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GiveLife.ca

    

PRINT EDITION
BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Page B14

EVELYN ISOBEL BAXTER

Evelyn Isobel Baxter (née DesBrisay) died in London, ON, on August 13, 2019, after a lengthy illness.

Born in Winnipeg in 1925, Eve was a gifted pianist. She earned her Diploma in Music Performance and Teaching from the University of Manitoba and subsequently taught music in the province's remote and agricultural communities.

Her brother introduced her to Peter, her future husband; the handsome WWII veteran impressed her because he invited her to the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.

They married in 1949. While raising her young family, Eve taught music at Balmoral Hall in Winnipeg.

After the family moved to Toronto, Eve became a major force across Canada as a curator, arts administrator and advisor.

Her vision has left its stamp on the Ontario urban landscape: Toronto-Dominion Centre and Metro Hall in Toronto and Constitution Square in Ottawa are among the many public art projects she administered. She helped develop major corporate collections-particularly Sun Life Assurance Company and Osler Hoskin and Harcourt. But above all, she is remembered by many visual artists across Canada for the time and support that she gave them.

Eve also believed in the power of volunteerism to build community. She sewed costumes for the Manitoba Theatre Centre, organized Art Gallery of Ontario volunteer committee exhibitions, played piano at the nursery school in her Etobicoke neighbourhood, helped organize Toronto's Sesquicentennial and contributed leadership to the boards of the Winnipeg Art Gallery, Julia Greenshields Home in Toronto and the Tom Thomson Art Gallery in Owen Sound.

Despite the demands of a busy career, family remained Eve's top priority; she loved fiercely, and instilled in her children and grandchildren her thirst for reading, learning and sports (she was a lifelong Blue Bombers fan).

Eve was predeceased by her parents, Charlotte Austen and Normand Rudolph DesBrisay; her sisters Ann, Charlotte Bean and Elizabeth Wilcox; brother, John; brother-and sister-in-law, Robert and Patricia; husband, Peter; and son, Andrew Peter Mackenzie.

Left to mourn and to remember her fondly are her son, John (Miranda); her daughters, Charlotte Jones (Kent); Susan; Mary (Robert Osthoff), as well as her grandchildren, Maggie Jones (Michael Nemec), Cary Jones (Nell Reis), Grace Park (Brinton), and Stephanie Baxter.

The family thanks the staff at Mount Hope for their care for Eve over the years.

Help us to celebrate Eve's life at a reception on Saturday, August 24, 2019 from 3-5 p.m. at the A. Millard George Funeral Home Reception Centre (located on the Southeast corner of the parking lot), 60 Ridout Street South, London. A memorial service will be held in Winnipeg at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the acquisitions fund of a gallery of your choice or the Canadian Mental Health Association, 534 Queens Avenue, London, ON N6B 1Y6. Online condolences, memories and photographs shared at http://www.amgfh.com.

JAMES RICHARD BLAIR

November 1, 1935 August 8, 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Richard.

He was born in Calgary, and died peacefully at the Hamilton General Hospital surrounded by love. He was a mighty warrior as he fought valiantly to get better from the complications of a stroke. He leaves behind his beloved wife of 59 years, Susie (Williamson) and his cherished children, Caroline Mandich (Danny), Jamie (Fiona) and Christopher (Heidi). His wonderful grandchildren, Danielle Caffee (Chance), Josh Mandich (Bethany), Grace Mandich, Christopher Blair, Heather Blair, Taylor Blair, Christiana Blair, Hartley Blair and great-granddaughter, Selah Joy Mandich. His brothers-inlaw and sisters-in-law, Paul and Margot Williamson, Jamie and Janet Williamson, and Vicky Williamson. Missed by his nieces and nephews. Predeceased by his daughter, Heather, his parents, Col. James and Edith Blair, and brother, Alan Neville Blair. Richard worked for 45 years as a stock broker in Brantford starting with Ross Knowles and ending with BMO Nesbitt Burns.

He was a total family man to his children and grandchildren.

Richard was a world traveler who instilled this love in his children and grandchildren. He loved snow skiing, scuba diving, driving his wooden boats on Lake Joseph and building his own cottages. Later in life he spent his afternoons painting. He was self taught and a prolific artist. He was a true renaissance man. He spent his summers with all his family at his favourite place Muskoka.

A private family service was held at Grace Anglican Church, Sunday, August 11, 2019 and burial at Farringdon Cemetery.

Funeral arrangements have been entrusted with BeckettGlaves Family Funeral Centre, 88 Brant Ave. Brantford, 519-7524331. A celebration of Richard's life will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Hamilton General Hospital, 7 South acute stroke team or ICU East would be appreciated.

Condolences, donations and tributes are available at http://www.beckettglaves.com.

A tree will be planted in memory of Richard in the Beckett-Glaves Memorial Forest.

GEORGE HENRY BLUMENAUER

October 13, 1921 August 6, 2019

Peacefully in his sleep at Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital. Born in Nelson, BC, the son of a CPR Station Master, his early life was spent up and down the Kootenays until finishing High School in Cranbrook. He went on to UBC to obtain a BASc in mechanical engineering. After war-time service as an engineer officer (RCEME) he joined the Otis Elevator Company, obtained an MBA from Harvard, and went on to become President and Chairman.

His other accomplishments in finance and industry included directorships of the Royal Bank of Canada, Dominion Foundries and Steel Company (DOFASCO), Union Gas, Mutual Life of Canada and Hudson's Bay Oil and Gas.

As a Governor of McMaster University, he worked tirelessly to ensure the establishment of the School of Medicine and supported the community of Hamilton through fundraising and directorships of the YMCA, Hamilton Art Gallery, Hamilton Tiger Cats and other associations.

Predeceased by his wife, Margaret Emma Nielsen, he is survived by his three sons: Richard (Mary) William (Laura) and Christian Martin (Laetitia); grandchildren James (Melissa), Kathleen, Harry, Raymond, Lindsey, Christian (Erin) and Alexandra; greatgrandchildren Averie, Jax and Bella; and Freda Blumenauer of Abbotsford, B.C. and her family.

Over the years, his many recreational interests centered on his love of fishing and golf; from the Gaspé region to the Loxahatchee Club, the Hamilton Golf and Country Club, for over fifty years the Caledon Mountain Trout Club and for 68 years, the Mississaugua Golf and Country Club.

The family wishes to extend our thanks and sincere appreciation to those many friends of George who have supported him in his later years including the staff at Amica Oakville and his longtime Family Physician Dr.

Robert Gabriel.

We have long known that with his death, we will have lost one of the most outstanding Canadians of his generation.

There will be a visitation on Thursday, August 29th from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 9:00 p.m. followed by a Service of Remembrance at 12:00 noon, August 30, 2019.

All will take place at the Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West (one block east of Kerr, 905-844-2600), Oakville.

WILLIAM MONDS BRAITHWAITE

August 1, 1932 August 9, 2019

Bill died peacefully from Parkinson disease on August 9, 2019 at Hospice Wellington.

He closed his life in the same manner as he lived it: with patience, dignity and quiet strength.

Bill was loving husband to Elizabeth (nee Latimer) his wife of 63 years, beloved and generous father to Ken, Michael (Linda), Anne and cherished Pawka to Christopher.

A graduate of University of Western Ontario (Honours Business Administration 1954), a Chartered Accountant (1957) and graduate of McMaster University (MBA 1967), Bill's remarkable career as a professor at the University of Guelph spanned 50 years from 1959 to 2009.

A celebration of life is planned at Cutten Fields, 190 College Ave East, Guelph, Ontario on Sunday, September 15, 2019 from 2-4 p.m.

If so desired, memorial donations in Bill's memory made to Hospice Wellington would be appreciated by his family.

J. HARVEY BRIDE

Passed peacefully on August 10, 2019. Hymn-sing service on Friday, August 30th, 10 a.m. at Jubilee United Chruch, 40 Underhill Drive. Singers welcome to arrive at 9:45.

KATHRYN ELEANOR BUCCI

April 23, 1998 - July 16, 2019 In Loving Memory With deep sorrow, we announce the passing of our beloved daughter, little sister, cherished granddaughter and adored goddaughter and niece. We lost our glorious girl on July 16, 2019 at the age of 21.

Kathryn was an astonishing young woman: steadfast, sincere, kind and warm. She excelled in just about everything she undertook yet maintained a quiet, modest, self-deprecating way. Kathryn loved travelling, to New York City and Europe especially, but she loved Toronto even more: running along the Beltline, cycling through Serena Gundy Park, enjoying a concert or movie, catching up with the girls over a cup of coffee or dinner at a favorite hangout. Her enthusiasm for knitting and crocheting guaranteed her family and friends a steady supply of beautiful, lovingly made sweaters, scarves, blankets, and throws. Kathryn was also a shutterbug whose favorite subject was her cat, Yzma, to whom she was devoted.

She was an accomplished violist and guitarist, surprising many of her friends who were often unaware that she even played an instrument. Kathryn was an avid reader and serious Harry Potter fan. A couple of summers ago, Kathryn along with a few university friends, entered a Harry Potter trivia contest in Hamilton.

She approached the contest much like she would an exam; nothing but a perfect score would suffice.

Naturally, the team answered every question correctly and won the Top of the Hammer prize.

Kathryn attended St. Clement's School where she was active in a wide range of activities and distinguished herself in her academic studies. She played basketball, acted in drama productions, performed in the St.

Clement's chamber orchestra and headed her school's eco-team.

She was a tutor in English, math and physics. Kathryn represented her school at the annual Ontario Classics Conference and won top honours in several categories. She won a province-wide competition in chemistry and North Americawide competitions in Latin.

Through St. Clement's, Kathryn worked as a volunteer for the Horizons program and March Break Camp. She worked yearround as a volunteer at Mount Sinai Hospital and later at Princess Margaret where she accepted an internship.

When Kathryn completed high school in 2015, she earned the distinction of National AP Scholar from the US College Board. She won several academic prizes and awards, including excellence in the graduating class, chemistry, Latin, music, and physical and health education. She also received a leadership award, and a prize for character and scholarship.

In addition, she earned the Gold Duke of Edinburgh Award for which she completed two canoe trips in Algonquin Park, a dog sledding and winter camping trip, and a service project.

Kathryn received generous scholarship offers from every university to which she had applied. At age 17, she left for Hamilton to attend McMaster University. Then in 2018, she transferred to Victoria College at the University of Toronto. Kathryn continued to distinguish herself throughout her university years, winning awards and recognition in physics, astronomy and math.

We are devastated by her sudden death but are consoled by her memory which is alive in our hearts and minds. Bunny, we miss you and love you more than you can ever know.

Eonia I Mnimi As an expression of sympathy, the family is grateful for donations in Kathryn's name to the Toronto Public Library Foundation https://tplfoundation.ca/ - Mommy, Daddy, Ada, Nonna and U.G. (Angela and Stan, Andrea Elizabeth, Arhonda Christopoulos and George Christopoulos).

RUBY ISABEL BULL (née Hatch)

Passed away peacefully at Markham Stouffville Hospital on Sunday, August 11, 2019 at the age of 95. Predeceased by loving husband J. Lloyd Bull (2006). Cherished mother of Sandra Small (Parker). Proud grandmother of Ian Small (Tiffany Rego) and Kevin Small (Amanda Small), and greatgrandmother of Kivah Small and Malakai Small. Ruby will also be dearly missed by extended family and friends.

As per Ruby's wishes private cremation has taken place. A Celebration of her Life will be held at a later date. As an expression of sympathy, donations in memory of Ruby to a charity of your choice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

http://www.smithsfh.com

PAVILS CAKULS "Paul"

May 10,1930 August 14, 2019

Pavils passed peacefully from this world on August 14th at the age of 89. He will be loved and missed by his devoted wife Laila, daughter Katrine (Sam),sons Peter and Tom (Sara), grandchildren Declan, Iris, Avery and Graham, brother-in-law Kaspars, sister-in-law Elizabeth, nephew Marc(Ricarda) and many close friends in Canada and around the world.

Pavils was born in Rezekne, Latvia, where he spent his childhood.

He graduated in medicine from Leeds University in England, practiced medicine in Canada for more than 40 years, and enjoyed a long, productive and eventful retirement.The focus of Pavils' professional life was his work as a psychiatrist at the Hamilton Psychiatric Hospital where his tireless efforts returned hundreds of profoundly ill patients to productive life and restored them to their friends and families.

As an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at McMaster University he was involved in training and mentoring many young psychiatrists. Throughout his life Pavils was dedicated to advancing the Canadian-Latvian community, work that included teaching at Hamilton's Latvian Saturday School and working on the Latvian arts and literary periodical "Jauna Gaita", as well as being active in the LATS association.

Pavils will be remembered, first and foremost, as a selfless and deeply caring son, husband, father and friend.

Cremation has taken place.

A Memorial service will be held at the York Cemetery Chapel at 160 Beecroft Road, North York, on Friday, August 30th at 11 o'clock.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Latvian Canadian Cultural Centre.

ELIZABETH (Beth) ANN CLARKE (nee Challis)

It is with great sadness we announce that Elizabeth Ann Clarke passed away peacefully in her sleep at Markham Stouffville Hospital on August 15, 2019, at the age of 88 years. Predeceased by dearly beloved husband Charles (2009). Loving mother of Donald and his wife Ann of London, Jane of Toronto and Peter and his wife Anne-Marie of Banff, AB. Cherished grandmother of Mary, Robert, Thomas, Cameron and Connor. Beth will be lovingly remembered by her sister Marion and her husband Eric Patterson, her sister-in-law Ruth and her many nieces and nephews. Predeceased by brothers-in-law John and his wife Ruth and Jamie. Friends may call at the Turner & Porter 'Peel' Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy 10, N. of QEW) from 5-8 p.m. on Wednesday. Funeral Service will be held at St.

Bride's Anglican Church, 1516 Clarkson Rd. N., Mississauga, on Thursday, August 22, 2019 at 11 a.m., with visitation one hour prior. Interment at Springcreek Cemetery following the service. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Hope and Healing International, 3844 Stouffville Rd., P.O. Box 800, Stouffville, ON, L4A 7Z9, http://www.hopeandhealing.org.

ROBERT TERENCE CORCORAN (Terry)

August 7, 1936 August 10, 2019

Aged 83 years. Born and raised in Toronto. Predeceased by mother Aphra-Mary (nee Clark) and father Jack Corcoran. Beloved husband of Margaret (Maggie) Corcoran. Loving father to Tim (Sarah), Aphra-Mary (Steven), Brian (Eugenia). Grandfather to Kate and Graham. Brother to Bill (Mary), Jane (John). Much loved in-law and uncle to extended family across Canada and the United States.

A charming and gregarious extrovert, Terry had a successful sales career beginning at Investors Syndicate, then in radio advertising sales and finally as a realtor which he continued until retirement. Terry developed a broad network of clients, many of whom became dear friends.

After a brief romance, Maggie and Terry eloped on April 26, 1968 at Timothy Eaton United Church to the surprise of their families.

Their love story spanned 51 years; they were the consummate team.

They also played doubles tennis together where Terry would take all the shots...

Throughout his life, Terry was an outstanding athlete. As a young man he won the Toronto City Championships as a pitcher in baseball and was a ferocious defenceman in amateur hockey.

As an adult he won National and Club Squash Championships while a member at The Badminton and Racquet Club and The Toronto Racquet Club. Once Terry hung up his squash racquet, he joined the Toronto Hunt Club and loved sitting on the porch, having lunch looking out at the lake and chatting about well... anything.

Favorite topics included the economy, politics and anything his kids were up to.

Terry had a blessed life filled with family and friendships. He was a lover of Irish folk music, butter tarts and convertibles. In fact, he never owned a hardtop car! Why bother? He'd say. We'd like to think that Dad's driving his convertible to Heaven right now with a squash racquet in the back seat, music blaring. Safe travels, Dad.

Cremation has occurred. A memorial service will be held at the Toronto Hunt Club in September. Please contact the family for further details at aphramary@hotmail.com In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Kensington Health Org in memory of Terry Corcoran (https://www.

kensingtonhealth.org/Donations/ In-Memory-Donation.aspx)

ELGIN EVANS COUTTS Q.C.

In his 102nd year, Elgin Evans Coutts passed away at The Briton House Retirement Centre on Wednesday, August 7, 2019.

He is survived by his cherished wife and best friend of 74 years, Helen (née Muttart) and his loving children Don (Nora), and Peter (Kathie). Also left to grieve is Kathie's daughter, Kerry (Eric) and their children Christian and Ava.

Elgin was predeceased by his parents, Richard Alexander and Mary Alberta (née Hetherington), his brothers Robert and Carmen, his sister Norma and his infant son Alan.

After receiving his elementary and secondary education in Wingham, Ontario, Elgin joined the RCAF in 1940 and served as a pilot in the 162 Squadron. Upon his discharge in 1945 as Flight Lieutenant, Elgin enrolled in law school at Osgoode Hall, graduating in 1949.

He practiced law with Donald Carrick and later with the firm Coutts, Crane. Elgin was appointed Queen's Counsel in 1962 and retired in June, 2009, after a distinguished career of 60 years.

Elgin was actively involved in the Rotary Club of Toronto and was a Past President as well as a Paul Harris Fellow. Just weeks before his 59th birthday, he bicycled from Toronto to Prince Edward Island. He travelled 1,800 kilometres in just 11 days, and he was pleased to raise funds for Rotary. Elgin was a charter member and Trustee of Northlea United Church and served on the Board and on several committees.

He was a member of many other organizations, including The Royal Canadian Military Institute, Fort York Branch 165 of the Royal Canadian Legion, and the Granite Club.

We will miss Elgin's quick wit, his thoughtful insights and his remarkable memory.

He possessed a quiet faith, an unwavering devotion to his family and a genuine interest in the people around him.

In his senior years, Elgin lost his sight. Undaunted, he continued to work in his law practice and, characteristically, never complained about this handicap. His life represented a wonderful example of integrity, humility and service to the community.

The family is grateful to the nursing staff at The Briton House and to all of Elgin's caregivers, each of whom added to his health and happiness over the years.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 5:00 8:00 p.m. on Friday, September 13th. A memorial service will be held at Northlea United Church, 125 Brentcliffe Rd., Toronto on Saturday, September 14th at 11:00 a.m. Elgin's family graciously declines flowers, but would appreciate memorial donations to The Rotary Club of Toronto (Philanthropic Fund), 100 Front St. W., H - Level, Toronto, ON M5J 1E3 or to Northlea United Church, 125 Brentcliffe Rd., Toronto, ON M4G 3Y7. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

THOMAS CROTHERS

1935-2019

Tom passed away on July 31, 2019. Tom was the beloved husband of the late Elizabeth Anne Crothers (nee Collins, 2005). Tom was predeceased by his brother Robert Crothers and sister Margarette Houston, both in the summer of 2017. Tom will be greatly missed by his wonderful friend Valerie Lennox, whose companionship gave Tom much happiness in his final years. Tom will be fondly remembered by his nieces, nephews, and many friends.

In accordance with Tom's wishes, there was no visitation or service.

For those who wish, donations to North York General Foundation or the charity of your choice would be appreciated. Online condolences can be made at http://www.dixongarland.com.

Those who had the good fortune to know Tom will do well to remember the advice he gave and lived by: "Enjoy life."

EVA EAST Eva East,

born Eva Longstaff and affectionately called "Bunty" by close friends and family, passed away on August 4, 2019 at Michael Garron Hospital, Toronto, after a brief illness. She was 95.

Eva was born in Aldershot, UK in 1924 and was educated at Farnham Art School where she excelled in ceramics. During World War II, she was called up to work as a technician in a top secret radar lab (T.R.E.) in Malvern, Worcestershire. There she met and married Thomas East, a scientific officer. They had two daughters - Anthea Catherine East and Sarah Vivian East.

After emigrating from England to Canada, Eva set up a ceramics studio - first in Montreal, then in Toronto and later in Unionville, Ontario. She became well known for her beautiful glazes and masterfully thrown forms. Her body of work contributed a great deal to Canadian ceramics in the 1960's and 70's.

Eva is survived by her daughter, Vivian East and husband Bruce Meredith, her grandchildren, Stephen, Peter and Julia Ramdeholl, step-granddaughter, Sevren Meredith, daughter-in-law, Jennifer Simmonds and great granddaughters, Charlotte and Elise Ramdeholl. She is predeceased by her daughter, Anthea.

All will remember Bunty for her zest for life, her boundless creativity and her enthusiasm for a glass of sherry or two.

In lieu of flowers, we ask all who wish to celebrate her life to donate to Eva's favourite charity, The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.

LORNE ARTHUR EBEL

September 8, 1934 August 8, 2019

Lorne left us suddenly but peacefully on August 8th, surrounded by his wife and great partner of 66 years Dori (née Hughson), and the love and presence of all his children, grandchildren, greatgrandchildren and all those who knew him as family or friend.

Lorne was born in Southampton, Ontario and raised there and on the Manitoulin Island. Lorne enjoyed one of the happiest, active and most purposeful lives one could imagine. After meeting Dori in high school, they married in 1953 and travelled the world while also raising four children and balancing two careers. Lorne was a senior executive with the K-Mart Corporation, retiring in 1992 from the company after 39 successful years. Throughout his career, he lived in communities across Ontario and Manitoba making life-long friends from all walks of life and seeing the beautiful diversity living amongst us.

Outside of work, Lorne was fully engaged in all the communities in which he lived. A Rotarian and Paul Harris Fellow, he rarely missed a Rotary Club meeting and was the president of three different clubs across Ontario, president of the local Probus in Orangeville, Chair of the Board of the Headwaters Health Centre and chaired philanthropic auctions, events and galas too numerous to count. While his children were growing up, he was a boy scout leader, Junior Achievement leader, school volunteer and sports fan "extraordinaire" - a role that he happily continued with the arrival of his grandchildren. Never one to sit on the side lines, Lorne was physically active throughout his life and could be seen hiking the Bruce Trail, kayaking or canoeing rivers like the Saugeen, or skiing the Mono Nordic trails. He was quick to pick up a baseball glove or hockey stick for a little street hockey.

Lorne was serious about his civic duties and over the years managed many political campaigns at the municipal, provincial and federal levels sometimes winning, sometimes losing but always having a fun time along the way while ever expanding his circle of friends.

Few people, other than perhaps his beloved Dori, read more books in their life than Lorne and he was always quick to pass a good one on to someone else. While he always enjoyed a good literary journey, he was known for his world travels, paddling the the Yukon River, visiting the Pyramids of Egypt, the Galápagos Islands, Vietnam, or nestled in the dunes of Southampton. With close to a 100 countries visited in his lifetime, he was a true Voyageur and Dori was the "Clark" to his "Lewis"...now his next adventure begins.

Beyond his loving wife, Lorne is survived by his children, Lisa Bourdeau (husband Rick), Greg Ebel (wife Terri), Pamela Mauti (husband Joe); his siblings, John Ebel (wife Mary) and Heather Highgate (husband Carl); his 10 grandchildren; two greatgrandchildren; and numerous nieces and nephews.

Predeceased by his son, Matheson Ebel (wife Nancy); brother, George Ebel (wife Marie).

The family will receive friends at the Dods & McNair Funeral Home, Chapel & Reception Centre, 21 First St., Orangeville on Sunday, August 25, 2019 from 6:00-8:00 p.m. A Celebration of Lorne's Life will be held at the Westminster United Church, 247 Broadway Ave.

Orangeville on Monday, August 26, 2019 at 11:00 a.m., with visitation beginning at 10:00 a.m., Reception to follow at the Dods & McNair Reception Centre.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the Headwaters Healthcare Foundation (http://www.headwatershealth.ca) or the Westminster Capital Campaign (https:// westminsterorangeville.ca).

Condolences may be offered to the family at http://www.dodsandmcnair.com.

DIANE FULFORD GEE

Barbara Diane Fulford Gee, born July 2, 1928, died August 14, 2019. Daughter of the late Frances (Blount) and Albert Fulford. Predeceased by her husband Warren Burroughes Gee, siblings Joan Anne Gould (George Gould) and Wayne Fulford (Patricia Fulford). Diane is lovingly remembered by her children Marcus (Kate Andrew), Bryan (Jaleen Grove) and Caroline (Steven Graham); grandchildren Eric, Maddie, Sarah Andrew-Gee; Zephyr, Clea, Silas Christakos-Gee, their mother Margaret Christakos; Rebecca and Raiden Gee-Graham; brother Robert Fulford (Geraldine Sherman), sister-in law Marilynn Cawkell (Frank Cawkell) and many nieces and nephews.

Diane's family thanks the thoughtful caregivers at the Bradgate Arms who have made Diane's recent years and the last months, in particular, so comfortable.

Flowers gratefully declined.

Donations may be made to one of Diane's favourite charities: Diabetes Canada, Canadian Mental Health Association or Parkinson's Canada.

We will celebrate Diane's thoughtful, caring, stylish, optimistic and enthusiastic life 2 to 5 p.m. (speeches at 3) on Saturday, September 21st at the Arts & Letters Club, 14 Elm Street. Memories of Diane can be sent to dianegeefamily@gmail.com.

JOSEPH FREDRICK GERRATH

Of Guelph passed away peacefully with family at his side on August 10, 2019 at Hospice Wellington, at the age of 83. He is survived by his loving wife, Jean (Drewry); sisterin law, Tina (Hennekes); son, John (Christie Bahlai); daughter, Janet (Jer Robbins); grandchildren, James (Hannon), Penelope and Wesley (Bahlai-Gerrath); as well as many nieces and nephews. He was predeceased by his parents, John Gerrath and Margaret (Anderson) and siblings, Ruth (Foster), Lawrence, Louise (Stoneham), and John.

Joe was born June 25, 1936 on a farm near Cheviot, Saskatchewan where he lived until his father died in 1944. The family then settled in Vancouver where Joe received the rest of his schooling, culminating in a PhD in Botany from University of British Columbia in 1968. He and his wife Jean then moved to Guelph, where he began his career as a professor in the Botany Department at the University of Guelph. He taught many courses, including Phycology, Bryology, and Aquatic Biology.

He retired in 1999. Joe studied a group of green algae, the desmids, and was a foremost expert on their morphology and taxonomy. He collaborated with colleagues at the British Museum of Natural History on the desmid flora of Africa. He was an active member of the Canadian Botanical Association, and served as Treasurer and President. He also wrote and produced their quarterly Bulletin for some years, which gave him the opportunity to reveal his broad knowledge and sense of humour. Joe was an active member of the Guelph Field Naturalists in the 1970's and 1980's.

After he retired, Joe took up genealogy, and created a large and important data set on the Geraths/Gerrath family and their relatives, beginning with his father and his 8 siblings, and extending it to include Joe's 80+ cousins and their families.

He worked with historians at the University of Wisconsin Madison on early German settlement in the state, and continued adding to his files until his death. Joe volunteered regularly at the LSD Family History Centre in Kitchener for a number of years, and was a specialist in German genealogy.

Joe is remembered as a quiet, kind, and patient man who was generous with his time. He had an encyclopedic knowledge, which made him very useful to know in the pre-Google days. He loved to drive, and took the family on nearly a dozen camping trips across Canada and the USA, that usually included collecting algae samples. He enjoyed classical music, and was a long-time season ticket holder of Tafelmusik and the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony.

A reception will be held at the Wall-Custance Funeral Home & Chapel, 206 Norfolk St., Guelph on Sunday, September 1 from 1:00 to 4:00 p.m., where people can exchange reminiscences of Joe.

Donations may be given to the Guelph General Hospital or Hospice Wellington in his name.

TERANCE GEORGE GLOSSOP

December 16, 1934 July 19, 2019 We are very sorry to announce that Terry died at his home in Riga, Latvia after a brief illness.

He is survived by his wife, Baiba; and daughter, Karen.

He is also survived by his sons, Peter (Sylvie) and Neil (Natasha) and their mother, Elaine; his grandchildren, Claire (Ishan), Matthew, Christine, Michelle, Catherine and Connor; his sister, Sylvia and nieces and nephews.

Terry was born in Arundel, England - a small, southern English town - which he was immensely fond of and to which he frequently returned. After completing his National Service in Egypt and working for the Inland Revenue in London, Terry left England for Canada. This marked the start of a long career with the Toronto-Dominion Bank, which included postings in Vancouver, Montreal, Toronto, New York and London. While working, he earned a B.A. in Economics from York University in Toronto and an MBA from New York University. He retired from the Bank in 1996 as a Vice President.

He then embarked on a new career for nearly a decade, as an international banking consultant in developing countries. In the last fifteen years he and Baiba made their home in Riga.

Terry was a lover of jazz and opera - the sound of which often filled his home. He was also a dedicated traveller, having visited 79 countries. Terry brought hard work, wisdom, wit, courage, team spirit, creativity, service and adventure to every aspect of his personal and professional life. His children and grandchildren appreciated that Terry made a determined effort to stay connected with them despite all of his travel and work commitments. He is deeply missed by his family and friends.

A funeral service was held in Riga on July 31, 2019. A memorial celebration for Terry will take place in Toronto in the near future. Donations in memory of Terry may be made to oncological research at the University of Latvia at https:// z i e d o t . l u. l v / e n / h o m e - p a g e / or the Canadian Cancer Society.

RUTH ALISON HALL

With heavy hearts and great sorrow, we mourn the passing of (Ruth) Alison Hall (nee Jeffries) on August 14, 2019, in her 93rd year. Now reunited with her dearest friend and loving husband, Ross (1999) and muchloved daughter, Barbara (2016).

Alison was a devoted mother to Terry and his wife, Jane Ford, Barb and her husband, Niels Rasmussen, and Trish and her husband, Colin Vidler. She was a very proud grandmother to Davis and Gregory Hall, Laina (Lucas Dykstra), Leah and Tiana Rasmussen, Darcy (Darren Gebbetis) and Nigel Vidler. She was predeceased by her parents Harold and Gladys Jeffries, and her siblings Eileen Liddle, Terence Jeffries and Kathryn McNiven. She will be missed by many nieces, nephews and friends. Alison graduated from Victoria College at the University of Toronto with top honours in both academics and athletics. She had a strong sense of community and social responsibility. Alison was an active supporter of Trinity United Church, West Lincoln Memorial Hospital and its Foundation, the Canadian Federation of University Women and the Laurier Liberal Ladies. She served as the Chair of the Blood Donor Recruitment Advisory Committee (Ontario) for the Canadian Red Cross and on the Board of Directors at Albright Manor, Beamsville. She was awarded the Paul Harris Fellowship by Rotary International and was honoured for her contribution to the YMCA, Niagara.

A keen sportswoman and fan her entire life, Alison played hockey for the University of Toronto, curled, golfed and coached girls' hockey and softball. Alison was bright and articulate and enjoyed engaging dialogue and debate.

She was truly a partner to Ross, playing an important supporting role in his many civic endeavours and achievements. It was a role she cherished. Visitation will be held at STONEHOUSE-WHITCOMB FUNERAL HOME, 11 Mountain Street, GRIMSBY (905-945-2755) on Monday, August 26, 2019 from 6 - 9 p.m. Funeral Service to take place at St. John's Presbyterian Church, 10 Mountain Street, Grimsby at 11 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27, 2019. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Mark Preece Family House or the Canadian Red Cross.

http://www.smithsfh.com "Of those to whom much is given, much is expected."

PETER JOHN HARRIS

March 15, 1933 August 12, 2019 Peter John Harris, passed away peacefully on August 12, 2019 at Sunset Manor Collingwood, of Parkinson's. Born March 15, 1933 in Toronto, son of the late John Samuel and Helena Isobel Harris (Sawden) of Toronto. Beloved husband of 62 years to Betty (Mary Elizabeth Ellis). Dedicated father of Lisa Stuart (Andrew) and Gregory Harris (Lori), grandfather of Samantha and Edward (Ted) Stuart and Hudson, Holden and Berkeley Harris.

Graduate of University of Toronto Schools, O.C of Queen's York Ranger's Royal Cdn. Army Cadet Corp. 1952, University of Toronto Chemical Engineering 5T7, Theta Delta Chi and Western University Graduate School of Business Administration, Member of Toronto Ski Club Ski Patrol 1948-51, having slept in Jozo Weider's loft and helped build one of the first Blue Mountain ski lifts, Granite Club Member over 60 years.

His corporate career included; President W.R. Grace Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Vice President Pacific Division, Industrial Chemicals Group - Hanover Square New York, President Grace Chem. Ltd., Mississauga, Vice President Drummond McCall & Co. Ltd. Toronto. Upon retirement, he became a valued Financial Advisor to family, friends and business associates.

As a dedicated community member, he served as Board Chair, Fundraising Chair and Foundation Chair of Runnymede Health Centre over a thirty-year period as well as Board Chair of the Ontario Hospital Association.

As longstanding member of St. George's Church on-thehill he was Rector's Warden, Treasurer and Sides Captain.

Peter had a passionate interest in Astronomy from the age of 8 and was a life member of the RASC. With his love of Jaguar Cars, he was past President of the Ontario Jaguar Association.

Peter and Betty moved to Collingwood in 2014. Peter will be remembered for his love of music both Classical and Jazz, his keen intellect and his unfailing kindness to family and associates.

Arrangements entrusted to Fawcett Funeral Home Collingwood. Funeral Service will be at All Saints Anglican Church, 32 Elgin St. in Collingwood on Saturday, September 28th at 1 p.m. He will be buried in the Samuel John Harris family plot in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Sunset Manor, 49 Raglan St. Collingwood, ON L9Y 4X1, http://www.simcoe.ca, Sunset Manor would be appreciated.

PATRICIA ANNE HATT (nee Creighton)

Died peacefully at home with family. She remained strong, resilient and full of humour to the end. Patricia is predeceased by her late husband Brice. She is survived by her five children and spouses, Sarah (Peter), Martha, David (Jennifer), Victoria (Sean) and Katherine (Brett). Patricia was a devoted Nana to her eleven grandchildren, Grace, Emma, Ben, Gwen, Chris, Tyler, Matthew, Michaela, Sydney, Justin and Andrew and dog Louie. Patricia dedicated her life to advocacy for people with learning disabilities.

She volunteered with the Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario for over 20 years. She was a past Chair of the Board of Trustees for George Brown College; past chair and Executive Member of the Community Legal Education of Ontario [CLEO]; past co-chair of the Metropolitan Toronto Movement for Literacy; past member and former treasurer of the Ontario Justice Education Network [OJEN]; founding member of the York University Mentorship Program for Students with Learning Disabilities; and Adviser to the provincial and federal governments on issues of disability and employment.

The family will receive friends at the Robert J. Reid & Sons, "The Chapel on the Corner", 309 Johnson Street (at Barrie Street), on Friday August 23, 2019 from 4:00pm-8:00pm. The funeral service will be held at St. George's Cathedral, 270 King St E, at 11:00am on Saturday, August 24, 2019. As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations to a literacy based charity would be appreciated. Online condolences may be made at http://www.reidfuneralhome.com

GWEN HAWKE (née DeMont)

Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia on April 4, 1925, Gwen passed away peacefully in her sleep at The Dunfield Retirement Residence in Toronto, on Saturday August 3, 2019. Predeceased in 1999 by her beloved husband Howard, Gwen will be fondly remembered by her children Laurien Trowell, Martha Shinkle (Lee), Charles Hawke (d), Gordon Hawke (Jane) and Kelly Baxter (Brian). Beloved Nana/Grandma to Malindi, Geoffrey, Jessica, David, Heather, Hillary, John, Stephen and Geoffrey and eight great grandchildren. Lovingly remembered by Casey and Bill Hooke.

Gwen will be remembered by friends and family as fun loving, warm, generous, with a feisty spirit and great sense of style. She had a big heart and lived each day fully. She enjoyed golf, bridge, tennis, fitness, music and dancing, travel, driving her sporty cars, and always dressing to the nines. She was a long-time member of Rosedale Golf Club, CWSGA, the B&R Club, and the Monday Club.

Gwen had a strong community of support during her last year. Her family is deeply grateful to Aida, Maybel, and Marie Joy from Home Instead for their loving care, ensuring that Gwen got the most out of each day and lived with dignity. Thanks also to the amazing nursing team on the 3rd floor, and to all the friends and staff who made the Dunfield a wonderful home for Gwen.

There will be a private family service. Friends are invited to join the family for a Celebration of Gwen's Life at the Rosedale Golf Club, 1901 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto on Wednesday, August 21st, at 4:00 p.m. If desired, in lieu of flowers, donations can be made in Gwen's name to the Alzheimer's Society of Canada, 20 Eglinton Avenue West, 16th Floor, Toronto, ON, M4R 1K8. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

RUTH HOOD

February 5, 1933 August 9, 2019 Ruth Evelyn Hood (née Charlesworth) died peacefully, surrounded by loved ones in Toronto. She is survived by husband, Michael; daughter, Susanna; son-in-law, Scott Thomson; and a loving and attentive extended family.

Trained in library science, she worked on notable commissions as an editor and served her communities as a dedicated volunteer, philanthropist, and arts patron.

No funeral is planned, but an informal memorial gathering will be held in Toronto this autumn. Ruth's family will be grateful for contributions in her memory to the United Way and the Toronto Public Library.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019

We grieve the loss of Tony Houghton. Tony passed suddenly at his home in Kingston on August 8, 2019. He leaves behind his beloved wife Dianne, his daughters Sylvie, Stephanie, Catto and Sarah, his grandchildren Veronika, Sienna and Oliver, and his brother Hector.

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

GORDON RYO KADOTA

Gordon Ryo Kadota passed away on July 31, 2019 at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia at the age of 86. A private funeral was held on August 6 at Celebration Hall in Vancouver.

A Celebration of Life will be held at Nikkei Place, Burnaby, B.C.

on Sunday, September 22, 2019 at 3 p.m.

Gordon is survived by his second wife, Kyoko; daughter, Ayako (Steve); grandchildren, Sydney, Andrew and Dana; step-sons, Takashi (Reiko), Haruyuki (Kim); and step-grandchildren, K and Emi. Uncle Gordon will also be mourned by many nieces, nephews, and cousins in Canada, the U.S., England and Japan.

Gordon was born on January 15, 1933 in New Westminster, B.C., the 8th child of Kantaro and Shigeno (nee Kunita) Kadota. At the age of 7, he was taken to Japan for a visit, but the outbreak of World War II prevented his return to Canada.

He spent 12 years in Japan, graduating from Kwansei Gakuin University High School and later returned to Canada in 1952.

Following in his father's footsteps, Gordon worked in forestry and in the 1960's entered the travel industry, eventually specializing in tourism between Canada and Japan. This led to Canaway Consultants which provided translating and business consulting services. In the early 1970's, he also co-founded OK Gift Shop with the Canadian stores opening in Vancouver, Banff, and Niagara Falls. He remained active in the company until recently.

Beginning in the mid-1950's, he volunteered and became a leader in the Japanese Canadian community, serving both in organizations at the local and national levels. Over the years, Gordon received numerous awards for his work in the Japanese Canadian community, in business and tourism and the betterment of relations between Japan and Canada. In 2000, his dream of creating a gathering place for the Japanese-Canadian community was realized with the building of Nikkei Place in Burnaby, B.C.

Gordon was a great story teller and often started by saying "It's a long story". He had a big heart, kind words and a sense of humour that made it possible for him to continue for so many years in public service. He enjoyed travel, sports particularly golf and hockey, and was always helping others in need. Those who wish to make a donation in Gordon's memory might do so to Canuck Place Children's Hospice, St. Paul's Hospital Foundation or in keeping with Gordon's philanthropic spirit, any charity of your choice.

MARY CHRISTINE KARN (neé Pearse)

December 15, 192 August 8, 2019 It is with deep sadness that we announce the passing of Chris Karn. Chris died peacefully in Huntsville, ON, surrounded by family on August 8, 2019 at the age of 96. She was predeceased by her husband Gordon, the love her life, and her older sister Pam Biggs. Chris will be dearly missed by a large circle of family and friends.

Chris was the ultimate matriarch and role model for all who were lucky to have met her. She was an inspiration to her three children, Jinty (Jim Stewart), Kathy (Michael Pearce) and Ian (Sue Barker). She was dearly loved by grandchildren, Andrew Stewart (Susanna), Robin Allison (Zach), Roger Leavens (Claudia), Sarah Leavens (Bryce), David Pearce (Rachelle) and Michelle Pearce. Ten great- grandchildren are thrilled to have had such a special 'GG'.

To read Chris' story click on http://www.mitchellfuneralhome.ca A Memorial Service will be held at 2:00 p.m. Wednesday, August 28, at Mitchell Funeral Home, 15 High St., Huntsville, ON P1H 1N9.

There will be a reception following until 4 p.m.

Donations may be made in honour of Chris to The Lake of Bays Heritage Foundation http://www.lakeofbaysheritage.ca or to the charity of your choice.

BORIS S. KARPOFF P.Eng.

August 10, 1931 August 12, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the death of our father, Boris Svetoslave Karpoff de Korsounsky at the age of 88 at the Kamloops Hospice, BC. Dad died peacefully with his girls at his side.

He was predeceased by his wife, Audrey (née Gyuricska). He leaves behind his children; Hélène (Peter), Nadia (Colin), Alexandra (Daryl); grandchildren, Jacqueline, Karine, Colton, Mackenzie, Gabrielle and Dimitri, and sister Catherine (Richard).

Born and raised in Liège, Belgium, Boris immigrated to Canada in 1951 with his parents. He graduated as a mining engineer from Laval University, Québec in 1956. He went on to have a fulfilling career as a professional engineer and in later years worked as a mining consultant throughout the world.

Boris was passionate about the outdoor aspect of his job and enjoyed hiking and biking in his younger days. He was an avid glider pilot for many years and created lifelong friendships at several flying clubs in Ontario, Quebec and BC. Boris also was an avid stamp collector and rock hound, and took part in fossil hunts around Kamloops with the local paleontology club.

He touched many lives and leaves us all with many cherished memories.

He will be deeply missed by his family, near and far, and by his friends at Berwick on the Park, the Kamloops Stamp Club and KEG (Kamloops Exploration Group).

A private cremation will be held and a Celebration of Boris' Life will take place at a later date in Kamloops. Donations in lieu of flowers to the Kamloops Hospice Association (http://www.kamloopshospice.com) would be appreciated.

Arrangements entrusted to Kamloops Funeral Home 250-554-2577 Condolences may be sent to the family from http://www.kamloopsfuneralhome.com

DONALD HILARY KAYE

Donald Hilary Kaye passed away peacefully at home on Friday, August 9, 2019. Loving husband of Mary (nee Booth) for 40 years. Son of Augustine Kazimir Kaye, and brother to Rosalie Almond and Bernadette Kaye.

Predeceased by his mother, Mary Frances (Kavanaugh) and his brothers, Lester and Gordon.

A graveside service will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27th at Highland Memory Gardens, 33 Memory Gardens Lane, Willowdale. Memorial donations may be made to Epilepsy Canada.

GWYNETH SHEILA LANG (née Jones, formerly Turner)

Mother, teacher, mentor, role model. An inspiring and amazing (in all the senses of the word) wife, mother and grandmother.

Sheila showed us the importance of enjoying life's opportunities, and shared her love of language, art, music, theatre - and especially travel. Always colourfully dressed, she was never shy about being herself in the world, and was never afraid to talk about anything to anyone. She met life fearlessly and showed us all how it was meant to be done. Sheila was passionate about life. A swish hotel, a well-turned phrase, a good meal with friends (as long as she didn't have to cook it) were all things to be savoured whenever possible.

Family and friends were always important, with the 'Club' ladies holding a special place. These were friendships maintained from childhood all the way to the end of her life. Sheila was a natural teacher with huge reserves of knowledge about all manner of subjects - backed up with the vast filing cabinets full of the clippings she always seemed to be collecting. She quietly created opportunities for all of us to learn and grow, and had a deeply pragmatic wisdom that informed her outlook on life and helped the rest of us learn to keep things in perspective.

Mother to David (Lisa), Nancy (Loris) and Bruce (Steph) and grandmother to Thomas, Alana and Michael. Predeceased by both her husbands, Robert Alan Turner and Harold Murray Lang. Sheila died peacefully on Saturday, August 10 at Bridgepoint Active Healthcare Centre. She was truly, fabulously awesome, and we will miss her.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Butler Chapel, 4933 Dundas St. W. (between Islington and Kipling Aves.) on Saturday, August 24th from 2 to 3 p.m.

Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel at 3:00 p.m.

FREDA ELISABETH MARTIN (née McQueen)

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Dr. Freda Elisabeth Martin at age 87 on August 4, 2019.

Much loved by sons, Andrew (Dawn) and Peter; grandchildren, Louisa and Gregory; predeceased by parents, Andrew and Lily McQueen; husband, Kenneth; and sisters, Norah Fraser and Margaret Heather; missed by many nieces and nephews.

Freda was a loving wife and mother, had a long and distinguished career in child psychiatry and was a tireless advocate for childrens' mental health. Freda will be remembered in a celebration of life on September 22 at 2:00 p.m. at First Unitarian Congregation of Toronto 175 St. Clair Ave. W. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to plancanada.ca or to the charity of your choice in support of children and families in developing countries.

RUTH EILEEN MAX

May 10, 1931 August 11, 2019

Passed peacefully surrounded by family at Derbeckers Heritage House, St. Jacobs at age 88.

Survived by her loving husband of 66 years, Jack Max; brother Bob Stinson (Joan); daughters Jody Max, Jennifer Gloin (Greg). Also survived by six grandchildren: Andrew Beattie (Caitlyn), Christopher Taylor, Emma Beattie (Rob), Matthew Taylor, Jake Gloin and Leah Gloin; and three greatgrandchildren: Charlotte, James and Logan Beattie. Predeceased by her daughter Jill Max (Michael).

Ruth was born in Toronto but summered at Sandy Bay Road on Gull Lake (Minden) for much of her childhood. The "lake" was her special place and she and Jack were fortunate to have spent over 30 years there in their retirement.

Ruth was an active member of the Minden Hospital Auxiliary and a board member of the Gull Lake Association.

Ruth spent most of her working life as an editor - always known for her gift with words. She loved a good book, a comfy couch with a blanket and a view of the water, a glass of wine, with many laughs on the deck with her girls and Jack.

Grandma "cottage" as she was affectionately known, will be greatly missed by all her family and friends. A sincere thank you to the staff at Derbeckers Heritage House in St. Jacobs, who provided such genuine, loving care for the last few months.

Private family interment. Donation to Derbeckers Heritage House in lieu of flowers.

MARTIN VAUGHAN MORRIS

1956 - 2019

Martin Morris of Guelph passed away on August 7, 2019 at Innisfree House in Kitchener. He died as he lived his life: quietly, humbly and unassumingly from an extremely rare brain cancer, gliosarcoma.

Born in Portsmouth, England in 1956; he came to Montreal, Canada with his parents as a baby.

He lived in Montreal, Niagara Falls, Singapore and Peterborough.

For the last 35 years Martin lived in Guelph surrounded by a caring community.

Martin is predeceased by his mother Nesta Morris in 2008.

Deeply missed by his sister Charlotte Ryan and brother-in-law Jerome Ryan of Toronto and his nephew, the cellist Peter Xavier Ryan. His father Peter Morris and his father's partner Mona Negoita of Waterloo are also mourning his lost. His dear friend Marta Holfeuer who provided unwavering and loving support to Martin as well as his family, will truly miss his friendship.

Martin was an RPN at St Joseph's Health Care Centre in Guelph for 17 years and a proud recipient of their Mission Legacy Award where he was acknowledged for his "polite and calm disposition who attends to clients with care and compassion". He spoke French fluently with an Honours BA in French and an Honours BASc in Gerontology. A member of Mensa - Martin had an extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge on a multitude of subjects. He was a marathon runner and extensive walker, a copious letter writer. Lover of all fine things, Martin enjoyed wearing Mont Blanc sunglasses and odd socks; breakfast with Gordon at Wimpey's and dining at Miijidaa as well as staying at the Royal York Hotel. He had a quick wit and found humour in many things - he loved hearing the latest gossip. He lived all of his life with mental health issues that shaped him into the caring person that he was as he came to accept himself. An extremely generous gift giver - his true gifts were his care and concern and his ability to be a strong friend to those who needed him. He was always thoughtful and his actions were done with selflessness.

This last year allowed us to return his many gifts of kindness as we were able to care for him. His diagnosis was devastating to us - but it gave us this very special time with him that leaves us with a lifetime of joyous memories.

In memory of Martin, donations to the Guelph Public Library, where Martin enjoyed many hours, especially after his diagnosis, as it was a refuge and a hiatus from his illness.

Donations may be arranged through the Erb & Good Family Funeral Home, 171 King Street S., Waterloo http://www.erbgood.com or 519-745-8445.

Many thanks to Martin's and our friends, family, neighbours and health care workers whose prayers, support and acts of loving kindness truly lifted and carried us through this journey.

A big shout out and appreciation to nurses everywhere for their exceptional care and compassion that ensures every person feels loved and cared for - and whom Martin always enjoyed listening to and sharing nursing stories that only those who work as nurses would understand.

A private cremation ceremony has already taken place.

Friends are invited to share their memories of Martin with his family on Sunday, August 25th between 2:00 and 4:00 at Miijidaa cafe + bistro 37 Quebec St Guelph.

With tributes starting at 2:30.

ZOË ANNE MURRAY (née Molson)

Zoë passed away peacefully at home after a valiant struggle with Cancer on Thursday, August 8, 2019 at the age of 83.

She is survived by her loving spouse, John Worsley and her son, Maximilian Hardinge, and predeceased by her sons, Charles Hardinge (19562004) and Andrew Hardinge (1960-2014).

Zoë was born in Montreal on November 13, 1935 and was the daughter of the late Senator Hartland de Montarville Molson (1907-2002). Growing up in Montreal she attended The Study, went to Netherwood School in New Brunswick, and finishing school at Brillatmont International in Switzerland. On October 14, 1955, Zoë married Nicholas Hardinge and had three children.

On December 13, 1983, she married Christopher Murray and lived happily at La Glinette in St Aubin, Jersey, Channel Islands. Upon Christopher's death on December 26, 2007 in Barbados, Zoë found companionship and love once again with John Worsley and lived happily at River Run in Uxbridge.

Zoë was a world traveller, avid golfer, competitive tennis player, and passionate cook. She embraced the outdoor pursuits of fly fishing and shooting in Scotland, England and Canada with her family and four legged friends. Zoë was a loving mother to her three sons, mother-in-law to Julie, Sophia and Elizabeth, grandmother to Matthew, Emilie, Olivia, Thomas, Jamie, Melissa, Hugo and Oliver, and step-mother to Lucinda, Stephen, Doone, Willa, Harry, Jonathan, Dickon and Katie.

The family would like to thank Doctors Trinkaus, Babak, Mahadevan, and the PSWs and palliative nurses for their kindness and devotion to her care.

A private family service will be held at St Paul's in Uxbridge, and a celebration of life will be held at Grace Church on-the-Hill on Friday, September 20th, at 11:00 a.m. followed by a reception in the parish hall. Zoë's final resting place will be amongst the fragrant woods and velvet waters of Ivry a place she adored with her family and cousins. Zoë will be forever in our hearts.

JOAN IDELL QUIRIE OWENS

May 25, 1927August 3, 2019 Joan Idell Quirie, daughter of Ross James Quirie and Idell Grosskurth, was born in Toronto and lived in Ontario until her father's career took the family to Boston. After high school, she returned to Canada for grade 13 at Alma College and earned her B.A.

in English at Victoria College in 1948, before receiving her M.A. at Boston University in 1949. While teaching at The Wheeler School in Providence, Rhode Island, Joan met and married journalist Gwinn Owens, a native of Baltimore, Maryland, who shared her love of music, theater, and adventure.

In 1952, while still newlyweds, the couple traveled to Greece with the hopes of living there.

Ultimately, they decided to come back to the States and settled in Baltimore, where their four children were born and where Joan taught at St.

Paul's School for Girls and later, Ruxton Country School.

An avid reader and lifelong learner, upon retirement she became a student again, taking classes in literature, language, and art.

To her friends, family, and students, Joan was always a patient listener and a gentle advisor. She inspired others to write, to read, to think, and to observe. Her four children survive her: Gwendolyn (Peter Gibian) of Montreal, Ross of Santa Cruz, California, Laura (Reed Templeton) of Ocean View, Delaware, and Paul (Betsy Rogers) of Orlando, Florida, along with six grandchildren.

A memorial will be held in Baltimore on October 12, 2019.

ERIC CARL RIORDON

In Prince Edward Island on Wednesday, August 14, 2019, Eric C. Riordon, formerly of Montreal. Beloved husband of Catherine Jean Finnie. Treasured father of William (Mara), Edward (Dayzmilia) and dear grandfather of Charlotte and Emma. Brother of Michael (Brian Woods) and the late Mollie Anne. Son of the late Eric Riordon, ARCA and Mollie Usher-Jones.

Resting at Belvedere Funeral Home. Funeral Tuesday at St. James Church "The Kirk", Charlottetown at 11:00 a.m.

Burial service at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto, on Wednesday, August 21 at 11:00 a.m.

If desired, please consider making a donation of blood in Eric's memory. http://www.belvederefh.com

JOAN ELIZABETH STAGER (née Alexander)

January 17, 1933 August 4, 2019 Daughter of Thomas and Sylvia Louise Alexander (née Armstrong).

Predeceased by her husband John Kimberley Stager, PhD, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia, on October 10, 2018.

Also predeceased by her brothers, James Henry Alexander (Evelyn) and John Thomas Alexander (Donna); and nephew, Donald James Alexander. Joan is survived by her sister, Sylvia Louise Carl (Robert); and her brother, Gordon Burnett Alexander (Rosalyn). She will be fondly remembered by her many nieces, nephews, and godchildren. The family would like to acknowledge the loving commitment of Joan's caregiver, Aida Roxas.

Joan graduated from Lord Byng High School in 1951 and Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing in 1954. Early in her career she went to San Francisco where she was a nurse. Subsequently she returned to Vancouver where she met her beloved John; they married in 1964. Shortly thereafter, with architect Barry V. Downs, CM, the couple built a light-filled, gracious, midcenturymodern home on a wooded lot in the Southlands area. Furthering her education, Joan graduated with a degree in Fine Arts from UBC in 1977. She volunteered in the conservation department of the UBC Museum of Anthropology where she applied her natural precision and eye for detail to every project. Joan Stager demonstrated exquisite taste, was the consummate hostess, and delighted in her relationships with friends and family.

A memorial service and reception will be held Saturday, September 7, 2019, at Knox United Church, 5600 Balaclava Street, Vancouver, at 11:00 a.m.

DAVID CHRISTOPHER N. VALDO

Sadly, we had to let a very brave soul leave us after a four month valiant struggle at Royal University Hospital in Saskatoon, on July 18, 2019.

David, the loving son of Anne and Terry (d. 2001), awesome brother of Kristin and brother-inlaw of Kelly and proud uncle of Madison Schulkowsky.

A Celebration of David's life will be held in Toronto on Saturday, September 21, 2019 at St. George's-on-the-Hill, Dundas Street West at Royal York Road, Toronto at 12:30 p.m. All those who were blessed to know David are encouraged to join us.

David made many friends at St.

George's, Addus and Dramaways during his short life. A donation in David's memory to one of these organizations would be appreciated by his family, instead of flowers.

Dear David, the "nightmare" is over. Love you forever. Peace be with you always.

EARL VAN SLYKE "Van"

March 16 1921 August 7 2019 Van was born in Durham Ontario and raised in nearby Hanover...

the third in a family of nine boys.

He served honourably as a gunner in the Royal Canadian Artillery during the Second World War and fought in North Africa, Italy and was especially proud of his role in the liberation of Holland.

Following the war Van moved to Toronto where he married, raised his family, had a successful career in sales and pursued a lifelong passion for golf. He was predeceased by his wife Sheila and is survived by his children Wendy (Terry), Leslie (Danny) and Chris...grandsons Mike (Jaimee), Peter (Meghan), Alex, greatgranddaughter Hannah and his special nieces and nephews Allan, Paul, Jennifer and Diane.

Special thanks to the nursing staff at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre and Dr Deb Selby for their exceptional care in Van's final months.

Thank you for your service soldier.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

JOHN R. MCGEE "Jack"

January 10, 1932 August, 16, 2009 We took our vows together And said till death do us part When God came and took your hand My whole world fell apart No one knows the heartache I try so hard to hide No one knows the many times I've broken down and cried When I look back upon our lives One thing makes me glad That you chose me to share with you Those precious years we had I know you walk beside me And when my life is through I pray that God will take my hand And lead me back to you.

Love is forever, Me.

DUFFUS Happy 50th Annivers ary John and Judy Duffus! We love you always, Nicola Simon and Naomi Ben Tracy Fred and Carlie xxxxxooooo AURION JAMES WALKER June 11, 1926 August 13, 2019 Aurion James Walker, loving husband of the late Gertrude Walker, was born in Haileybury, Ontario on June 11, 1926, the oldest child of Eleanor (McCool) and James Walker. Aurion is predeceased by daughter Wendy (James Archer) and Brian, and is survived by son Stephen (Lynn) and son-in-law James Archer (Heather Gwynne-Timothy) and grandchildren Jennifer Murphy (Colin), Kaitlyn Roberts (Dan), Robyn Walker, Keirsten Clarke (Ben), Robert Archer, Emily Hollis (Brendan), and Kathleen Archer (Dave Maillet). Loved by his great grandchildren Ethan, Anna, Noah, Lena, Macie, Madeleine, Poppy, Olivia and Alex. Aurion is predeceased by siblings Mary (late Jerry) Burton, Dorothea (late Victor) Flemming, Mildred (Alan) Kurtz, Peter (Tina), Richard (Mary Ann) and Alice Louise, and survived by his brother Alexander (Margaret), and sisters Edna (late Eugene) Wilson, Kathleen (late Murray) Boyd and Gabrielle (late Peter Wilson).

Aurion, known to his friends as Jim, had an enriching career in the mineral exploration field, following in the footsteps of his father and maternal grandfather.

Subsequent to his term in the military, Jim began to pursue his passion for mineral exploration.

In 1947, Jim graduated from the Haileybury School of Mines, and advanced his career with several prominent mining companies.

One of the many highlights of his career were his four summers in the Yukon, and his passion for the Yukon remained with him into his later years.

In 1968, Jim started his own firm, Walker Exploration Limited, which was very successful.

Having received his P.Eng, Jim received his iron ring alongside his son Stephen in 1978 at Queen's University in Kingston. An active member of the Prospectors and Developers Association since 1951, Jim served as President from 1975 to 1977. Jim received an Honourary Member Award and in 1998, he received the Distinguished Service Award. In 2013, Jim received the Queen's Jubilee Medal in recognition of his lifetime commitment to the mining industry in Canada.

Jim will be remembered by family and friends for his generosity, his respect for others, and his sense of humour.

There will be a mass celebrating Aurion's life at St. Christopher's Roman Catholic Church at 1171 Clarkson Road N in Mississauga, Ontario on Tuesday, August 20, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Almonte General Hospital, or a charity that holds a special place in your heart would be appreciated.

Funeral Arrangements Entrusted Into The Care Of C.R. Gamble Funeral Home & Chapel Inc.

127 Church St., Almonte, ON., 613-256-3313 Condolences & Tributes: http://www.crgamble.com


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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page B15

CUSHMAN / REID

Claire Elizabeth Cushman and Stuart Allan Reid were married on July 27, 2019 in Sorrento, Maine. The bride, daughter of John Cushman and Heather Lawson of Toronto, holds a BA in English from Brown University and an MFA from the New York Academy of Art. She is a painter specializing in landscapes. The groom is the son of Dr. Andrew Reid and Carol Findlay Reid, formerly of Toronto and Findlay, Ohio, and presently of Philadelphia.

He holds a BA in Government from Dartmouth College and is a managing editor of Foreign Affairs magazine.

Claire and Stuart will be living in Paris for a year while Stuart is writing a book and where Claire will paint, before returning to their home in Brooklyn, NY.

DONOHUE/GOTTWALD

Overjoyed, Sean and John Donohue announce the birth of their granddaughter, Charlotte Delaney Gottwald, born in Singapore on July 30, 2019. Proud parents are Nora Donohue and Kamil Gottwald.

Also rejoicing is a host of Donohue and Gottwald relatives including two greatgrandmothers, Anne Delaney and Lada Gottwaldova.

MAXWELL JOY

We are pleased to announce the arrival of Maxwell Alexander Grahame Joy, on July 27, 2019, at 7:21 a.m., weighing in at 7 lbs 15oz, in his new role as CEO of JoySky Development Group. After spending the past nine months shadowing mom, Michelle Skutelsky and listening to dad, David Joys' strategic planning; he is happy to promote them to their new roles as Chief Milk Officer ("CMO") and Chief Diaper Officer ("CDO"), respectively.

It is during his time in utero training that he has developed a true appreciation for the Fairmont Gold Standard; as applied particularly to lighting, sound and culinary excellence.

He looks forward to being introduced to the rest of the Executive Board of Directors consisting of his brother, Todd Joy, CFO and his sister, Jasmine Joy, COO, both of the parent company Joy Developments Inc., whose guidance will be instrumental in navigating numerous life opportunities. Max is also keenly interested in meeting assembled committee members made up of the Skutelsky/Joy families, the newly formed Compliance Committee, (comprised of past and present crew of Sonic Boom), and in addition foreign strategy and oversight from the Morrall family.

Please take this opportunity to join us in welcoming "Max Joy" to the world.

GABRIEL RUTHERFORD STEPHENS

On Tuesday July 23rd to Rachel Kellogg and Michael Stephens in Toronto a beautiful son 9 pounds, 10 ounces. Ecstatic grandparents include Abigail Bakan and Paul Kellogg, Debbie Harding and David Stephens and Mary Hatch and Roger Maus.

ANNEMARIE BIRCH

Passed peacefully on July 25, 2019 in her 100th year.

Born in East Prussia on April 29, 1920, she fled her homeland in January 1945 to escape the Russian advance. Miraculously reunited with her mother and two sisters in Berlin, they relocated to northern West Germany where she taught school at a British school until immigrating to Canada in the early 1950's. Annemarie settled in Toronto, where she met her beloved husband Richard E. Birch, who would introduce her to the golf world. They were married for 40 years at the time of his death in 2004. As a member of the Lambton Golf & Country Club, she became a proficient and decorated golfer, and considered winning the prestigious Lambton Senior Ladies Trophy in her early 80's (when she also shot her age) among her top achievements in the sport. Possessed of many artistic and athletic gifts, Annemarie was also an avid photographer, talented pianist and organist, tennis fan and opera buff. A chic, sharing and gracious woman - truly one-of-a-kind - she appreciated and saw beauty in all things and people, always able to produce a few apt words of wit and wisdom.

Annemarie will be deeply missed by her niece, Katrina and husband, John Hele and their children, Katherine, Carson and Trevor; and Victoria (John) O'Malley, and Mark (Rebecca) Harben, children of her late niece, Jeanette Harben; and newest addition great-grandniece, Mariana O'Malley.

The family would like to thank the caring staff at the Hazelton Place Retirement Residence, Annemarie's home for the past four years. There will be no service, and a private interment will take place at a later date. If you wish to remember Annemarie, please make a donation to a charity of your choice.

DR. C. ANN BROWN (née Brothers)

Born in Montreal, Quebec 1943, died in Kingston, Ontario, July 29, 2019, following a brief illness, peacefully surrounded by family. Predeceased by her beloved husband of 47 years, Dr. Hugh Brown (2016).

Ann was dearly loved and will be forever missed by her daughters Jennifer (Ian Joiner) and Angela, and her grandchildren Catherine, Alexander, William, and Kyle. Ann provided incredible love, support, and inspiration to her family.

Born and raised in Montreal, Ann graduated from the Royal Victoria Hospital School of Nursing in Montreal in 1964 and from McGill University in 1970. She completed graduate studies at Queen's University in Kingston (Master of Education, Master of Science and PhD).

At Queen's Ann served as a faculty member in the School of Nursing from 1976 until her retirement as Associate Professor in 2013. Her contributions to the body of knowledge on heart rate variability focused specifically on the mechanisms of adaptation of regular exercise on cardiovascular health. Ann's research, and that of her graduate students, examined the cardiovascular effects of low intensity aerobic exercise in pregnant and healthy women, and people living with cardiovascular disease. Ann appreciated the contribution of long-time family friend Peter Fenwick who secured key equipment that enabled this research.

Ann loved sailing with the family, swimming, cross-country skiing, walking, reading, classical music and good wine. She and Hugh swam several times per week well into their mid-70s. They enjoyed their canine (Great Danes), feline and equine family members tremendously. Ann loved horseback riding, an activity she shared with her daughters and grandchildren. After her retirement, she learned to play golf, never well, but always with immense pleasure.

Her daughters and grandchildren were a source of great joy, stimulation and support. Ann loved her family dearly and was immensely proud of their interests, accomplishments and differences. She delighted in their talents and individuality.

Ann was predeceased by her parents, Alexander Brothers (1976), and Muriel Brothers McNair (nee Martin) (2004), and sisters, Marilyn Doherty (nee Brothers) (2007), and Barbara Phillips (nee Brothers) (2014). She is survived by sister-in-law, Stephanie Stratton (Larry), brothers-in-law, Barry Phillips, and John Doherty, cousins, nieces, nephews, dear long-time friends, and colleagues.

The family would like to thank the physicians, nurses, and staff who cared for Ann with exceptional compassion, skill, and dedication.

Visitation will be held at James Reid Funeral Home (1900 John Counter Blvd, Kingston) on Wednesday, August 7th from 5 - 7 p.m. and on Thursday, August 8th from 12:30 - 1:30 p.m. The family will have a private service.

In lieu of flowers, memorial donations to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada or to the Canadian Cancer Society would be appreciated by the family.

http://www.jamesreidfuneralhome.com

LUCY BRICKER

At Windsor Regional Hospital on Sunday, July 28, 2019, Mrs. Lucy Jane (Russell) Bricker of Windsor, in her 86th year. Beloved wife of the late Dr. Jim Bricker. Dear mother of Mary Anne Bricker of Toronto, Laurie and Maurice Bizero of Manotick, Jamie and Carol Bricker of Oshawa, and David and Jacqueline Bricker of Lakeshore. Grandmother of Daniel Tessaro, Paul Tessaro and Kelly Marshall, Jordan and Ryan Bricker, and Sarah Michelle, Lauren, and Matthew Bricker, and greatgrandmother of James. Sister of Becky Prisco of Toronto.

Predeceased by her brother James Russell and her sister Mary Safrance.

A private family service will be held at Knox Presbyterian Church, Listowel followed by interment in Fairview Cemetery, Listowel.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.eatonfuneralhome.ca

C. JAMES BURRY

Of Toronto, Ontario, age 88, passed away suddenly at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto on July 25, 2019. Devoted husband of Winifrede Rogers Burry for 61 years. Proud father of Guy (Liz Lundell), Donald, and John and "Grandpa" to Kate and Owen, Alex (Melinda Choy) and EmmaLee. Predeceased by much-loved sister Joan Brown and dear sisterin-law Marianne Rogers. He will be missed by sister-in-law Gay Rogers, extended family and many friends.

Jamie was born in Toronto, Ontario, son of James A. S. and Dorothy (Fox) Burry. Jim was in the class of '53 at the Royal Military College, Kingston (#3021) where he earned the nickname "Burro" for his tenacity. He graduated from Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto and then completed a Master of Science degree at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Jim was a recognized expert in the field of water purification and waste water management. He worked as a consulting engineer at James F. MacLaren Associates as part of the team that designed Canada's first metropolitan-scale sewage treatment plant - the Humber Wastewater Treatment System in Toronto, opened in 1960. Jim later consulted on projects with Gore & Storrie before he became a professor at Ryerson University from 1967 to 1991 - where he was one of the first to provide coursework on computer. He was President of the American Water Works Association and recipient of the Water Environment Federation's Bedell Award. Jim was also a director on the board of St. Marys Cement Company.

Jamie's favorite pastimes were working on the computer, painting military miniatures, genealogy, reading, listening to music, watching anything gridiron and college hoops, driving machinery at Midloch Farm in his penny loafers, and taking many memorable family trips to Florida, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island as well as Christmases at the Muskoka cottage that he and Win purchased in 1987.

A reception to celebrate his life will take place at The York Club, 135 St George St., Toronto, ON on Friday, September 6, 2019 from 3:30 to 5:30 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Taylor Statten Camping Bursary Fund (tscbf.

com) or the charity of your choice would be appreciated. Jamie always thought that summer camp was truly important for his boys because it gave him a few peaceful summers.

FRANCIS LYNDON DEVANEY B. Arch (Hons.)

OAA, Architect Suddenly and unexpectedly, Lyndon Devaney passed away on Thursday, July 25, 2019, in his 67th year. Beloved partner of Gale Willgoss, Lyndon will be remembered for his enduring generosity and indomitable spirit by her family, Tyla Fullerton and Brian Sweet, Kendra Fullerton and Adam Boddy, Stace Fullerton and Michael Gieck, and Elise Fullerton and Dan Florescu.

Sadly missed by his brother, Relf Devaney and wife, Susan Procter, and his sister, Jill and husband, Richard Weston. Devoted uncle of Scott and Eric Weston. Loyal and devoted friend of Bill Harrison and his wife, Trish. After graduating from the University of Toronto, Lyndon joined Zeidler Partnership in 1982, becoming a principal of the firm. In 2007, Lyndon and his team constructed the Trump International Hotel and Tower in downtown Toronto. From Zeidler Partnership, Lyndon formed Devaney Strategic Planning and Design and in 2013 continued working with developers as a highly skilled project manager in Devaney Strategic Planning Inc.

Lyndon's creative vision is seen in Canada Place, an iconic landmark in Vancouver Harbour; the World Trade Centre in Toronto; Canary Wharf in Britain; Parq Vancouver Casino and Hotels Douglas and JW Marriott, and additional projects across Canada and internationally.

As an avid model maker in his teens, 'LD's exacting attention to detail became the hallmark of his work as an architect. His interest in sports was highlighted in his passion for Formula One's premier races and elite cars.

Lyndon's trademark black T-shirt and black jeans exemplified his taste in classic, stylized simplicity.

An esteemed colleague, respected mentor and trusted friend.

Lyndon was predeceased by parents, Francis Devaney (1969) and Joan Devaney Brown (2009).

A private cremation has taken place. Condolences may be offered at Smith's Funeral Home in Burlington or at condolenceforlyndon@gmail.

com. If desired, expressions of sympathy may be made to the Dustin Leopold Memorial Tribute Fund c/o Crohn's and Colitis Canada or to the YMCA-YWCA of the National Capital region at http://www.ymcaywca.ca.

DORIS DOHRENWEND

1931 - 2019

Born in Bronxville in New York, Doris Dohrenwend died of multiple cancers at her home in Toronto on July 31, 2019.

She is survived by her brother, Bruce Dohrenwend, and sisterin-law, Catherine Douglass, in New York City.

Doris was an art historian and curator in the Far Eastern Department of the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) from 1967, when she immigrated to Canada, until her retirement in 1996. Work in Japan had led to a strong interest in Asian art and a return to school.

At the University of Michigan, 1955-1957, she studied Japanese art and crafts under James Marshall Plumer. Her thesis was on Japanese modern woodblock prints. Later at Harvard, she concentrated on Neolithic and Bronze Age China under Max Loehr. Her thesis, on the human image in Chinese art before Buddhism, was accepted for a Ph.D. in 1973.

These studies, including research travel, were made possible by the Ford Foundation Foreign Area Training Program.

In Toronto, she concentrated on the early China collections in which the ROM is notably rich.

In connection with work towards special exhibitions, she also became absorbed in studies of Chinese glass and, particularly, jade, publishing the first catalogue of the museum's jade in 1971.

The last years before her retirement (1990-1995) were dominated by a specific commission naming Doris Dohrenwend and colleague Patricia Proctor to conduct a search for special works of Chinese art - large and/or fine or gapfilling works - to present for ROM purchase. This involved travel and knowledge of the art market in the United States, Europe and East Asia and was made possible by a landmark bequest from Herman Herzog Levy of Hamilton, Ontario, gentleman, collector and old friend of the ROM's Far Eastern Department.

Donations in memory of Doris Dohrenwend may be sent to The Bishop White Committee, East Asia Endowment Fund, Far Eastern Department, ROM, Toronto, at bwc@rom.on.ca.

PETER BRIAN EDWARDS

March 19, 1931 July 25, 2019 After a long and full life, it is with much sadness we advise of the sudden death of Peter Brian Edwards on July 25, 2019. He will be sadly missed by his wife and best friend of 46 years Patricia Carol Edwards (née Yeargin), and by his many cousins and friends in North America and the United Kingdom.

Peter was born on March 19, 1931 in Great Crosby, UK, and attended Merchant Taylors' School, Crosby.

When his draft notice arrived, he volunteered to go to Korea with the First Royal Tank Regiment which as part of the UN force saw active combat. At the end of his tour Peter returned to the U.K.

and was assigned to the 13th Bn of the Parachute Regiment. He then took a market research position with AC Neilsen in Oxford. Peter emigrated to Canada in 1954 and worked at Simpson's Department Store, Cunard Steamship Lines and The Dominion Bureau of Statistics. In 1959, he began his university degree at McMaster University but after one year he was hired by Proctor and Gamble and was sent to Cincinnati to the computer market research department. Peter's next move was to attend Toronto Teachers' College after which he taught elementary, middle and later, after receiving a degree from York University, high school. He became a guidance counsellor at Westview Centennial Secondary School in North York until his retirement in 1989.

Peter did extensive volunteer work. He was the President of the Royal Heraldry Society of Canada, and a founder of the Toronto branch of the Royal Heraldry Society. He was in the St John Ambulance Brigade, Uniform Division for eight years and served for two of those years as the Provincial Commissioner of Ontario. He established the archives at the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and worked as the Honourary Archivist for ten years.

Vexillology, the study of flags, was his hobby and he established the Burgee Data Archives. He was a member of the North American Vexillogical Association, NAVA, and the international flag organization FIAV. He won the Driver award from NAVA. He travelled around the world to attend their conferences. In the last two years he has been an enthusiastic contributor to the digital book Flags of the World and has submitted over 300 articles on flags, mostly yacht club burgees. His library is now at the Naval Marine Archive, in Picton.

He retained his UK connections as a member of the Honourable Artillery Company, The Cavalry and Guards Club, and as a Liveryman of the Merchant Taylors' Company. In Canada, he joined the Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) and later the Governor General's Horse Guards as a Captain (CD). He was a life member of the Royal Canadian Military Institute.

Peter was a member of the Whitby Yacht Club and a Life Member of the Royal Canadian Yacht Club. He and Patricia enjoyed sailing Lake Ontario, the North Channel, and once to Martha's Vineyard. They sailed in Conneda, San Remo, Nova, Unicorn III and Pamlico.

At Peter's request there will be no formal service or Celebration of his life.

Donations would be gratefully accepted in memory of Peter to the Toronto Humane Society or the charity of your choice.

JOHN WAYNE FAZEKAS

1952 - 2019 After both a retirement and life that were shortened by Lewy Body Dementia, John died on July 29, 2019. John is survived by his wife Barbara, (née Tait) of Cobourg, ON and two daughters: Angela of Toronto and Sarah of Nanaimo, BC. Predeceased by his mother Helen (2010) and his father John (June 23, 2019), John is survived by his sisters Robin (Colin Williams of Guelph) and Luanne Fazekas of Windsor. John also leaves brother-in-law Robert Tait (Shel) of Alliston and Golden and sister-in-law Mary Bates (Norman) of Strathmore, Alberta as well as eight nephews, five nieces and numerous cousins.

A lifelong employee of the North Shore and Algoma District school boards, John taught in Elliot Lake and was a principal in Iron Bridge and Elliot Lake. Upon retirement, John and Barb moved to Cobourg, ON. As per John's request, there will be no formal service. In lieu of flowers, John would like to be remembered by donations to charities of your choice, especially those catering to the educational and physical needs of children. Cremation has taken place with celebrations of his life planned for Cobourg at the Mill on Thursday, September 12th at 1 p.m., in Elliot Lake at Laurentian Lodge on Thursday, September 26th and in Windsor at the DH on Saturday, October 5th at 12 noon. Condolences received at http://www.MacCoubrey.com.

VERONICA IRENE GALLOWAY (Armstrong)

The Clan lost another member on Wednesday, July 17, 2019.

Irene had a long journey through life from birth to James and Helen Armstrong in Skendleby, Lincolnshire, England on July 2, 1921, to servicing airplane engines in WWII in Gloucestershire, to meeting Flying Officer Derek Allen Davy (RAF) (1944-1988) marrying in 1946 and emigrating to Canada. Life changed on June 10, 1950 with the birth of a daughter, Terry Suzanne Davy, at Grace Hospital in Toronto. In 1986, she married her second husband, Robert Galloway (1918-2009) who is survived by his two sons, Peter (Karen) and Robert (Donna Lynn) and predeceased by a son, Ian.

Sadly, Alzheimer's crept into Irene's life and caused a move to Heritage River Retirement Home in Elora followed by Simcoe Manor Long-Term Care Home in Beeton where the staff couldn't have provided better care. She ended her journey there in a peaceful, caring setting at age 98.

Cremation has taken place and interment will be on August 15, 2019 at 11 a.m. at Belsyde Cemetery, Fergus. A guest book is available at http://www.grahamgiddyfh.com. A tribute donation may be made at http://www.etobicokehumanesociety.

com who rescued her beloved cats, Maggie and Ginger.

LYNDA GARNER (Nee Mott)

We are heartbroken in announcing Lynda Isabel Jane's the passing on Monday, July 29, 2019. Wife, best friends, lover and partner in every way imaginable to Malcolm Garner. Gentle, loving steadfastly supportive and challenging, she never stopped surprising us with her capacity for strength.

Despite an extremely arduous journey these recent months, she fought like a champion to stay in our lives. Lynda and Malcolm, married 52 tears, lived together in Toronto where they made their home, ran their business and raised their only daughter Hilary, who is the light of her life.

To honour Mom's wishes, we will be holding a private graveside service at Forestville Cemetery.

There will be a memorial to honour her spirited soul at Sunnybrook Estates, McLean House on Wednesday, August 7, 2019 between the hours of 3-7 p.m.

Arrangements are entrusted to The Ferris Funeral Home, 214 Norfolk St., S., Simcoe (519-426-1314).

Donations, while not requested would be graciously received if made to the Hillcrest Forestville Cemetery or St. Andrew's-By-TheLake Anglican Church Turkey Point, Ontario. Online condolences at http://www.ferrisfuneral.com.

PHILIP JAMES GODDARD, P hD.

1958 - 2019 Passed away peacefully on Tuesday, July 30, 2019, at his home in West Newton, Massachusetts. He was the loving son of Margaret and the late Jack Goddard, cherished brother of Linda Lenczner (Eric) and Nancy Bunyard (Paul), uncle of Sarah Caputo (Tom), Michael Lenczner, Christine Darling (Brad) and Laura Bunyard. He was the great-uncle of Jane, Allison, Amy, Jenna, Jack and Leah. Loving best friend of Nancy Kunkel.

Philip lived his early days on the family farm in Mississauga. He was educated at Gordon Graydon High School, University of Western Ontario, University of Texas at Houston and Harvard University.

He worked in medical research specializing in gastro intestinal physiology and pharmacology.

Phil worked in Boston and remained dedicated and involved with his family and friends in Canada. He was a good son to his parents, a loving family member and a loyal friend.

Philip dealt with medical issues for the last few years of his life and did so with a positive and resilient spirit before finally succumbing to cancer.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga, (Hwy 10, N. of the QEW), Tuesday from 2-4 and 6-8 p.m. Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel Wednesday, August 7, 2019 at 11 a.m. If desired, donations to Sleeping Children Around the World would be appreciated.

Online condolences available through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

PAMELA SUSAN HANLEY

Wednesday, July 31, 2019, at age 67, in the arms of her loving family.

Thirty-one years married to her loving husband, Tom Campbell.

Devoted sister to Peter, Julia, Teresa (Mario), and Valerie (Len). Fun-filled aunt to Jeff, Ryan, Vanessa, Nick, Lauren, Steven and Andrew. Chief spoiler of her poodle Pixie and loving friend to Connie and Kim. Pam's great wit, humour and friendship will be greatly missed by all who knew her.

While nearing the end of this challenging journey that made her so tiny and frail, she showed us all such courage and hope that reminded us of the preciousness of life. While Pam's life seemed too short, all those who were touched by her joyful, witty nature, have come to understand that the quality of existence far exceeds the time we are here.

Sincere appreciation to Dr. Brian Morris and all the exceptional care givers and volunteers at Hospice Simcoe.

To respect Pam's final wish, there is no funeral service. Donations may be sent to Hospice Simcoe, Georgian Bay Hospital, or Wheels of Hope and would be gratefully acknowledged. Condolences may be left for the family at peacefultransition.ca.

LEON HOPPEL

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Leon Hoppel at the age of 83 at his home in Toronto after a long illness, peacefully with his beloved wife of 60 years, Pat Kay, by his side on July 14, 2019. He also leaves behind his sister, Greta Lawrence and husband, Ian; and nephews, Brian and Daniel Lawrence.

Leon was an employee for many years of IBM Canada and Amdahl Corp. Leon was a proud member of AA for 47 years and he would like the world to know it changed his life and made him a better person!! There will be a Celebration of Leon's life on August 6th, at 11:30 a.m. at Lambton Golf and Country Club, 100 Scarlett Rd., Toronto. For those who wish, donations may be made to a charity of their choice.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

MARY ISABEL HOUSTON SVM, B.A., B.Ed.

1925 - 2019

Mary was born November 7, 1924 at on the family farm at Dilke, Saskatchewan to Mary and Stanley Belcher. With her sister Margaret and brother Boswell, she attended one-room Edwards School 4 miles away, completing the last 2 years of high school education by correspondence.

She obtained her B.A. (with distinction) and B.Ed. degrees at the University of Saskatchewan, then taught for three years at the Yorkton Collegiate Institute.

Mary married Dr. Stuart Houston on August 12, 1951. They had 4 children: Stanley Clarence (Venta Kabzems) Edmonton; Margaret Sigrithur (Richard Ehman) Rochester MN; David Vernon (Kathryn Bell) Syracuse NY; and Donald Stuart (Martha Helgerson) Winnipeg. David completed a M.Sc. at Queens University and Stan, Marg and Don all completed M.D. degrees at the University of Saskatchewan. They have among them produced nine wonderful and diverse grandchildren: Adam and Ilona Houston (Stan), Eric, Jeff and Katherine Ehman (Marg), Meg and Stuart Houston (David), and Anna and Mary Houston (Don).

Mary's final thrill was the arrival of a great grandchild in Minnesota on November 15, 2018, the fourth generation to be named Sigrithur.

Mary was able to live at home in her three-storey house till she was 92, and loved her yard, growing all her bedding plants inside under lights during the winter.

While a patient in Saskatoon City Hospital in May, Mary had the great pleasure to spend time with baby Sigrithur, seemingly the happiest infant anywhere. Mary was transferred June 24th to the Luther Special Care Home, where she died July 19th.

While raising her busy family, Mary was active in her church circle at St. James, the University Women's club, and especially in the Saskatchewan Natural History Society (now Nature Saskatchewan). She was the main provider of logistical support in the form of huge jugs of iced tea and a cooler full of sandwiches, cookies and fruit for Stuart's owl, pelican and vulture banding expeditions, and bean soup at noon during each Boxing Day bird-count. She was a gracious and generous hostess for frequent house guests and served innumerable dinners for visiting birders, students, and medical professionals at the house on University Drive in Saskatoon. She was a self-effacing gentle person with a gift for putting people at ease.

In the provincial Saskatchewan Natural History Society Mary was one of the first four elected Fellows in 1987, and served as vice-president from 1979 to 81.

She received the Douglas H.Pimlott Conservation Award from the Canadian Nature Federation in 1988, and represented Saskatchewan on the Canadian Nature Federation from 1979 to 81. Mary was named as one of the "Outstanding Saskatoon Women" in International Women's Year (1975). She received the Distinguished Canadian Award from the University of Regina Seniors' University Group in 1992, the Meewasin Conservation Award in 1996, the Saskatchewan Volunteer Medal and Saskatchewan Centennial Medal in 2005, College of Education Alumni Wall of Honour in 2010, College of Arts and Science Alumnus of Influence in 2013, and was inducted into the Saskatoon Women's Hall of Fame in 2011. She wrote up seven species for the prodigious Birds of Saskatchewan published at Christmas 2018, coauthored 1 book, 11 book chapters, and 93 scientific papers, and provided editorial criticism of uncounted other works.

Mary's bird banding record is unique in North America.

She banded more Bohemian Waxwings (5,385) than all other North American banders combined, with many more recoveries. She also banded some 7,500 Mountain Bluebirds and 18,000 Tree Swallows fledged in the houses along a roughly 150 mile bluebird trail, and 4,900 Purple Martins in colonies, plus colonial island water birds including 8,000 Ring-Billed Gulls, 4,000 California Gulls, 2,000 Cormorants, and 2,000 Pelicans, and songbirds caught in her backyard (6,000 Juncos, 3,500 White-throated Sparrows and 3,200 Redpolls).

Her funeral service will held in Emmanuel Anglican Church, 607 Dufferin Ave. Saskatoon on Sunday, August 11th at 12:00 noon with a reception after.

Arrangements in care of Martens Warman Funeral Home (306-934-4888).

RUTH FRANCIS JACQUES (née Thomson)

September 26, 1931 July 21, 2019 TGH Class of '54. Ruth was married to Doug (d. 2012) for 56 years.

They had three children; Drew (Lisa), David (Jackie), and Heather (Forrest), and five grandchildren; Lucas and Sierra, Jocelyn and Alexander, and Larahanne. A celebration Of Ruth's Life will be at Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Rd.

W. (one block east of Kerr St.)

Oakville , Saturday, August 10th at 11:30 a.m. with visitation one hour prior to service. In lieu of flowers, the family would appreciate donations to the Alzheimer's Society or Knox Presbyterian Church (New Roads Project).

THEODORE MICHAEL KOZMINCHUK

On July 27, 2019, Theodore (Ted) passed away at the age of 88 at his residence in Toronto, Ontario.

He was predeceased by his father Michael, mother Antonia (Tina), sisters Marilyn, Pauline Skiba and Rose, and long time partner Charles Moray Chesney.

Cherishing his memory are sisters Bernice Mazur and Phyllis Doran, brothers Victor and Brian (Jackie), and many nieces and nephews.

Ted worked many years in the oil exploration business, then changed careers in the early 1960s, dedicating his life to education. Teaching experiences included a one-room school house in Lappe, Ontario, Selkirk Collegiate in Thunder Bay, Bell High in Ottawa, and Runnymede Collegiate in Toronto as Head of Physics. Ted entered the Canadian Army Reserves in 1962 as the Second Lieutenant.

Ted loved tending to his plants and had a special place in his heart for his cats. Ted had a passion for travelling, visiting many countries around the world, focusing on history and indigenous cultures.

Ted will be missed by all of us.

As per Ted's wishes, a visitation will take place on August 8, 2019 from 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m. at Turner & Porter, 2357 Bloor St West, Toronto, ON, M6S 1P4.

Donations may be made in Ted's memory to Heart & Stroke Foundation, Cancer Society, or Toronto Humane Society.

Vichnaya Pamyat (Forever Remembered)

J. ALEXANDER LANGFORD Q.C.

December 7, 1931 - July 23, 2019

Peacefully, in Toronto, holding the hand of the woman he adored for nearly seventy years. Predeceased by his parents, Henry E. Langford, Q.C and Helen Langford. Treasured by his wife of sixty-two years, Marion Grace (Barker) Langford. Cherished by his children Mary (Langford) and J. Michael Rolland, Sarah Langford, Anne Langford Dotsikas and Peter Dotsikas, John and Eva (Kowalski) Langford, Jane A. Langford and Blair Freeman. Adored and revered by his grandchildren: Megan Rolland, Alexandra and Hollie Rolland, John Rolland, Caileigh Langford, Rhiannon Langford, Kate Dotsikas, Emily Dotsikas, Ben Langford, Ana Langford, Henry Freeman and Charlotte Freeman. Loved by his only sibling, Elizabeth (Langford) Julian (Larry Lundy).

Celebrated by steadfast friends.

Alex was a life-long scholar. He loved his high school years spent at the University of Toronto Schools (UTS) and won yearly academic prizes through graduation (1950). He was very proud of the liberal arts education he received from Victoria College, University of Toronto (Vic 5T4, Honours B.A. History), the 4th generation in his family to be educated on the 'old Ontario strand'. Deeply felt was that connection to his many ancestors who studied and taught there. He then studied law at Osgoode Hall Law School (LSUC 1958) and remained a tenured law student, reading the evolution of the law into his 80s. Even in retirement, Alex was an engaged participant in both the Economist Readers with the Academy of Life Long Learning and Learning in Retirement at Glendon College. He never travelled without a suitcase full of books, always reading several volumes simultaneously. For Alex, to learn was to live. For those who loved him, feeding his voracious appetite for knowledge with stacks of books was our regular habit until days before his passing.

Following his call to the bar, Alex joined the then new firm Miller Thomson where he practiced corporate law for more than thirty years. He was a longtime director of E-L Financial Corporation, Magna International Inc., Victoria & Grey Trust Company, National Trust Company and many other private and closely held companies. As a scholar and historian, Alex had a deep appreciation of the law as the "cement of society" and its role in public affairs. This alone motivated his active involvement in the profession.

In his first year of practice, he was Chair of the Junior Bar of the Ontario Bar Association (predecessor of the Young Lawyers section) and member of the Association's Executive Committee, on which he served continuously for over fifty years, acting as its President in 1985-1986. Over the years, he penned advocacy positions for the CBAO on provincial and national legislative initiatives and acted as counsel to civic leaders. In 2012, he received the Award for Distinguished Service from the Ontario Bar Association. Alex pursued all his briefs with honour and integrity in the finest tradition of the profession.

Alex was a gentleman and a man of principle; influenced neither by popular opinion nor convention. Deeply loyal to the foundational institutions in his life, Alex was a committed volunteer. He served on Victoria University's Board of Regents for over a decade, as well as the Chancellor's Council at the University of Toronto. His service also extended to our democratic institutions. He was proud of his country and served as Honorary Solicitor to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs for thirty-years (creator and leader of its international briefing tours from 1963-1980). He volunteered in every provincial and federal election from the time he could vote until recently and welcomed a feisty conversation about the politics of the day.

A proud member of the United Church of Canada, Alex had faith both spiritual and academic: he could and would engage with theologians on the history of the Protestant church and historical references in the Bible.

He attended church weekly throughout his adult life and served on the executive of both Lawrence Park Community Church (1957 to 2006) and Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (2006-2016), acting as lay Presbytery representative for over fifty years. Alex received a Distinguished Service Award from the United Church for his leadership.

Of all his stations, certainly his favourite was the tallest seat at the family table. He loved his large clan; delighting in (and occasionally egging on) their boisterous antics. He had a profound sense of occasion, the more pomp and circumstance the better! Every grandchild knew his distinctive wink.

Always up for a rigorous debate, it pleased him to see his family members passionately advocating a position, even if it differed from his own (provided it was well-informed!). He patiently acted as the family Google to the end.

At his core, Alex was a man in love with his wife and all the musical notes she brought to his life. His devotion to her was as pure as it was legendary.

Seared in his memory until his final days was the story of his first meeting with Marion and throughout their long marriage, his love for her underscored his every action. Together, they created a dynasty defined by decency, joy, and service to others. For those of us blessed to travel within their orbit, their love made all things possible: the ripples continue in ways known and yet undiscovered. Theirs was an uncommon example for our modern age.

A celebration of Alex's life will be held on Thursday, October 3rd at 10:30 a.m. at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (230 St. Clair Ave W., in Toronto). In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the J. Alexander & Marion G.

Barker Langford Scholarship at Victoria University (Office of Alumni Affairs & Advancement, 150 Charles Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1K9; http:// http://www.vic.utoronto.ca/Giving.htm). Alex and Marion met as "freshies" at Vic in September 1950. In their golden years, they established this scholarship fund. For Alex, it reflected two things he loved: Vic and his beloved wife!

ROBERT JOSEPH LEONARD

March 29, 1961 - July 26, 2019

We lost an original when my beloved left this world surrounded by family and his two extra brothers. Robert was intelligent, loyal, creative and always ready for a debate. He loved technology, the English lexicon, a game of squash, discussion around the table and his Basenjis, Chance, Gypsy and Ingrid.

My thanks go out to the core team who facilitated many medical appointments and provided counsel and support: brothers Norman and Ted; sisters Libby, Jeannie and Dana; nephews Ian and Connor; nieces Ali and Bailey; friends Drew, Joe and L. Baltz; extended family Lindsay, Bonnie, Pam, Guy, Tara and Chris and his best mother-in-law, Betty.

A sincere thanks to Doctors Kim, Chen and Saltman at Princess Margaret Hospital for indulging his obsession with the binder and laughing at his jokes and to all the nurses both in hospital and at home who looked after both of us with patience and tenderness.

Robert was the son of Warren and Jean and one of eleven children. He is joining his brothers Larry and Jeff who left before him and his wonderful father-in-law Bruno. He followed a decidedly different scholastic path to arrive at his chosen profession and was on the cutting edge of this new thing called the internet before many knew it existed. He ended his career as a technical product consultant for a large software company, logging countless hours in the air.

He loved a gathering of friends and family and for all the travel, was a serious home-body. Friday night "Shabbat" dinners with the Pen girls (and additional guests) were sacred and mobile devices were forbidden.

I met what turned out to be the "boy next door" (his family moved away from the street directly behind my family home the year we moved in) on the corner of Yonge and St. Clair in 1987. That led to our movie star kiss on the dance floor of the El Mocambo and the rest was history. We would have celebrated our 30th anniversary this September.

There will be no funeral, per Robert's wishes. If you would like to honour his memory, please sign your organ donor card. Another way to remember him would be to drop off a basket of healthy snacks at a nursing station of your local hospital. So many nurses provided such compassionate care to us and they should be celebrated. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.morleybedford.ca I have lost my best friend, my love and my champion but I am grateful for the years we had, the belly laughs we shared and the bond that will never be broken.

Elisa Pen Leonard

GERALD PERLEY LEWIS (Gerry)

October 28, 1928 July 30, 2019 Following a brief illness, Gerry left us with wonderful memories of a gentle man who lived long, laughed much and loved well. He was predeceased by his dear wife, Joan. He will be remembered fondly by his children, Stephen, Elizabeth and Michael; and his daughters-in-law, Leanne and Tracy. He was adored by his grandchildren, Emma, Natalie, Adam, Courtney and Alexandria.

Gerry's generosity, trademark GPL sense of humour and spirit of adventure were a joy to all who knew him, including his siblings, Phil, Vivienne and Jack and their families, along with friends and neighbours.

A celebration of life will be held at a later date. To remember Gerry, please take a walk in nature, play a game of Scrabble, or tell a good joke. Donations in his honour may be made to The Bruce Trail Conservancy or The Heart and Stroke Foundation.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

MARIGOLD AGNES MACKENZIE LYALL

It is with great sadness that we announce the sudden passing of our dearest Marigold on Monday, July 22, 2019. Marigold was born on March 2, 1929 in Victoria, BC.

and recently celebrated her 90th birthday in the company of a hundred of her friends and family.

All who knew and loved Marigold were looking forward to enjoying many more years of her elegant, vibrant company. To the end, Marigold pushed forward into the world and embraced all that life had to offer. Gourmet cook, celebrated hostess, avid reader, gardener nonpareil, quilter, world traveller, athlete, yearly winner of her age group in the Sun Run, wife, mother, grandmother, aunt, friend, confidante - this list only begins to capture the wonder that was Marigold. Struck down by sudden illness, Marigold was surrounded by loved ones to her final moments, which she faced with courage and strength, thinking of the well-being of those around her to the end.

Our hearts are broken, but we are humbled and inspired by the example of her life and the courage of her final hours. When the tears fade, her memory will inspire joy in all who knew her.

The family would like to thank Dr.John Duncan for his compassion, friendship, and invaluable service. Marigold is survived by Gordon, her dear husband of 67 years, her children, Charles (Nancy), David (Jill), Elizabeth (Tony), and Andrew (Heather), and her 10 grandchildren, Philip, Johnny (Erin), Michael, Alison, Chip, Hunter, Mackenzie, Sarah, Matthew, and Rachel. A memorial service will be held on Wednesday, August 14, 2019 at the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club from 3-5 pm. In lieu of flowers donations may be made to the Mabel Mackenzie Colbeck Scholarship in English, a UBC scholarship that was set up to honour Marigold's mother, online at support.ubc.ca/ mackenzie-colbeck-scholarship, by calling 604.827.4111, or by mail at 500-5950 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3.

KIM MARTYN

On August 1, 2019, our beloved Kim passed away after living with cancer for over ten years. Predeceased by her partner, Bruce MacDougall, Kim is survived by her cherished daughters Kendra (Kaz) and Emma (Dee), her brothers Rob and Steven (Megan), her stepmother Liz, many nieces and nephews, and a large group of dear friends, all of whom will love and remember her always. A celebration of life will be held on Thursday, August 8th at the Heliconian Club at 35 Hazelton Avenue from 5 pm to 8pm. In lieu of flowers, please consider a gift to The Anglican United Refugee Alliance, http://www.auraforrefugees.org in memory of Kim.

WILLIAM JOHN MURRAY

It is with sadness and love that we report the passing of William John (Jay) Murray. Jay was born October 1, 1933 in Hamilton, Ontario and passed away surrounded by family in Port Credit on May 11, 2019.

He was the only child of Lily Roe (nee Davidson) and William Thomas Murray, and beloved nephew of Connie, Jean and Jack Davidson.

Jay graduated from the University of Toronto's Faculties of Engineering and Business in 1959 and remained lifelong friends with his Delta Upsilon fraternity brothers. His career in sales took his family to Vancouver, Waterdown, King City and Mexico City which fostered new friendships and strengthened cherished experiences.

A devoted family man, Jay married Janet Elizabeth (Dinny) Duncan (d. 1982) in 1961 and they had six children, Cynthia (Cindy) Murray, William (Billy) Murray (d. 1966), Gordon (Gordy) Murray (d. 1967), Douglas Murray, Anne Murray and Margaret (Maggie) Murch. He was proud grandfather to Charlotte and Louden van Ryn, Tate and Jax Murray, Duncan and Zoe Murch, and father-in-law to Sean Murch.

Jay loved sports including curling, fishing, golf and tennis, and played football on his high school team. He indulged in a love of travel after retirement, visiting Maggie, Sean and grandchildren Duncan and Zoe in Vancouver a few times a year. Further travels led him to China, Czechoslovakia, and a safari through Africa. He wintered in Florida establishing many friends there as well. Throughout his life he and his family and friends enjoyed summers at Dinny's family cottage, Duncraigie and at The Health Club.

Over the years Jay lived with his daughter Cindy and grandchildren Louden and Charlotte and in the last 4 years with Cindy, Anne and grandchildren Tate and Jax.

Although his heart and body grew weary, his love and support for his family never faltered. He will be fondly remembered and deeply missed by all whose lives he touched.

SISTER MARGARET MYATT, CSJ (formerly Sister Gabrielle)

Died peacefully at Sisters of St.

Joseph Residence, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario on Thursday, August 1, 2019 in the 65th year of her religious life.

She is predeceased by her parents, Charles Myatt and Margaret Chapman and her sisterin-law, Sandra. Sister Margaret will be sadly missed by her brother Charles, her niece Tricia Sidebottom, her nephew Joseph Myatt, and sisters in community.

Sister Margaret entered the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto on September 8, 1953. Her hospital administration background included four years as Assistant Administrator of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto.

In 1975, Sister Margaret was appointed Administrator of St.

Joseph's Hospital, Toronto and was responsible for the merger of St. Joseph's Hospital and Our Lady of Mercy Hospital into St.

Joseph's Health Centre in 1980.

She continued as Chief Executive Officer for St. Joseph's Health Centre until 1990. From 1990-1998, Sister Margaret served as CEO of St. Joseph's Hospital and Home in Guelph, Ontario.

Upon her retirement from the ministry of health care, Sister Margaret was elected as General Superior of the Sisters of St.

Joseph of Toronto. She served the congregation for 12 years with vision and dedication. She initiated new ministries within the congregation, the most notable being Fontbonne Ministries, which has a focus on nurturing community through housing and outreach programs. Perhaps her greatest venture was the Women's Religious Project. This project was conceived in 1999 as a joint ministry of 29 congregations in the Archdiocese of Toronto who were brought together by Sister Margaret to mark the millennium. This neighbourhood affordable housing project saw the building of 60 houses.

Later, Sister Margaret brought together women and men religious congregations in a 'Joint Apostolic Ministry' later known as Becoming Neighbours. This initiative has been instrumental in assisting refugees and newcomers to Canada.

Sister Margaret generously served on and chaired many boards and committees associated with denominational and provincial health care.

Sister Margaret was a woman of deep faith in God, love for the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph and a visionary leader who responded to the needs of the poor and disadvantaged.

May she rest in peace and may her good works follow her.

Visitation at Sisters of St. Joseph's Residence 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario Tuesday, August 6, 2019, from 2:30 - 4:30 p.m.

with a Prayer Vigil at 7:00 p.m.

Mass of Christian Burial Wednesday, August 7, 2019, at 10:30 a.m.

Chapel, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery at a later date.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

HARRY ALLEN OBRONT

With heavy hearts, we announce the passing of Harry Obront on Friday August 2, 2019 at Baycrest Hospital. Beloved husband of Rosaleen Lehman-Obront.

Loving father and father-inlaw of Reesa Obront and Don O'Grady, Joshua and Katrina Obront and step-father of Tania and Simone, Tara and Tony, and Anthony. Proud Zadie of Tyler, Dakota, Aria, Luca, Gabriel, Francesco, and Max. Son of the late Benjamin and Sally Obront. Brother and brother-in-law of Riva and the late Morty Obront, Carol and the late Seymore Obront, and the late Shirley and Donny Auerbach. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Ave. West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday August 5, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. Interment Temple Sinai Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Shiva 101 Thomas Cook Ave., Maple. Donations may be made to the Baycrest Foundation, 416-785-2875 http://www.baycrestfoundation.org

CHARLES RONALD PIKE

December 9, 1926 - July 27, 2019

I was born in Regina, Saskatchewan to Eleanor May (Robinson) of Kingston, Ontario and John Charles Pike of Harbour Grace, Newfoundland. My father was an 11th generation Newfoundlander. The youngest of 3 children, elder siblings Eleanor Margaret Dethridge (Stan) of Ottawa, Ontario and George Newman Pike (Winifred) of Richmond, BC having predeceased me. My parents lived over 50 years in Regina and are interred there. I am the last of this branch of our family and expired at the age of 92 following 26 years of retirement living in Peterborough, Ontario.

I have been blessed with a GREAT life. My only regret is the family and friends I have now physically left. My wonderful and loving wife of 66 years, Constance Mary (Scobie), our three children - Catherine, m. Eric Wiebe (Caledon, Ontario), Terence, m. Sohee Kang (Bowen Island, B.C.) and Susan (Peterborough, Ontario). Our children are all independent, responsible and empathetic adults of whom we are very proud. We have 8 wonderful grandchildren - Angus and Connor Wiebe (Caledon), Sean and Dylan Pike (Bowen Island), Nuruddin and Nasruddin Qorane (Toronto) and Halimah and Abdul-Hakim Qorane (Peterborough). They ALL have great futures ahead of them.

The love of my life, Connie, was born in Rosetown, Saskatchewan and we first met in 1950 when I was in my graduating year at the University of British Columbia (B.App.Sc. - Civil Engineering) and she was in Nursing Training at the Vancouver General Hospital. These two 'depression era' prairie kids were joined in marriage in Vancouver, in 1952. As our son once aptly wrote in a poem written to celebrate our 50th Wedding Anniversary: If I asked him right now, "Dad, what's your greatest success?" I'm sure he'd say, "Son, the day your Mother said Yes."

We have had the opportunity, and satisfaction, of living and/or working, in every province of Canada except PEI and Newfoundland - where we have vacationed. We love Canada. We have traveled and explored a good part of our world but never found any other country with greater appeal.

I was employed for 46 years by Canadian Pacific Ltd. including 3 years in the corporation's head office, 38 years in a great variety of 'on-line' service and responsibilities with CP Rail - and 5 years as a Senior Management Consultant following retirement. In time, my ambition led me away from my profession but never from my engineering training. My career was largely spent in the management of change. I always strove to find new and better ways of doing things - more efficiently and safely - and in the best interests of the company, its employees and our customers. I was successful enough to satisfy my personal ambition. My last 8 active years with the railway were spent as system Vice President, Operations and Maintenance, and Vice President of the Prairie Region. One CP Rail project, to which I was fully committed from its inception on our rail system, strongly impacted and improved railway operations throughout North America. It was the Air Flow Method (AFM) of qualifying train braking systems.

A sincere compliment - by the people of my home province - was my induction into the Saskatchewan Transportation Hall of Fame in 1991. I also had the good fortune to be named a Commander of the Order of St. John, served as an officer in the Canadian Army (RCE) - commissioned by Queen Elizabeth II in the 1st year of her reign - and was a working member of many business, community and recreational oriented management boards mainly located within the communities across Canada in which we lived.

I have been further blessed with the good and lasting friendship of many associates. I fully retired in 1992.

Connie and I have thoroughly enjoyed 26 subsequent 'hassle free' retirement years in Peterborough, Ontario. We were members of the Peterborough Golf and Country Club where I also curled. As non-resident members, of the Royal Montreal Golf Club, we made annual visits there for many years. Winter vacations have often been spent golfing, in a great variety of locations - around the world.

A Celebration of my Life will be held at a future date.

Remembrance, if you so desire, could be made to a charity of your choice.

ANTONIA PLATONOV (née Höhn)

1937-2019

Our beautiful mother passed away on July 15, 2019, in Mississauga, Ontario at the age of 81.

She is survived by her loving husband of 55 years, Victor, a fellow "displaced person" whom she met at a dance in 1962, and by her two sons, Michael and Daniel (Laura), plus brother Karl (Erna), grandson Victor and extended family in Ontario and B.C. She is predeceased by her parents, Emil and Herta, sister Gertrude and brother Daniel.

As ethnic Germans in the Soviet Union, they were persecuted: Antonia's father died in one of Stalin's prisons, so she and her family fled west during the war to settle in Celle, Germany. Canada became a better place when she arrived here in 1955, joining her brother Karl and sister Gertrude.

Antonia is one of the last echoes of that generation which took a leap into the unknown to secure a brighter future. From working in a Philips factory to a CN Rail office, she made her way in her adopted homeland, eventually sponsoring her mother, Herta, to immigrate.

After several years of marriage, two sons came along, which we understand was a bit of a surprise at the time. Our family home was one of love, learning and safety. These things we took for granted then, but were priceless we now realize. "Toni" had endless curiosity and a lifelong appreciation for languages, music and culture, all of which she instilled in us. Her work ethic and high standards were second to none. Mum, we hope we will do you proud with what you've taught us.

Her last years were marked by Alzheimer's Disease, which was the greatest injustice for a good heart and a good life well lived. Our family took great comfort in the superb care she received at Silverthorn Care Community. We take comfort now in knowing that we will all meet again.

Liebe Mutter Dear Mother Ruhe sanft in Frieden Rest Gently in Peace

MARY AIRD RUTHERFORD (née Baillie)

Mary died of non-Hodgkin lymphoma at her home in Ottawa on July 19, 2019, with her son Michael at her side. Mary, a poet and researcher, was a "bride married to amazement," as one of her favourite poets, Mary Oliver wrote. Her curiosity, courage and zest for life continued to shine in her last weeks. Mary's many enthusiasms included poetry and the visual arts, birding and nature walks, Georgian Bay waters, and good conversation. Devoted wife of 48 years to her late husband Jack, Mary will be lovingly remembered by Michael, his wife Lisa Ennis, her granddaughter Aria, her brother John Baillie and sister Jane Baillie-Sipherd, and cherished cousins, friends and Sherwood Park neighbours.

She was born in Hamilton on April 16, 1938, to John and Helen Baillie. Mary was "queen of the springboard" growing up, as she wrote in her poem "The Dive," from Engagement Calendar. She excelled in sports and academics at Strathallan School, and then studied English and French at McGill and U of T. Mary met the love of her life Jack Rutherford at the CBC, and they married in 1965. She was chief researcher on the Pierre Berton Show, and supervisor of research services at TVO. In 1968, she and Jack moved to Washington, D.C., where Michael was born. They returned to Toronto in 1976, and the family grew with the arrival of Trapper, the bugling beagle. Mary became research editor of the Imperial Oil Review in 1980.

On retirement in 1993, she faced her "swimmer's moment" and found a new direction: poetry.

Her poems were shortlisted for the 2005 CBC Literary Awards and her collection Engagement Calendar was released by Inanna Publications in 2013. That same year she and Jack celebrated the birth of Aria, just three months before Jack died. Mary continued to write, travel and relish visits with family and friends. She moved with determination to Ottawa this past spring to be close to her family, make new discoveries and new friends, and as Thoreau wrote, "suck out all the marrow of life." In "Primum Vivere," from Engagement Calendar, Mary wrote: "You have fathomed the whirlpool's eye, cannot wish away / the fear. Yet a whirling fills your spirit with such thirst. / Primum vivere.

You know you must begin again."

A celebration of her life will be held at Beechwood National Memorial Centre, 280 Beechwood Avenue, Ottawa at 1 p.m. on September 21, 2019 with reception to follow.

Donations in her memory may be made to Lymphoma Canada.

http://www.beechwoodottawa.ca 613-741-9530.

JOAN M. SCOTT

January 22, 1920 - July 30, 2019 Peacefully, with grace and dignity, of natural causes, surrounded by the love of her family, in her 100th year.

Proud, devoted and loving mother of four sons, David (Isabel), Doug (Laurie), Donn (Jean) and Dale; granddaughters, Joanne James (Mark) and Susan Chisholm (John); and great-grandchildren, Emma, Jack, John, James and Isabel Joan.

Joan Muriel Scott was born in the Isle of Wight, England, a lifetime resident of North Toronto, the home she loved. An active member of St. Timothy's Anglican Church, her spiritual home, for more than 65 years, and a devoted member of St. Andrew's Group, the women's auxiliary, where she always gave the Devotions. Member of North Toronto Y's Mennettes, a YMCA community service group, since the 1960s. Both groups are the source of many dear, life-long friends. A cottager at Gull Lake, Minden, ON.

Attended John Fisher P. S. and Northern Secondary School, and after graduating in 1937, she worked as a nutritionist at the world-renowned Connaught Medical Research Laboratory at University of Toronto, during a period of important work on the polio vaccine, and during World War II, while her husband was overseas, supporting Canada's wartime effort when Connaught Labs was a major producer of medicine for Canadian soldiers.

Predeceased by her parents, George and Dorothy Smith, sister Vera, brother Hugh, and husband Ralph V. Scott.

A long, well-lived Christian life, marked by grace, dignity, strength, courage, integrity, humour, faith in God, and devotion to her sons and family. She was a wonderful daughter, mother, grandmother, great grandmother and friend. We are proud of her.

Mum, we owe you so much. We will miss your greatly, and love and remember you always.

Service at St. Timothy's Anglican Church, 100 Old Orchard Grove, Toronto, at 11 a.m., Tuesday, August 13, 2019, with a reception in the Parish Hall, and a private, family interment at Mount Pleasant Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, donations to St. Timothy's Church (http://www.sainttimothy.ca or http://www.canadahelps.org).

KENNETH CHARLES COPLAND STEIN

It is with heavy and loving hearts that the family of Kenneth Charles Copland Stein (born March 11, 1943) announces his passing. On July 22, 2019, Ken - a loving husband, father, dedicated public servant, and a key member of the team that built Shaw Communications - passed away peacefully, surrounded by those who adore him: His wife, Leslie Jones. His sons, Luke and Chris Stein. His daughters, Maddie Stein and Sarah Nicolai. His son-in-law, Dave Nicolai. His two grandchildren, Anna and Emilia Nicolai. And his beloved dog, Poppy. He will be missed by his brothers, Brian, Gordon, and Harry Stein and his sister Debbie Hopkins. He was predeceased by his brother, Eric Stein.

Ken was sad to leave this life so soon - he would have loved many more years of boating, golfing, hiking, and skiing with the people he loved - but he knows he was a blessed man. He hopes we all remember that he led an exceptional life, fulfilled by family, friends, work, literature, art, and the everlasting majesty of nature.

"All this he saw, for one moment breathless and intense, vivid on the morning sky; and still, as he looked, he lived; and still, as he lived, he wondered." Kenneth Grahame A Memorial Service will be held at Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Blvd., Toronto, on Wednesday, August 7th at 1:00 p.m. with a reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, Ken would ask you to consider donating to the Holland Bloorview Foundation, ArtHeart Community Art Centre, or the Children's Book Bank.

JOHN HERD THOMPSON

It is with profound sadness that we announce the passing of John Herd Thompson on July 13, 2019, seven months after being diagnosed with stage four lung cancer. He was born in Winnipeg in 1946 to Joe and Gladys Thompson.

John served as a junior cadet officer in the Chippawa Division of the University Naval Training Division. He earned a bachelor's degree with honours from the University of Winnipeg in 1967, a master's degree a year later from the University of Manitoba and a PhD degree in history from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, in 1975.

In a 40-year teaching career, John taught North American history at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, at McGill University in Montreal and Duke University in North Carolina where he retired as a professor emeritus in 2012.

John was also a distinguished visiting professor at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. He published numerous academic papers and authored many books on North American history.

Starting in 1988, John served 14 years as a historical consultant for the Heritage Minutes series of historical micro-dramas broadcast on Canada's national television networks and screened in Cineplex-Odeon theatres across the country.

John was a passionate baseball fan and an avid jazz musician who played saxophone and clarinet.

Later in life, he became a snow bird enjoying winters in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.

Wherever he was, John was known as a good friend and a kind, amiable and considerate intellectual with whom you could always enjoy an engaging conversation over a pint. He is sorely missed.

Surviving John are his loving partner and high school sweetheart, Margaret, with whom he reunited after 45 years; children, Anne and Mark; sister, Beth (Bill); nephew, Chris (Gina); niece, Kathryn (Andrew); and the many great-nieces and nephews who will remember him affectionately.

HELEN MORROW COWAN (née Magill)

April 11, 1913 - August 4, 1979 Our darling Moo, loved and missed for 40 years.

Susan and Michael, Betsy and Richard SAL MONTEFORTE P.Eng.

September 24, 1925 August 5, 2003 Remembering, remembered.

Our memory is us, stronger than life, never fades away.

KAREN RENÉE TOMBLIN

August 5, 2017 The last thing I said to You was I love You! You said the same to me before I went to walk Merlin the Mofo Dog.

My Heart will Always have a Special Place for You, Karen Renée, Always.

Today we are spreading Your ashes at the cottage in Georgeville, QC - Memphremagog Lake - a place You loved.

Merlin and I will abide by Your wishes, we'll strive and continue to be Happy & Seek Happiness notwithstanding Your physical absence.

You left us with phenomenal memories.

Thanks KT! Love, Merlin and Paul.


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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Page B17

BRUCE ALEXANDER AIKENHEAD

September 22, 1923 August 5, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the death of our father, Bruce Alexander Aikenhead at the age of 95, on August 5, at Hearthstone Manor in Vernon.

Dad died peacefully with family at his side. He was predeceased by his wife, Helen and sisters, Dorothy and Edith. He leaves behind his sister, Audrey; children, Stephen, Kasey (Louis), Elizabeth (Trevor), Barbara (Brad), Jane (Ralph); grandchildren, Li, Jennifer, Zoe, Patrick, Julia, Claire and Reid; great-grandchildren, Melody and David.

Born in Didsbury, Alberta and raised in London, Ontario, he was a veteran of WWII (RAF/RCAF), stationed in India as a radar mechanic. Bruce graduated from the University of Western Ontario in 1950 and went on to have a remarkable career that spanned several decades in aerospace history. He has been heralded as a true 'Space Pioneer', and was involved with the Avro Arrow, NASA Mercury and Gemini projects, the Canadarm and finally as Director General of the Canadian Astronaut Program.

He was proud to have been appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada. He retired to Salmon Arm, BC in 1993.

Dad found great joy in the simple things in life: music, family, that first sip of a cold beer, and he was always up for an adventure.

His lesson was about gratitude and he humbly attributed his own accomplishments to 'good luck'. Dad was steadfast in his kindness, consideration of others, compassion, generosity, and his humor. A true gentleman, open minded, open hearted, always interested in everyone's story.

He touched many lives. Dad leaves us all with many cherished memories and he will be very deeply missed. We are so grateful for the great times we spent together especially in the last decades after retirement when there were frequent, extended family get-togethers in Vernon, Victoria, Toronto and Warkworth.

The family appreciates the excellent care given by Diana, the care aides of BC Interior Health, the staff of 3N at Vernon Jubilee Hospital and the tender care given during his brief stay at Hearthstone Manor over his final days. A Celebration of Life will be held at the Salmon Arm Art Gallery on Sunday, September 22 from 1-3 p.m., and another at Elizabeth's home in Warkworth, Ontario on Sunday, September 29, from 2-4 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to your local SPCA or the Okanagan Science Centre in Vernon.

You are invited to leave a personal message of condolence at w w w. M y A l t e r n a t i v e s . c a .

Arrangements entrusted to Alternatives Funeral & Cremation Services, Vernon 250-558-0866 and Armstrong 250-546-7237.

MARY ANNE ASKIN

Passed away on August 6, 2019 after a short but valiant battle with cancer.

Mary Anne was born on April 27, 1958 in Fort William, Ontario to Muriel Askin and the late Alfred Askin. She grew up with her three siblings: Rob (Elaine), Jane (Rick), and Nancy, first in Iroquois Falls, and then in Sault Ste.

Marie, Ontario. Mary Anne met Ted in 1983 while she was in Windsor on a job placement. They married 11 months later and celebrated their 35th anniversary just nine days before her passing.

Mary Anne and Ted raised three wonderful children Tim, Bryan and Natalie, who provided Mary Anne with extraordinary care in her final days. She was a loving and proud mother who was a mentor, travel companion, and best friend to her children. They will miss weekends at the cottage, travelling the world, and playing board games with her. Mary Anne's spirit lives on in each of her children who are grateful for every moment they had with her.

Mary Anne dedicated her life to the well-being and dignity of others. She worked as an occupational therapist for almost 40 years after graduating from the University of Western Ontario. Her work at the John McGivney Children's Centre in Windsor with children with physical, cognitive, and developmental disabilities and her work with military veterans were very meaningful for Mary Anne. She made the world a better place for her patients, their families, and everyone whose life she touched.

Mary Anne loved spending time at the cottage in Muskoka (regardless of the season), curling, quilting, and gardening. She treasured her time with her friends. The void left in our hearts by her passing will never be filled.

She will always be missed by her family, friends, and by her four-legged companion, Roxie.

The family extends heartfelt thanks to Mary Anne's friends who provided weekly meals during her illness, sat with her during her chemo treatments, and to the incredible nursing staff and doctors at Toronto General Hospital and Princess Margaret Hospital who cared for Mary Anne during her final weeks. A very special thanks to Dr. Gallinger and his surgical team for giving us eight more months with Mary Anne.

A private ceremony has taken place. Although she lived in Windsor, Mary Anne was always a northern girl at heart and her ashes will be buried in Sault Ste. Marie in a family plot with her father, Alf. There will be a Celebration of Mary Anne's life in the near future.

To honour Mary Anne's caring spirit, please sign your organ donation card, give blood, thank a military veteran, donate to a cause, volunteer, or simply lend a hand. And always be kind.

NANCY BACKLUND

Passed peacefully away with her husband at her side on August 2, 2019 at St. Joseph's at Fleming, Peterborough. Loving wife of Bill for 40 wonderful and happy years.

Predeceased by her parents Archibald and May Whiffen and siblings Margaret Rae, Helen Lunt, Frank Whiffen and Jack Whiffen. A Private Celebration of Life will take place at a later time. Arrangements entrusted to Comstock-Kaye Life Celebration Centre, 356 Rubidge Street, Peterborough, Ontario, 705-7454683. If so desired, donations in memory of Nancy may be made to the Alzheimer Society. Online condolences may be made at http://www.comstockkaye.com

ROSA BERGMANN

November 24, 1925 July 25, 2019 In November 1925, Rosa Hammer was born as the youngest of four children into a farmer's family in the officially smallest town in Austria. At 18 she left the farm (which she never really liked) and an adoring mother and brother to move to the big city, Vienna.

The Second World War was raging and Vienna was under constant bombardment, but she had set her mind on starting afresh - and if you knew Rosa, there was no stopping her when she set her mind to something. The trip to Vienna was part of an adventure spanning 93 years which would take Rosa from a farm girl in that small Austrian town, to a seamstress and part-time model in a leading fashion boutique in Vienna, to the wife of an equally adventurous Austrian engineer, to an immigrant in St. Thomas and finally to the mother of two and grandmother of four in Toronto and Mississauga.

She was the backbone of her family enabling her two boys to grow and flourish. Over the years, she developed a love for opera, poetry, tennis, skiing, painting, bridge and travel - and she never missed a chance for a smoke with friends or soon-to-be friends. Rosa loved to talk and decided early on to switch from speaking German to English - "because it was simply faster". She had the uncanny ability to energize those around her (sometimes scaring them in the process) and entertained all with her razor wit and Austrian charm. She remains forever in our thoughts and memories.

Cremation has taken place.

Arrangements entrusted to Turner & Porter, Neweduk-Erin Mills Chapel, 905-828-8000.

DONALD B RUCE COOK

September 29, 1949 August 5, 2019 It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Bruce Cook.

Bruce was born in Winnipeg to Donald and Muriel Cook, the eldest of three boys, a born leader who took charge of his younger siblings.

In 1972, he took a job in Scotland where he met his future wife Janet, who he persuaded to return to Winnipeg with him.

They were married for 46 years, and enjoyed many adventures and traveling until illness took him far to soon cutting short the plans they had made together.

Bruce leaves behind his mother, Muriel; his brother, Hugh and his wife, Arlene; his nephew, Fraser; niece, Kathleen and her husband, Kurtis; his niece, Lauren; and sister-in-law, Janie.

He was predeceased by his father, Donald (2011); his brother, Malcolm (2016); and his mother-inlaw, Jessie (2006).

Early in Bruce's career, he was promoted and left for Edmonton before being transferred to Burlington, where he lived the rest of his life. Bruce worked many years in the waste business, then changed careers moving into business consulting, and for the past number of years ownership of businesses in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning sector. Bruce worked right up to his illness, and had a strong belief that you never paid your dues, you owed it to yourself and others to get moving and make a difference. Bruce enjoyed a highly successful work career, and one of Bruce's core strengths was numbers, he understood them and what to do with them, that combined with work ethic and dedication prompted good things to happen. He was a mentor to many of the people he worked with and a common theme in the last few days has been how much that will be missed.

Bruce had a great sense of humour, a lover of terrible puns, he had a true zest for life. His loyalty to his wife, family and friends was profound. A private Celebration of Life will be held at a future date in Burlington and Winnipeg.

GRACE AYRE DENGIS (née Taylor)

Of Waterloo passed away peacefully with family by her side on Sunday, August 4, 2019. She was in her 94th year.

Beloved wife of the late Gord who predeceased her in 2002. Loving mother of Hart Drew (Sharon), Cheryll Drew and Sue Simpson (Mike). Dearly missed by Gord's children Carol Dengis and Mike Dengis (Jan). Loving Grama to Jeremy Drew (Carrilee), Ashley Drew Pitchuck, Leah Dengis (Maria), Cyd Giddings (Seth), Greg Simpson (Lauren), Jamye Troy (Matt) and Kevin Simpson.

Predeceased by granddaughter Lauren Dengis. Great grandmother of eight. Fondly remembered by sister-in-law Shirley Taylor.

Predeceased by brother Bill Taylor.

Dearly loved friend of Mary Willoughby for over 75 years.

Grace loved her family, friends and life with a passion. She enjoyed golf, bridge and curling for many years and was a member of Westmount Golf and Country Club and Knox Waterloo Presbyterian Church. Grace was a dedicated volunteer at her church and for a number of charities and causes.

Many thanks to the staff at Luther Village on the Park, Golden Years and Parkwood Mennonite Home for their amazing care and compassion over the past eight years.

Grace has been reunited with her true love, Gord, and they are dancing together again! The Dengis family will receive relatives and friends at the Erb & Good Family Funeral Home, 171 King Street S., Waterloo on Tuesday, August 13, 2019 from 6-8 p.m. Funeral Service will be held at Knox Waterloo Presbyterian Church, 50 Erb Street W., Waterloo on Wednesday, August 14, 2019 at 6:30 p.m. with a reception to follow.

In memory of Grace, donations to the Waterloo Region Family Network or the Grand River Hospital Mental Health Music Therapy Program would be appreciated by the family and may be arranged through the funeral home www.

erbgood.com or 519-745-8445.

STEPHANIE F. DEUTSCH

January 2, 1917 - July 16, 2019 Of Kingston, ON, beloved wife of John Deutsch, former principal of Queen's University. A celebration of life on August 25, at the Cataraqui Golf Club, in Kingston, from 2-4 p.m.

Contact mdeutsch6703@rogers.com.

ALFRED GABER

On Friday, August 9, 2019 at Sunnybrook Hospital. Husband of the late Bella Gaber. Father of Pat Rayman, and Elaine Gaber-Katz.

Grandfather of Bella, and Haley, great-grandfather of Noa, and Eitan. A graveside service will be held on Sunday, August 11, 2019 at 1:00 p.m. in the Community Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Memorial donations may be made to the Kidney Foundation of Canada, 416445-0373.

MORRISON WILLIAM HEWITT

July 1, 1931 Hamilton - July 27, 2019 Toronto

On July 27, 2019 Morrison William Hewitt died with his wife Romy at his side.

A greatly loved husband, father, grandfather and brother.

Already missed by Romy, his beloved son David, loving step-daughter Kate Wheeler (John) and his granddaughters Alexandra and Sophie Beaton as well as his brother James Hewitt (Anne).

A proud graduate, class of '55 at the Royal Military College, Kingston (#3480) and a recipient of the Nixon Memorial Sword "for possessing the highest officer like qualities" presented by the Duke of Edinburgh in Vancouver 1954.

He then earned a business degree from Queen's University.

The bulk of Mo's career was spent as a Partner at Woods Gordon (later Arthur Young) from the infancy of its Information Technology practice. In retirement he authored a business primer on IT.

Cremation has taken place. At Mo's request there was no funeral. In memory of Mo who spent many hours with his cherished dog Bishop, donations may be made to your local St. John Ambulance Service Dog Visitation Program.

A gentleman to the end, we will remember Mo with love.

ISOBEL MERAB HALL

It is with sadness that we share the passing of our mother, Isobel (nee Trotter), on Thursday, August 1, 2019. Isobel was in her 94th year and lived a full life, filled with many proud and honourable accomplishments.

Isobel was a loving wife to John (deceased 2004) and proud sister to her only brother, the late Hector S.

Trotter (Teresa). She will be dearly missed by all who knew her but especially by her children, Nancy, Jim (Sheila), Diana (Steve) and Barb (Brock); her grandchildren, Adam (Amy), Megan (Brett), Andrew (Leah), Caitlin, Russell, Kate (Chad), Conrad, Patrick and Chloe; and her great-grandchildren, Cameron, James, Edward, Jack, Sean, Isobel and Thomas.

Born in Montreal, Quebec in 1926 to Jean Sutherland and Clifford Trotter, she attended and graduated from Rothesay Netherwood School in New Brunswick and was one of few women in 1947 to graduate with a Commerce degree from McGill University. It was at McGill she met the love of her life John A. Hall, a mining engineer, football player and avid golfer. Isobel and John were married on April 15, 1950. This began numerous adventures throughout northern Quebec and Ontario with stints in various mining towns. Isobel was full of stories about her life and adventures in Timmins, Noranda and Murdochville. Isobel and John moved to Toronto in 1967 where they became active members of their community.

Isobel enjoyed the friendship of many and had a passion for golf, bridge, gardening and bird watching. She enjoyed time with family and friends both in Toronto and Delray Beach, Florida. She was an incredible woman, with a thirst for current events, politics, the stock market and understanding of people. She was a loyal confidante, active listener and trusted advisor.

She had a wonderful sense of humour and enjoyed nothing more than a good laugh.

Isobel was a beautiful person inside and out, she was charming, elegant and dignified in every way. She approached life with an enthusiastic and game for anything mindset. She was warm and welcoming to everyone she encountered, leaving anyone she'd met better for having known her. Her kind spirit and warm heart will be dearly missed.

A funeral service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville) on Saturday, August 17th at 1:00 p.m. followed by a reception from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m.

Memorial donations in memory of Isobel may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (heartandstroke.ca), 110-1525 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1Z-8R9. Condolences may be forwarded through w w w. h u m p h r e y m i l e s . c o m .

MILDRED "MILLIE" HARLOCK

Millie died peacefully in Princess Margaret Hospital on Monday, July 29, 2019 in Toronto at the age of 79. Beloved daughter of the late Bruce and Mildred Harlock. Millie was born on May 10, 1940 in Toronto, Ontario.

Millie is survived by her brothers, Gordon and Donald Harlock, her nephews, Dave Harlock and his wife Bev Broniek, Wayne Harlock and his wife Cindy Brandon and Paul Harlock.

Special thanks to Dr. Laframboise and all the staff at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto.

A funeral service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Monday, August 12th at 1:00 p.m., with a reception to follow in the Rosedale Room. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Princess Margaret Hospital, Gynaecology Surgical Oncology Research Fund, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2C1 or to an animal shelter of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

GWEN HAWKE (née DeMont)

Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia on April 4, 1925, Gwen passed away peacefully in her sleep at The Dunfield Retirement Residence in Toronto, on Saturday August 3, 2019. Predeceased in 1999 by her beloved husband Howard, Gwen will be fondly remembered by her children Laurien Trowell, Martha Shinkle (Lee), Charles Hawke (d), Gordon Hawke (Jane) and Kelly Baxter (Brian). Beloved Nana/Grandma to Malindi, Geoffrey, Jessica, David, Heather, Hillary, John, Stephen and Geoffrey and eight great grandchildren. Lovingly remembered by Casey and Bill Hooke.

Gwen will be remembered by friends and family as fun loving, warm, generous, with a feisty spirit and great sense of style. She had a big heart and lived each day fully. She enjoyed golf, bridge, tennis, fitness, music and dancing, travel, driving her sporty cars, and always dressing to the nines. She was a long-time member of Rosedale Golf Club, CWSGA, the B&R Club, and the Monday Club.

Gwen had a strong community of support during her last year. Her family is deeply grateful to Aida, Maybel, and Marie Joy from Home Instead for their loving care, ensuring that Gwen got the most out of each day and lived with dignity. Thanks also to the amazing nursing team on the 3rd floor, and to all the friends and staff who made the Dunfield a wonderful home for Gwen.

There will be a private family service. Friends are invited to join the family for a Celebration of Gwen's Life at the Rosedale Golf Club, 1901 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto on Wednesday, August 21st, at 4:00 p.m. If desired, in lieu of flowers, donations can be made in Gwen's name to the Alzheimer's Society of Canada, 20 Eglinton Avenue West, 16th Floor, Toronto, ON, M4R 1K8. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

GERALD CHARLES HOLLYER, Q.C.

Gerry passed away peacefully at home on August 1, 2019 in his 88th year with his loving wife Carol by his side. Father of five; Grandfather of eight.

He will be greatly missed by all.

Throughout his legal career with Kingsmill-Jennings and Miller Thompson; Gerry was an inspiration and mentor to many. An accomplished skier, swimmer, gardener and painter; he enjoyed his life fully.

A private family memorial will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the B.C.

Alzheimer's Association would be appreciated.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

A Celebration of Life will be held Thursday, August 15th at The Kingston Yacht Club from 3 - 6 p.m.

MARGARET ANNE JANZEN

July 31, 1927 July 30, 2019

Passed peacefully surrounded by her family at Trillium Hospital Mississauga one day shy of her 92nd birthday. Predeceased by her husband, Peter Janzen; son, Rolf Peter Janzen and sister, Erika Plester of Gevelsberg Germany.

Survived by her children, Mark (Anne), Sigrid LaForest (Raymond); and daughter-in-law, Doreen Janzen. Also survived by eight grandchildren, Wade, Nicole, Margaret, Sean, Derek, Natalie, Peter and Hilary; and nine greatgrandchildren. Dear companion of the late Crombie Tanner.

Born in Gronau, Germany, Margaret immigrated to Canada in 1950 to marry Peter. Active throughout her life, she was a Bruce Trail end-to-ender, avid gardener and swimmer. Oma, as she was affectionately known by all, will be greatly missed by family and friends. She was devoted to her family, inspiring us all with her quiet perseverance and determination.

Private family interment.

Donations to the Trillium Health Partners-Mississauga Hospital in lieu of flowers.

JAMES LOGAN KAPPELE BASc., P.Eng (4T8)

On August 4, 2019, at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre, Toronto in his 94th year. Beloved husband of Sheila (née Medcalf). Loving father of Ross (Jackie) and David (Kyra), and grandfather to Alex, Margot, Reid, Mark, and Jamie Kappele. Stepfather to Ian and Andrew Badgley (Victoria) and grandfather to Charlotte and Daniel Badgley. Predeceased by Barbara E. Kappele (née McCready) and parents Marjorie and Harold Kappele of Hamilton, Ontario.

Survived by his brother Robert (Ruth) of Watertown, Ontario.

Jim was born in 1925 and attended Central Collegiate in Hamilton. He studied engineering at the University of Toronto and trained as a pilot for the British Navy. In 1956, Jim was a founding partner of Kappele, Wright and MacLeod Limited, a consulting engineering company. Much to his sons' delight, Jim began working with Molson Breweries of Canada, retiring in 1991. Jim was inducted into the U of T Alumni Engineering Hall of Distinction in 1998.

He built a cottage in Muskoka and was an avid skier at Craigleith Ski Club, both passions of which his children and grandchildren are grateful for. He was a long-time member of Eglinton St. George's United Church, and the Granite Club.

Our family held a small private service, yet we look forward to raising a glass with you in celebration of Jim's wonderful life at the Granite Club, 2350 Bayview Avenue, on August 15th from 4 to 6 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to: Sunnybrook Veterans Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, M4N 3M5 or Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Boulevard, Toronto, M4R 1L2 or to a charity of choice.

J. ALEXANDER LANGFOR D Q.C.

December 7, 1931 - July 23, 2019 Peacefully, in Toronto, holding the hand of the woman he adored for nearly seventy years. Predeceased by his parents, Henry E. Langford, Q.C and Helen Langford. Treasured by his wife of sixty-two years, Marion Grace (Barker) Langford. Cherished by his children Mary (Langford) and J. Michael Rolland, Sarah Langford, Anne Langford Dotsikas and Peter Dotsikas, John and Eva (Kowalski) Langford, Jane A. Langford and Blair Freeman. Adored and revered by his grandchildren: Megan Rolland, Alexandra and Hollie Rolland, John Rolland, Caileigh Langford, Rhiannon Langford, Kate Dotsikas, Emily Dotsikas, Ben Langford, Ana Langford, Henry Freeman and Charlotte Freeman. Loved by his only sibling, Elizabeth (Langford) Julian (Larry Lundy).

Celebrated by steadfast friends.

Alex was a life-long scholar. He loved his high school years spent at the University of Toronto Schools (UTS) and won yearly academic prizes through graduation (1950). He was very proud of the liberal arts education he received from Victoria College, University of Toronto (Vic 5T4, Honours B.A. History), the 4th generation in his family to be educated on the 'old Ontario strand'. Deeply felt was that connection to his many ancestors who studied and taught there. He then studied law at Osgoode Hall Law School (LSUC 1958) and remained a tenured law student, reading the evolution of the law into his 80s. Even in retirement, Alex was an engaged participant in both the Economist Readers with the Academy of Life Long Learning and Learning in Retirement at Glendon College. He never travelled without a suitcase full of books, always reading several volumes simultaneously. For Alex, to learn was to live. For those who loved him, feeding his voracious appetite for knowledge with stacks of books was our regular habit until days before his passing.

Following his call to the bar, Alex joined the then new firm Miller Thomson where he practiced corporate law for more than thirty years. He was a longtime director of E-L Financial Corporation, Magna International Inc., Victoria & Grey Trust Company, National Trust Company and many other private and closely held companies. As a scholar and historian, Alex had a deep appreciation of the law as the "cement of society" and its role in public affairs. This alone motivated his active involvement in the profession.

In his first year of practice, he was Chair of the Junior Bar of the Ontario Bar Association (predecessor of the Young Lawyers section) and member of the Association's Executive Committee, on which he served continuously for over fifty years, acting as its President in 1985-1986. Over the years, he penned advocacy positions for the CBAO on provincial and national legislative initiatives and acted as counsel to civic leaders. In 2012, he received the Award for Distinguished Service from the Ontario Bar Association. Alex pursued all his briefs with honour and integrity in the finest tradition of the profession.

Alex was a gentleman and a man of principle; influenced neither by popular opinion nor convention. Deeply loyal to the foundational institutions in his life, Alex was a committed volunteer. He served on Victoria University's Board of Regents for over a decade, as well as the Chancellor's Council at the University of Toronto. His service also extended to our democratic institutions. He was proud of his country and served as Honorary Solicitor to the Canadian Institute of International Affairs for thirty-years (creator and leader of its international briefing tours from 1963-1980). He volunteered in every provincial and federal election from the time he could vote until recently and welcomed a feisty conversation about the politics of the day.

A proud member of the United Church of Canada, Alex had faith both spiritual and academic: he could and would engage with theologians on the history of the Protestant church and historical references in the Bible.

He attended church weekly throughout his adult life and served on the executive of both Lawrence Park Community Church (1957 to 2006) and Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (2006-2016), acting as lay Presbytery representative for over fifty years. Alex received a Distinguished Service Award from the United Church for his leadership.

Of all his stations, certainly his favourite was the tallest seat at the family table. He loved his large clan; delighting in (and occasionally egging on) their boisterous antics. He had a profound sense of occasion, the more pomp and circumstance the better! Every grandchild knew his distinctive wink.

Always up for a rigorous debate, it pleased him to see his family members passionately advocating a position, even if it differed from his own (provided it was well-informed!). He patiently acted as the family Google to the end.

At his core, Alex was a man in love with his wife and all the musical notes she brought to his life. His devotion to her was as pure as it was legendary.

Seared in his memory until his final days was the story of his first meeting with Marion and throughout their long marriage, his love for her underscored his every action. Together, they created a dynasty defined by decency, joy, and service to others. For those of us blessed to travel within their orbit, their love made all things possible: the ripples continue in ways known and yet undiscovered. Theirs was an uncommon example for our modern age.

A celebration of Alex's life will be held on Thursday, October 3rd at 10:30 a.m. at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church (230 St. Clair Ave W., in Toronto). In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the J. Alexander & Marion G.

Barker Langford Scholarship at Victoria University (Office of Alumni Affairs & Advancement, 150 Charles Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1K9; http:// http://www.vic.utoronto.ca/Giving.htm). Alex and Marion met as "freshies" at Vic in September 1950. In their golden years, they established this scholarship fund. For Alex, it reflected two things he loved: Vic and his beloved wife!

THOMAS ANDREW McDOUGALL, Q.C.

Peacefully before sunrise on Monday, August 5th, 2019 in Ottawa. Cherished husband, father, grandfather, mentor and friend. He is survived by his wife, Suzanne (née Panet); and his three children, Andrew (Andréa Marcotte), Martha Whitlock (Richard), and Simon (Annie-Lou St-Amant); his five grandchildren, Theodore, Ewan, and Morgana McDougall; and Zoe and Grace Whitlock; and his brothers, John Lorn (Jane) and Ian (Mary Futher). Predeceased by his parents: Thomas Frederick Kenny McDougall and Christina Pauline Stuart McDougall (née McNaughton).

Co-founder of a preeminent national capital law firm of almost 50 years with many esteemed partners, friends and colleagues.

A private family service will be held. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations to The Ottawa Hospital and Hospice Care Ottawa May Court site would be appreciated.

Condolences/Tributes/Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

SYBIL ANNE (MOON) McENTEER

After a fulfilling life, Sybil passed away suddenly on Thursday, August 1, 2019 at the age of 86.

Daughter of John Henry and Alma (Cundle) Moon, Sybil was born in Guelph, Ontario on May 14, 1933. Married for 47 years to Douglas George McEnteer, who predeceased her in 2005.

Sister to Alan Moon of Thunder Bay. Devoted mother to Alison Cumming (James) and Douglas, and proud grandmother of Rachel and Sarah Cumming and Daria McEnteer. She leaves behind many cousins and members of her extended families.

Sybil lived in Ontario for most of her life where she attended Riverdale Collegiate in Toronto and enjoyed playing cello in the school orchestra. After graduating from Victoria College at the University of Toronto and becoming qualified as a teacher, she and Doug married and moved to the mining town of Schefferville in northern Quebec, where she taught grade one. Ultimately, they settled in Thornhill where they raised their two children.

Later in life, she returned to the workforce with the Ministry of Education. She also spent many wonderful times at the chalet that she and Doug built together in the Beaver Valley, and it is where she prepared her highly sought-after strawberry jam.

Throughout her life, Sybil established strong and lasting friendships, including with her 'Round Robin', Schefferville, TEMC, CFUW and condominium friends, and right up until her last days was busy arranging activities with friends and family. Her faith was very important to her and as a longstanding member of Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, it figured prominently in her life and she cared deeply about the church community and its causes. Sybil continually strived to be wellinformed, to learn new things, and was passionate about social justice and political issues. She was a voracious reader of the daily papers and books, always had the radio tuned to CBC, and attended later-life learning courses, all contributing to her being an engaging conversationalist. She appreciated music and the arts and often attended the ballet, opera, theatre, symphony, and musical recitals, and volunteered at the Kiwanis Festival. Other activities she enjoyed were travelling, cooking, curling, playing cards, doing puzzles, and watching Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy after dinner.

A service to celebrate her life will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Friday, September 6th at Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, 230 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, with a reception to follow. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Habitat for Humanity (http://www.habitatgta.ca) or the Canadian Federation of University Women scholarship fund (North Toronto branch at http://www.cfuwnorthtoronto.com).

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

R.A. GORDON McGEE

May 25, 1954 - August 1, 2019 Gord died peacefully after a short but courageous battle with cancer. Son of D'Arcy and Norah, pre-deceased by sister Kathleen and brother Michael. He leaves behind his son Gord Jr. and Gord's mother Rebecca Fairbairn, and brother D'Arcy (Leslie), sister Margot (Jeremy) and brother Tim (Mary) as well as many loving nieces and nephews.

Gord lived his life with a passionate sense of adventure, an abiding love of family and friends and a deep Christian faith. Growing up on the ocean in Victoria, Gord developed a lifelong love for all things maritime. By an early age he was a skilled sailor and experienced boater, spending endless summers exploring local waters and islands with his mates. Gord's abilities as a powerful, natural athlete soon emerged as he set records in track and cross country, tore up black diamond ski runs, and water skied with such force that the tow boats would groan almost to a stop when he carved a turn. Gord made friends easily; he had a wonderful inclusive personality and for all his high energy and striking physique he was a gentle and caring spirit. He had a huge heart. After attending Glenlyon School in Victoria and boarding school at Bishop's College School in Quebec, Gord attended UVIC and Loyola in Montreal, ultimately earning his BA at Western in London.

From there Gord pursued a career in real estate development in Vancouver.

It was in pursuit of that calling that Gord's life changed forever - while driving to an exciting new position in Edmonton he hit black ice near Kamloops and broke his back. At age 23 he started life over in a wheelchair. Gord and Becca married in 1978 and Gord Jr. was born soon thereafter. In the ensuing 41 years Gord faced every challenge with his legendary physical strength and indomitable spirit. There were remarkable successes; through sheer force of will he swam, boated, explored, travelled and drove everywhere, attracting an army of admiring friends, helpers and supporters from all walks of life. But there were also many frustrations and disappointments born of his disability including his attempts to relaunch his career in commercial real estate and to become a teacher after earning his certificate in education at UBC. After a period of mounting self-doubt and self-recrimination, Gord found peace and inspiration in his Christian faith, which helped to strengthen and guide him for the rest of his life. Gord Jr. was the love of his life, his pride and joy, and the two of them had many legendary adventures together on sea and land. Gord rarely met a stranger without reaching out to connect with them and to start up a conversation. Gord was an insatiable war history, travel and nostalgia buff and, being also very tech savvy, he loved to share that passion with his appreciative, albeit sometimes overwhelmed, YouTube distribution group.

Gord faced mounting health and mobility challenges in the final years of his life which he fought with the help of beloved friends and caregivers and with his typical silent courage, determination and good humour. If he felt sorry for himself, he kept it to himself. His positive, appreciative attitude towards others, especially his caregivers, was inspirational. One of Gord's favourite simple pleasures was to head out rain or shine for a "push" down by the river usually interspersed with a few FaceTime calls to chat with friends and family. This he did as recently as the week before he died. Dear Gord, loving father, husband, brother and uncle, gentle giant and man of faith, never stop going for that "push" or, better still, a run. Know that we will always be at your side. God Bless.

Special thanks to caregivers Tina and Mary and to Gord's incredibly generous circle of friends - you know who you are - the family is forever grateful to you.

A service celebrating Gord's life will be held on Friday, August 23, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. at St. John's Vancouver, 5350 Baillie Street, Vancouver with a reception to follow at Noon at The Royal Vancouver Yacht Club, 3811 Point Grey Road, Vancouver.

For messages of condolence and service information please use Amherstcremation.com.

GORDON SCOTT TOWNSEND MCKINNON

November 26, 1982 July 31, 2019

It is with immense sadness that his family announces the sudden and tragic passing of Gordon (Gord) McKinnon on Wednesday, July 31, 2019 at the age of 36. He was the beloved husband of Kate Culver, son of Stephanie Townsend-McKinnon and the late Donald McKinnon (2012), and brother of Alexa (Adam Bussiere), Donna (Bob Rioux), Donald (Mona, nee Pelletier) and Duncan.

A loving uncle to his nieces and nephews Donny, Madison, Abby and Cameron. Gord was like a son to his mother and father-in-law, Carol Hendra and Patrick Culver.

Gord lived life passionately and left a legacy of what it meant to get the most out of life. Although his sudden passing leaves his family and friends heartbroken, they are thankful to have such wonderful memories of an incredible man, who did so much for so many in such a short time.

Cremation has taken place and a private service has been held. A celebration of Gord's life will be held at a later date.

SYLVIA MORRIS

Sylvia Morris passed away peacefully in her sleep on August 3, 2019, breaking many hearts with her sudden passing.

She leaves behind her most beloved daughter, Lara (Fayette); granddaughter, Sadie; brothers, Roly and Brian, and was predeceased by sister, Patricia.

She was a cherished friend to sisters-in-law, Beverly and Valerie, and the late Dawne. Auntie Sylvia will be dearly missed by nieces and nephews, Michael, Gordon (Leslie), Jan Marie, William, Courtney (Jeffrey), Justin, Simone (Mike) and Connor.

Sylvia will also be remembered fondly by a large group of close friends from work, volunteering, and her neighbourhood. She was amazing at keeping in touch and freely gave her time to those she cherished.

Most of her professional life was as a Law Clerk, completing her career at Torys. She was well respected, serving as President of the Institute of Law Clerks Ontario and initiating their annual conferences.

With piercing blue eyes, silver curls, and high cheekbones, Sylvia managed to be elegant with a dash of cool. Always adorned with the perfect scarf, bracelet, and nail colour, Sylvia could be seen walking everywhere in her trademark comfortable shoes and backpack. She kept up a regular yoga practice, spent time at the gym, and was often impossible to keep up with, even in her 80s! Sylvia loved to support the arts, travelling annually to Stratford and Shaw, and attending local theatre, films, and lectures. She volunteered for years at the AGO and Gardiner Museum and had a creative spirit, sewing clothes, quilting with her daughter, and collecting pottery.

From choosing to be a single mother in 1967, to living without a car since the early 80s, to refusing to give in to digital culture, Sylvia was a trailblazer who lived fully and inspired us to be our best, seek happiness, and be bold. She will be so deeply missed by all those who loved her.

A celebration of life is being planned for September. Details will follow at: rememberingsylvia.

wixsite.com/morris

JOY SALMON MOON

Born in Welland January 28, 1938. Peacefully died early Sunday, August 4, 2019 at the Algonquin Grace Hospice.

Joy was predeceased by her husband Andrew in 1992. Survived by her son, Jonathan; daughter, Alina; and beloved grandson, Andrew. She will be missed by her brother, Alan Salmon; sister, Sam Ion; nieces, nephew and many good friends. Joy loved her early work as a children's book editor at Oxford University Press.

She was influential in getting car seat legislation approved in the early 1970's, and was a devoted long distance track coach for many years, forming many lifelong friendships and founding the Tom Longboat Club, whose initials held great meaning for her...TLC. Her retirement was spent at Lake of Bays writing, reading and doing genealogy research.

Cremation has occurred and a memorial service will be held at a later date to be announced. Donations to the Aspen Valley Wildlife Sanctuary would be appreciated. Messages of condolences can be left at http://www.billingsleyfuneralhome.com

MARTIN MULDOON

Professor Emeritus February 28, 1939 August 1, 2019 It is with profound sorrow that we announce the passing of Martin Eugene Muldoon after a short illness.

Martin is acknowledged by all who knew him as having been an extraordinarily patient, gentle, wise man who always kept a cool head and had a delightful sense of humour. He was always supportive of his family and many friends. One old friend remembers him as "a man of few words, but much presence."

Martin was born in Co. Mayo, Ireland to Peter and Margaret (Hopkins) Muldoon. He received his Bachelor's and Master's degrees at the National University of Ireland Galway and in 1960, he immigrated to Canada to pursue his Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Alberta. In 1966, he accepted a position at York University where his career was to last almost 40 years.

In 1977, he married Judith Anne ("Jay") Wall. Together they raised three daughters, Christine (J.E.D. LaCoste), Heather (Robert Weikel, Jr.)

and Sarah.

In addition to teaching and research, Martin acted as an advisor and graduate supervisor; gave talks on mathematics to high school and elementary school students; organized conferences; acted on academic committees; and played an active role in his union. Muldoon was a member of the SIAM Activity Group on Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions; the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics; and Science for Peace.

Muldoon was devoted to York and although he retired in 2003, he continued teaching part-time and stayed connected to the university until the very end.

Martin was predeceased by his parents and one older sister, Mary Muldoon. His gentle, protective presence will be missed by his wife, daughters, sons-in-law, and grandson, Gabriel. To his birth family, their historian and storyteller is gone. He is sadly mourned by Eileen; Ursula (Bill); Pat (Eileen); Bernie (John); Lucy (James); Peter (Mary); Colm (Maggie); and Shane (Michelle), his many nieces and nephews, cousins and relatives, neighbours, colleagues and friends on both sides of the ocean.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville) for a Celebration of Life at 1:00 p.m. on Friday, September 13th.

Martin was most involved in Science for Peace and in lieu of flowers donations would be gratefully received.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

Slán agus beannacht (Goodbye and blessings)

JUNE OLEKSIJCZUK (née Blake)

1929 - 2019

It is with great sadness that the family of June Oleksijczuk announces her passing on August 4, 2019. Born of Edith (McFarland) and J. Dalton Blake in Toronto, June was the beloved wife of the late William (Bill) Oleksijczuk; the radiant, hardworking and resourceful mother of Julia Frances Byrne (Trevor) and Denise June Oleksijczuk, and dear grandmother of Connor, Liam and William.

In the final decades of her life, it was with remarkable good humour and forbearance that she bore the ravages of Parkinson's Disease. Warmest thanks to the extraordinary caregivers who nursed her through these years, especially Lourdes Goncalves and Eunice Gernandizo.

There will be a ceremony for friends and family at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave. W. at 11:00 a.m. on Saturday, August 10th. If desired, memorial donations may be made to Moorelands Camp.

JOHN ERNEST SEETON

March 2, 1940 August 1, 2019

Passed away surrounded by family, predeceased by mother Doris Vera (nee Moore), father Patrick and brother Richard.

Survived by loving wife Rosemary (nee Laing), boet Patrick David (Karin), four sons Richard (Dimple), Bruce (Jessica), Ian (Lori) and Patrick (Lyz) and his 4 beloved grandchildren, Balen, Tayin, Wyatt and Bowie.

Born in Cape Town, the family ranged South Africa before he attended Natal University for Engineering and captained the 2nd XVs. After graduation, his world tour was truncated in Toronto when he met Romey. Married in 1970, they started a family soon after. Stints building hotels in Jamaica and Sudan followed.

John returned to Canada to build power plants for Ontario Hydro and later built his own custom building company - Spring Valley.

Family life centred on camping and canoe adventures.

Latterly, he spent winters reconnecting with South Africa and most enjoyed spending time with family, grandchildren and playing tennis in Oakville. Active till the end, John will be missed by all. Memorial service at St John's United Church in Oakville, Tuesday, August 13, at 1 p.m.

Details of Celebration of Life to come. In lieu of flowers, donations to Multiple Myeloma research or OTMH are appreciated.

DR. LAWRIE SILVERBERG

Peacefully, surrounded by his loving family on Thursday, August 8, 2019 at Bethell Hospice.

Beloved husband of Debbi Silverberg. Loving father and father-in-law of Marlene and David Ellison, Robyn Gignac, Jamie Silverberg, and Andrew and Paulette Tomarin. Devoted Zaidy of Abigail, Aliya, Josh, Jullian, Hannah, Molly, Jacob, and Emily.

The funeral service was held at Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel on Friday, August 9, 2019 at 2:30 p.m. Interment in the Temple Solel Congregation section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery.

Memorial donations may be made to Bethell Hospice Foundation, 905-838-3534 or at http://www.bethellhospice.org

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk and Edwin Beange.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

BRENDA JEAN PROTHEROE

On August 2, 2019 at Toronto Western Hospital, following a brief and unexpected illness, Brenda died peacefully with her brother David and close family friend Stephanie Austin at her side. She was predeceased by her parents Jean (McMillan) Protheroe and Col. David Harrison Protheroe, and by her brother Donald Protheroe. In addition to her brother David, Brenda leaves cousins in Alberta and a multitude of friends by whom she was much loved and whom she valued as family.

After graduating from York University and the Faculty of Education at the University of Toronto, Brenda began a career in education with the City of York. As a teacher, Brenda was respected by colleagues and students for her commitment to learning and her empathy for young people, especially those coping with personal issues. Her students knew that Brenda spared no effort to help them succeed. Later in her career Brenda provided leadership as a school administrator and superintendent. In these roles she was trusted for her vision, integrity and diligence. Young women who worked with her speak of the lessons in leadership she provided, how from her they learned the power of supporting one another. In more recent years, Brenda, always eager to challenge herself, took on international projects in education and a national project with Architects' Associations across Canada.

Brenda was a cherished friend of many. She was eager to meet people and build relationships that would last over the years. Whether the setting was dinner with a neighbour or a trek in a faraway place, Brenda could find insights to offer or interests to share with those she met. She was eager to appreciate others and her sense of humour enlivened the conversation for everyone. Brenda had a love of discovery and adventure; she valued the diversity of her community and the world she lived in. When describing Brenda, friends and acquaintances remark on her generous nature and gracious manner, her intellectual strength and thoughtfulness, and her lively interest in the experiences of others.

Interment in Ottawa alongside her family will take place in a private ceremony. A Celebration of Life will be held in Toronto in early October with details announced at a later date. Those who would like to receive information about the Celebration should indicate their interest with a message to protheroecelebrationoflife@yahoo.com Those who wish to honour Brenda with a charitable donation in her name should consider a gift to Girls Action Foundation, Plan Canada, or Tarragon Theatre, or to a charity of their choice.

ROBERT STEANE

It is with great sadness the family announces the passing of Robert (Bob) Steane on July 30, 2019 at St. Paul's Hospital in Saskatoon.

Bob is survived by his friend and partner Kathy Berg and his brothers Alan and Brian Steane.

Bob enjoyed a lifelong career in the mining industry culminating with 34 years at Cameco, 7 as Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, before retiring in 2017.

A celebration of Bob's life will be held in October in Saskatoon.

The location and date of the celebration will be announced in a full obituary when plans have been finalized.

In lieu of flowers please make a donation to St. Paul's Hospital Close to Home Campaign or Persephone Theatre; two charities which were close to Bob's heart.

Condolences may be left at http://www.saskatoonfuneralhome.com Arrangements entrusted to Saskatoon Funeral Home 306-244-5577.

ELMER OSCAR STROM

Passed away at Trillium Mississauga Hospital on August 4, 2019 in his 84th year. Beloved husband of Dorothy Margaret (née McMillan); son of the late Oscar and Hilma Strom; caring brother of the late Astrid Marinich (late Jock), late Alvar (late Gladys), late Arne (late Terry) and late Leonard (late Gerry and Anna).

He will be missed by his many nephews and nieces from the Strom and McMillan families.

Elmer was of Swedish descent.

He was born in Nestorville (now Thessalon), grew up in Sault Ste. Marie, graduated from Sault Collegiate and University of Toronto (Bachelor of Physical and Health Education). He worked primarily with the Canada Employment Centre. With a love of nature, Elmer spent time out of doors where he found stimulus for painting and sculpting abstract bird, animal, and fish forms in wood, stone, and bronze. He enjoyed playing sports (baseball, softball, basketball, and tennis).

Having been born in Nestorville, he made regular visits to the North, particularly visits to Algoma and Lake Haliburton. With Dorothy and friends, he travelled extensively.

At Elmer's request, cremation will take place with no funeral service. Private interment will be at Glendale Memorial Gardens, Albion Road, Etobicoke, at a later date. If you so wish, donations may be made to the Unitarian Service Committee Canada, your local food bank, or United Way.

Messages of condolence and memories may be left at www.

arbormemorial.ca/en/glendale.

MICHELLE CUSHMAN TAYLOR

1961 - 2019

It is with sadness we announce the passing of our sister, Michelle Cushman Taylor on August 2, 2019 in Vancouver BC, from cancer. Michelle is predeceased by her father, Austin G.E. Taylor (Firpo) and her mother, Elizabeth Newbold Taylor (Betsy). She is survived by her sisters Patricia Taylor (Steve Krieger), Lisa Woodward (John), Kathleen Hamilton (Ron) and her nieces and nephews: Justin and Aldyen Krieger; Christopher, Peter, Michael and Austin Woodward; and Kate Hunter and Laura Hamilton. Michelle lived an enjoyable life and could often be found in the company of her (mostly) well behaved dogs, her many ponies and horses and tending to her beautiful garden.

Michelle held dear the time she spent with good friends listening to music, traveling together and discussing many things over great food. No service by request.

Memorial donations may be made to the B.C. Cancer Foundation, 150686 West Broadway, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1G1.

JOHN ALFRED VIVASH

June 22, 1931 - August 5, 2019

John passed away peacefully, with loved ones by his side. Husband of Barbara Williams; father of Mary Elizabeth Kinch, Catherine Vivash (Matthew Smith), and Michael Vivash (Kim); Grampa of Jamie (Margaret), Iain, and Emma; Katie, Campbell, Colin, and Connor; and Jack, Grace, and Sam.

He was an influence on Bay Street for over six decades. He was a wise mentor to many. John believed in being a lifelong learner. He lent his expertise to many academic and medical institutions, and, as well, supported them financially. John valued his relationships, and lifelong friendships.

He delighted in, and always took care of, his family. His wish was for this notice to be short and simple, so we will simply say that he was greatly loved and loved us all in return. We will miss him dearly.

Visitation will be at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Avenue West, on Sunday, August 11th, from 5-8 p.m. and Monday, August 12th, from 11 a.m. - 2 p.m. Private committal to follow. Flowers gratefully declined. The family would welcome donations in John's memory directed to the Geriatric Oncology Project Fund - The Princess Margaret Foundation, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9.

LUCIA GEERTRUIDA MARIA ten KORTENAAR

March 8, 1927 - July 19, 2019 (née Buwalda) Lucy (Luus) passed away peacefully at the Grenadier Retirement home in Toronto on Friday July 19, 2019.She was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and came to Canada via Curaçao in 1951 after working for two years in a blood research clinic there.

She was predeceased by Tony (Toon), her husband of sixty-five years, and her daughter Lucia.

Lucy was mother to Mary-Anna (David), Annette (Paul), Anthony (Angela), Jef (Monique), Lucia, and Philip (Heather). She was Oma to Monica (Steve), Adrian (Monika), Mathew, Alexander (Ashlea), Christopher (Christiane), Elizabeth (Matthew), Michael, Rebecca (Timothy), Alexandra, Marc Anthony, Lukas (Brittany), Simone (Matthew), Martin, Thomas and Liam. And a dear Oma(ten) to Frederick, Coraline, Ayda, Noah, Joel and Maeve.

She grew up in Amsterdam with a love of classical music and an insatiable desire for learning. Her wartime experiences in Amsterdam had a lasting effect on her outlook on life and her concern for others. Her feisty spirit will be missed as will her great cooking skills and love of gardening.

Her funeral will be held at St. Joan of Arc Church on August 22nd, at 11a.m. followed by a reception in the parish hall.

Online condolences at http://www.turnerporter.ca

HELEN GURD YOUNG (née Steers)

Peacefully at the May Court Hospice, Ottawa, on Wednesday, August 7, 2019 at the age of 86.

Dearly beloved wife of the late John Young. Loving mother of Alex (Rina Manconi), the late John and the late Frank. Cherished Gram of Sandro, Adamo and Anastasia. Dear sister of the late Michael Steers (late Cynthia).

The funeral mass will be held at Madonna Della Risurrezione Roman Catholic Church, 1621 Fisher Avenue, Ottawa, on Tuesday, August 13, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. In lieu of flowers, memorial contributions to the Hospice Care Ottawa - May Court would be appreciated by the family.

Condolences/Tributes/Donation Hulse, Playfair & McGarry hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143


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A celebrated research lab. A promising cancer breakthrough. A whistleblower who discovered falsified data. The Globe investigates
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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Page A12

TORONTO -- The postdoctoral fellow thought he was losing his mind. Or, more unthinkably, that he was a bad chemist.

For some reason, data generated by a graduate student, his colleague at a prestigious laboratory at the University of Toronto's Mississauga campus, was not adding up.

And so, in the late afternoon of Feb. 4, 2015, he let himself into a room at the lab to gather test materials and get to the bottom of what was wrong. There, on the upper shelf of a storage fridge, he came upon a box of chemical compounds that had ostensibly been tested by his colleague.

The postdoc was a senior member in the lab, which is helmed by Patrick Gunning, a rising star in the world of medicinal chemistry and oncology, whose work has attracted tens of millions of dollars in donations, government funding and venturecapital investment to the university.

His Gunning Group lab is among a handful around the world racing to unlock the secret behind STAT inhibitors - molecules that, in theory, are able to turn off a switch inside cancer cells, killing those cells while leaving healthy ones unharmed. Such research, it is hoped, will lay the groundwork for a revolutionary treatment of some of the most aggressive and deadly cancers.

What the postdoc found that winter day would lead him to raise uncomfortable questions about aspects of that research as it was being conducted in the Gunning lab.

His colleague, he discovered, had fabricated data. That discovery, along with additional questions about some of the grad student's research, in turn cast doubt on the lab's claims about the performance of one of its molecules, according to the postdoc and two former Gunning Group members with direct knowledge of the events.

The postdoctoral fellow brought his concerns to Prof.

Gunning almost immediately, in early 2015. About one year later, Claudiu Gradinaru, chair of the department of chemical and physical sciences at UTM, asked the postdoc for a full account of the data-fabrication aftermath, as part of a review into Prof. Gunning's promotion to full professor. That was the last time the postdoc heard from Prof. Gradinaru, or anyone from the faculty, about the matter.

To piece together what happened inside Prof. Gunning's lab, The Globe and Mail obtained university records; reviewed several scholarly articles and their supporting information with the help of scientists; interviewed 22 experts in research ethics, drug discovery and oncology; and spoke with more than a dozen former Gunning Group researchers. The Globe granted the lab members confidentiality because they feared professional reprisal in research circles, where career trajectories are carved with the help of reference letters from supervisors past and present.

The Globe investigation, conducted over the course of a year, reveals that the fabricated data remain in circulation today and have been cited dozens of times by the scientific community in various papers and publications.

Values identical to the fictional ones were also used as evidence in a patent for one of the lab's most promising compounds.

The postdoctoral fellow who exposed the fabrication now works on drug-discovery projects at a Toronto hospital. He agreed to speak to The Globe, ultimately participating in nine interviews, because he is frustrated by how the university addressed the situation. He believes the public and the medical community have been misled about the promise of one of the lab's star contenders in the fight against cancer.

His discovery in the fridge that day was the beginning of understanding, he says, "that I wasn't insane, that I wasn't doing something wrong and everybody else was doing it right. I saw that there was a very big systematic problem in the lab."

Prof. Gunning acknowledges that the data fabrication occurred, but maintains that the graduate student's misconduct, "in the end had no impact on the direction of any" of the Gunning Group's research-and-development programs. He disputes, as well, that the fabricated data appear in published works and a patent application for cancer-targeting compounds developed in the lab.

"There is no fabricated data in circulation - period," Prof. Gunning said in a January, 2019, statement to The Globe, sent through his lawyer.

In response to questions from The Globe, Prof. Gunning said he has evidence to back up his assertions, but he declined to disclose it unless the newspaper involved a "legitimate mutually agreed upon independent expert to review your 'story.' " Owing to confidentiality issues surrounding his research program, he said, he also wanted The Globe to sign "an appropriate" non-disclosure agreement. The Globe did not agree to these terms.

In 2016, at the time the allegations were submitted to the department chair, U of T's office responsible for research integrity was not called to investigate.

This past June, however - more than six months after The Globe first sought comment from university officials - the University of Toronto said it had recently concluded a preliminary inquiry into the matter and found no grounds to proceed. "The allegations of research misconduct were determined to be entirely unjustified and no further investigation was recommended," Vivek Goel, vicepresident of research and innovation, said in a statement. "The University accepted this recommendation and now considers the matter closed."

Chemotherapy, the most common drug treatment for cancer, lays waste to all kinds of healthy cells. Thus its harrowing side effects: a severely weakened immune system, organ damage and even the risk of triggering a second cancer.

Such consequences have spurred the search for what are known as STAT inhibitors. The acronym STAT stands for "signal transducers and activators of transcription," a family of seven proteins that perform important cell-housekeeping functions in the human body.

When abnormally activated, STATs can also push a cell into overdrive, leading to outcomes associated with cancer, such as tumour growth and resistance to treatment.

STAT inhibitors work to block specific signalling pathways that allow unwanted communication between cells. Unlike the drugs used in chemotherapy, which affect many pathways indiscriminately, such compounds are designed to target and inhibit only the pathways that promote cancer growth. "Selectivity - the ability to just hit your target, and on a broader scale, the ability just to kill the cancer cell and not harm normal cells - is the difference between a really effective anti-cancer drug and just some new toxic agent," says Dr. David Frank, a medical oncologist and associate professor at Harvard University.

The first real breakthrough for a selective cancer drug took the form of a pill called imatinib mesylate, commercially known as Gleevec, approved by Health Canada in September, 2001. Gleevec was embraced as a "miracle drug" by patients suffering from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), which causes drastic overproduction of immature, or "blast," white blood cells that crowd out normal blood cells. Because Gleevec is able to precisely target three of the 500 human-genome kinases (a type of enzyme that can turn certain proteins on or off), taking one pill a day has transformed a lethal cancer into a treatable chronic illness.

With pervasive activity of STATs across a number of tumour types, says Dr. Antonio Iavarone, a Columbia University professor of pathology, cell biology and neurology, such proteins are "a crucial target for which the goal of identifying compounds - molecules that can interfere with this activity - is a very important goal in cancer medicine."

The Gunning Group lab is home to a variety of drug-discovery research projects, and last year was a recipient of the university's prestigious Connaught Innovation Award for developing a rapid diagnostic test to detect bacterial infections in blood and in cerebrospinal (brain and spinal cord) fluid. Its flagship STAT-inhibitor project has brought significant funding dollars to the university, which, in promotional material, lauded the lab's potential to "revolutionize cancer treatment as we know it today."

Prof. Gunning himself is a bona fide academic celebrity and, by many accounts, is an excellent scientist. Born in Scotland, and with a PhD from the University of Glasgow, he worked as a postdoctoral research associate at Yale University before arriving at University of Toronto Mississauga in 2007. By 2015, his résumé listed close to 20 research honours and $13-million in grants and prizes for his work in chemistry. The median age to be appointed full professor in Canada is 46; Prof.

Gunning was promoted to the post at age 37.

Prof. Gunning declined several requests to be interviewed for this article, but answered some written questions. "I have dedicated my career to cancer research and training the next generation of hard-working and passionate innovators who can bring life-saving therapeutics to patients," he said in a December, 2018, statement to The Globe.

At the U of T, he is one of roughly 250 Canada Research Chairs - a federal designation meant to recognize "some of the world's most accomplished and promising minds." His related funding was renewed in 2018 at $100,000 a year for the next five years.

So vital is Prof. Gunning's work to the campus that the university has called it the "catalyst" behind its Centre for Medicinal Chemistry, which is expanding to an entirely new building in a couple of years. Construction plans were kicked off, thanks to a $7-million donation Prof. Gunning secured through the Orlando Corporation, Canada's largest privately owned industrial real-estate developer, as well as another almost $6-million in public grants.

What Prof. Gunning has described as "a $150-million building" is the second-most expensive ever to be built at the U of T, a university spokesperson confirmed. (The most expensive building will be a downtown innovation centre, announced in March, and made possible by a $100-million donation by Gerald Schwartz and Heather Reisman.)

The Gunning Group has close to 30 graduate-level members today - about two-thirds of whom are doctoral students or postdoctoral fellows - sharing a state-of-the-art laboratory that saw major renovations and upgrades about three years ago.

In 2013, the lab was a more modest operation, albeit one with ambitious goals. That year, Prof. Gunning won an Inventor of the Year award at the U of T, according to a university brochure, for his work in pioneering "the most potent small-molecule 'drug-like' inhibitors" for a compound called BP-1-102.

By 2015, the lab had moved on to what it claimed was an even better compound: AC-3-19.

One afternoon in February of that year, the postdoctoral fellow entered a room in the lab to gather chemical compounds for a scientific control experiment that he hoped would help make sense of data from tests conducted by his graduate-student colleague, Aleksandra Todic.

Ms. Todic was responsible for running a continuing experiment called fluorescence polarization, which tests the ability of compounds that were designed by her colleagues to bind to STATs in a controlled environment - like a key in a lock.

She would repeat such an experiment whenever a new compound needed screening, or had to be tested under different conditions. Inhibitors that showed promise would advance to the next tier of experiments, including in human cells (examined in Petri dishes) and in mice.

But the postdoc fellow was confounded by Ms. Todic's data, which did not match the discouraging results he and his colleagues were observing in different experiments - namely, that the compounds were binding erratically to many targets.

Thus did he find himself sliding open the lab fridge door, zeroing in on a plastic box tucked away at the back of an upper shelf.

It contained 26 short scintillation vials, a kind of test tube in which lab samples are stored.

The compound names written on the vials were familiar to him: Ms. Todic had already reported the data, which meant she should have dissolved those compounds.

So why were they still in the fridge?

Concerned that Ms. Todic's experiments were perhaps done incorrectly, or worse, not at all, the postdoc soon shared his discovery with another research fellow.

They sought clarity from Ms. Todic, but got none. And after doing some additional sleuthing, they chose to sound the alarm.

Six days after the discovery in the fridge, the two postdoc fellows brought their concerns to Prof. Gunning, so that he could request the raw data from Ms. Todic.

She sent the professor graphs drawn on a graph pad; in other words, still not the raw data.

There were simply no signs of it having been generated from lab work.

The two men also called on a third postdoc in the lab to help weigh the minute amounts of compound in the vials from the fridge, in order to gauge if any material had been removed for possible testing. Of the samples they could weigh accurately, no compound had ever been taken out of the vials.

There seemed to be only one explanation: Ms. Todic's data were simply made up.

The implications were alarming. Dozens of compounds - the lab had designed about 150 by then - may have been screened by a student who had fabricated data. This, in turn, meant that, for the key compounds that had made it through the drug-discovery pipeline to later experiments, favourable results could not definitively be attributed to the lab's hypothesis that the compound was binding selectively to the STATs.

After all, destroying cancer cells is the easier part; it's the fact that these compounds were claimed to keep healthy cells alive that made them special, a claim built in part on a foundational experiment that now had some cracks.

The most important of those compounds was the lab's star molecule at the time, AC-3-19, on which Prof. Gunning had applied for a patent. (It is still touted as a star in the lab today, according to a March, 2019, public presentation by Elvin De Araujo, a senior researcher in the lab.)

The two postdocs brought the evidence forward in a meeting with Prof. Gunning and Ms. Todic on Feb. 12, 2015. There, she admitted to fabricating data.

The timing was fateful.

A journal called ChemMedChem was near the point of publishing a manuscript - that had passed peer review, and was being proofread - co-authored by Ms.

Todic and another Gunning-lab PhD candidate, Abbarna Cumaraswamy, who declined to be interviewed for this story. The day after Ms. Todic's admission, Prof.

Gunning e-mailed the journal's then-editor, Natalia Ortúzar, according to e-mails obtained by The Globe.

(The e-mails were part of 215 pages of records located by the university's Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Office in response to The Globe's request for records related to the data fabrication. The office released only five of those pages; the others, it said, were protected by exemptions involving labour relations, research confidentiality and personal information.)

"I cannot in all consciousness and at risk to my reputation and that of my group have it published without having all the experiments rerun," Prof. Gunning wrote to Dr. Ortúzar, adding that the offending lab work "constitutes one graph in the manuscript."

In another e-mail to her later that day, he emphasized wanting to take "no chances on anything right now that [Ms. Todic] touched which is thankfully, very little."

The postdoctoral fellow who had discovered the vials told The Globe he had been enlisted to rerun the experiments after Ms.

Todic's departure from the lab.

A revised paper was never submitted to ChemMedChem.

Prof. Gunning said, in a statement to The Globe, that this was because "by the time we had a chance to verify the data, another lab working in our field of research published a paper that removed the novelty of findings in our manuscript."

Despite the competitor lab's publication, however, Dr. Ortúzar had replied in a June, 2015, e-mail that the journal "would be happy to reconsider the revised version currently in preparation."

The postdoc has a different explanation than that offered by Prof. Gunning for why the manuscript never made it into the journal's pages. When the postdoc had rerun the fabricated experiments, his data showed results that were far less impressive. The falsified data suggested the molecule was 2,200 times more effective than it was, in reality.

What's more, the postdoctoral fellow's investigation concluded that AC-3-19 demonstrated no selectivity when it came to discriminating between the STAT variants investigated in that manuscript. It was also less effective at binding to STAT proteins when compared with naturally occurring compounds that were used as controls in the experiments (in this case, growth-hormone fragments).

The postdoc has an extensive background in organic chemistry.

Before joining the Gunning Group, he completed a PhD and two postdoctoral fellowships - one at the University of Oxford and the other at UTM - achievements that later landed him a senior role in drug-development research at a prominent Toronto hospital, where he continues to work.

Still, he wanted to enlist a colleague, this time a graduate student, to do a blind that verified the unsettling results of his investigation. The graduate student detailed his observations in several interviews with The Globe.

Those various findings propelled the postdoc to revisit yet another article, which had been submitted by the Gunning Group to Medicinal Chemistry Letters, a journal of the American Chemical Society, almost a year earlier, in April, 2014.

That article posits AC-3-19 as the most selective inhibitor known at the time, an assertion supported in part by Ms. Todic's data - but not by the postdoc's retests. He also discovered that Ms. Todic's results had been expressed in nanomolar units. His own experiments, however, delivered results that were in micromolar units. In other words, Ms.

Todic's final numbers were off by a factor of 1,000.

A month after submitting that article to Medicinal Chemistry Letters, the Gunning Group had filed a provisional patent on the compound, whose apparent success would be unveiled to the scientific community a few months later, when the article was published in September, 2014.

Ms. Todic's name appears fourth on the article's 13-person author list, right after the names of three senior researchers who contributed equally to the work.

(In the scientific world, authorship is typically ranked in order of research contribution, with the supervisor's name usually appearing last.)

The first three authors listed on the article are also named as coinventors, alongside Prof. Gunning, on the AC-3-19 patent application. The Globe reviewed the patent documents, which include a table containing data identical to the fabricated test results that bolstered the claim of selectivity.

Universities routinely patent their intellectual property. Securing a patent for a new invention can help attract private investment, said Timothy Caulfield, a professor at the University of Alberta and a Canada Research Chair in health law and policy.

"They're still viewed, rightly or not, as a valuable part of the innovation process," he says. "There has been intense pressure on researchers to not only translate their work, but commercialize their work."

Dr. Leighton Grimes, an immunobiology researcher at Cincinnati Children's Hospital, collaborated with the Gunning Group on the 2014 article. After it was published, his lab, which specializes in leukemia research, did not continue investigating the compound.

"One of the reasons we discontinued it was that the compound was creating havoc in the cells that was not specific," he said in a July, 2018, interview with The Globe.

"That thing is never going to make it into the clinic as far as I'm concerned," he said of the compound, which unfavourably targeted mitochondria, the cell's energy generators, in the experiments.

Dr. Grimes added that he wasn't aware of the allegations about data fabrication in their joint article. He did, however, subsequently confirm to The Globe that, according to policy, he had notified his own U.S. funders of the allegations.

In May, 2015, the postdoc fellow, having finished his own experiments on AC-3-19, told Prof.

Gunning about problems with the data of Ms. Todic's that had appeared in the 2014 article. He urged that the record be corrected. Prof. Gunning assured him that he would address the issue in a coming manuscript, the postdoc alleges.

But Prof. Gunning never did so.

The professor subsequently told The Globe, in a statement, that a correction was not necessary because the Medical Chemistry Letters article did not contain any fabricated data.

And he maintained that though some of Ms. Todic's data were fabricated, such data were ultimately able to be "reproduced independently" by a different lab member: Dr. Cumaraswamy, who was then a doctoral candidate under his supervision. Dr. Cumaraswamy, who declined to be interviewed, told The Globe in an email there was no fabricated data published and described the underlying science as "credible and beautiful."

The postdoc disagrees with this account. He said he was assigned to redo the tests. And though he shared his results Dr.

Cumaraswamy, neither he nor a junior colleague could reproduce the favourable data.

No corrections, or errata, as they're called in academic publishing, have been added to the article. The article itself has subsequently been cited in other publications.

The data-fabrication incident and its outcome on continuing STAT-inhibitor research in the laboratory was never revealed to Ms. Todic's colleagues by Prof.

Gunning or in team meetings, according to five former Gunning Group members who worked in the lab at the time.

Prof. Gunning wrote in the December, 2018, statement to The Globe that the data fabrication "came to me [as] a shock as this overall highly capable and intelligent student, over a period of time performed good scientific research." It was, he also said, his first time dealing with this type of misconduct and that he had notified the university immediately.

According to U of T's Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters, students accused of misconduct can be referred to a disciplinary tribunal that publishes hearing decisions online. Names of students are redacted, but other identifying information stays on the record, such as their initials, the course code and the dates when the offence occurred. In 2017, to choose one example, the tribunal ruled to suspend a student from the university for a full three years - and required that a notation be put on their transcript and remain there for four years - for plagiarizing Wikipedia in an undergraduate history course.

In his statement, Prof. Gunning said that Ms. Todic was given the option to withdraw from the program. Because she did so, her case never made it to the tribunal.

It remains a mystery why Ms.

Todic fabricated the data. Former lab members who spoke with The Globe speculated it could have been a misguided response to high expectations. The most egregious ethical lapses, such as fabrication and plagiarism, are believed to be rare in professional labs, but several experts said intense pressure, high stakes and the thrill of pushing the envelope of human understanding can push scientists, even good ones, over the edge.

Although Ms. Todic initially agreed to speak to a Globe reporter, she later stopped responding to messages. When approached by The Globe outside her workplace, she declined to comment on the fabrication incident. She did confirm she had withdrawn from the University of Toronto to pursue a Masters of Business Administration, a degree that she ultimately completed at the DeGroote School of Business at McMaster University in Hamilton.

The months after her departure from the Gunning Group, meanwhile, were punctuated with terse e-mails from Prof.

Gunning to his team, missives in which he announced new mechanisms to monitor his lab, including the instituting of electronic notebooks in which members record their experimental observations.

Prof. Gunning clearly expected that such monitoring would improve not only honesty, but productivity. "I hope for your sake with the new e-lab book introduction Monday, that you are more productive than is currently visibly observable," Prof. Gunning wrote in a June 3, 2015, email to those working in his lab, and obtained by The Globe through a freedom-of-information request.

He also issued a warning: "I will actively discipline, and pursue under performing group members with a goal of removing the weakest members via the channels available to me. Consider this your notice."

The ensuing months saw many Gunning Group members leave the lab. At least one person, a postdoctoral fellow from France, was fired. (With the help of her graduate-student union, she later reached a settlement with the university for being terminated without cause.)

Of those members who transferred to a new program, one was a PhD student who had originally joined the Gunning lab on the advice of his professors at the University of Oxford. He arrived in September, 2015, with great expectations - and no idea of what had happened a few months prior.

Once there, he began to hear rumblings about issues with the STAT project, he told The Globe.

Eventually, he learned of the fabrication through word of mouth.

But soon, he said, he developed his own questions about the rigour and interpretation of certain data after a handful of frustrating experiences.

The Globe has agreed not to identify the student for fear of professional reprisal to him; he completed his PhD in another lab at the U of T after transferring out of Prof. Gunning's in February, 2016. He is one of at least three graduate students who severed ties with Prof. Gunning's lab between September, 2015, and February, 2016.

In total, The Globe interviewed 10 former Gunning Group members in person or over the phone. Some praised their former supervisor, his lab and its work.

One of those, a postdoc who was a member of the lab during the data-fabrication incident, described his two years there positively: "Prof. Gunning, if he makes a wrong claim, sometimes I think he's not the one to be blamed, it has to be the students who did the work." In the lab, he added, Prof. Gunning was a pleasant supervisor, a very knowledgeable researcher and a charismatic speaker when presenting the lab's work to the public.

The Globe also communicated with six others - by e-mail, social media or in person. One of those was a former postdoctoral researcher who said he "never witnessed any falsified data being published." He asked to remain anonymous, however, because he didn't want to be associated with allegations of misconduct.

In his January response to The Globe, Prof. Gunning said the departures were simply "the restoring of a professional work environment free of disruptive trainees."

In the fall of 2015, the department began soliciting feedback letters from students as part of Dr. Gunning's promotion review.

In one letter, obtained by The Globe, a graduate student described raising what she perceived as research-integrity issues with Prof. Gunning, only to have her concerns dismissed.

Her letter added that "many of the students in the lab feel suppressed and are worried to speak out against Prof. Gunning for fear of him coming in the way of them finishing their Masters or PhD degrees."

The feedback letters were sent to the promotion-review committee, led by department chair Claudiu Gradinaru.

As part of the review, Prof.

Gradinaru also e-mailed the postdoctoral fellow who discovered the data fabrication. Prof.

Gradinaru told the postdoc that he was seeking "an account of what exactly happened and in which sequence," in light of some of the student feedback he was getting.

"Recently, some allegations of scientific fraud and data fabrication in the Gunning lab have surfaced," he wrote in a March, 2016, e-mail reviewed by the Globe.

A few days later, he wrote to the man again, this time explicitly acknowledging the difficulty of making such an allegation, even in a setting otherwise dedicated to the scientific principles of facts and impartiality: "Again, I understand that you are in a delicate situation and are worried about possible repercussions for you personally, but I do not want to force your hand to do something you do not want to do or say something that is not true." By that point, it had been just more than a year since the fabrication had been discovered.

The postdoctoral fellow had since completed his program in Prof. Gunning's lab, and perceived Prof. Gradinaru's e-mail as an endorsement to come forward. He consulted with another professor in the chemistry department as well, for advice on how to write the letter. He submitted a six-page letter to Prof.

Gradinaru in April, 2016, detailing both his discovery of the untested compounds one year earlier and his account of Prof. Gunning's response to the incident, in addition to his other observations and concerns about the research. He copied another faculty member on the e-mail chain, which was reviewed by The Globe.

He also wrote that, in the process of replicating experiments to correct fabricated results that had been the basis for the aborted 2015 ChemMedChem article, he had found that data and claims about the star compound AC-3-19 had been published in Medicinal Chemistry Letters in 2014.

"Unfortunately, her results were inconsistent with my findings. I found no selectivity of binding for AC-3-19," he wrote.

The postdoc told The Globe that he had expected representatives from the university to reach out to him to view his data, or to the 16 people the postdoc named in the letter, that might also have knowledge of issues in the lab.

But the postdoc never heard back from Prof. Gradinaru or any other administrative or faculty members. It remains unclear if the fellow's allegations ever left Prof. Gradinaru's desk. He referred The Globe to university administrators.

In November, 2018, The Globe sent Heather Boon, vice-provost of faculty and academic life at the U of T, a list of 16 questions that included the postdoc's allegations. In a brief statement, she said that research-integrity allegations linked to Prof. Gunning's lab had "not been previously shared with the University," and that "issues raised within the promotions process are dealt with following procedures in that process."

In June, 2019, the university said it had conducted a preliminary inquiry into the matter as a result of The Globe's questions. The allegations were deemed unfounded by a senior faculty member with no ties to Prof. Gunning, according to the statement from Prof. Goel, the vice-president of research and innovation.

As a result, the university said it cannot disclose any specific information about the inquiry. That includes what allegations were tested, what material was reviewed, what data was re-evaluated and who was interviewed.

Six Gunning Group researchers interviewed by The Globe said they were not contacted by the university in relation to this incident, including the postdoc who made the discovery and wrote the letter.

Institutions are obliged to address all research-integrity concerns they receive, even if they are submitted directly to a faculty member. An inquiry into complaints deemed to be made in good faith must be completed within two months in order to determine if the matter will proceed to a formal investigation, which is then usually conducted by the institution's research-integrity office.

These steps are outlined in policies issued by the federal Secretariat on Responsible Conduct of Research, which operates at arm's length from the government. Research institutions must send all investigation reports to the secretariat, where an independent panel decides on sanctions and can order anything from letters of warning to permanent funding bans on the individual.

The need to protect hard-won prestige can prompt universities to deflect threats to their reputations. Institutions face a "brutal disincentive" to investigate their own employees, says Dr. Jonathan Moreno, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a leading bioethicist.

There is also a lot at stake for those who allege scientific misconduct.

"Your reputation is your currency," says Raymond De Vries, a professor and associate director at the Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine at the University of Michigan.

"If you have aspirations to stay in science, calling somebody out for something - whether you're right or wrong - can be harmful to your career and can mean the end of the line for you."

The mechanism of action (pharmacology lingo for the way a drug achieves a therapeutic effect) is a crucial selling point of the Gunning Group STAT inhibitors. Although the postdoc, former students of the professor and others have serious doubts - which they say are backed up by evidence - about how AC-3-19 performs its claimed therapeutic effect, that does not necessarily mean it is doomed to failure.

It's possible that a compound could work serendipitously, said researchers who spoke to The Globe, including the postdoc fellow.

At this stage, AC-3-19 and other compounds are claimed to have success in a continuing research project with pediatric surgeon Sheila Singh, a health-sciences professor and Canadian Research Chair in Human Cancer Stem Cell Biology at McMaster University. She says Prof. Gunning is a trusted and ethical scientist.

"We love our collaboration with him," Prof. Singh says of her lab's work with Prof. Gunning, adding that the data-fabrication incident "was a hugely eye-opening and challenging and difficult time for him."

Both their labs are working to develop drug candidates to fight medulloblastoma, an aggressive children's brain cancer that currently has limited treatment options. She called AC-3-19 a drug that has "some toxicity," but that is capable of hitting one target in leukemia cells and a different target in brain-cancer cells.

Prof. Singh's lab is working with an oncology-focused drugdiscovery start-up called Janpix Inc., where Prof. Gunning is chief scientific officer. The company inked a $22-million investment with international venture-capital firm Medicxi, announced in October, 2017 - with plans to get a drug candidate - which Prof.

Gunning has referred to as the patented "Compound X," to clinical trials within two years.

"Working with [Prof. Gunning] has been a complete pleasure for me," Prof. Singh says.

"We have completely different training, we barely speak the same language, but it takes this kind of multidisciplinary collaboration to be able to move forward with anything in science."

Meanwhile, the Gunning lab is continuing to test its compounds in leukemia and brain cancers, and claims that the compounds may also hold promise for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable genetic disorder characterized by fatal muscle degeneration. That promise has spurred one Ontario couple to raise more than $22,000 in 2019 to support Prof.

Gunning's work through an annual 600-kilometre-long bike ride. Their son has the degenerative disease.

For his part, Prof. Gunning said, in the December, 2018, statement, that his lab is preparing a manuscript "which will serve as a formal peer-reviewed update to the scientific community and address the findings" of the 2014 article, where Ms. Todic's fabricated data was alleged to appear.

But the postdoc fears that meaningful decisions - whether by colleagues on other research projects, or investors or donors who find a personal cause in cancer - were made along the way based on data that was not real.

"What was the point of me even sticking my neck out and writing that, and putting that on the record," he asks, "if nothing was done about it?"

Associated Graphic

As head of the Gunning Group, professor Patrick Gunning has pioneered research to target cancer cells more precisely.

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO WEBSITE

Currently, the Gunning Group's home is the William G. Davis Building at the University of Toronto's Mississauga campus, shown here last December.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The laboratory's work was a 'catalyst' for the Centre for Medicinal Chemistry, which is expanding to an entirely new building in a couple of years.

KIERANTIMBERLAKE

The Gunning Group lab is continuing to test its compounds in leukemia and brain cancers, and says they may also hold promise for treating a form of muscular dystrophy.

PHOTOS COURTESY OF UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO WEBSITE


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On her way home from work on Feb. 23, 2018, Julia Conway stopped to pick up a coffee for her boyfriend's grandmother, a gesture that was part of her Friday routine. Unless she gave them a head's up that she had other plans, Paul Theoret's family knew to expect the bubbly 29-year-old after her shift ended.

The house, up a winding drive at the end of a secluded cul-de-sac on the outskirts of Burk's Falls, Ont., was dark and quiet when she arrived. The only sound she could hear as she approached the front door, besides the crunching snow under her feet, was the bark of the family dog, Lily. It was just 7:30 p.m., and Ms. Conway figured everyone must have called it an early night. She'd leave the coffee for "Mummi" on her bedside table, she decided.

First she headed to the basement to quiet the dog.

Down the stairs, she found the white Chihuahua-mix frantically pacing outside the doorway of the bathroom.

Behind the dog, on the floor, lay Paul. At first Julia thought he'd been sick. As she got closer, it registered: He'd been shot. Her boyfriend was dead.

She bolted back upstairs, where she made two more gruesome discoveries. Ulla, Paul's mother, was crumpled on her bedroom floor. And in Mummi's room, 88-year-old Raija Turunen lay still in her bed. They, too, had been shot.

Fending off panic, Ms. Conway, whose cellphone reception was spotty at the rural house, headed to the landline in the kitchen to call 911. There, slumped in a chair, was a fourth body. She could tell it was a man, but his face was unrecognizable from a gun blast. Tethered to the wallmounted house phone, she sat across from him as she waited for help to arrive.

Who was he? "Don't look at him - look at the ground," the 911 dispatcher kept telling her. "Look at the ground."

In the background, the family dog - still at Paul's side in the basement - continued to bark. Ms. Conway felt nauseated. Short of breath. Her head was spinning as she tried to make sense of who would do such a thing. But as the minutes passed, she realized who the man was - she'd seen him sitting in that exact kitchen chair before. It was their neighbour, Mark Jones.

For months, trouble had been brewing on Starratt Road: harassing letters, nasty confrontations, an allegation of sexual assault. Ms. Conway had long known about Mr. Jones's dangerous obsession with Paul's mother.

But she'd never imagined it would come to this.

More than a year later, the tightknit Burk's Falls community is still reeling from the loss.

Police have confirmed the basics of the tragedy: that Mr. Jones murdered the three family members and then shot himself. But because Mr. Jones is dead, there will be no trial, and Ulla Theoret's surviving sons, Thomas, 31, and Hans, 28, have been left with unanswered questions about how this happened and whether there were missed opportunities to prevent the violence.

While the murders stunned the community, located a half-hour's drive north of the Muskoka town of Huntsville, the case itself - a woman being killed by a man she had known and trusted, in her home, where she thought she was safe - is not an uncommon one in Canada. Ulla was among roughly 150 women who were murdered in 2018 - almost all of them by men, according to the Canadian Femicide Observatory for Justice and Accountability.

In cases where a perpetrator was identified and their relationship to the victim was known, roughly 60 per cent were killed by current or former intimate partners, and another 15 per cent were killed by friends or acquaintances. In just more than 10 per cent of cases, the killer also then killed himself.

In Ontario, all intimate-partner homicide cases are reviewed by the chief coroner's office through a Domestic Violence Death Review Committee, in order to make recommendations to prevent future deaths. The committee is still considering whether to review this case because Mark Jones and Ulla Theoret were not, and had never really been, a couple.

After months of trying to access information, the Theoret brothers believe a public inquest could be the only opportunity to examine whether local authorities missed an opportunity to prevent the deaths. They know now that their mother had gone to police six months before she was killed, but the OPP - which wouldn't discuss the case with The Globe and Mail - won't disclose how it handled Ulla's allegations or say whether the service is conducting an internal review.

In the absence of a formal examination, family, friends and neighbours of the victims and Mr. Jones find themselves haunted by their own what-ifs. No one saw the murders coming, but with the benefit of hindsight, many now realize that signs of danger were in clear sight.

It was through her older brother Peter that Ulla Theoret (then Ulla Turunen) first met Mark Jones. The two men, who had both studied together at George Brown College, met at a Halloween party in the 1980s, and though both lived in downtown Toronto, they shared a love of the outdoors.

For years, the two men and their group of friends spent nearly every weekend hunting or fishing in the woods, often at the Turunen family cabin in Burk's Falls.

Peter and Ulla's parents, Olavi and Raija, had purchased the sprawling farm property in Ryerson Township on the outskirts of Burk's Falls in the 1970s. Over the years, they built a new house and a sauna - a nod to their Finnish roots - with help from Peter and his buddies during their weekend trips. At the end of a day labouring away, Raija would have a hearty meal ready. A sign hung in her kitchen: "Today's menu: two options - take it or leave it."

Ulla, by this time a nurse, had married an American and moved to Michigan, where they raised Thomas, Paul and Hans. She returned each summer, bringing the boys up to visit their grandparents. When they reached college age, the boys were drawn back to Canada. Eventually, as the farm became challenging for their aging grandparents to manage, the brothers took turns staying with them in Burk's Falls and helping out.

In 2014, Ulla and her husband Steve followed to take over the caregiving duties. But their marriage was already fizzling, and Steve soon headed back to Michigan. Ulla decided to stay. Though her brother Peter had died years earlier, she was welcomed back by his old hunting buddies, who had become family friends.

One of them, Jouko Ojanpera, now lived in Huntsville.

Another, Armando Cabral, still made regular stops by the family farm. And though he'd drifted from the others, there was also Mark Jones - Jonesy, as they called him.

It was by then almost two decades since Mr. Jones had faded from the friend group. In the early 1990s, the guys had started planning moose-hunting trips near Thunder Bay. But Mr. Jones had diabetes, and didn't always take care of himself. The friends worried about being in the bush with him, far from a hospital. They stopped inviting him along.

Mr. Cabral thinks he was offended. As far as he remembers, that was why Jonesy eventually fell out of touch.

Mr. Ojanpera recalls his friendship with Mr. Jones ending more abruptly. During a duck-hunting trip in 1994, he came out of the bushes to find Mr. Jones - carelessly, not intentionally, he thinks - pointing a 12-gauge shotgun at him. Mr. Ojanpera hit the ground and heard the gun go off three times.

"I started cursing at him, calling him names," he recalls. "If I had been standing, I would've [been dead]. I said, 'I don't ever want to see you again.' " Mr. Jones moved to Barrie, Ont., after that, where he bought a four-plex, living in one unit and renting out the other three. For the most part, he seemed to keep to himself. He was a member of the Barrie Gun Club and a regular at a local machine shop.

Eventually, Mr. Jones began searching for a country home. Though he was initially looking in Barry's Bay, he came upon a property in Burk's Falls-just down the road from his old stomping grounds. He couldn't resist, recalled Gordon Adams, who owned the Barrie machine shop. It was twice the amount of land for half the price.

At a backyard party at the Turunen family property for Ulla's father Olavi's 90th birthday in the summer of 2016, Mr. Ojanpera made his way through the crowd of smiling faces - one of which stopped him in his tracks. There in the yard, sitting in a lawn chair and smoking a cigar, was Mr. Jones.

"He just grinned and said, 'Small world, eh?' " There is a list of 41 "indicators" - red flags - that Ontario's Domestic Violence Death Review Committee look for in each case it reviews.

The number of these indicators that had been present between the victim and the perpetrator during the time leading up to a domestic homicide helps demonstrate, in hindsight, the potential for lethality that existed. In almost three-quarters of cases, the committee says, seven or more risk factors were present.

Although Ulla was not in a relationship with Mark Jones, it appears that numerous risk factors were present between them in the year leading up to the murders: among them, a victim who had an intuitive sense of fear of the perpetrator; obsessive behaviour by the perpetrator; prior threats to commit suicide; sexual jealousy exhibited by the perpetrator; unemployment; access to firearms; and an escalation of violence.

After Ulla moved back to her family's farm, she and Mr.Jones began spending time together. As a new divorcee living with her parents in a town of fewer than 700 people, she welcomed the camaraderie, her friends say.

Her sons supported her desire to start dating. She was social and fun and had spent her entire life taking care of people, as a mother, nurse and daughter. They wanted her to be happy.

But it became evident early on that Ulla did not consider herself and Mr. Jones a match. While they shared some common interests, such as antiquing, their personalities clashed. She was bubbly and outgoing, and lived in colourful leggings and bright tops. Mr. Jones was controlling and told her she should wear turtlenecks.

"I never got a good feeling about him," Hans says, "and that's basically the way I described it to my mom."

During one phone call back in 2015, Thomas says, his mom casually mentioned that Mr. Jones had been leaving unsettling notes in the mailbox. That upset Thomas, who had by this time moved to Taiwan to teach English. It reminded him of a news documentary he'd recently watched about domestic violence.

He warned his mom to be careful and that the whole family could be at risk.

Ulla never mentioned Mr. Jones to him again.

But he was still lingering in their periphery. Mr. Jones was handy and helped the elderly Turunens out around the farm. Raija, in particular, took a liking to him and, despite her daughter's reservations, continued to invite him by to play cards.

Hans was struck by his mother's reaction when Mr.Jones showed up at the house for one such card game in 2016. He was hanging out with her in the basement when they heard Mr. Jones's voice upstairs. His mom's brow furrowed, and she asked Hans to make sure the man didn't come down there. When Hans confronted Mr. Jones upstairs, he asked why Ulla hadn't come up to say hello.

Hans told him to leave.

That was the last time he saw him.

Around town, however, Ulla had trouble avoiding him.

On one occasion in 2017, for example, she and a friend were at the laundromat in Burk's Falls one day when Mr.

Jones showed up. He started ranting and raving, and calling her degrading names. The laundromat's owner recalls how shaken up Ulla was.

A similar confrontation happened at a local gas station, while Ulla was out with a man whom she had briefly dated. She also told that man that Mr. Jones had liked to look at her father's guns in the basement, Thomas later learned, and that he'd "dry shot" at her before with the unloaded gun as a joke.

Others in the small town had also witnessed snippets of Mr. Jones's troubling and threatening behaviour toward Ulla.

Rural communities such as Burk's Falls present distinct risks for women experiencing violence, notes Sharon Davis, a manager at the closest women's shelter to the town, in nearby Parry Sound. On a practical level, poor cell reception and spotty internet access can make it more difficult for a woman to research and connect with support services. Firearms are also more likely to be present in rural communities and households.

And in a small town or community where everyone knows everyone, Ms. Davis says, people can be especially reluctant to raise the alarm when they suspect trouble in a relationship.

In its 2017 report, the Domestic Violence Death Review Committee found that it is not uncommon for friends, family or co-workers to struggle with how to respond to "troubled" relationships, and that in many cases, people around the victim "did not seem to know how to react in a constructive way to prevent further harm."

"People don't want to get caught up in it," Ms. Davis says. "People are really fearful of being wrong."

It was only in the fall of 2017 that those closest to Ulla realized the degree to which things had escalated.

After a grocery-shopping trip in town, Ulla, Raija, Paul and Julia arrived home to find Mr. Jones sitting in their kitchen, alone in the dark. Paul and Julia were taken aback. Ulla told them that she'd deal with it. They left her to speak with him and eventually heard him leave.

Later that year, after Julia noticed that Ulla was taking an unusual amount of time to burn their garbage in a bonfire out back, she came outside to find her crying. She was holding a piece of paper in her hands: another letter, she said, from Mark Jones. He'd been leaving notes in the mailbox again.

Ulla also confided something even more disturbing to Ms. Conway: Mr. Jones had sexually assaulted her. It had happened two years earlier in his car, in the fields behind his house, she told her. He'd forced her to perform oral sex. She thought she was going to die.

Ulla threw the letter into the fire, and asked Ms. Conway to promise she would not tell Paul or his brothers about the assault. She worried about what they might think, or what they might do.

Ms. Conway promised she'd keep quiet.

Other friends were also keeping Ulla's secret. She had told Jouko Ojanpera about the sexual assault months earlier, during a dinner party, back in May, 2017. But to him, too, she added: "Promise me you won't tell the boys."

He agreed he wouldn't, but urged her to report it to police.

"I felt like going to [Mr. Jones's] place and beating the crap out of him," he recalled later. "But we had already had cocktails and a bottle of wine, so I was not going to be stupid. Probably it would've been the right thing to do after all."

It was a complicated time in Ulla's life. Her father, Olavi, was ill (and would die that July). She was also seeing someone new, long distance - a Florida man she'd met at a Finnish banquet in Toronto.

"My life got easier and harder all at the same time," she wrote on Facebook that August.

Two weeks later, she went to Florida to meet up with her new beau. "Feeling happy!" she posted.

Paul Van Dam, a neighbour who lived in the area, recalls the morning when he saw Ulla trudging toward him down the road in her rubber boots.

"I need your advice," she told Mr. Van Dam, before she divulged the details of the assault.

He urged her to go to police. But again, she said she wasn't sure.

"Look," he told her, "you asked for my advice. I'm telling you to report this."

So, standing in Mr. Van Dam's living room on the morning of Sept. 22, she made the call to the local police detachment. Mr. Van Dam then drove her home, so that a detective could come by to meet with her. She went into the station the next day to provide a video statement.

When the officer asked why she was coming forward only now, she said her father had recently died and she didn't feel safe. In his report, the officer described her as "agitated."

Roughly six weeks after this, Ulla popped by Mr. Van Dam's house again. She looked relaxed, he thought. Happy. She thanked him for his help and told her Mr. Jones wasn't bothering her any more. Mr. Van Dam thought that was the end of it.

But a few months later, Mr. Van Dam was checking his mail at the foot of his driveway when Mr. Jones's Subaru whizzed past his house. He caught a glimpse of Ulla in the passenger seat. "I thought to myself, 'I should go talk to her about that,' " he says. "But I never did - that's my big regret."

The month before she died, Ulla - who had been struggling with depression, especially since her divorce - checked herself into the hospital for two weeks. Thomas and Hans described it as a mental breakdown. They had no idea at the time about the sexual assault. By that time, they thought Mr. Jones was long gone.

But they have seen his mother's medical records, and although they are not certain of all that she disclosed to her doctor, there are hints: She mentioned an aggressive neighbour and concern that police were not helping her.

It was a short time before the murders that Joe Lazar, another neighbour on Starratt Road, started to suspect something was wrong with Mark Jones. The two were not close, but they were friendly enough that Mr. Jones would come over for dinner or to watch a sports game now and again.

After the death of Mr. Lazar's dog in mid-February, 2018, he asked Mr. Jones if he would mind bringing over his backhoe to help him bury the animal. In reply, Mr. Jones screamed at him: "How could you let her die?" Mr. Lazar knew he had been fond of the dog, but the reaction was baffling. He confronted Mr. Jones, who told him that he'd been recently diagnosed with dementia.

It made sense. He'd heard that Mr. Jones had recently gotten lost while hunting on his own property, and had to call for help on his walkie-talkie. And once, while Mr. Lazar was helping him with a fencing project, he noticed Mr.Jones becoming uncharacteristically confused.

Mr. Lazar didn't know Ulla at all and knew little about Mr. Jones's relationship with her. Mr. Jones had mentioned years earlier that he was seeing a girl down the road, he recalled - but after he'd ribbed him about it, Mr. Jones had told him curtly that it was over and that he didn't want to talk about her. They never did again.

Around the time he'd revealed his dementia diagnosis to his friend, Mr. Jones - who was 58 at the time and "a bit of a hoarder" - had begun selling off his things, Mr. Lazar says.

He'd had his driver's licence revoked owing to the diagnosis, he said. His own parents had struggled with dementia, he told Mr. Lazar, and he "wasn't going to go out like that."

Mr. Lazar was alarmed. He knew Mr. Jones had a sister, and he made a mental note to ask for her number so he could give her a call - although he didn't follow up. He knew his friend had guns, and he was worried he might hurt himself. It never occurred to him that he might hurt other people.

On Feb. 21, 2018, Hans Theoret drove from the town of Bracebridge, Ont., to take his mother out for a birthday lunch.

When he dropped her off afterward, he debated spending the night, as he often did. But he had to work the next day, so he decided to head back that evening. As he pulled away, he told his mom he loved her.

At some point after that - it's unclear exactly when, although Thomas says investigators believe it was in the early hours of Thurs. Feb. 22 - Mr. Jones came to the house.

He left his car at the foot of the long, curving driveway, and carried both a 12-gauge shotgun and a .40 calibre handgun into the house. He shot Ulla. He shot Paul. He shot Raija.

Then he shot himself.

As soon as Joe Lazar learned of the murders on Starratt Road, he froze. He knew instantly that the killer was Mark Jones.

Armando Cabral, a friend of both Ulla and Mr. Jones, has had a particularly difficult time wrapping his head around the tragedy. He's seen firsthand that murders such as these aren't one-offs.

In 2012, Mr. Cabral's father killed his wife and then himself. Armando Sr. and Leonilde were 74 and 70. They'd been happily married for more than 40 years. But in the months before he murdered his wife, the elder Mr. Cabral had been showing signs of mental illness. He was depressed and said he was hearing voices.

Then, in 2015, Mr. Cabral's partner at work, Halton, Ont., firefighter Trevor McNally killed his wife, Sue NesbittMcNally, and then himself.

"If you said to us that Mark was one day going to go out and murder a bunch of people and commit suicide, we'd be like, 'No. No. Not ever in a hundred years,' " he says. "But people would've said that about my parents, too."

After the crime scene at the Turunen family home was cleaned up, and before the house was listed for sale, Mr. Cabral spent weekends up at the property last summer, helping Hans and Thomas slowly clear out their family's things.

He would catch himself staring off in the kitchen at Raija's cheeky menu sign, thinking back on the many meals he and Mr. Jones had shared there with the family. "We solved the world's problems in that kitchen," he says, shaking his head.

Down the road from the Turunen farm, Mr. Jones's house has sat frozen in time since the massacre. His belongings are still visible through the front windows.

It was only after their family members were killed that Hans and Thomas learned that their mother had reported a sexual assault to the police: Thomas discovered a message she'd sent to a friend on Facebook, after logging onto his mom's account.

They wondered, then, if this tragedy could have been avoided. They wanted to know if police had done enough to protect their mother after she spoke to them and asked the detachment to turn over any evidence they had.

After months of waiting, this past April, the brothers were provided with a video of her interview. Ulla was detailed in her recounting to the officers, Thomas says. She was clearly scared. It was, he adds, devastating to watch.

They've asked for any other documents related to the investigation, but many of their requests were denied on privacy grounds.

"Even though he killed my family, I don't have any right to know anything about him," Thomas says.

They want to know what came of their mother's report.

Was Mr. Jones interviewed? Why was he able to keep his guns after being accused of a violent sexual assault? If a doctor had indeed revoked his driver's licence after his dementia diagnosis, why not his firearms licences as well?

Ironically, Thomas points out, his mother had received a letter from the Chief Firearms Office after her hospitalization in January, 2018, informing her that her firearms licence - which she'd obtained in order to hang on to her father's hunting guns after he died - would require a doctor's sign-off. Firearms licences are supposed to be difficult to obtain in Canada. Thomas argues they should also be difficult to keep.

In response to questions from The Globe, Chief Firearms Officer of Ontario Dwight Peer explained that police reporting policies around firearms-licence holders vary from force to force. But if a licence holder is reported to have sexually assaulted someone, he said that should, when coded correctly, trigger a notification to the CFO.

The CFO can also receive calls from family, friends, neighbours or physicians who have concerns about a firearms-licence holder, he said. These concerns are then followed up on a case-by-case basis. He declined to comment on whether they were notified in this case - or whether any review is being done.

Mr. Lazar recalled that the summer before the murders, Mr. Jones had hauled "two carloads" of firearms and accessories to a gun sale near Orillia, Ont. He said he also had a target range on his property.

The Theorets filed a lawsuit against Mr. Jones's estate last summer, for damages "for the loss of support, care, guidance and companionship sustained by them."

The case continues to churn its way through the courts.

A sister of Mr. Jones, reached by phone, declined to speak with The Globe.

In response to an interview request from The Globe and Mail, the OPP said they cannot comment because they are mentioned (although not named as defendants) in the civil litigation.

"This was a tragic crime and our hearts go out to the families and friends of the murdered victims and the community," spokesperson Carolle Dionne said. "As the matter is before the courts, I am unable to provide further information."

After they sold the family farm, Thomas and Hans bought a house about an hour away, where Hans now lives with Julia Conway and Lily, the dog. Julia is like a sister to them now, the brothers say. She suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder and has not been cleared by her doctor to return to work.

Thomas has since gone back to Taiwan, where he is teaching and working on memoirs about his loss. In the meantime, he and his brother continue to try to get answers.

One morning in March, while Thomas was visiting, the three of them pulled out a box of items they got from the house after the cleaning crew went through. Most of the photos and documents were loose in the box, their picture frames - which had been splattered with blood - removed.

They smile at old glamour shots of Paul, who had modelled for a time - even appearing on the cover of Harlequin romance novels. They finger old photos of themselves as kids, wearing matching outfits, with matching bowl cuts, and playing at the farm while Raija and Olavi look on proudly. They linger over their parents' wedding album and laugh at a more recent shot of their mom, flashing a big smile, with bright pink hair. She'd dyed it spontaneously, just a short time before she died, they said - a classic Ulla thing to do.

"I don't know what would give me closure. I really don't know," Hans says, shaking his head. "I don't want to find out that somebody messed up, or that my mom, you know, could have handled it better or that this guy was just a psycho that went off the rails. There's nothing at this point that could really [make me feel better]. But I want to help somebody in the future ... somehow, maybe, there's a way we can get the word out and help somebody."

There are lessons here, they argue, for victims, for family, for friends, for the general public, for police. There have to be.

With research by Stephanie Chambers

Associated Graphic

Ulla Theoret holds the family dog, Lily, in a family photo.

Ullla, her mother and son were killed in 2018 on the outskirts of Burk's Falls, Ont., in the house built by her parents.

Julia Conway, above left, was the person who discovered Ulla, Raija, Paul and Mark dead at the house in February, 2018. She's struggled with post-traumatic stress disorder ever since, but has also formed a familial bond with Ulla's sons Hans and Thomas Theoret, above right.

PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mark Jones, left, sits alongside Jouko Ojanpera and Armando Cabral on a hunting trip. Mr. Jones became friends with Peter Turunen, Ulla's brother, through a mutual love for the outdoors.

Olavi and Raija Turunen, top, and Paul Theoret.

FAMILY PHOTOS COURTESY OF ARMANDO CABRAL AND THEORET FAMILY

The residents of Burk's Falls, Ont., have struggled to comprehend the tragedy that unfolded on Starratt Road last year.

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Wednesday, August 14, 2019 – Page B14

DE SANTIS

Baby De Santis has arrived! The proud parents, Nicole and Paul De Santis and big brothers, Rocco and Romeo, are delighted to announce the arrival of Rafael Nicholas De Santis on Tuesday, August 6, 2019 at 5:06 p.m. weighing in at 8lbs., 14 oz. and measuring 53 cm.

The grandparents (nonni): Rocco De Santis of Brampton, Russell Horodelski of Brampton and Josie and John Watson of Thornhill, are absolutely thrilled and are joined by the greatgrandmother (bisnonna), Franca Agueci of Bolton; Uncles: John De Santis of Brampton, Rob De Santis of Innisfil, Matthew Racanelli of Thornhill and Andrew Watson of Etobicoke; Aunts: Natasha Racanelli of Thornhill, Heather De Santis of Innisfil and Jessica Watson of Etobicoke; Cousins: Anica and Ridley Watson, Owen Rice, Lucas and Leo De Santis in wishing Rafael a long, healthy and happy life.

We would like to thank the doctors and nurses at St.Joseph's Hospital for their assistance during the delivery process with special thanks to Midwives: Janice, Stefanie and Sepideh of The Midwife Alliance.

MARGARET EVELYN BEARE Ph.D.

December 17, 1946 August 10, 2019 Margaret died peacefully on August 10. She will be forever loved and missed by her devoted daughter Nhai Nguyen-Beare (Ryan Maleganeas) and her Peterborough sisters, Bernadine Dodge (James Driscoll) and Christine Kearsley (Robert Kearsley). Margaret is also survived by her niece Kathleen Burneau (Gus Burneau) of Toronto, and will be mourned by a host of friends around the world.

Prof. Beare was born in Markham, Ontario and raised on a farm near Agincourt, Ontario. She was educated at Guelph University, (B.A. 1968 and M.A. 1971); Cambridge University, England, (Diploma in Criminology 1974) and Columbia University, NY (Doctor of Philosophy, 1987). Her career in transnational police policy and the study of organized crime began with her role as Senior Research Officer in the Office of the Solicitor General, 1982-1993. She joined the faculty of York University in the Sociology Department with a cross appointment to Osgoode Hall Law Faculty in 1995. She was the Founding Director of the Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, and remained a faculty member at York until her death.

Margaret is the author of Criminal Conspiracies: Organized Crime in Canada, and numerous edited and co-authored books, and, articles on money laundering, international policing policy, gang violence, and social justice. Her work involved extensive travel throughout South East Asia and South America. Her consultancy work as a leading authority on criminal activity was on-going up until her last illness.

When Margaret wasn't working, or travelling, or spending time with Nhai, she was listening to Leonard Cohen, throwing dinner parties, walking Harley, the latest of several golden retrievers, or relaxing at her cabin on Chemong Lake.

Margaret's family are most grateful for the tender care and support she has received from her friends and neighbours on Major Street, the wider Harbord Village community, and academic colleagues. A memorial to celebrate her life will take place at a later date.

Cremation has taken place.

DAVID JOHN BEIERSDORFER

Deputy Commissioner RCMP (Ret.)

B.Comm (U of AB) October 3, 1930 S askatoon, SK August 10, 2019 Victoria, BC Dave is survived by his wife Amelia of 65 years, daughters Debora of Jasper, Sandra (James Agnel) of Victoria, and sons Robert (Lori Stewart) of Ottawa and William (Carolyn Campeau) of Ottawa. He will be missed by his grandchildren: Michael, Scott, and Shae Lynn of Ottawa, Daniella (Adam Huber) of Kamsack Sask, Thomas and Elizabeth of Ottawa, and Samuel Agnel of Victoria and many nieces and nephews. He leaves behind two sisters Hilda (George Schoepp) of Stony Plain AB and Betty (Dr. Graham Gall) of Davis California.

Dave's early education was completed at Nutana Collegiate Institute in 1948 and he was selected as valedictorian for his graduating class. He became a member of the RCMP on Jan. 11, 1949 and served until January 10, 1984 (35 years). In 1956, he was selected by the RCMP to attend the University of Alberta and in 1959 was awarded his Bachelor of Commerce Degree, with first class standing marks, and multiple achievements of excellence awards. Over his career he was posted in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia. In 1963, he was commissioned as Sub Inspector and transferred to Victoria BC. While in Victoria he had the privilege of serving Maj/General GM Pearkes VC, Lt/ Gov of BC as a Honourary Aide de Campe for 5 years. He was transferred to Ottawa a second time in 1970 where he served as A/Director of Services and Supply, Director of Services and Supply, Director of Organization and Personnel and Deputy Commissioner Administration. As the Senior D/Commissioner he served as acting Commissioner in the absence of the Commissioner.

He served on Inter Departmental Committees and from 1974-1984 he was a member of the Advisory Committee to the Gov. General for the Canadian Bravery Awards. He is a lifetime member of the Victoria RCMP Veterans Association.

Dave was devoted to his family, church and public service. He strove to improve the quality and nature of the RCMP, and improve the working conditions of the members. Dave was very proud of his home and was an avid gardener in View Royal on Portage Inlet. He was well known with friends and neighbors for his generosity of supplying tomatoes from his 150 tomato plants that he grew annually. In early retirement years he enjoyed daily early morning coffee with his friends at McDonalds, commiserating over politics and world events. Most recently he was proud to receive a multi-generational pin for 3 generations of family service in the RCMP (Dave, William, Daniella).

The Beiersdorfer family would like to extend their gratitude to the staff and management at Highgate Lodge. The generous supportive care given Dave and the family is greatly appreciated.

Funeral Services will be held on Friday, August 16th at the Lutheran Church of the Cross 3787 Cedar Hill Rd. Victoria, BC. At 1:00 p.m. Reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, you may make a contribution to the Hospice Society.

WILLIAM BIDELL "Bill"

November 29, 1925 August 7, 2019 It is with great sadness that the family announces the peaceful passing of Bill Bidell in his 94th year at Bridgepoint Healthcare.

Born in Winnipeg, Bill was predeceased by his beloved wife Nell (2008) and his parents, Nicholas (1990) and Nellie (1998) Bidulka. He was the cherished father of Joan, Kathy (Kimball), and Stephen (Cheryl), and loving grandfather of Hannah and Nicholas.

Bill lived a full and wonderful life, engaging in many endeavors beginning with military service in the Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps from 1944-1946, followed by a distinguished career in the Ontario public service as a Civil Engineer, ultimately serving as Assistant Deputy Minister in both Ministries of Transportation and Environment.

Bill was a gifted violinist, beginning his studies at age eight.

He went on to perform with the Chamber Players of Toronto, the North York Symphony, the Scarborough Philharmonic Orchestra, the Tampa Bay Symphony Orchestra, and the Trinity Chamber Ensemble.

Bill also programmed chamber music for the TCE and his own chamber group. He also formed the Bidell String Quartet with members of his immediate family.

Bill was also a golfer, sailor, skier, and curler. He enjoyed travel throughout the world with Nell, winters with family in Safety Harbor, FL, and summers spent in Muskoka.

The family would like to extend their sincere thanks to Dr. Jeff Myers and the entire palliative team at Bridgepoint Healthcare, the doctors and nurses at North York General Hospital, and to Dr.

Claire Nunes-Vaz and all the caring staff at Amica Bayview Gardens.

Cremation has taken place.

A Celebration of Life will be held in the Fall. In lieu of flowers, donations to The Council of Canadians, WWF-Canada, or a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

DOROTHY FAYE BOEHMER

February 20, 1934 Tuesday, August 6, 2019 Dorothy Faye Boehmer, 85, of Aurora, Ontario passed away peacefully on Tuesday, August 6, 2019.

She is survived by her loving husband of 65 years, James William Boehmer and her children, Mark (Lorrie), Stephen (Jane) and Kimberly (Neil Hindle).

She was a loving sister to Miriam Feaster and a beloved Grandmother to Karyn (Adam Sarginson), Geoffrey, William, Courtney (Bobby Caughey), Jonathan (Ashley), Andrew, Nicholas, Kate, Matthew, Spencer, and GreatGrandmother to Reese.

The family acknowledges with heartfelt thanks the caregivers and nursing staff of Sunrise, Aurora. A Celebration of Life will be held at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home, 8911 Woodbine Ave., Markham.

Date and time to be determined. Online condolences can be made at chapelridgefh.com.

EDUARDO CAVALCANTE

Eduardo Cavalcante, beloved father, brother, uncle and friend, passed away peacefully at the Trillium Health Centre on the evening of Wednesday, August 7, 2019 at the age of 74. He found joy and comfort in the simple pleasures of life, and was nurtured by his lifelong love for History, Geography, Mathematics and Science.

He will be deeply missed by family and friends, and will be remembered for his passion for storytelling. Eduardo is survived by his two daughters, Elisabeth and Annelise.

DANIEL GABRIEL FOY

April 13, 1994 Passed away suddenly in Toronto.

Dearly loved and cherished son of Christine and Larry. Beloved brother of Kevin. Predeceased by his grandparents Raymond and Ruth Domleo and Fred and Glenna Foy. Also predeceased by his uncle David Domleo (Karen). Loved nephew of Debra Hopkins (Paul), Catherine Schryer (Franz), Ted Foy (Peggy), Mary Clare Argiropoulos (Constantine), Brian Foy (Colleen), Eileen Foy, Elizabeth Foy and Margaret Foy.

Dan will be fondly remembered by his many cousins.

Daniel was engaging, charming and witty. He sought challenges.

Dan was an intense friend, a passionate chef and an excellent sailor and snowboarder. He bonded closely with his canine and feline companions.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., on Saturday, August 17, 2019 from 1 p.m. until time of the Chapel Service at 3 p.m. Cremation has taken place. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery at a later date.

As an expression of sympathy donations to CAMH, The George Hull Centre or Jack.org would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca Goodbye Dan - we'll always love you.

SUE GREENSMITH

Sue Greensmith, teacher, world traveler, author died on August 9, 2019 aged 75 after a long illness that she fought to the end.

Sue was born in the small industrial town of Leigh, Lancashire, England.

After marrying Pete in 1967 they moved to Switzerland. Two years later in 1969 they emigrated to Canada. She charmed the clients of a stockbroker and glamorized the reception area, before finding her true vocation as a teacher. Her fondest experience was teaching French at the Joseph Howe Senior Public school.

Sue and Pete traveled the world together and of the many countries they visited, her most enjoyable experience was seeing the wild animals while on safari in Africa. Sue was a strong and highly intuitive person. Pete may have planned and organised but Sue triggered the final decisions, such as going to Canada jobless and buying properties at home and abroad.

Sue became an author in 2015 with her first book, 'The Adventures of Kikera and Sol', loved by both adults and kids. Her second book 'Sark' will be published shortly.

Sue will be deeply missed by her loving husband Pete, her devoted daughter Jackie and husband Jason, son Paul and wife Nancy, grandson Dylan, brother Stuart and family. Her very close friends will also sorely miss her: Jan, Janet, Leila and Howard, Pat and Bob, Sandy, Dave, Chris, Christine, Ron and Janice.

We will all miss her wonderful vibrant intelligence, wry humour, "joie de vivre" and her love of a good argument over a rum and coke. She will leave a big gap in all our lives. All our love to an exceptional human being who loved life and had no regrets.

Her favourite charity was Doctors Without Borders. The funeral ceremony will be at The Chapel of St. James Cemetery, 635 Parliament St. at 1.00pm on August 14, 2019.

JOHN HOUGHTON "Tony"

1938 - 2019 We grieve the loss of Tony Houghton. Tony passed suddenly at his home in Kingston on August 8, 2019. He leaves behind his beloved wife Dianne, his daughters Sylvie, Stephanie, Catto and Sarah, his grandchildren Veronika, Sienna and Oliver, and his brother Hector.

Born John Michael Anthony Houghton on March 30, 1938 in Manchester, England. He was educated at Repton School in Derbyshire and Selwyn College, Cambridge. Tony came to Canada in the early 1970s as creative director of Ogilvy & Mather and soon built it into the most widely respected creative advertising agency in Canada. He was the first Canadian executive to judge at the prestigious Cannes Advertising festival. He became CEO of Leo Burnett Canada in 1986, and after a brief stint in 1992 as President at Hal Riney and Associates in San Francisco, he returned in 1993 to the head office of Leo Burnett in Chicago as President, U.S. His colleagues adored him, and remember him as a brilliant manager and creative force - he made work fun, and he brought out the best in people.

Tony lived his dreams. He and Dianne sailed the Virgin Islands, lived in the Bahamas and the South of France, and traveled the world. They had only just returned from trips to Nice, St. Petersburg and the Okanagan Valley.

He was never idle. Tony retired initially to the Bahamas, but decided to upgrade and moved to Kingston, Ontario. In Kingston, he devoted his seemingly boundless energy to volunteering with the Kingston Prize, the Marine Museum of the Great Lakes, and writing both novels and plays. His play The Worst Thing You Ever Did won an award for best original script in the Domino Theatre One Act Play Festival just last year.

He was funny, and if he liked a joke, he held on to it for repeated use. He loved to host his friends and family, and showed his love by making elaborate French meals. He relished his time with his growing family - only a few weeks ago he was leaping from the dock at his cottage on Kennebec Lake with his children and grandchildren.

His shout of 'Geronimo!' was as common as the cries of the loons, and will be deeply missed.

He often turned to Dianne at the end of the day to say "what an amazing life we've had."

Oh, and he was ghost writer for Peter Sellers. He would have wanted that included, for sure.

A Celebration of Life will be held Thursday, August 15th at The Kingston Yacht Club from 3 - 6 p.m.

DONALD HILARY KAYE

Donald Hilary Kaye passed away peacefully at home on Friday, August 9, 2019. Loving husband of Mary (nee Booth) for 40 years. Son of Augustine Kazimir Kaye, and brother to Rosalie Almond and Bernadette Kaye.

Predeceased by his mother, Mary Frances (Kavanaugh) and his brothers, Lester and Gordon.

A graveside service will take place at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, August 27th at Highland Memory Gardens, 33 Memory Gardens Lane, Willowdale. Memorial donations may be made to Epilepsy Canada.

JENNIFER KHAYAT

Surrounded by family and friends, Jennifer, affectionately known as Vievers, age 43, passed away on August 12, 2019. She will be forever missed as the beloved friend (37 yrs) and wife (14 yrs) of Wiz and supermom to her 'habibis': Kaiden (age 10), Cole (age 7) and Cooper (age 4). Being a mom is her greatest joy in life.

Jen is remembered as the heart and soul of her family and friends. Jennifer is the beloved daughter of Linda and David Dean, granddaughter to Mildred Cope, sister to Jeff (Caitlin) and John (Cynthia) and as aunt to Max, Sophia and Hadley. Daughterin-law to Huda and Jan Khayat, sister-in-law to Rasha (Aldo) Angel and Eva (Luke) Kyleman and aunt to Madeleine and Naomi Angel and Sahara, Victoria and Jackson Kyleman. Jen is the adored niece of Craig (Wendy), Karin (Mike), Laury (Wendy) and Paula (Steve).

Family and friends mattered the most to Jen. Jen dedicated her entire career to social work, the vast majority at the Children Aids Society of Toronto.

Jen lived by the motto of "Celebrate Everything", and she did with enthusiasm.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 2:00 8:00 p.m. on Wednesday, August 14th. A Funeral Mass to celebrate the life of Jennifer will be held at St. Bonaventure Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, M3C 2K9 on Thursday, August 15th at 11:00 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Community Share Food Bank at 33 Overland Drive in Don Mills would be appreciated, or reach out to the family for directing funds to the Masibambisane Children Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa where Jen volunteered. Condolences may be forwarded through w w w. h u m p h r e y m i l e s . c o m .

Celebrate Everything

HENRY LISS

On Monday, August 12, 2019 in his 94th year. Surrounded by his family. Devoted husband for 62 years of the late Burtha Liss and beloved companion for 6 years of Harriet Wolman. Loving father and father-in-law of Alan Liss, Mark and Sharon London Liss, and Howard and Susan Sack Liss.

Greatly missed by his grandchildren David, Andrew, Lana, Charles, Josh, Michael, and Leah. Predeceased by his brother and sister-in-law Irving and Estelle Liss.

We would like to thank the staff at Mount Sinai Hospital for their extraordinary and compassionate care. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, August 14, 2019 at10:00 a.m. Interment Holy Blossom Memorial Park. Memorial donations will be gratefully acknowledged at Reena Foundation Liss Family Endowment Fund, 905-763-8254 ext 3630, or to Henry E. Liss Memorial Fund c/o Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation, 416-586-8203.

STEPHEN JOSEPH O'ROURKE MD, FRCP(C)

Just shy of his 94th birthday, Steve died peacefully on August 11, 2019 surrounded by family in the Palliative Care Unit at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Steve is mourned by the love of his life, "Breid" (Brigid Conlon of Belfast), children , William (Janice), Patrick (Theresa), John (Catherine), Kit (Randall), grandchildren, Patrick (Kelly), Liam (Jackie), Sean, Caitlin, Eamonn, Rosie, Maggie, Eden, Austin, Ella, Maddie, greatgrandchildren, Tiernan and Maeve and many nieces, nephews and cousins around the world.

Born on a farm in Bruff, Co.

Limerick, Ireland, Steve graduated medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in 1949. As a Captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps he served in the Korean War and later in Fort Churchill, MB. He then joined the Department of Anaesthesia at St.

Mike's in Toronto where he gave anaesthetics for more than four decades, was a highly respected teacher and mentor to countless medical students and residents, pioneered spinal anaesthesia and was instrumental in advancing obstetrical epidurals.

A life-long horse racing fan, Steve rarely missed attending The Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate. Steve and Breid were founding members of St.

Bonaventure's Parish. They loved to entertain and hosted many celebrations throughout the years. Their endless hospitality and fun-loving nature warmed many hearts.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 1:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 15th. A Funeral Mass will be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, on Friday, August 16th at 10:30 a.m. If desired, donations to St.

Michael's Hospital Foundation, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, http://www.stmichaelshospital.com, would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

PATRICIA ANNE PHIN

Patricia Anne Phin, nee Oliver, passed suddenly and peacefully on August 10, 2019, in her home at Eastbourne, at the age of 83.

Mom was the loving wife of Mike Phin (passed September 2004) and a dedicated and always present mother to Heather Roberts (Johnmark), Vicki Boukydis (Andy), James Phin (Jennine), Susan Young (Eric), Thomas Phin (Sharon).

Dear sister to Susan Nixon and devoted grandmother to Marc, Michelle, Laura (Matt), Sarah, Christopher (Megan), Matthew (Laura), Katie, Andrew, Evan, Patricia, Nikki, Michael and Emily. She was also a wonderful greatgrandmother to Garrison.

A celebration of mom's life will be held at Rosedale Presbyterian Church 129 Mount Pleasant Rd., Toronto M4W 1R5, Friday, August 16th at 11 a.m. In lieu of flowers or donations, please consider being kind to someone who looks like they need it.

BISHOP JOHN MICHAEL SHERLOCK

On Monday, August 12, 2019, the Most Reverend John Michael Sherlock, DD, ninth Bishop of London, entered eternal life at the age of 93.

Bishop John Sherlock was born in 1926, ordained to the priesthood in 1950, ordained to the episcopacy in 1974, and installed as the ninth Bishop of the Diocese of London in 1978. When he became a Bishop, he chose Omnia et in omnibus Christus as his episcopal motto: "There is only Christ: he is everything and he is in everything" (Col. 3: 11). These words guided him throughout his episcopacy and until his last hour.

Bishop Sherlock was a deeply spiritual man with a keen intelligence, a natural ability to lead, and a joyful sense of humour. A tireless and forward-thinking Bishop, he made important contributions in Catholic education, health care, social justice, pastoral care, and the implementation of changes resulting from the Second Vatican Council. His influence reached across not only the Diocese but across Ontario and Canada. Among his many accomplishments was his organizing the 1984 papal visit to Canada, which led to a longlasting friendship with Pope Saint John Paul II. Bishop Sherlock retired in 2002.

Bishop Sherlock was preceded in death by his parents, Joseph and Catherine (O'Brien); his siblings, Fr. William, James, Fr.Phillip, and Mary (William) Dool.

He is survived by his siblings, Gerald (Bernice), Eleanor (Edward) Monahan, Allan (Anne-Marie), and Catherine Sherlock; along with many nephews and nieces, and great-nieces and -nephews.

Visitation will be at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica, 196 Dufferin Avenue, London, on Thursday, August 15, 2019, from 1 p.m. until 9 p.m. Vigil Prayers will be at 8:00 p.m. Visitation will continue the following morning, Friday, August 16, 2019 from 9 a.m. until the time of the Funeral Mass at 11 a.m.

The Funeral Mass will be on Friday, August 16, 2019, at 11 a.m.

at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica.

Burial will be at St. Peter's Cemetery in London.

Arrangements made by John T.Donohue Funeral Home, London.

GWYNETH MENNA WEESE

January 14, 1948 August 9, 2019 It is with great sadness that the family announces the death of Gwyneth "Menna" Weese after a year-long battle with cancer. She passed away on August 9th, at Toronto General Hospital.

She is survived by Bob, her loving husband of 50 years; by her sons, Bryn (Jill) and Dylan (Allison); and her 8-year-old twin grandsons, Kevin and Morgan. Being a grandmother ("Mamgu") was a highlight of her life in recent years - she was always on the lookout for toys or books. She is also survived by family in Wales - cousin Ann, who was like a sister; Ann's husband, Terry; and their children and grandchildren. Menna had close friends in Canada, the U.S., the U.K., and Europe. She will be greatly missed by many.

Menna was born in Carmarthen, South Wales, on January 14, 1948, and raised in Betws, Ammanford.

The only child of Wynford and Margaret Jones, she was a stellar student. She received a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Wales in Aberystwyth, where she and Bob fell in love. She then studied at the prestigious Royal Institution of Great Britain and received her PhD in Chemistry from the University of London.

Menna moved to Canada with Bob in 1972 and enjoyed a successful career as a University lecturer and, later, a senior official in the Saskatchewan, federal, and Ontario governments, mainly in the field of environmental management. In addition to her working life, Menna was very active with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra Volunteer Committee and the residents' association on Baptiste Lake, where she loved spending summers and entertaining at the family cottage.

All who met Menna knew she was a force of nature. Intelligent, capable, confident, lively, and generous, Menna relished social and political debate. A prolific reader, she also loved symphonic music, theatre, and art. In recent years, she and Bob traveled to some of the world's most interesting places.

Menna was very proud of her Welsh roots and returned almost yearly to her hometown. She was fluent in Welsh and loved listening to Welsh singers and choirs.

Cremation has taken place, with a private family service at Turner and Porter's Yorke Chapel in Bloor West Village. A Celebration of Life will be held at The Boulevard Club, 1491 Lakeshore Blvd. W., Toronto, on Monday, September 30, 2 - 5 p.m.

The family wishes to thank all those who cared for and supported Menna through these many difficult months at St. Joseph's, Toronto Western, Princess Margaret, Bridgepoint and Toronto General hospitals. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Canadian Cancer Society or a charity of your choice.

Rest in peace. Tawel orffwys.

PENELOPE HOPE WHITE

On the morning of August 8, 2019, Penny White passed away peacefully surrounded by her family at Campbell House Hospice. Penny was the only child of Garland and Ruth Pidgeon of Chatham, Ontario. Having only one child, she was the centre of their universe. The resulting Chrysalis turned into a lovely Monarch butterfly - the woman we know and love who had the most wonderful smile, and personality to match. Who will forget her homemade birthday cakes, her various hairstyles, her jazzy earrings, her zinger oneliners, the sparkle in her eyes?

She will be most remembered for her generosity, always putting the needs of others before herself.

Penny is survived by her husband, Peter; her children, Peter (Kathleen Meek) and Stephanie (Ryan Sorby); and her much loved grandchildren, Gwyneth White, and Thea and Luke Sorby. Penny had a special connection with young people who gravitated to her, and this was most evident with her grandchildren, with whom she enjoyed a particularly strong bond.

In 1960, Penny moved from the cloistered halls of The Pines in Chatham to London, Ontario, where she took the University of Western Ontario by storm.

Penny came into her own at Western and created a number of friendships that lasted a lifetime.

By the time she graduated, Penny had become a Sister of Phi Beta Phi, a graduate with an Honours BA in History, and an active and well-regarded member of the University Council. To top it all off, Penny was selected from a field of achieving competitors as the Queen of the Arts and Science Ball.

Penny and Peter married in 1967 and made their home in Chaplin Estates. Penny taught history at Sir Sanford Fleming High School and was active at Oriole Park Public School, becoming the President of the Parents Association. She led an active life, playing tennis, skiing, running and kibitzing with various gym groups. Penny became a wellregarded hostess among a group of like-minded friends. These were the "happiest" of times for the White Family who developed many longstanding friendships during their tenure there.

In 2004, Peter and Penny joined the migration to Collingwood where a large number of their friends were moving. A big change from the urban setting to an outdoor paradise. Golf, ski hills and fishing 20 minutes away. New friends to meet. New activities to undertake. For almost 20 years all of this was inspiring and fun.

Then in the blink of an eye this all changed dramatically. In 2017, a routine medical revealed metastatic breast cancer. Penny was an exemplary patient. She never complained and injected humour wherever she could to lessen the strain on those around her. The hordes of friends that made themselves available to drive her to appointments or just share a laugh speaks to the deep connection she made with all those around her.

May you rest in peace my sweet, and perhaps save a smile for us.

Please join us to celebrate Penny's life on Thursday, September 26th from 11 a.m. - 2 p.m. at Bear Estate, 300 Balsam Street, Collingwood Ont, L9Y 0B3.

In lieu of gifts, a donation in Penny's name could be made to Hospice Georgian Triangle.

H. PETER LANGER

March 25, 1916 August 14, 2009 In memory of our beloved father and grandfather who left us ten years ago. Always remembered by children, Ann, Peter (Linda) and Paul, grandchildren, Demian (Sue), Samantha, Jennifer and Graham, and great-granddaughter, Aurora.


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CI FINANCIAL LOOKS FOR A WAY FORWARD
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As the asset-management business undergoes a revolution, the Bay Street powerhouse is struggling for investor attention amid doubts about its strategy
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By TIM KILADZE, CLARE O'HARA
  
  

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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page B4

The call was controversial, and she knew it. Presenting at an investment conference last fall attended by some of the biggest names in North American finance, fund manager Kim Shannon devoted her 20-minute presentation to praising, of all companies, CI Financial Corp.

In an earlier time, Ms. Shannon had been one of CI's stars: She was crowned Canadian fund manager of the year in 2005 for her work on the CI Canadian Investment Fund. But she had a very public falling out with CI's top brass after she moved to a rival firm; by the time she spoke on stage at Arcadian Court in Toronto last fall, the frosty relationship had lasted for more than a decade.

Yet, Ms. Shannon is a bargain hunter who typically lines her portfolios with the shares of companies that many other investors hate (and are therefore cheap). That describes CI, the largest Canadian mutual-fund company not owned by a big bank. Since May, 2014, CI's stock has plummeted 45 per cent, and after some share buybacks, what was once a $10-billion company now has a stock-market value of $4.8-billion.

Not long ago, mutual funds were the way millions of middle-class investors got access to professional stock selection - and CI dominated. For years, it was considered the best managed and fastest moving of the large Canadian fund companies.

But the traditional fund business, which typically charges 2 per cent a year in fees on equity portfolios, is now in a fight for relevance.

Low-cost exchange-traded funds (ETFs) have developed a robust following. Robo-advisers have made some clients question the value of human advice.

This new competition and pressure from regulators have forced money managers to cut fees to try to prevent investors from moving their money.

In Canada, there is an extra degree of difficulty. Independent fund managers such as CI, AGF Management Ltd. and Mackenzie Financial (which is a unit of IGM Financial Corp.) used to rule, but the Big Six banks have been elbowing their way deep into the business of wealth management through acquisitions and by using their branches to hawk their own funds.

Despite those factors, Ms. Shannon sees opportunity in CI: a company with strong cash flow, manageable debt and a large customer base, and $130-billion in assets under management. "They were, and still are, an incredible sales machine," she said in an interview last month.

The question is whether that's enough anymore.

CI has fallen into net redemptions, which means investors are pulling more money from its funds each quarter than they are putting in. In the fund industry, once that cycle starts, it is tough to break.

CI's top executives say they are victims of an industry revolution beyond their control. The man who has been the face of the company for decades, chairman Bill Holland, says investor perceptions of mutual-fund companies have changed radically. "It's still an unbelievable business. But the people who look at it hate it. They do."

Some observers beyond the company's inner circle tell a different tale, suggesting CI has lacked a clear strategy. This was the one independent fund company with the scale to invest for the future and the heft to take on the banks, but now it's struggling. "We've been fairly articulate in what we're trying to accomplish here," CI chief executive Peter Anderson says. And yet, he knows the message isn't getting through to investors. "It's clear people aren't hearing it."

Mr. Holland was the brains behind CI's once-explosive growth, and he is so revered internally that they call him "Chief." At 60 years old, he is still intense and brash, his mind darting to five different places when answering a question. He's also the rare example of an executive who can't help but say how he really feels.

Barely a minute into an interview with Mr. Holland and Mr. Anderson, the Chief is already exasperated. CI had $656-million in free cash flow last year, but the market treats the company like it's radioactive. The stock trades at a mere 8.5 times earnings. "We make more than the weed industry," Mr. Holland says, yet cannabis companies such as Cronos Group Inc. with no profits have higher market capitalizations.

It's as if everyone's forgotten who's running the show, and what they have accomplished.

Formerly known as Universal Savings, and later Canadian International, the company built an early reputation for offering investors exposure to foreign markets, at a time when many Canadian investors held only domestic funds and assets. Mr. Holland joined in 1989, at the beginning of what was a golden decade for the industry.

CI had a certain edge: Its sales and marketing arm, run by Mr.Holland, was unparalleled. It was a time when the rules were looser, which meant CI's wholesalers - the employees who sold its funds to investment advisers - could entice clients with lavish gifts and getaways. "All you talked about was, 'How do I qualify for the trip?' " Mr.Holland says of the mindset many investment advisers had in that day. CI would offer all-expenses paid excursions to Florida and guests would be put up in a spot known as the CI Safehouse. Like Vegas, what happened there, stayed there.

CI also displayed a knack for finding, and marketing, star fund managers. Retail investors trusted big names with good track records, and CI was happy to promote them - people such as Ms.Shannon and Gerry Coleman, who managed the CI Harbour Fund.

Once Mr. Holland became CEO in 1999, he became bent on bulking up through deals. His playbook was to acquire rivals for their assets, then slash the duplicated costs. A year into his tenure, he launched a gutsy, but ultimately unsuccessful, hostile takeover bid for archrival Mackenzie, hoping to make CI the largest fund company in Canada.

Mr. Holland never quite reeled in a trophy asset, but a series of sizable acquisitions included purchasing Sun Life Financial's mutualfund assets - the insurer became CI's largest shareholder in return - and the Canadian unit of Assante Corp. The latter caused a stir because Assante ran its own network of financial advisers - meaning that CI was putting itself in competition with the people at other firms who bought its funds.

Yet, it worked. "Without a doubt, the best decision we made years ago was to buy this business," Mr. Anderson says. By 2006, on the eve of the global financial crisis, CI was the largest of all independents and had amassed $55-billion in assets under management - second only to Royal Bank of Canada.

Like everyone else, CI suffered through the Great Recession. But its pain was short-lived, while many rival independent firms never recovered. Michael Lee-Chin, a boy wonder from the 1990s bull market, sold his company, AIC Ltd., to Manulife Financial Corp. for a small fraction of its former value in 2009. AGF and Mackenzie both fell into unstoppable spirals of net redemptions.

What saved CI? The company always kept a diverse fund lineup, with a healthy share of conservatively managed value funds. In 2013, after the commodity supercycle had crashed, CI had more top-rated funds than anyone else in the Canadian mutual fund industry.

CI's management also preached fiscal prudence. Mr. Holland handed the CEO role to one of his deputies, Steve MacPhail, in 2010, and the new boss was obsessed with expenses. (A friend once described Mr. MacPhail as "the last guy to take Uber if there's surge pricing.") That discipline, coupled with strong returns, sent CI's shares soaring to a record high of $36.79 in May, 2014.

One week later, CI got a gut punch. Bank of Nova Scotia had been its largest shareholder since 2008, after it acquired Sun Life's 37-percent stake, and many people assumed Scotiabank would buy the rest of the company some day. But the opposite happened. A new CEO, Brian Porter, decided to unload the stake by selling the shares to public investors. Scotiabank also pulled $3-billion worth of client money it had placed in CI funds.

But it wasn't until 2016 when things really started to go badly. A tax change by the Trudeau government became a big problem for CI.

Historically, investors were allowed to move money between investments known as "corporate class funds" without incurring taxable gains. Ottawa came to see this as a tax loophole. Its policy change, buried deep within the 2016 federal budget, hit roughly $120-billion of industry assets under management (AUM), or 10 per cent of all mutual-fund assets in Canada. CI arguably got the worst of it, because corporate class funds made up about 50 per cent of its retail assets, according to Mr. Holland. Wealthier clients in its Assante and Stonegate channels used these funds to minimize taxes once their contributions to registered investment portfolios had been maxed out.

At the time, Mr. Anderson was only a few weeks into his tenure as CEO, having taken over from Mr. MacPhail. The day the changes were unveiled, he was mid-air on flight. "It was the first time I ever used WiFi on a plane," he says. Reading through the budget, colourful language erupted from his mouth.

It was around this time that Mr. Holland started to see the revolution that was beginning to overtake the wealth-management industry.

Bank-owned brokerage firms began firing investment advisers and pushing some middle-class investors to their bank branches instead - where, conveniently, the banks market their own funds.

Robo-advisory firms such as Wealthsimple Inc. and Nest Wealth Asset Management Inc. were also developing a following, particularly with millennials.

ETFs were also catching on in Canada. Mutual-fund companies held their own for many years; people are creatures of habit, and they had been trained to buy mutual funds for three decades. Even today, the Canadian ETF industry has 35 providers managing approximately $178.6-billion in assets, but that's still only a sliver of the $1.47-trillion invested in mutual funds domestically.

But that gap is shrinking. In 2018, ETFs in Canada had $19.8-billion in net sales, while mutual funds saw $2.7-billion in net outflows, according to Strategic Insight. Halfway through 2019, ETFs are on pace to outsell mutual funds again.

"The real change, I would say, has been in the last year," Mr.Holland says. "The [mutual-fund] industry is in net redemptions most months."

What's changed? Crucially, the cost difference is glaring. ETF behemoths such as BlackRock Inc. and Vanguard Group Inc. spread their internal costs over their trillions in assets. In turn, they can slash fund fees to a tenth of a percentage point, just 0.1 per cent annually, or less. Canadian funds, meanwhile, have been slow to evolve. In mid-2018, the average five-year decline in management expense ratios (MERs) for Canada's 100 largest mutual funds was only 0.05 of a percentage point. The most expensive version of CI's second-largest fund, the Signature Income and Growth Fund, costs investors 2.41 per cent annually.

The competition is breeding all sorts of experimentation. A year ago, global mutual-fund giant Fidelity Investments, which has a large Canadian arm, launched the world's first ever no-fee index fund.

Banks are also getting into ETFs more aggressively. In January, Royal Bank of Canada and BlackRock joined forces to sell them, creating a partnership between Canada's largest bank and the world's largest asset-management firm. The two are developing and marketing ETFs under the brand RBC iShares.

Amid all this change, the knock on CI is that it was too slow to evolve. On some level, it is understandable: CI kept pulling in money for many years while rival independents wobbled. "They didn't have to fix what wasn't broken," says Scott Chan, a financial-services analyst at Canaccord Genuity.

Some critics say it's more complicated than that. One theory is that management always expected to sell the company to Scotiabank, and when that possibility died, they had to scramble. Others blame Mr. MacPhail, arguing he was so focused on expenses that he forgot to invest for the future.

Mr. Anderson isn't having any of it. CI, he points out, was one of the first big money managers to acquire an ETF provider, scooping up First Asset Capital Corp. in 2015 when it had $3-billion in assets under management. He also says CI was one of the first to launch "liquid alternatives" funds, which provide downside protection in falling markets by offering hedge fund or private-equity strategies within a mutual-fund account.

Mr. Anderson does concede that CI missed the boat on funds for alternative investments, a widely popular asset class that allows high-net-worth investors to buy slices of infrastructure and real estate projects.

Other say there were problems with how CI grew. As the company did acquisition after acquisition, including the 2017 purchase of Sentry Investments for $807-million, its fund lineup became unwieldy.

"When you do that," says Dan Hallett, an independent analyst who's covered the industry for decades, "what you really get at a high level is poor performance, because you can't possibly have 150 outstanding, top-notch products." In turn, investors began pulling their money - hence the net redemptions.

The most stinging critique of CI today is that management has not articulated a clear and coherent strategy for the way forward. "I hear it every day," Mr. Holland says.

That doesn't mean he agrees. He and Mr. Anderson say their vision is to transform CI from a fund company to a wealth manager - one with everything from a fund manufacturing arm that creates new products to financial advisers to a digital footprint. In other words, to make CI look more like a bank.

Investors increasingly reward money mangers that own their distribution channels, so CI wants to double its assets in its Assante and Stonegate networks. (At the moment, 830 Assante advisers manage $45-billion in client assets.) "To get to that size, we're probably going to have to continue to look for potential acquisitions," Mr. Anderson says.

CI is also bulking up its digital operations, having recently acquired a majority stake in robo-adviser Wealthbar Financial Services Inc. It also purchased BBS Securities Inc., which specializes in digital back-office functions to help streamline operations. In June CI named Darie Urbanky, who has a background in tech and operations, as its new president, signalling the importance of these businesses going forward.

The wild card is whether CI will be any good at any of this. This is a company best known for being a serial acquirer and for its sales team. In Canada, there isn't much left to purchase, and the sales culture has changed, with regulators cracking down on anything resembling bribes to advisers. "When you think about the old, hardselling days - they're just gone," Mr. Holland says. "We couldn't even take people to the basketball games in the playoffs," he adds of the Raptors' run this spring. Sports tickets are against the rules.

It also isn't clear who will be in charge of the next chapter. In April, CI announced that Mr. Anderson will retire next year. "The key talking point on the name right now is the search for a new CEO," says CIBC World Markets analyst Paul Holden. "Until then, it feels like we are in a state of limbo."

Because there is so much uncertainty, it has to be asked: Why not sell CI to a larger financial institution, namely a bank or an insurer?

"Gaining access to distribution, whether domestically or internationally, just makes a lot of sense for their businesses," Mr. Holden says.

Of course, that would require a buyer, and the big unknown is who would want a fund company facing net redemptions. But on Bay Street the best two guesses at potential acquirers, or partners, are Bank of Nova Scotia and Sun Life, largely because of the historical relationships.

Of these, Scotiabank is the tougher sell, at least right now. The bank recently purchased three separate companies in the span of one year, for a total cost of nearly $7-billion, and CEO Mr. Porter has said he is focused on integrating these businesses before splurging again.

Sun Life is a little more realistic. The life-insurance business is struggling to adapt in the digital age, so the company is already building out a wealth-management business to offset slower growth.

But the major wrinkle here is that CI is a big company to swallow, with a market value of about $5-billion. Any acquirer would have to pay a premium over and above that.

Asked about CI's relationship with Sun Life, Mr. Holland and Mr.Anderson start gushing with praise for the insurer. There's no formal relationship right now, but CI's open to ideas. "Who knows what the relationship between CI and Sun Life could be, will be, should be," Mr. Holland says. They sound hopeful - or at least wishful - that something, even just a distribution partnership, could come together.

The only option Mr. Holland openly shoots down is a privateequity buyout.

"We're always getting looked at," he acknowledges.

"We hit every value screen." But he says it's hard to make the math work. Mr. Holland thinks CI would have to be acquired for $31 a share - "and then they have to lever it," he says, meaning adding a lot of debt.

For now, the far better option in Mr. Holland's mind is to buy back CI's stock at cut-rate prices. The company slashed its dividend a year ago to devote more cash to stock repurchases, all in the name of boosting earnings per share. "We're very rapidly privatizing the company," he says.

It is the ultimate value-investing move, and it's partly what attracted Ms. Shannon to the stock. "They had such a valid reason for cutting the dividend," she explains. The problem is, there aren't many people who feel the same - at least not yet. "Historically, we've trained investors that when you've cut your dividend, it usually means you're in financial difficulty," she says.

CI is not. This is the company that emerged stronger when previous frothy plays, such as the dot-com bubble, died off. Who says ETFs and robo-advisers really won't struggle in the long run? They haven't even been recession-tested yet. "The death of the mutual-fund business is very overrated," Mr. Holland says.

The risk in thinking this way is that what's transpiring now is likely more than a correction - it is a revolution, and retail investors are forming new patterns of behaviour. Cable companies once prayed that cord-cutters would come back, too.

CI could start aggressively cutting its fund fees, but then it is competing against global giants - one of which has teamed up with Canada's biggest bank. CI's best hope, then, may be to give investors reason to seek out its funds again - that is, to deliver good returns.

Stellar performance could turn the tide on net redemptions, and stemming these could change the market narrative.

The trouble with this plan is that isn't so easy to do - at least not in these conditions. This bull market has lasted a decade, and it's been next to impossible for money managers to beat broad indexes over a long time period. Even Warren Buffett, one of the most brilliant investors of a generation, has struggled in his equity portfolios lately to beat index funds that cost 0.1 per cent a year, or less.

The entire mutual-fund industry suffers from a perception problem. Ms. Shannon is a member of the U.S. Institute, a think tank for asset managers, and there's a consensus that incumbents haven't done enough to market themselves. "We've talked about how, collectively, we haven't come together to defend active management in any cohesive way," she says.

But Mr. Holland can't help but take it personally. This was his baby, so the cold shoulder from investors hurts. "Nobody cares about the asset-management business," he says.

Associated Graphic

Peter Anderson, CEO of CI Financial, says that despite criticism over its approach, the company has 'been fairly articulate in what we're trying to accomplish here.'

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Bill Holland, the CI Financial chairman who has been the face of the company for decades, admits that investor perceptions of mutual-fund companies have changed radically.

MARK BLINCH/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Canada bares its soul in The Globe and Mail's daily essay. It's long been one of our most popular columns and we've gathered the most-read First Person columns published since last summer to share with our readers one more time
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Monday, August 5, 2019 – Page A8

I'm an American, but I'm head over heels in love with Canada LORRAINE KOURY FIRST PUBLISHED NOV. 27, 2018 D ear Canada, You need to know that my husband and I weren't looking for love, but there you were. I was born in Virginia, and my husband is from western New York. We love our own precious country but, being what we consider true patriots, we are not blind to its faults - particularly at the present time.

Our love for you crept up on us slowly and, before we even knew what was happening, we were head over heels.

I started coming to visit you in 1978 with my future husband for a change of pace. These days, we visit at least twice a year, some years more than that. We mostly head to Toronto, but also visit a number of your other cities as well, including Vancouver, Windsor, Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec City, not to mention almost every town on the highway between Buffalo and Toronto.

The first thing that captivated us was, yes, the stereotype: Everyone is so very polite, so very nice. Such a small, subtle thing; such a critically important indicator of a country's values and culture, such a civilized thing. And we absolutely delight in the fact that, being the humble, funny country that you are, you have a long-running national practice of making jokes about saying "sorry" too much.

When visiting during the celebrations for your 150th anniversary, we saw a sign on a store: "Celebrating 150 Years of Being Nice." Was it a corporate publicrelations slogan? Of course. But of all the infinite possibilities a country has to describe itself, what country celebrates that? You do, Canada.

We love that Toronto is considered one of the most multicultural cities on the planet. The fact that downtown Toronto has banners reading "We've Been Expecting You." Every time we see those banners, my husband and I get a little emotional, because for us, Canada, this sums you up in four words.

Our emotions are shocking, because we are extremely pragmatic people. I am a long-time trial lawyer with a skin so thick that turtles are jealous, and neither of us are usually given to such displays. But you've done that to us, Canada.

We love that you can find Hockey Night in Canada - Punjabi Version. We love the gentleman outside SkyDome (sorry, not Rogers Centre) at most Toronto Blue Jays games wearing full Scottish gear. Because nothing says baseball like a man in a kilt playing the bagpipes.

We love that you tweaked a line in the national anthem from "thy sons" to "of us." Having the courage and morality to change your mightily beloved national anthem to become more gender inclusive. Well done, so very, very well done, Canada. Because that's what a civilized country does.

We love that in Canada, you write sympathetic TV comedies about mosques, on the prairie, no less. And - as if we needed another reason - we love your ice dancers Tessa and Scott. You are just taunting us with these two! We could mention the quaint, Old World charm of Quebec City, or the stunning beauty of Vancouver. But, like any true love, Canada, we love you for who you are, not what you look like.

And even though we adore you, we are not blind to your faults, either. We know that you have your own problems, most importantly your continuing treatment of the Indigenous. But if there is one country on this Earth that we believe will eventually right its wrongs, it's you.

But it was while attending a Jays game on one of our visits in July that made me start writing this letter. Between innings, a red and white sign on the scoreboard flashed "Welcome To Canada!" and then showed a family with an Arab last name.

The Guess Who's Share the Land was playing: "Maybe I'll be there to shake your hand/Maybe I'll be there to share the land/They'll be giving away when we all live together."

The crowd applauded wildly during all of this. One hundred per cent of the crowd applauded wildly - not one person booed.

I watched this with total, stunned delight, but also thought sadly about how different this would be in my own country, if it even happened at all. Only my mule-like stubbornness kept me from bawling right there among 50,000 people. Thank goodness my husband managed to keep himself together.

Canada, this says everything to us about you, everything.

In fairness to our own country, our borders and our immigration history are different. Comparing the two, truly, is like comparing apples and oranges. On the other hand, given our own past history of how we treat "other" people in the United States who are not immigrants, I am not so sure that a comparison is totally unfair, either.

So, now you know why I had to write this letter. O Canada, for a very long time, and now, and forever, our hearts are glowing, too.

Lorraine Koury lives in Virginia.

The lessons that really matter in school aren't found in the curriculum DAN DE SOUZA FIRST PUBLISHED SEPT. 3, 2018 'D o you remember any of them, Dad?" He is sitting in his basement, surrounded by memories and his mind is heading back toward them, maybe toward you. He has unearthed a homeroom picture of 10c. Maybe you're in that picture.

He is whip thin, dressed in a suit, standing at attention like the captain he was. You, perhaps, are sitting in the front row, or maybe standing in the back.

You are dressed for your class picture. If you're one of the girls, you have your best dress on and if you're one of the boys, you may be wearing a blazer, or you may have borrowed your Dad's bow tie. You are all smiling and the girls have their hands clasped in their laps, their ankles crossed.

"Do you remember any of them, Dad?" I ask again.

He is 90, sitting in his chair, pressure socks pulled up to his knees. He takes his glasses off to get a good look at you and your classmates. Holds the picture close to his eyes but the closer he gets, the more pixelated you become. He puts your picture back down, blinks.

It was 1958 and you may have been in homeroom 10c. He taught you English.

You and your classmates look very similar. He looks up from the picture. "No.

No, I can't say I remember any of them. Everyone started in September and ended in June. They did that for five years. There was a consistency, a stability that allowed me to teach. Does that exist any more?" I shrug. No, things have changed a great deal since then.

He is trying to remember your names; he runs his fingers across your faces. I know he is thinking back to you and thinking about the lessons that have been remembered, and those that have been lost; those lessons that were never really absorbed and maybe not really important.

He starts with his memories of coaching football. He remembers a small kid lining up for tackling drills and who'd punish players with ferocious hits. Maybe it was you? Did he take you aside and ask why you hit with such fury in practice?

You told him that these boys had bullied you for taking piano lessons and you wanted each one to feel some pain. Your mother called him after you made the team. Did you know that? Your mother called him, worried that you would jeopardize your career as a pianist. He told her that he was worried you might kill the other boys.

Or maybe you were the boy who asked to be excused from practice to attend his sister's birthday party. You raised your hand, naively so, and asked in front of everyone. You were laughed at and derided by the other players. He sent you to pick up some equipment and when you were out of earshot, he turned on those boys. "How dare you." he said. "You don't know what that boy has endured. You don't know what his family is enduring. Don't let me ever hear you laugh at a young man who places his family first." He knew, a sister (your sister?) was dying.

The picture is in his lap now and he wants to talk and remember other things.

Remember the presentation on The Bridge on the River Kwai? I've heard the story for years. The group built a model of the bridge and to end their presentation blew the Popsicle stick model up with firecrackers hidden underneath. He couldn't discipline you. The class filled with smoke and students in the front row were covered with shards of Popsicle stick in their hair. Every time he went to discipline you, (was it you?) he couldn't stop laughing. He's laughing hard now. Laughing so hard, your picture falls out of his lap.

The bridge only blows up in the movie. Not the book.

He's laughing and tears are coming. "Maybe this was the class that held the door against me?" Was it? You might know. "They had the largest boy in the class hold the door so I couldn't get in. I could see through the window all of them laughing at it." His shoulders are shaking now. "I got there early the next day and bribed the big kid with candy to hold the door against them." Tears roll down his face. "That was such fun," he says. "I actually had that group banging on the door to get educated." Now I'm laughing.

Do you remember that? Were you the kid? Maybe you weren't that kid but you were in, are in, classrooms just like that. You've been taught, have taught or will teach, lessons that will be remembered forever and lessons that will be forgotten by lunch. Sixty years on, he remembers lessons of loyalty and kindness and laughter and determination. Interesting that he has no time to remember expectations and grades and lesson objectives.

We would do well, on the eve of another school year, to think about the lessons that will be remembered.

Dan de Souza lives in Newmarket, Ont.

Why I stand alone at the cenotaph MELANIE MURRAY FIRST PUBLISHED NOV. 11, 2018 I go to the cenotaph alone. My sons live far from home, and my extended family lives on the East Coast. In all the years I have been attending Remembrance Day services in Kelowna, B.C., I had not seen a familiar face until last year.

The pipe band had just entered City Park, the walkway thronged with people clapping as the grey-haired veterans marched by, their navy blazers gleaming with medals, the bagpipes wailing "There was a soldier, a Scottish soldier, who wandered far away and soldiered far away." I was dabbing my eyes when an arm reached around my shoulder. "A hard day for you," whispered a friend who had served in the air force and knew of my losses.

It is just as well I come to the cenotaph alone. I cannot talk. My tears erupt from a well of pent-up sadness.

I picture my father, Angus Clifford Murray, a 19-year-old farm lad from Tatamagouche, N.S., when he enlisted with the Cape Breton Highlanders during the Second World War. His framed service certificate always hung in the dining room of my grandparents' farmhouse. In the centre was a black-and-white photo of my handsome young father, a carefree grin on his face and a roguish tilt to his beret.

I tried to imagine that morning in the spring of 1941 as he strolled down the lane with a rucksack on his back: He would turn around to take one last look at the red farmhouse where he was born, then head down the dirt road to hitchhike to Truro and catch the train, then board the ship in Halifax that would carry him overseas.

Clifford survived, and became my father nine years later. He never talked about his war. But once I overheard him telling my uncles about his platoon arriving in a Dutch village. "Bullets were zinging from every direction," he said.

"I have never been so scared in my life."

In the mid-1950s, he re-enlisted, and only a few kilometres from our home in Oromocto, N.B., he met the enemy that would slowly and silently kill him. During the sixties, when he worked every summer in Base Gagetown, Agent Orange and Agent Purple were being sprayed as defoliants. In 1968, he died suddenly of pulmonary fibrosis, a respiratory cancer associated with these herbicides. He was 45.

On Remembrance Day, two years later, my sister was giving birth in the Oromocto hospital as the drone of bagpipes drifted up from the cenotaph. Her son, Jefferson Clifford, carried on my father's name as well as the same gentle demeanour and reticent personality.

Although Jeff grew up on army bases, he seemed immune to the family calling to the military. But at 30, he abandoned his PhD dissertation and enlisted - four days before Sept. 11, 2001. Six years later, and three months after the birth of his first child, Captain Jeff Francis was deployed to Afghanistan. On July 4, 2007, the armoured vehicle he was riding in with six other Canadian soldiers hit a roadside bomb. None survived.

Alone at the cenotaph, mourning my father and my nephew as well as the countless others who have served our country to their deaths, I am not alone.

And that is why I come: to be part of this massive crowd, huddled together. The day is gloomy, but as the bugler plays The Last Post the sun breaks through the thick clouds - St. Martin's Summer. I gaze up and remember the legend of St.

Martin, the patron saint of soldiers.

In the fourth century, 18-year-old Martin was on garrison duty in Amiens, France, on a freezing November day. He noticed a scantily clad beggar trembling in the cold. Martin slashed his lambs-wool cloak in two with his sword and gave half of it to the man. Later he came upon another beggar shivering by the roadside and offered him the remainder of his cloak.

As Martin resumed his journey, the sun burst through the clouds and the frost began to melt. That night, Martin dreamed he saw Jesus wearing half of his woolen cloak, a dream that set Martin on a life of piety. Legendary for his miracles, humility and benevolence, Martin was buried, at his request, in a cemetery for the poor on Nov. 11.

It is that crack of light that lifts me, reminds me of the humanitarian ideals that inspire many soldiers: love of country, love of humanity, love of freedom.

Though my eyes are blurry, and my feet seem heavy, I follow the kilted pipers and drummers as they march from the park through the streets. I follow until the bagpipes sound their final notes and the air echoes with their silence.

Melanie Murray lives in Kelowna, B.C.

I'm a woman who travels alone - why couldn't the U.S. border guard understand that? LAURA CAMERON FIRST PUBLISHED NOV. 20, 2018 'I still don't understand. You couldn't find anyone to go with you?" The American border official scrutinized me from the window of his booth. The air between us was humid and smelled of car exhaust. Was his eyebrow slightly cocked, the corner of his mouth turned up, his expression twitching?

"No," I repeated, trying to keep my voice steady and friendly, "I just wanted to go alone."

"You're driving your dad's car; couldn't he have gone with you?" "Well, no, he has to work."

"You have no friends?" "I have friends" - keep steady, keep friendly - "but they're busy, or, I don't know, I just wanted to go alone."

"You just wanted to drive to - where was it? Oxford, Alabama? - all alone."

Amused disdain oozed from his sneer. "By yourself."

"Oxford, Mississippi," I corrected him, again. "And yes, I did."

His eyebrow was definitely raised. And far below its mocking arc, I was growing increasingly flustered. He was being deliberately obtuse, and yet he had made our positions clear: He was the one in the uniform holding my passport and car registration, and I was just a silly girl trying to take a pointless trip to the middle of nowhere in her father's car.

"So," he said, as though drawing back the battering ram of his conclusion: "You have no one?" His words hung in the air like dissipating tear gas. I had turned 30 a few weeks earlier, and the whole world seemed to be thinking this question loudly in my direction.

I didn't answer.

I was at the Windsor-Detroit border, embarking on a week-long road trip to Mississippi. I read a lot of Southern literature, and wanted to see where William Faulkner had lived and written.

I am accustomed to travelling alone. Of course I've travelled with friends and family, too, and enjoyed their company, but in general I think: Why wait for other people to have the same budget, availability and travel philosophy as you do when you can just ... go?

To the border guard whom I encountered that morning, such autonomy was apparently cause for great suspicion. "Your story doesn't add up," he kept saying.

"I've been doing this a long time, and something just doesn't add up here."

Eventually he sent me inside for further questioning. I drove forward, and another guard motioned me into a parking space with a casual wave of his machine gun.

What caught me most off guard (so to speak) in this exchange was being asked to justify my freedom. It was probably a good exercise for me; I take my mobility far too much for granted. I am a white, middle-class, Canadian woman; the only way I could move more easily around the world is if I were a man. But that was precisely the limitation I was pushing up against here. I am all for caution in regulating international travel, but this guard's unwillingness to accept my solitude laid bare an assumption that disturbed me deeply: That to travel alone - and especially to travel alone as a woman - could only possibly be a last resort, because I had absolutely no one to go with me.

Are men expected to travel with companions? Maybe. Maybe a male university professor of literature travelling alone on holiday to the hometown of a major author would also be asked to explain himself. But if it were my younger brother in our dad's car, would the guard have asked him why his father couldn't have gone with him?

Vacationing alone is an affirmation of freedom - of totally excessive, enviable, yawning freedom. In practical terms, on the road as in life, this freedom often manifests as efficiency.

The downside to such efficiency - and, indeed, such freedom - is that it causes time to balloon, opening up vast empty spaces where boredom and loneliness can metastasize. Epiphanic awakenings to the hugeness of the world, which occur frequently on solo trips, can make one feel at once wildly powerful and comically insignificant. And the demand for constant self-sufficiency is exhausting. No one is going to fix my car for me if it breaks down, or share the blame if I take a wrong turn.

I will confess something.

When the guard was assaulting me with his incredulity, I wished, despite myself, that I was not alone. I was not afraid; in fact I was supremely, blithely secure in my conviction that I would be just fine. And yet that guard won the only battle that was ever really open to him. He made me self-conscious and defensive, made me feel - just a little bit - ashamed of my solitude and unworthy of my autonomy.

As is so often the case in uncomfortable exchanges, the most satisfying responses did not come to me until after the fact. That afternoon, as I wended my way south what I should have said took shape in my mind.

When the guard asked, as though he were just confirming that I had three duffel bags of cocaine in my backseat, "so you have no one?"- the real answer was that I do have someone who (though she is unable to fix a broken-down car) can, at her best, be everyone.

Laura Cameron lives in Toronto.


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THE VAGINA LIES
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Starved for information about how their bodies work, women have had to settle for half-truths, lies and snake-oil remedies. It's time to change that
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By JEN GUNTER
  
  

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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Page O6

Obstetrician and gynecologist. She is host of the documentary series Jensplaining, writes two columns for The New York Times and is the author of the new book The Vagina Bible: The Vulva and the Vagina - Separating the Myth From the Medicine, from which this essay is adapted.

I have been in medicine for 33 years, and I've been a gynecologist for 24 of them. It was early experiences with the health-care system that drew me to medicine (I had a kidney removed when I was 11 years old) and a love of science that made me commit to it. It was activism that led me to OB/GYN.

I've been pro-choice for as long as I can remember. In high school (I graduated in 1984), I was very clear - to myself and to anyone who asked - that restricting access to abortion had nothing to do with "life" and everything to do with the patriarchy. No man could tell me what to do with my body.

In medical school, OB/GYN fascinated me. Here was clear, factual information about the reproductive tract. Even though I had studied science before medical school, much of what was presented seemed new, given the amount of detail. How was I just now, in my early 20s, learning how my body worked? I also distinctly remember being annoyed that all my lectures were from men. This was the late eighties and the absence of women at higher levels in medicine was common. So common that one tended not to notice that most of one's professors were men.

But I did. And here, in the field of women's health, the absence of female doctors and researchers was a powerful reminder of that glass ceiling.

I needed to help change that system.

Over the years, I've listened to a lot of women, and I know the questions they ask as well as the ones they want to ask but don't quite know how. Almost all of these queries are born of inaccurate knowledge about their bodies, gleaned from what they learned (or didn't learn) in school or at home, from men or in magazines or online. The problem? You cannot be an empowered patient with inaccurate information.

One of the core tenets of medicine is informed consent. We doctors provide information about risks and benefits and then our patients, armed with that information, make choices. This system only works when the information is accurate and unbiased. Finding these kind of data can be challenging, as we have, apparently, quickly passed through the age of information and are now stalled in the age of misinformation.

False, fantastical medical claims are nothing new. However, sorting myth from medicine is getting harder and harder. In addition to social-media feeds that constantly display medical messaging of variable quality, there is a headline-driven news cycle that constantly requires new content - even when it doesn't exist. And with women's bodies, there are even more forces of misdirection at work. Those who peddle in pseudoscience are invested in misinformation, but so is the patriarchy.

Obsessions with reproductive-tract purity and cleansing date back to a time when a woman's worth was measured by her virginity and how many children she might bear. A vagina and uterus were currency. Playing on these fears awakens something visceral. It's no wonder the words "pure," "natural" and "clean" are used so often to market products to women.

Members of the media and celebrity influencers tap into these fears with articles about vaginal mayhem and products intended to prevent it, as if the vagina (which evolved to stretch and tear to deliver a baby long before suture material was invented) is somehow constantly in a state of near catastrophe.

That's why I have a vagenda: for every woman to be empowered with accurate information about the vagina and vulva. And that's why I've written a book on the subject. The Vagina Bible is everything I want women to know about their vulvas and vaginas. It is my answer to every woman who has seen me pass on information in the office or online and then wondered, "How did I not know this?" Misinforming women about their bodies serves no one interested in health or equality.

Widespread misinformation is the inevitable consequence of a long history of medical neglect of women's anatomy.

Going way back, medically speaking - as in Hippocrates (although there is a belief among many academics that Hippocrates wasn't even a real person) - male physicians rarely performed pelvic exams on women or even dissected female cadavers, as it was considered inappropriate or insensitive for a man to touch a woman outside of a marital relationship. As there were no female physicians, everything first written about women's bodies in ancient medical textbooks and taught to the first physicians was passed along, from women and midwives, to men, who in turn interpreted the information as they saw fit. So medicine has been steeped in mansplaining from the start.

Most ancient physicians, probably like many other males of the time, were unsure of the role of the clitoris and likely thought it unimportant. This stands in sharp contrast to the anatomic glory of the penis. In medicine, all body surfaces are assigned a front or back, which we call ventral (front) or dorsal (back). If you look at a person standing in a neutral position (arms at the side and palms facing forward), the face, chest and palms of the hands are on the ventral side, and the back and the back of the hands are dorsal. This convention is applied differently to the penis, because of course it is. The neutral stance for a man, according to the anatomists of old, was a massive, skyward-pointing erection. Except, of course, men don't walk around with constant erections, and so when you look at a man in what most people would consider the resting state - meaning a flaccid penis - the part that faces you is not the "front" of the penis but actually the "dorsal," or back surface, and the undersurface is the "ventral."

It's not really a small point; it is a wonderful (in a tragicomic kind of way) encapsulation of how society, including medicine, is obsessed with erections, while the clitoris barely registers as a footnote. The clitoris, when it was considered by ancient physicians at all, was believed to be the female version of the penis - but lesser. (I'm sorry, but the organ, capable of multiple orgasms, that only exists for pleasure is not lesser. It is the gold standard.)

Clitoral neglect wasn't confined to medicine. Think about all those ancient Greek statues with defined scrotums and penises (the penises are on the small side because sexuality was apparently at odds with intellectual pursuits and so a big brain, not a big penis, was the ideal). The vulvas of the time were but mysterious mounds concealed by crossed legs.

Around 1000 AD, Persian and Arab physicians began to take more interest in the clitoris, but given the constraints imposed on male physicians touching a naked woman or even a female cadaver, work was slow. By the end of the 17th century, descriptions of female anatomy, including the clitoris, were quite accurate, anatomically speaking.

Some anatomists who made these advancements are memorialized in the names of the structures they accurately described - Gabriele Fallopio (fallopian tubes; also invented the first condom and studied it in a clinical trial!) and Caspar Bartholin (Bartholin's glands).

By 1844, the anatomist Georg Ludwig Kobelt published such detailed work that his anatomic descriptions of the clitoris rival those we have today. However, his work was essentially ignored (as was almost everything that had led up to it), likely owing to a combination of the expansion of Victorian beliefs (essentially the dangers of female sexuality) and Sigmund Freud popularizing the false belief that the clitoris produced an "immature" orgasm.

Physicians in the twenties and thirties truly believed the vagina was filled with dangerous bacteria. Of course, that idea is absurd, and you don't need a medical degree to reach that conclusion. If the vagina were perpetually in such a state of infectious near-catastrophe, women would never have survived, evolutionarily speaking. The narrative of a dirty vagina did, however, fit the societal goal of female oppression.

For many years, discussing female sexuality in the doctor's office was taboo. Much of women's health, especially sexual health, was deemed unimportant or irrelevant because that is how women were viewed.

A male-dominated profession, a male-dominated society with little interest in women's experiences and opinions about their own bodies, a penis-centric view of female sexuality and the belief propagated by Freud's work that the clitoris was unimportant - those are a lot of obstacles to overcome.

In addition, the clitoris, being largely internal, is also harder to study than the penis, practically speaking. Eventually, anatomic studies using female cadavers to dissect the clitoris were allowed, but it is important to note the limitations of the work. Cadavers are expensive and not readily available.

Many cadavers are also older subjects, and clitoral volume reduces after menopause; in one cadaveric study, all subjects were between 70 and 80 years old. The preservation process also distorts the clitoris.

Before the advent of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), it wasn't really possible to know exactly how the clitoris in a living woman was positioned or how it engorges with blood in response to sexual stimulation.

Anatomic knowledge has come a long way. While I don't remember each anatomy lecture from medical school and residency, I still have my textbooks. The two that are specific for OB/GYN are anatomically correct, clitoris-wise, but the general anatomy book (published in 1984) devoted three pages of illustrations (two in colour) to the penis, with the clitoris relegated to an inset image in an upper corner - and the entire structure is the worst shade of puce. It's also called a "miniature penis."

As if.

Before we had microscopes and testing, before we had X-rays or other imaging, we struggled to make real medical diagnoses. And of course, without knowing what is actually wrong, it is hard to prescribe the right therapy.

As women were denied an education and, because of social mores, could not get an exam from a male physician, they often had to make do with female healers, who likely did the best with what they had.

I often wonder what these women would think of this modern trend of eschewing science for so-called "natural" and "ancient" remedies. I truly believe they would favour modern diagnostics and therapies such as vaccines and antibiotics as opposed to crystals and poultices. I believe they would look at anti-fungal medication for yeast and call it magic.

Undoing medical mythology is hard.

In some cases, we see or hear the misconceptions repeated so often that we believe there must be some truth to them - the "illusory truth effect" (repetition being mistaken for accuracy) is real.

Additionally, women, who have historically been dismissed by the medical establishment, have an extra incentive to distrust it and turn elsewhere for help - especially if the person they turn to is welcoming and actually listens.

So here's a list of "old wives' tales" - although some are not so old.

Apple cider vinegar to balance your vaginal pH: Vaginal pH is controlled by healthy vaginal bacteria, not food or the environment. This basic misunderstanding of the vaginal ecosystem drives a lot of misinformation, such as this apple cider vinegar scam.

Vinegar has approximately the same pH as stomach acid, so how a shot of vinegar could balance your pH, but the acid floating around in your stomach doesn't, is never explained. I mean, come on. You can't change your blood pH with food because your kidneys and lungs control blood pH, and when they don't you get very ill and die. So the idea that vinegar could impact vaginal pH is, biologically, simply absurd. What drinking apple cider vinegar will do is damage the enamel of your teeth.

Birth-control pills cause weight gain: This has been well studied, and the answer is no. This is not disbelieving women; this is the exact opposite.

This is taking what women report about weight gain and studying it.

These data really reflects doctors listening to women. Several studies have shown no link between birth-control pills and weight gain. One study even compared women who took birth-control pills with women who had a copper IUD inserted - so no exposure to hormones. Both groups gained the same amount of weight. The life situation associated with starting new contraception may be associated with weight gain, but the pill is not.

Coffee enemas (rectal!) for anything: Dear God, no. People, even some doctors, promote this to treat depression! I. Just. Can't. Even. First of all, this is a waste of good coffee. But, medically speaking, to believe coffee in your rectum could treat anything is ludicrous. I mean, why is that different from drinking it? Chasing the origin of this myth led me down a rabbit hole of epic proportions (think clandestine Facebook groups, e-mails to medical historians, museum curators digging through archives). This myth started relatively recently. The only medical reference is in the 1944 Royal Army Medical Corps training manual during the Second World War, and it was used to keep men awake. I'll say! Just don't. And run from anyone who tells you this will help.

Hormonal contraception causes "infertility": Nope, but the patriarchy trying to scare you away from controlling your reproductive health is invested in this myth. Sadly, many "natural" health proponents also capitalize on this fear as well. Whether the infertility myth is from ignorance or misinformation (many bloggers writing about reproductive health don't fact-check or have little to no science background) or intent (disinformation: Think religious reasons or someone trying to scare you away from prescription contraceptives to sell you a menstrual-cycle tracking app), you will have to ask them. With the injection, fertility can be delayed several months, but by one year, all women are back to baseline. With all other methods of contraception, once stopped or removed, you are good to go, pregnancy-wise, the next month.

Lifting your arms over your head while pregnant will cause the cord to wrap around your baby's neck: Nope.

This isn't a vagina myth, but OB/GYNs hear it all the time, so I thought I would include it. This is just not biologically possible, and if pregnancies were that fragile, we would have died out years ago. I wonder if this myth serves the patriarchal ideal of the "delicate woman" or if it is simply born out of pregnancy fears.

Parsley in the vagina: The sprig.

Stuffed up the vagina each night for three to four nights to induce a period.

Look, I don't make this stuff up, I just report on it. Apparently some people - people who are wrong - think it could stimulate uterine contractions. There is no evidence vaginal application of parsley can do that to the uterus, but even if it could, that would not make you have a period. Progesterone withdrawal causes a period, not uterine contractions. Please don't put parsley in your vagina.

Steaming the vagina: This is promoted to "cleanse" the uterus. This ties into the destructive myth that the uterus is unclean because of menstrual blood that has been used by many cultures to exclude women from society - it's a defining characteristic of the patriarchy. So this idea is promoting a patriarchal idea. Some "health" bloggers promote losing weight to the point that periods stop to prevent the accumulation of these so-called "menstrual toxins." This is harmful on so many levels.

If you are dieting to the point your periods have stopped, you may be underweight, and if that continues, you could suffer real health consequences, such as osteoporosis (thinning of the bones).

Vaginal tightening sticks: These are promoted as Japanese in origin; whether they are or not I don't know. However, Western cultures are often guilty of exoticizing other cultures, so I would be wary when a specific culture or country is used as part of a marketing strategy.

Anything offered to tighten your vagina is an astringent that will likely damage the tissue that lines the vagina, as well as the protective vaginal discharge. It is also part of the patriarchal idea that a "used" vagina stretches and is undesirable. This mythology harms women medically and emotionally, and people who promote it should be ashamed of themselves.

Yogurt for yeast infections: It doesn't contain the strains of lactobacilli that are important for vaginal health. When a woman puts yogurt in her vagina, she is putting other bacteria there, as yogurt has live cultures, and the consequences are unknown. It may feel soothing because it is cream-like, but the risks are unknown and it will be ineffective.

Zinc to increase your libido: Zinc is apparently appearing in nutraceuticals intended to increase libido. In one study, zinc supplementation made male rats thrust more during sex (sexxxy!) and generally increased their "sexual competence." However, injecting zinc directly into dog testicles contributed to subfertility. I am going to have to go with a big no on this one, as there are no studies in women - although Sexual Competence of Rats could be the name of a punk band that never made it out of their parents' basement because their first single, Thrusting, failed to chart.

Power and health are inseparably linked. You can't be an empowered patient and get the health outcomes you want with inaccurate information and halftruths. Even if the information is correct, you also can't be empowered when the person or source informing you is making you feel bad or is not listening to your concerns.

When, in the past, I have come out against the misinformation presented to women, I have been attacked for diminishing the choices available to them.

But to me, the idea that women can take away what serves them from the morass of half-truths and lies about their bodies is the greatest perversion of choice. True choice - the ability to analyze information and make personal risk-benefit assessments based on it - requires facts.

And it is this quest to supply women with the facts that keeps me up at night. It is why I keep fighting.

I want every woman to have the power that comes with knowing how her body works and knowing how to look for help when her body may not be working as she hoped it would. I want all women to know when there is bias and medical subterfuge, when there are lies and when the patriarchy is just invested in keeping them frightened about their own normal (and, I might add, glorious) bodily functions.

The patriarchy and snake oil have had a good run, but I'm done with how they negatively affect women's health.

So I am not going to stop swinging my bat until everyone has the tools to be an empowered patient and until those who seek to subjugate women through enforced ignorance have shut up and taken a seat in the back of the class.

That's my vagenda.

Associated Graphic

Obsessions with reproductive-tract purity and cleansing date back to a time when a woman's worth was measured by her virginity.

KAMELEON007/GETTY IMAGES/ISTOCKPHOTO

Today, physicians and sex educators can print out accurate 3-D models of the clitoris, but for much of medical history no one had a clear idea what it looked like.

FACEBOOK/ODILE FILLOD

Zinc: Great for your rock collection, not so much for your libido.

DAVID MERCADO/REUTERS

You can't change your vaginal pH with vinegar, or any other food product.

ISTOCK

Parsley will not help you induce a period.

PAUL J. RICHARDS/GETTY IMAGES


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Tuesday, July 30, 2019 – Page B14

JOYCE ALEXANDER

It is with great sadness we announce the passing of our dearly loved mother, Joyce Alexander on Sunday, July 21, 2019 at the age of 81. Joyce ("Joy") passed away just as the sun was rising over the Kamloops B.C. hillside and the birds were starting to sing. She was surrounded by her loving children who will miss her dearly.

Joy will be best remembered for her great love of family, and her love of all creatures great and small.

Her grandchildren spent endless summer hours playing in Nanny's pool, enjoying her delicious baking, and joining her for daily dog walks.

Joy had a dog by her side all her life, providing her with much love, laughter and companionship. The spiders, squirrels and crows have also lost a dear friend.

Joyce was born and raised in Winnipeg, Manitoba. This is also where she learned to love a good prairie wind; a love that remained all her life. She trained to be a Registered Nurse at the St. Boniface Hospital and worked several years there before meeting the love of her life, Bill Alexander, on a blind date.

They married in August 1961 and remained happily together for 37 years. Their married life took Joy from Winnipeg to Vancouver, Mississauga, Minneapolis, New Liskeard, and Burlington. When Joy was widowed at age 60 she moved to Kamloops, where she and Bill had planned to retire, and resided there for the last 20 years.

Joy always kept in contact with her family and small, close circle of friends, no matter how near or far they lived apart.

Joyce is predeceased by her husband, Charles William ("Bill") Alexander; and survived by her three children, Duncan (Rosanna) Alexander, Nancy (Russell) Barnes and Donna (Rob) Brooks; her eight grandchildren, Elizabeth, Alex, Madeline, Cameron, Laura, Katie, Ryan and Becky; sister, Donna (Gordon) Graham; and brother, Dan (Edna) Barlow.

A Celebration of Life will be held on Saturday, September 7 in Kamloops B.C. Please R.S.V.P Nancy Barnes (nrbarnes@telus.

net), with details to follow. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Terry Fox Foundation (http://www.terryfox.org) Arrangements entrusted to Alternatives Funeral & Cremation Services 250-554-2324.

Condolences may be expressed to the family from http://www.myalternatives.ca

MICHAEL JAY BROWN "Chuck"

Born April 27, 1953, in Toronto, died at St. Mike's Hospital, Toronto on July 27, 2019. He leaves the great love of his life, wife Marsha, and beloved daughter Raegan (Rob). He also leaves his brother, PJ (Susan) and numerous in-laws, out-laws, nieces, nephews, cousins and friends, all of who understood that it's all about the laughs.

C. JAMES BURRY

Of Toronto, Ontario, age 88, passed away suddenly at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto on July 25, 2019. Devoted husband of Winifrede Rogers Burry for 61 years. Proud father of Guy (Liz Lundell), Donald, and John and "Grandpa" to Kate and Owen, Alex (Melinda Choy) and EmmaLee. Predeceased by much-loved sister Joan Brown and dear sisterin-law Marianne Rogers. He will be missed by sister-in-law Gay Rogers, extended family and many friends.

Jamie was born in Toronto, Ontario, son of James A. S. and Dorothy (Fox) Burry. Jim was in the class of '53 at the Royal Military College, Kingston (#3021) where he earned the nickname "Burro" for his tenacity. He graduated from Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto and then completed a Master of Science degree at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Jim was a recognized expert in the field of water purification and waste water management. He worked as a consulting engineer at James F. MacLaren Associates as part of the team that designed Canada's first metropolitan-scale sewage treatment plant - the Humber Wastewater Treatment System in Toronto, opened in 1960. Jim later consulted on projects with Gore & Storrie before he became a professor at Ryerson University from 1967 to 1991 - where he was one of the first to provide coursework on computer. He was President of the American Water Works Association and recipient of the Water Environment Federation's Bedell Award. Jim was also a director on the board of St. Marys Cement Company.

Jamie's favorite pastimes were working on the computer, painting military miniatures, genealogy, reading, listening to music, watching anything gridiron and college hoops, driving machinery at Midloch Farm in his penny loafers, and taking many memorable family trips to Florida, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island as well as Christmases at the Muskoka cottage that he and Win purchased in 1987.

A reception to celebrate his life will take place at The York Club, 135 St George St., Toronto, ON on Friday, September 6, 2019 from 3:30 to 5:30 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Taylor Statten Camping Bursary Fund (tscbf.

com) or the charity of your choice would be appreciated. Jamie always thought that summer camp was truly important for his boys because it gave him a few peaceful summers.

DONALD JAMES CRAWFORD

February 3, 1926 July 26, 2019 Donald James Crawford passed away peacefully, at the Oakville Trafalgar Hospital on July 26, 2019.

Don was a true gentleman and a man who truly loved his wife, his children, his grandchildren, his great grandchildren, his church and his music.

In September, Don and his wife, Helen Crawford would have celebrated their 70th wedding anniversary. They met at McMaster University, after Helen smartly invited Don to the Sadie Hawkins Dance.

Don loved and always had time for his four children (Fred, Shelley, Tom and Robert), his grandchildren (Amanda, Lindsay, Shannon, Emily, Mike, Sarah, Jacob and Abbey) and his greatgrandchildren (Ethan, Ava, Austin and Maisie). He always loved to hear about their busy lives and activities.

Don also loved his church. Don and Helen were members of Lorne Park Baptist Church and through the years, Don would participate in or chair various committees, volunteer for Out of the Cold, stuff envelops at CBM or even get involved with policy meetings for BCOQ and the Baptist World Alliance.

Don also loved music and at the age of 50, decided that he would start learning the cello. He took lessons, went to camps with teenagers and played in a local Oakville String Group. He loved it. Later in life to continue his love of music, he joined the Kerr Street Singers, took singing lessons and sang with them for many years.

Don grew up in St. Catharines and graduated with a physics and chemistry degree and Masters from McMaster. He joined DuPont where he had a successful career working in Toronto, Montreal and Kingston.

Don took early retirement and rather than slow down, worked for many years with the Jackman Foundation. He had the enviable position of helping to distribute funds to deserving charities and organizations.

For many years, Don spent his free time sailing and boating and also found enough time to get his Private Pilot license and in order to give back to the community, he became a Cub Leader.

For the last 10 years, Don had been having early morning dialysis three times per week at the Oakville Trafalgar Hospital.

This was extremely draining and restricting for Don and Helen.

The nurses, volunteers and other dialysis patients were like family to him and he had excellent care.

Don was loved by many for his great sense of humour, his positive outlook and his exemplary character. He will be missed and remembered with much love.

The Celebration of Life Service will be held on August 2nd at Kopriva Taylor Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville, at 1:00 p.m. Reception to follow. If desired, donations may be made to the Canadian Kidney Foundation. Email condolences may be made through http://www.koprivataylor.com.

CAROLE GREENBERG

On Saturday, July 27, 2019. Carole Greenberg, beloved wife of Nate.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Paul Greenberg and Roberta Gold, Liane Greenberg and the late Rebecca Greenberg. Dear sister and sister-in-law of Margaret and Leslie Singer. Service will be held at Beth Tzedec Congregation, 1700 Bathurst Street, Toronto, on Tuesday, July 30,2019 at 11:00 a.m. Interment at Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 22 Shallmar Blvd, Unit 410, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to The Carole Greenberg Memorial Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation 416-780-0324 http://www.benjamins.ca.

WALTER HOMBURGER CM

It is with deep sadness that the family announces the passing of Walter Homburger, CM on July 25, 2019 at Sunnybrook Veteran's Centre in Toronto, Ontario at the age of 95.

Beloved husband of Emmy (Schmid) during their 58 years of marriage. Dearly loved father of son Michael Homburger (Olivia), daughter Lisa Noel (Richard).

Sadly missed by his four devoted grandchildren Ella and Oscar Homburger and Sara and James Noel. Cherished by his brother Peter Homburger (Ruth) and nephews Phil (Debbie), Dave (Michelle), Steve (Teresa), and Drew (Amy). Predeceased by his brother Wolf Homburger (Arlene) and nephew Paul (Donna) as well as niece Joanna (Britton), and cousins Eve (Jacob) and Ann Homburger, including their extended families.

Loving brother-in-law to Sylvia Schmid and Uncle to daughters Krista Schmid (Christian) and Karin Reid (Cameron) with their loving children Adrian, Marco and Juliette.

During a long and distinguished career Walter's passion for the Arts influenced many, both locally and globally, throughout the performing arts community. Walter will be fondly remembered and sadly missed by those whose lives he touched. The family wishes to thank the staff of Sunnybrook Veteran's Centre, Christie Gardens Assisted Living, and all of the respective caregivers and support workers who have touched our family's life.

A private cremation will take place and a memorial service will be announced at a later date. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Toronto Symphony Orchestra at TSO.CA/Tribute or 416.598.5311 and to the Walter Homburger Scholarship with the University of Toronto Faculty of Music at donations.management@ utoronto.ca or 416.978.0811.

JEAN ISOBEL HOWARD (née Bowcock)

Passed away at the Village of Tansley Woods on July 7, 2019 in her 97th year. She will be missed by her son, John (Susan); daughter, Marion (Rusty); son, Bob (Linda); grandchildren, Ryan, Sarah (Gunars), Carolyn and Clifford (Lori Anne). She was predeceased by her parents, Geoffrey and Florence (nee Jones) and her brother, Geoffrey. Jean was a high school teacher and an avid gardener.

A Memorial Gathering will take place at Smith's Funeral Home, 485 Brant Street, (one block north of City Hall), Burlington (905-6323333), on Thursday, August 1, 2019 from 4-7 pm. For those who wish, donations in memory of Jean to the charity of your choice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

http://www.smithsfh.com

ROCHELLE KOSKIE

On Sunday, July 28, 2019 at her home. Beloved wife of Ray Koskie. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Joanne Koskie and Pelino Colaiacovo, and Steven and Peggy Koskie. Dear sister and sister-in-law of Charles Fichman and Marijke Dollois.

Devoted grandmother of Max, Julian, Brandon, and Eve. Loving aunt of Ilona, Carlos, and Joel. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, July 31, 2019, please see http://www.benjamins.ca for service information. Interment Temple Sinai Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 161 Beechwood Avenue, Toronto. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to the Rochelle Koskie Jazz Student Scholarship Fund c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324, http://www.benjamins.ca.

FRENY MADON (nee Sethna)

Passed away peacefully, with her family by her side on July 27, 2019 at the age of 85. Freny was born on December 18, 1933 in Mombasa, Kenya. Beloved wife of Shavak, loving mother of Cyrus (Shilpa) and Dan (Janice). Adored grandmother of Natasha, Maxwell, Shaleena, Farah, Rayna and Mila.

Dear sister of Nargis, Noshir (Banu), Rumi (Hilda). Predeceased by her sister, Roshan and brothers-in-law, Russi and Adil.

Freny cherished time with her family and very wide circle of friends. She always had a warm hug for you and a smile that could light up any room. Freny enjoyed travelling and in particular, spending the winter months in Florida. Freny was a strong, determined and warm person throughout her life and she had all the time in the world for those around her. No matter who Freny came in contact with, she left a lasting impression.

Visitation at Glen Oaks Funeral Home, 3164 Ninth Line, Oakville (Ninth Line and Dundas St. E.

905-257-8822) on Wednesday, July 31, 2019 from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.

A funeral service will be held at Glen Oaks Funeral Home Chapel on Thursday, August 1, 2019 at 11 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Credit Valley Hospital or Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital and would be greatly appreciated.

MEG DUSSAULT (Buckley) September 21, 1957 July 30, 2013 "A true light to those who loved her."

Always loved, Paddy - The Buckley & Dussault families

HILDA ROSALIND NYE (Roz)

Passed away peaceful on July 21, 2019 at Oakville Trafalgar Hospital in her 95th year. Beloved Mother of Laura Hughes (John), Stephen (Carol) and Mark (Cindy). Nan of Sarah, Amy, Tom, Lisa, Carrie, Adam, Michael, Amanda and Bradley. Great-Nan of 10. What an extraordinary life.

Born Hilda Rosalind Harradine in London England, Roz grew up as the youngest of a loving family of six children. School was her passion and she was awarded a scholarship to continue her education. This was not to be, as war broke out in 1939 when she was just 14. She endured evacuation and then survived the London blitz. Roz joined the Navy as a WREN and served her country as a navel switchboard operator.

It was during this time she met and married the love of her life, Jack Nye. In 1949 they set out for Canada with their 1 year old baby to start a new life of hard work and opportunity.

Together they built Nye Manufacturing Ltd in Mississauga, which continues to grow to this day, its success is a testament to the family's drive and innovation.

While Roz's schooling was halted early by war, her passion for knowledge and for learning remained voracious to the end.

She was never far from her books, dictionary and encyclopedias.

Roz was an avid student of Art, Literature, Music, Needlework and Dance. She loved ballroom dancing and competed in many countries. Her last event was in Cancun when she was in her 92nd year and she came home so proud to be first in her class. Later in life, Arizona was Roz's happy place.

She wintered there for almost 30 years, always inviting family to come and visit. When asked her secret to a long and healthy life, her answer was always "Everything in moderation."

By design and through example she showed us how to be curious, how to research, to question and to sometimes challenge.

This passion for learning is the legacy that she gifts to her children and theirs. Mum loved the Wordsworth poem "Dancing with Daffodils" and that is exactly what we are imaging she is doing now. A Celebration of Life will be held for family in September. If desired, remembrances can be made to The Canadian Red Cross.

Letters of condolence, shared stories and memorial donations may be left for the family online at http://www.mckersie-kocher.ca In Loving Memory

MICHAEL EVAN JURIST

June 22, 1985 July 30, 2007 "Life is not measured in years, but by lives touched" Twelve years have passed. But in many ways life has stood still.

Warm memories and family and friends continue to give us comfort and support.

We all hold you dear in our hearts.

We are honored by your legacy and grateful for all the wonderful tributes and programs which keep your memory alive.

You brought us joy and pride and left a huge void.

You are deeply missed, forever remembered and loved each and every day.

Love, Mom and Dad

JOAN BEVERLEY PAUL (nee McMillen)

Joan passed away peacefully at the age of 84 on Friday, July 26, 2019 at home surrounded by her family. Beloved wife of Don, cherished mother of Margo, Gordon (Anne) and Douglas (Lesley).

Dearly loved Nana of Katie (Kyle), Alex (Mitch), Lizzy, Andrew and Jonathan.

Joan was born and raised in East York, met Don while she was in nursing training and Don in medical school and married in 1958. They moved to Collingwood in 1960 to raise their family and, in 1963, settled on Maple Street.

They treasured the lifelong friends they made in over 59 years in our community. Joan participated in many volunteer opportunities during her time in Collingwood.

This work was recognized by the awarding of the Order of Collingwood in 2002.

Visitation will take place at Fawcett Funeral Home, 82 Pine St., Collingwood on Wednesday, July 31 from 6-9 p.m. Funeral services will be held at All Saints Anglican Church, 32 Elgin St., Collingwood on Thursday, August 1 at 1 p.m. A reception will be held at the upstairs lounge at the Collingwood Curling Club following the service.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Hospice Georgian Triangle, Collingwood General & Marine Hospital Foundation or Royal Victoria Hospital Cancer Care Centre.

The family would like to thank Dr. Myrna Monte for her kind and compassionate care of our wife and mum. Thank you to Hospice Georgian Triangle-Campbell House for their support to Joan and her family during her stay at hospice. The staff and volunteers are truly outstanding and a valued member of our community.

Friends may visit Joan's online Book of Memories at http://www.fawcettfuneralhomes.com

THOMAS EDWARD REED

Was born November 12, 1923, in Gadsden, Alabama. He passed away peacefully on June 30, 2019, in Credit Valley Hospital, Mississauga, Ontario, at age 95.

Ed was the only child of Kathleen Goulden. He is survived by his devoted wife of 42 years, Maria Teresa (Tere) Reed-Zenzes, his sons Thomas, of Toronto, and Christopher (Laverna), of California.

Ed grew up in San Diego. He loved southern California, and took to the sea as an enthusiastic surfer and observer of sea life. Ed studied at the California Institute of Technology, and did his doctoral research at the University of London. He subsequently pursued research at the University of Michigan, and in 1964 accepted a position at the University of Toronto, which remained his academic base until retirement.

He had an abiding interest in anthropology, which was a complement to his research in human genetics. Thus his appointment at the University of Toronto was a joint one, between the Departments of Anthropology and Zoology.

One of his other passions was travel, and this he did a great deal. He conducted research in a number of countries, travelled for pleasure, and also attended conferences in interesting places.

One such conference was life changing for Ed. He first met his wife Tere in Leningrad at the International Congress of Human Genetics. He adored Tere, who also shared many of his interests, and they pursued these together, at home and on trips around the world, carefully planned by Ed.

His friends considered Ed to be a person of moderation in all things. As he liked to say, including moderation itself. He had a quiet, dry sense of humour.

He could be a little mischievous, but always polite and respectful.

He was an avid reader, particularly of The New York Times and The New Yorker, and was known for his incredible memory. He was a fount of information on many subjects, especially in the sciences.

With Ed around "Googling it" was often not necessary.

He had a joy of life, which included appreciation of fine food, a special affinity for interesting beers, enjoyment of fine art, and a passion for science.

He will be greatly missed by Tere, Tom and Chris, and by those good friends who saw him through this final chapter of his life.


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As rents rise across Canada, tenants are forced into subpar conditions or driven out of markets altogether. It's a complicated crisis - without a quick fix
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Page B6

Amy Silliker knows where she's living the next six months. Beyond that, it gets murky.

After many years out of province, she snagged a great job as a paralegal in Summerside, PEI, taking her back to her hometown nearby in February, and where she's been house-sitting as she gets settled.

Six months into her rental search, she's found nothing. She checks Kijiji every day, but listings are out of her budget. She's on every apartment waitlist imaginable, and calls each month to see whether anything has opened up. Nothing has. A single mother, Ms. Silliker has heard a harsh refrain from some landlords: They don't want children.

The clock is ticking - and Ms. Silliker isn't all that confident.

"I hope that I wouldn't have to [leave] because I love my job," the 25-year-old says. "But I mean, I can't be homeless either."

Welcome to the birthplace of Confederation, now home to arguably the worst market in the country for renters.

Prince Edward Island's apartment vacancy rate plunged to 0.3 per cent in 2018, according to the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. (CMHC). Just five years earlier, it was 7.1 per cent.

After years of anemic construction and growing demand - thanks to an 8-per-cent population bump since 2014 - the average rent on a one-bedroom unit has climbed 16 per cent in five years. The vacancy rate for three-bedroom apartments on the island? Zero.

"We are using the word 'crisis' without exaggeration," says Hannah Bell, an MLA for the provincial Green Party.

Toronto and Vancouver tend to hog the spotlight when it comes to discussions of the country's rental crisis, with vacancy rates in both metro areas sitting at around 1 per cent.

But renters - who account for more than 30 per cent of Canadian households - are struggling to find suitable housing in cities and towns from coast to coast. In Kelowna, B.C., the average rent on a twobedroom apartment shot up nearly 10 per cent in 2018 from a year earlier. In nearby Revelstoke, B.C., a popular ski destination, the mayor says seasonal workers are sleeping 15 to a house. In Prince Edward County, Ont., homes are being converted into Airbnbs to accommodate floods of wine-drinking tourists, taking the homes off the rental market.

All of this means renters are often forced to stay in substandard, abusive or cramped conditions - or they're being driven out of markets altogether, taking them away from jobs, family and friends.

There's no one issue to blame for the crisis. Instead, it springs from a combination of policy changes and tax reforms that have made rental construction less appealing, demographic shifts that mean demand is growing faster than supply, and a seemingly unstoppable housing market that has put home ownership out of reach for all but the wealthiest.

And there's no quick fix.

Demand for rentals is "overwhelming the supply that's coming online, and I just don't see any silver bullet that's going to change the supply equation overnight," Michael Waters, the chief executive officer of Ottawa-based Minto Apartment real estate investment trust (REIT), said in a May earnings call.

"This will take quite a long time to remedy."

Canadian developers used to build loads of apartments, but it has become much less appealing.

During some peak years in the 1960s and '70s, more than 100,000 new rental units were completed, far greater than today's construction levels.

Tax policies encouraged rental investments. Notably, owners could claim high levels of depreciation (up to 10 per cent annually) against a rental property's income, helping to drive down taxable income during a building's early years, when startup costs are higher and rents are lower. Owners could then use a property's "paper loss" to reduce other sources of taxable income.

But in the early 1970s came a major tax overhaul with the primary goal of closing loopholes in the country's tax structure. Rental incentives were collateral damage.

"There was little, if any, consideration of the adverse consequences on the flow of private capital" into rentals, economist Frank Clayton wrote in a 1998 report for the Canadian Federation of Apartment Associations.

As a result, allowable depreciations were reduced and the "paper loss" scheme eliminated. Sellers of rental buildings were also now subject to capital gains taxes, among other adverse changes.

Later on, Brian Mulroney's Conservative government cut funding for social housing, leading to a sharp decrease in new affordable units in the 1990s.

At the same time, market dynamics were changing. Though the 1990s kicked off with a recession, the ensuing years saw robust economic growth.

Home prices were modest and mortgage rates had declined precipitously, from double digits in the 1980s to about 7 per cent by the late nineties for a five-year rate. Canadians jumped at the opportunity to become homeowners, and the number of renters declined between 1996 and 2006.

To satiate demand, developers turned their attention to another form of high-rise: condominiums.

Condo construction exploded. Since 1990, condo starts nationwide have averaged 46,500 a year, compared with 21,000 for rental housing. Toronto provides an extreme example: Over the past decade, about 80,000 new condo units have come onto the market, compared with just 4,500 purpose-built rentals, according to a city report from January.

From a developer's standpoint, there are obvious reasons to build condos. For one, you can presell the units, helping to secure part of the necessary financing.

"It's simply easier to build condo product: presell 70 to 80 per cent of the units, build the building and then move on to your next project and collect a fairly large profit along the way," says Paul Morassutti, vice-chairman at real estate services firm CBRE Ltd.

Of course, condos can be a lucrative to momand-pop investors - the average two-bedroom condo in the Toronto area rents for roughly $2,400 a month, according to CMHC, and about $2,000 in Metro Vancouver - and many units end up on the rental market. Depending where you look, they contribute significantly to a city's new rental supply: About one-third of the Toronto area's condos are used as rentals, compared with 19 per cent in 2007.

But from a renter's perspective, condo living - indeed, living in any unit that's not purpose-built - can be precarious. Eventually, the owner may opt to move in, or decide to lock in profits and sell.

"It doesn't allow renters to have confidence that their rental unit is theirs as long as they continue to pay rent on time," says Graham Haines, research manager at the Ryerson City Building Institute.

Then there's the Airbnb effect. Increasingly, owners are bypassing the rental market entirely. A recent McGill University report found more than 31,000 homes (including condos) were rented out so often on Airbnb in 2018 that they were likely removed from Canada's long-term rental supply. (The company disputes the figure and the study's methodology.)

What's clear is that condos, increasingly, aren't places where families can live and grow.

The median size of condos built in Ontario from 1981 to 1990 is just more than 1,000 square feet, according to Statistics Canada; for those built in 2016 and 2017, it is 665 square feet. In B.C., it declined to 775 square feet from 922 square feet.

"We're building condos not based on what the rental market needs, but what the investors who want to buy one condo will want instead," Mr.Haines says.

Rental demand is strong, and it's only getting stronger.

Since coming into office in 2015, the federal Liberals have pursued higher levels of immigration to help stoke economic growth and ease long-term demographic concerns. Canada welcomes more than 300,000 immigrants annually, and Ottawa is targeting higher intakes in coming years. This has led to some of the country's strongest population growth

in decades.

It's a policy rooted in sound economic theory.

But most newcomers also rent, and combined with decades of meagre rental construction, the result is that demand has overwhelmed supply.

"We just haven't been building traditional apartment buildings to keep up with expansions in population," says David Macdonald, senior economist at the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA).

Consider PEI. To help boost its fortunes, the province has pursued an "aggressive population growth strategy," says Ms. Bell, the MLA, seeking out both immigrants and luring native islanders back home.

Over the four years that ended in mid-2018, PEI's population grew 6.2 per cent, the highest among the provinces. In addition to immigration, rental demand has been topped up by those moving to Charlottetown from rural areas, Ms. Bell says.

But with lacklustre construction, and a vibrant short-term rental market, vacancies have all but dried up.

"We are genuinely concerned that we are going into yet another fall and winter where we have people who are in crisis," Ms. Bell says.

The problem is magnified in major employment centres such as Toronto and Vancouver, which are hubs for newcomers.

Indeed, in the 12 months ending July 1, 2018, the Toronto region's population grew by roughly 125,000 people, or 56 per cent higher than the previous 10-year average, Statistics Canada reports. For both the Toronto and Vancouver areas, population growth was entirely owing to international migration, including permanent residents and foreign students.

It all adds up to a national vacancy rate for purpose-built apartments of 2.4 per cent in 2018, down from 3 per cent in 2017, according to CMHC, which cited immigration as a key factor in the decline.

In turn, rents are shooting up. The average apartment rate in Victoria climbed 7.4 per cent in 2018 from a year earlier, CMHC data show. In Peterborough, Ont., rents climbed 6.9 per cent. And for the average two-bedroom in the Oshawa area, rates rose 6 per cent.

It's no surprise that Toronto and Vancouver are exceptionally pricey. The average two-bedroom apartment in the Toronto area runs $1,467 a month, with Metro Vancouver at $1,649. Want a bigger space, or condo, in the city? Be prepared to spend more. And bear in mind, new listings command far steeper rates. The median asking rent in July for a two-bedroom unit in Toronto was $2,850 a month, according to rental site PadMapper. In Vancouver, it topped $3,000.

No wonder rising rents are stretching wallets.

CMHC says housing is "affordable" when a household spends less than 30 per cent of its pretax income on shelter. In the previous census, close to 1.8 million tenant households spent in excess of that threshold.

By that measure, a full-time worker would need to earn $35.43 an hour to afford an average two-bedroom in the Vancouver area, according to a recent CCPA report. (The think tank used CMHC's prices in its calculation.) It was $33.70 an hour for the Toronto area, and $22.40 an hour for Canada over all.

Meanwhile, Statscan data show that roughly 29 per cent of Canada's 13.8 million full-time workers are earning less than $20 an hour.

The consequence is that "households don't have as much money for other priorities and buying other things in the economy," Mr. Macdonald says.

To avoid financial strain, many have little choice but to hunker down.

Nava Dabby and her family are a prime example.

She and her husband live in what's billed as a twobedroom apartment in Toronto's St. Clair West area.

But their 16-month-old son's room is cramped, with a "teeny-tiny, little window."

Ms. Dabby, a 34-year-old yoga studio manager, would love more space, but at $1,450 a month, her current rent is half what she would pay for a larger place in the same neighbourhood. They've looked into buying. To that end, they've socked away $75,000 for a down payment and have been preapproved for a mortgage of roughly $450,000 - a sum that falls well short of going rates for houses in the city.

"If I ever magically saw this $500,000 house, I would probably buy it," Ms. Dabby says. "But I haven't seen one in the last two years that I've been getting real estate e-mails."

Ryan Aird, 29, finds himself similarly stuck. After a bitter dispute with the landlord, he and his girlfriend looked to move out of their one-bedroom apartment near Toronto's High Park, which costs just more than $1,500 a month..

But four years after they moved in, the market had changed drastically. "Prices have gone just so high now that we'd be downsizing or moving into a basement unit, and still paying more than we pay now," Mr. Aird says.

Like most renters in Ontario, Mr. Aird is covered by rent control, which ties his unit's annual price hikes to provincial inflation. But once a unit is vacated, landlords can set the price. In Mr. Aird's building, for instance, identical one-bedrooms are being listed for at least $2,000 a month.

For obvious reasons, renters largely support rent control, because the predictable and relatively modest increases give them long-term financial stability. The downside, however, is that many tenants end up enduring nasty landlords, noisy neighbours, poorly kept buildings and even abusive relationships to hold on to rent-controlled rates.

Moreover, economists typically agree that rent control scares off developers and crimps new supply, thereby making rental markets tighter and pricier.

In 2017, the previous Ontario Liberal government expanded rent control to all units; it had earlier covered units built before 1991. The expansion was roundly criticized on Bay Street. "There is a clear risk that the broadening of Ontario's rent-control policy may worsen rental stock availability," a Toronto-Dominion Bank research report said.

Finally, the math is getting better for developers.

From a financial standpoint, developing rentals is still challenging, given rising construction costs and pricey land, especially in big markets. But owning them long-term? That's an increasingly attractive asset - and some big names want a piece.

RioCan REIT, better known for shopping malls, started leasing units in Toronto and Ottawa this year. Oxford Properties, the property arm of Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System pension fund, is trying to build a four-acre development near the CN Tower that includes 800 rental units in two towers. And Minto has added buildings in Calgary, Montreal and elsewhere to its portfolio.

"The front-end returns are somewhat skinny," Mr. Morassutti of CBRE says. "But all of those owners feel that, over time, especially if you've got a 30year horizon, the overall return will be quite healthy, as rents continue to grow."

The construction data reflect this growing appetite. The number of rental starts climbed to nearly 50,000 units in 2018, nearly double the previous 10year average, CMHC says. More than 10,000 new units are under construction in the Greater Toronto Area alone, and another 44,000 are planned but have yet to break ground, according to research firm Urbanation.

The policy climate appears to have improved for developers, as well. Ontario's current Progressive Conservative government has scrapped rent control on new units completed after late 2018, and will allow developers to postpone development charges for rental and non-profit housing by five years, easing startup costs.

More broadly, governments at all levels have dedicated billions toward rental development, much of it in affordable housing. Through a series of programs, CMHC is looking to deliver more than 110,000 new units by 2027-28. Its Rental Construction Financing Initiative provides low-cost loans to developers, and 23 projects have been announced to date.

As for tenants, some relief is on the way: The Canada Housing Benefit, which launches next year, will provide an average rent subsidy of $2,500 a year, and eventually reach 300,000 families.

But with rip-roaring population growth, it might not be enough.

"We're still under-building [in Toronto]," says Shaun Hildebrand, president of Urbanation. "Even though we're seeing the level of development ramp up, it's coming off of a depressed level, right? So the numbers all look very exaggerated."

Mr. Hildebrand says three times as much rental construction is needed to satisfy Toronto's demand.

And what's being built isn't for everyone. Ottawa is seeing a spate of high-end rentals come to market with one-bedroom units at $2,100 a month.

As such, "increased rental starts have not been due to public funding or tax incentives, but rather answer a demand for new, mostly luxury rentals for people priced out of the housing market," the CCPA report said.

So, how can Canada unlock a flood of new, purpose-built rentals, including affordable units?

Many municipalities are hampered by zoning bylaws that restrict high-density development. In Vancouver, for instance, city council recently turned down a rezoning application to build 21 rental townhomes in the Shaughnessy neighbourhood.

The project was opposed by an end-of-life hospice next door.

Now, the lot's owners are planning to build a single, 12,000-square-foot mansion.

The situation is much the same in Toronto. "I think it's utterly insane that, in 2019, if you're building a building that's within a pitching wedge of a subway station, that you should have to scratch and claw just to build nine or 10 storeys," Mr. Morassutti says.

As for the Canada Housing Benefit, it will reach just a fraction of the millions of Canadians who are now spending too much on rent. Likewise, though funding for social housing has picked up, construction sits below heyday norms, suggesting even more cash is needed.

Tax reform, including a reinstatement of some bygone incentives, would turn heads in the private sector. Tighter regulation of short-term rentals - in particular, cracking down on commercial Airbnb operators - could free up supply and, where rules are in place, tougher enforcement is needed. (Quebec has struggled to clamp down on explosive Airbnb growth.) Taxes on uninhabited homes could help, too, in places where they don't already exist.

But all of this will take time.

Laura Cappell, for one, will be watching to see how all this pans out from afar. A communications freelancer, she felt like she was "being held hostage" by rent prices in Toronto. So she decided to move - all the way to Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. Her fully furnished three-bedroom house (pool and most utilities included) costs just less than $1,400 a month, or about $350 less than her one-bedroom apartment in midtown Toronto.

"You know, Toronto will always be home," Ms.Cappell says. "But I don't have to live there."

Associated Graphic

Nava Dabby and her husband live in what's billed as a two-bedroom apartment in Toronto's St. Clair West area. But their young son's room is cramped. Ms. Dabby would like more space, but at $1,450 a month, her current rent is half what she would pay for a larger place in the area. They've put away $75,000 for a down payment for a home, but have only been preapproved for a mortgage of roughly $450,000 - well below going rates for a Toronto home.

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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'Is it really 50 years?' David Milgaard on justice, faith and freedom
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In 1969, he was arrested for a murder he didn't commit and spent 23 years in prison as an innocent man. Today, David Milgaard talks about living in the shadow of a wrongful conviction and what it means to be free
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page A10

COCHRANE, ALTA. -- David Milgaard's garden sits on the edge of a sweeping valley. It's not much, but enough for what he needs. Tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries for the kids. Some parsnips and wild flowers grown from seed.

His yard is small but boundless, a thin patch of grass that turns quickly wild, then dips into a valley and stretches out to the horizon beyond. It's the expanse that made him want to live there. Vast and open. Endless. You can see the Bow River snaking by, and at intervals, trains clatter and squeal on the tracks alongside. He hasn't always liked trains, they remind him more of captivity than freedom, bringing to mind for him the dark purposes they've served in history, how they carried people away to captivity and worse.

"I try not to think about that," he says. "I'm getting used to them." Mr. Milgaard is 67 years old. His name, like his face, is deeply familiar, a part of our history and our culture. His story is one of Canada's most egregious wrongful convictions and it is never out of the news for long, even now. On the day I arrive at his townhouse outside Calgary, it is almost 50 years to the day since he was arrested and charged for a murder he didn't commit.

"Is it really 50 years?" he says, when I mention the anniversary to him, and he pauses for a moment to do the math. Then his voice grows soft.

It is difficult for him to talk about even now. But he knows he cannot stay silent.

"I just feel sad, you know, that the situation has been in my life the way that it has for so long," he says. "And I wish it wasn't that."

Saskatoon police issued a warrant for Mr. Milgaard on May 26, 1969, and he turned himself in four days later in Prince George. It was a Friday, the spring before the Summer of Love. The story of his arrest ran on the front page of the Saskatoon Star-Phoenix alongside pictures of the Earth taken during Apollo 10, the "dress rehearsal" for the first moon landing, then still to come. He was 16 years old.

It was a tumultuous time. In California, a group of young people were attempting to seize control of a town and set up "the first hippie government in the United States," and in a Montreal hotel, John Lennon and Yoko Ono were holding a "bed-in" for peace.

In Saskatoon, the police department investigating the murder of young nursing assistant Gail Miller was already battling allegations of police brutality and "irresponsible conduct." Amid that scrutiny, the arrest of Mr.

Milgaard was a win, a huge step forward in a case that had profoundly disturbed and upset the Prairie city for months: A young woman sexually assaulted and murdered on her way to work, her body discarded in a snowbank in the cold.

Mr. Milgaard had been travelling through the city with friends, a free spirit and an outsider, a long-haired hippie of the kind that had been questioning the establishment and authority everywhere. "The type of young man who gave police officers the shivers," his mother would later say, "especially if they had daughters."

There had been tremendous pressure on police to solve the case. By the first weeks of 1970, Mr. Milgaard was standing alone in the prisoner's box of a Saskatoon courtroom, watching as the jury's decision was passed to the judge. He heard his father groan, something deep and guttural, and saw the big man collapsing before his eyes.

"I don't remember much after that," Mr. Milgaard says now. "Everything just seemed to fog up and I was lost."

He was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison.

But Mr. Milgaard steadfastly declared his innocence, and his mother, Joyce, believed him. For the next 23 years, she fought tirelessly to see him released and then worked seven years more for him to be exonerated and compensated.

There were investigations and documentaries, books and movies, even the hit song, Wheat Kings, by the Tragically Hip. An inquiry that lasted almost two years and cost more than the $10-million, Mr. Milgaard finally received in compensation.

The real killer, Larry Fisher, was arrested for Ms. Miller's murder in 1997, after evidence sent by Mr. Milgaard's defence team to England for DNA analysis linked Mr.

Fisher conclusively to the crime. Mr. Fisher died in prison in 2015.

Mr. Milgaard is waiting at the door when I arrive at his home in Cochrane, Alta., half an hour outside Calgary.

His townhouse is modest, but he loves the view and it is what he can afford. His settlement money is long gone.

The bulk split between the lawyers' payments and a gift to his mother, who for decades gave everything she had to fight for him. The rest spent, given away, invested in things that didn't work out.

He gives me a tour: living room and small kitchen downstairs, a bathroom and three bedrooms on the floor above, for him and his two children. The house is dotted with their clothes and toys, with notes that record their goals and rules and accomplishments and Mr.

Milgaard's as well.

His son is 13. His daughter, 11. He and his wife have lived apart for the past four years and while their custody arrangement is flexible, Mr. Milgaard has the children with him most weeks. He and his wife met in Romania, and although he was married to another woman then, they fell in love. They married in her hometown, then came to Canada for the birth of their son. Mr. Milgaard says they tried hard to make it work and have been doing better as co-parents.

As we sit down on the couch, he asks me what my name means.

"Gift from God," I say.

"My name, David, means most loved by God," he tells me. "But I doubt that. I really do."

The thing Mr. Milgaard wants you to know is that it could have been you. That it could be you. He wants you to know that this story isn't just about what he's been through - 23 years in prison for a murder he didn't commit, then 27 more dealing with the consequences - but that it could just as easily be your story. It could be the story of your friend or your brother or your wife or your son, charged and tried and convicted and sentenced for something they did not do.

He wants you to know that there are people in prison right now who are facing the same thing he faced, innocent people kept in cages while the true perpetrators are out there, free. And most important, he wants you to care enough about the wrongfully convicted that measures will be taken to protect them, in ways that he himself was not protected.

"I would have been freed 15 years earlier, maybe even more. I was 17 when they had information on Larry Fisher," he says, his voice growing tight. Then he stops. "I'm upset now."

The anger is always there, waiting in pockets of his memory. By now he knows to watch for it, to tamp it back down when it comes. It is guaranteed in certain situations. In a room full of the wrongfully convicted, it comes out quickly. The anger is part of their shared reality, the almost unimaginable experience of being held responsible for something you did not do.

There is anger and frustration at those who allowed it to happen, at those who participated or obstructed or were complicit in your conviction; at those who allowed it to stand while you suffered. There is anger at those who knew the truth. At the real perpetrator, who let you pay for their crime. At those who didn't believe you. At those who would not listen.

There is anger over what it was like for those you loved, how they were treated and how they suffered, and over what was lost.

The days and years, the moments, the relationships that can never be regained. All that beauty and life that happened while you were in a cell.

There are many torments, too many to list even if you wanted to. But Mr. Milgaard says the worst thing was having people think he had done it. Knowing people believed he could be capable of doing something so horrible and what that meant for him and his family.

Mr. Milgaard says he would never admit to doing something he didn't do, and he maintained his innocence even though it meant he would be denied parole. At one point, he was believed to be the country's longest-serving inmate, serving far longer as an innocent man than he would have if he accepted responsibility for the crime.

Mr. Milgaard was 39 when he walked out of Stony Mountain Institution on April 16, 1992, carrying everything he owned in two duffel bags and four cardboard boxes and telling reporters: "It feels good to be out forever."

But the reality proved more complicated.

He'd grown up inside prison, been there most of his life by then, and he says getting out felt like landing on the moon.

Everywhere he went, Mr. Milgaard felt like people were looking at him. At that point, he had not yet been exonerated, with the Supreme Court saying only that he should have a new trial. Police and justice officials in Saskatchewan either maintained he was guilty of the murder or said the matter should simply be put to rest.

"There's nothing more to be done with it," Robert (Bob) Mitchell, then Saskatchewan's attorney-general, said at the time. "It is something I think we should all just try to put behind us and carry on with life."

Instead of finally being free, Mr. Milgaard came to feel as though he would always be a prisoner.

He had run-ins with the law and struggled with his mental health, at one point falling into a depression so severe he was hospitalized. He drank too much for a time, until he woke up in a hotel in Kelowna, B.C., one day and realized alcohol was a poison and he had to stop. His first wife helped him dry out, get on track, find steadier footing in the outside world.

For a while, he tried to distance himself from the issue of wrongful conviction, unable to navigate the tightrope between leaving the emotions of his past behind, and his desire - really his need, his calling - to help other wrongfully convicted people.

He says the first time he got involved trying to help a wrongfully convicted person, it was like he was back inside prison fighting for himself and it became so intense he had to stop. It is a cruel irony that the way he feels most compelled to help is the way that hurts him most.

He travelled - Turkey, Argentina, India, Spain. From a life so constrained, he went to 35 countries, collecting stories about the special moments in people's lives. He studied astronomy, worked as a community support worker in Calgary, then as a companion. But at some point, he knew he had to go back to the issue that defined his own life and fight for the wrongfully convicted.

"You can't do nothing, when you can do something," he says. His mother taught him that.

This spring, Mr. Milgaard took the stage inside the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg. He was joined by David Asper, one of the lawyers who worked to free him and overturn the conviction, and two journalists, Cecil Rosner and Carl Karp, who wrote

a book about the case. I had been asked to moderate the panel.

"It's time for me to wake you all up," Mr.

Milgaard told the crowd, in a speech at the beginning of the event. "This can happen to you. Either you or your children."

He stressed, as he always does, the need for an independent board of review, which has been recommended in previous inquiries into wrongful convictions, including his own.

The current system, in which government lawyers assess cases and make recommendations to the federal justice minister, was established in 1993 in part because of Mr. Milgaard's wrongful conviction, but the process has been criticized for extremely long delays, and Mr. Milgaard says it's not working. (In the emerging wrongful conviction case of Glen Assoun, who was released after 17 years in prison, a recommendation for a new trial has been reported to have sat without action for 18 months and a report as early as 2014 showed there had likely been a miscarriage of justice.)

Mr. Milgaard feels passionately about the creation of an independent board to review cases and it's something he repeats over and over, believing it could have made a difference of years - even decades - in his own life.

But while wrongful-conviction stories have proved popular fodder for true-crime podcasts and documentaries, organizations that advocate for the wrongfully convicted, such as Innocence Canada, struggle for funding, and the formation of an independent board of review seems to Mr. Milgaard to find little traction or political will.

"It's more than frustrating," Mr. Milgaard says. "I am so upset inside my heart, that these people, the senior administrators of justice in this country, are unable to see the truth in this situation."

Speaking events, such as the one in Winnipeg, can be difficult. Sometimes, people ask very personal questions, such as his feelings about Mr. Fisher, and one of those pockets of anger and pain opens up for a moment, deep and black. Sometimes, there are families of other wrongfully convicted people present and it hurts to know he can't fix everything for them. Whether they expect him to help, he wishes he could. He knows how much they are suffering.

"It's tough on me. It's tough on how I feel, even though I've done it so many times," he says. "You would say that maybe it's not something you would be feeling so much, but it's really hard to not feel the emotions. Feeling how bad, how horrible, it was to be inside prison."

But the money Mr. Milgaard gets from honorariums is necessary to support himself and his family, so he couldn't give it up even if he wanted to. And there are parts of the talks he enjoys: It feels good to connect with people sometimes, to think that maybe speaking to them could help raise awareness of wrongful conviction or make change. Even give someone else hope, no matter what their own challenges might be.

After the panel at the human-rights museum, Mr. Milgaard greeted the crowd waiting to speak with him. There were old friends and family; others who have been touched and moved by Mr. Milgaard and his story. There was Brian Anderson and his family, who are still fighting to prove Mr. Anderson was wrongfully convicted of murder 45 years ago.

Mr. Milgaard signed copies of The Rabbit's Paw, a book of poetry he wrote inside prison.

People waited in a long line to shake his hand, hug him, pose for a picture, talk. Later, Mr.

Milgaard went and stared at his own picture on display in the Canadian Journeys gallery.

He stopped to gaze for a moment at his much younger self, thinking about the man he was then, so long ago.

Sometimes, in dreams, he's back there. It's always mixed up, with time and people and places all muddled together, but always he is back inside a prison cell, fighting to get out.

He doesn't like to call them nightmares and he tries to focus not on the dreams but on how good it feels to wake up.

The past is always with him in ways large and small, as deeply present as the ammunition that remains lodged in his lower back. He had been out on a pass with family in the summer of 1980 when he went on the run, spending 77 days at large before being shot by the RCMP while being recaptured in Toronto that fall. A doctor told him he would barely walk and never run, but he proved that wrong. When the injury starts to hurt, he tries not to think about it.

Instead, he pushes himself always to look forward, trying to chart a positive direction for himself and his family. He plans to start painting again, and he has an easel and canvas already set up in his bedroom. He wants to exercise more and he's trying to trim down on a diet he learned in prison. (No bread, no potatoes, no dessert and just a few fries once a week.) He wants to do more for the wrongfully convicted, to press the issue of the independent review board, to advocate for the humane treatment of all prisoners. He always feels he could be doing more.

The kids can be a challenge and most of all, more than anything, he wants to be a good dad for them. They are his greatest happiness, the thing that brings him back when he feels adrift.

"I work hard to be a good father," he says. "I work hard for my life to be okay, to be something that I'm happy with."

This summer, he went on a road trip back to Manitoba with the kids to see his sisters and mother. She is elderly and not the way she once was, but Mr. Milgaard says she is loved and cared for. When he needs direction or help, he still looks to her.

"Joyce Milgaard fought everyone for me.

Without her, I would still be in prison, rotting away," he says. "I don't know where a person gets that inspiration, that sense of direction."

It is still not easy for him, 50 years later. But Mr. Milgaard has found that the things that saved him inside prison help him on the outside, too. There is the purpose he finds in his concern for social issues, First Nations and environmental issues; the strength he finds in his faith. There is the hope in the fact that people around the country cared so much about him and about justice. The love that comes from knowing his story mattered to so many people and that it matters still.

And there is the place he has found after a long and difficult path. A modest spot atop a sweeping valley, where he can raise his children and look out at the horizon, trying his best to be a steward and a gardener, planting things that will grow.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO BY TODD KOROL/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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In the spring of 2018, a lot of things looked right in the global economy.
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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Page B6

World gross domestic product was growing at its fastest pace in six years, and looked to still be accelerating: The International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook projected growth of nearly 4 per cent in each of the next two years.

What's more, the growth looked "synchronous," as the economists put it - not just strength here and there, but a broad swath of the world simultaneously on the upswing. The value of global trade was expanding at a healthy 6-per-cent annual clip.

Central banks - including those of the United States and Canada - were raising interest rates, in recognition that their economies, already running at full speed, no longer needed the stimulation that low rates had long been providing. After a decade of ups and downs, the world finally looked to be in a (more or less) full recovery from the 2008 financial crisis.

That's when the world's biggest economy, the United States, fired the first shots in a trade war with the world's second-biggest economy, China.

In the ensuing 16 months, as each side has raised tariff walls against each other and China-U.S.

trade talks have gone nowhere, the dispute has cast an ominous cloud over that once-bright outlook. Optimism has been replaced with fear. Synchronous growth has been supplanted by synchronous slowdown. It's increasingly apparent that this dispute threatens to knock the wind out of the global economy and financial markets. And while Canada's economy has so far held up better than most, there's little doubt our heavily trade-dependent economy stands in the crossfire.

Over the past week the gloom took its darkest turn yet: U.S. President Donald Trump threatened a new round of sweeping tariffs against Chinese goods, China responded by allowing its currency to devalue, and the U.S. formally declared China a "currency manipulator" - opening a dangerous new front in the war.

The fear sparked in global financial markets was visceral. Bond yields plunged to record lows, commodity prices tumbled, stock markets whipsawed and currencies gyrated violently. By the time the dust had settled, the inversion of the U.S. yield curve - in which yields on short-term bonds are higher than longer-term bonds - was the deepest in nearly two decades. That's an emphatic signal that the markets are bracing for a recession, with the trade war as the catalyst.

At the root of this increasingly worrisome feud is a Trump administration that views China as its economic enemy, and looks determined to pursue a Chinese trade policy based more on confrontation than co-operation. This fear of China, and a determination to rein it in, have led us to this highstakes game of chicken. The stability of the global economy hangs in the balance.

THE BATTLE BEGINS Underpinning the Trump administration's trade issues with China is a belief among the President and his key advisers that the United States made a big mistake nearly two decades ago, when it orchestrated China's entry into the World Trade Organization. Hardliners led by senior trade adviser Peter Navarro, along with U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer, are convinced China's centralized government never intended to pursue truly free markets and fair trade. They see a Chinese economy that has grown into a major U.S. competitor by exploiting the trade liberalization afforded it by WTO membership, and at the expense of U.S.

manufacturing jobs. They now appear intent to put the genie back in the bottle.

But this runs deeper than simply levelling the trade playing field. There's a sense it has more to do with the United States feeling its place at the top of the global pecking order threatened - a desire to halt China's march to supplant the U.S. as the dominant world power, abetted by a permissive world trade order that has allowed it to manipulate its gullible Western counterparts.

"There are a lot of people in Washington who have become convinced that they're in some sort of existential struggle with China," says international trade veteran Robert Wolfe, a professor at Queen's University in Kingston.

(Indeed, Mr. Lighthizer last year called China's trade policies around intellectual property an "existential threat to America's most critical comparative advantage and the future of our economy: our intellectual property and technology.") Mr. Trump's zeal to launch a tariff war was aided by his confidence that the U.S. could win in short order. China, after all, is a much more trade-dependent economy than the United States; China's exports are the equivalent of about 20 per cent of its GDP, compared with about 12 per cent for the U.S. What's more, China exports four to five times as much to the United States as the U.S. ships in the other direction. The assumption was that China, which would feel more pain from the trade war, would blink first and make concessions to strike a deal.

That was a serious miscalculation of the Chinese mentality, says Paul Blustein, author of the new book Schism: China, America, and the Fracturing of the Global Trading System.

"Surrendering and kowtowing to foreigners is just unthinkable," Mr. Blustein says. "They'd rather 'eat bitterness' - that's the Chinese term for accepting some kind of lower living standards, if you have to, in order to keep your national pride."

Mr. Trump's latest volley in the trade war will shift the bitterness closer to home. The U.S. tariffs imposed so far, on US$250-billion a year of Chinese goods, have focused on imports that don't hit U.S.

consumers directly - they're mostly intermediate inputs in the manufacturing process. But the additional US$300-billion a year of Chinese goods that Mr. Trump has threatened to hit with tariffs beginning Sept. 1 (starting at 10 per cent and eventually rising to 25 per cent) represent everything else China sends to the U.S. market - including consumer products such as electronics, toys, sports equipment and clothing that dominate U.S. retail shelves.

"The White House now appears prepared to impose increased and visible costs directly on its voting base," Bank of Nova Scotia economists Brett House and Juan Manuel Herrera say in a recent research report.

Meanwhile, many observers worry that this week's clashes between the United States and China on the currency front opens a dangerous new avenue in the dispute - one in which the two countries race to devalue their respective currencies to make their exports more price-competitive, in order to counteract the damage from the tariffs. A wave of what trade experts refer to as "competitive devaluations" - involving not only the key U.S. and Chinese currencies, but quite possibly triggering similar keep-pace moves by other countries - would introduce a new and highly destabilizing component to world finances.

"If this is the beginning of a new and dangerous phase of the trade war, then all bets are off," IHS Markit chief economist Nariman Behravesh said in a research note. "The ensuing financial fire storm could push the U.S. and global economies into recession."

CANADA VULNERABLE The basic economic math surrounding tariff wars is pretty simple. A tariff increases the cost of importing a good, and that increased cost could either take a bite out of an importer's profits, or be passed along to the importer's customers in the form of a price increase. Either way, the tariff eats into disposable income and discourages consumption, while increasing inflation. Done enough times with enough products in enough markets, the cumulative impact is to slow economic activity and decrease trade. When that involves economies as big as the United States and China, in a global economy that has become highly integrated, the drag on their activity is certain to spill over to other trading partners, too, leading to a generalized slowdown.

Sixteen months in, the U.S.-China dispute has already demonstrated that effect. World GDP has slowed appreciably, with waning export demand cited repeatedly as the biggest drag on growth. The IMF has steadily lowered its forecasts, recently reducing its 2019 growth projection to 3.2 per cent.

World trade growth has evaporated; new orders for future exports are in decline, implying further slowing to come. The newest U.S. threats to greatly expand its tariffs against China - and the nearcertainty that China will retaliate - will only deepen and extend the slowdown.

While the whole world will pay a price for this trade war, Canada looks particularly exposed. Not only is the Canadian economy heavily dependent on trade - exports are equivalent to nearly onethird of Canada's GDP - the United States and China are Canada's two biggest trading partners, accounting for a combined 80 per cent of Canada's exports and 70 per cent of its imports.

The ties are, of course, particularly tight with the United States, with which Canada shares its only border and fully 70 per cent of its total two-way trade. Scotiabank's Mr. House says Canada will chiefly feel the impact of the tariff war through its drag on U.S. growth, which would translate to slower U.S. demand for Canadian exports; the upward pressure from the tariffs on U.S. inflation and how that could affect U.S. interest rates; and the resulting impact on the exchange rate between the Canadian and U.S. dollars.

On one hand, it's hard to see how even the latest prospect of greatly expanded U.S.-China tariffs would send Canada's economy anywhere near a recession. Scotiabank calculated that the nearterm direct economic impact of this latest threatened round of U.S. tariffs would shave a modest 0.11 percentage point off Canadian GDP growth in 2020. If Mr. Trump followed through on his threat to gradually increase those tariffs to 25 per cent from an initial 10 per cent, Scotiabank estimated the hit at more like 0.28 percentage point.

With the Bank of Canada projecting last month that the economy would grow by about 1.9 per cent next year, the damage from another U.S.-China tariff escalation would be meaningful, but not enough to grind growth to a halt. And if the Canadian economy is feeling the pressure, it has a funny way of showing it: Estimates suggest that the second quarter was Canada's strongest quarter for growth in two years.

However, other less-direct economic consequences are harder to quantify - and potentially more serious. Economists worry that business and consumer confidence, not just in the United States and China but around the world, could be profoundly shaken with further escalation, especially the longer the dispute drags on with no signs of a resolution. If rising uncertainties cause consumers to retrench, and cause businesses to put off investing in new equipment and facilities, the resulting slowdown in economic activity could dwarf the more direct impacts of the tariffs.

The introduction of the currency wild card this week has added a highly unpredictable, and potentially highly disruptive, new element to the situation. It was perceived as a major step up in risk by the financial markets, which some observers have felt have been too complacent about the trade war until now. The resulting plunge in bond yields around the world - including in Canada, where the 30-year government bond hit a record low of 1.48 per cent - and the deep inversion of yield curves effectively signal that the global bond market now sees the risk of a global recession as very real.

For Canada, how the market drama played out in the commodities sector was a particularly dire warning. Oil prices slumped 13 per cent in a few days, leading a generalized slide in commodity prices, reflecting fears that a deeper global slowdown would gut demand for raw materials - not the least from the United States and China themselves, who are the world's biggest commodity consumers. Given Canada's position as a major exporter of a wide range of commodities, and oil in particular, the commodity slump played out in its currency, too, as the Canadian dollar lost a full cent against its U.S. counterpart.

The Bank of Canada will be under increased pressure now to follow other central banks that have begun moving swiftly, and in growing numbers, to cut interest rates to shore up their economies against the rising risks. The U.S. Federal Reserve cut its key rate by one-quarter of a percentage point last week, prior to the latest escalation in trade tensions, citing trade risks as a key concern.

After the new actions, New Zealand's central bank raised the bar by cutting a half percentage point this week. The market has now priced in about an 80-per-cent likelihood that the Bank of Canada will cut its rate by a quarter-point before the end of the year - up from a 20-per-cent chance just 10 days ago.

What's striking, Scotiabank's Mr. House says, is that this rapid slide into talk of recession is coming at a time when, at least in Canada and the United States, there are few if any economic indicators pointing to a downturn. Both countries have solid growth and full employment.

"We wouldn't be talking about recession at all in Canada and the United Sates, were it not for those trade battles," he says. "It's really an 'own goal' that's being kicked here by the White House."

"It makes no sense to be doing what [Mr.

Trump] is doing."

APPROACHING THE EDGE By the same token, what the U.S. President does next is equally hard to predict - especially with its decision to formally label China a currency manipulator.

"It's a dangerous move on the part of the United States that's not been thought through," says Tom Bernes, Distinguished Fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation in Waterloo, Ont., and a former senior official at the International Monetary Fund.

A logical next step would be to petition the IMF - which, among other things, polices currency manipulation - to investigate China's actions in currency markets. But the IMF as recently as last month concluded that China's currency was fairly valued - effectively a determination that China hasn't been artificially driving its currency lower for its own economic gain, the basic definition of manipulation.

Since Mr. Trump has open disdain for multilateral economic institutions such as the IMF anyway, he may take matters into his own hands. He may use the currency-manipulator label as justification to have his own government intervene in currency markets, either to push China's yuan higher or to devalue the U.S. dollar. Such a move would risk seriously destabilizing financial markets, which would have deep concerns with the government imposing its will on the currency market.

But many observers viewed China's decision this week to allow its currency to fall as essentially a shot across the bow - calculated to show the United States how easily it could devalue its currency if pushed to do so, and perhaps to roil financial markets in the process. Mr. Trump has always been highly sensitive to downturns in the stock market; the market turmoil triggered by this week's currency spat may convince him that further moves on the currency front would jeopardize the healthy markets that he cherishes, especially with the presidential election year fast approaching.

Similarly, some observers question whether he will go through with his threatened next round of tariffs, given the likely negative reaction the voting public to the resulting jump in prices for popular consumer goods. Rather, they believe the threat is aimed at turning up the heat on China to strike a deal - typical of Mr. Trump's negotiating style.

"Ultimately, the failure to reach a trade deal would weaken the U.S. economy, undermining Trump's re-election prospects. ... He does not want that," writes Peter Berezin, chief global strategist at BCA Research, an independent economic and financial-markets research firm based in Montreal.

BAD PRECEDENTS, FRAYED RELATIONSHIPS Regardless of whether the United States and China can find a way to dial down their tensions or even reach some sort of trade agreement, a dangerous precedent has been set. Mr. Trump's distaste for key international institutions, and the global rulesbased multilateralism that they engender, has led the world's most powerful economy to toss aside the global trade rule book and wield tariffs as a weapon in pursuit of "America First" self-interest.

What's more, he has brought China outside the rule book with him - and so far, China has been willing to come along.

But the lessons of 20th-century history have shown that tariff wars and other forms of beggarthy-neighbour economic aggression have not only proven to be economically destructive. They have contributed to the build-up of ill will that, ultimately, fuelled two world wars.

"I don't think disputes over trade lead to war, but they can certainly add to add to mutual hostility and tension," says historian Margaret MacMillan, whose book The War That Ended Peace chronicled the deteriorating geopolitical relationships and economic aggression that preceded the First World War. After all, she reminds us, "Before the First World War, Britain and Germany were each other's biggest trading partner."

Ms. MacMillan worries that perhaps the most troubling aspect of this trade war is the distrust it is fostering between the world's two superpowers.

"You've got people on both sides now saying that the other is an enemy - or hostile, or at least not a friend," she says. "That is worrying, because once you begin to say it, then you begin to take it for granted. It's a sort of self-fulfilling thing - if China sees the U.S. as its opponent, then everything the U.S. does starts to feed into that, and vice versa."

"It's adding up to a rather troubled relationship."


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Paramount Killer of Humankind
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Bloodthirsty mosquitoes carry an arsenal of biological weapons, and climate change means they are about to extend their deadly reach. Is Canada ready?
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By TIMOTHY C. WINEGARD
  
  

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Author of The Mosquito: A Human History of Our Deadliest Predator

As a tourism campaign, marketing your city as the "Mosquito Capital of the World" flies in the face of all logic. Mosquitoes are generally not a big-ticket attraction. I imagine there are not too many people who'd put a mosquito-themed vacation on their bucket list.

Nevertheless, in 1984, the buzzing town of Komarno, Man., located roughly 70 kilometres north of Winnipeg, did just that: Embracing its reputation - its name means "mosquito infested" in Ukrainian - the town proudly erected a menacing, 15foot-tall statue of a mosquito with a wingspan approaching 17 feet - the largest mosquito on the planet. While Komarno's title as the mosquito capital is unofficial, Canada garrisons the largest national contingent of the 100 trillion or more mosquitoes circling almost every inch of the globe. As a country we are, quite literally, the mosquito capital of the world.

With a vast labyrinth of rivers and lakes comprising 20 per cent of the world's fresh water (a vital ingredient for the reproduction of mosquitoes), Canada is a mosquito wonderland. In fact, the oldest mosquito fossil on record, dating to about 80 to 100 million years ago, was unearthed in Canada. From the Arctic tundra to the Great Lakes, Canada is consumed by mosquitoes.

Even the austere Arctic and its nomadic animals are not spared from being hounded and probed by hungry hordes of mosquitoes.

"There aren't a lot of animals for them to eat in the Arctic, so when they finally find one, they are ferocious," says Lauren Culler, an entomologist at Dartmouth College's Institute of Arctic Studies. "They are relentless.

They do not stop. ... You can be completely covered in a matter of seconds." Ravenous swarms literally bleed young caribou to death at a bite rate of 9,000 a minute - or by way of comparison, they can drain half the blood from an adult human in just two hours. For Canadians, and perhaps for our caribou, mosquitoes are as pervasive and generic to our culture as hockey, Tim Hortons and butter tarts.

But what we consider to be a mild, albeit infuriating, annoyance could soon have far more fatal consequences for our caribou and ourselves. A team of public-health experts writing in the Canada Communicable Disease Report recently acknowledged that "climate change is anticipated to have significant effects on Canada's endemic mosquito populations and thus on MBDs [mosquito-borne diseases]. ... The expected climate-induced changes in mosquitoes and MBDs underline the need for continued surveillance and research to ensure timely and accurate evaluation of the public health risks to Canadians. Public health professionals and clinicians need to promote awareness among Canadians of this important public health risk."

Climate change means that the diseases carried by mosquitoes (and itinerant vectoring mosquito species) are expanding their reach, penetrating more northerly ecosystems.

That statue still stands in Komarno. The tongue-in-cheek, larger-than-life tribute to our national pest could one day be seen as far more ominous.

While groundhog Wiarton Willie may predict the onset of spring, the arrival of summer is signalled by the flight of the famished female mosquito. Her buzz has been one of the most universally recognizable and aggravating sounds on Earth for more than 100 million years.

Although you heard her droning arrival, she gently lands on your ankle undetected. She conducts a tender, probing, reconnaissance, looking for a prime blood vessel. She steadies her crosshairs and zeroes in with six sophisticated needles.

She inserts two serrated mandible cutting blades and saws into your skin, while two other retractors open a passage for the proboscis, a hypodermic syringe that emerges from its protective sheath. With this straw she starts to suck your blood, immediately excreting its water while condensing its protein content. All the while, a sixth needle is pumping in saliva that contains an anticoagulant, preventing your blood from clotting at the puncture site.

This shortens her feeding time, lessening the likelihood that you feel her penetration and splat her across your ankle. The anticoagulant causes an allergic reaction, leaving an itchy bump as her parting gift. With this single bite she can also transmit one of several diseases. For the mosquito, she simply needs your blood to grow and mature her eggs.

Please don't feel singled out.

She bites everyone. This is just the nature of the beast.

Unfortunately, 85 per cent of your mosquito-seducing charm, including chemical and bacteria levels in and on your skin, your body odour, blood type and the amount of carbon dioxide you discharge, is prewired in your genetic circuit board. Although she has her favourites (type O blood, for example), she's not a finicky eater. At the end of the day, she will attack any exposed target of opportunity.

Unlike their female counterparts, male mosquitoes do not bite. Their world revolves around nectar and sex. While males will mate frequently in a lifetime, one dose of sperm is all the female needs to produce numerous batches of offspring. She stores the sperm and dispenses them piecemeal for each separate birthing of eggs. Her short moment of passion has provided one of the two necessary components for procreation. The other ingredient is your blood.

The bloodthirsty females carry an arsenal of lethal and debilitating biological weapons, including malaria, West Nile, Zika, dengue, elephantiasis (filariasis) and yellow fever, making the mosquito the planet's deadliest human predator. Researchers suggest her total body count approaches half of the 108 billion human beings who have ever lived throughout our relatively brief 200,000-year or more existence.

While statistics vary across a wide range, since 2000 the average estimated number of human deaths caused each year by the mosquito has hovered between roughly one and two million. We humans come in a distant second, responsible for 475,000 deaths, followed by snakes (50,000), dogs and sand flies (25,000 each), the tsetse fly and the assassin/kissing bug (10,000 each). The fierce killers of lore and Hollywood celebrity appear much further down our list. The crocodile is ranked No. 10 with 1,000 annual deaths. Next on the list are hippos with 500, and elephants and lions with 100 fatalities each. The much-slandered shark and wolf share the No. 15 position, killing an average of 10 people per annum.

Of course, the mosquito does not directly harm anyone. It is the diseases she transmits that cause unrivalled desolation, suffering and death. Without her, however, these sinister pathogens could not be vectored to humans. You cannot have one without the other. Imagine for a moment a world without deadly mosquitoes - or any mosquitoes for that matter. Our history and the world we know, or think we know, would be completely unrecognizable.

As the paramount historical killer of humankind, she has played a greater role in shaping our story than any other animal with which we share our global village.

Karl Marx recognized in 1852 that "men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please." The insatiable mosquito manipulated and determined our destiny, scratching her indelible mark on the modern world order.

We tend to forget that history is not the artifact of inevitability.

We can shoulder some of the blame, as humans have aided and abetted in the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Historically, our migration patterns, domestication of plants and animals (which are reservoirs of disease), advancements in agriculture, deforestation, climate change (natural and artificially encouraged), global wars, trade and travel have all played a part in nurturing the ideal ecologies for the proliferation of mosquitoborne illnesses. The mosquitoes and diseases that have accompanied traders, travellers, soldiers and settlers around the world have been far more lethal than any manufactured weaponry. She has decided the fates of empires and countries, razed and crippled economies and commanded the outcome of pivotal wars by laying waste to the greatest armies of her generations. From helping to orchestrate the rise and fall of the Roman Empire to operating as a sinister agent of the Columbian Exchange and the transatlantic African slave trade and reinforcing the victors of the American Revolution and the Civil War, among an accomplished résumé of other events, the mosquito has had her way with our global history. Canada did not fly under her sweeping historical radar.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, for instance, the bustling port cities of Halifax and Quebec City were home to sporadic yellow fever epidemics spread by infected sailors and stowaway mosquitoes disembarking from ships in transit from Caribbean colonies. This dreaded virus produces fever-induced delirium, jaundice owing to liver damage and bleeding from the mouth, nose and ears. Internal corrosion induces vomit of bile and blood the consistency and colour of coffee grounds, giving rise to the Spanish name for yellow fever, vómito negro (black vomit), which can be followed by coma and death. The latter might well have been the last pleading wish of many victims. To make matters worse, yellow fever was often accompanied by unbridled malaria. These toxic twins determined the fate and imperial future of Canada during the Seven Years' War.

For France, the war in Europe and the defence of her lucrative Caribbean colonies far outweighed the security of Quebec's portfolios of fish, timber and fur.

France's concerns for her Caribbean sugar, coffee and tobacco plantations, however, were costly. Within the first six months, yellow fever and malaria killed half of newly arrived French defenders deployed to Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique and other, smaller islands. Troops were siphoned from Quebec to these besieged outposts. As a result, Caribbean mosquitoes starved French Canada of men and munitions. The ability of French commander Marquis de Montcalm to co-ordinate any meaningful defence of Canada was stymied.

"Unseasoned" French reinforcements were continuously shovelled into and burned in the mosquito-stoked furnace of the tropics, leaving Canada exposed and vulnerable. The fragile dominion of the French over Canada came undone in September, 1759, with British Major-General James Wolfe's swift victory over Montcalm's beleaguered and outnumbered forces on the Plains of Abraham at Quebec City, paving the way for the creation of modern Canada.

In the wake of General George Washington's mosquito-broker-

ed victory during the American Revolution, some 90,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States for Canada to uphold personal political loyalties, escape persecution or seek asylum from some of the worst yellow fever epidemics in American history.

While these Loyalists carried British culture and convictions to Canada, they also brought malaria. Mosquitoes and their diseases do not respect international borders. In 1793, for example, the wife of John Graves Simcoe, the governor of Upper Canada and a prominent British officer during the revolution, contracted malaria in the provincial capital, Kingston. Located on the shores of Lake Ontario, the city also operated as the southern terminus for the Rideau Canal, with its point of origin in Ottawa.

In a forgotten footnote of Canadian history, malaria went on a rampage in Ottawa during the construction of the 201-kilometre-long Rideau Canal between 1826 and 1832. Each year from July through September - known to the builders as "the sickly season" - roughly 60 per cent of the work force contracted malaria. After the malaria season of 1831, chief contractor and engineer John Redpath wrote that "the exceeding unhealthiness of the place from which cause all engaged in it suffered much from lake fever and fever & ague [malaria], and it has also retarded the work for about three months each year." Redpath himself "caught the disease both the first and second year missed the third but this year had a severe attack of Lake Fever - which kept me in bed for two months and nearly two months more before I was fit for active service." Not to worry.

Redpath survived his malarial fits to create Canada's largest sugar company in 1854.

During the construction of the Rideau Canal, approximately 1,000 workers died of disease, including 500 to 600 from malaria.

At the Old Presbyterian Cemetery in Ottawa, a commemorative marker honours their sacrifice: "Buried in this cemetery are the bodies of sappers and miners who took part in the construction of the Rideau Canal at this isthmus during the years 18261832. These men laboured under appalling conditions and succumbed to malaria. Their graves remain unmarked to this day."

The canal malaria also spread to local communities, where it is believed to have killed 250 civilians.

While malaria, the historical scourge of humankind, remains our archnemesis, infecting 200300 million people a year, new mosquito-borne diseases, including West Nile and Zika, are on the move. In the United States, for example, the first domestic cases of chikungunya, dengue and Zika have been reported from Florida and Texas. Unlike all other mosquito-borne diseases, Zika can also be sexually transmitted between humans. Currently, roughly four billion people around the world are at risk from mosquitoborne diseases. Global warming has allowed the mosquito and her diseases to broaden their topographical range. As temperatures rise, disease-carrying species, usually confined to more tropical regions and lower altitudes, creep both north and south and into higher elevations.

As global warming consumes our planet, her reach is growing. Previously untapped regions, formerly free of mosquito-borne diseases, are warming up to her presence.

West Nile, for example, invaded the Western Hemisphere in 1999 through New York. Roughly 80 per cent to 90 per cent of those infected will never know and will show no symptoms. Most of the remainder will usually only experience a mild flu-like illness for a few days. But an unlucky 0.5 per cent or so will develop full-blown symptoms that can lead to swelling of the brain, paralysis, coma and death. Within a decade of its debut in the Big Apple, West Nile went viral across the United States, Southern Canada and South and Central America, announcing itself as a global disease.

The first Canadian cases of the virus occurred in Quebec and Ontario in 2002. Since its migration to Canada, annual West Nile infection rates straddle a high of 2,215 in 2007 and a low of five in 2010. Last year, there were 367 confirmed cases. While West Nile has visited every province save Newfoundland and Labrador, the hardest-hit areas, accounting for roughly 90 per cent of infections, remain the Great Lakes regions of Ontario and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec.

West Nile, however, is not flying solo. Other mosquito-borne diseases are also making the rounds.

The Jamestown Canyon and Snowshoe hare viruses, weaker cousins of West Nile, have appeared across Canada, and Eastern equine encephalitis made its first domestic human appearance in Ontario in 2016.

Over the past 20 years, the incidence of mosquito-borne disease in Canada has increased 10 per cent. If warming trends continue, public-health officials and researchers at the National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases warn that local pockets, including Southern Ontario, home to more than 12 million people, may develop ecosystems "that are conducive to the survival of exotic mosquitoes and the transmission of exotic MBDs" and the emergence and establishment of invasive, and comparatively lethal, "new strains of mosquitoes and new mosquitoborne diseases." The rest of Canada is not immune, as "climate change will increase the risk of endemic mosquito-borne diseases" across the country.

For the town of Komarno, its self-proclaimed reign as the enigmatically touristy "Mosquito Capital of the World" may be coming to an end. With climate change pushing the northern limit and boundaries for mosquito populations and mosquitoborne disease, new Canadian challengers may emerge to contest that title. Whether these towns and cities construct a towering monument to the mosquito is quite another matter altogether.

Associated Graphic

ANTAGAIN/GETTY IMAGES

There are few animals in the Arctic for mosquitoes to eat, entomologist Lauren Culler says, 'so when they finally find one, they are ferocious.'

DANNY O'DONNELL

A British doctor in India holds the enlarged spleen of a young child afflicted with malaria in the 1920s. Malaria is one of the most prominent and deadly diseases that female mosquitoes carry.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Manitoba town Komarno, which means 'mosquito infested' in Ukrainian, erected a giant statue of a mosquito in 1984 to pay tribute to the region's signature insect.

La Mal'aria, a painting from the late 1840s by Antoine Auguste Ernest Hébert, shows an Italian peasant family escaping by boat from a malaria epidemic.

PUBLIC DOMAIN

A Soviet poster from 1942 shows a listless, glassy-eyed malaria patient and a chart of the disease's characteristic fluctuating fever.

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE

Anti-malaria messages featured prominently in U.S. propaganda during the Second World War, when the disease was a deadly risk for Allied troops in the Pacific campaigns.

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE


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SNC affair began with 2016 meeting between PM, company
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Thursday, August 15, 2019 – Page A1

The seeds for the SNC-Lavalin affair were sown more than three years ago. In early 2016 - long before the resignations and caucus ejections of this year - Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and a senior adviser met with the Quebec engineering giant's then-CEO.

They discussed the company's legal woes and the potential fallout should it be convicted of fraud and bribery.

The meeting, which has not been publicly disclosed until now, is among a series of startling revelations contained in the report released Wednesday by federal Ethics Commissioner Mario Dion.

Many of the actors in the SNCLavalin controversy have given a public account of events as they saw them, whether through press conferences, written statements or testimony before the House of Commons justice committee that probed the matter earlier this year.

And yet, much is revelatory in the report, based on the testimony of 14 witnesses - including, for the first time, Mr. Trudeau and the examination of hundreds of pages of evidence.

Among the findings: Consistent communications between top government officials and SNC-Lavalin representatives that grew more intense at key legislative and corporate junctures, including as it related to board meetings and fluctuations in share price.

A lobbying effort that reached into Switzerland and China.

The involvement of three former Supreme Court judges, including two who provided outside legal opinions that were shared with cabinet ministers, unbeknownst to the former attorney-general.

The introduction of new players, including former Treasury Board president Scott Brison, who is now a vice-chair at the Bank of Montreal, and BMO chairman Robert Prichard, who is described in the report as legal counsel for SNC-Lavalin.

There was also the revelation that others, namely Finance Minister Bill Morneau, played a more significant role than previously known in the effort to avoid a conviction for SNC-Lavalin.

The commissioner's investigation concluded that Mr. Trudeau contravened a section of the Conflict of Interest Act by using his position of authority over then-attorney-general Jody Wilson-Raybould to try to get her to override the decision of the independent Director of Public Prosecutions to proceed with a trial in the SNC-Lavalin case.

The report offers the clearest picture yet of what happened when, and who, exactly, did what.

The story begins in early 2016, with the Prime Minister's meeting with Neil Bruce, at the time SNC's CEO. Although a Globe analysis of the federal lobbying registry published last month showed that the company registered 81 interactions with government officials on the issue of "justice and law enforcement" between early 2016 and early 2019, the company's meeting with Mr. Trudeau is not listed.

(The company registered a Feb.

18, 2016, meeting with Mathieu Bouchard, the senior PMO adviser.)

In his meeting with Mr. Bruce, Mr. Trudeau learned of SNC-Lavalin's desire for a made-in-Canada legal tool that would allow prosecutors to suspend criminal proceedings against companies charged with white-collar crimes in exchange for a negotiated settlement. This is often referred to as a deferred prosecution agreement (DPA). Around this time, Mr. Trudeau told Mr. Bouchard to pay attention to the SNC-Lavalin file and "identify existing levers that could lead to a positive outcome for everyone."

Given the task of keeping an eye on the SNC-Lavalin matter, Mr. Bouchard started seeking information on DPAs from officials in various federal departments at the beginning of 2016. The PMO also asked the Privy Council Office to organize multidepartmental meetings to discuss the concept of a DPA regime "as well as SNC-Lavalin's legal issues," the report says. While it was previously unclear what prompted the 2017 public consultations on the potential enactment of a DPA law, the report says it was at these meetings that a consensus emerged that Ottawa would run a consultation process on the matter.

Soon after the consultation process closed in December, 2018, Mr. Bruce met with the Finance Minister and his policy director, Justin To, while in Davos, Switzerland, at the World Economic Forum. This Jan. 23, 2018, meeting, which had been requested by SNC-Lavalin representatives, is not listed on the federal lobbying registry and has not been publicly disclosed until now. (Only arranged conversations must be logged. It is the lobbyist that must register the conversations. There is no evidence that SNC-Lavalin did anything illegal in its quest for a DPA.)

SNC-Lavalin would not comment on the commissioner's findings and declined to say why it did not log its 2016 meeting with the Prime Minister on the lobbying registry.

Mr. Morneau told the commissioner that while he did not recall what was discussed, he believed that the company would have raised its desire for a DPA law. Mr. To provided more details, based on a conversation he had with the Finance Minister about the meeting: "According to Mr. To, Mr. Morneau generally noted SNC-Lavalin's view that the government should proceed with the implementation of a [DPA] regime ... Mr. Bruce described potential negative economic impacts if SNC-Lavalin were unable to reach a remediation agreement."

Mr. To met again with Mr.Bruce in Ottawa on Feb. 2, 2018 another meeting that does not appear to have been registered.

Here, the company presented Mr.To with a confidential document that said, among other things, that the implementation of a DPA regime would increase the chances of the company maintaining its head office in Canada.

(The commissioner's report notes that, according to a 2017 article in Le Devoir newspaper, SNC-Lavalin agreed to the Caisse de depot's terms of financing for an acquisition that said the company had to maintain its headquarters in Montreal for the subsequent seven years).

Later that month, the Liberals announced through their budget plan that a DPA law would be forthcoming. On Feb. 2, 2018, even before the consultation results were announced, SNC-Lavalin presented finance officials with "the possibility of including the [DPA] regime in the 2018 budget implementation bill as a means to expedite the process."

Hasty passage was in the company's interest, given that a trial on the fraud and bribery charges was looming. As a Globe investigation revealed last month, Ms.Wilson-Raybould questioned the effectiveness of DPAs and was concerned that they were being pushed by a powerful company with a history of legal issues. Ms.Wilson-Raybould, The Globe reported, wanted nothing to do with the legislation and certainly did not wish to take the lead on it. She did not appear before the finance committee studying the budget bill, nor did she accept an invitation from the Senate legal affairs committee to testify on the matter.

Come mid-August, Mr. Morneau's office continued its efforts on the SNC-Lavalin file. Ben Chin, who was at the time the Finance Minister's chief of staff and is now a senior PMO adviser, contacted Ms. Wilson-Raybould's then-chief of staff, Jessica Prince, to discuss the company's situation. This meeting, too, was previously unknown, as Ms. WilsonRaybould's testimony before the House justice committee studying the SNC-Lavalin affair covered the period beginning in early September, 2018.

At this meeting, the report says, Mr. Chin stated that he had been speaking with SNC-Lavalin and that the "company's perception was that the process of negotiating a remediation agreement was taking too long." He asked whether anything could be done to expedite the process. By now, the DPA legislation had not yet even come into force. It would become law on Sept. 19. In a follow-up e-mail, Ms. Prince informed Mr. Chin that the Public Prosecution Service of Canada had previously told Ms. WilsonRaybould's staff that they could not seek an update on the file; simply asking for an update, Ms.

Prince wrote, would be perceived as - and might well be - improper political interference. Mr.Chin forwarded the e-mail to Mr.Morneau and Mr. To. The Finance Minister told the commissioner that he did not recall reading that e-mail.

The pressure campaign continued even after Sept. 4, when Ms. Wilson-Raybould was informed of Director of Public Prosecutions Kathleen Roussel's position that SNC-Lavalin would not be invited to negotiate a DPA.

This is well-known, and was documented before the House justice committee, albeit with competing perceptions of the events articulated by Ms. Wilson-Raybould and then-clerk of the Privy Council Office Michael Wernick as well as then-principal secretary to the Prime Minister, Gerald Butts.

What was not definitively known, however, was the Prime Minister's reaction to Ms. Roussel's decision. The report states that Mr. Trudeau was "puzzled" by the development because, in his mind, "SNC-Lavalin was precisely the kind of candidate for which the [DPA] regime was designed: one that had taken significant steps to reform itself and whose conviction would harm many people who had been involved in the wrongdoing." Mr.Butts, the report says, would later tell Ms. Prince that the government had created the DPA law for SNC-Lavalin's benefit.

Mr. Trudeau asked his staff for "existing options to move the file forward." He also told the commissioner that he would have advised his staff that it was important for Ms. Wilson-Raybould to take into consideration the potential negative impact on Canadians - an allusion to the economic impact of a conviction, which could lead to a 10-year debarment from federal procurement and job losses. The DPA law, as passed, outright bars prosecutors from considering the "national economic interest" in cases of alleged foreign bribery.

Mr. Morneau's office snapped into action, too. As a result of Ms.Roussel's decision, senior Finance and PMO staff contacted Ms. Wilson-Raybould's office to discuss what, if anything, could be done. As with Mr. Trudeau, Mr. Morneau was "extremely surprised" by the director's decision.

He told the commissioner that he did not believe Ms. WilsonRaybould had done her "due diligence" on the matter.

Knowing that whatever course she took would be scrutinized by the PMO and others, Ms. WilsonRaybould sought advice from several attorneys-general on the matter. But when it came to seeking advice on an actual prosecutorial decision - which would require allowing an outside person to access confidential information regarding the case - Ms.

Wilson-Raybould was not on board. Seeking such advice, the report says, would have been unprecedented.

Much of what transpired in the ensuing weeks is on the public record, including a meeting between Mr. Trudeau, Mr. Wernick and Ms. Wilson-Raybould, at which the former attorney-general says the Prime Minister reminded her that he was a Member of Parliament in Quebec and Mr. Wernick brought up the impending election in that province.

The report, though, fills in some of the details. It says that the PMO and Finance officials who raised concerns with Ms.Wilson-Raybould and her staff were at the same time "engaging in discussions with SNC-Lavalin representatives and their legal counsel to assist the company in finding solutions in order to initiate negotiations toward a [DPA]." For example, according to SNC-Lavalin, the company presented a draft PowerPoint document to Finance officials, who "suggested possible additional factors relevant to the public interest." The PowerPoint presentation also outlined a "Plan B," which would be executed should the company not be invited to negotiate a DPA.

And while SNC-Lavalin was soliciting meetings with government staff, at least one of those interactions came at Mr. Morneau's own request - a new detail in this chain of events. The Finance Minister told the commissioner he does not recall whether Mr. Bruce, who stepped down as the company's CEO in June, asked that he or anyone in his office take actions on SNC-Lavalin's behalf.

Also new to this narrative is the involvement of Mr. Brison, who was at the time Treasury Board president but was in February named a vice-chair at BMO.

In mid-October, the report says, Mr. Brison met on an unrelated matter with Kevin Lynch, a former Privy Council Office clerk who is one of BMO's vice-chairs and is also now SNC-Lavalin's chair, and Mr. Prichard, the BMO chairman who is described in the report as legal counsel for SNCLavalin. According to the report, Mr. Brison said Mr. Lynch and Mr.Prichard raised SNC-Lavalin's position on DPAs.

By November, SNC-Lavalin ratcheted up its communications with government officials, the report says. The company prepared two legal opinions, including one by former Supreme Court justice and SNC-Lavalin legal counsel Frank Iacobucci. Mr. Iacobucci's opinion outlined the legitimacy for Ms. Wilson-Raybould to intervene in criminal matters. The report reveals that while the legal opinion was shared with several cabinet ministers, it was not provided to Ms. Wilson-Raybould.

Ms. Wilson-Raybould also told the commissioner that she did not see a second legal opinion crafted at the behest of SNC-Lavalin by former Supreme Court justice John Major. Mr. Major's opinion centred on whether the failure of Ms. Roussel to provide reasons for her refusal to negotiate a DPA with SNC-Lavalin was unlawful and whether the refusal itself was unlawful. In new evidence to the commissioner, it has come to light that an SNCLavalin representative hand-delivered a copy of Mr. Major's opinion to Mr. Chin and senior PMO advisers.

In further new evidence, the commissioner also reported that, at the request of SNC-Lavalin, Mr.Morneau and Mr. Brison each had a meeting with Mr. Lynch while they were in Beijing for a conference in mid-November.

Mr. Lynch, the report says, described the company's ongoing concerns about Ms. Roussel's position. Mr. Morneau told the commissioner that Mr. Lynch "may have brought up the idea" of having former chief justice of the Supreme Court Beverley McLachlin act as a third-party expert on the matter.

At a meeting between PMO advisers and Mr. Prichard at the end of that month, Mr. Bouchard noted a proposal that had been suggested by SNC-Lavalin: that Ms. McLachlin would be asked to preside over a settlement conference between Ms. Roussel and SNC-Lavalin, and the government could appoint the former chief justice to support the negotiation of a DPA.

Mr. Trudeau testified to the commissioner that he had not heard of this idea, which only came to light in Wednesday's report. Ms. McLachlin, the report said, expressed to Mr. Iacobucci some reservations with the proposal and said she did not want to be retained by the government. Ms. Wilson-Raybould said she was not aware of these discussions until the commissioner mentioned it to her in an interview for the report.

Although a dinner meeting between Ms. Wilson-Raybould and Mr. Butts, then-principal secretary to Mr. Trudeau, at the Château Laurier in early December made headlines across the country months ago, what is new in the commissioner's report is this: After the dinner meeting, an SNC-Lavalin representative texted Mr. Bouchard and asked for an update ahead of the company's board meeting the following day.

Soon after the Château Laurier meeting came the now-widely known call between Ms. WilsonRaybould and Mr. Wernick, which the former attorney-general recorded and released as evidence to the House justice committee probing the SNC-Lavalin affair. For the first time, publicly, Mr. Trudeau addressed the controversial call, telling the commissioner that he never directed Mr. Wernick to speak to Ms. Wilson-Raybould in such stark terms, nor did he intend to threaten the former attorneygeneral.

But the Ethics Commissioner rejected that assertion, saying "it is difficult for me to imagine that Mr. Wernick would have acted without a full and clear appreciation of Mr. Trudeau's position on the matter."

Associated Graphic

Former Supreme Court justice and SNC-Lavalin legal counsel Frank Iacobucci

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Supreme Court chief justice Beverley McLachlin

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mathieu Bouchard, senior policy adviser to Prime Minister Justin Trudeau DAVE CHAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Minister of Finance Bill Morneau

SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Treasury Board president Scott Brison

ADRIAN WYLD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former SNC-Lavalin CEO Neil Bruce

PAUL CHIASSON/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Supreme Court justice John Major

JONATHAN HAYWARD/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Senior adviser to the Prime Minister Elder Marques 2014

RETAIL WEST CONFERENCE

Robert Prichard, legal counsel for SNC-Lavalin J.P.

MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Friday, August 16, 2019

Correction

A Thursday news article on the SNC affair incorrectly dropped the word "not" from the following quotation from the Federal Ethics Commissioner's report. The report said "SNC-Lavalin was precisely the kind of candidate for which the [DPA] regime was designed: one that had taken significant steps to reform itself and whose conviction would harm many people who had not been involved in the wrongdoing.The article also incorrectly said the consultation process ended in December, 2018, when it was December, 2017.


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WITH MODI'S NEW MAP OF INDIA, HINDU NATIONALISTS CHART BOLD COURSE
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In a long-contested border region with Pakistan, India's Prime Minister has tilted the balance of power, left Muslims' future uncertain - and electrified his political base
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
  
  

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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Page A14

KATRA, INDIA -- Late one morning in this holy town in northern India, several dozen men held high the country's tricolour flag, chanting as they marched down the narrow streets, past vendors selling puffed rice for offerings and images of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

They had come to mark the country's 73rd Independence Day on Thursday, a cohort of middle-aged men with triumph on their faces as they walked through the religious centre in Jammu and Kashmir.

But theirs was no normal celebration, and this was no ordinary Independence Day.

"Kashmir is ours! All of Kashmir is ours!" they cried. Their voices echoed up the narrow street, which opened to a view of the cloud-draped Trikuta hills that Hindu pilgrims climb to worship at the Vaishno Devi temple, the second-busiest religious shrine in India.

"Victory for Mother India!" the men shouted in unison. "Brother Narendra Modi, our pride!"

Less than two weeks earlier, Mr. Modi, a leader steeped from childhood in a potent ideology of Hindu nationalism, had at a stroke redrawn the national map of India, ending the special status that had provided a measure of autonomy to a contested region with 12.5 million people who live between the Himalayas, the Karakoram Range and the Indus valley.

His government stripped the national constitution of the provisions that had allowed Jammu and Kashmir its own flag, its own constitution and its own laws, placing it directly under New Delhi's control.

Hours before the announcement, technicians cut phones and internet while troops fanned out, imposing a broad curfew.

His unilateral move - bifurcating the area into Jammu and Kashmir on one side, and on the other, Ladakh, an area to which both India and China lay claim - has prompted the United Nations Security Council to meet to discuss the region for the first time in decades.

The Kashmir decision, hailed by the public as unifying the country, stands among the most consequential decisions of Mr. Modi's rule, and cements him as an ideological leader who, fresh off an election win that further augmented his power, is prepared to pursue a Hindu nationalist agenda. In doing so, he is remaking the country in pursuit of objectives that have for decades been the dream of the country's far right wing.

Mr. Modi has said he intends to bring new development and new peace to Kashmir, making the region, which has witnessed two wars and a 30-year insurgency that has left 47,000 dead, into a fragile drafting board for the India he envisions.

At the same time, he risks provoking new forms of conflict, with India's nuclear-armed neighbours and with its own minority peoples.

By the end of this week, the curfew had been lifted in Jammu, where Hindus form the largest group and the former state's flag was nowhere to be seen. But Muslimdominated Kashmir remained in a state of lockdown, with armed soldiers patrolling empty streets, past intersections blocked with coils of razor wire and homes where residents took refuge without any form of electronic communication.

In Katra, a place Mr. Modi has visited twice as Prime Minister, the curfew was never imposed in the first place.

Trains continued to deliver the faithful, Hindus who make up 80 per cent of India's population and who have found in Mr. Modi a powerful ally. In a poll released this week, Indians ranked him the country's best prime minister of all time, eclipsing even the Nehru and Gandhi dynasty.

Observers and former colleagues say Mr. Modi sees himself restoring Hindu greatness and relegating to history centuries of slavery under the Muslim Mughals and the British.

"Thursday marked Jammu and Kashmir's first Independence Day," beamed Katra hotel owner Rakesh Sharma. Nearby, photo studios give life-size cut-outs of Mr. Modi more prominence than backdrops with the Hindu deities that draw crowds here.

Critics, however, have taken a much dimmer view of Mr. Modi's sudden move in Kashmir, and what it shows about his intentions for his second term.

"There's more to come," said Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay, a journalist and author who has written a lengthy biography of Mr. Modi, as well as a history of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the rightist group that the Prime Minister first joined at the age of 8. "He definitely is going to pursue the Hindu nationalist agenda to the limits."

Mr. Modi regularly salts his talk with references to "one nation," saying this week after the Kashmir decision that "the spirit of 'One Nation, One Constitution' has become a reality and India is proud of that."

But in doing so, Mr. Mukhopadhyay said, he has transformed India's slogan of "unity in diversity" into "unity in oneness."

Early each morning, a group of men gathers on the manicured lawn of Pushp Vihar Sector 5 Park in New Delhi to exercise before the heat of the day. Often, they assemble by 5 a.m., a show of discipline in keeping with the rigours of the group they belong to: the RSS, a sprawling nationalist volunteer group founded in 1925 that possesses the features of a religious order, debate club and army cadet program.

At Push Vihar park, the men gather for yoga, wrestling, boxing, sports and discussion. "We talk about Indian culture, nationalism and how each and every citizen has to be patriotic and give something to the country," says Surender Singh Rawat, who heads the morning gatherings here.

They talk, too, about Mr. Modi, a leader who immersed himself in the RSS from his primary school days, and whose ascension has made these gatherings much more popular.

"There's a boom," Mr. Rawat says. More people have come, too, after the Kashmir decision, aligning themselves with a foundational ideology of a popular prime minister.

Mr. Modi has at times distanced himself from the RSS. But his "vision for India is the vision of the RSS," said Yashwant Sinha, a former high-ranking official in the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) who served as a finance and foreign minister two decades ago. "Which is basically Hindu ascendance within the country."

An early leader of the RSS, Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, sought to define the group's vision in Bunch of Thoughts, a book that prescribes a rejuvenation of the "Hindu nation" as a curative to Western permissiveness.

Mr. Golwalkar lists Muslims, Christians

and Communists as "internal threats," describing Muslims as a menace whose communities amount to "miniature Pakistans" inside India's borders. Last year, the RSS released a new edition that elides some of the book's sharpest rhetoric. It still describes Islam as intolerant and "capable of horrific genocide.

Mr. Modi himself has been accused of bias against Muslims. As a boy watching war between India and Pakistan in 1965, he was "voluble on how all Pakistanis should be decimated," a hometown acquaintance told biographer Andy Marino.

The darkest stain on Mr. Modi's political career came in 2002, when he was chief minister of Gujarat state during race riots between Hindus and Muslims that left roughly 1,000 dead, and raised questions about whether Mr. Modi had done enough to prevent the slaughter of Muslims.

Mr. Modi has said the 2002 violence left him "shaken to the core," and, in late July of this year, bowed before a copy of the constitution before saying "there should be no discrimination over caste or religion."

Yet, his tenure as Prime Minister has been marked by a rash of mob lynchings, an outbreak of violence in which people suspected of illegally slaughtering cows have been dragged by their beards and forced to chant praise to Hindu gods before being killed. Indian officials do not gather hate crime statistics, but data journalists in the country say roughly 90 per cent of such crimes in the past decade have taken place since Mr. Modi came to power.

Mr. Modi has condemned vigilantism, saying "mob lynching is a crime, no matter the motive."

But vulnerable groups - Muslims and members of lower castes alike - are under such threat that extraordinary efforts are under way to respond.

Since July 26, Mehmood Pracha, an accomplished corporate lawyer, has trained 15,000 people in how to apply for gun ownership, guiding them through the process of filling out forms. It is all perfectly legal - and, to many in India, shocking.

Mr. Pracha would prefer his students not to actually arm themselves. But he hopes the impression of a populace seeking firepower dispels their image of vulnerability. And he feels compelled to act.

In his view, fault for the lynchings lies squarely at the feet of the Modi government, which he accuses of weakening protections for the country's weakest members. "That is the soul of our constitution, which they are hell-bent upon destroying," he said.

Mr. Modi swept into power in 2014 with promises to tackle corruption, light a fire under the economy and inaugurate a new era of job growth.

His economic record, however, has been mixed. Though the national GDP has surged, India last year fell from fifth to seventh place among the world's largest economies. Car sales in July plunged 31 per cent. Unemployment is the worst it has been in 45 years.

Officials have said a new way of measuring jobs makes proper historical comparison impossible, but there is reason to doubt official statistics. Mr. Modi's own former long-standing economic adviser has publicly accused the government of dramatically inflating growth.

Where Mr. Modi has unquestionably succeeded, however, is in redirecting the course of the country, and his role in it - and, critics say, in using his nationalist agenda to distract from economic woes.

Observers, critics and former colleagues say the second-term list of priorities for Mr. Modi is likely to include issues that have been core to the RSS for decades: the construction of a Hindu temple on the site of a Muslim mosque at Ayodhya (a potential religious flashpoint that has already given rise to deadly riots) as well as the creation of a uniform civil code (doing away with special legal provisions for religious groups); and perhaps even limiting births (in a country where Muslim families fall under suspicion of having many children).

Mr. Modi himself hinted at the latter in an Independence Day speech this week, referring to the "consequences of the uncontrolled population growth" and calling it "an act of patriotism" to have few children.

Such a proposal might stir a revolt elsewhere. But Mr. Modi has skillfully woven his political persona with the Hindu character of the country, making him "the embodiment" of the nationalist spirit he has helped to curry, said Mr. Sinha, the former BJP minister who quit the party last year and has now become an outspoken critic.

"Modi is India," he said. "It gives him enormous powers."

Mr. Sinha worries that "we are moving in the direction of single-party rule for many years to come."

Mr. Modi's agenda has made for potent politics. He enjoys broad support in the country's media, entertainment and corporate sectors. Even politicians from smaller opposition parties have in recent weeks defected to Mr. Modi's BJP.

But he has also courted danger, critics say. Internally, if nationalist impulses foment further violence against minorities, "at some point he may want to get off the tiger and not be able to control it," Mr.

Mukhopadhyay, the biographer, said.

In Kashmir, the threat is more imminent. Observers warn that insurgent activity could return when the curfew lifts, a possibility that places Indian leadership in a delicate situation as it seeks the peace it has promised in Kashmir.

Indian and Pakistani troops have already exchanged fire, with Pakistan reporting three dead soldiers.

Pakistan claims all of Kashmir, and its Prime Minister, Imran Khan, has vowed to "fight until the end" against aggression from India.

"India has sprayed Occupied Kashmir with gasoline and is playing with matches," Mosharraf Zaidi, a Pakistani international affairs analyst, warned on Twitter.

Kashmir has long been a place of deep contrasts: a land of rushing rivers, stunning mountain vistas and bloody violence; a Muslim region in a Hindu country; an agricultural region caught between nuclear powers.

In 1947, at the partition of the British Raj, the royal rulers of Kashmir wavered in choosing between Pakistan and India. They opted for the latter only when raiders from the former pushed deep into Kashmir, arriving on the outskirts of Srinagar, its capital. Even then, Kashmir has accepted only partial Indian rule. New Delhi took control of foreign policy, defence and communications, but Jammu and Kashmir retained the right to its own constitution and the ability to bar outsiders from owning property.

Almost immediately, some in India began to call for abolishment of those provisions, which were "not in the interest of either India or the people of Jammu and Kashmir," said Abha Khanna, media director for the Jammu Kashmir Study Centre, an organization that has dedicated itself in part to providing documentary proof of ancient Indian ownership of Kashmir.

And it has involved formulating a template for integrating minorities into the mainstream definition of what it means to be Indian.

The problem in Kashmir, Ms. Khanna believes, is a fundamentalism that has poisoned the populace. She accuses local leaders, teachers and journalists of occupying a "separatist-terrorist-political nexus" that has spread a "narrative that India does not feel for the people of Kashmir."

The solution, she said, lies primarily in changing people's thoughts, using rhetoric similar to that employed in China amidst a campaign to re-educate Muslims - though she does not advocate the use of force. But "the education system has to incorporate the feel of India," Ms. Khanna said.

In the meantime, the lockdown on Kashmir is unfortunate and unavoidable, she said. She recalled seeing a puppy once whose foot had become infected with maggots. Only painful intervention could remove the rot. "The puppy is going to scream," she said. "But it has to be done to be able to save his foot." In Kashmir, "it is something similar."

Indian authorities aren't keen to have others see what that looks like. Though they have pledged to begin easing the lockdown in coming days, foreign journalists are barred from Kashmir.

Even in Jammu, signs of the government chokehold remain.

Soldiers and heavily armed police stand every few dozen metres on roadsides, some at posts next to mounted rifles pointing at oncoming traffic. Though mobile phone service has been restored, mobile internet remains completely black.

Kashmiris here are hesitant to criticize the government. Muslims in India have been attacked under Mr.

Modi, but "these things take place in every country. In America, sometimes white men attack black men," said Hilam Sanaie, founder of AlHilal International School, an Islamic boarding institution.

Fear nonetheless ripples through the city's Muslim community. With their home now under the control of the central government, there is worry that outsiders will move in, seizing jobs and bringing crime. "They feel that if people come here, our women won't be safe," Mr.Sanaie said.

Naveeda Rehman, a Kashmiri woman in Jammu, speaks darkly about the direction India is taking. "I don't feel like it's a democratic country any more, because we can't ask for what we want," Ms. Rehman said.

And if India is indeed one, "why is only one religion being targeted?" she asked.

"A terrorist is someone who spreads fear," she says. "These days, who is the one spreading terror?"

Associated Graphic

Top: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi attends celebrations in honour of the country's 73rd Independence Day on Thursday. Above: Members of the rightist group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, which Mr. Modi joined as a child, take part in a drill in Ahmedabad.

TOP: PRAKASH SINGH/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE: SAM PANTHAKY/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Kashmiri residents leave their house in Srinagar on Wednesday during government-imposed restrictions. Curfew was recently lifted in Jammu, but Muslim-dominated Kashmir has remained in a state of lockdown, with armed soldiers patrolling empty streets and residents taking refuge without electronic communication.

DANISH SIDDIQUI/REUTERS

Above: A 14-year-old is tended to in a hospital in Srinagar after being trampled in a stampede when Indian forces opened fire on demonstrators on Aug. 9. Below: Indian paramilitary soldiers patrol Srinagar on Thursday.

ABOVE: ATUL LOKE/NYT; BELOW: DAR YASIN/AP


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, August 16, 2019 – Page B16

PETER MICHAEL FO RRISTAL

Peacefully at his residence surrounded by his family on August 13, 2019, Peter Forristal passed away at age 67. Beloved husband of Laurence Pellan for 40 years. Loving father of Annik Forristal and Chantal Forristal (Maciej Gebczynski). Dear brother to John (Jan) Forristal, Tim (Kathy) Forristal and Greg (Sandy) Forristal, and brother-in law to Denis (Christiane) Pellan.

He will be missed by his nieces and nephews.

Peter worked at Imperial Oil for 35 years. He loved to spend time with his family, converse, wine and dine, travel, hike, and read.

Visitors will be received at the John T. Donohue Funeral Home, 362 Waterloo Street at King Street, London, on Sunday afternoon from 2-5 o'clock. Funeral Mass will be held at St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica, 196 Dufferin Avenue, London, on Monday morning at 10 o'clock with inurnment to follow in St. Peter's Cemetery, London.

In lieu of flowers, donations to Cure PSP (http://www.psp.org) would be appreciated.

DANIEL GABRIEL FOY

April 13, 1994

Passed away suddenly in Toronto.

Dearly loved and cherished son of Christine and Larry. Beloved brother of Kevin. Predeceased by his grandparents Raymond and Ruth Domleo and Fred and Glenna Foy. Also predeceased by his uncle David Domleo (Karen). Loved nephew of Debra Hopkins (Paul), Catherine Schryer (Franz), Ted Foy (Peggy), Mary Clare Argiropoulos (Constantine), Brian Foy (Colleen), Eileen Foy, Elizabeth Foy and Margaret Foy.

Dan will be fondly remembered by his many cousins.

Daniel was engaging, charming and witty. He sought challenges.

Dan was an intense friend, a passionate chef and an excellent sailor and snowboarder. He bonded closely with his canine and feline companions.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., on Saturday, August 17, 2019 from 1 p.m. until time of the Chapel Service at 3 p.m. Cremation has taken place. Interment at Mount Hope Cemetery at a later date.

As an expression of sympathy donations to CAMH, The George Hull Centre or Jack.org would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca Goodbye Dan - we'll always love you.

IRA MICHAEL FRIEDMAN

On August 14, 2019, on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia.

Cherished son of the late Jack and the late Helen Friedman. Beloved brother and brother-in-law of Susan and Edward, Karen and Jay and Debra and Robert. Dear uncle to Rebecca and Marc, Jesse and Katie, Rachel, Sarah, Zachary and Jessica, Emma and Ella, Nathan and Elise, Joseph and Eli. Greatuncle to Sam, Rose, Isaac, Annie, Lylah and Jack. Good friend and trusted advisor to many. He was a researcher and sailor who navigated life with curiosity, knowledge and a dry wit. Funeral took place on August 14, 2019 at Victoria Jewish Cemetery. Shiva will took place at at Chabad Victoria and will then continue in Toronto on August 16 at 18 Sala Drive, Richmond Hill, from 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. and on August 18th and 19th from 2:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. and from 6:30 p.m.

to 9:00 p.m. Condolences may be offered at http://www.sandsvictoria.ca SANDS OF VICTORIA 250-388-5155

BRUCE DAVID GILLINGHAM

June 28, 1929 August 13, 2019

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Bruce Gillingham at the age of 90 at the Carpenter Hospice in Burlington. Born and raised in Montreal to Thomas and Winifred Gillingham he later met his future wife, Beverley while skiing in Saint-Sévère and they shared an incredible journey for more than 64 years. Bruce leaves behind his beloved wife, Beverley and children Derek (Deborah), Brent and Stephenie along with his adored grandson Aaron and nieces Catherine, Carolyn and nephew Gregory.

Bruce graduated from Lower Canada College in 1947 and earned a Bachelor of Commerce degree from McGill University in 1952.

He loved his work as a professor at Northern College in Kirkland Lake and Sheridan College in Brampton and Oakville where he taught business, marketing and economics. He also served as Chairman of the Business department at Sheridan College until his retirement. He loved teaching and took great pleasure in nurturing and supporting the many students in his classes.

Bruce was an avid gardener who in later years successfully re-established native plants, ferns and wild flowers along the beachfront trail in Burlington.

He is also remembered as a music lover whose records filled the home with the sounds of Duke Ellington, Frank Sinatra, Benny Goodman, Dave Brubeck and Louis Armstrong. He was also a founding member and drummer of "The Gloworms". Bruce loved to travel and his visits to England and Italy with Beverley were among his favourites. His children fondly remember their many impromptu road trips across North America in the family station wagon.

The Gillingham family would like to extend their gratitude to the staff and volunteers at the Carpenter Hospice, Joseph Brant Memorial Hospital and the Juravinski Cancer Centre for their kindness and care. A private celebration of life will be held at a future date in Montreal. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a contribution to the Carpenter Hospice or Juravinski Hospital and Cancer Foundation.

JOHN MCNAB MILSOM

November 25, 1920 June 17, 2019

John McNab Milsom born November 25, 1920 (Flt. Lt. RCAF/ RAF) passed away peacefully June 17, 2019 at age 98. He is survived by his wife, Judith (nee Enid V.

Paris) of 74 years, and sons, Brian (Svetlana) and Jeremy.

A veteran of WWII, he volunteered with the RCAF, graduated as a GR pilot and was posted in Gibraltar and North Africa with the RAF (48 Squadron) escorting convoys and hunting U-Boats. Once his first tour (over 600 Hours/ 90 missions) was completed he was sent to Turnberry, Scotland, to train pilots converting onto Hudsons and Venturas, aircraft he knew well.

More than anything, he wanted to convert onto the DeHavilland Mosquito. He joined Banff Strike Wing (248 Squadron) in 1944 and flew 17 more combat missions from Banff sinking Nazi ships and destroying enemy infrastructure.

After V-day, his last mission was to escort a Norwegian squadron for the triumphant return of King Haakon and his government from Great Britain back to Oslo, Norway. He then flew back to Britain and parked his airplane.

The war was over.

Once back in Canada, John returned to the University of Toronto, completed a degree in Engineering and Business, was employed with CGE and the North York Board of Education. He retired in 1985.

A celebration of his 98 years will be held on September 9, 2019, from 2 p.m. until 5 p.m. at the Toronto Cricket, Skating, and Curling Club on Wilson Avenue.

GINNY STARK

For our Ginny, who ran up the path ahead of us...

Our Ginny: Virginia Anne Whittall Stark was born on September 5, 1955 and left this world on June 10, 2019.

She ran off in an instant, and too young.

She ran up the path ahead of us, out of sight. When we weren't looking.

For those left behind, for now, there is grief. And love of course.

Many of us (those for whom she could not linger, waiting on the path), those of us who knew and loved her all her life, might first remember her as a child up the coast of B.C. We might remember her at Savary Island, her childhood heart's home.

The Ginny who ran through salty waters and scrambled over sandy logs, who ran barefoot along the dirt roads, jumped from wharves and fished for shiners.

Ginny, she of the ungovernable soul.

Laughing.

We will remember her as the child that she once was and then remember the child who remained within her all her life, with whom she refused to part company.

Within her was a kind of wildness that life did not succeed in eradicating.

Do not try to tell her what to do.

A spirit such as hers can't be made still.

Ginny, who heard every snapping twig.

Ginny, who sought meaning.

A hummingbird. An eagle.

Alive.

At times she was a midway. And, at times a place to rest, She would reach out for any hand that needed taking.

She had many rooms to let, in her large and dreaming heart.

Yet she is still, even now, the child with skinny berry-brown legs; collecting splinters; climbing trees; falling.

Still laughing.

She was born in Vancouver, the daughter of Jocylyn O'Connor Whittall and H. Richard Whittall. She was the much treasured sister of Gerald and Pamela and Richard Whittall and aunt to Madeleine and William and Chloe Beange. She will be mourned also by family members John Stark, Misha Olynyk, Edwin Beange and Christina Chase Simonds.

Eclipsing all other ties, she was mother to Tristan and Vanessa Stark - a love so deep only silence is fit to describe it.

Drop a stone down that well; you will not hear it land.

And then there were her friends, a constellation.

There will be a celebration at The Granville Island Hotel on September 21st from 3 p.m. to 6.

Ginny loved flowers. Flowers would be welcome as the family will be creating an altar.

Ginny was an activist for the environment and a benefactor, a gifted photographer and artist. She used her time here well. Please, do not dress for mourning.

In keeping with Ginny's giving nature, the Virginia Whittall Stark Fund at the Vancouver Foundation has been established by Tristan, Vanessa, and Misha. We invite all who loved her to donate, which can be done online by visiting http://www.vancouverfoundation.ca/Virginia, to benefit others in her name.

STEPHEN JOSEPH O'ROURKE MD, FRCP(C)

Just shy of his 94th birthday, Steve died peacefully on August 11, 2019 surrounded by family in the Palliative Care Unit at St.

Michael's Hospital, Toronto. Steve is mourned by the love of his life, "Breid" (Brigid Conlon of Belfast), children , William (Janice), Patrick (Theresa), John (Catherine), Kit (Randall), grandchildren, Patrick (Kelly), Liam (Jackie), Sean, Caitlin, Eamonn, Rosie, Maggie, Eden, Austin, Ella, Maddie, greatgrandchildren, Tiernan and Maeve and many nieces, nephews and cousins around the world.

Born on a farm in Bruff, Co.

Limerick, Ireland, Steve graduated medicine from the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin in 1949. As a Captain in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps he served in the Korean War and later in Fort Churchill, MB. He then joined the Department of Anaesthesia at St.

Mike's in Toronto where he gave anaesthetics for more than four decades, was a highly respected teacher and mentor to countless medical students and residents, pioneered spinal anaesthesia and was instrumental in advancing obstetrical epidurals.

A life-long horse racing fan, Steve rarely missed attending The Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate. Steve and Breid were founding members of St.

Bonaventure's Parish. They loved to entertain and hosted many celebrations throughout the years. Their endless hospitality and fun-loving nature warmed many hearts.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 1:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 15th. A Funeral Mass will be held in St.

Bonaventure's Church, 1300 Leslie Street, Toronto, on Friday, August 16th at 10:30 a.m. If desired, donations to St.

Michael's Hospital Foundation, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, http://www.stmichaelshospital.com, would be appreciated.

Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

REINHILDE SPERLICH WALWYN "Ronnie" Reinhilde "Ronnie"

Sperlich Walwyn, 93, died peacefully on July 25, 2019 in Aurora, Ontario.

The cause of death was peripheral vascular disease.

Ronnie was born in Judenburg, Austria on September 4, 1925, the first born child of Rudolf and Hildegard (Grill) Sperlich. She came to Canada in August of 1952 and was married to John Pearce Walwyn, a stock broker, in October of 1954.

Ronnie enjoyed many happy years living in Toronto, travelling and spending many summers at Faith Island on Lake Joseph in Muskoka. After the death of her beloved JP in 1976, Ronnie maintained close contact with many friends in Toronto although she chose to move up to King Township where she lived for over forty years at Angus Hill Farm. In 2015, she moved to Hollandview Trail Retirement Residence in Aurora.

Ronnie made a great number of friends in her almost 94 years.

She was a true and loyal friend, a unique human being, genuine and always kind. She loved family gatherings, both on visits to see family and friends in Austria and in Canada, where she regularly hosted holiday family gatherings and cooked traditional meals for often more than thirty people.

She truly believed in lifelong learning over the years. She took French language courses, painted with the same group of amateur artist friends over a number of years, joined Toastmasters and delivered a fine speech at her 80th birthday party, and learned computer skills to email and Skype. Taking a few writing courses led to the successful completion of Lots of Goodbyes, her story as a young woman coming to a new land. In the mid '80s, she studied for her real estate license and ventured into the business world, purchasing Snowball Place, a small country mall west of Aurora. With some real estate partners, she opened The House of Brougham, a pine furniture franchise and a few years later, she and her good friend, Joan Davies opened The J R Room, a store with stylish women's clothing. (J was for Joan, R was for Ronnie!) Ronnie was also a member of the congregation at All Saints Anglican Church in King City where she joined in regularly for services and volunteered for many activities.

She was actively involved with her Investment Club in Toronto, was a long term member of the Wine Tasters Guild of Aurora and the Aurora Probus Club and also volunteered for Hospice King/ Aurora and the McMichael Canadian Art Collection.

She enjoyed playing Bridge, especially with her friends at Hollandview. Another passion in her later years was to play Poker, especially Texas Hold 'em, and to those who knew her well, this came as no surprise! Throughout the years, she travelled extensively. Her last big adventure, in December 2017 at the age of 92, was a trip by plane and then hi-speed train to Xian, China to see the Terra-Cotta Army of Dreams. Well done, Ronnie! Ronnie was very kind to the many animals on the farm. She loved all the cats and dogs, especially her first miniature Schnauzer, Erika. Ronnie was always keen to head down to the barn to watch the birth of a foal and she always marvelled at the miracle of that new life.

Ronnie is survived by and will be terribly missed by many close family members including her brother, Rudi Sperlich; niece, Gudrun Hodl; step-mother, Stefi Sperlich; half-sisters, Ute Wagner and Sieglinde Logar; half-brother, Volker Sperlich, all from Austria; cousin, Horst Sperlich from Germany; nephew, Klaus Sperlich; step-son, John Walwyn; step-granddaughter, Jennifer Walwyn, all from the USA; niece, Barbl Goldring; stepdaughter, Suzanne Winchell; stepgrandchildren, Cathie Bowden, Stephen Goldring, Christy Gunton, Laurie Gunton, Luther Winchell, Christopher Winchell; and her close friend, Marjorie O'Donnell, all from Canada.

Ronnie was predeceased by her husband, JP Walwyn; her stepdaughters, Louise Goldring and Gilda McPhedron; and her stepgranddaughter, Shelley Gunton.

Special mention and thanks go to the wonderful staff and residents at Hollandview Trail Retirement Residence for all the love and support given to Ronnie during this difficult time and throughout her four years at Hollandview.

A celebration of Ronnie's life will be announced at a later date.


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In bad Form? The rise of coercive care in Canada
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Whether it's resource scarcity or a lack of the power to persuade, clinicians are increasingly turning to involuntary hospitalization
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By ANNA MEHLER PAPERNY
  
  

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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Page O1

Author of Hello I Want to Die Please Fix Me

I know psych wards. I've been there in the wake of serious serial suicide attempts and when despair sucked me under. I've surrendered charger cords and earbuds, sought out privacy where there is none and spilled painful personal feelings to strangers busily scoring my level of nuts. I've been there in the din and buzzing chaos when I'd rather be anywhere else; I've been there against my will and of my own volition, seeking care and having nonetheless to give up my shoelaces. A psychiatric ward can be a vital stepping stone en route to recovery, but so often, it feels like a drunk tank for crazy.

And this is where we're increasingly putting people against their will and nobody quite knows why.

A psych ward's where you go when you're too crazy for your own good and a Form is what they put you on when you're too crazy to know it. And across Canada, coercive hospitalization - when you're locked up against your will because of a mental illness - is becoming the rule, rather than the exception.

Between 2008 and 2017, involuntary psychiatric hospital admissions in Ontario rose almost 90 per cent and voluntary hospitalization became the exception. More than 3,700 Ontarians a month are hospitalized against their will because of a mental illness. There are different flavours of coercive care and, I found in my research for my new book, each one is increasing.

In Ontario, the number of people put on a Form 1 - the 72-hour hold I found myself on right after my first suicide attempt and after another one, years later - jumped 62 per cent in eight years. The number of people put on a Form 3, the two-week forcible stay I was put on in a converted nunnery back in 2011, increased 73 per cent between 2008-09 and 2018-19 - and I got these data when they were still accepting 2018-19 claims, so the latter number could rise. Monthlong forced stays, Form 4s, which I avoided largely thanks to brownnoser good behaviour rather than any semblance of sanity, more than tripled during that time.

The number of admissions per patient also rose, which means a growing number of people are being hospitalized against their will multiple times a year. And the spike was highest among young girls.

The number of hospital visits by girls under 18 on two-week certifications more than tripled; the number of month-long stays among teen girls increased sevenfold (although the starting number was small). And in more than 80 per cent of cases, these girls are being held to protect themselves from themselves.

The trend holds true in British Columbia, where involuntary hospitalization jumped 54 per cent in seven years and went from representing the minority to the majority of all psych inpatients, according to the British Columbia Ministry of Mental Health and Addictions. Here, too, numbers rose most among young girls.

It's true in Alberta, according to Alberta Health Services, and Saskatchewan, where I was obliged to get involuntary hospitalization data at the health-region level: The number of compulsory hospital admissions in Saskatoon increased 88 per cent between 2010 and 2016, and the number of provincewide certificates issued for involuntary electro-convulsive therapy - one of the most undeservedly feared psychiatric interventions - doubled during that time. The number of people put on community treatment orders in Saskatchewan more than tripled between 2013-14 and 2016-17.

When you're involuntarily hospitalized and lose your right to freedom of movement, you retain other rights - the right to challenge your committal, if someone apprises you of that option, and the right to consent to or refuse treatment, for example. But increasingly, people are losing that right, too.

The percentage of Ontario psychiatric inpatients being forcibly treated rose about 15 per cent over eight years. And coercion in one domain bleeds into others: I, on a Form, years ago, starved for fresh air and freedom of movement, agreed to start taking antidepressants for the first time - I felt pressured to do so and wanted a clean bill of health from my psychiatrist to set me free and get me back to work. An ultimately smart move, I think, made for maybe not the best reasons.

As compulsion rises, it discriminates. While - as per usual - Canada's race-based psychiatric data collection lags other countries, ensuring we drag our feet in addressing deep-seated racial inequities, we know that black people in Ontario are overrepresented on community treatment orders (CTOs) - in which you agree to follow your doctor's dictums, take your meds as instructed or be committed to hospital again. Black people made up 13 per cent of Toronto residents on CTOs between 2005-06 and 201011 despite making up about 7 per cent of the population. The disparity could be because people with subpar access to care are more likely to deteriorate to the point where coercion becomes necessary; it could be because clinicians are more likely to see a threat in people of colour and rob them more readily of autonomy as a result. Could be a combination of the two.

What's going on more generally with the spike in involuntary admissions? No one I've spoken to has a good answer. It could be that fewer psych beds per capita means those that are left go to the most acute cases, which tend to be the ones who lack insight into their condition. But while jurisdictions such as Ontario have been losing psych beds per capita, that can't be reason enough on its own: We're seeing an overall increase in psychiatric hospitalizations. Could it just be that more people are more severely mentally sick? Maybe, although population-level data suggest approaching that possibility with skepticism.

Maybe the most seductive argument in favour of locking up crazies is the fear of fatal selfharm. And if that's a clinician's assumption, they're going to err on the side of coercion, every time. (People do die and kill themselves in psych wards far too often, but that's another essay for another day.)

I understand the impulse to ensure people's safety (although it doesn't explain the increase).

But I question whether we're jumping to coercive care - even out of an abundance of wellmeaning caution - without exploring or examining other options.

Another argument for committal is the you'll-thank-me-forthis-later trump card.

"People who are admitted involuntarily, the vast majority of those individuals at a later point will say, 'Yes, that was an appropriate decision,'" psychiatrist Richard O'Reilly, who is based in London, Ont., told me in an interview. "I agree we should try to provide service in the community. But our general hospitals, our local community hospitals, are community resources. And their job is to keep people safe."

I talked with Andrew Lustig, a psychiatrist at Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), who told me the most important question to be answered in a psych emerg, is, "Do they stay or do they go?" "And that really hinges on the issue of risk: How risky is this person, and what bad things are likely to happen if they leave the hospital today?" He said that from his perspective, clinicians aren't any more eager to Form people now than they were a decade ago. But he said there are ways to persuade people to stay of their own accord. It starts by establishing a rapport with a patient, and by making your psych ward a lessthan-awful place to be.

Outdoor areas make an enormous difference in this regard.

So does better programming (therapy dogs! A chance to ask pharmacists about meds!) and a comfortable environment. Treating people with a modicum of dignity, forging a therapeutic partnership instead of a dictatorship. It can be frustrating: A patient and an orthopedic surgeon may agree the thing sticking out of your leg is a broken bone; a psychiatrist may think the voices in your head are schizophrenia while you think they're aliens or saints or CSIS. The trick there, Dr.

Lustig told me, is to find some common ground: "So maybe you can't agree that the diagnosis is schizophrenia, but maybe you can both agree the person is under a lot of stress and that taking this medication will help alleviate the stress."

Problem is, Anita Szigeti argues, many psychiatrists have lost the ability to persuade: They haven't had to try. Ms. Szigeti is a lawyer who dedicates herself to advocating on behalf of people who've had rights suspended owing to a mental illness, making their case before Ontario's Consent and Capacity Board, where people contest their committal or hash out who should be allowed to make treatment decisions for someone who can't make treatment decisions themselves. She doesn't doubt doctors want what's best for their patients (or their clients, as she terms them). She just thinks they're running roughshod over rights in the process. "I think, as a profession, psychiatry has probably lost a lot of its ability to just talk to the clients," she told me in an interview. "And I think we're definitely seeing force and forced medication where we don't need to, if a doctor had better skills at just therapy and communication."

In a fee-for-service model of care, there's also a financial incentive: Physicians in Ontario get $105 for filling out a Form 1. I hate to imagine doctors are depriving people of their freedom just to make a buck, but hospital-level anomalies suggest the question has to be asked.

When one right's suspended, others are often too easily ignored. A March, 2019, report from British Columbia's ombudsperson found the province's hospitals were ignoring the rights of people involuntarily hospitalized. Legally required forms were missing, late or improperly completed. Sometimes physicians failed to explain why the person met the criteria for involuntary admission. Most involuntary patients got no rightsadvice form, and many had no chance to consent to their treatment. I found how easily this happens when a paperwork slipup meant the countdown on my Form 1 several years ago started 48 hours after it should have. If that seems minor, you've never been deprived of fresh air and grown-up-person clothes after trying and failing to kill yourself, left pissy and prowling a windowless ward.

I spent much of my psych ward time railing against my own impotence. I paced; I was browbeaten into taking meds; on one occasion, I persuaded a psychiatrist to let me off a Form, staying of my own volition; I engaged in lacklustre interpersonal interactions that failed to win me bonus points; I tried one March to learn to walk again; I endured a dozen therapeutic seizures. But I didn't lose my trust or faith in the medical system.

Others I've spoken to weren't so lucky.

One woman I spoke with had her first psychiatric encounter end with her being taken into hospital against her will - the start of a decade of coercive treatment. She'd be discharged, often into homeless shelters, arrested after a burst of rage or erratic behaviour, Formed and hospitalized again. Again and again, she felt scared and disrespected.

The loss of agency, forcible treatment, physical and pharmacological restraints left lasting psychic scars and poisoned any future therapeutic relationship.

Talking to me a dozen years later, this woman admitted she had issues with mental illness, anger management. Had breakdowns, would "flip out," kick walls and mirrors, wave knives, try to slap doctors away or kick her mom off her hospital bed. She got out of hospital when she signed a community treatment order agreeing to semi-weekly injections that went on for years until her doctor said he'd let her off the order if she agreed to take a low dose of an antipsychotics voluntarily. She kicked herself in hindsight for not realizing earlier that her relationship with clinicians could have been collaborative rather than coercive. She wishes someone had told her that was an option. Meantime, she'll never trust a psychiatrist again.

Make no mistake: Involuntary hospitalization exists as a therapeutic option for a reason.

There are people who are severely ill and who by the very nature of their illness can't wrap their heads around the danger they pose to themselves (and, yes, it's almost exclusively to themselves). There was the woman in the Mental Health Emergency Services Unit with me at St. Joseph's Health Centre who keened and threw ice cubes and smashed herself into the shatterproof wall-mounted TV - would she have been safe on her own?

What about one of my roommates at St. Michael's Hospital who'd been deemed schizophrenic, refused medication and just about all treatment I could see and was contesting the months-long hospitalization she was convinced was the machination of aliens?

Forms are a necessary psychiatric tool but their use is increasing, and they aren't benign: They can kill someone's trust in the medical system for life, which means they don't seek help or make use of it when they truly need it. That possibility has to be weighed against whatever harm you think will come of letting a person make their own health decisions.

Whether it's resource scarcity or a lack of that power to persuade, clinicians are increasingly turning to coercion. Perhaps if we prioritized the kind of care people wanted - compassionate, evidence-based, ready when needed in the form people need it - coercion could become a tool truly rare.

If you are having thoughts of suicide, call Kids Help Phone at 1-800-668-6868 or Crisis Service Canada at 1-833-456-4566, or visit crisisservicescanada.ca.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: THE GLOBE AND MAIL. SOURCE IMAGES: ISTOCK

On an Ontario Form 3, doctors must complete a five-point test to prove the patient is incapable of consent. A separate checkbox tests whether the patient is at risk of serious harm.

THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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CLOSE TO THE BONE
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Last month, the Royal Ontario Museum's Hell Creek paleontology team, led by fossil-hunting rock star David Evans, headed for Montana's badlands to unearth the remains of a triceratops named Dio and a rich, prehistoric record of climate change
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By JONATHAN DEKEL
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JORDAN, MONT. -- Sixty-six and a half million years ago, a triceratops that would one day be known as Dio died on the shore of an inland sea in what is now Montana.

Weighing somewhere between eight and 10 tonnes, its muscular body was likely soon scavenged by creatures big (its trusty adversary Tyrannosaurus rex) and small (bacteria), eventually separating its distinctive, 500-plus-pound tri-horned head from its core, leaving it facedown at the water's edge.

Over the next 500,000 years, flooding buried Dio's six-foot-long skull, allowing iron and manganese in the water to percolate through its bones, turning the calcified white exterior a chocolaty brown. When an asteroid hit the Earth more than 5,000 kilometres away - wiping out nearly all living dinosaurs and laying another 30 to 40 centimetres of sediment atop its final resting place, Dio was already well on its way to fossilization, wrapped in its rocky sarcophagus. Which is where it lay, mostly undisturbed, until July, 2018, when a research assistant at the Royal Ontario Museum named Danielle Dufault spotted its occipital condyle - the unique, nearly perfect sphere-shaped bone connecting its head to its socketed spine - sticking out of the ground of the fossil-rich Hell Creek Formation, and set a marker on the GPS.

She later named the fossil after her heavy-metal hero, Ronnie James Dio.

Last month in Jordan, Mont., the ROM's four-person Hell Creek paleontology team packed their gear into a Ford pickup truck and prepared to head back to the badlands to uncover the rest of the triceratops's massive skull.

The team, which includes Dufault, was led by Dr. David Evans, the museum's paleontological rock star, whose résumé includes dinohunts in the Sudan and Mongolia, hosting a television series and helping to discover almost a dozen new dinosaur species.

Boyish, with shoulder-length black hair, Evans wore dark sunglasses, a dino-themed T-shirt and loosefitting jeans, maintaining the wunderkind Indiana Jones aesthetic that helped land him the top paleo gig in Canada at the age of 26.

Now 38, he oversees the museum's dinosaur research and curation and serves as a professor in the University of Toronto's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

"If you want to see the world, you come to the ROM," he later tells me, "and the gateway to the ROM is dinosaurs and mummies. We have more dinosaurs on display than the Smithsonian has. That's something we should be really proud of."

In recent years, fantastical exhibitions such as Zuul, Destroyer of Shins, have kept interest in the ROM's mainstay department high. Like most century-old institutions, the museum under chief executive and director Josh Basseches is looking toward fare that is pop-culture friendly in the hopes of attracting a more diverse audience. This has, understandably, required Evans to keep the hits coming.

And he knew none could be bigger than finding a T.rex skeleton.

With this in mind, Evans mentioned the museum's Holy Grail at a board meeting a few years back.

Afterward, a member asked him how much it would cost to bring one in. Acquiring a skeleton, as they had with Zuul, would be too costly. So Evans suggested a five-year expedition to Hell Creek, ground zero for Late Cretaceous fossils owing to the paleontological godfather Barnum Brown, who discovered the first triceratops and first tyrannosaurus in its earthy crust.

The Hell Creek Formation spans parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming.

Much of the ROM's collection derives from Alberta, where fossil discoveries are the property of the provincial government. In contrast, fossils found in Montana's badlands belong to the land owner, who can sell that stake to the highest bidder. In leasing a possible fossil bed in Hell Creek - including the right to keep whatever they find - Evans saw not only an opportunity to discover a T. rex, but to enrich his data from the Late Cretaceous period and use the museum's research arm to better understand the drastic climate change and forced migration that happened before the asteroid precipitated a mass extinction.

As a bonus, it would keep the digging rights away from commercial prospectors, who would have no interest in the clues the fossils and their surroundings might contain about climate change.

So, when a real estate agent told Evans that a ranch a stone's throw from where Brown's first T. rex was found had just been sold to a Wall Street banker, he quickly offered to lease the land.

Two years in, the ROM's Hell Creek expedition had yet to turn up a T. rex, but Dufault's discovery in the first year had possibilities for display as well as research potential, making it a valuable lead.

FILLING THE GAPS The Y Hanging Diamond ranch sat 43 km north of Jordan, on the south bank of the Missouri River.

About 800 metres from its fenced-off eastern border was a dry patch of land with clear sightlines across the horizon and a dinosaur skull sticking out of the ground. Dio's remains were found at the bottom of a steep incline surrounded by trees and cows, making the only viable approach by foot.

GPS in hand, Evans had ROM paleontological technician Ian Morrison pull the truck as close as possible to the spot before the rest of team - Dufault's and Evans's lab students Cary Woodruff and Ryan Wilkinson - jumped out and started unpacking several tanks of water, pickaxes, shovels and buckets. Unlike in the movies, dinosaur fossils are almost never found fully articulated on the surface, and Hell Creek's uneven terrain has made groundpenetrating radar impossible to use. As such, paleontological excavation had changed very little since Brown's day. Coupled with the lack of cell signal, it has the heroic quality of time travel.

The previous year, the team encased Dio's protruding piece in plaster, then wrapped that in a garbage bag to protect it from the winter elements. Approaching the site, Evans and crew were happy to discover it had mostly been left alone, making the dig a relatively easy task.

Typically, the first day of an excavation requires a heavy amount of moving earth. Under the dry, hot sun, the next several hours were spent digging a seven-byeight-foot quarry into the ridge, carefully removing and redistributing the earth so as to not disturb any wayward fossils. Morrison, the elder of the group, reminded all parties to drink water. "I've had heroes pass out," he said.

To while away the time, the team discussed a wide range of topics: ranking Metallica albums, favourite podcasts and the retroactive effect of the #MeToo movement on Woody Allen's oeuvre among them. To amuse his crew, Evans recounted the time actor Mary Elizabeth Winstead shadowed him for her role in the remake of The Thing. "She told a reporter we were throwing fossilized bones around the ROM warehouse," he said with a laugh. "I can assure you we did not do that."

When the team eventually took shelter atop a tree-lined mound for lunch, Evans's tone gained a more serious timbre. Whatever is collected here, he explained, will ultimately appear in an exhibition on the effects of climate change. And beyond what the public sees, he said, there would be ample scientific data from the area that can help humanity as a whole better navigate the rapidly accelerating Anthropocene-influenced extinction event.

"Everybody agrees the asteroid impact is what ultimately led to the extinction of the dinosaurs," he said, looking down on the dig site. "What I'm trying to find out is what type of animals made it through the extinction - what kind of characteristics they had, what type of circumstances precipitated an ecosystem collapse of that nature and how fast it took for those ecosystems to recover, so we can understand the consequences of what we're doing today."

Noting that the vast majority of dinosaur remains found in the area had been triceratops, Evans theorized that this imbalance must have been caused by mass migration as the environmental conditions shifted. "So [we need to study whether] those stressed ecosystems were caused by climate and sealevel changes, and did that exacerbate the effects of that asteroid impact?" Humans are causing similar conditions today, he continued. "We're making ecosystems more sensitive to tipping. It's a cascading effect where the extinction of one thing precipitates the extinction of another on a global scale. Those are where everything falls apart."

After taking a few bites of a sandwich, he added that the current rate of climate change is much faster than what preceded the five previous mass extinctions, when more than 75 per cent of the species on Earth were lost. "And if we continue at the rate we're going, we're probably going to reach those levels in most of the major groups of animals. We're talking five hundred to 1,000 years."

As for this particular dig, Evans admitted it was too early to know if what would be found would ever be seen by crowds of children.

"There's this perception of scientists that they're all trying to cure cancer or find a new dinosaur. That's not really how science works," he said. "The way you cure cancer is by using all the little baby steps that people have taken to understand how cells divide and multiply. ... You're just contributing where you're seeing gaps in knowledge, and eventually the picture becomes clear.

"So we want to discover as many fossils as we can, and of course we'd love to collect a T. rex for the museum, but we're also collecting data to fill in the gaps.

... What we're doing to the planet is happening so fast, we can't really study it and make projections in real time. And we certainly can't appreciate the longterm effects of what we're doing to the planet. The fossil record holds important lessons in that regard."

Evans ended the lunch break by saying that the first day's dig has moved faster than he expected.

When the team returned to the valley below, they switched to smaller handheld tools, delicately digging in the hopes of better understanding how Dio's skull was angled. Woodruff, a Montana native who took pride in his own homemade pick, soon discovered more of Dio's frill. A glue solution was applied, giving the fossil a preserving sheen. With mosquito hour drawing near, Morrison and Evans agreed to call it a day. Before heading to their campground for the night, the group decided to reconnect with the rest of the world at Jordan's Hell Creek bar. Checking their phones, everyone save for driver Morrison sat silently with a crisp light beer under the watchful eye of taxidermy deer heads.

'DINOSAURS WILL ALWAYS BE COOL' Three weeks later, Evans sat in his office deep inside the ROM. Surrounded by bones collected on his expeditions, he gave a situational report: He'd just been on a satellite call with Morrison, who, along with Wilkinson, had stayed behind to encase Dio's fossilized skull in plaster and find a way to safely get the cast, which weighed more than a tonne, out of the valley and to Toronto. "Helicopter is an option," he half-joked.

Two days after the initial quarry dig, the crew had discovered Dio's horn and orbital bone, orienting it almost perfectly downward. This meant the majority of its skull had remained intact.

"Everything is more or less where it should be," he said, beaming.

As for its future, the ROM's collection lacked an articulated adult triceratops skull, Evans explained. So assuming the plastering, unpacking and cleaning went well, Dio's chances for display were quite high. At the very least, "it's something we can take out for special events" until the climate-change exhibit was ready.

And while that would be a big early win for the museum's Hell Creek expedition, Evans admitted he still dreamed of bringing a T. rex to the ROM. Maybe even a baby.

It's a quest he'd been on since he first fell in love with the giant lizards in this very building at the age of 4.

And it's one he was determined to complete. But for now, eyeing a wall of preserved embryos the museum's previous curator left behind, Evans allowed himself to take pride in his job.

"Dinosaurs will always be cool. They were cool 100 years ago, when the ROM started collecting fossils, and they're even cooler now," he announced. "The fossils that we're collecting and the research we're doing carries on this legacy. It makes our historic collections more relevant. "They're always going to be one of the most important things that we do here," he added. "Certainly if I have anything to do with it."

Associated Graphic

David Evans, a paleontologist at the Royal Ontario Museum, stands at a dig site in Jordan, Mont., last month. Whatever is collected here will appear in an exhibition on the effects of climate change, he says.

TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The Hell Creek Formation, which spans parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming, is ground zero for Late Cretaceous fossils, owing to American paleontologist Barnum Brown's discovery of the first triceratops and tyrannosaurus bones in its earthy crust.

Paleontologist David Evans, centre, leads the Royal Ontario Museum's crew at a dig site near Jordan, Mont., last month to uncover the rest of Dio, a 66-million-year-old triceratops. The dinosaur was first spotted by ROM researcher Danielle Dufault and was named after her heavy-metal hero.

At 38, Evans still maintains the wunderkind Indiana Jones aesthetic that helped score him the top paleontological gig in Canada at the age of just 26. Now head of the ROM's dinosaur research and curation, he also serves as a professor in the University of Toronto's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

PHOTOS BY TODD KOROL/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Lee-Bentham tees up a shot at redemption
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Marked by disappointment and a fractured family relationship, the young golfer's first stint on the LPGA Tour ended in ignominy. But now that time has healed old wounds and rekindled her passion for the game, the 27-year-old is back and on the upswing
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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Page S11

THORNHILL, ONT. -- Rebecca Lee-Bentham's first go-round on the LPGA Tour did not end well. She suffered not only declining performance and injuries as the years wore on, but also unhappiness and a fractured relationship with her father, who was also her coach and caddy.

The experience was so dissatisfying that she quit the tour, halting a playing career that just a few years earlier had seemed full of promise.

But with the passing of time and a renewed passion for the game, she has decided to take another shot at tour golf. Her comeback begins in earnest on Aug. 22 in California in the first stage of the LPGA Tour's qualifying tournament, better known as Q-school.

The 27-year-old from Toronto will be among hundreds of women who are trying to advance through the first two stages of Q-school and then earn a playing card on the LPGA Tour for 2020 by finishing in the top 45 at the third and final stage.

If Lee-Bentham can get that far, she will have also earned a shot at redemption; a second chance to correct her initial foray into professional golf, which she remembers as "not fun at all."

"It kind of crushed me when she decided to pack it in, although I do know and understand the inside [story] of what was going on there," said Derek Ingram, who coached Lee-Bentham for a few years while she was on Canada's national amateur team. "Now I'm thrilled that she's trying again because I think she'll have very good success."

The odds of reaching the world's top tour for women are long, but Lee-Bentham has beaten them before.

Shortly after dropping out of the University of Texas as a 19year-old to take a crack at pro golf, she breezed through the 2011 Qschool and suddenly found herself playing among the women she had idolized growing up.

Her immediate success seemed a natural progression from her elite amateur days, when her triumphs included winning the Ontario Women's Amateur as a 15-year-old and later the Canadian Junior Girls and Canadian Women's Amateur championships.

But the pro game's learning curve was steep in her early years on tour. While there were breakthrough moments, such as a career-best 11th-place finish at the Evian Championship in 2013 and a respectable US$118,000 in winnings that same year, there were also many weeks of bottom-ofthe-pack finishes and missed cuts. Her declining results led to part-time status on the LPGA Tour and relegation to the second-tier Symetra Tour.

Her performance inside the ropes, though, wasn't the half of it. She struggled on the practice range, too, trying to make sense of all the advice she was getting from her father, Ken Lee, and others.

"My mentality was a little different then," Lee-Bentham said recently before leaving for California. "It wasn't as much fun for me before. I was more like, 'I have to do it.' And it was more like people giving me information and I was just kind of following it - it wasn't me trying to figure it out."

Lee-Bentham acknowledged she was a perfectionist in a sport that defies perfection. She also conceded she put too much pressure on herself.

"You're never going to be happy or satisfied when you always compare yourself to others, which is what I did a lot back then, too," she said during a candid conversation about her past and future, sitting on a bench in the shade near the driving range at Ladies Golf Club of Toronto, a course in suburban Thornhill, Ont., that's among the Greater Toronto Area facilities where she practises.

"I was comparing myself to other players, wanting what they have. Even my dad would do that to me, too. [He would say,] 'That person practises more than you.

Look at them, they're doing better than you.' He was always comparing."

The comparisons were but one sign of a straining relationship with her father.

Lee introduced her to the game at the age of 12 and was her first coach, taking control of her career through junior and amateur golf and into the pro ranks. He even retired early from his engineering job with a technology company to become her caddy after she joined the LPGA Tour.

This sort of parental involvement isn't unusual in women's professional golf. Fathers and mothers are ubiquitous at LPGA Tour events, especially among the contingent of Asian players, although it crosses cultural boundaries, too. Canadian star Brooke Henderson's entourage, for example, usually includes her father, Dave, and mother, Darlene, as well as her sister, Brittany, who's also her caddy.

It can work for some players.

But it doesn't pay off for everyone.

Lee-Bentham said she knows her father meant well. He instilled in her a fierce work ethic, telling her she had to practise harder than others because she started playing relatively late in life and had fewer resources at her disposal, and he gave her parental protection as she embarked as a young adult into a grown-up's world.

But being together 24/7, the long practice sessions and the pressure had a dark side. "It's tough," Lee-Bentham said.

"When you're growing up and you're in your early 20s, you're trying to be more independent, but then you have someone that kind of blocks that. You butt heads a lot. You want to figure things out on your own, but they don't want you making mistakes."

Lee acknowledges they both felt stress, mentally to succeed and physically to keep their bodies healthy. Lee had knee problems, Lee-Bentham back troubles. "We did have some issues, but our final goal was we were trying to be better than everybody else," he said.

Her growing unhappiness, diminishing results and injuries ultimately prompted her to pack it in. The Canadian Pacific Women's Open in 2016 was her swan song on the LPGA Tour.

"When I stopped playing," she said, "me and my dad didn't have the greatest relationship. There was a lot of bitterness." As difficult as it was to stop chasing the dream, it proved to be a good move. She directed her energies into teaching golf, fulfilling a long-held desire to give back to the game.

Working out of Angus Glen Golf Club in suburban Markham, Ont., and the Metro Golf Dome in Scarborough, the Toronto neighbourhood where she was born, LeeBentham built a robust roster of junior and adult clients. She also developed a new understanding of golf's technical skills and how to articulate them to others.

"I knew how to do it, but couldn't explain it," she said. "The more I got comfortable explaining it, the more I understood it, and I then I could do it even better myself." She believes her fundamentals are stronger now than when she was a teenage amateur phenom or on the LPGA Tour.

Just as important to her, she put her personal life in order, too.

She said she mended her relationship with her father - "He knows I'm mature enough to figure things out on my own; he sees I enjoy it a lot more; we are both a lot happier" - and she was able to attend the weddings of both of her siblings, Paul and Sarah, and later be on hand for the birth of Paul's daughter, her first niece.

Lee agrees. He describes their relationship as "better than ever" now and added he's content to support her from a distance this time.

"I'm glad she does that, going back," he said during a telephone interview from his tennis club.

"She still has a lot of talent in her. I told her, 'You can teach your whole life, whenever you want to.

But being in tournament competitive golf is limited.' "When she's in Toronto, LeeBentham lives with her parents in a small condo, which has been especially crammed recently because her sister moved in temporarily while she prepares to relocate to the United States with her husband. But the household is harmonious and she says she is happy.

"Because I was always doing what other people told me to do, I didn't get to do what I wanted to do all the time," a wiser and more mature Lee-Bentham said. "But now it's like I have a choice. I have the choice to practise; if I want to see friends and family, I can."

During Lee-Bentham's 21/2 years of teaching, she was often asked about returning to competitive golf, but had no interest. Then a confluence of people and events last December made her reconsider.

Past acquaintances and new people in her life had, simultaneously but without knowing one another, encouraged her to try again, and they all offered different pieces of support - including the US$2,500 entry fee into Qschool, a place to stay in California over the winter, a course in California at which to practise and a car to drive.

Lee-Bentham took the offers as a sign. So she wound down her teaching schedule in early 2019, pulled out the set of old TaylorMade irons she once used on the LPGA Tour, headed to California and returned to the range to practise the game that has occupied more than half her life.

If she had any concerns that a lengthy time away from competition would leave her too rusty, she put them to rest immediately. She held the first-round lead in May at the Bermuda Grey Goose World Par 3 Championships, playing against a field that included Canada's top male club professionals and international veterans such as PGA Tour-winner Chip Beck and Englishman Barry Lane, who went on to win the Par 3. (LeeBentham finished in 10th.)

Then in July, Lee-Bentham came from behind to steal the DCM PGA Women's Championship, a prestigious Canadian event whose past champions include Henderson and fellow Canucks Lorie Kane and Alena Sharp. This year's edition was held at Ladies Golf Club. Her final round of nine-under-par 63 not only vaulted her to the top of the leaderboard but also signalled she still has the skills to dominate a course and come through in the clutch.

In a cruel stroke of irony, the DCM victory earned her a berth in next week's CP Women's Open, which will be held in her backyard at Magna Golf Club in Aurora, Ont., but she won't be able to attend because she's at Q-school.

Nevertheless, it was building block. Soon after, she won the PGA of Ontario Women's Championship by eight shots, albeit against a small, regional field.

The trophies bode well for her important week ahead at Mission Hills Country Club, the same facility in Rancho Mirage where the LPGA Tour holds the ANA Inspiration, one of its five major tournaments. Lee-Bentham might not jump into Poppie's Pond after her final round on Aug. 25 if she advances to the second stage, as the ANA champion traditionally does, but she'll have reason to celebrate clearing the first significant hurdle in her comeback.

"Not having control of her situation [before], probably the only way out for her was to quit and start over on her own terms," Ingram, her former national coach said .

"So I am excited that she is going to have that opportunity. I believe a fresh new vibe and attitude will be really good for her and I think she'll love the game again.

Regardless of the success, I really commend her for challenging herself." The LPGA Tour begins its three-stage qualifying school next week in the California desert. The first stage will be held over three courses in Rancho Mirage and the surrounding area, with the top 90 or so finishers advancing to the second stage in Florida in October. The top 45 finishers at the third stage earn 2020 LPGA Tour cards and the rest are guaranteed status on the second-tier Symetra Tour. At least 16 Canadians will be among the approximately 300 entrants next week in the first stage.

Besides former LPGA Tour player Rebecca Lee-Bentham, here are three Canadians to watch:

SELENA COSTABILE A classically trained pianist and speaker of five languages (and counting), the 21-yearold fledgling pro from Thornhill, Ont., is also very accomplished at golf - she won a pro tournament as an amateur and has played in two LPGA Tour events.

ANNA YOUNG The five-time Saskatchewan Women's Amateur champion has been a pro for a few years and has at least a couple of mini-tour victories to her credit and about 20 starts on the Symetra Tour.

NAOMI KO The former national amateur team member from Victoria has a sense of occasion - she's played her way into two U.S. Women's Opens.

Other Canadians entered in the first stage as of Aug. 6: Mackenzie Barrie, Nayan Calsin Murdoch, Usu Gloria Choi (amateur), Caroline Ciot, Josée Doyon, Hannah Hellyer, Casey MacNeil, Michelle Ruiz (a), Sabrina Sapone, Kelsey Sear (a), Joo Youn Seo, Alison Timlin.

401 Number of unique participants in Q-School through the three stages in 2018.

45 Number of 2020 LPGA Tour cards available this year in the third and final stage, which is now called Q-Series and consists of two 72-hole tournaments.

Associated Graphic

Toronto's Rebecca Lee-Bentham has been putting in work at facilities across the Greater Toronto Area, including at Richmond Hill's Summit Golf Club earlier this summer, to prepare for her comeback.

PHOTOS BY TIJANA MARTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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WHAT WE CAN LEARN FROM TH THINGS THAT NEVER HAPPENED
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The science of risk and probability can teach us a lot about how near-disasters are averted - and in an erarted - and in an era of disastrous politics, we need those lessons more than ever, Linda Besner writes
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Saturday, August 10, 2019 – Page O6

Linda Besner's most recent book is Feel Happier in Nine Seconds.

Near midnight on July 7, 2017, one of the worst disasters in aviation history - in which Air Canada Flight 759, carrying 135 passengers and five crew, missed its runway on the descent into San Francisco International Airport and crashed into four passenger planes awaiting takeoff, killing or injuring more than 1,000 people - came within four metres of happening.

As the Air Canada plane approached, the pilot of one of the aircraft on the ground radioed the flight-control tower.

"Where is this guy going?" he asked, of the plane barrelling toward him. The crew of a Philippines Airlines flight, also on the ground, turned on its lights to signal its presence. The pilot of Flight 759 abruptly changed course, even as air-traffic control came over the radio with the order to abort the landing and climb. The plane swooped low over the craft on the ground before regaining altitude. No one was hurt; no equipment was damaged.

What actually happened was, statistically speaking, nothing.

We know about the incident because, since the 1970s, the aviation industry has developed a particular expertise in reporting things that don't happen.

In most areas of life, what we know suffers from a bias toward the actual. In gathering and assessing information about the world around us, most of us focus narrowly on things that exist and events that have come to pass.

Near misses are the events of shadow worlds that run alongside this one. Exploration of their import has largely been the domain of science fiction, or counterfactual history - the slew of literary and filmic depictions (Fatherland, The Man in the High Castle) that start with the question, "What if the Nazis had won the war?" Or Michael Chabon's 2007 novel, The Yiddish Policemen's Union, that asks, "What if a Jewish state had been founded in Alaska?" But counterfactual history has itself been gaining some acceptance as a legitimate learning tool within university departments, and the past decade has seen rising interest in the study of near misses in diverse fields. In the United States, the aviation industry's near-miss reporting system has served as a model for NASA, while firefighting and nursing associations have started collecting their own information on near misses.

As the idea of the near miss gains currency, it's possible to imagine the study of the almostwas expanding into any and all sectors. All of life is a branching off of one option after another, the major and minor often indistinctly marked. Everything is almost something else. Greater attention to the events that don't quite occur might unlock their significance for individuals, institutions, companies - even for democracy.

From a mathematical standpoint, things that don't happen have a significant advantage over things that do: There are far more of them. A disaster with a long history, which has been much studied, is maternal morbidity - death in childbirth. In past centuries, doctors or reformers in Europe and North America who wanted to study the phenomenon had no shortage of cases to learn from, since labour was frequently fatal. But as sanitation and other factors improved, the number of women dying in childbirth declined - in Canada, the most recent numbers show seven deaths for every 100,000 live births. This, of course, is the desired outcome - but it means the number of cases that can be studied in order to keep every woman delivering a baby in the Canadian context alive are vanishingly few.

To try to prevent those seven deaths, researchers from associations such as the Maternal Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System now recommend casting a net wide enough to capture maternal near-miss - all the deliveries in which the mother's life was threatened by something going wrong.

Things are always going wrong. In 2012, the Process Improvement Institute, a safetymanagement consulting firm based in Tennessee, put out a paper on near misses in the chemical-processing industry. The authors found that for every accident that occurs, there are about a hundred near misses, as well as 10,000 errors and failures - either human mistakes or flaws in the system. A wealth of information is theoretically available.

But gathering data on things that didn't happen poses practical as well as metaphysical challenges. Both health-care and factory workers are officially encouraged to report errors or mishaps that put someone in danger.

But an error isn't just useful information - it's the kind of thing that gets someone fired. Companies are fond of near-miss reports because they are far cheaper than lawsuits: If no one was actually hurt, no one can sue. But for workers, the risk of job loss looms. It can be hard to incentivize people to offer up information about their own mistakes or failures to adhere to protocol.

Even if the error is someone else's, it's not always comfortable (or safe) to snitch.

Also, people's sensitivity to near miss events can be patchy. I spoke with Garry Gray, a sociologist at the University of Victoria, who has been studying near misses for years. In recording safety data in factory settings, he told me, "You start to notice these near misses happening all the time." Most safety systems that use near-miss numbers rely on self-reporting - people either filling out a questionnaire or telling an inspector about incidents in which they came close to being injured or killed. Dr. Gray told me that, as with anything to do with how people remember events, these reports are likely to be coloured by the emotions attached to the memories. Because dramatic incidents stick in the mind, the majority of reported incidents are of vehicles almost crashing, or heavy pipes almost cracking someone on the head.

People are less likely to remember a more humble near miss: that time they tripped over a loose cable, or fell down but brushed themselves off and carried on working. In a 2018 article published in the Canadian Journal of Sociology, Dr. Gray remarked that self-reporting in factories also fails to capture the near misses that weren't noticed at all - sometimes the person never knew they were in danger.

A superior method of gathering this information might be to post observers at hotspots, where they could see for themselves the frequency of near-accidents. If a non-event is usually recorded as 0 and an event as 1, near misses could even have their own designation in statistical analysis: 0.9.

As Dr. Gray and I spoke, I remembered a recent near miss of my own. I was cycling along a bike lane on a busy street in To-

ronto when I felt rather than saw a 16-foot truck coming too close to me. Looking over, I saw the truck's cab start to turn in my direction, heading across me into the driveway of a business. I braked sharply and, as the long body of the truck swerved into my lane, scrambled backward onto the sidewalk. At the last minute, the driver saw me, and with the truck still running in the driveway, three men jumped down from the cab to make sure I was all right. I was unhurt, but the shock of what had almost happened reverberated around me for the rest of the day.

No record of my near death - or my reasons for subsequently avoiding this street, even though it has a bike lane - exists in any official document. But, as it turns out, urbanists have been working on making it easier to access and report these incidents. In 2014, researchers from the University of Victoria and Simon Fraser University created BikeMaps, an online project that allows cyclists to enter their own reports of collisions and near misses. During the first two months of the pilot in Victoria, the crowdsourcing site collected as much data as the city's official cycling-collision reports gathered in a year - near misses constituted 62 per cent of the new information.

Looking at the site now, I'm struck by how dangerous it makes cycling seem. All those bar graphs in alarming reds and oranges, the clickable icons where irate cyclists have shared stories (and sometimes licence plates) of drivers who squeezed them off the road, clipped them with a mirror, or came a hair's breadth from crushing them to death. Being alive is dangerous; to get into the driver's seat of a car also requires us to temporarily suspend the reasonable fear of hurting ourselves or someone else.

Awareness of the near miss is a mixed blessing: Thinking too vividly about the ever-present potential for disaster can be paralyzing.

Then again, the threat of disaster can galvanize - on a global as well as an individual scale. The present long political moment has been widely described as a global tilt away from democratic ideals.

Since 1972, the U.S.-based think tank Freedom House has issued a yearly report on the state of democracy, and recent news has not been good: The 2018 index found a worldwide decline every year since 2005. As various countries around the world have elected leaders who seem scornful of democratic procedures, it can feel as though the whole world is speeding headlong into a dangerous bend in the road.

In the midst of a flurry of new research on what the death knells of democracy sound like, researchers at the University of Chicago wondered: Why not look at cases in which a country experienced a serious erosion in the quality of democratic functioning, but then righted itself? The resulting paper, authored by Tom Ginsburg and Aziz Huq and published in the Journal of Democracy in 2018, works toward elaborating a method for identifying and studying "the democratic near miss."

If the subjective elements of individual memory make it hard to document slips, trips and falls in a factory setting, the criteria for what constitutes democratic decline and recovery are even more malleable. For their first attempt, Dr. Huq and Dr. Ginsburg compared data from three widely used indices: those produced by Freedom House, the Polity Data Series and the Varieties of Democracy collective. The researchers looked for a particular pattern: countries that enjoyed a stable democracy for at least three years, then experienced a significant dip of at least a year, which was then followed by another three years of solid democratic functioning. All indexes showed countries that followed this pattern, but none agreed on which countries they were. India in the 1970s was one contender; arguments could be made for Bolivia and Guyana. Fiji seemed to be more a case of "democratic careening," in which a state flickers wildly back and forth from one form of government to another.

Concluding that the tools for studying democratic near misses had not yet advanced to a point at which quantitative comparisons were possible, the researchers instead chose three case studies from existing literature: Finland between the world wars; Colombia in 2010; and Sri Lanka in 2015.

All three experienced a sustained moment of turmoil, in which authoritarian figures attempted to override existing structures to consolidate their control. In all three cases, Dr. Ginsburg and Dr.

Huq came to the paradoxical conclusion that the defence of democracy came largely at the hands of non-elected actors: judges, civil servants, military officials and political elites.

I wondered if this wasn't a little depressing - did popular dissent play no role at all? These findings, Dr. Huq told me, were not to say that citizens had no power to protect their institutions. Citizen participation affected these outcomes both directly and indirectly - in the case of Sri Lanka, civilsociety groups united to push for the election of Maithripala Sirisena, the challenger to autocrat Mahinda Rajapaksa. In Colombia, the high regard in which the public held the Constitutional Court seems to have helped persuade Alvaro Uribe to accede to the Court's refusal to extend his time in office.

In studying what doesn't happen, one runs into some of the same difficulties as in studying what does. Cause and effect are never so clearly related as convenience would have it, and the reasons why one country slides into autocratic rule and another recovers may have more to do with chance, or a specific political culture as with safeguards that can be replicated elsewhere. In building a bulwark against democratic decline, these illustrations can, however, hint at the complex mechanisms that sink societies into dangerous waters, and, unexpectedly, float them out again.

The spectacular near miss of Flight 759 served to highlight a serious flaw in Canada's air-trafficsafety regime. On the plane's descent into San Francisco, the pilot was suffering from fatigue - an air-safety investigator later told media that mandated rest times for Canadian crews were among the most meagre in the world. At the time of the near crash, new regulations were already in the works: Canada now allows only nine to 13 consecutive hours of work in a 24-hour period (down from 14 hours).

However, the explanatory potential of near misses doesn't guarantee solutions. The Air Canada Pilots Association declared its members' disappointment with the new rules, saying that Canadian pilots are still expected to perform overnight flights two hours longer than NASA recommends. How much risk is too much? The world that doesn't come into being is as open to poor interpretation as the one that does.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: THE GLOBE AND MAIL. SOURCE PHOTO: DALTON00GETTY IMAGES/ISTOCKPHOTO

Tuesday, August 13, 2019
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The picture of health: Medical schools make a push for diversity
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By revising application forms and establishing more holistic approaches to admissions, some Canadian schools seek to level the playing field for candidates from disadvantaged backgrounds
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By JOE FRIESEN
  
  

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Tuesday, July 30, 2019 – Page A8

Have you ever used a food bank?

Were you raised by a single parent?

What was your family income in the second decade of your life? And how should the answers to those questions influence who gets into medical school?

Medical schools used to say their job was to find the best and the brightest. But the selection method, based on grade-point averages, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and a face-to-face interview, has resulted in classes that fall short of some universities' goals for racial and socio-economic diversity.

Now, some schools are asking if the process is truly fair, and if not, how it ought to change. Across Canada, medical schools are taking steps to shape incoming classes by offering advantages to applicants from certain demographic groups.

In a given year, only 10 per cent to 20 per cent of applicants are admitted. Many schools could probably choose a similarly capable cohort from among the applicants they reject. But finding the right demographic mix is increasingly an important concern.

Medical schools in Canada exercise overwhelming influence over admission to the profession. About 75 per cent of physicians in this country are Canadian graduates, so the process by which admissions decisions are made is crucial not only to the applicants but to society as a whole. They shape the future of health care.

At the University of Manitoba, the admissions committee studied years of data and found a pretty clear pattern: Wealthy white students from big cities were more likely to be interviewed and more likely to get in, partly because of built-in advantages. As undergrads, they don't have to work part-time to pay for school, they're able to pay for MCAT prep courses and, in interviews, they can cite an impressive range of travel and volunteer experiences.

The result is that a public university's system seems to ensure opportunity for the already fortunate.

Bruce Martin, the U of M's dean of admissions, set out to tinker with the crucial first stage of the admissions process so that more applicants from different backgrounds got through. He knew he could do so by systematically boosting scores based on certain attributes or experiences. But which attributes to target?

He convened a panel of people from outside the university with experience in race relations and alleviating poverty and asked them to consider how the medical school could diversify its student body.

They decided to add a section to the application that would elicit the information they sought. They came up with more than 30 questions, many of them deeply personal and revealing, including factors such as visible-minority status, sexual orientation, involvement with the child-welfare system and living with family members who suffer from addiction.

The committee then ranked each question based on the perceived level of disadvantage suffered by the applicant. Should having a family member with a disability be a greater consideration than whether your parents graduated from university, or having a childwelfare file?

The numerical values assigned to each answer are combined to create an arithmetic modifier meant to reflect the degree to which the applicant's background would put them at a disadvantage in the application, Dr. Martin said. (It turns out that a history of substance abuse moved the needle more than being a visible minority, while needing student aid rated well below using a food bank.)

The goal was relatively modest: a 5-percent increase in the number of medical students with diversity attributes.

"We didn't want to have a quota system.

But we want to increase the number of diverse individuals on an incremental basis," Dr. Martin said.

Other schools have set a similar goal, but have taken a different approach. The University of Saskatchewan, for example, now reserves six of its 100 seats for applicants whose families earn less than $80,000 a year.

At the University of Toronto, a special stream has been created for black applicants. At Dalhousie University in Halifax, the medical school says it recognizes that affirmative action is required to increase admissions of African-Nova Scotians and Indigenous people. And at the University of Calgary, applicants from underrepresented groups are asked to "highlight their background and experiences."

Many schools have the same goals as the University of Manitoba, Dr. Martin said, but are not as transparent about how they aim to achieve a diverse incoming class.

At Newfoundland's Memorial University, for example, acting dean of admissions Paul Dancey said the school takes a "holistic ap-

proach," which is common at Canadian universities. He said it involves looking in great detail at all aspects of the candidate, not just their academic record, and paying particular attention to barriers that may have affected their grades or extracurricular activities. (Dr.

Martin said Manitoba chose not to take the holistic approach because it relies on the judgment of individual evaluators and can be susceptible to bias.)

The drive to consider racial and socio-economic equality in admissions is also leading major changes in the U.S. college system. The College Board now includes what's being called an adversity score in SAT test results, based on demographic factors such as crime and poverty levels in a student's neighbourhood and school district. The board said it could no longer ignore the extent to which differences in wealth and race were reflected in test scores, which are very influential in the admissions process. The method for calculating the score has not been released, but it's based on public information, not answers submitted by students.

For students, the application process remains slightly mysterious, to prevent someone from gaming the system.

Fatemeh Bakhtiari, a second-year medical student at the U of M, was born in Afghanistan and came to Canada as a child. Growing up in Winnipeg, her family was not wealthy.

Her mother worked as a grocery clerk and her father was a truck driver. Ms. Bakhtiari excelled in school and at university set her sights on medicine. But she didn't have many of the advantages that other applicants could rely on, such as a family member who is a doctor. She also had to work parttime in restaurants and retail while studying.

"I had no idea where to start," she said. "If it wasn't for Google, I don't where I would've been."

She remembers answering questions on her application about her family income and whether she identifies as a visible minority or LGBTQ, but she didn't understand why those questions were being asked. She said she has no idea whether her answers had any role in her success. She said her GPA was strong, she wrote her MCAT three times to improve her score and felt very confident about her interview performance.

"I don't know the scoring system or how it works," Ms. Bakhtiari said. "I don't know if it was my MCAT, my GPA or my interview that got me through. They don't tell you."

At the white-coat ceremony where new medical students are welcomed and take the Hippocratic Oath, the U of M's dean of the faculty of medicine, Brian Postl, said the school was proud of the diversity of Ms. Bakhtiari's class. More than half are women, 10 per cent are Indigenous, 20 per cent are from rural areas and 50 per cent are from families with incomes of less than $75,000. Ms. Bakhtiari said she believes the diversity of her class is valuable for two reasons: Diverse groups have been shown to be more innovative, and physicians should reflect the population they serve.

Manitoba's diversity initiatives started more than 30 years ago with attempts to get more Indigenous people into medicine.

About a decade ago, the medical school also began to see rural candidates as particularly desirable. Canada was facing a staffing crisis in rural and remote hospitals and medical offices, and researchers began trying to identify what made a medical student more likely to stay and practise in a rural area. A key factor was having grown up in a small town or farming community. That's when Manitoba began using an arithmetic modifier to place students with a rural background at an advantage.

The university was following a path laid by the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM), which opened in 2005 with a mandate to turn out doctors for the region - and made no bones about giving priority to students with a rural or remote upbringing.

Roger Strasser, until recently the dean and chief executive officer of the NOSM, said his program gets about 2,000 applications a year. It whittles those down to 320, who are invited for interviews based on a threepronged score comprising a grade-point average, a personal statement and what's called a context score, derived from answers about a person's background and upbringing. The algorithm for deriving the context score is confidential, Dr. Strasser said, but he was transparent about its key implication.

"Applicants who've grown up in Northern Ontario or other remote, rural, Indigenous or francophone settings, they get the highest score. The people who are not Indigenous or francophone or come from big cities like Toronto get the lowest score," Dr. Strasser said.

Ninety-two per cent of NOSM students have grown up in Northern Ontario, and the other 8 per cent are from rural and remote parts of the rest of Canada. About 2 per cent of applicants are Indigenous, but in the past few years the selection system has been tweaked to increase the number of successful Indigenous applicants, including giving them training to succeed in the interview process. The class went from about 7-percent Indigenous over the school's first decade to about 12 per cent for the past three years, Dr. Strasser said.

He said one of his biggest challenges as dean is the criticism from families in Toronto, who believe their children are excluded from his school.

"My response is, if you look at the numbers, this is just the reverse of the way it is for people from Northern Ontario applying to med school in Toronto or the other big cities.

So in a sense, you could say it's true, there is, let's call it a bias, but what we're doing is just countering the bias that's built into the admissions process of other medical schools," Dr. Strasser said.

It has become conventional wisdom, supported by research, to say medicine is done better when doctors come from diverse backgrounds, Dr. Martin said. A cohort of physicians with a broad range of life experiences are better able to understand the needs of the population.

The applicants selected under Manitoba's diversity initiative all meet the school's admissions criteria, but they might not otherwise have reached the top of the admissions heap. The flip side, however, is that some people who've worked hard and achieved a great deal won't get in, Dr. Martin said. That's difficult for some to reconcile.

Even his own colleagues, worried about their children's prospects, have cornered him on this matter. The conversations were uncomfortable, he said.

"We in medicine have generally been white, socio-economically advantaged and male. And that's not who we serve," he said.

"It's my mission to pick people who are suited to the profession and can meet the needs of the population." Sample questions appearing on University of Manitoba medical-school applications FAMILY HISTORY Were you raised by a single parent due to divorce, death of a parent, or a teen parent?

Were you ever a child or youth in care?

Are you a parent taking care of one or more children on your own?

Did your parents or guardians graduate from college or university?

Were you or your family admitted to Canada with refugee status?

ECONOMIC INFORMATION Did you or your family ever have to use a food bank?

During the second decade of your life, was the annual gross income in the household in which you lived between $40,000-$75,000?

During the second decade of your life, did you have to work to contribute to family income?

Will your parent(s) be paying for the tuition fees if you get accepted to our medical school?

Do you currently receive student aid?

OTHER SOCIOCULTURAL DETERMINANTS Do you consider yourself to be a member of a Visible Minority?

Do you identify as First Nations, Métis, Inuit or other North American Indigenous ancestry?

Is your primary language other than English or French?

Do you have a participation or activity limitation that has an impact on your day-to-day life?

Were you raised or are you living in a household in which there was/is a person living with substance abuse?

SOURCE: DR. BRUCE MARTIN, UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA ADMISSIONS

Associated Graphic

Fatemeh Bakhtiari, a second-year medical student at the University of Manitoba, stands in the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg earlier this month. Ms. Bakhtiari was born in Afghanistan and immigrated to Canada as a child. Growing up in Winnipeg in a family of modest means, she lacked many of the advantages that other prospective medical students had, despite her strong grades and competitive MCAT score.

JOHN WOODS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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The picture of health: Medical schools make a push for diversity
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By revising application forms and establishing more holistic approaches to admissions, some Canadian schools seek to level the playing field for candidates from disadvantaged backgrounds
space
By JOE FRIESEN
  
  

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Tuesday, July 30, 2019 – Page A8

Have you ever used a food bank?

Were you raised by a single parent?

What was your family income in the second decade of your life? And how should the answers to those questions influence who gets into medical school?

Medical schools used to say their job was to find the best and the brightest. But the selection method, based on grade-point averages, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and a face-to-face interview, has resulted in classes that fall short of some universities' goals for racial and socio-economic diversity.

Now, some schools are asking if the process is truly fair, and if not, how it ought to change. Across Canada, medical schools are taking steps to shape incoming classes by offering advantages to applicants from certain demographic groups.

In a given year, only 10 per cent to 20 per cent of applicants are admitted. Many schools could probably choose a similarly capable cohort from among the applicants they reject. But finding the right demographic mix is increasingly an important concern.

Medical schools in Canada exercise overwhelming influence over admission to the profession. About 75 per cent of physicians in this country are Canadian graduates, so the process by which admissions decisions are made is crucial not only to the applicants but to society as a whole. They shape the future of health care.

At the University of Manitoba, the admissions committee studied years of data and found a pretty clear pattern: Wealthy white students from big cities were more likely to be interviewed and more likely to get in, partly because of built-in advantages. As undergrads, they don't have to work part-time to pay for school, they're able to pay for MCAT prep courses and, in interviews, they can cite an impressive range of travel and volunteer experiences.

The result is that a public university's system seems to ensure opportunity for the already fortunate.

Bruce Martin, the U of M's dean of admissions, set out to tinker with the crucial first stage of the admissions process so that more applicants from different backgrounds got through. He knew he could do so by systematically boosting scores based on certain attributes or experiences. But which attributes to target?

He convened a panel of people from outside the university with experience in race relations and alleviating poverty and asked them to consider how the medical school could diversify its student body.

They decided to add a section to the application that would elicit the information they sought. They came up with more than 30 questions, many of them deeply personal and revealing, including factors such as visible-minority status, sexual orientation, involvement with the child-welfare system and living with family members who suffer from addiction.

The committee then ranked each question based on the perceived level of disadvantage suffered by the applicant. Should having a family member with a disability be a greater consideration than whether your parents graduated from university, or having a childwelfare file?

The numerical values assigned to each answer are combined to create an arithmetic modifier meant to reflect the degree to which the applicant's background would put them at a disadvantage in the application, Dr. Martin said. (It turns out that a history of substance abuse moved the needle more than being a visible minority, while needing student aid rated well below using a food bank.)

The goal was relatively modest: a 5-percent increase in the number of medical students with diversity attributes.

"We didn't want to have a quota system.

But we want to increase the number of diverse individuals on an incremental basis," Dr. Martin said.

Other schools have set a similar goal, but have taken a different approach. The University of Saskatchewan, for example, now reserves six of its 100 seats for applicants whose families earn less than $80,000 a year.

At the University of Toronto, a special stream has been created for black applicants. At Dalhousie University in Halifax, the medical school says it recognizes that affirmative action is required to increase admissions of African-Nova Scotians and Indigenous people. And at the University of Calgary, applicants from underrepresented groups are asked to "highlight their background and experiences."

Many schools have the same goals as the University of Manitoba, Dr. Martin said, but are not as transparent about how they aim to achieve a diverse incoming class.

At Newfoundland's Memorial University, for example, acting dean of admissions Paul Dancey said the school takes a "holistic ap-

proach," which is common at Canadian universities. He said it involves looking in great detail at all aspects of the candidate, not just their academic record, and paying particular attention to barriers that may have affected their grades or extracurricular activities. (Dr.

Martin said Manitoba chose not to take the holistic approach because it relies on the judgment of individual evaluators and can be susceptible to bias.)

The drive to consider racial and socio-economic equality in admissions is also leading major changes in the U.S. college system. The College Board now includes what's being called an adversity score in SAT test results, based on demographic factors such as crime and poverty levels in a student's neighbourhood and school district. The board said it could no longer ignore the extent to which differences in wealth and race were reflected in test scores, which are very influential in the admissions process. The method for calculating the score has not been released, but it's based on public information, not answers submitted by students.

For students, the application process remains slightly mysterious, to prevent someone from gaming the system.

Fatemeh Bakhtiari, a second-year medical student at the U of M, was born in Afghanistan and came to Canada as a child. Growing up in Winnipeg, her family was not wealthy.

Her mother worked as a grocery clerk and her father was a truck driver. Ms. Bakhtiari excelled in school and at university set her sights on medicine. But she didn't have many of the advantages that other applicants could rely on, such as a family member who is a doctor. She also had to work parttime in restaurants and retail while studying.

"I had no idea where to start," she said. "If it wasn't for Google, I don't where I would've been."

She remembers answering questions on her application about her family income and whether she identifies as a visible minority or LGBTQ, but she didn't understand why those questions were being asked. She said she has no idea whether her answers had any role in her success. She said her GPA was strong, she wrote her MCAT three times to improve her score and felt very confident about her interview performance.

"I don't know the scoring system or how it works," Ms. Bakhtiari said. "I don't know if it was my MCAT, my GPA or my interview that got me through. They don't tell you."

At the white-coat ceremony where new medical students are welcomed and take the Hippocratic Oath, the U of M's dean of the faculty of medicine, Brian Postl, said the school was proud of the diversity of Ms. Bakhtiari's class. More than half are women, 10 per cent are Indigenous, 20 per cent are from rural areas and 50 per cent are from families with incomes of less than $75,000. Ms. Bakhtiari said she believes the diversity of her class is valuable for two reasons: Diverse groups have been shown to be more innovative, and physicians should reflect the population they serve.

Manitoba's diversity initiatives started more than 30 years ago with attempts to get more Indigenous people into medicine.

About a decade ago, the medical school also began to see rural candidates as particularly desirable. Canada was facing a staffing crisis in rural and remote hospitals and medical offices, and researchers began trying to identify what made a medical student more likely to stay and practise in a rural area. A key factor was having grown up in a small town or farming community. That's when Manitoba began using an arithmetic modifier to place students with a rural background at an advantage.

The university was following a path laid by the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM), which opened in 2005 with a mandate to turn out doctors for the region - and made no bones about giving priority to students with a rural or remote upbringing.

Roger Strasser, until recently the dean and chief executive officer of the NOSM, said his program gets about 2,000 applications a year. It whittles those down to 320, who are invited for interviews based on a threepronged score comprising a grade-point average, a personal statement and what's called a context score, derived from answers about a person's background and upbringing. The algorithm for deriving the context score is confidential, Dr. Strasser said, but he was transparent about its key implication.

"Applicants who've grown up in Northern Ontario or other remote, rural, Indigenous or francophone settings, they get the highest score. The people who are not Indigenous or francophone or come from big cities like Toronto get the lowest score," Dr. Strasser said.

Ninety-two per cent of NOSM students have grown up in Northern Ontario, and the other 8 per cent are from rural and remote parts of the rest of Canada. About 2 per cent of applicants are Indigenous, but in the past few years the selection system has been tweaked to increase the number of successful Indigenous applicants, including giving them training to succeed in the interview process. The class went from about 7-percent Indigenous over the school's first decade to about 12 per cent for the past three years, Dr. Strasser said.

He said one of his biggest challenges as dean is the criticism from families in Toronto, who believe their children are excluded from his school.

"My response is, if you look at the numbers, this is just the reverse of the way it is for people from Northern Ontario applying to med school in Toronto or the other big cities.

So in a sense, you could say it's true, there is, let's call it a bias, but what we're doing is just countering the bias that's built into the admissions process of other medical schools," Dr. Strasser said.

It has become conventional wisdom, supported by research, to say medicine is done better when doctors come from diverse backgrounds, Dr. Martin said. A cohort of physicians with a broad range of life experiences are better able to understand the needs of the population.

The applicants selected under Manitoba's diversity initiative all meet the school's admissions criteria, but they might not otherwise have reached the top of the admissions heap. The flip side, however, is that some people who've worked hard and achieved a great deal won't get in, Dr. Martin said. That's difficult for some to reconcile.

Even his own colleagues, worried about their children's prospects, have cornered him on this matter. The conversations were uncomfortable, he said.

"We in medicine have generally been white, socio-economically advantaged and male. And that's not who we serve," he said.

"It's my mission to pick people who are suited to the profession and can meet the needs of the population." Sample questions appearing on University of Manitoba medical-school applications FAMILY HISTORY Were you raised by a single parent due to divorce, death of a parent, or a teen parent?

Were you ever a child or youth in care?

Are you a parent taking care of one or more children on your own?

Did your parents or guardians graduate from college or university?

Were you or your family admitted to Canada with refugee status?

ECONOMIC INFORMATION Did you or your family ever have to use a food bank?

During the second decade of your life, was the annual gross income in the household in which you lived between $40,000-$75,000?

During the second decade of your life, did you have to work to contribute to family income?

Will your parent(s) be paying for the tuition fees if you get accepted to our medical school?

Do you currently receive student aid?

OTHER SOCIOCULTURAL DETERMINANTS Do you consider yourself to be a member of a Visible Minority?

Do you identify as First Nations, Métis, Inuit or other North American Indigenous ancestry?

Is your primary language other than English or French?

Do you have a participation or activity limitation that has an impact on your day-to-day life?

Were you raised or are you living in a household in which there was/is a person living with substance abuse?

SOURCE: DR. BRUCE MARTIN, UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA ADMISSIONS


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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page R1

From above, the 2019 Toronto International Film Festival should look familiar. There will be the usual Oscar bait (Tom Hanks in A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood, Christian Bale in Ford v Ferrari), eagerly anticipated world cinema (Pedro Almodovar's Pain and Glory, Bong Joonho's Palme d'Or-winning Parasite) and Canadian curiosities (Atom Egoyan's Guest of Honour).

But for those inside the organization's Lightbox headquarters, TIFF 2019 will be an entirely new machine.

This September marks the first TIFF for new executive director and co-head Joana Vicente, who joined the organization this past November after serving as chief of the New York-based Independent Filmmaker Project. Vicente comes into a newly energized institution, with last year's festival acting as the unofficial last hurrah for some of the organization's most familiar faces, including long-time chief executive Piers Handling, chief operating officer Michele Maheux, vice-president of advancement Maxine Bailey and director of programming Kerri Craddock.

The changing of the guard will be critical if TIFF hopes to thrive in the ever-shifting industry landscape. Alongside artistic director and fellow co-head Cameron Bailey, Vicente needs to optimize revenue in a streaming-obsessed world and burnish a brand that, while world-renowned during 11 days every September, doesn't shine quite as bright during the other 354 days of the year.

Attendance for last year's festival hit a record 450,000, up 13,000 from the previous year. Year-round attendance at the Lightbox for 2018, meanwhile, was about 240,000, a figure that includes new releases, Cinematheque programming, special events such as Reel Talk and Books on Film, the Canada's Top Ten and Next Wave mini-festivals, exhibitions and school screenings.

In the thick of TIFF's busiest programming stretch, Vicente sat down with The Globe and Mail's Barry Hertz for a wide-ranging conversation about the future of the country's largest, shiniest arts institution.

When you came into TIFF, what struck you as its most immediate challenges?

I knew that I was coming into an organization that has had the same leadership for over 30 years, so that's always a challenge, but it was also why it was such an exciting opportunity to come in and, with Cameron, redefine where we should be. How do we position ourselves to be as relevant and vital as TIFF has been all these years? But I first wanted to listen and spend the time to hear not just from people inside TIFF, but from the industry, from different stakeholders, to get an assessment of where we are and what we can do better. That's how I've spent the past six months.

And what does TIFF need to do better?

When you ask that question, you hope to hear, "This is how it could become more relevant." In fact, it's people saying they love TIFF and how it plays an important role. So I was like, "C'mon, tell me the truth." And there are little things like, "You take too long to tell me whether my film is in the festival or not," but that's not important stuff. Over all, there's a common thread of how can we make the Lightbox as exciting and relevant year-round as the festival is?

So that's part of the redefinition?

Yes. So what's the building 2.0 version in an era where we're reading about the death of the theatrical experience? We all know that people still want to experience films with others and be immersed. How do we keep that consistent and make this a place with the hope that, no matter what's playing, it's going to be a great experience?

Have you found any answers to that question?

We have some ideas, but part of it is learning from the audience. We're starting to understand what the priorities are.

It's not going to be a major transformation. We're going to try things and listen to people, so it's incremental. This is a living building, organizations are living organisms, so we need to evolve and respond to how people use us.

Your key responsibility is revenue optimization. Looking at TIFF's annual report for 2018 that came out recently, it shows a $65,000 surplus compared with the previous year's surplus of $1.5-million. How is revenue trending?

Long-term sustainability is my first priority. The organization has kind of plateaued for a little while. There was a huge period of growth after the Lightbox was built and we need to look at how all of our activities perform. We're a non-profit, so there should be activities and programs that are not about revenue and exist because they are missioncritical. But maybe there are others that are not as sustainable and don't need to exist. We're developing [profit and loss statements] for each of the activities and programs, so that will be a filter to look at things. We're also looking at new opportunities to generate more revenue, such as launching the TIFF Tribute Gala this year, which can be a sustainable fundraiser that can repeat each year.

One opportunity that didn't make as much impact as TIFF was hoping was the Picture Palace exhibit, which closed two months earlier than planned this spring.

In theory, it makes sense that because this is an incredible home for cinema, you can have an exhibit that brings you that magic of film. As you know, I wasn't here when [Picture Palace] was planned, but the idea was that this was going to be a pilot of something that could be year-round.

Unfortunately, it didn't resonate with audiences the way that we were hoping and we felt that once we recognized that, it was important to say it didn't work out and let's take all the learnings from it, rather than just pretend it's working. The opportunity is here to look at how we can make that first floor more exciting and more accessible.

We're going to tackle it. I don't have the answer today and I don't know if I'll have the answer in three months, but I'm committed to at least experiment until we get it right.

On the note of year-round programming, Lightbox attendance bounced back quite a bit in 2017 from the year before and was steady for 2018. How is it going so far this year?

There's an upward trend. We're being more nimble and flexible on plans, too, so if a film is not working, we're not going to play it an extra week. And we're looking at slot times and when films can make the most amount of money.

What is TIFF's role in the digital landscape? In 2017, Piers talked about investing $700,000 in digital.

There was a decision to create a lot of content without a clear idea on how to monetize that, the idea being that if we build it, people will come. We're trying to understand how we go beyond the building and connect with audiences outside through digital channels, but in a way that is sustainable. We're looking at different opportunities and different partnerships, because we'd be better off not doing this alone.

The perennial question for TIFF is one of access to the festival.

Ticket prices this year are slightly higher than last year across the board, with a ceiling of $76 for a ticket to "premium, tier A" assigned seating screenings. When I talked with Piers last year, he conceded that $75 was "steep."

Accessibility is a really important thing for us, and we'll always continue to make sure the festival is accessible to the people of Toronto, because these audiences make this festival what it is. We have free screenings, we have the awardwinner screenings and we have the [weekday daytime under-25 tickets starting at $11]. It's still, believe it or not, lower than a lot of international festivals, so we're trying to find a balance between our own sustainability and giving access to people, considering what others in the field do and what the market can bear.

Talking about resources - government grants took a $1-million hit from 2017 to 2018. And Queen's Park has put a tight leash on spending. Are you concerned?

I think that some of the money that came in for 2017 was linked to Canada 150 funds, so I don't know if it's exactly that we completely lost money. Of course there are small hits here and there, but I think we're in a stable place. For a non-profit to be healthy, you need diversity in your contributed and earned revenue, and to ensure you have four legs to a table, so if one breaks, the table still stands.

There was chatter last year with TIFF showcasing eight Netflix productions. What are your thoughts on giving the big-screen experience to companies that don't prioritize the same?

I think that's their business of whether they prioritize it or not. Our job as a festival is to look at the films and look at them as cinematic experiences. Unfortunately, more and more films will be going directly to streaming and will never have a theatrical opportunity, unless there are places like TIFF that recognize the potential for the cinematic experience. We showed Netflix's Roma here for more than 12 weeks, and it resonated with audiences who preferred to be immersed in that experience. We are platform-agnostic.

And things are changing so fast. I see film festivals having to play that important role of creating that theatrical moment for so many films that won't end up having proper theatrical releases.

Last year, TIFF unveiled a diversity initiative for media, allocating 20 per cent of festival press credentials to underrepresented writers. How did that go?

We're going one step forward this year and creating a mentorship program, teaming veteran journalists and critics to help the newbies. And when Cameron and I went to Los Angeles and met with the studios and PR people, we made two arguments. One was media inclusion - that studios need different voices to talk about their products. But the other one was talking about the Canadian press. We're a Canadian festival, and we need to make sure the Canadian press is well taken care of and included. It's easier to prioritize the American press, but we all need to play together to make it work.

On the subject of playing together, how would you describe TIFF's work culture? Two years ago, I talked with a lot of people there about burnout, overwork and a general feeling of being underappreciated. Cameron said he was going to look at re-examining how that works.

I think some of that is still there. Any transition is very hard for people. People might be excited by change, but they don't like change. So it's on me and Cameron to get people on-board. And any festival that needs to get a lot accomplished in a short period of time, there's always a danger to have people work too much and too many hours. We're trying to balance that - reducing shifts, bringing in more people to help. But at this point, I feel like the best we can do is be transparent, and acknowledge what's going on and make whatever changes we can. We're not going to solve it overnight, but person by person.

Is one of those changes going to be to the overtime policy?

I believe staff can only take up to two weeks of lieu time, which can be limiting during the run-up to festival season.

We're looking at trying to not put people in the position where they have so much overtime. People are so passionate and sometimes they're the victims of their passion because they want to be around all the time, and then they burn out. We're really trying to have that in people's mind - that you have to have a balance.

This interview has been condensed and edited.

The 44th edition of the Toronto International Film Festival runs Sept. 5 to 15.

Associated Graphic

TIFF co-head Joana Vicente says she's been listening to voices both inside and outside the festival over the past six months 'to get an assessment of where we are and what we can do better.'

TIJANA MARTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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CAST IN CRETE
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Archeologists and historians have found a rich legacy on Greece's largest island. But this history was also created by them, in a way - offering an instructive lesson on the actual mechanics of how we remember
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By MATTHEW SEARS
  
  

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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page O8

HERAKLION, CRETE -- Associate professor of classics and ancient history at the University of New Brunswick

Crete, Greece's southernmost region and largest island, should be on everyone's bucket list. Sunny weather, sandy beaches, welcoming people and hors d'oeuvres accompanied by raki, the strong local liquor, are reasons enough to visit.

And once you get beyond the tourist centres of Heraklion, Rethymno and Chania, Crete rewards the exploration of its nooks and crannies with stunning mountain views and secluded coves of cerulean blue waters that really are the colour they appear on postcards.

But then, there's the other, arguably main draw: the island's rich history and archeology, which spans millenniums.

While Crete has been home to and ruled by Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians and Ottomans, all of whom left their own distinct traces on the landscape, it is the Minoans who have fascinated scholars and visitors alike.

Thriving more than 3,000 years ago in large palatial complexes, and producing sophisticated works of art while trading with great powers such as Egypt, the Minoans were declared by their first excavator, British archeologist Sir Arthur Evans, to represent the "first civilization in Europe."

Today, a thriving tourism economy takes full advantage of this heritage. Large ferries, reverently sporting the names of famous Minoan sites, take visitors from the Port of Piraeus on the mainland overnight to Crete. Their smokestacks are adorned with images of the "Prince of the Lilies," a figure on a wall fresco discovered by Sir Arthur, and every souvenir shop in Greece sells miniatures of the famous Minoan drinking vessel in the shape of a bull's head with golden horns.

Tourists ogle and ooh at the columns and bright colours of Knossos, Greece's third-most visited site after the Acropolis of Athens and the sanctuary of Olympia.

Just as the Minoans put Crete on the map of the great trade networks of the Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean, they continue to put Crete on visitors' itineraries today.

There's at least one problem with our Minoan-mania, though: It's largely founded on one person's fanciful reading of the evidence.

Sir Arthur was an amateur archeologist who, in the 1890s, managed to purchase the site of Knossos as essentially his personal property. When he discovered an entirely new civilization that appeared to complement the Mycenaeans made famous by Heinrich Schliemann in the preceding decades, he advanced a novel interpretation and imaginative reconstructions of what he called the "Palace of Minos" at Knossos.

But while he used much more careful and sophisticated methods of excavation than his predecessor, Schliemann, his treatment of the Minoans, named after the mythical King Minos of Crete, and their principal site has long been controversial.

Most of Knossos actually emerged from the imagination of Sir Arthur and his team, and you can see that at the palace: It now looks like an art-deco fantasyland, reflecting the 1920s as much or more than the 1400s BC; Sir Arthur's reconstructions, now a century old, are themselves crumbling and in need of restoration.

Virtually every serious archeologist today questions his aesthetic choices, along with his confident labelling of certain artifacts as "ritual objects," and even his designation of the complex at Knossos as a "palace" at all.

Nevertheless, Sir Arthur was viewed as the absolute authority on all matters Minoan; as Royal Ontario Museum founding director Charles Trick Currelly wrote to Ontario's education minister in a 1935 letter, "It would be a bold man, or a very silly one, who would challenge Sir Arthur's opinion."

But the second problem with Cretan archeology might prove even more vexing - and cuts to the core of controversies around the world, including here in Canada, over who or what is deserving of monuments both physical and in a society's collective memory.

The word many archeologists who work on Crete use to describe the remnants of its past is "palimpsest" - usually referring to an ancient manuscript partially erased in order to make room for a later text written on the same page. Many works of classical writers, such as the famous scientist Archimedes, are known only because careful scholars detected the remnants of text lying beneath later material, usually passages from the Bible.

Like these reused manuscripts, Crete has many archeological layers, often obscuring one another.

And so just as scholars often damage or destroy the newer text on a palimpsest in order to read what is underneath, by designating Crete as the centre of Minoan civilization, earlier archeologists such as Sir Arthur often obliterated the layers deposited by other periods, quickly digging through early-modern, medieval and classical layers to get to the Minoan palaces. In other cases, post-Minoan sites were simply ignored while resources were devoted to this one particular era.

That's a particularly sticky wicket given that Crete has a long, convoluted and fascinating history. Homer, likely composing his epics in the 700s BC, called Crete a land of a hundred cities, and these cities built temples, carved statues, inscribed laws and fought wars; these cities were filled with human life when the Athenians built the Parthenon, Alexander marched into Persia and the Romans forged a Mediterraneanwide empire.

The Cretans were often very much involved in the famous events of classical history, just as they had their own rich local histories. The site of Gortyn, for instance, boasts one of the most important and complete legal documents from the ancient world, thousands of words inscribed on stone walls in the 400s BC that were deliberately reused to ornament a public building hundreds of years later during the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan. Yet it's still the Minoans who attract the most interest and adorn the posters at travel agencies.

Archeological excavations and the public presentation of archeological material in Greece and beyond involve contemporary and active decisions about what is and is not to be included. The careful reconstructions currently taking place on the Athenian Acropolis are, to the extent possible, making use of ancient masonry techniques, and, unlike Sir Arthur's work, stick to that for which we have solid evidence.

But even this is a halfway measure because no matter the methods, it will always be the Acropolis of a certain period - specifically the Acropolis of Pericles, in this case - that is being restored, rather than the many centuries of building, tearing down and renovation that happened before and after Pericles. All over Greece, thousands of years of archeologically and historically rich material are sidelined by active decisionmaking in the pursuit of a certain vision of what the past should look like; in Athens, white temples are restored to gleaming, instead of medieval Frankish fortifications, while Minoan "palaces" stand sentinel instead of Roman provincial capitals.

There are no easy solutions to these knotty issues. Sir Arthur's reconstructions bring thousands of tourists and millions of euros to Crete every year, and generate interest in history and archeology - fields worth pursuing, if I do say so myself. And any archeological program demands difficult choices: We simply can't preserve and display everything.

We can, though, be more upfront and honest about what is displayed, what is not and why.

We can also be more careful in thinking through the implications of our choices. For example, does focusing on "palaces" and the elites that lived in them take away from our understanding of the lives of non-elites? And could that spill over into a focus on elites even today, resulting in a poorer understanding of humanity?

The question becomes poignantly felt if you eschew Crete's busiest landmarks and find your way to Lato - a fairly typical but remarkably complete city of the Hellenistic period, many centuries after the Minoans, that sits perched on a mountaintop. It contains all the day-to-day spaces - shops, shrines and houses - enjoyed by ordinary people in the ancient world, telling a fuller historical story than the more famous sites that it overlooks.

Although archeologists and historians now focus much more than they used to on the lives of ordinary people, those often invisible in the artistic or literary record, most people are still more aware of figures of the stature of mythical Agamemnon, Priam, Achilles and Hector, namely those most likely to live in structures we tend to call palaces. This means that the lives of the vast majority of those who lived in antiquity - lives full of the same cares, concerns and passions that many of us experience today - remain invisible to the public.

Of course, this is a problem that is far from unique to Greece. Closer to home, I'm reminded that Canada's National Gallery in Ottawa reserves the most prestigious permanent displays for paintings such as those of the Group of Seven, showing a Canadian landscape that has been deliberately stripped of the Indigenous people who lived in it. Almost everyone who went to school in Canada has an image of the country based on such paintings.

Historica Canada presents the country as a promised land at the end of the Underground Railroad, without, at least until recently, exploring Canada's own complicity and participation in racism and slavery.

Art galleries, historical sites and educational programs must necessarily be selective, but it is incumbent upon us to be more careful and critical about these selections.

None of this need mean we get rid of some of our most treasured monuments and works of art - it only means we need to be aware of their context, and possibly expand our understanding of what counts as art and what counts as history.

That brings us back to Sir Arthur Evans. His reputation has certainly taken a hit since the days in which he was seen as the unquestioned authority. But as those who now work on Crete remind me, he was working in a different time and with different ideas of how to study the past - and yet, his work had a level of modern-day conscientiousness (as opposed to, say, that of a treasure-hunter).

He advanced the science of excavation a great deal by keeping detailed records and demonstrating an understanding of stratigraphy, the method of dating archeological contexts based on what level at which they're found.

Today's scholars are justified in critiquing his palimpsest recreation of Minoan history, but we should not be so quick to make objectivity the be-all-end-all; it plays down the reality that all of us work in a specific time, and from a specific standpoint, too.

All history and archeology is conducted through lenses. Some lenses might be clearer than others, but the image is always distorted.

Sir Arthur might have dug through and obscured the many later phases of settlement at Knossos, but today, we fight all the same issues, whether it's about removing Canadian statues of Sir John A. Macdonald or U.S. monuments to Confederate icons.

Many of our own current sacred cows will surely one day be sneered at by historians unaware of their own biases, and it's only by acknowledging the mechanics of history itself that our society will be productive in the work of articulating that history.

Recently, a spectacular burial tomb was found at Pylos, on Greece's mainland. The Tomb of the Griffin Warrior contains a vast array of ornate weapons, jewellery and other status objects - many appear to be from or inspired by Minoan Crete. We don't yet know whether the Griffin Warrior was a Cretan, or whether he chose to represent himself with a lot of Cretan objects. But we can say, right now, that this discovery makes more plausible one of Sir Arthur's most controversial ideas - that the Minoans he made famous had once dominated the entire southern Aegean.

That makes sense. Like the people he studied, Sir Arthur is now, himself, a part of history, his reputation ebbs and flows on the changing tides of scholarly research on the past. History happens to us all - it would help if we acknowledged that.

Associated Graphic

Beyond Crete's tourist centres, such as Heraklion, above, the Greek island is home to millenniums of history and archeology. However, public perception of Knossos, top, a Bronze Age trade hub for the Minoans, has been shaped largely by the imagination of late-19th-century archeologist Sir Arthur Evans and his team. The ancient city's art and artifacts, including the wall frescos discovered by Sir Arthur, left, can be found everywhere from ferry smokestacks to souvenir shops.

TOP, ABOVE: ISTOCK; LEFT: GETTY IMAGES


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Marooned in Mexico, Cubans hoping to reach the U.S. are left waiting
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Driven from their island by the tides of politics and economics, thousands of Cubans have joined the Central American migrants stuck at the U.S.-Mexico border, biding their time while asylum applications slog through the system
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By TAMSIN MCMAHON
  
  

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Tuesday, August 6, 2019 – Page A8

CIUDAD JUAREZ, MEXICO -- Andres Valdes Rodriguez was working as a fumigator in Havana when Cuban police detained him for failing to attend a political rally and asked him to become an informant.

Instead, Mr. Valdes Rodriguez boarded a plane last fall to Georgetown, Guyana, more than 3,000 kilometres away. There, he embarked on a four-month trek through 11 countries and 60 cities in South and Central America, crossing into Mexico on the eve of his 28th birthday.

He believed he would be quickly spirited to Mexico's northern border and into the United States, as had so many family members before him - beneficiaries of the United States' long-standing preferential treatment for Cubans fleeing the Communist regime.

But Mexico is where Mr. Valdes Rodriguez's journey stalled. He has spent more than a month in a church shelter in Ciudad Juarez, across the border from El Paso, Tex. - No. 7,708 on a list of 12,000 migrants waiting to cross into the U.S.

He is untroubled about the wait, confident that the U.S. will eventually admit him. "The United States is the real country of freedom," Mr. Valdes Rodriguez said. "It is worth it for me to go through all this."

Others are less optimistic. Earlier this month, U.S. border officials shut down a bridge crossing into El Paso after hundreds of migrants, mostly Cubans, staged a protest and demanded to cross.

Much of the attention on U.S.

President Donald Trump's immigration policies has focused on the plight of Central Americans, who comprise the majority of those coming to claim asylum in the U.S. But, as of June, more than 16,000 Cubans have also arrived at official ports of entry along the Mexican border this year, a figure that excludes those who have crossed illegally and been apprehended.

Cubans have left in waves since the country's 1959 revolution, seeking political asylum in the U.S. from Fidel Castro's Communist regime, now led by his brother Raul. Starting in the 1960s, the U.S. has imposed strict sanctions against Cuba and enacted a series of policies that put Cuban immigrants on a fast track to citizenship enjoyed by no other nationality.

The current wave, however, is the largest of the Trump presidency. And it comes amid shifting political and economic currents in Cuba, where the economy is being dragged down by the woes of close ally Venezuela, and in the U.S., which has ratcheted up sanctions on the island country even as it tightens immigration policies. Increasingly, Cubans are being told to wait in Mexico while their asylum cases slog their way through the backlogged U.S. immigration courts. Soon they may be subject to a new Trump administration policy - temporarily blocked by a court challenge - banning migrants who pass through another country on their way to the border from applying for asylum in the U.S.

The plight of Cuban émigrés stuck in Mexico could have political ramifications for Mr. Trump.

He has made tough border policies central to his re-election campaign - even as he courts Cuban Americans in Florida, an important source of Republican support in the key swing state.

"It's really the first time this has happened, that it's been difficult for Cubans to find a way to immigrate to the United States," said John Caulfield, who served as the chief of mission at the United States Interests Section in Havana during the Obama administration. "We are in new territory here."

The sheer number of Cubans stuck in Mexico has surprised local officials in Ciudad Juarez. The state government opened a migrant-assistance office in the city last year to handle an expected rise in the number of Mexicans deported from the U.S., along with migrant caravans from Central America. But almost 80 per cent of the migrants to arrive have been Cuban, said Enrique Valenzuela, director of the migrant-transition facility.

The city's shelters and hotels are full. Many Cubans are working informally, opening restaurants catering to other Cubans and tourists from El Paso, filling jobs in retail stores or working on construction sites, with wages supplemented by money from family members in the U.S.

Mr. Valenzuela has been pushing to get work permits for the Cubans, hoping to make full use of the doctors and engineers arriving in droves. "This should be an opportunity for us," he said.

For Cubans, the biggest surprise upon arrival is finding the U.S. border effectively closed.

Most blame the Cuban government for the conditions that have forced them to leave. But they are also frustrated with a President who campaigns vehemently against communism while turning away those fleeing just such a regime.

"The U.S., with its own rhetoric, is telling people around the world that Cuba is a dictatorship," said Elizabeth Mesa Ramirez, who left Cuba three years ago, working and travelling in Brazil and Chile before making the trek to the U.S. border this spring.

"It's encouraging people to leave, encouraging this discontent. But then they are not taking us in."

Until recently, Cubans enjoyed unique privileges among migrants to the U.S. As part of a 1990s-era deal to stem a mass exodus of Cubans crossing by raft to Florida, Cuba agreed to accept the return of migrants intercepted by U.S. agents on water, but those who reached U.S. soil were allowed to stay - a policy known as "wet foot, dry foot." The latter were then eligible for a green card after just a year under the terms of a Cold War-era agreement called the Cuban Adjustment Act.

The U.S. also promised to issue at least 20,000 visas to Cubans every year in an effort to create an orderly path to legal migration.

The process largely worked until 2013. That year, Cuba allowed its citizens to leave the island without first applying for government permission. The change was part of the country's economic reforms and came amid negotiations to restore diplomatic relations with the U.S.

It prompted a new wave of migration, though Cubans skipped the dangerous journey across open water and instead flew to countries with relaxed visa restrictions, such as Guyana or Ecuador, then travelled by land to the Mexican border.

Days before leaving office in 2017, however, president Barack Obama ended the wet foot, dry foot policy under pressure from Cuba and other Latin American countries to curb the flow of Cuban migration. That closed the door on automatic acceptance to the U.S., requiring Cubans to go through the same immigration process as other asylum seekers.

The number of Cubans arriving at the U.S.-Mexico border plunged, falling to about 7,000 last year.

But today a new migrant crisis is emerging. Venezuela's collapse has hurt Cuba's economy, which is deeply dependent on heavily subsidized Venezuelan oil. Mr.

Trump has also ramped up pressure on Cuba to ends its support of Venezuelan leader Nicolas Maduro. This year alone, the Trump administration has capped remittances to Cuba, prohibited most personal travel and allowed Americans to sue foreign compa-

nies benefiting from U.S. property seized by the Cuban government after the country's 1959 revolution.

The measures have dealt a blow to Cuba's tourism and foreign investment, seen as important mechanisms to offset declining support from Venezuela. In May, the Cuban government announced it was rationing food staples and some toiletries. Some fear the country is heading toward a crisis reminiscent of the "Special Period," an extended economic collapse after the fall of the Soviet Union that sparked a huge rise in migration.

Cubans have long viewed migration to the U.S. as a relief valve in times of economic crisis. But Mr. Trump has continued to make it harder for Cubans to enter the country legally.

The U.S. ended visa processing at its embassy in Havana last year in response to apparent acoustic attacks on American and Canadian diplomats, causing massive delays. (Canada has also suspended visa processing in Cuba.)

The Trump administration gave out just 4,060 visas to Cubans last year, the first time it has missed its commitment to admit at least 20,000 Cubans annually. In March, the U.S. also dramatically scaled back a popular tourist visa that many Cubans used to immigrate informally to the U.S.

The tighter restrictions have not stopped Cubans from trying to come to the U.S. anyway. "I think they'll keep coming until such time as there's no hope for them," said Mr. Caulfield, the former diplomat. "Until they get permanently marooned in Mexico."

Panama and Nicaragua began offering tourist visa to Cubans in the past year, ostensibly for shopping trips. That sparked a particularly large wave of Cuban émigrés, since travelling to those countries allows migrants to bypass the Darien Gap, a notoriously dangerous stretch of remote jungle straddling the ColombiaPanama border.

"A lot of Cubans are finally seeing their opportunity. They're selling their properties and they're leaving," Yaylen Cabreja said. She and her husband flew to Nicaragua in April, expecting to spend a few weeks waiting at the border before being admitted to the U.S. and sending for the oneyear-old son they left behind. Instead, they are both working in a restaurant in Ciudad Juarez and disagree on whether to stay or return home.

The sweeping changes to immigration policies have also been hard on Cubans living in the U.S., long seen as safe from deportation because of their special status, Miami immigration lawyer Tatiane Silva said.

Almost immediately after Mr.

Trump took office, Ms. Silva began hearing of Cubans being arrested and sent to detention centres. "That's something you would never hear before - Cubans being detained by immigration," she said. "Before, Cubans had a very straight path towards getting their green card. And now they don't, because if they're caught, they are going to be treated like everybody else."

Whether Cuban migration becomes an issue for Mr. Trump among the Republican base of Cuban-American voters depends largely on the administration's response to the growing crisis.

Mr. Caulfield says he suspects that given enough pressure from Cuban-American communities in Florida, the U.S.

may quietly work out an agreement to increase the number of immigrant visas for Cubans.

But that could require restaffing the embassy in Havana, an unlikely prospect. And will certainly require the two governments to talk to each other. "The Cubans themselves are not transparent, so it's unclear what they're prepared to do in terms of policies," Mr. Caulfield said.

"Even if they are prepared to negotiate, it's not clear to me whether there is someone on the other end of the line who is going to be able to engage."

Ms. Mesa Ramirez, meanwhile, is contemplating a different option: settling in Mexico. Her daughter in Miami has promised to visit her regularly if she decides to stay. "She says there is no reason for you to suffer the [U.S.] detention centres if you can stay in Juarez," she said. "I want to go to the U.S. But if they don't take my claim, that's fine. I like Mexico well enough to stay here." With a report from Luis Miranda

Associated Graphic

For many Cubans, including Elizabeth Mesa Ramirez, the biggest surprise upon reaching the U.S. border is finding it's effectively closed.

IVAN PIERRE AGUIRRE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A Cuban migrant crosses the Rio Bravo from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to El Paso, Tex., on June 6, hoping to turn himself in and request asylum. According to Ms. Mesa Ramirez, the United States is encouraging Cubans to flee their country by creating a negative impression of Cuba internationally. 'But then they are not taking us in,' she adds.

JOSE LUIS GONZALEZ/REUTERS

Marlena Diaz Padron, left, and Ms. Mesa Ramirez walk through downtown Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, near the restaurant where they work.

IVAN PIERRE AGUIRRE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

MURAT YÜKSELIR / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TILEZEN; OPENSTREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU


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ON THE ROPES
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As the boxing world mourns the deaths of two young fighters, Brett Popplewell reflects on the sport's problematic nature and unflinching brutality
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By BRETT POPPLEWELL
  
  

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Author and assistant professor of journalism at Carleton University. His writing has appeared in Bloomberg Businessweek, Mother Jones and The Best American Sports Writing.

Minutes before he collapsed onto a gurney and began vomiting into a bucket, Maxim Dadashev, a 28year-old undefeated Russian welterweight boxer, walked to his corner of the ring inside a Maryland casino and took to his stool.

Blood exited from his nose as he stared absently forward and shook his head at his trainer.

Nobody knew how damaging the last 44 minutes of Mr. Dadashev's life had been. Not the fight doctor, not his trainer and not the 2,100 spectators ringside. There were others watching, too - a diminished mass of devotees who follow fights on specialty apps on their phones and TVs. None could feel the blood seeping out of the burst vein inside his brain.

All they could see was a fighter arguing for one more round.

Inches from Mr. Dadashev's face was Buddy McGirt, a boxing hall-of-famer who'd watched, as trainers do, while the signs of brain damage revealed themselves slowly over multiple rounds - the unsteady legs, lethargic behaviour and awkward movements. He could have stopped the fight 100 punches earlier, but hindsight, like a boxer's vision in the ring, is never really 20/20.

As Mr. Dadashev sat on his stool after the 11th round, his trainer had seen enough. He wanted to stop the fight. "You're getting hit too much," Mr. McGirt told his fighter. "Please, Max, please, let me do this," Mr. Dadashev rinsed his mouth and spat out more blood.

He was dying, even if he was still blinking and breathing and shaking his head as his corner crew cut off his gloves.

As Mr. Dadashev climbed out of the ring, Mr. McGirt took to a mic to tell the crowd that he'd stopped the fight because he knew, just as everyone else does, that "one punch ... could change a whole guy's life."

Except it wasn't one punch. It was 319 of them.

Mr. McGirt was still talking as his fighter began to stumble nearby. Then, the vomiting started.

Rushed to hospital, Mr. Dadashev was medically induced into a coma. His head was shaved, his scalp opened and his brain exposed in a two-hour attempt to stanch the damage.

It took four days for Mr. Dadashev to die. That was July 23.

Sports networks that hadn't bothered to broadcast any of his fights to an audience that has largely disappeared in recent years filled the airwaves with the sad details of Mr. Dadashev's life - how he'd hoped to obtain a green card after that fight and dreamt of bringing his wife and two-yearold son with him to the United States.

Mr. Dadashev's story seemed to prove an old adage true - that every fighter who gets in the ring leaves with less of themselves intact. It doesn't matter whether they win; they always lose something. Two days later, the vicious nature of that reality revealed itself yet again, when Hugo Santillan, another fighter, collapsed into an unresponsive heap in his trainer's arms while still in a Buenos Aires boxing ring. He was essentially lifeless when the referee raised his arm to celebrate that he'd fought to a draw.

As the ever-shrinking world of boxing does its best to mourn the deaths of two promising young fighters, they do so while simultaneously lobbying that nothing should change about the sport.

And that's the problem.

Every sport has a lifespan, and if boxing is nearing its own end then it is just a victim of its own unflinching brutality, a societal casualty in the age of growing public awareness that frequent blows to the skull are bad for the brain.

In Canada, the gyms where fighters train are generally tucked out of sight in warehouses next to train yards or slaughterhouses, where rent is cheap and spectators slim. Organized fights are less commonly held in grand auditoriums, than in aging branches of the Royal Canadian Legion.

It's in these often lonely and dank environments that the professionals differentiate themselves from the amateurs and become prize fighters, monetizing their fists and graduating to what's essentially a casino circuit. From the inside looking out, the fight game hasn't really evolved much since the days of the famed Canadian heavyweight champion George Chuvalo. Except for this one simple fact: Most people on the outside can't name a single Canadian boxer other than Mr. Chuvalo.

It has been a long time since the general public flocked to a radio or TV set and tuned into a heavyweight title bout. The sport has become somewhat of a sideshow, rich in lore, but poor in contemporary taste - abandoned by many, including those who prefer to get their combat fix from watching safer sports such as the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Yet to boxing's admirers, its gritty resiliency is also part of its attraction. Boxing is at once an underbelly sport and an Olympic contest. Innately vile, yet also pure.

Despite years of societal evolution and scientific discovery, ardent fight fans still congregate in those legion branches and casinos to knowingly encourage an archaic, ritualized form of violence that pushes the boundaries of our acceptance of suicide and murder.

But the question of "how is this still a thing?" is as personal as it is societal. Because, despite everything we've learned about brain damage in recent years, grown men and women are still willing to enter a ring where they are permitted to do things to each other that are otherwise illegal.

Why any right-minded individual would voluntarily place themselves in a scenario where they could kill or be killed in the name of sport is a question I asked myself repeatedly for 16 months while boxing with accountants, lawyers and real estate agents whose chosen pastime involved putting on boxing gloves every other evening and punching each other in the face.

For me it was a combination of literary seduction, physical poignance and journalistic interest. I was a 30-year-old sportswriter who'd spilled more ink than most on the concussion crisis in sport. I'd interviewed the parents and widows of athletes whose brains had been sliced up and placed in a freezer in a brain bank in Boston. I'd seen in person some of the brains of the men I'd written about.

I understood the emotional wreckage that sport-induced brain damage could have on a family, but I wanted to understand the mindset of the fighters who were actually willing to risk their lives in the name of sport.

So I began to box, and ultimately competed in a heavyweight bout in the Ontario Golden Gloves Tournament, where I lost in front of a crowd in the cafeteria of Hamilton's Mohawk College. But not before hitting a perfect stranger so hard in the face that he went temporarily blind out of one eye (in the moment, I found that last bit rewarding, although I now find it troubling.)

It wasn't until I actually got into the ring that I fully understood the physical toll of the sport or what it was that Robert Anasi (another writer-turned-boxer) was talking about when he said, "Time hangs over all of us, but it strikes no one more swiftly than boxers, who can become old men in three minutes."

I may have taken more than 319 hits to the face and head in the 16 months it took to turn myself into a fighter. I suffered cartilage damage to my nose and, for a time, I couldn't look at the sun coming through the leaves without suffering a headache. But it was the emotional and mental strain of it all that I found most alarming. It was in the dark of a sleepless night before a fight when I became overwhelmed by thoughts of tomorrow and the stranger who would try to concuss my brain, bruise my kidneys and break my jaw. That's when I found myself dry heaving into a toilet.

In the years since leaving the sport, I've interviewed other boxers and NHL enforcers. They all describe the same anxiety. Some live off it. I hated it.

I only met one person in boxing who was actually in it because they wanted to hurt somebody.

Thankfully, he wasn't very good at it. Everyone else dragged themselves into the gym because they either genuinely liked the sport or because they had discovered they were naturally gifted in the ring.

The best boxer I ever trained with was a 120-pound bartender named Marianna. She once told me that boxing made her feel more confident and strong than anything else she did in life. She said she was addicted to it.

I never experienced any of what she experienced in the ring, but I did discover something intrinsic to the sport that I admired.

And I discovered it in my own defeat.

The boxing ring is a socio-economic equalizer. It has been since at least the 8th century BC. That's when Homer recorded one of the first matches known to history, which ended when one combatant, a water-bearer from Parnassus, knocked out a prince from Thebes and walked away with a mule.

There's an age-old mystique that lures certain people into the ring. But it's fleeting. Nelson Mandela was a boxer before he became something greater than himself. I liked that. Justin Trudeau is a boxer, too, but we as a country roll our eyes at that more than we celebrate it. And I understand why.

The power of boxing is in its capacity to connect us to a part of ourselves that we don't often connect with. It's not simply the animalistic side, the natural creature that can kill each other. It's more lineal. Something A.J. Liebling captured when he wrote that every fighter can trace their "rapport with the historic past through the laying on of hands."

There was a time when that sort of thought inspired me to keep taking punches. It's why I know that a fighter once tapped me with the same hand he used to knock out Leon Spinks, who once beat Muhammad Ali. The connection is tangential, but when you're living it, it feels real.

When I fought, I did so with all the privilege of a journalist engaging in some exercise of intellectual curiosity. But it didn't matter who I was before I got in the ring. All that mattered was how well I could fight once the bell rang.

I haven't boxed competitively in five years. I write this from the position of privilege as a professor and a young father who doesn't need to fight for a green card or for much else in life.

Boxing will never be made safe. They can shorten fights or mandate increased medical training in the gyms. They can change the gloves. But the sport will still be easier on the fist than it is on the brain.

I don't pretend to understand what could have led Mr. Dadashev and Mr. Santillan to fight to the death, because I know I'm incapable of doing that. But I also know that it wasn't just their opponents punches that killed them.

Nor the trainers who couldn't see what CT scans would later reveal. It was our societal acceptance of it all. Because even after all this time and everything we've learned, there are still those among us willing to cheer.

Associated Graphic

In the 16 months he turned himself into a competitive boxer, author Brett Popplewell took hundreds of hits to the face and head.

PHOTOS BY JAMES MACDONALD

Even if fights are shortened and medical training in the gym increases, boxing will never be safe; the sport will always be easier on the fist than it is on the brain.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019
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Birth and death notices
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Tuesday, August 6, 2019 – Page B15

MADELEINE BADNER

Madeleine passed away Friday, August 2, 2019 at the age of 60 peacefully at home, where she succumbed to ovarian cancer after 6 years of surgery, radiation and multiple rounds of chemotherapy.

She remained cheerful and smiled right to the end. Madeleine is survived by her loving husband, Neal; daughter, Danielle Badner; son, Derek Taschereau Badner; sisters, Denise Taschereau, Claire McKay, Lucille Sprung.

Predeceased by parents Louise and Maurice Taschereau.

Madeleine attended Waterloo University and graduated with a Bachelors in Math and Computing in 1981. Madeleine worked for the Bank of Montreal and London Life as a programmer when desktop computers were the new thing.

Madeleine became a stay at home mom and wife, and then transitioned to become an Aquatic Instructor at London Aquatic Center. This led to Aqua Fit and the Arthritis Pool Therapy at St. Josephs Hospital in London, Ontario and then finally to the Parkinson Recreation Center in Kelowna, BC.

Madeleine loved skiing and continued right through last winter at Silver Star, like her early years as a ski racer with the Murdochville, Quebec Ski Team. She also enjoyed walking and biking through the hills of Kelowna, rain or shine.

There will be a family celebration held in the future. In lieu of flowers, memorials may be made to the Canadian Cancer Society, http://www.donatecar.ca.

Condolences may be sent to the family by visiting http://www.springfieldfuneralhome.com.

VERONICA IRENE GALLOWAY (Armstrong)

The Clan lost another member on Wednesday, July 17, 2019.

Irene had a long journey through life from birth to James and Helen Armstrong in Skendleby, Lincolnshire, England on July 2, 1921, to servicing airplane engines in WWII in Gloucestershire, to meeting Flying Officer Derek Allen Davy (RAF) (1944-1988) marrying in 1946 and emigrating to Canada. Life changed on June 10, 1950 with the birth of a daughter, Terry Suzanne Davy, at Grace Hospital in Toronto. In 1986, she married her second husband, Robert Galloway (1918-2009) who is survived by his two sons, Peter (Karen) and Robert (Donna Lynn) and predeceased by a son, Ian.

Sadly, Alzheimer's crept into Irene's life and caused a move to Heritage River Retirement Home in Elora followed by Simcoe Manor Long-Term Care Home in Beeton where the staff couldn't have provided better care. She ended her journey there in a peaceful, caring setting at age 98.

Cremation has taken place and interment will be on August 15, 2019 at 11 a.m. at Belsyde Cemetery, Fergus. A guest book is available at http://www.grahamgiddyfh.com. A tribute donation may be made at http://www.etobicokehumanesociety.com who rescued her beloved cats, Maggie and Ginger.

MARY MCCALL (née Roddick)

Our beloved mother, grandmother, and friend, born August 5, 1922, died August 2, 2019. Predeceased by dearly loved husband Ian in 1991, parents William and Minnie Roddick, and brother Vernon in 2010. Survived by children Leigh, Catherine, Douglas (Monique), and granddaughter, Iris.

Mary was born in Jubilee, BC, and raised in New Westminster. In her youth she was both academically and athletically accomplished.

Mary graduated from the University of British Columbia with a degree in Business Administration in 1944, and joined the Canadian Women's Army Corp. She rose to the rank of Sergeant, and was stationed in England during WWII, where she made many lifelong friends.

After the war, Mary joined Dupont of Canada, where she met Ian.

They married in Montreal, and raised their children there, in Toronto, and in Kingston, and settled in Islington, ON. Mary graduated from Queen's University in Kingston, with a Bachelor of Education, and became a teacher when living in Islington.

Summers were spent at the cottage in Southampton, ON.

After Ian passed, Mary remained in her sunny condo, active in bridge, curling, reading, theater, and travel. She was able to spend time at the cottage up to the age of 95, following the sun from patio to patio.

These past two years, Mary was happy and content in her Annex apartment above Monique and Doug, with cat and bird visitors, crosswords, reading, and knitting.

Mary was strong, independent, sophisticated, loyal, humorous, a stickler for proper grammar, supportive, and stoic.

"If there's another world, she is in bliss, if there is none, she made the most of this." (Robert Burns) Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere, east of the Jane Subway, on Thursday, August 8th from 4 p.m. - 7 p.m.

Reflections at 6pm. For those who wish donations may be made to Covenant House or the Salvation Army.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

DR. ISRAEL SZABSAJ PASTERNAK "Jack"

Died August 3, 2019 at Victoria Hospital in London, Ontario.

Having lived life to the fullest. Jack was born in Poland in 1934, the son of Paltiel and Visha Pasternak (both deceased). Jack grew up in Barbados and left to attend McGill University. While working on his Ph.D. degree in Chemical Engineering he met Rowena "Ricky" Wiseman, a graduate student in Psychology. They were married in 1958 in Montreal and moved to Sarnia. Jack enjoyed a distinguished career as a research scientist with Imperial Oil and later with Exxon Corporate Research in New Jersey, where he was Laboratory Director and Division Manager. He authored and coauthored numerous scientific papers and patents. After his retirement from Imperial Oil he served as co-director for ten years of Environmental Science and Technology Alliance Canada (ESTAC), promoting working relationships between universities and industries across Canada.

Jack believed it important to support his community and in Sarnia served on many committees including the Victoria Order of Nurses Foundation Board and The Family Counseling Centre.

He served as President of the Sarnia Rotary Club and the Sarnia Rotary Foundation Board, President of the Sarnia YMCA Board and the Chair of the Bluewater Hospital Foundation Board. He also chaired the Board of the Sarnia Research Park. For many years he was President of Ahavas Isaac Synagogue.

Jack was most proud of his two sons, Dr. Stephen Pasternak (Dr. Andrea Hirscheimer) and Dr. Andrew Pasternak (Maxine Katz) and talked of their accomplishments unabashedly.

He adored his grandchildren, Emily, Melissa, Alana and David.

He was always supportive of his wife Ricky in her profession of psychology, a devoted husband in a romance that lasted more than 60 years. Jack and Ricky moved to London Ontario in 2013 where they retired together, continuing worldwide travel, maintaining old and building new friendships and enjoying music and theatre.

Jack leaves also his sister Clara and her husband Dr. Norman Halpern and their children Wendy Peters (Gordy) and Dr. Karen Halpern (Dr. Ran Midroni) and their families in Toronto, and sister in-law Lillian Kosberg (Martin Kosberg deceased) and their children Barbara and Alan (Donna Sullivan) and several cousins.

Funeral service will be held at Or Shalom Synagogue on Tuesday August 6th at 1:30 p.m. Burial will follow at Or Shalom Cemetery.

Arrangements entrusted to Logan Funeral Home, 371 Dundas St., London, Ontario (519-433-6181).

Online condolences can be expressed at http://www.loganfh.ca A tree will be planted by the staff of the Logan Funeral Home, as a living memorial to Dr. Pasternak.

HILARY JOAN TITTERINGTON WARREN

Joan was born to Jack Titterington and Eileen Doherty in Belfast, Northern Ireland on the January 16, 1929. Her early life was always a bit of a mystery to us but from it emerged a bold and thoughtful young woman. After graduating from St. Leonard's in Saint Andrews in Scotland, where she also enjoyed a few rounds of golf on those sandy dunes, she made her way post-war to Oxford, England and, in due course, departed as an Oxford "blue" and a math scholar. The New World beckoned and she responded to that call to Canada in the early '50s. Interest from IBM was soon replaced by attention from a young Jake who knew a good thing when he saw it. An extraordinary love story quickly swept these two up and led to more than fifty years of adventure, joy, laughter, loss and devotion to and respect for one another. Their story took them to Ottawa, London, Washington, Paris, Geneva and Montreal, where Joan thrived in her partnership with Jake in the service of Canada. Soon, they were joined in their work and travels by Hilary, Martin (Lorraine), Jennifer (Charlie) and Ian (Andrea), who only added to the fun and the chaos.

Throughout, Mum in her quiet and yet determined way, steadied the ship while Jake barrelled ahead. As busy as their life was, their family and friends will also recall parties reaching far too late into the night at 112 Lisgar Road, Larrimac, White Pine and various embassies around the world.

The music of Edith Piaf, Oscar Peterson, Anne-Sophie Mutter and Jean Ferrat is inextricably linked to our memories of the two of them. After Jake's retirement, Mum enjoyed spending time in her rambunctious and fragrant gardens, improving her crosscountry technique, delighting her family with sumptuous home cooking and celebrating the triumphs and tribulations of her children and her grandchildren (An- drew, Fiona, Colin, Alec, Beverly, Thomas, Madeline, Emily, Jack and Robert). The tragic losses of Fiona and Hilary marked dark periods of Joan's life but she soldiered on as she always did with her indomitable spirit. After losing the love of her life in 2008, Joan's last ten years or so were a period of reconciliation and individual growth as she sought and achieved a new autonomy in the care and shelter of the Rockcliffe Retirement Residence and, in the final days, The Edinburgh. Tea and dinner parties paved the way to new friendships, while old friends and family remained loyal guests at her table. Grace and gratitude were always Joan's calling cards and she left us on Friday, August 2, 2019 in her own dignified way but we are quite certain that her last words and thoughts to all her family and friends would have been "I love you and thank you".

Friends are invited to the Church of St. Bartholomew, 125 MacKay Street, Ottawa on Friday, August 9, 2019 at 11a.m.

Condolences/Tributes/Donations Hulse, Playfair & McGarry http://www.hpmcgarry.ca 613-233-1143

LORAYNE STRAC HAN WINN (nee Horwood)

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Lorayne on August 1, 2019 at the MUHC Palliative Care Centre. Dearly missed by Chris, her husband of 52 years. Loving mother of three children, Tim (Ann-Marie), David (Wendy) and Sarah (Mark), proud grandmother ("Raynie") of Logan, Lucas, Abigail, Ian, Laura, Bryce, and Juliette, loving sister of brother Brad (Jilly) and sister Diana (Peter), and predeceased by sister Roslyn (Frank).

Lorayne was a graduate of McGill University (B.A. Arts), 1965, and Concordia University (Library Studies), 1983. After raising her three young children, Lorayne combined her passion for reading and her love of children to become a librarian in the Selwyn House School library for 15 years, and stayed on as a volunteer long after her retirement. Lorayne will be remembered for her love of playing the piano, tending to her flowers and working in the garden, being in the outdoors, and playing the Hallelujah Chorus at the crack of dawn on Christmas morning.

We send heartfelt thanks to Dr. Tamara Singer and to the hard-working staff at the MUHC, especially to the very compassionate team at the MUHC Palliative Care Centre. A funeral service will be held at Mountainside United Church (St.

Andrew's-Dominion-Douglas Church) - 687 Roslyn Ave., Westmount, on Wednesday, August 7 at 1:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, kindly consider making a donation in her memory to the Cedars Cancer Foundation, the Montreal SPCA, or to your local library.


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Mountains, Maine and murder most foul: Globetrotting mysteries for the end of summer
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Margaret Cannon's August picks include exceptional instalments in venerable series from Canada and abroad, as well as exciting introductions to a Danish novelist and an unknown Ontario author's new nom de plume
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page R8

Wherever She Goes

BY K.L. ARMSTRONG DOUBLEDAY CANADA, 300 PAGES

This is a first novel under the pseudonym K.L. Armstrong; it's one of the best books of the summer and a sure nominee for an Arthur Ellis Award for excellence in Canadian crime writing.

Google tells me that the real writer is Kelley Armstrong, but all the publisher will say is that it's by a popular author living in Ontario. Whoever, this is the runaway book of the summer.

Aubrey Finch is a single mother with a history. We don't know what it is at the beginning, which starts with a simple statement: "I have made mistakes in my life." Those mistakes have consequences. Finch's marriage is over and we learn that she walked away without getting legal custody of her daughter, Charlotte. She trusted her husband, Paul, to carry through with his co-parenting promise. Six months on, it's not happening. Finch is preparing to go to court.

Then, on a routine jog in the park, she sees a boy being hustled into an SUV. It's clear that the boy is being forced.

Is she witnessing a kidnapping? Or worse? She runs after the car, then returns and tells the police. They assure her that all resources will be used. Child snatching is a crime that affects everyone.

But no one else saw the boy. And an investigation doesn't turn up any missing boy at all. Finch recalls the boy and his mother from another park visit, but no woman of that description seems to be around and no one is coming forward. The police begin to doubt Finch, since she seems a bit off-kilter herself. After all, if she were a reliable person, wouldn't she have custody of her own child?

As everyone begins to doubt Finch's sanity, events inevitably affect her bid for custody of Charlotte. She will have to find the missing boy, or at least prove he exists.

This is the perfect guest gift for that cottage invitation.

And you can read it in a weekend.

The Turn Of The Key BY RUTH WARE SIMON & SCHUSTER, 352 PAGES The "bad, mad nanny" is an aging trope in detective fiction. Ever since Rebecca de Mornay's potboiler The Hand That Rocks The Cradle sent a frisson of fear through mommies everywhere, the idea that the woman watching your baby might not be safe has made a niche market for nanny cams shaped like dolls and teddies, and now, surveillance by iPhone.

We forget, however, that the really scary nanny tale began a century ago with The Turn of the Screw by Henry James. Not a bad nanny but a frightened one, watching two children whose bodies are literally inhabited by evil incarnate. That makes the modern nanny with a secret as tame as Agatha Christie's Miss Marple. And that's where Ruth Ware has placed her superb book, referring back to James and with a nanny who has a secret but who's also faced with evil.

Rowan Caine has a reason to head to the country, and when a live-in nanny job appears, with a huge salary to boot, she's ready to pack and head for the highlands of Scotland. There she finds Heatherbrae House, a "smart home" with all the electronic bells and whistles and what appears to be the perfect family. But we already know that it doesn't end well because the novel begins with Caine writing to her lawyer from prison. What crime was committed? Did she do it?

Ware is a cunning author with many books and a bag of tricks up her sleeves. Heatherbrae House doesn't seem to like its revamp of modernism. And there are those stories.

It could be gossip or real or something totally Other. Ware never loses track of her storyline and I found this one irresistible from first page to final line.

The Mountain Master of Sha Tin BY IAN HAMILTON HOUSE OF ANANSI, 328 PAGES At book No. 12, a lot of series lose steam. Characters get tired and plots start repeating. That's not the case for the Ava Lee series, though. Whether it's the Triad plot lines or the elegant detective skills of Lee, Ian Hamilton has managed to maintain a freshness to his stories. The Mountain Master of Sha Tin is as slick and smart as The Water Rat of Wanchai, in which Lee made her debut.

The setting is Hong Kong. Lee is there to assist her mentor and friend, the mountain master Xu, who is recovering from a serious bout of meningitis. While Lee hopes for a quiet time, a Triad war breaks out. Lee's old enemy Sammy Wing sees an opening to take over his former territory of Wanchai. Wing has tried to kill Lee before, but Lee puts her trust in her negotiating skills, not her firepower.

When six Wanchai "soldiers" are kidnapped, it appears that Wing's forces may win the day. The men will be killed if all of Xu and Lee's people don't immediately leave Wanchai and hand it over to Wing. When Lee asks for a meeting, Wing agrees and sends her a box with six fingers in it.

This will be the negotiation of Lee's lifetime.

This is one of Canada's best series by one of our best writers.

The Girl Without Skin BY MADS PEDER NORDBO, TRANSLATED BY CHARLOTTE BARSLUND TEXT PUBLISHING, 356 PAGES Reader, be warned. This one is not for the squeamish. It begins with what may be a Viking mummy ground in the crevasse of a Greenland glacier - then moves to murder with a man carved from pelvis to neck and flayed with an ulo, a Greenland native implement used to scrape the flesh and fat from hides. It is not ordinarily used to kill, but in this context, it is part of a story that marries the history of Greenlanders and Danes from the old world to the modern.

The setting is Nuuk, the capital of Greenland, and the central character is journalist Matthew Cave, son of a native Greenland mother and an American soldier who abandoned the family. Cave's wife and unborn daughter were killed in a car accident in Denmark and his move to Greenland is a bit of escape, a bit of recovery. When he heads to the glacier to report on the mummy, which he and his editor hope will make a great international scoop, he doesn't expect to find the mummy missing and a very dead policeman in its place.

Nordbo obviously wrote this book for an audience outside of his native Denmark. There is a lot of fill-in to explain the complicated relationship between Greenland and Denmark. He also has to explain Greenlanders' customs and the fact that rural tribal groups were shuttled into city apartments that quickly turned into slums where the old order collapsed and no new order was born. That led to a murder 40 years ago, unsolved and unreported.

The new murder is related, but it takes Cave a lot of slogging to uncover the people and clues. He's assisted by a marvellous female character named Tupaarnaq, Nordbo's Danish version of Lisbeth Salander, the Dragon Tattoo girl. Tupaarnaq has more tattoos, shoots straight and wields a mean harpoon.

This is the first Nordbo novel to be translated into English and I suspect Tupaarnaq and possibly Cave will return.

Almost Midnight BY PAUL DOIRON MINOTAUR, 288 PAGES Few writers can summon a place as well as Paul Doiron depicts rural Maine. Settle down with this book and find yourself foraging along mountain roads through stands of sugar maples, old-growth forest and newly planted pines.

The backdrop is the sigh of wind on a lake or the ring of birdsong. He has Raymond Chandler's touch for the tiny detail that makes a place central to a story. And he does it all in great, tight prose - not a wasted sentence in a slim 288 pages.

This 10th Mike Bowditch novel is one of the best of the series. Bowditch is now a warden investigator in Maine, where game wardens have police powers. But his life isn't exactly settled. His long-time companion is gone; moved to Florida for good. A new woman in his life wants a bit more than Bowditch is willing to give. He's on a short vacation, fishing, to think about things.

Then a call comes from the state prison; his friend Billy Cronk wants him to visit. Bowditch owes Cronk. He's in jail for saving Bowditch's life. He's also a rambling paranoid war veteran with PTSD, a volatile family life and four more years to serve on his sentence. He wants Bowditch to dig into the background of a correctional officer named Dawn Ritchie. Before Bowditch can do it, Ritchie is nearly killed in a fight between two inmates. Her saviour is none other than Cronk, who's lauded by the media and in line for a government pardon, but the night before he's about to be freed, Cronk leaves prison and goes on the run.

This is all part of a sophisticated and fascinating plot that weaves back and forth through the Maine outback, where a local bully is threatening Mennonite farmers and Bowditch's wolf-dog Shadow has been shot with an arrow from a crossbow, sending Bowditch in search of the person who fired it. As the action unfolds, so does Maine in spring, with ice on a lake and buds on a tree.

Doiron, again, gives the reader a rare treat with a great story and wonderful settings.

Knife BY JO NESBO, TRANSLATED BY NEIL SMITH, RANDOM HOUSE CANADA, 452 PAGES Fans of the Harry Hole series are going to be stunned by this novel, the 12th in the Hole series. Jo Nesbo has sent his central character into a spiral of booze, doom, depression and death. Hole, whom we're accustomed to finding rather charming, is limp and soggy, and sunk in grief over the loss of his great love, Rakel. That's the text and subtext of this novel which, nevertheless, manages to keep the reader hooked as Hole manages to intuitively solve a case.

The plot is ably assisted by Hole's old nemesis, Svein Finne, recently released from prison and centred on recovering his old power and the chaos that goes with it. He has Hole in his sights and he knows Hole just may not be able to weave his way out of the traps he's setting.

The plot is a good one, as solid as any reader could want, and Hole remains a charmer, full of good ideas and clever detective skills. But the booze, the despair and more booze is hard to take and, after several chapters, readers will want to escape - which is part of the strange charm of this book. It's like living with a real live depressed alcoholic, where you hope this drink is the last and that the person will see how destructive his behaviour is to him, to his loved ones, to his readers.

Strange as it seems, Nesbo manages to pack all that into a long novel about depression and regret and make the reader love it. This is definitely one of the best of the Harry Hole novels.


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From Baby Duck to vegan cuvée
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The Globe's wine critic looks back on 20 years of wine questions
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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page P5

Necessity has forced me to tidy up my office. Wine boxes and news releases had been piling up to the point where I would regularly lose my corkscrew. Come to think of it, that may help explain the high number of screw-cap wines I'd been reviewing lately.

Not that I've ever subscribed to the clean-desk-equals-clearmind theory. I'm with messy Albert Einstein, sometimes credited - though perhaps apocryphally - with wondering: "If a cluttered desk is a sign of a cluttered mind, of what then is an empty desk a sign?" I'll grant that the act of tidying up can yield insights. As part of my sweep, I began cleaning my email inbox, going back in time to discover more than a few unanswered reader e-mails. (Sorry!) In so doing, I learned to my surprise that I've been at this wine-reviewing gig at The Globe and Mail for exactly 20 years. In that time, I've learned much about the world's most captivating beverage - not least from readers. Often, what real people find important is refreshingly not what wine critics get most excited about. Permit me to share a few observations based on the broader world's relationship to the vine.

Can you guess the No. 1 topic of inquiry in my mailbag? Wine additives. Many drinkers clearly view their chosen beverage with some trepidation. I suppose it's similar to the world of cars. Automotive journalists love to review Ferraris and dwell on performance, whereas many of the rest of us care more about traction and airbags.

The main fear is sulphites, which are both added as preservatives as well as produced naturally during fermentation. But synthetic pesticides and clarifying agents made from animal byproducts also raise plenty of concern. As part of this broadly defined health category I also would add tannins, which, while derived naturally from grape skins, seeds, vine stems and even oak barrels, are often mistakenly blamed for headaches.

In response to those fears, I have written more about wine and health, with help from wise scientists, than at times seemed to me necessary. But I've subsequently learned that the topic is a bottomless well. Every new column on myths surrounding sulphites, pesticides and tannins brings more questions and concerns about ... sulphites, pesticides and tannins.

I suppose the moral for wine producers is that organic wine - once a punchline on a par with Manischewitz and Baby Duck - will continue to boom. Ditto for vegan cuvées clarified without recourse to such substances as milk, fish bladders and egg whites.

Possibly in second place are the topics of cellar storage and bottle-resale value. People want to know how to protect their liquid investments with proper cellaring techniques. They also want to know how to distinguish whether a bottle that's been heated or frozen or which simply may be long in the tooth may be worth drinking. Many readers, who either overbought through the years (the enthusiastic collector's avocational hazard) or who came upon dusty old bottles in a late grandfather's attic, also want to know how to unload their booty, preferably at a profit.

To that final question, the official Canadian answer is forgetaboutit. It's illegal in this country to sell beverage alcohol without the express authority of a provincial liquor board or God (and the former tend to believe they are also the latter). Readers with a serious, trophy-bottle stash would probably do better to hire an agent to sell it at auction in the United States or to donate it to a registered Canadian charity in return for a generous tax receipt invariably valued at more than the actual liquid.

In third spot among popular requests is the personal recommendation: wines for weddings, wines to commemorate a birth year, wines for the boss. Many people understandably prefer an exclusive, personalized suggestion rather than a bottle promoted in the paper. I try my best, but often I come up short of great suggestions when the question ends in: "Oh, and my price ceiling is $10, and I live in Flin Flon."

The other big source of curiosity has to do with my favourite wines or wine regions. I imagine all critics, as well as all amateur wine enthusiasts, enjoy responding to this one. It speaks to our egos, and if there's one thing I've learned in 20 years besides how to spell trockenbeerenauslese, it's that wine geeks tend to be full of themselves.

Some of this week's selections, below, reflect my preferences.

Among whites, I love nervy Chablis perhaps most of all, though I would never turn down a glass of Condrieu or a serious Alsatian gewurztraminer. On the red side, my main jam is the Rhône Valley, whose savoury, herbal-spicy glories in my view can develop more arresting beauty over time even than red Burgundy, especially the syrahs of Côte-Rôtie and Hermitage. But I've also got lots of time for the earthy, woodsy, distinctively local reds of Tuscany, too.

And then there's British Columbia, which wines get better by the minute and compellingly span a wide range of styles and grapes, from full-bodied, fullthrottle merlots and syrahs to tense, unoaked chardonnays to out-of-the-mainstream gruner veltliner, chenin blanc and marsanne. It is, without exaggeration, the greatest underdiscovered wine region on Earth.

A vacant desk may be a sign of a vacant mind, but I'm holding an empty glass at the moment and that means it's time for a refill.

BOTTLES TO TRY JOIE UN-OAKED CHARDONNAY 2018 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 94 PRICE: $27.98 One of the finest unoaked, New World chardonnays I've tasted.

Creamy, with great depth from lees contact and essences of tropical fruit and mineral. Sold out at the winery but available at Everything Wine in British Columbia at the above price, various prices at other private retailers in the West.

PETRA HEBO SUVERETO 2015 (ITALY) SCORE: 94 PRICE: $26.99 A superb blend of cabernet sauvignon, merlot and sangiovese from the Tuscan coast near Livorno. Full-bodied but not heavy, with a polished texture and gloriously Tuscan profile of cherry, leather and horse-stable funk along with salt and pepper on the finish. An absolute steal at the price. Available only by the 12-bottle case from the excellent directorder portfolio of Noble Estates in Ontario, nobleestates.com.

BLUE MOUNTAIN PINOT GRIS RESERVE 2016 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 92 PRICE: $27.90 Plump and generous, with ripe pear, apple and welcome citruspeel bitterness for structure. Marvelous. Available through bluemountainwinery.com.

TANTALUS DEN'S BLOCK OLD VINES RIESLING 2016 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 93 PRICE: $52.17 This is as German as a riesling can get outside Germany, and that's a big compliment. Yet there's sunnier, riper fruit in the middle, reflecting the Okanagan terroir. It's sweeter than off-dry, yet brilliantly balanced, with drippy peach and apricot along with zesty lime, flowers and Mosel-like minerality. It should cellar well for six years or more, developing honeyed notes. Available direct through tantalus.ca.

MEYER PINOT NOIR MCLEAN CREEK ROAD 2017 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 92 PRICE: $34.88 Sweet berry jam. Smooth, almost sticky with concentration. Touches of caramel, baking spices and lively white pepper. Lovely.

Unfined and unfiltered. Available only with a free membership to the estate's wine club, mfvwines.com.

C.C. JENTSCH SMALL LOTS CABERNET FRANC 2015 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 92 PRICE: $49.90 Ripe for a cabernet franc yet with plenty of savoury character.

Cherries and cranberries with tobacco, dark-roast coffee and underbrush. Pleasantly chalky, with nuances of bacon and leather.

Available direct through ccjentschcellars.com.

RIVER STONE CORNER STONE 2016 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 91 PRICE: $36.89 A five-grape Bordeaux-style blend, led by merlot and cabernet franc. Velvety, with good structure and backbone and suggestions of creamy cassis, chocolate, mint, black-olive tapenade and earth. Worth cellaring for up to eight years. Available direct, riverstoneestatewinery.ca.

ROAD 13 SYRAH MALBEC 2017 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 90 PRICE: $32.17 Road 13 was named 2018 Winery of the Year by the WineAlign National Wine Awards of Canada, a distinction richly deserved. The grapes here come from the Similkameen Valley. Full-bodied, polished and dense with blackberry, dark plum, vanilla and a tractorload of black licorice and pepper.

Very Rhône-like. Available direct through road13vineyards.com.

(The Road 13 Roussanne 2017 white is superb, too.)

JOSEPH DROUHIN CHABLIS DROUHIN - VAUDON 2017 (FRANCE) SCORE: 90 PRICE: $29.95 Reliable bottling from a fine Burgundy négociant. Midweight, with good energy, autolytic character and saline snap. Classic Chablis character. Available in Ontario at the above price, various prices in Alberta, $27.15 in Quebec, $34.99 in Nova Scotia.

DOG POINT SAUVIGNON BLANC 2018 (NEW ZEALAND) SCORE: 90 PRICE: $26.95 Light, crisp and flintier than the Flintstones. Vibrant, tense and laser etched with acidity, supporting flavours of grapefruit and lemon. Available in Ontario at the above price, $32.49 in British Columbia, various prices in Alberta.

PERLE DE ROSELINE CÔTES DE PROVENCE 2018 (FRANCE) SCORE: 90 PRICE: $19.95 Very dry, yet with silky roundness. Strawberry, watermelon, herbs and a whiff of smoke reminiscent of stony Sancerre. Available in Ontario.

UPPER BENCH ALTITUDE 2015 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 90 PRICE: $46.10 A three-to-one blend of merlot and cabernet sauvignon. Very dry, chalky-dusty, with rich cassis, cherry plum, cocoa and tangy cedar, set against grippy tannins. Available direct through upperbench.ca.

HORSESHOES AND HANDGRENADES (OREGON) SCORE: 90 PRICE: $24.99 Fun name. But the equally playful back label is slightly misleading. "Garage Vins de Oregone" - a nod to the so-called garagiste boutique-winery movement of Pomerol in Bordeaux. Besides the Oregon syrah there's some Washington state cabernet sauvignon and merlot in the mix, and you can distinctly sense them all. Full, smooth and very dry, with a chunky profile of cherry, vanilla, licorice, pepper and leather. Available only by the 12-bottle case from Noble Estates in Ontario, nobleestates.com.

PIERRE SPARR GEWURZTRAMINER 2018 (FRANCE) SCORE: 89 PRICE: $17.95 Alsace's lavishly fruity, spicyfloral white grape gets a fine rendition from a solid producer.

Off-dry and low in acidity, it's rich with marmalade, tropical fruit and ginger spice. Great for spicy stir fries, curries or medium-to-firm cheeses. Available in Ontario.

TOWNSHIP 7 ROSE 2018 (BRITISH COLUMBIA) SCORE: 88 PRICE: $21.97 Light peachy-pink. Dry and punchy with flavour. Fleshy, with strawberry and rhubarb, underscored by moderate but bright acidity. It looks Provençal and tastes like it, though perhaps with more fatness - and that's nice. Available direct through township7.com.

AVELEDA COLHEITA SELECIONADA LOUREIRO 2017 (PORTUGAL) SCORE: 88 PRICE: $13.95 Light, crisp and flinty, with delicate citrus and lemongrass flavours and perfect acidity. A big value from a vinho verde leader.

Available in Ontario.

FANTINI CERASUOLO D'ABRUZZO ROSÉ 2018 (ITALY) SCORE: 87 PRICE: $10.95 Dry, midweight, sweetly ripe, with cherry candy and raspberry fruitiness, though dry on the finish and lifted by a hint of fresh herbs. Bargain rosé. Available in Ontario at the above price, $14.85 in Quebec.


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Rogers Cup pay equity? It's complicated
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Despite decades of effort on the part of activist athletes such as Billie Jean King to achieve equality between the sexes on court, the winner of the men's tournament in Montreal this month will still make more than his female counterpart in Toronto
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By RACHEL BRADY
  
  

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Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page S8

TORONTO -- When Rafael Nadal won the Rogers Cup in Toronto last year, he pocketed about US$1-million for his straight-sets win. At the same time, Simona Halep won the Rogers Cup in Montreal in three sets and won just more than half that.

Two tournaments - alternating between Toronto and Montreal - with the same name, and yet the men's winner takes home almost twice that of the women's winner.

What gives?

Despite decades of efforts by activist athletes such as Billie Jean King and modern-day stars Serena and Venus Williams, top players on the WTA Tour are still outearned by their male counterparts on the ATP Tour.

Tennis has led the pay-equity charge in sport. The four Grand Slams offer equal prize money, along with a few other big tournaments that feature men and women. But at many others, the prize disparity is still staggering.

When players take the court at the Rogers Cup next week in Toronto and Montreal, the men will again take home substantially more prize money than the women. The Rogers Cup purse for the men is US$5.7-million this year, compared with the women's purse of US$2.8-million.

With the U.S. women's soccer team making news with its discrimination suit against the U.S.

Soccer Federation, the conversation about pay equity in pro sports has never been louder.

King, a tennis icon and the godmother of sport's pay-equity movement, has spoken up for those soccer players, championing female athletes every chance she gets.

"I'll be 75 this year, and I'm still like, 'Oh my god, this is moving at a snail's pace,' " King told The Globe and Mail in a lengthy interview about the Tour she founded and the equal-prize-money battles she waged. "When you look back at history, you think it moved fast, but when you live through it? Man, it feels like it moves so slow."

There are several reasons usually given in the tennis world for the difference in purses. The men get higher level of sponsorship, better broadcast deals and earn more revenue.

Tennis Canada - the owner and operator of the Rogers Cup - foots the bill for the Canadian tournaments' prizes. While the two tournaments run at the same time, share a name and feature best-ofthree matches, they are separate events, mandated by the two different tours that each have their own sets of guidelines for determining prize money. The Rogers Cup men's event has a higher classification on the ATP Tour than the Rogers Cup women's event does on the WTA Tour and it's those classifications that dictate the minimum prize money.

Some tournament owners have the cash flow to add to their purse. Tennis Canada says finding a way to top up the women's purse to make it equal to the men's is a frequent topic at board meetings. But it would mean dipping heavily into the money earmarked for tennis development.

Jennifer Bishop, chair of Tennis Canada's board of directors, got to meet King at this year's French Open and said, "I was more inspired than I've ever been in my 35 years of being involved in tennis.

"She encouraged me to keep the conversation going at the board level and to be fearless," Bishop said. "In a perfect world, we'd be able to check all the boxes, but Rogers Cup is our revenuegenerator. We have to do everything we can to help close the pay gap while at the same time making sure we have money going into our programs, like high performance and grassroots. It really is a difficult conversation, but I'm hopeful that some of the other decisions we're making will help move the needle."

Tennis Canada has equalized the prize money at its smaller tournaments in Vancouver and Granby, Que., with Gatineau to follow next year - all of which feature players from both the ITF Women's Circuit and the ATP's Challenger Tour.

Tennis Canada is also focusing on adding more female coaches into high-performance ranks and rectifying the trend of too many girls leaving the sport too soon.

Building up the WTA Rogers Cup is another top initiative, particularly because increased revenue at the event leads directly to higher prize money.

"Our WTA players are compensated very well in Canada at the Rogers Cup and well taken care of, and their prize-money rate has grown at a significant rate over the years," WTA chief executive Steve Simon said. "So it shows that Tennis Canada has certainly been growing the event and they're very progressive.

"We obviously would love to see equal prize money at both Rogers Cups, and I think they'd love to see it, too. We all recognize that the money has to come from some place and they have a lot of responsibilities and we respect choices federations have to make.

But you'd also like to see some of the choices come to making a statement, which I think would bring a lot of value to an organization."

"The prize money is different between the two, but the prize money as a percentage of gross revenue is about the same for both events," Tennis Canada CEO Michael Downey said.

The two different event classifications at Rogers Cup have been widely cited as a big factor for the gap in prize money at the two events. The men's is an ATP Masters 1000 event, which is mandatory and awards 1,000 rankings points to its winner. The women's is a WTA Premier 5 event - not mandatory and worth 900 points to its champ. Points are important because they determine a player's world ranking.

Yet the women's Rogers Cup has had as many or more top-10 participants than the men's every summer since 2014. Neither world No. 1 Novak Djokovic nor No. 3 Roger Federer will play in Montreal this week. But all the women's top 10 are playing in Toronto, including Serena Williams, Naomi Osaka and Wimbledon champ Halep.

A look at Tennis Canada attendance numbers for the two events shows Montreal's tournament routinely outdraws the concurrent Toronto event each year, regardless of whether it is the WTA or ATP.

The highest ATP Rogers Cup attendance of the past 15 years in Montreal was 216,236 in 2017 (as Canadian star Denis Shapovalov made his run to the semi-finals), while its best in Toronto in that time was 161,497 in 2010. During that time, the WTA's Montreal best was 181,996 in 2014, and its Toronto best was 138,135 in 2009.

Revenues from global broadcast and sponsorship deals also factor heavily into what the two different tours can dictate in prize money. Men's tennis is still generating a lot more than women's in those areas, bolstered by the popularity of megastars such as Federer, Djokovic and Nadal.

"Fundamentally, we want to help the WTA Tour," Downey said.

"How do they grow the global broadcast side of women's tennis? And how can we build our event more? That would be a win for everyone if we were selling more tickets and more sponsorships and getting more global broadcast, because that will force the prize money to grow with the formula."

Tennis is the most financially lucrative sport for female professional athletes, in which players earn more than women in other sports by enormous margins. The WTA has 55 events around the globe yearly, with more than US$160-million in prize money.

Perhaps it's tough to have sympathy for a tennis tour whose biggest stars routinely fill Forbes's list of the world's highest-earning women athletes. By way of contrast, the Canadian Women's Hockey League, which featured Olympic gold medalists who made a maximum of $10,000 a season, shut down this spring because of a shortage of revenue.

Some corporate sponsors, eager to spotlight their progressiveness, have stepped up to help female athletes. The year-end round-robin-format WTA Finals will award the largest prize money in the history of pro tennis - men's or women's - with a potential pay day of US$4.725-million for an undefeated champ, thanks to Japanese beauty brand Shiseido. As discussions around pay disparity between the U.S women's and men's soccer teams intensified, several companies, such as Visa and energy-bar maker Luna, provided top-up funds to help close the gap.

And following the U.S. team's run to another World Cup victory, Secret, owned by U.S. multinational Procter & Gamble, said in a huge ad in The New York Times that it would donate US$23,000 to each of the 23 players on that U.S women's team.

It was also a deodorant sponsorship that answered King's plea to help equalize the men's and women's prize money for the first time at the 1973 U.S Open - Ban deodorant, a subsidiary of pharmaceutical company BristolMyers. When she went to U.S Open tournament director Billy Talbert back then to request equal prize money, she had already secured Bristol-Myers's promise that they would provide the US$50,000 needed to make up the difference. King still laughs today about a deodorant company playing rescue right after she'd famously vented to media about the pay gap by saying "it stinks."

King says that she would like to see more players on the WTA Tour immerse themselves in the business of their tournaments - knowledge that could help in their advocacy.

"I would ideally like to see a rookie school, and they can't play on the Tour until they understand the Tour, and the business and every aspect of an event they play in," King said.

Is it possible that the corporate world could step up to pay the difference in prize money in events where a gap remains? The WTA's CEO said the key is first altering the opinion of the value of women's sports.

"If you walk into a boardroom today, it's hard to get them to look at you and have a discussion at the same level they would be discussing a men's property. That's just a reality," Simon said. "We have to change those perceptions. It's up to us as a society.

People have to be willing to look at it on an equal platform to raise the investment that comes behind it."

Said King, "I think tennis is the leader in equality for women.

People need to get behind their daughters. We have to find sponsors who have the same kind of enthusiasm they have for the men, and get behind the idea that, over time, the talent in women's sports will get better and better."

With reports from Jamie Ross

Associated Graphic

When Romanian women's player Simona Halep beat Sloane Stephens in three sets to win the Rogers Cup last year in Montreal, her payday was just more than half of what the men's winner, Rafael Nadal, made.

MINAS PANAGIOTAKIS/GETTY IMAGES


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Return to Main Leah_McLaren Page
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Rogers Cup pay equity? It's complicated
space
Despite decades of effort on the part of activist athletes such as Billie Jean King to achieve equality between the sexes on court, the winner of the men's tournament in Montreal this month will still make more than his female counterpart in Toronto
space
By RACHEL BRADY
  
  

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space

Saturday, August 3, 2019 – Page S10

TORONTO -- When Rafael Nadal won the Rogers Cup in Toronto last year, he pocketed about US$1-million for his straight-sets win. At the same time, Simona Halep won the Rogers Cup in Montreal in three sets and won just more than half that.

Two tournaments - alternating between Toronto and Montreal - with the same name, and yet the men's winner takes home almost twice that of the women's winner.

What gives?

Despite decades of efforts by activist athletes such as Billie Jean King and modern-day stars Serena and Venus Williams, top players on the WTA Tour are still outearned by their male counterparts on the ATP Tour.

Tennis has led the pay-equity charge in sport. The four Grand Slams offer equal prize money, along with a few other big tournaments that feature men and women. But at many others, the prize disparity is still staggering.

When players take the court at the Rogers Cup next week in Toronto and Montreal, the men will again take home substantially more prize money than the women. The Rogers Cup purse for the men is US$5.7-million this year, compared with the women's purse of US$2.8-million.

With the U.S. women's soccer team making news with its discrimination suit against the U.S.

Soccer Federation, the conversation about pay equity in pro sports has never been louder.

King, a tennis icon and the godmother of sport's pay-equity movement, has spoken up for those soccer players, championing female athletes every chance she gets.

"I'll be 75 this year, and I'm still like, 'Oh my god, this is moving at a snail's pace,' " King told The Globe and Mail in a lengthy interview about the Tour she founded and the equal-prize-money battles she waged. "When you look back at history, you think it moved fast, but when you live through it? Man, it feels like it moves so slow."

There are several reasons usually given in the tennis world for the difference in purses. The men get higher level of sponsorship, better broadcast deals and earn more revenue.

Tennis Canada - the owner and operator of the Rogers Cup - foots the bill for the Canadian tournaments' prizes. While the two tournaments run at the same time, share a name and feature best-ofthree matches, they are separate events, mandated by the two different tours that each have their own sets of guidelines for determining prize money. The Rogers Cup men's event has a higher classification on the ATP Tour than the Rogers Cup women's event does on the WTA Tour and it's those classifications that dictate the minimum prize money.

Some tournament owners have the cash flow to add to their purse. Tennis Canada says finding a way to top up the women's purse to make it equal to the men's is a frequent topic at board meetings. But it would mean dipping heavily into the money earmarked for tennis development.

Jennifer Bishop, chair of Tennis Canada's board of directors, got to meet King at this year's French Open and said, "I was more inspired than I've ever been in my 35 years of being involved in tennis.

"She encouraged me to keep the conversation going at the board level and to be fearless," Bishop said. "In a perfect world, we'd be able to check all the boxes, but Rogers Cup is our revenuegenerator. We have to do everything we can to help close the pay gap while at the same time making sure we have money going into our programs, like high performance and grassroots. It really is a difficult conversation, but I'm hopeful that some of the other decisions we're making will help move the needle."

Tennis Canada has equalized the prize money at its smaller tournaments in Vancouver and Granby, Que., with Gatineau to follow next year - all of which feature players from both the ITF Women's Circuit and the ATP's Challenger Tour.

Tennis Canada is also focusing on adding more female coaches into high-performance ranks and rectifying the trend of too many girls leaving the sport too soon.

Building up the WTA Rogers Cup is another top initiative, particularly because increased revenue at the event leads directly to higher prize money.

"Our WTA players are compensated very well in Canada at the Rogers Cup and well taken care of, and their prize-money rate has grown at a significant rate over the years," WTA chief executive Steve Simon said. "So it shows that Tennis Canada has certainly been growing the event and they're very progressive.

"We obviously would love to see equal prize money at both Rogers Cups, and I think they'd love to see it, too. We all recognize that the money has to come from some place and they have a lot of responsibilities and we respect choices federations have to make.

But you'd also like to see some of the choices come to making a statement, which I think would bring a lot of value to an organization."

"The prize money is different between the two, but the prize money as a percentage of gross revenue is about the same for both events," Tennis Canada CEO Michael Downey said.

The two different event classifications at Rogers Cup have been widely cited as a big factor for the gap in prize money at the two events. The men's is an ATP Masters 1000 event, which is mandatory and awards 1,000 rankings points to its winner. The women's is a WTA Premier 5 event - not mandatory and worth 900 points to its champ. Points are important because they determine a player's world ranking.

Yet the women's Rogers Cup has had as many or more top-10 participants than the men's every summer since 2014. Neither world No. 1 Novak Djokovic nor No. 3 Roger Federer will play in Montreal this week. But all the women's top 10 are playing in Toronto, including Serena Williams, Naomi Osaka and Wimbledon champ Halep.

A look at Tennis Canada attendance numbers for the two events shows Montreal's tournament routinely outdraws the concurrent Toronto event each year, regardless of whether it is the WTA or ATP.

The highest ATP Rogers Cup attendance of the past 15 years in Montreal was 216,236 in 2017 (as Canadian star Denis Shapovalov made his run to the semi-finals), while its best in Toronto in that time was 161,497 in 2010. During that time, the WTA's Montreal best was 181,996 in 2014, and its Toronto best was 138,135 in 2009.

Revenues from global broadcast and sponsorship deals also factor heavily into what the two different tours can dictate in prize money. Men's tennis is still generating a lot more than women's in those areas, bolstered by the popularity of megastars such as Federer, Djokovic and Nadal.

"Fundamentally, we want to help the WTA Tour," Downey said.

"How do they grow the global broadcast side of women's tennis? And how can we build our event more? That would be a win for everyone if we were selling more tickets and more sponsorships and getting more global broadcast, because that will force the prize money to grow with the formula."

Tennis is the most financially lucrative sport for female professional athletes, in which players earn more than women in other sports by enormous margins. The WTA has 55 events around the globe yearly, with more than US$160-million in prize money.

Perhaps it's tough to have sympathy for a tennis tour whose biggest stars routinely fill Forbes's list of the world's highest-earning women athletes. By way of contrast, the Canadian Women's Hockey League, which featured Olympic gold medalists who made a maximum of $10,000 a season, shut down this spring because of a shortage of revenue.

Some corporate sponsors, eager to spotlight their progressiveness, have stepped up to help female athletes. The year-end round-robin-format WTA Finals will award the largest prize money in the history of pro tennis - men's or women's - with a potential pay day of US$4.725-million for an undefeated champ, thanks to Japanese beauty brand Shiseido. As discussions around pay disparity between the U.S women's and men's soccer teams intensified, several companies, such as Visa and energy-bar maker Luna, provided top-up funds to help close the gap.

And following the U.S. team's run to another World Cup victory, Secret, owned by U.S. multinational Procter & Gamble, said in a huge ad in The New York Times that it would donate US$23,000 to each of the 23 players on that U.S women's team.

It was also a deodorant sponsorship that answered King's plea to help equalize the men's and women's prize money for the first time at the 1973 U.S Open - Ban deodorant, a subsidiary of pharmaceutical company BristolMyers. When she went to U.S Open tournament director Billy Talbert back then to request equal prize money, she had already secured Bristol-Myers's promise that they would provide the US$50,000 needed to make up the difference. King still laughs today about a deodorant company playing rescue right after she'd famously vented to media about the pay gap by saying "it stinks."

King says that she would like to see more players on the WTA Tour immerse themselves in the business of their tournaments - knowledge that could help in their advocacy.

"I would ideally like to see a rookie school, and they can't play on the Tour until they understand the Tour, and the business and every aspect of an event they play in," King said.

Is it possible that the corporate world could step up to pay the difference in prize money in events where a gap remains? The WTA's CEO said the key is first altering the opinion of the value of women's sports.

"If you walk into a boardroom today, it's hard to get them to look at you and have a discussion at the same level they would be discussing a men's property. That's just a reality," Simon said. "We have to change those perceptions. It's up to us as a society.

People have to be willing to look at it on an equal platform to raise the investment that comes behind it."

Said King, "I think tennis is the leader in equality for women.

People need to get behind their daughters. We have to find sponsors who have the same kind of enthusiasm they have for the men, and get behind the idea that, over time, the talent in women's sports will get better and better."

With reports from Jamie Ross

Associated Graphic

When Romanian women's player Simona Halep beat Sloane Stephens in three sets to win the Rogers Cup last year in Montreal, her payday was just more than half of what the men's winner, Rafael Nadal, made.

MINAS PANAGIOTAKIS/GETTY IMAGES


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Why and how have beauty pageants endured? A portrait of six queens of the modern age
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In a society more and more uncomfortable with judging women by their looks, I wanted to understand the people keeping pomp and pageantry alive - and was surprised by what they told me
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By LUCY LU
  
  

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Saturday, August 17, 2019 – Page O4

Toronto-based photographer

I have a distinct memory of myself, at the age of 4 or 5, crying because my grandparents forbade me from wearing a dress. In their defence, it was the dead of winter. I remember wanting, so badly, to grow out my hair in order to look more girlish since I was often mistaken for a boy when I was a young child. In my adolescence, perhaps because I never felt like I was conventionally beautiful, I put little thought into my appearance altogether.

When I first watched the Miss Universe pageant on TV, seeing dozens of beautiful and graceful women walk across the stage, I remember feeling envious, that I had gotten the short end of the stick. Why were these women being rewarded for something - in their case, genetics - they had no control over? To assuage these feelings, I told myself these women were shallow, that their looks were the most, and perhaps only, valuable thing they possessed.

While the idea of a competition to crown the finest, best-looking man or woman has existed for centuries, the first modern beauty pageant to take place in North America was organized by P.T. Barnum in the mid-19th century, though it was shuttered because of public protest.

The glory days of beauty pageants are long gone; viewership for Miss Universe and Miss America has been falling steadily since the early 2000s.

It seems that we, as a society, have decided that the concept of parading women on stage and judging them mostly based on physical attractiveness is an outdated and objectifying notion. But on Aug. 17, Miss Universe Canada will be crowned in Toronto. And that woman will go on to represent the country at the 68th annual Miss Universe event in December. So, it's a notion that still won't die. Why?

I found myself asking this question when I learned that one of my old highschool friends was participating in a local beauty pageant. Frankly, I was surprised that these competitions still existed. I wanted to know how someone such as my strong-willed friend could expose herself to that type of scrutiny and judgment. This inspired my journey into photographing beauty-pageant contestants.

At first, I had a hard time leaving my biases at the door. Many mainstream pageants such as Miss Universe still have antiquated rules about who can compete for the title. Contestants must be under the age of 28 and must not be, nor have ever been, married or pregnant, which gives me the icky feeling that pageants are just an elaborate scam that parades eligible young women on stage, from which bachelors can take their picks, as if off a restaurant menu.

But all the women I spoke with acknowledged that while pageants are not perfect, they still find something genuinely fulfilling, and even empowering, about being a part of them.

Some joined with the simple hope of meeting new people and connecting with other women from all over the world.

Some told me that competing in pageants helped them with their confidence or made them become better public speakers. Some said that the gruelling hours spent getting into shape and preparing for the competitions strengthened their work ethic. Many expressed the appeal of the charity and community work that contestants take part in.

It would be naive to say that individual positive experiences equate to beauty pageants being a wholly progressive concept.

After all, each and every woman I spoke with acknowledged that yes, a large part of beauty pageants is still based on physical appearance.

And yes, beauty pageants have had a long history of issues surrounding diversity. But contestants are still willing to look past those problems for a personal sense of achievement.

The women I spoke with showed incredible vulnerability and strength, leading me to remain torn on whether beauty pageants are something I wish to see in the future. But I've gained a new respect for the women who choose to participate in them.

There's something admirable about their genuine, and at times arduous, attempts to feel like t