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GiveLife.ca

    

PRINT EDITION
BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page B15

MARTHA ROSS ANDERSON

November 5, 1940 Toronto, Ontario July 6, 2019 Calgary, Alberta Martha slipped away quietly after a battle with COPD complicated by pneumonia.

She was born in Toronto, Ontario, raised in Alliston until she finished high school at Banting Memorial, then returned to Toronto where she worked as a title searcher out of City Hall.

Once she retired she moved to Calgary where she enjoyed cards at her seniors group, cruises to Alaska and Mexico, trips to the casino, Stage West & Vertigo Theatre and watching her beloved Toronto Blue Jays. Martha was adored by her many friends in both Toronto and Calgary.

She was predeceased by her parents Bruce and Phyllis Anderson and her younger sister Shirley Stewart.

Martha is survived by her sister Cindy, nephews Bruce (Juliana) and Ross, her niece Emily (John), brother-in-law Alex and her grandnieces and nephews Luka, Cera, Adelaide, Gordon and Jack.

Martha's last weeks were spent at the Peter Lougheed Centre in Calgary. She made instant friends with the nurses and staff who were beyond wonderful, caring and gentle from the ER to Units 39 and 44. It's impossible to fully express her family's gratitude to these wonderful staff members for their honesty, dedication, compassion and expertise.

At Martha's request there will be no memorial or funeral service. Should you wish to remember Martha, memorial tributes may be made directly to Calgary Health Trust - Peter Lougheed Centre, Suite 800, 11012 Macleod Trail S.E., Calgary, AB T2J 6A5, Telephone: (403)943-0615, http://www.thetrust.ca

C.GORDON BALE

It is with great sadness that the family of Gordon Bale announces his passing on June 26, 2019, at the age of 85 years. Gordon is lovingly remembered by his son Dougal, daughter-in-law Alison, and grandchildren Cameron and Robyn. He was predeceased by his beloved wife Maureen.

Gordon was born in 1933 in Hamilton, Ontario, to Cecil and Christine (Nichol) Bale. He attended Stamford Collegiate in Niagara Falls and later studied at Royal Roads and Royal Military College, graduating with the top academic standing in his class.

From there, he pursued postgraduate work in economics at McGill University and the London School of Economics.

After teaching economics at RMC, he then completed a Law degree at the newly founded Queen's University Law School where he subsequently returned to teach for the rest of his career.

In the late 1960s, Gordon met Maureen, the love of his life. They were married at Dunfermline Abbey, Scotland, on December 26, 1970. They soon built a home on Treasure Island where Gordon worked steadily to transform a rocky bare site into an idyllic waterfront garden. They lived happily on the island for over 40 years, frequently entertaining both old friends and new friends made during their many travels.

Over the last years of his life, Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy limited his mobility and led to dementia, but despite these frustrations, Gordon remained ever the gentleman. The family is grateful for the dedicated care provided by Deb Brennan as well as Leo Cordona, Laarni Lim, and many other caregivers from Bahay Caregiver Services. We would also like to thank the caring staff at Arbour Heights.

A private memorial service will be held at Cataraqui Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Heart and Stroke Foundation to help fund Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy research.

THOMAS S. BASE

Of Coral Springs, FL son of Gerald and Joan Base was born 15 October 1948 and died on July 7, 2019. He is survived by his partner Gary Snow, sister Jennifer Mellalieu, Lindy (deceased), brothers John (Casey) and Rick (Debbie deceased) and numerous nieces and nephews.

Tom graduated in 1974 with an MBA from Queens University, retired from a successful career as an automobile executive and a dedicated human rights activist and currently President of his HOA. Most of all he was a lover of dogs and cats, great cook and an avid orchid aficionado.

Tommy will be remembered at a "Celebration of Life" being planned at the Dauer Classic Car Museum in the City of Sunrise, FL on August 3, 2019 at 2:00 p.m.

JUNE BLAKE (née Adams)

June Hilda Blake, age 74, of Stratford, Ontario and formerly of Mississauga passed away peacefully on June 19, 2019. June was born in Hamilton, Ontario, daughter of the late Joseph and Sadie Adams. June is survived by her long-time friends James Robertson and Ian Duncan, by her sisters Noreen Reid, Jeannie Easterbrook (Bruce Singleton), Josephine Holden (Rai Lauge) and Brother Robert Adams, and their families.

Special thanks must be made to James Robertson and Ian Duncan for their care and commitment over her final years.

June had a 30 year teaching career included are, the City of Hamilton, Ontario, the Borough of York, Ontario, the City of Mackay, Queensland, Australia and the City of Stratford, Ontario.

She will be remembered for her love of travelling, the outdoors and her generosity to those less fortunate than herself.

A private interment will be followed by a Celebration of Life in the Reception Centre of the W.G.

Young Funeral Home, 430 Huron Street, Stratford on Monday, July 22, 2019 between 2 and 4 p.m.

with words of remembrance starting at 2:30 p.m.

Expressions of sympathy, in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Stratford/ Perth Humane Society, House of Blessing or Spruce Lodge Foundation, through the Funeral Home at 519-271-7411 http://www.wgyoungfuneralhome.com

BARBARA BRUCE

Passed away peacefully at home in Toronto on July 9th at the age of 82, attended by her son. Born and raised in Ottawa, the daughter of Manada and V. N. Bruce, she graduated from Glebe Collegiate and McGill University, winning an award for Occupational Therapy. After moving from Montreal to London, England, she settled in Toronto where she became Head of the Department of Occupational Therapy at Toronto General Hospital and simultaneously completed a BA in sociology from the University of Toronto.

Barbara was gifted with natural intelligence, grace and a deep curiosity about the world around her.

She was interested in music, current affairs and the arts. She was devoted to Canadian artists and for many years was active in the volunteer programs at the Art Gallery of Ontario and the Gardiner Museum.

At the age of 39 Barbara put her career on hold to raise three sons with her husband Dr. David Elliott (predeceased). In her mid-fifties she began a successful second career as a real estate agent, a field in which she gained respect for her integrity and her dedication in helping many clients find the right house to make a home.

She developed many lifelong friendships before retiring in 2012.

Above all Barbara was a woman of endless generosity who took great joy in helping others, her family, friends, neighbours, clients and colleagues alike. She was never happier than when she was giving of her time or her talents. Random acts of kindness were her daily routine. She will be truly missed.

Barbara is survived by her sister, Phyllis; brother-in-law, Dr. Gotham Clements; cousins, Johanna, Brian, Edith, Vincent, Lorraine and Jack. She is lovingly remembered by her sons Michael, Marc, and Robin Elliott, by her daughter-in-law Christine Zadorozny, by Sean Arnold, and by granddaughters Vivienne, Michelle and Fiona.

A celebration of her life is planned for an upcoming date and will be announced. If you wish to be notified please write to barbarabrucememorial@gmail.com.

If desired, donations can be made to The Friends of the Wellington Library, at the Prince Edward County Public Library, 208 Main St. Picton, Ont., K0K2T0.

DR. SUSAN WENDY CAMPBELL

Born April 21, 1951 Died July 8, 2019 In loving memory of Dr. Susan Wendy Campbell.

Susan is survived by her spouse and family by marriage.

Susan loved nature and animals, particularly feathered ones. Her house is full of birds and chinchillas, all of which were rescued and orphaned before Susan provided a home. She fashioned her yard into a natural habitat for wild critters as a little retreat from asphalt and urban lawns.

Susan will be fondly remembered by all she touched with her passion for nature and her concern for animals caught in an uncaring human environment.

SIDNEY JESSEL COHEN

86 years old, son of the late Nathan Cohen and the late Sarye Jessel Cohen. Passed away on July 11, 2019 at Cummer Lodge, surrounded by his wife, Judy; daughter, Michelle; and son, Jonathan. Other mourners are nieces, Kathi Cohen-Hovey and Natalie Cohen; nephew, Michael Hovey; grandnephew, Kyle Ethan Hovey and Kyle's partner, Sarah Dykstra. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, July 15, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. Interment in the Anshei Minsk section of Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park. Shiva at 3181 Bayview Avenue, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to Baycrest Foundation 416-785-2875 or Cummer Lodge 416-392-9500.

MORAG JEAN COLLS (née Murray)

It is with heavy hearts we announce the passing of our beautiful mother in Vancouver, BC on July 3, 2019.

Born October 16, 1932 in New Westminster, Morag grew up in Fraser Mills, then known as Maillardville, and spent lazy summers at Crescent Beach winning numerous swimming medallions as a youngster. The family later moved to Adera Street in Vancouver. One of three women, Morag graduated from UBC earning a Commerce degree in 1956. It was at UBC she met Mike (predeceased) her husband of 60 years. Fond memories were created in the Town of Mount Royal - with life long friends established on Beverley Avenue and on the ski hills in the Laurentians.

Fifty years of adventure would follow in Oakville with weekends skiing in Ellicottville, many house renovations, gardening work and dinner parties hosted at the 'Guest House' and Cox Drive.

A modern-day explorer, Morag travelled the globe with Mike and friends. A fountain of knowledge, Morag was recognized by the Ontario Provincial Government for her 36 years of service devoted to researching, assisting with script writing, and leading tours at the Royal Ontario Museum.

Her home was filled with stacks of research notes in every room - her favorite writing tool was her pencil. Extremely well read, she was known for her attention to detail, historical knowledge in a variety of subject matter, and ability to recount every date and detail of her travels she had an uncanny ability to remember even the smallest tidbit of information. Morag will forever be remembered for her (long) red hair, exotic jewelry, and unique, well thought out table centerpieces. Gracious, loyal and loving; she was stoic with a razor-sharp intellect and loved a good debate with varying viewpoints. She was a veritable "Renaissance Woman" with lots of 'moxie'. Morag is greatly missed by her three children: Lisa (Robert), Heather and Peter (Charlene), and her four grandchildren whom she adored: Hailey, Dexter, Sydney and Max.

Special thanks to her doctors in Oakville and the many wonderful staff at VGH. In accordance with her wishes, cremation has taken place and there will be no funeral service. In lieu of flowers, tribute gifts can be made to support the Palliative Care Fund at VGH & UBC Hospital Foundation at vghfoundation.ca/morag-colls or the Royal Ontario Museum http://www.rom.on.ca/en/support-us/ ways-give Condolences for the family may be left at http://www.kearneyfs.com

ROSEMARY ELIZABETH FAYE COZENS

July 1, 1935 July 4, 2019 In Loving Memory of Rosemary Elizabeth Faye Cozens.

Feminist psychotherapist; passionate advocate for human and animal rights; Nature lover and avid reader; good food and tai chi enthusiast. Rosemary adored all her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. She was a spunky (and sometimes opinionated), ardent trailblazer looking deeply into life, ceaselessly exploring the human shadowlands as well as the bright and beautiful - she just loved the adventure of traveling, both on the planet and inside the human experience.

She passed away peacefully in her home. Rosemary, may you walk in Beauty, no matter where your travels take you next. You are dearly missed by so many.

Beloved mother of Susan of Orillia, deb of Orillia and Kinmount, Robyn (and Frank) of Oshawa, Scott of Toronto.

Previous wife and lifelong dear friend of Bob Svanefelt. Loving Gran to Andrea, Lee, Jeff, Chris, David, Allison, and Great-Gran to Tavish, Yevette, Savannah, Amelia, Gwendolyn and Rowan.

Cherished sister of Elaine, and fondly remembered by Randy.

Friends are invited to join the family at the Kinmount United Church, 15 Cluxton St., Kinmount on Saturday, July 20, 2019 for a Service to Celebrate Rosemary's Life at 1:30 p.m. Reception to follow in Royal Canadian Legion Br. 441 (upstairs), Kinmount.

Cremation has taken place.

Memorial Donations to the SPCA or to World Vision would be appreciated by the family and can be arranged through the Gordon A. Monk Funeral Home Ltd., P.O. Box 427, Minden, Ontario K0M 2K0.

http://www.gordonmonkfuneralhome.com

SUSAN DIANE GRAHAM

April 7, 1963 - July 7, 2019 Susan Diane Graham passed away suddenly at Lake of the Woods her favourite place in the universe doing what she loved with her cherished husband, Adam Pankhurst. Beloved mother of Kaitlyn and Robert Scott, brother of Bruce Graham, Aunt to Holly and Fisher and lifelong friends with Lisa Fraser and Lynn Savage, Sue will be missed more than words can express.

Sue was predeceased by her parents Diane (née Wilson) and Robert, whose example guided and inspired her throughout her life.

In all that she did - whether as Head girl of Balmoral Hall, completing her BA of recreation from the University of Manitoba, raising funds to build the Canadian Museum for Human Rights and to support the Health Science Centre Foundation - Sue acted with integrity, respect, and kindness.

Sue had vision and commitment, working at Medallion Milk Co and serving on the Board of Cancer Care Foundation at the time of her passing.

Known for her open-hearted hospitality, Sue was easy to talk with and offered fair and wise counsel without judgment.

Profoundly grateful for all she had in her life, Sue's laugh was contagious and she inspired those around her to become the best they could be.

Sue will be deeply missed but will be remembered with joy wherever her people gather.

A celebration of Sue's life will be held on Friday, July 12th at 11:00 a.m. at The Gates on Roblin, 6945 Roblin Blvd, Headingley, MB.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Sue's honour to Health Sciences Centre Foundation PW112-700 William Avenue Winnipeg, MB R3E 0Z3.

http://www.HSCFoundation.mb.ca.

Thomson "In The Park" 204-925-1120 Condolences may be sent to http://www.thomsoninthepark.com

PAUL HARRIS

It is with deep sadness that the family of Paul Harris announces his passing on Thursday, July 11, 2019, at the age of sixty-eight.

Beloved husband and best friend of Lenore Cohen.

Adored father and hero to Michelle Harris and Jonathon Luft, Kenny Harris and Ari Crudo, and Andrew Harris.

Devoted son and son-in-law of the late Brina Harris and the late Dr. Mortimer Harris, Ruth and the late Edgar Cohen.

Proud Papa of Mia and Harlow Luft; Ella and Evan Harris.

Cherished brother and brother-in-law of John Harris and Susan Guttman, the late Barry Harris, Judy Cohen and Michael Jacobs, Andrew Cohen and Mary Gooderham.

Devoted uncle of Maggie Harris, Molly and Joanna Harris, Jesse Jacobs, Alexander and Rachel Cohen.

Paul will be fondly remembered by his cousins, friends, and colleagues.

Special thanks to Virgie and his extraordinary caregivers at the Jewish General Hospital.

Funeral service from Paperman & Sons, 3888 Jean Talon St. W., Montreal, on Sunday, July 14 at 11:30 a.m.

Burial at Congregation Shaar Hashomayim Cemetery, 1250 ch. de la Forêt. Shiva private at his home. Contributions in his memory may be made to the "Paul Harris Memorial Fund" c/o the Jewish General Hospital Foundation, (514) 340-8251.

WILLIAM BISCOE HAGARTY

July 12, 2019 Born in Halifax, N.S., December 17, 1923, second son of Col.

William Grasett Hagarty, D.S.O.

and Mary Kinney of Boston, MA.

Predeceased by his wife, Evelyn Joan Reilly, RN, (2006); his three brothers, John, Ted and Ken; sister, Jacqueline Riddell; and son, Gerard. Survived by his youngest sister, Mary Sue Strain (Terry) of Calgary, Alberta and sister-in-law, Elaine Hagarty (Ted); brother-inlaw, Jack Riddell; his five children, Maura Bannon (Murray), of South Carolina, Megan Hagarty Smith (Geoff), of Oakville Ontario, Sean, Catherine of London, Dr. Sarah Hagarty (Dr. Kevin Draxinger) of Rockford, Illinois; 11 grandchildren and one great-grandchild.

Bill served three years in the Royal Canadian Artillery as an observation pilot in WWII in Holland and Germany. He returned safely with his brother Ted and good friend Cal Smith (both paratroopers). After some further flying shenanigans involving a dare to fly under the bridge at Western Road, with "Chickens at 1000 feet" per the newspaper headline, and a near fatal car accident with the three of them on their way to a ski trip, he often said he wondered why he had survived all that. He went on to study law at Osgoode Hall.

With a deep regard of philosophy and theology, he studied a further four years at St Peter's Seminary in London. Luckily for all of us he decided that wasn't the life for him and he left to practice law.

After a blind date at the Sertoma Club, he met and married the love of his life, Evelyn Joan Reilly. He spent 55 years plus practising law in London Ontario. His religion and strong belief in a willingness to serve others less fortunate were a strong part of his daily life, volunteering to bring the sacraments to those were unable to leave home. His faith was a great comfort to him. Happily retiring at 89, still driving, he discovered and enjoyed many new friendships at both Richmond Woods and Parkwood Veteran's Hospital. He particularly enjoyed sitting in the gardens and listening to the birds and nature all around him. A well loved Uncle Billy to his many nieces, nephews, and their families.

Visitation at John T. Donohue Funeral Home, 362 Waterloo St., London Ontario, Sunday July 14, 2-4 p.m., Funeral Mass at Holy Family Catholic Church, 777 Valetta St, Monday at 10 a.m., light luncheon to follow in parish rooms, and interment afterwards at St. Peter's Cemetery, 806 Victoria Street.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Occupational Therapy, Veterans's Care Program, St Joseph's Health Foundation would be appreciated.

MARY KATHLEEN HUMMELEN

In the evening of June 30, 2019, Mary Kathleen Hummelen (Copeland) passed to be with God. She joins her husband, Remmelt, and together they will continue to watch over their treasured son, Brendan (Christine Hansen). Kathleen is also the daughter of Aubrey and Hazel Copeland, now deceased, and sister of Muriel (Bill Boryk).

Kathleen was devoted to her family and friends worldwide, and was a loving, caring connector of people, creating community wherever she went. Her concerns were for social justice, respect, equality, honesty, and she lived her values with passion, courage and a great sense of humour. She was deeply loved and will be deeply missed.

A Celebration of Kathleen's Life will be held on Saturday, July 27 at Friends' House, 60 Lowther Ave., Toronto, Ontario, at 1:30-4:30 p.m. If you wish to make a charitable donation in her memory, the Princess Margaret Cancer Research Centre, the Princess Margaret Hospital, or the Red Cross would use it well.

"Death is not extinguishing the light; It is putting out the lamp because the dawn has come." - Tagore

NORMA N VINCENT KEYES

July 8, 2019 Vince Keyes was born the seventh of eight to Josef and Emily Keyes on Brock Street in Gananoque, Ontario in March 1930. Although part of a big loving Catholic family, he always said that the last thing anybody needed at the start of the Depression was another mouth to feed. Named Norman Vincent Keyes, he was Vince, Vin, or around town Vinny. Being from a large family, from a small town, born into tough times shaped his life.

He left town to make his way in the world, first to Scotland in 1949 to play professional hockey; certainly one of the great periods of his life. He loved all of it; the people, Mrs. Cavendish's boardinghouse, and Saturday night dances. And although he said that he had to take a penalty just to get off the ice, he loved that too.

His career and the work he did for all his days began with IAC in Kingston, the only company he ever worked for. He soon went to Kirkland Lake which started a purposeful journey across Canada going to Edmonton, Medicine Hat, Lethbridge, Winnipeg, Toronto (twice) and finally Vancouver (twice again). He rose to become the Senior Vice President of one of Canada's chartered banks, a source of great pride for all his family. The mosaic of people that came into his life over that time is remarkable, something he cherished and would recount with amazing detail until the very day he left us.

However, his greatest feat was the creation of his own family. It started when he met and instantly fell in love with Merle Jean Adams, his one true soulmate. So much so that when she was gone too early in 2003 he never remarried, never finding her equal. Kids - Four: Susan, Jim, Helen and Peter, who then gave him grandchildren to delight in. When retirement came, he and Merle settled on a mix of the life that they had lived, sharing time between Vancouver, Florida and their favorite place, the cottage on Howe Island, barely a stone's throw from those humble beginnings on Brock Street. His service in Gan is planned for mid-August. He kept the troubadour pace until his last year really remarkable. He had come full circle, living life on his own terms and don't we all want to say that.

DR. EDWARD LEVINSON

Dr. Edward Levinson, born February 9, 1925, died July 10, 2019, son of Harry Judah and Bertha Levinson (Echenberg) of Montreal. A great man, patriarch and humble source of advice for many. He served as navigator in the RCAF, World War II, graduated McGill University as MD '53. Highly regarded in adult psychiatry, his work with children, and Holocaust survivors. He held many positions: at McGill University Medical School, and as Clinical Chief of Psychiatry, Jewish General Hospital.

Survived by his wife of 69 years, Lorraine (Engel); their children, Yehuda, Sara, Seth, Risa and Beth; 3 grandchildren and 9 great-grandchildren.

Donations in his memory may be made to The Jewish Public Library (Montreal) or Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto).

DE MONTIGNY MARCHAND

De Montigny Marchand, distinguished senior Canadian public servant and Ambassador died in Victoria on June 24, 2019.

He leaves in mourning his loving companion and wife of forty years Marie-Andrée Beauchemin. He is sorely missed by his devoted and much-loved children from his first marriagetothelateNathalieClift,Julie, Emmanuelle, Charles and his wife, Noom; and his adored grandchildren, Anne-Sophie, Marie-Claude, JeanChristophe (Goulet), Adèle, Laurent, Renaud (Chiricota), Sémira, EmilieSasi, Prom (Marchand). He will also be much missed by his sisters, Marie (Marc Filion) and Francine (Robert Clarenc); his sister-in-law, Francine Beauchemin; and his nephews, nieces, cousins, and many other members of his extended family.

De Montigny was born on March 19, 1936 in St-Jérome, Quebec, the son of Jean-Charles Marchand and Françoise Magnan. A graduate of the University of Montreal where he obtained his law degree, he also attended Boston University where he pursued postgraduate studies in communications.

Having served as Secretary General of the University of Montreal (19671969), de Montigny joined the federal public service where he rose rapidly to the highest ranks, serving as the Privy Council's Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet during the government of Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.

Senior appointments followed as Deputy Minister of Political Affairs at External Affairs, as Deputy Minister of Communications, of Energy, Mines and Resources and as Under Secretary of State for External Affairs. During these years he served also as the Prime Minister's Personal Representative for several G7 Summits, including Versailles (1982), Williamsburg (1983) and London (1984). De Montigny also served as Canada's Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva (198789) and as Ambassador of Canada to Italy (1991-96).

Throughout his career, de Montigny played a key role at the nerve center of government as both a proud Quebecker and as a defender and promoter of federalism and bilingualism during challenging years for the country.

After living the first phase of their retirement in Tuscany for 12 years, de Montigny and Marie-Andrée moved to Victoria in 2014 where he maintained his life-long interest in international affairs and greatly appreciated the closer vicinity to his family and year-round golfing at the Victoria Golf Club.

De Montigny was an exceptional gentleman, a charming lover of family, music, wine, golf and baseball (especially the Boston Red Sox) and a great raconteur. He will be greatly missed but fondly remembered by his family and many friends in Canada and abroad.

Celebrations of his life will be organized in Victoria and Montreal in September. Condolences may be offered to the family at http://www.mccallgardens.com.

DAVID LESLIE MCINNES

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of our father, David Leslie McInnes, within weeks of losing Winifred, his life partner of 66 years. David passed away May 16, 2019.

David will be deeply missed by his children, Patricia (Barry), John, Kim (Constance), and Donald. Also missinghim will be his grandchildren Derek (Roseanne), Kathryn (Kyle), Callum and Elizabeth (Lucy, mother of Callum and Elizabeth), great- grandchildren Skyler and Hudson as well as nieces, nephews and the many other relatives and friends whose lives David has touched. David was appointed as an Ordinary Seaman in 1947 and served in the HMCS Discovery from 1947-1951. He was appointed naval cadet and sublieutenant with seniority dated 1951. David graduated from the Faculty of Forestry at U.B.C. and followed a career in the forest industry beginning with McMillan Bloedel on Vancouver Island and culminating with him becoming President and Chief Executive Officer of Weyerhaueser, Canada.

David chaired and volunteered on numerous industry committees.

His contribution to the forest industry and to the Forestry Faculty was recognized by naming the Undergraduate Student Lounge inthe Forest Science Centre at U.B.C. after him.

David was a loving, devoted father who made the family a priority. He spent time with family and friends through entertaining at home, travelling extensively throughout the world and boating and fishing on the West Coast.

David once said "If anything is to happen to us inour travels, always remember we have had an amazing life!"

If friends so desire, in lieu of flowers, a donation may be made in David's name to the Nature Trust, British Columbia or to a charity of your choice.

http://www.hollyburnfunerals.com

KAREN ELIZABETH O'CONNOR

October 10, 1963 July 1, 2019 Our Karen was a beautiful person, daughter to Lenore and Kelly, big sister to Jackie (Stuart) and Joe (Alli), best friend to Robb (Adam), amazing aunty to Caroline, Sarah, Emily and Luke. Karen loved her family and her friends, a network, vast and deep, stretching back to childhood family cousins and the Glenrose Ave kids, through the UTS and Trinity College U of T years, to her book club gang, Sheraton/Marriott work colleagues, PWA volunteers and all the people, and at least one cat (Tasha), she met along the way. Karen loved to read. Nobel prize winners, airport bestsellers, anything with words, a trait she has passed on to her nieces and nephew. She also loved to travel, the last big trip being to Italy, with her Mom and sister, and a more recent getaway in May, with the entire family. It was a special time.

Karen was the calm O'Connor.

She never raised her voice. Her laugh was pure joy. She always put others ahead of herself. She "loved fearlessly." She was happy, and she died, peacefully, at home, another place she loved to be. A celebration of Karen's life will be held in the Fall, her favourite season. In lieu of flowers, please feel free to make a donation in Karen's name to the charity of your choice.

AUDREY GAIL MOSHOIAN (née Tyers)

1940 - 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of our beloved wife and mom, Gail, on Saturday, July 6, 2019. She was 78 years old.

Gail leaves behind her loving husband of 51 years, Douglas Moshoian. She was the caring, generous mother to Andrew and Heather (David). Gail was an incredibly devoted 'Nanny' who was adored by her five remarkable grandchildren, Matthew, Charlotte, Rachael, Sarah, and Leah.

Gail was the eldest daughter of Wellington and Audrey Tyers, and in her adult years, was the matriarch of the Tyers clan, including her three siblings, Judy (Bob) Ferguson, Jane (Ken) Weeks, and Robert (Shelley) Tyers; and her nieces and nephews whom she loved as much as her own children, Kimberley, Kyle, Byron, Keegan and Stuart.

When Gail and Doug married in 1967, she was welcomed with love and affection by his family living in Brantford and St. Catharines, ON.

Ron, Dolly (Sam Manoogian (D)), Susie (Jack Dardarian (D)), and Gerry (D) loved her like a sister, and all of her nieces and nephews, Tom, John, Pauline, Paul (Narges), Patty and Mark each had close and trusting relationships with Gail.

She was known for her generosity and fierce loyalty, supporting and inspiring others as a big sister, aunt, confidant, mentor, and devoted friend. She happily gave her time to listen, share, and help shape the future of so many people.

She was the glue that held our friends and family together. She left us too soon, and we will miss her tremendously.

A memorial service will be held on Wednesday, July 17th at 1:00 p.m. at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville), followed by a reception at the same location.

In lieu of flowers, and to honour the love Gail had for children and animals, please consider donating in her name, to the Hospital for Sick Kids or The Toronto Humane Society. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

FRANCINE OKUDA

In loving memory of my mother, Francine Okuda.

Mom was born April 10, 1946 in Phalsbourg, France. The adopted daughter of Charles Marcel Lacom and Margerite Keller. She is survived by her daughter, Isabelle; son-in-law, Mike; and granddaughter, Samantha McAllister living in San Diego. Her cherished friend, Nick Alipheris of Toronto; friends, Jenny and Torben Wittrup; and family Simeon, Annie, Ludovic, Stephane, Beatrix, Julian, Audrey, Paul and MarieJeanne in France.

Mom received her Bachelor of Arts in Strasbourg, France, a Masters in English Literature from Moravian College in Bethlehem, PA and her teaching certification from the University of Toronto. She worked as a translator and teacher at Ryerson in Toronto. She loved to travel, talk, quilt, do stained glass and was gifted with languages. Mom suffered from Alzheimer's for the past 4 years. She died peacefully July 11, 2019 while resting.

Grateful for the caregivers and staff at Vermont Square and Ewart Angus.

Private cremation. Online condolences may be left at cardinalfuneralhomes.com.

May you find peace Mom, we love you dearly.

EDWARD HARVEY OLDHAM

In his 84th year, peacefully at his home, Edward passed away on Thursday, July 11, 2019. During his remarkable life, he influenced and motivated innovation. He was a Patent and Trademark Agent, with a long and distinguished career working for Westinghouse, G E Canada as well as his own practice. When he was not in his office, you could find him working on his fruit trees, vegetable garden or working on his Volkswagen cars. He was an active member in his community with Rockton Agricultural Society and a supporter of the Arts in Hamilton. Ed was a lover of music and sang for many years in the Burlington Welsh Choir and Canadian Male Orpheus Choir. Ed truly never recovered the loss of his wife, Frances Janet Oldham four years ago.

He was the proud father of Kym, Scott, Heather (Doug) Spence and Charlene. His true joy, were his grandson's, Gregory and Tyler Spence and Jacob Oldham.

He was the son of Ewart and Margret Oldham, brother to Jean (Jella) Nauta and late sister Ruth (Ritchie) Swan. He was the brother in law to Bill Richardson, Noreen Richardson, Don and Lois Richardson and Peter and Laurie Sturm and many nieces and nephews. His last four years of life where supported by some very special people but most of all Mark Pangowish and Bernadette Gamboa. It is because of their help, support and love for Ed that he had such a great quality of life.

Visitation will be held at Turner Family Funeral Home, 53 Main Street, Dundas, on Tuesday, July 16th from 2-4 p.m. and 7 - 9 p.m. Followed by a visitation on Wednesday, July 17th at St.

Andrews Presbyterian Church, 115 St Andrew's Rd, Scarborough, at 11 a.m. with a Funeral Service to follow at 12 p.m. Donations, in memory, can be made to Rockton Agricultural Society or the Kidney Foundation. Please sign Ed's online Book of Condolence at http://www.turnerfamilyfuneralhome.ca

PETER PALMER JR.

(Pete) Passed away suddenly July 3, 2019. Peter is survived by his three children, Madison Palmer, Kayla Palmer, Luke Palmer; their mother, Paula Ellis; his parents, Peter and Rose Marie Palmer; uncle, Pat Cipriano (Jennifer); uncle, Steve Palmer (Catherine); aunt, Lynn Hamber (David); and several cousins.

Peter was a free spirit who had a passion for the outdoors and anything to do with nature. He attended Hillfield Strathallan College as well as Guelph University and Humber College following which he very much enjoyed developing a landscaping lawn maintenance business.

Peter's primary focus in life was centred on his three wonderful children who loved to be with him always.

A private family service has taken place. A celebration of life reception will follow on Tuesday, July 30, 2019 for family and friends at the Tamahaac Club, 180 Filman Road in Ancaster from 2 to 4 p.m.

The family would like to thank the Hamilton EMS team and the St. Joseph's Hospital emergency team for their extraordinary efforts.

Donations in lieu of flowers may be made to the Hamilton Community Foundation or a charity of your choice.

IVAN GEORGE PALMER

Of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador passed away peacefully at home on July 2, 2019 in his 89th year.

Born in Plymouth, England in 1931, Ivan was the son of the late Harley and Olive (Bett) Palmer, and brother of the late John Palmer.

He is survived by Ann, his wife of 64 years.

Ivan will be deeply missed by his children: Elizabeth (Luc) of London, England; Matthew (Elda) of Boston; Richard (Manita) of Ottawa; Steven of Windsor, Ontario; and Louise (Stephen) of Greenwich, Connecticut; and grandchildren Zachary, Ava, Chloe, Sophia, Emil, Giorgio, Ghilenn and Beatrice.

Generous, creative, witty and well rounded, Ivan enjoyed the world and all it had to offer. He was a fine writer and discerning reader who delighted in good company and lively conversation.

Ivan was educated at Kirkham Grammar School in Lancashire.

He played on the school's first eleven cricket team and became Head Boy.

He graduated with a BSc in Chemistry from the University of London, and began his career at British Drug Houses.

Ivan immigrated to Montreal in 1956 where he joined BAShawinigan (later Gulf Oil Canada) as an industrial research chemist and worked at its Montreal East, Shawinigan and Varennes plants. In the early 1970s he was a senior research and development manager for Johnson & Johnson Canada.

In 1974, Ivan joined the Newfoundland government's Department of Development where he oversaw projects in the oil and gas sector, the Labrador Sea and Lake Melville Ice Management programmes, and numerous ventures with local development corporations.

After retiring as an Assistant Deputy Minister, he worked as a consultant for clients that included the Labrador Inuit Development Corporation and the Music Industry Association of Newfoundland and Labrador.

He was a fellow of the Canadian Society for Chemistry.

Ivan loved to sing, and lent his rich baritone voice to several St. John's-based choirs. He was a keen gardener and member of the Horticultural Society, and a dedicated watercolourist who studied and exhibited with Diana Dabinett's art group, "Monday's Company".

Cremation has taken place.

Funeral service will take place at the Carnell Memorial Chapel, 329 Freshwater Road, Friday, July 19th at 2 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations in his memory may be made to Doctors Without Borders.

To send a message of condolence, please visit http://www.carnells.com

DONALD ROBINSON

1930 - 2019

It is with profound sadness we announce the passing of our dearest Don Robinson on June 22, 2019. Son of the late Norman and Helen Robinson of Toronto.

He will be greatly missed by his three children and four grandchildren.

Don was educated at Upper Canada College. Formerly a member of Rosedale Golf Club and the Granite Club. Don was once National VP for the Canadian Ski Patrol. He will be dearly missed by his many friends in the Brewing, Malting and Filtration industries. Don was a member of the Master Brewers Association of the America's since 1954. Don was their longest serving member.

Funeral arrangements are under the direction of Munro & Morris Funeral Homes. A service will be held Saturday, July 20, 2019 at 2 p.m. in St. John The Evangelist Church, South Lancaster, ON.

Condolences welcomed at http://www.munromorris.com

SHEILA FRANCES ROBERTSON

September 10, 1931 July 6, 2019 Sheila died peacefully at her cherished family home, 'The Knoll.' Beloved wife of Ronald Neil, daughter of Theodore 'Ted' and Marjorie Graham.

She is lovingly remembered by her children, David (Kelly), Neil (Tricia), Sarah (Garth), Colin (Amy); and grandchildren, Kate, Ella, Nan, Molly, Cooper, Rosie, Jessica, Grey, and Tessa. She is survived by her brother, Donald Graham (Betty).

Sheila was born and educated in Toronto and received her BA from Victoria College, University of Toronto. After her marriage to Ron in 1957, Sheila dedicated her life to her home and family where, with wit, wisdom and tolerance she raised her four children and then welcomed their spouses and the nine grandchildren who gave her such joy. Sheila's life was also greatly enriched by a variety of animals-dogs, cats, and horses-who were companions and friends. Her other great focus was the arts in which she pursued a life-long interest, especially through classes at the University of Toronto and work as a volunteer docent at the Art Gallery of Ontario. She conveyed to her children and all around her a great love for reading, music, and theatre. Sheila was fully engaged in her community both in Toronto, as part of her Veritas and TSO friends and in Inglewood, where she was a member of the UCW, the Friends of Caledon Library, and the Inglewood Garden Club.

She lived a life informed by a curiosity that took her and Ronmostly travelling in style-to many places around the globe often with their dear friends Malcolm and Sheila. While much of her life was spent raising her family in Toronto, The Knoll was her true home, and she returned there to live full-time in retirement with Ron. In her final years, and after Ron's death in 2011, she received wonderful care from the many Personal Support Workers, especially Theresa Daubney, who enabled her to continue living with comfort at The Knoll.

Family and friends will be received on July 21, 2019 from 12 Noon with a funeral service to follow at 1:00 p.m. at Inglewood United Church, 15673 McLaughlin Road, Inglewood with reception to follow. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Halifax Humanities Society: http:// http://www.halifaxhumanitiessociety.

ca/home Please visit the Book of Memories at http://www.wardfuneralhome.com

MARY ELEANOR SQUIRES (née Spence)

Passed away peacefully at Arbour Trails, Guelph on July 5, 2019 in her 93rd year. Beloved wife to Frank (d. 2012) for 59 years.

Loving mom to Frank Jr. (Gayle), Jim (Diane) and Sue (Blaire). She will be tenderly remembered by her 8 grandchildren and 8 great-grandchildren. Predeceased by her sister Jane Lovering.

A graduate of St. Clement's School in Toronto and U of T, Mary will be remembered for her love of life, family and friends, her piano playing and teaching, as well as her beautiful smile and blue eyes! The family would like to thank Arbour Trails, for their care of Mary during her last few years.

A private family service will take place. If desired, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation. Online condolences may be made at www.

gilbertmacintyreandson.com

KATARYNA SWERHUN (Kowal)

Peacefully in Toronto on July 11, 2019 at age 95. Loving mother of Irene Haras (Orest) and Chrystyna Kozak. Beloved grandmother of Anna Ochrym (Alexander), Katryna Haras, Adrian Kozak (Emma), Natalka Haras (Dimitri Gagnon Morris), and Alex Kozak (Ashley). Dear greatgrandmother of Theodore, Marcus, and Roxane Ochrym; Isabel and Zoe Kozak; Matilda Gagnon Haras; and Remi and Quinn Kozak. Predeceased by her late husband of 67 years, Hryhorij "Harry" Swerhun, she also leaves behind her sister, Anastasia, and many friends and relations in and around her home village, Sukhostav, Ukraine.

Born in Yabluniv, Ukraine on March 2, 1924, Kataryna Kowal was displaced as a forced labourer in Germany during the Second World War.

In 1945, she and Hryhorij married in Rothenburg ob der Tauber and in 1949, they immigrated to Canada with their daughter Irene and settled in Toronto, where Chrystyna was born.

Kataryna's love for her family, homeland, and for Canada touched many lives through her work in many community organizations and her beautiful traditional embroideries "vyshivanky;" in 2017, she received an Ontario Volunteer Service Award for 60 years of service.

Visitation will take place on Monday, July 15 from 5:00 9:00 p.m. with Panakhyda at 7:00 pm at Cardinal Funeral Home, Annette Chapel, 92 Annette Street, Toronto.

Divine Liturgy will take place on Tuesday, July 16 at 10:00 a.m. at Saint Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, 4 Bellwoods Avenue, Toronto followed by interment at Park Lawn Cemetery. To honour Kataryna's life, donations may be made to Saint Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, the Canada-Ukraine Foundation, or the charity of your choice.

PAUL ROBERT SWYER M.A, M.D. (Cantab), F.R.C.P. (C), F.R.C.P.(L), D.C.H.

1921 - 2019 Neonatologist, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, passed away peacefully, fulfilling his final wish to die at his home, on July 8, 2019. Paul leaves his beloved wife and best friend of 73 years, Fernande (née Rumbaut) and two loving daughters, Sandra (Dennis) and Michèle (Senechal).

He will be mourned by son-in-law Alan Dennis and grandchildren, Jonathan Senechal, Elijah Senechal, Jessica Dennis (Boucher), Jeremy Dennis and Gregory Dennis as well as three great grandchildren.

Paul was born on May 21, 1921 in London, England, the only child of the late Dr. Robert Swyer and Kathleen Swyer (née Rodwell).

After attending Bedford School, he entered Cambridge University just as war was breaking out in 1939.

Graduation with a medical degree followed in 1943, after which he was enrolled in the RAMC and landed in France in June, 1944.

Paul was a medical officer in the front-line field ambulance clearing stations with the advancing Allied troops in the 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, known as the Polar Bear Division. These troops fought their way across France, Belgium, Holland and finally, into Germany. His division became part of the First Canadian Army towards the end of 1944. During the grim winter of 1945 Paul forgot these hardships having met the love of his life, Fernande, at a liberation ball in Belgium in 1944.

They were married in June, 1947.

After the war, Paul specialized in paediatrics at the Hospital for Sick Children Great Ormand Street, London England, and then emigrated to Canada in 1952. He joined the Hospital for Sick Children (HSC) in Toronto in 1953 and set up the first intensive care unit for sick newborns in 1961. Paul became a full professor at the University of Toronto in 1975. During the 1970's, the 7G unit at HSC became a model upon which worldwide Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) were developed. Paul influenced the international scene further through his training of many fellows from abroad, and also spent time in China with the World Health Organization in 1988.

Numerous neonatology fellows have been influenced by his knowledge and enthusiasm and learnt from his clinical acumen.

Paul retired from HSC in 1987, but continued to play an active role as one of the founders of the International Perinatal Collegium, and in committee work for the WHO and for the Provincial Ministry of Health (Ontario).

He will be deeply missed by his family, friends and medical colleagues.

In lieu of flowers, Dr. Paul Swyer has made a wish that donations in his memory, should be made to the SickKids Foundation - Division of Neonatology, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8.

Link: http://my.sickkidsdonations.

com/DrPaulSwyer Private funeral arrangements were made with the Humphrey Funeral Home at 1403 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, M4G 3A8 with a private cremation. A memorial service and Celebration of Life for friends, colleagues and family will take place at The Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club, 141 Wilson Avenue, Toronto M5M 3A3 from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. on Thursday, July 18, 2019.

PATRICIA ANN TILLEY (née Mozer)

March 17, 1938 - July 4, 2019 Passed away peacefully in Toronto.

Loving wife of the late Owen Ray Tilley. Sadly missed by her children Karen (Mark) and Craig (Katherine), devoted grandma to Anna, Joe, Owen and Spencer. Partner to Don Kowalinski.

Born in Winnipeg, Patricia spent her life in Toronto and at her beloved Kushog Lake.

She will be remembered for her devotion to family, her sharp sense of humour and her love for the outdoors, travel and the arts. Patricia lived her life to the fullest.

Service was family only.Donations may be made to The Scott Mission in her memory.

KAREN LOUISE TRIMBLE

Passed away unexpectedly at Toronto Western Hospital on June 13, 2019, at age 67.

Beloved wife of Eric Trimble, daughter of Melva Burns, sister of David Burns (Cathy Sloane), mother of Blair (Jesse Stanchak) and grandmother of Anna Stanchak, all of whom miss her terribly.

She was a strong guiding force in all our lives. Karen had a successful career in marketing, and later in real estate, and was passionate about all things equine.

A Celebration of Karen's life will be held in the Atrium of 21 Shaftesbury Ave., Toronto at 1:00 p.m. on July 20. In lieu of flowers, donations in Karen's memory to Community Association for Riders with Disabilities would be appreciated.

JOSEPH PAUL VIRUS P. Eng.

Joe passed away peacefully at Trillium-Mississauga Hospital on July 9, 2019 at the age of 92.

He was predeceased by his loving wife, Mary Kosters, and dear son, Eric. Joe is survived by his daughter, Ingrid (Manuel Costa), his grandchildren Paul, Kevin, and Caroline and his sister, Joan (Luke Neaven). Dear brother-in-law of Fred and Florence Kosters and John Malick.

Joe enjoyed a rewarding career at Northern Telecom for over 35 years in Engineering and Marketing.

His family will privately celebrate Joe's life. We have honoured his wishes for cremation and no funeral.

Donations in memory of Joe to Trillium Health Partners would be gratefully appreciated. Many thanks to his long-time physicians Dr.Michael Gitterman, and Dr.George Wu, and to the compassionate nurses and doctors at Trillium who cared for Joe on his final day.

"When death comes for you, my dear let him take you like a candle flame that is taken from its wick by a gentle stir of wind smelling of lilac" -Irving Layton WILLIAM JOHN WHELAN CA, CPA June 4, 1928, Perth, Ontario July 6, 2019, Calgary, Alberta Bill passed peacefully into the arms of God at home while Margaret, the love of his life and wife of 66 years, held his hand. His family surrounded him with love, returning to him the same love that he had nurtured over a lifetime of devotion to them.

Bill was a highly respected executive, entrepreneur, mentor and advisor in the oil and gas industry. He served faithfully in many church communities, including Thornhill United Church and most recently Living Spirit United Church. Bill delighted in his time with his friends, often intersecting with his love of golf, for example at the Summit Golf and Country Club and Canyon Meadows Golf and Country Club.

He gave freely of his time, talents and wisdom, and kept close to his heart many charities, most often with children and people with special needs as their focus.

Bill brought his compassion, love and leadership to every aspect of his life.

He was lovingly cared for over the last several years by many wonderful people, including Dr.

Tom Szabo.

Bill is survived by Margaret (née Harris); his brother, Jim; his children, Jerry (Pam), Blair (Rochelle), Tom (Michelle), and Elizabeth Broeke (Roger); and many treasured grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

A family service was held on July 11th and a Celebration of Life will follow in September.

Memorial tributes may be made in support of Brain Health to the Alberta Children's Hospital Foundation.

Condolences may be forwarded to the family by visiting www.

e d e n b r o o k c e m e t e r y. c a .

Arrangements entrusted to Eden Brook Funeral Home and Reception Centre, 24223 Twp. Rd.

242, Calgary, AB, T3Z 3K2.

ROBERT BENJAMIN WEEKS

We announce with sorrow the passing of Robert Benjamin Weeks in his 83rd year after a short battle with cancer at North York General Hospital on June 24, 2019. Robert will be dearly missed by his loving wife of 55 years, Catherine; and son, David of Montreal. He was predeceased by younger son Alan in 1991. He will be equally missed by his surviving sibling, Beryl, and his many nieces and nephews and their children around the Bristol area in England.

Robert was born at Longwell Green, Bristol in 1935. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Wales, Cardiff, and enjoyed playing rugby and cricket during his time there. He came to Canada in 1962, arriving in Montreal, where he met Catherine. They married in 1964 and moved to Kingston where for a year he worked for DuPont.

From there, they moved to Toronto where Robert worked at Canada Wire and Cable, finally in the position of vice president of the Power and Control division in Leaside. Later, he was president of Graham Fiberglass in Erin, Ontario. Before retiring, Robert was a management consultant to numerous clients.

Robert was a very kind-hearted, compassionate person who always made time to listen to others and give of his time where it could provide the most benefit. As a long-time member of the North York YMCA, he spent many hours volunteering there, served on the board at the Toronto East General Hospital, as well as giving time to various other organizations throughout the years. For his contributions, Robert was a recipient of the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee medal in 2012.

The family would like to thank the compassionate and professional care provided by the cardiology and palliative care teams at North York General Hospital.

A private family service has taken place.

Donations in Robert's memory may be made to the Canadian Cancer Society, or a charity of your choice.

WILLIAM JOHN YOST "Bill"

BGen (retired) - Canadian Army It is with great sadness that we share the sudden passing of our father, William Yost in his 93rd year, on July 5, 2019. Born May 20, 1926 in Caledonia, ON, he was the son of the late Arthur Yost and Rose Wagner. He is survived by his children Alison Clohessy (Australia) and son David Yost (Caryn) (Virginia USA). Adoring Grandfather to Jon and James Clohessy (Australia) and Samantha and Victoria Yost. Bill was predeceased by his loving wife of 64 years Elizabeth "Betty" Yost in 2017, along with stepmother Alma Yost, brother Gerry Yost and sonin-law Kim Clohessy.

A Visitation will take place at Beechwood, Funeral, Cemetery and Cremation Services (280 Beechwood Avenue, Ottawa), on Wednesday, July 17th from 10am to 2pm followed by the Funeral Service and Reception. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a donation to the Canadian War Museum.


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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page B14

MATHESON

David Matheson and Sarah Gillin are very pleased to announce the birth of their handsome and strong son, Peter Franklin Douglas Matheson, at 4:16 p.m. on July 13, 2019, weighing 8 lbs.

10 oz. Franklin is welcomed by his paternal grandparents Linda Matheson-Deeks, Gordon Deeks, Paul Young and Donna Davis-Young and by his maternal grandparents Peter and Dianne Gillin. His Aunts and Uncles Peter and Stacey Matheson-Young, Andrew Gillin and Samantha Weng, Tom Jolliffe and Elizabeth Gillin and Claire Gillin are all overjoyed to meet the little man. His cousins Graydon, Caleb, Eve and Crosby Matheson-Young as well as Hazel Jolliffe are looking forward to countless hours of mischief together in the years to come.

MARGARET A. AUSTIN (née Kyle)

March 20, 1928 July 17, 2019 We are deeply saddened to announce that Marg died peacefully, with her family by her side, at Belmont House long term care, on Wednesday, July 17.

Beloved wife of Allan McNiece Austin (Mac, 2018) for 66 years; adored mother of Allan (Lyn), Jim (Sue) and Tom (Rosaria); devoted and loving grandmother of Maggie (Jeremy Packard), Gren (Kimberley Dossett), Graham (Mallory Lazarus) and Michael (Felicia Birmingham).

Marg was the only child of William Armstrong Kyle and Euphemia Marguerite Hunter. She is survived by her cousins Bill Kyle in Pointe Claire, QC and Fergus Kyle in Burlington, ON.

Marg was born in Toronto and attended Parkdale Collegiate Institute and Branksome Hall, before going on to Victoria College at the University of Toronto, where she earned a BA in sociology.

After completing university she worked for the Bell Telephone Company in customer service.

Marg married Mac Austin in 1951 and soon began managing their busy family life, which centred on their three sons, and included their home in Toronto, their cottage on Shadow Lake, and "that male chauvinist pig of a dog."

Marg worked for many years for the Volunteer Centre of Toronto, which recognized her contributions with an award.

She enjoyed sports, including golf, curling and skiing. She also loved travelling, to the South and to Europe, particularly the south of France.

She was a dedicated and longtime member of Eglinton-St.

George's United Church.

Mac and Marg moved into the retirement side of Belmont House in June, 2013. From then until Mac's death she worked valiantly to support and care for him as his life was taken over by Alzheimer's Disease.

We are profoundly thankful for the care she received from the whole team at Belmont House, and her personal caregiver, Yeshi Choedon.

A celebration of Marg's life is planned for late summer.

Please consider a donation in her name to the Belmont House Foundation, 55 Belmont Street, Toronto, ON M5R 1R1. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

JAMES DUNCAN BOYNE BROMLEY

July 12, 1922 July 13, 2019 We have lost a good man.

Jim passed away the day after his 97th birthday having enjoyed a long and full life.

He is survived by Jackie, his beloved wife of almost 69 years; his children, David (Kelly), Susan (Peter) and John (Verlee); seven grandchildren, Diane (A.J.), Debbie, Daniel (Kelly), Jim, Stephen, Sean and David; and a great-granddaughter Adaline.

Jim was born in Webbwood, Ontario into a railroading family and after obtaining his BASc (Civ) in 1946 from the University of Toronto he continued the family tradition and joined the CPR. He started as a transitman and rose through the ranks to the position of Executive Vice-President for Western Canada. In 1990, he was named Transportation Person of the Year by the B.C. & Yukon Transportation Industry for "Personal Achievement and Outstanding Contribution to the Transportation Industry". He retired that same year.

His career took him and his family to Sudbury, North Bay, Toronto, Smith Falls, Schreiber, Toronto (again) and finally Vancouver.

Wherever he worked, he earned the respect of others as an exceptional railroader who was tough but fair. He was famous for his vice grip handshake. His job often meant he was away from home but he had the love and support of Jackie and he knew that his successful career would not have been possible without her.

Jim was not one to blow his own horn but led by the example he set for honour and integrity both at work and in his personal life.

He was a great athlete. At university, he played varsity hockey, football, rugby and participated in track and field. In his graduating year his classmates selected him for the Most Outstanding Athletic Services to the University and Faculty Award.

He played hockey into his 90's and any opponent soon learned to stay away from his elbows! For many years, he was an enthusiastic participant in the Snoopy's World Hockey Tournament in Santa Rosa, often joined by his son David and Jim's best friend and co-worker Bob Morrish.

A longtime member of Capilano Golf and Country Club, he loved the game and continued to play until he was 92.

Jim loved his grandchildren and he and Jackie were enthusiastic supporters of all their activities, attending countless hockey, ringette, lacrosse and baseball games.

He was generous to a fault. For many years he donated annually to at least 43 diverse charities. If you wish to honour his memory, you can follow his example and make a donation to the charity of your choice.

The family would like to thank Dad's caregivers of the last several years and the home care nurses who helped make his last days easier. They are all wonderful people.

An informal reception in his honour will be held on Sunday, July 21st from 3-5 p.m. at 1905 Peters Road, North Vancouver, B.C.

To write a condolence to the family, please visit http://www.mckenziefuneralservices.com.

BRONIA COHEN

On Thursday July 18, 2019 at Baycrest. Formerly of Montreal.

Beloved wife of the late Herman Cohen, and loving partner of Bill Kofsky. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Dr. Jeffrey Davidson and Thomas Morphis of San Francisco, and Marvin and Marcy Davidson of Newton, Massachusetts. Dear Sister and sister-in-law of Ben and the late Chana Marmur, and the late Ida and John Share. Devoted grandmother of Daniel, and Michael and Alexis Davidson, as well as many loving nieces and nephews, and great-nieces and great-nephews. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Ave. West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday July 21, 2019 at 10:00 am. Interment Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Memorial donations may be made to the Baycrest Foundation,416-785-2875, http://www.baycrest.org/donations

H. JOAN CUMMING (née Russell)

April 20, 1933 - July 18, 2019 Joan passed peacefully in her 87th year with her family by her side in the afternoon of July 18, 2019. She and her brother John, who passed away in April 2012, were raised in Arthur, Ontario by their parents: father, Dr. Jack (John) Russell and mother, Peg (Margaret). She was the loving mother to Allison, Andy (Hillary), Tom (Jennifer) and Suze, and "Daddo" to Ali, Owen, Holly, Sydney, Travis and AJ (Alexandra Joan).

Joan was an extraordinary person. Loved by all who knew her, friends for a lifetime or new acquaintances from just last week. She had an authenticity about her which was perceived immediately by all. Joan endured many challenges including some major health issues with a couple of her children, and later on in life struggles with her own health. She dealt with all of these with a peaceful almost superhuman inner strength coupled with a deep and abiding pragmatism. She was unwavering in her support of all of her children, even as she almost certainly had reservations from time to time about what path they had embarked upon. In the end, they all turned out fine and that is a testament to her intellect, integrity and grace in the way they were reared. She will be missed by all.

There will be a celebration of Joan's life held at Tom and Jennifer's house at 26 Butternut St., Toronto, ON M4K 1T7 on Saturday, October 5th from 1-4 p.m. All are welcome. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Dying With Dignity Canada in Joan's honour.

CHARLOTTE JOYCE CROSS (Nee Tanner)

It is with great sadness we share the tragic loss of Charlotte, a longtime resident of Oakville, Ontario, who died suddenly on July 10, 2019. Predeceased by her soulmate and loving husband of 35 years Dr. Ronald G. Cross, her middle daughter Diane (1968-1996) and her sister Loretta Witton (1929-1996). Charlotte is survived by her two daughters Barbara and Patricia and her three precious grandchildren Michael, Jack, Victoria and Michael's fiancée Rachael. Charlotte had a loving extended family of nieces, nephews, brothers and sisters-in-law who are devastated who will miss her dearly.

With her beautiful capacity to embrace people and adventure, her circle of friends was vast, cherished and lifelong. Special thank you to the 911 responders.

A formal funeral will be held on Sunday, July 21, 2019 at 11 a.m.

at Glen Oaks Funeral Home, 3164 Ninth Line (Ninth Line and Dundas St. E.), Oakville, Ontario L6H 7A8 with reception to follow.

A Celebration of Life of an incredible daughter, sister, wife, mother, Nana and Grandma, aunt, great-aunt and great-great aunt will be planned for September.

Donations to the Lions Foundation of Canada Dog Guides or the Girl Guides of Canada would be an honour to Charlotte's memory.

DAVID SCOTT CUSACK

It is with profound sadness we announce the unexpected passing of David on Saturday, July 13, 2019, at the age of 60 years.

David, cherished firstborn son of Audrey and the late Edward Cusack. Survived by his loving wife, Christine and his beautiful Lupie. Best friend to brother, Jeffrey (predeceased) and adored big brother to Sandra (Graham).

Proud 'Best Ever' uncle to Thomas.

David had a passion for life and nothing was more important than his family and friends. A generous, gentle soul, 'The Cuze' will be forever loved and remembered by all who were blessed to know him.

Thank you to the staff at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and in particular to Dr. Lisa Chodirker for the exemplary care and support provided to David this past year.

A celebration of David's life will be held for family and friends on Thursday, July 25th from 5:00 p.m. at Originals Ale House on Bayview Avenue.

If desired, donations in memory of David may be made to the Sunnybrook Foundation or Tails From Greece Rescue (www.

canadahelps.org). Condolences and memories can be shared at http://www.humphreymiles.com.

DAVID DAVIDSON

June 19, 1932 July 14, 2019 David loved his family, dogs, and all things to do with words in English, French, Greek and Latin.

He enjoyed long walks by the Ottawa River, loved books and music and kept up on the latest CBC radio news. Born in Ottawa to Kathleen and David Davidson, he graduated from Glebe Collegiate.

In 1953 he graduated from Bishop's University, where he was editor of the university newspaper. He was principal at Petawawa Public School before going on to teach at Crescent School in Toronto, Appleby College in Oakville, and King's College in Windsor N.S, where he was senior Latin master.

Always keenly interested in news and politics, he switched to journalism, reporting and editing at the Orillia Packet and Times, the Peterborough Examiner, and The Canadian Press national news agency, where he worked in Halifax, Toronto, and New York City before going to the Ottawa bureau in 1966. During his time there, he became CP's Parliamentary Editor, was a director and secretary of the Parliamentary Press Gallery and president of the National Press Club.

In 1970 he married fellow CP staffer Susan Becker and they had a daughter, Sarah, in 1974. In 1972 he became director of communications for Robert Stanfield of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada before joining the federal public service. After a stint as Director of Information for Statistics Canada, he was seconded to the Prime Minister's Office during the last term of Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, and twice to the Privy Council Office. He was executive director of the Canadian Unity Information Office and then director-general of communications for Solicitor General Canada as well as first chairman of the Council of Federal Information Directors. He was an active Anglican from his school days as a chorister at Christ Church Cathedral to his adult work for the parish of St.

Matthias and for the Diocese of Ottawa on its executive committee and at synod, as well as twice attending the national church's general synod. He had a long and fulfilling retirement before becoming ill with cancer in 2015, after which he had nothing but admiration for our health system and those who work within it. As well as the wonderful support he received from his beloved daughter and son-in-law, Sarah and Rob Labelle, he and Susan especially appreciated the care given to him by Dr. Timothy Asmis at the Irving Greenberg Cancer Centre, Dr. Paul Fluit of the Meadowlands Family Health Center, caregiver Rachel Cormier and nurse Geoff Blampied of Bayshore Home Health, and caregivers from At-Home Hospice, as well as before that, Dr. Louis Weatherhead, Dr. Peter Konzuk, Dr. Kathleen Davis and Dr. David Halliday. He leaves Susan, Sarah and Rob and extended family.

David was predeceased by his sister Diane (Ian Turnbull) of London. A Funeral Service will be held at All Saints Anglican Church, Westboro on Monday, July 22th at 2 p.m., with visitation at the church from 1 p.m. until 2 p.m. Private interment to follow immediately. No flowers please, but memorial donations may be made to All Saints Westboro Memorial Fund.

ARTHUR GERALD FAIRHEAD (Gerry)

God's faithful servant was called home in his 97th year on Friday, July 5, 2019. His service on this earth was complete and he can now be with the love of his life in heaven.

Born March 23, 1923.

Predeceased by his parents, sister, wife Eleanor Fairhead (nee Varty) (June 25, 2017) and grandson Jesse Fairhead (October 1, 1994).

Survived by Peter (Jackie Woodward), Julia, Tim (Jennifer Nixon) Kathleen (Mark Waschkowski). Grandchildren Nicholas, Rachel, Michael, Andrew, Zachary, Matthew, Alexandria (Lexi) and Tylar.

Gerry was a graduate of Lakefield College School, University of Toronto (Engineering 1948) and Wycliffe College (Theology 1958).

He will be greatly missed by his family and friends.

Memorial Service will be held July 23, 2019 at 11 a.m. at St. Bride's Anglican Church, Mississauga.

In lieu of flowers, please send memorial donations to the Cancer Society.

ROBERT EDWARD FITZHENRY

February 12, 1930 July 16, 2019 Robert Fitzhenry ("Fitz") passed away at home on July 16, 2019.

He was born on February 12, 1930 in Hamilton Ontario to Charles Fitzhenry and Margaret Reagan, older brother to Janet (deceased) and Ruth (Helmut Schiller). He was married to Patricia Turner (1931-1966) in 1955, and in 1984 to Andree Rheaume (1941-2013), and was father to Ann (Michael), Mary, Sean (Dorothy), Michael (Elizabeth) and Alyxandra (Khaman). His family grew to include seven grandchildren: Scott, James, Kelly, Zoe, Duncan, Griffin and Reagan.

Fitz graduated from McMaster University in 1954 and remained a proud alumnus for over six decades. His donations to McMaster led to the creation of The Robert E Fitzhenry Coach's Office, The Robert E. Fitzhenry Vector Laboratory, The Robert E Fitzhenry Varsity Training Room, The Robert Fitzhenry Specialized Rehabilitation and Exercise Lab, The Fitzhenry Multipurpose Studio, and the Dr. Robert and Andree Rheaume Fitzhenry Studios and Atrium. In 2009, he was awarded an honourary doctorate, of which he was extremely proud.

After graduation, Bob worked for CIL and then Monsanto, first in Montreal and subsequently in Toronto. In 1978, he and his partner, Bob Beamish, purchased the Urethane Foam Division of Monsanto and grew this into a flourishing multinational company, Woodbridge Foam.

From a single plant in Woodbridge, Ontario, the company has grown to over 8,000 employees in 54 locations in 10 countries.

A bon vivant and philanthropist, Dad enjoyed countless adventures around the world. He loved sailing, golf, fishing, hunting, music, art, fine food and wine.

He was happiest at the table, surrounded by family and friends, telling stories.

A Celebration of Life will be held at Mount Pleasant Visitation Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road (East Gate Entrance) on Sunday, July 21, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. Interment and reception to follow.

If you wish, memorial donations may be made to McMaster University (givetomcmaster.ca) or the McMichael Canadian Art Collection. (http://mcmichael.

com/support-mcmichael)

TOYOMASA FUSÉ, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus, York University January 20, 1931 - July 11, 2019 Passed away peacefully on Thursday, July 11, 2019, at his home in North York.

Devoted husband to Lois Fusé (nee Prochaska) for 57 years.

Beloved father of Megumi Fuse and Kenji Fuse. Proud grandfather to Sasha Fuse.

Fondly remembered by his nephew Masaki Fuse and his family Yoko, Misako and Kazumasa, in Sapporo, Japan, and by extended family in the USA, and many friends in Toronto and around the globe.

Born in Sapporo, Japan, Dr.Fusé was the head of his English club as a teenager, but had to take on many adult responsibilities during WWII.

After the war, he impressed American soldiers and missionaries with his keen intellect, good English language skills, and resourcefulness, and at the age of 19 he acquired an early Fulbright scholarship to study in the USA.

He received his bachelor's degree from Missouri Valley College, and his master's and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California at Berkeley. He held positions at Cornell University, l'Université de Montréal, and York University.

After becoming interested in suicide research in the '70s, Dr. Fusé helped establish suicidology as an important academic discipline. His global research has added important data to the field, and his numerous articles and books on suicide continue to be used as references works.

In his own words, he "practiced what he preached by serving one of the suicide prevention centers in Toronto for eight years as a volunteer and trainer of volunteers".

Dr. Fusé had a deep and lifelong love of travel, cooking, Swiss-style chalets, good writing, and movies. He was as comfortable at a university lecture, as he was in one of Toronto's repertory cinemas, and dined at the finest restaurants as well as Tim Horton's. He was friends with people from all walks of life, including factory workers, academics, monks and celebrated film directors.

Special thanks to his medical staff and care workers Ella, Sami, and other members of the Temmy Latner Palliative Care unit.

In lieu of flowers, please make donations to the Wellspring Westerkirk House a t S u n n y b r o o k (http://www.wellspring.ca), the Bayview United Church (bayviewunitedchurch.ca/), or the charity of your choice.

A memorial service will be held on Saturday, August 17th, at 2 p.m., at Bayview United Church (2609 Bayview Ave).

MICHAEL GILY

After a courageous battle, Michael closed his eyes forever at the age of 67 on July 10, 2019 at the Toronto Western Hospital. Optimistic up until the end, he will always be in our hearts and never forgotten. Sadly missed by his wife Rita, family, and friends.

Cremation to take place on Thursday, July 18, 2019 at the Mount Pleasant Cemetery. For online condolences, please visit http://www.etouch.ca.

WILLIAM DOUGLAS HENRY "Doug"

October 20, 1925 Toronto, Ontario July 11, 2019 Markdale, Ontario Doug Henry, dearly beloved husband of Lois for 67 years, passed away on July 11, 2019.

Doug was a gentle soul, and while being a friend to many could always provide a story, a smile or a laugh.

He spent his career working in Toronto for Thorncrest Motors, and weekends farming in Markdale. He continued running his cattle farm during his early retirement years. His children, nieces, and nephews will always cherish the days they spent riding the ponies and haying on his farm. He enjoyed being active in his community and could be seen driving around town in his 1947 Willys Jeep. Doug got a great charge from great grandchildren Henry, Malcom and Kari and loved them dearly.

Besides his beloved wife, left to love and cherish him are his children: daughter, Susan Robertson (Peter) of Hanover, granddaughter, Sarah Barnes (Brad) of Aurora, their children great-grandsons, Henry and Malcolm; daughter, Judith James (Mike) of Knoxville, TN, granddaughter, Melissa Willis (Derek), their daughter, greatgranddaughter, Kari, and grandson, Michael James; and daughter, Lois Anne Evans (Fred) of Kerwood.

Predeceased by grandson, Grant Henry Robertson and granddaughter, Charlotte Evans.

In respect of Doug's wishes, there will be no funeral service. Condolences may be sent to Box 591, Markdale, ON, N0C 1H0. The family would like to thank the staff of the Markdale hospital for the exceptional care Doug received. We are especially grateful to Dr. Winfield for his care over the last several years. A private family gathering will be held at a later date in remembrance of Doug. Arrangements entrusted to Fawcett Funeral Home, Flesherton.

888-924-2810.

ROBERTA ANN IMBODEN

We are sad to announce the passing of Roberta Imboden on Tuesday, July 9, 2019. She was predeceased by her parents, Robert and Margaret (nee Morford) Imboden and her husband, David Grimshaw.

Roberta was born in Buffalo, New York on July 11, 1934. She earned her B.A. at Canisius College in Buffalo and then went to Hawaii to teach. Later she taught in Quebec and finally came to Ryerson in Toronto where she was a professor in the English Department. At the same time she earned an M.A. in religious studies at the University of Toronto.

Roberta and David were married on June 4, 1977 and spent their summers travelling to many countries including Europe, China, Australia, South America and Cuba.

Roberta had an active literary career, publishing three books and presenting many papers at various symposiums. She was particularly interested in liberation theology, the "communidades de base" of Central and Latin America and the philosophers Jacques Derrida and Jean Paul Sartre.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville) from 6:00 - 8:00 p.m.

Monday, July 22nd. The Funeral Mass will be held in St. Anselm Church, 1 MacNaughton Road on Tuesday, July 23rd at 10:00 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, Roberta can best be remembered through donations to UNHCR - the United Nations Refugee Agency, Canada or a charity of your choice.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

MICHEL DENIS JORY

April 14, 1927 July 17, 2019 Mic passed away peacefully in his sleep at home, aged 92. He was predeceased by siblings, Harold, Gerald and Ann. He is survived by Bridget, his wife of 65 years; children, Michèle (James), Isabel (Terrence), Alexandra (Michael) and Nigel (Petra); grandchildren, Sybil, Charlotte, Matthew, Laura, Aedan, Cole and Tiernan; and great-grandson, Lucian.

Born and educated in England, Bridget and Mic settled in Canada in 1954.

Mic enjoyed all sports, excelling at rugby and cricket. He was described as "A true gentleman...

once the match was over, the results were never discussed."

Throughout his life he was greatly involved with a number of charities, including ShareLife, the CNIB and the Rotary. He was a Past President and Life member of the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club and was an active member of his parish church where his oratorical skills made him the most popular reader.

Beloved by his family and friends, he will be greatly missed.

The funeral service will be held at Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church, 78 Clifton Road, Toronto on Wednesday, July 24th at 1:30 p.m. A reception will follow at Toronto Lawn Tennis Club.

LEIGH BRYON KELK

Beloved husband of Linda Vallis Benoit Kelk, passed away suddenly and unexpectedly in Toronto on Wednesday, July 17, 2019 at Bridgepoint Health Services, ending a challenging time with a debilitating disease.

Born in Toronto on July 22, 1943, Leigh, the son of Alfred and Dorothy Kelk (née Bailey) grew up in Brantford, Ontario. He leaves his brother, David Kelk (Patricia Doherty), and his sister, Jane Kelk (Don Reid) and their families, Linda's brothers and sisters, their children and grandchildren, and many cherished Bailey, Twamley, Zavitz and Kelk aunts and cousins.

Bradley Ryan, Leigh's stepson, predeceased him in 2008.

Leigh attended Ryerson University, where he met his lifelong friends George and Nancy Leonard. While a student, he worked at Cy Mann's The House of Mann, where he learned his wonderful sense of style. Leigh enjoyed a long and fruitful career as a broadcast advertising executive, lastly at Global Television. Linda and Leigh first met in the early 70s, when she was his sales assistant at Stephens & Towndrow. As they pursued and progressed through their separate careers and personal lives, they kept in touch. Leigh and Linda reunited in 1998, fell in love, and married in 2000.

In 1999, Leigh and Linda bravely retired from their respective careers, left Canada and moved to Sunapee, N.H., where they owned and operated American Plate Glass. They sold the business, retired, and returned to Toronto in 2013.

Leigh loved fast cars, especially Porsches. Being behind the wheel was always a happy time for him.

One of Leigh's lifetime dreams come true was driving the Targa Florio racetrack in Sicily just a year ago on his 75th birthday. He was an active member of the Porsche Club for more than 50 years.

Classical music was another passion. He and Linda frequently attended the Tanglewood Festival in Massachusetts, as well as many performances at Roy Thomson Hall. Leigh and Linda's love of travel took them to South America, Australia, New Zealand, Britain, Europe and annually to Sarasota, Florida.

When the Kelks were home, Leigh's favourite perch was his wingback chair, where he would work on a glass of Rioja (or maybe a Beck's) as he read his favourite car magazines.

Leigh will be dearly missed by Linda, his family and many circles of friends. Cremation has taken place. A celebration of his life will be held at a later date.

Condolences may be extended at leighbryonkelk@gmail.com.

HARRY LEVINE

Harry Levine died peacefully at Bethell Hospice, Caledon, Ontario at the age of 99 years old, on July 9, 2019.

Harry was born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia in 1920, and grew up in Saint John, New Brunswick.

He is predeceased by his wife, Mary (McCarthy) Levine. He is survived by his brother, Edward Levine (Nora), nephews, Alan Levine (Patricia) Joel Levine (Kerri), Daniel (Sharon), Ron, and Patrick Van Tassel and several grandnieces and nephews.

Harry served in the Royal Canadian Navy from 1939 to 1945.

He served on the HMCS Gatineau on D-Day. Harry was proud of his service to Canada and loved to talk about his adventures.

Following the War, Harry worked as a shoe salesman in Saint John.

In the 1960's, Harry moved to Bramalea, Ontario and worked at the Three Little Pigs children's shoe store near Lawrence and Yonge Street in Toronto, which he eventually purchased and operated until his retirement.

Harry was a figure skater and gave performances throughout New Brunswick. He continued to skate well into his '90s, several times each week.

Harry was always a charmer, who had a great sense of humour. He will be lovingly remembered with great affection by all whose lives he touched.

His interment will take place in the Field of Honour at Cedar Hill-Greenwood Cemetery, Saint John, New Brunswick at 11:00 a.m. on July 24, 2019, with a graveside service.

In memory of Harry, donations to Bethell Hospice, Caledon, Ontario, or the Saint John Jewish Historical Museum would be greatly appreciated.

DAVID HUGH MARTIN

FCPA, FCGA 1932 - 2019

Died peacefully in the comfort of his own home surrounded by his family on July 17, 2019.

David is survived by his beloved and inseparable wife of 68 years, Gladys; sons, Michael, Lorne, and Paul; as well as many loving grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and extended family. David was a loyal friend, confidante and mentor to so many and set a high standard for all to follow.

David had a distinguished career in the healthcare field including being the Director of the formerly named Ontario Crippled Children's Centre and President and CEO of Michael Garron Hospital (formerly Toronto East General Hospital), Hospital for Sick Children and the Ontario Hospital Association. Later in life his passion shifted to bird carving where he won numerous awards at national competitions.

A special thank you to all the health care professionals who cared for him at Toronto General Hospital and Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital during his 14 year battle from the complications of stomach cancer.

A memorial service will be held at a date to be confirmed.

Memorial donations may be made to the Oakville Hospital Foundation (www.

oakvillehospitalfoundation.com).

JOHN ANGUS MACNEIL

June 26, 1929 - July 6, 2019

With family by his side, John Angus MacNeil passed away peacefully in South Lyon, Michigan. John Angus was born in New Waterford, Nova Scotia to Anna Mae and John Alexander MacNeil. He attended Saint Francis Xavier University (B.Sc. '53) where he was a standout athlete, including captain of the X-Men rugby team '51-52. While at St F.X., he met his wife, fellow B.Sc.

student, Viberta Marie MacLean, from Port Hawkesbury, NS. They enjoyed 63 years of marriage and raised four children while residing in Oakville, ON, Holden, MA and Brighton, MI.

He is survived by Viberta and their four children: William (Pamela) of Byron Bay, Australia, John (Diana) of Toronto, ON, Mary Patricia Harding (Blair) of Brighton, MI. and Peter (Kerry) of Brighton, MI.; by seven grandchildren: John Michael (Berkeley CA.), James Angus (Sydney, Australia), Laura (Toronto, ON), Catherine and Carolyn Harding (Brighton), and Riley and James (Brighton); by his sister Theresa of Halifax NS, brother Robert of Barrie, ON, sister Agnes of Alliston, ON, brother Michael of Burlington, ON; and by many MacNeil, Laffin, Birmingham and MacLean nephews and nieces. His sisters, Anne and Bernadette, and his brother, Charles, predeceased him.

Though a patriotic (naturalised) American, John Angus was always proud of his Cape Breton roots and Scottish heritage. After working his way through university in the coal mines of New Waterford, John Angus entered the pharmaceutical industry and enjoyed great success throughout his career and, finally, as President of Vortech Pharmaceuticals Limited of Dearborn, MI, a company he co-founded with Viberta. A devout parishioner of St.

Patrick Catholic Church, a longtime member of Oak Pointe Country Club and a staunch supporter of the Republican Party, John Angus was happiest when entertaining friends and family with his wife, 'Bert', at their home, 'Braigh Mohr', outside Brighton, MI. He will be greatly missed by his family, Vortech employees, classmates, neighbours, business colleagues and many friends.

A Funeral Mass and a memorial service will be held at a later date.

NANCY ADINA OSLER (née Riley)

June 20, 1920 - June 27, 2019

Peacefully, in her 100th year, with her children at her side. Daughter of Conrad S. Riley and Jean (Culver) Riley, and much loved and admired wife of Gordon P. Osler (2012).

Born and raised in Winnipeg, Nancy was the sixth out of eight children, and being part of a large family was central to her identity throughout her life.

After graduating from Elmwood School in Ottawa, she travelled to London following the outbreak of World War II to volunteer for the war effort. She later joined the Canadian Womens' Army Corp, ultimately attaining the rank of Staff Captain and serving in France, Belgium, Holland and Germany.

Towards the end of the war, a rather terrified German soldier handed over his revolver to Nancy in surrender. She kept that Mauser for most of her life.

In 1948, Nancy married Gordon Osler in Winnipeg. They were happily married for 64 years and were proud parents of three children: Sanford (Betty Ann), Sue (Biff Matthews), and Gill. A large part of their early family life centered around Lake of the Woods, where many wonderful summers were spent sailing and enjoying cottage life. The family moved to Toronto in 1964.

Nancy's life was marked by a love and appreciation of beauty in all things, particularly classical architecture, and the decorative and fine arts. She had an overarching sense of style and was always impeccably turned out - classic and elegant with a touch of flair. A dedicated Anglophile, Nancy had a lifelong love of the Royal family, well turned-out children with good manners, poodles and chocolate. In addition to great presence, she had a fine command of the English language, and was quick to correct her children's and grandchildren's grammar.

Nancy and Gordon wintered in Florida for almost forty years, latterly in Palm Beach, where they had many friends and led an active social life.

Nancy's remarkable memory and insatiable curiosity served her well in her role as de facto family historian and archivist for the Osler and Riley families.

She remained mentally at the top of her game to the end, continuing to amaze those around her with her ability to recall detailed facts from decades past.

Nancy was predeceased by her siblings, Culver, Ron, Betty, Conrad, Albert, Derek and Sanford, and by her granddaughter, Shannon Matthews (2015).

She will be missed by her grandchildren, Matthew Osler (Tanya Rank), Lynn Osler (Nick Duran), Graham Matthews (Meredith Roy), Trevor Matthews (Catalina Zbar), Madelaine and Nicholas Fortier, as well as the wider Riley clan, with whom she loved keeping in touch. She is also survived by her great-grandchildren, Felix Osler, Jayden Duran and Hannah Matthews.

The family would like to thank Dr. Jean Marmoreo for her compassion and assistance. Should you wish, donations can be made to Dying With Dignity Canada.

A reception to celebrate the life of Nancy Osler will be held at 3:30 p.m., with remarks at 4:15 p.m., on Tuesday, July 23, at the York Club, 135 St. George Street, Toronto.

JANICE CASEY MONAGHAN R.N., B.Sc.N., M.Sc.Ed.

Peacefully at home on Tuesday, July 16, 2019 after a mercifully brief illness.

Jan Casey was born in 1932 outside of Mitchell, South Dakota, the youngest of seven children.

She was predeceased by her parents Agnes and Edward Casey, her siblings Ed, Jerry, Virginia, Jack and Dennis and is survived by her sister Delores Kovarik of Denver. She leaves her husband of sixty years Ben, her daughters Maureen and Kelly, her beloved granddaughter Laura Casey Buttke, Casey's father Bob Buttke, more than fifty nieces and nephews and friends near and far.

Jan entered the R.N. program at 17 and was graduated: as a Registered Nurse from Creighton Memorial Saint Joseph Hospital School of Nursing in Omaha, Nebraska; with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing at Creighton University in Omaha and with a Master of Science at Boston College. At the ripe old age of 24 Jan joined the nursing faculty of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

After an invitation to a party hosted by some U of M hockey players, a Canadian redhead named Ben charmed Jan into a date and then another, and they were married in 1959. The newlyweds moved to Sudbury, Ontario where Jan worked as a nursing instructor. After Mo was born and they moved to Toronto, Jan joined the University of Toronto where she worked as a professor of med-surg nursing until her retirement in 1996.

Jan loved many things - being "Shanna" to her favourite grandchild (and namesake) Casey, her American roots, good scotch, a fast wit, Dairy Queen Blizzards, making "to do" lists, her gun license, treasured friends, an organized toolbox, planting trees at the cottage and many more varied interests consistent with a modern-day renaissance woman.

Jan's laugh was loud and memorable and she loved sharing it with her family and friends. Her wonderful sense of humour and ability to laugh at life is a treasured gift that she gave to us all. Her generosity will continue long after she is gone via the bursary that she established for single parent students at Woodsworth College, U of T.

One of Jan's many memorable phrases was "GOD LOVE YA!"

There is no doubt that, after her long, blessed and generous life, God loves her.

A Funeral Mass will be held on Monday, July 22nd at 1:00 p.m. in Blessed Sacrament Church, 24 Cheritan Avenue (1 block south of Lawrence), Toronto.

In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Jan Monaghan Award at Woodsworth College, University of Toronto or to a charity of your choice.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

JOHN PARISH

February 10, 2019 - July 16, 2019 Celebration of Life will be held on Thursday, July 25th from 1 - 3:30 p.m. at the Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville (one block East of Kerr Street, 905-844-2600) Oakville.

Visit our guestbook online at http://www.koprivataylor.com.

LINDA PINT

B: February 20, 1936 (Vaiste, Estonia) D: July 17, 2019 (Toronto, Canada) Our beloved Mother and Grandmother, Linda Pint, passed away peacefully in her 84th year.

Linda was predeceased by her loving husband of 55 years, Andres; her parents, Karl and Aliide Kriisa; and her older brother, Paul. Linda was a loving mother to her two children, Monika Valvur (Ken Valvur), and Paul Pint (Karen Maddison).

Linda's four grandsons, Stefan a n d Markus Valvur, and Charlie and Matthew Pint will dearly miss their Mamma Linda and Aama. She will live in our memories and hearts forever.

A service will be held at St.

Peters E. E. L. Church, 817 Mount Pleasant Road on Thursday, July 25th at 11 a.m. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

ANDREW THOMAS PRICE-SMITH, Ph.D.

Professor Political Science Colorado College Andrew died in his 51st year, of cancer July 11, 2019 at his home in Colorado Springs, CO. He was predeceased by two sets of grandparents, Marjorie and Harry Price Smith and Hon. D.C. and Margaret Thomas, his stepfather Prof. John T. (Jack) McLeod. He is sadly mourned by his devoted wife Janell, their children, his sister Adrienne Smith, her children, his mother Cynthia Smith, his stepsister Heather McLeod Bennet (Kelly) and their children and his in-laws Gerry and Maria Harvey. Cremation has occurred. A funeral will be held at Shove Memorial Chapel of Colorado College September 7, 2019. A gathering of his Canadian friends will be held in Toronto in mid-September.

Born and educated in Toronto and camper at Ahmek, he received his BA from Queen's University, M.A. from University of Western Ontario and Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Toronto. He held a post doctoral fellowship at the Earth Institute of Columbia University, NY.

After tenure track positions in two other universities, he joined the Faculty of Colorado College in 2005 and was promoted to rank of full professor in 2017. He held the David Packard Professor of International Relations chair and was Director of Global Health Initiative. He chaired the Departments of Political Science 2016-2019 and Environmental Science 2009-2010.

His many interests outside of academe included hiking, boating, skiing, tennis, hockey, football, soccer. A talented musician and song writer he performed in a band at Queen's, that became part of the college circuit. Music continued to play an important role in his private life.

Always an out-of-the-box, cross disciplinary thinker, he specialized in the analysis of effects of disease, environmental change and energy scarcity on the security of nations. His books include: Plagues and Politics (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2001), Health of Nations (MITPress 2002); Contagion and Chaos; disease, ecology and national security in the era of globalization (MITPress 2009) winner of 'Choice Magazine Award' for outstanding Academic volume in 2009; Oil, Illiberalism and War (MITPress, 2015). Rising Threats, Enduring Challenges (Oxford University Press, 2015) with one, U.S. Foreign Policy in a New Era (Oxford University Press) in press at the time of his death.

He gave invited lectures in Canada, the UK(Oxford), Europe, the USA and Costa Rica. He testified on climate change, disease and International Security before the US House Science and Technology Committee and advised the US Director of National Intelligence and the Department of Defense during previous administrations.

He packed a lot into fifty years of life. Brilliant, curious, productive, funny, loving and kind. He will be missed.

IRENE KATHLEEN PURDEN

July 2, 1914 July 15, 2019 Rene Purden died at Kensington Gardens, Toronto after a brief illness and exactly 80 years after she married her beloved husband Pat, who predeceased her. Loving mother of Carolyn Purden Anthony (Bill Hanna) and Christine Purden. Deeply loved by grandchildren, Steve (Vanessa) and Jen (Sunni) Anthony; and great-grandchildren, Elise, Everett, Finlay and Theador.

Born in Epsom, Surrey, England, Rene was a talented artist who also created beautiful gardens wherever she lived. She was a courageous, determined and independent woman. Like so many of her age, her life was affected by the Depression and two World Wars and these events cultivated in her a firm belief that you never give in.

Special thanks to the staff of Palmerston West, Kensington Gardens, who gave her such loving care in her last years.

DONALD HENRY REID

December 4, 1935 - May 15, 2019 Don died of complications resulting from a bicycle accident earlier this year. He was a dedicated cyclist and, unfortunately in this case, never let anything deter him from his passion. He grew up in Grand Forks, British Columbia, and always maintained his connection there.

As a young man, he moved to New York City and graduated from the New York School of Interior Design.

Toronto was his home for the rest of his life, where he enjoyed his career with the CBC. He will be missed by his many friends and people whose lives he touched.

A celebration of life will be held at 3:00 pm, Thursday, July 25, 2019 at HumphreyMiles Funeral Home, 1403 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario.

MARGARET ROBERTSON

Margaret Robertson died peacefully at home in Toronto on July 17, 2019 at the age of 81, surrounded by loving friends.

Born on December 7, 1937 in Whyteleafe, Surrey, England, Margaret immigrated to Montreal in 1958, where she worked at the Montreal office of the Cockfield Brown advertising agency. During her time in Montreal, she also became a student at Concordia University, enrolling in night courses from 1966-1976 and graduating with a BA in 1973 and an MBA in 1976.

In 1973, she joined her former colleague, Ian Roberts, as a founding member and manager of the Montreal office of Ian Roberts Communications, an advertising agency with offices in Montreal, Toronto, Saint John, and Vancouver. She moved from Montreal to the Toronto office in 1976 and retired in 1990 following the sale of the agency.

In her retirement, Margaret joined the Academy for Lifelong Learning in Toronto where she continued to be an active member for the rest of her life, making many new friends in the process, enjoying the Academy's activities and participating as a volunteer in the organization.

Margaret is survived by her brothers, John (Glenda), Neil (Vivienne) and Sandy (Clare); nieces and nephews and great nieces and nephews to whom she has always been known as Aunt Margaret the Great. She will also be deeply missed by her chosen Gilderdale family and close friends in Toronto.

At Margaret's request there will be no service.

CAROLE STEWART ROSS

Peacefully at her home in Cobourg, with friends and family at her side, on Monday, July 8, 2019, Carole Ross at 74 years of age. Beloved spouse of Peter Bolton. Dear mother of Jamie Ross and the late Graham Ross. Sister of David Ross and Gordon Ross (Jennifer).

Also missed by her numerous friends and her dog Islay. At Carole's request she will have private interment in the Cobourg Union Cemetery Green Section.

A public Celebration of Life will be announced at a later date. Those wishing may make a memorial donation to the Cancer Research Society or the Municipal Animal Services. Condolences received at http://www.MacCoubrey.com.

SHIRLEY RUBIN

Shirley Rubin, passed away on July 13, 2019 at Sunnybrook Hospital Palliative Care Unit surrounded by her family. Shirley was married to Harry (z"l) for 62 years. She was mother to Laurence (Cathy), Karen (z"l) (Howard), Linda and Mark (Anne).

Grandmother to Eric (Anya), Gregory, Max, Laura (Jacob), Kathryn (Yoav), Elizabeth (Eli), Charles and Caroline, and great-grandmother to Naomi, Harry and Toma.

She lived a long and fulfilling life. Always loving, strong, honest and curious. She was the rock of our family and the one we could always count on, no matter what.

May her memory be for a blessing.

Donations may be made to the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Palliative Care Unit.

BLAIR SHARPE

Visual artist and long-time instructor at the Ottawa School of Art, died July 15, 2019 of acute myeloid leukaemia, two years after a successful double lung transplant.

Born in Montréal in 1954, Blair's early life was nomadic, with frequent moves across Canada and overseas due to his father's military postings.

He arrived in Ottawa in 1973. His childhood interest in art as a means of investigating the universe became a serious preoccupation in his late teens. Over a career spanning five decades he exhibited widely, with numerous solo shows in Ottawa and Toronto, as well as group exhibitions across Canada and abroad. His work is represented in private, corporate and public collections, including the Ottawa Art Gallery, the City of Ottawa's collection, and the Art Bank. His publicly commissioned works include the mural Ouananiche at the Jack Purcell Community Centre, and the site-specific floor work, River's Invitation, at the Smyth Transitway Station in Ottawa.

Blair was predeceased by his parents, Norman Keith Sharpe and Gwynneth Mary Sharpe (née Chambres). He is survived by his wife Brenda, and by his four siblings: Brian (Maria Eugenia Montes Viera) of Aylmer, QC; Doug (Kris Sharpe) of Toronto, Kathryn (Will Livingstone) of Toronto, and Janet (Randy McNally) of Salmon Arm, BC. He is loved and remembered by several nieces and nephews.

The Sharpe family extends deepest thanks to the UHN Multi-Organ Transplant team, the Ottawa Hospital Hematology Program, and the hospice at Élisabeth Bruyère Hospital for their exceptional care of Blair during the past four years.

In respect of his wishes there will be no visitation or formal service.

There will be a memorial event at the Ottawa Art Gallery at a later date. Arrangements entrusted to Kelly Funeral Home, Walkley Chapel, 1255 Walkley Road, Ottawa, K1V 6P9, 613-731-1255.

Donations to the Ottawa Art Gallery, Ottawa Hospital Foundation, the Bruyère Foundation or the Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation's Lung Matching program would be appreciated by Blair's family. Donations are also welcome to the Blair Sharpe Student Endowment Fund (Ottawa School of Art) https://www.canadahelps.

org/en/pages/blair-sharpe-studentaward/ Condolences and sharing memories at http://www.kellyfh.ca

UMA SONI

On Thursday, July 18, 2019. A beautiful, warm, and bright spirit. Loving mother, grandmother and greatgrandmother. Nurse and community volunteer.

Remembered for her contagious smile.

Beloved wife of the late Mohan Soni. Loving mother to Kitty and George Grossman, Shelley and John Cohen. Devoted grandmother to Justine and Aaron, and Elissa. Proud greatgrandmother of Celeste and Stella.

A private family service is to be held. Visitation at 179 Warren Rd., Toronto, is welcome, Sunday, July 21, from 2 - 5:30 p.m., and evening prayers 7-9 p.m and Monday, July 22, morning prayers 8 a.m., 2-5 p.m., and evening prayers 7-9 p.m.

Donations may be made to Baycrest, where Uma worked and volunteered for over 30 years.

JAMES ROBERT NIVEN TAYLOR

Jim died peacefully Sunday, July 14, 2019. Predeceased by his adored wife, Toni; and survived by his brother, Ian; daughter, Leslie (David); and son, Jamie; and grandchildren, Nicole, Taylor, James and Jill.

Jim was born in Calcutta in 1929, and Jesuit educated. A triple blue while completing his Economics MA at University of Edinburgh, he remained a lifelong amateur of sports, and debate.

His own man, deeply quietly loving and loved, and the truest gentleman any of us ever met.

Rest in Peace.

DAVID L. TORREY

1931 - 2019

He was my North, my South, my East and West, My working week and my Sunday rest - W.H. Auden David Torrey died peacefully on July 16, 2019 in the Montreal General Hospital surrounded by his family.

David was the loving father of Heather, John (Tanya), Bruce (JoAnn), David (Kerri), grandfather of Kate Murphy (Tony), Celia, Owen, Julia and Reid, and greatgrandfather to Quinn and Bridget.

He was predeceased by his sister Barbara, brother and best friend Bill, mother of his children Maggie and his beloved daughter Diana. He is survived by his younger sister Jane.

Born in Ottawa in 1931, to New England transplants Arthur S.

Torrey and Josephine Torrey (née Leonard), the family moved to Montreal and David grew up a stone's throw from the old Forum.

His siblings formed a merry band of brothers and sisters. His education took him from Roslyn School to Vermont Academy to St. Lawrence University to the University of Western Ontario.

This most unpedantic of teachers remained a lifelong student.

David had an outstanding career as an investment banker at Pitfield McKay Ross, Dominion Securities and RBC Dominion Securities.

The hallmarks of his career were trusted advice and longstanding relationships.

Always exceptionally generous with his time and resources, he took particular pride in his decades long relationships with the MS Society of Canada and St. Lawrence University. David was one whose acts of kindness, large and small, went unnamed.

Helping others and giving back were natural reflexes that he exercised his entire life.

Discreet, elegant, charming and successful, what defined him most was his dedication to his family, the true center of his life.

He was the most dedicated son, brother, father, grandfather, great grandfather and uncle. To all that knew him he was engaged, loyal and caring. David was a man of great intellect and curiosity. About the past. About your present and future. Nothing gave him more pleasure than to sit around a dinner table with family and friends.

The family's much loved childhood home. Poole, Jeroy and Tar Islands. Angler. Lake Champlain. His bespoke but well-worn running attire. His newspapers. His cribbage board.

His eyeglasses. He was a man of constants. And he was a constant.

At hockey arenas, school plays, concerts, graduations, piano recitals and ballet performances.

No distance was too far for any event involving family.

David was a pumper of tires. Over the decades, he repaired more than his fair share of flats. He counted himself lucky. We count our blessings.

If the spirit moves you, a donation in his name can be made to the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada.

David's family would like to thank the capable and caring staff at the MGH, caregivers Jilma, Chris, Sushmita, Marrie May and his long-term doctors/friends Dr. Michael Churchill-Smith and Dr. Colin Chalk.

A celebration of his long and full life will be held in the early Fall.

JENNIFER ANNE REED

July 19, 1969 July 5, 2015 On your 50th birthday, we give thanks for your remarkable life.

Forever loved and missed by all who knew you and your family.

- Pat, Bob, Chris, Sarah, Mac, and Finn

MARY AND RODGER SCHWASS

The opportunity for a young farm reporter to interview the first female International Plowing Champion led, on July 18, 1959 in the village of Tara, Ontario, to Mary Catherine Byers and Rodger Daniel Schwass exchanging wedding vows. Now sixty years later, after eight university degrees (including one PhD each), four children, seven grandchildren, two great-grandchildren (and counting), travel to all points of the globe and countless lives positively affected, we celebrate with you the life you have made together based on the vows you exchanged that day.

Love, Ron (Lisa), Rick (Kirstin), Cathy (Kevin) and Marion


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THE LONG ROAD BACK
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He was IndyCar's fastest-rising star, a natural talent who seemed destined for greatness before a horrifying crash nearly killed him, and left his body shattered. A year later, Canadian Robert Wickens is embarking on one of the most extraordinary comebacks in sports. But first he must learn to walk again
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By GRANT ROBERTSON, DAVID GOLDMAN
  
  

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page S6

Last August, Canadian racecar driver Robert Wickens opened his eyes after a marathon sleep. He was on vacation in England, spending time with his fiancée, Karli Woods. They were to be married in a little more than a year. Life was good.

After years of sacrifice, Wickens had broken through into the highest echelons of his sport, emerging in 2018 as one of the world's best drivers and executing the most dominant rookie season IndyCar has seen in decades. He thought about getting up and going for a run. It had been a few days since Wickens had hit the gym.

A voice told him he couldn't.

Why not? "I was running, like, two days ago," Wickens said.

"No, Robert, you weren't."

Lying in bed, Wickens was confused. What was going on? He was groggy and disoriented.

"Robert, your legs don't work - you're paralyzed."

At that moment, everything he thought was real - the trip to London, his training at the gym - was just a drug-induced hallucination, a cruel vivid dream spun by the powerful painkillers coursing through his body.

In reality, the 30-year-old from Guelph, Ont., had just spent 10 days in a medically induced coma.

His spine was broken, his neck was broken, both hands and legs were broken, along with an arm, an elbow and four ribs. His lungs were severely bruised and he was badly concussed.

His family - his mom, dad, brother and fiancée - stood ashen-faced around his hospital bed, fighting back tears, and trying to explain the situation to a man who refused to accept it.

"One of the first things I remember is them basically telling me that I was paralyzed - and I just couldn't understand," Wickens said.

"I was just like, 'No - you're wrong. You're wrong!' "And then people would cry and leave the room, because I guess I was being stubborn."

Less than two weeks earlier, Wickens's car flew off the track and slammed into the catch fence at Pennsylvania's Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, Pa., a few hours north of Philadelphia, destroying the vehicle and bringing his burgeoning career to a sudden halt. In a matter of seconds, Wickens went from rookie sensation to a man trying to piece his life back together.

But against incredible odds and warnings from doctors that his injuries might be insurmountable, Wickens is now trying to engineer one of the most remarkable comeback stories Canadian sport has seen - even if he knows it defies all logic.

This weekend, he will watch from the sidelines of the Honda Indy Toronto, a race he dreamed of winning as a young boy. Without the full use of his legs, he will lead the warm-up lap before the event using a specially equipped car controlled entirely with his hands, guiding drivers at halfspeed around the track as they warm up their tires. Then, sitting in his wheelchair, he will don a headset in the paddock and provide strategy to his teammates during the race.

It is a ceremonial return, but it's not enough. Wickens has bigger plans. Less than a year after the sport nearly killed him and in the midst of a brutal recovery process that sometimes leaves him defeated and in tears at the end of the day, he is vowing to get back into a race car.

First he must teach himself to walk again, one step at a time, then eventually he wants to race for real.

He doesn't expect people to understand the compulsion to return. He is well aware that the risks of the sport involve worstcase scenarios such as this. But the terms of his comeback are non-negotiable.

"I need to get back to racing. I need to get back to IndyCar," he said.

'THE ONE THING THAT I WAS UNSURE ABOUT' It began with a few dollars, some asphalt and the stench of motor oil. Robert Tyler Wickens was 6 or 7 when his parents paid his admission at a roadside GoKart track in Grand Bend, Ont., to let him try it out. The kid had been transfixed by race cars for as long as he could remember. When he was three, Wickens spotted a Formula One race on television and became entranced. He ignored other toys, playing only with miniature cars, and begged his parents to let him see the movie Days of Thunder. Eventually, his grandfather made Robert a copy with the racy parts edited out, and he watched it non-stop.

Those first few turns around the GoKart track only confirmed it. He wanted to be a race-car driver. Tim and Lise Wickens acquiesced, allowing Robert to enroll in junior racing for a year.

After that, they figured he'd probably move on. He never did.

By the time Wickens was a teenager, he was winning championships and pegged as one of Canada's brightest rising stars, alongside his good friend James Hinchcliffe. But racing isn't like other pastimes; it takes huge resources to pursue a career in a sport in which drivers eventually have to bring in sponsorships or pay their own way.

The Wickens family wasn't rich. His mother drove a school bus. Tim, a heavy-machinery mechanic, and older brother Trevor helped keep his kart tuned up.

When Robert got older, the family sold their house in Guelph and moved in with relatives to keep him going.

Hailed as a racing prodigy, he was often talked about as one of Canada's next great Formula One drivers. But talent alone wasn't enough. Wickens was unable to muster either the sponsorship dollars or the vast personal bankroll needed to catch on with a team at that level.

He spent the bulk of his mid-20s driving various European circuits, beating out drivers who later moved up to Formula One and IndyCar. Meanwhile, Hinchcliffe, of Oakville, Ont., had become an established driver on the IndyCar circuit in North America and, in early 2018, lobbied to bring Wickens over to his squad, Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports.

With two Canadian drivers behind the wheel, they were dubbed Team Canada, and Wickens did not disappoint.

Before his first race in St. Petersburg, Fla., last spring, he surprised the field as a rookie by taking the pole position in qualifying. Even Wickens himself seemed taken aback, joking that - after years of focusing on Formula One - he'd have to brush up on IndyCar's rules on how to start the race because he was going to be at the front.

The race itself was just as surprising. Had it not been for a collision with two laps to go, Wickens would have won in his very first outing. He seemed destined for IndyCar greatness. Over the first 13 events of the 2018 season, Wickens rattled off seven top-five finishes, including four trips to the podium - one of them a dramatic third place in Toronto, the only Canadian stop on the schedule.

"His rookie season was really one for the history books," Hinchcliffe said. "He obviously came in with a wealth of racing experience, having driven at an incredibly high level for over half a decade, but his ability to adapt and apply that experience to what was a very unfamiliar environment was astonishing."

IndyCar is unique. Drivers must display more versatility than any other racing series, which makes it extremely challenging. Formula One courses tend to be tight and twisty, mixing heavy braking with all-out acceleration. NASCAR drivers race around oval speedways for all but a few events, but the design of the stock cars means the speeds are not as extreme.

IndyCar - the top level of openwheel racing in North America - is a hybrid of the two. It flips back and forth between both kinds of tracks, using cars designed for maximum speed. One week, drivers might be cornering left and right on a claustrophobic street course, the next race they could find themselves screaming counterclockwise around a banked oval track, where physics matter most and speeds regularly top 230 miles an hour.

"To be a champion in that series, you have to be a great allround driver," Wickens said. "It's not just the same type of circuit over and over and over again."

The wide-open nature of the oval speedways has led drivers from disciplines such as Formula One to steer clear of IndyCar. At those speeds, the margin of error while hurtling around a banked oval, such as Pocono, is just too slim for some to risk it.

"There's no denying it, a superspeedway is not particularly designed for an IndyCar," Wickens said.

Having competed in Europe, Wickens knew he could handle the street courses. The ovals? He was never one to back down from a challenge.

"I'd never driven an oval before," he said.

"I wasn't saying, like, 'No, absolutely not, I'm going to hate these.' I just didn't know anything about them, so I wasn't super excited about it."

"It was the one thing that I was unsure about."

'TELL KARLI I LOVE HER' It was his fifth oval race. Wickens remembers very little of the crash.

For him, most of the details of the accident in the ABC Supply 500 on Sunday, Aug. 19, have been pieced together after the fact.

He saw a photo of the crash in hospital and noticed his right hand protruding from the car as it spun violently through the air before slamming into the catch fence.

"That must be how my arm broke," he thought.

Aside from a relatively minor collision in Texas, Wickens had looked extremely comfortable on the speedways. He took second in Arizona, fifth in Iowa and ninth at the Indy 500. But Pocono would be different.

As wrecks go, there has never been another crash like it. Never in the history of IndyCar has the black-box data recorder that sits beneath the driver's legs been destroyed - along with whatever measurements it was taking at the point of impact. The last bit of data collected by the recorder before it went dark suggested Wickens was travelling slightly

faster than 184 miles an hour and hurtling through the air when his car came apart.

"To be honest, I don't really remember anything of the whole day," Wickens said. "I have seen photos of James and I goofing off at the autograph session before the race, and I've heard a lot of fans saying, 'I got to meet you right before the crash.' I don't really have any recollection of any of it."

Pocono is one of IndyCar's superspeedways - though from above it's more of a triangle with rounded corners. It's fast and, at times, demonstrably deadly. In 2015, IndyCar driver Justin Wilson was killed at Pocono when debris from a car accident ricocheted off the track and struck his helmet.

Wickens was entering Turn 2, seven laps in, jockeying for position with Ryan Hunter-Reay. He went to pass on the inside, but Hunter-Reay, on his right, had more straightaway speed. Their wheels touched for a split second.

Suddenly, Wickens was airborne.

His low-slung car, which was roughly 16 feet long and weighed more than 1,600 pounds, spun like a propeller into the catch fence, a mixture of wires and poles designed to keep cars from careening into the grandstand or, in this particular turn, smacking into a grove of trees. The fence acted as a net, but its metal construction also had the effect of a cheese grater, shredding the vehicle to pieces.

The on-board camera affixed to Hunter-Reay's side mirror shows Wickens's car vaulting over top, coming so close that Hunter-Reay later said he had to "shrug down" to avoid being hit.

Wickens's car tore a swath in the fence before hitting a pole and spinning back onto the track, disintegrating before the TV cameras as it came to a rest on the inside of the speedway. When it finally slid to a stop, all that was left of the car was the cockpit - the small capsule that houses the driver.

Almost everything else had been shorn off or crushed.

At home in Indianapolis, Karli was watching the race on television with Hinchcliffe's fiancée, Becky. The two couples were planning a fall trip to Germany, and the women were looking online for coats. Karli glanced up from her laptop just in time to see Wickens spinning out of control. She knows the sport is dangerous, but in that moment she had no idea what she was seeing.

"Initially I was like, 'Aw no, he's out of the race.' Because I know how mad he gets when he doesn't do well," Karli said.

"I just thought, 'Nothing hit his head, he's fine.' I'd seen other really crazy crashes and people walked away."

"But then they kept showing it over and over again."

She remembered something Wickens once told her about televised racing: If they stop showing live pictures of the driver - it's probably bad.

She kept waiting for the NBCSN broadcast to show Wickens being pulled from his car, or loaded onto a stretcher - anything. But there was nothing, just the replay, over and over in slow motion.

"They never showed Rob again.

And he always told me that wasn't good. ... So I was just like, 'Okay, now it's getting bad.' "Her phone rang. It was Trevor, Robert's brother.

"What do you know?" Karli recalls him asking, thinking she was trackside at Pocono. From where she sat, she didn't know much. The Wickens family knew a lot about racing though. "His parents, they all thought that he died instantly," Karli said.

When emergency crews arrived at the car, they expected the worst, but they found Wickens conscious.

He remembers none of it, but according to the briefing he later received from IndyCar officials, the conversation was strangely calm.

"Are you okay?" they asked.

"Yeah, I think so."

What's your name?

"Robert Wickens."

What track are you at?

"Pocono International Raceway."

Do you know what turn you are in?

"Turn 2."

Wickens seemed lucid.

But the question about the racetrack was a dead giveaway that something was wrong.

Never in his life had Wickens referred to the track by its full name: Pocono International Raceway. "I would never call it that," he said.

Wickens was in shock. He was favouring his arm. The emergency crews could see it was broken.

Then they looked down beneath the steering wheel. Inside the battered car, both of his legs were mangled.

Wickens spoke again: "Actually, my back's really starting to hurt, and I can't feel my legs."

"And that's when things escalated really quickly."

He was taken to an on-site hospital. He started blacking out.

The paramedics revived him with oxygen, and a few seconds later he passed out again. Then, more oxygen.

Karli's phone rang again. Amid the chaos, a woman inside the medical facility - the wife of another driver who happened to be a nurse - had found her number. She yelled across the room at Wickens: I have your fiancée on the phone, is there anything you want to say?

"Tell Karli I love her," Wickens said.

That was when Karli knew it was bad. He never talked that way.

Those sounded like last words.

As emergency crews prepared to airlift Wickens to a nearby hospital, a member of the Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports team staff went over and sat next to Wickens.

Karli couldn't be there. His family couldn't be there. Somebody had to be at his side.

"So that he didn't die alone," Karli said.

'THOSE ARE YOUR LEGS' Wickens was flown by helicopter to the emergency room at nearby Lehigh Valley Hospital. He was delirious. Before they put him under for the trip, he pleaded with the doctors: "Am I paralyzed? Am I paralyzed?" But no one would answer. Aboard the helicopter, out cold, he nearly died choking on his own blood until paramedics were able to get a breathing tube down his throat.

Karli boarded a plane to Pennsylvania. Wickens's family drove south from Guelph. None of them knew what they would find when they arrived in Pennsylvania.

"This is for sure the hardest part," Hinchcliffe said. "The waiting bit is terrible."

In 2015, Hinchcliffe nearly died in a crash during practice in Indianapolis, severing a major artery when a rod on the bottom of the car broke through and punctured his seat. Paramedics held the artery closed long enough to get him to the hospital, which was the only thing that kept him from bleeding out.

"My parents had to get on a three-hour flight with no internet, with the last thing they heard being, 'We hope he pulls through.' " Hinchcliffe said.

"In a similar way, Rob's family drove through the night to get to the hospital and at times, through the country, would lose signal for a few minutes at a time. Those moments can be agonizing."

When Karli arrived from the airport, the prognosis was bleak.

Wickens couldn't move his legs.

There were serious spinal and neck injuries, broken legs, a broken arm and head injuries. He would need multiple surgeries.

But doctors weren't sure if, given all his injuries, he would survive the first spinal procedure, which had to be performed with him laying face down. The family was handed papers to sign acknowledging he might die on the operating table.

"I knew he was alive, but they didn't know if there was brain damage, they didn't know if he would be the same, they didn't know how paralyzed he was," Karli said.

For the first few nights she slept on a couch in his hospital room.

Eventually, family and friends insisted she get some rest at a nearby hotel.

"I can't sleep. I'm just staring at the ceiling. That's the moment where you are like, I am completely alone right now," she recalled. "I just wanted him to wake up. ... I just wanted him to say, it's going to be okay."

When Wickens did eventually wake up, he could barely talk. The heavy painkillers he was on - fentanyl, an opioid 100 times more powerful than morphine - kept him foggy and confused. When he was awake, he hallucinated. Items hung on the wall would vanish before his eyes. He heard a baby crying. He imagined he was somewhere else - in London. Once, Karli came to visit him and he didn't recognize her.

"I didn't know what was real or what was fake," Wickens said.

Even after being told of his injuries, he failed to fully grasp the situation.

When his brother came to see him, the two were talking at his bed and Wickens felt a big lump beneath the sheets, which he thought was a pillow. That's odd, he thought.

"Trevor what is this?" Wickens said through the haze of the fentanyl, pawing at the blankets.

"What do you mean? Rob - those are your legs."

For all the things he can't remember, it's one memory he'll never forget. That was the moment it all sunk in.

"I couldn't feel anything," he said.

A NEW REALITY If Wickens was to have any hope at recovery, the first thing he figured he needed to do was get off the painkillers immediately. He needed his brain back.

"How am I going to walk again if I don't even know I have freaking legs in the first place? I need to at least know that they're there," he said. "I need to be in a good, conscious mental state to get through this."

He quit the fentanyl cold turkey and switched to less-powerful painkillers, but it plunged him deep into withdrawal. He had the shakes, cold sweats and debilitating nausea. One minute he had five fans trained on his bed trying to keep him cool, the next he'd be buried in blankets, teeth chattering.

But in that moment, he made a choice. He was determined to focus solely on rehabilitation.

In the early days soon after the crash, IndyCar issued a statement saying that Wickens had suffered "orthopaedic injuries." It was a vague term that served to underplay the trauma he was in. Little else was known publicly about how bad the situation was.

Talk soon spread on social media that Wickens was, in fact, doing well and would be back at the track in no time. It wasn't true, but the rumours proliferated and gained believability. As pundits and news sites picked up on the chatter, the myth took root: Robert Wickens was fine.

It spun false hope and added to the emotional toll on his family, who were confronting reality inside the hospital. Less than three weeks after the crash, the Wickens family issued an unusual public statement in response, looking to set the record straight. It was unapologetically blunt.

"As unverified sources immediately following Robert's accident inaccurately and without permission portrayed his condition as less than severe, in an effort to remain transparent and open, we are providing a list of Robert's injuries to truly showcase the severity," the statement said.

In professional sports, where injury details are guarded like state secrets, it was an unprecedented disclosure. The bulletpoint list read like a medicalschool text book: thoracic-spinal fracture, spinal-cord injury, neck fracture, tibia and fibula fractures, fractures in both hands, fractured right forearm, fractured elbow, four fractured ribs and a pulmonary contusion. He also sustained a concussion.

Doctors told Wickens about the body's ability to sometimes rewire itself after a spinal-cord injury, to reroute and re-establish nerves, to repair itself. He clung to this. With enough will, he thought he could get there. But he didn't know what he was in for.

"We had no idea what rehab actually entailed," Wickens said.

"We thought that when I went to rehab it would just be short term, I would learn how to walk and I would go home."

He admits he was naive. Wickens had to learn the basics of paralysis. Things he once took for granted were now monumental chores - moving from a chair to the bed, avoiding bedsores, and even the most rudimentary daily bodily functions. Having lost the feeling in his bowels, he needed a catheter to urinate.

"It was pretty eye-opening at the beginning, just how much of this rehab was about your bladder and your bowels," he said. "Everyone knew everything, everyone was asking you questions that you would have never been asked before the injury - family members, everyone - because they were so involved at the early stages of my recovery they were in the loop on all those things. It got to a point where I was just like, stop. I need privacy. I need my own space again."

Robert and Karli were given some key advice from Sam Schmidt, co-owner of Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports, and his wife, Sheila. Schmidt, a former driver, went through a years-long recovery following a crash in 2000 that left him a quadriplegic. They told the young couple to do their best to keep such things separate from their relationship. It would be better in the long run.

"Because we're young and we want romance to stay," Karli said.

It meant she had to fight her natural inclination to help him with everything.

Schmidt has been around paralysis almost his entire life.

"My father was paralyzed racing when I was 11 years old, so unfortunately, our family had been through it before," he said.

His advice to Wickens was to tap the mental and physical energy that made him successful on the track and redirect them into his recovery.

"If he put as much thought, energy and perseverance into his rehabilitation as he did into driving, there was no reason he couldn't walk again without assistance and, God willing, race again," Schmidt said.

Focusing on a goal helps. So Wickens wrote his down on a piece of paper: I want to walk again.

Karli asked him if he wanted to postpone the wedding, slated for the fall. He refused. It was something else to strive for - a new finish line.

Yet, psychologists cautioned him to be realistic. Some patients slip into depression if they set their expectations too high. "They always kept saying, we just have to prepare you for the worst, in case it doesn't get better," Wickens said.

"I'm like - but it will."

He was told not to expect any sensation or movement in his lower body for the first six months after the injury. But five weeks in, something extraordinary happened.

Lying in his hospital bed, immobilized by a neck brace, back brace and casts on his broken legs, Wickens felt a twitch.

Something moved. It was his leg - a muscle in his inner left thigh.

Did he imagine that?

He peered under the covers, He thought about moving the muscle. It flickered again.

"Come look at this," he shouted frantically across the room at Karli.

"And then I did it again - and it worked."

They both broke down.

"Like it was the happiest day of our lives," Wickens said.

LEARNING TO WALK Wickens grips the handles on his walker and pushes himself, slowly, out of his wheelchair. He takes a second to steady himself and, ever so gingerly, slides one foot forward, then another.

They are baby steps. More of a shuffle, really. His legs shimmy and shake, but his eyes don't waver. Staring forward, he looks like a man concentrating on every nerve synapse, however faint.

Sometimes he has a therapist helping him, bracing his ankles, holding his knees. Other times, he does it on his own.

It is nine months after the crash, and Wickens has moved to a specialized rehabilitation facility in Denver. Bit by bit, he has regained some of the feeling he lost.

He can feel his abs, his glutes, he can move his legs, ever so tentatively. He is one of the lucky ones.

His nerves are slowly trying to rewire themselves around the injured part of his spine.

On the six-month anniversary of the crash, he surprised Karli by forcing himself into a standing position from his wheelchair and taking a few steps toward her.

They embraced. He shuffled a bit.

He joked that they were practising the first dance at their wedding.

In March, pining for the racetrack, he travelled to the first race of the IndyCar season, in St. Petersburg. Two therapists helped him climb the stairs to the plane, one holding his legs, the other bracing his hips. By mid-May, when he travelled to the Indianapolis 500, he made a point of climbing the stairs himself, shaking like a leaf as he urged each limb forward in slow motion.

They are massive strides, but for Wickens it's not enough. He wants to walk cleanly again, so that no one knows he was injured.

"People looking at my MRIs early on basically told me that they saw almost no hope for me to regain anything, and I've gotten as far as I have," he says. "So I like to think that my mindset and my work ethic and everything is playing a large part."

While in Denver, he and Karli live in a hotel near the rehabilitation centre. The days begin around 6 a.m. as he transfers himself from the bed to his wheelchair and then to a shower chair.

"It's the same morning ritual that I think any person has. But everything just takes a little while longer," he said.

From bed to being out the door, he's cut it down to an hour and a half. Six days a week, he's at the centre doing four to six hours of therapy a day. There are treadmills, spin bikes set to minimal resistance, pool workouts, muscle stimulation with electrodes, boxing and weights to put back 35 pounds he lost in the hospital. He is working harder than he ever has.

There have been major setbacks - unexpected surgery to correct an injured left ankle and an infection from a small scratch that spread throughout his entire body and could have turned fatal.

But his progress has been better than expected. Still, he finds himself glancing over at other patients with the eye of a seasoned competitor. If someone is walking better, he wonders what they are doing that he's not.

"The hardest thing about this is that you can't compare to another injury, because every spinal-cord injury is entirely different," he said.

The scrutiny that comes with being a professional athlete has not necessarily been kind. People who Karli has never met reach out on social media with comments and criticism.

A few months in, a woman contacted Karli on Instagram and told her she was strong for persevering. The woman added she was surprised Karli was sticking around.

The message gutted her. Of course she was sticking around.

What was presented as a compliment felt backhanded and condescending.

"I don't think I'm strong. I don't. We break down," she said.

"It's the hardest thing we've ever done. I feel like we're just trying to go day-by-day to get through everything."

'RISK MANAGEMENT' Sam Schmidt has already told Wickens that his No. 6 car will be there for him if he is able to drive it.

Wickens knows it may sound reckless to want back into racing, having narrowly cheated death already. But he can't help it. The lure of competition helps keep him going, particularly on bad days, when the rehab gets difficult.

Hinchcliffe understands what Wickens is going through. When he nearly died, he couldn't wait to drive again.

Drivers have one of two psychological responses to a horrific crash, he said. Either they decide it's not worth it and never get back behind the wheel again, or they see their return to the car as a healing force.

"If you're the first driver, you don't ever have to battle the psychological part, because you'll probably never drive again," Hinchcliffe said. "If you're the second driver, you are counting the seconds until you get the chance to drive again because without it you feel incomplete. Getting back behind the wheel makes you whole again."

Drivers know they are risking their lives. Some call it a compulsion, a form of addiction.

"I think we have a way of blocking out whatever part of the brain controls self-preservation, and we are willing to put ourselves into dangerous situations," Hinchcliffe said.

"Racing isn't a want, it's a need.

It's all we know, and we don't want to live without it."

Still, Wickens's crash has given a few drivers pause. Wickens has heard rumblings that some who were looking to make the jump to IndyCar are now reconsidering that decision.

In June, 28-year-old British Driver Max Chilton, a former Formula One racer who made the switch in 2016, said he would no longer race ovals and stick exclusively to road courses, effectively pulling himself out of four of the remaining nine races on the calendar at the time, including Pocono.

Chilton didn't go into detail about the decision, but said "risk management is a central consideration."

Wickens tries not to dwell on what went wrong. Despite his injuries, he maintains the car absorbed the crash exactly how it was designed to. After ripping an 80-foot hole in Pocono's catchfence, the car crumbled around him, leaving the driver's cockpit - though not the driver - mostly intact.

"This tested new boundaries of what an IndyCar is capable of.

Pieces of my car failed in the correct manner," he said.

It took clean-up crews nearly two hours to clear the debris from the track. When the race finally got going again, the remaining drivers sped past the gaping hole in the damaged fence every time they rounded the second turn.

But the race went on.

Asked later how he dealt with such a chilling reminder of the crash, the eventual winner, American driver Alexander Rossi, said he had no choice.

"You've got to compartmentalize," Rossi said. "Deal with that emotion after the race."

FEAR OF FAILURE Not everything has been about racing. One afternoon this spring, Wickens mustered all his strength, gripped the edge of his walker and pushed himself up into a standing position.

As he stood bracing himself, a tailor measured him for the wedding tuxedo he'll wear this fall.

Less than a year ago, just standing there would not have taken the enormous amount of strength it does now.

"It's a new perspective on everything," he said. "You just have to press reset, and what I could do before is in the past. Now it's just trying to rebuild and regrow."

Karli tells a story of a time, early on, when Wickens was still suffering from delusions brought on by the painkillers. Sitting at his bedside, she had taken his hand and held it gently. Her hair was still wet from a shower and looked darker than usual. When Wickens opened his eyes, he stared blankly into her face. He had no idea who she was.

"'You know, you shouldn't be holding my hand,' Karli recalls him saying. "'My fiancée is upstairs and she's going to be really upset that you're holding my hand."

Wickens laughs now at how out of it he was.

For Karli, it was a small comfort. "He knew he had a fiancée.

He's loyal. He just didn't know it was me."

With every small improvement Wickens makes he inches closer to his goal. He is starting to gain more feeling in his body. Last month, he sneezed for the first time since the accident.

Even if he never races again, he is determined to walk down the aisle, stand for his vows and dance with the woman who's helped take care of him all these months.

Wickens biggest fear now is failure. He's not giving up.

"I don't want to fail for myself," Wickens said. "Most importantly, I don't want to fail for Karli."

Associated Graphic

Ditching painkillers and teaching himself how to walk again, Wickens has made massive strides in his recove

An eight-year-old Wickens, in his first year of racing, participates in an event at the Waterloo Regional Kart Club in Ontario in 1997.

INSTAGRAM

ry. But it's not enough for the racer. He wants to walk cleanly again, so that no one knows he was injured.

Left to right: Wickens is photographed with Arrow Schmidt Peterson Motorsports team owners Sam Schmidt, Ric Peterson and Penni Peterson on April 7, 2018. A former driver, Mr. Schmidt was in a crash of his own in 2000 that left him a quadriplegic

CHRIS JONES/ IMS PHOTO ARCHIVE

Wickens's fiancée, Karli Woods, says his rehab has been 'the hardest thing we've ever done,' and they are both taking things day by day.

Schmidt advised Wickens to tap into the mental and physical energy that made him successful on the racetrack and direct it toward his rehabilitation.

Wickens attended Indianapolis 500 events at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in May. INSTAGRAM

Woods asked Wickens if he wanted to postpone their wedding, but he refused. They plan to tie the knot this fall, and he plans on dancing.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Canada's AI dream
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Montreal-based innovator Element AI has impressive backers and a hefty bankroll, but can it deliver what it promises? Sean Silcoff investigates
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By SEAN SILCOFF
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page B6

Officially, the event is known as the 32nd Neural Information Processing Systems conference. Unofficially, it is the world's largest gathering of artificial intelligence experts.

For Jean-François Gagné, the co-founder and chief executive officer of Element AI Inc., the conference is a coming-out party of sorts.

In fact, he is determined to make it hard to miss the name and brand of his Montreal-based artificial-intelligence software company. At Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, the company has persuaded the airport authority to superimpose "AI" in Element's corporate purple over the terminal's "Montreal" sign. When the conference's 8,000 guests arrive at their hotels, many are welcomed by greeters in Element AI T-shirts. The company is throwing a giant party in Old Montreal and Mr. Gagné is hosting Prime Minister Justin Trudeau for a G7 event at its headquarters.

The CEO speaks of all this as though he's defending a castle: "This conference is on our turf and there's no way we'll let all the foreign organizations that are already invading from all fronts across Canada just own this place," says the perennially unshaven Mr. Gagné, wearing a suit jacket, Element T-shirt, jeans and sneakers.

Think big, spend big and be loud about it: that might as well be Mr.

Gagné's motto. The Canadian technology industry is in the midst of a boom and is teeming with AI startups, but few have launched with a bigger splash than Element, a software company that is not yet three years old. The company launched in October, 2016, with a big vision and a global superstar on its founding team: Yoshua Bengio, the University of Montreal professor known as one of the godfathers of "deep learning," the foundational science behind today's AI revolution.

Element set out to build a Canadian AI company to rival the world's biggest tech giants. "The dream was, 'The next Google is going to be Canadian,' " Dr. Bengio said in an interview.

Big names brought their chequebooks: Microsoft Corp., Intel Corp., Nvidia Corp., Tencent Holdings Ltd., mutual-fund giant Fidelity Investments, plus a South Korean conglomerate, a Singaporean sovereign-wealth fund and several Canadian investors, provided US$102million in financing in Spring, 2017. It was an unheard-of amount for a brand-new Canadian company and enabled Element to hire 500 employees, including 100 PhDs. "Clearly, I've been a factor in attracting capital, attracting talent," Dr. Bengio said. "But it's not only that."

Element has positioned itself as a global business star and thought leader on emerging issues around AI. The startup called itself "an unprecedented Quebec success story" in a submission to Quebec Finance Minister Éric Girard this year and attracted generally flattering media coverage. A 2018 headline from Fortune magazine asked, "Can This Startup Break Big Tech's Hold on AI?" and Fast Company in May named Mr. Gagné one of the world's 100 most creative people in business.

Element has also become the self-appointed representative of Canada's AI sector, lobbying federal politicians and government officials 85 times since the start of 2018 - startups rarely do direct lobbying - securing $5-million in federal aid and landing two photo-ops with the Prime Minister.

And there's more money on the way. Sources familiar with the company's plans say it is close to raising another US$100-million to US$250-million from a group of investors that includes pension fund manager Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, the Quebec government and a global consulting firm. Early backers already provided tens of millions of dollars in capital this spring.

But some are not buying into the hype. One financier who looked at an investment in Element last year, but passed, said: "I just didn't believe the story ... the math is not clear, the product road map is not clear, the only thing that's clear is [its strategy to] 'Hire as many people as we can.' " The skepticism is widely shared across the fledgling Canadian AI sector. Although no one will speak on the record, several rival AI entrepreneurs complain Element's rampant hiring has squeezed the market for scarce talent, while its progress is at odds with its claims to be Canada's premier AI company. Element doesn't yet have a proven track record of delivering products, said one AI entrepreneur in Eastern Canada who questioned whether the company even has a viable business model, and yet it's draining the AI ecosystem.

In response to its critics, Element has unveiled ambitious product rollout plans: It is developing seven products during its fiscal year ending next Jan. 31, Mr. Gagné says, with three set for general availability by summer's end.

But Element has experienced setbacks on two of its flagship products in development and shed senior staff charged with taking them to market. Other products promised by the company are still in early stages and unlikely to be released for months. According to Public Services and Procurement Canada, Element as of early this year did not yet qualify among the top level of AI suppliers entitled to bid for government business because it hadn't delivered at least five successful AI projects. Startups consume cash, but with its big roster of expensive engineering talent, Element is burning through it at an unusually high rate.

Element can attract talent. But can it build a sustainable business?

The stakes are high. AI is infiltrating many industries and will change how people work, travel and get information, and how businesses operate as self-teaching algorithms replace human efforts. It's still early days in this transformation, but AI is already confronting governments and regulators with issues such as data sovereignty, privacy and built-in machine biases.

For its proponents, Element AI is Canada's bet to build a giant company and capture some of the value in this country, where many of the big AI breakthroughs happened. "I am tired of Canada acting like the world's greatest poker player walking into casino after casino with two aces in its hands and folding halfway through," said Matt Ocko, an Element AI board member and managing partner at Data Collective, a Silicon Valley firm that was an early investor in the company. "I want to see Canada have a massive ... win." Canada already risks falling behind: Chinese rivals Megvii Technology Ltd., and SenseTime Group Ltd. have already raised more than $1-billion each. Mr. Gagné knows that if he wants Element to be the flag-carrier for Canada's AI industry, he still has a lot to prove. "It's really the year of execution for us," he said.

Element's beginnings date to 2015, sparked in part by a conversation Mr. Gagné had with a troubled Dr. Bengio. Mr. Gagné had just taken a job as entrepreneur-in-residence with a Montreal venture-capital firm, Real Ventures, which had backed his previous tech startup, optimization software developer Planora Inc. Mr. Gagné was responsible for developing Real's strategy to invest in the fledgling AI sector.

Meanwhile, his friend Dr. Bengio was getting worried about the state of the AI field he had helped create. U.S. tech giants such as Google, Apple and Facebook were realizing the commercial potential of AI breakthroughs made by Canadian academics and their students, and hiring as much academic talent as possible, including fellow deep-learning pioneer Geoff Hinton, a professor at University of Toronto.

Dr. Bengio suggested they create a company that would anchor a thriving domestic AI sector and help Canadian universities retain their academics. Their first plan, seeded by Real, was to build a core AI platform and fund an incubator that could spin off startups to deliver machine-learning tools to businesses that could perform functions such as reading and processing insurance applications or detecting and responding to anomalies on production lines. Key to that plan was quickly amassing top-tier AI talent. "Think about how much money is being invested in China and in Silicon Valley," Dr.

Bengio said. "There's no way we're going to succeed if we don't push on the gas as much as is reasonable."

To Mr. Gagné, that meant aiming larger than the typical "lean startup" approach by young technology companies of stretching scant resources to get their first products to market. "We knew it was not going to happen by scraping and bootstrapping your way and getting one solution and hiring a few folks" at a time.

He and his co-founders, including his spouse, Anne Martel, research scientist Nicolas Chapados and Real partner Jean Sébastien Cournoyer, felt their company had to get big, fast.

Element's founders aimed to establish their so-called "supercredibility," a notion championed by visionary Silicon Valley entrepreneur Peter Diamandis in his 2015 book, Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World. Mr. Diamandis implored entrepreneurs to be brash and unapologetic, acting like they had already succeeded.

Some of the basic principles of supercredibility include: "Start at the top, and build your way up"; "When forced to compromise, ask for more"; "If you can't win, change the rules"; and, "If you can't change the rules, then ignore them."

"We really wanted to make a dent," Mr. Gagné said. "The notion of impact, from the start, was one of the criteria that we wanted to make sure we had."

When Element launched, Dr. Bengio was front and centre, although his time spent on the company would be limited to an advisory role and board membership due to his other commitments. "I am a very busy person," he said.

But the timing was perfect. The market was growing aware of the vast potential for AI to help companies derive new insights and make predictions by mining vast troves of their data. Money poured into the sector. Against that backdrop, Dr. Bengio's involvement anointed Element with supercredibility. Element was flooded with CVs from AI scientists and seasoned executives and more than 20 requests a day from potential customers "from literally every corner of the globe" asking how they could use AI in their business, said Naomi Goldapple, one of Element's earliest hires. (Ms. Goldapple spoke to The Globe last December, when she was a director of industry solutions.

She recently left the company and declined to comment further.)

Weeks later, Microsoft announced it was investing an undisclosed amount in Element, one of its first venture deals in AI. Calls followed from other prospective investors, including Data Collective's Mr.

Ocko. His company was "looking for the strongest independent concentration of self-sustaining AI talent that could actually drive product outcomes for global companies. Element AI met that set of criteria," he said. It wasn't a Chinese company subject to state influence, nor within the gravitational pull of AI-savvy, data-rich Silicon Valley giants that other corporations might be loath to work with. That was "reinforced for us by Yoshua Bengio's position as co-founder and his unambiguous moral stature as the only truly prominent AI researcher who had not sold out," Mr. Ocko said.

The founding team set out to raise US$40-million in venture capital, a sizable sum for a fledgling Canadian company. Mr. Ocko encouraged them to think bigger and raise enough "to be a global champion for Canada and a magnet for capital and talent to Canada." The founders decided to "be as ambitious as we can [and] take the money," Mr.

Cournoyer said in 2017. The ensuing financing announced in June, 2017. was one of the largest early-stage rounds for a nascent company in Canada.

But Element's path forward was fuzzy. It abandoned plans to be a startup factory that spun off AI businesses after determining large corporations weren't yet ready to deal with a slew of AI startups and still needed to wrap their heads around what AI could do for them.

Instead Element decided to build those businesses in-house. It dabbled with different ways of helping corporate customers devise AI implementation strategies; most of its work for the first two years involved consulting to Canadian and multinational companies to address specific problems using AI.

The strategic shifts and consulting focus left observers wondering why investors would shell out so much for a company that did custom piecework, since consultants typically generate lower margins and command lower valuations than software sellers. "We created a lot of confusion in the market," Mr. Gagné acknowledges.

But Mr. Ocko insists the plan was always that Element would evolve into a product company. "That was going to take some time" for Element to experiment and build out AI-based products that met customer needs, Mr. Ocko said.

In early 2018, Element decided to focus on two sectors: financial services and supply chain/logistics. Those target industries were rife with data, repetitive and paper-based processes and deep-pocketed companies willing to embrace AI, making them ideal targets for standardized AI products. Last July, Mr. Gagné told his staff he didn't want any proposals going out for work "that didn't have eventual licence-recurring revenue attached to it for a product."

Starting in late 2018, Element began to reveal its product strategy and some early customers. It was working with investor GIC Private Ltd., the Singapore sovereignwealth fund, to develop a tool that automatically and frequently rebalanced investment portfolios. Another investor, National Bank of Canada, agreed to work with Element to develop a program that would help cybersecurity operators do their jobs by taking on some of the routine tasks of threat detection. The company signed up Gore Mutual, a property and casualty insurer in Cambridge, Ont., and financial-services giant HSBC to develop products for their industries. But it won't be until 2020 that the first products are ready to go to market.

Element has been quiet about its financial performance but a confidential document prepared for prospective investors last year and obtained by the Globe offers a rare glimpse.

As of June, 2018, the company had generated $4.7-million in revenue (primarily from consulting projects) for 19 customers including Maple Leaf, Barrick, L'Oréal and Hyundai. Sources briefed on Element's financial performance say revenue in the fiscal year ended Jan.

31, 2019, totalled less than $10-million. Mr. Gagné declined to comment on financial performance except to say 90 per cent of revenues as of last December were for non-recurring business. He added results are on track with plans; Mr. Ocko said Element's revenues reflected in signed contracts covering future years is "dramatically ... larger" than $10-million.

While that might be an impressive output for many startups, context is important. Software startups typically stretch resources and hire prudently until they build a "minimum viable product" that they take to market. Once they generate sales and market acceptance, they hire engineers and product designers to build out the offering and sales and marketing people to generate revenue.

Element took the reverse approach, snapping up machinelearning research scientists and marketers and amassing a big internal infrastructure before it had products in market. Element "has lots of applied research scientists that think about and develop AI algorithms, but those aren't the same people that write software and intimately understand a use case and a particular problem you're trying to solve," one recent insider said.

As a result, Element is an expensive company to run, even in Montreal, where costs are lower than in the Bay Area. And that's before it has commercially ready products to sell.

Aside from the normal startup accoutrements - staff are treated to a free kombucha and latte bar as well as complimentary lunches, snacks and carbonated water on tap at its Park Ex neighbourhood headquarters - the company also pays for things other startups can't afford.

That includes a 71-person fundamental research team led by 13 applied research scientists doing basic research whose main purpose is producing work "to have academic impact," said Dr. Chapados, Element's chief science officer. "Normally, investing in fundamental research is the stuff of very large corporations," he acknowledges.

(Element has filed more than 50 patent applications.)

The company also compensates 24 outside AI academic "fellows" to provide occasional advice or feedback when needed. It maintains offices in Toronto, Seoul, Singapore and has a 20-person London operation that does pro bono work to deliver "AI for good" - a keen interest of Dr. Bengio's. Element also advises a South Korean AI venture fund and partners with Singapore institutions to help develop their local startup sector.

Element does extensive lobbying (it hired a head of public policy and government relations early last year long before it had a chief financial officer) and even has a "brand guru," also rarities for earlystage companies.

Element has so many employees that by early 2019 it was no longer defined as a "small business," meaning it qualified for significantly lower research and development tax credits than companies with fewer than 500 people. (By comparison Shopify Inc. only reached the 500-employee mark the year it surpassed US$100-million in revenues.) That prompted Element to ask Quebec's Finance Minister to reconsider the rules, saying it was still a startup "in hypergrowth mode."

Outsiders estimate Element's "burn rate" exceeds $5-million a month. The burn "is pretty high," said Ms. Martel, Element's senior vice-president of operations, without confirming the amount. "It's higher than a typical startup, definitely." Said Mr. Gagné: "If burn equals risk, then yes, we're taking more risk. ... It's an ambitious play, we never shy away from saying that."

Anchored by the belief that it needed to offer a full range of AI tools, and not just a single product to corporate customers, Element set out to launch seven products this year. "Yes, we could sell one product at a time but we wanted to sell very quickly a suite of products to be able to penetrate larger organizations ... that can help [solve] many of their problems," Ms. Martel said, calling it a "contrarian, bold [strategy that] makes sense. Our expectation is that the revenue will also follow once we're in place in all these organizations."

With the market for AI solutions still nascent, Mr. Gagné acknowledged that the revenue potential of its offerings isn't clear. Selling to large corporations typically takes a long time, and it's hard enough for most startup to build a business around a single product, let alone seven.

Element has already had some product setbacks.

In January, Element staff told The Globe and Mail during a product demonstration at its headquarters that its cybersecurity project with National Bank was in the advanced prototype stage and close to being sellable once it had been "trained" on National Bank data. But within a few months, The Globe has learned, the company quietly shelved the flagship project this past spring and parted ways with many of the business leaders hired to take the product to market. Element declined to comment on the status of the project and referred questions to the bank, which also declined to comment.

Element has also had some challenges developing a program to help the clogged Port of Montreal to develop software that would ease congestion by predicting wait times for truck drivers delivering or picking up loads. The predictions, available to truckers through the port's smartphone app, would come from mining data sources, including vessel arrival times, train manoeuvres and weather.

Element has worked with the port authority since early 2017 and progress on the client side has been slower than expected, Ms. Goldapple said in January. When the port expanded operating hours last fall, that threw things off for months because Element's algorithms were relying on historical data; testing is still ongoing and will only conclude later this year.

The port authority's director of information technology, Serge Montpetit, said the product had the potential to make his operation more effective. "We want to be a smart port," he said. "We're creating history here, we're at the beginning of something."

But is this a smart product for Element AI? The company hasn't worked out pricing yet but the cost would have to come out of the port's information technology budget, which is less than $10-million and already covers everything from business software to cellphones and computers. And it's not clear whether the product can be sold in a standardized form to other customers - ports are typically distinctive, depending on geography, local dynamics and differing operating and ownership models.

Asked how much he thought Element's product would have to be altered for each customer, Mr. Montpetit replied "my guess is 30 per cent" - a high amount that would hurt margins because of the work required with each sale. Element insiders also expressed doubt about the size of the potential market for the port product, which Mr.

Gagné acknowledged would be highly customized and sold to operators that "don't have a super large IT budget."

The company's foray into financial services may be more promising.

Gore is Element's lead customer on a product that automates the intake and uploading of data from insurance applications for home, automobile and commercial insurance policies. Gore's chief information officer, Sean Christie, said the software will save the insurer money, increase its efficiency, reduce errors and provide the opportunity to capture and use more information from application forms. "It's a slam-dunk business case for us. If they can price the product in the right space, they will be very successful."

But with a pilot project under way, Element will only be ready to market the product near year's end. The project with GIC is in the early stages and Element hasn't yet started to deploy the product with the Singapore fund.

And while HSBC's head of transformation for global banking and markets, Chuck Texeira, said the Britain-based bank picked Element AI after "scour[ing] the world to find the best AI firms," it won't be until 2020 that the parties determine what products they will pursue together.

Nearly three years in, Element is still a work in progress. Then again, the entire AI ecosystem is. With deep-pocketed backers, Element still has the means to improve on its outcomes to date, and some observers in the Montreal investment community expect it will sharpen its focus and make staffing changes necessary to commercialize products in the months ahead with a greater sense of urgency.

"Element AI is not a perfect company," Mr. Ocko said. "They are still for all intents and purposes a startup. They have a long way to go to be a global export champion for Canada. ... They will make mistakes.

They have made mistakes." But Mr. Ocko says he's "very happy" with the company's progress toward commercialization. "Anyone who had a bad attitude about the company is going to be gravely disappointed."

Associated Graphic

Two key players in Element AI are artificial-intelligence pioneer Yoshua Bengio, opposite left, and company CEO Jean-François Gagné.

OPPOSITE LEFT: GUILLAUME SIMONEAU; LEFT: CHRISTINNE MUSCHI/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In a short period of time, Element AI has built a team of more than 500 employees, including 100 PhDs, with dozens of projects on the go. Element has offices in Toronto, Seoul, Singapore, London and Montreal.

ABOVE AND LEFT PHOTOS BY DARIO AYALA/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Canada's junior miners hammered by a string of technical blunders
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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page B6

Even though the price of gold bullion had tumbled by more than a third from its 2011 peak, and many of his competitors were struggling, his company was defying the odds.

Guyana Goldfields Inc. had managed to raise US$700-million from investors and put a high-grade gold mine into production in early 2016.

Mr. Caldwell, an avuncular mining engineer with a soothing tone, was happy to promote the company's Aurora mine, located in a remote Guyanese rain forest, as a cash machine.

Indeed, at the prevailing gold price of US$1,200 an ounce, Guyana looked like a surefire winner.

"A little less than US$800 an ounce [cost], US$400 an ounce margin," he said during a segment on Business News Network (BNN). "Pretty easy to figure out how we're going to do."

The company's share price soared as it ramped up production, and its market capitalization crested above $1.5-billion.

But last October, seemingly out of nowhere, the wheels came off. Guyana shed half its stock-market value in one trading session after the company raised doubts about the geology at Aurora.

A technical report, upon which the mine was built, had vastly overestimated the amount and grade of gold at Aurora. This past March, Guyana cut its reserves by more than 40 per cent, after releasing an updated study on the mine.

Guyana's chairman, René Marion, later admitted in an interview that some 1.5 million ounces of gold assumed by Guyana to be in the ground were "never there."

Ten months on, Guyana's share price is down 87 per cent from its peak. Its founder and almost its entire legacy management and board of directors have left. Mr. Caldwell will step down once a replacement is found. Nobody is sure whether the company can weather the crisis.

The meltdown at Guyana's isn't a one-off. Over the past few years, several other mining companies have shocked the market with nasty technical surprises.

Vancouver-based Pretium Resources Inc. has seen its share price whipsawed on multiple occasions by geological setbacks at its erratic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia; Toronto-based New Gold Inc. saw the economics of its Rainy River mine in northwest Ontario go up in smoke last year after it fell short on grade; and shareholders in Rubicon Minerals Inc. were almost completely wiped out after its deposit in Ontario's Red Lake camp turned out to be not mineable at all.

Virtually all of the incidents are occurring at technically demanding ore bodies that require exhaustive study.

While seniors, such as Goldcorp Inc. (now owned by Newmont Mining Corp.), haven't been immune to technical blunders, this is mostly a small company problem.

Many juniors have little or no experience in building mines and lack the technical talent that might head off calamities in advance.

Small mining companies rely heavily on external consulting firms that prepare resource models. The bigger companies have reams of inhouse talent - geologists, metallurgists and engineers - who vet the work of consultants. But juniors often don't have the same level of expertise to be able to push back if something seems off.

"[Smaller gold companies] don't have the human expertise to be able to steer away from those disasters. They don't have the technical bench strength.

They don't have people that can look at it and say, 'hey, this is wrong.' "said Andrew Kaip, mining analyst with BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc.

"They're reliant on external advice and that can be flawed. It can have wildly bad outcomes."

The industry's recent flops also raise the issue of accountability when things go wrong. It's very easy to blame the consultant when the mine plan falls apart, but the management and boards of troubled companies, often responsible for making questionable decisions, are no angels either.

"In order for these things to collapse, half a dozen constituents of people have to not do their jobs," said John Tumazos, chief executive of New Jerseybased Very Independent Research.

"And the reason they don't do their jobs is that no one wants to kill the golden goose, the gravy train. Even when the project sucks." Compared with almost any other mineral, gold is a geological nightmare - harder to find, harder to model and harder to mine. There is no MRI machine for finding gold. Prospectors still have to identify a promising property, drill test holes, send samples to a lab for analysis and cross their fingers.

Even if you find gold, invariably there will be hardly any of it in the ore. The term "high grade" is actually misleading. Eight grams of gold in a tonne of rock is considered high grade. That's eight parts per million. Low grade is one part per million - a grain of salt in a giant bag of Doritos.

The gold industry is perhaps unrivalled in its wastefulness. A producer has to dig up about 20 tonnes of ore for enough gold to make a wedding ring.

Sometimes gold plays nice, occurring as a fine powdery-like substance in rock, with consistent grades throughout the entire ore body - specks of salt uniformly spread across the Doritos. If drill samples confirm that consistency over and over, such deposits can be fairly straightforward to model.

But gold deposits can also be "nuggety" - low grade in most spots, but with the occasional highgrade cluster. And often there is no discernible pattern - like finding a random pretzel in the Doritos.

These ore bodies are among the toughest to model, because geologists can't be entirely sure whether the high grade is a statistical fluke, or a pattern across the entire deposit.

Since it's financially feasible to drill only a tiny proportion of any potential gold deposit, experts have to take sample data and try to figure out what the rest holds.

Correctly modelling a mine, based on a sample that is perhaps only 0.13 per cent of the total mineralized rock, requires immense skill. Such work is typically done by a select group of independent mining consultants. Combining geological field work, and a branch of mathematics called geostatistics, the job is a blend of art, science and luck.

In 2012, SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc. produced a model for Guyana's Aurora property. Like all gold deposits, Aurora had its charms and its challenges.

Early drilling revealed it was a little nuggety.

One way geologists deal with the presence of high-grade gold in what appears to be a mostly lower-grade deposit is to assume it's an anomaly. In constructing a geological model, consultants will routinely disregard high-grade drill samples above a certain level.

This practice, known as "capping," is supposed to prevent consultants from overestimating the overall average grade. But here's the rub. If a deposit is capped too low, that can kill the financial case for building the mine.

In 2012, SRK capped a section of Aurora, called Rory's Knoll, at 80 grams of gold per tonne. That meant Guyana could expect to find a certain amount of high-grade ore when it mined the area.

But last year, as it mined Rory's Knoll, the high grade simply wasn't there.

"We weren't seeing the grade that we thought we would, based on the original 2012 model," Guyana's CEO, Mr. Caldwell, told The Globe and Mail earlier this year.

Guyana's chairman, Mr. Marion, pointed the finger squarely at SRK. The consultant was "very aggressive" in capping the deposit, he said.

Late last year, Guyana asked another consultant, Roscoe Postle Associates (RPA Inc.), to redo the technical report on Aurora from scratch. In its report issued in March, RPA capped Rory's Knoll at just 35 grams per tonne. Guyana's current management team maintains that RPA's capping is much more appropriate.

But SRK isn't taking any of this on the chin. The consultancy points the finger back at Guyana. After an internal review earlier this year, SRK concluded that its 2012 report on Aurora was technically sound based on data available at the time.

Adam Nott, general counsel with SRK, disputes any notion that the consultancy was aggressive in its modelling. The report was produced when Aurora was at an early stage, and was never meant to be relied upon for the construction of the mine, which came some four years later.

SRK would have had discussions with Guyana about the need to update the model and get lots more data before building Aurora. That would have required more drilling and the outlay of significant amounts of additional capital from Guyana. "For whatever reasons, internal to Guyana Gold, that update wasn't done until 2018, when new management came in," Mr. Nott said.

If SRK had access to the same data RPA did in 2018, including three years of actual mining, the consultancy "probably would have come to different results," he added. Of course, any allegation that a consultant was too aggressive in its interpretation of the geology of a deposit hits a nerve in the Canadian mining industry.

Consultants are supposed to provide an unbiased and impartial view of an orebody. But the reality is more nuanced.

"Some [consultants] look at deposits and imagine all kinds of good things happening, and others, and we're among them, try to be more realistic," said Graham Farquharson, veteran mining consultant with Strathcona Mineral Services Ltd. in Toronto.

(In the late 1990s, when doubts arose about Bre-X Minerals Ltd.'s 70-million-ounce gold find, the industry turned to Strathcona to investigate. Mr. Farquharson himself later made what he calls the "sixbillion-dollar phone call," to Bre-X's board, definitively declaring Busang a hoax.)

There is also an inherent conflict of interest. Because consultants are paid by the mining companies, they face financial pressure to be positive. Having a negative stand on a project, even if it's spot on, can result in the consultant getting canned.

"It's a very hard battle telling your client that we think they need to go back to the drawing board," SRK's Mr. Nott says. "Especially when the clients know there are other consultants who are willing to use those [data points] and say that's within a reasonable range."

Mr. Nott added that SRK has lost work to rival consultants who were willing to provide a more bullish outlook on a deposit.

The technical reports themselves are also heavily influenced by clients. Consultants and management go back and forth on many issues, such as appropriate capping levels, the distance between drill holes and what long-term gold prices to assume in projecting returns.

Sometimes technical reports aren't as thorough as they could be, either, and that is often because of money. A client may not want to spend more on drilling and will choose to live with the added risk that entails. "SRK, in a lot of ways, is driven by what the client is willing to pay for, and what the client feels its risk-reward balance is," Mr. Nott said.

Most of the time, these kinds of behind-closeddoors discussions between consultants and mining companies are kept secret. But once in a while they become public. High up in the mountains of northwest British Columbia, Pretium Resources' Brucejack property was an enigma from the get-go. Early work in 2012 pointed to an extremely high-grade gold deposit. Some drill holes came back with as much as 41,000 grams of gold per tonne.

Despite extensive drilling, Brucejack was incredibly difficult to pin down. "You could come back with one sample that would have spectacular results and then 10 samples all around it that had nothing," said Mr. Farquharson, whose consultancy did a bulk sample on the deposit.

In 2013, Pretium shares shed half their value within two weeks after it revealed that Strathcona's analysis didn't square with a far more optimistic study by an Australian firm, Snowden Mining Industry Consultants. Strathcona insisted that Pretium disclose the discrepancy to its investors, then resigned in the aftermath.

Pretium, in turn, stuck with Snowden and trashed Strathcona's work as subpar.

Snowden felt Brucejack had similarities with deposits in the South Pacific with similarly eccentric geology. The consultant used a mathematical model called multiple indicator kriging (MIK) to predict the grade and location of the high-grade gold.

MIK is well suited to "mosaic" deposits such as those at Brucejack, where extremely high-grade gold occurs next to low grade, or even no grade, said international geologist Ashley Brown, who's now based in Kazakhstan. But MIK is extremely challenging. "The implementation of MIK is very difficult," he said. "It's easy to screw up."

What struck Mr. Brown as odd about Brucejack is that Snowden decided against capping the grade. By forgoing capping, SRK allowed the pockets of high-grade gold samples to strongly influence the average grade for the entire deposit. Brucejack's reserve grade was pegged at 14.4 grams per tonne, which made it among the highest-grade gold mines in North America.

Snowden's approach didn't sit well with Haywood Securities Inc.

analyst Kerry Smith, either. A former mining engineer, he's seen his fair share of geological goofs in his almost 40 years in the business.

About four years ago, Mr. Smith attended an information session with Snowden about Brucejack.

"Snowden spent the whole day trying to rationalize why they should model it the way they did, which was basically to model those high-grade numbers and use them to influence the ore around it," Mr.

Smith said. "I came away thinking 'I wouldn't do that. That makes no sense,' because these numbers are not going to have any continuity."

Mr. Smith was right to be wary. In January of last year, Pretium said Brucejack's grade was only corresponding 75 per cent to Snowden's model. The stock lost more than a quarter of its value.

"The high-grade mineralization was in narrower corridors than originally thought," Pretium CEO Joseph Ovsenek said in an interview.

Earlier this year, after undertaking a review of Brucejack, Pretium cut the mine's grade to 12.6 grams per tonne, increased its cost projections by 12 per cent and reduced its expected mine life by four years.

Snowden declined an interview request from The Globe. Ivor Jones, who had responsibility for the technical report on Brucejack, also declined to comment beyond saying, "It is easy to criticize other people's work. Especially something as challenging as Brucejack."

Pretium's CEO meantime refuses to play the blame game. Mr. Ovsenek instead points to the baffling geology, calling Brucejack a "beast."

"I can tell you from talking to a lot of people in the industry and others, there is no orebody like ours out there," he said. "I challenge anyone to say that they could have done better."

While Pretium has been wounded, even with a materially lower grade, Brucejack is still plenty profitable. Over the past 18 months, amid a recovery in bullion prices, the company's share price has regained most of its losses since early 2018. The trouble for many other juniors is that they don't have deposits with grades that come anywhere close to Pretium's Brucejack, or the financial cushion to recover from geological setbacks.

It is possible for a gold producer to make lots of money from a low-grade mine if costs are kept in check and the geology is sound. But it's crucial that there be a margin for error built in, in case things go wrong. Otherwise, a small slip can spell big trouble.

New Gold Inc.'s Rainy River mine is exhibit A.

Midway through 2018, less than a year into production, New Gold said it was seeing a roughly 11per-cent shortfall in the grade at Rainy River. With that, the mine's profit margin vanished.

New Gold also made a basic engineering error in designing the tailings dam at Rainy River and had to build a drastically strengthened structure. The episode blew its capital budget to smithereens.

New Gold now loses hundreds of dollars on every ounce of gold it produces at Rainy River, its debt load is US$780-million and it isn't expected to produce any free cash flow until 2021.

"Some of these things should just never ever get built. That mine was one of them," said Rob Cohen, manager of the Dynamic Precious Metals Fund.

If Rainy River's economics were so dicey, why did it get built? A close reading of the mine's technical report would have shown how thin the margins were. The projected average grade was just 1.12 grams per tonne and the return on mine was forecast at 11 per cent. But technical reports for the most part are impenetrable, and few investors are skilled enough to understand them. Reports can be penned by as many as a dozen authors, run 700 pages or more and are laced with terms such as "kriging" and "variogram."

Here's a passage from New Gold's 713-page report in 2014, describing Rainy River: "The volcanic rocks have been intruded by a wide variety of plutonic rocks including synvolcanic tonalite-diorite-granodiorite batholiths, younger granodiorite batholiths, sanukitoid monzodiorite intrusions and monzogranite batholiths and plutons."

The seeds of some mining disasters are buried in technical reports, there for the world to find them before a cent is spent on a mine. But these reports are written by geeks for geeks. The common investor doesn't stand a chance. New Gold declined an interview request for this story. In addition to technical challenges, however, an old chestnut plays a role in some, if not all, of these cautionary tales. The gold industry is renowned for its culture of exaggeration, hype and promotion, and even the smartest among us can fall victim.

Gold mines are almost always built off a feasibility study (FS), which entails extensive drilling to confirm the existence of gold.

But Rubicon Minerals built its Phoenix underground mine in Northern Ontario off a preliminary economic assessment - a much more rudimentary early stage study.

Despite the obviously materially higher risk profile, Rubicon raised more than half a billion dollars from investors. It even attracted one of Canada's most sophisticated institutional money managers: The Canada Pension Plan Investment Board put $50-million into the miner.

In late 2015, mere months after starting production at Phoenix, Rubicon suddenly halted production, citing complications with the geology. Over time, it emerged that Rubicon hadn't done nearly enough drilling to confirm the gold was actually in the ground. The company, which at one point was worth $1.2-billion, never recovered.

Shareholders lost almost everything. In this case, they should have known better.

While most of these catastrophes involve small mining companies, there are a few outliers in the junior and intermediate sectors that have demonstrated both geological prowess and sound judgment.

In 2011, junior gold company Osisko Mining Inc. put what is now Canada's biggest gold mine into production. While the Canadian Malartic mine in Quebec is low grade, it is very profitable.

The technical team behind Osisko did their homework, including drilling the deposit like crazy. Two of the company's top three executives were geologists and the other was a mining engineer. (Osisko was acquired by Agnico Eagle Mines Ltd. and Yamana Gold Inc. for $3.9-billion in 2014.)

Vancouver-based B2Gold Corp. is another example. Founded in 2007, the company acquired, developed and built Fekola in Mali, now one of the world's most profitable gold mines. Instead of outsourcing mine construction to external engineering firms, as is industry practice, B2 builds its own mines with a tight-knit staff CEO Clive Johnson has worked with for decades.

But of all of Canada's gold miners, Toronto-based senior Agnico Eagle Mines probably has the strongest reputation for technical excellence over the long term. Over more than 60 years, the company has never experienced a serious geology mistake, despite dealing with many technically demanding orebodies.

To access ore at its LaRonde mine in Quebec, the company mines three kilometres underground. Agnico built two mines in Nunavut, despite having no access to power, or roads, and operating in a brutally harsh climate. In Finland, the company deals with complex metallurgy.

Agnico is known for its conservative approach. It's stacked with technical staff, and renowned for its airtight chain of command that starts at the top, with CEO Sean Boyd, and extends through the entire organization.

"Sean Boyd knows how to delegate responsibility. He understands the importance of his technical guys, understands about getting the mine engineers talking to the metallurgist, talking to the electricians.

Everyone," Dynamic's Mr. Cohen said.

"That's what brings success to these projects. Having a sharp pencil and being no nonsense." A decade ago, Pretium, Guyana Goldfields and New Gold might well have been bought by a bigger miner, well before major problems occurred. Within a technically stronger and better capitalized senior, basic geology mistakes could have been averted or minimized.

But in 2012, the mergers and acquisitions (M&A) market in mining went into a deep freeze.

A vicious gold bear market in the first half of this decade, and terribly timed acquisitions during the most recent bull market, forced the majors onto the sidelines.

Smaller companies have been forced to hang around as stand alones longer than before. That has forced many of them into the uncomfortable terrain of building mines by themselves - often for the first time.

The risk of something going wrong was always going to be higher.

While M&A has taken off again in a limited way among the seniors, for the most part it's crickets further down the ladder. If that dynamic doesn't change, more mines will invariably be built by the tenderfoot, and investors will be left to wonder where the next geological shock lies.

Associated Graphic

Before being acquired by Agnico Eagle Mines and Yamana Gold, Osisko Mining put the country's biggest gold mine, the Canadian Malartic, into production in Quebec.

Despite being faced with challenges from the start, Pretium Resources' Brucejack mining operation in British Columbia is still profitable.


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Friday, July 19, 2019 – Page B14

MARGARET A. AUSTIN (née Kyle)

March 20, 1928 July 17, 2019

We are deeply saddened to announce that Marg died peacefully, with her family by her side, at Belmont House long term care, on Wednesday, July 17.

Beloved wife of Allan McNiece Austin (Mac, 2018) for 66 years; adored mother of Allan (Lyn), Jim (Sue) and Tom (Rosaria); devoted and loving grandmother of Maggie (Jeremy Packard), Gren (Kimberley Dossett), Graham (Mallory Lazarus) and Michael (Felicia Birmingham).

Marg was the only child of William Armstrong Kyle and Euphemia Marguerite Hunter. She is survived by her cousins Bill Kyle in Pointe Claire, QC and Fergus Kyle in Burlington, ON.

Marg was born in Toronto and attended Parkdale Collegiate Institute and Branksome Hall, before going on to Victoria College at the University of Toronto, where she earned a BA in sociology.

After completing university she worked for the Bell Telephone Company in customer service.

Marg married Mac Austin in 1951 and soon began managing their busy family life, which centred on their three sons, and included their home in Toronto, their cottage on Shadow Lake, and "that male chauvinist pig of a dog."

Marg worked for many years for the Volunteer Centre of Toronto, which recognized her contributions with an award.

She enjoyed sports, including golf, curling and skiing. She also loved travelling, to the South and to Europe, particularly the south of France.

She was a dedicated and longtime member of Eglinton-St.

George's United Church.

Mac and Marg moved into the retirement side of Belmont House in June, 2013. From then until Mac's death she worked valiantly to support and care for him as his life was taken over by Alzheimer's Disease.

We are profoundly thankful for the care she received from the whole team at Belmont House, and her personal caregiver, Yeshi Choedon.

A celebration of Marg's life is planned for late summer.

Please consider a donation in her name to the Belmont House Foundation, 55 Belmont Street, Toronto, ON M5R 1R1. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

PATRICIA COZENS (née Guest)

Patricia Cozens -- a beautiful mother, lovely wife, world historian and world traveller --gave so much love and is loved by all. Just 89 years-old, she died on Tuesday, July 9, 2019 surrounded by her children in her home in Phoenix, Arizona.

No one has ever lived life more joyfully, cherished her children -- all nine of them -- with such tenderness, or loved her husband with more passion.

She was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and she was raised in the Beaches area, where she graduated from Malvern Collegiate Institute. Patricia received her bachelor's degree from University of Toronto with a double major in History and Languages.

After travelling through many European countries, Patricia began working for Trans-Canadian Airways, where she met her groom-to-be, Wilfrid Lawrence Cozens. They were married in a castle when Patricia was 22 yearsold and remained together until Wilfrid, an airline executive, died on February 24, 1991.

Patricia moved to Phoenix, Arizona, United States, with her husband in 1955 to raise her nine wonderful children, who became her best friends in adulthood. In addition to her own children, she continued to sponsor other children in lesser developed countries.

One of Patricia's favorite hobbies was gardening in her English style garden. She especially loved her roses. She was a voracious reader who loved history and enjoyed science fiction and romance novels. Patricia was a fiercely independent thinker. Through her actions and words, she taught her children to be independent thinkers as well. She also taught her children to be honest, to do their best, and to value education.

But above all and by example, she taught her children to love.

As she travelled around the world, she explored many exotic and historic locations, including the Egyptian pyramids, the Nile River, the Amazon River, the Panama Canal, Costa Rica, Ecuador, the Galapagos, Machu Picchu and Cusco in Peru, the West Indies, the Virgin islands, New Zealand, Tahiti, Great Britain, Ireland, many countries in continental Europe, many countries in Africa (Tanzania and Kenya were favorites) and China, where she experienced the Yangtze River before it was dammed.

She was born on May 8, 1930 as Patricia Guest, to William C. and Ruth Guest. Her father was a business owner, while her mother raised three children, including her sister, Virginia Linde, and her brother, William A. Guest. As a child, her family would often spend summers in Haliburton, Ontario, where Patricia once swam around twelve-mile lake.

Surviving Patricia are her nine children (and spouses), Diana (Mark), Michael (Yongyi), Mary (Don), Thomas (Michelle), Teresa (Mark), Catherine, Angela (Jim), John (Kathy) and Veronica (Duane), and their families, including 14 grandchildren: Eric, Selena, Christopher, Colter, Thomas, Jennifer, Jason, David, Alyssa, Cassandra, Alicia, Matthew, Sara and Lindsey, as well as six great-grandchildren: Anna, Evelyn, Eleanor, Lilou, Roland and Alexa.

Other survivors include her brother William A. Guest (Eleanor) and his family, and the family of her late sister, Virginia Linde (Walter).

Patricia's funeral service will be at Holy Cross Catholic Cemetery & Funeral Home (623-936-1710; hccfh.org), 9925 W. Thomas Road, Avondale, AZ 85392 on Saturday, July 20, 2019 with a Gathering at 9:00 a.m. and Funeral Service at 10:00 a.m. followed by Committal.

CHARLOTTE JOYCE CROSS (Nee Tanner)

It is with great sadness we share the tragic loss of Charlotte, a longtime resident of Oakville, Ontario, who died suddenly on July 10, 2019. Predeceased by her soulmate and loving husband of 35 years Dr. Ronald G. Cross, her middle daughter Diane (1968-1996) and her sister Loretta Witton (1929-1996). Charlotte is survived by her two daughters Barbara and Patricia and her three precious grandchildren Michael, Jack, Victoria and Michael's fiancée Rachael. Charlotte had a loving extended family of nieces, nephews, brothers and sisters-insisters-in-law who are devastated who will miss her dearly.

With her beautiful capacity to embrace people and adventure, her circle of friends was vast, cherished and lifelong. Special thank you to the 911 responders.

A formal funeral will be held on Sunday, July 21, 2019 at 11 a.m.

at Glen Oaks Funeral Home, 3164 Ninth Line (Ninth Line and Dundas St. E.), Oakville, Ontario L6H 7A8 with reception to follow.

A Celebration of Life of an incredible daughter, sister, wife, mother, Nana and Grandma, aunt, great-aunt and great-great aunt will be planned for September.

Donations to the Lions Foundation of Canada Dog Guides or the Girl Guides of Canada would be an honour to Charlotte's memory.

DAVID SCOTT CUSACK

It is with profound sadness we announce the unexpected passing of David on Saturday, July 13, 2019, at the age of 60 years.

David, cherished firstborn son of Audrey and the late Edward Cusack. Survived by his loving wife, Christine and his beautiful Lupie. Best friend to brother, Jeffrey (predeceased) and adored big brother to Sandra (Graham).

Proud 'Best Ever' uncle to Thomas.

David had a passion for life and nothing was more important than his family and friends. A generous, gentle soul, 'The Cuze' will be forever loved and remembered by all who were blessed to know him.

Thank you to the staff at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, and in particular to Dr. Lisa Chodirker for the exemplary care and support provided to David this past year.

A celebration of David's life will be held for family and friends on Thursday, July 25th from 5:00 p.m. at Originals Ale House on Bayview Avenue.

If desired, donations in memory of David may be made to the Sunnybrook Foundation or Tails From Greece Rescue (www.

canadahelps.org). Condolences and memories can be shared at http://www.humphreymiles.com.

ROBERT EDWA RD FITZHENRY

February 12, 1930 July 16, 2019 Robert Fitzhenry ("Fitz") passed away at home on July 16, 2019.

He was born on February 12, 1930 in Hamilton Ontario to Charles Fitzhenry and Margaret Reagan, older brother to Janet (deceased) and Ruth (Helmut Schiller). He was married to Patricia Turner (1931-1966) in 1955, and in 1984 to Andree Rheaume (1941-2013), and was father to Ann (Michael), Mary, Sean (Dorothy), Michael (Elizabeth) and Alyxandra (Khaman). His family grew to include seven grandchildren: Scott, James, Kelly, Zoe, Duncan, Griffin and Reagan.

Fitz graduated from McMaster University in 1954 and remained a proud alumnus for over six decades. His donations to McMaster led to the creation of The Robert E Fitzhenry Coach's Office, The Robert E. Fitzhenry Vector Laboratory, The Robert E Fitzhenry Varsity Training Room, The Robert Fitzhenry Specialized Rehabilitation and Exercise Lab, The Fitzhenry Multipurpose Studio, and the Dr. Robert and Andree Rheaume Fitzhenry Studios and Atrium. In 2009, he was awarded an honourary doctorate, of which he was extremely proud.

After graduation, Bob worked for CIL and then Monsanto, first in Montreal and subsequently in Toronto. In 1978, he and his partner, Bob Beamish, purchased the Urethane Foam Division of Monsanto and grew this into a flourishing multinational company, Woodbridge Foam.

From a single plant in Woodbridge, Ontario, the company has grown to over 8,000 employees in 54 locations in 10 countries.

A bon vivant and philanthropist, Dad enjoyed countless adventures around the world. He loved sailing, golf, fishing, hunting, music, art, fine food and wine.

He was happiest at the table, surrounded by family and friends, telling stories.

A Celebration of Life will be held at Mount Pleasant Visitation Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road (East Gate Entrance) on Sunday, July 21, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. Interment and reception to follow.

If you wish, memorial donations may be made to McMaster University (givetomcmaster.ca) or the McMichael Canadian Art Collection. (http://mcmichael.

com/support-mcmichael)

LEON HOPPEL

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Leon Hoppel at the age of 83 at his home in Toronto after a long illness, peacefully with his beloved wife of 60 years Pat Kay by his side on July 14, 2019. He also leaves behind his sister Greta Lawrence and husband Ian, nephews Brian and Daniel Lawrence. Leon was an employee for many years of IBM Canada and Amdahl Corp.

Leon was a proud member of AA for 47 years and he would like the world to know it changed his life and made him a better person!! There will be a Celebration of Leon's life on August 6th, at 11:30 a.m. at Lambton Golf and Country Club 100 Scarlett Rd. Toronto. For those who wish, donations may be made to Charity of their choice.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

Life Celebrations by

JANET SYLVIA LAND

In her 76th year, a retired high school English and History teacher, died on July 16, 2019 in Toronto, Ontario. She was the devoted daughter of the late Dr.

H. David Land and the late Sophie Gold Land of Sydney, Nova Scotia, the dear sister of Dr. Vita J.

Land (Dr. Harold Zarkowsky) of Chicago, Illinois, and of Ronald Land of Pugwash, Nova Scotia, the aunt of David L. Zarkowsky of Rochester, NY and of Sarah J.

Dillas of Riverwoods, Illinois, and the great-aunt of 6. A graveside service will be held at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park, 5822 Bathurst Street, North York, Ontario M2R 1Y6 on Friday, July 19 at 2:30 p.m.

The family would like to thank the devoted staff at Elm Grove Living Centre in Toronto who cared for Janet with compassion and skill during the last several weeks of her life. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Beth Tzedec Congregation, 1700 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5P 3K3 http://www.beth-tzedec.org

DAVID HUGH MARTIN FCPA, FCGA

1932 - 2019 Died peacefully in the comfort of his own home surrounded by his family on July 17, 2019.

David is survived by his beloved and inseparable wife of 68 years, Gladys; sons, Michael, Lorne, and Paul; as well as many loving grandchildren, nieces, nephews, and extended family. David was a loyal friend, confidante and mentor to so many and set a high standard for all to follow.

David had a distinguished career in the healthcare field including being the Director of the formerly named Ontario Crippled Children's Centre and President and CEO of Michael Garron Hospital (formerly Toronto East General Hospital), Hospital for Sick Children and the Ontario Hospital Association. Later in life his passion shifted to bird carving where he won numerous awards at national competitions.

A special thank you to all the health care professionals who cared for him at Toronto General Hospital and Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital during his 14 year battle from the complications of stomach cancer.

A memorial service will be held at a date to be confirmed.

Memorial donations may be made to the Oakville Hospital Foundation (www.

oakvillehospitalfoundation.com).

JOHN ANGUS MACNEIL

June 26, 1929 - July 6, 2019 With family by his side, John Angus MacNeil passed away peacefully in South Lyon, Michigan. John Angus was born in New Waterford, Nova Scotia to Anna Mae and John Alexander MacNeil. He attended Saint Francis Xavier University (B.Sc. '53) where he was a standout athlete, including captain of the X-Men rugby team '51-52. While at St F.X., he met his wife, fellow B.Sc.

student, Viberta Marie MacLean, from Port Hawkesbury, NS. They enjoyed 63 years of marriage and raised four children while residing in Oakville, ON, Holden, MA and Brighton, MI.

He is survived by Viberta and their four children: William (Pamela) of Byron Bay, Australia, John (Diana) of Toronto, ON, Mary Patricia Harding (Blair) of Brighton, MI. and Peter (Kerry) of Brighton, MI.; by seven grandchildren: John Michael (Berkeley CA.), James Angus (Sydney, Australia), Laura (Toronto, ON), Catherine and Carolyn Harding (Brighton), and Riley and James (Brighton); by his sister Theresa of Halifax NS, brother Robert of Barrie, ON, sister Agnes of Alliston, ON, brother Michael of Burlington, ON; and by many MacNeil, Laffin, Birmingham and MacLean nephews and nieces. His sisters, Anne and Bernadette, and his brother, Charles, predeceased him.

Though a patriotic (naturalised) American, John Angus was always proud of his Cape Breton roots and Scottish heritage. After working his way through university in the coal mines of New Waterford, John Angus entered the pharmaceutical industry and enjoyed great success throughout his career and, finally, as President of Vortech Pharmaceuticals Limited of Dearborn, MI, a company he co-founded with Viberta. A devout parishioner of St.

Patrick Catholic Church, a longtime member of Oak Pointe Country Club and a staunch supporter of the Republican Party, John Angus was happiest when entertaining friends and family with his wife, 'Bert', at their home, 'Braigh Mohr', outside Brighton, MI. He will be greatly missed by his family, Vortech employees, classmates, neighbours, business colleagues and many friends.

A Funeral Mass and a memorial service will be held at a later date.

JANICE CASEY MONAGHAN R.N., B.Sc.N., M.Sc.Ed.

Peacefully at home on Tuesday, July 16, 2019 after a mercifully brief illness.

Jan Casey was born in 1932 outside of Mitchell, South Dakota, the youngest of seven children.

She was predeceased by her parents Agnes and Edward Casey, her siblings Ed, Jerry, Virginia, Jack and Dennis and is survived by her sister Delores Kovarik of Denver. She leaves her husband of sixty years Ben, her daughters Maureen and Kelly, her beloved granddaughter Laura Casey Buttke, Casey's father Bob Buttke, more than fifty nieces and nephews and friends near and far.

Jan entered the R.N. program at 17 and was graduated: as a Registered Nurse from Creighton Memorial Saint Joseph Hospital School of Nursing in Omaha, Nebraska; with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing at Creighton University in Omaha and with a Master of Science at Boston College. At the ripe old age of 24 Jan joined the nursing faculty of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

After an invitation to a party hosted by some U of M hockey players, a Canadian redhead named Ben charmed Jan into a date and then another, and they were married in 1959. The newlyweds moved to Sudbury, Ontario where Jan worked as a nursing instructor. After Mo was born and they moved to Toronto, Jan joined the University of Toronto where she worked as a professor of med-surg nursing until her retirement in 1996.

Jan loved many things - being "Shanna" to her favourite grandchild (and namesake) Casey, her American roots, good scotch, a fast wit, Dairy Queen Blizzards, making "to do" lists, her gun license, treasured friends, an organized toolbox, planting trees at the cottage and many more varied interests consistent with a modern-day renaissance woman.

Jan's laugh was loud and memorable and she loved sharing it with her family and friends. Her wonderful sense of humour and ability to laugh at life is a treasured gift that she gave to us all. Her generosity will continue long after she is gone via the bursary that she established for single parent students at Woodsworth College, U of T.

One of Jan's many memorable phrases was "GOD LOVE YA!"

There is no doubt that, after her long, blessed and generous life, God loves her.

A Funeral Mass will be held on Monday, July 22nd at 1:00 p.m. in Blessed Sacrament Church, 24 Cheritan Avenue (1 block south of Lawrence), Toronto.

In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Jan Monaghan Award at Woodsworth College, University of Toronto or to a charity of your choice.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

EVA MOROWICZ (Ewa)

July 17, 1924 - July 16, 2019 Holocaust survivor, born in Lodz, Poland. Died peacefully at Baycrest. Beloved wife of the late Saul Morowicz. Dear mother and mother-in-law of Hanna and Karol Goldman, and Jolanta Morowicz.

Cherished baba of Jessica and Bram Rothman, Natalie Goldman and Allan Eisen, and Pauline Girouard and Doug Leech, proud and loving great-grandmother of Oliver, Miles and Henry Rothman and Theo and Arlo Eisen. Eva's family is very grateful to the Apotex 7th Floor North staff and her devoted companions Leda and her friends. Special thanks to Dr. Rosen and Ocia Henry. A graveside service was held on Thursday, July 18, 2019 at 12:00 noon in the Community Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery, 10953 Dufferin Street, Maple.

Memorial donations may be made to the Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center/Holocaust, 416-864-9735 or The Baycrest Foundation, 416-785-2875.

MARGARET ROBERTSON

Margaret Robertson died peacefully at home in Toronto on July 17, 2019 at the age of 81, surrounded by loving friends.

Born on December 7, 1937 in Whyteleafe, Surrey, England, Margaret immigrated to Montreal in 1958, where she worked at the Montreal office of the Cockfield Brown advertising agency. During her time in Montreal, she also became a student at Concordia University, enrolling in night courses from 1966-1976 and graduating with a BA in 1973 and an MBA in 1976.

In 1973, she joined her former colleague, Ian Roberts, as a founding member and manager of the Montreal office of Ian Roberts Communications, an advertising agency with offices in Montreal, Toronto, Saint John, and Vancouver. She moved from Montreal to the Toronto office in 1976 and retired in 1990 following the sale of the agency.

In her retirement, Margaret joined the Academy for Lifelong Learning in Toronto where she continued to be an active member for the rest of her life, making many new friends in the process, enjoying the Academy's activities and participating as a volunteer in the organization.

Margaret is survived by her brothers, John (Glenda), Neil (Vivienne) and Sandy (Clare); nieces and nephews and great nieces and nephews to whom she has always been known as Aunt Margaret the Great. She will also be deeply missed by her chosen Gilderdale family and close friends in Toronto.

At Margaret's request there will be no service.

CAROLE ANNE WIGINGTON

1947 - 2019

With heavy hearts we say our goodbye to Carole, who died peacefully from recent illness.

Carole was born in Montreal and grew up in Winnipeg and Toronto.

She was a personal assistant to the well known Canadian designer Don Watt for many years. In 1978 she married her photographer husband Robert, and enthusiastically welcomed his two children Alexandra (ElAsfahani) and Oliver, and in the same year gave birth to a son, Rob.

Carole was intelligent - she had a truly encyclopedic mind and was unbeatable at Trivial Pursuit. She was generous, had a great sense of humour, and a love for Ella Fitzgerald and the great ladies of song.

After spending many years at home with her children she became manager for Robert's food photography studio, which she ran with panache. She had a wonderful knowledge of food and was a marvellous cook.

She leaves her husband Robert, children Alexandra, Oliver, and Rob, brother Dan Bolger (Christine), nephews Gordon, Chuck and Tom, grandchildren London, Gramercy and Aiko, and family in Montreal. Predeceased by sister Jo-Anne, parents Lewis and Jeanne Bolger.

A celebration of Carole's life will follow later.

In lieu of flowers, a donation would be appreciated if made to The Scarborough Hospital where Carole was lovingly cared for.

shnfoundation.ca Online condolences: basicfunerals.

ca/obituaries/carole-annewigington/6013


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Are you more important than this cat?
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Animals exist at our pleasure. Some are companions, others are hunted or raised to be slaughtered or imprisoned in zoos. They are also victims of a belief system that could be described as human supremacy, writes Elizabeth Renzetti. Its time might be coming to an end
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By ELIZABETH RENZETTI
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page O1

Elizabeth Renzetti is a Globe and Mail columnist and author of Shrewed: A Wry and Closely Observed Look at the Lives of Women and Girls.

In the centre of the table is a box of Kleenex and several books about grief. The overhead lights are harsh, clinical, unflattering to our pink and wet eyes. There are four of us gathered there, and three are blubbering.

About our dead cats.

You didn't expect that, did you? Grieving over a human, fine. Over a dog, maybe. Dogs are noble and stalwart. Cats are sly and opportunistic, with one eye on the food bowl and one on the next chance. If you were to ask a human to draw a chain of mammalian hierarchy, it might go something like this: humans > primates > dogs > cats > anything I put in my stomach.

And yet here we are, blubbering. I've dragged my friend to this meeting of the Toronto Pet Loss Support Group, over his protests, and now he's outlining in beautiful and moving detail the recent death of the cat he and his partner had loved deeply. They had rescued the cat and his brother, who were both living with feline HIV. Now both cats are dead in the prime of their lives, and my friend has a balled-up tissue in his hand.

I'm sitting with my own shredded Kleenex, and a line from Love Story, slightly twisted, keeps running through my head: What can you say about a 15-year-old cat who died? That he was beautiful (true) and brilliant (a bit of a stretch, though his rodent-killing skills were top notch).

His name was Perdu, and yes, he did get lost a lot. Or at least he wandered away and came back when it suited him. He was black, but turned a lovely rusty brown in the summer. He was our kids' first and oldest friend. We got him as a kitten from our neighbour one hot summer day in London, and 15 years later, he died in my arms while I bawled and the very kind vet looked discreetly away.

He was "just" a cat, and when I told people I was going to a pet-loss support meeting they looked at me as if I had grown a second, slightly furry head. But that gathering gave me a chance to mourn Perdu, and think about animals in general, and the central place they hold in our lives. And the place we hold in theirs - a position of mastery and dominance, with humans always on top. We are so desperate for their company that we slap little jackets on squirrels and corgis and call them "emotional support animals" because we can't bear to be apart from them for the length of a flight. We will spend thousands keeping some of them alive, if they live in a house, and put others on a grill, if they live on a farm.

It makes no sense, when you think about it. Canadians spent $8.3billion on their pets in 2017, a figure that has been steadily rising for years. Forty per cent of Canadian households have either one cat or one dog. There are 8.3 million pet cats in this country, and 8.2 million pet dogs. Yet, we also killed 819 million livestock animals last year. A good number of those I put in my own belly, because until now I have subscribed to the doctrine that my old roommate once taped to our fridge: Remember your place in the food chain.

Unthinkingly, most of us follow a belief system that could be described as human supremacy. Well, except for the half-million or so vegans in the country. Animals exist at our pleasure. We hunt them or raise them to be slaughtered, gawk at them in zoos and test mascara on them to make sure it won't burn our eyes. The lucky ones live beside us, on our couches, and we sprinkle their ashes under their favourite tree when they die.

What if the era of human supremacy is coming to an end? What if, a century from now, we look back on the idea of keeping animals captive and eating their flesh with revulsion? If the human race survives, that is. Intensive animal agriculture is one of the leading causes of greenhouse gas emissions, and consumers' desire to reduce meat consumption in the Western world has led to the explosive growth of plant-based meat alternatives. At the same time, there is a growing movement toward giving animals legal rights, so that they can be represented as individuals in court.

One day those of us who live in the Western world may realize the need to achieve some kind of greater harmony with our fellow species, one that does not rely on dominance and exploitation. If our robot overlords haven't made us their pets, that is, as Elon Musk predicted. That would be poetic justice.

On my way to meet animal-rights activist Jenny McQueen at a vegan café in Toronto's east end, I pass a man asking his dog, "Are you stressed?" I also pass Pets at Peace, a pet crematorium, and I realize with a lurch that may be the place where Perdu was reduced to, in the vet's words, "cremains." (They're sitting on my bookshelf at the moment, next to his pawprint pressed in clay.)

Ms. McQueen sits at the front of the café surrounded by pamphlets portraying the suffering of chickens and pigs and sled dogs. In October of 2018, she woke before dawn to the sound of banging on her window and shouts of "police!" She let the officers in and they led her out in handcuffs. They took her phone and camera and laptop. At the station, she was charged with breaking and entering and mischief over $5,000.

"I've been in handcuffs a few times, all for animal rights," Ms. McQueen says. Her accent puts her place of origin in Liverpool, and her t-shirt reveals her avocation: It says Direct Action Everywhere, the U.S.-based animal-liberation group that is devoted to exposing the practices of industrial livestock farming and "to openly rescu[ing] animals from places of violence." Of course, one man's enslaved animal is another man's property, and when Ms. McQueen "liberated" two piglets from a sow farm in Ontario, she brought down the wrath of the law. Which was part of the plan.

In 2016, Ms. McQueen and fellow activists entered the Adare Pork Ltd. pig barn, armed with cameras. They documented what Ms. McQueen called "shocking" conditions, including "dead piglets everywhere." She reported what she'd found to the Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. But much of what she found is in fact industry standard - gestation crates in which pigs cannot turn around have been prohibited in Canada since 2014, but only for newly built facilities, not for ones that already exist.

Ms. McQueen was not only willing to be a martyr for the pigs' sake, she was hoping to be one. "I wanted a full trial. I wanted a platform for the animals. That's what it's all about." A trial might draw worldwide attention, which happened when fellow activist Anita Krajnc was tried in 2017 on public-mischief charges after she gave water to pigs on their way to an Ontario slaughterhouse (the judge dismissed the charges). Ms. McQueen was frustrated when the Crown dropped the charges against her, but she is involved with other animal-protection causes, including fighting the practice of adorning parkas with coyote fur, and flesh-shaming a guy who runs a popular barbecue joint (she persuaded him to carry the Beyond Burger vegan option, on a separate grill from the meat).

As I leave, Ms. McQueen gives me the pamphlets. I don't particularly want to look at them. I eat meat - although much less than I used to - and my guilt cup runneth over. Love some animals; eat others. This is the air we breathe from the first delicious whiff of hot dog cut into tiny non-chokeable bits. It is a cognitive dissonance we live with.

In an academic paper called The Psychology of Eating Animals, this dissonance is known as the "meat-eaters paradox." The academics who wrote the paper, Steve Loughnan, Nick Haslam and Brock Bastian, note that people who eat the most meat are tied more to authoritarian tendencies and "social dominance orientation" - i.e., they know their place on the food chain and don't wake up in a cold sweat about it.

On the question of how we can hold a burger in one hand and Bubba's leash in the other, the authors suggest that we humans are very good at compartmentalizing. The more "mindful" we believe an animal to be, and the more capable of suffering, the less likely we are to want to eat that animal. The authors performed an experiment where they gave test subjects nuts or beef to eat, and then asked them afterward about cows' capacity for suffering. "We found that participants who had recently consumed beef, but not nuts, restricted their moral concern for animals and rated the cow as less able to suffer."

But not only do cows suffer, they also "feel" in a more traditional way than we are willing to recognize. As neuroscientist and animal advocate Lori Marino recently wrote in Aeon magazine, experiments on livestock demonstrate their inner lives: Sheep and cows can distinguish individuals among other sheep and cows, for example, and lambs and calves are betteradjusted if they have longer, closer bonds with their mothers. As she writes, "the scientific literature on everyone from pigs to chickens points to one conclusion: farmed animals are someone, not something."

The Dutch primatologist Frans de Waal has spent decades studying the inner lives of mammals, a vocation that earned him scorn from fellow scientists early in his career. In his latest bestseller, Mama's Last Hug: Animal Emotions and What They Tell Us About Ourselves, chimpanzees cherish friendship and rats display empathy. Willfully ignoring the complexity of animals'

social behaviour is a form of human supremacy he calls "anthropodenialism."

Dr. de Waal writes, "To me the question has never been whether animals have emotions, but how science could have overlooked them for so long."

If we accept that animals not only can suffer but also experience what we call fellow feeling, then we humans are indeed in a pickle. "If animals are like rocks, we can throw them onto a heap and stomp on them," Dr. de Waal writes. "If they are not, however, we have a serious moral dilemma on our hands. In this era of factory farming, animal sentience is the elephant in the room."

The inability to recognize the inherent value of other sentient beings, apart from the use we can extract from them, is a fundamental people thing. "Human beings are speciesist," writes the moral philosopher Peter Singer in his seminal 1975 book Animal Liberation. Not only that, we've been trying to justify our place on the apex from toga-times, from Aristotle's argument that nature "has made all animals for the sake of man" to the Old Testament fable about God giving his favourite creation dominion over all things.

Speciesism has had a remarkably long run, and has rooted deep in Western consciousness. Only recently is it being seriously challenged by some biologists and legal experts. It has taken a climate crisis caused by our own profligate behaviour, as we gaze over dying ocean reefs and the prospect of a million extinct species in the coming decades, to begin to grapple with the consequences of industrial farming and deforestation, two of the most serious consequences of speciesism.

There is a paragraph in Dr. Singer's book that is so staggering I went back and looked at the copyright page. The version I was reading had been updated by the author in 1990 - nearly 30 years ago. "The prodigious appetites of affluent nations for meat means that agribusiness can pay more than those who want to preserve or restore forests. We are, quite literally, gambling with the future of our planet - for hamburgers."

That gamble has turned out to be a very bad bet, and it is only small consolation that, at this late stage in the climate emergency, people in the Western world are looking for a new hand. The consumption of beef is falling in Canada; the number of vegetarians is growing, especially among the young, and boomers are turning into flexitarians - that is, restricting their meat consumption. Beyond Meat, a vegan substitute that tastes remarkably like beef, is the hottest flavour in the food industry and is being served at several fast-food restaurants, including, as of recently, Tim Hortons. Even KFC is introducing a vegan "chicken" burger.

"It's a plant-based tsunami," said Sylvain Charlebois, director of the Agri-Food Analytics Lab at Dalhousie University.

"The speed of this movement is something I've never seen in 20 years." The near future will bring plant-based substitutes for chicken, fish, pork. It will bring meat you can grow in your own kitchen.

Prof. Charlebois was supposed to try labgrown meat a few weeks ago at a conference in New Orleans, but its creators couldn't get a certificate from the U.S. Department of Agriculture in time.

I express slight disgust at the idea of test-tube meat, and Prof. Charlebois is surprised: "I'd eat it. Wouldn't you?" Indeed, I've eaten kangaroo and guinea pig and enough cows to fill a small ranch, so what's wrong with stem-cell steak? Like my moral equivocating over pets versus meat, it makes no sense. I'm in the wrong demographic, though. Prof. Charlebois's research indicates that young people are less queasy with the idea of lab-grown meat; being carnivores just isn't as important to them.

It is part of a new reckoning in the West (in other parts of the world, where animal protein is more powerfully correlated to status, meat consumption is rising). By 2025, Prof. Charlebois estimates, 10 million Canadians will have stopped eating meat or restricted its consumption. But will we stop eating animals entirely in the near future? The food futurist responds without hesitation: "No."

We might not stop eating animals tomorrow, but we are rethinking our relationship to them. Human supremacy is being challenged on the farm and on our plates, and in one other important realm: the courtroom. While laws exist to protect animal welfare (many of them hugely outdated), there is no recognition of animals having legal rights of their own, such as the right to be represented in court.

That's where animal advocates see an opening in the moral fabric.

The Nonhuman Rights Project, for example, issues legal challenges "to change the common law status of great apes, elephants, dolphins, and whales from mere 'things,' which lack the capacity to possess any legal right, to 'legal persons,' who possess such fundamental rights as bodily liberty and bodily integrity." The organization files habeas corpus lawsuits arguing that its "clients," such as Kiko the abused chimp and Happy the misnamed elephant, have been unjustly deprived of their liberty.

In Canada, similar lawsuits have been launched on behalf of animals. For years, a battle has been fought over Lucy, "Canada's loneliest elephant," a pachyderm who has lived at the Edmonton Valley Zoo since 1977. Lucy has foot ailments, and worse than that, she's the only elephant at the zoo, a terrible situation, her advocates say, for a mammal who would normally live in a complex social structure.

So far, efforts to move Lucy to an elephant sanctuary in a warmer climate have failed in court.

In 2011, when ZooCheck's challenge on behalf of Lucy was rejected by Alberta's Court of Appeal, Chief Justice Catherine Fraser wrote a lengthy dissent that is still hailed by animal-justice advocates. She concluded by saying, "The appellants, for the public and on behalf of Lucy, are entitled to their day in court."

But if animals are not yet granted their day in court, they have recently had their day in Parliament. After more than 20 years of trying unsuccessfully to update Canada's animal-cruelty laws, three federal statutes just passed that caused activists to rejoice. One banned bestiality and revamped animal-fighting regulations; another prohibited keeping dolphins and whales in captivity; and the last stopped the import of shark-fin products.

"This month has been a watershed moment for animals in Canada," says lawyer Camille Labchuk, who is also the director of the advocacy group Animal Justice.

"The last time Parliament passed any serious new animal protection legislation was in the 1800s."

Ms. Labchuk is also organizing Canada's first Animal Law Conference at Dalhousie University in October. Lawyers and scholars from around the world will gather to discuss issues from dangerous dogs to animal experimentation and the broader challenge of "animals, justice, and the moral community." The keynote speaker is Peter Singer, the grand poobah of animal rights, the man who warned, decades ago, that we were selling the planet for hamburgers.

What if the refusal to kill and eat animals is more than just a personal decision made in the moment? What if it's a creed, a belief system on par with religious worship? That may seem like a wacky idea now, but many of the tenets of equality that we take for granted once seemed absurd.

One Sunday morning, with my junior cat circling around my ankles - please don't tell her I said that - I call Adam Knauff at his home base in Kenora, Ont.

Mr. Knauff is a forest firefighter employed by the provincial government, and he's just returned from battling a blaze in Northern Ontario. He's also fighting for something else: For his ethical veganism to be recognized as a creed under the province's human-rights code. He and his lawyers, with the support of Animal Justice, are taking this legal fight to the Ontario Human Rights Tribunal.

Mr. Knauff describes himself as "an extremely private person," a live-and-let-live kind of guy. He's been vegan since he was 18, when he decided, "I just didn't want to kill anything. It was as simple as that." But he is also a firefighter, part of a tough and hardy community doing a dangerous job in difficult conditions, and therein lies the tension.

The core of Mr. Knauff's complaint is that he was not provided with adequate food when he was fighting fires in Williams Lake, B.C., in the summer of 2017.

He could not eat what the other firefighters were eating, and suitable vegan substitutes were not provided. He sometimes had to subsist on protein bars, which didn't provide the kind of sustenance he needed for strenuous work. He says that when he complained, he was sent home and his pay was docked. He worries that his professional reputation suffered.

"I wasn't getting enough food, or any food sometimes. When I tried to get it, I was punished and sent home," Mr. Knauff says. "Now it's really opened up this whole dialogue. Why I did have to struggle and be treated differently from everybody else, when I don't think my choices in life are bad?" As we talk, I can hear church bells beginning to peal on his end of the line. Mr.

Knauff laughs, but he's serious about his legal challenge. As he sees it, he follows his beliefs every day - more so than some people who go to religious services once a year. "I truly believe that I and all seven billion of us can live on this planet without killing, using and abusing animals for food or clothing or labour. I'm choosing to live every single day of my life with that creed."

What Mr. Knauff is attempting, at its core, is challenging the idea of human supremacy. Maybe, he thinks, someone will read his story and rethink their lunch choice that day. Maybe they'll skip the flesh.

My conversation with Mr. Knauff makes me think about lunch, and dinner, and all the lunches and dinners that have come before. The junior cat is sitting on the floor, looking at me. Her name is Athena, but we call her Theenie and Missus and Pretty Girl, and she's my favourite of all the cats I've ever had, but don't tell her that, either. Possibly she wants her head scratched, more likely she wants her bowl filled. What she wants is to live.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO BY MARK PECKMEZIAN


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Ford looks to heads of two lobbying firms to help shape Ontario policy
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By JILL MAHONEY, KAREN HOWLETT
  
  

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Tuesday, July 23, 2019 – Page A1

Premier Doug Ford relies on the heads of two lobbying firms for advice, giving them access to his inner circle and influence over Ontario politics through strategic direction, crisis management and input on the recent cabinet shuffle.

The close relationships have been fostered in an ethics environment that critics say allows a blurring of lines between lobbying, political campaigning and advising on government operations.

Chris Froggatt and Kory Teneycke, who started governmentrelations firms weeks after helping the Progressive Conservative Party win the election last year, have become powerful backroom advisers to the Premier at the same time as their employees lobby his administration. Their firms have each signed up more than two dozen clients, many of which have a financial interest in government initiatives, including liberalizing beer and wine sales, rolling out cannabis retail policies and tendering on public-sector construction contracts.

The strategists, who have no official positions in Mr. Ford's government, were the only individuals with ties to lobbying firms named as part of the PC Party's election-readiness committee earlier this year. However, after The Globe and Mail made inquiries about the Premier's relationship with Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke, the party said Friday the committee had been revamped with additional members, including other lobbyists.

The Premier's Office said it is appropriate for Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke to provide political advice in their capacity as advisers, adding that Mr. Ford is not aware of and would not tolerate any breaches of the rules. "When it comes to making the right decisions for the people of Ontario, no one can unduly influence Premier Doug Ford," spokeswoman Ivana Yelich said in a statement.

Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke say they give the Premier political advice relating to the next election. They say they operate within the rules and never discuss client matters.

"When asked, I provided political communication advice on emerging issues, in the context of the 2022 election, and never on client matters," Mr. Froggatt said in a statement to The Globe.

Mr. Teneycke, who revealed he is the campaign manager for the Premier's 2022 re-election campaign, said in a statement that he provides "campaign advice consistent with that role," including relating to polling, fundraising, advertising and election readiness.

In addition to providing advice on last month's sweeping cabinet shuffle, The Globe has confirmed that Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke were involved with helping the government respond to the fallout over planned funding cuts to public-health units, child care and paramedic services. After growing public opposition and sagging poll numbers, Mr.Ford in May cancelled the cuts to municipalities for this year.

Mr. Froggatt said he only provided political advice after the plan "became a communication challenge." Mr. Teneycke said he gave his "ongoing view" of the efficacy of the campaign against the cuts, analyzed publicly available polling data and passed on concerns expressed by Toronto Mayor John Tory's advisers after receiving phone calls from city hall.

In addition, The Globe has confirmed multiple instances when the Premier's Office dispatched Mr. Froggatt to help manage crises, including negotiating with dissatisfied caucus members.

Critics say Ontario must strengthen its lobbying rules to establish clear guidelines to prevent overlapping roles and eliminate grey areas, while creating more transparency. Lobbyists are paid agents who seek to influence public officials on behalf of their clients.

Mr. Froggatt has not registered as a lobbyist in the province of Ontario, but is registered in the federal and Toronto systems. Mr.Froggatt, who was vice-chair of the PC election campaign and chair of Mr. Ford's transition team, said he sought advice from Ontario Integrity Commissioner J. David Wake and has "refrained from lobbying for one year since the end of transition. His advice is ongoing and I will continue to follow it."

Mr. Teneycke, who was the party's election-campaign manager, recently registered on behalf of five clients in Ontario's lobbyist registry. He said he has also obtained advice from Mr.Wake and does not lobby the Premier, his office or the cabinet office.

Under Ontario law, registered lobbyists are prohibited from placing public office holders, including MPPs, in a conflict of interest, whether real or potential.

While the Integrity Commissioner provides confidential advice to individual lobbyists, he has not issued public guidelines on precisely what the rule means, leading to uncertainty about the risk of involvement in political activities. By contrast, under the federal regime, the Office of the Commissioner of Lobbying says lobbyists who serve in senior campaign roles for politicians risk creating "a sense of obligation" and should not lobby those individuals or their staff for a full election cycle.

While there are no rules that specifically govern how elected officials interact with lobbyists, Ontario law prohibits MPPs from taking part in making decisions in which there is an opportunity to further their own private interest or to improperly further the private interest of another person. Unlike the federal system, Ontario does not require lobbyists to file reports on each communication they have with public office holders.

The Globe and Mail spoke to more than two dozen Progressive Conservative insiders, including party officials, politicians, current and former aides, and lobbyists about the relationships between the Premier's Office and Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke.

Sources were granted anonymity to speak freely about private discussions or because they were not authorized to speak on the record.

Sources consistently describe Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke as members of the Premier's inner circle who built their lobbying businesses while being given access to the Ford government.

While lobbying firms often have relationships with governments, the scope of advice, involvement in government affairs and access to the Premier's Office by Mr.Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke is seen as unusual.

Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke's roles extended to making suggestions on which cabinet ministers changed portfolios in last month's massive shuffle, according to sources. New ministers will help dictate the government's direction on policies that will affect the private sector. (Mr.Froggatt also provided input on the Premier's first cabinet while he was on the transition team last summer, sources said.)

Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke did not deny they discussed who should be given portfolios in the shuffle, but said the Premier ultimately makes the decision about cabinet roles.

"Client issues have never tainted any advice provided to the Premier with respect to cabinet," Mr. Teneycke said.

Mr. Froggatt said: "All of my advice is given in the context of the 2022 election."

Mr. Ford campaigned last year on a populist strategy that criticized what he described as the previous Liberal government's cozy relationship with insiders and political elites. His government has since faced a cronyism scandal that led his chief of staff, Dean French, to resign abruptly last month after two people with close ties to him were given lucrative foreign appointments, which were later rescinded. The Premier's Office has not yet announced a permanent replacement.

Mr. French was close with Mr.Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke and referred to them as a "threelegged stool," according to sources familiar with the operations of the Premier's Office. He relied especially on Mr. Froggatt, a longtime friend, for advice, sometimes telling people he needed to speak with him before discussing an issue, the sources said.

Soon after the government took office, Mr. French met with chiefs of staff to cabinet ministers and asked them which stakeholders and lobbyists they had met with, according to sources who attended the gathering. He added that the Premier and the PC Party owed the election victory in part to Mr. Froggatt and Mr.

Teneycke. He also praised his two campaign colleagues at the expense of others, suggesting to chiefs of staff that lobbyist Michael Diamond, who ran Mr.Ford's PC leadership bid, did not play as important a role, sources said. Mr. French backed off after Mr. Diamond learned about the slight and spoke with the Premier, the sources said.

Mr. Diamond declined comment. Mr. French did not respond to questions from The Globe.

Government-relations firms have lost a host of clients to Mr.Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke's companies since they opened last summer. Their influence is so undisputed that lobbyists have sometimes advised clients to also hire one of their firms to carry files in the final push through the Premier's Office or cabinet, sources said. Government-relations firms typically charge monthly retainers of $10,000 or more, according to sources. Mr.

Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke declined to disclose their fees.

Their companies have also signed up clients who have not hired lobbyists before, part of an industry-wide boom as companies seek help dealing with the Ford government.

Mr. Froggatt, who was a ministerial chief of staff in former prime minister Stephen Harper's government, established Loyalist Public Affairs last August. Asked about his sales pitch to prospective clients, Mr. Froggat said: "We tell clients that we understand this government and its people very well. And we understand how government works."

Loyalist's registered lobbyists have represented a range of companies, including the Winery & Grower Alliance of Ontario; 3 Sixty Secure Corp., which provides security services for licensed cannabis producers and retailers; Google affiliate Sidewalk Labs Employees LLC, which plans to develop land on Toronto's waterfront; Canopy Growth Corp., Canada's largest cannabis company; Bruce Power Inc., a private nuclear generator; and pharmaceutical company Pfizer Canada. (Lobbyists must register each client, lobbying goals and targets in Ontario's lobbyists registry, which is publicly searchable.)

Mr. Teneycke, who was a director of communications to Mr.Harper, incorporated Rubicon Strategy, a government-relations and digital-marketing firm, in late June, 2018, three weeks after the election.

Registered lobbyists at Rubicon have represented Loblaw Cos. Ltd., the country's largest grocer; the Greater Toronto Airports Authority, which operates Toronto Pearson International Airport; technology giant IBM Canada; the Canadian Online Gaming Alliance, a trade association; packaged-meats company Maple Leaf Foods Inc.; and the Ontario Medical Association, which represents physicians.

Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke have sometimes found themselves on opposite sides of government policies, including part of a contentious bill designed to open public-sector construction projects to non-unionized workers. Mr. Teneycke's firm represented two clients that stood to lose from open bidding on contracts - the Carpenters' District Council of Ontario and the Provincial Building and Construction Trades Council of Ontario.

Mr. Froggatt's company was hired by the Progressive Contractors Association of Canada, which would benefit from the change.

The government ultimately came to what was seen as a compromise at the last minute, giving municipalities and other publicsector entities the choice of opting out of the new rules and maintaining the status quo.

Last November, it was Mr. Froggatt who reached out to MPP Amanda Simard amid rumours she was considering joining the Liberals over cuts to French-language services. Ms. Simard eventually left the Tory caucus to sit as an independent. She declined comment.

Mr. Froggatt was also tapped to negotiate the return of MPP Randy Hillier to caucus after he was suspended in February over alleged disrespectful comments to parents of children with autism.

Mr. Hillier said the remarks were directed at the NDP, not parents.

Mr. Froggatt proposed a written agreement with Mr. Hillier, saying he could return to caucus on several conditions, including that he remain publicly silent on matters where he disagreed with the government, Mr. Hillier told The Globe.

Over dinner at a restaurant, Mr. Hillier says he asked Mr. Froggatt under whose direction they were meeting. "I have the full confidence of Doug Ford," Mr.Froggatt said, according to Mr.Hillier, who later refused the deal. "When you are speaking to me, view it as if you are speaking with Doug Ford."

Asked about his role dealing with Mr. Hillier and Ms. Simard, Mr. Froggatt said: "Keeping elected PC candidates in the Party is PC Party business and not Government of Ontario business."

Soon after Mr. Hillier was expelled from caucus, he alleged that he was kicked out in part for raising concerns "of possible illegal and unregistered lobbying by close friends and advisers employed by Premier Ford." He did not specify who he was referring to. The New Democrats forwarded the allegations to the Ontario Provincial Police. On Monday, the police force said the matter was still under review by the antirackets branch. The force has not provided any details.

Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke said neither they nor their staff have been contacted by the OPP.

Mr. Ford's spokeswoman said no one from the Premier's Office has been contacted.

Back when he was still in caucus, Mr. Hillier said he and Mr.Froggatt ended up on the same train between Toronto and Smiths Falls, Ont., in November and had a wide-ranging discussion about cannabis and alcohol policy. Mr. Froggatt spoke openly about his relationship with Mr.Ford's office and said he was recommending that the government initially permit private-sector retailers to sell beer and wine and add spirits later, Mr. Hillier recalled.

"He was quite instrumental in the development of policies for the Ford administration while at the same time representing clients in those industries," Mr. Hillier said.

Asked about the conversation, Mr. Froggatt said: "That was a reference to advice I provided to the PC Party on the campaign platform. Before Premier Ford was elected. Not during government."

Mr. Froggatt also spoke in person to Municipal Affairs and Housing Minister Steve Clark about policies governing a proposed cannabis farm in Eastern Ontario's Beckwith Township, according to an e-mail obtained by The Globe.

In a November e-mail to a policy adviser in the Premier's office, area resident Michael Maidment wrote that Mr. Froggatt, whom he describes as a friend and former colleague, talked to Mr. Clark about "significant concerns" from local residents about odour from the proposed farm. Mr.Clark was not yet aware of the issue "and expressed an interest to learn more," the e-mail says.

Mr. Froggatt said he was helping his friend, who is not a client.

"Lobbying is advocacy for a paying client. ... I asked the minister if it was on his radar. That was all."

Mr. French also called on Mr.Froggatt for help with the controversy over the aborted hiring of the Premier's friend, Toronto Police Superintendent Ron Taverner, as the next commissioner of the OPP.

Mr. French asked Mr. Froggatt to develop a communications plan for Supt. Taverner. "He needs media training fast!," Steve Orsini, then Ontario's top civil servant, wrote in a text that was quoted in a report by the Integrity Commissioner which concluded the recruitment process was "flawed." Mr. French responded: "I will get Chris Froggatt on rhis [sic]."

And when the Premier ended up in a standoff last fall with the Hydro One board over who should be the next CEO of the utility, Mr. Froggatt was again asked to intervene.

Mr. Ford's favoured candidate was Anthony Haines, the current CEO of Toronto Hydro, but the choice was rejected by Hydro One's independent directors. Mr.Froggatt phoned Mr. Haines and asked him to issue a statement saying he was not interested in the job, according to sources. Mr.Haines refused.

Asked about being called on by the Premier's Office to help manage crises, Mr. Froggatt said: "I often provide advice on political communications matters as long as they don't relate to client interests."

The Premier's spokeswoman, Ms. Yelich, said: "We are aware that the Premier's former chief of staff had sought support from Mr. Froggatt in managing communication issues."

In late January, the PC Party issued a news release announcing the creation of an "election readiness committee" to advise Mr.Ford on the next campaign, more than three years ahead of time.

Mr. Froggatt, who was named as chairman, and Mr. Teneycke were the only individuals from lobbying firms on the nine-member committee, which also included Minister Clark and staffers from the Premier's Office.

Two weeks later, Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke made a joint presentation to PC MPPs about polling data and re-election strategy during a private, two-day government caucus retreat in Waterloo, Ont.

After The Globe submitted questions to the Premier's Office last week for this article, Mr. Ford sent an e-mail to PC riding presidents on Friday afternoon announcing the creation of a 17member "Leader's advisory council on election readiness" to replace the election readiness committee. Mr. Froggatt and Mr.

Teneycke are still members, but the group now includes nine other long-time conservative activists who are lobbyists or have ties to government relations firms.

The committee no longer has any public office holders.

Mr. Ford's relationships with lobbyists have been criticized by advocacy group Democracy Watch, which has filed complaints with the Integrity Commissioner about a lobbyist who worked on the party's election campaign in addition to lobbyists who helped organize the Premier's fundraising dinner. Cofounder Duff Conacher said he plans to also request investigations into Mr. Froggatt and Mr.Teneycke.

Mr. Wake provided 16 confidential advisory opinions to lobbyists who participated in political activity before the election last year, but his office noted that the commissioner cannot by law disclose whether he is conducting an investigation related to lobbying.

Mr. Conacher has called on Mr.Wake to issue a public interpretation bulletin on the law prohibiting lobbyists from placing public officials in a conflict of interest, noting it is at the heart of the Lobbyists Registration Act.

Michelle Renaud, a spokeswoman for the Integrity Commissioner, said the potential activities covered in the rule "do not lend themselves to a generalized interpretation bulletin. The Commissioner has found that as the facts vary from one lobbyist to another, it is most useful to provide fact-specific advice."

Federally, the rules are more clear. The Office of the Commissioner of Lobbying issued a guideline spelling out the risks for lobbyists who work in strategic political roles, such as chairing a campaign or helping candidates prepare for debates. "If you undertake political activities on behalf of a person who is or becomes a public office holder, they can reasonably be perceived to be in a conflict of interest if you lobby them. A public office holder who benefits from political activities may have a sense of obligation towards those who undertook the activities."

In addition, Mr. Conacher argues that Mr. Ford could risk violating the Members' Integrity Act if he participates in decisionmaking relating to clients of Loyalist or Rubicon because it could improperly further the private interests of Mr. Froggatt and Mr.Teneycke. Even though Mr. Froggatt is not a registered lobbyist in Ontario and Mr. Teneycke has a handful of registrations, Mr. Conacher noted they derive income from lobbying work done by their employees.

"You can't have this arrangement where, 'Hey, I'm not lobbying, it's all fine'," he said. "Yeah, but you're financially benefiting and everyone knows you head the firm up and it's your lobbyists and you can't just try and wend your way through the law and say, 'Technically it's all okay, because I'm not registered.' "

Associated Graphic

Chris Froggatt, left, and Kory Teneycke, right, both started lobbying firms - Loyalist Public Affairs and Rubicon Strategy, respectively - shortly after helping Doug Ford's PCs win the 2018 Ontario election.

LEFT: FACEBOOK/MANNING CENTRE; RIGHT: SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Both Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke are part of a 17-member 'election-readiness' council announced by Mr. Ford last week. The group replaces a previous, nine-person committee, of which the men were also members.

FRED LUM/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Former chief of staff Dean French sits with Mr. Ford in May. Mr. French, who resigned abruptly last month amid a cronyism scandal, was close with both Mr. Froggatt and Mr. Teneycke.

CHRIS YOUNG/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Mr. Froggatt was tapped to negotiate the return of MPP Randy Hillier, left, to the PC caucus after he was suspended in February, and spoke with Municipal Affairs and Housing Minister Steve Clark, right, about policies governing a proposed cannabis farm in Beckwith Township, where a friend of Mr. Froggatt lives.

LEFT: CHRIS YOUNG/THE CANADIAN PRESS; RIGHT: FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Obstacles to abortion: Why women still lack access
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Two years ago, Canada was one of the last developed countries to make available a drug hailed as a safe alternative to surgical abortion. But it's still out of reach for many beyond the major cities, a Globe analysis has found. Carly Weeks reports
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By CARLY WEEKS
  
  

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page A10

Doctors across Canada are refusing to write prescriptions for the abortion pill, forcing many women to travel to out-of-town clinics to get a prescription, according to a Globe and Mail analysis that reveals provincial access barriers and widespread reluctance on the part of medical professionals to provide abortion care.

Mifegymiso is the name for two oral medications, mifepristone and misoprostol, that safely and effectively terminate pregnancies in 95 per cent to 98 per cent of cases. When the medication first came on the market in Canada in 2017, it was heralded by abortion-rights advocates as a safe, less invasive way to terminate a pregnancy compared to surgery. And since any family doctor or, in most provinces, nurse practitioner can prescribe the abortion pill, many believed its arrival would make abortions more accessible - fewer women would need to travel to a clinic, pay out of pocket for costs or take time off work to end a pregnancy.

But The Globe's investigation shows that in eight provinces where detailed data was available, at least 69 per cent of the 10,092 Mifegymiso prescriptions dispensed last year came from abortion clinics located mainly in large urban centres. Interviews with clinic employees, physicians, researchers and abortionrights advocates across the country suggest that many primarycare providers avoid prescribing the abortion pill.

While ethical objections to abortion are a factor for some physicians, nearly two dozen people, including the heads of 10 abortion clinics, said the most significant issues are a professional reluctance to be seen as an abortion provider and a perception that the pill is too complex to administer. Health Canada introduced the drug with a number of onerous restrictions, including a requirement that the first of five pills be swallowed in the presence of a doctor. These restrictions have since been lifted, but clinic directors, abortion providers and abortion-rights advocates said that many still believe the process to be too complicated.

Abortion-pill access is not tracked in Canada, so The Globe and Mail collected raw data from each provincial government and contacted more than 80 publicly known abortion clinics in Canada to determine how many prescriptions they wrote since Mifegymiso came on the market.

Some provinces have more severe access issues than others. In Alberta, 73 per cent of all abortion-pill prescriptions last year came from a single abortion clinic in Calgary, hundreds of kilometres from many of the province's cities and towns.

And in New Brunswick, at least 72 per cent of prescriptions came from three urban hospital-based abortion clinics, according to the data collected by The Globe. (The actual figure is likely higher, as the province's private clinic declined to provide its prescribing figures.)

In some provinces, government policy is an added barrier.

Manitoba only covers the cost of the abortion pill for women who get it from one of three abortion clinics: two in Winnipeg and one in Brandon, large cities that encompass 60 per cent of the province's population. As a result, last year, 95 per cent of all Mifegymiso prescriptions in Manitoba came from those three clinics, meaning women who live in one of the province's four dozen other population centres would have had to travel to a clinic - in many cases, hundreds of kilometres away. (Statistics Canada defines a population centre as a community with more than 1,000 residents.)

The Globe's data set is incomplete because some abortion providers refused to provide data or did not have it available. Most abortion clinics in Ontario and Quebec did not provide information. But interviews with about a dozen clinic employees and primary-care providers suggest women in those provinces also face access barriers.

Three Ontario abortion clinics that agreed to speak to The Globe said they regularly see women travelling from hundreds of kilometres away to get an abortionpill prescription after they were unable to obtain one from a primary-care provider closer to home.

In Quebec, which has the highest number of abortion clinics of any province, about 90 per cent of pregnancy terminations are still surgical and prescribing rates of Mifegymiso are low. There were 253 abortion-pill prescriptions dispensed from community pharmacies in Quebec last year, although that number does not include pills dispensed directly by abortion clinics. Still, experts say access to the abortion pill is difficult, in part because the Quebec regulatory college for doctors requires physicians to attend an in-person training course before becoming a prescriber.

With doctors across the country turning away women's requests for the pill, many abortion clinics say it is increasingly challenging to keep up with the patient load, resulting in wait lists and delays of up to three weeks in some cases.

This is a serious problem because the pill can only be prescribed in the first nine weeks of pregnancy, and research shows most women don't discover they are pregnant until around six weeks. After nine weeks, surgery becomes the only option. (Across Canada, surgery remains the most common way to end a pregnancy, representing approximately 80 per cent of the 97,000 abortions performed in 2018.)

Access barriers to abortion care also pose health risks. Research shows the greater distance a woman has to travel to get an abortion, the higher the likelihood of carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term, getting an unsafe abortion outside of the health-care system or having an abortion at a later gestational age.

Some abortion clinics are already developing workarounds, finding ways to offer the pill to women in smaller, rural and remote communities by introducing new services such as phonein prescriptions. But most agree that the medical community - including the professional colleges that oversee provincial standards - needs to do more to ensure universal access.

"It should be something we're all comfortable with prescribing," said Michelle Cohen, a family doctor in Brighton, Ont., who has publicly advocated for better abortion-pill access. "It should absolutely be part of the basic education for anyone going into the primary-care specialty."

Canada was one of the last developed countries in the world to approve Mifegymiso, which came onto the market in China and France in 1988 and in the United States in 2000.

Alberta's government has covered 100 per cent of the cost of the pill since it was first introduced, which abortion-rights advocates say should help broaden access for women throughout the province.

But The Globe's data show that more than 70 per cent of the 2,826 Mifegymiso prescriptions dispensed in Alberta last year were written at one facility in Calgary: the Kensington Clinic. (The province has two other abortion clinics - one in Edmonton that prescribes the pill in small numbers and another in Calgary that doesn't prescribe it.)

Women in other communities struggle to access Mifegymiso.

Hibo Farah, a 26-year-old University of Lethbridge student, is a real-world example of how challenging it can be to get a prescription for the abortion pill without having to travel out of town. Ms.

Farah discovered she was pregnant last November and went to her doctor seeking a prescription.

She says her doctor refused to write one, citing ethical beliefs, and suggested Ms. Farah travel to the Kensington Clinic, more than two hours away by car.

"As a patient, I felt judged and I felt unsafe," Ms. Farah said in a recent interview. "I shouldn't have had to go or be told to go two hours into Calgary to get this pill."

At the time, Ms. Farah belonged to an abortion-rights group in Lethbridge, so she reached out to her contacts to see if they knew of another provider in the area that could help. Through word of mouth, they eventually found Jillian Demontigny, a physician based in Taber, about a 30minute drive from Lethbridge.

Dr. Demontigny decided to start writing prescriptions for Mifegymiso in the fall of 2017 after she learned how difficult it is for many women in Alberta to get the drug.

"I've seen people coming from Lethbridge who have been turned down by doctors with varying levels of empathy for the patient," she said. "The patient is left with nowhere to go."

She said she typically offers abortion services after the regular clinic hours, as her colleagues don't want to be affiliated with pregnancy terminations. "Some of my colleagues feel that it's a bad reflection on our group for me to be pro-choice and actively speaking about this and doing the work," Dr. Demontigny said.

"They say it takes away from my regular clinic work, they'll see that as ammunition to get me to stop doing it."

The current situation is unlikely to change, she said, unless more doctors step up and take leadership over this issue.

"I think we, as individual prescribers, can do a better job as a group putting our patients' care needs ahead of our own," she said.

Most of those interviewed say that one of the biggest disincentives to prescribing the pill is the perception that it's an involved process that's better left to abortion clinics.

It takes skill and training to prescribe the pill. Primary-care providers must understand the risks, ensure there is a system in place for patients who may experience excessive bleeding or other serious side effects and be available for the necessary follow-up care.

But many in the abortion community say these issues are relatively easy to deal with if someone is interested in taking time to learn.

The Society for Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada has an online training course on the abortion pill that offers stepby-step prescribing advice (the course used to be mandatory, but is now optional, although Health Canada recommends prescribers complete it). But as of June, only 505 family physicians out of the roughly 43,000 in Canada had completed the training.

Dr. Demontigny said prescribing the abortion pill is easier and carries fewer risks than caring for patients who are pregnant or postpartum, something that family providers regularly do.

Michael Kam, chief executive of Onyx Urgent Care in Kitchener, Ont., said there was an initial learning curve involved with prescribing, but his clinic easily made the necessary adjustments.

He started prescribing the abortion pill out of his walk-in clinic when he saw a "deficit" of prescribers in the community. The demand for the pill has been high since they started prescribing in 2017, said Cait Desilets, the clinic's director of operations.

"We have women that travel sometimes two hours to come to us," she said.

Lyndsey Butcher, executive director of the Shore Centre, a sexual-health resource centre in Kitchener that offers the abortion pill, said the prescribing rules are straightforward and could easily be done by any primary-care provider. But her clinic routinely sees women travelling from around the region, up to a few hours away, because their family doctor wouldn't prescribe it.

"It's been incredibly disappointing to see the lack of primary-care providers willing to learn about Mifegymiso and provide the prescriptions for their patients," Ms. Butcher said.

The lack of prescribing means clinics such as the Shore Centre often struggle to meet demands for service.

Because the Shore Centre faces such high demand, typical wait times for an appointment to get the abortion pill at the clinic is two weeks, but can stretch to three weeks.

Ms. Butcher said she has spoken to dozens of physicians who have referred patients to her clinic and tried to persuade them to prescribe the abortion pill themselves. In almost every case, the doctors have turned her down.

"I talk to them about the hardship and the burden of travelling into our community, in some instances from two hours away," Ms. Butcher said. "There's no physician exam. There's nothing magical that happens in our clinic that couldn't happen in any primary-care office across the province."

Ms. Butcher and other women's health advocates say in order for the situation to change, the country's medical leadership bodies should make abortion care a priority.

"There is a role to play for the medical community," she said.

"There's no reason why a primary-care provider should be reluctant to provide it to their own patient."

Some say abortion care should be part of medical school curriculum and that residency programs should include a training component to help physicians feel comfortable prescribing it. Dr. Cohen said not every doctor will go on to prescribe the pill, but since it is a common medical service, it makes sense to offer education and training.

It's unclear whether any medical organization is prepared to take leadership to encourage more doctors to prescribe the pill.

Provincial regulatory colleges are responsible for setting and maintaining physician practice standards, but many said it's not their responsibility to ensure doctors are familiar with the abortion pill or how to prescribe it.

The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan, for instance, declined an interview but said in an e-mail statement that the abortion pill "is a clinical decision between physicians and their patients."

The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) is responsible for creating standards for training and offers continuing medical education courses for doctors throughout their careers.

The college has offered some training courses for physicians interested in prescribing Mifegymiso.

Sally Mahood, a Regina-based abortion provider, said she regularly sees women travelling from eight to 10 hours away and that more needs to be done to improve access. Dr. Mahood co-authored a letter published in the CFPC's medical journal last year calling on the organization to incorporate abortion training in medical residency programs in Canada.

College spokeswoman Jayne Johnston declined an interview request. When asked about the reluctance of some physicians to prescribe the pill and what should be done about it, Ms.

Johnston said it "is not something that we have information about, nor is it part of the CFPC's mandate to monitor family physician prescribing trends."

Dr. Cohen said she is "especially disappointed" in the CFPC's response because their mandate includes improving education.

"The leadership on this issue is definitely lacking," she said.

When the abortion pill became available in Canada in 2017, patients were told they had to swallow the first pill in the presence of their doctor, and physicians had to register with the drug company before they could prescribe it.

Those, and a series of other restrictions, were removed months later following a public backlash.

But the head of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) said they added to the atmosphere of confusion and uncertainty that has contributed to the reluctance by physicians to prescribe the pill.

"It does create an aura," said Jennifer Blake, CEO of the SOGC.

"Once you've created an aura, it's really hard to undo it."

Earlier this year, more rules were relaxed - ones that abortion-rights advocates say have the potential to help expand pill access outside of abortion clinics.

Manitoba and Saskatchewan pledged to cover the cost of the pill, meaning the medication will soon be funded in every province. Health Canada also announced that women are no longer required to undergo an ultrasound before getting the pill.

This is a significant change because in many communities, wait times to get an ultrasound can stretch for weeks and in some places, there is no immediate access to an ultrasound machine.

In the meantime, some abortion clinics are finding ways to work around the lack of community-based physician prescribing to ensure women that want the abortion pill can get it in time.

In B.C., like other provinces, most of the abortion-pill prescribing is done at urban abortion clinics. In that province last year, two-thirds of the Mifegymiso prescriptions were written at three out of five abortion clinics that offer the pill (two clinics declined to release their figures).

But unlike in most provinces, women don't necessarily have to leave town to pick up a prescription from one of the clinics.

That's because the Willow Women's Clinic in Vancouver has developed a robust telemedicine service that connects patients to care providers. All of the necessary counselling and prescribing is done over a secure video conference that allows patients to remain at home and still get the medication.

"I see people in their cars and homes," said Ellen Wiebe, director of the Willow Women's Clinic.

"It works for all of us."

She said other provinces could follow suit, but the system only works if there is the will to develop such a network and if there are billing codes in place that physicians can use to charge for their time. One easy solution would be to create a universal licence for doctors in Canada, which would allow the Willow Women's Clinic to prescribe across the country.

Under the current system, doctors must get licensed in every province where they want to practice, which is a costly and time-consuming endeavour.

Another way to increase Mifegymiso access is for more nurse practitioners to start prescribing.

Claire Betker, president of the Canadian Nurses Association, said the organization supports abortion-pill prescribing, but that more work may be needed to ensure they feel comfortable prescribing.

The Athena Health Centre in St. John's has created an ad hoc system to help women avoid travel. Rolanda Ryan, the clinic's owner and manager, said she often encounters doctors that don't want to prescribe the abortion pill. So instead, she asks them to order the patient's blood work and ultrasound. The clinic's doctor takes care of the prescribing, and the clinic ships the medication to patients by mail or an interprovincial bus line. Ms. Ryan gives patients her cellphone number and acts as the 24-hour emergency line they can call in the event of excessive bleeding or another problem.

Ms. Ryan said the lack of prescribing isn't a big issue, as long as doctors do the necessary groundwork.

"There are doctors out there ... who are very supportive of women's choice," Ms. Ryan said. "They just don't personally want to prescribe it."

Despite these solutions, abortion rights advocates say what's needed is better abortion access across the country.

Sandeep Prasad, executive director of Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights, said abortions should be viewed as any other health service, with providers trained and equipped to provide the service.

"We're talking about every primary health professional as a provider," he said. "That's what we need to be moving toward."

In Alberta, Ms. Farah hopes for the same thing. She was able to obtain the abortion pill before the cutoff of nine weeks. But if access was a challenge for her, someone with connections in the abortion-advocacy community, she wonders how much worse the situation may be for others.

"It actually makes me very angry and worried," she said. "If we become a little bit too complacent, people start to take away rights, bit by bit."

Associated Graphic

Hibo Farah, a 26-year-old University of Lethbridge student, says that when she discovered she was pregnant and sought the abortion pill, she shouldn't have been told by her doctor to seek Mifegymiso at a clinic in Calgary, two hours away from where she lives.

TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Jillian Demontigny started prescribing Mifegymiso in 2017 after learning how inaccessible it was for many in Alberta.

DAVID FULLER/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Lyndsey Butcher, executive director of a Kitchener, Ont., clinic, says her facility often sees women travelling from hours away.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Rolanda Ryan holds the two medications that compose Mifegymiso at her clinic in St. John's in March. Ms. Ryan's clinic offers a service that sends the pills by Canada Post to women in rural areas who do not have a doctor willing to perscribe the medication.

PHOTOS BY PAUL DALY/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Page by page, Canadian-led team builds war-crimes case against Syrian leaders
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By MARK MACKINNON
  
  

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Monday, July 22, 2019 – Page A1

Anwar Raslan likely thought he was safe living as a refugee in Germany - his past forgotten - until the day in February when police arrested him over the alleged role he played years earlier in the torture of prisoners by Bashar al-Assad's regime in Syria.

Should Mr. Raslan eventually be convicted, it will be due in large part to the work of a veteran Canadian war-crimes investigator and his team, who over the past seven years have smuggled hundreds of thousands of pages of evidence out of Syria and Iraq - documents that are now being used to build war-crimes cases against Mr. al-Assad and his henchmen, as well as senior figures in the Islamic State (IS).

If you haven't heard of William Wiley or the Commission for International Justice and Accountability, the non-profit organization that he established in 2012, that's because he likes it that way.

CIJA has no website, and there's no sign on the door of the office that Mr. Wiley and his team work out of. The Globe and Mail agreed not to name the European country that CIJA's head office staff are located in, out of concern that the group's work could make it a target.

But the project is well-known to Western governments, including Canada's, which collectively provide $8-million in annual funding for the group's 150 investigators, most of whom are at work on the ground in Syria and Iraq.

Although the first grant came from the British government, Ottawa has since taken the lead, providing CIJA with $3-million a year since 2015.

Mr. Wiley and his team represent a new force in international justice - one that struck a deal with anti-Assad rebels to keep the evidence from going up in smoke and being lost forever.

Dressed in a golf shirt, cargo pants and hiking shoes, with his reddish-blond hair kept short, Mr. Wiley - a veteran of the efforts to bring justice to Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia - still looks like the reservist soldier he was while he worked on his PhD in international criminal law at York University more than a quarter century ago. The CIJA headquarters is more military headquarters than legal office: While some rooms feature maps of Syria and Iraq, or graphics showing the Syrian regime's chain of command, the walls of Mr. Wiley's own office are bare. The main decoration is a collection of whisky bottles that sit on a table beside a Nespresso coffee machine.

The reason for all the cloak and dagger can be found among the piles of thick binders that Mr. Wiley keeps on the black metal bookcase behind his desk. Crimes Against Humanity Committed in Detention Facilities of the Syrian Regime is the title page of one - hundreds of pages thick - that lays out the alleged crimes committed by officials such as Mr.

Raslan. The 56-year-old Mr. Raslan is accused of running two branches of Syria's notorious General Intelligence Directorate that routinely employed torture, including extreme sexual violence, while interrogating more than 100 prisoners a day.

CIJA's files also contain what Mr. Wiley says is proof that Mr. alAssad himself had knowledge of, and approved the actions of, his subordinates. "It's pretty clear that Assad was not a figurehead.

He was in charge, and the senior guys deferred to him." That, Mr.Wiley said, makes the Syrian leader criminally responsible for the alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity carried out by his forces.

"It's the best evidence against a regime since Nuremberg," the 55-year-old said, referring to the landmark postwar trials that convicted members of the Nazi regime and became the template for international justice. Mr. Wiley, who worked as an analyst for the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, views the evidence against Mr. alAssad as "much, much better" than what was presented in court against Slobodan Milosevic, the Serbian leader who was charged with war crimes and genocide over his role in the Balkan wars of the 1990s. Mr. Milosevic died in custody in The Hague in 2006, before a verdict was reached in his trial.

The binders are English-language distillations of more than 800,000 pages of mostly Arabiclanguage evidence that CIJA has assembled. The documents make for often appalling reading.

Among the evidence that's ready for an eventual prosecution are thousands of photos of detainees' bodies - many of them badly mutilated - that were taken by a regime photographer who later defected. One document asks what should be done with a "hospital refrigerator full of unidentified corpses that have decomposed."

Such disregard for the rules of war have helped Mr. al-Assad to the brink of victory in Syria's civil war. His forces, with Russian air support, have begun an assault on the last major rebel-held area, the province of Idlib in the northwest of the country. (U.S.-backed Kurdish forces control the east of the country, after driving IS out of its last strongholds.)

The Assad regime also has Russia's diplomatic protection. Moscow can use its veto at the United Nations Security Council to veto any attempt to set up an international tribunal. But Mr. Wiley still says CIJA's evidence will one day be used against Mr. al-Assad in court. "I don't want to be accused of wishful thinking, but I think there's a realistic chance that he will become expendable, at some point, to his backers," Mr. Wiley said between puffs on one of half a dozen Cuban cigarillos he smokes over the course of a fourhour interview. Russia, he suggests, may one day see escaping economic sanctions as more important than protecting the Syrian strongman.

Mr. Wiley says the evidence against Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of IS, is less thorough in documentary terms, and more reliant on the testimony of victims, than the case against Mr. alAssad. But Mr. Wiley says his group has more than enough evidence to help convict the IS leader if he's ever arrested and brought to court in the West.

Mr. Wiley founded CIJA in part out of frustration with the glacial pace that international justice usually moves. His experience at Yugoslavia and Rwanda tribunals, as well as The Hague-based permanent International Criminal Court (ICC), gave Mr. Wiley a close-up look at the failings of such unwieldy multinational efforts. (Mr. Wiley also served on the defence side of the ledger as an adviser to Saddam Hussein's legal team, an experience that led to an hours-long conversation - he says it was a "monologue," with the former Iraqi dictator doing all of the talking - shortly before Mr. Hussein's conviction and execution in 2006.)

After a conversation with Stephen Rapp, who served president Barack Obama's White House as ambassador-at-large for warcrimes issues (a post the Trump administration has left unfilled), Mr. Wiley set up CIJA. The aim was to do the things that existing multilateral bodies can't or won't do - such as send investigators into an active war zone to collect evidence before it's destroyed.

"I saw it could be done faster and at a better price," Mr. Wiley explains. (The ICC has spent more than a billion dollars since its creation in 2002, with only three convictions to show for it to date.) CIJA, in Mr. Wiley's vision, isn't meant to supplant institutions such as the ICC, but to try and help them along. "We act as a bridge between nothing happening and the public sector gripping the situation. Once the public sector grips the situation, we disengage and go somewhere else that we're needed."

That's starting to happen in Syria, where the United Nations has set up its own mechanism for investigating possible war crimes committed since the conflict began in 2011. Mr. Wiley said CIJA will eventually hand its evidence over to the UN body, and move on to other cases.

Much of CIJA's team are now focused on assembling evidence implicating senior IS members in alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity.

The investigators also have their sights set on new targets, in other parts of the world, but Mr.

Wiley says it's too early to talk publicly about those efforts without jeopardizing them.

In addition to assembling a ready body of evidence for the day that war-crimes suspects are brought to justice, CIJA's work has developed a more immediate purpose that wasn't foreseen when the group started work in Syria seven years ago.

Through its war-crimes research, the group has assembled a database of Syrian regime and IS documents that Western governments can use to conduct background checks on some of the million-plus refugees and migrants who arrived in Europe since 2015.

CIJA, which also has a "tracking team" that monitors the movements of potential suspects, says it received 170 requests for assistance over the past year from Western governments, most of them asking for information about Assad regime officials or IS members believed to now be in Europe. A request to CIJA from the German government, asking for information about Mr. Raslan, preceded his arrest in February.

One of the key revelations in the evidence CIJA has assembled is a document trail, including pages bearing Mr. al-Assad's signature, showing he personally headed the Central Crisis Management Cell (CCMC), a war cabinet that was created soon after the outbreak of the first anti-government protests early in 2011, and which brought together the country's top military and intelligence officials.

Mr. Wiley says the evidence shows the CCMC directing the regime's harsh response to the early protests, which included mass arrests, torture and the use of live ammunition against unarmed crowds. Mr. al-Assad's embrace of violence helped drive the country into a civil war that has since claimed at least half a million lives, while pushing millions more to flee their homes.

Early in the war, Mr. Wiley struck a pact with the leadership of the Free Syrian Army, an antiAssad umbrella movement that took over swathes of the country in 2011 and 2012, and which briefly looked powerful enough to topple the regime.

When the FSA captured a government building, the fighters initially saw little use in the reams of government documents inside. "They would film themselves setting these places alight, dance around, and then put it on YouTube. I was having a heart attack watching all this prima facie evidence go up in flames," Mr. Wiley recalled.

He eventually persuaded the FSA leadership that the best way to get revenge on the government was to make sure it was called to account for what it had done to its citizens. An order went out granting Mr. Wiley's investigators - all of them Syrians trained by CIJA in what did and did not constitute evidence that could be used in a criminal proceeding - access to any buildings the FSA captured.

Even with the FSA onside, getting the documents out of Syria was deadly dangerous. Two CIJA investigators died in the effort - one when the FSA convoy he was travelling with was hit by regime fire; the other was captured by IS and never heard from again.

Despite the violence, CIJA's pile of evidence continued to grow. The documents - whether they were central-government decrees or records of an individual interrogation - were smuggled back to CIJA's head office, where each page was scanned and given an individual bar code. The originals were then filed away in cardboard boxes in a locked room.

Mr. al-Assad's regime was propped up by Russian and Iranian forces since early in Syria's civil war. But Mr. Wiley says none of the evidence collected by CIJA points in the direction of Moscow or Tehran. Even if it did, he says, there would be no point in building a case against Russian or Iranian officials.

"There is a political element in international justice that can't be denied," he said. "There's no reasonable prospect of Putin - or any senior Russian guy, or any Iranian for that matter - being prosecuted."

Some legal experts, while lauding the effort CIJA has put in, nonetheless wonder about the admissibility of evidence gathered with the help of armed fighters dedicated to bringing down the Syrian government.

"How do you know, in a court of law, where that evidence came from? How do you guarantee that the evidence was never tampered with? That's a big test," said Mark Kersten, a specialist in international law at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy. "They were looking for evidence of ISIS crimes or regime crimes - which means they were not looking for opposition crimes."

But Mr. Wiley - pointing to his experiences in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia - says seeking justice in a war zone almost always involves co-operating with one side in a conflict to gather evidence against the other. He acknowledges that Western governments fund CIJA because they believe the Assad regime and IS need to be held accountable for their alleged crimes. And he doesn't see anything wrong with that.

"It's not on CIJA to investigate everyone. There's nothing stopping another NGO or public authority from investigating the Syrian opposition."

Barbara Harvey, a spokeswoman for Global Affairs Canada, said the federal government's support for CIJA was intended to help ensure that evidence was available if and when the Syrian regime or IS leaders were made to face a court of justice.

"Those who have committed these egregious attacks must be held to account," Ms. Harvey said, referring in particular to the Syrian government's indiscriminate targeting of civilians and use of chemical weapons, as well as the atrocities committed by IS against Iraq's Yazidi minority.

However, in an e-mail exchange, Ms. Harvey did not reply to questions about the implications of CIJA co-operating with one side in a conflict to gather evidence against other belligerents.

The case against Mr. Raslan - and whether a German court will admit the evidence that CIJA has assembled - will be an important test of CIJA's work, as will the trials of two more junior regime figures who were arrested in Germany and France at the same time as Mr. Raslan.

A U.S. civil court has already decided to accept evidence gathered by CIJA, ruling in January that Mr. al-Assad's regime was guilty of "targeted murder" in the 2012 killing of journalist Marie Colvin, with the court ordering the Syrian government to pay Ms.

Colvin's family more than US$300-million in damages. The ruling was based partly on CIJA evidence that showed the CCMC had issued a directive calling for a "joint security-military campaign" against "those who tarnish the image of Syria in foreign media."

Other binders on Mr. Wiley's bookcase lay out the evidence of alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the Islamic State in the parts of Syria and Iraq it used to control.

Mr. Wiley says the documents establish a chain of command, and criminal responsibility, for IS mass executions and the enslavement of women and children that stretches all the way up to Mr. alBaghdadi, the self-styled "emir" of IS.

But few Western governments seem interested in repatriating citizens who are IS suspects in order to hold expensive domestic trials. That means most of the surviving IS leadership - those who weren't killed in bloody battles for Mosul and Raqqa - will likely face justice in Iraq. CIJA's donors have signalled that they wouldn't allow it to assist that process because of Iraq's frequent use of the death penalty.

The exception may be Mr. alBaghdadi, whom Mr. Wiley says the United States could be interested in extraditing, if he's captured alive, to face charges in the U.S. over crimes such as the gruesome murders of American journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff. Although some U.S. states also allow for capital punishment, Mr. Wiley can't envision CIJA's donors, which include the U.S., barring his group from supporting such a prosecution.

Mr. Wiley alternates between speaking with the careful wording of a legal professional, and the occasionally crude bluntness of a buddy in the barracks. Born in Toronto - something he utters like a guilty plea - "home" for Mr.

Wiley means Newfoundland, where he spends time fishing and hunting each summer, and where he has a retirement home ready for the day he's finished chasing alleged war criminals.

He thought he was done with international justice after Mr.Hussein's trial (a conviction he says wouldn't have held up in a common-law jurisdiction - "the evidence was there, but it was improperly presented"). After his stint in Iraq, Mr. Wiley set up a consulting firm that offered security and human-rights training to corporations operating in potentially dangerous environments. "I was out. I was running a business and working and making far more money than I do running an NGO. But I was bored."

Then the Syrian civil war broke out, and the British government asked his company if it would give human-rights training to a group of Syrian civil-society activists. Mr. Wiley saw no point giving human-rights training to people whose country was descending into all-out war. But he and Mr. Rapp saw a way to help Syria prepare for the day after the fighting was over. Many of the humanrights activists the British government identified were trained instead to become war-crimes investigators, some of whom remain with CIJA today.

The assumption back when the effort began was that the regime would collapse and Mr. alAssad would be brought before some kind of international tribunal. That possibility seems remote now, but Mr. Wiley - who has seen the likes of Mr. Milosevic and Mr. Hussein lose the impunity they once enjoyed - remains confident that Mr. al-Assad will one day have to face the evidence that CIJA has collected. "There's no doubt in my mind that he's going to face justice. I just don't know whether it's going to take five years or 10."

Associated Graphic

Top: Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, left, has long received diplomatic support from Russian President Vladimir Putin.

GEORGE OURFALIAN/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Above: Members of the Free Syrian Army helped collect evidence about Mr. al-Assad and his regime during fighting against the Syrian leader's forces.

MUZAFFAR SALMAN/REUTERS

Right: Smoke rises after an air strike by Syrian forces last Thursday. The country has been mired in a civil war since 2011.

ABDULAZIZ KETAZ/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES

William Wiley founded the non-profit Commission for International Justice and Accountability in 2012 in part out of frustration with the slow pace of international justice.

MARK MACKINNON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The group has assembled a document trail, some featuring Mr. al-Assad's signature, showing that he headed a war cabinet after protests started in 2011.

COMMISSION FOR INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE AND ACCOUNTABILITY

A U.S. civil court has accepted evidence gathered by the Commission for International Justice and Accountability, ruling in January that Mr. al-Assad's regime was guilty of 'targeted murder' in the 2012 slaying of American journalist Marie Colvin.

AFP/GETTY IMAGES


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'They stole the company': Frank Stronach accuses daughter Belinda of betrayal
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In an exclusive interview, the patriarch of the Magna auto-parts dynasty offers his side of the conflict that has pitted generations of Stronachs against each other - and says he'll still forgive his daughter, if she says sorry first
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By ROBERT FIFE
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page A10

Frank Stronach says he feels betrayed by his daughter, Belinda, the person he groomed to take over the Stronach Group, the business empire he created from global auto-parts giant Magna International Inc.

In a three-hour interview this week, the self-made billionaire called for a truce - on his terms - even as he accused Ms. Stronach and a key adviser, Alon Ossip, a Toronto tax lawyer who became chief executive of the Stronach Group, of taking control of the family fortune, which includes world-class horse racing tracks, vast real estate holdings and a failed organic farm business.

"They stole the company. It is absolutely true," Mr.Stronach told The Globe and Mail. "I have been shut out of everything. They manipulated everything. ... She screwed me. That is the fact."

The interview with the 86-year-old industrialist was arranged by Dennis Mills, a former Liberal MP and longtime adviser to Mr. Stronach. Mr. Mills pitched the interview as an opportunity for the family patriarch to make an overture of peace to his daughter and put an end to the nasty legal battle that is tearing apart one of Canada's richest business dynasties. Mr. Stronach sat down for the interview in a wood-lined boardroom at the upscale, 7,300-acre Magna Golf Club in Aurora, Ont., north of Toronto.

But despite Mr. Mills's intentions, Mr. Stronach was not in a mood to offer an olive branch to his 53-year-old daughter. The hard-driving, Austrian-born entrepreneur maintains that the only way to repair the fractured family bonds is for Ms. Stronach to give up control of the Stronach Group.

"Yes, I will still forgive her. I will still help her. But I got to say she did wrong and I hope she apologizes for it," Mr.Stronach said as he lunched on grilled salmon and white wine with ice cubes. "Look, admit you made some mistakes. Admit that the things you did were not right. Most people, if they do something wrong, they [say], 'I am sorry,' okay. It doesn't work any other way."

Mr. Stronach is suing his daughter and Mr. Ossip for $520-million, alleging mismanagement of the family's privately held companies. She has countersued, accusing her father, the founder of Magna International and buyer of some of the biggest horse racing venues in the United States, of "improvident spending and unsound business decisions." In a statement to The Globe on Friday, Ms. Stronach said her father's allegations of mismanagement of the Stronach Group are unfounded.

"These are the same inappropriate and unfounded claims my father has been repeating for months, and the facts just don't match [these] allegations. All transactions regarding the family trusts were made with full transparency and with the full understanding of the intent and the outcome with everyone, including my father and mother, having retained independent counsel," Ms.Stronach said in a statement.

She added: "Sadly, my father has surrounded himself with people who give him bad advice. I love my father and feel sorry for him. I wish he would become more rational again."

The family feud includes Mr. Stronach's wife, Elfriede, his son, Andrew, and Andrew's daughter Selena, who have joined his legal action. Belinda Stronach's son and daughter are part of their mother's lawsuit against their grandfather.

Mr. Stronach wants the courts to remove his daughter as chair and president of the Stronach Group, allegedly because she spends lavishly on herself and because he questions her stewardship of the family's main assets, including its profitable race tracks and gambling operations.

Ms. Stronach has hit back at her father's "idiosyncratic passion projects," including a money-losing cattle ranch and a failed golf and real estate project in Florida.

Mr. Stronach says his daughter and Mr. Ossip conspired to take the company away from him after he signed over control of the family trust to Ms. Stronach in 2012, when he made a brief stab at electoral politics in Austria.

In turning over his super-trustee role to her, he gave her the ultimate authority to name or remove trustees. She added her two children and Mr. Ossip as trustees.

Mr. Stronach says he signed reappointment documents at the time that would allow him to regain control as the supertrustee of the family's companies whenever he desired. His daughter has said the agreement was never dated and was only meant as an emergency backstop to ensure the family kept control of the business while she was undergoing cancer treatment.

"I gave it up because I trusted the family, okay. When I resigned, I said I could run it again. But I didn't look for agreements. I would have done it without agreements.

My wife feels bad because my son says, 'You sold me out to my sister,'" Mr. Stronach said.

He also accuses his daughter of manipulating her mother to sign over her voting shares while he was dabbling in Austrian politics.

"Her mother did not know, and that is why Belinda got control," he said. "She tricked her mother to sign [over] some shares."

He showed The Globe what appeared to be a legal letter from his wife to himself, Belinda and Andrew in which she says she would not have signed the document if she had known her daughter would bar her father from running the Stronach Group. "I signed the document to give my daughter Belinda control of the Stronach Corporation under the impression that this was what my husband wanted," Elfriede wrote in the letter, dated March 19, 2019.

Mr. Stronach maintains that he is the wealth creator in the family and that he deserves to be respected for what he has accomplished and allowed to follow his entrepreneurial instincts.

Over the past two years, he said, he tried repeatedly to settle the dispute, even seeking out former Ontario chief justice Warren Winkler to act as mediator. But his daughter wasn't interested in mediation, he said.

"Just imagine then, she ignores her father. Her father pleaded with her, and I can send letters that I proposed, pleading with her," he said. "We tried for two years. It's too late now."

He provided The Globe with two copies he made of personal letters he sent his daughter in an effort to resolve the family feud.

"I could not dream in my wildest dreams, that we could reach a point where we do not talk to each other," he wrote in one of the letters, dated Oct. 10 of last year. "I built all those companies from scratch and it is unfortunate that you did not utilize my experience to build the Stronach companies even better."

He added: "Belinda, it is never too late. I really would like to hug you and welcome you back to the family. The future is in your hands. Call me before it is too late."

In another letter dated March 19 of this year - the same day his wife wrote about being tricked by Belinda - he urged his daughter to work with him to devise a structure for the family trust to avoid future squabbles.

"Belinda, I did not work hard so that the companies I created can be sold or closed," he wrote. "I am pleading with you to come back to the family. I would love to work together and manage together with the family."

In the interview, he complained that Ms. Stronach kicked him out of the company's offices in Aurora last month and sold the corporate jet last year. "There was no need [to sell the jet]," he said, noting he now flies commercial - something he has not had to do for decades.

"There was no need to kick me out of our building."

Mr. Stronach, who was known for having a golden touch in the automotive-parts business, has had his fair share of failed business ventures. He has lost money on restaurants, electric bikes, a glossy magazine called Vista and an energy drink named after him.

His daughter has accused him of reckless spending, including $50million on an 11-storey statue of the winged horse Pegasus defeating a dragon that he had erected on the grounds of Gulfstream Park, a thoroughbred race track in Hallandale Beach, Fla.

What hurt the most, he said, is when his daughter told him he had lost his business magic and that she would not cede control of the family trust back to him.

"Basically Belinda said, 'Well, you are not as sharp any more. You are of a certain age. You are not with it any more.' It kind of hurt," Mr. Stronach said.

He will admit to making only two mistakes.

"I made a mistake in trusting my daughter," he said. "It was wrong what she did."

The second was hiring Mr. Ossip, whom he calls "devious."

"He just manipulated her," Mr. Stronach said.

In court filings and in conversation, Ms. Stronach says Mr. Ossip, who was once a long-time adviser to her father, stepped back from an active role at the family company in 2017 at Mr. Stronach's request and has no input on corporate decisions.

Mr. Ossip said Mr. Stronach's accusations have no credibility.

"The suggestion that a strong, independent executive like Belinda Stronach can be manipulated by anyone is ludicrous. Alon has always honoured his obligations and acted in good faith to preserve and grow the Stronach family assets," Mr. Ossip's spokesman, Paul Deegan, said in a statement Friday. "The allegations are baseless and not grounded in fact or reality."

In 2001, he appointed Ms. Stronach as CEO and vicechair of Magna before she left to run for the Conservative Party leadership in 2003, eventually losing to Stephen Harper. Elected to Parliament as a Conservative in 2004, she jumped ship a year later to join Paul Martin's shortlived Liberal cabinet. The abrupt party switch led to a much-publicized breakup with her then-boyfriend, Conservative MP Peter MacKay.

When she quit politics in 2008, Mr. Stronach named his daughter executive vice-president of Magna, Canada's largest auto-parts manufacturer.

Now, he questions her ability.

"She has never managed anything. She had a bunch of investments, [and] they all went down the drain," Mr.Stronach said. "Belinda has a bad record in investing."

Ms. Stronach lost millions of dollars in 2015 when she was part of a group that established Acasta Enterprises, an acquisition company, with a number of Bay Street insiders. It flopped, and the shares went from an IPO price of $10 to 69 cents as of Thursday's close on the Toronto Stock Exchange. The money she invested in Acasta was her own, but Mr. Stronach says all her wealth came from him.

Mr. Stronach sold his majority shares in Magna in 2010 for $983-million. The following year, he sold his remaining shares for an additional $700-million in deals that were orchestrated by Mr. Ossip. The race tracks are valued at an estimated $1.2-billion.

Mr. Stronach later named Mr. Ossip CEO of the Stronach Group and gave him a 5-per-cent interest in the company. But under the deal, Mr. Stronach said, he had the right to decide the value of the 5-per-cent share.

Before he turned the family business over to Ms. Stronach in 2012, when he went off to found a new Austrian political party called Team Stronach, the industrialist said the family enterprises were valued at $2-billion.

A key issue in this bitter dispute are a couple of ventures on which Mr. Stronach spent some of that money: Adena Farms and a Florida golf course complex, which became Mr. Stronach's primary post-Magna pursuits.

Over time, he bought 100,000 acres in Ocala, Fla., which he envisioned as the perfect place to raise grass-fed and drug-free cattle for the growing organic food market.

Ms. Stronach has alleged her father lost $800-million with his investments in the agriculture businesses and golf course and she decided in November, 2016, that it was no longer possible to continue funding his schemes.

He denied the losses are anywhere on that scale.

He sunk almost $300-million into the cattle business and purchased more land north of the ranch to raise hogs in an area with plenty of acorns to feed on. He also built a private golf course and country club in Ocala, where he planned to develop luxury residences. He had a vision of a farm-to-supermarket business, one he believed would have become profitable within a few years.

"It would have lost monies for the next three or four years, and Belinda says, 'Look, if it doesn't S make monies, I want to sell it.' I said to her, 'No money would S have to be transferred from the [racing, which has the cash flow.' B [The] agriculture could stand on its own." F Like the race tracks, his agri- F culture venture was financially sound because the land was valuable, Mr. Stronach said.

"So, the two businesses I created were real estate-based. The race tracks are 80 per cent and agriculture was 80 per cent real estate," he said. "Lands don't depreciate."

Mr. Stronach is also locked in a battle with his daughter over the lucrative horse racing tracks, which he acquired over a number of years and which generate about $1-billion in annual revenue.

"You know it is all my property, and all of a sudden it is someone else's. The horses were a labour of love. And somebody else [now] makes decisions. They stole everything. That is what it is," he said.

In the interview, Mr. Stronach accused his daughter and Mr. Ossip of "gross negligence," linking recent thoroughbred fatalities at the family's Santa Anita Park track in California to poor management. He is convinced that his daughter's endgame is to sell the race tracks at a hefty profit.

"They wanted to sell the race tracks. It is gross negligence," he said.

Ms. Stronach has responded with a notice of libel from her lawyers asking her father for an "unequivocal apology and retraction" for alleging that she "deliberately, negligently or otherwise caused the horse fatalities at Santa Anita."

In her statement to The Globe Friday, Ms. Stronach said: "My father's allegations concerning Santa Anita Park are simply outrageous and not based on any factual evidence. At The Stronach Group, horse and rider safety is at the core of what we do. California racing will continue to improve with the goal of making Santa Anita Park the safest and best race track in the world. Since the new safety protocols were introduced on March 15th of this year, Santa Anita Park has had 1.86 fatalities per 1,000 starters (5 racing fatalities with 2,684 starters) which is the lowest rate since 2010."

When he was in charge of the race tracks, Mr. Stronach said, he worked to get the U.S. Congress to adopt a Horse Racing Bill of Rights that would have prevented the overmedication of horses and improved the tracks.

He said his daughter committed to some of the measures only after the recent spate of horse deaths.

What he wants from her is a written commitment that she won't sell the race tracks. Ms. Stronach recently told The Globe that she had no plans to get out of the profitable business. In an interview in June, she said: "I have looked my father in the eye, on numerous occasions, and said, 'Dad, we are not selling the race tracks.'" "But she did not make a [written] commitment - that is the point," Mr. Stronach said. "If you mean it, why don't you make a commitment? No, she doesn't make a commitment."

Throughout the interview, Mr.Mills interjected and urged Mr.

Stronach to be less critical of his daughter, pleading with him to open the door to reconciliation.

Two hours into the interview, Mr.Mills left in frustration.

Mr. Stronach said he and his wife have tried to understand why his daughter turned against him. He blames Mr. Ossip and the Acasta debacle.

"I tried to find the reason. I was so close to her. I think she has a lot of pride and she said, 'Jesus, am I going to be a loser?' So I think she said [to Ossip], 'If we control the Stronach Group, we can make it up [the losses].' So I think that is the way it came about," he said.

The last time he communicated with his daughter was in March. It was a short conversation.

The clock of life is ticking. Mr. Stronach turns 87 in September and he knows the court case could drag on for years.

If he wins, he said, his daughter would lose control of the company, but keep an equal share in the family trust along with him, his wife and son. Andrew Stronach owns a large beef farm in Ontario's Prince Edward County and has never been an active player in the family businesses.

Mr. Stronach said his shares would be distributed to the three grandchildren when he and his wife pass away.

As part of his succession plan, he wants to lease the family's racing properties to stakeholders in the thoroughbred business and hire professional managers to run Adena Farms.

"I came to the conclusion that neither my daughter has the ability to run a complex company and neither has my son," he said. "I just want to see some balance, some harmony in the family."

He acknowledged, though, that he might not be alive when the courts render a decision.

"Yes, it would be a tragedy. I would like to die in peace.

But, on the other hand, I would rather die to be right then die and know I didn't do the right thing. You can only die in peace if you know you have done the right thing."

Associated Graphic

When Belinda Stronach quit politics in 2008, her father, Frank Stronach, named her executive vice-president of Magna International, Canada's largest auto-parts manufacturer.

MICHAEL ROBINSON CHAVEZ/ THE WASHINGTON POST VIA GETTY IMAGES

Austrian-born entrepreneur Frank Stronach, seen at the Magna Golf Club in Aurora, Ont., is suing his daughter Belinda, and a key adviser, Alon Ossip, for alleged mismanagement of the family's privately held companies.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Correction

A Saturday news feature about the Stronach family feud incorrectly described the Magna Golf Club as a 7,300-acre facility; in fact, it is a 7,300-yard course.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Monday, July 22, 2019 – Page B14

MARY JANE BARRACK

A fierce and loving matriarch, a pragmatist to her core, a loyal friend, a steadfast wife and daughter, a compassionate caregiver and a life-long learner. Mary Elizabeth Jane Radey was born on July 16, 1928 in Toronto to Jack Radey and Rita Young. Jack developed a Parkinson type syndrome when Mary Jane was two and convalesced for the rest of his short life in the flat on the second floor of what is now Rebel House at Yonge and Roxborough. Her father passed when she was nine. The rest of her childhood, with her single working mom in the 30s and 40s, was formative. Her strength in those years and for the balance of her life came from a strong Catholic faith.

In 1947, as she was about to enter the nursing program at St. Joseph's Hospital, she met the love of her life - Bill Barrack. They long distance courted during her nursing training. He hosted a radio program in Niagara Falls and she worked six and a half days a week in nursing training. She graduated at the top of her class and turned down a graduate scholarship to devote herself to raising a family.

Two children followed in short order, Lynne then Mike. Eleven years later, John arrived as a joyful surprise.

Bill and Mary Jane loved intensely. They were committed to their faith and their family and shared their passion for films and long, spontaneous road trips. Tragically, at age 49 Bill succumbed to a sudden heart attack. Mary Jane was now the single mom who was forced to return to the nursing profession that she had never fully engaged in. Astutely observing that geriatrics would be the wave of the future in health care, she retrained and worked her way to University Avenue. She had a seventeen-year outstanding career as a compassionate nurse administering a broad range of care and continued following her retirement to serve as a volunteer in palliative care settings, seeing it as a privilege to be present at the end of life.

Her retirement years were among her best. She had time to spend with her six grandsons, to deepen her faith and to volunteer assisting the most vulnerable, including working to put an end to human trafficking.

She will be greatly missed by Lynne St. David and Norman Jewison, Michael and Andrea Barrack and John Barrack and Julia Schatz, together with Mike's sons, Radey, Tyler and Brendan and John's sons, Liam, Michael and Luke.

A special thanks to those that supported her - her parish family at Our Lady of Lourdes, especially the late Father Bill Addley, the numerous caregivers who assisted her at home in her later years, Dr. Claire Murphy, an outstanding family physician, several physicians at St. Michael's Hospital together with the ACE Unit, especially nurse practitioner Lee Barrett and the outstanding palliative care team - Sheila, Slav, Brigitte and Penny - you are remarkable.

Please honour her in your own way but if you feel compelled to donate, she would appreciate donations to Our Lady of Lourdes Food Bank or the hospice of your choice.

Visitation will be on Monday, July 22th from 7-9 p.m. at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglington Ave. W. A funeral mass will be held at Our Lady of Lourdes Church, 520 Sherbourne St. at 10:00 a.m. on Tuesday, July 23rd.

Interment Mount Hope Cemetery.

H. JOAN CUMMING (née Russell)

April 20, 1933 - July 18, 2019 Joan passed peacefully in her 87th year with her family by her side in the afternoon of July 18, 2019. She and her brother John, who passed away in April 2012, were raised in Arthur, Ontario by their parents: father, Dr. Jack (John) Russell and mother, Peg (Margaret). She was the loving mother to Allison, Andy (Hillary), Tom (Jennifer) and Suze, and "Daddo" to Ali, Owen, Holly, Sydney, Travis and AJ (Alexandra Joan).

Joan was an extraordinary person. Loved by all who knew her, friends for a lifetime or new acquaintances from just last week. She had an authenticity about her which was perceived immediately by all. Joan endured many challenges including some major health issues with a couple of her children, and later on in life struggles with her own health. She dealt with all of these with a peaceful almost superhuman inner strength coupled with a deep and abiding pragmatism. She was unwavering in her support of all of her children, even as she almost certainly had reservations from time to time about what path they had embarked upon. In the end, they all turned out fine and that is a testament to her intellect, integrity and grace in the way they were reared. She will be missed by all.

There will be a celebration of Joan's life held at Tom and Jennifer's house at 26 Butternut St., Toronto, ON M4K 1T7 on Saturday, October 5th from 1-4 p.m. All are welcome. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Dying With Dignity Canada in Joan's honour.

LLOYD FOX

On Thursday, July 18, 2019 at Castleview Wychwood Towers.

Beloved son of Saul and Elaine Fox, and Sonya Fox. Loving brother of Brandon Fox of British Columbia. A graveside service will be held on Tuesday, July 23, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. in the Community Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery, 11818 Bathurst Street, Vaughan. Memorial donations may be made to the B'nai Brith Canada, 416-633-6224.

ANNA GWENDOLYN GRAY (née Johnston)

October 27, 1922 - July 17, 2019 Passed away peacefully on Wednesday, July 17, 2019 in her 96th year. Beloved wife of John Alastair Gray (1987), she will be greatly missed by her daughter Heather, son Robin and daughter-in-law Judith (née Quigg). "Gwennie" will be fondly remembered by her granddaughter Gillian (Remil Colozo) and baby son, Makaio and by her grandson Geoffrey (Thanh Tran). Sincere thanks to Lolita, Lilibeth and Maya for their wonderful care of Gwen in her final years. The family also wishes to thank Four Elms Retirement Residence for their support.

A private family service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles Newbigging Chapel on Wednesday, July 24th.

Interment will take place at St.

Peters Cemetery, Port Talbot.

In memory of Gwen, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation, 2300 Yonge St., Suite 1300, Toronto, ON M4P 1E4 or http://www.heartandstroke.ca.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

HARRY LEVINE

Harry Levine died peacefully at Bethell Hospice, Caledon, Ontario at the age of 99 years old, on July 9, 2019.

Harry was born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia in 1920, and grew up in Saint John, New Brunswick.

He is predeceased by his wife, Mary (McCarthy) Levine. He is survived by his brother, Edward Levine (Nora), niece, Elise Levine (David), nephews, Alan Levine (Patricia) Joel Levine (Kerri), Daniel (Sharon), Robert, and Patrick Van Tassel and several grandnieces and nephews.

Harry served in the Royal Canadian Navy from 1939 to 1945.

He served on the HMCS Gatineau on D-Day. Harry was proud of his service to Canada and loved to talk about his adventures.

Following the War, Harry worked as a shoe salesman in Saint John.

In the 1960's, Harry moved to Bramalea, Ontario and worked at the Three Little Pigs children's shoe store near Lawrence and Yonge Street in Toronto, which he eventually purchased and operated until his retirement.

Harry was a figure skater and gave performances throughout New Brunswick. He continued to skate well into his '90s, several times each week.

Harry was always a charmer, who had a great sense of humour. He will be lovingly remembered with great affection by all whose lives he touched.

His interment will take place in the Field of Honour at Cedar Hill-Greenwood Cemetery, Saint John, New Brunswick at 11:00 a.m. on July 24, 2019, with a graveside service.

In memory of Harry, donations to Bethell Hospice, Caledon, Ontario, or the Saint John Jewish Historical Museum would be greatly appreciated.

SANDRA CATHARINE MATTHEWS (née Alstad)

Sandy died peacefully July 19, 2019 in Cobourg after a period in the Palliative Care unit, surrounded by family, and an abundance of love.

Proud and loving mother of Rick, Scott and Craig. Devoted Nana to Duncan, Kirsten, Calum, Hayley, Rena, Gillian and Danny. Remembered with love by her sister Gail and daughters-in-law, Sue, Ellen and Laura.

The family will be celebrating her life in the MacCoubrey Funeral Home Reception Centre, 30 King Street East, Cobourg, Ontario, on Thursday, July 25th, from 7-9 p.m., with memories shared at 8 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider memorial donations to the Capitol Theatre Heritage Foundation, Northumberland Hills Hospital - Palliative Care Unit or PARN (Peterborough Aids Resource Network).

Condolences received at http://www.maccoubrey.com (905)372-5132

SEYMOUR ROEBUCK

On Sunday, July 21, 2019 at Sunnybrook Hospital. Beloved husband of Lillian for 69 years.

Loving father and father- in-law of Richard and Robin Roebuck, Alyssa Roebuck and the late Stewart Roebuck. Dear brother and brother-in-law of the late Sidney and Rose Roebuck, Phyllis and the late Jerry Friedman.

Devoted grandfather of Ryan and Sarah, Samantha, Cayley, and Seth. He was greatly loved by all.

A graveside service will be held on Monday, July 22, 2019 at 1:30 p.m. in the Adath Israel Congregation Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery, 10953 Dufferin Street, Maple. Shiva 3600 Yonge Street #830, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to the Seymour Roebuck Memorial Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324, http://www.benjamins.ca

BARBARA ANN STEWART

March 5, 1927 July 17, 2019 The family of Barbara Ann Stewart announce her passing at the age of 92 after a life of fun and travel.

She was predeceased by her husband Albert H. Stewart (2008).

She leaves behind her daughter Alison, granddaughter Sara (Richard) Kennedy and darling great-grandchildren Brayden and Kristianne. Also her son Peter (Karen), and adored grandchildren Cameron (Natalie), Julie and Daniel, and great-grandchildren Peter and David.

Barbara graduated first in her class in nursing at Toronto General Hospital. She was an avid reader, tennis player, and bridge player, and involved in the Voice of Women movement. Along with her husband, she was a member of the Caledon Mountain Trout Club.

Cremation has taken place, and a private family interment will take place at Mount Pleasant Cemetery at a later date. As expressions of sympathy, donations may be made to Runnymede Health Centre. Cards are available at Gilbert MacIntyre and Son Funeral Home (519821-5077) or online at www.

gilbertmacintyreandson.com

HANK ROSEN

November 21, 1928 - July 21, 2019 We have lost a remarkable man.

Hank Rosen passed away at 90 years old having enjoyed a full and long life.

Husband of the late Ruth Rosen for 64 years. He is surrounded and survived by his children, Cheryl Rosen (Daniel Drucker), Susan Rosen Speigel (David Speigel) and Michael Rosen, his grandchildren, Aaron Drucker (Nikki), Jeremy Drucker (Amy), Mitchell Drucker (Melissa), Laura, Eli and Ethan Speigel, Dean and Jonathan Rosen, and two great-grandchildren, Ben and Miles Drucker.

Hank was born in Toronto, Ontario. He was the second child of Moshe and Dobra Rosenbaum. Hank was a well-known Toronto athlete -- a baseball star in the 40's and 50's and a great tennis player.

Hank was loved and respected by a large group of friends and family. He carried with him a kind of spark that charmed and enamoured. He was unwavering in his principles of loyalty and friendship. His memory will be cherished forever.

Funeral services will be held at Holy Blossom Synagogue, 1950 Bathurst Street, Toronto at 1:00 p.m. on Monday, July 22, 2019. Burial following at Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park, 6033 Bathurst Street, Toronto. Shiva to be held at 136 Dewbourne Aveune, Toronto, Monday, July 22nd to Thursday, July 25, 2019 from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. and on Friday, July 26, 2019 from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Shiva services to be held at 8:00 p.m. Monday, July 22 to Thursday, July 25, 2019.

DAVID L. TORREY

1931 - 2019

He was my North, my South, my East and West, My working week and my Sunday rest - W.H. Auden David Torrey died peacefully on July 16, 2019 in the Montreal General Hospital surrounded by his family.

David was the loving father of Heather, John (Tanya), Bruce (JoAnn), David (Kerri), grandfather of Kate Murphy (Tony), Celia, Owen, Julia and Reid, and greatgrandfather to Quinn and Bridget.

He was predeceased by his sister Barbara, brother and best friend Bill, mother of his children Maggie and his beloved daughter Diana. He is survived by his younger sister Jane.

Born in Ottawa in 1931, to New England transplants Arthur S.

Torrey and Josephine Torrey (née Leonard), the family moved to Montreal and David grew up a stone's throw from the old Forum.

His siblings formed a merry band of brothers and sisters. His education took him from Roslyn School to Vermont Academy to St. Lawrence University to the University of Western Ontario.

This most unpedantic of teachers remained a lifelong student.

David had an outstanding career as an investment banker at Pitfield McKay Ross, Dominion Securities and RBC Dominion Securities.

The hallmarks of his career were trusted advice and longstanding relationships.

Always exceptionally generous with his time and resources, he took particular pride in his decades long relationships with the MS Society of Canada and St. Lawrence University. David was one whose acts of kindness, large and small, went unnamed.

Helping others and giving back were natural reflexes that he exercised his entire life.

Discreet, elegant, charming and successful, what defined him most was his dedication to his family, the true center of his life.

He was the most dedicated son, brother, father, grandfather, great grandfather and uncle. To all that knew him he was engaged, loyal and caring. David was a man of great intellect and curiosity. About the past. About your present and future. Nothing gave him more pleasure than to sit around a dinner table with family and friends.

The family's much loved childhood home. Poole, Jeroy and Tar Islands. Angler. Lake Champlain. His bespoke but well-worn running attire. His newspapers. His cribbage board.

His eyeglasses. He was a man of constants. And he was a constant.

At hockey arenas, school plays, concerts, graduations, piano recitals and ballet performances.

No distance was too far for any event involving family.

David was a pumper of tires. Over the decades, he repaired more than his fair share of flats. He counted himself lucky. We count our blessings.

If the spirit moves you, a donation in his name can be made to the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada.

David's family would like to thank the capable and caring staff at the MGH, caregivers Jilma, Chris, Sushmita, Marrie May and his long-term doctors/friends Dr. Michael Churchill-Smith and Dr. Colin Chalk.

A celebration of his long and full life will be held in the early Fall.

JUDITH WAALEN "Judy" / (née Kelly)

Predeceased by her parents (Ed and Sally Kelly), Judy is survived by her husband David, her sisters Alice MacMurdo and Linda Kelly-Hassett, her nieces Melissa Ross and Erin Kelly-Hassett, and her cousins Carol TaylorChabot and Conrad Helmlinger.

She grew up on the East side of Detroit and attended Dominican High School. She kept in touch with her many friends from that time of her life often attending Dominican class reunions. Judy's university education began at Assumption University in Windsor, Ontario in large part because her father felt that it was important to have an out-of-country educational experience. She went on to complete her Master's Degree in Psychology at the University of Windsor.

Judy met her husband Dave when lecturing at the University of Saskatchewan. They married in August, 1969. Dave was working in Toronto at the Addiction Research Foundation (now CAMH) so Judy applied for a teaching job at Ryerson Polytechnic Institute (now Ryerson University) in order to join him in Toronto.

Dave returned to school at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) and after he graduated and became licensed, began practicing in Romeo, Michigan (near Detroit). At the same time, Judy began work on her Ph.D. in Sociology at Wayne State University graduating in 1982. When they returned to Toronto in 1980, they purchased an apartment known as "21 Dale" where they became involved in Board governance and Committee work.

For many years, Judy taught Psychology courses at Ryerson to students in the professional programs and interacted with a great many faculty members in these departments in various capacities. In the mid-1980, for example, the Dean of Business Bonnie Patterson asked Judy to provide some research training to interested faculty since she felt developing the intellectual capital of her faculty was a good investment. Thus, Judy became the first Research Associate at Ryerson and over the ensuing years, a number of Ryerson faculty members advanced their education and their professional positions partly due to this research training and mentoring.

In 2000, Judy took advantage of an early retirement incentive program to leave the Psychology Department and went to manage Ryerson's Centre for Quality Service Research and to join CMCC to teach research methods and statistics in their graduate residency programs. During this time with her husband David, she published articles on chiropractic education, and with other colleagues, she co-authored a number of articles for scientific and scholarly journals.

In 2005, Judy returned to Ryerson to work as a research analyst for The Chang School - Canada's largest provider of continuing education. She taught staff members to conduct, analyze, and publish their research inhouse, did competitive research, and conducted annual student satisfaction surveys until she left in 2011.

Friends may visit at Rosar-Morrison Funeral Home & Chapel, 467 Sherbourne St. (south of Wellesley) on Wednesday, July 24, 2019 from 12:30pm until the time of the funeral service in the chapel at 1pm. Private burial at Toronto Necropolis. In lieu of flowers, donations can be sent to Ryerson University, the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or St. Michael's Hospital.

http://www.rosar-morrison.com


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A faded mosaic: Thunder Bay's struggle to attract and retain immigrants
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This city was once a hub for newcomers from across the world, but isolation and a weak economy have made 21st-century multiculturalism a distant dream. What has to change to encourage more diversity?
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By ERIC ANDREW-GEE
  
  

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Friday, July 19, 2019 – Page A8

THUNDER BAY -- Thunder Bay's only cricket field, located in a public park in the middle of a quiet subdivision near the teaching hospital, is slightly unorthodox.

The pitch is lumpy and made of artificial turf. The wickets are held together with duct tape. Boundaries include a basketball hoop and a suburban street with parked cars, which everyone tries to avoid denting.

Among the hazards littering the field of play are two evergreens standing to the right of the batter - "Those are defenders," one regular player jokes- and a squat white cable box to the left.

The chilly spring weather isn't ideal, either, for a sport played with a bullet-hard ball and no gloves. Defenders often have to blow on their stinging hands after a catch.

None of that deters the couple dozen players from Thunder Bay's two postsecondary schools, Lakehead University and Confederation College, on a bright, windy afternoon in May in River Terrace Park. The schools only recently began fielding teams, and they are entirely populated by international students and recent graduates from India.

Lakehead jumps out to an early lead. The park echoes with a half-dozen Indian languages and the group's lingua franca, English cricket banter. "Shotty, boy!" "Bowling, boy!" "Good running, boys!"

As Lakehead piles up runs, a player nicknamed Captain Cool lounges in the grass, waiting for his turn at bat, and extols Thunder Bay's qualities as a cricket town.

"We play good in Thunder Bay," he says. "This is our home."

For a growing number of young Indian men, Thunder Bay really is home - as awkward and imperfect a home as the cricket field, but home nonetheless. The city's foreign-student population has spiked in the past decade from less than 200 to about 2,500, roughly half of them from India.

These young men and women are bucking the trend in Thunder Bay. The isolation, small size and economic stasis of this city of about 120,000 have generally repelled immigrants over the past 20 years. Less than 10 per cent of the population is foreign-born, which is actually lower than in 2001.

The cricket players point to a brighter future. For a place that hasn't seen meaningful population growth for two generations, and is trying to make the difficult transition from an industrial economy to a white-collar one, this influx of young, skilled migrants from South Asia should be a blessing.

But Captain Cool and his friends also embody a dilemma: Many newcomers to the city aren't putting down roots.

International students, especially, tend to make a quick exit once they receive their degrees, depriving Thunder Bay of the lasting economic benefits that have allowed immigrant-rich cities to flourish across Canada.

On the day of the derby match, Shivam Patel, a 21-year-old Confederation alumnus, surveys the field and points to a handful of young men who are planning to leave in the coming months - Sathish, Rajkamal, Midhun, Parth, Harsh - many bound for jobs in Toronto, Edmonton or Vancouver.

It's a problem faced by huge swaths of rural Canada and many small cities, but Mayor Bill Mauro recognizes the existential stakes for Thunder Bay in particular, a city that was built on immigration and is now struggling to rebuild itself the same way.

"On the one hand, [the international students] are just a fantastic success story for us," he says during an interview in April. "But it's the same as it's always been ... whether there's enough economic opportunity here to keep young graduates."

Thunder Bay has not always struggled to attract immigrants. In fact, at various times, the city has been an unexpected paragon of diversity.

In 1817, when it was still a fur-trading post called Fort William, American businessman Ross Cox found the little community at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River to be downright "metropolitan." Its role as a break-of-bulk point for traders entering the beaver-rich Canadian interior drew people from around the world, Jean Morrison explains in Superior Rendezvous-Place. That year's annual meeting attracted merchants, soldiers and paddlers from as far afield as the Gold Coast of Africa, Hawaii and Bengal, who mixed freely with the Scottish, French-Canadian and Anishinaabe regulars at the fort.

When the Canadian Pacific Railway came to the twin towns of Fort William and Port Arthur in the 1880s - they officially amalgamated in 1970 to form Thunder Bay - a second wave of immigration began at the lakehead, as peasants and bush workers from Finland, Italy, Ukraine and Poland flooded in. By the early 1960s, residents with British ancestry made up less than half of the local population, according to an essay by historian A. Ernest Epp.

This demographic revolution didn't happen seamlessly. Although most of the new migrants were white, many faced bitter xenophobia. Finns and Italians made up a large share of the city's often restive working class and local authorities routinely rounded up foreignborn activists for deportation - or worse. In April, 1930, two Finnish labour organizers in the nearby bush camps were found dead in a shallow creek, widely suspected of being murdered.

The stigma faced by immigrants of colour was even more overt. Postwar Thunder Bay featured an odd local tradition in which a white man named Hector Ede would dress in blackface and read children's letters to Santa over the radio as a character called "George the Porter" - an homage the black Pullman porters who passed through this railway town are unlikely to have appreciated.

Still, by midcentury, the city's immigrants had made Thunder Bay their own as saunas, panzerottis and pierogies became integral parts of the local culture. Mr. Mauro said his Italian mother might have faced discrimination - she "could have told you stories" - but the mayor's generation forged a kind of white-skinned mosaic - if not the United Nations, then perhaps the European Union. "Thunder Bay was a multicultural community long before Toronto," he said. "We all grew up with significant ethnic diversity and we never thought twice about it."

That legacy could help the city as it tries to attract and retain a new generation of immigrants. Right now, Thunder Bay is overwhelmingly European (82 per cent) and Indigenous (13 per cent) in origin, but that could be on the verge of changing.

In June, the federal Ministry of Immigration chose Thunder Bay to be part of a new program that aims to funnel economic migrants to rural and Northern communities that need labour and are willing to help settle newcomers. (A similar program rolled out for Atlantic Canada in 2017 is seen as a success.)

The city's government supports the project, but some residents have been hostile to the idea. When Thunder Bay's involvement was announced, a popular Facebook group lit up with racist invective. One user, who used a profile picture of Cameroonian basketball player and Toronto Raptors hero Pascal Siakam, said he was worried about giving "all these jobs to immigrants."

Bigotry is an unpleasant fact of life for some newcomers to Thunder Bay. The city has a long-standing racial divide between white and Indigenous residents, but the prevalence of black and brown faces is a relatively new phenomenon around town, and that can lead to unpleasant attention.

Police Chief Sylvie Hauth has made a point of mentioning that the gang members driving Thunder Bay's current crime wave are predominantly black, to the point that it is common to hear ordinary people say "coloured" gangs from Toronto are causing havoc on the city's streets.

Newcomers have different ways of coping with the burden of looking different. A young man from a small Caribbean island, who asked not to be identified, said one bonus of the prevailing fear of black people is that no one has dared to mug him - a common enough problem in the city.

There can also be more straightforward advantages to being part of a small cultural community in Thunder Bay. Niseen Darwish and Zaher Toubaji are Syrian refugees who own Damascus Donair, a cozy hole-in-the-wall Middle Eastern restaurant in a gentrifying part of town.

Business is good, says their daughter Hadeel - who speaks the best English in the family - since there's so little competition from other shawarma places.

The federal Liberal Party has also lavished attention on the Toubaji family; they are rare local symbols of one of this government's major initiatives, the private sponsorship of Syrian refugees. Ms. Darwish considers MP Patty Hajdu a "friend" and has pictures of the MP for Thunder Bay-Superior North hanging above the grill in her restaurant. The couple has even met Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

Meanwhile, the city's lack of growth - Thunder Bay has roughly the same population it boasted in 1970 - allows for a pace of life that some immigrants actually quite like. While Hadeel, a 22-year-old Confederation student, says she doesn't like the city because "there's nothing to do here," other newcomers say the lack of traffic and the quiet streets remind them pleasantly of home.

Dharak Parekh, a Confederation graduate in electronics engineering, is from the Indian state of Gujarat, where his parents are shopkeepers. Gujaratis are low-key people who mostly abstain from alcohol (the state is dry) and, above all, like to eat, Mr. Parekh says with a laugh. Coming from such a sleepy place makes him appreciate Thunder Bay and recoil from the bustle of Toronto.

He hasn't yet come to terms with a few odd local customs, such as serving rice with a fork rather than a spoon. ("I find this annoying," he says during a dinner at Masala Grille, eyeing the fork in his hand as if he has been asked to eat with a lawn mower.)

But for now, he's happy here with a new job as an IT technician at a tax and auditing firm, and that nice, quiet pace of life. "I'm not desperate to leave Thunder Bay," he says.

It may be a slightly tepid endorsement, but it's more than some of his friends could claim. Mr. Parekh used to live with five other Indian students in a big house in the city's south end, but now he's the only one left, with too much space and too much rent after the others moved to Alberta or Southern Ontario. The latest to go - a slight, shy Confederation grad named Manthan - used to repair slot machines at the Thunder Bay casino, but got a higher-paying job doing the same thing at a much bigger casino in Windsor.

"That's the problem - you graduate and then you leave," Mr. Parekh says. "I think that's why Thunder Bay is not developing as much as it could."

During an earlier dinner, across town at the city's other Indian restaurant, he seemed more upbeat. At that point, Manthan was still living with him. The two would stream endless hours of cricket on their laptops and play the video game Counter-Strike together.

But in the intervening six weeks, his group of friends has thinned out even further, and he seems to have come to the realization that not all Canadian cities are created equal.

"In India, people always think when you go to the West, it's like dreamland," he says. "Now that I've been here, I know it's not always like that. What's the expression? 'The grass is always greener.' " He was speaking figuratively, of course. But it's also literally true that one hardship of living in Thunder Bay, especially for immigrants from the global south, is the vanishingly short period in which the grass is actually green.

For many young Indian men, the city's long winters mean a short cricket season. In fact, the desire for better cricket facilities is a surprisingly common reason for Indian graduates to decamp for Toronto.

"It's 50-50," Shivam Patel says. "Either someone will go for a job or for cricket."

(A spokesperson for the mayor did not respond to questions about whether the city has plans to improve local cricket facilities.)

The Commonwealth's favourite sport truly is an obsession for Mr. Patel and his friends, but 50-50 might be skewing the ratio a little. The truth is, nothing draws graduates away from Thunder Bay like jobs. While the city has made some progress in developing a white-collar economy - the mayor boasts of the roughly 50 good jobs provided by the hospital's angioplasty centre - it can't come close to competing with Toronto or Vancouver.

"There are a handful of cities in Canada that are growing, and there are hundreds that are shrinking," the mayor laments. "I think it's only going to get more difficult.

Artificial intelligence is just around the corner. Where are the jobs of the future going to come from? Places like Thunder Bay and Red Deer and Moose Jaw and Kapuskasing and Leamington and Cornwall - how are they going to maintain, and keep their young families and their young people?" The economic problems of small Canadian cities are particularly acute here. The decline of forestry and shipping, once among the city's principal industries, has been a harsh blow. There used to be four pulp and paper mills in Thunder Bay, but just one remains. Of the 29 grain elevators that once lined the waterfront, only seven still function.

Nothing has filled that void. Good economic news, such as the founding of medical and law schools at Lakehead in the past 15 years, has been offset by declines elsewhere. The number of people employed in Thunder Bay is roughly the same as it was in 2001 - even as the rest of the country has seen job gains of almost 30 per cent. No Canadian city has a worse job-creation record in that period. The expected layoffs of 550 people from the city's Bombardier plant is the most recent example of the bitter trend.

Today, the city's pitch for itself is more about lifestyle than economic strength, reflected in the municipal slogan: "Superior by Nature." Norm Gale, the city manager, boasts that Thunder Bay has the most affordable housing in Ontario, a beautiful lakefront setting and, more dubiously, the planet's best-tasting tap water.

"Look out there," he says in an interview. "Sleeping Giant [Peninsula]. Blue sky.

Best water in the world. Have you tried our water?" So far, the pitch isn't working. Anto Stany personifies the problem as well as anyone. The 21-year-old, one of the players in the spring cricket match at River Terrace Park, is from the southern Indian state of Kerala. He studies recreational therapy at Confederation, learning to develop activities for elderly people in care homes, and he'll be good at it: He looks like the urgrandson, winsome and boyish and doeeyed.

For now, he works at a Robin's Donuts in Hogarth Riverview Manor, a local longterm care home that has been penalized by the provincial government for the emotional abuse and neglect of residents, including allowing one person's bedding and clothing to become "completely saturated" with urine.

"I've seen so many people with handicaps," he says.

"There is no one to give love to them."

Still, there are parts of his job that he likes. For a rural Indian, the pay is excellent: He makes $1,000 every other week, about twice what his father earns farming rubber and the tropical fruit rambutan back home in Kerala.

He also mostly likes the company of the seniors he meets at Hogarth. "Everybody loves watching ice hockey - it's so fun to see," he says. "If you look in their face, they look so happy. Everybody talks about Toronto Maple Leafs, Toronto Maple Leafs."

But there are also aspects of life in Thunder Bay that make him uncomfortable. He has struggled to connect with non-Indians ("I don't have even one Canadian friend. It's so hard to make friends with them," he says) and he doesn't really understand the seniors asking why there are suddenly so many Indian people in Thunder Bay. "They sometimes joke that 'there are more Indians here than we,' " he says with a stiff smile.

He doesn't graduate until 2021, but he's already planning his exit. In June, he went to explore Toronto - he has a brother in neighbouring Mississauga - and he's also thought about Vancouver. He wants to be somewhere with more opportunities in the health sector.

As he discusses his plans in the shade of a spruce tree, well back from the wicket, he delivers a verdict that seems to speak for many of the young men joyfully playing an imported game, on a makeshift field, in a city they will soon leave behind.

"Thunder Bay is good," he says. "But not to live."

With a report from Matt Lundy

Associated Graphic

Dharak Parekh, a graduate from Thunder Bay's Confederation College, bats during a cricket practice. 'I'm not desperate to leave Thunder Bay,' says Mr. Parekh, who has a new job at a local tax and auditing firm. Mr. Parekh is an exception to a growing trend, however, as many graduates leave for larger cities.

PHOTOS BY MELISSA TAIT/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

On the Kaministiquia River, a decommissioned Riverside Grain elevator stands as a reminder of more prosperous times in Thunder Bay. Of the 29 grain elevators that once lined the waterfront, only seven still function today.

Left: At Damascus Donair, a bustling business in a gentrifying part of town, co-owner Zaher Toubaji lifts a friend's daughter up onto the counter. Right: People talk outside of a Finnish book store in town. For generations, immigrated Finns and Italians made up most of the city's working class.


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Home is where the heart is. But it's also where housing solutions lie
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The data are clear: Renting out rooms, including ones vacated by children, can help address the housing crisis. But even the most logical mind can be conquered by human emotion
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By JENNIFER KEESMAAT
  
  

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O1

Chief executive of the Keesmaat Group, working with corporate and political leaders to advance change in cities around the world. She is the former chief planner of Toronto.

Last fall, my husband, Tom, and I dropped our daughter Alexandra off at her new dorm at Western University, and as she negotiated the arrangement of her books, coffee maker and laundry hamper with her roommate, making her bed and nervously plumping her pillows, we stood, large and awkward in the tiny room, unsure of whether it was time to leave or if we should linger a little longer. I surveyed the cool greys of the cinder block as she began madly taping photos to the wall to ease the sterility, and it hit me: She doesn't live with us anymore.

And when we came home, like so many other parents at this stage of life, I became acutely aware of the quiet, empty bedroom down the hall. Her door, as always, was left ajar. I peeked in and the light caught the jumble of rowing, running and ski-racing medals dangling from her bedroom mirror, a little testament that she did live, and lived large, here. A memento of childhood - a scuffed pair of toddler's shoes - sat neatly on her book shelf beside a photo of a gaggle of girls trying hard to look grown-up at prom, anticipation filling their youthful faces. But her bed was rumpled from the previous night's rest - and maybe for the first time I was glad to see it left unmade; I knew she was here.

But now she's not. It was deeply unsettling, these remnants of her life, held in abeyance, waiting for her return.

Until these sad moments, there wasn't really a square inch that we didn't use in what we called our "forever home" when we bought it 13 years ago. Our main floor was a perpetual cacophony of neighbours popping by, kids pounding out their homework and dinner being pulled together on the fly. Our basement was a triple threat: laundry, playroom and office combined. We didn't really have a place for our bikes, so house guests would sometimes have to weave around them just to get through the front hall.

We liked it that way. Both Tom and I had been raised in the suburbs, where there was space to spare, but we had moved into the heart of the city to be near transit and to have the option of living with just one car. We had grown up with the long commute and we were prepared to do anything to try and avoid it. We had visions of our kids walking and taking transit to school, and we knew a different kind of home than what we grew up with would be a part of that package deal.

Our daughter had left home with strict instructions to leave her room exactly as it was. She would be back, she said, first for summers to work in the city, and then for grad school; it was still her room, she insisted. Her little brother, of course, almost immediately descended and created a Fortnite haven for his 13-year-old friends.

Secretly, though, I was relieved that the space was being used. It took the edge off knowing that we had an empty bedroom, despite the fact I knew full well that empty rooms such as hers could offer real relief to a major issue I touched almost every day in my work: the housing crisis in our region.

According to a report by the Canadian Centre for Economic Analysis, there are five million empty bedrooms just waiting to be filled in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area today; more than two million of them are in Toronto alone. In a city that often feels like it's bursting at the seams, that's a lot of empty living space.

Eighty-five per cent of Canadians over the age of 65 in Canada, meanwhile, are moving less frequently and remain in a house that's too big for them, and while we've lauded the idea of aging in one place, doing so can mean an undue burden of a home for those least able to maintain it, both financially and otherwise. If these unused bedrooms could be put to use, through policy that encourages and rewards renting out existing rooms - or, taking that logic further, adding more rooms to existing homes, or turning one house into multiple homes - we could add a significant amount of affordable living space to the region, at a relatively modest cost.

We frequently lament the lack of affordable housing in our cities, and yet rooms in existing homes are an underutilized opportunity hidden in plain sight.

Even if only a fraction of the millions of empty bedrooms across the country were introduced into the market and made available as a viable housing opportunity, it would far exceed the paltry amounts of new affordable housing that municipalities have been able to deliver. And providing rooms to rent helps in two ways: It makes housing more affordable for people living alone with rooms to spare, as it does for those looking for a place to call home.

Overhousing is, in part, driven by the immense market demand for detached housing in cities, and the capacity of the wealthy to both protect this housing and gentrify existing stock. But it's also partly driven by what is probably the most compelling argument against this data- and trend-driven logic: emotion.

These vacated rooms and these family homes are suffused with stories and sentiment - how could we think about renting these out to strangers?

I know this feeling keenly, because the data I look at in my professional life collide painfully with my home life, where I miss my daughter every day, and the emotional weight of that emotion is convincing, hard facts or not.

So the only antidote might require another argument from the heart in favour of this housing solution - and for this, I look to the story of my grandparents, Alexandra's great-grandparents, who share a story similar to so many Canadians across the country in moving here to find a better life for their families, and whose willingness to share a home allowed them, and others, to live out the Canadian dream.

My grandparents moved here from the Netherlands in the early 1950s and they, like other immigrants in those times, longed to own their own home. But they were not wealthy people.

The Second World War, in which my grandfather fought as a resistance fighter, was less than a decade behind them and it had devastated them economically.

At one point, they sold the family silver just to buy food to survive. They came here with nothing but a dream and little kids in tow. Still, they were able to work hard, save for a down payment and buy a home. They were among the many, however, who couldn't afford the mortgage payment on their own. So they did what they found sensible: They took on boarders to help pay the bills.

Households were bigger back then, and more flexible. People lived with more people, and less space. There were just more than three million households in Canada at the time, and of those, fewer than 10 per cent consisted of only one person, while just more than 30 per cent consisted of five people or more; the rest consisted of a roughly equal share of two, three or four people. People were having more children, yes, but these numbers were so high because it was not uncommon to have multiple homes within a house: multigenerational households, households that included extended family members or households that included boarders.

Today, this is almost completely reversed. There are now just more than 14 million households in Canada, and while the proportion of two-person households has grown over the past century, from around 20 per cent to 34 per cent today, and the number of three- and four-person households has stayed relatively consistent at around 15 per cent each, the number of oneperson households has more than tripled, to 28 per cent; the number of five-person households has tumbled to around 8 per cent. The number of one-person households has been higher in Canada than the number of five-person households since at least 1981. And while programs such as Toronto HomeShare, which matches older adults with spare rooms with renters who can help around the house, offer a partial solution, they don't tackle the reality and the growing trend: Nearly one in three Canadians live alone.

When families such as that of my grandparents sought to fill gaps in their budgets with boarders - a practical approach borne of necessity to take advantage of their biggest asset - it happened to also create a significant stock of affordable housing for people who otherwise couldn't afford (or didn't want) a place all to themselves.

There are additional social benefits, too, as researchers find that solo living, exacerbated by trends around high-rise housing, can breed social isolation and threaten quality of life in cities - with some doctors arguing that loneliness, especially among seniors, has become a burgeoning public-health crisis. One of our first tenants in the first home that Tom and I bought had grown up just down the street, with her grandparents on one floor, her family on another, and an aunt and uncle and two kids on a third, an arrangement that effectively provided eager and cost-free childcare. And to this day, my 98-year-old grandmother has a long list of pen pals around the world - boarders, who, as they passed through, became dear friends.

So what's changed, to make boarding so much less appetizing over the decades? By and large, it's our expectations around what we need. A postwar mentality that more stuff, more buying and therefore more suburban sprawl to house it all meant a healthier economy dug deeply into the collective psyche.

Growing wealth among middleclass families allowed for luxuries such as increased quiet and privacy to catalyze into baseline asks when buying a new home.

Despite the Small Is Beautiful movement of the 1970s, which was intrinsically linked to the rise of environmental awareness and a recognition that we are overconsuming the resources of the planet, we live with the contradiction today of knowing that the average size of a detached house in Canada is roughly twice as big as in the 1970s, with our household sizes considerably smaller.

A more palatable option than boarding or room rental, for those who can afford it, might be splitting existing houses into duplexes, triplexes and beyond, offering more privacy to all involved while still unlocking housing space for renters in an effective, relatively simple way.

And yet debates around "secondary suites" in existing housing often focus on the suggestion that renters in some way compromise the character of a neighbourhood, or that less space is inherently a bad thing. Battles over housing policy have come to reflect that attitude. In a recent Toronto City Council debate, councillors went so far as to draft and approve a motion restricting entrances to secondary suites from being visible from the street - as if having renters is shameful and ought to be hidden from view.

Meanwhile, population is growing and declining across Toronto and other cities like it.

While the overall population in Toronto continues to steadily increase, huge swaths of it have seen population declines, sometimes significant ones. According to Canadian Centre for Economic Analysis CEO Paul Smetanin, 52 per cent of Toronto's land mass has seen a decline in population of about 201,000 people over the past 18 years, while other parts have grown by 492,000. Said another way: While Toronto is the fastest-growing city in North America based on population growth, most of the land area in the city is actually experiencing population decline. Just as the Vancouver region and Toronto are both spiky and flat in their physiognomies, with tall and super-tall towers surrounded by an unrelenting sprawl of low-rise housing, our density is spiky and flat when charted out, too: Some parts of the city are absorbing significant amounts of growth, while others are bleeding density.

Concentrated hypergrowth comes with pressures on local infrastructure such as water mains, parks, schools and roads. The areas of the city that are losing density, meanwhile, become home to infrastructure that sits stagnant. Emptying schools and flailing bus services become hard to justify, since there's simply not enough demand for them. A contradiction emerges that makes infrastructure delivery inherently inefficient: The highgrowth parts of the city, defined by an unending stream of towers, suffer a shortage of the infrastructure that is necessary to ensure livable communities, while elsewhere, infrastructure is underutilized and, in the case of schools, even disposed. Without a policy intervention of some kind, this trend will continue, as will the traffic congestion and imbalanced service levels that accompany it.

This is part of the story of downtown Hamilton. Despite years of claims about a civic renaissance, reinvestment in downtown Hamilton has actually caused population there to crater. That's because detached housing in the core that once served as duplexes and triplexes - housing multiple households - has been converted into "singles," resulting in overall population loss. This kind of gentle or hidden density offered a muchneeded kind of affordable housing, and its loss is significant, requiring new approaches and strategies for housing people who are displaced.

That highlights a generational shift in the meaning of shrinking populations in a particular area: Where once it signalled a neigh-

bourhood in decline, it's now a problem of concentrated wealth, in which the wealthiest few live in greater and more desirable space, while others struggle to access any housing at all.

This is often referred to, by urban-density advocates, as "missing middle housing." But while this type of housing is needed - for seniors, singles who don't want to live in a condo in the sky, and families interested in renting or owning in walkable neighbourhoods that already have an excellent mix of services, shops, parks and schools - it's not missing. It already exists, in houses we need to be willing to share.

Ironically, while we praise ourselves for living in a sharing economy powered by Silicon Valley, five million bedrooms sit empty, practically begging to help solve a systemic need.

But here's the catch: While cohousing programs have found some success, they do not exist at a meaningful scale. Airbnb and other tech titans like it, meanwhile, only facilitate short-term rentals, which actually remove bedrooms and even entire homes from the rental market and exacerbate the housing affordability crisis in our cities. McGill University researchers estimate that more than 31,000 homes across Canada were rented out in the shortterm so often that they were likely removed from long-term rental supply.

Airbnb's origins in the sharing economy have long become warped by profit margins. But it doesn't need to continue to be.

By encouraging longer-term rentals and focusing on users in need of housing rather than hotel rooms, the company could be a tool for good, facilitating access to the millions of empty bedrooms across Canada, generating access to more affordable housing options for millions of people and restoring population in neighbourhoods where it has declined. Yes, the cost of housing is through the roof. Yes, we need more supply. But we also have a solution that is entirely within reach: existing bedrooms in existing homes in existing neighbourhoods that currently sit empty.

Which brings me back to the hole in our home - the hole in our family's heart, really. While summer has temporarily filled it, we're still musing about what our home might look like once Alexandra leaves for good, and her brother joins her. We started thinking about our original vision for our lives - how, after a couple of years living in my inlaws' basement to save for a down payment on a mortgage for the home we bought before this one, we had bought a place where we were able to rent out the main floor and the basement, and live upstairs, an arrangement not that dissimilar from my grandparents, a generation before. Other than some construction, nothing is stopping us from doing the same thing with our forever home - other than the expectation of our neighbours and some city policy, which, with political will, could easily be changed with the stroke of a pen.

Granted, this is a bit more radical; where we were at one point just musing about renting out a single room, we've started rethinking need altogether - not around stuff, but around fit. And if our children wanted to start their lives, where would be a better place to start than here, where they can enjoy support, space, help with child care, a neighbourhood they love, and their intimate knowledge of every overworked square inch?

What better way for our children to live out the best principles of our practice, get a start on their own Canadian dream and help Tom and I achieve a better housing fit for our needs? Finally, we felt: logic and emotion were working together toward the same goal.

So I put it to my daughter: Would she want to turn the house into a duplex, and raise her family here one day?

"Probably not," she responded. "Too tiny. Can you even do that - build another kitchen? No, I'm not interested."

Rethinking housing, and what people's needs really are, will require us to reconsider how we define home. Even in this house.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: THE GLOBE AND MAIL. SOURCE IMAGE: ISTOCKPHOTO


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As Chinese loans fuel booming economy, Djibouti risks falling into Beijing's 'debt trap'
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By GEOFFREY YORK
  
  

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Wednesday, July 17, 2019 – Page A1

Red-and-gold Chinese banners hang outside the headquarters of Djibouti's freetrade zone, adding a splash of colour to the dusty desert gateway of this hugely ambitious project, the biggest of its kind in Africa.

Inside the building, Chinese businessman Robin Li stands over a scale model of the freetrade zone, telling a Ghanaian delegation that the Chinese investors will control just 40 per cent of the project. "We leave the money behind," says Mr. Li, the vice-president of China Merchants Port. "No return!"

Everyone laughs uproariously, and then a local official tries to clarify the profits that could flow to the Chinese state-owned companies. "They don't take big money," he assures the Ghana delegation. In fact, nobody quite knows what benefits Beijing will extract from Djibouti's free-trade zone - a Chinese-financed project that could cost US$3.5-billion over the next 10 years, covering a vast 48 square kilometres. But money is only one of the commodities in these transactions. Political influence and commercial power are the implicit commodities in China's financial drive.

Countries across Africa and Asia are wrestling with the same dilemma as Djibouti: How to accept Chinese money without accepting Chinese control.

Beijing's loans are accelerating the construction of the ports and railways that poorer countries desperately need. But the price could be steep: rising debts, a potential weakening of sovereignty and a possible loss of key assets if they default on their loans.

Djibouti is strategically located at the crossroads of Africa and the Middle East, on a narrow strait that controls access to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. It has become a crucial hub in China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): a multitrillion-dollar plan to build modern infrastructure to connect at least 68 countries to Chinese trade routes.

John Bolton, national-security adviser to U.S.

President Donald Trump, has alleged that the BRI is a predatory Chinese strategy, deliberately deploying "bribes, opaque agreements and the strategic use of debt" to hold African countries "captive to Beijing's wishes." The Trump administration has even produced YouTube videos attacking the initiative and urging countries to seek U.S. investment instead. "Don't get caught in the debt trap," the videos warn in ominous tones.

China has denied the debt-trap accusation, insisting that the loans benefit both sides. Some analysts say the allegation of predatory behaviour is exaggerated, since China has often ended up cancelling the debts of poorer countries, and a majority of the debt in most African countries is still held by non-Chinese lenders.

Djibouti, a tiny country of fewer than a million people on the Red Sea, is a prime example of the risks. It has enjoyed a booming economy in recent years, fuelled by huge Chinese loans and investment in ports, railways, warehouses, industrial parks and even a secretive military base. But critics have warned that the country is falling into a Chinese "debt trap," in which the loans could overwhelm its economic independence.

The International Monetary Fund recently estimated that Djibouti's public and publicly guaranteed debt has climbed to 104 per cent of its GDP - and the vast majority of this external debt is owed to Beijing. The Chinese loans have "resulted in debt distress, which poses significant risks," the IMF said.

A separate study by the Center for Global Development, a Washington-based think tank, estimated that China has provided nearly US$1.4billion for Djibouti's major projects, leading to a sharp increase in the country's external debt.

Djibouti is one of eight countries worldwide where the rising debt from BRI projects is "of particular concern" because of the heightened risk of debt distress, the study concluded.

Djibouti's Finance Minister, Ilyas Moussa Dawaleh, says the Chinese loans are crucial for preventing an eruption of protest among Djibouti's poor and unemployed. "If we let the youths stay unemployed, tomorrow they will create instability, and some devil will come and make use of their frustration," he told The Globe and Mail in an interview. "We thank the Chinese for our infrastructure development, and we want our other partners to help us - not just tell us about the Chinese debt trap. Maybe they think they are attacking China, but they are disrespecting Africans. We are mature enough to know exactly what we are doing for our country."

Beijing has poured money into Djibouti in recent years. It gave a US$250-million loan for Djibouti's free-trade zone. It provided about US$500-million in financing for the Djibouti portion of a new 756-km railway line between Djibouti and Ethiopia. And it lent a further US$400-million for a new container port in Djibouti.

In addition to the loans, Chinese state-owned companies have made equity investments in the Djibouti projects and have won management contracts in the ports and railway.

GATEWAY TO THE WORLD, TETHER TO CHINA At the Doraleh Container Terminal, an ultramodern port on the edge of the capital, Djibouti cancelled a Dubai company's contract to run the port, nationalized the terminal and then has reportedly allowed China Merchants to help operate it. (The government denies that China Merchants is the official operator of the port.

The Dubai company has launched legal proceedings to challenge the takeover.)

In exchange for its loans and investments, China has gained crucial influence over the shipping lanes that flow past Djibouti to the Suez Canal - the same lanes that provide oil supplies for Chinese importers and vital routes to Europe for Chinese exporters. And if Djibouti is unable to repay the loans, China could end up with a bigger stake of the infrastructure.

Djibouti insists it is retaining a majority stake in each project. But when China finances the projects and holds a significant chunk of the equity, along with short-term contracts to manage and operate the railway and some of the ports, the Chinese influence can be massive.

"China is adept at converting developmentminded investment dollars into geopolitical power and influence," said a recent report by the Australian Centre on China in the World, based at the Australian National University.

"Djibouti's future is now more tied to China than to any other partner," it said.

Across the African continent, China has provided about US$130-billion in loans over the past two decades, and it promises a further US$60-billion over the next several years as its BRI strategy gains momentum.

But the exact terms of these loans are routinely kept secret. Africans often don't know the repayment terms or the potential loss of collateral, including infrastructure or future resource revenue, if the loans aren't repaid. Many of the benefits flow to China, since almost 90 per cent of BRI contractors are Chinese companies, which often hire Chinese workers rather than local workers.

"Countries rich in natural resources, like Angola, Zambia and the Republic of Congo, or with strategically important infrastructure, like ports or railways such as Kenya, are most vulnerable to the risk of losing control over important assets in negotiations with Chinese creditors," said a report by Moody's credit agency late last year.

Chinese loans to African countries have soared to more than US$10-billion annually in recent years, compared with less than US$1-billion in 2001. This is contributing to a growing crisis in Africa, where most countries are heavily indebted and some are unable to service those debts.

In Kenya, for example, the Chinese share of the national debt has been escalating rapidly. In total, Kenya owes more than US$5-billion to China today, a fivefold increase in just five years.

China persuaded the government of Kenya to build a costly new 485-km railway between Nairobi and the port city of Mombasa for about US$4-billion, rather than repairing an existing line for about a quarter of the cost. The project became one of the most expensive rail projects in Africa.

After opening in 2017, the railway lost US$100-million in its first year of operation, carrying far less freight than expected. The economic benefits to Kenya were limited, since Chinese contractors did most of the construction work. And the project left Kenya saddled with US$3.2-billion in debt to China. Kenyan media have reported that China could seize Kenyan assets, including the port of Mombasa, if the loan is not repaid. They also reported that the loan agreement requires any disputes to be arbitrated in China.

By 2019, the railway was continuing to lose money on each of its passenger and cargo trips, while Kenya's loan repayments to China were sharply increasing. The government insisted that the loans weren't harmful. "China is not seeking to colonize us, but they understand us and our point of need," President Uhuru Kenyatta told local journalists.

The Kenyan railway - like the similar Chinese-funded railway between Djibouti and Ethiopia - has been a publicity bonanza for Beijing, creating highly visible Chinese branding on the trains.

The Kenyan railway is operated by a Chinese company, and Chinese workers have taken many of the top jobs as conductors, engineers, managers and drivers. In each carriage, a Chinese flag is displayed. The stations are filled with Chinese signs and pamphlets, and the Mombasa station even features a bronze statue of a Chinese hero, the explorer Zheng He, who led a maritime expedition to East Africa in the 15th century.

In Djibouti, too, the new train terminal is filled with Chinese signs and banners, and most of the conductors are Chinese. Even the clocks on the wall are from China.

Chinese rail companies were hired to manage the US$4.5-billion Djibouti-Ethiopia electric railway for six years after its completion in 2017.

"Of course, if the investment is coming mainly from China, we will see sometimes Chinese signs and communications," says Mr. Dawaleh, the Finance Minister. "We need to bring global talent."

Others are more critical. "How can Djiboutians see this railway as their own if everything they see is Chinese?" asks Abdirahman Mohamed Ahmed, an economic and environmental consultant in Djibouti.

"China is doing the same as what we criticized the former colonialists for doing," he told The Globe. "China should be more sensitive.

They should be different from other empires."

Ethiopia and Djibouti have both struggled with their heavy debts to Chinese financiers for the railway, and both have sought to renegotiate their loans. Late last year, China allowed Ethiopia to extend the loan repayment period from 10 years to 30.

The concerns over the railway loans are part of a growing international anxiety about China's BRI strategy. Countries such as Sierra Leone, Pakistan and Malaysia have delayed or cancelled Chinese projects. Others, such as the Maldives, have sought to renegotiate or reduce their Chinese loans.

Many observers, including Africans, were alarmed by Sri Lanka's loss of a Chinese-built port, Hambantota, after the South Asian country was unable to repay more than US$1-billion in debt to Chinese banks. Sri Lanka was obliged to hand over the port to China on a 99-year lease.

Djibouti officials, however, insist they aren't at risk of suffering a similar fate. "We are always the majority shareholder," said Aboubaker Omar Hadi, chairman of Djibouti's ports and free-trade authority, who had made the comment about China not taking "big money."

"The mistakes in Sri Lanka were made by the Chinese contractors, pushing for the contract and short-cutting the process to get the Chinese bank loan and leaving the debts behind," he told The Globe.

"It was giving a bad name to China. The Chinese government was unhappy, so it disciplined those contractors. They've stopped these contractors from promising everything."

IN CHINA'S DEBT At a summit of BRI member countries in Beijing in April, the IMF's managing director, Christine Lagarde, warned that China's BRI policies must be fixed.

"History has taught us that, if not managed carefully, infrastructure investments can lead to a problematic increase in debt," she said. "The Belt and Road [Initiative] should only go where it is needed [and] where it is sustainable, in all aspects."

Chinese officials at the BRI summit tried to ease the fears of debt-trap loans by promising to ensure that the "debt sustainability" of the borrowing countries is always taken into account.

But concerns about Chinese loans persist. In South Africa, there has been fierce debate over a US$2.4-billion loan by the China Development Bank to the state-owned electricity monopoly, Eskom, which has been desperate for loans to stave off the need for more cuts to the country's power supply. The opposition Democratic Alliance party has argued that the loan "could very quickly result in a debt trap where repayments cannot be met and the Chinese start to take ownership of South Africa like they have done in Sri Lanka."

Those concerns deepened this year, when the first tranche of the Chinese loan was unexpectedly delayed for reasons that weren't fully explained, forcing Eskom to scramble for fresh sources of money.

While analysts worry about the loss of sovereignty or the loss of key assets, there are other concerns, too. In some countries, such as Djibouti, the massive flow of Chinese loans is helping to prop up authoritarian regimes. The financing is ultimately a greater benefit for autocratic rulers than for ordinary people.

"Nobody consulted Parliament on these Chinese loans," said Zakaria Abdillahi, one of the few independent human-rights lawyers in Djibouti. "The government made these decisions unilaterally. The Chinese debt is very opaque, and there's a risk to the sovereignty of Djibouti.

The loan conditions are dictated by China."

Djibouti has been under the firm control of one family for the past four decades. Ismail Omar Guelleh has been President since 1999, and his supporters have amended the constitution to allow him to extend his rule. He was hand-picked by his uncle, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, who had ruled the country since its independence in 1977.

The boom in Chinese loans and investment has allowed Djibouti to become more repressive than it was in the past, Mr. Abdillahi said.

The loans and investment are providing revenue to an autocratic government, helping it to prolong its rule and stifle any push for democratic reform.

As a lawyer, Mr. Abdillahi has tried dozens of times to defend journalists or union leaders or political activists who are arrested for protesting against the government - but the police refuse to let him meet the detainees. "When they see me coming, they just shut the doors," he told The Globe.

When he is invited to international events, the police at Djibouti's airport routinely prevent him from departing. Nor do they allow him to register his human-rights organization, prohibiting the organization from having a bank account or a membership list. "Everything is forbidden or controlled," he said.

At the same time, the Chinese loans don't offer much help for the majority of the population in impoverished countries. Despite years of high GDP growth in Djibouti, more than 70 per cent of its population is living on less than US$5.50 a day, and half of families have no access to basic sanitation facilities, according to World Bank data.

"A lot of money is coming in, but you don't see any trickle down," said Mr. Ahmed, the consultant. "People feel excluded."

Aden Ali, a 40-year-old labourer, has been hauling sacks of cement and sugar in Djibouti's ports and docks for the past 16 years. His arms and fingers are covered with scars and bumps from cuts and broken bones, caused by accidents in his work. He lives with his wife and three children in a shabby two-room house with a leaking roof in Balbala, a sprawling slum on the outskirts of Djibouti City where children play barefoot in dusty streets with rubble and scrap metal around them.

Mr. Ali recently began working overnight shifts at one of Djibouti's new Chinese-built ports. "It's impressive, but we don't get anything from it," he says. "Nothing has really changed for us. Our life is still in black and white."

The new port has allowed him to work more days in a month, increasing his income by perhaps US$50 or US$100 a month, but that's barely enough to keep up with the soaring cost of living, he said.

"The Chinese don't help us to survive," Mr.Ali said. "The work has become harder. The conditions are bad. If we drop something, they yell at us. Only God knows how much pain we feel."

Associated Graphic

Far left: Holding the Chinese and Djiboutian flags, people gather on July 4 before the launch of a 1,000-unit housing project. The venture is supported by the state-backed China Merchants, which also reportedly helps operate the Doraleh Container Terminal, left, and will partly control the forthcoming free-trade zone, below.

FAR LEFT, BELOW: YASUYOSHI CHIBA/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES; LEFT: GEOFFREY YORK/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Far left: China took control of the Hambantota port it built in Sri Lanka on a 99-year lease when the South Asian country couldn't repay its debts to Chinese banks.

PAULA BRONSTEIN/GETTY IMAGES

Left: Chinese train workers look out for passengers during the inaugural run of a new railway linking Djibouti to Addis Ababa in October, 2016.

TIKSA NEGERI/REUTERS

Above: Djibouti President Ismail Omar Guelleh greets Chinese President Xi Jinping during a 2018 meeting in Beijing. Independent human-rights lawyer Zakaria Abdillahi says Chinese loans and investment have helped Djibouti to become more repressive than it was in the past.

ANDY WONG/AFP/ GETTY IMAGES

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Correction

A map with a Wednesday news feature on Djibouti incorrectly labelled the Mediterranean Sea as the Dead Sea.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, July 23, 2019 – Page B14

ANTHONY JAMES ALTILIA

We grieve the loss of Anthony James Altilia on July 20, 2019.

Anthony leaves behind his wife Jo, his sons Zachary (Loredana), Elliott (Véronique) and Jason (Samantha) and his siblings Anna Maria (Phil), Paul (Ross), Paulette (Thomas) and John (Laura). His father Anthony, mother Anne and brother-in-law Peter predecease him.

Anthony spent his professional career in the advertising industry.

Between rounds of golf, squash and international travel, he enjoyed his retirement in pursuit of his love for the arts, as an accomplished author, painter and drummer.

Anthony was a philanthropist and a community activist supporting various charities, through fundraising and sharing with them his extensive knowledge of marketing. He was a willing mentor to young people starting out in business.

He will be sadly missed for his concern for those he loved and his commitment to his family.

Over the last few months he fought his disease with dignity and courage. He was grateful for the outstanding care he received from the medical staff at Princess Margaret Cancer Care. A special thank you to Dr. Bradbury and the nursing staff on 17a and b.

A celebration of Anthony's life will be held on Thursday, July 25th from 6 to 8 p.m. at the Toronto Cricket Club, 141 Wilson Av. M5M 3A3.

To honour his memory, his family asks that you make a donation in his name to Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation.

HELEN ALBERTA CAMPBELL (née Cameron)

December 11, 1923 July 20, 2019

Helen died in her sleep peacefully in the wee hours of Saturday, July 20, 2019. She was the daughter of Helen Tupper Cameron and Albert Cameron, born in New Glasgow, NS. She married James Stewart Campbell and they had 5 children: Harold Edward Alexander; Norman Robert Cameron, Margaret Isabel Catherine, Roderick Roc Arnoti, Darya Helen Mary. She had 9 grandchildren: Ian, Colin, Graham, and Maggie (HEA and Diane); James John and Christine Marie (NRC and Jackie), Luke and Elyse (MIC and Mike); Rory (RRA and Peggie); Maggie (DHM); and 2 great-grandchildren, Madeleine and Juliette (Luke and Nora).

After her early career as a nurse, Helen settled with Jim in Ottawa and raised her 5 children with love and affection. Jim's career took them all to the still-new Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland creating a lifelong love of that island and its people for the entire family, before a return to Ottawa later on. Her youngest child Darya died in 1998 and Jim passed away in 2001. Helen had a great passion for her husband and children.

She loved to walk long distances, yoga, gardening, being physically active and promoting consumer empowerment earlier in her life.

She had a fierce independent streak, that only was softened many years after she was unable to care for herself. Near the end of her life after moving to the Perley and Rideau Veteran's Health Centre, she developed a distinct happiness and sense of satisfaction in life. The family is deeply grateful to the many wonderful care-givers at Oak Park and at the Perley Rideau, who were always so kind and good to her.

We celebrate her long and happy life. We will always remember her fondly, with love, happiness and with great affection.

She lives on in hearts that remember Friends are invited to visit at the Central Chapel of Hulse, Playfair & McGarry, 315 McLeod Street (at O'Connor Street), Ottawa, on Wednesday, July 24, 2019 from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. for a reception gathering. Words of Remembrance at 11 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Perley and Rideau Veterans' Health Centre Foundation would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Condolences/Tributes/Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

H. JOAN CUMMING (née Russell)

April 20, 1933 - July 18, 2019

Joan passed peacefully in her 87th year with her family by her side in the afternoon of July 18, 2019. She and her brother John, who passed away in April 2012, were raised in Arthur, Ontario by their parents: father, Dr. Jack (John) Russell and mother, Peg (Margaret). She was the loving mother to Allison, Andy (Hillary), Tom (Jennifer) and Suze, and "Daddo" to Ali, Owen, Holly, Sydney, Travis and AJ (Alexandra Joan).

Joan was an extraordinary person. Loved by all who knew her, friends for a lifetime or new acquaintances from just last week. She had an authenticity about her which was perceived immediately by all. Joan endured many challenges including some major health issues with a couple of her children, and later on in life struggles with her own health. She dealt with all of these with a peaceful almost superhuman inner strength coupled with a deep and abiding pragmatism. She was unwavering in her support of all of her children, even as she almost certainly had reservations from time to time about what path they had embarked upon. In the end, they all turned out fine and that is a testament to her intellect, integrity and grace in the way they were reared. She will be missed by all.

There will be a celebration of Joan's life held at Tom and Jennifer's house at 26 Butternut St., Toronto, ON M4K 1T7 on Saturday, October 5th from 1-4 p.m. All are welcome. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Dying With Dignity Canada in Joan's honour.

AUDREY WINIFRED DOUGLAS (Mills)

Beloved wife, mother, grandmother-died peacefully at home, surrounded by family on July 18, 2019.

Audrey was born in Portsmouth, England in 1935.

She lived in Bath until she went to University of Oxford where she received her B.A.

Audrey came to Canada in 1957 and earned her M.A. at Queen's University, and subsequently her PHD (Medieval Studies) in 1972 at the University of Toronto.

She is survived by her husband of 59 years, Patrick; children, Stephen (Valerie), Daniel (Caroline), Krystyne (Deji), and Isabel (Matthew); twelve grandchildren, Vivien, Hannah, Gareth (EndicottDouglas); Naomi, Nadia, James, Sophia, Sami (Douglas-Najem); Isaac (Akinniyi); Aaron, Reuben, Benjamin (Abogado); and sister-in-law, Dr. Mary Douglas. She is loved and fondly remembered also by extended family and many friends throughout the world.

Audrey was the editor of the University of Toronto Records of Early English Drama project (REED) volume for Cumberland and Westmorland and contributed extensively to the Salisbury volume. She was a determined civic activist and busy editor and writer.

Audrey's multifaceted gifts and talents were widely appreciated and her wit and laughter endeared her to all.

She recently completed two volumes of her family history.

Profound thanks to Dr. Chase Everett McMurren and Audrey's many loving caregivers and friends and family who were so special to her over the past two years.

A celebration of Audrey's life will take place at McClure Hall, Bloor Street United Church in Toronto on September 3 at 7:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, gifts in her memory may be made to Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders (MSF), or Bathurst United Church.

ANNA GWENDOLYN GRAY (née Johnston)

October 27, 1922 - July 17, 2019 Passed away peacefully on Wednesday, July 17, 2019 in her 96th year. Beloved wife of John Alastair Gray (1987), she will be greatly missed by her daughter Heather, son Robin and daughter-in-law Judith (née Quigg). "Gwennie" will be fondly remembered by her granddaughter Gillian (Remil Colozo) and baby son, Makaio and by her grandson Geoffrey (Thanh Tran). Sincere thanks to Lolita, Lilibeth and Maya for their wonderful care of Gwen in her final years. The family also wishes to thank Four Elms Retirement Residence for their support.

A private family service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles Newbigging Chapel on Wednesday, July 24th.

Interment will take place at St.

Peters Cemetery, Port Talbot.

In memory of Gwen, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation, 2300 Yonge St., Suite 1300, Toronto, ON M4P 1E4 or http://www.heartandstroke.ca.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

MARGARET HOPE KENNEDY

March 29, 1931 July 21, 2019 On a beautiful sunny Sunday morning in Toronto, Margaret peacefully passed away at age of 88, following a brief illness. She was the beloved daughter of the late Marion Maude (née Paul) Kennedy and George Mackay Kennedy. Dear niece of the late Jeanette Donald Paul and James Campbell Kennedy. Margaret loved her church, along with her many luncheon groups, friends, plus adopted families. High Tea was Margaret's highlight of the day shared with friends. She had a great sense of humour with a zest for life.

A huge thank you is sent to her care team from Easy Access Health Care Services, including Lourdes, Catherine, Apol, Benecia, Jezabelle, Julie, Jinky, Emily and Vicky. She will be missed by many.

A funeral service will be held Thursday, July 25th in Glenview Presbyterian Church, 1 Glenview Avenue, Toronto at 11:00 a.m. Interment Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, a donation may be made to Glenview Presbyterian Church or your favourite charity. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

BURTON LANCASTER

1936-2019

Burton Lancaster, aged 83, died on July 16, 2019 from complications of Alzheimer's.

Born in England, Burton worked in the theatre for over fifty years as a Producer, Artistic Director and Administrator.

Originally coming to Canada to work at Expo '67, Burton had ten years of experience in the British theatre. In 1968, he became Theatre Director of the Confederation Centre, PEI.

In 1971, Burton founded Magnus Theatre, Thunder Bay. Upon leaving Magnus Theatre in 1977, Burton worked with theatres across Canada as Artistic Director including the Lakeshore Summer Festival, Showboat Festival and Theatre One.

Burton Lancaster was a member of Equity (Canada/ UK/ US) and ACTRA.

He was predeceased by his sister, Brenda and his parents, Frederick Bert and Florence.

He will be sadly missed by his wife Sylvia, his daughters, Rebecca (Terry Leahey) and Abigail (Pablo Guzman), and their mother, Christine. Proud grandfather of Veronika, Elizabeth, Lieska, Gus, Rachel and Shai.

Donations in his name can be made to the Performing Arts Lodge of Toronto or to the Actor's Fund of Canada.

LINDA PINT

B: February 20, 1936 (Vaiste, Estonia) D: July 17, 2019 (Toronto, Canada) Our beloved Mother and Grandmother, Linda Pint, passed away peacefully in her 84th year.

Linda was predeceased by her loving husband of 55 years, Andres; her parents, Karl and Aliide Kriisa; and her older brother, Paul. Linda was a loving mother to her two children, Monika Valvur (Ken Valvur), and Paul Pint (Karen Maddison).

Linda's four grandsons, Stefan and Markus Valvur, and Charlie and Matthew Pint will dearly miss their Mamma Linda and Aama.

She will live in our memories and hearts forever.

A service will be held at St.

Peters E. E. L. Church, 817 Mount Pleasant Road on Thursday, July 25th at 11 a.m. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

SYLVIA SCHNEIDER (née Hershorn)

In Montreal, on Friday, July 19, 2019. Beloved wife of the late Harold Schneider. Loved mother and mother-in-law of Susan and the late Gord Laing, Lynda Schneider Granatstein, Jayne and Ronny Lisak. Grandmother of Jennifer Finestone and Richard Marceau, Daniel Finestone, Tamara Granatstein and Eli Batalion, Gabriel and Lauren Granatstein, Rebecca Granatstein and Chris Moody, Warren Lisak and Trina Meades, Zachary Lisak and Amanda Saxe. Greatgrandmother of Charlotte, Stella and Jonah. Sister and sister-in-law of Selma and the late Gordon Edelstone, the late Robert Hershorn; and sister-in-law of Francine Hershorn, the late Jack and the late Diana Schneider, the late Sylvia Spires.

Funeral service from Paperman & Sons, 3888 Jean Talon St. W., Montreal, on Tuesday, July 23 at 3:00 p.m.

Burial at Congregation Shaar Hashomayim Cemetery, 1250 ch. de la Forêt, Montreal.

Shiva at her daughter Jayne's home. Contributions in Sylvia's memory may be made for Oncology Research c/o the Jewish General Hospital Foundation, (514) 340-8251, or c/o the Montreal Children's Hospital Foundation, (514) 934-4846.

DAVID L. TORREY

1931 - 2019

He was my North, my South, my East and West, My working week and my Sunday rest - W.H. Auden David Torrey died peacefully on July 16, 2019 in the Montreal General Hospital surrounded by his family.

David was the loving father of Heather, John (Tanya), Bruce (JoAnn), David (Kerri), grandfather of Kate Murphy (Tony), Celia, Owen, Julia and Reid, and greatgrandfather to Quinn and Bridget.

He was predeceased by his sister Barbara, brother and best friend Bill, mother of his children Maggie and his beloved daughter Diana. He is survived by his younger sister Jane.

Born in Ottawa in 1931, to New England transplants Arthur S.

Torrey and Josephine Torrey (née Leonard), the family moved to Montreal and David grew up a stone's throw from the old Forum.

His siblings formed a merry band of brothers and sisters. His education took him from Roslyn School to Vermont Academy to St. Lawrence University to the University of Western Ontario.

This most unpedantic of teachers remained a lifelong student.

David had an outstanding career as an investment banker at Pitfield McKay Ross, Dominion Securities and RBC Dominion Securities.

The hallmarks of his career were trusted advice and longstanding relationships.

Always exceptionally generous with his time and resources, he took particular pride in his decades long relationships with the MS Society of Canada and St. Lawrence University. David was one whose acts of kindness, large and small, went unnamed.

Helping others and giving back were natural reflexes that he exercised his entire life.

Discreet, elegant, charming and successful, what defined him most was his dedication to his family, the true center of his life.

He was the most dedicated son, brother, father, grandfather, great grandfather and uncle. To all that knew him he was engaged, loyal and caring. David was a man of great intellect and curiosity. About the past. About your present and future. Nothing gave him more pleasure than to sit around a dinner table with family and friends.

The family's much loved childhood home. Poole, Jeroy and Tar Islands. Angler. Lake Champlain. His bespoke but well-worn running attire. His newspapers. His cribbage board.

His eyeglasses. He was a man of constants. And he was a constant.

At hockey arenas, school plays, concerts, graduations, piano recitals and ballet performances.

No distance was too far for any event involving family.

David was a pumper of tires. Over the decades, he repaired more than his fair share of flats. He counted himself lucky. We count our blessings.

If the spirit moves you, a donation in his name can be made to the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada.

David's family would like to thank the capable and caring staff at the MGH, caregivers Jilma, Chris, Sushmita, Marrie May and his long-term doctors/friends Dr. Michael Churchill-Smith and Dr. Colin Chalk.

A celebration of his long and full life will be held in the early Fall.

GERTRUDE RACHEL WISEMAN (Trudy)

January 21, 1945 July 21, 2019

After a courageous battle with cancer, died peacefully with family by her side. Survived by her husband, Sheldon; her children, Sondra, Bradley (Karen) and Jonathan (Vicki) and Bubbie to Ari, Emma, Louis, Ryan, and Saul.

Friends are invited to the Jewish Memorial Chapel, 1771 Cuba Avenue, on Wednesday, July 24, 2019 at 11am, burial to immediately follow at the Jewish Memorial Gardens, 2692 Bank Street.

Shiva will take place at 17 Lacewood Court, Ottawa on Wednesday and Thursday from 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m.

and on Friday from 2-4 p.m.

Davening services to be held on Wednesday and Thursday at 7 p.m.

Donations in Trudy's memory to the Ottawa Hospital Foundation Cancer Research would be appreciated.

PAUL WROE

Peacefully, with his family by his side, on Friday, July 19, 2019, at Credit Valley Hospital, at the age of 76. Beloved husband of Mary Lynn for almost 52 years. Loving father of Stephen (Darlene) and Marianne Theo (Karl). Devoted grandfather of Stephanie, Melissa, Abby, Owen, Karli, Sailor, Poppy and Jack. Paul was the dear brother-in-law of Hugh, Anne, Paul, Esther, Ellen, Ian, Martha and their families.

Hard working and multi-talented, Paul was a Chartered Accountant and had a proud history of working within Toronto's film industry. He had a philanthropic nature and was a dedicated executive of the Variety Club charity and the Canadian Motion Picture Pioneers. Paul's passions were his family, his bountiful garden, hunting, fishing, and cottage life. He participated in and enjoyed a wide variety of sports throughout his life.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere, east of the Jane Subway, on Wednesday from 2-4 p.m. and 6-8 p.m.

A Celebration of Life Service will be held in the Chapel on Thursday, July 25, 2019 at 11 a.m.

For those who wish, donations may be made to Trillium Health Partners - The Carlo Fidani Regional Cancer Centre. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.


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AUDIOBOOKS COME OF AGE
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Award-winning psychological thriller Milkman is no doubt a masterpiece, but it's an exhausting book to read, Ian Brown writes. Readers shouldn't be afraid, though - it's yet another work that is elevated by the art of the spoken word
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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page R8

The best thing about Milkman, Anna Burns's Man Booker Prize-winning novel, is that it's a superbly detailed moment-by-moment chronicle of an 18-year-old's inner thoughts as she navigates the treacherous complications of life in Belfast during the deadly Troubles of the late 1970s.

The worst thing about Milkman, Anna Burns's Man Booker Prize-winning novel, is that it's a superbly detailed moment-bymoment chronicle of an 18-yearold's inner thoughts that is 352 pages long. Demanding literary novels told from a single interior point of view are all the rage these days (thank you, Rachel Cusk).

Milkman's interior tunnel is long and narrow. It does not conform to standard paragraph form. There are no comforting blocks of dialogue, only conversations remembered within the mental monologue of the girl narrator, who is unnamed. No one in the book has a name, in fact, but is referred to as Somebody McSomebody or Tablets Girl or Maybe-Boyfriend or Eldest Sister, reflecting the paranoia of Belfast's factionalized residents, who fear the consequences (death at the hands of roving paramilitary squads) of naming names and thus being branded informers.

These secrets in turn make everyone suspicious of (and gossip about) any behaviour that doesn't conform to local customs.

In other words, Milkman is a dead-on portrait of the claustrophobia of an adolescent mind within the even more oppressive claustrophobia of a totalitarian state.

It's a brilliant book. It's also exhausting to read. Describing a closed society requires dense, closed writing, and on the page, Milkman can be as impenetrable as Kevlar. Passages of great beauty alternate with wads of glue. Thirty pages was the most I could manage at a sitting, but even five could render me unconscious.

The good news? The audiobook's a breeze! A deft narration by 64-year-old Northern Irish actor Brid Brennan transforms Burns's writing into a spoken yarn.

When Brennan says a word such as "round," her lemonrinsed Belfast accent puckers it into at least four separate syllables.

You can feel the hard bite of Northern Ireland in every sentence, and the city's psychological pace in the flurry of her diction: People here need to get all their words out before it's too late.

The high-minded difficulty of Milkman's written text evaporates, leaving only a funny, intelligent voice behind.

How does that happen? And why is it happening so often these days? Audiobook sales shot up more than 37 per cent last year (the third year in a row), driven by downloading and ever more artful vocal staging. (Physical book sales were up a puny 5 per cent and e-books fell.) Nearly 50,000 new audiobooks are released every year in North America alone.

Sloggish masterpieces now enjoy robust afterlives as ripping digital yarns. There are already classics of the genre and go-to narrator/readers. The Word of Promise audio Bible (New King James Version) features sound effects, an interactive score, Marisa Tomei as Mary Magdalene and Jason Alexander (George on Seinfeld) as a nebbishy Joseph.

It's 98 hours long, costs $61.33 and is like listening to your own conscience as it wanders through the Teletubby version of Galilee. I recommend it.

The soon-to-be released talkie version of Karl Ove Knausgaard's six-volume My Struggle is even longer, at 133 hours.

Abridged readings, common 20 years ago, no longer exist; skilled single narrators who voice every word of every character in a story (as is the case in Milkman) now compete with full troupes of actors reading individual parts.

Do not misunderstand, daring reader: I'm not suggesting books can be replaced by audiobooks. I often like to bang my head against a difficult but rewarding slab of text.

For instance, I motored through Michel Foucault's Madness and Civilization, a book that ought to come with a helmet and an insurance policy. But life is short. Maybe reading doesn't have to be that much agony. Because here's the really wild thing: Even in the formal parlour of highbrow literature, still one of the stuffiest rooms in contemporary culture, listening to a novel is now as acceptable as having read the monster.

Milkman is a psychological masterpiece, no one's denying that.

The narrator, a watchful young woman, commits the cardinal sin of being different in a culture that has forbidden difference.

She has a single eccentric habit: She reads books while she walks.

This is deemed aberrant, therefore suspicious, thus the subject of gossip, which brings her into the sights of the Milkman, an older, high-ranking paramilitary.

The Milkman wants the young female narrator as his lover and begins to stalk and isolate and coerce her. He insinuates that her boyfriend, the aforementioned Maybe-Boyfriend, has committed a sin punishable by car bomb.

Maybe-Boyfriend's crime? He collects car parts, and owns a supercharger hood that bears a decal of a British flag.

In Belfast during the Troubles, you could be ratted out for

drinking the wrong lager or supporting the wrong football team or liking James Bond. If you did watch James Bond, "you didn't make a point of saying so; also you kept the volume very, very low."

Milkman is a novel about competing moralities and all of them are mendacious.

Burns's depiction of the way Belfast's bullied burghers think is sharp and tight and often funny. But it's work. Losing the thread in Milkman left me again and again in a deep, dark wood, afraid I would never be found again: I kept tracking back, to ferret out where I had drifted off course. But when the story is read in Brennan's lilting voice, the narration carries you forward on a wave.

You may not know how long it has been since you fell off the surfboard, but you're still swimming.

Neurological research suggests there are reasons for this.

Reading symbols on a page engages the crowded and ultra detailed visual cortex, which produces very specific (and sometimes overwhelming) word associations. Listening to a text, on the other hand, leaves fewer details stuck in one's memory, but produces a readier grasp of the passage's deeper meaning.

Listening is our evolutionary default mode. Shakespeare is easier to understand onstage than he is on the page.

That ease is one reason booklistening has a less-than-serious reputation compared with upwardly mobile, middle-class book reading. Thomas Edison dictated Mary Had a Little Lamb onto a tinfoil cylinder as early as 1877, but it wasn't until the 1930s that the first audiobook records were produced, specifically for blind readers. (The first seems to have been a recording of Joseph Conrad's Typhoon, although the Gospel of St. John - in which Jesus cures a blind man - wasn't far behind.) When Matthew Rubery, a professor of modern literature at London's Queen Mary University, started work on The Untold Story of the Talking Book, published in 2016, colleagues turned up their noses and refused to write letters of reference. He traces their disdain to the 1920s, to the rise of modernism in university English departments - "the notion that literature should be difficult." The result, Rubery explained recently, is that "audiobooks are the Rodney Dangerfields of literature.

They don't get no respect."

Meanwhile, he claims, "the audiobook is the only form of reading that has consistently increased in the past decade."

Dumbing down didn't do it; driving did, along with commuting and the widespread use of smartphones starting in 2010.

"I don't think there is any single kind of reading," Rubery added. Each method has its pleasures. Reading Milkman, you understand the book from the point of view of the writer - which Nabokov said was the deepest way to understand fiction. When you listen to a book - say, Nabokov's Lolita, narrated by Jeremy Irons, already a classic in audiobookland - you understand it from the point of view of the characters. Ian Pearson, who read 80 novels a year as Peter Gzowski's books producer on the CBC Radio show Morningside and now ingests about 40 audiobooks per annum, still recalls listening to Sabbath's Theatre, Philip Roth's filth-strewn account of a sex-obsessed 64-year-old.

"You're walking quietly around town, looking like an ordinary old man and meanwhile, thanks to this great narration of this compelling story in your head, you just feel like the biggest pervert in the world." The secret thrill of doing one thing with your mind while appearing to do something else entirely with your body is part of the new charm of audiobooks. You feel like you're wearing a cloak of invisibility. Listening to a book turns out to be as private as reading one.

I called Pearson because he's one of the most widely read people I know. He developed his audiobook habit three years ago because he owns two energetic dogs and has to walk them for an hour or two every day. Before he took up listening to novels, his fiction intake had declined dramatically. His eyes were getting weaker, limiting the time he could read.

Then there was the distraction factor.

"When I'm reading at home, I'm so distracted by the internet or by my phone, music, TV. But when I'm walking and listening, I have no other distraction. Audiobooks enforce that attention span. So audiobooks have completely revived my enjoyment of fiction."

He loved audio Milkman. "It's one of the best ones I've read," he said.

"I mean, listened to. The narrator is so perfect for that writer's voice. What might be somewhat difficult stream-of-consciousness on the page becomes natural and accessible when it's spoken aloud."

She also performs the male voices in the book in such a way that Pearson knew they were males - a talent the audiobook narrator of, say, Michael Redhill's excellent novel Bellevue Square doesn't share.

"Even though the narrator is a woman, there're a lot of men in that story," Pearson said. "And she couldn't do them convincingly."

A couple of years ago, Audible.com - the Amazon-owned company that produces more than 90 per cent of North America's audiobooks - had a sale, and Mr. Pearson picked up a shelfload of classics. (He's also a fan of the Toronto Public Library's free audiobook borrowing app.) It took him three months to listen to all 12 volumes of Anthony Powell's Dance to the Music of Time. "That was a book I'd started a couple of times and never got engaged in. I owned the whole set. And it's one of those things that just stares you down. But when you're listening, it's not as intimidating."

That's the first commandment of the audiobook kingdom: If you have always wanted to read a classic, but could never engage, try listening to it instead. It doesn't always work: Fact-filled non-fiction can be a dry listen (especially if it's verveless, stylistically), and some novels don't translate well to audio. Olga Tokarczuk's Flights, a novel about a woman who travels incessantly, is too aphoristic to work in the ear.

But it's a sharply funny read.

The old view, the traditional, serious, High Lit view, was that reading one's writing aloud was cheating; it encouraged the addition of emotional inflection where possibly insufficient inflection existed, "making what I've written seem for the moment better than it is," as Nicholson Baker once put it. (He nevertheless narrates the audiobook of one of his own later novels, Traveling Sprinkler, to good effect.)

But that point of view is now so old-fashioned, so starkly predigital and non-commercial, that it ought to have its own diorama in a museum. Here's the new, alternative approach: If an audiobook gets you to ingest War and Peace or Elena Ferrante's Neapolitan quartet and surrender to points of view other than your own, so much the better.

The choice of narrator can make or ruin an audiobook. Sometimes, an author is an even more compelling reader than she is a writer - Tanya Tagaq's performance of her memoir Split Tooth is riveting - and sometimes she is not (Anakana Schofield reading Bina). Canadian audiobooks are increasingly ambitious: Wayne Johnston's First Snow, Last Light features four readers, including David Ferry, Mary Lewis and Gordon Pinsent.

Classic narrations already exist in the audio genre. Martin Jarvis, performing P.G. Wodehouse (Eddie Izzard also does a brilliant set of Jeeves tales, but they are on CD, and hard to find); Jim Dale, the literal wizard who narrates all the Harry Potter novels; Tom Stechschulte, whose rasp of a voice reading Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian and The Road makes you think this is the final task he is going to shoulder before he takes the last steps of his life: He will read this book and then he will be gone, will be no more. Julia Whelan (Gone Girl, Otessa Moshfegh's My Year of Rest and Relaxation, many others) has more or less copyrighted the voice of the Witty Ironic Female Observer.

One of Pearson's favourite narrators is Juliet Stevenson reading Middlemarch. "She could do any voice, male or female, low class or high, rustic or city.

And she didn't get all Masterpiece Theatre, class-in-England about it, either."

The book that kicked off the most recent boom in extra-ambitious audiobooks was George Saunders's Lincoln in the Bardo, the Man Booker Prize winner, originally written as a play, about Abraham Lincoln's long, strange mourning of the death of his beloved 10-year-old son, Willie.

The book has 166 characters, and the audiobook has that many speaking parts. Some people hate reading the book and love listening to the recording, others vice versa; some do both at once, book on lap and earphones in.

Kelly Gildea directed and produced Lincoln in the Bardo for Penguin Random House after Saunders phoned her and said he couldn't handle reading the entire work himself, as he had his past collections of stories.

(He's a really good reader.) Gildea, who studied film and directing at college, admits she was at first "a little panicky" about the project. "How the hell am I going to do this?" Her usual approach is to find a perfect narrator, "because a narrator can save something or absolutely tank it. It's acting, but it's also storytelling. The job is truly finding people who have both skills." But Bardo needed 166 narrators.

The result was "a broad spectrum of voices" - including celebrities such as Lena Dunham and David Sedaris - "which I think is the point of the book," Gildea says.

She needed five months to record 71/2 hours of acceptable tape: Every voice was recorded separately, and "the edit was just a beast unto itself."

Her goal in any audiobook is to produce a new version of an existing work, one that has its own intrinsic value, that brings a new kind of pleasure to a writer's fans.

"I hope that's what Bardo is.

The fact that there are so many actors in the book who are famous today makes it a document."

Her next project is an all-cast recording of Charlotte's Web, in which Meryl Streep reads the narrative and a roster of as-yetundisclosed actors read the voices of the characters. Purists will object. But try to imagine how many copies that will sell.

That may be the most radical development of the recent audiobook surge.

Listening isn't reading, but it's increasingly as good as reading, and sometimes better, and it's way more satisfying than watching the movie. "I believe if you listen to the audio," Gildea says, gently, "you have experienced the book. You don't have to use the verb 'read.' But you experienced the book."

As the heroine of Milkman comes to understand, the longer someone accepts her life in a totalitarian culture, the more likely she is to become totalitarian herself, one whose resigned motto is, as Burns puts it: "What's the point? There's no use in having any point."

What's required to break the totalitarian grip of incessant judgment, and of the conformity it breeds, is someone daring enough to stop separating the world into black or white, right or wrong, Catholic or Protestant, ours or theirs, afraid or not afraid, literary or non-literary, read or heard. When that happens, Burns says, a new motto emerges: "Attempts and repeated attempts, that's the way to do it."

Break the tradition and listen to the book you always meant to read.


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THE LIFE-CHANGING MAGIC OF MAKING DO
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We are caught in an endless cycle of mindless consumerism and throwing things away. But there is a better way, argues Benjamin Leszcz. Making do is about taming the reflex to discard, replace or upgrade; it's about using things well, until they are used up
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By BENJAMIN LESZCZ.
  
  

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O1

Benjamin Leszcz is a partner at Whitman Emorson, a design studio in Toronto. He worked previously as a magazine writer and editor.

Several years ago, while living in London, my wife met Prince Charles at an event associated with the Prince's Foundation, where she worked. She returned with two observations: First, the Prince of Wales used two fingers - index and middle - when he pointed. Second, Charles's suit had visible signs of mending. A Google search fails to substantiate the double-barrelled gesture, but the Prince's penchant for patching has been well documented. Last year, the journalist Marion Hume discovered a cardboard box containing more than 30 years of off-cuts and leftover materials from the Prince's suits, tucked away in a corner at his Savile Row tailor, Anderson & Sheppard. "I have always believed in trying to keep as many of my clothes and shoes going for as long as possible ... through patches and repairs," he told Ms. Hume. "In this way, I tend to be in fashion once every 25 years."

As it happens, double-breasted suits are rather on-trend. But more notable is Charles' sartorial philosophy, which could not be timelier.

The Prince comes from a tradition of admirable frugality - the Queen reuses gift-wrap - but his inclination to repair rather than replace, to wear his clothes until they wear out, is an apt antidote to our increasingly disposable times. Most modern consumers are not nearly so resourceful: The average Canadian buys 70 new pieces of clothing each year, about 60 of which ultimately wind up in a landfill. (Thrift stores only sell one in four pieces of donated clothing.) According to a British study, the average article of women's clothing is worn seven times before it's discarded.

Our bloated culture of consumption extends far beyond clothing.

Each year, Canadian adults spend about $9,000 for consumer packaged goods - about twice as much as 25 years ago. We replace our smartphones every 25 months. We swap out TVs like toothbrushes. We browse for Instant Pots, pet-hair-removal gloves and spa bath pillows when we're at dinner, when we're driving and when we're drunk.

Shopping isn't just convenient; it's inescapable. The shiny and new is seldom more than a click and a day away.

Unsurprisingly, we are drowning in stuff. Despite the average Canadian home doubling in size over the past generation - and family size shrinking - the self-storage industry is booming, with nearly 3,000 jam-packed facilities nationwide. And that's just the stuff we keep: Landfills are overflowing. China has stopped taking much of our recycling. Africa is refusing our used clothing. And the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is one-and-a-half times the size of Ontario - and growing.

Worse yet, we are spending money we don't have: The average Canadian has about $30,000 of non-mortgage debt. Ralph Waldo Emerson put it best: "Things are in the saddle, And ride mankind." We are increasingly desperate for a way out. For many, salvation has come via Marie Kondo, author of The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up. Ms. Kondo's KonMari method centres on a now-famous question: Does this thing I own spark joy for me? If not, it is to be discarded. Others have found emancipation via figures such as Leo Babauta, Dave Bruno and Tammy Strobel, avowed minimalists who own 50, 100 and 72 things, respectively.

It is easy to understand the appeal of these alternative ideologies of consumerism, both of which reflect the same fundamental truth: All this stuff isn't making us happy. Minimalism is simple but extreme; KonMari has broader appeal, promising a more fulfilling relationship with things, once we've purged ourselves of the non-joy-producing inventory. But KonMari asks both far too much of our things, and not nearly enough. When Prince Charles opens his closet, surely he does not ask if his fine doublebreasted suit sparks joy. Instead, he asks: "Does this fine doublebreasted suit fulfill my need for today, which is to wear a fine double-breasted suit while pointing at my subjects with two fingers?" It is a profoundly simple question, the spirit of which has been lost entirely today. In asking this question, Charles affirms his position as an unlikely champion for the forgotten virtue of making do.

Making do is a deeply pragmatic philosophy. It means asking of our things the only question we should ever ask of them: "Can you fulfill your intended use for me?" The answer - if we can be honest, and resist a moment of discomfort, inconvenience or boredom - is, extraordinarily often, yes. Making do is about taming the reflex to discard, replace or upgrade; it's about using things well, and using them until they are used up. Taken literally, it simply means making something perform - making it do what it ought to do.

If Marie Kondo delights in discarding, making do is about agonizing over it, admitting that we probably should not have bought that thing in the first place. Instead of thanking our outgoing goods for their meagre service, per Ms. Kondo, making do means admonishing ourselves for being so thoughtless in the first place.

Ditching something costs us, ecologically and cosmically; it should sting. And it should teach us to think more carefully about the real value of things.

As Juliet Schor writes in Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth, "We don't need to be less materialistic, as the standard formulation would have it, but more so." By becoming more materialistic, in this deeper sense, we can radically reorient our relationship with things. In this way, we can not only mitigate the high cost of thoughtless consumption, saving us money and the planet harm, but also, we might just wind up a whole lot happier.

Making do, in times of scarcity, is straightforward: If our weekly sugar ration is 200 grams, then we get by. In the context of abundance, it's complicated. How do we set limits when more, or new, is easily within reach?

The challenge, of course, is that making do is at odds with human nature. As products of evolution, we are predisposed to seek novelty, variety and excess; now, we hunt for bargains, not mastodons. Even Adam Smith, the forefather of homo economicus - that perfectly rational, utilityseeking consumer of classical economics - wrote in The Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759 that "frivolous objects ... [are] often the secret motive of the most serious and important pursuits."

In other words, to be frivolous is to be human. To aspire to pure pragmatism - to own only necessities - is misguided. "The fundamental question of what is essential and what is not has been a moving target, at least since the 15th century," says Frank Trentmann, author of Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers. "Every generation complains that the lower orders are suddenly wanting things that their parents or grandparents didn't have." Making do accommodates for this kind of hedonic adaptation; it allows for wideranging materialism, provided it is thoughtful, critical and honest.

For me, making do is an aspiration; I often fall short. I succeeded, however, with my previous television, an off-brand, earlygeneration flatscreen. Friends mocked me, but in an era in which we happily watch threeinch screens, I deemed my 12year-old Olevia adequate. (My company recently replaced its boardroom TV; I took the cast-off home, and gave the Olevia to a friend.) It was a small but meaningful victory, especially for household appliances, which tend to visit our homes briefly en route to the landfill.

As a parent, in an era in which toy companies have stretched commercials to 22-minute-long episodes, temptation is everywhere. Still, I'm a hardcore proponent of the cardboard-box theory of toys (the box - and later, the unboxing - trumps the contents). I virtually never buy toys.

When my kids ask, I say, "We don't really buy stuff like that."

(My eldest is 5; wish me luck.)

My wife rejected my pitch for our kids to wear potato sacks until the age of 12, presumably because most potato sacks are paper nowadays. Still, we opt for hand-me-downs or second-hand where possible. And we supplement with fast fashion, seeking clothes that last, at least, until they cease to fit anyone in our home.

For grown-ups, however, our relationship with clothing is perhaps the most unhinged. The novelist Ann Patchett, in her terrific New York Times column about giving up shopping for a year, recounts interviewing Tom Hanks before a large audience: "Previously, I would have believed that such an occasion demanded a new dress and lost two days of my life looking for one. In fact, Tom Hanks had never seen any of my dresses, nor had the people in the audience. I went to my closet, picked out something weather appropriate and stuck it in my suitcase. Done."

By disavowing shopping, Ms.

Patchett embraced the spirit of making do. Had she snagged that dress on a nail that evening, she could have made do on an even higher level. Getting the most out of things often requires investment, and the economics of repair can be challenging: It may be cheaper to buy a new sweater, made in Bangladesh, than to pay a Canadian tailor to fix an old one. Ideally, we'd mend it ourselves - a basic repertoire of DIY repair skills is wonderful way to make do - but either way, there's deep value in reviving the thing.

Never mind that a mended garment is perfectly functional; it's often improved, imbued with a hint of effortless imperfection.

Worn clothing can be a marker of status in its own right, as it is for The Bonfire of the Vanities' Sherman McCoy. Tom Wolfe describes the Master of the Universe's "worn but formidable rubberized British riding mac ... after the fashion of the Boston Cracked Shoe look." (The look references a historical style, among New England patricians, to wear wellcared-for but dramatically aged shoes.) To certain elites, then, making do is familiar as a style if not an ethos. The Official Preppy Handbook advises, "Never replace anything until you have exhausted all possibility of repair, restoration or rehabilitation. No matter what it is, they don't make it as well as they used to." The key to a making-do revolution, of course, would be for the style to sweep the country. "I've always thought, there may come a point where the way to distinguish yourself and signal status is precisely by getting away from this increasing acceleration of consumption," Mr. Trentmann says. "To stand out because you drive an old car."

Until that day comes, getting mileage from our things should at least engender a sense of pride, and of mastery. This is a more difficult proposition with electronics, appliances and cars, for which technology has largely rendered repairs of any kind impossible.

Still, making do means making an effort to preserve or repair, and spending more than simple economics might justify.

The corollary here is that making do means avoiding in the first place products that aren't worth repairing. The problem of durability preoccupies Dieter Rams, the designer of Braun's most iconic mid-century products. Mr.

Ram's mantra is "less, but better," and in the recent documentary about his career, he rails against "thoughtless design and thoughtless consumption." For Mr. Rams, it is incumbent on designers to make products that endure. (It's a cruel irony that Apple, whose product design owes so much to Mr. Rams, has become a paragon of built-in obsolescence.)

Byron and Dexter Peart, who made their names as fashion-accessory designers, are following Mr. Rams with Goodee, an online marketplace of ethically produced housewares. Goodee products "are meant to be used everyday and passed down for generations," the twin brothers say.

"For products to be essential, they must be designed with rigour and built to last, both from a standpoint of quality manufacturing, as well as a timeless aesthetic."

Many fashion brands lure customers with the promise of enduring essentials, from the luxury house Bottega Veneta (former creative director, Tomas Maier: "I want to own one suit") to the women's wear line Cuyana ("Welcome to fewer, better things").

Luxury watches do it, too: "You never actually own a Patek Philippe. You merely look after it for the next generation." (Though my $50 Timex keeps on ticking, too.) Of course, for people with the means, places such as Anderson & Shepard, or the shoemaker Church's, perform miraculous repairs as a matter of course. Roche Bobois and Stickley make furniture that retains its value - if it doesn't appreciate. Making do can mean embracing luxury, transforming our conception of heirlooms from relics of the past to ambitions for the future. But it also means patronizing more accessible brands such as LL Bean, Filson, Barbour, Patagonia, Arc'teryx and the North Face, all of which repair their goods, and some of which buy back, refurbish and resell worn garments.

Even more accessible is Uniqlo, whose unadorned designs eschew trends (and whose $30 oxford-cloth dress shirts are my uniform of choice). In The Atlantic this year, Gillian B. White wrote, "in an era of disposable fashion, a Uniqlo garment, made from hearty materials and cut in a timeless style, can feel like an investment piece." It's an overstatement - my shirts, at least, depreciate steadily - but it underscores the role of design in reshaping consumption.

Another key to making do is scratching our acquisitive itch in creative ways. Thanks to my kids, I have become reacquainted with the Toronto Public Library, where I can indulge my impulse to acquire books I think I'll read. (Typically by the third renewal, my deluded literary ambitions dissipate.) Following Rent the Runway, scores of clothing-rental services are launching, from mass brands such as Express to local startups such as STMNT, which was founded by a pair of Western University grads. Even IKEA is launching a rental program in 30 countries.

Purchases, such as tattoos, are permanent decisions based on temporary feelings; renting, or borrowing, is often a better response.

As we become increasingly dismayed by our limitless consumption, positive alternatives abound. But too often, alternative modes of consumption simply become additional modes of consumption. In pursuit of fewer, better, we sometimes end up with more, more. Of course, Mr. Rams is correct: Disposability is a design problem. But more than that, it is a psychology problem.

Making do has a societal scope, but it is a profoundly personal project.

In the final pages of The LifeChanging Magic of Tidying Up, Ms.Kondo writes, "I can think of no greater happiness in life than to be surrounded only by the things I love." It is a powerful statement, entirely on-brand for Ms. Kondo.

It's also a bleak reflection of how distracted our stuff makes us from the things that actually make us happy: a sense of belonging, of community, of purpose. Time with family and friends. Great books. Long meals.

We know all this, and yet: We are living amidst an unprecedented epidemic of loneliness, experiencing friendships through Instagram; consuming culture through Netflix; and walking alone through our neighbourhoods, AirPods in place, our faces illuminated by Amazon's frictionless mobile shopping experience. We are isolated and unmoored. And with nothing to tell us who we are, we shop and shop and shop, filling our carts when we really just want to fill our lives.

Laurie Santos, who created Yale University's most popular course, Psychology and the Good Life, often says, "Our intuitions about what to do to be happy are wrong." This simple truth is at the heart of making do, which emphatically reminds us that our things will never make us happy.

Our things are a healthy, normal, inevitable part of life, but in the end, they are just things. By asking of them only what they can give us - not love, or joy, or a sense of purpose or connection - we are far more likely to get it.

That doesn't guarantee happiness, but it clears the path, highlighting an essential, unmissable truth: The stuff of life isn't stuff at all.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY MELINDA JOSIE

ILLUSTRATION BY MELINDA JOSIE

Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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When art becomes a hashtag, do museums lose their meaning?
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Instagram-friendly installations are catering to the desires of young people to share something beautiful. But taking selfies leaves less time to contemplate, appreciate and be challenged by what we see
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By CLIFF LAUSON
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page O1

LONDON -- Senior curator at the Hayward Gallery in London

Around a decade ago, while abroad, I remember attending my first socialmedia-specific viewing for an art exhibition. It was held in the evening, there was a DJ, sushi and cocktails - this was not a normal press viewing. The museum definitely had "young and hip" in its event brief. What was fascinating was that, unlike normal art critics, who dutifully carry around branded media folders and small notebooks, listen politely to speeches and generally stay within their own private thoughts (lest another journalist steal their critical take on a show), these influencers were actually very social with each other. They helped to set up and pose for each other's photos. They shared tips on lighting, angles and which lenses to use. They brought props. And they weren't actually that interested in the sushi - or the art, for that matter.

Nowadays, 10 years later, I've been having multiple cases of déjà vu. People I see at the start of my visit to an exhibition, posing in front of artworks to have their pictures taken, seem to be appearing later the same day, still in the galleries, still posing, sometimes in front of the same artworks, but wearing entirely different clothing. This behaviour is increasingly common, I am reliably informed by gallery docents: These guests pack a few sets of clothes, change in the bathrooms and then spend hours trying to take the perfect snap for Instagram. They're not media influencers; they're just digital natives out to take some good photos to post on their feeds.

As a curator, I find these related observations curious, if a little disturbing. These two different types of gallery-goers are clearly interested in creating something that relates to the art on display, but is not about the art per se.

They're after high-impact images that will circulate well and attract likes and followers.

The recent spate of so-called museums sprouting up around the world, such as the Museum of Ice Cream, Toronto's Eye Candy and Museum of Illusion, the Color Factory, Egg House, Candytopia, Dream Machine and Happy Place are also reflections of this shift.

These high-energy attractions are filled with themed decor, luminescent colours and interactive props, and have been seemingly designed to facilitate the perfect Instagram photo-op. As the social-media network has grown in popularity, the ways in which it connects people to art and visual culture have also become more diverse: as a travel gateway, living archive, metric for success, marketing platform and even an aspirational addiction.

More than other social networks, Instagram suits the field of art. Its retro-styled square format and creative filters befit the image-centric artworld, and its long text fields have informative potential - like descriptive captions - and also scope for the opinions, anecdotes and musings of the user. I'd even suggest that emojis are a part of this visual appeal, being a kind of pictorial language on their own. With more than a billion users, Instagram's reach is both wide and pervasive.

In the early days of social media, museums feared that allowing unrestricted photography of their collections would mean that people would view artworks on screens from the comfort of their own homes, causing footfall to plummet. Those fears turned out to be largely unfounded and, to the contrary, just as people flock to see what others are looking at, they also do what others do. What now comprises an "audience engagement" strategy can actually increase attendance.

Museum collections and temporary exhibitions no longer have photography restrictions, and hashtag signage is usually prominently placed, allowing all of the shared content to be monitored and summarized in graphs and infographics. Most institutional Instagram channels are run by marketing or communications staff who analyze these statistics, and in turn aim to improve them by convening the aforementioned social-media gatherings, as well as extending invitations to influencers to attend, respond to or collaborate on projects. This self-perpetuating economy of sharing then leads to a competitiveness across organizations in the endless pursuit of more likes.

Large amounts of personal or inferred data about users enables Instagram to provide highly targeted advertising, and museums, like everyone else, take full advantage of this service.

For cash-strapped public organizations, social-media marketing is actually a more cost-effective way to reach intended audiences than more traditional advertising formats such as newspaper or poster campaigns.

Advertising revenue is of course the other half of the sharing economy, and is highly profitable for Instagram and its parent company, Facebook.

A recent article showed that music-streaming services that pay artists per play are actually causing a change in the structure of pop music, as musicians and producers optimize tracks to achieve high play counts. Songs are becoming shorter and intros are disappearing in favour of punchy chorus lead-ins to engage listeners before they swipe on to the next track. In the same way these streaming services are actually changing the type of content produced, the phenomenon is also happening in the visual sphere, with a new kind of experiential visitor attraction growing up around Instagram. These destinations, such as @museumoficecream or @wearehappyplace, go into interior-design overdrive, bringing together immersive, hypercolour themed rooms for the sole purpose of being 'grammed.

Inside these 21st-century playgrounds for image-conscious adults, one does not find rides or games, but instead a series of environments and installations that serve as scenes and backgrounds for photos. The Museum of Ice Cream, which opened in New York in 2016 (and is now in San Francisco) is generally attributed as being the first of these venues, and featured giant popsicles, a banana room and a sprinkle pool, mostly co-ordinated in shades of pink. Since then, dozens of instamuseums have opened around the world - permanent, pop-up and travelling. In Toronto, HideSeek's installations are meant to "to make you feel like a kid again," while Eye Candy lets you take aspirational photos in a room set up to look like a private jet. Insta-museums are set for maximum optical stimulation with interactive elements: Pirouette inside an oversized snow globe, get dizzy in a mirror maze or dive into a poolsized ball pit.

While there's plenty of fun to be had, there's also a certain amount of anxiety induced by trying to look like you're having as much fun as everyone else on the venue's Instagram channel. What these often self-labelled museums lack is a sense of autonomous thought and critical-mindedness. To be fair, they don't propose to be galleries of contemporary art, nor aim to replace "traditional" museum and gallery spaces.

The experience that insta-museums offer is perhaps actually not such a new idea; not unlike a prop-filled turn-of-the-century portrait studio, they provide imaginative and surreal backdrops for staged photographs. Instead of wearing formal attire and pretending to board a steamer to cross the Atlantic, people today stick their heads through a giant pizza-slice cutout that stands in a landscape of toppings and mozzarella. These attractions are also there to make money - a number of pop-up experiences are themed according to a sponsoring brand's identity and are heavily badged with company logos and hashtags. Theirs is an act of consumptive reification rather than one of enquiry - of entertainment and not art. Recently, I was bowled over to discover that one venue in New York charges US$40 admission - substantially more than the much-maligned entrance fee of the Museum of Modern Art.

The combination of late capitalism and a culture of aspiration has led to the privileging of experience, what business entrepreneurs B. Joseph Pine II and James Gilmore called "the Experience Economy."

As they saw it, this consumerfocused epoch evolved out of the service economy, with successful businesses borrowing from theatre to stage and perform their products in order to generate an emotional response in the consumer. Mr. Pine and Mr. Gilmore published their book The Experience Economy back in 1999 - the iPhone hadn't been invented yet, and social media was still in its infancy.

Twenty years on, much of what they proposed or foreshadowed is fully in evidence on Instagram: from acrobatic yoga poses (#yogaeverydamnday) to humblebrag beach vacations (#sorrynotsorry) to gratuitous shots of wellpresented entrées (#foodporn).

If the Experience Economy relies on theatricality, then with each post a user performs a glimpse of their online persona, sending #FOMO waves of jealousy rippling through the ether.

In the art world, Instagram has become the social-media platform of choice for artists, curators and collectors because its strengths as a digital network reinforce and extend the conversations across global networks. Like the internet in general and all social-media platforms, it connects people, but it also does so visually.

You can see art from remote places and keep track of different exhibitions, biennials and fairs that either are too great in number or involve too big a jet-setting carbon footprint to attend. You can gain insight into an artist's practice or their production and, as the platform is relatively mature, you can search an incredibly vast image and video archive using hashtags. Instagram also maintains a relatively democratic ethos, allowing anyone with a smartphone to join and participate, giving individual artists and curators voices alongside the institutions of art.

But as a curatorial research tool, Instagram is also hampered by its nature as a social network.

Content is rapid-fire and - once you've double-tapped "like" on a particular image - is also pretty much disposable. Just as you wouldn't use Google Images to research an exhibition, Instagram tends to attract a certain type of user-generated content based on likes, hashtags and followers.

Most of the time, posts are images which look spectacular or ridiculous or humorous, even more so with photo filters (including bunny ears). It's hard to find a moment of concentration among the infinite scroll of visual hyperbole.

Unlike Pinterest, the social network popular for grouping images onto virtual mood boards and sharing them, Instagram is geared toward the incessant production of new content, rather than how content can be productively organized and made relevant.

Worse still, in 2016, the year Instagram overtook Twitter in popularity, it introduced an algorithm for "personalizing" content for users. Instead of displaying images in the reverse chronological order of their posting: "the order of photos and videos in your feed will be based on the likelihood you'll be interested in the content, your relationship with the person posting and the timeliness of the post." If content bias wasn't already inherent in the social network, this change formalized an echo chamber - posts by the people one follows are not treated equally. Instagram is curating our feeds. Thus, the potential for making new discoveries is increasingly minimal. If I'm looking for emerging artists and unique artworks - precisely what my friends, peers and social circle are not looking at - my filter bubble basically excludes any chance of serendipitous discovery.

But isn't there a whole generation of artists making Instagram art? It's true that numerous artists have a social-media presence and some may have even found influencer levels of success by obtaining large numbers of followers.

However, most artists aren't interested in making their actual artwork (as opposed to images of it) contingent on a digital platform owned by a private multinational corporation, never mind the conservational considerations of maintaining the 2019 hardware and software to run it. Only five years have passed since the term "postinternet art" was coined and it has already fallen out of use, even though the ideas behind it - art made about the effect of the internet - are increasingly relevant, if normalized. Amalia Ulman (@amaliaulman) is probably the best-known artist to have made artwork on Instagram that has also become a photographic success in the physical gallery. But as a kind of behavioural readymade that replicates a widespread behaviour on the app, her voyeuristic selfies emulate the kind of fictive malaise of aspirational posting. Forget postinternet - it seems we're still stuck in postmodernism.

While some people say we live in an age of screens, I actually think the age we live in has less to do with surfaces. Screens on their own are just black glass, just an interface; it's the relationships and experiences they facilitate that matter. Art is about how we relate to each other and the world around us; if social media is the 2010s version of these relationships, then of course it has a place in and around art. Artists have always been concerned with the viewer's experience of the artwork, and they are of course the first viewers of their work. How a visiting public experiences artworks and what they choose to interact with (and take photos of) might be beyond the artists' control. The question for museum curatorial and programming teams is how to successfully balance artistic integrity with popularity, how to lead rather than follow.

In an age of increasing inattention, what the museum offers is a space of solace. This is sometimes a space for contemplation and appreciation, but can also be a space for social change. What I love about experiencing art is its potential for challenging how we think about the world; it's not necessarily something that you (double-tap) like. You also can't experience this while you're picking which filter to use or trying to fix the auto-correct of an artist's name as hashtag. On average, a museum or gallery visitor spends a shockingly quick 15 to 30 seconds looking at an artwork, while an Instagram post surely scrolls past in less than a second. I think that alongside our most immersive and experiential exhibitions, museums should also offer a device-free day - to encourage people to look closer and with sustained attention, even if for a few more seconds.

Associated Graphic

The Museum of Ice Cream, which opened in New York in 2016, features giant popsicles, a banana room and a sprinkle pool.

KELLY SULLIVAN/GETTY IMAGES FOR MUSEUM OF ICE CREAM

Happy Place in Toronto is just one of the many venues - some permanent, others temporary or travelling - that bring together immersive, hypercolour themed rooms that appeal to users of Instagram and other social media platforms.

MELISSA TAIT/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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THE ONCE AND FUTURE MOON
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Since Neil Armstrong's 'one small step for man' in 1969, humans have trod on only a small part of the lunar surface. Now, the moon is attracting a new generation of space explorers and entrepreneurs
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By IVAN SEMENIUK
  
  

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Friday, July 12, 2019 – Page A8

Next month, Christy Caudill, a doctoral student at the University of Western Ontario, will be playing the part of a robot as she picks her way across a rock-strewn terrain of hardened and broken lava. She and her team will carry a set of scientific instruments built to examine the geology of another world. At the same time, in a mission control room in London, Ont., other colleagues will study the images and data streaming in from those instruments, as though they are receiving them from the Schrodinger basin, a 320 kilometre wide impact crater on the far side of the moon that has attracted the attention of planetary scientists because of its intriguing volcanic features.

For two weeks, both sides of the exercise will be immersed in a simulation called CanMoon, designed to test procedures for operating a Canadian-built lunar rover. Only after a 10 hour shift each day will Ms. Caudill and her colleagues allow themselves to remember that they are on Lanzarote, one of the Canary Islands, which features some of the same rock types as the rover's potential landing site.

"It's all about gaining insight into how people think when they're seeing through the rover's eyes and to really discern what's going on as they try to meet their mission goals," said Ms. Caudill, a veteran of several previous simulations. "As far as I'm concerned, we won't be on Lanzarote, we'll be on the moon."

That sense of actuality reflects the moon's recent return to prominence as a destination for space explorers, almost 50 years after Neil Armstrong and Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin stepped and hopped across its surface.

For Ms. Caudill, who has participated in real-life robotic missions to Mars, there is a certain wistfulness in this. As a scientist, Mars is undeniably her destination of choice, she said. But human missions to Mars remain a distant goal fraught with unsolved challenges, including what to do about the heavy doses of radiation astronauts will be exposed to during a long interplanetary flight.

The moon has the advantage of being Earth's celestial companion. While it is still a thousand times farther than the International Space Station (ISS), it presents more manageable risks for humans and a genuine business case for entrepreneurs looking for a stake in the next phase of space exploration.

Already this year there is a sense of acceleration toward the moon. In January, China became the first country to place an unmanned lander on the moon's far side, another step toward its own manned mission. In June, India launched its first lunar lander. And in April, SpaceIL, an Israeli non-profit, narrowly missed becoming the first privately funded organization to successfully place a spacecraft on the moon's surface. All of this suggests that after years of uncertainty about where deep-space exploration is heading, the extraterrestrial compass needle is swinging back toward Earth's nearest neighbour. And unlike what happened after the Apollo program ended, the politics, economics and technology of space are lining up for something more permanent.

"The way in which it continues to be discussed is that we're not going to go back to visit, we're going to stay this time," said Mike Greenley, president of MDA, which built and supports the Canadarm 2 aboard the ISS.

MDA is now part of Coloradobased Maxar Technologies, the company recently tapped by NASA to supply the first component of a smaller orbiting space station called the Lunar Gateway.

In February, Canada became the first country to commit to the Gateway as an international partner. MDA is a leading contender to build Canada's contribution: a more autonomous, artificial-intelligence-guided version of the arm that currently appears on the back of the $5 bill.

But while the Gateway - like the ISS before it - is expected to grow gradually through international agreements between national space agencies, the real catalysts in the new push toward the moon are the increasing ranks of private companies looking to do it for themselves. "As the Earth's economic sphere grows, people are realizing the moon is an asset," said Christian Sallaberger, president and chief executive of Canadensys Aerospace, a space-technology company based in Bolton, Ont., that has seen moon-related projects taking up a growing share of its business.

LESSONS LEARNED Poets and engineers alike have reflected on the enduring allure of the moon. Once a metaphor for the unattainable, it became an ever-present focus in the early days of space flight, as the United States and the Soviet Union vied to be the first to land humans on the lunar surface. So intense was the race that it's hard to imagine how the first chapter of space exploration would have unfolded had fate not provided Earthlings with such a visible and tantalizing prize.

As the U.S. Apollo program wound down after six manned landings from 1969 to 1972, NASA moved on to the space shuttle and then the ISS. The new theatre of operation was low Earth orbit, and the new paradigm was all about making space routine accessible to many more individuals from many more countries, including Canada. Over the years, this second chapter of space history had its share of tragedies and setbacks. Yet, its outcomes have included almost two decades of continuous human presence in orbit, along with some key lessons about how the next chapter is likely to unfold.

The first lesson is about the importance of robots. This comes courtesy of the Canadarm 2, which has become indispensable to operations on the ISS. When the arm was still on the drawing board in the 1990s, some were skeptical that it would be of much use after the station was complete. Now, it seems to be used for almost everything, including catching visiting spacecraft. According to MDA, the past three-month period has been among the busiest in the Canadarm's history.

"We've learned a lot of things operating a robot on the station for the past 18 years," said Gilles Leclerc, director-general of space exploration for the Canadian Space Agency.

Canada's track record with the arm has set the stage for its contribution to the Lunar Gateway.

But the second lesson to come from the space-station era, the expanding role of the private sector as an accelerator of space exploration, is having an even

larger impact. The trend began in 2006, when NASA, already looking to decommission its fleet of space shuttles after two disastrous accidents, began inviting industry players to take over the job of ferrying supplies to the ISS.

This opened the door to a new cadre of space service companies, including Elon Musk's SpaceX.

Using the same blueprint, NASA recently awarded contracts to three companies to carry scientific payloads to the moon in the next two years. One of them, Pittsburgh-based Astrobotic Technology, has also inked an agreement with Canadensys to send some of the Ontario company's gear to the lunar surface. The developments are a further sign that the envelope of commercial activity in space is expanding and that entrepreneurs are getting serious about developing their lunar strategies.

DOUBLE VISIONS Canada's decision to join the Lunar Gateway project came after months of lobbying from the industry as well as from NASA chief administrator Jim Bridenstine. Yet, within weeks of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announcing the commitment, the White House appeared to upend the entire plan by declaring that it wanted American astronauts walking on the lunar surface again by 2024 - the final year of what would be U.S. President Donald Trump's second term.

The announcement caught even NASA by surprise and it raised questions in Canada about whether the Gateway had effectively been sidelined by politics.

Last month, NASA unveiled a retooled moon program to follow through on the Trump directive.

Symbolically dubbed "Artemis" - the twin sister of Apollo in Greek mythology - the plan explicitly includes landing the first woman on the moon as part of its inaugural crew. The news immediately attracted more attention than the Gateway, which is designed to operate for long stretches without any human presence.

Despite this split objective, Mr.

Leclerc said the message from NASA is that Canada's contribution to the Gateway is still needed by its originally planned 2025 delivery date - and sooner if possible. One reason is that it still requires a significant amount of energy to fly straight to the lunar surface and back. In such a mission scenario, even the fuel for the return trip has to be brought down to the landing site and lifted back up again. Apollo missions got around this by sending a combined lander and an orbiter to the moon. For Artemis, the plan includes docking with the Gateway as the transfer point for astronauts en route to a lunar landing.

There are serious questions about whether NASA can make the 2024 deadline for its U.S.-only lunar landing. For one thing, the lander itself has not yet been designed and tested. And it is easy to imagine how budget battles with Congress or a change in administration could delay the plan.

The Gateway also has its detractors, but proponents say that if the overarching goal of the lunar program is establishing a long-term presence beyond low Earth orbit, then an orbiting platform that can serve as a test bed for deep-space missions is the way to go. That perception is reinforced by expectations that Europe, Japan and Russia will join the United States and Canada as partners in the Gateway, which would make the project harder to kill.

"History has shown that international collaboration fosters a more persistent activity," MDA's Mr. Greenley said.

WHEELS ON THE GROUND At the same time, businesses that are looking to the moon as an economic opportunity are not waiting for the Gateway to be built and are not thinking only of lunar orbit. For example, next month, Canadensys will begin road-testing a wheel designed for a lunar rover. The test involves hours of rolling the wheel on a turntable covered with simulated lunar soil. Similar projects are under way by aerospace companies looking to develop moonready hardware, including cameras, sensors and drills.

To boost Canada's presence in the expanding moon market and its technological spinoffs, this year's federal budget included a $150-million injection dubbed the Lunar Exploration Accelerator Program (LEAP). In the first stage of the program, Mr. Leclerc said that as of last month, the space agency had received more than a hundred pitches from various companies and collaborations, of which a smaller number will be invited to submit formal proposals.

Scientists, too, are anticipating new opportunities for lunar exploration. While the moon is not Mars, it is full of mysteries that have lingered since the Apollo era. Over the years, researchers have developed long lists of possible landing sites they would like to explore - with both robotic and manned spacecraft. The missions would combine two research goals: studying the moon's long-preserved geologic record for clues to the deep history of Earth and the rest of the solar system; and sussing out resources that could be valuable to an expanding lunar community, including ice near the moon's poles and gases such as hydrogen and oxygen, which could be trapped in minerals and used for energy and life support.

This is why next month's CanMoon simulation in Lanzarote, run jointly by Western and the University of Winnipeg, was designed with a specific mission opportunity in mind. That mission, known as Heracles, would be a combined European, Japanese and Canadian effort to put a small lander with a rover on the moon in the coming decade, once the Gateway is in place.

For Cassandra Marion, a PhD student at Western who is managing the simulation, the exercise is not just about developing technologies and procedures, but above all about producing a cohort of Canadian-trained scientists who are qualified to run lunar missions.

Whether those missions are done in partnership with other countries or as private ventures, she said, "we'll have people to donate to the cause." Join science reporter Ivan Semeniuk and a panel of experts for a live discussion about Canada's future on the moon, this coming Monday at 7 p.m. (ET) at The Globe and Mail Centre in Toronto (free for subscribers). Register at tgam.ca/experiences.

Associated Graphic

Top: This lander model will be part of a joint European, Japanese and Canadian robotic mission, Heracles, going to the moon in the next decade.

ESA/ATG MEDIALAB

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Correction

A Friday news feature on the moon landing incorrectly said India's first lunar lander was launched in June.


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Monday, July 15, 2019 – Page B15

JOHN RONALD BRUCE "Jack"

Passed away at 81 years of age in Guelph, ON, on July 12, 2019.

Beloved husband of 57 years of Carol and cherished dad and father-in-law of Lesley and David Chernos, John and Heather, and Paul and Kristen. Adored grandpa of Naomi, Mattie, Betsy, Alex, Charlotte, Kaleigh and Emily.

Jack was born in Elora as a much loved son of Jean and Reg and brother to Joanne Harris.

A University of Toronto, McMaster and California (Berkeley) graduate, Jack was a dedicated teacher and enthusiastic coach for many years at Centennial C.V.I.

In memory of Jack please build a basement fort with your children, paddle and portage a canoe, perfect your loon and moose call, run up Mole Hill, sing joyfully and walk on a beach. Laugh heartily with new and old friends, cook and relish a wonderful meal and follow with keen interest your grandchildren's lives. Most importantly, look at your wife with the same light in your eyes as the day you met her and tell your family and friends you love them.

The family is grateful for all the support received from staff of ParaMed, Bayshore, Arbour Trails, Guelph General Hospital and Hospice Wellington. A family memorial service will be held at a later date.

KARYN KALEF

Peacefully on Friday, July 12,2019 surrounded by family. Karyn Kalef. Caring daughter of Shirley and Marvin Latchman and Daughter-in-law Shirley Sobel and Cheryl Kalef and the late Harvey Kalef. Beloved wife of Randy.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Shael and Jennifer Kalef, Ryan and Jessica Kalef, Jared Kalef, and Laura Kalef and Daniel Kornblum.

Dear sister of Linda Stein and Eric Mack, and Wendy Teperman and Bobby Grossman. Devoted grandmother of Logan, Alyssa, Noah, and Makenna Kalef. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, July 15, 2019 at 2:30 p.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park.Memorial donations may be made to The Karyn Kalef Memorial Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324.

IAN D. MACPHERSON

July 20, 1934 July 10, 2019 Dad left life's dance floor with gentle grace, smiling goodbye to all who had accompanied him. We will fondly remember his Lancaster shuffle. Dad hoped growing old would take longer, but his dance with cancer over the past six years caused the music to stop. Life for Dad was not about accomplishments (although there were many), his life was about celebrating cherished moments with family and friends. He was always there for those that needed him and was a business mentor to many. His life-long passion for waterfowl hunting and fishing began on the St. Lawrence River in Lancaster. Sharing these activities with family and friends, along with crib and tall tales, continued right up to the end. Dad gave back more than he took by raising money for wetland preservation through Ducks Unlimited for 35 years. He felt his greatest blessings were his four children, Heather (Ed), Lori, Jody, and David (Sylvia).

Dad thanked us for being who we are and gave us unlimited love, respect, inspiration, values, and guidance. He was Bapa to Megan, Riley, Bronte, Taylor, Graydon and Jude, all of whom he adored.

Also important to Dad were his stepdaughter Trish, her husband Greg, and his niece Shelley MacPherson of Ottawa. Dad loved spending hours restoring antiques, bringing them back to their original beauty and sharing them with all. He will be remembered by his many friends for his hard work, his kindness, wonderful sense of humour and stories, which endeared him to anybody he met.

He never heard a pun that he could not expand upon. He was an avid skier and part of the community at Caledon Ski Club and played tennis until the end. Dad is survived by his lovely wife, soulmate, and best friend Johanna and by his first wife of 40 years who he also loved very much, Jean, wonderful mother of Heather, Lori, Jody, and David. At Dad's request there will be no funeral service but rather a Celebration of Life at a date to be determined.

Details will be available on w w w. fo r r e s t a n d t a y l o r . c o m If the measure of a good life is that it is lived for others, then Dad lived a wonderful life. We are better people for knowing him.

Memorial donations to Southlake Regional Health Centre Foundation: Regional Cancer Programs or Delta Waterfowl would be appreciatedbythefamily. Memorial condolences may be made at http://www.forrestandtaylor.com

G. LORNE MCMORRAN

G. Lorne McMorran died on Saturday, July 13, 2019 at the age of 88 years old with his family by his side. He leaves behind his wife Barbara, his two daughters, Deborah (& partner Jim), Valerie (& husband Bruno) and his two grandchildren, Sarah and David.

Brother of four surviving siblings, Marilyn, Alvin, Carol and Gloria, Lorne will be fondly remembered by his family and friends as loving husband and father as well as forty prideful years as a practicing dentist and Professor of Dentistry at U. of T.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, July 17th. Condolences may be forwarded through: http://www.humphreymiles.com.

PAUL HARTLEY PALMER FCPA, FCA

1934 - 2019

It is with great sadness the family of Paul Palmer announces his passing on Thursday, July 11, 2019. Paul died peacefully in his home at Amica Bayview Gardens, with family and his beloved dog Pandy, with him.

Paul was born in Barrie, Ontario to Goldie (née Grey) Palmer and Hartley Ramsay Palmer. Paul is lovingly remembered by his sons Tony (Donna) and Ian Palmer, daughter Heather Palmer, step sons Rob and Bill (Kim) Leak and his grandchildren Emily, Will, Mac, Hayley and Charlie.

He always said he felt lucky to have fallen in love twice, first to Mary (nee Breckenridge) Palmer (1936-1989) and then to Catherine (nee Dauphinee) Leak.

Paul went to Barrie District Collegiate Institute and was among the first group of students to graduate the Bachelor of Commerce program at University of McMaster in 1955. Upon graduation he joined Clarkson, Gordon & Co in Toronto and in 1959 he graduated from the Ontario Institute of Chartered Accountants. In 1962 he left Clarkson, Gordon to hold senior executive positions at York Steel Construction, Kilmer Van Nostrand Co. Limited, Denison Mines and a collection of wholly and partly owned subsidiary companies.

In 1976, he joined Norcen Energy Resources, moved to Calgary, Alberta in 1985 and retired as Chief Financial Officer in 1995.

Paul was a mathematical whiz who was honoured as a fellow twice: Fellow of the Certified Professional Accountants (FCPA) and Fellow of the Chartered Accountants (FCA). He also shared his accounting and business skills as Chairman of the Canadian Accounting Standards Board, being a major force in revising and re-writing the modern standards that exist today. After retirement Paul sat on several Boards.

Paul was passionate about golf.

He started young, and while he played all over the world, he most enjoyed his courses and golf friends in Florida, Toronto, Calgary and Muskoka. However, he always had the greater good in his heart, and was instrumental in the conversion of a golf course to Earl Bales Park, which is the largest public park in North York, actively enjoyed by families yearround.

Above all else, Paul was a family man. He loved unconditionally and was fiercely proud of his children, in particular the manner in which they love and support each other. All who knew Paul would comment on his quick witted, often subtle, somewhat zany sense of humour and tendency towards practical jokes. The stories are plentiful as laughter was the medicine for everything, even at the end of life.

Paul was supported by a wonderful care team from Amica Bayview Gardens, Living Assistance Services, VHA Home Healthcare, Randi Lazarus Companion Care and Dr. Nunes Vaz. Special mention goes to Titzia and her team who supported the ability for Pandy to continue to live with Paul. Thank you to all.

A Celebration of Remembrance (aka story sharing and belly laughing) will be held at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, July 23, 2019 at Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville). A private family internment will immediately follow at Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, if desired, a donation can be made to a charity of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

THE HONOURABLE LORRAINE GOTLIB PATERSON Q.C.

Lorraine passed away peacefully on July 9, 2019 at Leaside Retirement Home, at the age of 88. Predeceased by her husband, Christopher B. Paterson, and her sisters Dorothy (Sydney) Gordon Buck and Gert (Irving) Neamtan. Dear stepmother to Susan (Martin), Douglas (Donna), and Claire (Cameron) Reed. Nana to Kristin, Alex, Kelsey, Reed, and Corby. Aunt to Paula (Larry) Goldenberg, Stuart (Louise) Gordon, Karen (Howard) Gordon, Donna (Charles) Gordon Zuckerman, Susan Gordon, Janet (Rod) O'Reilly, Judith (Rick) Neamtan, and Nancy (Victor) Neamtan. Great-aunt to 10 nieces and nephews.

Lorraine received a B.A. from University College in 1952, and an LL.B. from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1959. She was called to the Ontario Bar in 1959, and became a partner at McMillan, Binch and then Kingsmill, Jennings.

She was appointed Queen's Counsel 1973, and was awarded the Jubilee Medal in 1977. She was appointed a judge of the Ontario District Court, served on the General Division of the Ontario Court of Justice and, after her judicial career, as a member of the federal Pension Appeals Board.

Lorraine's professional and personal accomplishments were remarkable.

She was a trailblazer in the legal profession, and the first woman to be elected President of the Ontario Bar Association. She held many volunteer positions, including the Ontario College of Art and the Board of Trade of Metropolitan Toronto, and was a member of the Women's Law Association of Ontario, the Medico-Legal Society of Toronto, the Empire Club of Canada, the Royal Canadian Yacht Club, and the Toronto Golf Club, among others.

Lorraine had many interests, such as skiing, piano, languages, and horseback riding. She arranged picnic trips to the theatre in Stratford and Niagara-onthe-Lake. She loved music, taking her grandchildren to "The Nutcracker," and providing them with dance and violin lessons. Lorraine accepted her increasing frailties with grace and dignity, keeping her good humour right to the end. The family will hold a private cremation. Friends and family are invited to a reception at the Rosedale Golf Club on July 25, 2019 from 4-6 pm. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Lorraine's name to Parkinson Canada.

ROBERT PLASHKES

Peacefully at Sunnybrook Hospital on July 13, 2019, surrounded by loving family. Caring husband of the late Ethna Ann Plashkes and the late Yaffa Fremes. Loving and devoted father of Ron and Dan, daughters-in-law Elizabeth and Julie. Dedicated and adoring grandfather to Simon, Tova and Grant, Jonathan, Sandy, Jackie, and Natasha. Great-grandfather to Ephraim. He will be very deeply missed and fondly remembered by his friends and colleagues in Toronto and San Diego. Robbie's parenting, mentorship, and legacy will survive many generations. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, July 16,2019 at 10:00 a.m.

Interment in the Community section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva at 10 Old York Mills Road, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to the Plashkes Family Endowement Fund c/o North York General Hospital, 416-756-6944.

DR. BARNEY SEETNER

On Friday, July 12, 2019 at Sunnybrook Hospital.

Beloved husband of Pearl.

Loving father and father-inlaw of Avie and Aida Seetner, Mita and Andy Hoffer, Carolyn and Dennis Kalish, Jenine Seetner. Devoted grandfather of Michelle and Guy, Jordan and Ashley, Elliot, Darryl, Ronnie, Eva and Yitzi, and Julie, and great-grandfather of Ethan, Emunah, Eliana, and J.J. Dear brother of the late Sam Seetner. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday, July 15,2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 72 Sawley Drive, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to Magen David Adom, (416) 780-0034.


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DIVIDED LOYALTIES
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Watching the Hong Kong protests from afar, Kevin Chong reflects on how the demonstrations are exposing tensions between Canadians of Chinese descent
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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O3

Kevin Chong is the author of six books, most recently The Plague, and a dual citizen of Canada and Hong Kong.

Watching the recent student-led protests in Hong Kong, I thought about my dad. Although he emigrated to Canada in 1977, and was Canadian enough to play host to Grey Cup parties and drink Tim Hortons, a piece of his heart remained in the former British colony that shaped his identity.

Returning to his Facebook profile, which I've kept hidden since he passed away five years ago, I see his political views described as "anti-commy" - anti-Communist. I was a teenager on June 4, 1989, when students campaigning for democracy were violently subdued by Chinese military forces in Beijing. My father tried getting me to attend an event in support of the students. I don't recall the reason I gave for declining - at 13, hanging out with my dad felt equally as awkward as going to a candlelit vigil - but I remember his reaction. "I guess you see yourself as Canadian," he said with resignation.

This week in Hong Kong, protesters have achieved their goal of scuttling a contentious extradition bill in its legislature, which detractors consider a Trojan horse that exposes Hong Kongers to Beijing's party-controlled legal system. (Hong Kong is currently insulated from the China's more onerous restrictions on civil rights through a "One Country, Two Systems" policy that runs until 2047 but which nevertheless feels threatened by efforts like the extradition bill.) On Tuesday, Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam declared the bill "dead" - although Ms. Lam's ambiguous wording in Cantonese, and the relentlessness of the Chinese Communist Party, mean no end to the struggle.

I have little doubt Dad would be cheering on the protesters.

But not all Chinese Canadians are pleased. And I'm curious about what he'd make of the diversity of opinions about these protests among the nearly 1.8 million Canadians of Chinese descent - the largest non-white population in the country - and how these fractures expose generational and subethnic tensions that are complicated by our experiences in the East and West.

For many of us, butting out, claiming we don't have a role in the issue, might be considered an honourable attitude - if our support weren't being courted. In June, Hong Kong activists raised more than a million dollars to post newspaper ads seeking international support for their movement. Christopher Chien, a Hong Kong-born Canadian and academic, no longer feels unwelcome weighing in on issues relating to his city of birth. "It's interesting that there's more of this transpacific solidarity," he notes.

"Local Hong Kong people want to make these ties. And Hong Kong diaspora are feeling more welcome."

Meanwhile, the Hong Kong government has also found (or perhaps sought) support overseas. Ads were placed in both Vancouver Chinese-language dailies that criticized the protesters as "radicals" threatening Hong Kong's prosperity. Signed by more than 200 Chinese-Canadian groups in Vancouver, the notice was paid for by Chinese Benevolent Association of Vancouver (CBA).

I default to taking the side of my cousins who marched in Hong Kong. Stories of relatives tortured by Communist soldiers make up our family folklore. Indeed, immigrants from Hong Kong, especially those who came in the 1990s before the 1997 handover of the city to China, form the majority of the support for local pro-protester groups.

Those with deeper ties to mainland China, either newer immigrants or those who arrived during the Cultural Revolution, are seemingly more likely to back the Beijing-controlled Hong Kong government.

"As Hong Kongers, our values are different from those of mainland China," observes Mabel Tung, the chair of the Vancouver Society in Support of Democratic Movement. "We already had freedom when we were born. We were no different from Canadians. Unlike the people from mainland China."

This distancing from mainland Chinese evokes tensions in Vancouver, where the most recent wave of Chinese immigration has been blamed for unaffordable real estate and money laundering, and has created a sense of disenfranchisement among other populations - including Chinese from earlier waves of migration.

Ms. Tung suggests that mistrust of the Chinese Communist Party motivates many Hong Kong Canadians in her group, which recently organized two events that, in total, united nearly 3,000 democracy supporters in Vancouver.

At one of these pro-democracy events in Vancouver, with its programming entirely in Cantonese, Leo Yu began to wonder how a younger, broader group of Asian diaspora members could support the students and their democratic aims. A conversation among friends resulted in an open letter, written with three peers and published in the Toronto Star under the byline Asian Diaspora for Hong Kong.

The letter invokes their identities as Asian "settlers" in Canada and further denounces China's "human-rights abuses," including the detainment of more than a million Muslims. "The Baby Boomer generation of Chinese Canadians needs to realize that young people see global issues through an intersectional lens," explains Mr. Yu, whose parents were raised in Hong Kong.

For Hubert Yiu, the Hong Kong-born president of the Chinese Benevolent Association, the freedom and democracy extolled by Asian Diaspora for Hong Kong are Western concepts that can't be superimposed on a Chinese issue. In the top floor of an old Chinatown walk-up hang centuryold portraits of the six founders of his organization, which since 1906 has advocated for voting rights and appealed racist immigration laws. The group currently organizes Chinatown community events such as the annual spring festival.

"We cannot use Western political systems in China," Mr. Yiu says. Among the supporters of the Hong Kong government, economic prosperity and stability are key arguments, with the city already negatively affected by the U.S.-China trade war.

Social media further inflames disagreements, confirming biases. A friend opposed to the protests sent me a Facebook-sourced clip of a protester throwing "acid bombs" at the police. Conversely, activists warn of China's ability to create reality through their iron grip of the Chinese media.

After watching a video clip of a Hong Kong police officer attacked by "10 or 15" protesters, Mr. Yiu felt compelled to issue a statement. The CBA statement urges Chinese Canadians to come together "based on the idea of blood being thicker than water" to "[oppose] any separatist attempts by extremist groups."

While Mr. Yiu says that his group receives no funding from Chinese government groups, Eleanor Yuen, a member of prodemocracy group Vancouver Hong Kong Forum Society, suggests that the clan associations and freemason groups that signed the letter have "very intense links to China."

Ms. Yuen is a retired librarian at UBC's Asian Library who emigrated from Hong Kong in 1990.

While she and Mr. Yiu share a birth city, their identification with Hong Kong differs drastically. The CBA president sees himself as a Chinese-Canadian and Hong Kong as a part of China.

When asked about her identity, Ms. Yuen describes herself as a "Canadian first and foremost," but continues to label herself as a "Hong Kong-Canadian. My formative years were in Hong Kong but my values are very Canadian.

And I think it's very typical of people who came around my time."

The notion of Hong Kong identity originates from around the time of the 1997 handover. A 2014 poll of 810 Hong Kong Chinese saw those who identified as "Hong Kongers" nearly triple the number of respondents who described themselves as "Chinese."

This past summer, I've seen Hong Kong patriotism play out in the social media of my extended family. A younger cousin posted a series of images that illustrated the differences between Hong Kongers and mainlanders. One image shows a man bowing in front of a Chinese Communist official. Under it a caption that reads: "Chinese love to be enslaved and manipulated by the Chinese Communist Party." By contrast, the image of the communist official standing next to a figure raising their middle finger bears a caption suggesting that Hong Kongers are a threat to the Hong Kong government and the Chinese Communist Party.

"The rush to be starkly xenophobic and nativist - that feels part of the youth culture [in Hong Kong]," observes Christopher Chien, whose doctoral thesis at the University of Southern California concerns Hong Kong's Cold War relationship with the United States.

While Mr. Chien is supportive of the protest movement as a whole, he's troubled by the "scattershot" way in which student protesters solicited the support from Donald Trump for outside intervention and what he sees as a "middle-class Han" - the predominant Chinese ethnic group - "movement." He uses the example of the Vietnamese refugee crisis in the 1980s - when refugees were detained in prison camps until they could be repatriated - as an example of how abuse of ethnic minorities has been overlooked.

"I've seen stories about the 'police state' - people's bags being searched," Mr. Chien adds.

"Ethnic minorities, queers, poor people have been stopped and asked for ID for decades. Many Hong Kong people are only aligned against the police now because they are being included in the brutality."

In contrast to Mr. Yiu's critique of the protesters, Mr. Chien's take on the protests is informed by principles of social justice. Like Mr. Chien, a Canadian-born friend of mine living in Hong Kong says that this activism fails to address more urgent issues: That Hong Kong is a place of great inequality, and that people should push for higher minimum wage, public housing, and residency for migrant workers.

My friend is also wary of the naiveté of protesters, many of them born after the handover, who nostalgically invoke Hong Kong's past by waving the Union Jack under the mistaken belief that colonial rule was more democratic.

As a Hong Kong-born Canadian, navigating issues of affordability and inequality in Vancouver, I can't escape viewing this situation with my Western lens. But after some thought, I think, is that really wrong? I know enough about Hong Kong to realize that a dual perspective, in a city with 300,000 residents who hold Canadian passports, is not unusual.

"Immigration is not just a migration of people," Eleanor Yuen says, "it's a migration of ideas.

When people choose to immigrate to Canada, their mentality has been changed because of their Canadian experience."

In my daily life, I like to think that my own emotional reserve stems in part from my cultural heritage. I resist complaining in order to to preserve group harmony. When I suggest that Confucian attitudes might result in pro-government support, Fenella Sung, a member of the pro-democracy group Canadian Friends of Hong Kong, tells me how "in Chinese culture, you respect those in authority; even if you think they're wrong, you don't challenge them."

The trouble with respecting authority is that "it sucks you into a black hole so you don't dare to express your own opinion."

Adds Ms. Sung: "I would say that's one great challenge for people like myself. In terms of fundamental issues, I feel I have to stick up for myself and those who don't have a voice. And that's the Canadian side of me."

In sticking up for themselves, then, are Hong Kongers expressing a less traditionally Chinese way of being?

Looking at my father's Facebook profile picture, taken from a trip we took to Hong Kong and Shanghai in 2009, I recall how he engaged his identity during that visit. China was a place to practise his Mandarin and visit historical sites that he knew from classical literature. But Hong Kong was about personal history. Riding the train in Kowloon, he pointed out the old Lutheran school where he taught English.

In a red taxi, we passed the bank that he once managed.

It was my first trip to my city of birth as an adult. I'd left for Canada before I'd turned 2 and, dragged from place to place by my parents as a teenager, Hong Kong had felt like an endless shopping mall. Through my father's eyes, I saw in the skyscrapers and neon a place of memory, a place with stories - a place that lived in my blood.

Associated Graphic

Anti-extradition-bill protesters march to West Kowloon Express Rail Link Station in Hong Kong's tourism district on July 7.

TYRONE SIU/REUTERS

Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Canadian sex experts are demystifying the male libido
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Researchers refute the myth that men are insatiable robots who are always fired up and ready for the bedroom
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By ZOSIA BIELSKI
  
  

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Tuesday, July 23, 2019 – Page A12

Although sex researchers historically gave male subjects centre stage, they paid surprisingly little attention to how men actually desire. Today, contemporary sexologists say our cultural understanding of men's sex drive remains simplistic and leans on old clichés - that male libido is always sky-high, self-centred and ready to go, with practically anyone. Men who aren't this way are still treated as exceptions, not the rule.

Canadian researchers and clinicians are starting to push back on these ideas by asking deeper questions about the inner world of male desire. They're looking at how heterosexual men lust (and don't) within their relationships, what motivates them to have sex with their partners, what frustrates them in their intimate lives and how they process rejection from the women they love. What they're finding counters much of what's been previously assumed about men.

"We've got this stereotype about men's desire being constant and unwavering. More recently, we've got #MeToo highlighting stories of men's sexual desire being dangerous, toxic and about power. But what else is going on?" said Winnipeg relationships therapist Sarah Hunter Murray.

Murray interviewed nearly 300 men and spoke to hundreds more over a decade in her therapy practice - executives, truck drivers, athletes, teachers and dads among them. Their insights are included in Murray's recent book, Not Always in The Mood: The New Science of Men, Sex, and Relationships, which offers a rare glimpse into a world we think we understand, but possibly don't at all.

Notably absent from Murray's book are the usual tales of raging male libido. One husband is too stressed out by the family business to think about sex. A boyfriend turns down his girlfriend's advances for two months as he dwells on an unresolved argument. Another husband tells Murray his sexual interest piques when he and his wife talk late into the night. In her conversations with men, Murray found a male desire that's less voracious, indiscriminate and skin deep, and more emotionally complex - fragile, even.

While Murray offers a strikingly new perspective on heterosexual male sex drive, other Canadian researchers are studying men's sexual problems in longterm committed relationships. In Halifax, clinical psychologist Natalie Rosen is looking at why men experience low desire with their partners. At the University of Waterloo, PhD student Siobhan Sutherland is exploring male and female partners' sexual complaints, which happen to be the same. And at the University of Kentucky, Canadian researcher Kristen Mark mines "sexual desire discrepancy" in couples, finding it's sometimes wives and girlfriends who are more interested in sex than husbands and boyfriends - guys who find this scenario particularly troubling because of social expectations about the supposedly more carnal male gender.

Their emerging research suggests serious blind spots around male desire are harming relationships and holding couples back from broaching what they want in their intimate lives.

"If we ignore the nuances of sexual desire in men, we risk continuing to perpetuate stereotypes - that men's sexual interest is uniformly high and independent of context - to the detriment of the many men whose experiences are multifaceted," said Halifax's Rosen. "In enhancing our understanding of men's sexual desire, we can improve individual and couple sexuality and ultimately promote the quality of intimate relationships."

The Globe and Mail spoke to researchers - and men - about busting the most pernicious myths lingering around male desire.

NOT IN THE MOOD Despite stereotypical depictions in pop culture, real-world men aren't always fired up.

"The myth is that men are a sex toy that you can pull out of your closet and it's always ready to go when you are. Well, no, that's not actually the case," said CJ, a 41-year-old government employee in St. John's who is divorced and now in a relationship with a woman he's known for two decades. (In order to protect the men's privacy, full names are not used). "If your time and energy is spent on the adulting - paying bills, working overtime, trying to keep your energy up for elderly parents or young kids - is there really time to connect emotionally and build that bridge that ends up in the bedroom?" said CJ.

Adam, a Kitchener, Ont., retiree who's been with his wife for more than two decades, also disputed the notion that the male sex drive runs non-stop, no matter what. "If I'm focused on something or upset about something at work, I just want to be alone or work something out in my head. You don't want to have any kind of interaction with anybody," said Adam, 67. "My partner used to talk about the 'tent time' or the 'bear time.' " In conversation with Murray, the Winnipeg relationships therapist, men pointed out that sex wasn't at the forefront of their brains when they were sick, tired, stressed out at work or feeling emotionally disconnected.

"Men's sexual desire is not a static trait that never changes and is impermeable to outside influences," wrote Murray, who holds a PhD in human sexuality. "We've gotten used to talking about the complexities of women's desire being affected by how much sleep they're getting, how much stress they're under or by being a parent, but we simply don't talk about this with men," she said.

Halifax's Rosen is currently recruiting couples for one of the first studies to look at men struggling with lowered desire within their relationships. "There's so much pressure in how men's desire is supposed to conform to the stereotype of always being ready and interested in sex," said Rosen, an associate professor in psychology and neuroscience at Dalhousie University and director of the school's Couples and Sexual Health Research Laboratory. "The men I've seen clinically feel a lot of shame around it, like there's something wrong with them. Their family doctors don't bring it up with them and they don't see representations of themselves."

FAKING IT During their first therapy sessions with Murray, men often boasted about their robust sex drives. Subsequent conversations saw them dialing it back.

Numerous husbands and boyfriends confessed that "some of their desire was feigned rather than authentic," Murray wrote.

Men told her that they agreed to sex they didn't fully want because they felt they had to. Having been socialized all their lives about high-octane male desire, men were playing the part. They were also faking it for the sake of their girlfriends and wives, who took sexual rejection and lagging male libido personally. "Men talked about this fear that their female partner might not be open to them saying 'no' to sex," Murray said.

In St. John's, CJ copped to faking sexual interest before. "It's almost on a scale of 1 to 10. I'm not really there but I'm at a 6 and a half so I can go along with it," CJ said. "Other times you kind of take one for the team, realizing that she's probably done the same thing for you."

Through her first interviews, Halifax's Rosen is finding that men with low sexual interest are still reporting they regularly have sex with their female partners.

Rosen said the men felt guilt and obligation to "please their partner to maintain the relationship."

THE FEMALE GAZE The standard thinking still goes in heterosexual dynamics: Men do the complimenting (and the objectifying), the desiring and the pursuing - and are naturally content with the setup. Not exactly, the men interviewed said.

"Men really don't get checked out very often," said Alexander, a 22-year-old Toronto student who has been with his girlfriend, Mary, 21, for more than a year. "We have better sex when she's complimented me and encouraged me. ... It changes the whole tone of the evening," Alexander said.

"If a woman initiates even just one component of sex, that is the biggest vote of confidence."

In her conversations with hundreds of men, Winnipeg's Murray found many wanted their spouses and girlfriends to look at them, compliment them and act on their own urges. "Interview after interview, it started to become very clear that the most salient and important experience that increased men's sexual desire was feeling wanted by their female partner," Murray wrote.

"A lot of women don't think to outwardly demonstrate their desire for their male partners."

Waterloo's Sutherland asked 117 heterosexual couples in longterm relationships about their problems in bed for a study published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine in March, and found men and women voicing pretty much the same concerns: frequency of sex, initiation and how much their partners showed interest. "We used to think that women just wanted to be romanced and men just care about sex. That's not true. Men want to feel wanted as well, and for women to show interest in them," Sutherland said.

BEYOND SKIN DEEP Current assumptions about male libido still go like this: sex for men is about getting off, a practically robotic function.

Look deeper and many men balk at that assumption. For Kitchener's Adam, intimacy is how he connects with his wife. "I may touch my partner ... I'm not intending to be crude, but sometimes she reacts in a way that [suggests] this is the only motive I would have," Adam said. "There are times when men are struggling to find a way to show intimacy. A touch is presumed to be a claim on the body, instead of just a way to connect and make some contact."

Toronto's Alexander expressed frustration with literature and pop culture that depict sex as solely about physical gratification for men. "If we've just had sex, I don't want to go to sleep," he said of his girlfriend. "I want to reflect on what just happened with her."

In research interviews and therapy sessions with Murray, husbands and boyfriends described feeling their sexual-interest spike on date nights, long walks and during close conversations - the stuff of rom-coms. "To hear men talking about romantic and sweet things about their partner that turn them on, it challenged my own assumptions," Murray said.

The therapist argued that women who are constantly cynical about the nature of their partners' sexual desire might be missing the bigger picture.

"When we have a limited belief about what turns our partner on, we unfortunately miss the more complex, nuanced, and meaningful ways that he feels desire for us," Murray wrote. "Many of men's emotional bids for connection go unnoticed."

MARS, VENUS AND PLANET EARTH Waterloo's Sutherland found that women and men voiced virtually all the same desire-related problems in their relationships. Here, she hit on something sexologists increasingly note: When it comes to intimacy, there is often fewer differences between the genders than there is between individual people.

"There used to be this idea that men are from Mars and women are from Venus," Sutherland said. "We find more and more in our research that it's just not the case."

Winnipeg's Murray found gender norms were limiting couples' experiences in bed, particularly the sexual scripts that tell men they need to pursue and women they need to be the gatekeeper.

CJ agreed: "If you're conforming to the same roles, if you're not stepping outside a little bit, it has a detrimental effect. It becomes a flow chart: I initiate. You respond. If yes, then bedroom. If bedroom, then missionary."

Speaking to distraught couples, Murray noticed that false assumptions about raging male libido left both men and women feeling inadequate: Some women questioned whether their own lower desire was dysfunctional, while some men who didn't experience near-constant sexual urges told Murray they felt broken.

The author wants relationships to become a place of respite from gendered expectations about desire that have little, if anything, to do with individual couples.

"These misconceptions hold us in antiquated boxes about what men and women should be, and don't leave room to have a new discourse around what we actually want to experience," Murray said. "It doesn't let us be our authentic selves."

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY CRISTIAN FOWLIE


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Tuesday, July 16, 2019 – Page B15

NORMAN DEKIN FOX

November 20, 1929 July 14, 2019 Died peacefully at Humber River Hospital in his 90th year.

Beloved husband of 65 years to Mary (Pezzack). Dear father to John (Patricia), Karen (Christopher), Nancy (Christian) and Janet (Luis).

Proud of his grandchildren, Matthew, Stephanie, Laura, Tyler, Sarah, Lyndsey, Katie, Shawn and Ryan.

Great-grandfather of Emily, Dylan, Natalie, Stephen and Cameron.

Grandfather-in-law of Jessica, David M., David O., Logan, Sean, and Justin. Lovingly remembered by the Pezzack in-laws.

Norm lived a full life. He played his final golf game one day before entering the hospital. Norm was a student and teacher at University of Toronto Schools. He was School Captain in 1948 and taught from 1968 until his retirement in 1991.

He had a passion for sports, jigsaw puzzles, food (ice cream) and travel that he joyfully shared with his family.

He will be deeply missed by all whose lives he touched.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church: Special Project Capital Campaign, Doctors Without Borders or Covenant House.

Visitation to be held on Thursday, July 18, 2019 from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. at R. S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge Street, Toronto.

Funeral Service to be held on Saturday, July 20, 2019, at 11:00 a.m. at St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church, 80 George Henry Boulevard, Toronto.

Condolences may be left at www.

rskane.ca.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

ABBYANN DAY LYNCH C.M., O.Ont., L.M.S., Ph.D., LL.D (Hon.), D.S.L. (Hon.)

1928 - 2019 Our hearts are heavy knowing that Abby, who was mother, grandmother and great grandmother to her extended Toronto family, and sister, aunt and great aunt to her large U.S. family, passed from this life on July 14, 2019, acquiescing gracefully and bravely to Alzheimer's disease.

A pioneering woman with a brilliant mind and gentle soul, Abby believed in setting a high bar, working hard, sharing her thoughts by being a prolific writer and academic, and making a difference, especially in the lives of vulnerable children and the elderly. As a philosopher, she fearlessly blazed many trails.

Born in Hackensack, New Jersey, and a graduate of Manhattanville College, her first journey was north to Canada, moving from New York to Toronto to pursue a Licentiate in Medieval Studies at the Pontifical Institute (University of Toronto, St. Michael's College).

In Toronto, she became one of Canada's leading experts in biomedical ethics, standing up in particular to protect the rights of children. Towards the end of her career path, she was President of Associated Medical Services and consultant on biomedical issues to various hospitals, health organizations and regulatory bodies. For all these contributions, she was honoured to receive the Order of Canada.

More than anything, Abby loved her husband, Lawrence E. Lynch, who predeceased her in 2001. After saying their vows in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, in 1953, their family grew quickly and today includes their beloved children, their spouses, grandchildren and great-grandchildren: Lisa (Andrew, Domenica, Sophia, Luke; Jeffrey); Mimi and her husband Stephen (Katherine, James, Madison, Jack; Mark, Nadia, Nathan, Evelyn); Edward and his wife Rose (Mike, David, Kerri); Paul and his wife Sheila (Abigael, Isabel); Martha; Chris and his wife Anna (Alexander, Emilia).

There wasn't a mystery book Abby hadn't read, an ice cream cone she let sit for too long, a piano score she hadn't memorized, or a challenge she didn't stare down, sometimes with outsized idealism. She loved Canada, and over the years she balanced her fondness for her adopted country with pride in her native country. Born into a long line of Republicans, she became a staunch Democrat, strongly supporting the election of President John F. Kennedy, and fully committed more recently to the politics of President Barack Obama. She kept her family grounded in its roots, traveling with them extensively and sharing her love of New England, the sea and the shore, most summers spent in Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Looking at the world through her eyes was to see wonder, hope, gratitude and always a dream to leave the world a better place. Hearing it from her perspective as a gifted concert pianist was to sit in the second balcony, eyes glued to the keyboard, listening to music by her favourite composers, Schubert, Chopin, and Beethoven.

The family wishes to thank Abby's personal support workers, Eloisa, Marichelle and Jeanette, and the many PSWs at Cedarhurst Dementia Care Centre, for their love and attentiveness to Abby during the past three years. A Mass of Christian Burial will be held at Our Lady of Lourdes church on Thursday, July 18, 2019, at 1:30 p.m. Visitation is on Wednesday, July 17 from 5-9 pm at the Rosar-Morrison Funeral Home, 467 Sherbourne Street, Toronto. The family welcomes friends to stop by Our Lady of Lourdes parish hall after the funeral Mass for refreshments. A celebration of life will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, kindly consider a donation in Abby's name to Alzheimer Society of Toronto (http://www.alz.to).

May Abby rest in peace, in the loving embrace of her maker, in the hope of life eternal.

PAUL HARTLEY PALMER FCPA, FCA

1934 - 2019

It is with great sadness the family of Paul Palmer announces his passing on Thursday, July 11, 2019. Paul died peacefully in his home at Amica Bayview Gardens, with family and his beloved dog Pandy, with him.

Paul was born in Barrie, Ontario to Goldie (née Grey) Palmer and Hartley Ramsay Palmer. Paul is lovingly remembered by his sons Tony (Donna) and Ian Palmer, daughter Heather Palmer, step sons Rob and Bill (Kim) Leak and his grandchildren Emily, Will, Mac, Hayley and Charlie.

He always said he felt lucky to have fallen in love twice, first to Mary (nee Breckenridge) Palmer (1936-1989) and then to Catherine (nee Dauphinee) Leak.

Paul went to Barrie District Collegiate Institute and was among the first group of students to graduate the Bachelor of Commerce program at University of McMaster in 1955. Upon graduation he joined Clarkson, Gordon & Co in Toronto and in 1959 he graduated from the Ontario Institute of Chartered Accountants. In 1962 he left Clarkson, Gordon to hold senior executive positions at York Steel Construction, Kilmer Van Nostrand Co. Limited, Denison Mines and a collection of wholly and partly owned subsidiary companies.

In 1976, he joined Norcen Energy Resources, moved to Calgary, Alberta in 1985 and retired as Chief Financial Officer in 1995.

Paul was a mathematical whiz who was honoured as a fellow twice: Fellow of the Certified Professional Accountants (FCPA) and Fellow of the Chartered Accountants (FCA). He also shared his accounting and business skills as Chairman of the Canadian Accounting Standards Board, being a major force in revising and re-writing the modern standards that exist today. After retirement Paul sat on several Boards.

Paul was passionate about golf.

He started young, and while he played all over the world, he most enjoyed his courses and golf friends in Florida, Toronto, Calgary and Muskoka. However, he always had the greater good in his heart, and was instrumental in the conversion of a golf course to Earl Bales Park, which is the largest public park in North York, actively enjoyed by families yearround.

Above all else, Paul was a family man. He loved unconditionally and was fiercely proud of his children, in particular the manner in which they love and support each other. All who knew Paul would comment on his quick witted, often subtle, somewhat zany sense of humour and tendency towards practical jokes. The stories are plentiful as laughter was the medicine for everything, even at the end of life.

Paul was supported by a wonderful care team from Amica Bayview Gardens, Living Assistance Services, VHA Home Healthcare, Randi Lazarus Companion Care and Dr. Nunes Vaz. Special mention goes to Titzia and her team who supported the ability for Pandy to continue to live with Paul. Thank you to all.

A Celebration of Remembrance (aka story sharing and belly laughing) will be held at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, July 23, 2019 at Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville). A private family internment will immediately follow at Mount Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, if desired, a donation can be made to a charity of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

JOHN BURNS WYNNE

March 20, 1926 - July 14, 2019 Born in Toronto, adored only son of Charles and Eva (Crummer) Wynne. JB leaves behind his soulmate of 73 years, wife of 67 years, Patricia (O'Day); his four daughters, Kathleen (Jane), Evie Honeyman, Ann (Peter) and Marie Hodgson (Doug); his grandchildren, Amy, Chris, Jessie, Maggie, Katy, Charlotte, Tim, Lizzie, Isaac and Myles; and three great-grandchildren, Livie, Claire and Hugh, beloved by each and every one.

John grew up in North Toronto attending John Ross Robertson Public School, Crescent School, and graduating from St. Andrew's College School just as WWII ended. He studied Medicine at University of Toronto and began as a family physician in 1952 where he practiced for 40 years.

JB loved life. He was an athlete-boxing, hockey and cricket as a teenager; hockey, golf, curling, tennis, running, walking into the final days of his life. He was a piano player and a photographer. He loved Dave Brubeck, Myles Davis, Louis Armstrong and Ella Fitzgerald. He was a reader. He loved W.O.Mitchell, Dylan Thomas and Henning Mankell. In the early years he joined the Lions Club and started a 'sock hop' for local kids and in the 60's he supported Pat's volunteer work with youth. He got elected to the board of the Ontario Medical Association to work to keep the connection between doctors and their patients in the early days of Medicare. He cared deeply about politics, was a lifelong Liberal and was actively distressed by the rise of right wing populism.

But of all the things he loved in his life, there were two that surpassed the rest. The first was Pat. He loved his Bahamian girl completely. The second was cutting through the morning mist on Lake Opeongo in his canoe. The tackle box and the fish were an excuse.

JB's family is very grateful to all the nurses and doctors on the stroke floor at Mackenzie Health and to the palliative team. Thank you all for your fine care.

If you would like to make a donation in JB's name, he would love you to support the Friends of Algonquin Park or the Mackenzie Health Foundation.

We will hold a service in JB's memory in September.

Arrangements entrusted to Marshall Funeral Home, Richmond Hill, ON.

PETER WELSH

1941 - 2019

With deep sadness we announce the death of Peter Welsh. He died suddenly at home in Cuernavaca, Mexico, July 10, 2019 at 1:20 a.m. after a fierce battle with cancer. His wife, Judy, and sister, Anne, were at his side. Visitation was held that afternoon in Cuernavaca allowing close friends and neighbours to pay respects and say adios.

A memorial will be held in Canada at a later date. He is survived by Judy, soulmate and beloved wife of 53 years, daughter Laura (Mike), grandchildren Mia and Andrew, son Michael (Jane); sisters Anne (Peter), Cathy (Gord), Patti (John), brother John, (Jim predeceased); sisters-in law Mary (Dick predeceased), Pam (Mike), and Susan (Ao) and many nieces, nephews and cousins.

KATHLEEN LAWRENCE

January 11, 1951 - July 16, 2007

May the winds of love blow softly, And whisper so you'll hear, We shall love and miss you always, And wish that you were here.

Love, all your family

NICHOLAS MARK SELTZER

Medal of Bravery 1957 - 1998

MARILYN CHAN 1955 - 1998 Sadly missed and lovingly remembered by family and friends


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Wednesday, July 17, 2019 – Page B14

LIDA ALEXANIAN

Lida Alexanian, age 86, of Dundas Ontario passed quietly at St.

Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton on Monday July 15, 2019 after a brief, noble battle with cancer.

Lida (née Bostanjian) was born in Istanbul, Turkey in 1932. In a storybook encounter she was introduced to future husband Aram Alexanian, by his father Aris, who was acquainted with her family. Aram and Aris - the founder of the Alexanian family carpet business - were passing through Istanbul en route to the Middle East to buy oriental rugs. The couple bonded and Lida moved to Canada in 1953 and married Aram shortly thereafter. They settled in Ottawa for many years, raising their three children: Alene, Richard and Allan. Eventually the family moved to Dundas, Ontario - much to the disappointment of their Ottawa friends.

Lida and Aram were very social in the Hamilton area and were pillars of the Armenian community through St. Mary Armenian Church in Hamilton. After Aram died in 1988, Lida expanded that legacy and served as treasurer, fundraiser, and event organizer.

She was an energetic host of family gatherings and became the matriarch of the Alexanian clan.

Her ever evolving New Year's Eve parties at her welcoming home were an annual ritual.

Lida's many interests shaped the beautiful fabric of her life. With a love of the piano since her youth she took it up again with a passion at age 66 and cultivated a likeminded circle of musical friends.

She supported music, theater and arts organizations in Hamilton and Toronto. Lida always had tickets to something. She was an amazing cook, and her version of Armenian classics like dolma, borek, choreg, and baklava were legend. Lida loved to travel, she was an avid gardener, and an incredible swimmer. Well into her 80's she could manage a kilometer swim at the lake. She was adventurous and unpredictable. She was a martini aficionado, cat lover, sun worshipper, card player, backgammon pro, gracious host and stylish dresser.

Lida was overjoyed with the arrival of grandchildren, and her time spent with them was treasured.

Noah, Mara and Ara from Alene and husband John Farr, and Nevan and Kira from Allan and wife Wendy. She also maintained a closeness to her nieces and nephews: on the Alexanian side the children of Albert and Nancy, and the late Armen and Jane and the children of her late sister Nadia, and Fred Sirotek.

Her strength of character - her generosity and compassion - her great beauty and resilience - and her spirit of forgiveness - defined her. Her parting wishes were for everyone to get along.

Special thanks to the team at St.

Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton for their outstanding care through a difficult time.

In lieu of flowers please donate to St. Mary Armenian Church - 8 Mayhurst Ave, Hamilton, ON, L8K 3M8, or your charity of choice.

The family will receive friends at the JB Marlatt Funeral Home, 615 Main St. E, Hamilton: on Friday, July 19th from 2 to 4 p.m. and 6 to 8:30 p.m. with prayers to follow.

A private funeral will be held at St.

Mary Armenian Church.

NORMAN DEKIN FOX

November 20, 1929 July 14, 2019 Died peacefully at Humber River Hospital in his 90th year.

Beloved husband of 65 years to Mary (Pezzack). Dear father to John (Patricia), Karen (Christopher), Nancy (Christian) and Janet (Luis).

Proud of his grandchildren, Matthew, Stephanie, Laura, Tyler, Sarah, Lyndsey, Katie, Shawn and Ryan.

Great-grandfather of Emily, Dylan, Natalie, Stephen and Cameron.

Grandfather-in-law of Jessica, David M., David O., Logan, Sean, and Justin. Lovingly remembered by the Pezzack in-laws.

Norm lived a full life. He played his final golf game one day before entering the hospital. Norm was a student and teacher at University of Toronto Schools. He was School Captain in 1948 and taught from 1968 until his retirement in 1991.

He had a passion for sports, jigsaw puzzles, food (ice cream) and travel that he joyfully shared with his family.

He will be deeply missed by all whose lives he touched.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church: Special Project Capital Campaign, Doctors Without Borders or Covenant House.

Visitation to be held on Thursday, July 18, 2019 from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. at R. S. Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge Street, Toronto.

Funeral Service to be held on Saturday, July 20, 2019, at 11:00 a.m. at St. Matthew the Apostle Anglican Church, 80 George Henry Boulevard, Toronto.

Condolences may be left at www.

rskane.ca.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

JUDITH HANS

On Monday, July 15, 2019 at her home. Beloved wife of Sherman.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Laura Hans and Mitch Steinman, and Loren Altman and the late Samantha Hans. Lovingly remembered by Jennifer Appleby. Dear sister and sister-inlaw of Betty and Irv Nitkin of B.C.

Devoted grandmother of Jake, Ben, Dylan, Emily, Erin, and Jordan.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Thursday, July 18, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva 17 Wembley Road. Memorial donations may be made to the Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation, 416-946-6560 or to Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care, 1-877-565-8555.

ABBYANN DAY LYNCH C.M., O.Ont., L.M.S., Ph.D., LL.D (Hon.), D.S.L. (Hon.)

1928 - 2019 Our hearts are heavy knowing that Abby, who was mother, grandmother and great grandmother to her extended Toronto family, and sister, aunt and great aunt to her large U.S. family, passed from this life on July 14, 2019, acquiescing gracefully and bravely to Alzheimer's disease.

A pioneering woman with a brilliant mind and gentle soul, Abby believed in setting a high bar, working hard, sharing her thoughts by being a prolific writer and academic, and making a difference, especially in the lives of vulnerable children and the elderly. As a philosopher, she fearlessly blazed many trails.

Born in Hackensack, New Jersey, and a graduate of Manhattanville College, her first journey was north to Canada, moving from New York to Toronto to pursue a Licentiate in Medieval Studies at the Pontifical Institute (University of Toronto, St. Michael's College).

In Toronto, she became one of Canada's leading experts in biomedical ethics, standing up in particular to protect the rights of children. Towards the end of her career path, she was President of Associated Medical Services and consultant on biomedical issues to various hospitals, health organizations and regulatory bodies. For all these contributions, she was honoured to receive the Order of Canada.

More than anything, Abby loved her husband, Lawrence E. Lynch, who predeceased her in 2001. After saying their vows in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, in 1953, their family grew quickly and today includes their beloved children, their spouses, grandchildren and great-grandchildren: Lisa (Andrew, Domenica, Sophia, Luke; Jeffrey); Mimi and her husband Stephen (Katherine, James, Madison, Jack; Mark, Nadia, Nathan, Evelyn); Edward and his wife Rose (Mike, David, Kerri); Paul and his wife Sheila (Abigael, Isabel); Martha; Chris and his wife Anna (Alexander, Emilia).

There wasn't a mystery book Abby hadn't read, an ice cream cone she let sit for too long, a piano score she hadn't memorized, or a challenge she didn't stare down, sometimes with outsized idealism. She loved Canada, and over the years she balanced her fondness for her adopted country with pride in her native country. Born into a long line of Republicans, she became a staunch Democrat, strongly supporting the election of President John F. Kennedy, and fully committed more recently to the politics of President Barack Obama. She kept her family grounded in its roots, traveling with them extensively and sharing her love of New England, the sea and the shore, most summers spent in Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Looking at the world through her eyes was to see wonder, hope, gratitude and always a dream to leave the world a better place. Hearing it from her perspective as a gifted concert pianist was to sit in the second balcony, eyes glued to the keyboard, listening to music by her favourite composers, Schubert, Chopin, and Beethoven.

The family wishes to thank Abby's personal support workers, Eloisa, Marichelle and Jeanette, and the many PSWs at Cedarhurst Dementia Care Centre, for their love and attentiveness to Abby during the past three years. A Mass of Christian Burial will be held at Our Lady of Lourdes church on Thursday, July 18, 2019, at 1:30 p.m. Visitation is on Wednesday, July 17 from 5-9 pm at the Rosar-Morrison Funeral Home, 467 Sherbourne Street, Toronto. The family welcomes friends to stop by Our Lady of Lourdes parish hall after the funeral Mass for refreshments. A celebration of life will be held at a later date. In lieu of flowers, kindly consider a donation in Abby's name to Alzheimer Society of Toronto (http://www.alz.to).

May Abby rest in peace, in the loving embrace of her maker, in the hope of life eternal.

WALLACE BRUCE MACKAY P.Eng.

"Wally" April 16, 1929 July 9, 2019 Wally passed away suddenly while on a camping adventure in the beautiful BC wilderness. He was 90 years young.

Wally was predeceased by his loving wife of 54 years, Patricia (Paddy) Mackay, and is survived by his children, Elizabeth Armer (Douglas), Robert (Marilyn), Brian (Christene), Fiona (Bob Lloyd), Ellen (Stuart Cole) and James (Max), and his grandchildren, Ceilidh, Aaron, Shaun, Madeline, Jennifer, Tara, Evan, Alden, Calum, Claire, Heather and Molly.

Wally was born in Kempsey, Australia, and immigrated to Canada to work as a Chemical Engineer in Northern BC where he met and married Paddy, the love of his life. Wally's career took him from his home in West Vancouver to every continent on earth.

Wally's boundless energy and unmatched zest for life was the stuff of legend - always on the go, always learning, charming everyone he met with his warmth, humour and a never-ending trove of stories. He modeled faith, kindness, generosity, fun and adventure and filled our lives with joy. He was a loving father, a dear friend and an ever-present mentor and role model. He will be dearly missed.

The funeral Mass for Wally will be at 1 p.m. on July 19, 2019 at St. Anthony's Catholic Church at 2347 Inglewood Avenue, West Vancouver. Prayers will be held at 8:30 p.m. on July 18, 2019. In lieu of flowers, contributions to the Canadian Cancer Society in Wally Mackay's name would be gratefully appreciated.


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Gaps in science leave Canada unprepared for a changing relationship with wildfires
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The country is spending more than ever to combat blazes, but our precautions are inconsistent and out-of-date, with many borrowed from the U.S. and mostly untested here. As climate change makes fires bigger and costlier, scientists say the dearth of knowledge is a danger we can no longer ignore
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By JEFF LEWIS
  
  

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Thursday, July 18, 2019 – Page A8

Thousands of homes and vast swaths of forest were consumed by the Horse River Fire that ripped through Fort McMurray in 2016. But if the scale of the destruction was shocking, the fire's extreme intensity and the speed with which it overwhelmed the Northern Alberta city illustrated a stark risk that experts had worried about for years.

Some of the tens of millions of dollars Alberta spent on wildfire prevention that year helped fund efforts to thin trees around the city, plant less-combustible hardwoods and clear brush from homes, according to a postincident report.

Such precautions are in use across Canada, yet they are based primarily on technical guidelines developed in the United States; few have been validated by scientists to gauge how effective they are in northern, boreal forests.

"What that means is that people really don't know, because it hasn't been done," said Brian Stocks, a wildfire-science specialist and one of several investigators hired to assess the Fort McMurray blaze for the Alberta government.

That knowledge gap is just one of a growing number of blind spots that scientists say jeopardize millions of people and billions of dollars of infrastructure as more intense and frequent wildfires chew through larger tracts of Canada's forests each year.

Canada has never spent more to combat wildfires, yet efforts to understand and adapt to the fast-evolving hazards have faltered, hampered by the attrition of key researchers and acute funding constraints.

As a result, the country lacks a comprehensive framework for assessing risks. There is no national system that maps where cities, towns and infrastructure are in relation to vegetation, what the fuel loads are and what sort of fire behaviour they may generate.

To be sure, large wildfires serve a natural role in helping to regenerate forest ecosystems.

But a combination of climate change, pest infestations, urban development and decades of fire suppression has increased the threat and cost of extreme events, especially in droughtprone Western Canada, researchers say.

This spring's fires in Alberta burned an area almost twice the size of Prince Edward Island, forced thousands from their homes and led to severe air-quality warnings that affected millions of people in Edmonton and Calgary.

Similarly, British Columbia is bracing for a long, dry summer after consecutive years of recordshattering fires that scientists say were exacerbated by climate change.

Costs to suppress fires have jumped roughly $120-million a decade since the 1970s and now approach $1-billion or more every year, posing a major challenge for cash-strapped governments at all levels. But the primary tool used by provincial wildfire agencies and crews to predict and respond to daily threats, the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System, has not been updated in several decades.

That means it does not account for multiyear droughts or the spread of the mountain pine beetle, an infestation fuelled by rising temperatures that has transformed vast stretches of B.C. and Alberta into a tinderbox.

"The way that fire is playing out in our landscape has changed, and it's changed in the last decade," said Lori Daniels, who studies wildfires at the University of British Columbia. "And we really, really need the fundamental science and the applied tools updated so that we can keep up with this problem, so that we can literally adapt as the climate is changing around us.

It's really essential."

Guidelines designed to keep communities safe are a case in point, although they are far from unique. Known as FireSmart, they are based on U.S. National Fire Protection Association standards that are "untested in northern (boreal forest) conditions," according to documents published by the non-profit that administers the program in Canada. The recommendations are designed to slow or contain, rather than stop, a fire at the surface before it climbs to the treetops, where it's almost impossible to corral. In practice, stands of black spruce could be thinned or replaced with leafy aspen, or a fire break could be carved into the forest. While better than doing nothing, researchers say, there's no telling how effective such measures will be.

"It's not tied to science," said Mr. Stocks, who studied fire behaviour for 35 years with the Canadian Forest Service (CFS).

"That's basic work that hasn't been done."

In Fort McMurray, investigators found that "vegetation management" in some cases reduced the spread of flames, but was mostly overwhelmed by the fire's extreme intensity. About 2,600 homes were razed and 80,000 people evacuated in what became Canada's costliest natural disaster, with insured damages hitting $3.8-billion.

The devastating fire occurred about a decade after the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers agreed to develop a national strategy for combating wildfires, including a pledge to bolster applied research. That commitment was renewed in 2016, but a federal report last year said critical questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to understand links between intensifying fires and Canada's commitments under the Paris climate accord, for example. Enhanced smoke modelling could inform public-health decisions and emergency planning.

"Canada's capacity to address these current and emerging challenges is inadequate," said the report, a 10-year research outlook published by Natural Resources Canada and titled Blueprint for Wildland Fire Science in Canada. "The national capacity for research must increase to ensure that Canada is prepared for a more complex relationship with wildland fire."

Despite those concerns, researchers say money remains scarce, delaying badly needed upgrades to key information systems. "You have to scrounge around," said Mike Wotton, a CFS researcher and adjunct professor who is leading an effort to update the danger-rating system.

"What could get done in a year takes five years of just waiting for the right combination of resources and time."

The federal government has committed $6-billion to science and innovation, including $1.2billion for granting councils and research institutes and $140-million for universities.

Conservative Party Leader Andrew Scheer has pledged to bolster wildfire detection, but offered no new funding in his environment platform.

Most research today is conducted by a dwindling number of academics and by scientists within the CFS, which operates five research centres across the country.

The federal agency employs about 30 scientists, but direct investment in fire has steadily declined since the seventies to about $3.8-million a year, according to Michael Norton, directorgeneral with the CFS Northern Forestry Centre in Edmonton.

The bulk of that pays for salaries, he said in an interview.

By comparison, the U.S. Forest Service devoted about US$22million to wildland fire and fuels research in 2018 and is on track to spend the same this year, a spokesperson said. About US$300-million of its overall budget is allocated to research.

In Canada, Mr. Norton said, there are no accepted or consistently applied methodologies for quantifying fire risks, and spatial data on fuels remains spotty - a major deficit given the total area burned each year has more than doubled since the seventies. "In some areas it's good, and in other areas it's almost non-existent," he said.

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) last year awarded about $4.6-million in purported discovery grants for fire research. That's about double the levels from a decade ago, but still a fraction of the $600-million total handed out by NSERC.

"You have to remember that we're covering all the natural sciences and engineering disciplines," said Marc Fortin, NSERC's chief operating officer and vice-president of research partnerships, in an interview.

"We really rely on the researchers themselves to put forward proposals," he added.

Several scientists said NSERC lacks expertise in fire and too often assesses grant applications through a narrow economic lens.

In June, 2017, UBC's Prof. Daniels and her colleagues wanted to understand and quantify how suppression, climate change and other human interactions with the forest were leading to more intense fires in B.C. But their grant application was rejected.

"One of the responses was there was no economic benefit to the rest of Canada to study this problem in British Columbia," she said.

B.C. would ultimately spend $568-million that year to combat 1,500 fires that forced more than 65,000 people from their homes.

"It's a long process to try to get funding and to try to get buyin for doing the kind of research that you think is important," said Jen Beverly, an assistant professor of wildland fire at the University of Alberta.

One project for which Prof.

Beverly is seeking continued funding involves outfitting fire crews with mobile cameras to rapidly assess fuel loads in northwestern Alberta.

"We don't have models to really tell us what fire's going to do in a thin stand versus a more dense stand," she said.

Mr. Fortin would not discuss specific proposals, but insisted that applications are evaluated against a broad set of criteria. He said a new grant system will make it easier for researchers without industry partners to access funds.

Scientists say the need is pressing.

Studies show fires are starting earlier in the year and burning hotter in tinder-dry forests that are increasingly primed for extreme events.

In some areas, fires are so intense and frequent that researchers are now studying a phenomenon called regeneration failure, which sees fewer trees growing back.

Yet, there remain gaps in understanding the potential impact of such changes on everything from wildlife to timber harvests and carbon sequestration in forests - and on cities such as Fort McMurray, as they push ever deeper into the Canadian wilderness.

"They might have a beautiful community with 80,000 people in it, but it's still surrounded by black spruce forest, which is born to burn," Mr. Stocks said.

Associated Graphic

Above left: The 2018 Snowy Mountain fire is seen from Cawston, B.C. An infestation of mountain pine beetles, driven by rising temperatures, is among the factors that have made vast regions of B.C. and Alberta more vulnerable to fire.

MELISSA RENWICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Above: Lori Daniels, who studies wildfires at the University of British Columbia, works at a prescribed fire site in Vaseux Lake, B.C.

SUZY LAVALLEE

Left: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Fort McMurray Fire Chief Darby Allen, centre right, examine the remains of a burnt-out car during Mr. Trudeau's visit to Fort McMurray in May, 2016.

JASON FRANSON/THE CANADIAN PRESS

MURAT YÜKSELIR / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: STATISTICS CANADA; CANADIAN INTERAGENCY FOREST FIRE CENTRE INC; NHL


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The Liberals' election playbook: Paint the Conservatives as intolerant
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Such campaigns have proved effective in the past, although the effort is hit-or-miss. Will similar accusations work against Andrew Scheer in this election?
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By JOHN IBBITSON
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page O9

Writer-at-large at The Globe and Mail. His latest book is Empty Planet: The Shock of Global Population Decline, co-authored with Darrell Bricker.

Andrew Scheer appears to lead one of the most moderate conservative parties in the world. The Liberals would have you believe it's a ruse.

Thirteen weeks out from the next federal election, the Liberals and Conservatives seem to be running neck-and-neck, with some polls giving the Tories the edge, and others the Grits.

For Mr. Scheer, who is a new and relatively unknown leader of a political party that was decisively beaten in the last election, this is a pretty good place to be. Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau could be the first prime minister since R.B. Bennett in the 1930s to be defeated after a single term of majority government.

But the Liberals are a long way from giving up. Along with touting their policy successes - new trade deals, a strong economy, the carbon tax to fight global warming - and initiatives to come, the Grits and their allies are accusing the Tories of being anti-immigrant, anti-women and anti-gay.

"The Conservative leader refused to denounce white supremacists in this House," Mr. Trudeau accused in the Commons, earlier this year, after Mr. Scheer attended a rally where nativist protesters were present.

The Prime Minister asked when the Leader of the Official Opposition will "finally denounce white supremacists by name." Mr. Scheer said he was unaware the protesters were present, and called Mr.

Trudeau's barb "disgusting."

Engage Canada, a left-wing advocacy group dedicated to defeating the Conservatives, states on its Facebook page that "Andrew Scheer has shown us time and time again that he's too weak to stand up to extremism in his caucus or in the conservative movement."

When Unplanned, an anti-abortion film, opened in Canadian cinemas earlier this month, Liberal chief of staff Katie Telford tweeted: "This is happening, at least in part, thanks to the support received by federal Conservative politicians."

And when Mr. Scheer said he would take a wait-and-see approach before deciding whether to support Liberal legislation that would criminalize conversion therapy, Liberal MP Randy Boissonnault called the response "a dodge," telling The Globe, "I don't think he's supportive of LGBTQ people at all."

Brian Lee Crowley, managing director of the Macdonald-Laurier Institute, an Ottawa-based think tank, says that Liberal efforts to demonize Conservatives as intolerant are a fixture of the Canadian landscape. "It's part of our politics," he observed in an interview.

Such campaigns have proved effective in the past, although the effort is hit-andmiss. Liberal charges of a Tory hidden agenda helped defeat Stephen Harper's Conservatives in the 2004 election, but proved ineffective in 2006.

Will similar accusations work against Andrew Scheer in this election?

"The Liberals absolutely will accuse the Conservatives of being too extreme," said Randy Besco, a political scientist at University of Toronto. "Whether voters believe it depends on whether Conservatives provide evidence that that's the case."

Some political analysts believe Canada has become dangerously polarized along lines of class, age and geography. According to this theory, economic and cultural insecurity drives less-educated, less affluent, rural and older Canadians to oppose immigration, multiculturalism and measures to fight climate change. They're inclined toward the Conservatives, and are increasingly attracted to authoritarian, populist leaders and ideas.

Younger, better-educated, urban progressives who embrace diversity, globalization and the fight against climate change gravitate toward the Liberals, New Democrats and Greens.

Ekos pollster Frank Graves and Michael Valpy, a senior fellow at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy, believe the upcoming federal election campaign will be a "class war," as they wrote recently in the Toronto Star, between enlightened progressives and "less educated Canadians who have had troubles making their way in the new economy and who tend to have social conservative views."

This seems hard to square with the positions of the two governing parties on the issues.

Both Conservatives and Liberals agree that global warming is a major threat and carbon emission levels must come down.

The Liberals prefer a carbon tax; the Tories would regulate emitters. Only in Canada could such nuance be called polarization.

Voters list health care as a major concern. Neither the Liberals nor the Conservatives advocate a private option to ease the strain on publicly provided services.

The Liberals are expected to propose a national pharmacare strategy. The Conservatives are talking about a more limited program for people, such as the self-employed, who don't have access to corporate plans.

The Conservatives accuse the Liberals of mishandling the situation at the Quebec border, where thousands of asylum seekers have streamed across each year.

The Liberals, in turn, accuse the Conservatives of intolerance toward refugees. But both parties support retaining high levels of immigration over all.

Both parties support free and open trade. Mr. Scheer would continue the Liberal push to win a temporary seat on the United Nations Security Council for Canada. Hostile Chinese actions have nudged the Liberals toward the Conservatives' skeptical and wary approach in dealing with the world's second largest economy.

This is a far cry from the vicious, sometimes violent schism between Democrats and Republicans in the United States, or between Leavers and Remainers in Britain. The Conservative Party of Canada is far more moderate and centrist than the conservative parties of either country, or those in much of Europe, where the right is often led by xenophobic autocrats.

And Maxime Bernier's new People's Party, which does take a more aggressively negative approach to multiculturalism and environmentalism, polls in the low single digits.

"Is Canada becoming more polarized?

Yes, it is," acknowledged Shachi Kurl, executive director of the Angus Reid Institute, which conducts polling and other research. But, she added, "It's not like we have this massive crevice in this country with people on either side of it. That's not happening.

"Are we a little bit further down the football field?

Sure. But it's a football field, not a canyon."

That said, there are elements within the Conservative coalition that reject multiculturalism and high levels of immigration, that oppose abortion and protecting the rights of sexual minorities. If the Liberals succeed in implanting in voters' minds that Andrew Scheer is in thrall to this faction of the party, then the election will be a referendum on the Conservative Leader, and the Liberals will win.

However, Prof. Besco says voters are very attuned to "source credibility," and one politician slagging another politician is not seen as the most reliable source.

Unless the Conservatives succumb to the social conservative wing of the party, as they did with the "barbaric cultural practices hotline" in the last campaign.

"Then the accusation becomes a lot more credible," Prof. Besco said.

Preventing "bozo eruptions" from socially conservative MPs, for example, will be one of Mr. Scheer's most important tasks in the weeks ahead. Such eruptions plagued Stephen Harper in the early years of his leadership.

Mr. Crowley suspects the affable Mr.Scheer will be a particularly difficult candidate to demonize. "The idea that this is a man who wants to go back to the distant past of back-alley abortions and white-only immigration is laughable," he said.

If Mr. Scheer can shake off Liberal efforts to brand him as intolerant, and make the election about alleged Liberal incompetence (China, the India trip, never-ending deficits) and corruption (the SNC-Lavalin affair, the Mark Norman affair et al.), then the Tories could prevail.

To that end, Mr. Scheer has been careful to insist that a Conservative government would take no action on abortion, and in a June speech, he said: "I find the notion that one's race, religion, gender or sexual orientation would make anyone in any way superior or inferior to anyone else absolutely repugnant. And if there's anyone who disagrees with that, there's the door.

You are not welcome here."

Given Mr. Trudeau's current unpopularity - many polls show that voters are unsatisfied with his performance - Mr.Scheer's task as leader is to keep the social conservatives - some of whom are in his caucus - quiet, while reassuring the larger public "that he is a safe pair of hands," said Bob Plamondon, who has chronicled the history of conservatism in several books.

Mr. Scheer does, however, face one other challenge in trying to tamp down accusations of populist intolerance: Ontario Premier Doug Ford.

While Mr. Ford strongly supports immigration, and was supported in turn by immigrant voters in last year's election, he is otherwise a classic populist - declaring he's for "the little guy" and railing against elites even as he slashes government services.

Those cuts, and one patronage-appointment scandal after another, have rendered Mr. Ford unpopular. Declining fortunes for the Ontario Progressive Conservatives may be contributing to rising Liberal fortunes in Ontario in some polls.

How badly could the Ford effect damage the Conservatives? Ms. Kurl says that his presence in the federal campaign, however vicarious, could galvanize Liberal supporters in the province.

The Conservative Party of Canada has enjoyed the rock-solid support of one-inthree voters since it was forged from the union of the Progressive Conservative and Canadian Alliance parties before the 2004 election campaign. The CPC is also flush with cash, often raising more money in a financial quarter than all other parties combined. If Mr. Scheer has made no strongly positive impression, he has made no strongly negative one, either.

But the party struggles to find the three or four percentage points of additional support needed to secure a minority government, or six for a majority. If the Liberal base is weaker than its Conservative counterpart, the party has much more room to grow.

This election will be like so many others. The Liberals will try to consolidate progressive support. The NDP under Jagmeet Singh will resist them. In this vote, the Greens under Elizabeth May might also be a factor.

Meanwhile, the Conservatives will try to win back middle-class suburban voters who abandoned them for Justin Trudeau in 2015, but who are now having second thoughts.

In that struggle, whenever the opportunity arises, the Liberals will portray the Conservatives as intolerant. How intolerant? That will depend on how much the Tories mess up, and how much trouble the Grits are in.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: BRYAN GEE. SOURCE PHOTOS: SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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STUCK IN THE MEDDLE
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Whether it's to distract from deeper problems or to promote nationalism - or provincialism, in Alberta's case - scare tactics around NGOs and foreign funding are well-worn political tools
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By ARNO KOPECKY
  
  

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page O9

Author of The Devil's Curve: A Journey into Power and Profit at the Amazon's Edge and The Oil Man and the Sea: Navigating the Northern Gateway

Until he e-mailed me a couple of weeks ago, asking if I knew of any NGOs that could help him out, I hadn't heard from Joel Shimpukat in almost a decade.

A lot had changed since the last time I saw him, deep in Peru's northern Amazon, where he was hiding from a federal arrest warrant. He'd helped organize a protest against a Vancouver-based mining company that was looking for gold in the sacred headwaters upstream from his Awajun nation; that protest, in turn, was part of an Amazon-wide Indigenous uprising against the freetrade agreements that Peru's then-president had just negotiated with Canada and the United States - negotiations to which no Indigenous representatives were invited.

The Awajun mobilization was one of the largest and most sustained in Peru's history. For two months, around 3,000 men and women blockaded a critical highway linking the rain forest to the outside world. On June 5, 2009, Peru's president, Alan Garcia, lost patience and sent the army to clear them out. But the predawn raid went horribly wrong. The soldiers panicked and opened fire, killing three protesters and shooting almost 100 more, most of them in the back as they tried to run away. Others fought and killed 25 soldiers, which led Mr.

Garcia to call the botched operation a "genocide against the police." Mr. Shimpukat wasn't accused of killing anyone, but his role in organizing the blockade was enough to get him charged with sedition. And so he fled back to his home in the jungle, where he knew the army wouldn't follow.

The debacle scandalized the country, but Mr. Garcia refused to back down. "We watched this disaster come on little by little," he said in a public address. "It was brought on by the desperate appetites of those hungry for power, inspired by foreign interests that want to slow the velocity of our development." Peruvians, he declared, ought to ask themselves: "Who does it suit for Peru not to use its gas, not to find more oil, to be unable to better exploit its minerals?" In a thinly veiled jab at Peru's regional rivals, Bolivia and Venezuela, he concluded: "International communists."

In saying so, Mr. Garcia joined a rich international tradition of leaders beseeching their people to beware of foreign money and ideas.

"We must act as Zimbabweans, think as Zimbabweans, be masters of our own destiny," Robert Mugabe said back in 2008, after he'd expropriated the country's white-owned farms to give to his generals. The policy bankrupted his country, led to the world's highest level of hyperinflation since Germany's Weimar Republic and caused the exodus of three million Zimbabweans. When NGOs and church groups did what they could to stanch the humanitarian disaster, Mr. Mugabe shut them down, too. "What are we expected to do," he said when they complained, "and how are we expected to judge you when you act behind our backs and go and report outside?" The international community was indeed pressing him for reforms, but Mr.

Mugabe - a master of invoking the country's colonial history - wouldn't have it. "We know their tactics," he said of meddlers such as Britain's leaders. "They will find people in our midst, those who can be easily bought, those who offer themselves for sale."

In Myanmar, back when Aung San Suu Kyi was still under house arrest in her dilapidated lakefront mansion, an American tourist swam uninvited to her house. She let him in so as to kick him out the front door, which doubled her trouble. "It is no doubt that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has committed a cover-up of the truth by her failure to report an illegal immigrant to the authorities," the country's deputy defence minister said. "Thus there was no option but to open legal proceedings in accordance with the law." Miraculously, she beat the charges and was soon running for Myanmar's equivalent of prime minister. Believe it or not, her greatest liability in the campaign was the suspicion she was too fond of Myanmar's Muslim minority, who are perceived as outsiders. The military's commander-in-chief, running against her, played this up, along with the fact that she'd married a British academic and hired several foreign advisers. "The leader of the country," he warned voters, "should be one who ... is able to righteously and systematically take care of your own race and religion; and is not associated with, or under the influence of, foreigners, foreign countries or foreign agencies."

More recently, Chinese leaders and the newspapers they control have responded to the historic protests in Hong Kong by asking who's really behind them. "It's a pity that some Hong Kong people and organizations have been used as pawns," one of the city's officials said. "It is very noteworthy that some international forces have significantly strengthened their interaction with the Hong Kong opposition in recent months," agreed another editorial.

It isn't just tyrants who speak this way. None other than George Washington himself once said: "Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence ... the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government."

Washington did speak from experience, having relied on French military assistance to win the revolution. And who can deny the success, or at least the influence, of the United States' interventions in other countries ever since? Against that kind of record, the hi jinks described in the Mueller Report come off as bushleague, at best.

Speaking of which, let's not forget the law that Russian President Vladimir Putin passed in 2012 forcing any NGO with a penny of foreign funding to label itself a "foreign agent," which is just as synonymous with "traitorous spy" in Russian as it is in English. "Any form of pressure on Russia, our allies and partners, is unacceptable," Mr. Putin said.

Speaking a bit more directly, the deputy head of Russia's Security Council lambasted "the destructive activities of various non-governmental organizations, especially the foreign ones, that never stop their attempts to destabilize the situation in our country."

The same year that Mr. Putin signed his law on foreign agents, Canada's own natural resources minister, Joe Oliver, wrote his famous open letter warning of "environmental and other radical groups" who "use funding from foreign special interest groups to undermine Canada's national economic interest." The radicals weren't afraid to "take a quintessential American approach: sue everyone and anyone to delay the project even further."

I used to think this kind of talk was a sign of nationalism. But Jason Kenney has enlightened me otherwise: it turns out it can be a sign of provincialism, too. Last week, he launched his inquiry into the "foreign-funded special interests" that he claims have perpetuated, through environmental groups, a "political propaganda campaign to defame our energy industry and to landlock our industry."

It's also true that we radical foreign-funded environmentalists are just as quick to denounce foreign funds and influence as Mr. Kenney. We have noticed, for example, that the oil and gas industry is 42.9-per-cent foreignowned, according to 2016 Statistics Canada data, and that foreign investment in the sector comes to more than $100-billion. That's a touch more than climate activists are pulling in. Against those odds, it's no wonder the movement's success in blocking pipelines is driving Mr. Kenney to distraction.

Distraction, after all, is the name of the game. For some rulers, it's corruption that they want to prevent the public from noticing. For others, it's human-rights abuses. For the "Un-Albertan Activities Committee," as energy journalist Markham Hislop called it, it's the fact that an economic boom is winding sharply down, while a much darker age of ecological collapse has just begun - and no one has a plan for this new reality. Rather than come up with one, Mr. Kenney has discovered "a premeditated, internationally planned and financed operation to put Alberta out of business."

Albertans should at least be aware of the global trend they're joining. A recent Amnesty International report found that crackdowns on civil-society groups are rising all over the world. More than 50 countries have put such laws in place in recent years. They aren't backwaters, either. In India, the world's largest democracy and among the most exposed countries on Earth to climate risk, 20,000 NGOs have been stripped of the right to receive foreign funding since 2014, a great many of them environmental; a leaked Intelligence Bureau report accused Greenpeace and others of "serving as tools for the interests of Western governments," and being part of a "growth-retarding campaign." In Brazil, where 57 environmental activists were killed in 2017 alone, President Jair Bolsonaro has promised to "supervise, co-ordinate, monitor and accompany" the country's NGOs, and "put a final stop to all forms of activism." And in the United States, at least 17 states have recently proposed bills to limit environmental protests.

This long history does, as the saying goes, veer from tragedy to farce, but it's never far from slipping back to the former. In Peru, allegations eventually came out that the former president, Mr.

Garcia, had been taking bribes from the infamous Brazilian construction company Odebrecht all along. When police finally showed up at his house to arrest him three months ago, he shot himself in the head.

But my old friend Joel Shimpukat had the charges against him lifted long before that. He's now the mayor of a small town in the jungle. The region is resourcerich but cash-poor; Joel has some ideas about how to generate employment without destroying the rain forest, but the kind of investment he needs is hard to come by in Peru. If only there were a foreign-funded NGO that could help.

Associated Graphic

Alberta Premier Jason Kenney, seen on Wednesday, has tapped into a global trend of scare tactics concerning NGOs and foreign funding.

JONATHAN HAYWARD/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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In Newfoundland and Labrador's opioid crisis, a flying doctor lifts rural residents' hopes of recovery
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For many patients in far-flung towns, Todd Young is the only option to get treatment fast - but getting to them takes determination, effort and a pair of wings
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By JESSICA LEEDER
  
  

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Monday, July 15, 2019 – Page A8

It is an hour or so before midnight when Dr. Todd Young's truck peels onto the unlit strip of asphalt paved into a remote section of woods.

His pilot and plane are already waiting.

This night's flight was planned for tomorrow, but warnings of early-morning fog have set off an urgent race to get Dr. Young up into the sky - and back down more than 500 kilometres south in Marystown - to ensure he can see the dozens of addictions patients registered to see him.

Prescription pads, specimen containers and patient files are hurriedly loaded into the Piper's snug fuselage by the scant light of a half moon. Seatbelts click. Laughter over the mention of checking the dark airstrip for moose (although it is not actually a joke) ends when the 50-year-old plane's twin-engines roar to life. The Piper picks up speed as it scuttles down the runway and pushes skyward, advancing one of the most ambitious rural medical efforts under way to provide opioid replacement therapy along the country's easterly margin.

Dr. Young, a physician based in Springdale, the rural town of 3,000 where he was born and where his father is still the local barber, has his own plane and is flown into eight (and counting) small Newfoundland and Labrador towns each month to provide treatment for opioid addiction. In most of those places, he is the only doctor willing to prescribe opioid-replacement medication - methadone or Suboxone - and he often has to convince pharmacists to dispense the medication.

In all but one of the towns he flies to, he is the only doctor who offers rapid access to treatment, meaning a patient asking for help is usually seen within five days (elsewhere in the province, patients wait an average of one month, although in rural areas, if there is a doctor who offers opioidaddiction treatment, waits are often much longer).

Newfoundland has struggled in recent years to counter a growing opioid epidemic that, as in other provinces, has ensnared people from all walks of life. Even Liberal Premier Dwight Ball has spoken publicly about his own daughter's struggle with addiction. The province was recently slammed for having the country's highest opioid prescription rate per capita - and the country's only increasing rate of opioid prescriptions - in a report published last year by the Canadian Institute for Health Information.

Apparent opioid-related deaths in the province have decreased, from 33 in 2017 to just 10 in 2018, according to provincial statistics. But addiction-treatment advocates fear those low numbers belie the full extent of the local opioid problem. Approximately 2,700 Newfoundlanders were prescribed methadone or Suboxone in 2018, according to provincial statistics.

The number of doctors willing to prescribe the medication nearly doubled between 2017, when there were just 54 prescribers, and 2018, which had 98.

Still, accessing that treatment remains a challenge. That is particularly acute outside the three urban centres - St. John's, Cornerbrook and Gander - that have what the province calls "Opioid Dependence Treatment hubs."

"This is not a popular form of medicine in Newfoundland," said Dr. Young, who said many physicians "look at addictions patients as problem patients." Thus, it is not uncommon for him to show up to work to find a patient who has hitchhiked hundreds of kilometres to beg for treatment, or another waiting in her truck before office hours begin, trembling with the onset of withdrawal and the determination to get help.

"Every nook and cranny is affected by addiction," Dr. Young said. "People are suffering in the smallest of towns."

Marystown is one of them. A Burin Peninsula hub with a population of 5,300, the town's shipbuilding heyday is long over; hard times have befallen many and the spread of opioid addiction has deepened the desperation. Until Dr. Young set up his monthly clinic there last year, the closest opioid-addiction treatment option was in St. John's, a six-hour journey with the return.

Getting there and back while trying to battle addiction, maintain a job, care for a family and pay the cost of travel was, for many, nonsensical.

On the early June day that Dr. Young is in town, close to 50 patients file in to see him. The earliest are Kim Boland and Steven Stacey, a young couple whose fiveyear-old son, Steven Jr., tags along.

"If it weren't for methadone, I don't know where I would be to," said Mr. Stacey, an autobody mechanic with a thick Bayman accent. "We were the worst of the worst. We was bad drug addicts for five solid years," he said, glancing at Ms. Boland, who nodded.

Steven Jr. was removed from his parents' custody when he was eight months old, an act that Ms. Boland painfully recalls being grateful for. In the throes of her addiction, she could only concentrate on how to get her daily fix. "I wished somebody would come and take him - we never thought we'd get clean. We were going to put the kid in foster care," she said, adding: "We weren't there for his first birthday."

The pair served jail terms for stealing and petty theft.

Dr. Young, though, has helped them turn their lives around. He has Ms. Boland and Mr. Stacey on methadone. They have their son back and are planning for a summer full of family activities.

Next, Emma Foote talks in her appointment about weaning off methadone. She started on the treatment five years after moving to Ontario to get treatment. Then, she was told she would have to wait nine months for methadone in Newfoundland.

"I was like, 'I'll probably be dead in nine months'," she recalled. "I was so desperate. I felt near dead."

Ms. Foote recently moved home to Marystown, but only because she could continue treatment with Dr. Young.

He currently manages about 600 patients that range in age from 15 to 94. That list grows daily because of a never-say-no policy Dr. Young adopted at the insistence of his best friend, Craig Wiseman. A former intensive-care nurse, Mr. Wiseman works with Dr. Young as a "recovery coach." That job involves sharing with patients his own struggle with opioid addiction, which began more than two decades ago.

Bored in a St. John's hotel room after a patient transfer, Mr. Wiseman injected morphine. The addiction was instant.

"I was a nurse on top of my game, two little babies at home, everything to live for. I didn't really fit what most people would consider the stereotype," he recalled ruefully. "But there's no set mould or pattern of people. What I did was I experimented and I got caught."

Mr. Wiseman got help after abandoning plans to commit suicide while hunting in the woods; he reached out for support from Dr. Young, who he met in nursing school (Dr. Young was a nurse before he became a doctor).

Years later, it was Dr. Young's turn to ask his friend for help. In 2015, in a deep depression, the doctor was battling alcoholism, a broken marriage and a licence suspension from the provincial College of Physicians and Surgeons for having inappropriate relationships with two patients.

"Things just spiralled down," Dr. Young said. "What happened to me can happen to anybody given the right set of circumstances."

Out of that dark period, in which Dr.Young himself struggled to get doctors to agree to treat him, came a new commitment to helping vulnerable patients who have few options - and few willing doctors - to turn to.

He and Mr. Wiseman agreed to team up to treat opioid addictions, a problem Mr.Wiseman fears is far greater than government statistics reflect.

"The optics are not accurate. We only hear tell of the diagnosed overdoses, but no one would have thought of me, if they had come into the woods and found my body, as an opioid addict," Mr. Wiseman said. "But it would have been related to opioid use. The sickness is even bigger than it looks."

Dr. Young hopes that his willingness to treat it will eventually entice other physicians.

"My goal with all these clinics everywhere ... is for people to have their own physicians take care of them," he said.

"I'm not special in my knowledge base.

Every family doctor is quite capable of managing addiction," he said.

What sets him apart, perhaps, is his social conscience and his approach to addiction ("It is just another chronic disease," he said).

"For me, the most socially responsible thing I could do is focus on mental health and addictions," he said, adding: "The easy thing would have been to stay in my office in Springdale and work nine-tofive."

Tackling the rural opioid epidemic doesn't strictly require a personal plane, although having the Piper has cut down on long highway commutes.

"It makes it a bit of an adventure," Dr.Young said, grinning.

Associated Graphic

Todd Young, centre, and Craig Wiseman, right, carry charts and luggage off a small airstrip after landing in Clarenville, N.L., for their second clinic of the day.

Kim Boland, below, holds her son, Steven Stacey Jr., as she and Steven Sr. meet with Dr. Young in Marystown, N.L. 'If it wasn't for methadone, I don't know where I'd be to,' Mr. Stacey says.

Dr. Young stands on the wharf in front of his grandparents' home in Springdale, N.L., the rural town of 3,000 where he was born and still practises.

Mr. Wiseman, left, and Dr. Young prepare for takeoff on a small airstrip outside Marystown. The two both helped each other during tumultuous periods in their lives before teaming up to treat opioid addictions.

Dr. Young has his own plane and is flown into a number of Newfoundland and Labrador towns each month to see about 600 patients. That list grows daily because of a never-say-no policy.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Canadian maker of military vehicles for Sudan operates beyond reach of Ottawa's rules
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By GEOFFREY YORK, STEVEN CHASE
  
  

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Tuesday, July 16, 2019 – Page A1

KHARTOUM OTTAWA -- On the streets of Khartoum, the tan-coloured military vehicles are easy to spot: armoured personnel carriers, built by a Canadian-owned company, deployed in key locations around the city in support of the regime that seized power in a military coup this year.

The machines, with machine guns mounted on top, do not have any external markings. But experts have helped The Globe and Mail identify them as Cougar armoured vehicles, manufactured by Streit Group, a company owned by Canadian businessman Guerman Goutorov.

The vehicles are part of a growing debate in Sudan: the role of foreign companies, including Canadian manufacturers, in providing support for the latest military regime and, before it, the authoritarian government that ruled Sudan for 30 years. The massacre of pro-democracy protesters by Sudan's security agencies in June has made the issue even more urgent, critics say.

Linked to this is a separate debate: What can countries such as Canada do to regulate its companies when they provide militaryrelated assistance to repressive regimes, especially those subject to sanctions? New Canadian regulations to crack down on arms brokering are being introduced this year, but it remains unclear if they will make any real difference on the ground.

The federal government has called for democracy in Sudan, demanded a transition to civilian rule and criticized the military regime for its violence against protesters.

But a Sudanese pro-democracy leader, Amjad Farid, says he detects a whiff of hypocrisy in official pronouncements from Canada and other Western governments. As long as their private businesses are providing valuable support for Sudan's military regime, their government statements are mere rhetoric, he says.

Two Canadian-owned companies - Streit and lobbying firm Dickens & Madson - have had a high-profile role in Sudan this year. The lobbyist has provided strategic and diplomatic advice to the military rulers, promising to help obtain funds and equipment for their armed forces, while Streit is the manufacturer of a number of the armoured vehicles the regime has used to maintain its grip on power.

For the pro-democracy protesters, this foreign business partnership with Sudan's military regime has fuelled their mistrust of Western governments and their cynicism about the official statements of support.

"The international community has more than one face," said Mr.Farid, spokesman for the Sudanese Professionals Association, one of the main organizers of the mass street protests that have persisted in Sudan since last December.

"They're not sincere when they say that they oppose tyranny," he told The Globe in an interview earlier this month in Khartoum.

He questioned the military regime's decision to spend US$6million on a contract with the Canadian lobbying company.

Canada has federal regulations in place to enforce United Nations sanctions against Sudan, including an arms embargo that prohibits the sale of most types of "military and paramilitary equipment." But there are ways for Canadian companies to avoid the impact of those rules, analysts say.

Last week, the federal government asked the RCMP to investigate Dickens & Madson for possible violations of the sanctions on Sudan. The company's president, Ari Ben-Menashe, has denied any.

Streit, meanwhile, could run afoul of new federal regulations on Canadian "arms brokers" who sell weapons to countries under sanctions. But it is unclear if those regulations would halt the export of Streit vehicles to Sudan, experts say. The company's chairman and owner, Mr. Goutorov, is a Canadian citizen. But because his factory was located in the United Arab Emirates, rather than in Canada, he is beyond the reach of existing rules.

The Globe reported in 2016 that the RCMP was investigating Streit for possible violations of Canadian sanctions regulations on Sudan, but there is no indication any action was taken.

A related Streit company, Streit Manufacturing, has a presence in Canada. Mr. Goutorov is registered as its president and treasurer in Ontario government records and the company manufactures armoured vehicles at a facility in Midland, Ont.

Toronto trade lawyer Cyndee Todgham Cherniak, an expert in export controls, said her understanding is that the 2016 review was closed because the Streit vehicles are being manufactured overseas in the UAE and Canadian authorities couldn't find evidence that any parts originated in Canada. "It's possible to avoid Canadian law if you have a foreign subsidiary do the work," she said.

Three years ago, The Globe reported that Streit had sold 30 Typhoon armoured trucks to Sudan's security agencies. Some of the vehicles, manufactured at Streit's UAE factory, ended up in the Darfur region, where Sudan's military and paramilitary forces have committed atrocities that have led to war-crimes charges at the International Criminal Court.

A report in 2016 by a UN panel of experts concluded that the import of the Streit vehicles was a violation of the UN arms embargo on Sudan. While the manufacturer sold the vehicles to a local broker, it "almost certainly" knew that broker was not the "end user" and that the broker was making false claims about the destination of the vehicles, the report concluded.

Streit did not answer many of the UN panel's questions about the Typhoon vehicle deal, nor did it respond to questions from The Globe about its Cougar vehicles in Khartoum. In the past, when asked about a similar deal in South Sudan, it has argued that the vehicles are not military equipment because they are not exported with weaponry attached to them.

Independent researchers, including Amnesty International experts, have verified that several military vehicles photographed by The Globe in Khartoum this month are Cougar armoured personnel carriers, manufactured by Streit Group.

Alex Neve, secretary-general of the Canadian branch of Amnesty International, called for an "urgent investigation" of Streit's role in Sudan.

The presence of Streit vehicles in Sudan's military forces this year, three years after criticism of its earlier deals, "would seem to indicate that regard for human rights and international law does not figure prominently in the company's business decisions," Mr. Neve told The Globe.

He said it was "particularly troubling" to learn that Sudan's security forces are using Streit vehicles at a time when they have been employing violence and military weaponry to repress the pro-democracy demonstrations.

Even if the Streit vehicles were manufactured outside Canada, any involvement by Canadian citizens in the company "raises serious questions about violations of sanctions," Mr. Neve said.

Starting Sept. 1, Canadians in the arms-brokering business will be subject to licensing requirements. Brokers are defined as those who arrange or negotiate a transaction for moving arms between two foreign countries. Canadians in this business are required to apply for a permit to make these deals, but Ottawa would not grant one where the goods in question could undermine peace and security or be used to commit serious violations of humanitarian or human-rights law.

Ms. Todgham Cherniak, the Toronto lawyer, said Canada has enacted these new rules to comply with the UN's Arms Trade Treaty, but their arrival doesn't necessarily mean Mr. Goutorov will find himself charged with breaking Canadian law.

"Someone in this position and Streit knows they're under the microscope - would look at the Canadian rules very carefully and see if there is any way to get around the rules," she said. "If you can structure your affairs to avoid the application of the law, that's still legal." Arms-trade watchers believe Streit sells its vehicles to middlemen - local companies in the Middle East that then resell them to African buyers. In this case, Streit wouldn't technically be the broker. "If it can't be shown he arranged a sale, than he did not engage in brokering," Ms. Todgham Cherniak said.

A Canadian source with knowledge of Canada's arms-control monitoring, however, said the government is going to look at the full cycle of an arms transaction - to determine the ultimate end user - rather than just the initial consignee of a controlled good.

The source was granted anonymity by The Globe because they were not authorized to speak publicly on the matter.

The source said that in challenging cases it may be necessary for various government departments and authorities to work together to find a solution that could include going after offenders in court.

Ms. Todgham Cherniak said one solution for the Canadian government in difficult cases would be to team up with a jurisdiction that has more funding and authority to investigate overseas, such as the United States. In Canada, she said, "we don't have sufficient resources allocated to export controls and economic sanctions."

Associated Graphic

Soldiers with Sudan's Rapid Support Forces patrol Khartoum last month. The militia evolved in part out of the Janjaweed forces formed in the 2000s to suppress the Darfur insurgency.

HUSSEIN MALLA/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Above: Demonstrators flood the streets of Khartoum on June 30 in a rally against ruling generals. For some pro-democracy protesters, foreign business partnerships with Sudan's military regime have fuelled mistrust of Western governments.

SHRAF SHAZLY/AFP/ GETTY IMAGES

Experts identify this armoured vehicle, deployed in Khartoum by Sudan's ruling military regime, as being manufactured by Streit Group, a company owned by Canadian businessman Guerman Goutorov.

GEOFFREY YORK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Left: Crowds gather again for a rally in Khartoum on Saturday to mourn the dozens of demonstrators killed in a raid on a protest camp in the capital early last month.

Above: A man at the rally raises a picture of a fellow protester killed in the crackdown. More than 100 pro-democracy protesters were massacred by Sudan's security agencies in June.

LEFT: EBRAHIM HAMID/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE: ASHRAF SHAZLY/AFP/GETTY IMAGES


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The terrible beauty of the Tain
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In the weekly series The Enthusiast, The Globe and Mail's writers offer a window into their own private cultural lives: what they're watching, reading, seeing and listening to. This week, John Doyle revisits an Irish epic
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By JOHN DOYLE
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page R2

When I was young and foolish, I got lost in a labyrinthine story about the stealing of a cow and all the repercussions and ripples emanating from that. These ripples involve much fighting, poetry, sex, armies marauding through the night, unrequited love and the emergence of a godlike warrior whose death comes while upright, lashed to a stone, his enemies waiting until a raven lands on him.

The story is the Tain Bo Cuailnge (The Cattle Raid of Cooley) and it is the bedrock of Irishlanguage mythology. It's a great, epic tale and it is central to Irish culture. It is also maddening in its meandering, cockeyed in its ceaseless naming of places and worship of physical strength and astute in its insights into greed and false heroism. When Game of Thrones arrived a few years ago, I was not one of those people instantly smitten with it. It seemed a pastiche, inauthentic. I knew a more uproarious and thrilling tale. Game of Thrones has nothing on the Tain Bo Cuailnge.

The epic tale, part of the Ulster Cycle of stories, exists in fragments and is based on three ancient manuscripts from the 11th to the 14th centuries. It is partly in prose and then erupts into acres of elated and elaborate poetry celebrating nature and feats of war. It is Ireland's rough equivalent of Virgil's The Aeneid.

It begins, if there is a true beginning, with pillow talk after canoodling. Maeve, queen of the province of Connacht, is sparring idly in bed with her husband, Aillil. Now, Maeve is both a sexual goddess and the boss, voracious in her appetite and a forceful leader. She married Aillil because he's easygoing and not given to jealousy. She needs that in a fella.

They begin to count up all their possessions. It turns out, to Maeve's ire, that her husband has something she doesn't: a white bull named Finnbhennach. Outraged, she tells her messenger MacRoth to get a gang of her soldiers together and find a bull more powerful than Aillil's.

They do. They travel to the land of the Ulster cattle baron, one Daire mac Fiachna. He has a famous bull, the Donn Cuailnge, the Brown Bull of Cooley. He agrees to loan it to Maeve for a year so it can sire a successor.

Thing go awry when Maeve's men get drunk and boast that they could have simply taken the bull. A furious Daire declares the deal is off.

Lets pause here. How did I get lost in all this? Well, when I was a lad, in 1969 there appeared a new translation of the Tain by poet Thomas Kinsella. The publishers went all out and commissioned Irish artist Louis le Brocquy to illustrate it. The result is stunning: Kinsella's muscular language, which rescues the story from an earlier version that offered it as cute fairy-tale myth, is enhanced by le Brocquy's simple, beautiful but macabre drawings of events in a primitive, prehistoric world.

The artist himself said it: "It is as shadows thrown by the text that they derive their substance." It was the most important book published in Ireland in a generation, an imaginative reshaping of a cultural touchstone into a fiercely contemporary context. Even as a kid I knew that. Kinsella's dynamic description of Cuchulainn's travails is, in part, this: "The first warp-spasm seized Cuchulainn, and made him into a monstrous thing, hideous and shapeless, unheard of. His shanks and his joints, every knuckle and angle and organ from head to foot, shook like a tree in the flood or a reed in the stream."

So, in the story, Queen Maeve is now even more furious and organizes an army of supporters to overrun Ulster and abduct the bull. Here, the Cattle Raid of Cooley is truly under way. The men of Ulster are regrettably under a curse put upon them by the goddess Macha. She has inflicted the pain of childbirth on these men because they abused a pregnant woman - there is a lot of female rage in the Tain - and it will last for months. The only fella who is immune and can fight the invading Connacht army is the young, godlike Cuchulainn. They call him the Hound of Ulster.

Now Cuchulainn is introduced in a series of passages that are rhapsodic in their description of his physical strength. He is bigger, better, bolder and more fierce than any man alive. But courteous, too, and likes to play by the rules. In any case, he begins to fight back and does things like kill a hundred soldiers a day, no bother on him.

Eventually, he agrees to fight Connacht one enemy at a time, and these individual fights go on and on. Maeve, meanwhile, has to use all her skills to persuade her best fighters to meet Cuchulainn alone. She offers them sex with her daughters as part of the package.

Day after day, Cuchulainn defeats each opponent until he meets Ferdia, his friend and foster brother. The battle is long and brutal and for Ferdia it ends in death. Cuchulainn weeps that it has all come to this, this mad war. The upshot is that the Brown Bull of Cooley is taken to Maeve's land and fortress. But upon meeting the white bull, Finnbhennach, the two begin to fight. Their battle rages over miles and miles, until both die.

The origin of all this war, sacrifice and savagery is negated; after all that, both bulls - the catalysts for all the carnage - are dead.

Another pause here. In mid-1970s Ireland, when I was a bit older and given to appreciating rock music, the Irish band Horslips released a sort-of concept album, The Tain. To describe Horslips as "Celtic rock" would be inaccurate. They were Irish rocker-artists giving traditional music a kick in the posterior.

They were huge, this band, and their cultural influence is still discussed in academia today.

With The Tain, they distilled the entire elaborate epic into short stories, some of which are asides in the main epic. MacRoth is in love with Maeve, they've been lovers, and he is stuck in melancholy jealousy of Cuchulainn's brawn. "I travel Ireland in a day/You just nod, I'm on my way/I've golden wings upon my feet/I seldom touch the ground/ The only thing I'm not/Is faster than the Hound." With one piece, Dearg Doom (Red Destroyer), they encapsulate Cuchulainn's fury and might, amping up an ancient tune, O'Neill's March, into a searing rock guitar riff. The music was used for Ireland's theme song at the 1990 World Cup and is still heard in the dance halls of Ireland to this day. The album cover, with its fist in chain mail, is considered iconic, a small masterpiece of representation.

Since then, by the way, a new translation of The Tain by poet Ciaran Carson was published by Penguin in 2007. It's peculiar but piquant how an ancient myth can have so may ripples and repercussions and enter into a country's bloodstream, decade after decade, again and again.

Back in the story, with the two bulls killing each other, there ends officially the Cattle Raid of Cooley, with its moral about the futility of fighting over possessions. But Cuchulainn's story isn't over. In his many fights, he killed a man with a pregnant wife who had the power of sorcery. She gave birth to sextuplets - three boys and three girls - all gifted with strange powers. They set out for revenge on the Hound of Ulster. Through trickery, sorcery and flattery they persuade the great warrior into a fight.

They strip him of his strength with necromancy. (There's a side story about the goddess Morrigan refusing to protect him too, because he had rejected her advances.) In the end he dies, having lashed himself to that stone so he will not fall before his enemies, while onlookers wait until the bird sits on his shoulder, telling them he is finally dead.

A bronze cast, The Death of Cuchulainn, by Oliver Sheppard, has stood inside the General Post Office in central Dublin since the 1930s. The GPO was the site of the Easter Rising against British rule in 1916, which eventually led to an independent Ireland. Millions have seen it, passed by it: a warrior in death, refusing to fall.

Its presence is an act of continuity with the ancient, brutal past chronicled in the Ulster Cycle of stories, of which the Tain Bo Cuailnge is central.

The bronze cast is less a commemoration than an acknowledgement that a country's, a culture's narrative is there, in one long labyrinthine story that starts with the stealing of a cow.

And what we learn from it, as I did, is the terrible waste that tribal conflicts bring, no matter the beauty of their telling.

Notes: The Tain: Ulster rises from its pangs is used with the permission of The Estate of Louis le Brocquy. Website: anne-madden.com/LeBPages/lebrocquy.html The cover of The Tain is used with the permission of Horslips.

Website: horslips.ie The music of The Tain by Horslips can be found on Spotify.

Associated Graphic

A statue by Oliver Sheppard depicts the Cuchulainn, the mythological Irish figure who features in the Ulster Cycle, of which the Tain Bo Cuailnge is part.

STAIR NA HEIREANN/HISTORY OF IRELAND

The story of Tain Bo Cuailnge remains an integral part of Irish culture that inspires literature, art and music to this day.


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A house where 'pretty' is the operative word
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Owner Ellen Schraa has spent years restoring her Toronto Victorian home
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By SHANE DINGMAN
  
  

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Friday, July 19, 2019 – Page H6

TORONTO -- 38 Sorauren Ave.

TORONTO

Asking Price: $2,995,000 Taxes: $7,128 (2019) Lot Size: 20 by 156 feet Agents: Nancy Lee Jobin, Sotheby's International Realty

THE BACK STORY "She has a style. This is not staged," Sotheby's sales representative Nancy Lee Jobin says about her most recent listing, a claim that would be hard to credit were it not for the lived-in feel of the otherwise utterly unique home.

"Everything is French provincial - from A to Z - there's just nowhere that you see anything modern."

For the homeowner, Ellen Schraa, her overriding design ethos is simple: Is it pretty? And her affection for the colourful and ornate furniture pieces calls all the way back to her childhood.

"I remember being a little girl and having specific pieces of furniture. My family wasn't very well off, so we typically had pieces given to us," she recalls. "I must have been in Kindergarten or Grade 1, having one or two French provincial pieces and I loved decorating my room. I would push my furniture around the room so I had a different view every so often, and I would be so excited to go to bed that night because my view for falling asleep would be different."

When she purchased the house at 38 Sorauren Ave. seven years ago, it was a run-down rooming house with major structural issues on the rear addition.

The renovation was a near total gut-job, a project that took three years. It transformed a two-storey house with a boarded-up attic and turned it into a three-storey Victorian gem with hand-curated finds in every room.

Restoring the house to its Victorian grandeur took some doing.

Ms. Schraa had to find a place that would do custom baseboards to evoke the period. She had some chandelier medallions on site (painted over many times across the decades) but needed to find more; new doors had to be purchased and new vintage doorknobs found. (Luckily, she found a batch of crystal knobs from a Rosedale teardown that all matched). Behind existing drywall were the original archways between rooms, but an incomplete set of corbels (the ornate "corner" pieces where the arc touches the wall), so some had to be custom carved. She found a gasfireplace specialist who would do a mantle that looked like one piece of carved stone.

"I'm not a designer ... but what I find is you have to decorate to the space," Ms. Schraa says. "During construction, I would just take a bucket, and I would sit on it, in the middle of a room and look around and try to envision what I thought I should do."

THE HOUSE TODAY The conviction to be different starts outside: The house is painted black with purple undertones - it's unlike anything else on the street (it used to be a dusty pink brick) and Ms. Schraa came to it after cycling through more vibrant colours on the virtual painting app on Benjamin Moore's website. Years later, she found the black cobble stones that feature in the front-yard landscaping.

The front door opens into a house that's painted entirely white: white hardwood floors, white walls and ceilings. There's animal print throws on the floor, French provincial furniture and a vintage chandelier in every room.

There are absolutely no builderfavourite pot-lights anywhere.

From the small foyer, there is a sitting room/dining space on the left and directly ahead is a hallway to the kitchen, basement stairs (basement is low, dry and clean but mainly for storage and utilities) and narrow Victorian staircase leading upstairs. In the front room there is a pale pink sectional in the bay windows, a decorative fireplace, 10-inch baseboards and 12-inch (original) crown moulding. The details are intricate, the finishes all in white, the art on the walls minimal the animal print leaps out.

Walking past a cute powder room, you arrive at the kitchen and family room at the rear of the house. The Fisher and Paykel fridge is white, the Bertazonni range is stainless steel and the faucet has a brushed nickel-looking finish, but the rest is white (including the quartz top of the counters and island) and glass.

The wall opposite the stove and fridge is entirely upper and lower storage with more counter space.

The small living room is Ms.

Schraa's favourite hangout spot; a red French Provincial couch, a sandy stone mantle on a gas fireplace with TV mounted above, and a wall of windows with walkout to the backyard, too.

The house is a little more than 60 feet deep, and on a 156-foot long lot, there's lots left over for a large manicured backyard (and a two-car garage off the rear laneway). Dominating this space is an enormous, ornate, wrought-iron gazebo that looks like it has been there as long as the house has, but was actually a recent addition (it was Ms. Schraa's 50th birthday present to herself).

Back inside and up to the second floor is where the house fits most of its four bedrooms (although currently the front room is an office). There's a laundry room here at the top of the stairs, which you can walk through to a four-piece bathroom. The rear bedroom is 12 by 10 feet, but has a huge closet in the short hallway between it and the main hall.

The second bedroom, smaller than the rear one by just a few inches, has a long closet too, but the front room/study (15 by 16 feet) with its bay window has none.

Each room is white; each room has the perfect collection of charming antiques, colours and prints.

Some of the furniture Ms.

Schraa had before moving in, but more was found scouring local antique stores. "I stole all my family's antique pieces - one of the cabinets in my study came over from the Netherlands, one of the dressers in the second floor bathroom came from mom's father's farm," she says.

There are a couple of wallmounted flower-like metal light fixtures - more vintage finds - that were intended for overhead use but work well as sconces. All of these fixtures fit with Ms.

Schraa's style, and she's happy to include them in the sale ... but if future owners are planning to remove them, she would be willing to take them back rather than lose them to a dump somewhere.

The fourth floor master suite didn't exist before Ms. Schraa moved in. She discovered that behind the attic walls there were high ceilings and lots of space. It didn't take much for the contractors to turn this level in to a master suite. The bedroom faces the backyard (complete with Juliette balcony) and is 26 by 13 feet, with half the space occupied by a closet and dressing area.

Ms. Schraa is an accountant by training, an expert in health policy and a professor in the School of Health Policy and Management at York University. She expresses her style in her house, and her dress (literally). "I tend to dress in vintage and colours; I like wearing a lot of red and leopard," she said. Her closets are a panoply of colours and textures, and an inspiring collection of red pumps and knee-high boots.

A door in the dressing area takes you to the massive fourpiece ensuite with standalone clawfoot tub, more chandeliers, and a strange little hallway to the front attic window; there's nothing in there other than light, a rare piece of undecorated space in the house.

THE NEIGHBOURHOOD Ms. Schraa wants to stay in the area, but she wants a smaller house (and she's hoping to purchase a country house, too). She loves customizing her space (in the next house, fewer chandeliers and more sconces) but she's ready for the next challenge.

The agent, Ms. Jobin, admits the pricing for the house is aggressive. "Everybody says 'Oh, there's never been a house that's been sold in this neighbourhood at this price.' That's because there's never been a house like this in this neighbourhood. What this neighbourhood does love is a Victorian house that has respected the heritage of the building, and she's done that impeccably in every regard."

Which neighbourhood is that exactly? On maps, it's in a spot claimed by both the Roncesvalles Village and Parkdale. Ms. Schraa gravitates to the shops north on Roncy, but her house is geographically much closer to Queen West and true Parkdale. She has pillows embroidered to cover both bases: one says "I [heart] Parkdale," the other, "I [heart] Roncy."

"This neighbourhood is definitely changing," says Ms. Jobin, and that includes the buyers interested in it. "People from North Toronto want to live in kind of a more urban setting where they can walk out. I'm talking downsizers here, that are moving from Rosedale, Yonge and Eglinton, moving downtown and moving here to be able to just walk."

The question is whether they will bring their Rosedale price expectations with their walking shoes.

Associated Graphic

A three-year renovation transformed a run-down Toronto rooming house into a three-storey gem with hand-curated finds in every room.

COURTESY OF MODERN MOVEMENT


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Can poetry be effectively translated?
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As two recent Griffin Prize winners illustrate, translating language is an act of transmogrification
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By EMILY DONALDSON
Special to The Globe and Mail
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page R10

Our default assumption about translation is that something is always lost in it. And if that's true for a novel, or an essay, how much more so for poetry, which relies, more than any other literary form, on the nuances, syntax and idiosyncrasies of the language in which it's written. (The phrase "lost in translation" was in fact made famous by James Merrill's poem of the same name.) In Fugitive Pieces, Anne Michaels's character Bialek compared reading a poem in translation to "kissing a woman through a veil." Some question whether poetry should be translated at all.

In his remarks at the Griffin Prize readings in June, prize founder Scott Griffin noted that when the prize first began, in 2001, he and the founding trustees were advised not to include works in translation. Yet how do you call yourself an international prize when you're only considering poems written in English? Griffin ignored the advice and went one further.

Not only would works in translation be considered, the translator would take the lion's share of the prize's substantial spoils. Korean poet Kim Hyesoon's win last month for her book Autobiography of Death thus entitles her to 40 per cent of the $65,000 prize money; her translator, Don Mee Choi, receives 60 per cent. That approach treats translation not as an attempt to "fail better," but as an act of transmogrification: the translated poem retains the original's shell (a poet might say carapace), but essentially becomes another poem.

Still, Choi and Kim's win marks just the third time in the international Griffin's 18year history that a work in translation has won it. Paul Celan and his translators, Nikolai Popov and Heather McHugh, won in the prize's first year. In 2013, Palestinian poet Ghassan Zaqtan won with translator Fady Joudah. This year's two nominated translations were written in languages never previously represented at the Griffin.

In the case of Luljeta Lleshanaku's Negative Space, that's hardly surprising. Lleshanaku writes in Albanian, which, despite being among the oldest languages, is spoken by only about 7.5 million people worldwide. If you're an Albanian poet, that makes for a limited audience, and an even more limited pool of potential translators. Lleshanaku was thus fortunate to strike gold in 41-year-old Ani Gjika, a poet herself, whose translation of Negative Space has been nominated for two prestigious American translation awards in addition to the Griffin. The book draws from two collections published in Albania in 2012 and 2015, and took Gjika more than four years to translate.

Translators generally translate into their mother tongue. That's technically not the case with Gjika, who grew up in Albania, but having exclusively written her own poetry in English, she now sees it as her native language.

Language and translation have been constants in her life. When she was a child in Albania, her grandmother translated daily to her from the Greek Bible (Bibles were banned in the country at the time).

In high school, Gjika majored in Russian, and, like many Albanians, picked up Italian from watching TV. Her mother is also a poet, her father a professor of Albanian literature and linguistics. When the family moved to the United States in 1999, when Gjika was 18, she served as their translator for the first few years. She delighted in translating poems by Emily Dickinson and Rumi for her mother, and for a group of Albanian writers in a writing workshop.

And yet it was only 2009, when she enrolled in an MFA program in poetry at Boston University, that she began to consider translation as a career. She's since translated poems, short stories and essays by a dozen Albanian writers and teaches the craft at Framingham State University in Massachusetts.

Albanian is a notoriously difficult language - considered an isolate within the Indo-European language family, it shares little with the languages of neighbouring countries. To an English ear, it sounds a bit like a record played backward. It has a smaller vocabulary than English, though Gjika sees this as an advantage for translation in that it gives her greater choice when rendering images and phrases.

Lleshanaku is one of Albania's best-known poets - certainly the most prominent to be translated into English - and has been the recipient of several national awards. Before she was Lleshanaku's translator, Gjika was a fan.

She first read the poet's work in 2009, in English, and was so taken with its cinematic qualities and emotional resonance that she wrote to Lleshanaku to ask permission to translate a few of her poems for a graduate-school project, one of which ended up winning the Robert Fitzgerald Translation Prize.

Negative Space is inspired by Lleshanaku's experience growing up under family house arrest during Enver Hoxha's autocratic communist rule, though the poems never mention this explicitly. Gjika describes the book as akin to "entering the darkroom of a photographer who is at once skilled but also willing to allow you to learn her skill." Lleshanaku speaks enough English to discuss translations as they progress, and sometimes makes adjustments accordingly. In the case of one poem, Menelaus's Return, Gjika was having trouble making the ending work, so Lleshanaku decided to change it altogether.

Says Gjika of the process, "When I translate Luljeta Lleshanaku, I'm acutely aware that I am not just translating poetry from my mother tongue, but someone's unique form of ars poetica." Like Gjika, Don Mee Choi - who was born in 1962 in Seoul - migrated to the United States in her late teens, and is also a poet; though unlike Gjika, she came alone, to study visual arts in California.

When Choi was 10, her father leveraged his work as a war photographer for ABC News to help the family escape South Korea's military dictatorship. They initially went to Hong Kong, from which Choi's father covered the Vietnam War in its entirety (his footage appears in the 1978 film The Deer Hunter). Choi's parents and two siblings eventually settled in Australia, Choi in Seattle, with her husband, though she's currently in Berlin on a one-year DAAD artist's fellowship.

Choi first realized the impact translation could have after reading a book by Hwang Sun-Won, a well-known Korean writer, in English. It moved her enough that she drove hundreds of miles to a Korean bookstore in Los Angeles to seek out untranslated versions of Hwang's other work.

Choi originally intended to translate fiction, but changed her mind after coming across three female Korean poets - Ch'oe Sung-ja, Yi Yon-ju and Kim Hyesoon - whose fiercely feminist work, written during the politically oppressive 1980s, she found electrifying. Born in the 1950s, the three are part of the so-called hangul generation, hangul being the writing system originally developed for women and commoners in the 15th century that was officially adopted in 1919, during Japan's occupation of Korea (when Koreans were forced to use Japanese), as a means of nationalist resistance.

Korean women have composed poetry for millennia, but it was mostly transmitted orally owing to their marginal status in a highly patriarchal society. In the 1930s, yoryu, or "women's poetry," was expected to be gentle, passive and sentimental. Kim's experimental poetry - which often draws on war, violence, bodies and the grotesque ("Today, Mommy cooks panfried hair / Yesterday, mommy cooked braised thighs / Tomorrow, Mommy will cook sweet and sour fingers") - is, needless to say, about as far from yoryu as you can get.

The South Korean poetry scene has long been male-dominated, but it hasn't been immune to the winds of the #MeToo movement. Choi says it has affected the community so profoundly that Korean literary journals now publish women almost exclusively.

It was while translating an anthology of Ch'oe, Yi and Kim's work that Choi began to view translating as a means of connecting with her birth culture, and as an act of decolonization. "Translation is not just about translating language, stories, poems, but it is also about generating counter-memory, counter-knowledge of one's (gender/class/race/nation) location, dislocation, history," she wrote in an e-mail.

"Translation is a huge part of my poetics - it is what shapes the language of my poetry."

Choi has translated six of Kim's books to date. Asked whether their relationship is that of colleagues or friends, Choi says, "Korean culture is such that it wouldn't be proper for me to say that I see Kim Hyesoon as a friend. I think of Kim Hyesoon as a poet I deeply admire. I think she is the most remarkable poet to come after [early 20th-century avant-garde writer] Yi Sang."

Reflecting further, she offers an alternate paradigm: "I'm a comet that orbits a blazing star called Kim Hyesoon."

Associated Graphic

Korean poet Kim Hyesoon, top left, and Albania's Luljeta Lleshanaku, bottom left, have won Griffin Prizes for their respective collections, but the prize also rewards their translators - Don Mee Choi, top right, and Ani Gjika, bottom right - as a nod to the intrinsic role they play in bringing the text from one language to another.


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Designing for fun: How to make a better playground
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Why are playgrounds so boring? And how do we fix them? Alex Bozikovic speaks to landscape architects and play specialists who are tackling the problem with both art and nature
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By ALEX BOZIKOVIC
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page R6

The two brothers climbed a rope ladder onto the ship.

For a few minutes, they were happy on this playground: A game of tag started up, and there was chasing and laughter.

But soon things slowed down.

The older boy looked bored. He climbed to the highest point on the ship, hauled himself up onto the keel - where nobody was meant to play - looked out to the air beyond, and jumped.

The brothers were my sons, the scene was my local park, but anywhere in North America the theme would be the same: Most playgrounds are not designed to be very much fun. Over the past 30 years, public and school playgrounds have been replaced with places that are safe, lawyer-approved and dull. They aren't places that will facilitate creative thinking or independent play.

At the same time, screens are taking over children's lives and educators talk about "naturedeficit disorder." As journalist Richard Louv put it, "just as children need good nutrition and adequate sleep," they also need contact with nature.

Landscape architects, play specialists and parks departments have two solutions in play. One is the invention of better playgrounds that stimulate creative play; the other, the concept of less structured "nature play." The latter will occupy a large portion of a new park now being designed on Toronto's waterfront, which could set an important example for public space for children and adults.

What does it take to make a good playground? For one prominent firm in the field, Danish playground designers Monstrum, it requires narrative and a sense of danger.

First, storytelling. Their projects include brightly coloured sculptural elements, such as a giant whale or worm "that can serve as an icon of the park: 'Let's meet at the giant herons!' " creative director Ole Barslund Nielsen explains.

Trained as an artist, Barslund Nielsen and his partner Christian Jensen want their work "also to stimulate the imagination of children," Barslund Nielsen says.

"They can easily turn a ship into a spaceship."

The pair founded their firm 15 years ago in response to what they saw happening on Danish playgrounds. Many were being demolished and replaced, Barslund Nielsen says. In these new playgrounds, "the focus was safety," he adds, "and that turned out to be boring."

This parallels what was happening in Canada and even more so in the litigious United States - the latest step in a century-long progression of ideas about play.

In the crowded cities of the early 20th century, playgrounds became a tool in childhood development and of keeping children out of trouble. The standard toolkit was the "four S's" of sandbox, slide, swing, seesaw.

But after 1945, as design critic Alexandra Lange recounts in her history The Design of Childhood, "a focus on controlling and improving the lives of children, and rebuilding cities, led to an explosion of new forms of outdoor play."

One of these was the "junk playground." This idea was pioneered by the Danish landscape architect Carl Theodor Sorenson in the 1940s, an acre of loosely organized space where children could build their own world with wood, bricks and tools.

The child advocate Marjory Gill Allen brought the idea to Britain in 1945 with a long article in the glossy magazine Picture Post.

A typical playground "is a place of utter boredom," she said. "It is little wonder that they prefer the dumps of rough wood, and piles of bricks and rubbish of the bombed sites." This unlikely insight took hold in post-Blitz London, and in Western and Northern Europe.

And in Canada: In the 1970s, the nascent Harbourfront project on Toronto's waterfront had its own adventure playground, which lasted about a decade.

Like others, it fell victim to a culture of caution and litigation.

In 1978, a Chicago toddler suffered severe head injuries on a city playground; years later, his family won more than US$9-million in damages. By the early 1980s, cities and schools - and their insurance companies - were moving away from play structures that were high or had moving parts. They bought play structures as components from catalogues, all vetted by engineers to avoid injury at all costs. It took 20 years for that culture of safety to reach its peak.

And there have been costs.

Play is an essential part of children's psychological development and so is risk. Learning to assess risk and to get back up when we fall is part of growing up. "Kids have to take chances, to constantly experience risks, if they are going to adapt to the world around them," scholar Susan G. Solomon wrote in her book The Science of Play.

Adapting to the world around us also means simply being in natural settings. Another movement, known as "nature play," encourages this - what used to be known as playing outside.

"We're talking about outdoor, self-directed play in contact with nature," says Cam Collyer, executive lead at the environmental charity Evergreen. "There have been a number of influences pushing against that: more working parents, an idea about childhood as a competition," and the rise of screen time.

Evergreen has been working to address all this; it works with schools on "schoolyard-greening" projects and has advocated for unstructured play in parks as well. At Evergreen Brickworks, the public site that they manage in Toronto, kids get to muck around with water and sand, and shift around big logs and hunks of lumber to build their own structures. There are adults on hand, but the play is loose and intense.

It's a rarity. "So much of the pendulum has swung toward indoor play and programmed play, that outdoor play is less familiar for kids. And for parents, there can be a lot of anxiety about letting their kids play independently."

Similar insights are shaping two parks within the Lower Don Lands Flood Protection project, a $1.2-billion effort that will remake part of Toronto's Port Lands, a few kilometres from the centre of the city's downtown.

(Evergreen is not currently involved.)

The public agency Waterfront Toronto is now planning two major parks with significant play components: Promontory Park, which will have a large playground, and River Valley Park North, which will include a large natural play area.

At Promontory Park, overlooking the city's skyline, the agency is looking to build a "destination playground," says Pina Mallozzi, vice-president of design for Waterfront Toronto.

While the details are not yet designed, she compares it to the large playground at Chicago's Maggie Daley Park, which includes a suspension bridge, an ocean-themed water play area and an "Enchanted Forest." (The Toronto agency will be hiring a play specialist to work on this project.)

Both the Chicago and Toronto parks are designed by the prominent landscape architects Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates (MVVA). The firm recently completed another major park that has similar ambitions: Gathering Place in Tulsa, Okla., which features two great herons by Monstrum.

"In previous playgrounds we've designed, there is always some kind of natural theme," says Scott Streeb, a senior associate at MVVA.

At River Valley Park North, the designers are taking advantage of the context: a massive project that will restore the Don River with wide expanses of marsh and swamp.

"It's unprecedented to reshape a river mouth and provide access to real nature in the heart of the city," Streeb says. "In this park in Toronto, we're going to make that the centre of the play experience." That could mean a set of islands in the river, linked by bridges, which connect to inland play areas mixed with pathways and groves of trees. All this would sit alongside protected water channels where you can borrow a canoe or kayak and say hello up close to turtles, kingfishers and actual live herons.

The River Valley Park will be unusual in this respect and in its scale. But the essential ideas are widely transferable: that play should involve some degree of autonomy for children, that the presence of flora and fauna is important and that the experience should be good for everyone.

"We are very interested in creating areas that are not age-segregated," Streeb says. "Everyone should be able to have fun. Even adults."

Which makes me think of my older son's experience, being thwarted by a ship meant for smaller kids. What would engage him? A river to canoe on, a copse of trees to hide in, or maybe a giant bird to catch, befriend, or ride through the sky.

Follow me on Twitter @alexbozikovic

Associated Graphic

For Danish playground designers Monstrum, a good playground requires narrative and a sense of danger. Their projects include bright sculptural elements, such as this giant pipefish at the Chelsea Waterside playground in New York.

Prominent landscape architects Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates recently completed the Gathering Place park in Tulsa, Okla. Among its features are two prominent great heron sculptures, far left, by Monstrum.

ELIZABETH FELICELLA

River Valley Park North is one of two major parks with significant play components that Waterfront Toronto is planning. The proposal for the park is based on a few essential ideas, including that play should involve a degree of autonomy for children.

GRACE PELLETIER


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Two Pages vie for stages in Stratford and N.Y.
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Canadian singer-songwriter Steven and son Ben channel their passion for musical theatre with near-simultaneous projects on two sides of the border
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By J. KELLY NESTRUCK
  
  

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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page R3

Since he went solo from the Barenaked Ladies a decade ago, Steven Page has also been working behind-the-scenes on a secret passion - composing songs for a number of musicaltheatre projects for Broadway and the Stratford Festival But the 49-year-old singersongwriter is about to be beaten to a full Page stage production by a nose - by his son.

Ben Page, a 20-year-old Sheridan College student in musictheatre performance, has written the songs for a show called Leaving Eden, having its world premiere at the New York Musical Festival this week.

Steven's much-anticipated first musical, Here's What It Takes, meanwhile, won't open until at least the 2020 season at Stratford.

It is not a huge surprise for Page senior, however, that the middle of his three sons has scored first with a score for a musical. The former BNL front man used to do what he calls "that dad thing" where, driving his boys around, he'd musically educate them with an iPod connected to the car stereo, putting on something by Stephen Sondheim from Company or Merrily We Roll Along - but the student quickly became the teacher.

"You know, I was guiding my kids the right way," Steven recalls.

"And, all of a sudden, Ben laps me with a Wikipedia-like knowledge of contemporary musical theatre and Golden Age musical theatre."

Music had been a part of life in the Page household from birth for the boys - their mother, Carolyn Ricketts, Steven's ex-wife, is a musician, too - but here was the way for Ben to distinguish himself in his teens. "There was always music, but when I found, you know, my cast albums that I love, they were mine," he says, listing William Finn's Falsettos as his favourite.

The Pages spoke to The Globe and Mail about their shared love of musicals on a conference call - the father in Calgary, where he had performed a Canada Day concert, and the son in New York, where he was working on lastminute rewrites. ("Love you, Ben"; "Love you, too.") Leaving Eden is the long-in-development project of a Canadian lyricist and book writer named Jenny Waxman. ("Book" is jargon for the script in a musical, for those of you who haven't attended Sondheim school in a car with your dad.)

It retells the myth of Lilith, said to have been Adam's first wife in the Garden of Eden, alongside a story about a modern couple with infertility issues. It's a conundrum of creation, tackled from two angles.

Ben first got involved with Leaving Eden last summer, cast in the role of "ancient Adam" for a workshop in Hamilton, shortly after a previous composer left the show (Ada Westfall is still credited with "additional music").

One Adam song was still only lyrics - and Ben was supposed to simply speak them. Instead, he went home after rehearsal and composed a setting for the words - a bit of bravado that so impressed Waxman, she brought him on to write the rest of the score.

Now, Leaving Eden is being performed at a festival attended by major Broadway producers, where musicals such as Next to Normal and [title of show] first garnered buzz.

The New York Musical Festival, it could also be noted, is a place where a couple hundred musicals that were never heard of again made their debuts, too.

The stakes are higher for Page senior's forthcoming debut as composer/lyricist at Stratford: Here's What It Takes will be the (some would say well-overdue) first original musical to open there in Antoni Cimolino's tenure as artistic director. Donna Feore, director of many hit revivals at Stratford, is attached and the book is by Siminovitch Prize-winning playwright Daniel MacIvor.

It will show whether Stratford can play a meaningful role in the renaissance of Canadian musical theatre exemplified by Come From Away - or if Canada's largest not-for-profit theatre will continue to sit in the wings and watch.

While the Stratford Festival can't confirm when Here's What It Takes is being mounted, Page says it is in the mix for next season, which will officially be announced in August. He has his "fingers crossed."

The musical's plot follows two friends through the rise of their band in the eighties to its eventual break-up. "It may sound familiar, but it's not," says Page, who has already released versions of many of its songs on his 2016 and 2018 albums, Heal Thyself Pt. 1: Instinct and Discipline: Heal Thyself, Pt. II. "It's definitely not the story of my old band, but I certainly drew on my experience."

What the two Page shows have in common, Steven points out, is the question: What is the cost of creation?

There are some composing dynasties in musical theatre - for instance, Richard Rodgers, of Rodgers and Hammerstein fame, was the father of Mary Rodgers, composer of Once Upon a Mattress, who was the mother of Adam Guettel, composer of The Light in the Piazza. A father and son having their first musicals premiere within a year of one another would be unheard of, however.

Both Pages trace their interest in the form back to their early teens. Steven was in a Scarborough community-theatre production of Oliver! in Grade 8 - and remembers it as the moment he came out of his shell and the beginning of his love of singing. He, of course, took that love in a different direction for a few decades, feeling that musical theatre struggled to channel the pop or rock sound he liked.

Ben was likewise bitten by the Broadway bug in middle school, performing in Into the Woods, but it was only after following friends to an extracurricular theatre program that he became a fullfledged musical nerd. Soon he was competing to track down the best new off-Broadway show and having in-depth debates over Company cast recordings.

Says his father, hearing this, nostalgically: "That's exactly how I was at that age, but with punk and indie rock and finding obscure 45s and flexi discs."

Although his true musical-theatre debut will come second to his son's, Steven has been building a solid theatrical résumé for a while now. He first composed music for a 2005 production of As You Like It directed by Cimolino, and, since, has collaborated on several other Stratford productions with the lyricist William Shakespeare (and one with Ben Jonson).

Page père has had dalliances with Broadway producers, too. At one point, he was approached to write songs for a musical of the 1982 movie, Diner (Sheryl Crow ended up attached). In 2011, he worked on another show with some "New York people" that eventually "ran out of money"; he says he has to be vague about it.

"It's much more fun to just work on my own stuff," he says.

Steven also seems to be having fun supporting his son's nascent career. Just as Victor Page, a drummer and Steven's dad, founded the indie label Page Publications in the eighties to distribute Barenaked Ladies' early cassette tapes, Steven has been helping spread the word about Leaving Eden.

Father and son have collaborated on a couple of music videos for the show. For the song Universe, they sneaked into a Sheridan College studio after hours to shoot, while the song Three Weeks got a more straightforward video of the two performing in Ben's student apartment. "It's been three weeks since I've gotten out of bed / gotten off the couch / put a comb to my head," Steven croons as Ben strums guitar behind him, both wearing bigframed glasses and checkered shirts. (If the lyrics make you think of classic Page-sung BNL tracks One Week and Brian Wilson, it's only coincidence; the words are by Waxman.)

Ben can't wait to bring Leaving Eden back to Canada - and is mostly bullish on the renewed energy surrounding musical theatre in this country these days.

But he still thinks it's sadly the case that "Canadian musicals don't happen in Canada until they go to the States first." Spending four weeks in New York working on his festival show, he's realized that the resources south of the border are at a "totally different level."

This, like sneaking into studios at night and teen debates over albums, flashes Steven Page back to his youth. "Canadian musical theatre hasn't had its Tragically Hip or Arkells yet," he says. "The ones who can actually make a living and gain popular acceptance at home alone without having to make it somewhere else first."

Associated Graphic

Ben Page, left, has written the songs for a show called Leaving Eden, set to have its world premiere at the New York Musical Festival this week. Meanwhile, father Steven, right, has been building a solid theatrical résumé for a while now, and is hard at work on Here's What It Takes - which could open as soon as next year at Stratford.


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Housing affordability wrapped in a rail line
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Revival of interurban line will help create more sustainable cities, advocates say
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By KERRY GOLD
  
  

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Friday, July 19, 2019 – Page H2

VANCOUVER -- Metro Vancouver has as much of a traffic crisis as it has an affordable housing crisis, with thousands of cars backed up on major arterial roads between Vancouver and Abbotsford every day.

But TransLink, the transportation authority for Metro Vancouver, doesn't believe that reviving passenger service on the old interurban rail line is the solution. Interurban passenger service was routine more than 100 years ago throughout North America, including a route from Vancouver to Chilliwack. Most jurisdictions sold off the lines once the car came along, but the interurban land in Metro Vancouver remains publicly owned, which has triggered proposals to revive it. A story in last week's Globe and Mail explored that idea.

But TransLink cites the legal difficulty in negotiating with private companies that currently use the track for freight. They say the interurban does not support a more immediate plan to provide better transit to the region's second downtown of Surrey Centre.

As well, it would be pricey to refurbish the line and because of its many stops, it would be too slow an option for commuters. Studies have been done over the years, which did not favour the idea, TransLink says, including a consultant's south of Fraser area transit report in 2007, a provincial government report on Fraser Valley transit in 2010, and a TransLink assessment in 2012 as part of a Surrey rapid transit study.

TransLink says it will revisit the issue of interurban service as one of several options as part of its new regional transportation strategy, called Transport 2050.

"The lack of connections to population centres and the slowerthan-bus travel time are more compelling reasons why the idea has not been recommended for consideration for either rapid transit or inter-regional rail options," TransLink's spokesperson said in an e-mail.

Housing affordability and better transit are inextricably linked.

To that end, citizen activist groups have been arguing for the benefits of restoring passenger service on the old line that runs from Surrey through the Fraser Valley. The rail line is currently used for freight, but it is owned by BC Hydro, a Crown corporation whose private predecessor, BC Electric Railway, built the line in 1910. The line was built to link farming communities with the city, serving more than a dozen tiny communities and helping grow the Fraser Valley. It got decommissioned when cars and buses ruled the day, but now that congestion is making the region unlivable, proponents want to bring the old way of train travel back.

Some say it's a better option than the costly SkyTrain proposal to link Surrey to Langley. There are residents in those cities who vehemently oppose the idea of an interurban service over the faster SkyTrain.

Daryl Dela Cruz, a 23-year-old student, formed a citizens' group in support of SkyTrain instead of an interurban train from Surrey to Langley. His group mounted a petition that has about 6,000 signatures and they campaigned during the civic election to make it a central issue.

"We're saying, 'Hey, your [interurban] line theory might not be a bad idea, perhaps more study could be done - but it's not a replacement for the SkyTrain,' " Mr. Dela Cruz says.

Others say the interurban is more inclusive of the entire Valley, which is quickly expanding and it shouldn't be disregarded because of SkyTrain. They argue that the interurban goes through Langley Centre, as well as areas that the SkyTrain would miss, including North Delta, South Newton, Cloverdale and Abbotsford.

TransLink says that while those areas are important, its mandate is to prioritize urban centres identified in the Metro Vancouver Regional Growth Strategy. The interurban does not go through Surrey Centre and it takes a winding route to Langley Centre, TransLink says.

"We have been tasked with delivering fast, frequent and reliable rapid transit between urban centres - the interurban project does not achieve that goal."

The pro-interurban groups say that the number of stops could easily be adjusted, and because it has its own path, the service wouldn't be affected by car traffic.

It would therefore be faster than driving in gridlock.

TransLink responds: "The interurban is not completely separated. There are many crossings at road intersections. As per the facts in the agreement with BC Hydro, there would definitely be conflicts with freight operations.

Passenger trains would be slowed by car and freight traffic, if not completely separated."

BC Hydro owns the land and two private freight companies own the track that sits on the land. Those companies are CP Rail and Southern Railway, which owns the vast majority of the track. Hydro has a long-standing agreement with CP Rail that allows negotiation of the track for passenger service. There is also a clause that permits CP to double track the line at its own cost. BC Hydro spokesman Geoff Hastings says it does not have such arrangements with Southern Railway, which would require negotiations.

Mr. Hastings says that BC Hydro and the private railways would have to reach an agreement before TransLink could enter into separate commercial negotiations with the companies on acquiring passenger service rights.

"Entering into these agreements also requires the co-operation and consent of CP and Southern Railway, as passenger service would have to be scheduled around freight movement."

John Vissers is a recently retired owner of a construction company that built multifamily housing. He has lived in Abbotsford for 30 years and sits on the city's development advisory committee. On a good day, Abbotsford is a little more than a one-hour drive from Vancouver.

His city might not be as dense as Surrey, but what policy-makers are missing, he says, is that Abbotsford is expected to expand to about 200,000 people - and nobody is preparing for that. He was involved in the development of an official community plan to add density and create urban areas as opposed to sprawl, but that can only be accomplished with better transit. Mr. Vissers says Abbotsford households are so car dependent that they often own three or four cars.

He supports the revival of the interurban as an expedient way to develop affordable housing and a walkable city.

"Why aren't we doing this?

What's holding us back and why are the policy-makers not interested?" he asks. "That's the thing that mystifies me. We own the land and we did it 100 years ago, why can't we do it now? I think they are using a 20th-century model for their thinking."

The needs of the entire Valley should be considered, he says. He is not opposed to residents in Surrey and Langley who want SkyTrain.

"I see us as complementing SkyTrain and saying, 'Here is another tool in the toolbox, another way of adding to the capacity for public transportation.' We are looking at how we can move people regionally and at an affordable price. We don't want to wait another 20 years, and why should we?" Developers will embrace the interurban system because the line goes through downtown Abbotsford, he says. City council recently agreed that a proposal for a 600-unit downtown housing project should go to public hearing. If built, it would significantly densify the downtown core. His city is expected to grow by 40,000 in the next 20 years alone, and yet there is no significant plan for transit.

He says the people of Abbotsford, Mission and Chilliwack can't wait for another 20 years.

"We are transitioning from a sprawl city to a livable, walkable, sustainable city," he says. "We've developed an official community plan to absorb that increase, without growing our footprint, which is pretty exciting.

"But what we haven't done is find any other regional transportation than that freeway. We know it's a big mistake, but we haven't really developed a plan to address that."

Developer Michael Geller, who builds low- to mid-density projects, also embraces the interurban idea. He says the interurban would encourage development around the stations and revitalize communities. He argues that commuters would rather get work done while sitting in a train than sitting idle in a car.

"When they brought these train lines in in the old days, that's what dictated where development went," he says. "With trams and trains, you can have more stops than when you have a SkyTrain. And so you begin to get the development that happened 80 years ago.

"Housing development and transportation, they go together, and I think it's just a matter of time before we do have a tram service or train service or some hybrid back out to Chilliwack ... because you have housing choices out there you don't have in Vancouver or north Vancouver, and it will help with affordability."

Associated Graphic

John Vissers, a member of Abbotsford's development advisory committee, says he supports both the proposed SkyTrain Surrey-Langley link and the interurban rail plan.

CHRISTINA TOTH


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A level playing field
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Meant to be a source of fun, playgrounds can alienate children with disabilities. Matthew Hague reports on the innovations in accessible playground design that enable play for all
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By MATTHEW HAGUE
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Saturday, July 13, 2019 – Page P8

Until Hannah Houghton started Grade 3 in September, 2017, she had never romped on the playground of her school, McGirr Elementary in Nanaimo, B.C. In fact, she had never been on any of the 20-plus jungle gyms and adventure parks in her hometown.

Houghton had friends to pal around with and, similar to most kids her age, enjoyed being outside. What stopped her, however, was that none of the playgrounds in her vicinity were wheelchair accessible. As a baby, she was diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy type 2. It left her without the ability to walk across the shifty gravel that separated her from her classmates.

"Starting in kindergarten, I used to see my daughter sitting on top of the hill overlooking the playground at school, with no one around except her adult supervisor," Hannah's mom, Mabel Houghton, says. "She would simply be watching her friends play. So I made a promise to her. I said: 'You are going to get on that playground.' " There's no reason Hannah shouldn't have been with her friends sooner, especially these days. According to Easter Seals, more than 5.3 million Canadians, almost 16 per cent of the population, have some form of disability. Among that number, almost 200,000 are school-aged children such as Hannah. Many more are parents. That's a large number of people who either can't take in the simple pleasure of a park, or supervise their own kids at a park, unless the space is properly designed to accommodate them. Which they should be.

These days, novel designs are making it much easier for people of all abilities to enjoy recreational spaces that until recently were restrictive. That often means wheelchair accessibility, but also goes well beyond it. New materials and thoughtful equipment are also removing barriers for those with vision impairments, hearing deficiencies, social anxieties, autism and sensory development delays.

The benefits of such innovations are potentially huge. According to a study by education journal Physical & Health Canada, children with disabilities are almost four times less likely to get exercise outside of school than other children. In addition, more than half of young ones with disabilities have few to no close friends. Both issues are in part owing to difficulties accessing the venues - parks, camps, gyms, schools - where socialization and physical activity often take place.

Imagine the isolation that's inevitable if all a child can do is watch their peers have fun.

Inclusive play spaces are an invitation to belong. Plus, even for the fully able, they add surprising, often beautiful new components to scamper over. Quite literally, everyone has more fun.

One of the biggest challenges for accessible play is the ground surface. Although some wheelchairs can manoeuvre over a bed of wood chips, which are American Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant, sand, gravel and other uneven, unstable materials tend to be hazardous. For the design of Mississauga's Jaycee Park, which was named by Today's Parent magazine as one of Canada's best accessible playgrounds, Torontobased Earthscape Playgrounds used a poured-in-place rubber surface. Not only is it more vibrant than little grey stones - at Jaycee, it's done in a swirling composition of green, blue and orange - it creates surreal, Dr. Seuss-like mounds and has a springy, plush quality that's a joy to bounce around on.

Toronto-based designer Adam Bienenstock, founder of Bienenstock Natural Playgrounds, doesn't specialize in wheelchair accessibility. He often employs large, reclaimed tree stumps - about 400 years old, many that fell over naturally, all still covered in their rough and weathered bark - that are meant to encourage kids to climb all over. "The average child these days spends 48 minutes per day outside versus 7.5 hours on screen," Bienenstock says. "I'm trying to provide playgrounds that give them experiences they aren't otherwise getting."

But subtly layered within most of the structures are elements that broaden inclusiveness. The textures of the designs - the gnarly bark versus smoother wood surfaces - help those with underdeveloped sensory systems better engage their sense of touch, depth perception and hand-eye co-ordination. One park, called Pasquinel's Landing Park in Denver, offsets a communal play area with a more secluded enclosure for quiet alone time - something that can be necessary for those with autism spectrum disorder.

"These environments not only help kids engage their environments," Bienenstock says, "they also help some kids relax."

Which isn't to suggest that a playground can't be both wheelchair accessible and sensitive to the many needs kids might have. Currently across Canada, a series of remarkably inclusive playgrounds are being built by Jumpstart, a charity run by Canadian Tire with the mandate to improve recreational opportunities for kids of all backgrounds. Their plan is to spend $50-million and install at least one universally enjoyable playground in every Canadian province and territory by 2022.

One of their most recent structures is in Toronto's $1.2-million Earl Bales Park. The structure, which opened in spring 2019, overflows with thoughtful details to ensure that no one is left out. Braille signage helps the visually impaired. Tall back rests and chest harnesses on the swings help those who lack upper-body strength feel comfortable. There's a more secluded area for kids who want alone time (replete with oversized xylophones where they can practise their music skills). And although there are plenty of ramps, the ramps are extra-wide and gently sloped, meaning people in wheelchairs can climb to the top, side-by-side, where platforms with special benches allow them to transfer themselves out of their chairs and onto slides (there are benches at the bottom of the slides as well to transfer safely off).

Even the slides themselves are thoughtful. "They are made of rollers," says Marco Di Buono, associate vice-president of programs and operations for Jumpstart. "It's a feature that most people wouldn't think of. But they are intentionally designed not to create static electricity, which would otherwise interfere with a child's hearing device."

According to Kelly Arbour, a kinesiology professor at the University of Toronto who is working with Jumpstart to study the success of the playgrounds so far and make recommendations for future improvements, such thoughtful details can be hugely impactful. "So far in our early findings, we've heard from families that say they no longer need to divide and conquer," she says. "They can finally take all their kids to one place, not separate their kids based on ability."

"This creates a value opportunity where siblings can have unstructured play together," adds Ron Buliung, a geography professor at the University of Toronto, Mississauga. "We often forget about the siblings who might want to play with their brother or sister on a playground, but can't."

Importantly, then, such playgrounds also have to be engaging for able-bodied children as well as a variety of ages. To wit, playground critic Dana Wheatley, along with her three young kids, rates adventure parks for her website, the Calgary Playground Review (calgaryplaygroundreview.com). Recently, she took her family to Jumpstart's new Calgary outpost.

"It's fantastic on every level," she says. "None of my kids, who range in age from four to 10, wanted to leave."

Jumpstart is ultimately what helped Hannah Houghton get onto her playground at McGirr Elementary in Nanaimo, B.C. The school was one of the charity's first test locations; they got involved after Mabel sent an e-mail to Jumpstart vice-president Marco Di Buono, trying to find a way to pay for a more inclusive play structure and fulfill the promise that she made to her daughter.

McGirr now has a fully accessible playground, one with a colourful rubber surface, a quiet corner for kids who want alone time and accessible swings with heavy-duty harnesses.

In addition to Hannah, children come from all over Vancouver Island to enjoy the space. It's also become popular with parents who have accessibility requirements, allowing many of them to interact directly with their kids on a playground for the first time.

One of the most popular elements is an accessible merrygo-round, which is wide enough for a wheelchair to roll on.

Hannah particularly loves twirling around, and her mom loves watching her have fun. "Seeing Hannah on the merrygo-round, screaming with the other kids - it's amazing," Mabel says. "It's just so great to see her be a part of the group with all the other kids."

Associated Graphic

Bienenstock Natural Playgrounds uses the textures of natural materials, such as rough bark on trees, to help those with underdeveloped sensory systems engage with its play sets, top and above, while Jaycee Park in Mississauga, designed by Earthscape Playgrounds, employs a colourful rubber surface instead of gravel to make the grounds accessible to those who use mobility devices.

BIENENSTOCK NATURAL PLAYGROUNDS (TOP AND ABOVE); EARTHSCAPE PLAYGROUNDS


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MIRVISH'S GAMBLE THE ONE THEY BET BIG ON THE ONE THEY UNDERESTIMATED
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Under the Toronto producer, a record-breaking homegrown musical was pushed out of the Royal Alexandra Theatre to make room for an ill-fated run of its Tony-winning rival. But the man behind those moves remains upbeat
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By J. KELLY NESTRUCK
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page R1

David Mirvish has made a pair of costly musical mistakes that are now coming to a head for the Toronto theatre producer.

In short, he vastly overestimated the commercial appeal of Dear Evan Hansen - and significantly underestimated the same for homegrown hit Come From Away.

Dear Evan Hansen, which won the Tony Award for best musical over Come From Away in 2017, will close at the Royal Alexandra Theatre this week after a money-losing, 41/2-month run - the shortest for a "sit-down" Mirvish production this century.

(A "sit-down" is industry jargon for an open-ended run of a commercial show, normally one that originated on Broadway or in the West End.)

Sales for the original U.S. musical about teen suicide and social media were disappointing enough that Mirvish had to shorten the show's run. At one point it was on sale into September, and he had hoped it would extend into 2020.

Meanwhile, Come From Away, which Mirvish booted out of the Royal Alex earlier this year and shipped across town to the Elgin Theatre (owned and operated by the Ontario Heritage Trust), will return to its old home on King Street West in December to continue its record-breaking run for a homegrown musical in Canada.

The reason that musical about the "plane people" who were diverted to Newfoundland after 9/11 had to be diverted to the Elgin in the first place is that, before it reopened in Toronto in February, 2018, (following a short pre-Broadway stop in the city), Mirvish had already promised New York producer Stacey Mindich the Royal Alex for Dear Evan Hansen.

No Mirvish production had run more than a year in Toronto in a decade, so it seemed a safe bet that Come From Away would close by March, 2019. But it turned out to be a bad one - and Mirvish isn't shy about how much it cost: $1-million to move Torontonians Irene Sankoff and David Hein's hit initially, plus another $600,000 to reconfigure the Elgin and now another $1-million to move the show back.

As for Dear Evan Hansen's curtailed Toronto run, the producer said he'll "just about break even" on the Canadian-cast production, which cost about $7.5-million to get on its feet.

Despite all this, Mirvish presents as upbeat over all. Having a show run much longer than you expected is not, after all, actually a problem: Come From Away is, in fact, on track to be Mirvish's longest-running show since Mamma Mia! closed in 2005.

"We didn't make the brightest financial decision, but I think artistically we did do the right thing," said Mirvish, who still loves Dear Evan Hansen and notes that 200,000 people will have seen the musical written by Steven Levenson with music by Benj Pasek and Justin Paul (otherwise best known for the film The Greatest Showman) in Toronto by the time it closes. "We proved that the Elgin could be a good home for Come From Away ... and we've also proven that we keep our word: We promised this building to Dear Evan Hansen and we gave it to them."

Maintaining Toronto's reputation as a welcoming place for sit-downs is a top priority for Mirvish. He's not in the business of creating hits from scratch.

Theories abound as to why Dear Evan Hansen did not become a hit in Toronto the way it continues to be in New York. Is the show somehow better on Broadway, even though the creative team is the same in both cities? Is there something about the story that appeals more to Americans than Canadians? Was the marketing too mysterious?

All we know for sure is that while Dear Evan Hansen had the sizable advance (about $11-million) and the positive reviews (save for an outright pan in the National Post) to kick-start a profitable run in Toronto, it was unable to keep the sales momentum going.

In other words, word of mouth - still the most important marketing tool in theatre - was not strong enough.

Early audiences may have liked it, but apparently not sufficiently to urge friends and family to go.

While I had heard that audiences weren't exiting the show in Toronto as excitedly as they do in New York, there's data to show this clearly.

After each performance, Mirvish e-mails ticket buyers and asks them to rate the show they just saw out of five. Dear Evan Hansen got an average 4.4 rating, according to numbers posted on the producer's website.

That may seem quite high, but think of this more as an Uber rating than the star rating of a furrow-browed critic. By contrast, Come From Away has a 4.9 rating, while The Lion King, back in Toronto on tour for the umpteenth time, has a 4.8.

Said Mirvish: "Shows that run a long time are up around 4.7 or 4.8."

In New York, the website Show-Score - a kind of Yelp for Broadway - allows audiences to rate shows out of 100, and there you'll find Dear Evan Hansen and Come From Away are tied with a 92 score. (The Lion King scores 91.)

Why do audiences in New York rate Dear Evan Hansen higher than Toronto ones do?

Mirvish, quoting Shakespeare in Love, said: "It's a mystery."

Having seen both original casts, I'm not inclined to think one was significantly superior. And to the theory that Toronto doesn't have a commercial-sized audience for a sophisticated musical on serious themes, I think that overestimates the sophistication and seriousness of Dear Evan Hansen and ignores the fact that shows such as Billy Elliot, which is set against a long and bitter miners' strike, and even the terrorism-themed Come From Away have succeeded here.

When I saw Dear Evan Hansen in New York after reading the rave Broadway reviews ("one of the most remarkable shows in musical theatre history"), I was initially turned off by its sympathetic presentation of a teenage fabulist who gets attention by making up stories in the wake of a classmate's death. I felt the character who actually takes his own life was given short shrift.

On second viewing, I knew what to expect and found myself less bothered by this - and saw the show as an imperfect but ambitious piece of young-adult drama trying not to judge or punish its teenage anti-hero too much.

Expectations always play a role in how a show is received; perhaps they were just too high in Toronto. Dear Evan Hansen built a fan base off-Broadway in New York before transferring to Broadway; here it came in as the show that beat Come From Away at the Tonys.

There certainly were some producing boo-boos, too. Dear Evan Hansen's New York team should have accepted or suggested to take the Princess of Wales Theatre instead of bumping Canada's most successful musical ever out of the Royal Alex.

The overarching narrative then would have been about former rivals becoming friendly neighbours, and Come From Away's sellout crowds would have seen a giant Dear Evan Hansen ad down the street upon exiting.

It also seems like an unforced error to have allowed the touring production of Dear Evan Hansen to play Buffalo, a crossborder city not far from Toronto, in May and announce 2020 dates for Rochester, N.Y.

The angsty questions about Toronto as a commercial theatre industry that followed the early closings of Mirvish productions of The Producers and Hairspray in 2004 seem generally absent this time around, however.

It's Dear Evan Hansen's producers planning to open the show in the West End in November who should feel a little bit of angst.

Because, for better or for worse, Toronto's commercial tastes are closer to London's than any American city. Mirvish hosted long-running productions of Dirty Dancing and We Will Rock You, shows that never dared to try to crack Broadway. And the last Mirvish musical to fail in Toronto, much more expensively, was The Lord of the Rings, which went on to do the same in London. It will certainly be interesting to see what happens next overseas.

Associated Graphic

While Dear Evan Hansen, top, will have the shortest run for a 'sit-down' Mirvish production this century, Come From Away, above, is on track to be the theatre company's longest-running show in more than a decade.

Come From Away, above, is set to return to its original Toronto home, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, in December, a few months after Dear Evan Hansen wraps up its curtailed, 41/2-month run.

MATTHEW MURPHY/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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New CEO ready to push Kawartha Dairy expansion while staying true to family-run roots
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By CAMILLA CORNELL
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Monday, July 22, 2019 – Page B1

Brian Kerr was just 11 years old when he rode his bike down to Ontario cottage country's legendary ice cream company Kawartha Dairy Ltd. in Bobcaygeon to ask for a job.

Monty Crowe, part of the family that still owns 100 per cent of the dairy producer, wholesaler and retailer, hired the hometown boy on the spot and assigned him the task of scooping ice into bags for fishermen's coolers - a side business.

After a 27-year absence, much of it spent working for a giant U.S. food company, Mr. Kerr, now 46, is back working at Kawartha Dairy. But this time, he is the chief executive and general manager.

He has begun the task of steering the 150-employee company through a new phase in its 82-year history.

With the market for its products "pretty much saturated" in cottage country, he hopes to preside over expansion of its own retail outlets as well as its distribution to other stores into more urban areas, while ensuring Kawartha Dairy stays true to its smalltown family-run roots.

During Mr. Kerr's first stint working at Kawartha Dairy, he graduated to loading and driving delivery trucks, staying with the company part time until he was 19.

"They gave me responsibility and treated me with respect," he says. "I loved that."

Monty Crowe - one of the secondgeneration owners - had become a bit of a mentor.

When Mr. Kerr suggested he might stay on at Kawartha Dairy to avoid taking on university debt, Monty (now deceased) steered him toward getting an education.

"I didn't get a chance to go to school and I always regretted it," he told Mr.

Kerr.

"Go get your degree." If you ever want to come back and work for us, you call me."

Last September, Mr. Kerr finally returned to the fold after a "lucky meeting" on the streets of Bobcaygeon with Mike Crowe, Monty's son, and director of operations for Kawartha Dairy.

Mr. Kerr, an accountant by training, had just parted ways with the Kraft Heinz Canada's Toronto office after a 20-year career culminating in a job as chief marketing officer for Canada.

With Kawartha's general manager due to retire, the Crowe family invited Mr.

Kerr to come back to run the company.

Ten months into the job, Mr. Kerr, who lives in Newmarket but has also recently purchased a place on Sturgeon Lake in Bobcaygeon, has been putting in long hours ramping up for Kawartha's crucial summer season.

"There is some anxiousness," he says, "but it's a good feeling - similar to the one I get before I do a triathlon. I'm anxious, but ready to get it done."

Earlier this year, he presided over the opening of a new 54,000foot distribution centre (planned and begun before he rejoined the company), now "full of ice cream ready to be served." He has also been on a hiring blitz for permanent and seasonal summer employees to work in the facility, as well as Kawartha Dairy's 10 retail stores.

Last September, Mr. Kerr finally returned to the fold after a "lucky meeting" on the streets of Bobcaygeon with Mike Crowe, Monty's son, and director of operations for Kawartha Dairy.

Mr. Kerr, an accountant by training, had just parted ways with the Kraft Heinz Canada's Toronto office after a 20-year career culminating in a job as chief marketing officer for Canada. With Kawartha's general manager due to retire, the Crowe family invited Mr. Kerr to come back to run the company.

Ten months into the job, Mr.

Kerr, who lives in Newmarket but has also recently purchased a place on Sturgeon Lake in Bobcaygeon, has been putting in long hours ramping up for Kawartha's crucial summer season.

"There is some anxiousness," he says, "but it's a good feeling - similar to the one I get before I do a triathlon. I'm anxious, but ready to get it done."

Earlier this year, he presided over the opening of a new 54,000foot distribution centre (planned and begun before he rejoined the company), now "full of ice cream ready to be served." He has also been on a hiring blitz for permanent and seasonal summer employees to work in the facility, as well as Kawartha Dairy's 10 retail stores.

Although Mr. Kerr has roots in Bobcaygeon and first-hand knowledge of how Kawartha Dairy operates, he is still not a Crowe and seven Crowes still work at the dairy. At least some of the family see that as an advantage.

"I felt we would really benefit from some outside experience and leadership," Mike Crowe says.

"It's sometimes hard to take direction from your brother or your cousin or your uncle or your nephew. It helps to have a non-family member at the top."

Kawartha Dairy's president (and Mike's uncle), Jeff Crowe, agrees wholeheartedly. Mr. Kerr is in the tricky position of "answering to the owners and yet sometimes telling them to do things they're not used to doing," he says. But "he worked with some of the family members that are now in management as a kid. It's really a very good fit."

Jim Kilpatrick, leader of Deloitte Canada's food and consumer products industry practice in Canada, says there is an element of risk for Kawartha Dairy in moving beyond its traditional stomping ground. The company has thus far managed to capitalize on its rural roots in cottage country.

"They're seen as a local business. I think many cottagers try to support that," he says. "And the experience of getting an ice cream cone in cottage country helps build loyalty to their brand."

But, Mr. Kilpatrick says, "there's no shortage of competition in large established markets for these products." In a health-focused world, even those who indulge in a Kawartha Dairy cone at the cottage "may not necessarily replicate that experience in the city," he says. In addition, because it is small and independent, Kawartha Dairy will be less able to control its costs through economies of scale than big dairy processors.

Mr. Kerr points out two new stores have already opened in Barrie and Newmarket - urban centres on the fringes of the Greater Toronto Area. Both met with quick success. In fact, the Newmarket store sold twice as much ice cream as expected.

"I think urban expansion makes sense," he says. "And we'd be silly to not look at Toronto. It's the biggest market in Canada."

Mr. Kerr is confident Kawartha Dairy's ice cream can compete with other premium (and often more expensive) brands, such as Haagen-Dazs and Ben & Jerry's. It is still made the same way it always has been, "with fresh milk received daily from local farms," he says.

In the decades since Jack and Ila Crowe founded the dairy in 1937, it has grown almost entirely by word of mouth. It has never advertised on television, and yet it now operates 10 company-owned retail dairy bars. Hundreds of independent ice cream stands at cottage country resorts, stores and camps also carry Kawartha Dairy's products, along with eight grocery chains in Ontario, including Costco, Longo's and Metro.

"We've doubled our sales and the number of employees over the last 10 years," Mr. Kerr says. Although he wouldn't reveal revenue, he says that in addition to the company's 150 full-time employees, it has hundreds more to staff its dairy bars in the busy summer season. "This family has been in business for 82 years because they've always put quality first," he says.

In the future - as in the past - Kawartha Dairy's approach to growth will be "steady and cautious," Mr. Kerr adds. He has no intention of spearheading a national expansion - at least for now.

The benefit of working for a family-owned operation is "you're not chasing the latest quarter," he says. "It feels great to be bringing my learnings back to a family-owned and -operated business, where long-term decisions take precedence."

Associated Graphic

Above: Kawartha Dairy president Jeff Crowe, right, says CEO Brian Kerr, left, is in the tricky position of 'answering to the owners and yet sometimes telling them to do things they're not used to doing.' Below: Mr. Kerr, seen in Kawartha's new distribution centre near Bobcaygeon, has been putting in long hours in preparation for the crucial summer season. Bottom: A staff member scoops ice cream at a retail store inside Kawartha Dairy's headquarters in Bobcaygeon, Ont. The company is known for its roots in cottage country.

PHOTOS BY JOHNNY C.Y. LAM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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What happened in Las Vegas stays in the CFL lore
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A badly botched version of O Canada 25 years ago caused international fallout and led indirectly to the singer's marriage
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By DAN RALPH
THE CANADIAN PRESS
  
  

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Saturday, July 20, 2019 – Page S8

It has brought Dennis Casey Park plenty of fame and notoriety and even led to him meeting his wife.

Tuesday marked the 25th anniversary of Park botching O Canada before the Las Vegas Posse's first CFL home game on July 16, 1994. Park definitely remembers his infamous performance, but wasn't aware this was the silver jubilee of his rendition - which was sang to the tune of O Christmas Tree - until approached by The Las Vegas Review-Journal, which published a story about it Monday.

"I had no idea because I'm ageless," Park said during a telephone interview from Shanghai.

"Yes, I screwed it up in the beginning, but it wasn't a focal point in my life.

"I went back and made it right and I can't thank everyone in Canada enough and tell them how much I appreciated their support. After I did it, I needed their support because it was a big deal to go back up there and make it right. I tell people the story, I've never hidden from it."

The expansion Posse opened its first - and only - CFL season with a 32-26 road win over the Sacramento Gold Miners and was scheduled to play its home opener eight days later against the Saskatchewan Roughriders.

Moments before the opening kickoff, Park - who performed at the 1988 Seoul Olympics - took to centre field with superstar Dionne Warwick to perform the Canadian and American anthems in 40-degree conditions before just 12,213 spectators at 31,000-seat Sam Boyd Stadium.

Las Vegas won the game 32-22 en route to a 5-13 finish that year.

But the result was completely overshadowed by Park, a performer and producer in Asia who said he'd been approached by the Posse just the day before.

"I'd just returned the day before from Japan where I'd been performing for a few months," Park said. "I got a call initially to sing the anthem and assumed it was The Star Spangled Banner.

"I was very tired ... and ended up saying yes. They called back a few hours later and I realized it was O Canada and I said, 'You know guys, I'm not familiar with [O Canada]. I've heard it a lot but never sung it.' "They said, 'Oh, well, you agreed and we put it out in the press that you and Dionne Warwick [would perform national anthems at the game]. Can you do it? Can you do it? Will you do it, please?' " Undeterred, Park received a tape of the music and the words and got down to work.

"I had it down fairly well or I wouldn't have gone out there," he said.

But moments before Park was to perform, he saw the on-field director signal there was no music. Park knew immediately he was in trouble.

"I needed the music to follow me up," he said. "If the music had played, I would've been fine.

"So I started to sing and the first note came out and then I got an echo right in my ear. I've sung in stadiums all over and it [the echo] hit me and I got off and I was hoping to get back on. It's not a long anthem and I was like, 'Should I stop and apologize,' and by the time I decided something the song was almost over. So I went through it and that was that." Park, who splits his time between Shanghai and Las Vegas these days, also knew his rendition was nowhere near correct.

"Of course I knew," he said. "I knew that very second and was trying to figure out what to do.

The big deal was the music and secondly was where I was singing. The echo came right back at me and knocked me off and because I didn't have the music to guide me through I couldn't get back on."

Predictably, Park's performance caused a furor on both sides of the border.

The CFL was deluged with faxes and phone calls from irate Canadians and the office of prime minister Jean Chrétien sent a letter to the Posse. Owner Nick Mileti responded with a written apology.

Even U.S. vice-president Al Gore chimed in.

During a visit to Ottawa, Gore told reporters, "I was certainly glad to see that the U.S. football players reacted so strongly and better than the singer."

Quarterback Anthony Calvillo, who began his Hall of Fame CFL career with Las Vegas, said he learned of the controversy after the game. As a U.S.-based franchise, the Posse had no Canadians, but the roster did include established league veterans such as linebacker Greg Battle, defensive lineman Jeff Cummins and running back Jon Volpe.

"I didn't know at the time he was making a huge mistake," said Calvillo, pro football's career passing leader (79,816 yards) who's about to enter his first season as a Montreal Carabins assistant head coach in the university ranks. "I was just focusing on getting ready to play.

"After the game, I realized what had happened. During the following week, we had a lot of questions regarding the song. It was quite embarrassing for the Las Vegas Posse."

Less than two weeks later, Park earned a shot at redemption. On July 28, he performed O Canada perfectly in Hamilton prior to a Tiger-Cats game against Ottawa.

Other flawless performances across the country followed.

"I was happy I was able to correct it," Park said. "But it's not a marker in my life.

"I've actually had many good experiences after that happened."

Such as meeting the woman who would become his wife.

"About three years later, I was in Shanghai for meetings to produce and direct a documentary," he said. "I was with a friend and she asked me if she could take me to dinner, and I said yes.

"So they sat us with another couple that we didn't know. The guy kept staring at me, but each time I looked at him he diverted his eyes.

"Finally I looked at him and he said, 'Excuse me, may I ask you a question?' I said, 'Yes.' He said, 'Are you anthem man?' I said, 'Get out of here. This is my first time in Shanghai, you're Chinese, how do you know this?' He never saw O Christmas Tree, he