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GiveLife.ca

    

PRINT EDITION
BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page B19

LINDI BJORNSTAD

Unexpectedly on Saturday, October 6, 2018. Lindi was the beloved wife of Nathan Jacobson; mother to Kat (Katya); sister to Brenda; and aunt to many. Lindi was predeceased by her parents, Jakob and Myra.

Lindi was the kindest most selfless person one could meet. She was a loyal friend to so many and her home was always open to all, both two-and four-legged. She was always there to help people in any circumstance in a nonjudgmental and loving manner. As a human being she was simply magnificent.

In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation in her memory to the Toronto Humane Society.

A Celebration of Life will be held in the near future and will be announced in this newspaper.

JOHN CHRISTOPHER CLEMENCE

Peacefully at Beach Arms Residence in Toronto, Chris passed away in his sleep on October 3, 2018. Loving brother of Elizabeth (deceased), Hugh, uncle of Bjorn, Trevor and family, including Cindy, Erik and Lily, he will be sadly missed but happily remembered. He was 79.

He graduated from Western University and worked with investments, stocks and real estate over the years. He loved the Economist Readers Group, talking politics and life but most of all it was the cottage at Kawagama, family pets and good food that inspired him.

A service and Celebration of Life will be held at 2 p.m. on October 25 at Hugh's place, the Community Room, 1733 Queen St. East, Toronto.

Reception for all friends and family to follow. In lieu of flowers, a donation to Diabetes Canada is welcome.

Condolences: hughclemence@gmail.com

DONALD H CLIFF P.Eng (Retired)

September 28, 2018 After a full and wonderful life, Don passed away peacefully, at the age of 92, surrounded by loved ones.

Don was born in Dundas August 7, 1926. Predeceased by his wife Jean Hope (Walker) of 46 years; his father, David P. (Bud) Cliff; mother, Laura May (Myles); brother, William; and sister, Patricia (Paterson).

Survived by his partner of 15 years, Edna Stefaniuk; children, David Cliff (Patricia), Sheila Whitney (Hutty); and loving grandchildren, Danny Barrett, Robert Cliff and Nicole Barrett. He is also survived by his sister, Susan Lindbergh; sister-in-law, Ruth Cliff; and brother-in-law, Eric Paterson.

Don graduated from Queens University in 1949 with a degree in Electrical Engineering and worked for Ontario Hydro for 34 years.

His career took him to various regions throughout Ontario. His greatest accomplishment was bringing electricity to the remote village of Savant Lake where he was affectionately named the "Stompin' King of Savant Lake".

Prior to his post-secondary education and following his retirement, he worked at the Dominion Lightning Rod Company of Dundas, Ontario, founded in 1898 by his Great Grandfather and now in its 6th generation of family ownership and operation.

He was also an honorary citizen of Barbados, where he has traveled since 1973 and was acknowledged by the Prime Minister in early 2018 for his 80th visit to the island. He will be missed by his many friends there, as well as life-long friends from around the world that he met in Barbados.

Don was a true gentleman, a hard worker, a proud parent and grandfather (Papa), and a loving partner. He always had a positive attitude, saw the good in people and was loved and respected by all who knew him.

Cremation has taken place in West Kelowna and he will be interred at Grove Cemetery in Dundas at a private family gathering.

ROBERT WARBURTON COX Died on the 9th of October, 2018.

Born in Montreal to Gregory Warburton Cox and Edythe Crombie, he went to McGill, graduating in 1948. Following which, with his new bride Jessie Rankin Gunn, he went to Geneva, Switzerland, to embark on a career at the International Labour Office during which he travelled extensively around the world.

He returned to North America in 1972, first to New York where he taught at Columbia University, and then to Toronto where he was a professor of political science at York University. He was appointed a member of the Order of Canada in 2014 for his contributions to the field of international political economy.

In the course of his career he held visiting professorships at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, the University of Denver, Laval University, Yale University, the University of Toronto, the Australian National University, the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, and the United Nations University in Tokyo. He was beloved by generations of students.

Much has been written about his work and his intellectual contribution to the field of international political economy. A universal comment resonates: the strength of his contribution came from an independence of mind that challenged accepted conceptions. He consistently emphasized the importance of understanding the cultural beliefs of others, creating a space for selfreflection and tolerance among cultures. His intellectual pursuits in no way diminished his pleasure in keeping good company, enjoying the good things in life, and having a good laugh.

He was predeceased by his wife of 58 years, Jessie Gunn, and his son-in-law Douglas Hahn. He is mourned by his partner Hongying Wang and her children Fan and Patrick Rosenau; by his daughters Susan and Janet Cox and his sons-in-law Massimo Formica and Michael Mackey; by his grandsons Fraser and Alex Hahn; and by his many colleagues and students.

RONALD L. CUMMINGS

July 8, 1924 October 1, 2018

Devoted grandfather to Adam and Nicole King, father to daughter Colleen and son-in-law, Terry. Predeceased by his wife, Beverley Cummings on May 15, 2004.

Ron was an International Customs Broker and spent many years working downtown in Toronto's financial district. He and his wife Bev established many contacts through his business dealings which provided great opportunities enjoying Toronto's theatre and dining establishments with their large circle of friends.

Ron loved magic, photography and was an avid speed skater; both he and Bev would spend countless hours skating at Varsity Arena. Ron enjoyed all old movies and drew immense pleasure listening to his large collection of records covering the spectrum of jazz and classical music. Bev's passion included cooking for the family and volunteering at the Toronto General Hospital, always there to offer a warm smile to patients and their families. Ron, Bev and Colleen spent many summer vacations on the shores of Lake Nipissing at North Bay. Both grandparents were very proud of their grandchildren, spending countless hours cheering on Adam's NT hockey games and Nicole's NT figure skating competitions. In recent years , Ron had an opportunity to hear all the interesting stories from his grandkids pertaining to their experiences as students at the UWO.

A private ceremony was held at Mt Pleasant Cemetary on October 10th followed by a champagne toast celebrating both Ron and Bev's wonderful lives.

JACK BARRY ELLIS

After a long and fulfilling life, Jack Barry Ellis, Ph.D., passed away peacefully at his home on September 26, 2018. He will be greatly missed by his wife of 57 years, Barbara; devoted daughters Carolyn and Andrea; caring son-in-law Don Lewis; and his 6 loving grandchildren Erin, Kyle and Matthew (Imrie); Baker, Hannah and Sydney (Lewis).

Jack was Professor Emeritus and former Associate Dean of Environmental Studies at York University. He was an avid traveller, voracious reader, consumer of current events, and activist for causes he believed in. He inspired those around him with his passion for embracing new cultures, ideas and languages, and thinking outside the box. Jack took great pride in his family, and he will remain in our hearts forever.

Family and friends will be received at the Mount Pleasant Visitation Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Rd., Toronto (east gate entrance, north of St. Clair Ave. 416-485-5572) on Saturday, October 27, 2018 from 2 to 4 p.m.

In lieu of flowers and in remembrance of Jack, donations to the University of Toronto School or an environmental cause of your choosing are welcomed. For online condolences, please visit http://www.etouch.ca

ELIZABETH ANNE FINLEY (neé Westover)

October 2, 2018

Anne was born in Toronto on August 5, 1932 and after graduating from the Toronto Normal School teachers' college, taught kindergarten in Toronto and Thunder Bay.

She married Bill Finley in 1956 and after four children and five moves across three provinces, they settled in St.

Catharines in 1973. Bill and Anne were married for 60 years, and until Bill's death in 2016, they travelled extensively. Anne's favourite place in the world, though, was her Diamond Lake cottage, built by her own parents.

Our mother and grandmother never lost her love of education or her desire to help others live good lives.

While managing her busy preteens, teenagers and her equally busy husband, Anne earned a BA, graduating on the Dean's list from Brock University. And before, during and after those Brock years, she was an active member and contributor to many groups and causes: the Niagara Children's Centre, the Multiple Sclerosis Society, Sleeping Children Around the World, the Canadian Federation of University Women, several United Churches and their choirs, and too many other activities to track. She and Bill also hosted 26 Rotary Exchange students from around the world.

Anne's formal roles included two years as president of Maycourt St. Catharines, two years as secretary-treasurer to the Association of Maycourt clubs of Canada, and more than 25 years on the board of the Niagara Children's Centre School. In recognition of that deep community spirit, she was awarded a Rotary Club Paul Harris Fellowship, a City of St. Catharines Volunteer Award, and was made a Maycourt Honorary President.

"Anne-with-an-E" had a lifelong love of the Anne of Green Gables books, and her own positive yet practical attitude reflected that. She believed in generosity, social progress and personal responsibility, and even now, at her own request, is with the McMaster University Faculty of Science, helping educate students and scientists.

Anne leaves behind her four children, their spouses and nine grandchildren: Doug (Emily Arturi), Matthew and Sofia in Toronto; Heather (Malcolm Horne), Nathalie and Owen in Toronto; Don (Susan Finley), Robyn, Ryan and Stuart in Calgary; and Cal (Karen Finley), Sam and Kate in Water Valley, Alberta. She is also survived by her beloved sister and brother-inlaw, Ruth and Ray Fortune of Almonte, Ontario.

"Grammer" will be deeply missed, and we welcome all to a memorial service on Saturday, November 24 at 3:00 p.m. at First Grantham United Church, 415 Linwell Road, St. Catharines, followed by a reception in the Church hall. In lieu of flowers, please consider donating to the Niagara Chapter of Hope of the Multiple Sclerosis Society.

ROBERT ALEXANDER HAIG "Bob"

Died peacefully on Tuesday October 9, at the age of 92. He was born in Toronto on May 24, 1926.

He is survived by his daughters Margaret Haig (Yves Paradis), Pamela Haig Bartley (William), and Judith Haig-Tullio (Carmine) along with his grandchildren Daniel Paradis. Katherine Paradis, Alexander Bartley, Paige Tullio, and Christine Tullio and his cantankerous but loyal dog Gemini. He was predeceased by his wife of 62 years, Mary Haig (née Van Wyck), his daughter Barbara Haig, and granddaughter Nicola Tullio.

Bob trained as a paratrooper during World War II, and when the war ended, he attended the University of Toronto where earned his Bachelor's degree in Forestry. He then began an adventurous and successful career as a professional forester in the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. He then transitioned to the Federal Department of Forestry which took him and his young and growing family from Parry Sound to Winnipeg, Ottawa and finally Sault Ste. Marie, where he ultimately became the Assistant Director of the Great Lakes Forest Research Centre.

Apart from his professional skills and achievements, he will be remembered for his active service as a Rotarian, and as a member of the United Church. He was an avid outdoorsman and sportsman.

He will be remembered by his family as a loving father and husband whose courage and quiet strength helped them all to carry a greater burden of trouble than could ever be carried without these qualities and, for that reason, was the guarantor and guardian of their happiness.

He will be remembered by everyone who knew him for his razor sharp wit (supported by his effortless recollection of passages from the King James Bible, Shakespeare, Tennyson, and Gilbert and Sullivan, all appropriate to any possible human situation), his generosity of spirit, his talent for friendship, his hospitality, his civility, his blend of judgment and charity, these are virtues of what used to known in earlier generations as a Christian gentleman.

Friends are invited to visit at the Arthur Funeral Home - Barton & Kiteley Chapel (492 Wellington St.

E. 705-759-2522) on Friday, October 12, 2018 from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. and on Saturday October 13, 2018 from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. Memorial service to be held at Central United Church on Saturday, October 13, 2018 at 12:30 p.m.

The Rev. Laurie Milito officiating.

Memorial contributions to Sick Kids Foundation, Nicola's Triathlon for Kids, or to Parkinson Canada would be greatly appreciated.

There is a passage from Shakespeare that might capture him: "As for his bounty, there was no winter to it."

DR. ROBERT MICHAEL CANTILUPE HARRISON FRCS (C)

Mike died peacefully at Joseph Brant Hospital, Burlington, Ontario on July 26, 2018.

Predeceased by parents Juliet Marion Menzies Harrison (nee Dallas) and Dr. Cecil Cantilupe Harrison, and by his sister Juliet Elizabeth Harrison-Renner (Karl).

Mike is survived by his partner of 41 years Helena Langer and her son James; by his children Susan Harrison (Todd Lefebure), Lesley Reichenfeld (Stephen), Robert Harrison, Diana (Diny) Harrison, Carol O'Neil (David) and Michael Harrison and 13 grandchildren and 2 great grandchildren; and by sister Margaret Francesca Fullerton and her children Anne Fullerton (Mark Pritzker), John Fullerton, Jane Fullerton (Daniel Meyerhans), Juliet Fullerton (John Morand), 5 grandnieces and nephews and 1 great grand nephew.

Born Chuapera T.E. Dooars, India, April 18, 1927, Mike and his sister Francesca came to Canada in 1940 as war guests under the auspices of the Alumni of the University of Toronto, staying with Lady Mary Gooderham for the first year. Mike graduated from Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Canada, Mike received his FRCS in 1958. Mike was an accomplished and compassionate orthopedic surgeon who practiced and taught for many years in Hamilton, Ontario and, later, Washington, Indiana. After retiring to Dundas Ontario in 1998 Mike spent many happy hours with friends and family at Hamilton Golf and Country Club, Ancaster, Ontario.

The family wishes to thank the special care and attention our brother, father, uncle, grandfather and great-grandfather received from the staff of the reminiscence care portion at Sunrise of Burlington.

A celebration of life will take place at Hamilton Golf and Country Club in Ancaster Ontario on Monday October 15, 2018 from 2 to 4 p.m.

JAMES HERBERT IRWIN Born August 27, 1959 in Bracebridge, died October 7, 2018 at home in Toronto.

James was the son of Dr. H.

J. "Luke" Irwin and Alice Joan Western of Orillia. Also known as "Bunt", James was a born raconteur, writer and adventurer at heart. He was a voracious reader, with a keen interest in history and politics, and gave away as many books as he "borrowed."

Above all he was a man who enjoyed life, knew what made him happy, and loved to laugh.

James attended high school at Saint Andrews College, Aurora and CJC in Lausanne Switzerland, where he made many lifelong friends. He graduated with a degree in political science from Queen's University, and became a reporter in his hometown of Orillia, before moving to Ottawa to become parliamentary assistant to a British Columbia based M.P.

In 1991 he set off to Singapore on a brief freelance assignment that led to a 13-year stint in Asia, and a career that spanned public relations and journalism and ultimately a position at the Energy Intelligence Group, reporting on global energy trends from Singapore and Washington D.C., and most recently in Toronto as EIG's Canada correspondent.

He counted himself supremely fortunate to have met his wife Trish (who fell for his wit and charm), while working in Hong Kong. Their sons Mack and Tom were born in Hong Kong and Singapore and were the heart and centre of his life.

James seized every opportunity to travel and explore. He sailed, canoed, skied, played tennis (winning a competition in Hong Kong for the fastest serve), softball and hockey, and when there was no ice, ball hockey. In H.K. he joined a winning dragon boat crew. He raced on a four-man team along the 100-km MacLehose Trail, hiked everywhere from the Blue Mountains of Australia, to Nepal and Sri Lanka, to Hadrian's Wall and finally the entirety of the Bruce Trail. However exotic his travels were, he always reserved as many weeks as possible every year for time at his favourite place, the cottage in Honey Harbour.

With the help of his family, Bunt managed to spend his last summer in the place he loved best.

Besides Trish, Mack and Tom, James leaves behind a great collection of family and close friends who can't believe he is gone: His siblings Pamela (Gord Brown), Deborah (Brian Harris), John Jared (Katie Fullerton), and Peter (Jennifer Fenwick); Amy Cody and her sisters; his cousin Mary Elizabeth and family; his nieces and nephews (Sarah, Alice, Olivia, Bridget, Henry, Andrew, Peter and Nicholas), his grand-nieces and nephews (Isaac, Abigale, Oscar, Simone, Loïc and Ella) and the Saywell and DeNure families. We intend to celebrate James' life as he would have wished - with a party at The Royal Canadian Yacht Club, 141 St. George Street, on November 3rd from 5-7 p.m.

ANNE SARAH JOSLIN

Peacefully, on Friday, September 7, 2018, at Kipling Acres, at the age of 92.

Beloved wife of the late A.E.

Jack. Cherished mother of Mary Anne Drohan (Robert), Elizabeth Hutton (Robert), Frances Smith (Brad) and Janet Joslin. Adored Grandma of David, Anne-Marie, Katie, Jessica, Aaryn, Sarah, Rebecca and Emily. Special thank you for the wonderful care provided by all the staff at Kipling Acres.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter "Peel" Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy 10 N. of Q.E.W) on Thursday, October 18, 2018 from 2 p.m. followed by a Celebration of Life Service in the Chapel at 3 p.m.

If desired, remembrances may be made to the Canadian Hearing Society or the Alzheimer Society. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

HOWARD LLOYD KELLY

1929 - 2018

On October 6, 2018, Howard completed his journey on this earth. Left to continue the voyage are his beloved wife, Lise Durivage; sons, Peter and John Kelly; stepsons, Marc and Francois Provost and their respective partners, Wendy Herron, John Kuharchuk, and Marie-Eve Lambert; and very much-loved grandchildren, Camille, John-Thomas, William and Xavier.

Howard was born and grew up in Huntingdon Quebec, a proud fifth generation Quebecer.

He was a graduate of Bishops University and The University of Western Ontario. His business career was spent in the Financial Services sector in Montreal. He spent many happy retirement years with Lise on the family property in Saint Anicet on the banks of his beloved Lac Saint Francois. His hobbies were curling, hunting, boating and most of all gardening, and his fascination with his computer and all that could be done with it. At Howard's request, no public memorial service will be held.

A private burial service will take place at the Kelly family grave site in Huntingdon at a later date. A further request is that no memorial gifts or donations be made but rather, anyone inclined to have done so, instead take a loved one or close friend out to a memorial meal to remember Howard and his life.

Howard's family are grateful for condolences by email. Please write: condolences@howardkelly.

ca or visit our memorial website: http://www.howardkelly.ca.

RICHARD GEORGE MEECH

April 23, 1954 - September 29, 2018

There are no words that can capture the heartache of watching a starlit person slip through your fingers.

Richard George Meech was a humble, handsome, Harvardeducated man, full to the brim with heart, humour and grace.

Driven by passion for wisdom, for the inner spirit, and for the elevation of the soul, Richard was enraptured with the great mysteries of the universe, the wonder of its garden planet and the sacred nature of all beings.

Blue eyes twinkled when he woke and never stopped. In every moment and every encounter there was curiosity and joy. His mastery was the art of living.

Richard's colleagues couldn't wait to embark on new projects, new adventures with him. He led bike trips through Europe decades ago that participants are still talking about - how can one forget gleeful, madcap, toga-clad dips in the Trevi Fountain?

Three years ago, after many successful years as a cuttingedge producer/director of documentary films, Richard moved from Toronto to Salt Spring Island, B.C., with his loving partner of 24 years, Kathryn Jill Rigby.

They started new lives. Changed their priorities. Conceived passion projects that ranged from saving orcas to healing the planet. Between them, there were no limits to what could be accomplished.

But a routine prostate biopsy on Wednesday, September 26, resulted in urosepsis and within 48 hours, the light of many people's lives was extinguished.

Immediate family, Susan Meech and Craig Miller of Toronto; Sarah/ Sally Meech and Kurt Hanzlik, Dubai; Peter Meech, Los Angeles; and Nan Meech and Sava Tatic' in Prague are all in disbelief.

Adored nieces, nephews and in-laws, Maddy and Nathalie ' Hanzlik-Meech; Rade Meech-Tatic; Tom, Wendy, Kenzie, Olivia and Keegan Rigby of Toronto; Penny, Peter, Tom and Anna Lydon of Winchester, U.K.; Sally Rigby, Katie and Stephanie Donaldson of West Vancouver, B.C., will never forget their playful uncle and cherished brother-in-law.

Joan Stewart Rigby Clarke, 89, lived for laughter-filled visits with her treasured son-in-law. Richard's own beloved mother Carol Meech suddenly passed away just weeks ago on September 12th.

Decades-old friends are bereft.

New island friends are at a loss.

A fuller obituary will be published at a later date.

A Celebration of Richard's life will be held in Toronto in December.

Details will follow.

Condolences, photographs, memories may be forwarded to family members at meechandrigby@gmail.com.

KENNETH MISKIMMIN

Born November 3, 1931, Kenneth was Annie and David Miskimmin's first 'Canadian baby'. His siblings, Mary (George Humphrey) and David (Gisela) were born in Belfast, and Silvia (Howard Duncan) and Barbara (Lou Regimbal) were yet to come. A patient and devoted family man, Kenneth took remarkable care of life-long love Elizabeth (1933-2014), children Robert (Diana Carnegie), Peter (Angela Cassiram) and Susanne (Allan Cole), and grandchildren, Madeleine and Liam, Esme and Niamh.

Kenneth grew up in the east end of Toronto and was industrious from an early age: gathering horse manure for his father's garden at five, and delivering groceries by bike at ten and blocks of ice by truck as a teen. Classmates became students when Kenneth taught at Danforth Tech just months after his own graduation.

He would go on to become Director of Technical Education at Woburn Collegiate Institute after completing two degrees at the University of Toronto.

Born in a do-it-yourself era, Ken could fix almost anything; a meticulous draftsman he was well versed in home renovation and cottage construction.

He was particularly adept at woodworking: cabinet making, carving, wood-burning - whatever he turned his hand to, really. A natural teacher, he would share his considerable knowledge with those around him, much of which will be passed along to the next generation.

Ken was a fine athlete who played baseball and basketball as a young man, and hockey well into his senior years - centering a line with his sons on the wings.

As a hockey coach, he enjoyed memorable trips to Europe with the high school team.

In fact, Ken and Betty travelled extensively around the world and would while away long summers on epic camping trips, before they eventually settled into their beloved cottage on Chandos Lake.

A fixture in his Scarborough neighbourhood since 1960, Ken would lend a hand or shoot the breeze and share a ready joke with old friends and new acquaintances alike. His appeal crossed generations, and it was not uncommon to find a young child at the door asking if Ken can come out and play.

Kenneth Miskimmin was a modest, humble and gentle man of great integrity who gave much and took nothing for granted. He was a considerate and dedicated friend to many. It is difficult to come to terms with a world without Ken. We are cast adrift by his loss, even as we are anchored by his wonderful legacy.

DR. DONALD BATES MONTGOMERY

"Monty " October 7, 1929 - September 23 , 2018

With much love and sadness, we announce the death of Dr. Donald Bates Montgomery, our dad, on September 23, 2018, peacefully after a cardiac event, two weeks before his 89th birthday.

Beloved husband for 51 years of Molly (deceased 2014). Loving father of Kathryn (Tom Cronin), Heather, and predeceased by dear son Andrew (Cheryl). Proud "Pop" to Scott, Andrew & Michael Cronin, Jaime & Elliot Procter, and Lauren & Madison Montgomery.

Son of the late Dr. R.C. (Cliff) and Margaret Montgomery. Big brother to his late sisters Mary and Jane (Trevor Eyton). Fondly remembered and missed by his extended de Haas, Eyton and Jackson families.

Dad (also known as "Monty") attended Deer Park, Brown and University of Toronto Schools, finishing high school at the age of 16. He was a graduate of the University of Toronto's Faculty of Medicine, class of 1954, and pursued a specialty in Internal Medicine. A bright, devoted and compassionate physician, he practiced at the Queensway General Hospital in Etobicoke for his entire career until his retirement in 1997. He was Chief of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Queensway for 16 of those years.

Dad enjoyed racquet sports (U of T varsity squash) and met Molly on the tennis court at the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club. Within eight months of meeting they became engaged, and the rest is history. They made a great team and enjoyed a wide and consistent group of lifelong friends. Dad was happiest spending time with Molly and family and friends in special places including Craigleith Ski Club, Kennisis Lake, and Lake of Bays.

Dad valued family, education, hard work, determination, and kindness, and together he and Mum instilled these core values in us kids. He was an avid skier, reader, and card player (bridge and cribbage were favourites) and enjoyed music. We will miss his unconditional love and support, his encouragement, and his quirky sense of humour. He was an original.

Our sincere thanks to Monica Byrne, Marlene Dixon and the caring staff at the Balmoral Club, who made a comfortable home for Dad in recent years.

A visitation will be held at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home in Toronto (159 Eglinton Ave W) on Monday, October 15, from 4-7 p.m. A funeral service to celebrate Monty's life will be held at Christ Church Deer Park (1570 Yonge St) on Tuesday, October 16, at 1 p.m., with a reception following at the church.

A private interment will occur at the St Ambrose's Anglican Cemetery in Baysville, Ontario at a later date.

Donations made in memory of Dad to the Toronto Symphony Orchestra or a hospital of your choice would be welcomed.

ROGER ALLAN MORE

Suddenly, at University Hospital on Wednesday, October 10, 2018, Roger Allan More, of London, Ontario, in his 77th year. Dear and beloved husband of Nancy (née Brown), and idolized and loved father of Mary Kathleen (Mary Kate). Survived by his cousin George (Silvia) Traynor.

Cherished uncle of Colleen Paterson (Ken), and greatuncle of Sean Hagarty, and Eric, Krista and Jenna Paterson, all of Edmonton. Also survived by his dear brother-in-law, David Brown (Heidi), of Westborough, Massachusetts, and nephew, Hugo Brown (Kara), of Wayland, Massachusetts. Predeceased by his parents, Ab and Irene More, and by his sister, Diane Haydock.

Roger was born on March 19, 1942 in Edmonton, Alberta.

He attended The University of Alberta, and graduated with a BSc in Engineering Science. From there, his studies took him to Western University (Ivey Business School), where he received his MBA and PhD in Marketing. After a year of teaching at Harvard Business School, he returned to Ivey where he taught with great passion for 44 years. Consulting globally for leading companies, Roger then retired in 2017 and became an accomplished and published author. He had a great love of teaching, the automobile industry, his family, friends and pets. Visitation will be held from 2:00-4:00 and 7:00-9:00 p.m. on Friday at

WESTVIEW FUNERAL CHAPEL, 709 Wonderland Road North, London, where a Celebration of Life will be conducted on Saturday, October 20, 2018 at 11:00 a.m. Those wishing to make a donation in memory of Roger are asked to consider the Heart and Stroke Foundation or the London Humane Society.

For information and online condolences, please visit http://www.westviewfuneralchapel.com

ROBERT ROY MORRISH "Bob"

October 5, 1923 - September 30, 201 8

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of our father, husband, grandfather, uncle and friend Bob Morrish.

Born in Cherrywood, Ontario, October 5, 1923 and educated at Cherrywood Public School, Pickering and Whitby High Schools and the University of Toronto. He graduated from the University of Toronto with a degree in Civil Engineering in 1946. Bob Worked on various Engineering positions and assignments for Canadian Pacific Railway from 1946 to 1988 and was Chief Engineer of the Railway from 1982 to 1988. After retirement from Canadian Pacific in 1988, he worked part time in a consulting role for Plasser and Theurer, an Austrian Company that manufactured machines for railway maintenance and construction. During his latter years and since retirement, he was active with the Education Committee of the American Railway Engineering Association (AREA). He played an active role in putting together the book "Practical Guide to Railway Engineering", which is a reference book used by railway engineers and supervisors in North America and Europe. He is a lifetime member of the Association of Professional Engineers.

Bob loved playing and watching sports, particularly hockey and golf. He also loved cottage life on the Muskoka, Shuswap and Christina Lakes - but especially the 12 years the family spent at their cottage on the Rideau Lake.

His number one priority in life was always his family! He will be dearly missed.

Bob is survived by his loving wife of 67 years Lois, daughter Robin (Leeder); son, Peter; daughterin-law, Robin; grandchildren, Ryan Leeder (Sarah), Courtney Connolly (Dave), Victoria Leeder, Connor Leeder, Henri AmesseMorrish, Fletcher Morrish, and Piper Morrish; brother, Jack; and sister, Mary Anna (Willis). Bob was predeceased by his son-in-law, Terry Leeder; brother, Bill; sisterin-law, Betty; and brother-in-law, Frank (Willis) A "Celebration of Life" for Bob will be held on Friday, November 2nd from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. at West Vancouver Yacht Club. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to the Lions Gate hospital or the SPCA.

To write a condolence to the family please go to http://www.mckenziefuneralservices.com.

KENNETH SOUTAR MURPHY

Ken Murphy passed away at the Elisabeth Bruyère Hospital in Ottawa on September 27, 2018, at age 88. He is survived by his wife, Weida (Willows); his daughters, Andrea and her partner Ian Reid of Ottawa; Julia and her son Alexander of New Westminster, BC; and Kathy and her partner Vinod Patel of Toronto; his sister, Mae Bodley of Winnipeg; and his many nieces and nephews. He was predeceased by his Scottish immigrant parents, Robert S.

Murphy and Annie (Laird), as well as by his older brother, Roy.

Born in 1930 in Winnipeg, Ken attended Daniel McIntyre Collegiate and then United College (now part of the University of Winnipeg) (B.A. 1951). He studied cello with Peggie Sampson and at the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore.

He started his career in journalism in 1951 at the Winnipeg Free Press as a law courts reporter and music editor. Following this, he was the editor of the prairie edition of the CBC Times. Ken and Weida married in 1955.

Ken was a cellist in the Winnipeg Symphony and CBC Winnipeg orchestras.

He also performed in chamber music ensembles at the University of Manitoba. Ken recounted that being both a journalist and a musician meant that "sometimes after a concert, I would go to the police desk, still wearing my tuxedo."

In 1960 Ken, Weida, and baby Andrea moved to Montreal, where Ken worked as a writer, publicist, and radio producer for English-language CBC.

Julia was born in Montreal in 1961 and Kathy in 1964.

Ken was presented with an extraordinary opportunity in 1967: a position in public relations at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa, still under construction at the time. He went on to contribute to the creation of the NAC Orchestra and became its manager, and later Music Administrator of the NAC. The orchestra quickly gained an international reputation and toured North America, Europe, and the Soviet Union. Despite the challenges of coordinating travel for an orchestra, Ken was fascinated by Europe. Later in life, further travel in Europe (especially Paris) with family and friends was one of Ken's great joys.

A second extraordinary opportunity came in 1979 when Ken became assistant director of the music program at Banff Centre for the Arts. He believed deeply in the potential of young artists and worked tirelessly to support them in his various roles at Banff Centre. He brilliantly conceived of and ran the Banff International String Quartet Competition, which quickly became recognized as among the finest events of its kind in the world.

The 13th BISQC will be held next August. In the words of a colleague, "his combination of vision and tenacity helped launch the careers of many while also building an important fan base of committed classical music lovers."

Before his retirement in 1996 Ken and Weida built a home in Canmore, Alberta. They became active members of the community and enjoyed the beauty of the Rockies with friends and family, including Ken's beloved grandson Alexander, born in Calgary in 1999. In 2014 they returned to Ottawa.

His family will remember Ken for his many and eclectic enthusiasms, his great appreciation and encyclopedic knowledge of language, poetry, and music, and his love for all of us.

We would like to thank Dr. Sohil Rangwala, the staff of Bruyère Hospital, and the health care staff who provided such wonderful support to Ken at home.

A family memorial was held in Gatineau Park on October 3.

Condolences may be left at https://firstmemorialfairview.com/

MARTIN ANTHONY O'NEILL

1951 - 2018

Our beloved Martin (known also as 'Tony' or 'Mao') departed for the Great Irish Pub in the Sky on October 4, 2018 from Vancouver.

Born in Coleraine, Northern Ireland April 25, 1951 to Mary Ann Law and John Patrick O'Neill, he spent his time as a young lad on the shores of Portstewart learning to love music, soccer, the sea and a good party. As a stellar athlete and fan, he was a co-founder and ex-captain of Portstewart F.C. soccer club before earning his BSc in Economics at London University and pursuing his passions in the business world.

Against the backdrop of the Troubles in his home country, he developed a fearlessness, energy and ambition to make a mark in the world, which he applied to a booming career as an incredible marketer and champion of change with international businesses starting in England and Germany, and serving as President/CEO of Braun, Rubbermaid, Bata Shoes, and Microcell (Fido) in Canada where he built a life with his family.

During a rapid rise as a charismatic leader, Martin always strove to understand and appreciate all levels of the organizations he worked for, especially on visits with the valuable employees on the factory floor. He also served as Cabinet member of United Way, Director of the Retail Council of Canada, Chapter Executive of YPO and was voted one of The World's Top 200 Young CEOs by World Economic Forum and Marketer of the Decade by AMA.

Martin lived with a fierce freedom and an appetite for fun that was contagious to all who crossed his path. Among his many wellloved traits, he was known for his unbeatable sense of humour, vibrant personality, and a dedication to living life to the fullest (a personal manifesto).

He loved to dance (at times, like nobody's watching, but there we were...), enjoy soccer games and laughs at the pub, cook for family and friends, watch the world series, take his kids fishing and skiing, walk any friendly dog, and travel with curiosity and appreciation for new people (and no shortage of spontaneous adventures and surprises his family still talk about today).

Happiest by the sea, his fondest times included his holidays in Spain, the south of France, Sparrow Lake, cruising Asia and Australia, the beaches of Cuba and Caribbean, North Carolina, and summers spent in beautiful Whistler. Martin was a man who showed incredible strength in the face of adversity right through his final days and was humbled by those who supported him along the journey. The last six years, he travelled the world making some of his best memories, leaving him at peace with nothing left on his list.

He gave the gift of great memories and wisdom to those he leaves behind, including his partner Pam Hardie (aka "Mighty Mouse") and their dear Whistler family. He inspires constant laughter and admiration from his children Erin (Chris) and Sean (Lisa) and grandson Brayden. He is survived by his older brother Terry with whom he enjoyed a great adventure exploring Southern Africa and he now joins his favourite Aunties Rita and Lily at the Pub up high. In the absence of a funeral service, share fond memories at memoriesofmao@ gmail.com or simply join us in raising a glass to toast Martin's story - a full life lived with gravitas.

With his spirit in mind, let's end with something important... Go Bills Go!

PETER MUIR PARTRIDGE

Passed away suddenly and unexpectedly at home on Thursday, October 4, 2018 at the age of 76. A loving husband to Janet (nee Burgoyne) for 50 years; beloved father to Peter W. (Poppy Gilliam) and John; cherished Poppa to Tobias, Chase and Daxx; and devoted brother to John (Jean) of Calgary and Susan of Kingston and their families. He will be fondly remembered by his sister-in-law, Harriet (John) Lehnen and their families. Peter is predeceased by his parents, John and Margaret; and brother-in-law, Henry Burgoyne.

He grew up in Kingston, Ontario and followed his love of music to London, England, to further his education. He studied at the Royal Academy of Music, was the Music Master of Westminster School and was also assistant to the Organist at Westminster Abbey from 1961 - 1964. While there he played the Battle Hymn of the Republic at a memorial service for John F.

Kennedy that was broadcast to every country in the world by the BBC. He also played at the Royal Wedding of Princess Alexandra and Angus Ogilvy. Peter returned to Canada in 1964 to accept the Director of Music position at Ridley College in St. Catharines, where he taught for 5 years. In February 1970 he accepted a position as a stock broker with AE Ames, a predecessor company of RBC Dominion Securities Inc.

where he has worked for 48 years, serving as both a VicePresident and Portfolio Manager, and was looking forward to his 50th anniversary with the firm.

Deeply involved in serving and supporting his local community, Peter was the Director of Music and Organist from 1970-97 at St.

Paul St. United Church (Silver Spire), he founded the first choir at Brock University called the Brockenspiels in the mid 1960's, he was Past President of the Ontario Choral Federation, Past President of the St. Catharines Symphony, a Board Member of Community Concerts, the current treasurer of the Canadian International Organ Competition, and past Chairman of the Royal Canadian College of Organists. Peter had a radio show for 10 years on CKTB called an Invitation to Good Music.

He served 2 terms as a Brock University Trustee (2004 - 2010) and was named a Trustee Emeritus in 2016. When Rodman Hall was taken over by Brock in 2003 Peter was named the Chairman of the Rodman Hall Advisory Board, a position he still held. He has conducted the annual downtown Christmas Civic Carol Concert since its inception 27 years ago. In 2012 he co-chaired Major Giving for the United Way Campaign with his son, Pete, and has supported the Brock Wrestling and Brock Men's Basketball programs for many years. The men's basketball team dressing room was renamed the Partridge Family Locker Room after the family's contribution allowed for it to be completely renovated in 2016. In 2013 Peter played an integral role as the Fundraising Chairman of the new Performing Arts Centre in downtown St. Catharines. He and Janet made a transformational gift of $1 million dollars and the largest of the four stunning performance venues proudly displays the name "Partridge Hall". In 2017 he donated a practice organ at Westminster Abbey and subsequently was invited by Prince Charles to a dinner at Buckingham Palace to celebrate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Galleries at Westminster Abbey.

Above all else, he had an unbelievable zest for life, he loved his family and friends, coming into work everyday, the summer cottage, classical music and opera, world travel, his 5:15am daily workouts at the YMCA, fine food, wine and cars, laughter and he loved his city, St. Catharines, and passionately wanted to make it a better place. He will be forever missed. Cremation has taken place. Visitation will be held at the George Darte Funeral Home, 585 Carlton St., St. Catharines on Friday, October 26th from 4 - 8 p.m. There will be a Memorial Service on Saturday, October 27th at 11 a.m. in Partridge Hall at the FirstOntario Performing Arts Centre, 250 St. Paul St., St.

Catharines. Memorial donations may be made in Peter's honour to United Way Niagara, or to the Partridge-Gilliam Fund (through the Niagara Community Foundation) which supports local children's charities.

On-Line Guest Book http://www.georgedartefuneralhome.com DR. PATTY RIGBY 1955 2018 When death comes, like the hungry bear in autumn; when death comes and takes all the bright coins from his purse to buy me, and snaps the purse shut; ...

When death comes, I want to step through the door full of curiosity, wondering: what is it going to be like, that cottage of darkness?

And therefore I look upon everything as a brotherhood and a sisterhood, and I look upon time as no more than an idea, and I consider eternity as another possibility.

and I think of each life as a flower, as common as a field daisy, and as singular, and each name a comfortable music in the mouth, tending, as all music does, toward silence, and each body a lion of courage, and something precious to the earth.

...When it's over, I don't want to wonder If I have made of my life something particular, and real...

I don't want to end up simply having visited this world.

(Mary Oliver - When Death Comes) Dr. Patty Rigby, in her sixty-fourth year, entered that cottage of darkness in the early hours of October 7, 2018. She did not simply visit this world. She embraced it in both her personal and professional lives, and in doing so made a difference to the lives of so many.

Patty, who held both a master's and a doctorate in Occupational Therapy and Health Science, joined the Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy in 1994 at the University of Toronto where she worked until her retirement in 2017. Her research was critical in the development and advancement of one of the most widely recognized OT practice models, the Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model, which recognizes the importance of environment as a contributor to occupational performance and health. Patty also contributed to a ground-breaking shift in the OT lens by promoting the development of children's "play," uncovering the value in children's playfulness, which influenced the focus and development of treatment programs and evaluation tools. She was a much-loved and admired teacher in her field, and published numerous peer-reviewed articles and book chapters in the course of her career. In June of this year Patty was awarded the 2018 Life Membership Award of Occupational Therapists in recognition of her outstanding contribution to the profession in research, practice and teaching.

Patty met her spouse, Dr. John Wedge, while both were working at the University Hospital in Saskatoon in the 1980's. In 1988, their careers took them to Toronto together where they have made their home ever since. Together with John, she travelled the world on missions both professional and personal.

Theirs was an enviable loving relationship, each respecting the professional demands of the other yet always protective of their time together, whether it was spent on the golf course, at their home in Savannah or their annual summer retreat to Cape Breton. Their time golfing on the May long weekend was the last carefree time they were able to share together.

For Patty, family was first. She played a central role in the lives of her nieces and nephews (who knew her lovingly as "AP"), instigating family gatherings that created memories and bonds that will resonate through their lives. She steadfastly maintained close contact with all of her siblings and every niece and nephew, where ever they happened to be. When her beloved brother Murray died, Patty stepped in to give his children, Jordan, Sierra, and Aidan the love and support they needed. Living as she did in Toronto, she was close to the family of Dr. Charlotte Wedge, her spouse, Tom and their children, Ian, Georgia, and Patrick Nelson, to whom she was like a second mother.

Patty was known within the circle of family and friends, fondly and reverentially, as "Patty Perfect". And perfect she was in so many, many ways; unfailingly cheerful, positive, generous, and loving. As the diplomatic middle child of five children, Patty was a unifying force all her life. She transformed for the better every room she entered and every person she encountered. In the words of Mary Oliver, Patty made of her life "something particular...and real."

Patty leaves behind family members in Saskatoon, Calgary, Toronto, Australia, and many places in British Columbia (including her father, Eric; siblings, Gwen Beaton, Janet Rigby and Jeffrey Rigby), too many to otherwise name here; and an array of friends, colleagues, and students, all of whom have very heavy hearts as they come to terms with their enormous loss. Many assisted Patty and John on Patty's final voyage, but special recognition and thanks must go to Dr. Charlotte Wedge whose tireless support, both medical and personal, so profoundly eased her journey.

The family asks that in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Patty Rigby Scholarship in the Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Toronto; or the Palliative Care Unit of Michael Garron Hospital in Toronto.

A private interment ceremony will be held in Toronto at a later date.

PAUL IOTI STEFOW April 29, 1942 - October 10, 2018 A private soul, happiest at work, with his wife or his grandsons, Paul Ioti Stefow exited this world suddenly the morning of October 10, 2018 in the arms of Evelyn Stefov, his wife of 50 years.

Professional engineer, lover of history, purveyor of dry wit and sarcasm, consummate professional, Paul was a man for whom two things mattered most: family and work. Paul was born in Macedonia, Greece to Draganí and Dimitris Stefou in 1942, the youngest of 4 sons following Antoni, Christo and Niko. His character was shaped by being forced to leave Greece for Romania in 1948 as a child, during the Greek Civil War, along with his brother Niko, whom he loved dearly. Romania provided young Paul an opportunity to study, perfect his beautiful penmanship, and cultivate a love of literature and the classics - which, later in life, turned into a love for spy novels and the daily news.

Paul received a degree in mechanical engineering in Brasov, Romania, as a top student, and then retrained, alongside his wife, at the University of Toronto where he received a Master of Engineering.

Despite his early years and migrations, Paul felt fiercely at home only in Canada. His few retreats among family included treasured holidays at the cottage in Muskoka and the condo in Hallandale, Florida. Unbeatable at backgammon and chess, his hobbies also included long neighbourhood walks and the peacefulness and satisfaction of riding the lawnmower at the cottage. His community of friends, for whom he felt quiet loyalty and love, were regularly subject to his straight-talk, humour and facetiousness.

During his long and successful career, he rose from an entry-level engineer to Senior Vice-President - holding roles with Caterpillar, then the Urban Transportation Development Corporation - his first foray into light rail mass transit and city-building. He then moved onto Spar Aerospace, Alcatel and finally Hatch. At Hatch, he helped build Toronto's Sheppard Subway Extension, then the York University Line 1 extension - "not bad for a poor immigrant," as he liked to say. His refusal to retire led him to a third subway project, barely begun, but a symbol of his love and commitment to his work. He was a self-made man who always put 100 per cent into the projects to which he devoted his life, including the Canadian contribution to the International Space Station, robotics, and numerous works of public transit.

Paul is survived by his wife, Evelyn; his daughter, Dana Stefov (Sébastien Maillette); and his two grandsons, Alexis and Sacha Stefov Maillette who he loved deeply and who lovingly called him Dedo.

Paul's funeral will be held at 10:00 a.m. on Tuesday, October 16th at York Cemetery, 160 Beecroft Road, Toronto. A viewing will be held on Monday, October 15th from 4:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m. at the same address.

ERIC W TODD

Passed away on Monday, October 8, 2018 with his dear wife, best friend and travel companion of 42 years, Judy by his side. Eric was born in Glasgow Scotland on January 1, 1944, adopted February 29, 1944 and immigrated to Canada in February 1948 landing in Hamilton . For the past 53 years Eric was involved in the plumbing and heating wholesale business and as a member of the Canadian Institute of Plumbing and Heating (CIPH). Eric was a past President of the Quinte Homebuilder's Association as well as an employee of Bardon Supplies in Belleville for the last 36 years. Predeceased by his adoptive parents, David and Sarah Todd of Glasgow Scotland; and birth mother, Sarah Ritchie Brown of Houndslow England.

Left to grieve is his brother, Alan Brown of Pryford England; and also cousins, Alan Ritchie and his mother, Margaret Ritchie of Johnstone Scotland, Maureen (John) Pyper of Airdrie Scotland and Elise Stalker of New Milnes Scotland. Fondly remembered by brother-in-laws, James (Betty) Phelps of Burlington Ontario and Bill Phelps of Stoney Creek Ontario along with extended family and friends.

Family and friends are invited to attend a memorial visitation at the Burke Funeral Home (613 9686968) 150 Church St., Belleville on Friday, October 19, 2018 from 2:00 p.m. until 4:00 p.m.

and 7:00 p.m. until 9:00 p.m. A memorial service will be held at St. Thomas Anglican Church, 201 Church St., Belleville on Saturday, October 20, 2018 at 11:00 a.m.

A reception and reflection of Eric's life will follow. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to Gleaners Food Bank, Belleville, Childrens Safety Village, Belleville and Adopt a Child/Keep Kids Warm, Belleville. Online condolences http://www.burkefuneral.ca

DR. WILLIAM ELWOOD TOSSELL

Died peacefully on October 10, 2018. The son of Beth (Shannon) and Frank Tossell, Bill was born in 1926 on a heritage farm in Glanbrook Township, Ont. He graduated from the Ontario Agricultural College before earning a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. Over a long career at the University of Guelph, he was Chair of Crop Science and the first Dean of Research. Bill was deeply involved in work to improve the food supply in developing countries, serving as Chair of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture headquartered in Cali, Colombia. He also held major posts at centres sponsored by the World Bank and the UN, where he led the establishment of Bioversity International, devoted to collecting and storing plant genetic resources in gene banks for future use by all humankind. In his own community Bill provided leadership for many years as a board member of the Guelph General Hospital.

Bill deeply loved and was loved by his family - his red-headed contralto wife of 62 years, Jean (Callander), who died in 2009; their children Kerry Vandergrift, David Tossell (Barbara) and John Tossell (Victor Dwyer); and their grandchildren, Theo, Christiaan (Kristen), Kyle (Julie), Cory (Jordanne), and Marijke (St. John O'Connor); and greatgrandchildren, Will, Maggie, Eliza, Madeline and Thea, as well as many nieces and nephews. Bill was predeceased by his brother, Harold (Margorie) of Binbrook, and was a much-loved brotherin-law of Jean's sisters, Marnie Sillers (Don), Bonnie McFarlane (Hugh) and Diana Woolley (Max).

He was especially fond of his OAC '47 friends and of his cottage neighbours in Port Elgin. A true citizen of the world, Bill was a champion of scientific values and liberal social ideals. He was also a fierce defender of those he loved, and was never happier than when he was with his family.

Friends may call at Gilchrist Chapel - McIntyre & Wilkie Funeral Home, 1 Delhi Street, Guelph on Friday, October 19, 2018 from 1 - 3 and 7 - 9 p.m. A memorial service will take place at First Baptist Church, 255 Woolwich St., Guelph on Saturday, October 20th at 11:00 a.m. Reception following service. If desired, memorial contributions to Guelph General Hospital or Beginnings Family Services would be appreciated.

We invite you to leave your memories and donations online at: http://www.gilchristchapel.com and they will be forwarded to the family.

EARLE F. ZEIGLER

August 20, 1919 September 29, 2018 In his 100th year, Earle F. Zeigler, PhD, LLD, DSc,

passed away September 29, 2018 at age 99. He is remembered with much love and gratitude as a friend, mentor and philosopher by family, friends and colleagues. Born August 20, 1919, Queens, NYC and dual citizen of US and CA, he is predeceased by wife Bert Bell Zeigler and son Donald and survived by second wife Anne Rogers, daughter Barbara and grandson Kenan.

He earned a BA from Bates College and a MA and PhD from Yale University. He taught, researched and administered at Yale 1943-49, and the University of Connecticut 1944-49 (part-time), Michigan 1956-63, Illinois (C-U) 1963-71 and Western Ontario 194956 and 1971-89. An unparalleled leader in his field over 78 years, he was a pioneer in introducing socio-cultural dimensions to the study of sport and physical activity and wrote extensively on N. Am. human values, ethics and personal decision making.

He published 60 books and monographs and 450 articles.

After receiving the highest recognition (Honour Award) of the Can. Assoc. for HPERD in 1975, he received the top three awards in his field from the US (Alliance Scholar-of-the-Year, AAHPERD, 1977; Hetherington Award, AAKPE, 1989; and the Gulick Medal, AAHPERD, 1990). He was the only person nominated as Honor Award Fellow by both Can. and US branches of N. Am. Society for Health, Phys. Educ., Rec, Dance, and Sport Professionals (2000-2001). In 2008 the N. Am.

Society for Sport History awarded him its "Contributions to Sport History" award. He received three honorary doctorates (LLD 1975 U. of Windsor; DSc 1997 U. of Lethbridge; and LLD 2008 U. of Western Ontario).

The family extends sincere thanks for care received at the Windermere Care Centre (Vancouver). A Celebration of Life is scheduled for late October in Richmond, BC. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to: the Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Scholarship in Kinesiology, attn. Anthony Newton, Western University, Westminster Hall, Suite 110, 1151 Richmond St.

London, ON N6A 3K7 (cheques payable to Western University), by calling 519-661-4200 or online at http://www.westernconnect.ca/tribute.


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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page B19

BABATUNDE AGBI

June 6, 1945 September 8, 2018

It is with great sadness that we announce the death of our father, brother, and uncle, Babatunde (Tunde) Agbi, P.Eng peacefully at the Foothills Hospital, Calgary, on Saturday, September 8, 2018 at the age of 73 years. He was the proud father of Toluwani (Vancouver, BC) and Tomas-Charles (Toronto, ON); beloved brother of Charles (Jane Mulvihill) (Ottawa, ON) and Bose (Nigeria); and loving uncle of Elizabeth (Toronto, ON). Tunde was Founder, President and CEO of Ambit Energy Corporation and spent 50 years in Calgary working in the oil patch. He spent much of his free time enjoying the opera and the jazz community. Celebration of life will be held at The Glencoe Club (636 29 Avenue SW, Calgary, AB) on Saturday, October 13, 2018 from 3:00 - 5:00 p.m. Photos, memories and condolences may be shared with Tunde's family through http://www.evanjstrong.com.

In lieu of flowers, if friends so desire, memorial tributes may be made directly to the Tom Baker Cancer Centre at Alberta Cancer Foundation (1620 29 Street NW, Suite 300, Calgary, AB, T2N 4L7; 403-521-3433; http://www.albertacancer.

ca), the Calgary Opera (Mamdani Opera Centre, 1315 - 7 Street SW, Calgary, AB, T2R 1A5; 403-2627286; ,http://www.calgaryopera.com) or a charity of your choice would be greatly appreciated. Arrangements in care of Evan J. Strong Funeral Services. (403) 265-1199 FRANK ALLAN Frank James Allan (born April 20, 1932) passed away peacefully on the 29th of September, at his home in Burlington, Ontario, at the age of 86 years. Frank is survived by his devoted wife of 55 years, Sally (nee Hutcheson), his son Jim (Stephanie), his beloved grand children Charles and Alexandra and his sister June (Bob) Beach. Born in Saint Boniface, Manitoba, Frank moved to Toronto as a young man and attended the University of Western Ontario, where he played varsity basketball. A knee injury ended his basketball career and he transferred to the University of Toronto, where he graduated with a degree in Commerce.

While at U of T he earned the nickname "Snake" within the Theta Delta Chi fraternity. Frank embarked on a successful career in finance, holding various positions within Merrill Lynch Canada. While at the firm, his accomplishments included launching the institutional sales desk, as well as, opening the firm's first office in Vancouver, British Columbia. Frank's love of golf was well known, and he took great pride in serving as a Captain of St. George's Golf and Country Club. Frank was an integral board member of Mariner Sands Country Club in Stuart, Florida for many years. One of Frank's great regrets was turning down the invitation to participate in the 4-man bobsleigh at the 1964 Winter Olympic Games where Canada won a gold medal.

A celebration of Frank's life will be held at St. George's Golf and Country Club at a later date.

We would like to acknowledge the dedicated staff at Pearl and Pine Retirement Residences in Burlington, Ontario for the outstanding care they showed Frank. Special thanks to Jesselle Romero and Enzo DiCarlo.

WILLIAM HEDLEY BARTLETT

May 5, 1928 - August 22, 2018 After a long and wonderfully well-lived life, Bill passed away peacefully surrounded by family.

Bill was the beloved husband of Sally (nee Rigby), his wife of 66 years; and the father of Jean Shirreff, Bill (Kate Wilcox), Charlie (Felicia Norris) and Mary Bartlett-Keating. He was the cherished grandfather of Caitlin (Jared), Ben, Erin (Lazar), William, Olivia, Lucy, William, Belinda, Peter, Jack, Christian, Sally and Charlotte. Great-Grandfather to three, just missing the birth of his fourth.

The full notice of Bill's passing was in the Globe and Mail Births and Deaths on Saturday, August 25, 2018.

A celebration of Bill's life will be will be held at Christ Church Deer Park, 1570 Yonge St., Toronto (at Heath St.) on Tuesday, October 9th at 3:00 p.m. with a reception to follow. There has been a private family interment.

PATRICIA LOUISE BRUCE

(nee Peene)

Passed away peacefully at the Trillium Health Centre October 4, 2018 after an extended battle with Alzheimer's followed by a recent stroke. Pat was the beloved wife of Robert John Bruce (deceased November 9, 2007), devoted mother of Ian, Douglas, and Dianne, loving Mother-in-Law of Cathie and Judy, and dedicated grandmother of Audrey, Matthew, Sarah, Lindsey, and Ryan.

Pat was born in Hamilton, Ontario, moved with her family to Ottawa during World War II, and then on to Toronto. She received a Bachelor of Arts from Queen's University where she met her husband of 50 years, Bob. They settled in Toronto. After focusing on her family, Pat returned to work part time at Sherway Gardens as well as preparing tax returns seasonally for 25 years at H & R Block.

Pat loved to travel. Together with Bob, she explored many parts of the world. She belonged to the University Women's Group where she made many friends through many social groups focused on gourmet cooking, bridge, and investing. Mom was a born shopper and we all have gifts from the various stores she worked at and countries she visited. The grandchildren have many fond memories of times spent with Grammie and Grampie on weekends at the cottage.

Friends may call at Turner and Porter Butler Chapel, 4933 Dundas Street West, Etobicoke on Monday, October 8th from 7 p.m. - 9 p.m. A Funeral Service will be held at in the Chapel Tuesday, October 9th at 11 a.m., followed by a reception.

For those who wish, donations in memory of Pat may be made to the Alzheimer Society of Ontario, or to the Trillium Health Partners Foundation. Online condolences available to http://www.turnerporter.ca

JOHN ALEXANDER CAMERON

1936 - 2018

John died peacefully on September 26, 2018 at St. Peter's Hospital in Hamilton. He is survived by his wife of 60 years, Frances. He will be missed by his sons, Richard (Alexa), Michael (Katherine), and James (Jason) and his five grandchildren, Atticus, Audrey, Oona, Alasdair, and Inigo.

John was born and raised in Toronto. He graduated with a BA from Victoria College, University of Toronto and obtained his PhD in nuclear physics from McMaster University in Hamilton. He won a Sloan Fellowship to teach at Corpus Christie College and to pursue research at the Clarendon Laboratory in Oxford England.

Returning to teach at McMaster, he did so for 35 years spending part of that time as the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies, a position he really enjoyed.

John was active in Westdale United Church and in the United Way Campaign. John loved sailing, camping and the many years spent at the family cottage on Lake Temagami in northern Ontario. Music played a large part in John's life. As a boy in Toronto he joined the junior choir of St.

Margaret's Anglican Church, a requirement if one wanted to play on the church hockey team! John was a longtime member of the choir at Westdale United Church and sang for several years as a member of the Te Deum Singers under the leadership of Richard Birney-Smith.

The celebration of his life will be held at Westdale United Church, 99 N. Oval, Hamilton, on Saturday, October 13 at 11 a.m., followed by a reception.

Interment will take place in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto at a later date. In lieu of flowers, if you wish, donations may be made to Westdale United Church or Medecins sans Frontieres.

Condolences, memories and photos may be left at www.

circleolifecbc.com.

ANGELA HILARY CHALLENOR

"Angie"

Peacefully at home on Monday, August 20, 2018, with family at her side, after a fall and short illness, in her 92nd year.

Angela was born in Kelowna, BC on June 28, 1927 to George Leicester Challenor, of Barbados and his war bride, Muriel Hilary Edgcumbe (Devon, UK). She was their youngest child and only daughter. Predeceased by her three brothers, Richard, John, and George. The family moved to Victoria, and then in the mid-1930s to Barbados, where Angie attended school. She then returned to Canada and eventually settled in London, Ontario. She worked for the University of Western Ontario for 34 years, first at the Nursing School and later at the Ivey Business School.

These were the happiest days of Angie's career; she always talked about her 34 years at Western with great pride, especially her time working with Professors Jim Taylor and Walter Thompson, with whom she maintained a lifelong friendship. She was ahead of her time: a career woman who enjoyed her life of independence, and who wasn't afraid to say so! Angie spent many years volunteering for 'Riding with the Disabled,' where she derived great pleasure from helping the kids. She was a dedicated patron of the former Orchestra London; two of its musicians played at her memorial service. Also in attendance then were several members of the 1968 Olympic women's rowing team - she was one of their more enthusiastic supporters. Angie was much loved for her generosity, love of life, fun and great sense of humour, and will be deeply missed by her family and many friends. The world was a richer place with her in it! Angela is survived by her nephew, Richard (UK); nieces, Hilary and Alison (UK) and Cathy (Canada) and their families; and by her sister-in-law, Diana Challenor.

Our heartfelt thanks to the wonderful doctors and nurses at University Hospital, London for their compassionate, excellent care and to the nurses who visited to care for Angela at home, keeping her comfortable in her final days. Sincere appreciation also to Mary and Sandy Wellman of Medical Priorities and their staff for their professional and dedicated care of Angela these last several years.

A celebration of Angie's life has taken place at the Westview Funeral Chapel in London.

Interment will take place in Barbados at a later date. In lieu of flowers, those wishing to make a donation in memory of Angie are asked to consider a charity of your choice.

HELEN CHANT CURRIE

(nee Robertson)

March 4, 1931 - September 25, 2018 On September 25, 2018, Helen's courageous battle with dementia and other ravages of old age came to an end. She died peacefully at home in the comfort of her own bed.

Helen was predeceased by her parents Prof. Grant and Dr. Elizabeth Robertson, her sister, Dr. Mary Robertson and her beloved husband William Currie. She is survived by her three children, Geoff, Susan (Wayne Bates), and Janet, two grandchildren, Alex (Kailley) Dunn and Cara (Matt) McManus and four great-grandchildren, Noah, Presley, Madison and Sadie. She also leaves behind many nieces, nephews and dear devoted friends.

Over the course of her life, Helen brought more kindness, light, and friendship into the world than most of us could muster in ten lifetimes.

Through her youthful summers at Go Home Bay and early school years at Toronto's Brown School; through her college years at McMaster University; through her many homes as a young wife and mom moving among various towns in Washington State, Pennsylvania, New York and Ontario; through her years spent teaching her much-loved grade 2 students at Shelburne Junior School and her founding with husband Bill of the Sheldon Valley Outdoor Education School; through her years running an antique dealership with husband Bill in Hawkestone; through her longtime volunteer work, including with shelters for women fleeing domestic violence and Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children; and through her final chapters of life in Bellingham, WA and Toronto, Helen made countless lasting, deep and treasured friendships. Despite lacking the modern benefits of social media or email, she then managed to keep, nurture, and delight in these wonderful friendships over the course of her entire life.

Helen was a strong, spirited, inspiring, and infinitely compassionate person.

She remained unfailingly upbeat in the face of the grief and adversity life sometimes brought her and she was deeply loved by many. She will be greatly missed and long remembered.

Helen's family would like to express their heartfelt thanks to her wonderful caregivers and to the warm and caring staff at Hazelton Place Retirement Residence. As per Helen's wishes, cremation has taken place.

A memorial service will be planned at a later date. In lieu of flowers, please feel free give a hug to someone who could use one - a perfect way to honour Helen's memory.

DR. BARRIE JAMES FROST

In loving memory of Dr. Barrie James Frost, PhD, FRSC of Kingston, Ontario who passed away peacefully on October 4, 2018 at the age of 79 at Providence Care Hospital in Kingston after a courageous battle with cancer.

Survived by his wife of 52 years, Virginia (Peters) Frost; and their three sons, Andrew (Stephanie), Tim (Shawna) and Hugh (Sheila); and their grandchildren, Megan, Ethan, Hannah, Evan, Cameron and Aidan; and niece, Allison Mahan. Predeceased by his parents, Alfred Frost and Jessie (Collett) Frost; his sister, Yvonne (Frost) Mahan; niece, Julie (Mahan) Batt all from Nelson, New Zealand.

Barrie was born and raised in Nelson, New Zealand. He completed his teacher's certificate in Christchurch, NZ in 1959, followed by a BA at University of Canterbury in 1961, an MA (hons) at the University of Canterbury in 1964. Barrie moved to Sydney, Australia where he was a lecturer at the University of Sydney prior to moving to Canada to pursue his PhD at Dalhousie University.

He completed his postdoctoral fellowship at University of California, Berkeley prior to moving to Queen's University in 1969, where he continued his teaching and research for 49 years.

Barrie spent his lifetime as a pioneer in Neuroscience research, having published over 100 articles in scientific journals and with an illustrious career that was recognized internationally through many fellowships and awards. He received fellowships at the Royal Society of Canada, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Canadian Psychological Association, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. His awards included the Hebb Award, Max Bell Fellowship, Alexander von Humboldt Forschungspreis, Erskine Fellow, NSERC Award of Excellence in Research, the Queen's Alumni Prize for Excellence in Teaching, and the Queen's University Prize for Excellence in Research.

Barrie was an emeritus professor in Psychology, Biology and Physiology, and loved research and collaborating with other scientists. He continued to work internationally on research projects, until shortly before his death. Barrie was not only an acclaimed scientist and educator, but he was an incredible husband, father, grandfather and uncle. He delighted in his family and friends and enjoyed sharing his love of discovery with everyone. He was a gifted storyteller, sage advisor, and trusted friend to all. We miss him dearly.

A celebration of life will be scheduled in the near future. As an expression of sympathy, memorial contributions may be sent to; University Hospitals Kingston Foundation directed to either The Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario or Palliative Care at Providence Care Hospital, or donate to the charity of your choice.

BARBARA ANN HINDE (nee Murray)

1928 - 2018

Barbara Ann passed away peacefully on October 2, 2018. Cherished by her husband, Ralph Christopher Hinde, for more than 65 years and by her children Carol Ann (Don), Sharon (Mark), Valerie (Barrie) and Murray (Marsa).

Beloved Baba to Matthew (Beth), Andrew (Lillian), Lindsey (Mark), Dean (Sara), Cody, Blake (Sandy), Kathryn (Eli), Markie, Kerry, Cameron, Isabel and Jessica and great grandchildren Noah, Micah, Hudson and Torin. She will also be greatly missed by her sister Margaret and sister-inlaw Jacqueline, and countless family members and friends.

Born in Belleville in 1928, Barbara Ann grew up in Toronto, graduating from York Memorial Collegiate and the Toronto Teacher's College. She was an educator in all aspects of her life and continued to be a teacher well into her 70s.

Barbara Ann was a dynamo with a big heart and a matching personality. Her greatest joy was family and friends. Gatherings at "Parfield" and the cottage were frequent, and always filled with happy people and an over abundance of gastronomic delights. It would be no surprise to find 30 or more people sitting down for a full dinner. The house was abuzz at all hours.

Barbara Ann enjoyed curling, golfing, playing bridge, with shopping being a preferred activity. As the family grew to include grandchildren, she became "Baba." They were all special to Baba as she was to them. We all have many fond memories of Barbara Ann.

A Celebration of Life will be held at: St. Matthew the Apostle, Oriole Anglican Church, 80 George Henry Blvd, North York, ON M2J 1E7 on October 27th at 11:00 a.m.

Reception and lunch afterwards in the church hall.

If desired, donations can be made to St. Matthew the Apostle Oriole Anglican Church, or a charity of your choice.

FREDRICK JOHN EDWARD JORDAN

Fred Jordan passed away on September 8, 2018 at the age of 82 years. He was born to the late Winnifred and Cecil Jordan on January 11, 1936 in Nakusp B.C.

Fred grew up in the small town of Edgewood, B.C. He attended school in Nakusp and graduated high school in Kamloops B.C.

Fred obtained his Bachelor of Law degree from the University of British Columbia in 1963. He perused and received his Master's degree from the University of Michigan in 1964. In 1969 Fred was called to the bar by the Law Society of upper Canada.

Fred Jordan was an unsung hero of the constitutional patriation process in Canada and was one of the federal governments most senior and longest-serving legal experts.

Colleagues in the Department of Justice referred to Fred as a workhorse in describing the time, sacrifices and contributions he made to the Canadian constitutional development and the struggles for Canadian unity in a career that spanned several decades.

During the constitution patriation period 1981, Fred acted at one point as the Assistant Deputy Minister, Public Law, and the constitutional advisor to the Prime Minister.

Fred played a key role in the development of the Meech Lake Accord and he provided advice on many other important constitutional files during his time in the Department of Justice.

His legacy continued after his retirement in 1996, through the mentorship of many colleagues still in government.

His professional life was devoted to Canada's constitutional development and unity and he left an indelible mark on the country.

Fred was a constant and caring member of his extended family: his sister Dorothy Wegner and the late Elizabeth (Betty) Klein, nieces and nephew and great - nieces and nephews. Fred will be missed by all those who were fortunate to have know him.

There will be no service at Fred's request. Condolences, tributes and donations may be made at http://www.tubmanfuneralhomes.com

MICHAEL JOHN LAVELLE

Best known as "Big Mike", passed away October 3rd peacefully after a brief battle with cancer, he was surrounded by love from his family in his last hours. Mike, predeceased by his wife of 47 years Frances Lavelle and survived by his wife Dr. Diane Malinowski, his children, Cathie (Dr. Mark Smith), Janine, LeAnne, Christine (Doug Martin), Michael (Jodi Herold) his stepchildren, Christina (Tim Crowe) and Mike (Marisa Ricci) and his greatest joy, his grandchildren; Jordan, Geoff, Luke, Sophie, Georgia, Josh, Joe, Mathew, Ben, Ethan, Connor, Ella, Matteo, Anthony, & Sofia, his brother Pat Lavelle & sister Lebby Lavelle.

Mike's preferred name Big Mike could not have been more suited - Mike had a BIG life, Big family, Big Heart, Big laugh and a Big love of learning and life. Born September 8, 1936 in Toronto. Michael was an all-star athlete and scholar in his youth. He brought his love of sport and love of learning to his career when he began teaching and coaching at St Michael's College School in 1958, which led to a lifetime of championship wins, scholarly awards and accolades.

Mike would go on to teach, coach and lead at; The University of Waterloo, McMaster University & The University of Toronto for the next 40 yrs. His awards and achievements were numerous, including the Paul Fox Alumni Award. His residence program at UTM did more than house students, his passion, commitment and courage, brought the spirit of greatness to everything he touched. When Mike retired from the University he began a new adventure in the world of business. He brought his wealth of experience and extraordinary leadership to the boardroom, working with business executives as a motivator, speaker, mentor and coach.

"It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye." St-Exupery.

Big Mike (Dad) was above all else a family man. He loved his family, discussions, and books and as all of his children, stepchildren and grandchildren will agree was most happy when he was combining them all. For all that knew him he left a legacy of reading and exploration that will continue for generations to come and a life dedicated to love.

Mike's career spanned 6 decades, with a breadth and depth that is truly remarkable. He accomplished and contributed so much to life in his 82 years.

He taught us all the meaning of friendship, the value of laughter, the strength of commitment, the joy of people and a love of life.

Father, Husband, Friend, Teacher, Mentor and Coach "We cannot cure the world of sorrows but we can choose to live in joy "Joseph Campbell We are forever grateful for the Joy you bring Mike Lavelle, you will live on in our hearts.

We love you.

A Celebration of Life will be held, on Tuesday October 9th, 2 p.m. - 6 p.m, tributes begin at 3:30 p.m. The Boulevard Club 1491 Lakeshore Blvd. W, Toronto.

Remembrances can be made at https://www.facebook.com/ groups/246267856234367/.

Contributions may be sent to: The Lavelle Leadership Foundation, 415 Newdale crt. North Vancouver,

BC V7N 3H3

ADWIN JAMES MALESCHOK "Ed"

A Life Well Lived On September 3, 2018, the pleasant voice of a brilliant mind became forever silent, taking with it the quick wit and amusing sense of humour that characterized A.J.

(Ed) Maleschok.

Born on November 12, 1931, in Foam Lake, Saskatchewan, he was the son of Ukranian Canadian merchants, John and Efrozina (Rose) Maleschok. A precocious child, he skipped two grades in school, completing his Grade 12 at just 14 years of age. Refused entry to university because of his young age, he enrolled in Normal College in Saskatoon to prepare for his illustrious career as an educator and mentor.

While in Saskatoon, he became the youngest person to win the Nutana Chess Championship at 15, and began his lifelong love of curling. An elementary school principal in the province at 21, and a high school principal at 26, he left teaching for a few years to add a Bachelor of Commerce to his Bachelor of Education, and started Shan's Stationary, a bookstore, in Alberta. One store soon became five, with two in Edmonton, two in Calgary, and one in Lethbridge.

After a few years, he sold the stores and moved to Kelowna to not only resume teaching, but to also begin pursuing his secret dream - designing and building homes. Teaching during the day, he spent evenings drafting plans, pouring concrete, building walls and eventually constructing two homes, the second becoming his final one. In that house, the sweeping, curved, oak staircase inside and the hand-cut fieldstone wall outside stand as testaments to his talents.

After retirement, he and Donna became world travelers, visiting the pyramids of Egypt, the Taj Mahal of India, the Great Wall of China, and the Emperor Penguins of Antarctica.

He is survived by his first wife, Shirley (McIlvenna); their three children, Todd, Lorelee, and Lisa; his second wife, Donna (Love); her two children, Molly and Sean; his sister, Eugenia (Dr. Peter) Powers; and his nephew, Dr. John Powers.

A modest man, Ed seldom, if ever, spoke of his accomplishments.

With his many talents and outgoing personality, he made friends easily, for to know him was to admire him. To have loved him, is to miss him. - His family and friends.

CATHERINE LESLIE MCNISH

Cathie died peacefully at Central DuPage Hospital in Winfield, Illinois on September 30, 2018 at the age of 61. She is remembered by family for her enormous capacity to endure without complaint the many difficult tests life presented.

Cathie was known in her early years as a gifted student and athlete who could outrun and outscore competitors in relay races, tennis and badminton matches during school in Morrison, IL, Schenectady, NY and Oakville, Ontario. At the age of 15, Cathie confronted a much greater challenge when diagnosed with schizophrenia. It was a time when the condition was poorly understood and medication and treatment were in their infancy.

She received care from her doctors at The Clarke Institute of Toronto and later from doctors in Illinois, where her family moved in the late 1970s. Throughout the ups and downs of mental illness, Cathie's outlook on life was unfailingly sunny. No one in her family recalls her ever voicing a single objection to her condition.

She accepted it and turned her focus to the things that gave her joy: art, poetry, friends and family.

Hundreds of sketchbooks and canvases are filled with her brightly colored still life paintings.

Her favorite subjects were coffee cups and flowers. She authored many poems and wrote letters so prodigiously that the U.S. Postal Service may need to adjust its revenue to reflect the loss of one of its busiest customers.

Cathie will be dearly missed by her parents, James and Diana McNish, sisters Jacquie (Stephen), Michelle (Scott) and Rachael (Kelly), nieces Lindsay (Austin), Brianna, Ruth and Eve, nephews Alexander, Harry, Abe, Lewis and Brogan, grand niece Mikayla and a large circle of extended family and friends.

The family would like to thank doctors and nurses at Central DuPage ICU and hospice for their tender care during Cathie's last days. In lieu of flowers a donation to the Kane County chapter of the National Alliance of the Mentally Ill would be appreciated.

http://www.namikdk.org/give

DR. DONALD BATES MONTGOMERY

"Monty "

October 7, 1929 - September 23, 2018 With much love and sadness, we announce the death of Dr. Donald Bates Montgomery, our dad, on September 23, 2018, peacefully after a cardiac event, two weeks before his 89th birthday.

Beloved husband for 51 years of Molly (deceased 2014). Loving father of Kathryn (Tom Cronin), Heather, and predeceased by dear son Andrew (Cheryl). Proud "Pop" to Scott, Andrew & Michael Cronin, Jaime & Elliot Procter, and Lauren & Madison Montgomery.

Son of the late Dr. R.C. (Cliff) and Margaret Montgomery. Big brother to his late sisters Mary and Jane (Trevor Eyton). Fondly remembered and missed by his extended de Haas, Eyton and Jackson families.

Dad (also known as "Monty") attended Deer Park, Brown and University of Toronto Schools, finishing high school at the age of 16. He was a graduate of the University of Toronto's Faculty of Medicine, class of 1954, and pursued a specialty in Internal Medicine. A bright, devoted and compassionate physician, he practiced at the Queensway General Hospital in Etobicoke for his entire career until his retirement in 1997. He was Chief of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Queensway for 16 of those years.

Dad enjoyed racquet sports (U of T varsity squash) and met Molly on the tennis court at the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club. Within eight months of meeting they became engaged, and the rest is history. They made a great team and enjoyed a wide and consistent group of lifelong friends. Dad was happiest spending time with Molly and family and friends in special places including Craigleith Ski Club, Kennisis Lake, and Lake of Bays.

Dad valued family, education, hard work, determination, and kindness, and together he and Mum instilled these core values in us kids. He was an avid skier, reader, and card player (bridge and cribbage were favourites) and enjoyed music. We will miss his unconditional love and support, his encouragement, and his quirky sense of humour. He was an original.

Our sincere thanks to Monica Byrne, Marlene Dixon and the caring staff at the Balmoral Club, who made a comfortable home for Dad in recent years.

A visitation will be held at the Morley Bedford Funeral Home in Toronto (159 Eglinton Ave W) on Monday, October 15, from 4-7 p.m. A funeral service to celebrate Monty's life will be held at Christ Church Deer Park (1570 Yonge St) on Tuesday, October 16, at 1 p.m., with a reception following at the church.

A private interment will occur at the St Ambrose's Anglican Cemetery in Baysville, Ontario at a later date.

Donations made in memory of Dad to the Toronto Symphony Orchestra or a hospital of your choice would be welcomed.

ROSALEE MONK (nee Deyong)

We are sad to announce the death of Rosalee Monk in her 89th year, predeceased by her younger son, Adam.

She will be missed by her husband of 65 years, Michael; her children, Hilary and Simon; her seven grandchildren, David (Antonia), Gabriel (Emily), Jay (Dara), Adriane, Rachel, Joshua, David; and her brother, Lewis (Janie) She will also be missed by the many friends whose lives were enhanced by her huge range of interests, her compassion and humour.

In accordance with her wishes, her funeral will be private. A memorial service will be held on Sunday, October 21st at 4 p.m.

at the Beach Hebrew Institute, 109 Kenilworth Avenue, Toronto.

GREGORY SEAN O'NEILL

Much too soon, at age 51, Greg O'Neill died peacefully on September 5, 2018, surrounded by his family. Greg's enthusiasm for all of life's small joys (like soft-serve ice cream), his radiant smile, guileless optimism, dry wit, sharp intellect, and generous love for family, friends, and strangers alike will be forever missed by his beloved wife, Anita Hattiangadi, his siblings, Daniela O'Neill (Derek Koehler) and Brendan O'Neill (Janet Green), his nieces, Taite, Dylan, Pony, and nephew, Kiran, his father, John O'Neill (Susan O'Neill), in-laws, Villoo Hattiangadi (Uday Hattiangadi), and Nina Thomas (Dave Thomas), and many relatives in Canada, the U.S., and Switzerland. His family draws comfort from the thought that Greg joins his loving mom, Maria O'Neill, in the universe's boundless energy.

Greg grew up in Toronto, ON where he attended St. Michael's College School. In 1990, he earned his BSc in Psychology and Biomedical Ethics from the University of Toronto. He received his PhD in Sociology with a concentration in Population Studies from Duke University in 1997. (Go Blue Devils!) He joined the Gerontological Society of America in 1998 and was the Director of its National Academy on an Aging Society from 2001 until his passing. Greg's love of his adopted city of Washington, DC was evident; in 2008, he founded the social events website GregsListDC.com and served as its chief editor. Greg leaves behind a community of colleagues, close friends, and acquaintances touched by the warmth and humour of his amazing soul.

Although he was loathe to mention it, Greg had endured a 3.5-year journey with Thymic Carcinoma. Greg's family would like to acknowledge the tremendous help and compassionate support received from his oncologists: Dr. Yun Oh at Kaiser Permanente, Dr. Giuseppe Giaccone at Georgetown University, and Dr. Arun Rajan at NIH. His family also is grateful for the care provided to him during his last seven weeks spent at George Washington University and Holy Cross Hospitals.

A celebration of his life will be held in Washington, DC at a later date to be announced on GregsListDC.

com, and all are welcome. In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to the causes close to Greg's heart: NIH Children's Inn/ NIH, the Lombardi Cancer Center at Georgetown University, the Alzheimer's Association, or your charity of choice.

WILLIAM JOSEPH O'SHEA

1940 - 2018

Bill died peacefully, after a lengthy illness, at Toronto General Hospital, on Monday, October 1, 2018. He is survived by his beloved wife, Toni (Alma Antoinette Dandurand).

Predeceased by his parents, William O'Shea and Elizabeth O'Shea; his sister, Catherine O'Shea; and his son, Ryan O'Shea. Survived by his sister, Patricia O'Shea; his brother, Kenneth O'Shea; his daughters, Robin Savage and Kerry Strachan; and his grandchildren, Max and Katya Savage. He was a true friend to Toni's mother, Jeanne Dandurand.

Bill had eclectic interests which he pursued with passion. Camping in the Arctic or in Temagami, assembling computers in the early digital age, building model railroads to scale, all the while contemplating the human condition with a twinkle in his eye. Together with Toni, Bill welcomed many into his home for an extended visit or a meal. They gathered people together from all over the world. You could always go to Bill for advice, help and for a solution to any electrical, mechanical, or plumbing problem. And, he made great coffee.

Funeral Mass will be celebrated at St. Basil's Church, 50 St. Joseph St., Toronto on Tuesday, October 9, 2018 at 10:00 a.m.

Reception to follow.

Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery, Thornhill, Wednesday, October 10, 2018.

Very special thanks for all the care and kindness provided by the Emergency and ICU teams at TGH, Milly Li and Edith Lo at Toronto Central LHIN, Dr. Chase McMurren, Andrea Filip and Sasha Adler of the Taddle Creek Family Health Team and Dr. Alissia Valentinis, Toni and Bill's longtime family physician, whose guidance and help were invaluable. And finally, to Pat, Bill's sister, who allowed Bill to remain at home on McGill Street, until his last day.

DAVID SUTCLIFFE PATON

Born Sept 7 1926 in Wingham Ontario and died aged 92, Sept. 26, 2018 at the Elizabeth Bruyère Hospital in Ottawa after a series of strokes. He leaves his wife of almost 65 years, Marian (née Grierson), his sons John G Paton of Sterling Forest, New York and David G. Paton (Susan Padmos) of Ottawa, and grandchildren Crysler Paton (Daniel Ludwin), Garnet Paton (Samantha Martin) and Norah Paton. He will be also much missed by his sister, Marion Benson and her daughters Dawn and Leslie. His third son Gordon Paton predeceased him.

His formative years growing up were in Wingham, Winnipeg and then Guelph.

He went to the University of Toronto and became a Chartered Accountant with Peat Marwick. He had a brief but memorable stint at A.V.

Roe Canada Ltd. and then worked for the balance of his career at the Toronto School Board. But music was his great passion - he played clarinet, vibraphone, saxophone, and piano with joy and eloquence. He was bringing happiness to his listeners until a few months before his death. Dave and Marian spent many happy days at their cottage on Lake of Bays. In retirement, they moved to Merrickville, indulging their shared enthusiasm for antiques and old houses.

Come listen to the music and honour his memory Oct. 20th at 2:00 p.m. at Manotick Place, Bridge Street, Manotick Ontario. Donations to the Heart and Stroke Foundation would be appreciated.

JOHN ANTHONY PENDERGAST

John Anthony Pendergast, age 61, died peacefully on Monday, October 1 in Tauranga, New Zealand. He was born in Hamilton, Ontario to Jack and Marie Pendergast on January 5, 1957. He was the third eldest of five children who was raised in Hamilton, Ontario until the family moved to Georgetown for high school. John graduated from The University of Western Ontario in 1979.

John's post graduate world travels led him to New Zealand where he fell in love with the country, married and raised six children. He had a successful career in Real Estate and Property Development. John will be forever remembered for his sense of humour, spirit of adventure, deep ties to Canada but mostly for his eternal love of family.

John is survived by his sons, Edward (Sasha), William (Casey), Oliver and daughters Lilly, Rose and Bonnie. He is also survived by sisters Anne and Mary (Steve) and brothers Paul and Brian (Eleanor).

John was blessed to see the arrival of his first grandchild Anna Elizabeth Pendergast. He will be lovingly remembered by his many nieces and nephews around the world. His "Cannonisms" will be truly missed. Special thanks to John's partner Jennifer and past wives Susan and Melanie for their care and devotion.

Funeral service will be held at St. Thomas More Church on October 8th in Mount Maunganui, New Zealand.

BILL PRETTI

It is with heavy hearts that we announce the passing of Bill Pretti on August 10, 2018. He died at the age of 74 in Mexico.

Bill was predeceased by his father, mother, and brother, Joe. Bill leaves behind his wife, Diane (Lipko) and daughter, Lianna; previous wife, Denise de Champlain, daughter, Suzan and his grandson, Chase PrettiPearsall. He also leaves behind his sisters, Diane de Groot and Nellie Mezenberg and his brothers, John, Murray, and Tony. Bill also had many nieces, nephews, and friends in Canada and in Mexico.

We are saddened that he left us this soon. We would be honoured if you took the time to share some of your memories of him with us at pretti.org.

EVELYN ROTHSTEIN

Evelyn Rothstein (nee Paperny) died peacefully in her sleep on October 1, 2018 in Guelph, Ontario. She was 98. Evelyn was born to Annie and Leo Paperny on July 2, 1920 in Calgary, Alberta. She grew up in a loving household along with her two younger siblings, Juliette and Maurice. At an early age Evelyn started playing piano, which soon became a life-long passion. She met her husband of nearly 75 years, Aser Rothstein, on a blind date at a gathering of Jewish Youth of Western Canada. Their initial catastrophic encounter, including arguments and a flat tire, belied a propitious future. In 1938, Evelyn headed off to Berkeley to major in music at the University of California, while Aser, by happy coincidence, was already studying there. Aser soon asked Evelyn to marry him and move with him to Rochester. Although the youthful Evelyn was at first reluctant to commit, they were married in Bellingham, Washington on August 18, 1940. Their happy marriage continued up until Aser's passing in 2015.

In Rochester, Evelyn received her Masters from the Eastman School of Music and became a renowned classical piano teacher. She also took on an active role in fundraising for the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra. The couple raised three children, Sharon, David, and Steven, made myriad friends, and travelled the world, a life-long passion.

Evelyn and Aser then moved to Toronto. Convinced that learning music was one of the greatest gifts to bestow to young people, she strove to provide musical opportunities for economically disadvantaged children. Evelyn performed innumerable lecture concerts to raise money for the Regent Park School of Music in Toronto, now a vibrant organization that provides the joy of learning music to children who could not otherwise afford it.

After retiring Evelyn and Aser most relished being with their family, which includes seven grandchildren and six great-grandchildren, as well as other relatives and friends. Even when family members were great distances apart, Evelyn always made sure everyone got together, stories were told, and traditions were carried on. She took any opportunity to be with family, no matter what the distance. She was always an adventurous spirit with great spunk, from her wild bidding at bridge to getting back on ice skates to be with her grandchildren at nearly 80 years old. To the end of her life, Evelyn loved being around people, and easily made friends everywhere she went. Even in her later years, she continued to play tennis, attend concerts and plays, and enjoy dinners out with family and friends.

Evelyn is survived by her brother, Maurice Paperny, his wife, Myra; her brother-in-law, Jack Shapiro; her three children, Sharon Liptzin, David Rothstein, and Steven Rothstein, their spouses, Ben Liptzin, Marcia Osburne, and Carolyn Rothstein; her grandchildren; and her greatgrandchildren. The family will have a memorial to celebrate Evelyn's life at a later date. Contributions in lieu of flowers may be given to the Regent Park School of Music, 585 Dundas St. E., Suite 220, Toronto ON M5A 2B7 416-364-8900, rpmusic.org.

Arrangements entrusted to Gilchrist Chapel - McIntyre & Wilkie Funeral Home, One Delhi Street, Guelph, (519-824-0031). We invite you to leave your memories and donations online at: http://www.gilchristchapel.com and they will be forwarded to the family.

GORDON DONALD SIMONS

At Saint Brigid's Home in Quebec City, on September 29, 2018, passed away Mr. Gordon Donald Simons, aged 89, husband of Mrs.

Barbara Schneider. He was the son of the late Mr. Archibald Gordon Simons and of the late Mrs. Eva Black. He lived in Quebec City.

Mr. Simons was a Quebec merchant and a member of l'Ordre national du Québec.

The Family will be receiving condolences at Maison Gomin Funeral Complex 2026 Blvd.

René-Lévesque Ouest, Québec, Qc, G1V 2K8 Tuesday October 9th, 2018, from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m.

and Wednesday, October 10,2018, from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. and from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m.

The funeral service will be held on Thursday, October 11, 2018 at 3 p.m. at the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, 31 rue des Jardins, Quebec City. The family will be receiving 2 hours before.

He leaves in mourning: his loving wife Barbara; his children Beth Simons-Chambers (Roger Chambers), Lynne SimonsMcCrindell (Duncan McCrindell), Peter Simons (Britta Kroger) and Richard Simons (Julie Pouliot); his grandchildren Matthew, Carolyn, Kevin, Pénélope and Nicolas; his sister Barbara Simons-Miller (late Jack Miller); his sisters-in-law and brother-in-law Harriet SchneiderDay, Suzanne Schneider and Charlie Day; and his nieces and nephew Nadya, Shelley and Peter.

The family would like to thank all the staff of Saint Brigid's Home for the excellent care they provided and for their continuous emotional support.

As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations may be made to Laval Hospital University Institute of Cardiology and Pneumology of Quebec, 2700, chemin des QuatreBourgeois, Quebec (Qc) G1V 0B8 or to the Foundation of the CHU of Quebec, Hotel-Dieu of Quebec, 10 de l'Espinay street, Quebec (Qc) G1L 3L5.

DONALD CAMPBELL SMITH

1922-2018

Peacefully in his sleep after a short illness at North York General Hospital, Toronto on October 4th, 2018.

Born July 25, 1922 in Detroit, Michigan. Beloved husband of the late Phyllis (Miles) Smith.

Adored father of Donald, Elizabeth (deceased), Pamela Scarrow (Mark) and Andrew (Leslie Ann Bent), loving grandfather to William, John and Fiona Scarrow.

Don was raised by his grandparents and great aunts in Edinburgh, Scotland where he was a good student and keen athlete. Upon graduation he served as Captain with the Armoured Corps of the British Army in North Africa and Pantelleria, Italy during World War II in the capacity as a wireless operator/gunner in a tank.

After the War, Don continued his military service in Egypt and Cyprus, including managing the massive post war flow of migrants trying to get to Palestine. He was demobilized in 1946 and returned to Scotland to resume his studies, earn his C.A. designation, and become a member of the Scottish C.A.

society; an association he was proud of his entire life.

Following a short stint in London, England, Don emigrated to Canada to find his future. He travelled across the country as an internal auditor with CP Rail, eventually joining British Petroleum Canada in 1958, where he pursued a successful career in Finance until retirement in 1987 as Senior VP Finance and Administration.

In 1952, Don married his wartime sweetheart Phyllis Miles, who had moved to Montreal to be with him.

They lived in Montreal raising their children while pursuing a career that took them across Europe and Canada. After a two year secondment to London, U.K., Don's career moved the family back to Montreal and then on to Toronto and Calgary where Don ultimately retired at age 65. In retirement, Don pursued his favourite pastimes of cross country skiing, travelling, golfing and dog walking. Following Phyl's death in 1992, Don returned to Ontario to be closer to his children. He met his beloved companion, the late Mary Pope with whom he lived and travelled for another 20 years.

Her children Elizabeth, Deborah and Casey and their families became a cherished part of Don's extended family. Don continued to cross country ski and golf until he was 80, earning the "oldest skier award" in the 2001 Canadian Ski Marathon at the age of 79. By age 91 and no longer able to drive, Don moved to Amica Bayview Gardens where he enjoyed frequent visits from his children, regular walks in the local park, playing the piano and attending various activities with his devoted caregivers Ricardo, Marilyn and Eileen.Don will be remembered and missed by all who knew him for his busy zest for life, and as an example of dedication, duty, and a positive, practical approach to life.

Visitation will take place on Tuesday, October 9, 2018 from 5-9 p.m. at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home (8911 Woodbine Ave., Markham, L3R 5G1). A funeral service will be held on Wednesday, October 10, 2018 at 10 a.m.

also at Chapel Ridge.

Donations may be made to the Heart & Stroke foundation and/or the Salvation Army.Online condolences may be made at http://www.chapelridgefh.com

ROBERT GORDON SMITH

Peacefully, with his children at his side, on September 23, 2018 at St.

Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, ON.

Born February 2, 1925 in Hamilton, ON. Beloved husband of Freda Dayton Smith (Stanhope) for 70 years. Adored father of Sue Dayton (Valerie) of Pender Island, BC, Ellen Réthoré of Toronto, ON, David Smith (Marlene) of Richmond, VA, and Howard Smith (Gail) of Toronto, ON. Robert (Bob) will be deeply missed by his eight grandchildren, his eight greatgrandchildren and many nieces and nephews.

Bob served with the RCAF and trained as a pilot in WWII. He then spent many years as a member of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets, attaining the rank of Wing Commander.

Bob joined National Trust Company in 1945 in Hamilton.

He became Manager of the Edmonton office in 1959 and in 1969 was appointed Vice President Personal Trust, relocating to Toronto and then Hamilton.

In Hamilton he served on the St.

Joseph's Hospital Board and was Chair of its Foundation. He was an active member and supporter of the Art Gallery of Hamilton and a Rotary Paul Harris Fellow.

Bob was a member of the Albany Club, the Hamilton Golf and Country Club, the Hamilton Area Fly Fishers and Tyers Club and an active parishioner of St. John's Anglican Church. Summers were spent in Muskoka at his beloved cottage, home to many precious family memories.

A Service of Thanksgiving will be held on Wednesday, October 10 at St. John's Anglican Church, 272 Wilson St. E., Ancaster at 11:00 a.m., with Interment to follow in St. John's Churchyard Cemetery.

Donations in memory of Robert may be made to St. John's Anglican Church, Ancaster.

C. STANTON STEVENSON (Stan)

August 26, 1931 - September 28, 2018 Stan was the devoted husband of Louise Dawson, father of Geoff (Jan) of Kelowna, Jim of Calgary, Joe of Canmore, Julie of Seattle and David (Alessandra) of Ottawa; and step-father to Scott Dawson of Victoria, Reed Dawson (Sandy) of Toronto. He was the proud grandfather of Jamie and Jessi, Roz and Chase, Jonathan and Kevin, Jimmy and Jasmine and Emma and Dylan.

Stan was predeceased by his parents Norma (Cassady) and Carl Stanton Stevenson Sr. and his sister Jean. He is survived by his brother John.

He was educated at Upper Canada College, Princeton University, Trinity College, the University of Toronto Faculty of Law and Osgoode Hall.

During school breaks, he worked first at mining camps in British Columbia and Northern Ontario. Later he did summer stints in the reserves of both the American and Canadian Navy.

Stan practiced law as a partner or associate of Owen, Dickey Stevenson (Barrie), Ivey and Dowler, Stevenson, Evans and Polishuk (London), Blake Cassels & Graydon (Toronto) and Ontario Hydro (Assistant Secretary). Stan's specialties were construction, engineering and municipal law. He received his Queen's Counsel appointment in 1974.

He was an enthusiastic instructor in the Law Society's Bar Admission Course and the University of Waterloo Construction Management Program, as well as the mentor of many articling students who have since distinguished themselves.

Over the years, he served as Chair of the London Motor Club, Children's Hospital of Western Ontario, Metropolitan Toronto Boys and Girls Club and was an active member of the Kiwanis Club in several cities. Always civic minded, he was happy to be involved in and to lend his expertise to various local planning and development issues.

He was an ardent farmer and cottager and especially adept canoeist but his greatest joy was always his family.

Friends who would wish to raise a toast to a life well-lived are invited to do so October 21st from 6 to 8 p.m. at The Simple Alternative, 275 Lesmill Road, North York.

In Stan's memory, donations may be made to Mood Disorders Association of Ontario or to North York General Hospital Foundation.

MICHAEL STONE

On Friday October 5, 2018 at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Barrie. Lovingly remembered by Gail Stone. Loving father and father-in-law of Matthew and Jessica, Stephanie and Chris Kavchak, and Elliott Stone. Dear brother of the late Marlene Herman.

Devoted grandfather of Max, Jake, Tyler, Samantha, and Rebecca. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel,2401 Steeles Ave. West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Monday October 8,2018 at 2:30 p.m. Interment Beth Tzedec Memorial Park.

Memorial donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation 1-888-473- 4636.

HAROLD (HERSCHEL)

WARGON Peacefully on Friday, October 5, 2018 at Michael Garron Hospital.

Harold Wargon, beloved husband of the late Marcia Wargon. Loving father of the late Joel Wargon.

Dear brother and brother-in-law of Allan and Esther Wargon. He will be sadly missed by his devoted nieces and nephews and their children. A wonderful human being; his life was a blessing. Grateful thanks to Dr.

Peter Economopoulos and all those who cared for Harold during the past week and the past two years. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Sunday, October 7, 2018 at 1:00 p.m.

Interment Temple Har Zion Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 5444 Yonge Street, #1909, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to the Canadian Cancer Society, 1-888-939-3333, or to the charity of your choice.

MICHAEL HENRY JOSEPH ZORBA MCINERNY MCDONALD GLASSMACHER WATTS

November 23, 1939 October 1, 2018 Ottawa, Saint John, Montreal, LaHave, and Toronto.

Mischief-maker, charmer, agitator, narcissist, rain-maker, joker, visionary, agent-provocateur, athlete, news addict, rogue, sports lover, boy-man, dreamer, man-boy, innovator, rascal, alchemist, and phoenix.

Darling, darling Michael - were you in the boat when the boat tipped over? Your answer always changes.

On behalf of family and friends, "May the good Lord take a likin' to ya!"

Infiltrate Like ocean breezes The gift of you - joy The joy Uniquely

EDWARD MELVILLE WORLING

1927-2018

Edward died peacefully on September 30, 2018 at his home in the U.K. in his 92nd year.

Edward lived in Toronto from 19731987 after immigrating to Canada with his family. He worked initially for the Rolland Paper Company and then, for many years, with Buntin Reid. He was an active and enthusiastic Scottish Country Dancer and performed in the Scottish World Festival Tattoo at the Canadian National Exhibition.

He was also a keen tennis player until well into his eighties and, earlier in life, played for the London Scottish rugby team.

He will be greatly missed by his two sons, Ian and Jamie; his daughters-in-law, Ellen and Jennifer; his three grandchildren, Robin, Andrew and Heather; as well as by a myriad of family and friends on both sides of the Atlantic.

A memorial service will be held at the Surrey and Sussex Crematorium in Crawley, England on Friday October 12th at 2.45 p.m.

Donations made in memory of Edward to the Alzheimer Society of Canada would be appreciated by his family.

JENNY WHITELAW (nee Mann)

Age 79, Jenny died peacefully on September 22, 2018 following a stroke. She will be missed by her husband, Bill; her son, Peter and his wife, Helen; and her son, John, his wife, Tracie and their children, Jack and Claire.

Jenny was known for her compassion, humour, love, integrity, generosity, creativity and grace. She was an extraordinary judge of character, was able to relate to virtually anyone and put them at ease, and had a keen eye for nonsense. She had a deeply artistic way of looking at the world, with a superb eye for proportion and beauty. Jenny loved to help and support people and did so with many organizations over the years.

Showing an iron will when it mattered, she was flexible when it didn't, giving her children the freedom to find their own way in the world.

An only child, Jenny was born in Kingston, Ontario, and spent her early years in Quebec before living in London in her twenties. On returning to Montreal, she met Bill Whitelaw, whom she married in 1970. The early years of their marriage were spent in Montreal, Uganda, and Scotland; they then settled in Calgary where they raised their two boys in a home of love, warmth and laughter. They retired to Saltspring Island in 2005.

Although Jenny suffered in her later years from Alzheimer's, her joyful spirit and contagious good humour persisted to the last.

The family would like to thank the generous and caring staff at Greenwoods.

Donations in Jenny's honor may be made to Food for the Hungry, a cause she held dear throughout her life. A memorial will be held on Saturday, November 24, 2018, at 3:00 p.m. at Harbour House Hotel, Saltspring Island, BC.


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This week, the world was issued another dire warning about what will happen if global warming goes unaddressed. So why is good climate policy so hard to love? The answer, like climate change itself, is excruciatingly complex
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Author whose books include The Geography of Hope: A Tour of the World We Need, The Leap: How to Survive and Thrive in the Sustainable Economy, and The Patch: The People, Pipelines, and Politics of the Oil Sands, which won this year's National Business Book Award

Back in August, environment and energy ministers from across the G7 met in Halifax to discuss cleaner oceans and greener energy. As per the norm in such circles, the proceedings were stiff, technical and wonky as all hell, and so the meetings barely cracked the week's news cycles. There was some coverage of the Canadian government's intentions to join in international efforts to reduce plastic waste and phase out single-use plastic in its own operations. The bigger stories, though, were Environment Minister Catherine McKenna's response to David Suzuki's demand that she resign and Natural Resources Minister Amarjeet Sohi's announcement about the government's next steps to get the Trans Mountain Pipeline built. "Sohi made the announcement in Halifax, where he is hosting G7 energy ministers," a Canadian Press story noted in passing.

The year's political news has been completely dominated by furor over Trans Mountain, of course, and the dismissal of the pipeline's approval by the Federal Court of Appeal was greeted by Indigenous activists and environmentalists as a ringing victory. The political conflict over the pipeline has churned up such a political morass that it's hard to find much in the way of near-term gain for climate change action in the midst of it all. The more likely outcome is that the fragile consensus responsible for Canada's modest efforts to date will be sucked down into that mire for years to come. And so the G7 meeting was a reminder that despite all the calamity, Canada does still have good climate policy in place. Much of it is gathered under the banner of the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, the co-ordinated federal-provincial plan stitched together in the spring of 2016 and in constant danger of being torn to shreds ever since. Wonky conferences, such as the one in Halifax, which tend to transpire with little notice and no celebration, are a big part of the daily grinding work of good climate policy.

It was perhaps to be expected, then, that the Framework saw mention in precious few of the breathless news stories covering this week's release of the latest report from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The Framework's incremental initiatives surely seem all out of proportion to the IPCC's stark warning that human civilization has until 2040 at the latest to slash greenhouse gas emissions worldwide if we intend to avoid major climate catastrophe. What did a little good climate policy matter in the face of that?

What I mean by good climate policy, to be clear, is climate policy that has actually been passed, has become the law of the land and has then been sent off to do its quiet work of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. That work tends to be far less noticeable than the screaming headlines above news of imminent disaster or even the final sum on a household energy bill.

British Columbia's carbon tax, for example, is good climate policy. Since the tax was introduced in 2008, gasoline use is down by more than 10 per cent per capita in B.C. and emissions have shrunk by 5 per cent, even as the province's economy has grown steadily. But it remains so inconspicuous that even 10 years after it was enacted, the majority of British Columbians still can't say for sure whether there's a price on carbon-dioxide emissions in their province. That's often the way with good climate policy - when it's working well, you hardly know it's there.

Good climate policy pleases no crowds.

There are no raucous rallies or victory marches in its name. Good climate policy simply doesn't cause too much fuss, satisfying the majority of Canadians who claim to want something done about climate change - something real, measurable, effective - but not so much that it really stings. Good climate policy is like fire insurance or storm drainage - no one wants to think about it, but they want it there to do the job when it's needed. But climate policy is needed now at a scale and scope far beyond any given fire or flood - ultimately, we need it to intervene in every transaction involving fossil fuels everywhere on Earth - and so it is getting harder for good climate policy to stay quietly out of sight. And because no one likes the look of good climate policy in the light of day - because it seems pitifully weak on its face and embarrassing in its concessions and awkward compromises - it is hard to maintain and defend. Mercilessly hard.

Why is good climate policy so hard to love? The answer, like climate change itself, is multivalent and excruciatingly complex, and it has a lot to do with the scale and time frame of the problem and its solutions. No one's climate policies can move fast enough to yield tangible everyday benefits before the next election.

There will be no immediate reward for doing the job well, and rarely does an instant crisis emerge from doing it badly. And in any case, good climate policy satisfies no one completely and makes everyone at least a little uncomfortable. In the foreshortened terms of a bellowed Question Period exchange, the carbon price - any carbon price - is always so high that it will ruin the economy and so low that it will do nothing. Good climate policy is never an easy political win, and even the hard wins seem like losses from many angles. It's a sinkhole for political capital, a kryptonite mine against the superheroic political will required to address climate change's catastrophic scope.

Still, good climate policy is the best we can manage right now - in Canada or anywhere else - and we're in grave danger of squandering what we have in exchange for nothing at all. So it's worth trying to understand how it fails to win much adulation.

Canada has had some good climate policy over the years, although not too much, and it has even more now, though nowhere near enough. But what Canada mostly has, 30 years after Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservative government convened the world's first major climate conference in Toronto and three years after Justin Trudeau's Liberals came to power hellbent on launching the country's first comprehensive climate-policy package, is an acrimonious stalemate. Carbon pricing has drawn the ire of conservatives across Canada while trading off an oil sands pipeline approval for Conservatives' buy-in on Mr.

Trudeau's climate package has environmentalist leftists marching in the streets.

Never mind that the majority of Canadians - 76 per cent, according to an October, 2016, survey by Abacus Data - claim to reside somewhere in between, open to the idea of a new pipeline project alongside more aggressive action on climate change.

They say they want good climate policy, in other words, but they aren't howling for it.

And so they are barely heard. This is how good climate policy fails.

Consider Ontario's coal phase-out - a climate policy so good it verged on great. It did exactly as promised, entirely eliminating coal-burning power plants from the province's electricity grid in barely a decade. The phase-out reduced smog, prevented thousands of premature deaths and created what the Ontario Power Authority justly touts as "the single largest greenhouse gas reduction measure in North America." It is too often remembered now, though, as a prelude to the nasty battle over the province's Green Energy Act, whose clumsy implementation turned neighbour against neighbour in windfarm development battles across rural Ontario, sowed misinformation about the causes of skyrocketing energy bills and helped feed the throw-the-bums-out anger that led to the carbon-price-killing reign of Premier Doug Ford.

And then there's the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, Canada's first real national climate plan, which is the essence of good climate policy. One way to tell it's such good climate policy is because unless you're a policy wonk, you might have never heard its full name until I mentioned it earlier.

This, despite the Framework being easily the most ambitious climate-policy package the country has ever seen, is co-ordinating climate change action between the federal government and every province and territory other than Saskatchewan.

The Framework expands Ontario's coal phase-out nationwide by 2030 and commits all but the Saskatchewanian among us to dozens more changes in how we make and use energy, all to accelerate our pursuit of the greenhouse gas reductions we committed to at the Paris climate summit in 2015. (Fully one-third of those reductions can be achieved if governments nationwide implement only the efficiency measures prescribed by the Framework).

It's accompanied by a national carbon price, which might also be deemed good climate policy if you weren't so much more familiar with it - in a screaming-headlines and Ford-Nation-rallies kind of way - than you likely are with every other detail of the Framework.

We've all heard plenty about the carbon tax, of course. Or, rather, the job-killing carbon tax. Or Mr. Trudeau's reckless carbon tax. Or else the insufficient carbon tax, the window-dressing carbon tax, the carbon tax negated by oil sands expansion.

Such notoriety turns out to be deadly for good climate policy, because a new tax on an environmental problem many people only vaguely understand, levied in order to solve that problem at some indeterminate point in the future, but only after the vast majority of the world's emissions not currently subject to a carbon price are drawn into the fold, turns out not to be a formula for a political slam dunk. Even a report released just a few weeks ago - produced by a think tank headed by a former Conservative policy adviser, no less - showing how most Canadian households will receive more money back in rebates than they will pay in carbon taxes has done nothing to change the tenor of the debate. This was underscored last week when Mr. Ford joined United Conservative Party Leader Jason Kenney in Calgary to rally against carbon taxes - mere days before economist William Nordhaus of Yale University was named a co-recipient of this year's Nobel Prize for economics recognizing his work establishing that implementing a carbon price was the most effective way to fight climate change. In front of a boisterous crowd of more than 1,000, Mr. Ford called Mr. Nordhaus's Nobel-winning idea "the worst tax ever." The rally was a reminder that even as the IPCC was informing the world that nowhere near enough was being done about climate change, Canada already had sufficient climate policy in place to inspire angry rallies against it.

The extraordinary machinations the federal government has undertaken of late to begin work on a pipeline to transport Alberta's bitumen from Edmonton to the Pacific coast represents just the most prominent reason why its good climate policies are finding so few champions. There are myriad other reasons, from the squabbling over jurisdiction endemic to the Canadian federation to the bounteous political hay to be made these days on both the right and left flanks of Mr. Trudeau's Liberals.

Put another way, the fragile coalition needed to keep the Framework in place has, since it was formed, subbed in Mr. Ford and B.C. Premier John Horgan as the custodians of two of its three biggest partners.

You try keeping smiles on everyone's faces at the grip-and-grin after that.

If good climate policy is so likely to lead to such a political mess, what of the other options? These can be categorized broadly as great climate policy and no climate policy.

Let's start with the latter, which is the current position of most Canadian conservative parties. To be fair, conservative politicians have finally been persuaded to pay some grudging bare minimum of lip service to the scientific reality of the situation.

"Virtually everybody accepts that there is such a thing as a man-made contribution to climate change and we have to be prudent in reducing greenhouse gases" - this is Mr. Kenney's rousing rallying cry on the topic.

In practical terms, however, the Canadian right has not presented any comprehensive climate policy package since the federal Conservatives tabled and then abandoned their "Turning the Corner" plan in 2007. The rationalizations for this have ranged from a self-serving sort of realism (think of Stephen Harper explaining that "no country is going to take actions that are going to deliberately destroy jobs and growth") to blithe hand-waving at the coal-spewing power plants of China and dismissive reference to the statistical tables attesting to the fact that Canada remains a small country, population-wise, when you compare it with the whole world. We can't fix the whole problem all by ourselves, so goes the line of reasoning, and many others aren't even trying. So why should we?

Under Andrew Scheer, more than a decade after Mr. Harper's government failed to turn any corners, the new federal Conservative climate policy plan remains top secret. It remains hard to imagine any other policy issue of such consequence on which a viable political party can simply take no substantive position at all. So treacherous is the swamp of climate politics that a shrug from the shore can seem like the least damaging position.

The stronger argument against good climate policy comes from advocates of great climate policy. Great climate policy posits that good climate policy and all its meek, compromised, incremental changes are themselves a big part of the problem. If only a courageous government was willing to take much greater strides, or even an enormous leap - the kind perhaps charted in a multipoint manifesto - well, then we would see the kind of rapid transformation needed not only to forestall climate change, but to build a better society in every respect. We would not only keep all the oil in the ground and slash emissions, we would liberate Canadians through renewable power and decentralized grids. There would be a solar panel on every roof, an electric car in every garage, a bike lane or LRT track on every street. This was the kind of response that this week's alarm-ringing IPCC report was calling for, ideally implemented as of yesterday.

It's a wholly admirable vision. I've spent a great deal of the past 10 years sketching in its contours (and, full disclosure, I was a writer on the Generation Energy report on this theme released by Natural Resources Canada earlier this year). Who wouldn't want to strive for it? But on the question of how to reach it, great climate policy encounters one formidable hurdle: It doesn't exist. Or rather, it doesn't yet exist. It has never been enacted, nor is it built into the platform of any political party with a legitimate near-term shot at forming a government in any major industrial country. This is in part because great climate policy tends to treat politics as an afterthought - which, when you think about it, is an odd way to advocate for a policy package.

What of the many special cases I'm skipping past - the true leaders, some of which I've reported on myself in admiring detail?

Consider Germany, the first major industrial economy to commit in a substantial way to eliminating fossil fuels from its electricity grid - and then set back that project by a generation when Angela Merkel's government shut down the country's nuclear plants instead of its coal-fired ones in order to save its own political hide. What about Norway? Aren't they buying electric cars faster than they can be rolled off production lines? Most definitely - because

those EVs are exempt from a domestic luxury tax that doubles the price of vehicles that burn gasoline. Try selling that to the auto workers of Oshawa and Windsor (not to mention the commuters of Surrey and Laval). And haven't you heard that the great state of California just committed to 100 per cent clean power by 2045? Certainly it did - with an interim goal of 60 per cent by 2030. It's an impressive, pace-setting model for much of the United States.

But if you're wondering about the corresponding Canadian figure, 81 per cent of our electricity nationwide comes from emissions-free sources today. Admittedly, this is down to abundant hydroelectricity more than good climate policy. Still, the point stands: there's not much in the way of great climate policy even in the vanguard.

In place of the molasses-slow muddle of everyday politics, great climate policy calls on the transformative power of science and urgency. As the IPCC reminded us again this week, climate science has made itself abundantly clear about the size and speed at which greenhouse gas emissions must be cut in order to avert climate disaster. Climate policies, then, must deliver those cuts ASAP. This, as great climate policy advocates repeatedly note, is what the science tells us must be done. But as long as elected politicians and not scientists remain in charge of writing the actual legislation, and as long as those same politicians continue to need the support of voters in order to keep doing that work, the science telling us what to do will likely continue to prove as ineffective at making great climate policy a reality as it has to date.

In the face of such intransigence, great climate policy's boosters invoke the mystic power of urgency. There is no time to wait, they say, for the usual machinations of ineffectual government and grinding bureaucracy. This is an emergency. Normal rules don't apply. Over the years - decades, now - the necessary response to climate change has been compared to the Apollo project that put man on the moon, the New Deal that helped end the Great Depression, and, most often, to the command-and-control expediencies of the Second World War. Soon there will come a catalytic moment - most likely one of the growing number of extreme-weather disasters that have already become a hallmark of life in the age of climate change and an obsession among the many advocates of great climate policy I follow on social media - and the blinkers will be lifted from all heretofore unconvinced eyes, the wisdom and necessity of rapid, radical action made manifest and unstoppable.

In the aftermath of such a moment of mass clarity, the revolution will emerge everywhere. It will be guided by a rapid wholesale reinvention of the entire apparatus of modern politics, which will respond to the catalytic catastrophe not with chaos or authoritarian self-preservation, but only with flawlessly orchestrated collective action. This tipping point has been prophesied in green circles for nearly as long as climate change has been a phenomenon on the global political radar, and it does not appear to be much closer at hand today. (The authoritarian self-preservation thing, however, appears to be having its moment.) In the meantime, however, among the mass of people not yet mobilized to fight climate change on the beaches and in the fields and in the streets, that sense of paramount urgency stubbornly refuses to arrive. Something that remains "urgent" for 20 years, after all, is fundamentally not urgent to most people's way of thinking. A wildfire on the edge of town is urgent. A round of layoffs by the big local employer is urgent. A crisis that changes essentially nothing about your daily life for years on end is not urgent. It has proven far easier to inspire a sense of urgency around the use of plastic straws.

There is now even a kind of nostalgia for the fleeting urgency of times past. Nathaniel Rich's epic rundown of the progress and sudden halt of climate policy in the halls of American government in the 1980s, which sprawled across an entire recent issue of The New York Times magazine, is a case in point. Mr. Rich reports in vivid and convincing detail on the sense of urgency that briefly pervaded environmental policy circles in those years, driven by the first strident alarm calls from a range of climate scientists and enlightened public officials.

Mr. Rich's piece is crackerjack historical reporting. But his apparent conclusion, echoed in the white-text headline that is the only splash of light on a black cover - "Thirty years ago, we could have saved the planet" - does not follow at all from the evidence he lays out. That royal "we" elides a broad range of democratic institutions and economic forces that fundamentally did not want rapid change then, and still aren't sure about it now. And this is not just limited to the handful of fossil-fuel companies who have willfully obfuscated the climate change debate. Long-established political systems - and political parties - don't readily embrace rapid change. They aren't built for it, don't understand it and can't manage it very well. Mainstream banks and pension funds don't tend toward rapid change. Industry advocacy groups, chambers of commerce, neighbourhood associations - none of these are designed to drive rapid change. Put another way, try convincing the community association in an established low-rise neighbourhood anywhere in North America that they should readily embrace a 10storey condo development because it will bring welcome and necessary density, enabling greater walkability, affordable transit and even making car-free living a possibility - all crucial urban pieces of any serious long-term response to the climate crisis. Gauge the reaction, and then tell us again how the public in general was ready for a wholesale shift of sufficient scale to combat climate change in 1989 (or 1997 or 2009), but for the media machinations and backroom shenanigans of the oil companies.

Urgency, then, is an expression of solidarity more than a coherent plan. Consider the climate policy efforts to date from a political party that often invokes the urgency of what the science tells us - the NDP.

Starting around 2008 with federal leader Jack Layton, who had been talking a great game about climate change before he took the helm of the party and then threw carbon pricing and everything else in Stephane Dion's Green Shift policy package under a campaign bus to lay the groundwork for finishing second in the 2011 election, the NDP response to climate change has mainly been a kind of strident incoherence. Even as Mr. Horgan thundered against the menace of the Trans Mountain Pipeline this spring, for example, he was also urging the federal government to take action to reduce gasoline prices. (His calls were echoed by Ontario NDP Leader Andrea Horwath on the campaign trail). The B.C. NDP might be steadfast in their opposition to pipelines, but this does not spill over into any kind of policy-oriented hostility toward the consumption of their contents. Mr. Horgan's government even cancelled tolls on the bridges crowded beyond capacity by suburban Vancouver motorists as an additional show of support for the continued reign of the internal-combustion engine.

Wouldn't urgency - real urgency - necessitate working with whatever government currently holds the reins of power, at least insofar as that government is willing to act? Wouldn't a slow start be better than standing still? Wouldn't a binding price on carbon pollution, the end of coal-fired power and a deepening commitment to renewable power and energy efficiency and mass transit from every government in the land - wouldn't all of this right now be worth quite a lot in the way of odd bedfellows and uncomfortable compromises?

This, in any case, was the strategic thinking behind the Pan-Canadian Framework, which presented Canadians with carbon pricing and the rest, all waltzing awkwardly with a pipeline approval. There was Alberta Premier Rachel Notley at her climate plan's launch, photo-opping in a single frame with the executive directors of environmental groups, the chiefs of First Nations and the chief executives of oil companies, all of them united uncomfortably in support of the whole good climate policy package. And what a freakish once-ina-generation moment it was: Canada's largest oil-producing province, without which any united action would be meaningless, stood in solidarity for the first time, possibly ever, with both the Prime Minister and every premier not named Brad Wall on the long-term direction of oil and gas development. This was, if you will, the forging of the Trudeau-Notley consensus - a brief interlude of relative agreement during which just enough momentum might be generated behind good climate policy to make it a fixed feature on the Canadian political landscape. Just maybe enough gears could be sent spinning slowly in the same direction to get the machine moving toward the much more vigorous work that would eventually be necessary to tackle the climate crisis more thoroughly. The trade-off was far from cheap - a pipeline delivering 600,000 additional barrels of Alberta bitumen to the Port of Vancouver - but it was, for the architects of the consensus, the only way to put the whole messy apparatus in motion.

When the Federal Court of Appeals quashed the federal government's approval of the Trans Mountain Pipeline expansion, the First Nations and environmental groups that had fought to stop the project greeted the decision with victorious celebration. I certainly don't begrudge them their exultation - the pipeline came freighted with threats to coastal ecosystems and Indigenous land rights that they simply deemed too much to pay. But I don't see much to celebrate on the climate policy front. The fragile Trudeau-Notley consensus is in shards. Whatever becomes of the pipeline itself, I'd place the smart money on another decade or more lost to its political fallout. The ongoing fight will be mean, and it will feed reactionary politics on all sides, and 10 years from now we might well be no closer to shrinking Canada's carbon footprint for good than we were during that rare interlude of 2016.

It would please me to be wrong. If there is a viable political path from here back to deeper, faster action - to more good climate policy and beyond, all the way to the uncharted territory of the great - I'd love to see it.

The Trudeau-Notley consensus is - was - an ugly deal. It ran roughshod over the land rights of a number of First Nations, amplified the risk of ecological disaster in the Salish Sea and provided a sort of buffer to fossil-fuel industries still reluctant to face twilight head on. But it was the best shot we've ever had at turning the corner decisively on a crisis that counts in decades and centuries. Maybe - just maybe - it could have built a consensus sturdy enough to survive a couple more election cycles and become, like health care or multiculturalism, a permanent fixture. Canada might even have emerged as a sort of model. Now we are in imminent danger of becoming just one more country with no plan at all, going nowhere fast.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY BRYAN GEE

A smokestack, one of four known as the Four Sisters, crumbles during a controlled demolition in Mississauga in June, 2006. The smokestacks had been labelled as heavy polluters by the Ontario government.

BILL SANDFORD/REUTERS

Premier Rachel Notley unveils Alberta's climate strategy in Edmonton in November, 2015. The new plan included a carbon tax and a cap on oil sands emissions, among other strategies.

AMBER BRACKEN/THE CANADIAN PRESS

Supporters wave signs at an anti-carbon tax rally in Calgary on Oct. 5, mere days before the Nobel Prize was awarded for an economist's work establishing carbon pricing as the most effective way to fight climate change.

JEFF MCINTOSH/THE CANADIAN PRESS

William Nordhaus, seen in his office at Yale University in March, 2014, is the co-recipient of the 2018 Nobel Prize for economics, alongside Paul Romer.

CHRISTOPHER CAPOZZIELLO/THE NEW YORK TIMES

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Correction

A Saturday Opinion article incorrectly referred to a Group of Seven meeting of environment and energy ministers in August. It was in September.


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HOW THE DEAL WAS DONE
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The Globe and Mail's Adrian Morrow, Barrie McKenna and Stephanie Nolen chronicle the winding path of trilateral talks - culminating in a 72-hour marathon of negotiations - that led to the USMCA
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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page B5

On the morning of Sunday, Sept. 30, the e-mail came from U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer with his latest position on NAFTA.

Gathered in the office of Katie Telford, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's chief of staff, were the top officials tasked with managing Canada's relationship with the volatile Trump administration: Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland, chief NAFTA negotiator Steve Verheul, principal secretary Gerald Butts, Ambassador David MacNaughton and John Hannaford, the foreign policy chief in the civil service. A U.S.-imposed deadline for a deal was looming the following day, and the team had determined to make a full-court press.

And there, in Mr. Lighthizer's e-mail, was what Canada had demanded all along: The United States would leave the Chapter 19 dispute resolution system completely untouched.

Ms. Freeland threw up her hands and cheered. "Woo hoo!"

This was the crucial moment - described to The Globe and Mail by four sources - of the 72-hour marathon of negotiations last weekend that sealed it. Before Sunday was out, the two sides had announced a tentative deal on the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, as the United States insisted NAFTA be renamed.

Canada had marked Chapter 19 as its red line from the start; without it, Ottawa would refuse to sign a deal. The clause was symbolically important - the final victory in the original freetrade negotiations, in 1987 - and was essential to protect Canada from any capricious actions by an economic superpower 10 times its size.

Mr. Trump's negotiating team held the issue back until the very end of an epic negotiation. Over the previous year and a half, Mr.

Trump had verbally assailed Mr.Trudeau, threatened to end trade entirely between the two countries and pushed bilateral relations to a nadir. On more than one occasion, a resolution seemed close - only to see talks fall apart again, with US$1.3-trillion in annual trade hanging in the balance.

Canada's strategy by turns involved taking a hard line and offering up significant compromises. It included one major shift halfway through the talks that ultimately paved the way to a deal. And it caused an early alignment between Ottawa and Mexico City to rupture as first one partner then the other sought a separate peace with Washington.

"I said when we began that there would be moments of drama," Ms. Freeland told reporters the morning after the deal, in a moment of comical understatement. "And there have been."

THE OPENING SALVOS If Chapter 19 was Mr. Trudeau's red line, gaining access to Canada's protectionist dairy market was Mr. Trump's. But it hadn't started like this.

During the presidential campaign, NAFTA had been a frequent target of Mr. Trump's ire because it included Mexico, a country he scapegoated for everything from the opioid epidemic to lost manufacturing jobs in the Rust Belt.

Canada had flown under the radar, and in the first few months after Mr. Trump's victory, everything seemed to be going smoothly. At Mr. Trudeau's first White House visit, in February of last year, Mr. Trump declared that the trade relationship between Canada and the United States required only a few "tweaking." And Mr. Trudeau's staff successfully built rapport with Mr. Trump's: Ms. Telford texted frequently with Jared Kushner, the President's son-inlaw; Mr. Butts got to know chief strategist Steve Bannon; and Ms.

Freeland spoke regularly with Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross. Free-trade-friendly members of the administration - including Gary Cohn, Dina Powell and Steve Mnuchin - also became key contacts.

The calm was short-lived: Over the course of just eight days that April, Canada became one of the President's chief irritants.

On a warm spring afternoon in Wisconsin, before an announcement at a tool-making company, the President met with a group of farmers. They told him about a rule change in Canada's tightly controlled dairy market that prevented them from selling ultrafiltered milk, a cheese-making ingredient, north of the border.

By the time he reached the podium, Mr. Trump had found a new enemy.

"In Canada, some very unfair things have happened to our dairy farmers," he said. "It's another typical one-sided deal against the United States."

Early the following week, the United States imposed tariffs on Canadian softwood lumber - the latest development in a long-running trade dispute. The President seized on the fight as another example of the neighbouring country's cheating ways. Canada, he said, was "very rough" and had "outsmarted our politicians for many years. ... We don't want to be taken advantage of."

Mr. Bannon and other White House economic nationalists saw an opening, said two U.S. sources with knowledge of the administration's internal deliberations.

They drafted an executive order for Mr. Trump that would trigger NAFTA's withdrawal provision, Article 2205.

To ensure the measure reached the President's desk in the chaotic White House, Mr. Bannon engaged in some rhetorical subterfuge, the sources said: He told other staff the order would simply mandate a "review" of NAFTA.

When other White House aides discovered the order's true purpose, they sounded the alarm.

Sonny Purdue, the recently installed Agriculture Secretary, rushed over with maps showing Mr. Trump that the most reliably Republican farm states depended heavily on trade with Canada and Mexico for their livelihoods.

Business leaders and Republican senators bombarded the Oval Office with pleas for the President to reconsider.

Mr. Kushner hastily arranged telephone calls with Mr. Trudeau and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto. Late on the evening of April 26, Mr. Trump announced he would not go through with the move.

Meanwhile, Mr. Kushner and Mr. Ross pressured Canada behind the scenes to change the ultrafiltered milk rule, recounted Canadian government and U.S.

industry sources.

Mr. Trump had seized on it, they told the Prime Minister's advisers and Ms. Freeland, and giving in would solve the problem.

But the Canadians held firm; they would make no unilateral concessions before negotiations even started.

The near-death experience - and standing up to the White House on dairy - emboldened the Canadians: They could hold their own against the disorganized Americans, who always seemed rocked by infighting.

Meanwhile, in addition to building relationships inside the U.S. administration, the Canadians pursued an outside pressure strategy: They deployed cabinet ministers, members of Parliament, premiers, business leaders and union presidents across the United States to meet with politicians.

The goal was to remind them that their economic prosperity depended in large part on keeping a trade deal with Canada - and to convince them to lobby the White House not to destroy NAFTA.

A specialized unit in Mr. Trudeau's office, led by Brian Clow, Ms. Freeland's former chief of staff, co-ordinated the NAFTA file and Canada's strategy across the government.

The start of negotiations, however, stalled for months as Mr.Lighthizer's confirmation in his post got stuck in a gridlocked Congress. He wasn't able to take office until May, kicking off a countdown to the talks.

ATTACK AND DEFENCE A lanky man with a shock of red hair and a distinctive nasal voice, Mr. Lighthizer dominated the room on a sweltering August day at a Washington Marriott.

It was the opening of negotiations, and Mr. Trump's trade chief - standing onstage next to Ms. Freeland and Mexican Economy Secretary Ildefonso Guajardo Villarreal - was determined to set an imposing tone.

"NAFTA has fundamentally failed many, many Americans and needs major improvement," he said, warning that the President was "not interested in a mere tweaking of a few provisions."

Over the next two months at four rounds of talks in three cities, Mr. Lighthizer laid out a string of impossibly tough demands: the gutting of all the deal's dispute resolution mechanisms, including Chapter 19, which Canada had used to protect softwood from punitive tariffs; Buy American provisions that would cap bidding from Canadian and Mexican companies on U.S. government contracts; a requirement that 50 per cent of the components in vehicles manufactured in Canada and Mexico be American-made; a "sunset clause" that would automatically end the deal in five years unless all three parties agreed to extend it; and the abolition of Canada's supply management system for dairy, eggs and poultry.

Canada refused to give an inch. According to sources in both countries briefed on the talks, Ottawa's negotiators told their U.S. counterparts that these demands were complete nonstarters - they couldn't even work with them. Instead, Canadian negotiators spent bargaining sessions giving detailed presentations to their U.S. counterparts about how the proposals would hurt U.S. industries.

Canada, meanwhile, made a few demands of its own. It asked for commitments to fight climate change, protect Indigenous rights, ensure women's equality and dismantle anti-union "right to work" laws in the United States.

Some on the U.S. side were exasperated by the Canadians. Why would they not work with the U.S. proposals, they complained?

And what was the point of introducing social policy into a trade deal?

Particularly vexing for the United States was Canada's decision to fight back on autos. The Americans had expected Ottawa to team up with the Trump administration against Mexico. After all, both countries had lost manufacturing jobs to lowerwage factories in less affluent countries.

"The U.S. was genuinely surprised by Canada's position on autos," said Daniel Ujczo, an Ohio-based trade lawyer with Dickinson Wright who represents clients in the auto, steel and dairy sectors. "If the U.S. was initially going to split the NAFTA parties, it was going to side with Canada."

Some U.S. negotiators, however, seemed to agree with the Canadians. Two government and industry sources with knowledge of the mood at the tables said career U.S. Trade Representative staff - ardent free-trade supporters - were apologetic in presenting Mr. Lighthizer's protectionist demands. In some cases, when the Canadians and Mexicans lectured U.S. negotiators on the folly of the U.S. proposals, the Americans made clear that they did not disagree.

Flavio Volpe, the head of Canada's auto parts industry group and an adviser to the Canadian negotiating team, said it would have been absurd for Canada to concede on autos at the start of talks. For one thing, it took the United States two full months after the opening of negotiations to present a fully formed position.

"I know the Americans were upset by Canada's position, but who would start a negotiation they didn't ask for by conceding?" he said.

The bargaining room tensions exploded into the open on the final day of that October round. At a joint news conference at the General Services Administration building in downtown Washington, Mr. Lighthizer and Ms. Freeland traded blows in front of reporters.

"We are seeing proposals that would turn back the clock on 23 years of predictability, openness and collaboration under NAFTA," Ms. Freeland warned, accusing the Trump administration or trying to "undermine NAFTA" with "troubling" demands and a "winner-take-all mindset."

Mr. Lighthizer fired back.

"Frankly, I am surprised and disappointed by the resistance to change from our negotiating partners," he said. "Countries are reluctant to give up unfair advantage."

THE AUTOS COMPROMISE As 2017 drew to a close, Canada quietly executed a major change in strategy. Rather than fight Mr.Trump's toughest demands, Ottawa determined to start proposing compromises.

At a series of technical meetings in Washington in December, Canada floated ideas for overhauling auto rules short of imposing a U.S. content requirement, said three government and industry sources in all three countries. These ideas were discussed in further detail at a negotiating round the following month in Montreal.

One Canadian concept in particular seized Mr. Lighthizer's interest, the sources said: Tying automotive content to wages. Mexico had long attracted auto plants by allowing employers to pay a third or less than U.S. and Canadian workers earned. Mandate that a certain amount of car parts had to be made in factories paying a specific wage or more and you could undercut Mexico's ability to compete for jobs.

In March, Mr. Lighthizer dropped his proposal for 50-per-cent U.S. content in vehicles and replaced it with a demand that 40 per cent of the content be made in factories paying at least US$16 an hour.

It was a major breakthrough.

And in May, with a deadline looming for an agreement that could be voted on by the current Congress, Canada saw the chance for a quick deal. In exchange for agreeing to the U.S.'s auto position, opening up the dairy market and resolving a handful of smaller issues, Mr. Trudeau's officials proposed, the United States could drop its other protectionist demands, said three Canadian government and U.S. industry sources with knowledge of the manoeuvre.

Mexico, meanwhile, was unhappy with Canada's moves, said government and industry sources in the three countries. It believed it had an understanding with Ottawa, as NAFTA's two junior partners, to work together in thwarting the protectionist behemoth between them.

Mr. Guajardo said Canada presented the United States with ideas, including the wage proposal, without running them by Mexico first. And he was taken by surprise when Mr. Lighthizer threw it down in negotiations.

"It was a very tough week for us in April, because the full week we were trying to balance a proposal that had not been discussed with us," he said in an interview in his Mexico City office.

One Canadian official disputed Mr. Guajardo's account, saying the wage idea was discussed at the negotiating round in Montreal, not sprung on the Mexicans in the spring. The official conceded, however, that Mr. Guajardo may be correct that the Canadians discussed the wage idea with the Americans prior to the Montreal talks without informing Mexico.

The official said Ottawa also kept Mexico informed of its May attempts at reaching a deal with the U.S. Ms. Telford and Mr. MacNaughton, Canada's ambassador to the U.S., briefed Mexican Foreign Secretary Luis Videgaray Caso in the backyard of Mr. MacNaughton's residence in Washington, the source said. Ms. Freeland, for her part, told Mr.Guajardo what was going on.

Canada's gambit, in any event, was all for naught: While some in the U.S. administration - including Mr. Kushner, Mr. Mnuchin and Larry Kudlow, who had replaced Mr. Cohn as economic czar - were interested in a deal, Mr. Lighthizer insisted it was not good enough, the Canadian government and U.S. industry sources said.

Shortly after, Mr. Trudeau told reporters, he made a last-ditch attempt to set up a meeting with Mr. Trump to sort out a deal leader to leader. But it foundered when Vice-President Mike Pence called the Prime Minister to inform him that such a meeting would only happen if Canada first conceded on the U.S. demand for a sunset clause. Mr.Trudeau refused.

DIVIDE AND CONQUER In early June, talks reached their lowest point since Mr. Lighthizer and Ms. Freeland had fought onstage the previous fall.

First, Mr. Trump imposed tariffs on Canadian steel and aluminium, and Canada fought back with levies on $16.6-billion worth of U.S. goods. Then, the President took umbrage at a news conference after a G7 meeting in Charlevoix at which Mr. Trudeau insisted Canada would "not be pushed around" by U.S. tariffs.

"Very dishonest & weak. Our Tariffs are in response to his of 270% on dairy!" Mr. Trump tweeted.

The following week, Ms. Freeland accepted Foreign Policy magazine's Diplomat of the Year award in Washington. In her speech, she linked Mr. Trump's tariffs to the international rise of nationalism and authoritarianism threatening Western democracy.

"You may feel today that your size allows you to go mano a mano with your traditional adversaries and be guaranteed to win," she warned the U.S. President at a banquet mere blocks from the

White House. "But if history tells us one thing, it is that no one nation's pre-eminence is eternal."

At a meeting with Mr. Lighthizer the following day, she handed him a copy of the speech.

The G7 dustup and Ms. Freeland's speech slowed progress on a deal, said one Canadian source briefed on the talks by both sides.

While Mr. Lighthizer got along fine with the Foreign Affairs Minister, the source said, others in the White House "despised her" and took offence to the speech.

"That's the reason all of this stuff didn't fly right away," the source said, adding there was "bad blood" for some time after.

But Derek Burney, the former chief of staff to prime minister Brian Mulroney who played a key role in the original free-trade negotiations, said Ms. Freeland's comments have to be kept in perspective.

"Anything we did was a fly speck compared to the insults and bombast we got from Donald Trump," he said in an interview.

"I thought our response, for the most part, was pretty restrained and pretty civil."

Over the summer, Mr. Lighthizer reconvened talks. But this time, it would be a two-way affair: The United States and Mexico sat down without Canada. Mr.Guajardo insisted publicly that the negotiations were merely designed to sort out the auto-content issue - which Canada had already agreed on with the United States - and bilateral matters such as Mexican produce exports to the United States.

But when talks concluded in late August, the United States and Mexico emerged with a nearly complete deal and pressured Canada to sign on in short order.

Both Mr. Videgaray and Kenneth Smith Ramos, the Mexican chief negotiator, warned that they were ready to go ahead with a bilateral trade pact with the United States and cut Canada out entirely.

At a tense meeting that night at the Canadian embassy in Washington, Ms. Freeland confronted Mr. Guajardo over the betrayal. When talks began, she reminded him, Canada had been clear that it would not throw Mexico under the bus - and now the Mexicans had done just that to Canada.

Mr. Guajardo interrupted, raising Canada's move on autos earlier in the year. Pointing at Mr.

MacNaughton, said one source with knowledge of the conversation, he accused the ambassador of secretly discussing the wage idea with the Americans behind Mexico's back.

"It was a very tough moment.

In a way, the first reaction was 'You guys are not giving us much time to work on this,'" Mr. Guajardo recalled of the Canadian response to Mexico's deal with the United States. "But then I very politely reminded my colleagues of the April moment."

ENDGAME For the next month, Ms. Freeland trekked every week to Washington - usually accompanied by Ms.Telford, Mr. Butts and Mr. Clow - in a bid for a deal. The Canadians quickly made clear that they would not simply agree to everything Mexico had, but intended to renegotiate much of it. The Mexicans, for instance, had agreed to a deal that did not include Chapter 19. And they conceded more on pharmaceutical patents than Canada wanted to give.

Mr. Trump set an Oct. 1 deadline. He wanted to deliver a text of the deal to Congress by then to set up a final signing of the agreement at the end of November.

And he threatened to hit Canada with auto tariffs if they didn't quickly conclude talks.

The two sides were locked in a stand-off, trying to determine how little they could give while still extracting concessions from the other side. The Canadian side was confident that Congress would not approve a two-country deal and that Mr. Trump would not move ahead with auto tariffs, which were projected to cause hundreds of thousands of job losses in both countries.

"It was a mutual stare-down," Mr. Burney said. "Each side decided what the bottom line on the other side was and decided what they could live with."

At the United Nations General Assembly, Mr. Trump and Mr.Trudeau didn't meet - save for a single, awkward handshake - solidifying the impression of listless talks and a strained relationship.

At his closing news conference, the President said he had purposely refused to meet with the Prime Minister, made public his dislike for Ms. Freeland and repeated his threat to slap tariffs on Canadian-made autos if a deal was not reached.

"We're very unhappy with the negotiations and the negotiating style of Canada. We don't like their representative very much," he said. "We're thinking about just taxing cars coming in from Canada ... Canada has treated us very badly."

But over the next 72 hours, everything suddenly came together.

First, on Thursday, the Canadian team sent the Americans a document that laid out all of its negotiating positions - and all of the United States' - in a bid to highlight the gaps. One source said the Canadians also indicated to the United States that they would be willing to give more on dairy than they had previously offered. Another said they reiterated to Mr. Lighthizer that Chapter 19 was Ottawa's red line.

On Friday, Mr. Lighthizer came back with a counterproposal.

Both sides cleared the decks for a weekend push. The United States and Mexico cancelled plans to publish a text of the bilateral deal that night, hoping they could include Canada in it shortly. Ms.

Freeland cancelled a Saturday speaking slot at the UN to rush back to Ottawa. Mr. MacNaughton also headed to the capital.

Talks continued Saturday. Ms.Freeland, Ms. Telford, Mr. Butts, Mr. MacNaughton, Mr. Verheul and Mr. Hannaford gathered in Ms. Telford's office in the Prime Minister's Office building across the street from Parliament Hill.

They spoke with Mr. Lighthizer, Mr. Kushner and the U.S. negotiating team - gathered in Mr.

Lighthizer's offices in the Winder Building near the White House - by speakerphone. The two sides traded written proposals over email.

By Saturday night, the outlines of a deal were on the table. Mr.Lighthizer and Mr. Kushner briefed Mr. Trump, who gave them the go-ahead to close the next day, said one source with knowledge of the U.S. discussions. However, the source said, Mr. Trump told them not to go ahead with a deal to lift the steel and aluminium tariffs.

Mr. Lighthizer gave the Canadians a verbal indication Saturday that he would agree to leave the Chapter 19 dispute resolution system untouched. His written confirmation came Sunday morning.

"When we realized that we had an intact Chapter 19, that was where I started to realize that, okay, I think we're going to be able to get to a place," Mr. Trudeau later told reporters.

One of the final issues to be finished was a side deal in which Mr. Trump guaranteed to exempt Canadian autos below a specific quota from any future tariffs. The U.S. wanted to set the quota at 2.3 million vehicles annually - about 500,000 more than Canada currently exports - but Ottawa requested it be bumped to 2.6 million, said one source with knowledge of the discussions. The U.S.agreed.

As dark fell on Ottawa and Washington, Mr. Trudeau arrived at the office and convened his cabinet for a final sign-off on the deal.

Mr. Lighthizer and Mr. Kushner took the details to Mr. Trump for approval.

Shortly before midnight, both sides announced the new pact.

In the end, the United States had dropped or softened all four of the protectionist demands Canada found most abhorrent: the 50-per-cent U.S. content requirement in autos was transmuted into the rule mandating higher wages; the five-year sunset clause was switched to a 16year sunset with a rolling, sixyear review and renewal process; the attempt to end Chapter 19 dispute resolution was jettisoned entirely, as was the Buy American demand.

But Canada had conceded on almost every conventional trade irritant of the past decade: dairy, pharmaceutical patents, the favouring of B.C. wines over imported ones in the province's grocery stores and the airing of Super Bowl commercials, among others. Canada also agreed to a clause designed to discourage itself from pursuing a trade deal with China - Mr. Trump's top enemy on trade. And steel and aluminium tariffs remain in place.

One Canadian source credited Mr. Kushner, and particularly his relationship with Ms. Telford and Mr. Butts, for pushing talks forward when they became logjammed. "There isn't much light between him and the old man.

He was indispensable," the source said.

Another said Mr. Trudeau's decision in early September to publicly plead the case for Chapter 19 on an Edmonton radio station - an interview in which he pointedly said the clause was necessary because Mr. Trump "doesn't always follow the rules" - finally convinced the Americans that Canada was serious about the provision.

Two U.S. sources with knowledge of the talks said Mr. Lighthizer also made clear in the closing days that Mr. Trump's Oct. 1 deadline was real and that they were serious about auto tariffs.

But Canadian officials denied there was ever such a threat or that they even took the prospect of tariffs seriously.

One Canadian official confided that, policy purposes aside, there was another reason Mr. Trudeau's advisers had marked Chapter 19 from the start as the hill to die on: They were confident Mr. Trump would not. Whatever happened in the negotiations, the official said, Canada was certain the U.S. would ultimately concede dispute resolution, giving Ottawa something substantial to claim as a victory.

It was a gamble that paid off rhetorically, though some argued it came at a cost to the deal itself - and explained how the talks ended.

By advertising Chapter 19 as a red line, some observers said, the Canadians gave Mr. Lighthizer a point with which to inflict pain.

He simply held out until he felt he had won enough from Ottawa for a satisfactory deal. As soon as he conceded it, the agreement was made.

"The U.S. was just holding back Chapter 19 until the end to squeeze out every last concession," said Mr. Ujczo, the trade lawyer. "And it worked."

With a report from Eric Atkins


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COUNTRY OF BROKEN DREAMS
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For five years, Rio de Janeiro was Stephanie Nolen's home base as she showed Globe readers the lives and struggles of Latin America. Now, as she moves the bureau to Mexico, she looks back at the troubled land she leaves behind
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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page O1

The Globe and Mail's Latin America correspondent M aria de Barros Araujo was late, and I was scared. She had told me to meet her when she got off work, and I was there, in the courtyard outside her small apartment, just after 5 o'clock. But Ms. Araujo didn't turn up, and it got steadily darker, and I sat on a sharp slab of cement outside her door with my shoulders bunched, certain that at any moment I'd hear gunfire and wondering how I was going to get out of there, back down the hill to relative safety.

Ms. Araujo was one of the first people I got to know in Brazil, five years ago. I met her almost by accident, when I was wandering around the hillside favela called Rocinha. I was there to write my first story from Brazil, as a correspondent newly arrived from India. I had been tasked by my editors to explain why The Globe and Mail was opening a bureau in Rio de Janeiro, why the stories from this city were ones we believed readers needed to hear. I was chatting to people at a residents' association about all the ways life in the favela had improved in recent years when someone suggested I see if Maria was home.

She was, and she let me in, and she told her story with the generosity that so many Brazilians would show me over the course of my time here. Ms. Araujo was 40, then, and that story was full of difficult details - it reduced her to tears in places - but she was sunnily cheerful, nonetheless, possessed of a deep-rooted conviction that things were getting better, that life was going to bring her good things in the years to come. I wrote about her, in that first story, and I thought about her often afterward, because the ways in which Ms. Araujo's life had changed were emblematic of the positive changes happening here amid so much else that was terrible and even tragic.

And so when the time came for me to write about leaving Brazil, I sent Ms. Araujo a WhatsApp message and asked if I could come by for another chat. We had kept in touch only sporadically over the years, but I knew how much had gone wrong in her community since we first met, how much harder life had become for people like her. She felt like a bellwether, of sorts: How her family was doing might tell me whether my own sense of gloom was justified. She invited me to come by, and her reply was full of smiley, kissy emojis, but my stomach knotted as we made the plan, as I contemplated what might be involved in dropping by to see her this time.

Rio's favelas began to be built 130 years ago, by demobilized soldiers and freed slaves and migrants who could not afford land on the flat ground below. The state never extended basic services - although one in five people in Rio lives in a favela - and for decades, these communities were ruled by gangsters and later by drug-traffickers, who controlled the entrances and provided pirate utilities, and vigilante justice. Police, when they came at all, came to kill.

But when first I visited Rocinha, in 2013, all that had recently changed: An innovative publicsecurity program that combined social programs, infrastructure investment and community policing had reclaimed the territory from the gangs. I wandered up and down the twisting, narrow streets of the favela, past shopkeepers who were putting in new display cases, small lanchonetes where waiters were setting tables out on the crumbly sidewalk - and cops, who carried light weapons and made conversation with people who passed - and I didn't think much about safety. I wrote about transformation, and a neighbourhood that "buzzed with possibility."

A few weeks ago, on my way to meet Ms. Araujo, I saw armoured personnel carriers parked across the favela entrance, and, on my way up the hill, soldiers with masked faces, slowly waving the ends of their guns back and forth, pointed at the people in the streets. The community officers had been replaced by an elite squad of military police. But they didn't make me feel safe: They were trigger-happy and lawless and they had killed 19 people in Rocinha so far this year. They were there to confront the gangsters who had reclaimed the territory - and at any moment, I knew, one of their sustained exchanges of gunfire (carried out with no regard for the 170,000 people who lived crammed on the hillside) could break out again. The shooting happens at all hours, but with the approach of dusk, I had to surrender even the illusion that I could easily get away.

Just as I was preparing to give up and leave, Ms. Araujo hurried up the hill, huffing for breath and complaining about her commute.

She works as one of two full-time maids for a couple and their two adult sons, who share a luxury beachfront apartment. Their neighbourhood is, theoretically, served by one of the new transportation projects Rio's city government installed for the 2016 Summer Olympics. But like much else built for the Games, it stopped functioning within weeks of the snuffing of the Olympic torch.

Ms. Araujo had taken three packed buses to travel the 14 kilometres home, and it was dark now, just as it had been dark when she had left early that morning, to arrive in time to make her employers' their breakfast.

We hugged, and she peppered me with the hail of compliments that accompany a typical Brazilian greeting, and then we hurried inside. Ms. Araujo tugged the curtains closed, telling me the story of a neighbour who was shot looking out her window a few weeks before - as if the thin, flowered cotton might somehow shield us.

When we met in 2013, she had just moved into this tiny two-bedroom flat, which was awarded to her as part of a federal government housing scheme for the poor. She was bursting with pride, back then, full of plans on how she would improve it. She told me, that first day, about how she left an impoverished village in the northeast as a teenager, years before, and came to Rio seeking work with no more than a few years of grade-school education; how she fell in with a man who beat her and then abandoned her when she got pregnant; how she and her baby slept on pieces of cardboard in the streets of Rocinha, that she tried to keep him tucked away from the rain that ran off the roofs and the sewage that streamed down the alleys.

And then a free daycare opened up, and she took her son, and she got a cleaning job there; eventually, she took a free government training program in early childhood education and became a daycare worker. She got a better boyfriend, and then got off the street, and had two more children, but then the boyfriend turned out to be less good. But she managed to keep a tin roof overhead, in part with the help of a cash grant from government ($70 a month) that helped her keep the kids fed and in school, and then she got the house. It was a dark story with an unexpected happy twist, and Ms. Araujo giggled as she told it, and clasped her plump hands together for emphasis.

It was stories such as hers that had drawn me to Brazil. The whole world was looking at the country with new interest: powered by the commodity boom, Brazil had recently overtaken Britain as the world's sixth largest economy, and it was flexing new diplomatic muscle. It had won the hosting rights for the 2014 World Cup, and the Summer Olympics. And for me, there was a particular attraction: I came to Brazil after 12 years of reporting in sub-Sarahan Africa and South Asia, where I wrote dozens of stories about projects that were designed to end poverty and reduce inequality.

There were some successes - but in India, in particular, there were a great many failures.

This country had moved 34 million people out of poverty in a decade, the biggest such shift in modern history. It had posted record economic growth, yet government data showed that the gap between the rich and poor had shrunk - the first time that ever happened here. No one was critically short of food any more, so Brazil was removed from the World Hunger Index - and academics came from all over the world to study its conditional cash grant program that was helping push people, including Ms.

Araujo, above the poverty line. All of this made for rich reporting territory, and I dove in.

Had I known then what I do now, had I known more about which questions to ask, and of whom to ask them, I might have felt less cheerful.

In hindsight, the underpinnings of Brazil's bold new future were already showing deep cracks, back then.

In February of 2014, I wrote a first article about a sprawling graft scheme, introducing Globe readers to Lava Jato - "car wash" in Portuguese, the police code name of the criminal investigation that would come to be the dominant story of my time in Brazil. (It would result in convictions for politicians at every level of government, including former president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva; president Dilma Rousseff also became a casualty, when she was pushed from office in 2016 by lawmakers motivated in large part by anger that she had not done more to shut down the probe that slowly but relentlessly came after them.)

The economy began to contract in early 2015, hurt by a collapse in commodity prices and mismanagement by the Rousseff government, descending into what would become Brazil's worst recession in more than a century. GDP fell 3.8 per cent that year, beginning an erosion of the social gains of the decade before.

Much of the success in reducing poverty in Brazil was due to a sharp rise in the minimum wage (more than 100 per cent in seven years) and expansion in the manufacturing and service sectors - but now, those areas began layoffs, and by the time the Olympics came to town, the unemployment rate was more than 12 per cent. The economic decline fed the political uncertainty, and Ms.

Rousseff's opponents used the grim economic news to rally support against her until she was impeached in October, 2016. Just to round out that plague season, there was Zika - a once-mild virus that suddenly wrought devastation on fetal brains - and I travelled through Brazil's northeast tracking its spread in interviews with shattered young mothers.

Through all of this, Rio was hit particularly hard. The state of Rio had two major disadvantages: First, it drew half its budget from royalties earned from vast oil fields off the northern coast of the state. And second, it was cursed with a particularly venal class of rulers, even by Brazilian standards: You may recall, by way of example, an iconic photo of celebrating leaders, from the ceremony in Copenhagen when Rio was awarded the Summer Games by the International Olympic Committee? Every single one of the men in that photo - the president, Mr. da Silva, and the mayor of Rio, the governor of the state and all the others - is either now in jail, or facing corruption charges. In the years before the crash, they looted state coffers so thoroughly that when oil prices collapsed, there was nothing left.

Rio somehow managed to pull off a fine World Cup and a functional Olympics - but no sooner had the last tourists got on the plane than things began to fall spectacularly apart. Schools were shuttered, when the state stopped paying teachers and they eventually gave up going to work. Public hospitals turned away people seeking even essentials such as oxygen. And the public-security program - pacificacao - that was responsible for the atmosphere of hope and inclusion when I first met Maria Araujo was totally abandoned. First the social investments stopped, then police stopped getting fuel for their cars, and then they stopped getting paid. It took just weeks for the gangs who had been there in the shadows to step boldly out and reclaim the territory.

The deterioration could be felt all over Rio: There were shootings in the middle of the business district, shootings on the buses, shootings in the fanciest grocery store in town. But as always, the violence was worst in the favelas and other poor communities. Rio was averaging 15 shootings a day by the start of this year. In February, Michel Temer, the smug vicepresident who slid into Ms. Rousseff's former job, issued an extraconstitutional decree to put the military in charge security in the city. It was a nakedly political move - designed to provide a highly visible intervention that would placate middle-class voters, his base - without touching any of the causes of the violence.

There was no discussion about reviving the pacificacao program, of doubling down on investment in job training and education and service provision in the favelas.

The shooting didn't stop, and I was viscerally aware of just how much of it there was. I lived in a leafy, upper-middle-class neighbourhood. But it's a characteristic of Rio's geography and a legacy of its history that the city's richest and poorest, safest and most violent, neighbourhoods are often cheek by jowl. Wealth buys only a limited amount of insulation here. In September, 2017, there was a putsch against the gang boss who ruled Rocinha and a turf war broke out that resulted in raging gun battles up and down the hill that have simmered ever since.

The rattle of automatic gunfire echoes out over the beachfront apartments - and spills over into the streets around the favela.

My children attended Rio's American School, which is located in a wealthy neighbourhood called Alta Gavea - about 10 metres from a main entrance to the favela. The school has bulletproof windows and heavy metal security gates - and a policy of cancelling recess and gym classes on the sports fields whenever there is shooting over the road.

But my kids were coming home to report that math class had been drowned out by echoes of gunfire.

I realized one day that my 11-yearold could distinguish between the sound of firecrackers, small-arms fire and assault weapons. My older child was always drawn and anxious on those days; my younger one would shrug and say, "Today was a normal day," and I didn't know what was worse.

My daughter had adapted - to a degree that made me alarmed - but one does, somehow. I downloaded a pair of apps, so that I could check where there was a shooting, before I crossed the city.

We biked less, hiked less, didn't stay down in the old port area - the birthplace of samba - to dance until the predawn hours any more. I traded flurries of WhatsApp messages with friends and other parents from the school - where were there problems, where was the BOPE (the brutal military police), was it safe to go to the park? I was far less vulnerable than Ms. Araujo and her children, who had no high walls to hide behind in Rocinha, who had no choice but to venture out each morning, no matter what the apps showed, in order to hold onto precious jobs. But the anxiety - and the despair over the total lack of discussion of a solution - began to corrode my love for Rio, and made it harder to focus on the positive things that were still happening here.

There were some: Lava Jato, that graft probe that began as a minor money-laundering investigation, had ballooned to the biggest corruption case in the world, with prosecutors investigating more than $2-billion in bribes paid to politicians and oil company executives. Politicians from every party had gone to jail - including the men who had jockeyed to oust Ms. Rousseff in order to save their skins. The tawdry inner workings of the system of collusion between business and politicians that fuelled the country's politics for centuries had been laid bare. There was a watershed moment earlier this year when Mr. da Silva was convicted of accepting renovations on a condo in exchange for helping a giant construction firm win government contracts: The nation watched transfixed as Brazil's most popular politician was led into a prison by police.

The convictions were a testament to the growing strength and independence of the country's judicial institutions. And yet it was hard to feel too positive about proof the entire system was rotten. Brazilians took in the apparently never-ending series of revelations about the pillaging of the state funds that were meant to pay their teachers and stock their emergency rooms - by governors and senators who kept mountains of cash and gold lying around their lavish homes - and they often expressed a sort of resigned, angry despair, coupled with a fatalistic conviction the system would never change.

Those were feelings I could totally understand, but sometimes I would push back a bit, pointing out that many of the gains Brazil made in the best years - a surge in vaccination coverage of children, a rise in adult literacy, a healthy increase in the number of years kids stayed in school, a jump in the number of Afro-descendants who went to college - were not lost, despite the recession, despite the scandals and disillusionment with Mr. da Silva. To me, the most significant shift of the previous 15 years was the way that some of the iron hold that Brazil's elite had had on power and wealth and control had begun to slip - Mr. da Silva wanted to make poor Brazilians "citizens," and as their spending power grew, and with it their demands, they had changed a 500-year-old power dynamic.

And I would point to the historic decline in the level of inequality - that, I would say, was something that no amount of corruption could take away. Then, last December, I learned that even this was not what it seemed. While poverty fell in the boom years, no question, economists crunching newly released tax data discovered that inequality did not - in fact, concentration of income in the hands of the richest Brazilians actually increased. Instead of offering a salutary lesson in how to reduce inequality, I wrote then, Brazil turned out to be an illustration in just how devilishly difficult that is. The poor got a bit of the boom - but the wealthiest 10 per cent of Brazilians received the benefit of 61 per cent of economic growth. Last year, the Temer government attempted to slash its way out of the recession by cutting social programs, which disproportionately hurt the poor; at least four million people have fallen back below the poverty line.

Brazil's new social mobility proved to have been limited, and fragile.

The development nerd in me was fascinated by this story, but the part of me that had come to love Brazil was further deflated.

Then came the brutal assassination of Marielle Franco, the charismatic black, queer city councillor from Rio who embodied all the changes I admired here. The night after she was killed - shot five times in her car after a meeting with female Afro-Brazilian entrepreneurs - tens of thousands of angry, grieving people took to the streets in Rio. The march was largely silent, broken only by the occasional shout of "Marielle presente!", her trademark slogan, her way of saying she was showing up for the poor, for the favelados, for the victims of violence. It was haunting, and I had rarely sensed such collective despair.

From covering Ms. Franco's (still unsolved) murder, I turned to reporting on the presidential election; the first round of voting is Oct. 7. There was nothing to feel positive about here, either: Mr. da Silva was the front runner in polls - campaigning from his jail cell - until a month before the vote, when courts ruled he could not stand.

It was a harsh comment on Brazilian politics that the most popular candidate was a convicted criminal.

But the second-place candidate - who now leads the polls - is, if anything, more alarming: Jair Bolsonaro is a far-right career politician who openly praises Brazil's military dictatorship, and torture; who has repeatedly been investigated for hate speech for routine comments he makes about Indigenous people, Afro-Brazilians and queer people; who declared a fellow member of Congress "too ugly to rape." But he is the rare political figure who has not faced corruption charges, which wins him the support of some Brazilians, and he champions looser gun laws and giving the police the right to shoot to kill - it's a message that has proved ironically popular with people exhausted by the surge in violent crime, although police do plenty of killing already and rarely face consequences. Even more dispiriting than the presidential candidates is the roster of people running for other offices: Even as Lava Jato racked up convictions, Brazil's political elite continued to demonstrate their perceived untouchability: 79 per cent of members of the lower house of Congress, for example, are running for re-election, even though just 81 of the 513 members are not being investigated or charged in a corruption probe.

On my hike up to Ms. Araujo's house a few weeks ago, I passed spray-painted graffiti - Quem matou Marielle? Who killed Marielle?

- and I passed slogans championing Mr. da Silva's innocence. The entrance to the complex courtyard was nearly sealed off with mounds of uncollected trash; the sewage still streamed down through open gutters.

Inside Ms. Araujo's house, I saw she had made some of the renovations she was plotting five years before - putting in sleek white kitchen cabinets and a tile floor - but the couch was gone, and instead we sat on rickety plastic stools. She told me how she had left the crèche in frustration a year after I met her because the salaries started coming months late or not at all; the municipal government was, of course, broke.

She thought she would find another job, but domestic work was all she could get. She hated picking up after the spoiled twentysomething children of the family that hired her - "It's so humiliating, this work, but I needed a salary." She earns $375 a month, never enough to cover the bills, and she's looking for a weekend cleaning job. Her elder son helps - he is a water polo prodigy, a sport he learned at the new recreation complex built in Rocinha at the start of pacificacao, and the club he plays with gave him an internship that pays a bit. She lost her cash grant, and her son lost a bursary that was helping him study accounting, in the Temer government cuts. "People don't get opportunities today like we did back then," she said, referring to the da Silva years.

And on top of all of this, of course, is the violence. "We are in the crossfire all day long." Lots of her neighbours are fleeing, abandoning their houses on what is comparatively valuable Rio real estate, but she doesn't see the point. "Where can you go that it's better?" She pushes her younger son, who is 14, to study so he can try to do some sort of course after high school, but he is convinced that only a career as a pro footballer will get him out of Rocinha. At least, she said, she has the house.

When she had caught me up on the news, I got out an old notebook, the first I filled in Brazil, and I asked Ms. Araujo if I could read her back some of the things she said five years before.

"You told me then, 'We saw a lot of things that we wouldn't want to see again. I think things are going to keep getting better. I believe it. I didn't have anything - now I have a TV, a fridge, a bed when I used to sleep on the ground - I think things are getting better.'" She was quiet for a long time when I finished reading.

"I was really an optimist, back then," she said softly.

Before she let me out her door that night, Ms. Araujo poked her head into the courtyard, listening for any sign of trouble. She hugged me hard, told me God would be with me, and that I'd be just fine, once I got out.

Stephanie Nolen has been The Globe and Mail's Latin America bureau chief since 2013, from a base in Rio de Janeiro. This month, The Globe moves the bureau to Mexico City. Ms. Nolen will continue to cover the region.

Associated Graphic

Maria de Barros Araujo, a resident of the Brazilian favela of Rocinha, was one of the first people in Brazil Stephanie Nolen got to know as The Globe and Mail's Latin America correspondent there.

FRANCISCO PRONER/FARPA/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Rocinha residents, and military police occupying the favela, watch a Brazil match in the 2018 World Cup.

Five years ago, Rocinha held out hope that an innovative public-security program would challenge the influence of gangs.

Officers from the BOPE, the brutal military police, patrol in Rocinha.

Rocinha and other parts of Rio began to see rapid decline in their public hospitals and schools in 2016, as the public-security program that made them feel safer was abandoned.


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The town that pot rebuilt
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When the Hershey chocolate factory closed in 2008, Smiths Falls looked like another decaying, post-industrial Ontario town. Then two marijuana entrepreneurs arrived to save the sprawling facility from demolition. Ian Brown reports from what's become the centre of the (legal) pot universe
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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page B1

The newest social phenomenon in Smiths Falls, the hard-bitten Ontario town that's home to Canopy Growth Corp. - and therefore the centre of the imminently legal cannabis universe - is money shyness.

It's on display tonight at Matty O'Shea's, the most popular bar in town. That man at the end of the bar, for instance; he joined the Tweed Marijuana Company, as Canopy was known at the time, in 2014, just as the company got rolling. His first job was stuffing medical marijuana into pill bottles.

He bought stock options at $3.50 a share. He cashed them this week at $66 apiece. He's now worth between $625,000 and $2.5-million, depending on how many options the company granted him. But he won't say precisely, just as he won't give his name, because he's a workingclass guy in Smiths Falls and doesn't want to make his friends feel bad. He just bought a house - three bedrooms, garage, pool - for less than $200,000, which is something you can still do in Smiths Falls. He loves working for Tweed. (These days, Tweed is the licensed producer and distributor of cannabis; Canopy is the holding company in which shares are traded.) He's 39 years old.

Tweed moved to Smiths Falls in 2013, taking over the town's abandoned Hershey factory.

The plant had been one more tombstone in the cemetery of branch-plant capitalism in Canada.

But with weed about to become legal, Tweed now employs more than 700 people in the old chocolate plant and hires 20 to 30 more every week. All employees get stock options - that is, the chance to buy Canopy shares at a low price and sell them at (hopefully) a higher price within a six-year window.

As a result, there are now a lot of rich folks in town - something Skid Falls (as it used to be known in snooty rival Perth) is definitely not used to. The dream of a wealthy working class! A stirring thought in a time of income disparity! And yet, what is that faint shadow of worry crossing the brow of the man at the bar? What could possibly be the matter?

"I'm worried that I sold too soon," he says. That's the downside of the dream of affluence: its steady hunger. Needless to say, this isn't a problem anyone in Smiths Falls expected to have.

The centre of the cannabis universe is a pretty place - a classic Ontario mill town with ragged industrial edges. The average resident earns $33,776 a year. The median house price is $219,000. The population is almost entirely white and English-speaking. Ottawa's 40 minutes to the north.

The town's new slogan, Rise at the Falls, refers to a) the Rideau Canal, whose locks at Smiths Falls raise the Rideau River 50 feet, and b) the "rise" in fortunes Tweed has brought. The town's new logo, an S under a waterfall, looks like a dollar sign. It seems to be intentional.

Until Tweed came along, Smiths Falls was leftover scrap from the demolition derby known as late-stage globalism.

"We lost about 1,700 jobs in a town of 9,000," Dennis Staples, the mayor at the time, says today. "And it all happened within a four- to five-year period."

When Hershey Canada Inc. dumped Smiths Falls for new digs in Mexico in 2008, 550 people lost their jobs. But Hershey was just the crest of a wave of destruction. The Rideau Regional Centre, an institution for people with developmental disabilities, closed in 2009, and another 830 jobs disappeared. Stanley Tools laid down in 2008, and so did 175 positions; Shorewood Packaging folded 112 more in 2014. There were many others. The Lament of the Layoffs is a catechism long-time residents of Smiths Falls can recite from memory. RCA Victor Ltd., which pressed North America's Beatles records, closed an eon ago, in 1979 (350 jobs), but people still talk as though it happened last week.

The losses had an unsalutary effect on town life. Forced retirement became a way of coping; the average age today is a doddering 44. In 2016 - until Tweed began hiring everyone from farmers to chemists with PhDs - less than 10 per cent of the town had a university degree. Smoking and drinking in the surrounding counties still outpace provincial averages. The local mission serves 30 free lunches a day - 7.3 per cent of the population doesn't have enough to eat, although Smiths Falls is not unique in that. Yes, there are many signs of economic rejuvenation, including Arts & Science, a new Pilates and physiotherapy studio that opened last March. Still, it's next to the Money Shop, one of three pawn shops in the downtown alone. Three is a lot for a town of 8,780. Smiths Falls' transformation is so recent you can still see the ghosts of what was there before.

Bruce Linton and Chuck Rifici partnered up on the Tweed Marijuana Company in March of 2013 after Mr. Linton read in a newspaper that Canada's police chiefs were begging the government for clearer rules on cannabis. Both men had made money in Ottawa's tech boom. And both thought the licensed and regulated production of cannabis was the next big thing.

By late spring, Mr. Rifici was searching for a place to grow the stuff. He almost skipped Smiths Falls' collapsing Hershey hulk. Taking on a huge retrofit before Tweed had a licence was one challenge. He also promised his wife that the new pot factory would be less than an hour's commute from Ottawa.

The drive to Arnprior was only 20 minutes. The future weed kings were on the verge of taking over its 25,000square-foot Playtex factory - imagine that rebranding challenge - when Arnprior's town council got cold feet over zoning. "There was certainly stigma involved," Mr.Rifici recalls.

So Mr. Linton hired a consultant to find local small towns with big empty factories and bylaws that permitted agriculture and fabrication in the same space. Two candidates popped up: Long Sault and Smiths Falls. And Long Sault's building was a pipsqueak.

By late June, as the Harper government proposed to license the production of marijuana, Mr. Rifici was back in Smiths Falls, this time with Mr. Linton. There were so many lawn signs, Mr. Linton thought an election was under way.

They were For Sale signs. But nothing was selling.

The decrepit Hershey plant was owned by Icon International, a corporate barter company that wanted it demolished. Loath to see that happen, Mr. Staples asked the Tweed team to make a pitch to the Smiths Falls town council.

"Dennis had grey hair, a grey suit and was a tall, thin, disciplined-looking accountant," Mr. Linton remembers. "And I'm trying to convince this guy growing marijuana's gonna be a good idea? This is not going to go well."

But the mayor was convinced some town would grow marijuana on an industrial scale - and he wanted it to be Smiths Falls. He was the last councillor to weigh in. He talked about his brother, who had found relief in cannabis while he was dying of cancer. The council vote was a unanimous yes.

Tweed planned to occupy only a quarter of the Hershey plant's 500,000 square feet (which was spread over eight buildings) and promised only 100 jobs. "But 100 jobs was 100 jobs," Mr. Staples remembers. Knowing the building was otherwise slated for demolition, Mr. Linton and Mr.

Rifici and a group of investors were able to buy it for $1.6million. It was a steal.

The ownership group later sold the plant back to Tweed Marijuana for tax purposes, at Mr. Linton's insistence and over Mr. Rifici's objections, for $7-million. By then, relations between the co-founders were fraying. The following year, with his shares worth roughly $20-million, Mr. Rifici was fired by Canopy's board. The two parties are still countersuing each other - a nasty contretemps in which it has been reported that Mr. Rifici borrowed $300,000, secured against his share of the plant, from Chris Saumure and his father, two scions of Smiths Falls who own a construction and development company. According to Canopy, the loan threatened Tweed's control of the plant - and all it would eventually come to represent. Mr. Rifici's countersuit claims it did no such thing.

But that was all to come. In the meantime, Tweed needed $16-million just to start producing medical marijuana - a problem, given that its production licence wouldn't arrive until January, 2014. A licence to sell arrived in May, and the first gram went out the door on the fifth of that month.

The company grazed bankruptcy several times, particularly when the Royal Bank turned up its nose at Tweed's ganja business. "Call it corporate elitism, racism - whatever you want," Mr. Linton says. "It was a scramble. And it wasn't just for money. What about payroll? What about paying suppliers?" Or, to put it another way: What about the town?

At least 700 townspeople attended Tweed's opening.

Still, "it's a rather conservative town," says Leisa Purdon Bell, a curator at the Smiths Falls Heritage House Museum.

"I think that there was a little collective gasp: We're going from the chocolate town to the pot town."

But Mr. Linton saw how much Smiths Falls needed Tweed as he commuted in from Ottawa every morning through the town's bedraggled north end. "When I came in here about five or six years ago," he remembers, "I'd see people taking their kids out to get on their school bus. But the people were still in their pyjamas, with the smoke and the coffee, dressed to go back in the house. Now I see fewer parents like that, and so I see fewer kids coming home to a shit show, because Mum and Dad might be going to a job now." He likes to divide the town into eras: DH (During Hershey), AH (After Hershey) and now DT (During Tweed). "There's like these glacial cuts. If you cut the town, you can see them." Money is transforming Smiths Falls in multiple ways. Money can do that.

Amy Rensby, a former tech consultant in Ottawa, bought a Victorian mansion in Smiths Falls (for $240,000) a month before Hershey closed its doors. "People were losing their houses." Nowadays, prices are up at least 10 per cent, and Park View Homes, a local builder, has resurrected not one, but two new subdivisions. Some $3.5-million worth of building permits were issued in 2015; the total so far this year is $161-million.

"It has been very sudden," Ms. Rensby says. She's now working 70-hour weeks. When she opened C'est Tout, a French bakery and café - on the main drag of workingclass Smiths Falls, no less, complete with $12-a-litre artisanal kombucha - Mr. Linton told her it was a crazier idea than starting a cannabis company. But partly because Mr.

Linton refuses to open a competing cafeteria in the Tweed factory (employees can order from town), her business is up 70 per cent this year. Even the town's traffic is intensifying. When the 7 a.m. Tweed shift heads into work, you sometimes have to wait to cross the road.

Younger and better-educated workers have meant "more innovations, more idea creating." Ms. Rensby sees people jogging and biking - she never used to. This summer, Tweed sponsored Smiths Falls's first Pride parade.

More people turned out to watch than anyone predicted.

"If you had asked me five years ago if Smiths Falls would have a cannabis plant, I would have said: That's a crazy idea," Ms. Rensby says. "And if you said it'll have its own Pride parade, I would have said: You're even crazier."

But the development that best exemplifies the new striving fancy-pants Smiths Falls is Le Boat, a New Yorkbased travel company that leads tours on the great rivers of Europe. This summer, it began to sell week-long selfguided motorized cruises up and down - yes, the Rideau Canal! "The boats are specifically designed" - extra bumpers, stern and bow thrusters - "for people who have no boating experience," explains Lisa McLean, the company's North American marketing manager. "It's kind of like the best of Europe's cruising grounds, in one place." If that seems faintly breathless, that is precisely the mood in Smiths Falls these days: Anything's possible, baby. Ms.

McLean, who has herself happily moved to Smiths Falls, urges all her clients (a third are from Europe) to visit Tweed's new visitor centre. With time and luck, the world will flock to Smiths Falls for weed the way tourists travel to Dublin for Guinness and Vienna for pastries. Next sum-

mer's boat tours are already selling out.

The reception area of Tweed's rapidly expanding Smiths Falls headquarters resembles a very cool high-school cafeteria: pool table, high ceiling, constant music, free coffee bar, communal tables, incessant action. There is no dress code. Employees are free to "medicate at will" in the company's vape rooms, provided they have a prescription and don't drive heavy machinery. Security is relaxed because cameras are everywhere; video footage has been kept for two years. There have been no reported thefts. An apocryphal story is told of a trimmer in one of the company's 16 flowering rooms who shook resin onto his latex glove, then turned it inside out and dropped it into his pocket, only to be apprehended by the time he got to his car. But it is an apocryphal story, as the Tweed public relations people insist.

A huge new addition to the existing plant, slated for "advanced manufacturing," is under construction. Meanwhile, cultivation specialists waft in and out of reception in white lab coats and hair nets like a strange new life form: people having fun at work. The first tour through the new visitor centre last month was a busload of seniors from a retirement home. Tweed hopes to eventually draw 400,000 tourists a year, as Hershey did. The company store sells Tweed clothing and clever books (How to Smoke Pot) and an array of paraphernalia (including $600 vaporizers) and - as of next April, in keeping with Ontario Premier Doug Ford's new rules - actual Tweed weed.

A tour of the plant - the "mom rooms," white and bright like hospital nurseries, the sepulchral clone and vegetative rooms, the darkened flowering cathedrals, trimming and extraction, the teeming encapsulation room (where Tweed's technicians are figuring out how to standardize dosages, which makes cannabis easier for resistant doctors to prescribe - there, that big freezer bag on that dolly rumbling into the vault, that's $11,000 worth of cannabis in 2.5 milligram soft-gel capsules, four of those equal one Colorado gummy bear - a tour of the plant, as someone was saying, is undeniably thrilling but complicated to explain. You feel like Gulliver encountering a New World no civilized being has ever seen before, an entire community devoted to, of all things, cannabis. And yet, you sense the natives are onto something meaningful. The dedicated Constellation room, for instance, is teeming with clever researchers devising new ways to drink cannabis. (Constellation Brands Inc., the U.S. Fortune 500 liquor behemoth that owns Corona beer and Robert Mondavi wine, injected another $5-billion into Canopy last month, earning in return four seats on the board and stock warrants that, if exercised alongside further investment, will give it control of the company. The deal has been given the thumbs-up by shareholders and is awaiting approval from the federal Foreign Investment Review Agency.) Everyone moves with a sense of mission.

What accounts for the camaraderie? At Tweed, says Jordan Sinclair, Canopy's vice-president of communications, "there's a chance you're going to go home very rich. But there's also a chance that you're going to change the world." An early employee, Mr. Sinclair reluctantly admits that, at 36, he has done well enough by the company that he could, theoretically, retire. There's that money shyness again. But he has zero desire to retire. "I like to come to work." His new challenge is "normalizing cannabis around the world. When I travel to other countries" - such as Germany, only now developing a medical marijuana system - "it's like travelling back in a time machine. Canada's great as a training ground for that." In Tweed's preferred narrative, plucky Smiths Falls is the home base of that expansion.

Canopy has led the charge to legalization, capitalizing on investor euphoria all the way. What remains to be seen is how co-chief executives Bruce Linton and Mark Zekulin and their village of enthusiasts manage the day-to-day slog of running a multinational conglomerate. Canopy operates 12 factories and greenhouses in seven provinces and has operations in 12 countries, including the U.S., where this week it became the first company to import Canadian cannabis for research purposes. Canopy has spent $250million on the Smiths Falls crown jewel alone. As of October, the company was worth $14.4-billion on the stock market. Mr. Linton's share is said to be $180-million.

Canopy's revenues, on the other hand, were a teensy $77.9-million in fiscal 2018. And they produced a net loss of $70.4-million. How long can that go on? And what will it do to those employee-motivating stock options?

If you hang around the buzzing reception hall of the Tweed plant long enough, you eventually run into Bruce Linton. He tries to get back to Smiths Falls two days a week, when he isn't travelling and touting Canopy and Tweed.

Short and blond with the build of a farm-fed hockey player, he looks younger than his 53 years. He's pathologically energetic, gets 200 e-mails a day (he has abandoned voicemail) and hardly ever stops talking. Listening to Bruce Linton answer a question is like sitting in a helicopter and watching rush-hour traffic converge on a huge city from every conceivable direction: Your only choice is to wait and hope that one of the cars makes it downtown. He doesn't finish sentences so much as keep starting them until he finds one he can work with. He never stops travelling. On historic Oct. 17 - legalization day - he'll start his day in St. John's, N.L., where Canopy has a big operation, sell the first-ever legal gram of recreational cannabis in Canada (based on the time zone), then hop on a chartered jet to Smiths Falls to celebrate the end of prohibition with his staff and townspeople. Plans to continue on to Toronto for a blowout with cannabis industry pioneers are now under review. Note that Smiths Falls is the centrepiece of the day.

Today, he is granting interviews to The New York Times, NBC, NPR and CNN. To that end, he is wearing a blue tweed sports jacket. It's 30-plus degrees outside, and he's melting, but he knows the value of a brand. The media have always been drawn to yakky Bruce and struggling Smiths Falls.

It's that old underdog dream again, the plain-talking fellow and the hard-working town that finally get their due and strike it rich by breaking the rules. Not that Mr. Linton is so sentimental. "They were curious because it was a taboo topic with an easy access point," he says. "And the easy access point is we just put a ton of pot science in a chocolate factory. You want to understand why the Oompa Loompas are so happy? We'll tell you in a few years" - a reference, of course, to Willy Wonka's tireless workers in Roald Dahl's novel Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.

Lately, Ms. Rensby observes, there has been talk around town that Tweed, too, may one day pull a Hershey and split Smiths Falls. "It's unusual to have any industry stay in a town for any length of time," Mr. Staples, the former mayor, points out. "Twenty-five years would be great."

Twenty-five years is a long time. But a town that has most of its eggs in one basket worries a lot about the basket. The prospect of cheap outdoor cannabis grown in hot countries such as Colombia could threaten Tweed's Canadian margins (although, Mr. Rifici says, not for at least a decade). Constellation Brands, the American giant, may one day care as little for Smiths Falls as Hershey's head office in Pennsylvania did. Inco decimated Sudbury. Massey Ferguson dumped Brantford. The list of betrayals is endless.

Mr. Linton dismisses these fears out of hand. He had to dilute the company's shares and expose it to takeover, he says, so the company (and therefore the town) could expand after Canada's chartered banks snubbed him. As to the distant threat of Tweed leaving Smiths Falls to produce more cheaply elsewhere, "that pattern does occur. But the fly in the ointment on this topic is the United Nations narcotic control act." The treaty ensures that each country can protect itself, and thus its own production of cannabis, from imports. Mr. Linton insists the UN treaty won't be abandoned in his lifetime.

As prudent as it may be to consider him a potential traitor to the town because he's a capitalist running a public company, the reality is that he cares more about Smiths Falls than a hard-nosed bottom-line CEO probably should.

He's thinking of buying two properties downtown - one of which would become a much-needed first-class hotel.

He backs the town's Santa Claus parade. Tweed's local charity golf tournament raised more than $240,000 this year; last year, $25,000 went to the local Big Brothers Big Sisters organization - surreptitiously, so no one could accuse the weed company of trying to convert kids. (Even so, the organization's board debated the issue for months.) He's spending $50,000 on a 400-foot mural for the outside wall of his weed factory, but instructed the Toronto-based artists to give it "the texture of Smiths Falls." The company has a Thanksgiver program - free turkey in return for food bank donations - and used to do something called Frydays, born of Mr. Linton's love of takeout Chinese food. (It goes without saying that there are three ChineseCanadian restaurants in Smiths Falls.) "But then it became chaotic. You start trying to order Friday lunch for 200 people." He is nothing if not a pragmatist. He spends every penny he can in Smiths Falls. He even patronizes Mr.

Moustache, the local barber, which may explain his protomullet.

"I worry about everything about the town," he says, shortly before heading home to his wife and kids for the first time in three days. "I worry about, like, everybody here. When they go home. Who's paying for the gas in their car. Who's paying for their house. So you want to make sure you're doing this right in the beginning."

Alas, now that legalized weed is a fact in Canada, Mr.

Linton admits he will have to spend more time overseas, spreading Canopy's and Canada's cannabis footprint.

Meanwhile, the weed business is becoming ferociously competitive, and easy money is harder to find. At Tweed, the romance of hyping cannabis will yield to more mundane managerial issues. You will remember that Willy Wonka had to learn, in the course of Mr. Dahl's story, to care more about people and less about his magical product. Now that Mr. Linton has turned his personal touch to the rest of the world, Tweed - and therefore the town of Smiths Falls - may have the opposite problem.

Associated Graphic

A worker stands in front of cannabis plants at Tweed, a licensed producer and distributor of marijuana, in Smiths Falls, Ont., in September. PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A worker operates a machine among storage containers at Tweed. At the company's rapidly-expanding Smiths Falls headquarters, employees are free to 'medicate at will' in the company's vape rooms, provided they have a prescription and don't drive heavy machinery.

Trucks park in front of an area of Smiths Falls where new housing development is taking place. The once-stagnant Smiths Falls economy has been rejuvenated by the jobs Tweed has brought to the town.

Canopy's chief executive officer Bruce Linton, seen at Tweed's visitor centre, has said now that marijuana is legalized, he will have to spend more time overseas, spreading Canopy's and Canada's cannabis footprint.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, October 10, 2018 – Page B18

MICHAEL JOHN BRADY

Passed away peacefully at home on October 5, 2018, with his beloved husband and partner, Donald Scott by his side. Side by side for 40 years, they shared a multitude of adventures travelling the globe together and enjoying their family and friends at home in Toronto. Michael's quick wit, inquisitive intellect, sardonic humour, culinary talents, reflective and articulate travel blogs and partiality for finding the perfect purchase will be missed by the many people in his large and eclectic circle of loyal friends.

He was a man of many talents, interests and accomplishments.

During his years building the Harbourfront Camps, Michael introduced Toronto to Circus Camp and demonstrated the unique benefits of teaching circus skills to all ages. He spent many years working for the YMCA, both in administrative roles and direct work with youth. His passions were travelling, writing, reading, cooking, cycling, new discoveries and then expounding and reflecting on all of these. He was a fascinating combination of the intense intellectual with the jovial jokester. He was a dedicated reader of the likes of Marcel Proust, Wittgenstein and Emily Dickinson.

Michael grew up in the east end of Toronto with a large and rambunctious family who had more fun than money. As a result, he loved the finer things in life and was a proud collector of fine art, vintage books, antique toys and other treasures, but most of all finding any of these at a yard sale or thrift shop at half the price.

He was the devoted son of the late Mel and Dorothy Brady, dear brother of Allen (Violet), Susan (Louie), Sheila, Norine, Jim (Kim), Diane and (the late) Nadine, a proud father to Georgia and Harper and uncle to many nieces and nephews.

Being a friend of Michael's ensured that life would never be boring. He will be sorely missed by his many friends and family.

As expressions of sympathy, donations to either Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation at thepmcf.ca or YMCA of Greater Toronto at ymcagta.akaraisin.com, would be appreciated.

A Memorial Tribute for Michael will be held at the Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Rd., Toronto (east gate entrance, north of St. Clair) 416-485-5572, on Saturday, October 20, 2018. The Chapel opens at 11:30 a.m., with the service starting at 12:30 p.m. sharp. A reception will follow. For online condolences, please visit http://www.etouch.ca "Because I could not stop for Death- He kindly stopped for me- The Carriage held but just Ourselves - And Immortality."

Emily Dickinson MAUREEN ELIZABETH FISHER

February 4, 1931 October 6, 2018 Maureen passed away peacefully and comfortably at Margaret Bahen Hospice, in Newmarket, ON, with her family at her side.

Born in Windsor, ON, to Honorah and Dr. Terrence Robert, Maureen trained at St. Joseph's Hospital in London, ON, in Nursing.

In 1958, Maureen and Richard began their long and wonderful marriage in Toronto, ON. Much loved Mother to Shannon (Peter), Susan, Terry (Tammy), Martha (Bill) and Matthew (Maria). Adored Grandmother of Alexis, Geoffrey, Kate, Eliza, Rachel, Sheila, Liam, Kieran, Anthony, Alaina, Charlotte, Christian, Olivia, James, Daniel, Michael, Madeleine and Jack.

Maureen loved life! She was passionate about her family and her beloved friends. Her varied interests included gardening, travel, curling, tennis, playing any and all games and many types of crafts. She volunteered tirelessly for years for Canadian Cancer Society and Sunnybrook Hospital.

The Fisher family is very grateful for the wonderful and compassionate care provided by the doctors, nurses and caregivers involved, during Maureen's illness.

Maureen's visitation, funeral and reception will all be held at Chapel Ridge Funeral Home, 8911 Woodbine Avenue, Markham, ON. The visitation will take place Friday, October 12th from 2-4 p.m.

and 7-9 p.m. The funeral will be held on Saturday, October 13th at 12 noon, followed by a reception for friends and family.

In lieu of flowers, the family requests that donations be directed to Margaret Bahen Hospice, Covenant House or Canadian Cancer Society.

Online condolences may be made at http://www.chapelridgefh.com

GEORGE JACKSON MCKIEE (Jay)

Peacefully, and surrounded by family, at the Norfolk Hospital Nursing Home on October 8, 2018, Jay McKiee of Simcoe in his 88th year. Survived by Jocelyn McKiee, mother of Jane McKiee Cowan (Scott) and Jackson McKiee. Loving husband of the late Irene McKiee (2014) mother of Janet Pepper (John Frederick) and Jim Pepper (Veronica). Cherished grandfather of Nick Cowan and Morgan Cowan. Jay is survived by his brothers, Reid McKiee (Janiss) and Nelles McKiee (Carole), for whom he was much more than just an elder brother. He was predeceased by his parents, Marian and Jack McKiee; and sister, Christie Jackson. He leaves behind numerous nieces and nephews.

Although Jay and Irene enjoyed extensive travels together, Simcoe and Norfolk County were his heart and home. In 1995, McKiee & Farrar Limited celebrated 100 years of insurance service to the community, 35 of those years under Jay's leadership. Jay felt an intense sense of gratitude for the support he received from the community and in turn felt an obligation to give back. A man both generous and practical, he was never hesitant to support a worthy cause. Jay saw value in leading by example for the benefit of others. Some of his many contributions include Lighthouse Theatre, rebuilding Simcoe Composite School gymnasium after a crippling fire, St. Paul's Presbyterian Church, Lynn Valley Trail Association and preservation and restoration of Simcoe Courthouse. Of all of his philanthropic endeavours, perhaps the most important to him was establishing the Marian McKiee Memorial Scholarship Fund in honour of his mother to reward and support academic excellence as well as the Irene McKiee Bursary Fund to both honour Irene's contribution to McKiee & Farrar and promote business skills development for qualifying students at Simcoe Composite School.

Throughout his life, Jay was equally generous with his time.

Scout Master, Treasurer of Oakwood Cemetery, lifetime member of Rotary including past president and Paul Harris Fellow, member and past president of the Simcoe & District Chamber of Commerce, Probus, past president Norfolk Community Foundation, and lifetime member Norfolk Historical Society, to name a few.

Jay was honoured by the Norfolk Community Foundation and awarded the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal, both in 2012. Jay had many personal interests. He was a fount of knowledge about the history of Simcoe and Norfolk County. Largely self-taught, he loved to engage in conversation about local, provincial and international affairs. Jay was a keen card player, especially cribbage and bridge, an avid golfer in earlier years and always an ardent fan of the Raptors and the Blue Jays (in fact, of any kind of birds).

Friends are invited to visit with the family on Friday, October 12, 2018 from 10:30 to 11:30 a.m. at the Ferris Funeral Home, 214 Norfolk St. S., Simcoe (519-426-1314) where Jay's memorial service will follow at 11:30 a.m. Reverend Mikal Schomburg officiating. Private family interment at Oakwood Cemetery, Simcoe.

The family wishes to thank the staff of Norfolk Hospital Nursing Home who provided Jay with extraordinary care and compassion during what turned out to be the last few weeks of his life. In lieu of flowers, the family suggests donations be made to the Marian McKiee Memorial Scholarship Fund, the Irene McKiee Bursary Fund (administered by the Norfolk Community Foundation) or to St. Paul's Presbyterian Church.

Online condolences may be made at http://www.ferrisfuneral.com.

RICHARD GEORG E MEECH

April 23, 1954 - September 29, 2018

There are no words that can capture the heartache of watching a starlit person slip through your fingers.

Richard George Meech was a humble, handsome, Harvardeducated man, full to the brim with heart, humour and grace.

Driven by passion for wisdom, for the inner spirit, and for the elevation of the soul, Richard was enraptured with the great mysteries of the universe, the wonder of its garden planet and the sacred nature of all beings.

Blue eyes twinkled when he woke and never stopped. In every moment and every encounter there was curiosity and joy. His mastery was the art of living.

Richard's colleagues couldn't wait to embark on new projects, new adventures with him. He led bike trips through Europe decades ago that participants are still talking about - how can one forget gleeful, madcap, toga-clad dips in the Trevi Fountain?

Three years ago, after many successful years as a cuttingedge producer/director of documentary films, Richard moved from Toronto to Salt Spring Island, B.C., with his loving partner of 24 years, Kathryn Jill Rigby.

They started new lives. Changed their priorities. Conceived passion projects that ranged from saving orcas to healing the planet. Between them, there were no limits to what could be accomplished.

But a routine prostate biopsy on Wednesday, September 26, resulted in urosepsis and within 48 hours, the light of many people's lives was extinguished.

Immediate family, Susan Meech and Craig Miller of Toronto; Sarah/ Sally Meech and Kurt Hanzlik, Dubai; Peter Meech, Los Angeles; and Nan Meech and Sava Tatic´ in Prague are all in disbelief.

Adored nieces, nephews and in-laws, Maddy and Nathalie ´ Hanzlik-Meech; Rade Meech-Tatic; Tom, Wendy, Kenzie, Olivia and Keegan Rigby of Toronto; Penny, Peter, Tom and Anna Lydon of Winchester, U.K.; Sally Rigby, Katie and Stephanie Donaldson of West Vancouver, B.C., will never forget their playful uncle and cherished brother-in-law.

Joan Stewart Rigby Clarke, 89, lived for laughter-filled visits with her treasured son-in-law. Richard's own beloved mother Carol Meech suddenly passed away just weeks ago on September 12th.

Decades-old friends are bereft.

New island friends are at a loss.

A fuller obituary will be published at a later date.

A Celebration of Richard's life will be held in Toronto in December.

Details will follow.

Condolences, photographs, memories may be forwarded to family members at meechandrigby@gmail.com.

JAMES STEPHEN MERRETT (Steve)

Aged 86 of Burnaby, BC passed away peacefully after a 5-year struggle with Congestive Heart Failure on Tuesday, October 2, 2018. Steve was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba on December 15, 1931 and was preceded by his wife of 48 years, Victoria Ludmilla (Jakimowich). He was a loving father to his daughter, Anne (Carol); son, Joe (Kimberly); and his grandsons, Oliver, Justin, and Connor.

He had a wonderful career as an economist in the transportation, oil and gas industries. He loved the fine arts and was a renaissance man who was always socially ahead of his time.

In lieu of flowers, please send a donation to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Special thanks to the wonderful staff at the George Derby Centre for their loving care and support.

DONALD WILLIAM PATERSON

August 30, 1932 October 8, 2018 It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Don.

Don's warm and kind personality and beautiful smile will be greatly missed. Don will be forever loved and missed by his loving wife Marilyn (Terry) and his children.

Kimberley Winger and dear son in law Timothy Winger, Timothy Paterson, Stephanie Paterson, Michael Ferriman, and Matthew Conboy. His dear grandchildren Thomas Baker, Roberta Baker, Emma Paterson, Ryan Paterson and William Conboy. Dear brother Joe and sister in law Barb and brother in law Fred and Sharon Conboy.

Don's love of sports included in the early days playing for the Leaside Lions. Then to St Andrews where he played basketball with a passion. He was also the head cadet of his school leading his squad to top spot.

Western Business School was his choice for his very successful future. Sunset cruises in the Hacker Craft was a daily event. Family and friends, BBQ's and his beloved dogs filled his days.

A funeral service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) at 1 p.m. on Friday, October 12th. If desired, donations to Hospice, Huntsville in Don's name would be greatly appreciated. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through www.

humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

RUTH BERNICE REYNOLDS

Peacefully, on October 5, 2018 in her 91st year.

Predeceased by her loving husband, Douglas (2005). Will be sadly missed by her daughters, Sue Lattik and Marianne Highwood (Charles); her sons, William (Mary Jane) and Richard (Paula); her grandchildren, Kate, Jonathan, Elizabeth, Louisa, Shannon, Hayley, Emily, Adam and Joshua; and greatgrandchildren, Lincoln, Leon, Kendall, and Beckett.

Friends will be received at the Ward Funeral Home, 2035 Weston Road (north of Lawrence Ave) Weston on Tuesday, October 16th from 10:00 a.m. until service time in the chapel at 11:00 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Alzheimer Society or Canadian Cancer Society would be appreciated by the family. Please visit our Book of Memories at http://www.wardfuneralhome.com.

DR. JAMES CUNNINGHAM RITCHIE

July 20, 1929 - October 3, 2018

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Dr.

James Cunningham Ritchie on Wednesday, October 3, 2018 in Goderich, Ontario surrounded by family. Dr. Ritchie was predeceased by father, Alfred; mother, Mary; sister, Margaret; and wife, June. He leaves behind three children, Ian (Claudia), Grant (Donna), and Joyce (Rudie); as well as three grandchildren, Derek (Anita), Jennifer (Trevor), and Logan (Renée).

Professor Ritchie was born in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1929 and was educated at the University of Aberdeen. He received his Doctorate in Botany from the University of Sheffield in 1955. In 1954, he immigrated to Canada to pursue postdoctoral work at the Jardin Botanique de Montréal and the University of Manitoba where he was subsequently given his first academic posting.

His fieldwork saw him immersed in boreal ecology; literally, as his canoe broke up in the Caribou River and he was marooned in the Arctic with graduate student, Gordon Johnston, for four weeks prior to being rescued. Indeed, Professor Ritchie's career was marked by high adventure and research in a multitude of locations including the Soviet Union, Sahara Desert, New Guinea, Australia, and, most predominantly, the Canadian Arctic.

Following his time at Manitoba, Professor Ritchie moved to Professorships at Trent University, Dalhousie University, and, finally, at the University of Toronto. It was here, in 1999, that he was awarded the W.A. Johnston Medal of Honour in recognition of his extraordinary career in Quaternary Research. He was the first Canadian paleoecologist to receive the Honour.

In retirement, Professor Ritchie and June moved to Somerset County in England where they shared a life of leisure, hill walking, and travel with family and close friends. They enjoyed many vacations back in Canada to visit family and former colleagues, of particular fondness was rising early to help Joyce with chores on the farm and walking the dogs.

In light of his passing, family and friends lose a great father, a wonderful friend, and a giant of the scientific community.

However, it is certain Professor Ritchie lived a life full of adventure and laughter and left all those who knew him better off.

SUSAN BEATTIE STEVENS

September 28, 1940 October 7, 2018 Born to Cora and Newell Beattie of Arnprior, Ontario, where she lived with her beloved, sister, Jane, until her education took her to the University of Toronto. There she earned an Honours Bachelor of Arts and Master's degree in History. Susan was a passionate artist; painting scenes of life and portraits of those she loved; a founding member of the Pineau Painters; a creative cook who hosted the most fun and festive family dinners; and a talented seamstress who crafted award-winning Halloween costumes and prom dresses.

Loving and devoted mother of Kate, Tom, Caroline, and Elizabeth, she so appreciated the love and support of her sons and daughter-in-law, Dana, David, and Cindy. Her greatest joys later in life were her eight grandchildren: Penelope, Oliver, Lucas, Imogen, Addison, Sebastien, Sophie and Rebecca.

Deepest thanks to the dedicated and kind women who cared for Susan during the most difficult years of her long illness: Lola, Tina, Jackie, Carmen, Miss Delta and Miss Joyce. Susan passed away at home in Montreal with those who loved her at her side. Her strong spirit and dry sense of humour will be deeply and eternally missed. Visitation will be at Kane & Fetterly Funeral Home, 5301 Decarie Blvd., Montreal, QC, on Saturday October 13th, 2:00 5:00 p.m.

In lieu of flowers please consider a donation to Covenant House, https:// http://www.covenanthouse toronto.ca/homelessyouth/Home.aspx.

Condolences at http://www.kanefetterly.com

JOAN AGNES TRUDEAU (nee Shannon)

Surrounded by her loving family, on Sunday, October 7, 2018, in her 83rd year. Beloved daughter of the late Arthur and Carmelita Shannon (nee Walsh). Devoted wife of 56 years to John. Dear mother to Liz Knuude (Mike), Joanne (Mark Hamill) and John.

Cherished Nana to her greatest legacy, Carolyn. Dear sister to Sr. Theresa Shannon RHSJ, Sr.

Rosemary Shannon CND, Eleanor Shannon, Ken Shannon (Lorraine), Tom Shannon (Mary Catherine); predeceased by brother, John Shannon, (survived by his wife, Mary). Also loved by the Trudeau Family, Jeanne O'Connor (Michael), Cecilia Loubert, Mary Dinan (David), Jamie (Marilyn); and predeceased by Cletus and Edward Plata and Doris and Albert Bunton. Loved by many nieces and nephews.

Joan was born on the farm in Plainfield, Ontario on September 30, 1935. Her education lead her to an early career with the Ontario School for the Deaf and the opportunity to meet her husband, John. Joan was down to earth, gracious, generous and caring, with innate wisdom and good taste and an infectious sense of fun that attracted hosts of lifelong friends. Together, John and Joan created a life filled with world travel, adventure and an undying commitment to family and their community. Joan was ever generous and compassionate, volunteering her time and passion to many, as evidenced by her commitment to St. Michael The Archangel Parish and The Catholic Women's League. In lieu of flowers, and in recognition of the warm and compassionate care provided by the staff of the BGH Emergency Department, ICU and Sills Wing 3rd Floor, kindly support the BGH Foundation or the St. Michael's Building Fund.

Family and friends are invited to visit at the Burke Funeral Home (613-968-6968), 150 Church Street, Belleville on Thursday, October 11, 2018 from 1:00 p.m.

until 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m.

until 8:00 p.m. A Mass of Christian Burial will take place at St. Michael The Archangel Roman Catholic Church on Friday, October 12, 2018 at 10:30 a.m. Reception to follow the Mass at St. Michael's Parish Center. Online condolences welcomed at http://www.burkefuneral.ca.

JANE SIMPSON W ELCH (Penny) (née Coyne)

Died in Toronto on October 5, 2018 after a fall. Lifelong partner and wife of the late Dr. Robert Hamilton Welch, beloved mother of Tom (Anne Lambert), Jim (Hélène Quesnel), the late Sarah (Ed Geller) and Margo and adored grandmother of Emily, Jackson, Brennen, Julia and Philippe. One must include among her "family" generations of Coyne cousins, Welch nieces and cousins and many, many dear friends.

Penny was born in Hamilton in 1922, the only child of Henry Everyll Bowes and Marjorie Simpson Coyne. She attended Strathallan School and later St.

Hilda's, Trinity College, U of T, where she graduated with a Fine Arts degree, class of 4T4.

Throughout her life she was devoted to family, engaged with community groups and causes and immersed in a rich social life. She loved history and was the family archivist. She loved poetry, art and theatre. She was a volunteer and leader with St. Michael's Hospital, Bond Street Nursery School, Solar Stage Theatre Company and the Museum of the History of Medicine, during which time she co-authored the book "Nurturing Yesterday's Child". Since 1958, summers were spent with family and friends in PEI at Arden Cottage, a home she cherished.

Wise, emotionally strong, insightful and wickedly funny, at 96 Penny was in possession of a better memory than all of us - which she used to add colour and meaning to every conversation. Engaging with Penny you experienced all of this and felt her warmth and sincere interest in you and what you were doing... there is someone you must meet, something you should know, a book you should read! Beautiful and stylish, a vibrant dresser, she loved parties - hosting and attending.

She enjoyed a daily cocktail of gin (on the rocks, no tonic, with a slice of lemon, please ... dear).

To the end she expressed optimism, confidence and verve.

She lived life to the fullest and inspired all who knew her to do the same. A service will be held at 2 p.m. on Friday October 12, 2018 at Rosedale United Church, 159 Roxborough Dr, Toronto.

In lieu of flowers donations may be made to the International Conservation Fund of Canada icfcanada.org


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Entertainment's by-products: The consequences of the surge in true-crime content
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The genre has been a quiet mainstay in popular culture arguably for millenniums, but in the wake of This American Life's wildly popular podcast Serial, it has become a dominant, seemingly inescapable force in our culture. However, behind the stories are people whose lives were forever changed by the crimes that took place
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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page R8

It was as if someone stopped the music in the middle of a party.

In the fall of 2014, millions of people suddenly found themselves gripped by a new addiction: Serial, a podcast from the creators of the popular public-radio program This American Life, was investigating the 1999 murder of a Maryland highschool senior named Hae Min Lee.

Every Thursday morning, another episode would drop online, raising more questions about the guilt of Lee's ex-boyfriend, Adnan Syed, who had been sentenced to life plus 30 years for the crime. Listeners would gobble up the instalment and then hit discussion boards to parse the tantalizing new clues, a cacophonous flock of amateur Philip Marlowes chasing a real-life mystery.

But in early November, someone purporting to be Lee's brother posted a beseeching note in a Reddit forum dedicated to the show, scolding fans that their entertainment came at the expense of someone else's trauma.

"TO ME ITS REAL LIFE," the note read. "To you listeners, its another murder mystery, crime drama, another episode of CSI. You weren't there to see your mom crying every night, having a heartattack when she got the new[s] that the body was found, and going to court almost everyday for a year seeing your mom weeping, crying and fainting.

You don't know what we went through. Especially to those who are demanding our family response and having a meetup ... you guys are disgusting. SHame on you. I pray that you don't have to go through what we went through and have your story blasted to 5mil listeners."

For a brief time, some listeners stopped partying and chewed over the note. Then, the music started up again. By the time the 12th and final episode of the show's first season dropped in late December, each instalment had been downloaded an average of 3.4 million times, for a total of 40 million downloads. By June, 2017, the total was 175 million and climbing.

Still, that plaintive cri de coeur and others like it haunt a genre that is in the midst of an extraordinary efflorescence. Entertainment based on true tales of crimes has been a quiet mainstay of popular culture for centuries. (Millenniums, if you count Cain and Abel.) But now, fuelled by social media, shifting tastes and new technologies that enable almost anyone to become a podcaster, true crime may be the dominant genre of our time.

Serial's success sparked dozens of true-crime podcasts - last week, seven of the top 10 shows on the U.S.

iTunes chart belonged to the genre - joining a wave of similar programming across other electronic media.

Two U.S. cable channels are now all crime all the time. In September, this year's Emmy for best limited drama series went to the FX network's American Crime Story (the Gianni Versace edition). Later this month, Netflix will launch the sequel to Making a Murderer, the 2015 series that spawned a steady flow of crime docs on the service. At the second-annual CrimeCon event last May, more than 3,000 aficionados gathered in Nashville for three days of bloody delights that included a live DNA-collection demonstration, crowd-sourced cold-case investigations and a panel of Dateline: NBC hosts discussing their favourite cases. Even the Weather Channel is jumping on the bandwagon with Storm of Suspicion, about forensic meteorologists who investigate connections between crimes and weather events.

But behind those giddy thrills are gutting stories of psychological harm, of families and communities left irreparably shattered. Fans and those who produce true-crime content often speak about the care that is taken to ensure victims' stories are told with respect; they will note that those left behind often find it therapeutic to think that the death of their loved one might spur a change in, say, law-enforcement practices or domestic-violence laws.

Yet it is also a fact that many families - known in the profession as secondary victims - are retraumatized when the stories of their loved ones are plucked from the case files without their consent, to become grist for the entertainment mill.

And as the industry continues to expand, searching ever wider for the raw material to feed fans' evidently insatiable hunger, it needs to grapple more forcefully with that black hole at its core: Harm as a by-product of entertainment may be the true cost of true crime.

There is perhaps no more piquant measure of our collective obsession with reality-based crime stories than the fate of the U.S. cable network known as Oxygen. Launched in early 2000 with the backing of empowerment queen Oprah Winfrey, the channel initially offered uplifting programs for women such as the yoga-centred Inhale and the financial-literacy show ka-Ching.

Later, it joined the wave of realityTV broadcasters.

But last year, after seeing ratings steadily increase for its handful of crime shows, and noting that women comprise 80 per cent to 90 per cent of the audience for such content, Oxygen pivoted fully to the genre, with specials such as The Disappearance of Natalee Holloway and Dahmer on Dahmer: A Serial Killer Speaks joining its long-time franchise about homicidal women, Snapped.

The network's logo, originally a calming pastel blue, is now a yellowand-black riff on police caution tape.

An executive with NBCUniversal, which bought the channel in 2007, told The Hollywood Reporter that its female viewers get a kick out of being "armchair detectives ... they are trying to solve the mystery or the crime as it's being revealed to them. Something we have seen that our audience loves is the playalong."

"People say that, on a first date between a man and a woman, a man is worried about being embarrassed and a woman is worried about being killed," notes Daryn Carp, a co-host of Oxygen's alcoholsoaked Martinis & Murder podcast.

True-crime programming has a "protective" effect for women, she says. "The more that they know about [crime] and the more that they feel comfortable with it, it puts it into a scope that they're able to handle."

Audiences are responding: Oxygen claims it is the fastest-growing entertainment network on U.S. cable, with total prime-time viewership up 16 per cent this year.

The channel's strategic shift came after prestigious outlets such as HBO and the public-radio stalwart This American Life re-established the genre as worthy of critical praise, with the miniseries The Jinx and Serial, respectively. Truman Capote had already achieved this in the mid-1960s with In Cold Blood, his account of the brutal murder of a Kansas family that he called a "nonfiction novel" (and which was subsequently criticized as more of the latter than the former). In 1979, Nor-

man Mailer became the first author to win a Pulitzer for the genre - albeit in the fiction category - with The Executioner's Song, his tale of the murderer Gary Gilmore. But over the years, true crime had fallen on hard times, becoming chiefly the province of kitschy network fare such as NBC's Unsolved Mysteries.

Still, changes in the culture had been priming the pump. "The past two decades, the post-9/11 era, where we have to take off our shoes to get on an airplane because bad things might happen - there are not a lot of places you can go to feel secure," notes Kevin Flynn, an author who, with his wife, Rebecca Lavoie, co-writes crime books and co-hosts the podcast Crime Writers On....

"There's a growing anxiety about whether we're safe in our own homes and whether we're safe in our own families."

Yet Serial demonstrated a different kind of hunger, showing that audiences were eager to engage with the messy reality of the world as it exists - that is, beginning to acknowledge the biases and other flaws baked into the justice system - rather than merely gorge on one after another prime-time gloss, in which a brisk narrative arc resolves itself by the final commercial break.

Flynn says he's noticed a telling shift in the types of stories that people want to consume. "When I started writing books about true crime, the formula was: The cops do the investigation and the bad guy gets his comeuppance," he said in a recent interview. "And now, the pendulum has swung completely the other way. People now want stories about where the criminal-justice system breaks down and where people have been wrongly convicted. And just, cold cases that are open and there's no resolution to them."

With its new embrace by highend outlets, "true crime went from being a tabloidy thing into something more sophisticated," notes Lisa Gallagher, the director of the Toronto True Crime Film Festival, which premiered its inaugural edition in June. "The audience has always been there, but there are so many more people willing to say [they like it] out loud."

Inexpensive podcasting software means that anyone can feed that growing appetite. In January, 2017, Kristi Lee, a Burlington, Ont., mother of two who works in marketing, launched Canadian True Crime, a podcast that takes deep dives twice a month into this country's most notorious cases, from serial killer Paul Bernardo to the 1989 massacre of female engineering students at Montreal's École Polytechnique.

She now claims about 100,000 regular listeners.

"Podcasting is the rare [media] space where literal independents like me - you know, busy mums recording in walk-in closets - are competing with established companies, all on the same playing level, with the same access to the audience," she said in an interview.

Similar technological innovations have enabled everyday fans to offer their opinions on cases, weighing in with their expertise (or lack thereof) on message boards or social media.

Still, Lee sees her show as "really honouring the victim and the survivors." At one point, working on an early episode about a domestic homicide in the Maritimes, she noted that a relative of the woman who was killed had been in the media trying to raise awareness of spousal abuse, so she approached him to be a guest. But he had stopped giving interviews and was, she said, "triggered" by her contact. She scrubbed the episode.

Professional journalists generally agree that subjects who have suffered trauma should be cautioned about the possibility of an interview inducing more harm.

In producing the new CBC podcast Uncover: Escaping NXIVM, which has been in the top five in North America since its release in early September, journalist Josh Bloch spoke with former members of the suspected cult, some of whom alleged physical and emotional abuse. One woman explained that she could only speak with him in the evening because, she said, "'After I do an interview about this I can't do anything else in the day. I'm done. Like, I'm totally spent.' That's a case where I understood that the consequence of my interview was going to be some kind of harm to her, and at the same time what I heard her telling me was, 'I'm conscious and aware of what that harm is going to be. I know what I'm getting myself into. I still want to do it.' " Not everyone seems as attuned to the potential consequences of their actions. For years now, the popular U.S. podcast Sword and Scale has been constructed largely out of 911 calls, broadcasting to a wide audience the most traumatic moments in people's lives. But one episode last year went over the line even for some regular listeners: Host Mike Boudet played a chilling call from 2008 in which a 14-year-old boy breaks down in tears watching his father stalk his mother with a gun before killing her and then himself.

During the show, Boudet gave the boy's name and the street where the murder took place. According to one online report, after the nowgrown-up boy learned of the episode, he and other family members complained to the host over social media; Boudet, who has a prickly online persona, allegedly responded abusively. (He did not respond to two e-mailed requests for comment from The Globe and Mail.)

But even when individuals agree to participate in true-crime coverage, they may not realize how little control they have over the outcome.

In July, 1978, 19-year-old Eric Wilson set off alone in a Volkswagen camper van from his home in Ottawa's Rockcliffe Park, bound for a summer course in Colorado. A few days into the trip, he picked up a pair of hitchhikers who robbed and stabbed him and left him to die by the side of the road. When his family didn't hear from him, Eric's older brother, Peter, set out with their father to retrace his route and try to raise the alarm with local police forces; the authorities seemed uninterested, suggesting that Eric was "just another missing kid" who would no doubt show up soon.

He didn't. The family paid $50,000 to a private investigator, and in May, 1979, Eric's body was found in a ditch. A drifter by the name of Raymond Hatch was arrested in another state while driving Eric's van, but police there seemed indifferent to the murder case. So, in early 1980, hoping to apply pressure on the authorities, Peter sent a letter to the CBC's the fifth estate, suggesting there might be a good story there.

They agreed. That summer, Peter accompanied a CBC crew on the road, working as an unofficial, unpaid consultant to producer John Zaritsky, offering him advice on whom to interview and what questions to ask. Zaritsky felt the best way to bring the story to life was through the then-novel form of reenactments - soon to become a staple of the genre - so Peter ended up playing himself on camera, questioning police officers and others as he pretended to look for his lost brother.

"The re-enactment was extremely painful," Peter Wilson recalled recently, in an interview with The Globe. "Going for the first time to the place that he'd been murdered was extremely difficult." Still, that fall, he sat in on the editing of the piece and watched it take shape as a feature-length documentary. When Just Another Missing Kid aired the following April, "It was cathartic," he says. "I really felt it made a difference. People were outraged. It really moved people, and not just because of the loss of an innocent, but how fundamentally lazy and inept the whole justice system was, and how apathetic."

Zaritsky felt there was still more to tell, and he began work on a book, with Wilson's input. And then, at some point, he told the Wilson family that the CBC was selling the film rights to a Hollywood producer.

(The corporation's division known as CBC Enterprises was then boosting efforts to commercialize its intellectual property.)

The family was floored: They hadn't been consulted on this, never mind given it a green light. "I had been stolen from," says Wilson, adding that he objected to the loss of control rather than the loss of income. "The most intimate personal story of my life had been usurped by the CBC. [Their position was] they owned it. They owned Eric. They owned his death. They owned my family's efforts to find out what happened to him. It was as if it was fiction they had created."

Ruth Palmer, an assistant professor of communications at IE University in Segovia, Spain, and Madrid said in an interview that people who find themselves in the middle of a news story frequently feel exploited by journalists. "Our stories, especially when we're the protagonists in them, are precious to us. They're our experiences, they have implications for our identity and our reputation," she said. "And especially if you have to deal with the [negative] consequences of your story going public, you feel you should get the benefit."

Last month, a CBC spokesperson said it would be difficult to comment on Peter Wilson's allegations, considering how much time had passed. "And while we can't speculate about decisions made by others 35 years ago, the senior management team in place at the time would have undoubtedly considered many variables before making the decisions they did."

The family sued CBC and Zaritsky; things got progressively uglier.

When the film won an Academy Award for best documentary feature in April, 1983, Zaritsky mentioned Eric Wilson in his acceptance speech, but pointedly neglected to acknowledge the family. The next day, Peter Herrndorf, then head of CBC English Television, scrambled to issue a news statement thanking them. In the end, to preclude a potentially sensationalist film being made from their story, the family sold their own film rights to Ron Howard (A Beautiful Mind), whose company produced a TV docudrama on the case, starring Ellen Burstyn, called Into Thin Air. The CBC objected. There were demands for the family to hand over the $52,000 they had been paid for the rights.

At one point, the family was trying to prevent Raymond Hatch from being granted parole, and asked the CBC to send material back to them about his violent past which Peter Wilson had helped gather; Wilson says they refused to do so. (News reports at the time corroborate his story.)

No book or other movie was ever made, and Zaritsky and Wilson, who had become good friends during the production of the documentary, have never again spoken to each other. Last month, Zaritsky told The Globe that he had been saddened by the turn of events, especially since he'd never had any influence over CBC's attempt to sell the film rights, anyway. "It was really unfortunate," he said. "I was sorry that things got bad between the two of us - over, really, business matters.

Typical Hollywood stuff, unfortunately."

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY BELLE WUTHRICH


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Alan Young saw prohibition ruin good people's lives. Now, legalization will make some of the architects of that tragedy rich, while leaving its victims behind. Have we learned anything?
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By ALAN YOUNG
  
  

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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page O1

Alan Young is a professor emeritus at Osgoode Hall Law School and co-founder and former director of Osgoode's Innocence Project.

I started practising criminal law in 1984. I felt relieved that I was not starting my career within the dystopia of repression and fear prophesized for that year by George Orwell. However, I quickly discovered that the war on drugs had reached a fevered pitch by 1984, and that this futile war was fostering repression and a slow movement toward the Orwellian society of rampant state surveillance. Cannabis was still being demonized as the "smoke from hell" and billions of dollars were being wasted manufacturing cannabis criminals out of ordinary, lawabiding and productive citizens.

Orwell's prophecy may have been just a literary vision, but as a young lawyer, it seemed to me that only in a world of science fiction could a plant become public enemy No. 1.

Not long after my career began, I was counsel in a case involving a large-scale conspiracy to import hashish. One of the accused, Rosie Rowbotham, a well-known advocate for cannabis reform, had not made bail owing to previous cannabis convictions and he sat alone in the prisoner's dock. One day at trial, the Crown entered a large brick of hash as an exhibit and, as is customary, the exhibit was passed to the defence lawyers and their clients for inspection.

The Crown continued with his examination of a witness until he stopped in the middle of a question to advise the judge that "Mr.

Rowbotham is ingesting the exhibit in the prisoner's dock."

In his continued and relentless defiance of the law, he ate the hash to send a message and make the day in court more enjoyable. As Rosie flashed a Cheshire grin, with specks of brown hash on his lips, the other cannabis conspirators filled the courtroom with uproarious laughter. But the laughter was short-lived. There is nothing funny about criminal law. As the song goes, "I fought the law and the law won," and everyone involved in the conspiracy went to jail, with Rosie being sentenced to 18 years as the ringleader.

I have seen many good people destroyed by our punitive drug war. I have seen long years wasted in prison for harmless pot crimes; families torn apart, with children being seized from potsmoking, caring parents; young men beaten while being arrested for smoking a joint in public spaces; model workers being fired from jobs for private lifestyle choices; and homes razed, and homeowners shot, during aggressive police raids. Indirectly, we were all harmed by this war, as billions of dollars were diverted away from the pursuit of true predatory criminals. As a civilized society, Canada has spent far more money on drug-law enforcement than on the investigation, enforcement and prevention of serious crimes of violence. The war on drugs made us less safe and secure.

While people are still healing from the ravages of this war, the tables have turned and, in a few days, everyone of age can get legally stoned. Licensed cannabis producers, drug stores, provincial governments, labour unions, marijuana dispensaries and aggressive stock brokers all want a share of the legal market. Casting a dark shadow over this emerging new market is the sinister irony that former police officers and other public officials, who were responsible for sending thousands to jail in the past for selling pot, are now poised to make millions for doing the very same things as the people they busted.

The government should be handing out pardons to the cannabis criminals and not licences to those who hunted these socalled criminals.

How did we get from the scary days of 1984 to the Green Rush of 2018? The historical record is a testament to the stupidity and mendacity of government. With little fanfare, marijuana became a prohibited substance in Canada in 1923. Even though it had been used for sacramental, medicinal and recreational purposes for 10,000 years, when Parliament decided to criminalize marijuana use, few members of Parliament had even heard of this drug. In fact, in 1923, few Canadians were using it and, until the explosion of the counterculture in the 1960s, there were only a handful of recorded convictions for the use or sale of marijuana. After 95 years of chasing the cannabis criminal, we have seen consumption of marijuana skyrocket, with an estimated four million Canadians indulging in this "vice," despite the presence of our draconian criminal sanctions.

In order to justify the inclusion of marijuana as a prohibited substance in the 1920s, public officials and media representatives were required to construct an outrageous "dope fiend mythology" to frighten the masses and convince them that they should look to the government for protection. Judge Emily Murphy, the first female judge in Canada, wrote in her book The Black Candle (1922) that "persons using this narcotic ... lose all sense of moral responsibility. ... While in this condition they become raving maniacs, and are liable to kill or indulge in any form of violence to other persons, using the most savage methods of cruelty."

Similarly, Maclean's magazine reported in 1938 that marijuana could "send a large proportion of the Dominion's population to the insane asylum." Most of the hysterical claims made by state officials and media representatives were driven by racism and xenophobia. It was widely believed that all intoxicating substances, except alcohol, were being used by immigrants and visible minorities as a weapon to destroy the purity of white society.

Although there are few people today who believe this hyperbolic drivel, there still remained a sense among Canadians that Parliament would not retain the prohibition unless there existed some significant danger from marijuana use. However, evidence of significant danger simply did not exist, yet the government continued to spread falsehoods in support of its policy.

The fabric of Canadian society is not now, nor had it ever been, in peril as a result of many Canadians freely choosing to intoxicate themselves with this mild psychoactive substance; when I was doing defence work in 1984, however, government officials often told courts that my clients should be punished harshly as their actions did threaten the fabric of our society. We clearly have far more to fear from problem drinkers than we do from stoners who zone out to Pink Floyd; but throughout the years of my career, officials spread the false gospel that we have more to fear from pot smokers than potbellied beer drinkers. The government is complicit and responsible for knowingly spreading misinformation to support a failing war. Government used science as a tool of propaganda and intentionally fuelled a moral panic to justify huge fiscal expenditures purportedly designed to wipe out marijuana use.

It is not entirely clear why the government changed its tune in the past few years. Both federal and provincial officials still project some doom and gloom when speaking of marijuana use, but this is a far cry from the rabid and hysterical claims made just a few years back. What changed?

Twenty years ago, I predicted that cannabis would be legalized when governments and corporate entities came to understand the untold monetary treasures to be reaped upon legalization, just as large-scale gambling was legalized in the late 1980s to reap billions of dollars in tax revenues. Money is a key component, but this is only part of the picture. Based on my personal experience, I saw other factors enter the equation. For the past 25 years, out of a sense of personal and professional outrage, I have worked to change our archaic legal approach to marijuana and, having little faith in the political process and its partisan posturing, I turned to the courts. From my perspective, there were three significant legal or judicial events which paved the way for legalization and a renaissance in cannabis culture. I had the honour and privilege of being able to initiate all three events.

The first significant event was a successful constitutional challenge of the "drug literature" prohibition in the Criminal Code in 1995. This law prevented the sale of any literature that advocated or promoted illicit-drug use. For decades, the government had controlled the (mis)information about cannabis and, with the fall of this prohibition on expressive freedom, cannabis advocates could re-enter the marketplace of ideas. Magazines such as High Times and Cannabis Culture flowed into the market, as did grow books and scientific and political publications, which all called into question the wisdom of government policy.

The second event was a 1997 constitutional challenge to the marijuana-possession offence.

The challenge was dismissed, but more significantly, the headlines in most mainstream newspapers highlighted the trial judge's finding that "marijuana is relatively harmless." Although the law survived this challenge, there was finally an affirmation from a nonpartisan public official that the government had exaggerated and distorted the risks associated with the use of marijuana.

The third significant event was a series of cases, between 1998 and 2000, which established that marijuana had therapeutic value, and that the law violated the constitutional rights of patients by preventing them from accessing this medicine under threat of punishment. As a result of these medical cases, the government was compelled by judicial decree to allow patients, and their designated caregivers, to grow their own.

When the dust settled on these three legal events, the fabric of Canadian society had changed. Pro-cannabis literature abounded, the state-sponsored mythology of harm was eroded and consumption rose to millions, with tens of thousands of people legally growing their own marijuana. The plant went from being demonized to normalized and cannabis culture moved from the underground to the mainstream. The government no longer controlled the discourse and the state was finding it increasingly difficult to justify its policy and expenditures in support of this failing policy. So, in 2003, a Liberal government under Jean Chrétien proposed depenalizing marijuana possession (i.e., no jail but still exposure to arrest and a criminal record), but quickly abandoned this halfbaked reform when the Americans threatened to tie up trucks at border crossings.

Although our government was scared away by American intimidation, this did not stop the rapid expansion of cannabis culture in Canada. Like Starbucks popping up on every street corner, numerous medical and recreational dispensaries could be found in most urban centres. Online sales skyrocketed and master growers flooded the market with newly hybridized strains.

The police lost their enthusiasm for enforcing the cannabis laws as they had bigger fish to fry, and they simply could not keep up with the growing numbers of pot consumers and producers.

Even though it was clear the government was losing the war on cannabis, in the late 2000s the Conservative government under Stephen Harper tried to resuscitate this dying policy. All talk of reform was replaced by talk of minimum sentences and tougher laws. But then American states, starting with Colorado and Washington, legalized and the U.S. federal government did nothing. Suddenly, the world could change because the United States was willing to change.

Without fear of American threats and retaliation, there was absolutely no reason for us not to move down the path of legalization. But Canada needed to put an end to the Harper regime to move in this direction.

This happened in 2015, when Mr. Harper was ousted and legalization became more than a pipe dream. Moral panic was replaced by market planning. This much we know, but it remains less clear what the underlying rationale and objective was for the Liberal government under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau in overturning a 95-year-old mistake. There are three basic types of justifications for a government decision to put a legal stamp of approval on previously condemned behaviour.

First, there can be a personal justification. If politicians were potheads, the law would have changed years ago but, even though some, or many, have partaken, none had the courage to admit to inhaling. So it is clear the law did not change because our elected officials cherish good kush.

Second, there can be a principled justification for legalization - that people have the right to make autonomous and independent choices with respect to mind-altering substances. I subscribe to this principle, and although it needs further elaboration to be coherent, there is no reason to elaborate because this was not the basis of the Trudeau government's decision to legalize. On the road to legalization in the past few years, no one has talked about autonomy and the right to make fundamental decisions of a personal nature without paternalistic state intervention. So it is also clear the law did not change on the basis of the principle of maximizing liberty and autonomy.

The Trudeau government's decision to legalize clearly falls into the third category of justification - pragmatism or utilitybased thinking. There is nothing glorious about this way of thinking. It is a simple cost-benefit analysis. It is just the government throwing in the towel on the basis that it believes it is no longer worth the time and expense of waging a failing war.

The cannabis world had overgrown the government and it was time for the government to concede defeat. To sweeten the pot of pragmatism, the government was also highly motivated by the alluring revenue projections and the hope of stimulating the economy. I may find the pragmatic and corporate underpinnings of legalization to be crude, and a far cry from my vision of decriminalized Dutchstyle cannabis cafés, but I am elated that Canada has become an international front runner in overturning the American-driven war on cannabis. Nevertheless, reliance upon a crude economic justification for changing a law which in the past has destroyed lives leaves the government with some conceptual conundrums it has failed to address.

The government lost the war and it is trite to say that usually the spoils go to the victors, not the losers. In this case, the government remains steadfast in its belief that it bears no responsibility or accountability for the damage done to the manufactured cannabis criminals. The government has declared an armistice without conceding that a mistake has been made and without acknowledging that marijuana is, indeed, "relatively harmless." The government sees no shame in continuing to disseminate discouraging and negative information about marijuana while seeking to profit from the sale of this product. If marijuana is safe enough to enter the legal marketplace of available intoxicants, then the government should admit it made a mistake and pay reparations.

The first form of reparation should be an automatic pardon for every Canadian with a criminal record for cannabis possession. Now that the government is reaping an economic benefit from pot it should have the decency to erase the stigma it placed on people in the past, which in many cases would have limited these people's economic opportunity. I am shocked that this does not appear to be on the legislative agenda accompanying legalization.

The second form of reparation is more in the nature of a plea for rationality and forbearance from repeating the mistakes of the past. Under the Trudeau government's pragmatic form of legalization, the criminal law will still be applied to those who are not licensed. In many ways, this looks like the state using the criminal law to erase the competition. Those who will continue to live in the underground market cannot be considered criminals solely for running the very same business operations now being sanctioned and exploited by the government and corporate Canada. Being in possession of more than 30 grams of cannabis, and making small-scale sales, will still be considered criminal acts in our "legalized" world, but in a regulated legal market, these activities should be considered akin to fishing without a licence.

Once a government gives the legal seal of approval to an activity, it then loses the moral right to condemn and criminalize the renegades who operate without a licence.

I could go on to discuss other conceptual pitfalls and problems with our government's law-reform efforts but I do not want to rain on the parade. I do bemoan the fact that pot has gone mainstream and may be losing its countercultural allure, but it is more important to celebrate the fact that a significant step has been taken in the rectification of a tragic mistake. This mistake cannot be fully rectified, however, when the government continues to criminalize inveterate cannabis users who will refuse to abandon their old ways after Oct. 17, 2018.

Many will not abandon their old ways if the corporate takeover of cannabis cannot produce good pot. For this legalization experiment to truly succeed, the corporate world has to unite with the underground world. This has yet to happen seamlessly and I worry that the Canadian model of cannabis legalization will lead to a marketplace of mediocre marijuana. Earlier this year, I was asked to provide my opinion on the quality of 12 different strains being produced by six different licensed producers. I was shocked to discover that only two of the 12 strains were good enough to compete with blackmarket pot, and six of the 12 strains had a mothball taste that rendered the pot so noxious it was impossible to smoke. This is not an auspicious start.

I applaud the government's effort to do the right thing and am also personally gratified that I played a small role in this change. Sadly, after all the fighting and all the sacrifices made in the past by those who loved the plant, I am left wondering whether our legacy will be to have left cannabis culture in the hands of a corporate world that does not know how to get Canadians high.

Associated Graphic

Left: A man smokes marijuana during a rally advocating legalization on Parliament Hill in April, 2012. Right: An employee sorts through harvested cannabis plants at Hexo Corp.'s facilities in Gatineau in September.

REUTERS

Tuesday, October 16, 2018
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Thursday, October 11, 2018 – Page B19

PAUL ANTHONY FITZPATRICK

Our family is heartbroken to announce the sudden, unexpected passing of our dearly beloved Paul. A father, son, brother, uncle, nephew, and friend.

Paul leaves behind his cherished children, Katherine and Aaron, of whom he was so proud. Paul will be forever loved by parents, Eugene and Christine; sister, Lynn (Phillip); brother, Kevin (Amber); nieces and nephews, Mason, Maggie, and Tessa; aunt, Muriel Madigan (predeceased); and uncles, Larry Fitzpatrick, Alan Thomas, and David Thomas (predeceased). He will be missed by cousins, David, Theresa, Susan, Colleen, Lizanne, and Alexandria.

In the 1980s prior to doing his MBA, Paul created a software business, starting with shareware, originally called APS, right at the beginning of the internet boom.

For twenty years he suffered the results of a badly performed, unsuccessful laser eye treatment that caused him constant pain.

He travelled all over the world seeking a solution. Finding none, his suffering ended abruptly on Saturday, October 6, 2018 at the age of 54.

His life passions were his children, his family, his music, walks on the beach, his pets, golf, carrying the Olympic Torch, technology, cycling and skiing with his loving children, Katherine and Aaron.

Cremation has taken place. A Funeral Mass will be held at Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church (19 Viewpoint Ave, Hamilton) on Friday, October 12, 2018 at 11 a.m.

Reception to follow in the parish hall. Burial will then follow at 1:30 p.m. to Mt. Hamilton Cemetery (Rymal Road).

In lieu of flowers, donations to CNIB or Covenant House Toronto in Paul's memory would be appreciated. Online condolences can be made at http://www.dermodys.com.

VALERIE CLARE INCH

November 16, 1929 October 6, 2018

Passed peacefully, surrounded by loved ones at Hospice Simcoe, after a courageous battle with cancer. Predeceased by Donald, her beloved husband of 57 years (2011). Daughter of the late Clarence and Ruby Graham, Valerie will be sadly missed by her five daughters, Kathy (John), Patricia (Halorie), Connie (Kelly), Donna (Audrey) and Susan (Andy). Proud grandma of Ashley (Kevin), Erin, Brendan, Megan, Graham, Emily, Jonathan, Connor and Kieran. Predeceased by her sister, Glenna.

The family would like to take this opportunity thank the staff and volunteers at Hospice Simcoe for their compassionate support.

Friends are invited to celebrate Valerie's life in the SteckleyGooderham Funeral Home Lounge, 30 Worsley Street, Barrie from 2-5 p.m. on Saturday, October 13, 2018, with words of remembrance at 2:30. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations to Hospice Simcoe or to St. Mary Magdalene Anglican Church (Dorset) would be appreciated by the family.

Condolences may be forwarded via http://www.steckleygooderham.com.

BRONIS JACKA (Bruno)

September 27, 1923 (Panevezys, Lithuania)

October 8, 2018 (Collingwood, Ontario)

In his 96th year, Bruno passed away on October 8, 2018, in the company of his family. Renata, his wife, best friend, and partner of 59 years, passed away in 2006, also in Collingwood, with Bruno at her side.

Born in Panevezys, Lithuania to mother, Eugenia (1883-1945) and father, Pranas (1881-1925), Bruno's siblings were Pranas (1915-1947, Siberia), Stephanja (1918 - 1992, Lithuania), and Adolfas (1921-1983, Lithuania).

Bruno, a very gifted student of a widowed mother left school after the 6th grade but continued learning with vigour. He worked as a carpenter and farmer in Lithuania. He carried these on in his love of gardening and his wonderful skill with woodwork and construction.

With the outbreak of World War II, Bruno enlisted and served in the army with bravery.

He met the love of his life while delivering mail in post-war Germany. After a whirlwind romance, he and Renata married and moved to Wawa, Ontario, Canada in 1947. Bruno hired on with Algoma Ore, beginning in the depths of the Helen Mine. He trained to drive a 'uke', and then gained his electrician's diploma.

Bruno started a construction business in Wawa and built and wired many houses and motels.

Bruno and Renata moved to Blenheim, in southern Ontario, in 1965, where they bought the Golden Acres Bowling Alley. Over the next 25 years they built it into a major fixture of the community, and both Bruno and Renata were recognized for their years of service to the community.

They retired to Collingwood, Ontario in 1993, and became vital members of the Mission of the Good Shepherd in Wasaga Beach, building both the physical church and its community. Bruno was also active in the Legion of Collingwood and in the Knights of Columbus, Collingwood chapter.

Bruno loved to hunt, fish, and garden but was also an avid reader and very sharp on current events. Most of all though, he loved his family, and he loved his dear wife. He now rests with her.

He leaves behind his loving daughters, Regina (Nepean, Ontario) and Monica (Stittsville, Ontario); son, Michael (Sandra, Edmonton); and precious grandchildren, Evan (Edmonton), Mark (Edmonton), and Lindsay (Edmonton).

Special thanks to Dr. Jesse Guscott, nurses Lisa and Chantal, and all the staff at the Collingwood General and Marine Hospital whose kindnesses were so appreciated in Bruno's last days. Special thanks to Lynn, Mike, Carol, and Duda. And many thanks to all the friends that Bruno touched in his very full life. He was loved by many and will be missed by all.

God Bless.

Visitation will be held at Fawcett Funeral Home, 82 Pine St.

Collingwood on Thursday, October 11, 2018 from 2-4 and 7-9 p.m.

Funeral Mass will take place at Lithuanian Martyrs' Church, 2185 Stavebank Rd., Mississauga at 11 a.m. on Friday, October 12, 2018.

Interment at St. John's Lithuanian Cemetery. Friends may visit Bruno's online Book of Memories at http://www.fawcettfuneralhomes.com.

WALTER CHARLES JONES

June 25, 1928 October 5, 2018

Passed away peacefully at the Michael Garron Hospital in Toronto on Friday, October 5, 2018 at the age of 90 years, surrounded by his loving family. Beloved husband of Dilys; predeceased by his first wife, Phyllis.

Walter was a special father and grandfather and will be greatly missed by his children, Lynda (Danny) and Stephen; his stepchildren, David (Lisa), Janice (Gabe), Lise (John) and Meryl (Daniel); and grandchildren, Paul (Shirley), Jennifer (Cory), Jacob and Emma, always reminding them "don't take any wooden nickels." He will also be missed by his cousins, Lillian, Beverley, and Doug in Windsor, Ontario.

Walter spent his entire 40year career at Aetna Canada (Excelsior Life), starting as a young underwriter and ending there as Vice-President. He was a kind, gentle, ethical and generous man. He was very active in East York, serving as Chair of the Toronto East General Hospital Foundation Board and the Hospital's Board of Governors, President of the East York Kiwanis Club and President of the Don Mills Provincial PC Association.

Walter was a life-long Anglican and was fully engaged in the life of the church. He was a proud former President of the Anglican Young Peoples Association (AYPA) and travelled across Canada, visiting young Anglicans from Newfoundland to British Columbia. He was an active volunteer for over 30 years at the Michael Garron Hospital (formerly Toronto East General Hospital) and cherished his time volunteering as the pianist at the ecumenical services in the long-term care unit.

Walter was a voracious reader and was known to have three or four books on the go at any given time.

He loved politics, history, music, a good martini and anything Welsh, and was always up for a spirited debate with family and friends.

A long-time member of The Toronto Hunt, Walter played golf with the "Royal and Ancients" just a few days before he fell ill.

The family wish to thank the staff of the B3 unit at Michael Garron Hospital for their skills and caring during Walter's short stay. Funeral Mass will take place at The Church of St. Jude (Wexford), 10 Howarth Avenue, Scarborough, M1R 1H4 at 10.30 a.m. on Saturday, October 13th.

Visitation will be at the Church from 9 a.m. Donations in Walter's memory may be made to St.

Jude's (Wexford) Anglican Church or the Michael Garron Hospital.

PETER MUIR PARTRIDGE

Passed away suddenly and unexpectedly at home on Thursday, October 4, 2018 at the age of 76. A loving husband to Janet (nee Burgoyne) for 50 years; beloved father to Peter W. (Poppy Gilliam) and John; cherished Poppa to Tobias, Chase and Daxx; and devoted brother to John (Jean) of Calgary and Susan of Kingston and their families. He will be fondly remembered by his sister-in-law, Harriet (John) Lehnen and their families. Peter is predeceased by his parents, John and Margaret; and brother-in-law, Henry Burgoyne.

He grew up in Kingston, Ontario and followed his love of music to London, England, to further his education. He studied at the Royal Academy of Music, was the Music Master of Westminster School and was also assistant to the Organist at Westminster Abbey from 1961 - 1964. While there he played the Battle Hymn of the Republic at a memorial service for John F.

Kennedy that was broadcast to every country in the world by the BBC. He also played at the Royal Wedding of Princess Alexandra and Angus Ogilvy. Peter returned to Canada in 1964 to accept the Director of Music position at Ridley College in St. Catharines, where he taught for 5 years. In February 1970 he accepted a position as a stock broker with AE Ames, a predecessor company of RBC Dominion Securities Inc.

where he has worked for 48 years, serving as both a VicePresident and Portfolio Manager, and was looking forward to his 50th anniversary with the firm.

Deeply involved in serving and supporting his local community, Peter was the Director of Music and Organist from 1970-97 at St.

Paul St. United Church (Silver Spire), he founded the first choir at Brock University called the Brockenspiels in the mid 1960's, he was Past President of the Ontario Choral Federation, Past President of the St. Catharines Symphony, a Board Member of Community Concerts, the current treasurer of the Canadian International Organ Competition, and past Chairman of the Royal Canadian College of Organists. Peter had a radio show for 10 years on CKTB called an Invitation to Good Music.

He served 2 terms as a Brock University Trustee (2004 - 2010) and was named a Trustee Emeritus in 2016. When Rodman Hall was taken over by Brock in 2003 Peter was named the Chairman of the Rodman Hall Advisory Board, a position he still held. He has conducted the annual downtown Christmas Civic Carol Concert since its inception 27 years ago. In 2012 he co-chaired Major Giving for the United Way Campaign with his son, Pete, and has supported the Brock Wrestling and Brock Men's Basketball programs for many years. The men's basketball team dressing room was renamed the Partridge Family Locker Room after the family's contribution allowed for it to be completely renovated in 2016. In 2013 Peter played an integral role as the Fundraising Chairman of the new Performing Arts Centre in downtown St. Catharines. He and Janet made a transformational gift of $1 million dollars and the largest of the four stunning performance venues proudly displays the name "Partridge Hall". In 2017 he donated a practice organ at Westminster Abbey and subsequently was invited by Prince Charles to a dinner at Buckingham Palace to celebrate the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Galleries at Westminster Abbey.

Above all else, he had an unbelievable zest for life, he loved his family and friends, coming into work everyday, the summer cottage, classical music and opera, world travel, his 5:15am daily workouts at the YMCA, fine food, wine and cars, laughter and he loved his city, St. Catharines, and passionately wanted to make it a better place. He will be forever missed. Cremation has taken place. Visitation will be held at the George Darte Funeral Home, 585 Carlton St., St. Catharines on Friday, October 26th from 4 - 8 p.m. There will be a Memorial Service on Saturday, October 27th at 11 a.m. in Partridge Hall at the FirstOntario Performing Arts Centre, 250 St. Paul St., St.

Catharines. Memorial donations may be made in Peter's honour to United Way Niagara, or to the Partridge-Gilliam Fund (through the Niagara Community Foundation) which supports local children's charities.

On-Line Guest Book http://www.georgedartefuneralhome.com

COL (RTD) JACK SANTARELLI WWII

November 21 1924 October 9, 2018

Colonel Santarelli was born in Toronto on November 21, 1924 and died peacefully in Belleville on October 9, 2018, joining his wife of 65 years, Joyce, to whom he was deeply devoted. Son of the late Carlo and Ellen Santarelli; he was predeceased by sisters, Norma, Ruth; and brother, Donald.

He leaves behind his beloved daughter and best friend, BarbaraJo, who gave him a lifetime of pride and joy. As well, he leaves behind his son-in-law and friend, Bob Clute; his grandson, Rob, of whom he was very proud; Rob's devoted wife, Angela; and his three great-grandsons, Connor, Pierson, and Keaton, who brought him such joy.

Jack had a distinguished 35-year military career in the RCAF and had over 6000 hours of flying duties. He crashed twice due to engine failure, once in England and once in Burma, with no loss or injury to any of his crew members. While in Burma, he completed a tour of operations with 435 squadron. Later, he also completed several trips on the Korean airlift with 426 squadron.

Jack is a graduate of the Military College and the Nato Defence College in Rome. While stationed in Halifax, he served as Military Aide to the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. Following, he was appointed Commanding Officer of RCAF Station Moisie, PQ and then Deputy Director of Threat Assessment at NORAD HQ in Colorado Springs. He ended his military career as Director of Security DND. Following retirement, the Secretary General of the United Nations appointed Jack as Director of world wide security for the United Nations, a position he held for several years.

On retirement from the UN, he returned to Toronto and became a Security Consultant to major Canadian corporations. He retired in Toronto where he was born and later moved to his final home in Belleville.

The family will receive friends at the Burke Funeral Home (613-968-6968) 150 Church Street on Thursday, October 11, 2018 from 2 - 4 p.m. Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel on Friday, October 12, 2018 at 11:00 a.m. Visitation one hour prior to the service. Interment at Belleville Cemetery. If so desired, memorial donations to the BGH Foundation Cancer Care would be appreciated by the family. Online condolences http://www.burkefuneral.ca.

JOSEPH SCHWAIGHOFER M.Sc., Ph.D., Prof., Dipl.-Ing., Dr.

Techn.

Peacefully, at Brampton Civic Hospital on October 6, 2018, in his 95th year. He will be missed dearly by his loving wife, of 42 years, Theresa Schwaighofer (nee Beatson).

Joseph was born in Salzburg, Austria. He spent most of his adult years in Canada, as a Professor of Engineering (Emeritus) at the University of Toronto. Dr. Schwaighofer also served as Honorary Vice-Consul of Austria in the 1990's, at Toronto. His hobbies included skiing, hiking, reading, and supporting many charities; all of which continued in his retirement life in Huntsville, Ontario. Friends may call at the Turner & Porter "Peel" Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy 10 N. of Q.E.W) on Saturday, October 13, 2018 from 2 - 3 p.m. until the time of the Service of Remembrance at 3 p.m.

LUCIEN VERROKEN (Luke)

Born in Belgium on November 30, 1936 and died in Toronto on October 8, 2018 at the Belmont House, at the age of 81 years.

Luke was the Chief Director of Sabeena World Airlines. He is survived by his companion Paul Henry of Toronto and Jacques Boizeau of Paris, France.

A Funeral Mass will be held at St.

Basil's Roman Catholic Parish, 50 St. Joseph's Street, Toronto (416926-7110) on Saturday October 13, 2018 at 11 a.m. The family will receive friends at the church, beginning at 10:30 a.m. A private interment will take place. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Belmont House would be appreciated.

KERRY WELCH VILLA

Passed away peacefully on Tuesday, October 9, 2018 at age 40. Cherished wife of Pablo.

Beloved daughter of Tafflyn and the late Michael.

After University, she worked and traveled in Europe for a few years before returning to Canada to open and manage the Hilton Garden Inn in Niagara. She joined LRA Worldwide in 2006 where she met her husband Pablo.

Together they traveled the world, spent many wonderful times in Argentina with his family and enjoyed establishing their new home in Mississauga last year. An avid sports aficionado, tennis and golf player, and supporter of Manchester United team.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W. (East of the Jane subway) on Saturday, October 13th from 2:00 p.m to 3:00 p.m. Funeral Service will be held immediately afterwards at Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel. If friends so desire in lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to Princess Margaret Hospital or the Canadian Cancer Society. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca

TIMOTHY GORDON MITCHELL Nov 3, 1978 - Oct 11, 2010

Forever loved and missed by Mom, Dad, Cait, Nate, Uncle Ron and many dear friends.


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Do Canada's taxi drivers have a place in the changing transportation business?
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Cabbies who've survived the arrival of ride-hailing services worry about paying bills, lost revenue and the dwindling value of the permits they've purchased - but some still hope governments can level the playing field
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Friday, October 5, 2018 – Page A12

Locked inside a nondescript filing cabinet at one of Toronto's municipal buildings is about $13-million worth of taxi plates their owners have allowed to go dormant.

It's called "putting the plate on the shelf," something drivers have traditionally done to save money on insurance when they fall ill, go on vacation or are scrimping for a new vehicle. But it has become an increasingly routine tactic among cabbies who have done the math and concluded they just can't earn enough to make driving a taxi worthwhile after covering day-to-day expenses.

Mubashar Ahmad's plate could soon be among them. The 62-year-old is still making a living but says he continues to drive only because he needs to pay off his vehicle, a debt being whittled away at the rate of $600 a month.

"I financed it - I didn't have money to buy it," said Mr. Ahmad, who started driving a taxi a few years after arriving from Pakistan in 1990 and bought his plate in 2014. "When the vehicle is paid, I'll throw the plate at them," he said angrily about the city's regulators, his frustration with the business becoming evident.

The city's storage cabinet now has about 300 plates lined up in rows. They're not abandoned and, so far this year, have been left dormant an average of 58 days before being retrieved. At the current rate, almost 1,000 will rotate through this cabinet over the course of the year, a 150-percent jump over the annual average of the decade prior.

It's one more sign of a taxi industry in crisis around the world, as a business model that operated under a regulatory umbrella that limited competition was smashed open by Uber, Lyft and other interlopers.

The drivers in Toronto's taxi industry hold out hope that regulators will agree these ride-hailing companies need to be reined in to create a more level playing field for everyone. They worry about paying their bills, amid sharply reduced revenues, and about the plunging value of a standard taxi plate, which city staff say is down almost 70 per cent in a decade.

Transportation network companies (TNCs), the industry term for ride-hailing firms such as Uber and Lyft, tend to have very happy customers. But governments in a number of jurisdictions are struggling to manage the negative spillover effects associated with these companies and are resorting to a range of tactics.

Shaken by a series of cabbie suicides and alarmed by worsening traffic congestion, this summer New York became the first major U.S. city to restrict the number of licences it issues for TNCs, capping it at 80,000 for a year. In Quebec, the government had plans to compensate taxi owners who have lost money on the value of their plate. In Britain, London tried to push out Uber last year by refusing to renew its licence for not being "fit and proper," only to have a judge grant the firm a probationary licence this summer. In Toronto, the city is engaged in a council-mandated review of the bylaw that opened the door to ride-hailing companies, with a report due next year.

Tracey Cook, the executive director of municipal licensing and standards for the city of Toronto, said that just about everything is on the table, including a possible cap on ride-hailing licences. But she warned that this will be a long process.

"Do I think at the end of this review that we're going to have 100 per cent of the work done?

Highly unlikely," she said in a recent interview. "I think this is something that ... is going to continue to evolve, and we are going to have to continue to evolve our regulation accordingly, right?

There is a lot of talk about mobility as a service and the next evolution of mobility and how people move around and options that people want, so I think it's just one of those areas we're going to be continuing to look at."

There's an urgency to doing so properly. The power of ride-hailing companies is expected to grow as they race to develop autonomous-vehicle technology, diversify into bicycle- and scootershare services and look for ways to work with urban transit systems. In some small markets, they may play the role of principal transit provider. And the companies certainly make no apologies for the relentless nature of their business model.

"I believe that this is a service that's made cities a better place, and sometimes the birth of new services does hurt people, does hurt individuals, but it doesn't mean that it's not moving society forward," Uber chief executive Dara Khosrowshahi told the editorial board of The Globe and Mail in September.

"The question is: Is society here to serve taxis or are taxis here to serve society?" Taped to the back window of an independent taxi regularly parked on a residential street in downtown Toronto was an uncompromising message: "Uber is NOT here to stay!" The cabbie kept that sign there for years after the ride-hailing company had pushed its way into Toronto, stubbornly defying the reality being created around him.

Among many cabbies, though, there's a grudging acceptance that TNCs are not going anywhere. But they remain unhappy, particularly those ensnared by evolving rules. Many switched to Toronto Taxicab Licence (TTL), wheelchair-accessible vehicles because the city told them the whole fleet would go that way, only to have Uber appear.

"I followed the rule. I converted my car to TTL, to Wheel-Trans, and then two months after they changed the rules," said Nadussie Araya, 50.

He has been driving for 11 years and believes people are reluctant to flag his big, wheelchair-accessible vehicle, pushing his earnings down 60 per cent in the past few years. Still, he has to keep driving to make his vehicle payments and it keeps him too busy to take a side job.

"I'm working seven days a week and 14 hours, 12 hours a day," Mr. Araya said. "We can't make money. Eventually we'll give up."

Selling a plate and getting out of the business was once a more attractive option. There are still sales between private individuals, but the bottom has fallen out of the market. According to city of Toronto data, the average price for a standard plate this year is about $43,000, down from an average high of $228,000 in 2012.

Abdul Marun Ahadi bought his plate in 2011, near the top of the market in Toronto. City figures - based on self-reporting of private sales - show that the average price for a standard plate that year was about $210,000. But that average included some that changed hands for nominal amounts, obscuring the real value of the asset.

That was also the year Uber launched. At the time, though, the firm was barely on the radar; it operated solely in San Francisco, used only luxury vehicles and cost more than a taxi. The global juggernaut it would become was years away.

Mr. Ahadi paid $305,000 for his plate - the highest price that year, although the following year a plate sold for $360,000. He covered most of the cost through a line of credit, borrowed $50,000 from a friend and paid a small part from his savings. He has paid off about $80,000 and notes that he has saved the more than $20,000 a year he was paying to lease a plate. But his investment is worth a fraction of the original cost.

Such losses are at the heart of a class-action lawsuit filed by three drivers against the City of Toronto.

"The city knew that plate owners were relying on the value of the taxi plates and the income derived therefrom for their financial well-being, such as into their retirements (the city itself made those promises by calling the taxi plates 'pensions')," the plaintiffs allege in their statement of claim, which has not been tested in court.

"Taxi plate owners would have never invested in the taxicab industry absent the above circumstances."

The suit, filed in July in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, seeks $1.7-billion for investment and income losses. The lawyer listed on the suit could not be reached, but a spokesman for the plaintiffs said it has not been certified.

The city has said it will defend.

But there is no indication that either Toronto or the province will follow the example of Quebec, which announced this summer that people who had lost money on their taxi plate would be eligible for compensation payments of as much as $46,700.

A galling twist for many taxi drivers is that, in addition to plunging plate values and the fact the pool of customers is being spread among more competitors, the job is also getting harder because of greater congestion.

Toronto has issued almost 70,000 licences for drivers of companies such as Uber or Lyft.

"The public was clear that they were not being properly served, or not being served in the way that they wanted, by the taxi industry and they wanted choice," said Ms. Cook, the city's licensing chief. "[Uber] presented a choice, and they [the public] flocked to it. It was like trying to stop a tidal wave with a spoon."

It's never clear, though, how many TNC drivers are on the road at any given time or where and when they are most heavily concentrated, making their congestion impact hard to assess. One aspect of the review under way in Toronto is to consider the effect of ride-hailing services on traffic, and research done elsewhere suggests they are making it worse.

In a report out this summer, U.S. consultant Bruce Schaller noted that TNCs transported about 50 million passengers a week in the United States last year, up 37 per cent from the year before. And he found that these trips are adding to congestion rather than reducing it.

"About 60 per cent of TNC users in large, dense cities would have taken public transportation, walked, biked or not made the trip if TNCs had not been available for the trip," he wrote.

It was partly in response to this trend that New York introduced its temporary cap on ride-hailing licences this year. Department of Transportation commissioner Polly Trottenberg said the move was the result of the human toll on drivers, made starkly clear by a number of suicides, but also the effect ride-hailing was having on traffic and transit.

"It has provided a lot of convenience, there's no question ... but there were some real, what we call, externalities that were becoming apparent," Ms. Trottenberg said in an interview during a visit to Toronto in September.

"Some parts of the U.S., okay, Uber and Lyft are potentially looked at as ways to reduce vehicle traffic. But in New York, unfortunately, in a lot cases they've taken people off of transit [and added traffic]. And that is - that's for us just an unsustainable trend."

In Vancouver, where the provincial government is grappling with how to adapt taxi regulations to allow for the introduction of ride-hailing, there's much concern about the possible effect on congestion.

"Can you imagine putting an extra thousand cars in downtown Vancouver, with all the bike lanes? You wouldn't move," said Vancouver Taxi Association spokeswoman Carolyn Bauer, who is also the general manager of Yellow Cab. "It's too small - it's a big little city."

Although Uber is not currently operating in British Columbia, its appearance elsewhere has cast a shadow over the Vancouver area.

The value of a share, which gives someone the right to drive a taxi, has dropped dramatically. Sales of shares are not officially tracked, but Mohan Singh Kang, president of the B.C. Taxi Association, says the decline is half or more, while Ms. Bauer says it's hard to know the value of shares, which used to sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars, because almost none have changed hands.

And there have been other problems.

"The spectre of Uber a few years ago actually, you know, the drivers started looking at different professions," Ms. Bauer said.

"Some of them went into driving buses."

As the industry waits for B.C. to introduce new taxi regulations, a study commissioned by the government offers a clue to what the future may hold. The report, from Hara Associates, offers ideas that would buttress the industry.

Among them: recognizing the need for more taxis, financial assistance for purchasing wheelchair-accessible vehicles and price flexibility in off-peak times.

"The approach of most jurisdictions has been to leave taxi regulation unchanged, and give the whole of the unexploited market to [ride-hailing firms]," the report notes. "This leaves the taxi industry in the worst of both worlds - a decline in the value of their businesses while regulatory restrictions continue to limit the ability to compete with the new alternative services."

British Columbia's go-slow approach has managed to keep ridehailing at bay so far. But other jurisdictions haven't had the same success, as the companies pushed in without regulatory approval, establishing a presence and creating conflicts and issues that politicians then struggled to manage.

Now, as ride-hailing companies go from strength to strength - Uber is expected to go public this year and was valued in August at US$72-billion - the viability of the taxi industry is in doubt in many cities.

Asked if his company owes a debt, either moral or financial, in return for the damage wrought by Uber, Mr. Khosrowshahi pivoted to the benefits the firm has brought to customers.

"I think that the regulations that allow competition have created a service that, you know, we believe is far superior," he said.

"You know, societies move and industries are made and lost and it's part of the cycle of things. And I do think it's up to the government to make sure that people who get hurt have the chance to come back."

Kristine Hubbard, the operations manager at Beck Taxi and the third generation of her family in the business, says she's angry and upset over what has happened in Toronto and is no longer sure the traditional industry model will make it. But she noted that her firm, the biggest brokerage in Toronto, is still busy. And by acting as a matching service between customer and driver and licensing the Beck brand to drivers, she argues, their approach is not dissimilar to that of Uber.

"Those comments - oh, we're all going to die out here and the taxi industry is bleeding - I thought: Why are they saying that? [Uber is] a taxi company.

This is a taxi service. Why are you acting like we can't compete with them? And so that's what we've decided to do. You know, you can give up or you can compete. You can complain or you can compete."

Associated Graphic

held in a cabinet at Toronto's licensing office. FRED LUM/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Cabbie Mubashar Ahmad, far left, says he's still driving only because he needs to pay off debt on his vehicle. Abdul Marun Ahadi, left, bought his taxi plate for $305,000 in 2011, when the market in Toronto was near its height. A taxi, above, drives down Toronto's Mill Street on Tuesday. PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Top: Uber CEO Dara Khosrowshahi says he doesn't think it's up to government to help cabbies hurt by new technology. Middle: A Toronto cab rolls past a vehicle with an Uber sticker in its back window. Above: Taxis from Beck, Toronto's biggest brokerage, are seen on the street. TOP: MELISSA TAIT/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; MIDDLE, ABOVE: FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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WORDS OF THE WEST
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Rural populations are falling. Farms are fading. But at hundreds of gatherings, the culture of the cowboy lives on in verse
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By MARTY KLINKENBERG
  
  

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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page R1

MAPLE CREEK, SASK. -- There is rhythm in the call of coyotes, in the sorting of cows, in the wind and the whistle of a train. There is balladry in boot heels that echo off dance floors, in hauling hay and in tall grass that bows in the breeze like a wave.

There is poetry everywhere on the Prairies, and there are poets, too. They recount the hardship and celebrate the joy of Western life through spoken and written words. It is an art form that took root during cattle drives from Texas a century ago and is sustained today by cowboys at hundreds of poetry gatherings across North America.

The oldest in Canada takes place in Maple Creek, a town of 2,200 in southwestern Saskatchewan that prides itself on Western authenticity.

There is a worship service in a cowboy church in Maple Creek on Tuesday nights. There is a livestock exchange and agricultural grounds where three rodeos are staged in summer. A grain elevator, hard against the railway tracks, soars 10 storeys above maple-lined streets.

For three days in September, the community arena, town armoury and Elks hall overflow with fans of Western lore. Transported back to another time, the cowboy-hat and Sunday-best crowds become engrossed in poetry about hired hands and homesteaders and love and death and castrating bulls. They sway in their seats to the twang of guitars and two-step in the wings to classic tunes by Ernest Tubb and Guy Clark.

Performers are paid a stipend and are often billeted in the community. They don't do it to get rich, but out of a sense of devotion to age-old traditions. Rural populations are falling. Family farms are getting swallowed up by giant commercial operations.

"It's all about passing down folklore and keeping the cowboy lifestyle and culture alive," says Diamond Doug Keith, one of the headliners at the 2018 Maple Creek Cowboy Poetry Gathering. "Cowboys will exist as long as there is beef, but their culture might not survive. That is what we need to protect and hold on to."

At the first cowboy-poetry session on Friday morning, all 225 chairs on the floor of the armoury are full. Dozens more people line the back wall and watch from a balcony.

Farm tools and an old-fashioned milk can are set up as props at the foot of the stage. A rusted container of Rogers Golden Syrup, collected long ago, hangs beside a kerosene lantern.

On stage, Geoff (Poppa Mac) Mackay, a preacher, poet and former chuck-wagon cook from Manitoba, is bathed in light.

He wears a cowboy hat and has a kerchief around his neck as he recites a poem called Calving Time, about a young bull named Joe.

Stepping down from the stage, he tells his life story. It sounds straight out of the pages of a Zane Grey novel.

"They claim your body is a temple," he says. "I treated mine like an amusement park."

Poppa Mac has worked as a ranch hand and a rodeo clown. He was a hellion, and during one confrontation in his youth had a shotgun placed in his mouth. Now, he writes children's books and poetry and preaches in pastures and behind bucking chutes.

"I preach the Gospel, only in a cowboy fashion," he says.

He is 58 now and has lived all over Western Canada. He spends half the year on his acreage in Grande Pointe, southeast of Winnipeg. The rest he spends in Brownsville, Tex., running a ministry.

"I got stomped on and kicked and should be dead," he says of his reckoning.

"It occurred to me that I walked away from God, but He didn't walk away from me."

Soon, he will travel to Fort Worth, Tex., as a nominee for a Will Rogers Medallion in cowboy poetry. The awards are named after the late writer and philosopher whose work embodied the traditions of the American cowboy.

For three days, a roster of 40 poets and musicians rotates among venues in Maple Creek, an hour's drive east of Medicine Hat. They also entertain at a seniors' home and an assisted-living facility, and play at the Jasper Hotel, circa 1903, at night.

Along with poetry and music, there is a fashion show where beaver-pelt hats and elk-skin gloves are featured, and a Western gear and art sale where buyers can peruse steer heads painted by Summer Dawne Roasting.

"I am a banker and I paint skulls," Summer Dawne says cheerfully.

WINTER IN THE BARN Steam rises off the backs of big horses.

The old Holstein in the second stall shifts her weight from side to side matching the rhythm of the milking and flicks her tail at memories of summer flies.

Across the width of the barn I stand with mouth open in my biggest five-year-old oval catching most of the milk squirted dead-eye straight by the laughing hired man.

In the tack room kittens wait by a tin plate to put their morning mustache on.

In my memory, it is always warm in the barn.

Neil Meili One of the few art forms original to Canada and the United States, cowboy poetry began as a way to while away the hours under starry skies at night.

With little else to do, hard-as-nails wranglers would sit in a circle around a fire and entertain each other by playing the harmonica and telling stories. When those tales began to get stale, they added rhythm and rhyme to make them more appealing.

Authors such as Zane Grey and Louis L'Amour helped romanticize the Old West, and Rogers's anecdotes and folksy humour made him a giant of screen and stage. An appearance in 1986 on The Tonight Show by Baxter Black, the most famous cowboy poet of today, introduced the art form to a wider audience and opened the door for others.

Events are held in towns small and large, from Cartersville, Ga., to Walla Walla, Wash., with stops in Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia in between. The longest-standing active gathering has been held in Elko, Nev., since 1985. The mustering in Maple Creek began in 1989.

A United Church lay minister and Western painter from Pinawa, Man., Diamond Doug Keith has performed cowboy poetry for 22 years. He draws smiles with a poem called A Mallard's Tale, about a ranch hand and his sidekick, a one-eyed duck.

As a child, his grandfather enthralled him with stories about cowboys, and his mother recited verses by Robert Service to him in the kitchen. By the time he was 13, Diamond Doug was rounding up cattle at a beef and dairy farm. He, too, is 58 now and falls back on that experience when he entertains.

From one to the next, the cowboy poets in Maple Creek are a colourful lot. They are mostly older, and have lived fascinating lives.

Bud Stewart is 86 and flew bombing missions during the Korean War. He grew up in southern Alberta and drove a team of horses on the family farm at six years old.

At 15, he had trouble finding work and headed south to Montana, where he got hired as a ranch hand for $2 a day and all the food he could eat. Three years later, he registered for the draft and caught a bus to Butte, where he was sworn in to the U.S.

Air Force.

"So many went to Korea and didn't come home," he says quietly.

Noel Burles, another cowboy poet, is 68 and once lived in a tepee for a year in the Porcupine Hills of southern Alberta. He has worked as a mechanic and a millwright, ridden saddle broncs, operated a tow truck and did two tours of Vietnam as a sniper with the U.S. Army.

His late uncle, George Burles, was a model in New York for a time and served as the original Marlboro Man.

He comes from Cowley, Alta., a village with 200 people that's best known as a shooting location for the film Brokeback Mountain, and for George and Noel Burles.

At one point, Noel travelled the cowboy-poetry circuit extensively, bouncing between burgs such as Chinook, Mont., and Slick, Okla.

"If you think Cowley is small, you should see Slick," Noel says.

He has performed at 25 of the 29 gatherings in Maple Creek, and has memorized nearly 1,000 songs and poems.

"If you tell someone a story three times, they get tired of it," he says. "If you put it to rhythm and rhyme, they will listen 20 times." Also at the Maple Creek weekend, Pat and Charlotte Gilmer are poet/musicians from Consort, Alta., hometown of singer k.d. lang.

Charlotte's great-grandfather Pierre Léveillé was a Métis guide in the 1870s for the North-West Mounted Police. He is buried just outside Maple Creek, where the couple has performed as Barb'wire for 10 years.

"Every time you come here it is like going to a family reunion," Charlotte says.

"Only you don't have anybody to fight with."

A small woman who drives a big truck, poet Shelley Goldbeck grew up on a horse farm near Red Deer. She is descended from Saskatchewan homesteaders and serves as editor of the Alberta Cowboy Poetry Association's newsletter, the Barbwire Dispatch.

She has been a writer most of her life, but only started to create cowboy poetry a few years ago after accompanying a friend to a gathering in Lewistown, Mont. "When I tell people I'm a cowboy poet, they look at me like I have a horn in the middle of my head," Goldbeck says. She lives in Calgary and calls cowboy poetry a celebration of the traditions of the West.

"These people shaped our history," she says. "We are doing these presentations so they will not be forgotten."

Neil Meili is another cowboy poet. He grew up southwest of Moose Jaw and has been a rancher, stock broker and real estate salesman, and lives in Edmonton.

He quotes Kinky Friedman as he talks about cowboy poetry. The verses he writes are so cathartic that a U.S. psychotherapist, Bonnie Badenoch, used them to introduce the chapters in her book The Heart of Trauma: Healing the Embodied Brain in the Context of Relationships.

"Cowboy poetry goes right back to the very old oral traditions of the world," he says.

In one session at Maple Creek, Phyllis Rathwell reads a poem about her father's death called The Coyotes Call. Some in the crowd at the Elks hall, where a mounted elk head flanks one side of the stage, are near tears when she finishes.

"It was 10 years after my father's death before I could write it," she says. "It had to be far enough away."

She was raised on a cattle and grain farm in Tompkins, a village of fewer than 100 people in southwest Saskatchewan.

She met her husband at a cowboy-poetry gathering in Montana and is now a rancher's wife in Elkwater, at the western edge of the Cypress Hills in southeast Alberta.

"I always think ranch women have the best sense of humour," the 68-year-old says. "They put up with an awful lot. I tell my city friends it's like hanging wallpaper with your husband on a daily basis."

COWBOYS, HEROES AND HORSES I paused from cinchin' my saddle's riggin' To feel the crisp wind out of the west Brush against my exposed hands and face Sendin' my soul a shiver clean through my vest.

Its breath carried memories in vivid colour From when I weren't but a child half-grown Great stories n' tales that shaped my being Of cowboys, heroes and horses I've known.

Diamond Doug Keith The poetry gathering in Maple Creek ended with a cowboy church service on Sunday morning. So many people attended that it had to be moved from the Diamond C Cowboy Church to the armoury to accommodate them all.

A third-generation rancher, Ross Pollock, established the church in 2011 in a former army barracks and chicken hatchery.

"We went from hatching chickens to hatching people," he says.

On the back wall is a photo from the early 1900s of his grandfather, Greg Pollock. Greg gathered a herd of wild horses in Winnemucca, Nev., in 1883, and drove them to Maple Creek.

"I've moved 15 miles in my whole life," Ross, 75, says.

He is not an ordained minister but conducted worship services at rodeos and homecomings for a half-century before establishing his own church.

"I'm like Moses," he says. "I spent 40 years in the wilderness and now I'm doing this."

Pollock and his wife, Claire, preside over the morning service at the armoury. The building is jammed as the service begins with the hymn What a Friend We Have in Jesus. A yodeller, Mary Resek, stands to the side of the stage and sings along, eyes closed and hands clutched around her guitar.

Poppa Mac Mackay comes up to pray and asks everyone to remove their cowboy hats. He explains the service is a continuation of another old tradition: Saddlebag preachers once travelled the West on horseback to bring the word of God to cow camps.

"That is kind of what we are doing here today," he says.

The service lasts 90 minutes, with cowboy poetry and music interspersed with prayers.

"Even if you're not a spiritual person, you leave feeling better than when you came in," Poppa Mac says. He muses that Prairie people largely have great faith.

"When you rely on the weather and Mother Nature for your livelihood, it's not hard to be spiritual," he says.

Resek takes the stage and sings Lord of the Dance. No yodelling this time.

"Everyone is here to share what God has put in their hearts," she says.

Cowboy church concludes with the congregation singing Amazing Grace. The voices of cowboys and ranchers bounce off the concrete walls.

Associated Graphic

Noel Burles performs at the Jasper Hotel during the Cowboy Poetry Gathering in Maple Creek, Sask., on Sept. 14. TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Poet Phyllis Rathwell stands at the Cowboy Poetry Gathering in Maple Creek, Sask., last month. Rathwell penned a poem about the loss of 'It was 10 years after my father's death before I could write it,' she says.

Above: Poet and preacher Geoff (Poppa Mac) Mackay, who also writes children's books, leaves the stage in Maple Creek. 'They claim your body is a temple,' Mackay says of his life. 'I treated mine like an amusement park.'

Right: Audience members laugh during a performance by John (Ol' Ugly) Glawson. At the first cowboy-poetry session in September, all 225 chairs on the floor of the venue were full - with several more people lining the back wall and watching from a balcony.

PHOTOS BY TODD KOROL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Left: A rider shows off her horse for auction during the Maple Creek gathering.

Below: Poet Diamond Doug Keith, one of the headliners, performs for the crowd. He has performed cowboy poetry for 22 years.


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The winter of our discontent
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Populism is likely to continue to swell until citizens see pragmatic solutions and better outcomes for their families
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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page O1

The 22nd prime minister of Canada, from 2006 to 2015. His new book, Right Here, Right Now: Politics and Leadership in the Age of Disruption, will be published October 9.

For the vast majority of the world's people, life today is longer, healthier and wealthier than at any other time in human history. Accelerating technological innovation promises great advancement at an even more rapid pace. It should be the dawn of a great new age.

Yet, there is growing anxiety and uncertainty about the future. In advanced democracies, this is particularly acute. More and more people in the West are questioning our economic and social trajectory. Many feel they aren't getting ahead. Amidst the technological, economic and social change they are experiencing, they see less opportunity for their children than they had for themselves.

The manifestation of this unease is a series of new and unorthodox political movements in most of the democratic world.

From Brexit to Donald Trump and the "populist" parties of Europe, their success has hit establishment institutions with successive surprises that are provoking reactions leading from confusion to alarm and to outrage.

Where is it all going? Will technology really transform society for the better? What can be done to calm the waters? What can leaders - political, social and business leaders - do about any of this?

I have spent the past couple of years watching and reflecting upon how various forms of disruption are affecting advanced Western societies. My conclusions are twofold.

First, we have much to be optimistic and hopeful about. We really are living in an unprecedented age of freedom, wealth and opportunity, with greater possibilities to come.

But second, further advancement is not guaranteed. For too many people, things are not getting better. If we do not start to address this reality, increasingly dysfunctional politics threaten to take us down the wrong path.

I began my political life in what turned out to be the final years of the Cold War. The conservative revolution that I supported as a young man quickly brought that era to an end and ushered in a new one - the era of democracy, free markets and globalization. The model that had created our economic prosperity and political stability for the West spread around the world.

In more countries than ever before, it became the norm for political power to transfer peacefully between governments. Legal systems became more transparent and rooted in objective norms. More jobs opened up for the perennially poor, while more educational opportunities became available to the children of the relatively prosperous.

And yet, despite this progress, the word commonly used to describe change today is "disruption." I do not see disruption as a mere synonym for change. In my mind, change is part of the natural order. It is unceasing, organic and unavoidable. Disruption, on the other hand, is the far more methodical cousin of change. It is a deliberate and strategic effort to displace and to replace a status quo of some kind.

For many, the word inspires hope for the future. In some circles, it is used almost as a rallying cry for a tomorrow defined by new thinking and better leadership. Many tech entrepreneurs personify the word.

I think of someone such as tech entrepreneur Joe Lonsdale. He views business and investment opportunities through the maxim: "The world is broken. Let's fix it."

He is not alone. He represents a whole generation of very young yet extraordinarily high achievers. In areas that range from health care to transportation, to housing and lifestyle options, they are doing many things that are concrete and clearly positive.

But, in spite of this momentum, many citizens in advanced Western democracies view disruption as a threat. They see globalization, data analytics and the digital economy through a very different lens than the software engineer.

Can you blame them? Whole industries are coming and going. Businesses appear to be seeded, scaled and transformed into multibillion-dollar entities in the blink of an eye. Jobs and work are being radically reshaped, not just by technology but from global competitors. It is eminently reasonable, even sensible, for citizens to be anxious about the consequences of disruption.

Some of the consequences have not been good. In the United States and Europe, wages for many citizens have stagnated. In some cases, they have dropped outright. Good, stable jobs, benefit packages and pension plans have been replaced by the gig economy, temporary work and ongoing economic uncertainty.

Jobs in traditional sectors have been lost by the millions. For example, one-third of U.S. manufacturing jobs have disappeared in the past three decades. It is also a fact that some trade relationships have become brutally imbalanced. The China-U.S.

trade relationship is now 4:1 in favour of the Chinese and the gap has only been widening. In many countries, with low-wage workers already under pressure, lowskilled immigration has actually accelerated.

These trends represent real costs to real people. Why should we be surprised when, ignored by traditional conservatives and derided by traditional liberals, these citizens start seeking alternative political choices? If policy does not seem to be working out for the public, in a democracy, you are supposed to fix the policy, not denounce the public. But, if you listen to some leaders and much of the media, you would not know it.

Their response is wrong, frustrating and dangerous. Wrong, because most of today's political upheaval has readily identifiable causes. Frustrating, because it stands in the way of credible, pragmatic solutions that do exist. Dangerous, because the current populist upheaval is actually benign and constructive compared with what will follow if it is not addressed.

The presidency of Donald Trump consumes much of the oxygen on this subject because he is the biggest example of political disruption to date. His win was stunning. As a political novice, he beat the two most sophisticated political machines in the Western world. But he is not an isolated case, and to focus only on Mr. Trump is to miss the bigger picture. Over the past two years, most major democracies - the countries that have been the world's most stable for decades - have been undergoing major political disruption.

In Britain, voters delivered a referendum result in favour of leaving the European Union. Nearly two years later, the government is still wrestling with how to implement the decision. As Prime Minister Theresa May attempts to execute such a profound change, she must look over at the Leader of the Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn. As extreme and troubling a figure as any in democratic politics, polls say he could well become the next prime minister.

In Germany, a right-wing nationalist bloc has entered the Bundestag for the first time since the Second World War. As a result, it took Angela Merkel, Europe's most experienced and reliable leader, nearly six months to form a governing coalition.

And a weak one at that.

In France, the National Front gained one-third of the vote in last year's presidential election. This was simply unthinkable only a few short years ago. French President Emmanuel Macron ultimately stopped the National Front, but only at the expense of the country's traditional political parties. His presidency is now in doubt as his reform agenda crashes against a wall of French political realities.

Elections in Italy, Hungary, Poland and Austria have also produced outcomes in which populists or nationalists now hold or share power. These are all very different countries, with a range of issues and economic conditions, but all experiencing the fruits of profound political discontent.

The reality is that, in the eyes of many voters, the correlation between globalization and good economic outcomes is weakening. So is the political consensus around its basic policy ideas such as freer markets, freer trade and freer immigration. In many countries, the global financial crisis, the bailouts for the few and the slow or non-existent recovery for the many have been gradually fraying the democratic social compact.

Make no mistake: This trend is about more than just a few election results. There is a widening chasm in perspectives between establishment institutions and common citizens that is very worrying.

It is a split between those who have global economic interests, and those who focus on local economic interests.

It is a split between those whose lives cross borders, and those who live within them.

It is a split between those whose identities are international and multicultural, and those whose are national and traditional.

But most importantly, it is a split between those who believe they are getting ahead and those who can see that they are not.

In other words, it is a serious error to view these political developments as merely the function of individual politicians or extremism at the margins of society. Many traditional centre-right and centre-left political parties are weakening.

Some, especially on the centre-left, are simply breaking up.

Let me return to the global financial crisis. I was there at the founding of the Group of 20 and the decision to pursue extraordinary, co-ordinated global measures in 2008-09.

Some of these, such as massive fiscal stimulus, are matters I would never have advocated under even ordinary recessionary conditions.

Nevertheless, I spoke forcefully for them to stop the collapse and restore confidence. They were necessary and essentially successful.

The world did not slide into a decade of economic depression, as it did under similar circumstances in the 1930s.

Looking back today, it is pretty clear that long-term damage was done. It was not just financial and economic, but deeply social and psychological. Citizens had been conditioned to believe that they should manage their finances prudently, plan for the future and strive for a life independent of government support. But, when it all went sideways, that was not the path taken by those who had told them to do so. In the United States and Europe, some of the biggest financial institutions received bailouts and generous compensation packages while ordinary people lost their homes, jobs and savings. Those people then had to listen to many of those same institutions squawk about the interference of government in their industries.

In Canada, we have not been experiencing the political disruption that other Western countries have felt. It is not hard to figure out why. We had no bank bailouts.

Our recession, though significant, was relatively shallow and short. And the populistconservative approach my government took over its decade in office sustained modest economic growth that was shared across the various income brackets.

I continue to believe that our political longevity and success was thanks to our focus on the challenges facing working people and their families. Day in and day out, I served with colleagues who were substantive people, who worked hard and who were committed to things bigger than themselves.

We were not perfect, but our record does offer a blueprint for those interested in exiting the current political dysfunction and building sustainable market, trade, globalization and immigration frameworks.

While our policies are now squarely in the history books, they can be used as precedents against those who claim our options are zero-sum. They are not. We do not face a stark choice of libertarianism or socialism, of free trade or protectionism, of global responsibility or national loyalty, of wide-open borders or xenophobia, of technology or irrelevance. Our experience demonstrates that it is possible to navigate today's challenges successfully and without widespread social alienation.

Now more than ever, political, business and civic leaders must embrace the fact that ours is an age of rapid transformation, significant risk and sometimes bad outcomes. Our continued success is not inevitable nor can real problems be solved with provocative slogans and vapid virtue-signalling. There is no substitute for rolling up one's sleeves, knowing the facts and monitoring the results.

Our leaders must accept that today's populist movements have identified real problems in Western society. The benefits of economic growth cannot be allowed to amass only at the top. The job gains of a trade relationship cannot accrue mainly to one country and the job losses only to the other. Nationalism will not and should not go away, but global co-operation in many areas will remain essential. Any good immigration policy requires sovereign control and the rule of law.

Today's political leaders must give up on the idea that the concerns of significant segments of the population can be dismissed or denigrated.

Business leaders can no longer ignore employee anxiety about the future of work and the consequences of automation.

Technology entrepreneurs cannot disdain tax laws and regulatory structures as mere archaic concepts incompatible with the digital economy.

Returning to the example of the United States, one needs to take a breath and step back from the personality, rhetoric and hysterical commentary around Mr. Trump.

Despite his objectionable style, the President is, in many areas, attempting to address the causes of the populist discontent that have overturned American politics.

We cannot yet know if he will ultimately be successful. But, in the United States and elsewhere, the populist tide is likely to continue to swell until pragmatic, resilient and sustainable solutions are brought into force and citizens see better outcomes for their families.

I am actually fairly confident that the democratic capitalist world will emerge from this period better and stronger. Societies based on these values have shown themselves to be remarkably resilient and adaptable in the face of profound disruption before. This is all the more so when such change offers positive possibilities.

Still, to seize the full potential of the moment, smart leaders in politics and business must begin to recognize the great peril in meeting the concerns of average citizens with dogma and condescension. Instead, they must recommit to practical change based on real-world experience and a clear-eyed assessment of results.

This is not easy work, but it must begin, right here, right now.

Associated Graphic

Former prime minister Stephen Harper speaks with then-British prime minister David Cameron as they walk with other international leaders during the G8 summit in Huntsville, Ont., in June, 2010.

SEAN KILPATRICK/THE CANADIAN PRESS

U.S. President Donald Trump arrives on stage to speak at a rally in Springfield, Miss., in September of this year.

MANDEL NGAN/AFP/GETTY IMAGES


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, October 12, 2018 – Page B18

LINDI BJORNSTAD

Unexpectedly on Saturday, October 6, 2018. Lindi was the beloved wife of Nathan Jacobson; mother to Kat (Katya); sister to Brenda; and aunt to many. Lindi was predeceased by her parents, Jakob and Myra.

Lindi was the kindest most selfless person one could meet. She was a loyal friend to so many and her home was always open to all, both two-and four-legged. She was always there to help people in any circumstance in a nonjudgmental and loving manner. As a human being she was simply magnificent.

In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation in her memory to the Toronto Humane Society.

A Celebration of Life will be held in the near future and will be announced in this newspaper.

PAUL ANTHONY FITZPATRICK

Our family is heartbroken to announce the sudden, unexpected passing of our dearly beloved Paul. A father, son, brother, uncle, nephew, and friend.

Paul leaves behind his cherished children, Katherine and Aaron, of whom he was so proud. Paul will be forever loved by parents, Eugene and Christine; sister, Lynn (Phillip); brother, Kevin (Amber); nieces and nephews, Mason, Maggie, and Tessa; aunt, Muriel Madigan (predeceased); and uncles, Larry Fitzpatrick, Alan Thomas, and David Thomas (predeceased). He will be missed by cousins, David, Theresa, Susan, Colleen, Lizanne, and Alexandria.

In the 1980s prior to doing his MBA, Paul created a software business, starting with shareware, originally called APS, right at the beginning of the internet boom.

For twenty years he suffered the results of a badly performed, unsuccessful laser eye treatment that caused him constant pain.

He travelled all over the world seeking a solution. Finding none, his suffering ended abruptly on Saturday, October 6, 2018 at the age of 54.

His life passions were his children, his family, his music, walks on the beach, his pets, golf, carrying the Olympic Torch, technology, cycling and skiing with his loving children, Katherine and Aaron.

Cremation has taken place. A Funeral Mass will be held at Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church (19 Viewpoint Ave, Hamilton) on Friday, October 12, 2018 at 11 a.m.

Reception to follow in the parish hall. Burial will then follow at 1:30 p.m. to Mt. Hamilton Cemetery (Rymal Road).

In lieu of flowers, donations to CNIB or Covenant House Toronto in Paul's memory would be appreciated. Online condolences can be made at http://www.dermodys.com.

MARION LANDEN

On Thursday, October 11, 2018 at her home. Beloved wife of the late Sidney Landen. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Karen and Louis Jacobson, Susan and Jeff Walters, and David Grossman and Debbie Rudolph.Dear sister and sister-inlaw of Harry and Evelyn Rosen, and Lou and Sharon Rosen.

Devoted grandmother of Jacob, Sari and Alex, Lauren, Erin, Josh, Toby, Robin, Marlie, and Carly.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3 lights west ofDufferin) for service on Sunday, October 14, 2018 at 10:00 a.m.

Interment in the Temple Har Zion section of Pardes Shalom cemetery. Shiva at 7825 Bayview Avenue, Thornhill. Memorial donations may be made to Temple Har Zion 905-889-2252 or The Sidney and Marion Landen Memorial Fund c/o The Baycrest Foundation 416- 785-2875.

MARTHA MARY HENDERSON FLAVELLE-SCHRAM

Peacefully at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre on Tuesday, October 9, 2018 in her 71st year.

Martha Mary, precious first daughter of the late James and Daidy (Alcorn) Flavelle. Dearest mother of Kimberley Delius and her son-in-law Rob of Bath, U.K. Reunited with her beloved husband Paul Schram (deceased 1994). Loving and loved sister of Lindsay Richards (Jamie) and Sheila Savage (John Jacques).

Caring and loving aunt of Jay Richards. She will be lovingly remembered by both the Alcorn and Flavelle families. Martha was blessed to have so many incredibly loving, supportive and devoted friends in her life.

Mum was born in Montreal, Quebec and grew up in Galt, Ontario (Cambridge). She had an outstanding, thirty-five year career at Sunnybrook Hospital where she thrived; culminating her work as Administrative Assistant to now retired Dr. Barry McLellan, Director of Emergency Services, Base Hospital Program (Paramedic Program) and Trauma Research.

While in Toronto, Mum was an active member of the Junior League and Garden Club. After her retirement she returned to Galt to enjoy her home, her garden, her friends, her painting and her avid interest in reading biographies, history books and novels. She was also dedicated to the daily news and the weather forecast! Mum was our family historian; she could relate stories about distant and current members of the family, on both sides. Mum lived a selfless life with dignity, grace and humour; words cannot describe how deeply she will be missed. Martha's life will be celebrated with a Visitation at the T. Little Funeral Home, 223 Main Street, Cambridge (519-623-1290) on Sunday, October 14, 2018 from 2 - 4 p.m. There will be a private family service and interment. As expressions of sympathy, please consider a donation in Martha's memory to Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre.

LOIS EVELYN LANE

Age 73 formerly of Mississauga, ON, passed away at her home in Halifax on Wednesday, October 10, 2018 surrounded by her family. She was a daughter of the late Thomas and Evelyn (Totten) Niblak.

Lois is survived by her son, Jim (Pat Geddes); her grandchildren, Nicole and Reed and her sister, Linda. Along with her parents she was also predeceased by her son, Rick.

Visitation will be held on Sunday, October 14, 2018 from 2-4 p.m.

at Cruikshank's Funeral Home, 2666 Windsor Street, Halifax.

Graveside service will take place at 1 p.m. Monday, October 15, at St. John's Cemetery, 6 Bedford Highway, Halifax. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to QE2 Health Sciences Foundation (Hyperbaric Chamber) 5657 Spring Garden Rd Suite 3005 Halifax N.S. B3J 3R4, or a charity of your choice. To place online condolences, please visit: cruikshankhalifaxfuneralhome.com

WALTER CHARLES JONES

June 25, 1928 October 5, 2018 Passed away peacefully at the Michael Garron Hospital in Toronto on Friday, October 5, 2018 at the age of 90 years, surrounded by his loving family. Beloved husband of Dilys; predeceased by his first wife, Phyllis.

Walter was a special father and grandfather and will be greatly missed by his children, Lynda (Danny) and Stephen; his stepchildren, David (Lisa), Janice (Gabe), Lise (John) and Meryl (Daniel); and grandchildren, Paul (Shirley), Jennifer (Cory), Jacob and Emma, always reminding them "don't take any wooden nickels." He will also be missed by his cousins, Lillian, Beverley, and Doug in Windsor, Ontario.

Walter spent his entire 40year career at Aetna Canada (Excelsior Life), starting as a young underwriter and ending there as Vice-President. He was a kind, gentle, ethical and generous man. He was very active in East York, serving as Chair of the Toronto East General Hospital Foundation Board and the Hospital's Board of Governors, President of the East York Kiwanis Club and President of the Don Mills Provincial PC Association.

Walter was a life-long Anglican and was fully engaged in the life of the church. He was a proud former President of the Anglican Young Peoples Association (AYPA) and travelled across Canada, visiting young Anglicans from Newfoundland to British Columbia. He was an active volunteer for over 30 years at the Michael Garron Hospital (formerly Toronto East General Hospital) and cherished his time volunteering as the pianist at the ecumenical services in the long-term care unit.

Walter was a voracious reader and was known to have three or four books on the go at any given time.

He loved politics, history, music, a good martini and anything Welsh, and was always up for a spirited debate with family and friends.

A long-time member of The Toronto Hunt, Walter played golf with the "Royal and Ancients" just a few days before he fell ill.

The family wish to thank the staff of the B3 unit at Michael Garron Hospital for their skills and caring during Walter's short stay. Funeral Mass will take place at The Church of St. Jude (Wexford), 10 Howarth Avenue, Scarborough, M1R 1H4 at 10.30 a.m. on Saturday, October 13th.

Visitation will be at the Church from 9 a.m. Donations in Walter's memory may be made to St.

Jude's (Wexford) Anglican Church or the Michael Garron Hospital.

NANCY ANNE TAYLOR (née Webber)

April 17, 1949 October 10, 2018 It is with profound sadness that we announce Nancy's passing, which happened peacefully at Hospice Care Ottawa, May Court Hospice on October 10, 2018 after a recent diagnosis of cancer. Nancy was the daughter of the late Berenice and Leonard Webber of Guelph, Ontario.

She is lovingly remembered by her husband, John; daughter, Stephanie Coughlin (Ryan); son, Timothy (Caryn); and sisters, Kerrie Bras and Maureen Webber.

Nancy's grandchildren, Thomas, Elly, Gwen and Ava will all greatly miss their 'Nana'. Although Nancy made many friends during her time in Guelph, Winnipeg, Mississauga and most recently, Ottawa, her special place will always be Norway Bay, Quebec, where the Taylor family has enjoyed summers since the late 19th century.

A reception to celebrate Nancy's life will be held at Beechwood National Memorial Centre, located at 280 Beechwood Ave., in Ottawa, on Friday, October 19th from 1:00 p.m.

to 4:00 p.m. At Nancy's request, please "park your tears at the door" and bring your sense of humour. A private interment will take place at a later date. The family would like to thank the caring team at the May Court Hospice, for their dedication and excellent level of care. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Hospice Care Ottawa - May Court.

DR. WILLIAM ELWOOD TOSSELL

Died peacefully on October 10, 2018. The son of Beth (Shannon) and Frank Tossell, Bill was born in 1926 on a heritage farm in Glanbrook Township, Ont. He graduated from the Ontario Agricultural College before earning a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. Over a long career at the University of Guelph, he was Chair of Crop Science and the first Dean of Research. Bill was deeply involved in work to improve the food supply in developing countries, serving as Chair of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture headquartered in Cali, Colombia. He also held major posts at centres sponsored by the World Bank and the UN, where he led the establishment of Bioversity International, devoted to collecting and storing plant genetic resources in gene banks for future use by all humankind. In his own community Bill provided leadership for many years as a board member of the Guelph General Hospital.

Bill deeply loved and was loved by his family - his red-headed contralto wife of 62 years, Jean (Callander), who died in 2009; their children Kerry Vandergrift, David Tossell (Barbara) and John Tossell (Victor Dwyer); and their grandchildren, Theo, Christiaan (Kristen), Kyle (Julie), Cory (Jordanne), and Marijke (St. John O'Connor); and greatgrandchildren, Will, Maggie, Eliza, Madeline and Thea, as well as many nieces and nephews. Bill was predeceased by his brother, Harold (Margorie) of Binbrook, and was a much-loved brotherin-law of Jean's sisters, Marnie Sillers (Don), Bonnie McFarlane (Hugh) and Diana Woolley (Max).

He was especially fond of his OAC '47 friends and of his cottage neighbours in Port Elgin. A true citizen of the world, Bill was a champion of scientific values and liberal social ideals. He was also a fierce defender of those he loved, and was never happier than when he was with his family.

Friends may call at Gilchrist Chapel - McIntyre & Wilkie Funeral Home, 1 Delhi Street, Guelph on Friday, October 19, 2018 from 1 - 3 and 7 - 9 p.m. A memorial service will take place at First Baptist Church, 255 Woolwich St., Guelph on Saturday, October 20th at 11:00 a.m. Reception following service. If desired, memorial contributions to Guelph General Hospital or Beginnings Family Services would be appreciated.

We invite you to leave your memories and donations online at: http://www.gilchristchapel.com and they will be forwarded to the family.

LUCIEN VERROKEN (Luke)

Born in Belgium on November 30, 1936 and died in Toronto on October 8, 2018 at the Belmont House, at the age of 81 years.

Luke was the Chief Director of Sabeena World Airlines. He is survived by his companion Paul Henry of Toronto and Jacques Boizeau of Paris, France.

A Funeral Mass will be held at St.

Basil's Roman Catholic Parish, 50 St. Joseph's Street, Toronto (416926-7110) on Saturday October 13, 2018 at 11 a.m. The family will receive friends at the church, beginning at 10:30 a.m. A private interment will take place. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Belmont House would be appreciated.

KERRY WELCH VILLA

Passed away peacefully on Tuesday, October 9, 2018 at age 40. Cherished wife of Pablo.

Beloved daughter of Tafflyn and the late Michael.

After University, she worked and traveled in Europe for a few years before returning to Canada to open and manage the Hilton Garden Inn in Niagara. She joined LRA Worldwide in 2006 where she met her husband Pablo.

Together they traveled the world, spent many wonderful times in Argentina with his family and enjoyed establishing their new home in Mississauga last year.

An avid sports aficionado, tennis and golf player, and supporter of Manchester United team.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W. (East of the Jane subway) on Saturday, October 13th from 2:00 p.m to 3:00 p.m. Funeral Service will be held immediately afterwards at Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel. If friends so desire in lieu of flowers, memorial donations may be made to Princess Margaret Hospital or the Canadian Cancer Society.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca


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ORCHARD PARK, N.Y. CHARLOTTE, N.C. CLEVELAND DETROIT KANSAS CITY EAST RUTHERFORD, N.J. -- The high-powered Patrick Mahomes and a perfect Kansas City squad welcome one of the NFL's stingiest defensive units in the Jags; The Browns and rookie pivot Baker Mayfield face another towering test when the Ravens land in Cleveland; and the Titans look to continue their quiet win streak in western New York against the Bills, The Associated Press reports TITANS AT BILLS Confident and rosy-eyed as Josh Allen may be, the Buffalo Bills rookie quarterback understands he was going to take his fair share of lumps this season.

Allen needed only to refer to the struggles Titans starter Marcus Mariota had in going 3-9 as a rookie in 2015.

"Sometimes you need to make those mistakes and you need to learn by trial and error, so that's what I'm doing now," Allen said, when asked about Mariota, as the Bills (1-3) get set to play host to Tennessee (3-1) on Sunday.

"We're getting better. I'm learning, I'm growing with every opportunity I get."

It might not look that way yet for Allen, whose inconsistencies have been apparent since taking over midway through a 47-3 season-opening loss at Baltimore.

After taking one step forward in a 27-6 win at Minnesota, the seventh player selected in the NFL draft took several backward in being sacked seven times during a three-turnover outing (two interceptions and a fumble) in a 22-0 loss at Green Bay last weekend.

The 22-year-old remains undeterred by the steep learning curve he faces while overseeing an offence with a patchwork line, a sputtering ground game and a mostly unproven group of receivers.

"It doesn't scare me," Allen said. "I know where I want to be, and I've got a long way to improve, a long way to grow. And I'm looking forward to the entire process."

Mariota might not be a finished product 31/2 years since being selected with the No. 2 pick. And yet he's overcome the challenges of working under his third head coach, Mike Vrabel, and third offensive co-ordinator, Matt LaFleur, to have the Titans off to their best start since 2013 while coming off a season in which he led Tennessee to its first playoff victory in 14 years.

He earned his fourth AFC offensive player of the week honour on Wednesday after rallying the Titans from a 17-3 third-quarter deficit for a 26-23 overtime win over the defending Super Bowl champion Philadelphia Eagles.

GIANTS AT PANTHERS Wide receiver Torrey Smith chuckled at the notion that safety Eric Reid's return to the NFL this week might be a distraction for the Carolina Panthers on Sunday when they play host to the New York Giants.

Smith said Reid's position on racial injustice hasn't been an issue in the locker room, adding that "no one cares" if he kneels or not during the national anthem.

He said Reid's new teammates are more eager to see what he does on the field rather than what he does before the game.

"It's not like he's out there and coach calls 'Cover 3' and he's going to take a knee and let a guy run by him. If that was the issue, it would be a problem," Smith said with a laugh. "But that's not the way it works. Eric knows what is best for Eric and we all know what he is fighting for."

Reid, who knelt alongside Colin Kaepernick in San Francisco during the national anthem to bring attention to racial and social injustice, hasn't said if he will demonstrate on Sunday in his first game since filing a collusion grievance against the NFL alleging that teams wouldn't sign him because of his protesting.

Regardless of Reid's beliefs, the Panthers (2-1) are excited to have the 2013 Pro Bowler, who is expected to start at safety after Da'Norris Searcy was placed on injured reserve last week with a concussion.

Cam Newton said the Panthers "got a steal" when they signed the 26-year-old Reid.

"He's a great player," Newton said. "We've accepted him with open arms. We know he's going to be an impact player for us, and that's all I care about."

Reid, who is African-American, said after signing a one-year contract with Carolina that he plans to "continue to speak for my people" and use his platform to talk about injustice.

"I'm going to stand by him and none of that will be a distraction as far as us winning football games," Newton said. "What he does on the football field is going to impact this team. I know that." RAVENS AT BROWNS Baker Mayfield's first NFL start came inside Oakland's notorious Black Hole.

No. 2 will be against some nasty black birds.

It can only get easier after this.

The top overall pick in this year's NFL draft, Mayfield faces a major challenge in his first career home start on Sunday as the Browns play host to the Ravens. Baltimore's ravenous, second-ranked defence has not given up a touchdown in the second half this season and made Steelers star QB Ben Roethlisberger look lost last week.

Now they get a rookie to feast upon.

Mayfield knows what awaits him.

"Baltimore has obviously been historically a great defensive franchise," he said. "They trust what they are good at, and they are going to run it. They are playing well right now. I expect them to continue to do what they are good at and also throw a couple of wrinkles in there for me."

For the most part, Mayfield handled everything the Raiders threw his way a week ago in his first career start, a 45-42 loss in overtime. Showing some of the same poise and playmaking ability that made him a college star, Mayfield passed for 295 yards and two touchdowns. However, he committed four turnovers and the Browns (1-2-1) blew a 14-point lead in the second half and dropped to 2-33-1 in coach Hue Jackson's tenure.

Still, Mayfield, who came off the bench on Sept. 20 against the Jets and led the Browns to their first win since 2016, handled the adversity like a seasoned pro and converted a few more doubters into believers.

The Browns may have finally found their leader.

"I think Baker Mayfield is this generation's Brett Favre or John Elway, if you will," Ravens defensive coordinator Don Martindale said. "This guy knows where he wants to go with the ball, and he's very accurate, has a quick release. He's really playing well.

"Obviously, he's playing well because they scored 42 points last week against Oakland, and they are the top 5 of scoring offence. So, I think he's done a nice job filling in, and it seems like they have more rhythm with him as a rookie, every play he's in there." PACKERS AT LIONS The Detroit Lions seem to need a win over Green Bay to stop Matt Patricia's first season from being a flop.

Week 5 may seem a little early for an NFL team to be desperate, but not in Detroit.

The Lions (1-3) were embarrassed in a 48-17 loss to the New York Jets, who haven't won since the opener and appear to be one of the league's worst teams.

The Lions did earn an impressive win over New England in Week 3, but the lone victory is sandwiched between comebacks that fell short at San Francisco and Dallas.

Detroit, which hasn't won a division title since 1993, can get a boost of confidence and go into a bye week on a high if it can beat the Packers (2-1-1) for a third straight time.

"It would be huge, because if you win this one, you get to enjoy this one for a little bit longer and you got a break to enjoy," Detroit receiver Golden Tate said. "If you lose this, you're thinking about it until you're back on the field.

"Besides that, it's a divisional game. I like to think it counts as two. A win for us and a loss for them, that's a two-game swing in my mind."

Unlike last year's season sweep, though, the Lions will have to face two-time NFL MVP Aaron Rodgers. He was injured for the 2017 match-ups.

"One of the best ways to get into the playoffs is to win your division games, and this is our first opportunity," Detroit safety Glover Quin said.

"If we get a win here, we'll have two wins just like Green Bay. Minnesota has one. Chicago has three wins, but no one is running away with it right now." JAGUARS AT CHIEFS Jacksonville coach Doug Marrone has seen enough in five games of Kansas City Chiefs quarterback Patrick Mahomes to compare him with some of the best to ever play the position. Or more accurately, an amalgamation of the best to ever play it.

Think the arm strength of Brett Favre and the accuracy of Tom Brady. The poise of Aaron Rodgers, the gritty gamesmanship of Ben Roethlisberger and the intelligence of Peyton Manning.

"You are talking," Marrone said, "about someone that is a combination of a lot of the greatest players that have ever played that position with the way he is playing."

Now, the question is whether the NFL's best defence can slow him down.

The Jaguars (3-1) head to Arrowhead Stadium on Sunday to face Mahomes and the Chiefs' high-flying offence in what is arguably the game of the week.

Jacksonville's only loss came by a field goal to the Titans, while the Chiefs (4-0) are coming off a dramatic fourth-quarter comeback win in Denver.

And whereas the Jaguars are allowing a paltry 259 yards per game and top the league in scoring defence, the Chiefs are putting up 410 yards and an NFL-best 36 points a game.

Much of that is attributable to Mahomes, who is averaging close to 300 yards passing. He has already thrown 14 touchdown passes without an interception and his ability to make plays when everything breaks down - such as that audacious left-handed pass against the Broncos - has turned him into an early MVP front-runner.

"He gives you challenges every which way," Marrone said, "whether you put him in the pocket [or not]. He can make every throw. He makes quick decisions. You get him out of the pocket and he can extend plays. He is athletic enough to run and run for a long way and take it to the house. He has great command and he has great weapons around him and an outstanding offensive line.

"Right now, offensively, what you're seeing is that it's kind of unbelievable," Marrone said, "which is going to be a great challenge. We have our hands full." BRONCOS AT JETS Von Miller acknowledges he's no draft guru and is far from any kind of expert when it comes to quarterbacks. Well, except for sacking them, of course.

But the Denver Broncos' star linebacker knew there was something special about Sam Darnold long before the New York Jets made him the No. 3 overall pick.

"I don't know nothing about drafting a quarterback or anything like that, but I thought he was the No. 1 pick, for sure," Miller said. "I thought he was the best offensive player in the draft."

The Jets sure thought so, even if the teams ahead of them took guys on offence ahead of Darnold. Cleveland made quarterback Baker Mayfield the No. 1 overall pick, while the Giants went with running back Saquon Barkley with the next selection.

The Jets pounced on Darnold when their turn came up and Miller can't blame them.

"Baker Mayfield was the No. 1 pick, and rightfully so," Miller said. "But in my opinion, watching everything, from a pass rusher's point of view, I just felt like [Darnold] was the No. 1 pick in the draft. He wasn't the No. 1 pick, but he's definitely playing like it."

Well, not quite. But Miller will get a chance for an up-close evaluation on Sunday when the Broncos (2-2) travel to MetLife Stadium to take on Darnold's Jets (1-3). Darnold had a terrific NFL debut with two touchdown throws in New York's win at Detroit, but has struggled a bit in the three games since - all losses - along with the rest of the Jets' offence. He has just two TD passes in that span and four interceptions, although he didn't toss one last Sunday at Jacksonville.

"As a team, I feel like we are really close, and for me personally, I feel like I'm just on the edge," Darnold said. "I've just got to continue to find completions, hit my guys deep when they're there. It'll come, it's just a timing thing. It's going to click one of these games, I know it is."

This might be a tough week to get things going, though. Especially while facing a defence led by Miller, who has four sacks and two forced fumbles this season.

Associated Graphic

Tennessee Titans quarterback Marcus Mariota

Then-49er safety Eric Reid is now a Panther

Cleveland Browns quarterback Baker Mayfield

Detroit Lions wide receiver Golden Tate

Kansas City Chiefs quarterback Patrick Mahomes

New York Jets quarterback Sam Darnold


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PITTSBURGH CARSON, CALIF. PHILADELPHIA SANTA CLARA, CALIF. HOUSTON SEATTLE -- 'America's Team,' the Dallas Cowboys saunter down to Houston in the first matchup between the two Texas squads since 2014; the Rams look to keep up their impression of the Kurt Warner-led 'Greatest Show on Turf' offence of yesteryear in Seattle; and the Chargers' matchup with the Raiders could all come down to the ground game, The Associated Press reports FALCONS AT STEELERS When the 2018 NFL schedule was released in the spring, Atlanta's trip to Pittsburgh on the first Sunday in October looked to be a potential Super Bowl preview. Then September happened and the lofty preseason expectations evaporated, replaced by an unruly and unpredictable reality.

Pittsburgh All-Pro running back Le'Veon Bell extended his franchise-tag-induced sabbatical indefinitely, wide receiver Antonio Brown couldn't stop making headlines for things that had little to do with football and the overhauled Steelers secondary spent far too much time chasing opponents to the end zone. Atlanta, meanwhile, couldn't stop sending defensive starters to the trainer's room or finding excruciating ways to drop close games.

The Steelers (1-2-1) and the Falcons (1-3) both stress that panicking with three-quarters of the season to go is unwise. "[We] don't want to look down the road about things that are two or three weeks away," Atlanta coach Dan Quinn said. "The mindset of just own now man, own this week."

Maybe Quinn should settle for his team owning the final minutes. Atlanta has led in the fourth quarter in all of its three losses. But at least the Falcons have been close; the Steelers, not so much. Pittsburgh has not held the lead at any point in each of its past three games at Heinz Field.

"Last year, we kind of started a little sloppy, too, so you know you guys can look at records all you want, we're not," Steelers quarterback Ben Roethlisberger said. "We're looking at this next week and trying to get a win because that's all that really matters."

Roethlisberger is right. Sort of.

The Steelers have been sluggish in September under coach Mike Tomlin, who is also 30-13 in October in his career. A year ago, Pittsburgh was a tepid 3-2 before ripping off eight straight wins on its way to a second straight AFC North title.

Not that Tomlin's players are looking for comfort in the idea that they've been here before and gotten it together in time to reach the postseason.

"I want to be great all the way around," Steelers centre Maurkice Pouncey said. "I don't even like assumptions like that." RAIDERS AT CHARGERS Oakland and the Los Angeles Chargers both come into Sunday's game ranked in the top 10 in total offence. The matchup between AFC West rivals is likely to come down to who has the greatest success running the ball.

Both teams had a 100-yard rusher in their wins last week. The Raiders' Marshawn Lynch had 130 yards in a 45-42 overtime victory over Cleveland, while the Chargers' Melvin Gordon gained 104 yards on the ground in a 29-27 win over San Francisco.

Lynch and Gordon are both ranked in the top 10 in rushing. Lynch is fourth with 300 yards and has shown flashes of being back to the level he displayed in Seattle from 2011-14, when he had four straight 1,000-yard seasons. Gordon is seventh with 276 yards.

Both players are showing they are physical runners in different ways. Lynch has generated 77.3 per cent of his yards after contact according to SportRadar, the highest percentage among the top 24 backs. Gordon is tied for third in broken tackles with 12. "There's not a lot of backs that can say they run the football like he does. He still has elusiveness and speed," Raiders coach Jon Gruden said about Lynch.

"This guy likes the physical grind and I think he feeds off of it."

Gordon is also making an impact in the passing game, as he is tied for the Chargers' lead in receptions with 17. That has allowed him to lead the AFC in yards from scrimmage with 475.

"He's really done a great job as a receiver and really been a factor to make huge plays for us," Chargers offensive co-ordinator Ken Whisenhunt said. "I think he has been driven to get his game to another level, and I think we're seeing the benefit to that.

He's worked hard. He's studied it."

Both teams are looking for a win to avoid falling to 0-2 in division games. Quarterback Philip Rivers said the Chargers need to start stringing together wins to avoid falling further behind unbeaten Kansas City.

VIKINGS AT EAGLES This time, it's Kirk Cousins versus Carson Wentz.

The quarterbacks and the stakes will be different when the Philadelphia Eagles (2-2) play host to the Minnesota Vikings (1-2-1) in a rematch of the NFC championship game on Sunday.

Last January, Nick Foles led the Eagles to a 38-7 win over Case Keenum and the Vikings. Now the Super Bowl MVP is back on the bench since Wentz returned from knee surgery in Week 3. Keenum, meanwhile, ended up with Denver because the Vikings gave Cousins a fully guaranteed US$84-million contract to be the face of their franchise.

Neither team is playing at a championship level right now and both are desperate for a win.

"They're a great team, record aside," Wentz said.

"We know we'll get their best, obviously with the way it ended last year."

Cousins had been successful against the Eagles in seven starts for Washington. He had thrown for 2,122 yards with 16 touchdowns and five interceptions while going 4-3 in those games.

"It's a great environment, a great place to play an NFL football game on a Sunday afternoon. Great crowd," Cousins said. "I've had my fair share of battles there. Some have come out victorious, some have come out as the loser. It will be a great test for us."

Vikings offensive co-ordinator John DeFilippo was Philadelphia's quarterbacks coach the past two seasons. He's quite familiar with Wentz and coach Doug Pederson's system. The Eagles already beat former offensive co-ordinator Frank Reich and the Colts in Week 3.

"The same as going against Frank, some of the terminology, some of the calls, maybe hand signals, whatever it may be that he knows," Pederson said.

"Listen, he's a smart guy, but he's also preparing his team to get ready to play. I think that's where his focus is right now this week.

CARDINALS AT 49ERS San Francisco coach Kyle Shanahan took only a cursory look at Josh Rosen in his draft preparation last spring because the 49ers already had franchise quarterback Jimmy Garoppolo in place.

Shanahan studied Rosen a lot more closely this week after the rookie made his first career start in the NFL. Now he has to face him when the Arizona Cardinals (0-4) visit the 49ers (1-3). Shanahan came away impressed, even though Rosen threw for only 180 yards and one touchdown in a 20-17 loss to Seattle.

"He's a very good thrower. He made some very good throws in that game," Shanahan said. "They definitely, I believe, should have won that game.

They had two big ones that were dropped, I think two touchdowns. It was impressive. So, as similar to college, we know we're going against a good player.

He definitely helps them."

Arizona needs plenty of help as the NFL's only winless team. The Cardinals are 0-4 for the first time since 1986 - two years before they moved from St.

Louis to the desert.

The Cardinals' 37 points are their fewest after four games since 1945 and the fewest in the league since Jacksonville had 31 in 2013. Arizona has gained only 834 yards with Sam Bradford and Rosen at quarterback, tied for the fewest in the NFL after four games since the expansion Texans had 774 in 2002.

The lack of early success hasn't shaken the confidence Rosen gained in college at UCLA when he played well enough to become the 10th pick over all in this year's draft.

"I'm a very confident person," he said. "Even if I have no reason to, I'll find a way to fool myself into going out there with full confidence that we're going to win every single game we play.

"Every time I step on the field, I expect to throw a touchdown or hand off a touchdown or lead the team to the end zone in some way. In my head, if I don't, it's a surprise and something's wrong and we've got to fix it so that we do next time." COWBOYS AT TEXANS Houston star J.J. Watt knows how important Sunday night's game against the Dallas Cowboys is to fans of both teams.

But the way the Texans' season has gone so far, Watt isn't concerned about the significance of this intrastate rivalry, and is simply worried about helping his guys turn things around.

"I'm sure there's definitely something there for the fans on both sides, but ... they could be lining up anybody over there," Watt said. "We need to win this game."

The Texans (1-3) got their first victory last week in overtime against the Colts after opening the season with three straight losses. The Cowboys (2-2) haven't fared much better, and picked up their second win on Sunday against the Lions.

This game tends to be hyped more because these teams meet so rarely. Sunday will be the fifth Texas derby and the first since 2014. The Cowboys have won the past three, with Houston's only win coming in the franchise's first game in 2002.

While Watt really didn't want to get into the rivalry aspect of this game, quarterback Deshaun Watson talked about what a win over Dallas would mean to the city.

"This is pretty much the battle of Texas," Watson said. "Two Texas teams and Houston wants to beat Dallas and have the bragging rights. So, we have to go out there and do our job and try to get those bragging rights so the whole city of Houston can hold that weight for a year."

To do that the Texans will have to slow down running back Ezekiel Elliott, who leads the NFL with 426 yards rushing. He had a season-high 29 touches for a career-high 240 yards from scrimmage in the win over Detroit.

The 25 carries were by far the most this season and it's what he expects every week - not the 16carry average from the first three weeks when the Dallas offence was spotty at best.

"I am young," the 23-year-old said. "I got fresh legs. I'm going to get the ball as much as I can." RAMS AT SEAHAWKS The previous time the Los Angeles Rams visited Seattle, they were announcing themselves as the new powerhouse in the NFC West by handing the Seahawks a drubbing unlike any they had experienced in Pete Carroll's tenure.

As much as the Seahawks would like to forget that day last December, a 42-7 loss to a division rival lingers.

Less than a year later, the Rams are more than just the favourites of their division. A quarter through the season, they may be the prohibitive Super Bowl favourites. The Rams (4-0) make their annual trip to Seattle on Sunday looking to take control of the division just five weeks into the season.

"I think there's definitely a lot of confidence that comes with playing well and definitely can get some momentum going, but I think we're just executing," Rams quarterback Jared Goff said. "We've done a pretty good job executing."

And there is little reason not to believe Los Angeles will be leaving town with a three-game lead in the division.

The Rams are scoring an absurd amount of points, having scored at least 33 points in all four games. Goff is coming off a career-high 465 yards passing and five TDs, carving up a Minnesota defence that was regarded as among the best in the NFL and posting a perfect passer rating in the process. Cooper Kupp, Robert Woods and Brandin Cooks each had 100 yards receiving against the Vikings.

Oh, and there's still Todd Gurley, who the last time he saw the Seahawks rushed for 152 yards and scored a career-high four total touchdowns. And this time, they'll be facing a Seahawks defence without safety Earl Thomas, who suffered a season-ending lower leg fracture last week against Arizona.

The Seahawks (2-2) have recovered from a 0-2 start by knocking off Dallas and Arizona in consecutive weeks. The Seahawks have rediscovered their run game with consecutive 100-yard rushers and their defence has held three straight opponents to under 305 total yards of offence.

But they know the Rams are a different challenge.

Associated Graphic

Atlanta Falcons coach Dan Quinn

Oakland Raiders running back Marshawn Lynch

Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Carson Wentz

San Francisco 49ers coach Kyle Shanahan

Houston Texans defensive end J.J. Watt

Los Angeles Rams quarterback Jared Goff


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ATLANTA CINCINNATI CLEVELAND HOUSTON MIAMI MINNEAPOLIS -- Pittsburgh and Cincinnati renew their AFC North rivalry; San Diego visits a resurgent Cleveland squad; Buffalo heads south to Houston in a battle between two young gunslingers; Khalil Mack and the Bears defence have their sights set on shutting down the Dolphins offence; while Larry Fitzgerald has a homecoming when Arizona travels to Minnesota, The Associated Press reports

BUCCANEERS AT FALCONS The Tampa Bay Buccaneers must be licking their chops for the chance to go up against the Atlanta defence.

Then again, the Falcons offence is surely just as pumped to get on the field against the Bucs.

A fan of stingy defences?

You've come to the wrong place.

The scoreboard at Mercedes-Benz Stadium figures to get a workout on Sunday in the matchup between NFC South rivals. Tampa Bay (2-2) has surrendered more points a game than any team in the league (34.75), while the Falcons (1-4) are right on their heels with an average of 32.6.

The Bucs' defensive woes have put the heat on coordinator Mike Smith, a former head coach of the Falcons. Smith's boss, Dirk Koetter, has resisted calls to make a change.

"Every week, every game, it's way bigger than any one guy," the Tampa Bay coach said. "It's never all one person's fault and it's never all one person's credit."

Smith said he's confident the Bucs can turn things around.

"We did some things in the first three games that you can look forward and say, 'Gosh darn, those guys, they've got a chance to do some things well,'" Smith said. "We've been an inconsistent group, and really that's frustrating as a coach because you don't like to put the inconsistencies out on the field."

The Falcons are on the defensive about their defence, as well. For the first time since 1987, Atlanta has given up at least 37 points in three straight games.

It would be easy to point to a rash of injuries to key players. Safeties Ricardo Allen and Keanu Neal are both out for the season, linebacker Deion Jones will miss at least eight games and tackle Grady Jarrett sat out last week's contest with a sprained ankle.

Tampa Bay will be looking to strike quickly. In each of the past three weeks, the Falcons have surrendered long touchdown drives on their opponent's first possession.

"They've been marching it down on us pretty easy," defensive end Takk McKinley moaned.

STEELERS AT BENGALS Cornerback Dre Kirkpatrick knows what it's like to think that victory is only a few seconds away, only to watch the Pittsburgh Steelers rally for another improbable win and run off the field as thousands of their fans twirl towels in the stands.

Many of Kirkpatrick's teammates haven't been on the sideline for those blow-to-the-gut finishes, which might work to the Bengals' advantage on Sunday as they revisit a rivalry that's more of a horror story for Cincinnati.

The Bengals (4-1) have their youngest team in coach Marvin Lewis's 16 seasons as they get ready to welcome the Steelers (2-2-1). Nineteen of them are in their first or second season - virtual newcomers to the one-sided series.

"It's kind of good that some of these guys haven't experienced it because we're trying to go in with clear minds, clear everything," Kirkpatrick said.

"Just going out there and playing our game and not [remembering] nothing that happened two or three years ago, or last year."

The Steelers know their history.

Pittsburgh has won six straight in the series, including an 18-16 victory in the first round of the 2015 playoffs that included a historic meltdown by the Bengals. The Steelers have won nine of 10 and 14 of 17 against their AFC North rival, getting the better of games that have often turned nasty.

"Yeah, you get amped up there," Steelers linebacker Bud Dupree said. "It's their house. They're trying to be so tough."

Some of the main figures in the most memorable games are gone. Bengals linebacker Vontaze Burfict is back after sitting out the first four games on his latest NFL suspension, but cornerback Adam (Pacman) Jones left after last season. Steelers running back Le'Veon Bell is holding out.

"Many of the significant contributors don't play for us [anymore], they don't play for them," Steelers coach Mike Tomlin said.

CHARGERS AT BROWNS Empty seats. Anemic football. Bad vibes.

Home field hasn't meant any advantage in recent years for the Browns, who entered this season with three wins in their past 27 home games at FirstEnergy Stadium, dubbed "The Factory of Sadness."

Madness has been the norm so far this season.

The Browns (2-2-1) have played two overtime games already at home and rallied to win a nationally televised Thursday-night game to end their 19game winless streak and breathe life into a fan base that couldn't take much more misery.

Lifeless for years, the Dawg Pound is howling once more, and Browns coach Hue Jackson begged Cleveland fans to bring the noise for Sunday's game against the Los Angeles Chargers (3-2).

"I want them to be as loud as they have ever been," Jackson pleaded. "This week our players will need that. We need that assistance for them. They have been outstanding, but boy, we need a little bit more from them this week, too. " Jackson's hoping a roaring crowd will make things tougher on Chargers quarterback Philip Rivers, who is off to one of the best starts of his 15-year NFL career. Rivers has thrown 13 touchdown passes and two interceptions, and Jackson believes Cleveland's crowd can be as disruptive as any of the Browns' 11 defenders.

"He's one of the best that have played the game," Jackson said. "It does not look like he is slowing down at all. He is one of the top quarterbacks in this league, bar none. We need 12 people when they are on offence, and the 12th person is going to be our crowd."

Rivers often resets his offence before the snap, changing the plays after taking a look at how the defence is aligned. The Browns experienced that last season in a 19-10 loss to the Chargers.

"We've just got to do a better job of bogeying and disguising and making it harder for him to do that," Browns linebacker Joe Schobert said. "I think being at home this year, where it will be harder for him to make checks if we have a loud crowd, will be an advantage to us. It will be harder for them to change every single play that will be perfectly what they want." BILLS AT TEXANS Everyone agrees Deshaun Watson took far too many hits last week against the Dallas Cowboys.

That doesn't mean Houston's quarterback is going to change the way he plays on Sunday when the Texans (2-3) welcome the Buffalo Bills (2-3).

Many of those hits against Dallas came on runs when he simply refused to slide, something he won't apologize for.

"If you put [me in] that same situation in overtime and it's fourth-and-one and we need a touchdown and the ball is in my hands, you're going to want me to get in that end zone," Watson said. "It's a fine line. You've got to pick your spots and pick your situations."

Coach Bill O'Brien doesn't blame his young quarterback for trying to make plays, but he is looking for ways to limit how many blows Watson takes.

Many running quarterbacks have had their production - and careers - curtailed by getting hit too hard too often.

"Two of the plays where he took a hit [came when] he was trying to score touchdowns," O'Brien said. "So, very competitive guy and does a great job of moving. Sometimes the ball can come out a little bit quicker, sometimes the play can be better, but we're all working hard to improve every area of the offence."

The repeated hits from the Cowboys left Watson a bit banged-up this week, but he insisted he's fine and won't be limited against Buffalo. He was asked if this was the sorest he's ever been after a game.

"I've been sore plenty of times," he said. "It's part of the game, able to take some shots and just regroup and keep moving forward."

Buffalo coach Sean McDermott said he spent some time with Watson before he was drafted last year and raved about him as a person and a player.

He knows a key for his team on Sunday will be finding a way to limit his dynamic plays.

"He's a headache ... the way he plays, he makes plays with his arm, he makes plays with his feet," McDermott said.

BEARS AT DOLPHINS Last week, the Miami Dolphins resorted to eightman pass protection, so desperate were they to slow an onslaught against quarterback Ryan Tannehill.

And now they have to block Khalil Mack.

That will be a daunting task when Miami faces the Chicago Bears on Sunday in a matchup of firstplace teams headed in opposite directions.

The Dolphins (3-2) are trying to patch up an injury-depleted offensive line and rebound from consecutive ugly losses. The Bears (3-1) are well rested after a bye, riding a three-game winning streak and alone atop the NFC North for the first time since 2013.

Newcomer Mack has led the Bears into first place by dominating on defence. The two-time All-Pro end has five sacks and is tied for the NFL lead with four forced fumbles. He has at least one sack and forced fumble in each game. And the Dolphins might have to confront him without left tackle Laremy Tunsil, sidelined last week by a concussion.

No team this season has been able to keep Mack off the quarterback.

"He's just playing at a different level than anybody that I've seen," Miami coach Adam Gase said.

Now Mack faces a team staggered by season-ending injuries to two starters in the offensive line, followed by the loss of Tunsil. He was badly missed last week, when Tannehill was hit 11 times in the second half as the Dolphins blew a 17-point lead at Cincinnati. The Bengals' pass rush was so overwhelming, Miami had almost everyone on offence blocking, and even that didn't work.

Mack is well aware a harried Tannehill committed two turnovers that were returned for touchdowns.

"You watch the film," Mack said. "You also know that he's a good athlete and he makes a lot of plays."

But in each of the past two games, the Dolphins' offence has scored only one touchdown, and Tannehill has thrown for fewer than 200 yards.

"He's getting hit too much," Gase said. "I've got to find a way to get the ball out of his hands, get guys open quicker, or figure something else out." CARDINALS AT VIKINGS Adam Thielen wasn't even in high school yet when Larry Fitzgerald entered the NFL in 2004 with Arizona with the acclaim of the third overall pick in the draft.

Nine years later, Thielen needed a rookie tryout camp with Minnesota just to earn a roster spot. It took a season on the practice squad and two more years spent mostly on special teams to set him up to break out as one of the league's best wide receivers - and underdog stories.

With Fitzgerald's impeccable career with the Cardinals (1-4) winding down, Thielen's has just begun to take off with the Vikings (2-2-1). Although they play the same position and won't actually face each other on the field, the matchup on Sunday has created an opportunity for these Minnesota-raised pass-catchers and summer golfing pals to reflect on their paths to success. And their admiration for each other.

"Being born and raised in Minnesota like him, it just makes me so damn proud to see him doing the things he's doing, but not just on the field. The way he carries himself, the constant professional, the teammate he is," said Fitzgerald, who will decide this winter whether to come back for a 16th season next year. "Being around him at different events, the guy is class personified, and it just makes me so, so happy to see somebody like that be rewarded."

Fitzgerald, as a teenage ball boy for the Vikings in the late 1990s, befriended Cris Carter and Randy Moss, and was able to glean up-close tips he used to develop into one of the most well-rounded and well-conditioned players at this glamorous position. He has missed only six games in 15 years.

Thielen grew up watching Carter, Moss and eventually Fitzgerald on TV.

"I just know how hard he works and how successful he's been," Thielen said, "and I've really tried to emulate what I've done from him."

Associated Graphic

Tampa Bay Buccaneers head coach Dirk Koetter

Cincinnati Bengals cornerback Dre Kirkpatrick

L.A. Chargers quarterback Philip Rivers

Houston Texans quarterback Deshaun Watson

Chicago Bears linebacker Khalil Mack

Arizona Cardinals wide receiver Larry Fitzgerald


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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page S11

EAST RUTHERFORD, N.J. LANDOVER, MD. DENVER ARLINGTON, TEX. NASHVILLE -- Indianapolis aims to get back into the win column when they take on the Jets; Washington cornerback Josh Norman aims to shut down his former Carolina teammates; Denver will struggle to find a way past its old coach's stout defence; Jacksonville hopes to get back on track against Dallas; while coaching friends face off in the Baltimore-Tennessee match, The Associated Press reports

SEAHAWKS VS. RAIDERS IN LONDON Marshawn Lynch and Bruce Irvin helped win a Super Bowl in Seattle before becoming stalwarts in Oakland.

Sebastian Janikowski rewrote the record book for the Raiders before booming long kicks for the Seahawks.

Seattle defensive co-ordinator Ken Norton Jr. and Oakland offensive line coach Tom Cable spent the past few seasons doing the same job with the other team.

When the Seahawks and Raiders kick off in London on Sunday, it will be a reunion of sorts - even though the game will be played several thousand miles from home.

"I've always enjoyed the most playing against the people I like the most. There's guys on the club, coaches and all kinds of connections," Seahawks coach Pete Carroll said. "There's just connections across the board. It just makes it fun if you're competitive and you like competing against the best and your friends. I do. I just look forward to it."

Both teams have more pressing issues than seeing old friends. The Seahawks (2-3) are already three games back in the NFC West and the Raiders (1-4) have struggled all season in the first year of Jon Gruden's second stint as coach.

"I just don't like to lose," Gruden said. "I think we have work to do. There's not enough time in the day to do it. I'm depressed. I'm tired. I want to win. I want to do better."

The Seahawks will finally get a chance to tackle Lynch, who starred for the team from 2010-15 and helped Seattle win a Super Bowl. Lynch was mostly off-limits at practice, although linebacker Bobby Wagner recalls getting scolded by Lynch for hitting him as a rookie and dislocating Lynch's finger while trying to punch the ball out.

There will be no limits on contact on Sunday.

"Never got the chance to tackle Marshawn," Wagner said. "Talked a lot of trash. We finally get to go against each other. So it's going to be fun." COLTS AT JETS Broadway Joe will be in the building. So will the rest of the 1968 New York Jets, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the squad that won the franchise's only Super Bowl.

Nostalgia will be all around MetLife Stadium on Sunday, with rookie Sam Darnold and this year's Jets team trying to set a much more modest goal against the Indianapolis Colts - not coincidentally, the franchise New York beat for that 1969 title while the former was in Baltimore.

Coming off an impressive 34-16 victory over Denver last Sunday and with the likes of Joe Namath and Don Maynard watching, New York will look to win consecutive games for the first time since taking three straight in weeks 3 through 5 last season - over a year ago.

"We've got a good team," Darnold said. "It's just about putting together the pieces. Obviously, we put some together this past Sunday. We've just got to build off of it and, for me personally, I've just got to stay consistent."

The Jets (2-3) have struggled with that. They opened the season with a 48-17 romp at Denver and then had clunkers against Miami, Cleveland and Jacksonville before getting back in the win column last weekend.

"We have to grow up and find a way to string games together and get on winning streaks," left tackle Kelvin Beachum said, "instead of losing streaks."

That's what Andrew Luck and the struggling Colts (1-4) will be looking to stop when they take the field.

Indianapolis has lost three in a row, is missing some key players such as wide receiver T.Y. Hilton and tight end Jack Doyle to injuries and could see its season really spiral with another defeat. The Colts, however, aren't thinking about that right now.

"I love that this team has no quit," tight end Eric Ebron said. "I love the story that we'll have, and I say that because we're very young, we're all beat up, and what people don't tend to realize is that you don't stay beat up forever. You get healthy, you get guys back and then you start to establish a dominance." PANTHERS AT WASHINGTON What a week for Washington cornerback Josh Norman.

There was a benching during a 24-point loss. Criticism from a former teammate. Biting Twitter barbs from an opposing receiver.

What better way to cap it all off than with a matchup for Washington (2-2) on Sunday against Cam Newton and the visiting Carolina Panthers (3-1), the club that abruptly parted with Norman about 2½ years ago.

"Old friends. They're coming to town, and I get to see them and go at each other. They know how I am.

Trust me. I know how they are. So it's going to be quite an exciting time," Norman said. "I'm looking forward to them. I know [Newton's] got something special cooked up for us."

Norman was coming off an all-pro season and a Super Bowl appearance when the Panthers put the franchise tag on him in March, 2016, a move many figured was a precursor to a long-term deal. Fast-forward six weeks, though, and Carolina rescinded the tag offer, allowing Norman to become an unrestricted free agent.

Within a couple of days, he signed a US$75-million, five-year contract with Washington. For whatever the reason - and there are various theories out there - things have not gone all that well for Norman, who turns 31 in December and is currently up to 19 games in a row without an interception.

The downswing culminated in Washington coach Jay Gruden's decision to play a rookie Norman's place coming out of halftime during a 43-19 loss at New Orleans on Monday night.

Then came all sorts of theories about what might be wrong with Norman, from his age (courtesy of Saints receiver Michael Thomas) to his interest in becoming a celebrity (brought up by ex-Washington defensive back DeAngelo Hall) to the shift from Carolina's zone coverage to Washington's man-toman principles (referenced by Panthers coach Ron Rivera).

RAMS AT BRONCOS Wade Phillips returns to Denver this weekend and several Broncos can't wait to hug it out with their former defensive co-ordinator.

Phillips was the Broncos' beloved bandmaster when they were riding firetrucks in a downtown parade and Von Miller was showing off the Super Bowl trophy 21/2 years ago.

"Coach Phillips is football royalty," a man for whom "the moments were never too big and the moments were never too small," said Miller, who recalled Phillips depressurizing his defence before Super Bowl 50 by declaring: "All the mistakes are on me and you can just go out there and play."

"It just shows you what type of coach that he is," Miller said. "He's dope."

Now 71, Phillips is leading a revitalized Rams defence for 32-year-old Los Angeles head coach Sean McVay, who brings a 5-0 team to Denver on Sunday to face the reeling Broncos (2-3).

This game was supposed to mark Aqib Talib's return, too. But the star cornerback is sidelined with an ankle injury, which bums out Broncos cornerback Chris Harris Jr.

Harris is certainly embracing Phillips, win or lose.

"Wade, he just gave you so much confidence in yourself. I'll never forget, I had one bad game, and he's just, 'You're the best. You're going to get it next week. I'm ready for you next week. I've got a big game plan for you to make plays next week,' " Harris recounted. He just knows how to lift you up and brings your potential out of you."

The Broncos didn't renew Phillips's contract after the 2016 season, and McVay was thrilled to hire him shortly after becoming the youngest head coach in modern NFL history.

"You're probably going to have a tough time finding anyone that doesn't really like him and enjoy being around Wade," McVay said.

Denver's defenders still talk glowingly about their time with Phillips.

"He's an old guy, but he acts young," Harris said.

"He tries to be hip with everything and he just loves the game. It's not hard to play for a coach that really loves the game, really wants to win." JAGUARS AT COWBOYS With Blake Bortles piling up passing numbers as never before in his career, Jacksonville coach Doug Marrone wants to get the Jaguars back to running.

Dak Prescott, Jason Garrett and the Dallas Cowboys have the opposite issue heading into a Sunday matchup with familiar faces on both sidelines.

Bortles has a chance to be just the fifth NFL quarterback with at least 375 yards passing in three straight games after establishing a career high in consecutive weeks. He also had a career-high four interceptions last week, which helped explain a 3014 loss to undefeated Kansas City.

There was something else that bothered Marrone against the Chiefs: a season-low 17 rushing attempts to go with Bortles's personal high of 61 throws. The only other game this season with fewer than 20 carries? The other loss for Jacksonville (3-2), against Tennessee.

"That's not the way we want to play," Marrone said. "I probably should have done a better job of that. I just felt like we were pressing and trying to make plays. I just think, over all, I have to do a better job of managing that."

Of course, the Jaguars have some pretty good reasons to tilt toward the pass. Running back Leonard Fournette will be out for the fourth time in six games with a hamstring injury. Jacksonville is on its third left tackle in Josh Walker.

The Jaguars signed two-time all-pro running back Jamaal Charles this week and expect him to contribute behind T.J. Yeldon against the Cowboys (2-3).

"I think we were pretty fortunate last year as far as staying healthy," Bortles said. "This year we haven't been quite as lucky. These next three weeks, not looking ahead or anything, but to get to the bye week are important with the amount of guys we have down."

The Cowboys aren't looking for 375 yards passing from Prescott because they have the NFL rushing leader in Ezekiel Elliott. But inefficiency throwing is the biggest reason Dallas has a losing record and questions inside and outside the locker room about play-calling.

RAVENS AT TITANS Dean Pees's retirement from his old job as defensive co-ordinator with the Baltimore Ravens sure didn't last very long. Not with Mike Vrabel pouncing on the chance to lure his former coach to work with him in Tennessee.

Now the NFL schedule is giving the defensive coordinator a chance to try and slow down his old team on Sunday.

"At some point in time, when I do conclude my career," Pees said, "it will be to me a unique situation and a unique opportunity I was given to work for two guys that are great coaches and were great players for me, and for me then to kind of give back and the fact that I kind of know them so well. We're on the same page as far as how you do things and that kind of stuff, it all kind of came from the same school."

Ravens coach John Harbaugh, who played for Pees at Miami (Ohio), hired his former defensive coordinator in 2010 as a linebackers coach before turning over the defence to Pees in 2012 - the year Baltimore last won the Super Bowl. Pees held that job through last season before retiring after 45 years as a coach.

Vrabel, who played for Pees in New England, called Harbaugh and Ravens general manager Ozzie Newsome for permission to talk to the retired Pees once hired as the Titans head coach.

Safety Eric Weddle said it was tough to see Pees join the Titans.

"We were all happy for him, because we know how much he loves coaching," Weddle said. "But he's with them now. We appreciate what he did here, but we're doing our thing now, and he's doing his."

The Ravens replaced Pees, 69, by promoting Don (Wink) Martindale. Vrabel hired Pees to replace Dick LeBeau in Tennessee.

"Replacing Dick LeBeau anywhere is not an easy thing to do, and I was very aware of that, but I felt like we needed a change," Vrabel said. "And Dean has been everything that I had hoped for."

Photos by The Associated Press, Getty Images and USA Today

Associated Graphic

Seattle Seahawks head coach Pete Carroll

Indianapolis Colts quarterback Andrew Luck

Washington cornerback Josh Norman

L.A. Rams defensive co-ordinator Wade Phillips

Jacksonville Jaguars quarterback Blake Bortles

Baltimore Ravens head coach John Harbaugh


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Thursday, October 4, 2018 – Page B18

WILLIAM H. P. AMOS

1930 - 2018

With great sadness we announce the passing of William (Bill) on October 1, 2018. He leaves behind his loving wife Susan of 25 years and his sons Eric and Ian of Caledon, as well as Gregory and grandson Will in California. Bill was predeceased by his first wife Joyce (nee McDougall) in 1991.

As a graduate of Lakefield College School Bill acquired full naval training during WWII, and demonstrated the leadership qualities that would serve him well throughout his life. He was one of the founding partners of Liftow Ltd. and served as its Vice President until his retirement in 1993. He loved the materials handling business and often spoke of the countless business associates that he had the pleasure of working with.

When he wasn't working Bill was an ardent sailor and member of the RCYC during the 1950's. As their family grew Joyce and Bill moved to Caledon in 1966 to take advantage of the country life that he enjoyed, riding to hounds with the Eglinton Hunt for 30 years and serving as past president of the Caledon Riding Club; enjoying time at the Caledon Mountain Trout Club where he regularly shot clay birds to get his "eye in" before the annual bird hunting seasons in England, Ireland and Western Canada.

Bill and Susan were married in 1992 and moved to Kingston in 1994 where they made many wonderful friends and enjoyed an active social life. Bill loved a good party and was a great raconteur, but most of all he enjoyed his neighbours. Nothing pleased him more than a big snow storm when he could go out and help clear everyone's driveways, or give one of his beautiful custom walking sticks to friends and family. He touched many lives with his great sense of humour, outgoing personality and generous nature, and those of us who knew him will never forget his wonderful bigger than life personality.

In keeping with Bill's wishes there will not be a funeral service. A celebration of his life will be held at a later date. The family wishes to extend our sincere thanks for the kind and compassionate care that Bill received at Kingston General Hospital, Cormell 3 over the last months as he struggled with dementia.

MARCUS HAYDEN KENT ANDERSON

Marcus died suddenly and unexpectedly at age 50, on the afternoon of September 27, 2018.

The beloved son of Eleanor and Dr.

Farel Anderson of Collingwood, husband of Edilka, and his three children, the light of his life, Hayden, Evan and Sofia. Marcus was an alumnus of University of Toronto and the Richard Ivey School of Business. He was a life long entrepreneur and owner of Broadplay Inc. He will be sorely missed by all associated with him. Visitation will take place on Saturday October 6 at 10 a.m. at Mount Pleasant Cemetery with service to follow at 11 a.m. If desired, donations may be made to University of Toronto.

MYRNA RUTH HANET

June 14, 1948 October 1, 2018

Passed away peacefully at Princess Margaret Hospital after a brief but courageous battle with cancer. Loving and devoted wife of Stephen. Mother to Beth and Kevin, Josh and Courtney.

Cherished Bubbie to Cameron, Evan and Zoe. Sister of Caryl and Bernie Schwartz. Sister-in-law of Sheila, Sherri and Bill, Suellen and Bob, and Richard and Rahel Leigh.

Adored by her many nieces, nephews, great-nieces and greatnephews. Far too many friends to name, but far too important to not mention.

A service was held on Wednesday, October 3, 2018.

Donations would be appreciated to Princess Margaret Hospital Myeloma Clinic, 416- 946-2223, or the Hospital for Sick Children, 416-813-6166.

KENNETH HARVEY

RCAF S/L 403 Squadron

Passed peacefully at Altamont Care on Tuesday October 2, 2018 in his 97th year. Beloved husband of the late Florence (nee: Godfrey) for 66 years. Much loved dad to Don Harvey, Jennifer Jane Prodanovic, Scott Harvey (Liz), pre-deceased by son Eric Harvey (Georgina) AB. Cherished Bimps to Kyle (Anna), and Aaron. Cherished Grampie to Byron, Elizabeth (Robert), and Kimberly. Loving Great Grampie to Nathan, Noah, Kaitlyn, Alannah, Aiden, Gracie and Sebastian. Pre-deceased by his 7 siblings. Ken will be missed by all of his nieces and nephews and extended family.

Friends and family are invited to gather for a memorial service on Friday October 5, 2018 at St. Dunstan's of Canterbury, 56 Lawson Rd, Toronto M1C 2J2 visitation 11:00 to 1:00 service immediately following. Expressions of sympathy may be made at http://www.newcastlefuneralhome.com.

If so desired donations may be made to War Amps Prosthetics for Children "they helped a member of our family".

ALAN JAMES HEISLER

Master of His Own Destiny, dreamer, wanderer, watcher of skies, rock and roll lover, fan of Tchaikovsky, Mozart, and Beethoven, comma king, spontaneous creator of children's stories, builder of castles and worlds with teddy bear rulers, and ready to be knocked down by toddlers.

Alan stopped to enjoy rainbows, led expeditions in search of the Perseids, lay on hills to enjoy the Aurora Borealis, rejoiced when major power failures let us see the stars, and finally, after 38 years and a 16 hour drive to Tennessee, saw a total solar eclipse.

Husband of Enna Pearlston, beloved father of Avram and Shulamit Esther Heisler. Son of the late Sam and Ray Heisler, son-in-law of Malka Pearlston and the late Harvey Pearlston. Brother of the late Ethel and Larry Rosen, and Teri and Peter Weisz. Brotherin-law to Reva, Karen (Joan Headley), and Phillip Pearlston. Uncle of Joanne (Ron), David, Paul (Lisa), Jordan, Paula, and Nina. Great Uncle to Roberta, Andrew, Ryan, Allie, Dean Jack, Eden, Samantha, Jake, Joshua, Aiden, and Noah.

The family thanks Krystal Lewis and the team at Sunnybrook Odette Centre; Melissa Kutas and the Central LIHN care team; and Dr.

Herschl Berman.

See the Steeles Memorial Chapel website to leave condolences.

Stop to listen to and help someone in need. Think of Alan when you do this.

KATHERINE ANN RODOMAR

1928 - 2018

Passed away on September 26, 2018 in her 91st year. Wife to the late Douglas. Katherine is survived by her children, Nancy, Susan (John) and Barry. She was dearly loved by her grandchildren, Amanda, JD, Noah, Eric and Jake.

Her generous spirit will be sorely missed by any and all who came into contact with her. Friends may call at the Turner and Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere, east of the Jane subway, on Tuesday, October 9th, 2018 from 4-7 p.m. Funeral Service to be held from St.

Georges-on-the-Hill Anglican Church, 4600 Dundas St. W., Islington on Wednesday, October 10, 2018 at 1 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please donate to the World Wildlife Fund wwf.ca.

Online condolences may be made at http://www.turnerporter.ca

RUTH VIRGNIA SHORT (nee Myra)

Wife of the late Robert C.

Short, passed away peacefully October 1, 2018, with family at her side at the age of 98 at Kingston, ON. Blessed with three children, eight grandchildren and four greatgrandchildren.

Born in 1920 in Rose Bay Nova Scotia and raised in Lunenburg, Mom grew up among and in the age of cod fishing and grand banks schooners, and studied at the historic Lunenburg Academy.

She made the brave move to Montreal to graduate from the Montreal School of Nursing in 1947, whereupon she practised at the Montreal General Hospital. She met her future husband, Robert Short there and in the ensuing fiftyeight years of marriage they raised three children as Dad's career moved them through Toronto, Owen Sound, Kingston, Connecticut, Ottawa, Burlington, and St.

Catharines. Mom faced the challenges of multiple moves with wisdom, hard work, and unceasing love and dedication to her children.

Her children have many fond memories of with her at Sauble Beach, the Bruce Trail and ski trips.

The last of seven siblings, she truly represented the End of an Era and was described by everyone she touched as a gracious "Grand Lady." Doug and Pat (Simmonds), grandchildren Robert and Catherine (Grantier) and Heather and Jamie (Howarth).

Great-grandsons Matthew, Luke and Charles and greatgranddaughter Anne. Jane and Zisimos Koustas, grandchildren Alexandros and Anna (Gontcharova), and Andreas. David and Mary Jean (Halpenny), grandchildren Kaitlin and Dennis (Myers), Amy and Paul and Toni (Di Benedetto). Greatgranddaughter, Winter. Also blessed with many nieces and nephews, great and greatgreat. Predeceased by her husband Robert Short, brothers George, Allen, Paul, Rev. Wilf, sisters Maude (Bortner) and Marguerite (Freeman) and Baby Anne.

There will be a visitation at the Princess Street United Church (484 Albert St, Kingston) on Friday, October 5, 2018 from 12-12:50 p.m.

with the funeral service to follow at 1 p.m. Everyone is welcome to attend a reception at The Waterford (471 Cataraqui Woods Drive) directly after the service.

Donations would be graciously appreciated to Doctors without Borders, Operation Smile or a charity of your choice.

Jamesreidfuneralhome.com

GORDON DONALD SIMONS

At Saint Brigid's Home in Quebec City, on September 29, 2018, passed away Mr. Gordon Donald Simons, aged 89, husband of Mrs.

Barbara Schneider. He was the son of the late Mr. Archibald Gordon Simons and of the late Mrs. Eva Black. He lived in Quebec City.

Mr. Simons was a Quebec merchant and a member of l'Ordre national du Québec.

The Family will be receiving condolences at Maison Gomin Funeral Complex 2026 Blvd.

René-Lévesque Ouest, Québec, Qc, G1V 2K8 Tuesday October 9th, 2018, from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m.

and Wednesday, October 10,2018, from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. and from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m.

The funeral service will be held on Thursday, October 11, 2018 at 3 p.m. at the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, 31 rue des Jardins, Quebec City. The family will be receiving 2 hours before.

He leaves in mourning: his loving wife Barbara; his children Beth Simons-Chambers (Roger Chambers), Lynne SimonsMcCrindell (Duncan McCrindell), Peter Simons (Britta Kroger) and Richard Simons (Julie Pouliot); his grandchildren Matthew, Carolyn, Kevin, Pénélope and Nicolas; his sister Barbara Simons-Miller (late Jack Miller); his sisters-in-law and brother-in-law Harriet SchneiderDay, Suzanne Schneider and Charlie Day; and his nieces and nephew Nadya, Shelley and Peter.

The family would like to thank all the staff of Saint Brigid's Home for the excellent care they provided and for their continuous emotional support.

As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations may be made to Laval Hospital University Institute of Cardiology and Pneumology of Quebec, 2700, chemin des QuatreBourgeois, Quebec (Qc) G1V 0B8 or to the Foundation of the CHU of Quebec, Hotel-Dieu of Quebec, 10 de l'Espinay street, Quebec (Qc) G1L 3L5.

ROBERT GORDON SMITH

Peacefully, with his children at his side, on September 23, 2018 at St.

Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, ON.

Born February 2, 1925 in Hamilton, ON. Beloved husband of Freda Dayton Smith (Stanhope) for 70 years. Adored father of Sue Dayton (Valerie) of Pender Island, BC, Ellen Réthoré of Toronto, ON, David Smith (Marlene) of Richmond, VA, and Howard Smith (Gail) of Toronto, ON. Robert (Bob) will be deeply missed by his eight grandchildren, his eight greatgrandchildren and many nieces and nephews.

Bob served with the RCAF and trained as a pilot in WWII. He then spent many years as a member of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets, attaining the rank of Wing Commander.

Bob joined National Trust Company in 1945 in Hamilton.

He became Manager of the Edmonton office in 1959 and in 1969 was appointed Vice President Personal Trust, relocating to Toronto and then Hamilton.

In Hamilton he served on the St.

Joseph's Hospital Board and was Chair of its Foundation. He was an active member and supporter of the Art Gallery of Hamilton and a Rotary Paul Harris Fellow.

Bob was a member of the Albany Club, the Hamilton Golf and Country Club, the Hamilton Area Fly Fishers and Tyers Club and an active parishioner of St. John's Anglican Church. Summers were spent in Muskoka at his beloved cottage, home to many precious family memories.

A Service of Thanksgiving will be held on Wednesday, October 10 at St. John's Anglican Church, 272 Wilson St. E., Ancaster at 11:00 a.m., with Interment to follow in St. John's Churchyard Cemetery.

Donations in memory of Robert may be made to St. John's Anglican Church, Ancaster.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Monday, October 15, 2018 – Page B20

DR. ROBERT MICHAEL CANTILUPE HARRISON FRCS (C)

Mike died peacefully at Joseph Brant Hospital, Burlington, Ontario on July 26, 2018.

Predeceased by parents Juliet Marion Menzies Harrison (nee Dallas) and Dr. Cecil Cantilupe Harrison, and by his sister Juliet Elizabeth Harrison-Renner (Karl).

Mike is survived by his partner of 41 years Helena Langer and her son James; by his children Susan Harrison (Todd Lefebure), Lesley Reichenfeld (Stephen), Robert Harrison, Diana (Diny) Harrison, Carol O'Neil (David) and Michael Harrison and 13 grandchildren and 2 great grandchildren; and by sister Margaret Francesca Fullerton and her children Anne Fullerton (Mark Pritzker), John Fullerton, Jane Fullerton (Daniel Meyerhans), Juliet Fullerton (John Morand), 5 grandnieces and nephews and 1 great grand nephew.

Born Chuapera T.E. Dooars, India, April 18, 1927, Mike and his sister Francesca came to Canada in 1940 as war guests under the auspices of the Alumni of the University of Toronto, staying with Lady Mary Gooderham for the first year. Mike graduated from Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Canada, Mike received his FRCS in 1958. Mike was an accomplished and compassionate orthopedic surgeon who practiced and taught for many years in Hamilton, Ontario and, later, Washington, Indiana. After retiring to Dundas Ontario in 1998 Mike spent many happy hours with friends and family at Hamilton Golf and Country Club, Ancaster, Ontario.

The family wishes to thank the special care and attention our brother, father, uncle, grandfather and great-grandfather received from the staff of the reminiscence care portion at Sunrise of Burlington.

A celebration of life will take place at Hamilton Golf and Country Club in Ancaster Ontario on Monday October 15, 2018 from 2 to 4 p.m.

DOUGLAS ALICK JOYCE PHD

1922-2018

Douglas Joyce of Toronto, passed away peacefully at Sunnybrook Hospital surrounded by family on July 1, 2018. Loving husband to Dorothy, (deceased), loving father to David (Toronto) and Andrea (Calgary), and father-in-law to Mark Halliday. Douglas leaves his brother, Carlton S Joyce (Atlanta, GA), sister-in-law Patricia Joyce (Hilton Head, SC) and nephew Carlton E Joyce (Savannah, GA). Douglas was an adoring grandfather to Kaleigh and Brigid Halliday (Calgary).

Born July 20, 1922 in St. John's, NL, Douglas spent his early years watching his father establish one of the first radio stations in Canada, VOWR. Listening to opera on the radio, sparked an interest in German language. Douglas went on to study German language at McGill University (BA) and assisted the Canadian war effort by censoring German POW letters.

In 1949, Douglas graduated from Harvard University with a PHD in German languages.

In 1950 Douglas joined University of Toronto, as a professor of German Language and Literature at Trinity College, where he taught for over three decades, authored scholarly articles and published a book titled Hugo von Hofmannsthal's 'Der Schwierige' A 50-Year Theater History.

Highly inquisitive by nature, Douglas spent his lifetime in the pursuit of learning. He enjoyed photography, painting, theatre, opera and music concerts - he even picked up the clarinet later in life. In 2000, he fulfilled a lifetime dream of travelling to Egypt.

In 2006, Douglas and his wife Dorothy were enjoying retirement when Dorothy developed dementia. Douglas lovingly cared for Dorothy until her passing in 2013. In his last few years, Douglas appreciated the music concerts at Briton House Retirement Home and the companionship of his son, David.

Friends and family are invited to A Celebration of Life on Monday, October 22nd , 11am, at Bloor Street United Church, 300 Bloor St West, Toronto. A reception (with light lunch) will follow.

Those wishing to leave a lasting legacy to worthy organizations, donations may be made to Sunnybrook Hospital or University of Toronto.

Condolences and memories may be forwarded through http://www.morleybedford.ca

CAROLINE ELINOR LOWE

September 11, 1933 Winnipeg, Manitoba August 28, 2018 Calgary, Alberta Caroline (nee McDonald, Wickett) passed away peacefully at Rockyview Hospital on Tuesday, August 28, 2018 at the age of 84 years with family by her side.

Caroline will be lovingly remembered by her husband David; six children, Linda (Bruce), Cathy (Chuck), Paul (Eileen), David (Frances), Alison (Rick), Derek (Mary); thirteen grandchildren, Erin, Sean (Jessica), Meredith, Mathew, Lauren, Daniel, Madi, Katherine, Ian, Fiona, Christopher, Alexandra and Stuart; and her great-grandson Hudson.

Funeral Services will be held at St.

Peter's Lutheran Church (George Fox Trail, Cochrane, AB T4C 2A3) on Saturday, October 20, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Reception to follow at the Church. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.mcinnisandholloway.com.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to The Alex (http://www.thealex.ca/donate/) In living memory of Caroline Lowe, a tree will be planted at Fish Creek Provincial Park by McInnis & Holloway Funeral Homes, Park Memorial, 5008 Elbow Drive S.W.

Calgary, AB, T2S 2L5, Telephone: 403-243-8200.

DR. PATTY RIGBY 1955 2018

When death comes, like the hungry bear in autumn; when death comes and takes all the bright coins from his purse to buy me, and snaps the purse shut; ...

When death comes, I want to step through the door full of curiosity, wondering: what is it going to be like, that cottage of darkness?

And therefore I look upon everything as a brotherhood and a sisterhood, and I look upon time as no more than an idea, and I consider eternity as another possibility.

and I think of each life as a flower, as common as a field daisy, and as singular, and each name a comfortable music in the mouth, tending, as all music does, toward silence, and each body a lion of courage, and something precious to the earth.

When it's over, I don't want to wonder If I have made of my life something particular, and real...

I don't want to end up simply having visited this world.

(Mary Oliver - When Death Comes) Dr. Patty Rigby, in her sixty-fourth year, entered that cottage of darkness in the early hours of October 7, 2018. She did not simply visit this world. She embraced it in both her personal and professional lives, and in doing so made a difference to the lives of so many.

Patty, who held both a master's and a doctorate in Occupational Therapy and Health Science, joined the Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy in 1994 at the University of Toronto where she worked until her retirement in 2017. Her research was critical in the development and advancement of one of the most widely recognized OT practice models, the Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model, which recognizes the importance of environment as a contributor to occupational performance and health. Patty also contributed to a ground-breaking shift in the OT lens by promoting the development of children's "play," uncovering the value in children's playfulness, which influenced the focus and development of treatment programs and evaluation tools. She was a much-loved and admired teacher in her field, and published numerous peer-reviewed articles and book chapters in the course of her career. In June of this year Patty was awarded the 2018 Life Membership Award of Occupational Therapists in recognition of her outstanding contribution to the profession in research, practice and teaching.

Patty met her spouse, Dr. John Wedge, while both were working at the University Hospital in Saskatoon in the 1980's. In 1988, their careers took them to Toronto together where they have made their home ever since. Together with John, she travelled the world on missions both professional and personal.

Theirs was an enviable loving relationship, each respecting the professional demands of the other yet always protective of their time together, whether it was spent on the golf course, at their home in Savannah or their annual summer retreat to Cape Breton. Their time golfing on the May long weekend was the last carefree time they were able to share together.

For Patty, family was first. She played a central role in the lives of her nieces and nephews (who knew her lovingly as "AP"), instigating family gatherings that created memories and bonds that will resonate through their lives. She steadfastly maintained close contact with all of her siblings and every niece and nephew, where ever they happened to be. When her beloved brother Murray died, Patty stepped in to give his children, Jordan, Sierra, and Aidan the love and support they needed. Living as she did in Toronto, she was close to the family of Dr. Charlotte Wedge, her spouse, Tom and their children, Ian, Georgia, and Patrick Nelson, to whom she was like a second mother.

Patty was known within the circle of family and friends, fondly and reverentially, as "Patty Perfect". And perfect she was in so many, many ways; unfailingly cheerful, positive, generous, and loving. As the diplomatic middle child of five children, Patty was a unifying force all her life. She transformed for the better every room she entered and every person she encountered. In the words of Mary Oliver, Patty made of her life "something particular...and real."

Patty leaves behind family members in Saskatoon, Calgary, Toronto, Australia, and many places in British Columbia (including her father, Eric; siblings, Gwen Beaton, Janet Rigby and Jeffrey Rigby), too many to otherwise name here; and an array of friends, colleagues, and students, all of whom have very heavy hearts as they come to terms with their enormous loss. Many assisted Patty and John on Patty's final voyage, but special recognition and thanks must go to Dr. Charlotte Wedge whose tireless support, both medical and personal, so profoundly eased her journey.

The family asks that in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Patty Rigby Scholarship in the Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Toronto; or the Palliative Care Unit of Michael Garron Hospital in Toronto.

A private interment ceremony will be held in Toronto at a later date.

TOM SCHATZKY

May 17, 1939 October 11, 2018

Tom Schatzky died peacefully in Ottawa on October 11, 2018 in his 80th year from pancreatic cancer.

Born in London, England at the onset of World War II to Karl and Eva, who were originally from Breslau, Germany, his childhood was spent in Church Stretton and Norwich before the family moved to Toronto in 1953. He is survived by his loving family - his wife Margaret of 51 years, his three children, Michael (of Montreal), Jonathan and daughter-in-law Celia (of Kobe, Japan), and ReBecca (of Toronto). Funloving Grandpa Tom to his four grandchildren, Denis and Dmitry (of Kobe, Japan) and Amelia and Lucy (of Toronto). He will be sadly missed by his younger brothers David and Anthony (of Toronto).

Remembered fondly by his brother-in-law John Wood, sistersin-law Eleanor, Anne and Merry as well by many nieces and nephews and close cousins overseas.

As a proud Canadian, his adventurous spirit took him to many corners of the world for the next 65 years. Involved with the founding of CUSO he belonged to the '62 group sent to India.

Among his varied careers he was involved with UNA-Canada, Centennial Year Miles for Millions, the Shastri Institute, McMaster University Adult Education, The Niagara Institute and the International Year of the Child.

For 20 years Tom worked at CIDA (Asia Branch) which included a posting to Bangladesh. In his retirement he volunteered with CESO in Nunavut, mentored and language trained refugees and immigrants through CCI Ottawa.

Tom always had a profound sense of the injustice of the underdog and supported their needs throughout his life.

A lifelong love of choral singing (a member of six choirs), Tom's other hobbies included photography and outdoor adventures in the Canadian wilderness. He used his irreverent sense of humour and his witty puns to break down barriers and build bridges with strangers and friends around the world.

Tom will be missed by many.

Donations in Tom's memory may be made to organizations which supports refugees and immigrants to Canada.

An informal drop-in reception to celebrate Tom's life will be held on Sunday, October 21st in Ottawa at the Orange Art Gallery at 290 City Centre Avenue between 4 p.m. - 6 p.m.


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Brampton the bold: A daring vision to reimagine the suburbs
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Thursday, October 4, 2018 – Page A12

BRAMPTON, ONT. -- At the corner of Main Street and Steeles Avenue are a Food Basics supermarket, a mall fronted by a Canadian Tire and a lot of parking lots. Nine lanes of traffic growl past in each direction as the evening rush begins.

From here, Brampton doesn't look like a city of the future.

Yet, this suburban city of 600,000, northwest of Toronto, envisions a different picture here a generation from now. Instead of this mall, there would be a cluster of towers, one of three high-density centres served by rapid transit and linked by bike trails. This is part of Brampton 2040, a vision for a city that has grown without much vision over the past 40 years.

So far it's aspirational, but it's bold - precisely the sort of policy needed to remake the places where most Canadians live: car-oriented suburbs, whose rapid growth has produced material comfort for many, along with a host of problems from traffic congestion to public-health issues to quality of life.

"What we were doing wasn't sustainable," says Antonietta Minichillo, a planner with the city who oversaw the Brampton 2040 project.

"What we're doing won't serve our community, the environment, or business in the long run, so we need to take a hard look at ourselves and do things a little differently."

The city "is not what we thought it was going to be, and we really need to change that."

BIRTH OF A BEDROOM COMMUNITY Brampton is part of a ring of suburbs that emerged around Toronto beginning in the late 1950s. It was largely farmland, with a few thousand people clustered around a railway station. But it was also beyond the reach of regional planners, and large-scale housing development spilled into Brampton in the 1970s.

As former Toronto mayor John Sewell wrote in his history of the region, The Shape of the Suburbs, governments "enabled growth at the fringes at considerable cost and without a serious plan." Progressive city leaders such as Mr. Sewell never liked the results, but his characterization is fair. There were attempts at planning in this zone: The first major Brampton development, Bramalea, was marketed as a self-contained "Satellite City" that would integrate housing, industry and civic places. But that promise largely evaporated. Historian Richard White, author of Planning Toronto, says this wasn't for lack of trying.

"Bramalea had quite a substantial number of jobs, right from the start," he explains. "The problem was that because of the automobile, people were so mobile that they could work in other places quite far afield. And they did."

That continued. Through the boom of the 1980s, and the continuous building that has followed, Brampton has evolved as a bedroom community.

Today, roughly 90 per cent of residents drive to work, says Rob Elliott, Brampton's commissioner of planning and development, and 68 per cent of them have jobs outside the city.

What has changed is the diversity of the population. More than half of Bramptonians are immigrants, and three-quarters are visible minorities.

The largest group is South Asian and the city has a sizable black population as well. It's a young city, too, with an average age of 36, compared with the Canadian average of 41.

So this city of young families is more likely to have roots in Punjab rather than Scotland or Ireland, like their predecessors. Yet, they face the same challenges - or bigger ones - in getting around.

UNMAKING SPRAWL The relative lack of jobs and the dominance of the car are the two big problems Brampton is today attempting to fix. "This is about bringing key jobs to the city in locations that are served by transit," Mr. Elliott explains.

Bringing new, good-quality jobs is one objective. In one high-profile victory, the city will welcome a new university campus, a joint venture of Sheridan College and Ryerson University, in the next few years. It will share a new building with a city "Innovation Centre."

In Brampton today, 8 per cent of people use transit to get to work - "suburban par for the course," Mr. Elliott says - and planners want to see that figure double to 16 per cent.

Brampton residents "told us they were spending a lot of time in their cars," explains the planner Larry Beasley, who worked on the Brampton 2040 vision. "And they weren't saying they don't want cars - but they were saying, 'It would be nice if I could do some of my errands without driving. If I could have some choice about it.' " Mr. Beasley, an independent planner, is globally famous in the profession for his work reinventing downtown Vancouver. He says Brampton poses an exciting opportunity, because the city's form and its challenges very much represent the state of Canadian urbanism: This is a suburban country. "Much of my focus over the years has been on core cities," he says, "but I've become fascinated by suburbs. That is where over 60 per cent of Canadians live."

The Brampton 2040 plan, which was unveiled earlier this year, builds on one basic insight: "The best transportation plan is a land-use plan." If you want people to spend less time getting from home to work and school, it helps to put those things close together. It also makes sense to cluster a lot of jobs and homes, making it more likely that people can walk from place to place. And if you have large clusters of homes and jobs - call them downtowns - then mass transit becomes economical to build and attractive to use. "And it will encourage people to shift to active transportation," in other words walking or cycling, "because it's easier and faster," Mr. Elliott explains.

This won't be simple. Mr. White, the planning historian, admires the aim of the Brampton vision to bring people's homes and workplaces together.

However, "I think the planners simply don't have enough power to bring it about," he says. Brampton is not an island; it's part of a big, decentralized region, with jobs scattered across a vast area. Not everyone can find a job near home, or is willing to uproot their personal life for a shorter commute.

"The forces keeping people behind the wheel," Mr. White says, "are incredibly powerful."

Any degree of success in getting people out of their cars, would benefit public health. Ms. Minichillo notes Brampton has among the highest rates of Type 2 diabetes in the region - a disease that correlates directly with lack of exercise. "We have designed activity out of our lives, and it's time to put it back."

This means rethinking the design of roads, a hugely contentious issue.

Henrik Zbogar, the city's senior manager of transportation planning, says he's entirely on board with the 2040 aspirations. "We can't build our way out of congestion," he argues. New roads will quickly fill up with drivers - a process known as induced demand, and backed by decades' worth of research and evidence. Road construction and widening "needs to be rethought," Mr. Zbogar says. Major roads are designed to hold rush-hour traffic. "Which means that, even in those peak hours, the lanes in the opposite direction are often well below capacity," he explains, "and then after hours, you end up with a very unforgiving environment."

I think back to where I began on Steeles Avenue: wide, unforgiving roads, with a 60-kilometre-an-hour speed limit - which, as Mr. Zbogar admitted to me, is constantly ignored by speeding drivers. Fast cars, long distances: Why would you walk there?

MAKING PLACES It helps to have somewhere pleasant to go. A third ingredient in the 2040 vision is another suburban challenge, what planners call "placemaking."

"There are not a lot of places in Brampton that are really appealing," Mr.

Beasley admits. "There is downtown, which is a small, attractive place. But a city that will be a million people needs more than that."

Downtown Brampton, home to the Rose Theatre and the recently expanded City Hall, is indeed nice - and it has some number of people walking the sidewalks. But across the rest of the city, places to gather have to be created in a car-centric environment.

Good buildings are an important part of this. Brampton already has a strong portfolio of civic facilities by award-winning architects, including the Brampton Soccer Centre by MJMA and the Springdale Library by RDHA.

The latter, which opened in the spring, is one of the best libraries I've seen in Canada, a bright and sinuous pavilion whose reading room is capped with a spectacular round skylight. During my weekday visit, the serene space was packed with children and their parents.

Yet, across the street stands the blank side wall of a Shoppers Drug Mart and a power centre. The surrounding neighbourhood is a maze of culs-de-sac. Design interventions such as the library may help generate a sense of place and a sense of community, but the broad landscape of the city - most of it very new - will not be remade quickly or easily. And indeed, the 2040 vision is not a plan: It will inform the future development of city policies across a variety of fields, Ms.

Minichillo said.

City staff boast about consulting with more than 13,000 people in drafting the 2040 Vision, but how plausible does it seem to other locals? I spoke to a few people at the Bramalea City Centre shopping mall, explaining the outlines of the 2040 Vision and asking their opinion. Arun Ramcharan wasn't having it. "How are they going to fix this place?" said the twentysomething Bramptonite, who works in retail. "I haven't heard about it, and probably they'll come up with a new plan next year anyway."

And yet. Mr. Ramcharan commutes to the Eaton Centre mall in downtown Toronto, 30 kilometres away, and when he comes back to Brampton he often finds himself ... here, at the mall.

"There's nowhere to go in Brampton," he says. So the city's goal of placemaking resonates with him.

Mr. Ramcharan lives in an apartment building a short walk away from the mall, so the idea of transit-oriented development here makes sense.

"We do need to expand transit," he allows; he routinely has to wait half an hour for a local bus. "We have a long way to go."

So does the city. Mr. Beasley argues that this transition, physical and conceptual, is nothing less than critical.

"In a country that's quite well-known for its livable cities, its suburbs are not manifesting that same quality. We have to figure out how to get there, and start working on it now."

Associated Graphic

The Brampton 2040 project envisions dramatic, ambitious changes for the city of 600,000 northwest of Toronto. What cropped up out of farmland in the 1950s has grown rapidly in the past 40 years, largely without a plan - until now.

TOP: HARRY MCLORINAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; BOTTOM: COURTESY OF THE CITY OF BRAMPTON

Today, Brampton is a relatively young city. The average citizen is 36, five years younger than the national average.

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Top: Signs for fast-food restaurants, car dealerships amd strip malls dot the Brampton landscape in 1975. The city's growth coincided with explosive growth in the use of automobiles, resulting in an urban lifestyle centred on the vehicle. Today, nearly 90 per cent of residents drive to work.

Middle: The car's dominance exerted itself on housing development in the city, resulting in small communities largely isolated from public spaces.

Bottom: The creation of such public spaces is integral to the Brampton 2040 plan, which seeks to create beautiful, pedestrian-friendly complexes that balance residential and commercial needs to reduce citizens' and visitors' reliance on cars.

TOP: JOHN MCNEILL/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; MIDDLE: MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; BOTTOM: COURTESY OF THE CITY OF BRAMPTON


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PARLIAMENTARY EXPERT WAS A BELOVED MENTOR TO MANY
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Once called 'the rock star of Canadian politics,' he was also devoted to canoeing and teaching, and was sometimes able to combine his three passions
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By MICHAEL VALPY
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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page B24

Queen's University political scientist Ned Franks was for decades Canada's commanding academic voice on parliamentary rules, procedures and morality. His advice was sought by House of Commons committees, government and parliamentary agencies, royal commissions, governors-general and every major media outlet in the country.

Not surprisingly, he was once introduced to an audience as "the rock star of Canadian politics." Last month in Kingston, he died of prostate cancer. He was 81.

International human-rights lawyer Fiona Sampson tells a story of Ned Franks in the round - the whole Ned Franks - that touches on so much of what defined him.

It was the summer of 1994 on the Mountain River, perhaps Canada's most prized whitewater canoe route, passing through six stunning canyons and sheer cliff walls as it drops 1,200 metres along its 370-kilometre course in the Northwest Territories to where it joins the Mackenzie River just south of the Arctic Circle.

Ms. Sampson, a long-time friend of trip guide Shawn Hodgins of Wanapitei Canoe and Northern Outdoor Expeditions and herself an accomplished canoeist, describes the party as "parliamentary royalty." House of Commons Speaker Peter Milliken is there, along with eight or nine leading members of Parliament - and Mr. Franks.

Mr. Franks was a true artist with a paddle, although, as Mr. Hodgins wryly observes, an opinionated one; his son-in-law, astronomer Gary Davis, says Mr. Franks was not gentle as a canoeing tutor.

The amazingly eclectic book The Canoe and White Water is Mr. Franks's account of the canoe and history, of canoe-making, of the canoe and law, of the canoe and physics, of canoes and art, of canoeing and safety.

On a hike up a mountainside during the Mountain River trip, the comfortably fit Mr. Franks, at 58, robustly debates with Ms. Sampson, the only woman in the group, the notion of patriarchy. (He had supervised Ms. Sampson's graduate thesis at Queen's and became her close friend, as he befriended many of his brightest students and became their mentor and guide through life.)

At night around the campfire, he organizes the party into singing roles from Gilbert and Sullivan's HMS Pinafore. He tells stories, he recites limericks and poetry, particularly the work of William McGonagall, widely recognized as the worst poet in British history.

Charles Edward Selwyn (Ned) Franks was born in Toronto on Oct. 23, 1936. He was the son of Selwyn Thompson Franks of Weston, Ont., and the former Mabel Mary Sunder of Gaya, India, and descended from a long line of engineers (including his father) and doctors. He attended Upper Canada College followed by Queen's for his bachelor's and master's degrees, and then went to Oxford for his doctorate.

Following his Oxford graduation, he worked four years for the government and Legislature of Saskatchewan before taking an academic posting at Queen's, where he taught for more than 35 years in the department of political studies with a crossposting in the School of Physical and Health Education (he was an accomplished skier and triathlon competitor) and later became professor emeritus.

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to overstate Mr. Franks's influence from the 1970s onward on how Canadians saw their parliamentary and government institutions. He was the go-to person for the media in explaining parliamentary and constitutional crises and complex and arcane procedures. Seldom more than a month went by when he wasn't quoted or writing media comment essays.

He was a researcher and analyst for the 1977-81 Royal Commission of Inquiry into Certain Activities of the RCMP (the McDonald Commission) and the 2004-06 Commission of Inquiry into the Sponsorship Program and Advertising Activities (the Gomery Commission). He wrote what has become the classic text on parliamentary procedure, The Parliament of Canada (1987), and, during what his family called his "spook period," wrote Dissent and the State (1989).

He advised former auditor-general Sheila Fraser on government and parliamentary accountability throughout her 10-year term (2001-11), and was an adviser to Maria Barrados, head of Canada's Public Service Commission from 2003 to 2011. He wrote about what the Senate actually accomplished.

He wrote scathing criticisms of the practice of Prime Minister Stephen Harper's government of introducing bloated 500- and 800-page so-called budget implementation bills containing legislative provisions completely unrelated to the budget, which MPs would have no time to analyze. "[They] reduce the House of Commons to making noises and rubber stamping," he said.

He expertly picked apart Mr. Harper's use of prorogation to avoid a non-confidence vote against his minority government, calling it a display of casual arrogance toward Canada's institutions. Mr. Franks pronounced on whether senators can be fired, on the importance of private members' bills, on the significance of social-media threats to cabinet ministers, on the Arctic and Indigenous self-government, on interpreting voter turnout numbers and many other topics. He advised legislative groups in Vietnam and Russia and academics in India.

Queen's principal Daniel Woolf said of him: "Queen's and Canada have lost a great political scientist in Ned Franks."

He was a fly-fisher, duck hunter (he once pulled out porcupine quills with his teeth from the muzzle of the family's retriever, Simon), photographer, watercolour painter, wine collector, cook and aficionado of bad puns. He grew outstanding heirloom tomatoes. He took Simon to university meetings.

When Simon got restless, the meetings had to end.

Perhaps above all, he loved his students and they loved him, a number becoming his lifelong friends, meeting in his office for sherry on Friday afternoons, working for him as researchers, spending summers with him and his family at their cottage in Caledon East, north of Toronto, dubbed The Shack (a "shack" partly designed by Ron Thom, the architect of Trent University and Massey College).

"He was a very gifted teacher for those who were interested in what he was interested in," said Liane Benoit, a former student and principal of public affairs company Benoit and Associates. "He enjoyed watching their careers develop, enjoyed watching them develop as individuals, particularly in his later years. He was just very, very interested in the people he taught."

He took them to Ottawa to meet politicians, journalists and officials of the House of Commons. He invited them to his house for parties that lasted until 4 a.m.

He nicknamed Ellen Sealey Emsbury Urchin No. 1.

"He said to me one day, 'You're just like a street urchin from Dickens.' " And it stuck. He later dubbed three classmates Urchin No. 2, 3 and 4.

Mr. Franks proposed the toast to the bride at Ms.

Emsbury's wedding and gave her husband a copy of the British Special Air Service survival guide. "This is how life with Ellen is going to go," he told him.

She now practises fertility and employment law in Calgary. She said Mr. Franks reached out to students who were bright and struggling. "I wasn't struggling academically, but I had a very difficult and terrible relationship with my father and Ned became a substitute father for me."

In several cases, he rescued his students and helped them get on their feet, said his son Peter Franks, an oceanographer. "They owe their careers to him in many substantial ways," he said.

Toronto litigation lawyer Will McDowell studied with Mr. Franks before Ms. Emsbury, and so became known as a pre-urchin. When he was struggling to find a summer job to meet his law school expenses, Mr. Franks offered to pay him to cut trees for fenceposts from a swamp on the property. Mr. McDowell worked with a chainsaw through the summer.

When he returned years later, the trees were stacked where he'd left them. "This was a Depression-era work project, created to help me out," he said.

Monique Jilesen, a Toronto commercial litigation lawyer, was Urchin No. 2. As she struggled financially to get through law school, Mr. Franks offered to help. "I was too proud to take that help but it meant so much to me that he would even think about it. He was my friend and mentor and biggest supporter after my mother." Vasuda Sinha, a lawyer now practising in Paris, was a post-urchin. On her graduation day at Queen's, she walked across the convocation stage and a voice behind her said, "Now Vasuda, be still. I'm here." It was Ned Franks in academic regalia, who had stepped in front of the principal to hood her.

Ms. Sampson, the human-rights lawyer (and a pre-urchin) recalls from the Mountain River trip: "Sometimes at the end of the paddling day when we were making camp, and individuals were setting up the tents, settling in for the night at a campsite ... I would hear Ned quietly call out Tim's name - every time it sounded like his heart was breaking all over again. Ned cherished Tim, as he loved all his children - his love for them and pride in them was tangible."

Tim, Mr. Franks's younger son, died by suicide in 1989 at Harvard University, where he was doing his doctorate. He was 25. He had been molested as a child by choirmaster John Gallienne at St. George's Cathedral, in Kingston, which left him deeply disturbed. His parents learned about the abuse from Tim's girlfriend after his death.

In the face of resistance from the Anglican Diocese of Ontario and many of St. George's congregants, Ned Franks and his wife, Daphne, made it their cause to have Mr. Gallienne removed from the church and criminally charged. They also learned the names of other boys who had been molested and compelled the church to pay for their counselling.

"I'm forever so admiring of my parents that in the midst of this overwhelming and intense grief ... that their first thought was that there were other boys that needed help," said their daughter, Caroline Franks Davis, a religious philosopher.

Just days before Mr. Franks died, Ms. Sampson visited him with her 12-year-old daughter, Maureen.

He looked deep into Maureen's eyes and quoted Robert Frost's poem Dust of Snow to her: The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And saved some part Of a day I had rued Ms. Sampson said her daughter was enchanted by the poem and memorized it when she got home.

"It's a legacy she'll always have from him."

Mr. Franks, who died on Sept. 11, leaves his wife of 61 years, Daphne (née Berlyn); his daughter, Caroline; son Peter; granddaughter, Gillian Franks; and sister, Anne Montagnes. In his final days, as his voice faded, he recited Shakespearean sonnets to his nurses at Kingston's Providence Care Hospital.

A memorial gathering will take place at Queen's University next month.

Associated Graphic

Ned Franks taught political studies at Queen's University for more than 35 years, with a cross-posting in physical and health education, later becoming professor emeritus.

COURTESY OF QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY


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On the Irish border, Brexit brews fears that united communities will see new troubles
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Tuesday, October 16, 2018 – Page A10

FLORENCECOURT, NORTHERN IRELAND -- John Sheridan shifts to the edge of the couch in his living room, barely able to contain his rage at the mere mention of a return of customs checks and police patrols along the border between Ireland and Northern Ireland.

"Theresa May will never ever foist a piece of paper on me that dictates to me where I go in my own country," Mr. Sheridan thunders, practically spitting out the name of the British Prime Minister. The island of Ireland, north and south, "is my country, and I'm not going to be compressed into southwest Fermanagh. I'd be like a stamp on an envelope. No way, no way."

Mr. Sheridan can practically see the border from his living-room window. He's lived all his life here in Fermanagh in the southwestern part of Northern Ireland on the banks of Lough MacNean, tending cattle and sheep. The U.K.-Irish border zigzags all around his property, cutting through farm fields, crossing over roads, dipping into waterways and travelling beyond the hilltops. But it exists only on maps and rarely affects daily life. The last vestige of a border control was dismantled in 1999 thanks to the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, which ended decades of sectarian violence known as the Troubles.

Whether those controls return has become a make-or-break issue in Brexit talks between the United Kingdom and European Union. Ms. May and EU officials say they don't want a hard border, but they can't figure out how to make that work once the U.K. leaves the EU on March 29, 2019, and is no longer part of the bloc's single market, which allows for the free movement of people, goods and services. A weekend of frantic negotiations ended in a stalemate on Sunday and as EU leaders gather in Brussels on Wednesday for a two-day summit, they'll make one last attempt to find a solution. If they don't, the U.K. could leave without any agreement on its future relationship with the EU, something many business leaders fear would be catastrophic because it could lead to tariffs and non-tariff barriers.

For Mr. Sheridan, 56, and thousands like him, the invisible dividing line has become a symbol of how far Ireland and Northern Ireland have come in integrating their economies over the past 20 years and easing the pain of the conflict between factions of Protestants and Catholics that killed thousands of people. Today, many families live on one side, work on the other and socialize in both without any concept of a boundary. Roughly 30,000 people crisscross the border for work every day, along with 6,000 commercial trucks. The two parts of the island share an electricity system, and food production is so integrated that raw milk, for instance, is shipped from farms in the North to processing plants in the South and back to the North as cream and butter.

Any hard border "would be scandalous for the peace and scandalous for peoples' businesses," Mr.Sheridan said.

He barely knows where one country ends and the other begins. He grew up in the North, but his wife, Sylvia, is from the South. He sells his cattle to farmers in the North and his sheep to processors in the South. When he drives over the bridge to Belcoo, about five kilometres away, he crosses the border twice, and the only indication he's in a different country are the road signs, which switch from miles to kilometres. He remembers when a trip to Belcoo took hours during the conflict, and involved numerous checks by soldiers, police officers and customs officials. When the Good Friday Agreement took hold, "it was like having that proverbial sack of potatoes lifted off your head, off your back, off your mentality," he said.

The 500-kilometre border has always been a tortured part of the island's history. It was created in 1920 by the British government to separate the six largely Protestant counties in the North from the Catholic South. It turned into an international boundary when the South emerged from British rule in 1922 and became the Republic of Ireland in 1949.

Tensions over the division persisted for years and while the Good Friday Agreement ended the bloodshed, the remnants of that conflict can still be seen in border towns such as Newry in the North, where British soldiers monitored the border from watch towers and patrolled the countryside with helicopters.

Damian McGenity, who lives in Drumintee, remembers the British Army all too well. As a boy growing up in the village in Northern Ireland, just south of Newry, he saw soldiers regularly stop cars to check for smuggled contraband, guns and Irish Republican Army (IRA) sympathizers. He can still point out where the watch towers stood and where the British soldiers slept in barracks behind barbed wire and massive walls. Today, the only way Mr.McGenity can find the border is by using a map on his phone, and he laughs at how the ragged line cuts through a house and between a church and its adjacent graveyard.

His own life is deeply enmeshed in both countries. He runs a 70-head cattle farm and works parttime in the local post office. His wife, Patricia, is from the South and works across the border in Monaghan for Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency.

Their four children attend school in Drumintee, but Ms. McGenity claims child benefits from Ireland and the couple pays taxes in both countries. Mr. McGenity sells cattle to producers in the North, but buys feed from suppliers in the South. He can't imagine what life would be like for his family if border controls returned. "It would be a calamity," he said.

"Words are beginning to fail us."

Kieran Kennedy is also scrambling. He's the managing director of O'Neills Irish International Sports Co. Ltd., a Dublin-based maker of jackets, team jerseys and running shoes. The business employs roughly 1,000 people at two plants in Dublin and one in Strabane, in the North near Londonderry. The Strabane plant handles knitting, cutting, printing and some finishing, while the Dublin operations do dyeing and sewing. It's not uncommon for shirts and jackets to go back and forth across the border eight times during manufacturing. And in Strabane, about 300 workers live in towns across the border in Ireland. Any holdup at the border would be "a disaster, a total disaster," Mr. Kennedy said.

He knows what border controls are like. He started at O'Neills in 1979, and his first job was driving a van load of shirts from Strabane to Letterkenny in Ireland and down to Dublin. He had to fill out customs forms for both countries, get them checked on both sides of the border and pass through two sets of military guard posts. "It used to take me three hours to do 12 miles," he said.

For Mr. Kennedy and many others, the solution is for Northern Ireland to remain in the EU's customs union, which allows for the free movement of goods between member states. That would avoid the need for border checks on goods and allow travellers to continue to move freely under rules already in place in what's known as the common travel area. The idea has won support from Ms. May, Ireland and EU negotiators, but there's a catch. Many hard-line Brexit backers in Ms. May's Conservative Party caucus reject the idea, calling it a betrayal of the spirit of Brexit because it will leave the United Kingdom tied to the EU. They've threatened to block parliamentary approval for any deal based on a customs union, and some are plotting to remove Ms. May as leader.

The Brexiters want the government to cut all ties to the EU and negotiate a trade deal similar to the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) Canada shares with the EU. Ms. May says she can't do that because it would lead to a hard border in Ireland.

There's another political problem for Ms. May.

Northern Ireland's Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) has also balked at the customs union idea.

The DUP has only 10 members of Parliament in London but they carry huge political weight. The Conservatives don't hold a majority of seats in the House of Commons and Ms. May relies on the DUP to stay in power. The DUP won't agree to any arrangement that applies only to Northern Ireland, fearing it would be isolated and lead to the reunification of the island, something the party bitterly opposes. Party Leader Arlene Foster has called the DUP's opposition to any special arrangement a "blood-red" line.

Ms. May has proposed keeping all of the U.K. in the customs union for a set period of time, as a backstop until the country negotiated a trade deal with the EU.

The EU says any backstop must be permanent if a trade deal couldn't be reached, infuriating the hardline Brexiters.

Darren Crawley just hopes someone finds a solution soon so he can keep his trucks moving. He's a senior manager at McArdle Skeath, based just south of the border in Dundalk. The company has 35 trucks, about 20 of which make regular trips over the border, shipping food products to grocery stores.

Any border delay could damage goods and increase costs. Already, several companies in the North have shifted operations to Ireland or opened warehouses in the South, in anticipation of border hassles.

Mr. Crawley, 32, grew up across the border near Newry and can barely remember the Troubles. "I think certainly, Ireland and Northern Ireland have moved on from that," he said. But a hard border is also alien to him, and when asked what effect Brexit could have; he shrugged and replied: "We just live and hope."

Associated Graphic

Carlingford Lough, above, sits on the border between Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, a separate country.

PHOTOS BY PAULO NUNES DOS SANTOS

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TILEZEN; OPENSTREETMAP; HIU

Farmer and activist John Sheridan, above left, sits in his house in Gortnatole, just north of the border. Many in the region - including Damian McGenity, above right, and his family - live on one side, but rely heavily on, and travel freely to, the other side for work, social life and social benefits.

ABOVE LEFT: PAULO NUNES DOS SANTOS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Top: A local man enters a shop named Borderland in Muff, a small Irish border town close to Londonderry. Above: A man passes by a loyalist mural in Newtownards Road, a predominately Protestant neighbourhood in East Belfast, Northern Ireland. ABOVE:

PAULO NUNES DOS SANTOS/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A sign, standing exactly on the border in a narrow backroad near Newry, Northern Ireland, promotes the wishes of those who hope to retain an unmarked border between Northern Ireland and the Republic.


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Quitting for cannabis: Seven entrepreneurs leaping into green territory
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As the legalization of recreational marijuana approaches, The Globe and Mail speaks to seven people about the risks and rewards of leaving their jobs to make a fresh start in a burgeoning industry
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STEPHEN VERBEEK Hamilton / 34 / PREVIOUS JOB: Financial adviser (10 years) / CANNABIS JOB: Founder and chairman of the board of directors for Hello Cannabis (1 year 9 months) Stephen Verbeek has a background in economics, and worked as a financial adviser for about a decade before founding Hello Cannabis, where he is chairman of the board of directors.

FINDING THE RIGHT HELP I was prescribed dilaudid, an opioid, for pain management after an accident where I dropped about 22 feet, shattering both my heels. Afterward, I recovered from one of the most insane dilaudid addictions I think is humanly feasible. I quit, cold turkey, after two months. I essentially didn't eat or sleep for four days. It was to the point where I couldn't even swallow water. [My doctor] recommended I use medical cannabis. After using cannabis, I was able to get my life back. It was pivotal for me in being able to recover. But it was difficult to find a doctor and I didn't know what product to use. I was uneducated; most physicians are also uneducated.

THE MISSION OF HELLO CANNABIS Hello Cannabis essentially connects three dots: physicians, patients and the product. We find patients that are looking for a doctor, and we connect them with a doctor that is CME (continuing medical education) approved, specializing in cannabis, to find the right product and the right dosage for each particular individual. Think of us as a medical concierge in the cannabis world. North America has been decimated with opioids and the rest of the world is quickly following. I really hope the rapid expansion and education around cannabis as a therapeutic product can stop a massive epidemic from spreading globally.

SCOTT ROGERS Oakville, Ont. / 35 / PREVIOUS JOB: VP, director of business operations for the Mississauga Steelheads Hockey Club (six years) / CANNABIS JOB: VP of sales at Sail (four months) Scott Rogers went from working on Bay Street to running the business side of a hockey team for a sport management athlete representation firm before transitioning to his position as vice-president of Sail, a medical cannabis technology company. Sail allows physicians to safely qualify, evaluate and prescribe patients medicinal cannabis.

NEVER A DULL MOMENT This is my first experience in the cannabis industry. It's been a crash course in discovering the needs of health-care practitioners and what they require to offer medical cannabis to patients. My goal remains to successfully offer Sail's software tools to our clients, and help them confidently dose and prescribe cannabis to their patients.

The industry comes with its own set of risks that apply to anyone working in it. The entire industry is at the mercy of the laws that govern the space, and the industry could change at a moment's notice, all hinging on evolving legal frameworks. There is never a dull moment here.

KATIE PRINGLE Oakville / 34 / PREVIOUS JOB: Principal of Pringle Communications (4 years 3 months) / Cannabis job: Co-founder of Marigold Marketing & PR (1 year 11 months) BRIDGET HOFFER Oakville / 61 / PREVIOUS JOB: Communications consultant for Bridget Hoffer Strategic Communications (two years) / CANNABIS JOB: Co-founder of Marigold Marketing & PR (1 year 11 months) For 13 years, Bridget Hoffer worked for the CBC as executive director of communications and helped launch their new and emerging brands. Her business partner, Katie Pringle, has a marketing background in women's brands that includes managing the launch of the Oprah Winfrey Network in Canada. With Marigold, their new marketing company, they have embraced the cannabis sector, which comprises the majority of their clients.

OVERCOMING STIGMAS Ms. Hoffer: There are always challenges when you're starting to work in an area that has a lot of stigma attached to it. Medical cannabis has been legal for quite some time but there is still an element of overcoming stigmas. We understand that working in cannabis may not appeal to our other clients, which could be a sacrifice, yet [the sector is] a great opportunity for us, moving forward.

Ms. Pringle: We're two women in what's traditionally been a male-dominated environment, working within a product area that has a lot of social stigmatization. There's a huge education component required: Consumers don't know what's happening in the industry. But there are many more opportunities than the general population understands. Generations of people have been misinformed about what [cannabis] can do to you, like the negative effects, and so on. You see a lot of interest from boomers who are interested in managing their health in a way that isn't as reliant on pharmaceuticals.

EMPOWERING PEOPLE Ms. Pringle: We're working on a campaign right now called "Legalize This," which is Canadians sharing what legalization means to them. For people who feel like they're being helped by cannabis, my hope is that they can start to feel less judgment and less shame. We're very committed to this industry. Because it's so nuanced and because the rules are changing, it's important to work with a firm, a PR firm, that really understands.

There are a lot of banks, institutions and, in some cases, agencies that aren't prepared to take on cannabis clients at this point. We're embracing it.

As Canada embraces the legalization of cannabis, a new industry is born. Despite the stigmas that surround it, and an uncertain future, some bold pioneers see an opportunity to win big at a fresh start.

The Globe and Mail talked to seven entrepreneurs - including economists, lawyers, marketers and business owners - about the risks and rewards of leaving the security of their jobs to make the leap into the cannabis industry.

GRANT McLEOD Toronto / 40 / PREVIOUS JOB: Principal consultant for Global Development Advisors (1 year 9 months) / CANNABIS JOB: Co-founder of Seven Oaks (1 year 2 months) To start Seven Oaks, a Métis recreational cannabis brand, Grant McLeod gave up a job working for the U.S. government in Afghanistan. Prior to that, he worked for the government of Canada, adjudicating First Nations land claims.

A MODERN MÉTIS MESSAGE Seven Oaks' brand was developed on a modern interpretation of the Métis sense of adventure and freedom. The way I translate this is in terms of who I am as a modern Métis person who has taken on significant challenges, overcome them and been able to tell stories about them. What I wanted to do was build a brand that has an inspirational and positive message. You can be a lifetime consumer of cannabis, you can go to the best law school in the country, work in the highest levels in government, you can do very interesting things in Afghanistan or elsewhere and still be a regular consumer of cannabis.

THE RISKS Deciding that I'm not going to take any income outside of cannabis and saying that I'm going to start this company and recognizing that it's going to take some time and some investment to move it forward is a huge financial risk. Reputational risk is significant as well. I'm a lawyer. Certain people in the legal community have certain perspectives on cannabis. It is still relatively new to the majority of people. Am I hireable by the U.S.

government at this point? I would say no. I've basically given up my life's work, in that sense, to pursue this. We truly believe that we have a brand that can be something similar to Roots - a heritage brand that tells the story of Canada.

DR. ADEL ZAREI Guelph, Ont. / 52 / PREVIOUS JOB: Research associate (eight years) / CANNABIS JOB: Quality assurance, WeedMD (nine months) Dr. Adel Zarei completed a PhD in plant molecular biology in Holland, and is now a quality assurance person at WeedMD, a licensed producer in the outskirts of London, Ont., that produces more than 30,000 kilograms of medicinal cannabis a year.

A GREAT OPPORTUNITY FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT For a period of six months before working at WeedMD, I was scientific adviser for another licensed producer. In the cannabis industry, I found many similar jobs as I was doing during my PhD. The cannabis plant makes a group of molecules called cannabinoids to protect itself from adverse conditions. It was fascinating for me to learn that a few members of that group of molecules have bioactive properties on humans.

Our knowledge on cannabis is very limited and lags behinds many crops. Legalization is a great opportunity for research and development on what we don't know. So far, much of the information we know is from "underground activities," and now is the time for science to step in and discover the real truths.

My main job is quality-assurance person. I make sure everything leaves our facility as a high-quality product and meets the requirements under ACMPR (Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations). We test for aflatoxin, heavy metals, mould and microbes. In mould tests, we have to make sure that none, even one part per billion, does not exist in the final product, otherwise, we destroy it.

We have a long way to go in terms of cultivation, breeding, biotechnology, processing, packaging - all of this needs to be fine-tuned. Another challenge is that cannabis product has not been standardized. It's not like grabbing a bottle of merlot. This is the future in about five to 10 years.

BEN RISPIN Hamilton / 38 / PREVIOUS JOB: CEO for Misfit Island (two years) / CANNABIS JOB: Content producer for Puff Digital (two months) A Juno-nominated musician, Ben Rispin is also a marketing guru who has spent three years in the Canadian cannabis industry. Working in the entertainment industry gave him the skills he employs as content producer for Puff Digital, which helps develop, support and market cannabis.

TRANSITIONING TO CANNABIS Before working with cannabis, I worked in music - I got into music at a really young age.

Most of the stuff we did in music was DIY. We didn't have a lot of financial backing but we made it work. After that, I was CEO of Misfit Island [Studios]. We did a lot of productions; we produced a film and did events. A dispensary asked me to produce some of their videos and charity events, which led to doing their social media/branding integration. It was all black market and I had to get away from that. So I quit. I had been doing it for about a year. I definitely learned a ton about the consumer, a ton about cannabis and how the medical world works with cannabis.

One of the greatest enemies of the industry is miseducation. I was out with some intelligent, professional, young - early 30s - educated people and they didn't know that cannabis is better for you than opioids. Right now, we're doing the "Into the Weeds" podcast, which is designed to break down the stigma. I'm privately interested in creating unbiased cannabis content.

Associated Graphic

WORDS AND PHOTOS BY PATRICK MARCOUX


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Why Jennifer Keesmaat feels she has to keep running
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Former chief planner knows what a marathon is like, and though the polls indicate that she's well behind in Toronto's mayoral race, she says 'there are huge things that we could be fixing right now ... and I don't think we can wait another four years'
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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page A16

Jennifer Keesmaat stood in the middle of her kitchen on a Friday night in July, among the debris of a half-done reno, and began to address her hastily assembled campaign team. She made her snap decision to run for mayor just hours earlier, registering minutes before nominations closed. Now, surrounded by walls covered in carpenter's pencil marks where cupboards should be, she addressed the mix of leftleaning city councillors and NDP and Liberal strategists gathered in her red-brick midtown home.

At one point breaking into tears, Ms. Keesmaat said she had taken the plunge in the wake of Mayor John Tory's "tepid" response to Premier Doug Ford's sudden unilateral move, unveiled that day, to cut Toronto's council almost in half. The city, she said, now needed bold new leadership.

"It was something that accumulated," Ms. Keesmaat said in an interview this week, noting that speculation about her running had waxed and waned for months. "It was a moment where I was like, this has to happen."

Like her kitchen, however, her campaign to unseat Mr. Tory remains a work in progress. It suffered from a slow start, as her team was assembled from scratch and her platform drawn up on the fly. The courtroom drama over Mr.Ford's intervention in the city's election sucked up much of the oxygen when her bid was still in the starting gate. Her opponent, who enjoys a 30-point lead in the polls and used a three-month head-start to raise a war chest of more than $1-million, refuses to debate her one-on-one. While she insists otherwise, her policies have so far been designed to appeal largely to progressive voters in the central city, leaving the vast suburbs to Mr. Tory. And now, with two weeks to go before the Oct. 22 election, time is running out.

But the 48-year-old Ms. Keesmaat, an avid cyclist and runner who once put in a qualifying time for the Boston Marathon, is not the type to give up easily.

"I have hit the wall in a marathon, which is something that you cannot understand intellectually," she said in wide-ranging interview over a latte at a downtown coffee shop. "It's the moment when there's nothing left, but you have to keep running."

JUMPING IN For months, it was assumed that Mr. Tory would face no big-name challenger, from left or right. That changed on July 26, as word began to leak out that Mr. Ford planned to chop council from 47 to 25 wards, even with the election well under way.

The mayor's reaction - a futile plea for a referendum and his acknowledgement that the Premier had mentioned the idea in an "offhand" conversation weeks earlier - was seen by some critics as a capitulation. It prompted council's NDP-dominated left-leaning bloc to lash out against Mr. Tory. They began scrambling to find a mayoral challenger who they felt would stand up to Mr. Ford, with a 2 p.m. deadline on July 27 looming.

While various councillors' names were tossed around, Liberal MP and former city councillor Adam Vaughan and former mayor David Miller were also seriously approached. Both men say they quickly declined when asked to run.

Leaving a downtown meeting that Friday morning, Ms. Keemaat checked her phone to find it buzzing with messages from figures on council's left, urging her to run. So she rode her bike over to City Hall.

The signatures on her nomination papers included several leftleaning councillors and their aides. Her new employers, who had brought her on just months earlier as the chief executive of a developer-driven affordablehousing initiative, found out only that day she was jumping into the race.

'JENNIFER KEESMAAT DOESN'T PLAY WELL WITH OTHERS' Raised in Hamilton's suburban West Mountain neighbourhood, Ms. Keesmaat was one of four daughters born to Dutch immigrants, her father a builder and her mother an art teacher. Moving to Vancouver in the mid-1990s, she became involved in politics of the city's Downtown Eastside neighbourhood and the issue of gentrification, and got interested in urban planning.

She graduated with a masters in planning from York University's faculty of environmental studies in 1999. While a student she worked as intern in the office of NDP city councillor Joe Mihevc, who remembers her as a go-getter with "political instincts."

With her husband, Tom Freeman, she launched a charity that ran a west-end restaurant that employed at-risk youth, all while still at York.

She then co-founded a small planning firm, the Office for Urbanism, which won the contract to redesign the master plan for Union Station in 2004. After merging with other firms to become a consultancy with hundreds of employees called Dialog, Ms.Keesmaat and a colleague were put in charge of its planning business, working on projects across Canada. The firm now has more than 700 employees and offices in Toronto, Edmonton, Calgary, Vancouver and San Francisco.

But she left her private-sector gig in 2012, selling her stake in the business to take a job few other qualified candidates could stomach, after at first turning it down herself: chief planner of the City of Toronto during the tumultuous term of mayor Rob Ford.

She was certainly a different breed of chief planner. Using Twitter and her blog, she spoke out on issues in a way few senior Toronto bureaucrats had done since before amalgamation. She became the face of the fight for bike lanes and mid-rise development, a kind of patron saint for downtown progressives.

But her outspokenness also got her into trouble. Almost from the start, she alienated even potential allies on council when she tweeted in 2012 that she found the chamber's debates "insufferable."

In 2015, her very public advocacy for tearing down the eastern chunk of the elevated Gardiner Expressway would put her at odds with Toronto's next mayor, Mr.Tory, almost costing her her job. It also prompted the mayor's controversial adviser, Nick Kouvalis, to muse on Twitter that Ms. Keesmaat was plotting a mayoral bid.

Hauled into a meeting with Mr.Tory, she says she reluctantly agreed to tone it down.

Her approach also alienated some inside city hall. Her critics say she at times refused to perform acts of diplomacy required to get fellow bureaucrats to buy into her ideas, preferring lecturing to listening.

"Jennifer Keesmaat doesn't play well with others," said Councillor Denzil Minnan-Wong, one of Mr. Tory's deputy mayors and a frequent critic of Ms. Keesmaat and her policies. "It was always Jennifer's way or the highway."

Ms. Keesmaat acknowledges that her public advocacy and uncompromising approach ruffled feathers at city hall. But she says she had a great working relationship with fellow department heads.

But it was a lack of leadership from Mr. Tory at the top that left her and other senior staff shaking their heads, she said, noting several senior officials, including herself, TTC CEO Andy Byford and city manager Peter Wallace, left on this mayor's watch.

"The frustration that I felt was not uncommon," she said, citing things such as Mr. Tory's fixation on his now-diminished SmartTrack transit plan, which she dismisses as a mirage. "The frustration was palpable. It was every day." Asked about her legacy as chief planner, she points to the sensitive residential redevelopment of the site of discount retail icon Honest Ed's, approved in just 18 months after extensive consultations with the local neighbourhoods.

She dismisses complaints from developers that the new TO Core downtown plan she championed is too restrictive on new residential development, arguing that without rules, more profitable condos would muscle out office and retail uses. And she bats away concerns that Toronto's development-approval process remains delay-plagued and Kafka-esque, saying under her direction, city planners started fast-tracking good development proposals and letting lousy ones languish.

The mayoral campaign got heated quickly. Within days, Mr.Tory and his proxies seized on Ms.Keesmaat's tweets appearing to call for Toronto's "secession," something she has repeatedly said was not a policy position, but an expression of frustration with Mr. Ford. And Mr. Tory's campaign also repeatedly labelled her as the "NDP candidate," even though Ms. Keesmaat is not a member of any party.

For her part, she called Mr. Tory a ditherer just days after the campaign got under way.

Given how well the NDP did in Toronto in the June 7 provincial election, being tarred as orange might well be an advantage.

But Ms. Keesmaat and her team are eager to portray themselves as a broad coalition mostly of Liberals and New Democrats. Former federal NDP leadership contender Brian Topp, who also served on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's NAFTA advisory panel during the tense trade talks, is the campaign manager. But former provincial Liberal aides are also involved.

Her pledges to tear down the crumbling elevated eastern Gardiner Expressway, build 10 times the number of affordable homes the city approves now each year and seek provincial permission to levy a special tax on $4-million mansions are clearly geared to attract progressive voters in the former city of Toronto and up the Yonge subway line.

Municipal political strategists call it the "inverted T," and it is this same group that largely turned to Mr. Tory in 2014, to block Doug Ford, then his rival for mayor. She has only rarely staged campaign events in the suburbs.

Speaking to The Globe and Mail's editorial board on Friday, she actually thanked Mr. Tory for being a calming influence after the chaos of the Rob Ford years.

But she said Toronto now needs bolder action, particularly on affordable housing, as many residents fear their children will not be able to afford to live here.

"Remember, we were on latenight comedy shows the world over," Ms. Keesmaat said. "Mr. Tory came in as the sort of voice of reason. But there are huge things that we could be fixing right now and they are huge missed opportunities. And I don't think we can wait another four years."

Associated Graphic

Mayoral candidate Jennifer Keesmaat rides between campaign stops in Toronto on Wednesday.

PHOTOS BY CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Ms. Keesmaat answers reporters' questions after speaking at the Toronto Real Estate Forum on Wednesday. The city's former chief planner has labelled her main rival in the mayoral race, John Tory, as a ditherer.

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Correction

A Saturday news feature on Jennifer Keesmaat incorrectly said in an photo caption that she spoke at the Toronto Real Estate Forum. In fact, she spoke at an event organized by the Toronto Real Estate Board.


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Backup QB and last-play field goal give Dolphins OT win over Bears
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Monday, October 15, 2018 – Page B14

DOLPHINS 31, BEARS 28 (OT) MIAMI GARDENS, FLA. Jason Sanders kicked a 47-yard field goal on the final play of overtime after Cody Parkey missed a 53-yard try for the Chicago Bears, who blew an 11-point lead in the final 16 minutes of regulation. Miami's Brock Osweiler threw for 380 yards and three touchdowns subbing for Ryan Tannehill, who sat out because of an injured throwing shoulder. Albert Wilson turned two short passes into long touchdowns in the fourth quarter and finished with 155 yards on six receptions. The Dolphins took the kickoff to start overtime, marched 74 yards and were on the verge of victory when Kenyan Drake fumbled just before crossing the goal line. Eddie Goldman recovered for the Bears, who then drove to the Miami 35. But former Dolphin Parkey was wide right on his attempt with two minutes left.

Miami (4-2) snapped a two-game losing streak and ended a threegame winning streak for Chicago (3-2).

FALCONS 34, BUCCANEERS 29 ATLANTA Matt Ryan threw for 354 yards and three touchdowns as the Falcons snapped a threegame losing streak, holding off Tampa Bay in Jameis Winston's return as Buccaneers starting quarterback. The Falcons (2-4) scored on their first three possessions and held off a wild comeback by Tampa Bay (2-3), avoiding their first 1-5 start since 2007.

Ryan's three TD passes gave him 274 in his career, passing Joe Montana for 16th on the career list.

JETS 42, COLTS 34 EAST RUTHERFORD, N.J. Jason Myers kicked a franchise-record seven field goals, Sam Darnold threw two touchdown passes and the Jets held on to win consecutive games for the first time in more than a year. Morris Claiborne returned the first of three interceptions thrown by Andrew Luck for a touchdown as the Jets (3-3) moved to .500 by taking advantage of mistakes by the shorthanded Colts (1-5), who lost their fourth straight. With Joe Namath and the 1968 Super Bowl-winning team celebrating its 50th anniversary, Darnold was 24 of 30 for 280 yards, with TD throws to Terrelle Pryor and Chris Herndon and an interception to give New York its first back-to-back victories since taking three in a row in Weeks 3-5 last season. Myers hit field goals from 30, 48, 32, 37, 45, 37 and 45 yards to break the Jets record previously held by Jim Turner (1968) - the kicker for the Super Bowl champions - and Bobby Howfield (1972). Luck was 23 of 43 for 301 yards with touchdowns to Marcus Johnson, Eric Ebron, Erik Swoope and Chester Rogers, the last coming with 1:51 left to make the score close. Neal Sterling recovered the Colts' onside kick to seal the win for the Jets.

TEXANS 19, BILLS 14 HOUSTON Johnathan Joseph's 28yard interception return for a touchdown with 1:23 remaining lifted the Texans. Houston trailed by three when Phillip Gaines was called for pass interference on Will Fuller in the end zone with two minutes remaining, moving the Texans 41 yards to the oneyard line. But the Texans (3-3) lost seven yards on three plays, capped by an incomplete pass intended for Ryan Griffin that Matt Milano knocked down to force Houston to kick. A 27-yard field goal by Ka'imi Fairbairn tied it with 1:34 remaining. Two plays later, Joseph stepped in front of a pass from backup Nathan Peterman intended for Kelvin Benjamin and dashed untouched into the end zone to put the Texans on top and help them avoid their third straight overtime game.

VIKINGS 27, CARDINALS 17 MINNEAPOLIS Latavius Murray helped the Minnesota Vikings revive their running attack with 155 yards and a touchdown on 24 carries, wearing down the Cardinals.

Even Kirk Cousins joined the fun for the Vikings (3-2-1) with an option-style run across the goal line in the third quarter, before throwing to Adam Thielen for a score on the following possession.

Thielen had 11 receptions for 123 yards, his sixth straight 100-yard game to become the first player in the NFL since 1961 to start a season with a streak that long. Thielen's 58 catches are the most in league history through six games.

SEAHAWKS 27, RAIDERS 3 LONDON Russell Wilson threw for three touchdowns, including one off a botched snap in the second quarter. Chris Carson rushed for 59 yards and rookie Rashaad Penny gained an additional 43 for the Seahawks (3-3), who played to a vociferously supportive English crowd - a London-record 84,922 were in attendance - despite the Raiders (1-5) being the designated home team. Oakland quarterback Derek Carr left with an apparent left arm injury with 8:52 remaining in the fourth quarter after the last of his six sacks and did not have the chance to return before the Seahawks ran out the clock.

WASHINGTON 23, PANTHERS 17 LANDOVER, MD. Josh Norman bounced back from his primetime benching by intercepting former teammate Cam Newton and forcing a fumble. Norman ended his 19-game interception drought by catching a jump ball thrown by Newton on a thirdand-long play early in the second quarter, his first pick since Dec.

24, 2016. Norman also popped the ball out of Panthers rookie receiver D.J. Moore's hands in a showcase performance against the team that abruptly cut ties with him after his All-Pro 2015 season.

Newton threw for 275 yards and two touchdowns on 27 of 40 passing and rushed for 43 yards in a turnover-marred loss. In his second game with the Panthers, safety Eric Reid continued his tradition of kneeling during the national anthem. Reid took a knee just at the corner of the American flag on the field by the Carolina sideline, the only Panthers player to do so. Reid last week became the first Carolina player to kneel during The Star-Spangled Banner.

CHARGERS 38, BROWNS 14 CLEVELAND Philip Rivers threw two touchdown passes to Tyrell Williams - the veteran quarterback threw a block - and Melvin Gordon had three TD runs as the Chargers banged around rookie Baker Mayfield and the Browns.

The 36-year-old Rivers continued one of the best starts of his 15-year career, leading the Chargers (4-2) to their third straight win. Rivers finished 11 of 20 for 207 yards and had only one mistake, an interception midway through the fourth quarter. San Diego did most of its damage on the ground, with Gordon running for 132 yards and scoring on runs of four, 10 and 11 yards. Rivers and Williams connected on scoring plays of 45 and 29 yards in the first half, and Gordon's 11-yard run put the Chargers up 35-6. The Browns (2-3-1) were blown out after playing five tight games - three going to overtime - and showed there's still a long road ahead.

COWBOYS 40, JAGUARS 7 ARLINGTON, TEX. Dak Prescott threw two touchdown passes to Cole Beasley to spark the previously punchless Dallas passing game and rushed for a careerhigh 82 yards in the Cowboys' victory over the Jacksonville Jaguars.

Perhaps pumped up by some pregame mingling with UFC fighter Conor McGregor, the Cowboys rolled to a 24-0 halftime lead, with Beasley getting his first two touchdowns of the season for the NFL's 30th-ranked passing offence that was facing the league's No. 1 pass defence. Prescott had 151 of his 183 yards passing in the first half because Dallas didn't need to throw while coasting during a second-half blowout. The Cowboys (3-3) won their first three games of the season at nine-year-old AT&T Stadium for the first time.

RAVENS 21, TITANS 0 NASHVILLE The Baltimore Ravens have finished up their longest road swing of the season with an absolutely dominating performance. Try 11 sacks. And now they head home for four of their next five games. The Ravens piled up the franchise-record sacks as they shut out the Tennessee Titans in the rain. Za'Darious Smith had three sacks and Patrick Onwuasor had two for the Ravens (4-2), who had six sacks by halftime. They finished a sack off the NFL record for a game shared by five teams.

Dean Pees and the Titans simply couldn't stop his old team as the Ravens outgained Tennessee 361106 and punted only once against a defence led by their former defensive co-ordinator. Pees came out of a short retirement to join first-year head coach Mike Vrabel. Joe Flacco threw for 238 yards and a touchdown for Baltimore.

Alex Collins scored on TD runs of 13 and two yards. The Titans (3-3) lost their second straight and were shut out at home for the first time since moving into Nissan Stadium in 1999. Tennessee has not scored a touchdown in eight straight quarters. The Ravens couldn't have looked much better handing Tennessee its first shutout since Nov. 28, 2010.

RAMS 23, BRONCOS 20 DENVER Todd Gurley rushed for a career-high 208 yards and two touchdowns on 28 carries and the Los Angeles Rams' celebrated Wade Phillips's homecoming with a win over the reeling Denver Broncos. The Rams, who had surrendered 31 points in back-toback games, improved to 6-0 in sending the Broncos (2-4) to their fourth straight loss. The Broncos pulled to 23-20 on Case Keenum's one-yard dart to Demaryius Thomas with 1:22 remaining, capping a 77-yard drive that included three defensive penalties. Rams receiver Robert Woods, however, knocked Brandon McManus's onside kick out of bounds, and the Rams ran out the clock with Jared Goff (14 of 28 for 201 yards) twice taking a knee. Phillips was the Broncos' beloved bandmaster when they were celebrating their Super Bowl 50 triumph, but his contract wasn't renewed after the 2016 season and he joined Sean McVay in Southern California.

395 Passing yards for Tampa Bay QB Jameis Winston on 30 completions of 41 attempts and four touchdowns in the Buccaneers' 34-29 loss to the Falcons

208 Rushing yards for Los Angeles Rams RB Toddy Gurley on 28 carries and two touchdowns in LA's 23-20 win over the Broncos

155 Receiving yards for Miami WR Albert Wilson on six receptions and two touchdowns in the Dolphins' 31-28 win over the Bears.

Associated Graphic

Russell Wilson of the Seahawks and the Raiders' Bruce Irvin clash in London on Sunday.

MATTHEW CHILDS/ACTION IMAGES VIA REUTERS


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How Canada became an international surrogacy hotspot
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The quick recognition of legal parentage and high-quality universal health care combine to make us the world's go-to place for surrogacy. Everyone okay with that?
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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page O8

Writer who broadcasts regularly about assisted reproduction and publishes a weekly newsletter, HeyReprotech

Here's an arresting statistic: Almost half of the babies born to Canadian surrogates in the province of British Columbia in 2016 and 2017 were for intended parents who lived outside the country. That's 45 of the 102 babies born to surrogates there - 44 per cent.

What's the national tally on such outbound babies? We don't know. Rather, we aren't told. The number could presumably be calculated, since individual physicians carry out the procedures and bill for them, and provinces issue birth certificates. But the information is not publicly available.

Then again, we should hardly be surprised: In Canada, we don't even know the total number of babies born to surrogates for any parent, Canadian or otherwise. I and others have been asking around for some time now.

Those B.C. numbers come to us thanks to the hard work of Pamela White, at the Kent Law School in Britain, who had to put in an access to information request with the B.C. government. She tried the province of Ontario, too, but they said they don't collect data on residency. In the United States, such information is collected by law and published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Prof. White, a former Statistics Canada director and data analyst, argues that Canadians deserve that level of transparency, too. She is absolutely right. Without real data, available for scrutiny, how can we make informed public policy decisions?

We can't.

Anecdotal reports and incomplete data suggest that the number of intended parents (IPs) from outside Canada has been growing in recent years. At the annual meeting of the Canadian Fertility & Andrology Society (CFAS) last month, Karen Busby, a professor in the faculty of law at the University of Manitoba, who co-authored a forthcoming paper on the topic with Prof. White, discussed why Canada is becoming an international surrogacy magnet and whether it is desirable.

The backdrop, Prof. Busby says, is that worldwide demand is huge. Many people want to be parents and can't do so without surrogacy, but they live in countries where surrogacy is either prohibited entirely, or prohibited for them. China, Japan and many European and predominantly Muslim countries have restrictions, she says.

People in such places who decide to pursue surrogacy must look beyond their own borders.

Coupled with this growing demand is shrinking supply. In the past few years, India, Nepal, Thailand and Mexico - former international surrogacy hotspots - have closed their doors to non-residents.

So why Canada? For one thing, Prof. Busby says, Canada is one of the few jurisdictions left in the world that both allows surrogacy and allows foreign participation in it. Countries such as Britain, South Africa and Israel, she says, permit surrogacy, but not for foreigners. The only other places that allow foreigners to access surrogacy within their borders, apart from a couple of completely unregulated jurisdictions, are Greece, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia and a few U.S. states.

For a number of reasons, Canada stacks up well against these others. Russia and Ukraine, for instance, only allow married heterosexual couples to participate. Canada, by contrast, does not allow discrimination on the basis of marital status or sexual orientation, Prof. Busby says.

Canada is also fairly efficient about granting legal parental rights. It varies by province, but generally speaking, IPs can be declared legal parents without a lot of hassle in just a few days, and they can be issued a birth certificate within weeks. Also, any child born in Canada has the right to citizenship, so a passport can be issued, and in short order, the families can head home and start their new lives.

Financially, Canada also compares well.

Women in Canada enjoy high quality, publicly funded health care throughout the pregnancy, during the delivery and after the birth. This is as true for a woman carrying a baby for someone from France or China as it is for a woman carrying a baby for herself. Our neonatal care is also top-notch - and also publicly funded. Another perk, Prof. Busby says, is that if a Canadian surrogate has a job, then she may also qualify for employment insurance benefits following birth - to a maximum of $6,500.

Here's another interesting twist. In Canada, it's illegal - a criminal offence, according to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act - to pay a woman to carry a baby for you, or to pay someone else to arrange for her to do so. Since the law first passed in 2004, this prohibition has caused enormous hand-wringing for Canadian would-be parents looking to form their families with the help of a surrogate. They rightly fear that they could be prosecuted for paying a surrogate, and the penalty is steep: up to 10 years in prison and $500,000 in fines. The prohibition has reportedly driven some Canadian families to leave the country to seek surrogates elsewhere.

Ironically, this prohibition, which was designed to deter commercial surrogacy, may actually be stimulating it - and may favour foreign IPs over domestic ones. Domestic IPs may be reluctant to offer money or will only offer it under the table, but because the law is not applied to acts committed outside the country, Prof. Busby says, foreign IPs can offer money openly, so long as it changes hands somewhere else.

It's conceivable that, given the choice between being paid and not being paid, Canadian surrogates - who are legally allowed to accept the money - may opt to be paid.

So foreign IPs may actually be more attractive to Canadian surrogates than domestic IPs. (There's no data on that, of course, since there's no data.)

It is true that foreign IPs coming to Canada will still be subject to our other prohibitions, such as paying for local egg or sperm donations or performing sex selection.

But, as Prof. Busby points out, most Canadians live near the U.S. border and have easy access to the services offered there.

This ability to enjoy the best of both systems only adds to Canada's appeal.

All of these factors help to explain why Canada has become a go-to place for surrogacy. I'll add one more that Prof. Busby did not explicitly mention: There are Canadian doctors, lawyers and agencies who actively recruit IPs from around the world. If foreign parents weren't already aware of Canada's considerable merits, representatives of the industry are more than happy to point them out. In fact, the newly minted president of the CFAS himself, alongside the CEO of the country's top surrogacy agency, was recently in London, promoting Canada as a premier surrogacy destination.

And they are right: For all of the above reasons, Canada is a great place to do surrogacy. Loads of people already want to come here and we can only expect that number will grow.

Not everything about this picture is rosy, however. A big question is whether Canadians need to think about recovering medical costs. Pregnancy care, even for an uneventful pregnancy, costs money. So does birth. The average uncomplicated birth in Canada rings in at between $3,000 and $6,000, depending on whether it's a vaginal or surgical delivery. Complications can increase that figure considerably. Neonatal care can also be pricey. For instance, according to the Canadian Institute of Health Information, care for a baby born at 29 weeks weighing less than kilogram costs an average of $91,946. One baby.

"I am pretty sure that if you asked the average Canadian whether or not the Canadian health-care system should pay for any of the health-care costs incurred in order to produce a child for a non-resident IP, the answer would be no," Prof. Busby told the CFAS meeting. "In fact, I think it would be an emphatic no." I suspect she's right.

As far as Prof. Busby is aware, no province has put in place laws or policies to recover the cost of surrogate pregnancy care from foreign IPs. (A few Ontario hospitals have started charging for infant care, if the infants are for out-of-province parents.)

Prof. Busby says governments could consider measures such as asking IPs for money up front or not issuing a birth certificate or passport until the bill is settled.

That's a lot of work. It would involve coordination across departments and even, in some scenarios, levels of government.

Another option, she says, would be to follow the lead of other countries and create residency restrictions, stipulating that only people who live in Canada can work with a surrogate here. That option would, in one fell swoop, alleviate the shortage of surrogates available to work with Canadians and eliminate the cost-recovery conundrum.

That would be a tidy solution, and, all things considered, maybe the most workable one. The cost-recovery issue is challenging. Access to surrogates by Canadians is challenging, too. There are other problems. Our country is struggling under a 14year-old law that still hasn't rolled out the meat of its regulatory details. We are woefully lacking in transparency about surrogacy - and assisted reproduction in general. Finally, although preliminary findings are reassuring, we have not yet done nearly enough research to establish that Canadian women who act as surrogates are not exploited.

I am not hopeful, given Canada's track record in this sphere, that we will crack these tough problems any time soon, or ever. But let's imagine we did - no cost to the Canadian public, adequate numbers of surrogates to work with Canadian families, effective laws for and public scrutiny of the process and confidence that women were treated fairly. Then, it seems to me, Canada would be an excellent place for international surrogacy. Surely the ideal is for surrogates and babies to have quality medical care, for IPs to be free from discrimination, for parentage issues to be resolved quickly.

If we did somehow get our house in order, I'd be the first to ask: If you believe that surrogacy is a legitimate way of achieving parenthood, what would be the argument against welcoming it here?

Associated Graphic

Embryologist Larysa Fedarva works in the lab at Genesis Fertility Clinic in Vancouver in 2014. Almost half the babies born to Canadian surrogates in British Columbia in 2016 and 2017 were for intended parents who lived outside the country.

DARRYL DYCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Wednesday, October 10, 2018
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Abortion-pill inequality: How access varies widely across Canada
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Two years after Canadians got access to Mifegymiso, some regions have seen thousands of prescriptions, but others have had hardly any, according to figures obtained by The Globe and Mail. The numbers point to deeply rooted problems in regional abortion care
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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page A12

Women's health advocates have hailed the abortion pill as the key to eliminating barriers to abortion in Canada because it can be prescribed by a family doctor and taken at home, no matter where a woman lives. Yet, nearly two years after Mifegymiso became available, many women still have to travel to abortion clinics, endure lengthy waits and pay outof-pocket if they want to use it to end their pregnancies.

Prescribing data provided to The Globe and Mail show large regional disparities in access to the abortion pill, which the World Health Organization says is a safe and effective method of terminating pregnancies in the first nine weeks. In Manitoba, where nearly 4,000 abortions are performed every year, no prescriptions for Mifegymiso have been dispensed from retail pharmacies since it came on the market, according to the data. But in Ontario, which has about 40,000 abortions every year, more than 6,600 prescriptions were dispensed last year and this year, up to August, 2018.

The figures, provided by IQVIA, a pharmaceutical analytics firm, don't reflect prescriptions dispensed from abortion clinics.

But low numbers in provinces such as Manitoba suggest that for some women, getting a prescription from a family doctor and having it filled at a local pharmacy are a challenge.

Barriers to abortion in Canada are complex and vary by region, according to women's health advocates, who say timely access to abortions is important. Delays can affect the type of abortion a woman can receive - Mifegymiso can only be prescribed to women in the first nine weeks of pregnancy - and waiting also exposes women to pregnancy-related symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, stress and anxiety.

"This is a medical procedure that should happen in a short window of time. It impacts health if you wait," said Frédérique Chabot, director of health promotion with Action Canada for Sexual Health and Rights, an Ottawabased advocacy group. "There are piecemeal efforts made, but a systemic strategy must come from the public health system."

Last month, The Globe and Mail highlighted access barriers in Nova Scotia, where women regularly wait a week or more for abortions because of an ultrasound backlog. But it's not the only province with barriers.

COVERAGE, BUT ONLY AT A CLINIC The policies in Manitoba are more restrictive. The government added Mifegymiso to its Pharmacare program, an income-based program that provides medication to those who pay a deductible. The program helps low-income women get prescription drugs for free. Otherwise, the province only covers the cost of Mifegymiso at one of three abortion clinics - two in Winnipeg and one in Brandon - and waitlists are typically long. Women who live outside of those cities must deal with the logistics and costs of travel.

Shaun Gauthier, vice-president of medical and diagnostic services for Prairie Mountain Health, which oversees Brandon's abortion services, said many women wait about a week for an abortion. If they are near the gestational age limit for Mifegymiso, they can be expedited.

The Women's Health Clinic in Winnipeg described a more challenging situation. The clinic has enough funding to open only twice a week and it can't keep up with patient loads, said Nadine Sookermany, the executive director. The current wait for an abortion using Mifegymiso is two weeks; for a surgical abortion, it's three.

"It is an access issue, for sure," Ms. Sookermany said. "It does put clients in a position where they may feel they're not being supported, they're not being heard."

Government spokeswoman Andrea Slobodian said in an email that 587 women have received Mifegymiso in Manitoba from the time it came on the market until June this year. While the IQVIA figures say no women have received prescriptions from retail pharmacies, Ms. Slobodian said 29 prescriptions for the abortion pill have been dispensed from retail pharmacies as of June.

Wendy Norman, associate professor in the department of family medicine at the University of British Columbia, said Manitoba's policy "appears to be more political than making sense for the health of the people."

Status of Women Minister Rochelle Squires, who oversees abortion services, said in an interview the province may be open to changing its policies.

"We're watching the uptake for patients accessing the drug and looking at what other jurisdictions are doing," she said.

Like Manitoba, Prince Edward Island covers the cost of Mifegymiso for women who go to the island's Women's Wellness Program for their abortion. But Autumn Tremere, a spokeswoman for Health PEI, said in an e-mail all doctors on the island can request Mifegymiso free of charge through the wellness program.

Waiting times for drug-induced abortions are about a week because of an ultrasound backlog.

NO COVERAGE IN SASKATCHEWAN On Sept. 1, Newfoundland and Labrador became the latest province to offer universal Mifegymiso coverage. Now, Saskatchewan is the only province with no coverage outside of its provincial drug plan for low-income residents. Shelley Svedahl, a spokeswoman with the province's Health Ministry, said women who can't pay for the drug can ask their pharmacist for emergency assistance and they may get a reduced price.

RELUCTANCE TO PRESCRIBE Even in provinces where the drug is fully covered, some women have trouble getting it because few health providers are willing to prescribe. The SHORE Centre, a sexual health clinic based in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont., regularly sees women coming to get a Mifegymiso prescription from small towns hundreds of kilometres away, as well as from large cities such as Hamilton, because their family doctors would not prescribe it.

Lyndsey Butcher, the clinic's executive director, said she has called many of the doctors to ask why they won't prescribe. In most cases, the doctors say they aren't comfortable doing it.

"I think it's this idea that abortions have to be done at a clinic," Ms. Butcher said. "It's getting over that barrier."

It's unclear how many health professionals are prescribing Mifegymiso, but signs suggest it's a relatively small number. Only 537 family physicians and 134 nurse practitioners have completed the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada's online training course for prescribing the abortion pill. The training course, which was mandatory from January until November, 2017, is now optional.

Jeff Sisler, executive director of professional development and practice support with the College of Family Physicians of Canada, said there are efforts to encourage physician prescribing of the abortion pill, including a session at the group's annual conference in November and an online support group where family doctors can access the guidelines and have questions answered anonymously. He said doctors are busy and the abortion pill is new to Canada, which explains why rates of prescribing among family doctors may not be very high. A minority of doctors might refuse to prescribe on the basis of conscientious objection, he said.

"It's fair to say that for most physicians, taking the time and energy to get into a new type of care is something that they would do after some consideration," Dr. Sisler said. "It's kind of a new drug, it's got some special training involved and it takes a while to happen."

ARE ULTRASOUNDS NECESSARY?

Health Canada's product monograph for Mifegymiso says ultrasounds must be done to verify

the gestational age of the fetus and ensure the pregnancy is in the uterus. But product monographs are not binding and Health Canada does not have jurisdiction over how doctors deliver care.

In many parts of Canada, health officials say ultrasounds are required before a drug-induced abortion. But some health providers, such as Dustin Costescu, lead author of Canada's pharmaceutical abortion guidelines, say too much emphasis on ultrasounds can leave some women waiting days or weeks for an abortion, which he said is not ideal. Canada's guidelines recommend ultrasounds, but if a machine isn't readily available, health providers can use blood tests and pelvic exams instead.

Dr. Costescu, also a family planning specialist, noted the majority of pharmaceutical abortions in France are done without ultrasounds.

In Nova Scotia, women wait about a week for an abortion because they have to have an ultrasound done at the hospital's diagnostic imaging department, which has a backlog of patients.

The province's only abortion clinic recently purchased its own ultrasound machine, but the Nova Scotia Health Authority (NSHA) says clinicians can't use it for dating ultrasounds. The NSHA has not explained why this is the case.

Access to an ultrasound can also be limited in smaller, more remote communities, which may be contributing to abortion delays, said Joyce Arthur, executive director of the Abortion Rights Coalition of Canada.

"Family doctors are not going to have an ultrasound machine in their office. If they are in a smaller community, it's going to be an issue," she said.

IS TRAINING IN QUEBEC NECESSARY?

Quebec is home to about half of the abortion clinics in Canada and has a reputation for providing access to surgical procedures.

But from January to August this year, only 144 Mifegymiso prescriptions have been dispensed from retail pharmacies there, according to IQVIA. One reason could be the province's College of Physicians requires doctors to take a one- or two-day training course at an abortion clinic before prescribing Mifegymiso.

Yves Robert, secretary of Quebec's College of Physicians, said the course helps doctors understand how to use the ultrasound machine and other aspects of drug-induced abortions. He said between 20 and 30 physicians have undergone training and that "we don't see that a major barrier to access."

But Dr. Norman said the training course is "unnecessary" and is an example of how provincial policies are getting in the way of timely access to drug-induced abortions.

Mifegymiso presents an opportunity to ensure all women in Canada have timely abortion access, but the piecemeal approach to making the drug available suggests much more work needs to be done, Ms. Arthur said.

"The problem is ... lack of proactive action by many provinces, by professional medical organizations," she said. "It should be a responsibility of the provincial government to ensure access."

Associated Graphic

Lyndsey Butcher, top, executive director of the SHORE Centre in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont., says many doctors tell her they're uncomfortable prescribing the abortion drug Mifegymiso.

PHOTOS BY FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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The path for pipelines:
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Saturday, October 6, 2018 – Page A12

VICTORIA VANCOUVER -- This past week, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau joined B.C. Premier John Horgan to celebrate a decision by investors to approve LNG Canada, a major infrastructure project to export liquefied natural gas. "It's a good day for Canada," Mr. Trudeau said. Alberta's Premier, Rachel Notley, could barely muster applause - Mr.

Horgan's government continues to oppose the Trans Mountain project that would allow her province to get its oil to overseas markets. Alberta supports the LNG project, she said, but chided B.C. for "jaw-dropping hypocrisy."

Both projects are worth billions of dollars to the Canadian economy, and thousands of jobs. Both would move fossil fuels through pipelines crossing British Columbia for export off the coast, and each would add to the country's greenhouse-gas problem.

But LNG Canada has received a relatively smooth ride compared with the Trans Mountain expansion (TMX) experience. The fundamental difference is the product. LNG is marketed as a low-carbon, transition fuel that would help reduce global emissions.

Mr. Horgan's government regards the diluted bitumen that would be shipped from Trans Mountain's line as a pending environmental disaster.

But these are not the only differences. The Globe and Mail looks at the two projects side by side:

ECONOMIC VALUE LNG: The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers estimates that Canada's economy could grow by an average of $7.4-billion a year over a 30year period if total export volumes were to reach 30 million tonnes a year from LNG Canada and potentially a smaller-scale project. (LNG is forecast to export more than 26 million tonnes a year at full capacity if two phases are completed.) The B.C. government forecasts LNG Canada will produce $23-billion in provincial revenue alone, over a 40-year period, based on Phase 1 of the project.

TMX: The Conference Board of Canada envisages $47-billion in various government revenue over a 26-year period under Trans Mountain's expansion plans.

BUSINESS CASE LNG: LNG Canada is forging ahead amid forecasts that there will be global supply constraints of the fuel in the mid-2020s. Construction of the terminal in Kitimat, B.C., could be completed in 2024, in time to catch the window of opportunity in which the global market is thirsty for LNG. It has been a rollercoaster ride for the co-owners of LNG Canada. In 2016, the project got delayed amid worries about a worldwide glut of LNG developing.

TMX: TMX's proponents say the pipeline expansion is required to give Western Canadian oil producers access to higher-value export markets and lessen their dependence on the United States. Former owner Kinder Morgan, and now the Canadian government, say oil companies have made 15- and 20year commitments that add up to about 80 per cent of the capacity in the expanded pipeline. The expansion project would roughly triple the capacity of the existing system.

PERMITS AND APPROVALS Megaprojects on the scale of LNG Canada or the Trans Mountain expansion require hundreds of permits along the way, but LNG Canada has not had the same level of scrutiny because the project is being built within B.C.'s borders.

TMX: TMX requires permits from 14 provincial and federal departments, and had cleared two major regulatory hurdles: The National Energy Board review concluded the project would have no significant adverse effects but imposed 157 conditions, and B.C. Environmental Assessment produced an additional 37 conditions. With the Federal Court of Appeal ruling, however, the project is now going through another NEB hearing specifically on the project's marine-shipping impact on the environment, which is to be completed by February. However, Ottawa has also reopened consultations with Indigenous communities and it is not clear when that will be complete.

LNG: LNG Canada did not require an NEB review, but it has received the necessary approvals - an export permit, Navigation Protection Act approval and Fisheries Act authorizations, to name a few, after a joint environmental assessment that did find the project is likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects - but those effects were deemed "justified in the circumstances." The project does face uncertainty, however, due to a legal application seeking to force a full NEB review. That application has not been decided.

INDIGENOUS CONSENT The proponents of both projects began engagement with Indigenous communities who would be affected years in advance of breaking ground. But the outcome of those consultations has defined why one is stalled and the other is going ahead.

LNG: LNG Canada has reached agreements offering financial benefits with every elected First Nations government along the route of the pipeline, and along the shipping route through the Douglas Channel. There is one protest camp along the pipeline route. The LNG facility is in the traditional territory of the Haisla Nation, which has embraced LNG as a means to financial self-sufficiency. In addition to impact-benefit agreements with First Nations, the proponents have ensured Indigenous businesses are in line for jobs: LNG Canada says billions of dollars will flow to First Nations in training, contracting, employment and community payments.

TMX: TMX has signed 43 benefit agreements with Indigenous groups in B.C. and Alberta, but says it cannot release a list of those communities because of confidentiality agreements. It does say it has agreements with First Nations wherever its pipeline crosses reserve lands. However, the project has been blocked by coastal First Nations who successfully argued in the Federal Court of Appeal that they were not adequately consulted by Ottawa, and that the government did not make accommodations according to their specific concerns.

ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT The environmental risks of shipping heavy oil through Vancouver's harbour to the open Pacific waters has been a major sticking point for Trans Mountain, leading to the Federal Court of Appeal quashing the environmental certificate in August. A new NEB review is now getting under way. But both projects have also been scrutinized because of their contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a time when Canada is committed to cutting CO2.

LNG: Environmentalists have warned that the energy-intensive process of transforming natural gas into LNG threatens to derail British Columbia's legal requirements to reduce GHGs by the year 2030.

Once in production, the first phase of the LNG Canada project would generate 3.45 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent annually, according to the B.C. government. That includes 1.24 million tonnes for extraction of natural gas in B.C.'s Montney gas fields, based on the expected incremental increase in gas production. As well, there would be 0.11 million tonnes for the energy used to squeeze the gas down the pipeline, and 2.1 million tonnes generated in the liquefaction process. During the construction period, the project would release 0.2 million tonnes of CO2.

TMX: By comparison, the National Energy Board estimates the annual emissions from the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline would not even trigger reporting requirements except at the export terminal in Burnaby. The pipeline and export facility would generate 0.4 million tonnes of GHGs. However, the emissions generated "upstream," where the oil is extracted in Alberta's oil sands, could dwarf the LNG footprint: To meet the capacity added by the expansion project, Environment Canada estimates emissions could range from 14 million to 17 million tonnes of GHGs a year. However, the report notes: "It is likely that the upstream emissions calculated in this assessment would occur regardless of whether the project was built or not." It will depend on what happens with oil prices. Construction emissions would total one million tonnes of GHGs.

JOB CREATION LNG: LNG Canada says its project will create up to 10,000 jobs at the peak of construction and up to 950 permanent jobs once the liquefaction plant is running.

TMX: TMX estimates that the pipeline expansion will create the equivalent of 15,000 construction jobs, and also produce 90 permanent jobs.

PUBLIC SUBSIDIES Both Trans Mountain and LNG Canada benefit from a host of subsidies provided to Canada's oil-and-gas sector. Deep drilling credits, development and exploration-expense write-offs, royalty reductions - the International Institute for Sustainable Development says Canada and the provinces give away more than $3-billion each year to keep fossil-fuel production afloat.

TMX: TMX received the ultimate financial aid when the government of Canada purchased the existing pipeline for $4.5-billion this summer, and agreed to take over the expansion project. On top of that purchase price, Canadian taxpayers could be on the hook for construction costs of $7.4-billion or more.

LNG: LNG Canada's partners signalled doubts about their project two years ago, suspending a final investment decision and saying the economics of the project didn't work at that time. This spring, the B.C.

government announced a new LNG tax framework - it works out to $5.34-billion in relief from provincial taxes and fees for LNG Canada. As well, the federal government will provide $275-million to support infrastructure improvements and increase marine protection.

Of the two energy megaprojects, Mr. Horgan maintains that LNG Canada is better for the environment, for Indigenous communities, and for the economy. But this is a B.C. investment in getting B.C.

resources to market. For Alberta, TMX remains the project that matters.

Associated Graphic

Trucks drive through the proposed site of an LNG Canada work camp, left, in Kitimat, B.C., in August. An oil tanker, right, sits near the Trans Mountain Burnaby Terminal in North Vancouver in September. The

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: LNG CANADA; ROYAL DUTCH SHELL; GASLINK.COM; TILEZEN; OPENSTREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU; NATURAL RESOURCES CANADA; OPEN GOVERNMENT; KINDER MORGAN; GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

Trans Mountain expansion's path to production has been relatively bumpy, in contrast with the LNG project. LEFT: ROBIN ROWLAND/THE CANADIAN PRESS; RIGHT: IAN WILLMS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, left, speaks with B.C. Premier John Horgan during an LNG Canada news conference in Vancouver on Tuesday. Mr. Horgan's government has been at odds with that of Alberta Premier Rachel Notley, right, over a proposed expansion to the Trans Mountain pipeline.

LEFT: DARRYL DYCK/THE CANADIAN PRESS; RIGHT: DEAN BENNETT/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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Tory at ease in what may be merely a warm-up fight
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Incumbent mayor has a big lead in the polls, meaning he's likely to be the one who has to battle to defend the city in the Doug Ford-era
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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page A16

Sitting on a patio in a midtown Starbucks, Toronto's incumbent mayor is relaxed, perching his elbow on the railing and greeting people who pass by.

This stretch of Mount Pleasant Road, a mix of florists and cafés surrounded by upscale homes, is decidedly John Tory country.

A passing mom presents her two shy young daughters. With the temperament of a gradeschool principal, Mr. Tory asks one whether she does her homework without being told. Minutes later he's recognized by a young woman in ripped white jeans.

She's a blogger and wants to take their picture.

For Mr. Tory, 64, this is old hat.

His campaign schedule has not been that different from his preelection routine, which was packed with community festivals and events. And with the polls so far suggesting his main rival, former chief planner Jennifer Keesmaat, is trailing far behind, it's perhaps no wonder he seems so at ease.

But this election, in many ways, is a warm-up fight. The harder battle will take place after the vote on Oct. 22, when Toronto's mayor will have to negotiate the city's delicate relationship with Ontario's new Progressive Conservative Premier, Doug Ford.

More than transit plans and promises about taxes, this mayoral election has become a contest about who can represent Toronto under the reign of Mr. Ford, who has shown he is more than willing to stick his fingers into the city's affairs.

Mr. Tory's key pitch to voters is simple: He is the eventempered deal maker who can work with even the likes of Mr.

Ford to secure the billions for public transit and housing the city needs.

Ms. Keesmaat, on the other hand, has positioned herself as scrappier, quicker to condemn the Premier and vocal about what she calls Mr. Ford's "not normal" government.

Whichever attitude prevails, Toronto's next mayor had better be ready for a fight, says Councillor John Filion, who sat near Mr.

Ford when he was a councillor and wrote a book about his brother Rob Ford's scandalplagued term as mayor.

"Anybody who thinks that it's going to be anything other than him pounding whoever the mayor is, is naive," Mr. Filion said.

"And it doesn't matter whether you try to be his friend or be his opponent. I think he will actually respect you more if you are fighting back fiercely. But he'll punch you out either way."

It was Mr. Tory's response to Mr. Ford's sudden move cut to city council almost in half this summer that inspired Ms. Keesmaat to jump into the race. Mr.

Tory called for a referendum on the idea.

But what he sees as diplomacy, she sees as weakness.

"You choked," she told him on stage at this week's debate. "You didn't do anything about it."

The mayor, a lawyer, former chief executive of Rogers Media and onetime Ontario PC leader, points to his record, arguing he knows how to do business with anyone. He boasts he has worked with both Liberal and Conservative governments, securing billions in funding from Ontario's former Liberal premier Kathleen Wynne, the federal Conservative government of Stephen Harper, and the current Liberal crew under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

But he does concede that dealing with Mr. Ford, who ran against Mr. Tory for the mayor's job in 2014 and was poised for a rematch before his sudden move to Queen's Park, is different.

"I realize he is much less predictable than other people I might have dealt with," Mr. Tory acknowledged over his coffee this week.

Mr. Tory insists he and Mr.

Ford have many common interests. The Premier is from Toronto and favours keeping taxes low, building public transit and ensuring that the city attracts people, jobs and new investment. He thinks they both see Toronto's economy as a key driver for the province's prosperity as a whole.

"If he wants to get himself reelected, he should hope Toronto is just absolutely going gangbusters four years from today, as it is today," Mr. Tory said.

Ever since Mr. Ford took to the provincial stage, Mr. Tory has mostly kept to a cautious, diplomatic script - at least until the Premier's plan to reduce the number of council seats in Toronto from 47 to 25 leaked out in late July.

Ms. Keesmaat and some of her supporters on council's left accused Mr. Tory of making an arrangement with Mr. Ford, pointing to the mayor's acknowledgement that the Premier mentioned in an "offhand" remark that he wanted to cut council in a July 9 meeting. Mr. Tory says he did not think Mr. Ford was serious, and denies the accusation he made any deal. He says when he found Mr. Ford was going ahead in the middle of the election campaign, he told the Premier in a heated phone call it was not acceptable.

Downtown Councillor Joe Cressy, who despite his NDP membership card has worked with Mr. Tory on a range of issues over his term, says Mr. Tory let the city down when it was under attack by failing to organize broader opposition to Mr. Ford's plan.

"I think that John Tory is a fundamentally decent man. ... But I think when it came to what was the most egregious legislative attack on the city of Toronto since the megacity [amalgamation], John Tory did not stand up when it mattered," said Mr. Cressy, who is supporting Ms. Keesmaat. "He tried to walk a line, while voicing his displeasure without organizing to stop it."

Mr. Tory warned at this week's mayoral debate that electing Ms.

Keesmaat would mean "constant warfare" with Mr. Ford, and would burn bridges for the city.

But Mr. Tory himself entered into his own skirmishes, even with with Ms. Wynne, who led the most city-friendly government at Queen's Park in recent memory. When Ms. Wynne withdrew her support for Mr. Tory's announced plan to use tolls on the city's two main expressways to raise cash for transit, he complained of being treated like a boy in "short pants" forced to beg for permission from the Premier.

He now points to the consolation prize Ms. Wynne offered instead as a success: a pledge of an additional share of the gas tax worth $170-million a year that Mr. Ford said he would honour.

Mr. Tory also mounted a campaign, complete with pamphlets targeting a west-end MPP, aimed at shaming Ms. Wynne's government into coughing up hundreds of millions in funding for repairs to the city's crumbling social-housing stock.

Steven Del Duca, then Ms. Wynne's transportation minister, complained that Mr. Tory had gone "over the line." But their government would later come up with some of the needed cash - a cheque Mr. Ford has since cancelled. Mr. Tory says he thinks he can convince Mr. Ford that fixing public housing now with retrofits aimed at energy efficiency will save money in the long run. Mr. Ford has already committed new money to the police. But other issues, the mayor acknowledges, will likely be more challenging. Among them is the city's plans for light-rail lines, such as the Waterfront LRT, which needs cash from the Premier, who is well-known for preferring subways. Mr. Ford is also poised to make a decision on the future of the supervised drug-use sites that have opened up across the province in hopes of preventing opioid-overdose deaths. Mr. Tory, who had to be convinced himself on this issue early in his mandate, says he has not had a chance to make the case to Mr. Ford that he believes the sites should stay open. Then there is the question of the city's financial sustainability.

The previous city manager, Peter Wallace, repeatedly called the city's reliance on the land-transfer tax risky and unsustainable. He said new revenue sources were needed to maintain even the city's current service levels. However, Mr. Tory has repeated his pledge not to raise property taxes above inflation, a position his rival Ms. Keesmaat echoed this week. The campaign itself has been lopsided from the start. Not only has Mr. Tory enjoyed the built-in advantages of an incumbent, his main opponent had to scramble to assemble a campaign team after jumping in at the last minute. Then the drama over Mr. Ford's intervention preoccupied the city for weeks, denying Ms. Keesmaat crucial airtime. Mr. Tory had at least $1-million raised by July, weeks before Ms. Keesmaat even signed up, and he now boasts close to 2,000 volunteers. Plus, he has refused to debate Ms. Keesmaat one-on-one, in the name of allowing other lower-profile candidates a voice. Critics say this is a classic front-runner strategy meantto deny his main challenger a platform.

While the limited powers of Toronto's mayor have always made getting what the city needs from other governments a key part of the job, this campaign is unusual in its focus on Mr. Ford, says Myer Siemiatycki, a professor of politics at Ryerson University. He says the question of who offers the best approach for taking on the Premier is easier for voters to grasp than debates about competing transit plans or how many thousands of affordable housing units can be built. "It's kind of the congenial, make-a-deal option in Mr. Tory or the stand-up-for-Toronto option of Jennifer Keesmaat," Prof. Siemiatycki said. "I think Torontonians will make their decision in part on ... which of those options do they think is best for the city."

Associated Graphic

John Tory on Wednesday said Doug Ford is 'less predictable than other people I might have dealt with.' CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mayor John Tory, above, is greeted by a woman and her two daughters while being interviewed on Mount Pleasant Road by The Globe on Wednesday. At left, Mr. Tory walks with his mother, Elizabeth Bacon, to an advance-polling station. PHOTOS BY CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Monday, October 15, 2018

Correction

A photo caption in a Saturday news feature on John Tory incorrectly said his mother's name is Elizabeth Bacon. In fact, her name is Elizabeth Tory.


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From Palm Beach to Congo: How Barrick landed Randgold
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Thursday, October 4, 2018 – Page B1

The biggest gold-mining takeover in seven years got its start with an arranged meeting.

A mutual friend introduced John Thornton, Barrick Gold Corp.'s executive chairman, to Randgold Resources Ltd.'s founder and chief executive officer Mark Bristow, and in late 2015 they sat down together. Mr. Thornton hosted Mr.

Bristow at his villa in Palm Beach, Fla., a limestone mansion on the oceanfront.

Barrick, the world's biggest gold producer, was in rough shape at the time. The Canadian company was mired in debt after a disastrous foray into copper in Africa and a painful decision to abandon construction of a South American mountaintop mine after spending US$8.5-billion.

Barrick had lost the confidence of investors. Barrick's stock hit a 26-year low, trading for less than $9 a share. Mr. Thornton was working to stabilize the company by selling assets and paring debt.

At that first meeting, Mr. Thornton and Mr. Bristow chatted broadly about the mining industry and found they had a lot in common. They agreed on the advantages of a small headquarters, the importance of a partnership culture, a focus on quality assets and an emphasis on the long term. Mr. Bristow told Mr. Thornton he had in fact modelled Randgold on Barrick's early years under founder Peter Munk, when it was significantly leaner without layers of middle management.

Unlike Barrick, which had written down billions of dollars over the past few years, Jersey-headquartered Randgold kept its operations largely trouble-free over its 20 years of existence. It had deftly navigated the often-dicey political scene in Africa, where all its mines are located, diligently paying its taxes and staying on good terms with governments.

Mr. Thornton and Mr. Bristow talked at a conceptual level about the idea of a combination. But with Barrick's debt-laden balance sheet and the memory of its troubled takeover - the $7.3-billion purchase of copper producer Equinox Minerals Ltd. in 2011 still fresh in the minds of shareholders, the time wasn't right. Randgold's stock also was trading at higher valuations compared with the beaten-down Barrick. Mr. Thornton knew he had to get his house in order. The account of the meeting and other details for this story are based on interviews with multiple sources familiar with the deal.

The two executives would meet again over the next few years in Florida.

Mr. Thornton was making progress bringing down debt, which had peaked at US$15.8-billion in 2013, and the company was generating cash by selling non-core assets.

But in the spring of 2017, things started going south again for Barrick. The government of Tanzania suddenly ordered Barrick subsidiary Acacia Mining PLC to halt exports of gold concentrates and later accused it of US$190-billion of tax fraud. Around the same time, the price of gold bullion went into a tailspin, and by early 2018 Barrick's shares had sunk to $14. Some analysts had started to wonder whether Barrick itself could be a takeover target.

Meanwhile, in 2018, Randgold for the first time in its history was facing its own mini crisis. A new mining code hastily introduced in the Democratic Republic of Congo meant profit margins at its large Kibali mine were about to come under serious pressure. Mr.

Bristow railed publicly against the DRC's government but nothing changed. At the same time, the company was facing a strike at another mine in Africa. Randgold's stock tumbled sharply throughout this year.

Suddenly the rationale for Barrick and Randgold to get together made sense from both sides.

'BRITISH RAIL' In February of this year, serious merger talks between Mr. Thornton and Mr. Bristow began. They started to meet regularly, in the United States and Britain. Randgold would eventually work with two financial advisers, Britishbased Barclays and the London arm of Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. Reluctant to work with Toronto bankers, Barrick worked with former Citigroup executive Michael Klein and his eponymous investment banking firm, which had worked on Barrick's failed bid for Newmont.

The deal was code-named British Rail - British for Barrick and Rail for Randgold.

In April, the two executives met in Jackson Hole, Wyo., where Mr. Bristow has a house. (The South African executive has other homes in London, South Africa and Mauritius.) Confidentiality agreements were signed and the two started to share in-depth financial data.

However the deal would be structured, it was clear Mr. Bristow would be CEO and have more autonomy than then-Barrick president Kelvin Dushnisky. Mr.

Bristow had long believed in empowering mine managers, a concept Mr. Thornton adopted after he assumed the full chairmanship position. In the new Barrick, Mr. Thornton would stick to highlevel strategic matters, such as building relationships with the Chinese.

Still, there was another big concern. Buying Randgold would increase the Canadian company's geopolitical risk considerably by bulking up in politically unpredictable Africa.

In June, to help assuage concerns, Mr. Thornton took some board directors to the DRC to visit Randgold's Kibali mine. Mr.

Thornton and Mr. Bristow stayed in the DRC for a week, visiting the community. Mr. Thornton met Randgold's chairman Christopher Coleman and the company's longest-serving director, Andy Quinn.

But the other huge sticking point was money. How much would Barrick have to pony up for Randgold?

Mr. Thornton came up with a novel idea - a no premium deal.

The former banker called the nil premium concept a "red line." While the logic for the no premium deal was obvious from Barrick's point of view, it made a lot less sense for Randgold shareholders. In a no premium deal, the buyer will purchase the company at the market price instead of offering a higher price, also known as a premium.

Ultimately, Mr. Bristow was won over, sources say, by the challenge of moving from running a mid-sized gold company in Africa to taking charge of the biggest gold company on the planet.

With his company's share price down by one-third, it was an easier decision to be acquired.

At the end of July, Mr. Bristow and Randgold chief financial officer Graham Shuttleworth flew to Toronto to meet with Barrick's management team at the company's downtown headquarters to discuss their vision for the combined companies.

A few weeks later, Barrick president and the public face of company, Mr. Dushnisky, suddenly resigned to take the CEO job at South African gold major AngloGold Ashanti.

In early August, Barrick provided reporters, analysts and investors with internal communications from a company town hall meeting - a surprising disclosure for the company. Barrick said for the first time it was looking to expand outside of the Americas. "It's not an option simply to say, 'We're only going to be in Nevada,' " said Mr. Thornton.

He also made it clear that Barrick was interested in "Tier 1 assets," which it defined as a mine that produces 500,000 ounces of gold a year, has a life of more than 10 years and is low cost. Essentially this was the first signal to analysts and investors that a big mergers and acquisitions transaction might be in the works.

By mid-September, all of Barrick's board directors had either met Mr. Bristow in person during the DRC trip or had spoken to him. Barrick held an in-person board meeting on Sept. 21 for Barrick board members to receive a detailed presentation from Mr.

Bristow and his vision for their company.

INDEPENDENT DIRECTOR RESIGNS

The meeting in Toronto was a freewheeling session that lasted about five hours, where board members probed whether this was the right thing for Barrick to do.

Leading up to the announcement of the deal, not every board member was in favour. One director not supportive of the deal, according to sources, was Nancy Lockhart, who was appointed to Barrick's board in 2014 as part of an executive shakeup that saw long-standing directors replaced with independent board members.

Under founder Peter Munk, Barrick's board had been criticized for being too beholden to him and not speaking up when they should have, such as its move to vastly overpay for copper company Equinox. Ms. Lockhart resigned just days before the deal was announced. She declined multiple requests for comment.

On Sept. 23, the board was teleconferenced in to consider the acquisition. All directors voted in favour.

Barrick decided to move up the announcement of the deal by a few hours, after mining blog IKN broke the news that a deal was imminent. At 2 a.m. ET, the news went out.

Investors on both sides embraced the deal. Barrick's stock is up about 10 per cent since the deal was announced, and Randgold is up about 13 per cent.

"At the margin, it adds risk but I think the trade-offs are well worth it," said Keith Trauner, managing partner with GoodHaven Capital Management, which owns 1.5 million Barrick shares.

"Getting access to Bristow, expanding the reserve base of company, incrementally adding to near-term production ... relentlessly focused on trying to generate cash. All of those things are really good things," he said.

Alan Spence, an analyst with Jefferies, also saw the rationale for the deal for both parties.

"While Randgold has over the long run shown the ability to manage [geopolitical] risk, a reorientation away from Africa should mitigate these concerns," he wrote in a note to clients after the deal was announced.

"Further, the addition of potential Tier 1 assets from Barrick's pipeline should help maintain high quality and profitable ounces."

He also wrote that Barrick would benefit from the addition of Mr. Bristow as CEO, both filling a corporate void, and hiring a strong leader with a clear vision who would drive down costs across the company.

Shareholders of Barrick and Randgold will vote on the deal in early November.

BARRICK GOLD (ABX) CLOSE: $14.96, DOWN 4¢ RANDGOLD RESOURCES (GOLD) CLOSE: US$72.36, DOWN 15 US CENTS


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Monday, October 8, 2018 – Page B12

PANTHERS 33, GIANTS 31 CHARLOTTE, N.C. Graham Gano connected on a career-long 63yard field goal with one second remaining to lift the Carolina Panthers to a wild 33-31 victory over the New York Giants on Sunday. Gano's winning kick, tied for second longest in league history, came after the Giants erased a 14point deficit. Eli Manning hooked up with Saquon Barkley on a 15yard touchdown pass down the right sideline - the rookie made a long dive into the end zone -to put the Giants in front 31-30 with 1:08 remaining. Gano's previous career long was 59 yards. He was 4 for 4 on field goal attempts and has made 35 in a row at home dating back to 2016. It's the second year in a row the Giants (1-4) have been beaten by a monster field goal at the end. In the third game last season, Jake Elliott of the Eagles kicked a 61-yarder for a 27-24 win.

BROWNS 12, RAVENS 9 (OT) CLEVELAND Rookie Greg Joseph's 37-yard field goal - a knuckleball - barely cleared the crossbar with two seconds left in overtime. After rookie quarterback Baker Mayfield drove the Browns (22-1) into position, Joseph, signed after Week 2 following Zane Gonzalez's release, lined his kick through the uprights to give Cleveland its first AFC North win in 19 tries. As Browns fans celebrated just the team's second win in two seasons, Joseph was mobbed by his teammates following Cleveland's third OT game in five weeks. Mayfield passed for 342 yards and threw a 19-yard TD pass in his first start at home. He completed a key third-down pass for 39 yards to Derrick Willies on Cleveland's winning drive.

CHIEFS 30, JAGUARS 14 KANSAS CITY The Chiefs' beleaguered defence forced Jacksonville quarterback Blake Bortles into five turnovers, including a pick-six by defensive tackle Chris Jones, and Kansas City merely had to supplement with the NFL's highest-scoring offence. Patrick Mahomes threw for 313 yards and ran for a touchdown, though he also threw his first two picks of the season. Kareem Hunt added 87 yards and a touchdown on the ground as the Chiefs (5-0) marched all over the league's topranked defence at soggy Arrowhead Stadium. Tyreek Hill, frequently matched up with the Jaguars' Jalen Ramsey in an entertaining one-on-one affair, had four catches for 61 yards in a game that grew testy on both sides. Jones was ejected in the second half after he dropped an elbow on a Jaguars lineman while both were on the ground following an extra point attempt. Pass rusher Dee Ford joined him in the locker room later in the half when he was whistled for his second unsportsmanlike conduct penalty. Hunt was flagged for head-butting linebacker Telvin Smith Jr. earlier in the game. Jacksonville (3-2) trailed 20-0 at halftime.

LIONS 31, PACKERS 23 DETROIT Matthew Stafford threw two touchdown passes and LeGarrette Blount ran for two scores. Detroit (2-3) earned a win it desperately needed under firstyear coach Matt Patricia, going into its bye week. Green Bay (2-2-1) could not overcome uncharacteristic mistakes by veteran kicker Mason Crosby and two-time NFL MVP Aaron Rodgers, who lost two fumbles for just the third time in his 14-year career. Crosby missed a career-high four field goals in one game and botched an extra point to boot.

JETS 34, BRONCOS 16 EAST RUTHERFORD, N.J. Isaiah Crowell ran for a franchise-record 219 yards, including a 77-yard touchdown, and Sam Darnold threw two TD passes to Robby Anderson, including a 76-yarder.

Darnold also had a TD toss to Terrelle Pryor that sealed the game late in the fourth quarter for the Jets (2-3). The rookie quarterback finished 10 of 22 for 198 yards and the three scores with an interception to help New York to its first win since the season opener. Crowell needed just 15 carries to break the team record of 210 yards rushing set by Thomas Jones in 2009 against Buffalo.

New York finished with 323 yards rushing and 512 overall yards.

442 Passing yards for Packers QB Aaron Rodgers on 32 completions, including three touchdowns, in 52 attempts in Green Bay's 31-23 loss to Detroit

219 Rushing yards for Jets RB Isaiah Crowell on 15 carries including a TD in New York's 34-16 win over Denver

140 Receiving yards for Packers WR Davante Adams on nine cathces and one touchdown in Green Bay's loss

STEELERS 41, FALCONS 17 PITTSBURGH Ben Roethlisberger and Antonio Brown connected on two second-half touchdowns and the Steelers pulled away from the Falcons. Roethlisberger finished 19 of 29 for 250 yards and three scores, including a nineyard strike to Brown in the third quarter and a 47-yard dart to the All-Pro wide receiver early in the fourth as Pittsburgh (2-2-1) put together its most complete performance of the season. Brown caught six passes for 101 yards.

His two touchdowns gave him 64 in his career, moving him past Hall of Famer John Stallworth and into second place on the franchise's all-time TD reception list. James Conner ran for 110 yards and two scores and added 75 yards receiving for Pittsburgh, which improved to 7-0-1 all-time against the Falcons (1-4) at home.

TITANS 13, BILLS 12 ORCHARD PARK, N.Y. Stephen Hauschka hit a 46-yard field goal as time expired. Buffalo's defence forced three turnovers, and LeSean McCoy broke from a September slump with a season-best 85 yards rushing. McCoy sparked the decisive drive with a 13-yard catch on third-and-three. And backup running back Chris Ivory had a nine-yard run in getting the Bills across midfield. Rookie quarterback Josh Allen scored on a 14-yard touchdown run but was held in check as a passer. He finished 10 of 19 for 82 yards and an interception.

CHARGERS 26, RAIDERS 10 CARSON, CALIF. Philip Rivers threw for 339 yards and two touchdowns, leading the Los Angeles Chargers to a victory over the Oakland Raiders. It is the 59th 300-yard passing game of Rivers' 15-year career and his eighth against the Raiders. He completed 22 of 27 passes and had a passer rating of 143.4. Melvin Gordon had 120 yards from scrimmage (58 rushing, 62 receiving). His one-yard run during the second quarter gave Los Angeles (3-2) a 17-3 lead at halftime. Derek Carr was 24 of 38 for 268 yards for the Raiders (1-4). He accounted for Oakland's lone touchdown in the fourth quarter on a 1-yard pass to Jordy Nelson which brought the Raiders within 27-10. Oakland's Marshawn Lynch came into the game fourth in the league in rushing but was held to 31 yards on nine carries.

VIKINGS 23, EAGLES 21 PHILADELPHIA Kirk Cousins threw for 301 yards and one touchdown, Linval Joseph returned a fumble 64 yards for a score and the Minnesota Vikings beat the Philadelphia Eagles in a rematch of last season's NFC championship game. Carson Wentz and the rest of Philadelphia's offence again struggled as the defending Super Bowl champions fell to 2-3. Nick Foles led the Eagles to a 38-7 rout over Case Keenum and Minnesota's top-ranked defence in the title game on his way to earning MVP honours against New England. The Vikings (2-2-1) got an excellent performance from Cousins, who completed 30 of 37 passes, to avoid falling further behind in the NFC North.

CARDINALS 28, 49ERS 18 SANTA CLARA, CALIF. Josh Rosen threw a 75-yard touchdown pass to fellow rookie Christian Kirk on Arizona's first play from scrimmage and the Cardinals used five takeaways to get their first win by beating the San Francisco 49ers.

The Cardinals (1-4) were unable to do much more on offence the rest of the way, with their only other scores coming on Josh Bynes's fumble return for a TD and David Johnson TD runs on two short drives after turnovers by the 49ers (1-4). But that proved enough against a San Francisco offence that did little after an opening drive score behind backup quarterback C.J. Beathard.

RAMS 33, SEAHAWKS 31 SEATTLE Todd Gurley rushed for three touchdowns, Jared Goff passed for 321 yards and a score , and the Los Angeles Rams remained unbeaten by holding off the Seattle Seahawks. Playing without their top two receivers because of concussions suffered late in the first half, the Rams leaned heavily on Goff, Gurley and wide receiver Robert Woods to escape Seattle and improve to 5-0. Gurley scored on a two-yard run in the first quarter, and added TDs of two and five yards in the second half. Gurley's third rushing TD on the second play of the fourth quarter pulled the Rams within 31-30. But new kicker Cairo Santos hooked the extra point attempt and Seattle maintained a one-point lead. Santos atoned for the miss with a 39-yard field goal with 6:05 remaining to give the Rams a 33-31 lead, capping a 61yard drive that took 4 1/2 minutes. That still left time for Seattle quarterback Russell Wilson, but Seattle (2-3) made a pair of critical mistakes after moving into position to win. Wilson hit Tyler Lockett for 44 yards on the second play of the drive to the Rams 32-yard line. But a pair of penalties backed up the Seahawks to the Rams 45. Facing third-and-23, Wilson was pressured from the pocket by Cory Littleton and Seattle punted with 3:38 left. It never got the ball back.

Associated Graphic

Packers quarterback Aaron Rodgers is tackled by Christian Jones of the Lions in Detroit on Sunday.

LEON HALIP/GETTY IMAGES


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Divided we fall
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Tribal solitudes increasingly dominate the public square, writes John Ibbitson, and democracy is at risk
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By JOHN IBBITSON
  
  

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Saturday, October 13, 2018 – Page O5

John Ibbitson is a Globe and Mail columnist.

Attitudes toward race and immigration now dominate the political divide in the United States - a rift so wide it will take decades to bridge, according to a recent study by the American arm of Ipsos Public Affairs.

If so, then tribe now trumps class. For more than two centuries, arguments over how wealth should be created and distributed have defined the left and the right. But today we are increasingly defined by the tribe we belong to, with the tribe of angry, older, less educated white men confronting progressive elites who treat anyone Not Like Us with contempt.

There is no solution to this new normal. "Only generational replacement will solve this problem," the report predicts. "Unfortunately, this will take time - at least the rest of our adult working lives. In the interim, we all should be prepared for a rocky ride."

Is Canada also at risk of tribal disruption? The short answer is not yet, for reasons we'll explain.

But the next rough beast could one day slouch here as well.

The Ipsos study revealed profound differences between Democrats and Republicans. Seventytwo per cent of Democrats, but only 24 per cent of Republicans, agreed with the statement: "Black people do not have the same opportunities as white people in the U.S."

Conversely, 66 per cent of Republicans, but only 22 per cent of Democrats, agreed with the statement: "Social policies, such as affirmative action, discriminate unfairly against white people."

Questions on whether immigrants "take jobs away from real Americans," or whether "the mainstream media are more interested in making money than telling the truth," revealed similar or larger gaps.

Traditionally, people identified as Democrat or Republican based on their attitude toward the role of government, taxation or social values, such as gun control or abortion.

But "today, where you fall on immigration policy is key for determining if you identify more with Democrats or Republicans," the study concludes.

The primacy of immigration and race as an ideological divide stems from the growing phenomenon known as white grievance. In 2016, for the first time, more white Americans died than were born. For several years, the majority of babies born in the United States have been nonwhite - America's first, transformative non-white generation, fomenting nativism and white grievance in reaction.

But this tribe of resentful whites is only one of several, according to the famed political scientist Francis Fukuyama, who argues that tribal identity is supplanting citizenship in the United States.

The trend, he believes, goes back to the 1960s, when Americans confronted the truth that blacks, women and sexual minorities did not enjoy full citizenship and equal rights. While the struggle for those rights led to a more equal society, Mr. Fukuyama maintains that racial, gender or sexual identity became the dominant reality for many Americans. This "created obstacles to empathy and communication," Mr. Fukuyama recently told The Washington Post.

More recently, he believes identity politics has migrated to the right as a result of economic insecurity that many workers blame on globalization and immigration, and it's led to the rise of "opportunistic politicians, from Viktor Orban in Hungary to [U.S. President] Donald Trump, who see the stoking of these resentments as vehicles for their own ambitions."

Stephen Harper agrees. The former Conservative prime minister has written a book, Right Here, Right Now, that seeks to diagnose the rise of populism in both the United States and Europe. He cites the growing disillusion with globalization by those who have been left behind.

"In the United States and Europe, wages for many citizens have stagnated. In some cases, they have dropped outright," he wrote in an essay in The Globe and Mail. "Good, stable jobs, benefit packages and pension plans have been replaced by the gig economy, temporary work and ongoing economic uncertainty.

"...Why should we be surprised when, ignored by traditional conservatives and derided by traditional liberals, these citizens start seeking alternative political choices?" And yet, while economic discontents abound, many supporters of Mr. Trump, of Brexit in Britain, and of authoritarian populist parties in Europe, are themselves financially secure. What they have in common is a fear of immigrants taking away jobs and undermining their culture. They share also a contempt for what in the United States are called coastal elites and in Canada Laurentian elites.

Writer and law professor Amy Chua, whose most recent book is Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations, describes these elites as an "extremely insular" group who live, work and marry within their tribe; and share a commitment to "secularism, multiculturalism, toleration of sexual minorities, and pro-immigrant and progressive politics," as she wrote in Foreign Affairs magazine. They "are viewed by many middle Americans as indifferent or even hostile to the country's interests." And there's the nub of it: a group of angry nativists who are stuck on the outside, and are convinced they represent a pure strain of the national myth - real Americans - furious at the progressive elites who nativists believe are undermining the root culture. The elites, in turn, use late-night comedy sketches and Twitter to mock their flyover brethren and the media who cater to them. Each side despises the other, but it is the nativists who are increasingly able to elect populist politicians who share their views.

The furor over the Senate confirmation of Justice Brett Kavanaugh reveals the unwillingness of either side to give the other the time of day. For conservatives, a distinguished jurist was slandered by irrelevant and probably fictitious allegations of misbehaviour - in high school, for crying out loud! - while for progressives the man is, or at least was, a drunken sexual predator, making it a travesty that he is on the Supreme Court.

In such a world of facts-bedamned polarization, democracy itself is at risk: Government of, by and for the people requires the people to trust each other, at least a little. Democracy cannot survive when the group on the outside is determined, at whatever the cost, to replace the group on the inside.

"If you are someone who believes that you deserve to rule, then your motivation to attack the elite, pack the courts, and warp the press to achieve your ambitions is strong," wrote journalist and author Anne Applebaum in The Atlantic magazine.

She described how this phenomenon happened exactly to her adopted homeland of Poland, whose autocratic government has been praised by Mr. Trump.

"Given the right conditions, any society can turn against democracy," Ms. Applebaum believes. "Indeed, if history is anything to go by, all societies eventually will."

Including Canada? Perhaps not. Various forces - some deeply historical, some more contemporary - work to limit the impetus toward tribalism and populism in Canada. The oldest is the never-ending effort to reconcile French and English interests - a culture of accommodation that drives Canadians toward compromise.

"We should not underplay the Canadian history on consensus, and agreeing to disagree," says Jean-Philippe Warren, a sociologist at Concordia University who studies social movements. "It's part of our DNA."

Bilingual accommodation begat multicultural accommodation, with English Canada, especially, welcoming millions of immigrants from around the world who live in large, vibrant cities where more than half the citizens are immigrants or the children of immigrants.

A nativist politician devoted to limiting immigration and keeping Canada Christian and white would have difficulty winning power at the national level because, where would they get the votes?

But Canadians are not immune to populist resentment of ruling elites. Years of preachy, virtue-signalling progressive governments in Toronto made Rob Ford mayor in reaction. Similar progressive governments at the provincial level brought forth Progressive Conservative Premier Doug "I'm for the little guy" Ford, though both leaders appealed to, and won the support of immigrant voters.

Nor is support for immigration and multiculturalism universal.

Maxime Bernier, until recently a prominent federal Conservative, has created a new political party based in part on opposing high levels of immigration and what he calls "the cult of diversity."

Last week, francophone Quebec voters handed the Coalition Avenir Québec, which wants to limit immigration, a majority government.

That said, some thinkers believe warnings of a descent into tribalism in the democracies is overblown. Dominique Clément, a sociologist at the University of Alberta, studies the history of social movements. Tribal loyalties were far more intense in the past, he points out, based on language, religion and race. "There's nothing new going on here," he said in an interview. "Society has always been this way."

And though Mr. Clément agrees that "there is something new and important and powerful happening now," driven by the reaction to new technologies and globalization, he points out that protest cycles of both the left and the right have a tendency to revert to the mean over time.

As the Ipsos study points out, there are now more self-identified Independents than either Democrats or Republicans in the United States, which suggests a growing disenchantment with the polarization within American politics.

Unfortunately, Independents "are less likely to vote," said Clifford Young, author of the Ipsos report, in an interview. But could these voters one day mobilize around a consensus-oriented, bridge-building political leader emerging from either the Democratic or Republican primaries? "I think it's possible," he says.

We can only hope. But for now, at least, tribal solitudes increasingly dominate the public square, each talking past the other, each determined to drive the other out, each testing the ability of society to retain some residual sense of trust and common purpose without which democracy cannot endure.

Associated Graphic

Protesters rally outside a courthouse in San Francisco in April, 2017.

HAVEN DALEY/ASSOCIATED PRESS


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Ford vs. Nissan: Can the re
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The cigar-chomping cowboy goes to battle with a katana-wielding samurai
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During the golden age of Japanese cinema, legendary director Akira Kurosawa found, in leading man Toshiro Mifune, an archetypal warrior of the past. So charismatic was the leonine Mifune, and so well-crafted were films such as Yojimbo and Seven Samurai, that they would go on to inspire iconic Westerns such as A Fistful of Dollars and The Magnificent Seven and gunslinging anti-heroes portrayed by the likes of Clint Eastwood.

Different hemispheres, different eras, different armament - but still the same fighting spirit.

What we've got here, then, is the automotive equivalent of a showdown between a katanawielding samurai and a cigarchomping, wandering gun-forhire. It's not a straightforward comparison, but the two are more alike than you might think.

2018 Nissan 370Z Nismo PRICE, AS TESTED: $48,798 Engine: 3.7-litre V-6, 350 horsepower Transmission/Drive: Six-speed manual/Rear-wheel Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 13.3 city, 9.3 highway

2018 Ford Mustang GT 5.0 PRICE, AS TESTED: $60,588 Engine: 5.0-litre V-8, 460 horsepower Transmission/Drive: Six-speed manual/rear-wheel Fuel economy (litres/100 km): 15.0 city, 9.1 highway

LOOKS 370Z: It's worth mentioning, at the beginning of this seemingly lopsided battle, that Nissan's Z has deep roots in the west. The original Datsun 240Z was the brainchild of Yutaka Katayama, the jovial "Mr. K." who, exiled to California for his motorsports enthusiasm, also midwifed the plucky 510 and turned Datsun into a force to be reckoned with at the track. The 370Z pays faithful homage to its ancestors, with classic proportions and a very short wheelbase.

It's a proper sports car and this Nismo version wears the complete set of track-focused armour.

Forged 19-inch alloy wheels cover upgraded brakes, a larger exhaust bellows angrily when provoked and a more aggressive aerodynamics kit sends a warning to any challengers who might step forward. First shown in 2008 in Los Angeles, the 370Z is an old design, but one that's aging gracefully.

Mustang GT: Likewise, the Mustang is another car that makes no attempt to disguise its roots. However, as such a strong seller for Ford, the Mustang benefits from a more recent refresh.

It's perhaps larger than you'd want in a sportscar, but certainly manages to capture the essence of the original while embracing a modern look.

The long-nosed profile is classic. The blacked-out 19-inch wheels are all business. The deeply sculpted LED tail lights are both faithful to a 1960s feel, but absolutely modern in execution. And then there's the bulging, twin-vented hood and the quad-exhausts out back, a notso-subtle hint that the driver of a 370Z might be spending a lot of time watching those tail lights disappear into the distance.

INTERIOR 370Z: If the Z's exterior is handsome but greying around the temples, the inside is where its knees really start to creak. To earn its Nismo designation, the seats have been upgraded to very firmly bolstered Recaros and there's a smattering of Alcantara throughout the cabin. However, there are still plenty of 2000s-era Nissan orange graphics and rubbery plastics here. The 370Z is a decade-old machine and it looks it. Further, the cabin is somewhat tight, with poor sightlines to the rear. A driver will be expected to make compromises in comfort.

Mustang GT: While not as roomy as the rocket-propelled living room that is the Dodge Challenger, the Mustang's interior manages to provide enough space for four passengers to stretch out in. If kids are a consideration, its usefully sized rear seats are a clear advantage over the Z's two-only configuration.

Less of an advantage is the broad market the Mustang attempts to appeal to, meaning that the inside of this $60,000 car has a lot of the same feel as the next cheapo rental car you'll pick up at the airport. On the plus side, optional Recaros and an upgraded LCD instrument panel give the Mustang a purposeful layout and a more modern feel than its Japanese opponent.

PERFORMANCE 370Z: The 370Z does not have a "Sport" button - it expects the driver to take control. Turning off traction control entirely is a one-step process, and even with it on, you're out in the wet in a rear-wheel-drive car with 350 horsepower and the wheelbase of a go-kart. The Z is not here to coddle novices, nor to flatter ham-handed drivers. It demands respect and skill. And, with the exception of a rubbery manual shift linkage, it rewards such skill in a way few cars can replicate.

The steering is a little overboosted, but has excellent feedback. The muscular V-6 has a lot more power than torque and loves to be revved hard to its 7,000 rpm peak power level.

It doesn't scream up to redline as a Honda S2000 would, but still pulls hard, blending brawn and athleticism. The ride is very firm.

The handling, likewise, is oldschool charm with a bit of an edge. The short wheelbase will have you cautious behind the wheel at first, but the Nismo's surfeit of mechanical grip and excellent braking inspires confidence. The lack of electronic assists is refreshing, and if the 370Z isn't quite as nimble as something such as a Mazda MX-5, it's far quicker on its feet than you'd expect for a decade-old platform.

The car feels pure, direct and honest.

Mustang GT: The Mustang, on the other hand, has brought a six-shooter to a swordfight. Make that an eight-shooter: the 5.0litre V-8 that fills the GT's engine bay is a marvel of mass-produced muscle, combining effortless low-end torque with a scarcely credible 7,300 rpm redline. In third gear especially, this car has the flexibility and range of a decathlete. It grunts out of the corners, lifts its nose a little, and thunders toward the horizon.

The "corners" part is where things get interesting. When the 370Z first came on the scene, the Mustang would have left it behind at the dragstrip, but then struggled to keep up when the road got twisty. Here, despite the difference in bulk, the GT shrinks around the driver. It's genuinely fast - fast enough to make you wonder if anyone truly needs this much power and handling in a street setting.

Happily, to go with the performance, the Mustang also offers a huge amount of theatrical antics. The multimode sport exhaust can be set to hilariously loud. The tail squirms under power - but all is still perfectly safe as stability control is there to keep things reined in. Pace is there aplenty, but the Mustang also lifts, dives and rolls just enough to make you feel heroic at sane speeds. If the Z is far more serious; the Mustang is just more fun.

TECHNOLOGY 370Z: As a single-spec variant, the Nismo doesn't offer any options beyond paint colour.

However, it's well-equipped with navigation and Bose premium audio as standard. The age of the car shows when you lift the armrest to find RCA jacks that connect to the infotainment system, but Nissan has at least updated a few practical considerations, including an in-mirror backup camera.

Mustang GT: Building out your Mustang to full Grand Touring specification simply depends on how much you'd like to spend. Ford's Sync infotainment system is now intuitive to use and there are a host of driver assists available. The automated cruise control makes long highway trips much less wearing, loping along in sixth gear toward your favourite country backroads. The nine-speaker audio is very powerful, heated/cooled seats and a heated steering wheel is available, as are automatic headlights and emergency braking assist. With options, things can get expensive, but the Mustang offers a tech buffet.

CARGO 370Z: Being a hatchback, the 370Z's smallish 195-litre cargo space is at least easily accessible.

There's enough space for a weekend away, but getting a spare set of wheels and tires to the track would be challenging.

Mustang GT: Along with the

ability to carry two rear-seat passengers, the Mustang also has a perfectly livable 383 L of trunk space for the daily grocery run.

Keep your right foot disciplined so as not to arrive home with the eggs scrambled.

VERDICT 370Z: Raw and old-school, the 370Z offers a level of mechanical performance that's hard to find these days. Its platform is aging, yet at heart it's still a vital machine. Any owner willing to put up with its hard edges will likely grow to love its unforgiving nature. As a last-of-breed, it's something very special.

Mustang GT: The Mustang, on the other hand, shows just how far the pony car segment has come. It's a genuine performer in any metric: acceleration, handling and braking. It's roomy enough to live with as an everyday proposition and has a huge amount of available technology.

And, for all the practicality and modern performance, it's still got enough old school charm to please both dedicated fans, and win over new ones. Perhaps it's a remake, inspired by an original, but it's been done faithfully, and the result is a winner.

Associated Graphic

At first glance, the Ford Mustang GT 5.0, top, and the Nissan 370Z Nismo might not seem to hard-fighting cars that are fun to drive.

PHOTOS BY BRENDAN McALEER/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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A blood feud shatters a family's bond
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Friday, October 12, 2018 – Page A1

Belinda Stronach has had incarnations galore in her remarkable life. The list includes auto-parts magnate, elected politician, horse-racing executive, beauty-products entrepreneur and, now, defendant in a sensational lawsuit launched by her loving father, Frank Stronach, the irascible old billionaire who built the Magna International car-parts empire.

Family feuds are more common than you think and almost always end in tears, or worse, after lawyers on both sides skim off millions from the family fortunes.

Think the Koch brothers, and Barry Sherman, the late Canadian pharmaceuticals billionaire who had several suits filed against him by his cousins, and the wine-making Gallo brothers, whose crippling legal battles would go on for decades.

In ancient, medieval or baroque eras, family feuds were often settled with the slash of a sword or the drip of poison; in today's less efficient times the weapon of choice is the courts, generally a last-resort option embraced after years of unpleasant family dinners that failed to end in a truce.

We now know that the rumours of a rift between Ms.

Stronach and Mr. Stronach were not made up and that their efforts to reach a discreet settlement, away from the media glare, have utterly failed. On Oct. 1, Mr. Stronach, who is 86 and lives in his native Austria, filed a suit in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice in Toronto that alleges his 52-year-old daughter mismanaged the family's assets and trust funds and conspired to eliminate any control he had over the family fortune he created.

Mr. Stronach's legal team said the lawsuit was launched "as a last resort, after having made considerable efforts over a period of almost two years to resolve the matters at issue on a consensual basis."

Mr. Stronach is seeking some $520-million from Ms. Stronach and her perceived allies for breach of fiduciary trust, losses and harm, and punitive damages. The lawsuit alleges "a complete breakdown" within the Stronach family, with Mr. Stronach's wife, Elfriede, named as a co-plaintiff and Ms. Stronach's two children, Frank and Nicole Walker, rounding off the list of co-defendants. Elfriede happens to be Ms. Stronach's mother, giving this battle the makings of a full-on generational war.

None of these allegations has been tested in court.

For decades, there was little public hint of any tension between Mr. Stronach and Ms. Stronach and both seemed tolerating, even encouraging, of each other's eccentricities and picaresque forays beyond the core autoparts business.

However, a former Magna insider, to whom The Globe and Mail has granted anonymity because he maintains a relationship with members of the Stronach family, said that Mr. Stronach, as the adoring father and mentor, had a Pygmalion-like relationship with Ms. Stronach; he was always pushing her into ever more challenging roles within Magna and involving his outside interests, such as publishing and politics, in the hopes she would blossom. The source said the effort didn't always work, noting that her tenure as Magna's boss was both short and undistinguished.

Mr. Stronach, who emigrated to Canada in 1954, was the founder and builder of Magna, which would become one of the world's biggest auto-parts companies, eventually assembling entire cars for top-tier automakers, such as BMW.

He paid himself lavishly, worked hard and played hard. He owned a few Toronto bars and restaurants, one of which was called Belinda's, suggesting that his daughter was the apple of his eye. He once owned a media group and a glossy magazine called Vista (launched in 1988) that didn't last long, picked up a lot of real estate and turned his love for horse racing and gambling into a separate empire that exists to this day. Held under The Stronach Group (TSG), its vast array of assets includes some of the United States' top racetracks, among them Santa Anita, Gulfstream and Pimlico.

His eccentric ride, which seemed to please and anger shareholders in equal measure, saw him make a losing 2007 bid for Chrysler and, a couple of years later, a losing bid for Opel, which was then owned by General Motors. About the same time, he invited Oleg Deripaska, said to be Russian President Vladimir Putin's favourite oligarch, to become a significant investor in Magna. (Mr. Derispaska, who would land on the U.S. Treasury's sanctions list under the Donald Trump presidency, unwound his Magna investment in the 2008 financial crisis.)

Lately, Mr. Stronach, who sold his Magna shares in 2010 and stepped down as chairman a year later, has been busy assembling farmland in central-north Florida and now owns around 90,000 acres devoted to raising grass-fed cattle (never mind that he is close to being a vegetarian). He also sat in the Austrian Parliament as the leader of Team Stronach for Austria, a pro-business, Euroskeptic populist party that enjoyed middling success in the 2013 election, only to fall apart and cease to exist by 2017. One of his bizarre campaign tactics was to doff his shirt during a media interview. "I don't have to be ashamed of my body," the then-80-year-old said.

Ms. Stronach's career was only slightly less eccentric. In 2001,

she was appointed CEO of Magna, but soon swapped car parts for politics and was elected as a Conservative MP. She crossed the floor to join the Liberals and held a junior minister's position in 2005 and 2006. A year later, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. Her treatments were successful. Since then, she has concentrated on charities and has worked at TSG, where she is president and chairwoman.

Ms. Stronach was always better known as a celebrity with a glamorous lifestyle than a businesswoman. She had an A-list of paramours, who included Norwegian Olympian Johann Olav Koss, her second husband (her first was Don Walker, Magna's current CEO and the father of Ms. Stronach's children); Toronto Maple Leaf Tie Domi; and Conservative hotshot Peter MacKay. According to the gossip pages in the United States and Europe, former U.S.

president Bill Clinton was a close friend.

She was once ranked second by Fortune Magazine on the list of most powerful women in business, and landed on Time magazine's 100 Most Influential list.

She was spotted on the arm of Prince Andrew and other members of the international rich and famous club.

Notably, Mr. Stronach did not make her CEO of TSG and its equine businesses, suggesting that he did not have full faith in her executive abilities. That role went to Alon Ossip, an Osgoode Hall law graduate who had careers at racing groups, including Red Bull Racing, and real estate (he is listed as a co-defendant with Ms. Stronach in Mr. Stronach's lawsuit). Still, as president and chairwoman, Ms. Stronach appeared to exercise considerable control over TSG, where she was trying to modernize what's known as the sport of kings, according to various media reports, and lure a younger audience.

In a 2017 story by The Washington Post, Ms. Stronach said horse racing "hasn't evolved, hasn't embraced technology. We haven't reinvested in this sport to create more owners and new fans."

Certainly, she became the public face of TSG, and she and Mr.

Ossip, according to Mr. Stronach's allegations, pretty much ran the show, to the virtual exclusion of Mr. Stronach. Quoted in a Thursday article in The Capital, the daily newspaper of Annapolis, Md., Alan Foreman, general counsel of the Maryland Thoroughbred Horsemen's Association, said there had been "rumblings" of a rift between Ms. Stronach and Mr. Stronach. "There were allegations that he had lost control of the company," he said.

"She was certainly gaining more control, and certainly she was the face of The Stronach Group."

Mr. Stronach's 73-page lawsuit exposes the gaping rift between father and daughter. Mr. Stronach accuses her and Mr. Ossip of mismanaging TSG's assets and the family trust funds, and forcing Mr. Stronach out of the business. The lawsuit states that "Belinda and Alon seriously neglected the business of TSG and [had] abused their positions of authority. They did so in order to conceal significant cash flow issues, and to favour their own personal interests at the direct expense of rights and interests of other members of the Stronach family."

In addition to the $520-million in damages, Mr. Stronach wants Ms. Stronach and Mr. Ossip to be removed as corporate officers of TSG and from trustee positions.

Ms. Stronach has denied all the allegations made by her father. In a statement, she said: "Family relationships within a business can be challenging," adding, "My children and I love my father."

Over the decades, Mr. Stronach pushed Ms. Stronach hard and she shows every indication that she will fight back just as hard. In that sense, the Pygmalion effect worked. Mr. Stronach has apparently passed on the scrapper gene to his daughter. There will be no happy ending to this blood feud.

Associated Graphic

Seen in 2004, Conservative Party leadership candidates Belinda Stronach, Tony Clement and Stephen Harper participate in a debate in Ottawa.

JIM YOUNG/REUTERS

Renovations at The Stronach Group's Yorkville-area office in Toronto continue on Thursday.

TIJANA MARTIN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

MURAT YÜKSELIR / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: THE STRONACH GROUP


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What happens with the city's waterfront infrastructure will have profound and permanent effects on the digital rights and privacy of all Canadians
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Former chair and co-CEO of Research In Motion, where he commercialized Canadian intellectual property in more than 150 countries

With politicians rushing to show Canada's innovation chops, "smart cities" have emerged as their new frontier. Most consequential of these is a high-profile agreement between Waterfront Toronto and Sidewalk Labs, a subsidiary of Google's parent company Alphabet. A year ago, Canadians were treated to an announcement involving the leaders of all three levels of government gushing and fawning about an enlightened urban partnership with a foreign company whose business model is built exclusively on the principle of mass surveillance.

The most insightful comments during the public announcement came when Eric Schmidt, Google's former executive chair, said they had realized their long-running dream for "someone to give us a city and put us in charge." He also thanked Canadian taxpayers for paying, creating and transferring the core artificial-intelligence technology he credits for Alphabet's success, making it the world's third most valuable corporation. The Google parent's past and future growth are based on the intellectual property (IP) they own and the data they control.

The 21st-century knowledgebased and data-driven economy is all about IP and data. "Smart cities" are the new battlefront for big tech because they serve as the most promising hotbed for additional intangible assets that hold the next trillion dollars to add to their market capitalizations.

"Smart cities" rely on IP and data to make the vast array of city sensors more functionally valuable, and when under the control of private interests, an enormous new profit pool. As Sidewalk Labs' chief executive Dan Doctoroff said: "We're in this business to make money." Sidewalk also wants full autonomy from city regulations so it can build without constraint.

You can only commercialize IP or data when you own or control them. That's why Sidewalk, as a recent Globe and Mail investigation revealed, is taking control to own all IP on this project. All smart companies know that controlling the IP controls access to the data, even when it's shared data. Stunningly, when Waterfront Toronto released its "updated" agreement, they left the ownership of IP and data unresolved, even though IP experts publicly asserted that ownership of IP must be clarified up front or it defaults to Sidewalk. Securing new monopoly IP rights coupled with the best new data sets creates a systemic market advantage from which companies can inexorably expand.

A privately controlled "smart city" infrastructure upends traditional models of citizenship because you cannot opt out of a city or a society that practises mass surveillance. Foreign corporate interests tout new technocratic efficiencies while shrewdly occluding their unprecedented power grab. As the renowned technologist Evgeny Morozov said: "That the city is also the primary target of big tech is no accident: If these firms succeed in controlling its infrastructure, they need not to worry about much else."

What happens with Toronto's waterfront infrastructure will have profound and permanent impacts on the digital rights and prosperity of all Canadians because IP and data - our century's most valuable extractive resources - spread seamlessly. Data has already been used as a potent tool to manipulate individuals, social relationships and autonomy. Any data collected can be reprocessed and analysed in new ways in the future that are unanticipated at the time of collection and this has major implications for our privacy, prosperity, freedom and democracy.

From the start, this project should have been debated publicly and involved experts in IP and data. Instead, Waterfront Toronto continues to weaponize ambiguity while making irreversible decisions that will have major negative effects on all Canadians. Is this how we want our cities and the future of our country managed?

WATERFRONT TORONTO - A PROFILE IN MISMANAGEMENT In a recent brief to the federal government, the National Research Council warned that Canada was at risk of becoming a nation of "data cows," leaking our most valuable national resource to companies such as Amazon, Google and others. Waterfront was undeterred by such warnings and rushed to create a contract with Sidewalk without any input from city staff. The agreement was so flawed that Waterfront Toronto's board tried to keep it secret for months while the Toronto City Council got a report making it clear they didn't know what Waterfront was doing. The unsuspecting public and public office holders were alerted to it by the board's only elected official, city councillor Denzil Minnan-Wong, who said: "I know enough about the agreement that I think you would like to know more about the agreement."

The charitable among us would call these approaches incompetent, given that Waterfront has no experience or expertise commercializing either IP or data. The more astute would say this is a pattern of deliberate effort to make sure that Sidewalk comprehensively claims all the project-related IP and systemically extends its control of citizen data. After all, a Waterfront board member recently quit in protest over their relinquishing too much control to Sidewalk.

Sidewalk is currently hosting public consultations on Waterfront's behalf, a curious governance arrangement to say the least. As media outlets including Wired reported: "The planning process is being paid for by Google, and Google won't continue funding that process unless government authorities promise they'll reach a final agreement that aligns with Google's interests." Those interests include Sidewalk's desire to expand its Toronto experiments beyond the project's 12-acre Quayside plot to adjacent land.

Meanwhile, public consultations have been called "a masterclass in gaslighting and arrogance" because they deliberately avoid addressing citizen concerns about data and IP. For its part, Waterfront struck a committee of digital experts but cynically made their advice nonbinding and mandated that they sign aggressive and overreaching confidentiality agreements which compelled resignations from prominent independent experts. It has also engaged a privacy expert who remains silent on the questions of ownership and residency of data, key determinants of privacy. On the issue of data collection and control, Waterfront Toronto is promising "meaningful consent" - whatever that means. No sooner than these empty declarations were made, an Associated Press investigation revealed that Google tracks users even when they don't consent to being tracked.

SMART CITIZENS DESERVE SMART LEADERSHIP A year later, we are at a point where a secretive, unelected, publicly funded corporation with no expertise in IP, data or even basic digital rights is in charge of navigating forces of urban privatization, algorithmic control and rule by corporate contract.

Civic and data experts have called Waterfront's public engagement a "fundamental lack of democratic participation in the process," and in her resignation from the Digital Strategy Advisory Panel on Thursday, Saadia Muzaffar pointed to "Waterfront Toronto's astounding apathy and utter lack of leadership regarding shaky public trust and social licence." Also this week, The Logic reported that the Ontario Auditor-General is investigating Waterfront Toronto. But if we want Toronto to be truly better governed and to have a more vibrant and prosperous future, we also need investigations into Waterfront's RFP process for Quayside, its governance, its "secrets about secrets" in public engagements and value for money.

If we are to build viable digital cities for the benefit of Canadian citizens, we will need transparency and accountability between the government and its citizens, not a secret deal between an unelected, rogue public corporation and a foreign multinational in the business of mass surveillance. Waterfront's current approach needs more than a complete overhaul. It requires a restart with a new RFP that accurately frames the urban issues Toronto is trying to resolve and the vision its citizens have for this particular piece of land, their demands for municipal control of data and digital infrastructure and the protection of their digital rights. If this project is to be a model to be exported around the world, as the Prime Minister said it will be, then maybe we can try engaging with Canadian innovators already providing smart cities technologies around the world rather than growing Google's bottom line.

Smart cities need to involve experts who protect us from enamoured politicians who continue to give away Canada's most valuable intangible assets to foreign tech giants. As parent company, Alphabet, reminded us at the announcement a year ago, if Canada retained ownership of the taxpayer-funded IP and data we recently transferred to them, we would still have untold billions of dollars available for our cities' infrastructure and services.

A sovereign strategy for smart cities presents an enormous opportunity for Canadians to develop new technologies, and new physical and digital infrastructure to serve the public interest, promote inclusive prosperity and even create new and better models of urban governance.

As long as Waterfront remains clueless about IP and data while deferring to Sidewalk on all the critical decisions, Canadians will continue to be treated to glitzy images of pseudo-tech dystopia while foreign companies profit from the IP and data Canadian taxpayers fund and create. Sidewalk Toronto is not a smart city.

It is a colonizing experiment in surveillance capitalism attempting to bulldoze important urban, civic and political issues. Of all the misguided innovation strategies Canada has launched over the past three decades, this purported smart city is not only the dumbest but also the most dangerous.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY MICHAEL HADDAD

Wednesday, October 10, 2018
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Required reading
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Toronto's Bad Girls Book Club is just one example of how reading has gone from solitary pursuit to social movement. Courtney Shea reports on the new look of these literary gatherings
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By COURTNEY SHEA
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A little over a year ago, Kara Wark decided that her book club had officially outgrown her living room, but the plan to expand was about more than just a lack of space. Having been approached by friends and friends-offriends about joining her bimonthly gatherings, she saw a chance to do something on a larger, more public scale.

"We decided to see what would happen if we sold tickets," Wark says. "We" is Wark and her friend Kate Chippendale, who cofounded the project, but has since stepped away to focus on a new job. What happened is they sold out and the Bad Girls Book Club was born. Every couple of months a 7,000-plus Instagram community votes on the next read. Meetings (events, really) are held at cool venues across Toronto and feature guest speakers along with the odd tarot card reader or drag queen performance, depending on the book. Wark, in her late 20s, talks about reading the way people in her cohort talk about urban farming or heritage denim: "People are craving real experiences. We're all so busy ... on our phones all the time. I think people are really starving to hit pause. To have conversations that aren't on Gchat."

Zuzana Drakul agrees. "People really want to find their tribe, to break bread," says the co-founder of BooknBrunch - a recently launched tech platform that connects eager readers with book clubs (and the restaurants that want to serve them).

Drakul started the lo-fi version of her club six years ago after a bad break up and a move to a new city left her wanting for social connections. Initially a way to indulge in her passions for reading and eating and to make friends older than 30 ("nearly impossible," she jokes), the gatherings quickly spawned a waitlist and then spinoff clubs and now a business. "When you see how popular these reading communities have become, it just makes sense," says her sister and business partner Daniela Kelloway, who isn't modest about their aspiration to become "the Airbnb of books."

If you haven't been to a book club lately, you may find that the plot has changed.

The last time I gathered in a friend's living room over sweaty cheese and The Sun Also Rises, the "book club" part was a 15-minute discussion about postwar aimlessness, followed by several hours of gossip and levels of red wine consumption that would make Hemingway blush. But that was more than 10 years ago - back when Reese Witherspoon was still starring in Legally Blonde movies and book culture had yet to converge with social media and the power of celebrity influencers to become a sexier, more public-facing version of its former self. It's true, the notion that reading is suddenly "hot" sounds as ridiculous and cringe-worthy as "Stormy Daniels, bestselling author." And yet, there's no denying a new level of cultural capital attached to a long-beloved (and previously solitary) pursuit: These days, we post book photos on Instagram in the same the way we post images of avocado toast, we use our taste in books (and for books) to communicate personal brand and, more than ever, we form connections with others who share our passion.

Last spring, the Bad Girls Book Club read The Home for Unwanted Girls by Toronto author Joanna Goodman. The fictionalized narrative, based on the experiences of Goodman's mother, is set in the Quebec orphanage system in the 1950s and explores themes around parenthood, belonging and female identity. For the club, it was an ideal select - a buzzy new title with relevant, female-centric themes and an author willing to attended their meeting as a guest speaker. For Goodman, it was a marketing no-brainer: "As an author I can tell you that this has become a huge part of promoting your work," she says. "My book came out in April and I am still doing book clubs." Goodman estimates she has participated in at least two-dozen in person and via Skype, and has several more coming up. Recently, she attended an author luncheon in Indianapolis, Ind., and afterward she was swarmed: "It was all of these women coming up to me saying 'I'm in a book club,' 'I'm in a book club,' 'I'm in a book club.' It's almost like book clubs are even more popular than reading."

She's kidding, but she has a point and it's one publishers are paying attention to.

Irina Pintea, a publicist at Harper Collins Canada, says that from a marketing and sales perspective, book clubs used to be "a bit of an enigma. We knew they were happening, but they were smaller and less interconnected." I mention my nights of Hemingway and hangovers. "That's exactly it - before social media, we didn't have a way to track those kinds of clubs," she says. Moreover, infiltrating a group of six women discussing a novel published in 1926 may not have been worth the effort.

These days, Pintea and her department think about book club potential long before books hit shelves, meeting with librarians and bookstore owners to determine which new titles are poised to be future book club darlings. Getting selected by a club such as Bad Girls is great for that initial sales boost of maybe a hundred copies, but it's also the ripple effect facilitated by social media, where "meetings" continue in the comments section.

It's an ironic silver lining that this same the same technology blamed for whittling readers' attention spans down to a single tweet has also brought about book clubs without borders. Directed by hashtags and devoid of meeting places and read-by deadlines, online book communities are a lot looser. And, of course, they are lot larger, thanks in part to celebrities such as Witherspoon, Emma Watson and Sarah Jessica Parker - aspirational bookbutterflies who promote their favourite reads the way George Clooney hawks luxury tequila. Witherspoon in particular has done more for reading than any celebrity since Oprah. The Hello Sunshine Book Club is one prong in Witherspoon's bibliocentric empire, where many titles go on to become film or TV projects for her production company, Pacific Standard. One such example is Curtis Sittenfield's short story

collection You Think It I'll Say It, which Witherspoon selected in May. "That's a huge win for us," says Kristin Cochrane, cheif of Penguin Random House Canada, which has the Canadian distribution rights for Sittenfield's title. "Our key retailers responded in a significant way when informed [that the book was Witherspoon's latest book club pick] - in some cases almost doubling their initial buys." News that Witherspoon is developing the book for TV is icing on the cake. "It just makes books sexy, which is really great for readers and for writers," Cochrane says of the recent onslaught of high profile book-to-film adaptations such as Big Little Lies, The Handmaid's Tale and Sharp Objects.

And so far, the impact of book clubs on publishing has been good for women, who have long been the primary buyers of fiction and are finally getting some deference from an industry that previously attempted to group their preferences under the derogatory "chick lit" banner. "I don't think that women are necessarily reading more than before," says CTV's Elaine Lui (a.k.a.

Lainey Gossip) of the recent prominence of book club culture. "I think it's more that our interests are finally getting some respect. There is a very feminized power to this new book sexiness that we're seeing on social media. It's women having a space where they can say, 'This is what I like, this is part of my day to day life.' " On the daytime chat show The Social Lui and her co-hosts helm a monthly book club. One of their summer selects was Celest Ng's Little Fires Everywhere, which has spent 31 weeks on the New York Times bestseller list, at least partly thanks to its popularity amongst book clubbers. "That's the other thing about book clubs and social media is that there is a sense of FOMO [fear of missing out]," Lui says. "We picked that book because it felt like everyone was reading it. You don't want to miss out."

For Wark, that can only be good for business. Having recently left her day job, she hopes to turn the Bad Girls brand into a full-time gig. Last month, they launched a brand partnership with Nike - official sponsors (and outfitters) of the BGBC running squad who are currently in training to run the Scotiabank Waterfront Marathon.

What does that have to do with books?

Well nothing, and everything. Wark sees both running and reading as a way for women to have meaningful (read: relatively sober) interactions outside of the workplace. "It's about books," she says, "but it's about a lifestyle, a community."

Associated Graphic

Every couple of months, Kara Wark, below, sells tickets to her Bad Girls Book Club, an opportunity for women to be part of a creative literary community. Book club events can include author appearances, tarot card readings and drag queen performances.

SHANNON LALIBERTE; LOUISA NICOLAOU/COURTESY OF BAD GIRLS BOOK CLUB


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New season sees the Raptors reloaded
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The risks are high for a team dependent on a first-time coach and mercurial stars
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TORONTO -- Despite a franchise-record 59 wins, last season was a failure for the Toronto Raptors.

Another postseason expulsion at the hands of LeBron James and the Cleveland Cavaliers - in four straight games in the Eastern Conference semi-final - saw to that.

Those circumstances forced Raptors president Masai Ujiri to rethink his hand and he did not like the cards he was holding.

First out the door was head coach Dwane Casey, but the boldest move was yet to come.

In July, Ujiri did the unthinkable - trading franchise favourite DeMar DeRozan to the San Antonio Spurs, along with up-andcoming talent Jakob Poeltl and a first-round draft pick in 2019.

In return, the Raptors received disgruntled superstar Kawhi Leonard, along with solid two-way threat Danny Green.

That move elevated the Raptors from Eastern Conference pretenders to legitimate challengers with a chance to advance into the NBA finals for the first time.

But the risks are high: Does Leonard, who can head into free agency at the end of the season, want to stay in Toronto, or ultimately go to his home town of Los Angeles?

Famously reticent when it comes to dealing with the media, Leonard has done little to dispel the rumours, remaining mum on the trade until he arrived in Toronto for media day last month.

Even then he did not reveal much about his plans, apart from insisting he wants to play in Toronto. "I came with an open mind," he said. "I want to do great things ... focus on this year."

That year begins on Wednesday in Toronto when the Raptors open the regular-season at Scotiabank Arena against the Cavaliers.

OUT WITH THE OLD DeMar DeRozan The 29-year-old had spent his entire nine-year career in Toronto and had evolved from an awkward rookie to become the face of the franchise. He departs as arguably the greatest Raptor in history - a four-time all-star and the franchise's leader in points scored (13,296, not including playoffs).

DeRozan is undoubtedly an NBA star, but a flawed one, as was evident during last year's playoff exit to the Cavaliers where his defensive liabilities were consistently exposed. He could not get off the bench in Game 3 for the final 14plus minutes of the game, which the Cavaliers won by two. At his best offensively when attacking the basket, DeRozan had made strides to improve his perimeter shooting, attempting a careerhigh 287 shots from three-point range last season. He connected on 31.2 per cent, but in the league context, among regulars who made at least 280 three-point attempts, that success rate ranked him third-worst - 97th out of top 100 players listed.

Dwane Casey The coach with the most wins in franchise history with a record of 320-238 over a seven-year span, Casey led the team to a record 59 wins last season and was chosen as the coach of the year, but was fired after Toronto was swept by Cleveland. While he led the Raptors into the playoffs the past five years, his success there was muted - 21-30 over all, with the team winning just four of nine postseason series. Casey is still highly regarded as one of the NBA's top coaches and he did not stay unemployed for long. About a month after he was let go in Toronto, he signed a five-year contract as head coach of the Detroit Pistons.

Jakob Poeltl A casualty of the Leonard trade, Poeltl was an integral part - along with Pascal Siakam and Fred VanVleet - of what was the NBA's best bench unit last season. A seven-footer who usually came on in place of starter Jonas Valanciunas at centre, Poeltl displayed subtle moves beneath the basket and was an underrated passer. San Antonio obviously thinks highly of him. Even before the 22-year-old donned a Spurs uniform, the club opted to pick up his fourth-year option.

IN WITH THE NEW Kawhi Leonard The Raptors rocked the NBA during the off-season with one of the league's most surprising moves, swinging the deal with the Spurs that landed them this top-five league talent. The 6-foot-7, 230pound enigmatic forward can do it all at both ends of the court: on defence, locking down the opposing team's top player; or on offence with the ability to drive to the basket or score from the perimeter. In his most recent healthy season two years ago, Leonard averaged 25.5 points, 5.8 rebounds and 3.5 assists while averaging a robust 33.4 minutes of playing time. Entering his eighth NBA season, Leonard is in his prime. He is a former two-time defensive player of the year and was selected as the NBA finals' most valuable player when he led the San Antonio Spurs to the title in 2014.

Danny Green Another piece in the Spurs trade, Green is a confidant of Leonard and a solid player in his own right.

He is an upgrade who should help the Raptors. A 6-foot-6 shooting guard, Green is a proficient outside threat, with a career 39.5-percent success rate when launching the three-pointer. He is also an impact defender. He can guard multiple positions, which fits in nicely with the Raptors desire for more versatility this season.

Nick Nurse Nurse is the Raptors' first new head coach in seven years. He was an assistant under Casey for five years and will continue to emphasize the three-point attack, which has taken the league by storm.

The 50-year-old oversaw the Toronto offence last season and the Raptors were among the league's top offensive units thanks to a new emphasis on a long-range attack. The Raptors attempted a franchise-record 2,705 shots from three-point territory, the thirdhighest total in the NBA and a 35per-cent increase from the previous year. You can expect those numbers to rise, especially with Leonard and Green in the fold.

THE STARTING LINEUP Nurse has not confirmed who his starting five might be. And he's hinted that it might be a rotating cast. "I just want to create maybe a little more freedom that we could make changes along the way just on feel, rest time, matchups," he said recently. This is one of the deepest Raptors roster in team history and Nurse believes he can move players in and out of the starting rotation depending on matchups without affecting the team's chances.

Players who will vie for starting minutes Kyle Lowry: Point guard. The longest-tenured Raptor now that teammate and close friend DeRozan has moved on, the 32-year-old is still undeniably the king of the Toronto backcourt.

Danny Green: Shooting guard.

Newcomer steps in and should establish a presence at both ends of the court.

Kawhi Leonard: Forward/power forward. His addition provides the Raptors with a legitimate most-valuable-player candidate as one of the league's best twoway performers.

Jonas Valanciunas: Centre. The 7foot big man has added the threepointer to his arsenal and will likely be Toronto's starting man in the middle most games.

Serge Ibaka: Power forward/centre. Will probably be a power forward when Valanciunas lines up at centre, but can easily slide into the middle spot when necessary.

OG Anunoby: Power forward/forward. Looking to build on a solid rookie campaign in which he started 62 games.

THE EAST IS FOR THE TAKING With the Raptors' personal roadblock, LeBron James, playing in Los Angeles, the time has never been better for the team to challenge for the Eastern Conference title. For the past three postseasons running, the Raptors have run into Cleveland and the James juggernaut and lost each time.

Last year it was especially galling given that the Raptors compiled the best record in the conference.

But the road through the East will still be tough with the likes of the Boston Celtics and Philadelphia 76ers also seemingly ready to take that next step.

KYLE LOWRY: WILL HE PLAY OR WILL HE POUT?

Lowry was not the happiest camper when his long-time backcourt partner and good friend DeRozan was traded. But in a career now entering its 13th season, Lowry likely understands better than most that the acquisition of Leonard puts him one step closer to the ultimate goal - a league championship. Lowry, with fourstraight all-star appearances, is still regarded as one of the game's most tenacious point guards. But he has a lot of mileage on those wheels and he will have to prove, once again, he is still up to the task. Last season, with Toronto's strong bench play playing a factor, Lowry's average minutes a game (32.2) fell. His average scoring (16.2 points) dipped to levels not seen since his first year with the club.

Associated Graphic

Kyle Lowry is still the undisputed king of the Raptors' backcourt, but the extent to which his play will be affected by the departure of friend DeMar DeRozan remains to be seen.

GRAHAM HUGHES/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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In Germany, anger is the prevailing mood
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Ahead of the Bavarian election, anti-immigrant sentiment and antipathy toward Merkel is rife - and nine million voters stand to shake things up
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Editor for Suddeutsche Zeitung in Munich, and an Arthur F. Burns fellow

In a society as obsessed with soccer as Germany, the performance of its national team is often seen as a barometer for the state of the whole country. In 2006, one year after she narrowly won her first federal election, chancellor Angela Merkel enjoyed four spectacular weeks as "fan-in-chief," during which time Germany hosted the World Cup and almost made it to the final - a successful showing that lifted the nation's spirit and coincided with an economic boom.

In June, the Nationalmannschaft arrived at this year's World Cup in Russia as defending champion. The team, however, played poorly and didn't survive the group phase. This unexpected humiliation was a big surprise to Germany's soccer fans (a.k.a. the entire country) and has, in subsequent months, fuelled an emotional, often irrational debate about German identity, its role in the world and the political future of Ms. Merkel. Two years ago, after Donald Trump's election to the White House, she was described as both "the leader of the free world" and "the most powerful woman in the world." Since then, her power has slowly faded away and, very soon, it will be even harder for her to govern Europe's most-important economy.

This Sunday, nine million voters in Bavaria will disrupt German politics. The region has long been controlled by the conservative Christian Social Union (CSU). The party, on the federal level, aligns with Ms. Merkel's Christian Democratic Union (CDU), which doesn't compete in Bavarian elections. This time, polls predict the CSU will lose a significant amount of support - the latest numbers show the party hovering around 33 per cent, down from the 48 per cent share of the popular vote it received in 2013. At the same time, the xenophobic Alternative for Germany (AfD) is neck-and-neck with the Green Party. If the polls are accurate, this will be the CSU's worst showing since 1950.

The horrible numbers are surprising considering the state of the region, where unemployment is under 3 per cent. (Bavaria is home not only to Oktoberfest but to BMW, Audi and Siemens.) But many Germans are still angry that, three years ago, Ms. Merkel allowed hundreds of thousands of refugees to enter the country. The rise of the AfD is directly connected to the fear of many voters that this influx (of mostly Muslims) from Syria and Iraq will change the fabric of German society and Ms. Merkel, who is not the most skilled public speaker, has not been able to efficiently counter this sentiment. Even more damaging is that one of her biggest critics has been Horst Seehofer, the leader of CSU and who also happens to be Minister of the Interior - which oversees refugee and migration policy - in Ms. Merkel's cabinet.

No politician has contributed more to the growing disgust Germans feel toward the political system than the 69-year-old Mr. Seehofer. With the Bavarian regional elections looming, the CSU leader and his underlings often seemed to parrot the exaggerated slogans of the AfD about refugees being a security risk for the country. In June, he almost caused the split of the government over an irrelevant but symbolic issue: asylum seekers crossing the border from Austria to Bavaria. But the only party to profit from this circus was the AfD, whose leaders and followers talk about refugees nonstop. How did Angela Merkel react? She shrugged off all the personal insults and went back to work.

This first government crisis took place before the World Cup, and millions of Germans no doubt hoped the tournament would provide a much-needed break from this divisive political debate. But the dismal performance of the national team started a heated discussion about what it means to be German. For weeks, the country discussed a picture on Instagram that showed national player Mesut Ozil with Turkey's president Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

Mr. Ozil was born in Germany to Turkish parents and took the picture with the president out of "respect." Former soccer stars, AfD and the country's biggest tabloid, Bild, went crazy - questioning Mr.

Ozil's solidarity with Germany and blaming him for the national team's humiliating defeat.

The reasonable criticism - should a star player be seen palling around with an autocratic politician? - was overshadowed by a nasty rhetoric that laid bare ugly stereotypes. On social media, Germans with foreign parents told stories of everyday racism and the feeling that they were only accepted so long as they behaved properly, i.e. like a "German." As Mr.

Ozil put it in his letter of resignation from the team: "I'm German when we win and an immigrant when we lose."

The emotional Ozil debate had other, unfortunate side effects, such as preventing Germans from discussing more-pressing and important challenges facing the country, as well as making everyone forget just how blessed the country really was. Cheer Up, Deutschland was the headline of a recent article in The Economist that identified a very different threat to Germany: its out-of-size pessimism. Life is also pretty good outside of Bavaria too: The economy is doing well, the quality of life is high (Germany ranks number 5 in the United Nation's latest Human Development Index, while Canada is at 12) and the crime rate is at its lowest levels in 30 years.

At the same time, moans The Economist, many Germans ignore the good news about immigrants: "By April this year 26% of refugees admitted to Germany since 2015 were in employment, more than expected" and "the proportion of non-ethnic German residents is rising fast, with ever more reaching prominent roles in public life. The share of MPs with a migrant background rose from 3% to 9% over the two elections to 2017." This week, Mr. Seehofer had to acknowledge that the number of refugees arriving in Germany will be approximately 160,000 in 2018 - significantly lower than he had predicted to support his strict policies.

Has the time to calm down finally arrived? Not really, because the prevailing mood in Germany these days is anger. Conservative voters are mad at Ms. Merkel for modernizing their party, progressives in the cities are afraid of both the AfD and Mr. Seehofer, and many racialized Germans are scared to travel to eastern German cities such as Chemnitz, where a far-right mob chased migrants through the streets in August.

This made headlines around the world and led to another, bizarre episode: Hans-Georg Maassen, the head of Germany's domestic intelligence, told a tabloid that the videos showing the incident were fake despite the fact he had no evidence to back up his claim.

He was accused of playing down far-right violence. When calls for his resignation grew louder, the spymaster was instead inexplicably given a promotion (and higher salary) in Mr. Seehofer's ministry. The public outcry was so huge that one week later Mr. Maassen was given a different job and Ms.

Merkel offered a rare apology.

The Maassen episode illuminated another problem for both Ms. Merkel and Mr. Seehofer: They have become out-of-touch with the electorate, and the CSU, especially, will pay the price on Sunday. In political circles in Berlin and Munich rumours swirl that Mr. Seehofer will be made the scapegoat for Sunday's (expected) disastrous results and be forced out of politics. Ms. Merkel would rid herself of an annoying antagonist, but leave her coalition government weakened. If that happens, some in the CDU worry their Bavarian sister party might begin acting like a "wounded boar." Such a situation could prove unpredictable, fears one CDU official: "Nobody knows how a boar will react when you shoot it but don't kill it. The hunter knows only that it's a dangerous situation."

Ms. Merkel won't get a break anytime soon: Another regional election (in Hesse) takes place in late October, while in December Ms. Merkel will be challenged for the first time in 18 years in her reelection bid for the CDU leadership.

Although she is still admired around the world for her leadership and feared in Brussels and other European capitals for her negotiating skills, Merkel fatigue is everywhere in Germany. Everyone can see her diminished authority. Many voters long for passion and bold ideas - which are exactly the things that the ultrapragmatist Ms. Merkel avoids. Political predictions are a mug's game, but the rest of the world should slowly get used to the idea of someone else governing Europe's biggest country in the notso-distant future.

Associated Graphic

Destroyed posters for Bavarian Minister-President Markus Soder of the Christian Social Union are seen in Munich on Oct. 10. The CSU aligns with Angela Merkel's Christian Democratic Union; the CDU doesn't compete in Bavaria. Polls predict the CSU will lose much support in the region.

CHRISTOF STACHE/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Tuesday, October 16, 2018
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Skiers and snowboarders have more options, and better value, than ever before, reports Adam Bisby, thanks to fierce competition between the Epic and Ikon multiresort passes
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By ADAM BISBY
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Fuelled by fierce competition and industry consolidation, the 10-year-old Epic Pass and its burgeoning nine-monthold rival, Ikon, now cover more than 100 resorts stretching from Ontario to Australia and from the Alps to Japan. New additions to both passes have come fast and furious in recent months, with Epic adding 20 operations over the past year - including six resorts of the Canadian Rockies properties - and Ikon expanding its initial clutch of 23 resorts by more than 60 per cent. Never before have snow-sports enthusiasts been able to sample so much worldwide terrain for so little: At press time, the top-tier adult versions of Epic and Ikon cost US$929 and US$999, respectively.

Then there are North America's other two passes, from the Mountain Collective and Powder Alliance, which offer less costly variations on the all-access theme.

A parade of pricing and access options, gives skiers of all stripes even more choice.

Keeners, for instance, can jump straight into the action, as I did at Keystone. Beginner and intermediate skiers can build skills and confidence at smaller hills closer to home before hitting behemoths such as B.C.'s Whistler Blackcomb and Colorado's Aspen Snowmass. Roadtrippers can spend a day here and a month there, while families can opt to target school breaks, long weekends or less-costly weekdays.

BEAVER CREEK RESORT, COLO.

Speaking of spoilage, does it get more decadent than munching on warm chocolate-chip cookies while riding an escalator to an artificial skating rink? I ask myself this rather surreal question while washing down said baked goods with a Moscow mule on the patio of the Toscanini Umbrella Bar, one of several après-ski options surrounding the impeccable ice surface at the heart of Beaver Creek's fairy light-festooned village.

This kind of opulence almost justifies the cost of adult daily lift tickets at Beaver Creek and Vail - they often top US$180 - as well as the maddening fact that, according to Vail Resorts, the average Epic Pass holder skied for just 3.4 days during the 2017-18 season. Many one-percenters, it seems, are indifferent to skipass value. Still, there's plenty for the rest of us to love about Beaver Creek. Beyond the complimentary treats, served by uniformed chefs at the base of the six-person Centennial Express Chondola, the triplepeaked resort's groomed terrain is arguably the best on Earth. Its 320plus hectares would cover Quebec's Mont Tremblant in its entirety - and then some - with steep World Cup descents such as Birds of Prey proving surprisingly manageable for skiers not named Lindsey Vonn or Bode Miller.

BRECKENRIDGE SKI RESORT, COLO.

I'm inhaling neither cookies nor cocktails in Colorado as I hike up and across the penultimate peak in Breckenridge's stunning string of 10 summits. What I do have is an oxygen canister, which I pull on repeatedly as I near my goal: The "Back 9" series of chutes.

At nearly four kilometres up, my fight with gravity turns into a love affair as soon as I point my skis down one of Peak 9's nameless descents.

My Breck Guide lets out an encouraging "Whoop!" as his charges race toward the treeline below, where the E-Chair, one of 32 lifts, provides a less strenuous way to climb back up a portion of Breck's 1,036 vertical metres.

I let out a whoop of my own a few hours later while sampling spiced, single-barrel and port-cask whiskeys in the Breckenridge Distillery's tasting room. The cockle-warming stop is part of the Breckenridge Heritage Alliance's two-hour "Swinging Doors Saloon Tour," which recounts the rampant drunkenness, prostitution and other seedy aspects of the 159-year-old town's early days.

These days, there isn't a red light in sight. The picturesque Main Street, steps from the base of the BreckConnect Gondola, is lined with boutiques, fine dining and a fourblock Arts District. Still, the frontier flourishes that remain - inset saloon doors, for instance, and Wild Westthemed signage - make it clear that I'm not in Beaver Creek any more.

STOWE MOUNTAIN RESORT, VT.

Fat flakes fill the air as we retrieve our rental gear from Stowe Mountain Lodge's ski concierge and head to the nearby Adventure Center, where my two daughters kick off March Break with the Stowe Mountain Snow School.

This cunning parental escape coincides nicely with the opening of the Sunny Spruce chair, which carries my wife and me up its namesake peak. Several powdery laps later, we take the Over Easy Gondola to Mount Mansfield, Stowe's principal peak and Vermont's highest at 1,340 metres.

Again, we arrive just in time for the wind-delayed opening of the main gondola, which whisks us up to the Cliff House Restaurant for lunch. We watch the snow pile up through floor-to-ceiling windows, then burn off some of our Vermont Farmhouse Cheese Board by storming down Chin Clip, Nosedive and Hayride.

Halfway down the latter, I stop beside a random snowboarder. Our eyes meet, we nod and share an impromptu fist-bump. These are the best conditions of the season, so I have to wonder: Are his kids in ski school, too?

WHISTLER BLACKCOMB, B.C.

Three months, several deep-tissue massages and five Epic Pass resorts later, my mogul-hardened limbs are being tested at North America's largest ski area.

I'm no stranger to Whistler Blackcomb's vastness: The 30 square kilometres of stunningly varied terrain encompassing 16 bowls and three glaciers; the incomparable thrill of riding the world's highest gondola, the Peak 2 Peak, between its namesake mountains; and the 600-plus shops, lodging options and dining and drinking establishments in its three villages. As I watch the sky darken from the balcony of my luxurious Nita Lake Lodge suite, my senses still buzzing from dinner at the sixmonth-old Il Caminetto restaurant, the $1.39-billion Vail Resorts paid for Whistler in 2016 seems like a pretty decent deal.

On this visit, however, an enchanting surprise stands out. Seeking shelter from an après-ski April shower, I duck into the Audain Art Museum, an arrestingly angular structure tucked into a spruce grove along Blackcomb Way. The groundfloor Permanent Collection, which includes nearly 200 works ranging from Northwest Coast First Nations masks to paintings by B.C. luminaries such as Emily Carr and Jeff Wall, is impressive enough, but a temporary exhibition on the second level is like nothing I've ever seen.

Or worn, for that matter. Seconds after donning Shawn Hunt's Transformation Mask, a collaborative work between the Heiltsuk artist and Microsoft Corp., the stylized raven's head suddenly splits open.

Whistler Blackcomb's price tag?

$1.39-billion. Watching holographic images of a fiery raven swoop and soar right in front of me? Priceless.

FERNIE ALPINE RESORT, B.C.

With 15 centimetres of snow having blanketed Fernie's five bowls overnight, the serenity of Lizard Creek Lodge's slope-side ski lockers surprises me. Then again, this isn't any Thursday morning in April. It's the morning after Hot Dog Day, which for more than 30 years has compelled revellers to don outrageous retro garb and congregate on the panoramic patio of the Rusty Edge tavern to fête both spring's arrival and 1984's Hot Dog...The Movie.

The 2010 release of Hot Tub Time Machine, an ode to the eighties filmed in Fernie, only fuelled Hot Dog Day's fire.

With many celebrants presumably preoccupied by the local thrift store's next-day returns policy, I join three new friends in hiking up the far northern reaches of the resort's 1,012 hectares. Recent snowfall has pushed Fernie's total close to the 12metre-mark and up on Snake Ridge, it remains gloriously untouched.

My first turn reveals how quality trumps quantity when it comes to first tracks. The lightest imaginable powder blows up over my goggles, but who needs vision when skiing feels this sublime? The rushing alpine air whisks the flakes from my face as I congratulate myself on choosing to preview one of the six Resorts of the Canadian Rockies properties that will join the Epic Pass for the 2018-19 season.

Good choices and good luck: truly an epic combination.

The writer was a guest of Vail Resorts.

It did not review or approve this article.

Associated Graphic

Whether you are hitting the slopes at Whistler-Blackcomb, top, checking out the runs at Fernie Apine Resort, middle, or visiting the picturesque town of Breckenridge, Colo., there are several lift-pass options for skiiers and snowboarders.


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