with three adolescent children to support, he had to figure out quickly what to do next. He returned to Calgary, commuting weekly as he started a petroleum company. In a way, the experience helped him expand his vision from beyond his home province to a vast country that needed the opportunity to overcome its regional differences and become stronger.

He used to become incensed when he would hear Montrealers talk about Alberta as if it was a world away, the younger Mr. Kippen recalled. "Once, someone called it the frontier and Dad asked, 'What the hell do they think it is? Siberia?' " When the federal National Energy Program helped wipe out his petroleum business in the early eighties, he worked as an executive for a shale company in the Athabasca oil sands, reinventing himself yet again.

And true to form, when it came time for his son to get a summer job, it wasn't going to be at a cushy Montreal tennis club or restaurant. Instead, Mr. Kippen sent him to Edmonton, where he stayed at the YMCA until he found a job on the oil rigs.

"Those jobs paid my way through school and toughened me," Alexander Kippen recalled. "My father also toughened me by example. He was extraordinarily tenacious and always got up when he was knocked down. He said he had no choice."

Mr. Kippen, who had a penchant for cigars and salty language, didn't take well to the fact that doctors could not cure the cancer that had spread to his bones. He chafed at losing his memory and his strength. His son said that in a way he had the perfect, painless death, falling asleep one night and simply not waking up.

Along with his wife and eldest son, Mr. Kippen leaves his other children, Francesca and David Kippen, and five grandchildren.

Associated Graphic

W. Bruce Kippen reinvented himself over and over again, working jobs as an oil-rig worker and, later, a car-wash owner in Alberta, and an investment whiz in Montreal. He was even once a prospective client of legendary theatre agent Milton (Gummo) Marx.


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Renewing the romance of rail travel
Drained of literary notions, or the vagabond charm of gap-year backpackers, John Semley writes that travelling by train in Europe still has plenty to offer
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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page P14

Somewhere between Cologne and Frankfurt, as I sat slumped in the back of a second-class car, earbuds crammed in tight to filter out the barking of a group of loud men who, with their bad tattoos and too-tight Lacoste T-shirts - all hammered on Beck's at 10 a.m. - fully fit the archetype of the "English soccer hooligan," I arrive at a dispiriting realization: My fantasies of European train travel aren't likely to come true any time soon.

Apologies to Patricia Highsmith and Agatha Christie, and good old Graham Greene. There will be no high-society heists. No sordid affairs. No tastefully comported sociopathic playboys beguiling me into committing homicide. No intrigues of any kind.

Drained of such archly literary, woefully romantic notions, train travel in Europe still offers something else: practicality. And maybe that's enough.

Piqued by a particularly tantalizing Black Friday/Cyber Monday bargain that effectively halved the price of select Eurail passes, my partner and I hatched a plan to see Europe, or at least a solid swath, by train. We booked a flight into Paris and, two-weeksand-change later, a return flight from Krakow, Poland. In between, we'd cast our fates to the four winds. Sort of.

These particular passes (the Adult Saver; $359 Canadian apiece, with the massive discount; the regular price would have been $718) permitted five "travel" days within a one-month period. As defined by Eurail, an organization owned by some 35 European railway and shipping concerns with the express aim of marketing European rail travel to non-Europeans, a "travel day" is pretty much what it sounds like: an unlimited day of travel aboard however-many trains, through however-many countries. So, the day we travelled from Paris to Cologne, Germany, with an afternoon stopover in Brussels (to glug overproof beer, drag fatted fries through thick mayo and make the requisite pilgrimage to the city's famous bronze of a small boy urinating eternally), counted as one day, despite the multiple trains and connections. (That most train depots we passed through had daily luggagestorage options, for as cheap as a few euros, made stashing bags and puttering around a city on a stopover that much easier.)

It's a good system. With some research, anyway. Cost-benefit-wise, the Eurail pass becomes more valuable in countries where train tickets snagged day-of can be relatively expensive (such as Germany) and proves relatively useless in places where highspeed trains demand additional reservations (such as France or Belgium or the Netherlands), effectively foiling the whole fly-by-the-seat-of-one'spants appeal. Also, in the very process of flashing a Eurail pass to an on-board fare inspector, one risks exposing oneself as a tourist, if that's a concern.

Trains were, for the longest time, the way to get around Europe. Booking a one-way airline ticket between cities was ultraluxe, Old Money stuff. Like: You might as well charter a zeppelin.

But air travel has changed.

The rise of zero-frills low-cost carriers (LCCs) has made intraregional travel vastly more accessible. A recent report prepared by the Centre for Aviation, a travel data hub, showed that the global LCC fleet has doubled in size over the past decade (from 2,900 to 6,000 aircraft), with Europe having the highest penetration rate.

This is due to the increasing capacity of both "legacy" LCCs (Ryanair, easyJet, Eurowings) and newer, zaniernamed arrivals (Wizz Air, SkyUp, French Bee). These airlines have expanded the possibilities of European travel, at a drastically lower price point. When, a few years ago, a friend in Britain agreed to meet me in Prague for a few days, she made arrangements with all the nonchalance of someone planning a lunch date two towns over.

Continent-hopping budget flights, combined with ultrafast high-speed trains, also spelled curtains for opulent rail travel. When the old-school Orient Express made its final Paris-toIstanbul journey in 2009, it was declared, by NPR, "a victim of high-speed trains and cut-rate airlines." Likewise, Deutsche Bahn's 2015 decision to scrap overnight sleeper trains out of Berlin was motivated by a 1.3-billion ($1.9-billion) decline in profits, which the operator attributed to consumer preference for short-haul flights.

Yet, these flights, for all their apparent convenience, are beset by their own problems: little-to-zilch in the way of in-flight amenities, checkedbaggage fees that effectively double the cost of tickets, scammy up-charges on everything from a bottle of water to an oversized carry-on (which might well be a bag deemed regulation size on a different carrier) and routes to major capitals that, in actuality, land well outside that capital, necessitating an expensive cab or several publictransit transfers. There's also the more general hassle of getting to an airport, passing through security etc., which can itself turn a swift 55-minute flight into a four-hour affair.

Trains, while perhaps all but drained of the lavishness of some long-bygone era, offer comparatively more in the way of convenience: comfortable seating, (relatively) wellstocked bars, tables at which one can fritter away a few hours learning the rules of skat or some other regional card game. Best of all, trains usually deliver voyagers smack in historic city centres, allowing wayfaring passengers to hop off and carry on their gallivanting, with little in the way of inconvenient rigmarole.

There's also the easygoing pleasure of train travel itself, the appeal of which extends well beyond Old World locomotive fetishists. Sat sunken into the jammy red plush of a Thalys train, pulling out of Paris's Gare du Nord en route to Bruxelles-Midi, it is undeniably pleasant to watch the City of Light recede and soon give way to what Edith Wharton described as "the sober disciplined landscape which the traveller's memory is apt to describe as distinctively French."

Even at speeds approaching 300 kilometres an hour, the Intercity-Express train connecting Cologne, along the banks of the Rhine, to Munich, where Bavarians in lederhosen and peasant dresses celebrated May Day framed by the snow-capped Alps fuzzy in the distance, never felt rushed; the ripening springtime canola crops a sunny, expressionist blur against the deep-green farmlands. And unlike airplanes, trains elevate travel into what Paul Theroux called "a continuous vision ... a succession of memorable images across a curved Earth." One feels ferried not merely from one discrete place to another, as on an airplane, but carried between these places. Cities, and whole nations, separated by language, culture, history and conflict, seem bound together by a vast webbing of wood and steel.

There may not have been some mysterious chap luring me into some convoluted plot to ferry a mysterious briefcase for him, or some meaty Turk offering me a pinch from his gilded snuffbox. But when, upon our return home, I was asked for the most memorable day of the fortnight abroad, my mind kept settling on an afternoon ride aboard the Berlin-Warsaw Express, where my partner and I split from our compartment and installed ourselves in the bar car, whiling away 6½ hours playing war and gin rummy while draining about as many bottles of stiff, reasonably priced Polish beer as the Earth rumbled underneath us.

Romance of a less literary sort, more everyday sort, perhaps. But I'll hold it close all the same.

Associated Graphic

Travelling by train in Europe still has its charms, whether it is heading out for an adventure from Cologne, Germany, top, or heading on a historical train tour of England starting at London's Paddington Station, above.

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With 'business friendly' Modi re-elected, India is back on investors' radar
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Wednesday, July 10, 2019 – Page B6

India is back in the spotlight as an attractive, longer-term emerging-markets play now that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has won re-election with a landslide victory in late May.

Both the S&P BSE Sensex index and National Stock Exchange Ltd.'s Nifty 50 index rose to record highs in early June shortly after Mr. Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party regained power for a second five-year term. Although stock markets have since pulled back on profit-taking, they're still up by about 7 per cent year to date.

"It's important to have stability on the political front and continuity of reforms [in India]," says Atul Penkar, portfolio manager at Mumbai-based Aditya Birla Sun Life Asset Management Co. Ltd.

Even though political uncertainty is gone, stock markets still face headwinds. Trade tensions between the United States and China could weigh on investor sentiment and there also are concerns about India's "twin" fiscal and current account deficits, high unemployment and a cash crunch among non-bank lenders.

All eyes now are on whether Mr. Modi's policies can spur economic growth, which shrank to 5.8 per cent in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2019, ended March 31, from 6.6 per cent in the previous three months.

India's main indexes, which rose by about 28 per cent in 2017, also lost momentum last year.

Still, their mid-single-digit returns outpaced the losses in North America's stock markets.

Key reforms such as the drive to demonetize high-currency notes in an effort to curb "black money" and the implementation of a goods and services tax (GST) to replace state and federal levies have been disruptive to the economy, says Mr. Penkar, portfolio manager of Sun Life Excel India Fund and Sun Life Excel New India Leaders Fund.

But these measures are all short-term pain for long-term gain, he stresses. "They will definitely have a very positive impact on business and the economy from a medium- to long-term perspective."

In addition, Mr. Modi's budget, delivered last week, sets a target of turning India into a US$5-trillion economy over the next five years from US$2.7-trillion today.

Financial services sector reforms including a capital infusion into public-sector banks, increased infrastructure spending and measures to boost foreign investment were among the budget's highlights.

The government initiatives will likely take six to 12 months to reflect in growth, Mr. Penkar says.

The Reserve Bank of India's third interest rate cut this year to 5.75 per cent, the lowest level in nine years, will also help stimulate growth; another 25-basispoint drop is possible in 2019, he adds.

In the near term, a normal or bountiful rainfall during this summer's monsoon season is critical to boosting agricultural production and reviving rural consumption, Mr. Penkar says, referring to the fact that half of India's farms are rain-fed.

India's stock markets are expected to move sideways until year-end, but climb higher with a recovery in economic and, thereby, corporate profit growth, Mr.

Penkar says. He expects earnings growth to increase by about 14 per cent to 15 per cent annually over the next two years, up from 9 per cent for the fiscal year ended March 31.

But India is not immune to global growth concerns fuelled by the U.S.-China trade dispute - and that could dampen sentiment among foreign institutional investors, who are key drivers of the market, he says.

India's long-term prospects are compelling because half of the 1.3 billion population is under the age of 25, which will drive consumer spending, Mr. Penkar says. "Growth [in the economy] is expected to return to between 7 and 8 per cent over the medium to long term."

He sees opportunities particularly in financials because there is underpenetration of banking services. Private-sector banks such as ICICI Bank Ltd., Axis Bank Ltd. and HDFC Bank Ltd.

are among the top 10 holdings in Sun Life Excel India Fund.

Among non-bank lenders, he likes Bajaj Finance Ltd., which focuses on consumer financing and has been unscathed by the liquidity crunch affecting peers.

Mr. Penkar is not fussed that India's major indexes have recently traded at around 18 to 19 times forward earnings compared with a long-term average of 14.5 times forward earnings.

Valuations will decline with an acceleration in earnings growth; meanwhile, there are attractive companies outside the major indexes that have faster growth and trade more reasonably, he says.

Ingrid Baker, senior portfolio manager at Atlanta-based Invesco Advisers Inc. and co-manager of Invesco Emerging Markets Class fund, also sees Mr. Modi's victory as a positive for the longer term.

As high stock valuations are a concern, the Invesco mutual fund only holds one Indian stock: HDFC Bank, which is India's largest private bank.

"There are great businesses in India, particularly in consumer staples and private banks, but right now they are just overpriced in terms of how we value companies," Ms. Baker says.

She praised some of the government's past policies, such as GST reform, which removed bottlenecks on businesses; infrastructure spending, which is supporting growth; and a recapitalization program, which helps state-owned banks struggling with bad loans.

Still, the government faces challenges from pressures on its fiscal and current account deficits, the latter of which is affected by oil prices; however, "it is important to note that both deficits have shrunk," she adds.

David Kletz, vice-president and portfolio manager at Toronto-based Forstrong Global Asset Management Inc., also has a bullish longer-term outlook on India, but is bearish in the shorter term.

Mr. Modi's strong win is encouraging because he's a "business-friendly leader who has the popularity, influence and political savvy ... required to push through tough structural reform," Mr. Kletz says.

He agrees with Mr. Penkar that the investment case for India also is bolstered by the country's massive, working-age population, which can boost productivity and economic growth. The problem, though, is that there are not enough jobs.

"The unemployment rate has been rising pretty drastically" and appears to be at a 45-year high, he says. India's jobless rate was 6.1 per cent in 2017-18, according to a survey the government released recently.

For the shorter term, Mr. Kletz also is concerned about woes among India's non-bank lenders after Mumbai-based Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Ltd. defaulted on its payment obligations last year.

"If one [larger] institution goes down, it's not going to be generally an isolated incident," he says. "It squeezes capital" - and that's in addition to stateowned banks being undercapitalized.

Although valuation for India's main indexes is a concern, smaller companies remain attractive because they've been beaten up amid worries about getting financing, as they tend to deal more with non-bank finance companies, he says.

That's why Forstrong, which manages portfolios of exchanged-traded funds, only has a direct investment in India through VanEck Vectors India Small-Cap Index ETF (SCIF-A).

However, Forstrong has exposure to larger-cap names in India through Vanguard FTSE Emerging Markets ETF (VWO-A) and SPDR S&P Emerging Asia Pacific ETF (GMF-A).

However, Mr. Kletz says that large-cap Indian stocks are certainly expensive these days. "The big reason that they have traded at a premium is that [India] has had such a compelling long-term story ... and now we have a leader in power who is really trying to unlock that potential."

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Multistorey living on a single level
Owners of Little Italy condo use clever design tricks to separate 3,000 square feet on one floor into unique spaces

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Friday, July 12, 2019 – Page H5

TORONTO -- 540 College St., unit 301 TORONTO

Asking Price: $4,285,000 Taxes: $6,386.83 (2018) Maintenance fees: $1,689.82 monthly Lot Size: 2,950 square feet Agent: Paul Johnston, Right at Home Realty Inc., Brokerage

Crossing the statuario marble entranceway into Gianpiero Pugliese's and Mariya Naumov's Little Italy condo, you notice the elegant living space looks nothing like the bare office space it was four years ago.

The architect and interior designer crafted the 3,000square-foot home essentially from scratch, sparing no detail to make day-to-day life more convenient.

"Every time I come home, I feel pampered in a way," Mr. Pugliese said. "When we travel, we come back and we're like, 'Thank God.' " "It has an amazing flow," Ms.

Naumov added.

They bought the entire third floor of the former office building when it was nothing but "concrete and wires," she said.

But the amount of space on one level, coupled with the high ceilings and ample natural light, promised something better and piqued the couple's creative interests.

"This was kind of a labour of love because it's what we do for our clients all day," Mr. Pugliese said.

The pair designs high-end homes and commercial spaces, including popular restaurants Colette and The Chase Fish and Oyster. If you've eaten there, you'll recognize the same dark, cloudy wallpaper in the couple's powder room.

Here at home, they're showing how a well-designed condo can suit a family as well, or better than, a detached house.

"We've got almost 3,000 square feet here of pure, livable space," Mr. Pugliese said. "If we design a 3,000-square-foot house on three floors, a good portion of that is taken up by the stairs. The amount of livable area is way better."

He likens their condo to flats in France or New York, where people are used to raising families on one level.

The couple loves living in Little Italy, and when they had their son in a small condo nearby, they knew they didn't want to leave the neighbourhood. They love the vibe, the lively parks nearby, the proximity to work and being able to walk to popular restaurants and cafés.

As for outdoor space, Mr. Pugliese created a "winter garden."

It's a south-facing room onto College Street, with walls almost entirely of windows, so in summer they open to turn the room into a covered terrace.

Flaps descend inside the walls to cut off the air conditioning to the garden, and once you close the French-knobbed glass doors you're in the outdoor climate.

"It's awesome at nighttime," Ms. Naumov said. "I usually just open these up and read a book."

There's also a drafting table here, where the couple gets to work putting their visions on paper.

As fall nights get cooler, the terrace becomes part of the home again. The double-sided fireplace visible from the dining room and the garden helps create a cozy vibe.

Mr. Pugliese now incorporates the winter-garden concept in some of the condos he designs for clients.

"It's very urban. It's almost like being in a hotel," he said.

"You want to feel like you're on vacation."

Moving inside, there's a sitting area with couches, followed by a grand dining table in front of an elegant, open-concept kitchen.

The family of four usually eats in the kitchen, one parent watching the kids eat dinner until the other gets home to share a later meal.

But when company comes over, Mr. Pugliese and Ms. Naumov serve meals at the dining table.

For entertaining, the condo has a special "butler kitchen." Essentially, the kitchen is divided in two parts. The main area is exposed, but there's also a section where a freezer, microwave, second sink and dishwasher are tucked away.

The couple says it's perfect for stashing dishes out of site, or getting a turkey ready for a big reveal.

"You don't want to see dirty dishes while you're entertaining, right?" Ms. Naumov said.

The kitchen marks the end of the condo that's open concept for entertaining.

The rest is like the "upstairs" in a home, Mr. Pugliese said. A pair of double doors, perfectly aligned with the point in the herringbone floor, separate the family's bedrooms from the living area.

Closest to the kitchen is their young daughter's, who has cheater ensuite access to the children's shared bathroom with equator marble tile.

Her room is black and cream, and was inspired by a Harvard rocking chair Gianpiero's parents gave him for graduation that now sits by her crib.

Next is their school-age son's room, complete with a stack of Lego organizers and chalk-friendly wallpaper.

"We were going to do the alphabet to help them learn.

But by the time we got around to it they already knew the alphabet," Mr Pugliese said, laughing.

From there, Ms. Naumov and Mr. Pugliese's master suite begins.

First is a boudoir attached to their walk-in closet. It's dark, with soft lighting - Mr. Pugliese wanted the feeling of going shopping at a boutique every time you get dressed.

"I always like to put a bit of an anti-space before you get into the bedroom. So if somebody's sleeping, and somebody's getting ready, you're not crossing through the bedroom all the time," he said.

And then, arm's length from the walk-in closet is the couple's laundry room.

It's also open to the hallway, meaning dirty clothes from anyone's closet are no more than a few steps away from the machine.

"It's the convenience. Until you actually live it you don't appreciate it. It's like, 'Oh my God, this is so much easier,' " Mr. Pugliese said.

The master bedroom is airy and clean, with a view onto leafy Euclid Avenue.

The couple are selling because they're itching for their next creative project together. They haven't decided on what they'll do yet - adding they've been "spoiled" by living here.

"It's the power of design ... your relationship to your body and how you flow through spaces ... those principles really do impact your quality of life," Mr. Pugliese said.

Associated Graphic

Gianpiero Pugliese and Mariya Naumov bought the entire 3,000-square-foot third floor of a former office building when it was nothing but 'concrete and wires.'


With their College Street condo, Mr. Pugliese and Ms. Naumov show how a well-designed condo can suit a family as well as, if not better than, a detached house. While the couple works in high-end homes and commercial spaces, Mr. Pugliese points out that a similar sized house over three floors would lose lots of its space to staircases. 'The amount of livable area is way better' here, he says.

The unit's kitchen, below right, marks the end of its open-concept design. The area past that serves like the 'upstairs' of a traditional multistorey home, owner Gianpiero Pugliese explains, including double doors that separate the family's bedrooms from the living area.


The couple loves life in Little Italy, with its lively nearby parks, the proximity to work and being able to walk to popular restaurants and cafés. They say they have been 'spoiled' by living here.


Saturday, July 13, 2019
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The world's best stopover cities
Layovers are an exciting opportunity to explore a whole other destination in as little as 24 hours
Special to The Globe and Mail

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Wednesday, July 10, 2019 – Page A12

'Stopover" used to be a dirty word in air travel. It meant you were, gasp ... connecting. Not so today, when people are purposely breaking up their flight plans. Icelandair and the now-defunct WOW Air ushered in the trend - and made Iceland a hot spot in the process - but many other airlines offer attractive airfares and great connections to help you squeeze the most out of your vacation time.

THE STOPOVER: ISTANBUL You could spend weeks getting lost in Istanbul, but there's no shame in filling just a day or two with historic sites, street food and an endless supply of Turkish coffee. Start at the must-see Grand Bazaar, but be prepared for the temptation to load up on spices and Turkish delights. Next, head to Sultanahmet Square. Standing here, which used to be the centre of the Hippodrome and the Byzantine Empire, lets you grasp the significance this city holds.

The Blue Mosque, currently under renovations until 2020 but is still open to the public, is best viewed from the second-floor windows of the nearby Hagia Sophia. If you have 48 hours, up the cool factor with an afternoon ambling on the streets of the trendy Balat neighbourhood.

Charming umbrella-lined alleys, colourful hidden murals, locals enjoying coffee on patios and glass bead-making classes are all gems to discover. Fuel your 24 to 48 hours on Turkish meatballs (kofte), Turkish bagels (simit) and, of course, Turkish coffee.

En route to: Morocco, East Africa and Eastern Europe. Istanbul is a three-hour flight from 41 European destinations.

Spend: 24 to 48 hours.

Stay: With Turkish Airlines' stopover program, economy passengers receive one free night at a four-star hotel in Sultanahmet, while business-class passengers get two free nights at a five-star in the Taksim neighbourhood with a 20-plus hour layover.

THE STOPOVER: AUCKLAND If you're heading to Australia, you may as well make the most of being halfway around the world. Enter a stopover in Auckland with Air New Zealand's program. Tag on three days to enjoy the city with a walking tour, visiting the Sky Tower (and bungee jump off it, if you dare) and the Auckland War Memorial Museum while also exploring the downtown streets.

Brunch is a necessity in Auckland (they love avocado toast as much as the Aussies do) and Winona Forever in Parnell and Chuffed on High Street could not get more Instagrammable. Use your other two days outside the city limits with a ferry ride to Rangitoto Island or Waiheke Island. Be sure to dig your toes into the sand at Mission Bay and make the trek to the top of Mount Eden, a dormant volcano, to complete your short list of must-dos.

En route to: Sydney Spend: Three to four days, unless you can invest a week in New Zealand.

Stay: The SO/ Auckland is a playful, modern hotel that recently opened. A more budgetconscious option is the M Social Auckland.

THE STOPOVER: VIENNA Forty-eight hours in Vienna gives you a hefty dose of European beauty and elegance. Take in a symphony at one of the city's gorgeous concert halls. Visit the Hofburg and Belvedere palaces to brush up on baroque architecture. Fight jet lag with Viennese coffee at traditional cafes, ordering your java a different way each time.

Cruise the Danube river at sunset. Stop by the Museums Quartier complex of museums and art galleries for a culture fix. Sample one of the most famous cakes in the world, the Sacher torte, at the Sacher Hotel. Walk through the vineyards located within the city limits. Phew.

Bonus: This stopover experience is made easy without a prearranged tour thanks to Vienna's tram system - it's only 8 to 14 ($12 to $21) for a one- or two-day pass and will get you to any major point in the city.

En route to: Munich, Budapest, Switzerland Spend: 48 hours. There isn't a specific airline stopover for flights from Canada, but Vienna is a hub for numerous Europe and Asia flights. It's also a train ride away from Budapest, Bratislava and Prague.

Stay: The newly opened Andaz Vienna Am Belvedere is centrally located, making it easy to jump from place to place.

THE STOPOVER: ZURICH Switzerland is a country full of breathtaking vistas, delicious cheeses and outstanding chocolate. It can, however, be daunting for people looking to be budget friendly on their European vacation, making it the ideal stopover.

Choose to transit through Zurich and you'll have a number of options. For an urban experience, you can stay in the city and venture over to Lucerne for a few days, taking in old centres, historic sights and museums. Or explore the countryside for which Switzerland is known with a walk in the picturesque Interlaken region or a train ride to the mountains.

En route to: Almost any European city and Asia.

Spend: One to four days.

Swiss Air offers several tour packages for not only Zurich, but also Lucerne, Montreux, Interlaken, Zermatt and more. Tour packages also include transportation, boat tours, entrances to museums and discounts on mountain trains.

Stay: Each tour package with Swiss Air includes hotels.

THE STOPOVER: THE AZORES Pack a wide-brimmed sun hat for some island time. Lisbon and Porto have been hogging the limelight (it must be all that wine and those scene-stealing custard tarts), but the cluster of nine islands off the coast of Portugal has everything you could ask for.

Need chill-out vibes after a city vacation? Small towns such as Sao Miguel and Terceira will help you slow down and will also offer hiking and birdwatching opportunities.

Craving some water action after being inland? Caving, whale watching and surfing are all possible. And really, is a trip to Portugal truly complete now if you don't stop in the Azores? We think not.

En route to: Lisbon, Porto, Madeira.

Spend: Three to seven days.

SATA or Azores Airlines offers one- to seven-night packages on either flight and you can even split the time.

Stay: Splurge on the White Exclusive Suites & Villas in Sao Miguel, or save by booking an Airbnb with charm.

THE STOPOVER: HOUSTON One of the busiest hubs in North America, Houston is often a gateway for Canadians heading further south. But outside the airport is a multicultural city recently named the most diverse in America.

Consider a visit to the Space Center, especially if you're on a family vacation. The Arts District shows off the up-and-coming arts scene with galleries such as the Silos, a collection of 97 work spaces for 100 artists, and the Alley Mural Project, both located in Sawyer Yards.

What one must do in Houston is visit a barbecue joint, whether it's Triple J's Smokehouse BBQ or Roegels Barbecue Co. If you spend your entire 24 to 48 hours eating in Houston, we won't judge.

En route to: Central America, South America, Mexico.

Spend: 24 to 48 hours. There may not be a specific airline stopover plan here, but Houston is easy to navigate on your own with a little planning.

Stay: Downtown Hotel Alessandra is buzz-worthy, but if you're doing a short visit, an airport area hotel will also fit the bill.

Associated Graphic

On the way to Porto, Lisbon or Madeira, travellers can do a layover in the Azores, a cluster of islands off the coast of Portugal that offers many water-based activities.


Thursday, July 11, 2019
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Tuesday, July 9, 2019 – Page B15


On Monday, July 8, 2019 at Bridgepoint Hospital peacefully in her 89th year surrounded by her loving family. Beloved wife of Harold Ashley. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Sandy and Marc Rosenberg, Karen and Lorn Kutner, Brad and Heni Ashley, Lori and Mark Goodfield, and Jeffrey and Paula Ashley. Dear sister and sister-in-law of Sheila and Nahum Gelber, and Clarice Warren and the late William Paul Warren. Devoted grandmother of Mitchell and Alexa, Ashley and Erin, David and Taylor, Lindsay and Ali, Amanda, Byron, Dustin, Jason, Elyse, Max, and Lewis.

Predeceased by parents, David and Sophie Portigal . At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, July 9, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. Interment in the Temple Sinai section of Pardes Shalom cemetery. Shiva at 4 Burmont Road, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to Canadian Friends of Hebrew University of Jerusalem 416-485-8000 or charity of your choice.


It is with deep sadness that we announce the passing of Donald John Harris Mackay, age 90, at Toronto's Sunnybrook Hospital, June 30, 2019. Don, a graduate of North Toronto Collegiate Institute and later University of Toronto, went on to a distinguished career as a lifelong insurance professional. Loved by many, Don's keen intellect was matched by only his kindness, warmth and natural ability to connect with anyone on any subject. Don loved life, always had a kind word to say, a story to share, a passion for golf, and a commitment to fitness.

He was a devoted husband to Marilyn and is survived by his much-loved daughter, Sue (Darren); son, John, to whom he was a cherished father; former wife and friend, Joyce; and sibling, Kay (Jim). Don was stepfather to Craig (Laura) and Jacquelyn, and always a loving and giving "Grandpa Don" to Diana, John and Marin. He was preceded in death by sister, Norma and parents, Dugald and Chrissy.

Heartfelt thanks for the professional care and compassion given Don by his caregivers at Sunnybrook.

The family will be holding a private service.

His Honour the Honourable


Wambli Kinyan "Flying Eagle" 1940 - 2019 It is with heavy hearts that we announce the passing of William Thomas (Tom) Molloy on July 2, 2019 at age 78 after a short, but courageous battle with pancreatic cancer. As with all things in life, Tom faced his diagnosis with discipline and determination. He remained optimistic and encouraged by messages of support from across the country.

Tom was predeceased by his beloved wife of twenty-five years, Alice (nee Tastad) Molloy, parents George and Irene (nee Burke) Molloy as well as Alice's parents Norman and Eunice (née Olson) Tastad. The joy of his life was his family. Left to remember him are his four daughters: Corinne; Jennifer (Ryan Babonich); Alison (Michael Haines); Kathryn (Elliott Pally). He was extremely proud of his eleven grandchildren: Hanna, Pepper and Ella Howe; Quinn and Jack Babonich; Emily, Zachary, Heidi and Charlotte Haines; and Maxwell and Calvin Pally. Also surviving are siblings George (Betty Augaitis), Sister Sharon RGS, and Mary (David McKinlay); and Alice's siblings Judith Chelsom, Doug (Mary) Tastad, Bryan (Noreen Donald) Tastad and Natalie (D'Arcy) Caslor. He also leaves behind a close and extensive extended family of cousins, nieces and nephews.

Tom was born and raised in Saskatoon, and completed his Law Degree at the University of Saskatchewan. He was called to the Bar in Saskatchewan in 1965, and worked in general practice until he found his calling as a skilled negotiator. Tom has been called a "modern father of Confederation" for his work in treaty-making and reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples of Canada.

He was an inspired choice as Chief Federal Negotiator for Canada, which led him to the negotiation tables for the Agreement that led to the creation of Nunavut in 1999, the Nisga'a Treaty, the Inuit of Northern Quebec OffShore, and the L'heidle T'enneh and Sliammon Final Agreements. Through those consultations, long-term friendships were made, and common understanding and respect were created. His work changed the face of our country.

In addition to a distinguished legal career, Tom served as Chancellor of the University of Saskatchewan from 2001 to 2007, and later became Chancellor Emeritus. His award-winning book The World Is Our Witness: The Historic Journey of The Nisga'a Into Canada was published in 2000. Tom grew up in a culture of service to others, inspired by his parents. His extensive community work included service to national and local organizations such as Wanuskewin Heritage Park, Indigenous Works, Forum For Young Canadians, the Canadian Landmine Foundation, the RCMP Heritage Centre, Habitat for Humanity Canada, the Kidney Research Foundation of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon Community Foundation and many more.

In acknowledgement of his impressive professional achievements and outstanding community service, Tom was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1996, he was invested into the Saskatchewan Order of Merit in 2012, was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree from the University of Saskatchewan in 2009, and received the prestigious 2018 Ramon John Hnatyshyn Award for Law from the Canadian Bar Association, among many other honours and awards. Tom was sworn-in as Saskatchewan's 22nd Lieutenant Governor on March 21, 2018. Since his installation, he participated in hundreds of events, earning the admiration and affection of people across the province. He took part in many celebrations with Indigenous communities, in addition to his support for youth, mental health initiatives, literacy, new Canadians, and seniors.

Tom had a passion for exploring the world through travel. His work took him across Canada to its farthest reaches, from coast to coast to coast. He loved to share this country and the world with his family through travel, and more recently with his friend, Corinne Shepheard. As a family, we are incredibly proud of his many accomplishments, but we will always find comfort in remembering his sage advice, his witty sense of humour, his ability to always be there for us when we needed him and for instilling the importance of family, integrity and understanding.

We would like to thank all of the friends, family and the public that have sent messages of support during these last few months, as well as, the incredible team of health care professionals that took exceptional care of Tom during his illness. His friendships were sincere, and he cultivated a deep sense of loyalty and affection. Trust, understanding, and patience were his guiding values. He will be forever in our hearts. In lieu of gifts, the family gratefully asks that donations be directed to the Tom and Alice Molloy Fund at the Saskatoon Community Foundation.

The State Memorial Service will take place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan on Saturday, July 13, 2019 at 1:00 pm at Merlis Belsher Place (South of the Field House 2010 College Drive with access off Preston Avenue) and is open to the public. Condolence may be left for the family at

Arrangements have been entrusted to Saskatoon Funeral Home. 306-244-5577 RONALD WILLIAMS "Ron" Suddenly, on Thursday, July 4, 2019 at his home. Beloved husband and best friend of Yvonne. Loving father of Renée, Chris (Cris) and Daniel (Emma).

Cherished grampy of Ryan, Ayanda, and Milo, and great grampy of Madeleine. Ron will be lovingly remembered by his sisters-in- law Doreen, Susanne (Bruno), extended family, friends, and neighbours.