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GiveLife.ca

    

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page B19

MARGARET ALEXANDRA BATES (nee Harrison)

Died peacefully on Monday, May 14, 2018 in her ninety-sixth year.

Predeceased by her husband, William Bates; parents, Catherine McLeod and Benjamin Harrison; and niece, Jane Harris Chadder.

Beloved sister of Isobel Harris of Guelph and special aunt to Ruth Robinson (Ron), Ralph Harris (Antoinette) and Warren Harris (Mary Jo), great-aunt to grandniece (Reta), six grandnephews (Ben, Jamie, Chris, Vincent, Neil and Liam) and seven great-grand nieces and nephews.

Maggie was an artist, educator, member of the Arts and Letters Club Toronto and an AGO docent.

She lived and taught in North Toronto for several decades before making her home in Guelph at the Elliott Community. Maggie was never happier than when she was surrounded by nature especially at her cottage on Big Hawk Lake in the Haliburton Highlands, her back garden, or sketching at the side of a country road.

Special thanks to Colleen Alberts and Friends of the Family staff who provided her comfort and companionship during her stay in Guelph. Heartfelt thanks to Dr. Lee and the staff of the Wellington at the Elliott Community for their kind and compassionate care.

Cremation has taken place and a celebration of her life will take place later in May; contact warrenfh@gmail.com for more details. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Art Gallery of Ontario. Arrangements entrusted to the Wall-Custance Funeral Home & Chapel, 519-8220051 or http://www.wallcustance.com.

JAMES RICHARD BRACKLEY

Passed away peacefully on May 15, 2018 in his 87th year, after complications from a stroke.

He is survived by his loving wife, Catherine; children, Anne (Marcel) and Chris (Angi), and grandchildren, Anik, Benoît, Owen and Donovan. Last June the family celebrated Jim and Catherine's 50th anniversary in Algonquin Park where they had spent so many wonderful years.

Jim was a kind and determined man who will always be remembered for his love of great jazz, big opera, a strong drink, and pointed conversation.

A celebration of Jim's life will be held at Belmont House on June 9, 2018 at 10:30 a.m. All welcome.

GAYLE BRILLINGER (née Lauzon)

Unexpectedly but peacefully at her home on May 16, 2018 at age 83. Gayle, loving wife of the late Bruce Brillinger. Cherished mother of the late Kevin Brillinger (Cindy Weiner), Marc (Jen Hill), Chris, Tina (Randy Rorabeck), and Anne. Beloved Grandmère to Cale and Marlee Brillinger; Ian and Allison Hastings; Russell and Alex Rorabeck; Amanda, Nicole and Jamie Hadley. Loving sister and best friend to Dawn Mryglod and cherished aunt to Michele (Brian O'Grady), Martin (Kari) and the late Michael and Camilla. Gayle will be lovingly remembered by her extended family and large circle of friends in Canada, the U.S. and Barbados.

Gayle was a formidable force in all aspects of her life: family matriarch, business woman, horse and cattle breeder, volunteer, humble benefactor, and caring and supportive friend.

Growing up in Timmins, ON. contributed to her strength of character, resiliency and strong constitution. She and Bruce worked side-by-side to create a successful, national business (Mister Transmission), and provide a wonderful life for their family, supporting everyone in their educational pursuits.

To honour this remarkable woman who gave unconditionally to all, a celebration of life will take place at the Brillinger farm on Sunday, June 17, 1-4 p.m. She will be dearly missed.

In lieu of flowers, you are welcome to make a donation in Gayle's memory to Mackenzie Health Richmond Hill (www. mackenziehealth.ca) or a charity of your choice.

http://www.marshallfuneralhome.com

ROBERT CHIPMAN DOWSETT FSA, FICA, MAAA June 27, 1929 - April 8, 2018

Cherished family man, successful businessman and respected community leader, Rob Dowsett passed peacefully in Toronto after a brief illness in his 89th year.

The youngest son of the late Jean and Reginald Dowsett; predeceased by his beloved brothers, Bill and John. Proud brother-in-law to Jane Dowsett and the late Maxie Dowsett. Loving father to David (Vivian), Marisa, Carol (Ralph Rae) and devoted Grandfather/Boppa to Larena, (Nicholas Cashmore), Benjamin (Laura), Daniel, James (Melissa), Colin and Gwenna (Michael).

Survived by former wife, Lois Dowsett (nee McHardy); brother-in-law, Don McHardy and wife, Diana; and sister-in-law, Eleanor McHardy. Predeceased by brother-in-law, Bob McHardy. Much admired uncle to many Dowsett and McHardy nieces and nephews.

Devoted partner to Anne Folger and her children, Jarrod Liberatore (Shelley, children, Lucy, Roxanne and Phoebe) and Katharine Liberatore (Lynn Taylor).

Rob attended University of Toronto Schools (UTS) graduating in 1946, just before his 17th birthday. At UTS he met life-long friends John Evans and JJoe McArthur and captained the football team. In his later years, Rob founded the Monday Night Club (that meets on Tuesday), a group of UTS grads reunited.

Rob began a lifetime association with Victoria College at U of T, graduating in 1950 with a BA (Honours Mathematics and Physics).

Rob began his working career at Crown Life Insurance Company in 1950 while pursuing Actuarial Sciences. He became an actuary in 1954, the youngest person in Canada to achieve this designation. Progressing through management ranks, Rob became EVP of Crown in 1970 and President and CEO in 1971. In 1982, Rob left Crown to join William M. Mercer as Director and was appointed Vice-Chairman in 1985. Rob was a founding member of the Canadian Institute of Actuaries, serving as President in 1973-1974. Retiring from Mercer in 1995, he operated Robert Dowsett Consulting until months before his death. Through each phase of his career, Rob's principled ways earned him the respect of countless friends and colleagues.

Rob's impact on his community was significant. He was a tireless volunteer and fundraiser; he often said his greatest achievement was giving back to others. He served on many non-profit boards including The Donwood Institute, The Council for Canadian Unity, Addiction Research Foundation, UTS, U of T and the CAMH Foundation. An art enthusiast, he assisted the McMichael Canadian Art Collection for almost 40 years, honouring his parents' legacy. A spiritual man, he was one of the founding members of Bethesda United Church in Don Mills.

An avid outdoorsman, Rob pursued life-long passions for canoeing, sailing and waterskiing at cottages on Bella Lake in his childhood, at the family cottage on Lake Joseph in Muskoka and at Anne's cottage in Newago near Montreal. Rob loved sports and was active all his life; he enjoyed daily calisthenics, bike riding, and walks with his loyal dog Tally. Rob enjoyed snow skiing in Utah. He was an active member of the Donalda Club beginning in 1972, playing tennis and participating in club trips to Jamaica for tournaments. He will be remembered for his keen mind and the hours devoted to duplicate bridge. Rob enjoyed gardening and working with his hands; a skilled handy man and jack-of-all trades.

Rob possessed unparalleled optimism and zest for life. His grandchildren brought him immeasurable joy. His exuberance for the wonders of mathematics was contagious. A man of deep thought, he was always willing to extend a hand and offer assistance. Above all, he was a man of honour; the true definition of a gentle man.

A Celebration of Rob's Life will be held in Jubilee United Church, 40 Underhill Drive, North York, on Saturday, May 26th at 1:00 p.m., followed by a reception at 2:30 p.m. at the Donalda Club, 12 Bushbury Drive, North York.

Donations in Rob's memory can be made to the CAMH Foundation (http://www.supportcamh.ca) or the North York General Hospital Foundation (www.

nyghfoundation.ca) with great appreciation. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

FREDERICK WILLIAM DALBY "Bill" May 5, 1928 -May 4, 2018

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Dr. Bill Dalby, physics prof at UBC from 1961-1992.

Bill was endlessly curious, with an uncanny "nose" for the truth. He loved kids, dogs, books, baths, art, math/science, all things French and Chinese, and most of all his wife, Phyl, who passed away in 2016.

He's survived by his children, Rebecca (Dave) and Laine (Parker) and grandchildren, Ben and Taylor. We miss him dearly.

A Celebration of Life will be held at Brock House, 3875 Point Grey Rd., Vancouver, 1-4 p.m., June 3.

WILLIAM DOBBS "Bill"

On Friday, May 18, 2018 at his home. Beloved husband of the late Betty Dobbs. Loving father and father-in-law of Michelle, Michael and Lisa, Gail, Jeffrey, and Karin and the late Fred Dobbs.

Dear brother and brother-in-law of Rebecca and the late Nate Dobbs, Evelyn and the late Ted Dobbs, and the late Rachel and Sid Prussky. Devoted grandfather of Adam and Lauren, Daniel and Leslie, Lena, Rachel, Justin, Taylor, Madison, Jamie, Carl, Hannah, and Simon, greatgrandfather of Benjamin, Samara, and Olivia. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, May 22, 2018 at 10:15 a.m.

Interment Community Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 18 Oakbank Road, Thornhill.

TIMOTHY EDWARD FLANAGAN "Tim" December 27, 1962 May 16, 2018

On May 16, 2018, Tim Flanagan passed away peacefully at his Scottsdale home, surrounded by his family. Predeceased by his parents, Wally and Nora of San Diego County; and survived by the love of his life, Lisa (nee Bergfeld) of Chatsworth; cherished children, Megan and Casey; brother, Frank (Lynn) of San Diego; sisters, Maureen (David Denison) of Toronto and Peggy (Milford Quirion) of Peterborough; and nieces and nephews, Michael (Laura), Patrick (Erin), Laura (Chris), Conor, Tessa, Sean, Molly (Andrew), Caleigh, Timothy and his godchild, Alex Vicente.

Tim was born in Toronto, Ontario, and was a graduate of Brebeuf College and the University of Southern California where he was a member of Kappa Alpha. He had a dedicated and industrious career in the parking access revenue control industry. He and Lisa started and along with his brother, Frank, built the largest service business in the industry between 1988 and 2017. Tim retired in 2017, after establishing an unmatched legacy for passionate customer service.

Tim was an enthusiastic sports aficionado and athlete (tennis, golf and hockey), remaining a faithful Toronto Maple Leafs fan. He was a member of Desert Mountain (AZ), Wood Ranch Golf Club (CA), the Saticoy Club (CA), Sunset Hills Country Club (CA) and Bayview Golf and Country Club (Thornhill).

A natural leader and entrepreneur, Tim had an unrivaled passion for life. He believed in people and strived to provide others with opportunities to succeed. His accomplishments were numerous but his most cherished times unquestionably were those spent with Lisa, Megan and Casey whether traveling, off-roading, RV-ing or on other adventures.

He will be profoundly missed by his loving family, cherished friends, colleagues and all who were fortunate enough to know him.

A private family interment will take place in Scottsdale, Arizona.

A gathering to celebrate Tim's life will be held in the Los Angeles area at a date to be determined. If desired, in lieu of flowers, please make a donation in Tim's memory to a charity of your choice and play a round of golf in his name.

Condolences may be left for the family at http://www.messingermortuary.com

BRIAN ROBERT FOX Born March 7, 1944

Brian died quietly at home in Dundas, Ontario on May 15, 2018.

He's survived by his daughter, Maggie Fox (David Thomas); beloved grandson, Julien Cameron; and brother, Herbert Barnsley "Barney" Fox (Diane).

One of Brian's first memories was of his elder brother asking, in the mid-1940's, if "The War was still on?" He would vividly recall thinking, as if the War were a radio, that his parents should simply "turn it off" if they wanted it to end. As a teenager, Brian was a challenge. Before one of their overseas trips, his parents Marjorie Jean Veale (1981) and Herbert Barnsley Fox Sr. (1980, former Chief Chemist at Stelco) went so far as to put him up in a local hotel, rather than leave him home alone to convene any highspirited social gatherings. After his wild early years, Brian went on to a respectable career as a professor of English at Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ontario.

His love for the intricacies and contradictions of the English language was expressed in wordplay, crosswords and an impressive ability to produce just the right line from Shakespeare.

Taking pleasure in intelligent conversation, laughter, fast cars, baseball and pool, Brian spent much of his life surrounded by many friends and good times.

Unfortunately, his final years were spent suffering from COPD, leaving him regretting ever smoking his first cigarette. All friends and family are invited to join us to raise a casual glass in his honour on Saturday, May 26th from 2-6 p.m. at The Hamilton Club, 6MainStreetEast,Hamilton.Please email maggiekfox@gmail.com for more details.

A man who felt strongly about our moral obligation to protect civil liberties and democratic freedoms, Brian was a longtime supporter of Amnesty International, where donations may be made in lieu of flowers.

To die: - to sleep: No more; and, by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation Devoutly to be wished - Hamlet, Act III, scene 1

LAURA ELLENOR GLASS (nee Lang) October 15, 1916 May 14, 2018

Peacefully at Trillium Manor, Orillia, in her 102nd year.

Beloved wife of the late Albert J. Glass, Provincial Court Judge.

Loving Mother of Bill, Barb, and Bob (Karen). Proud Nana of Jeff (Jen) and Amy, and Great-Nana of Tyler and Victoria. Survived by her dear youngest sister, Jean Hopkins. Predeceased by Martin, George, Mary Crossen, Amy Van Dusen, Howard and Don Lang.

From the family farm in Hamilton Twp, Northumberland County, Laura ventured at age 15 to Queen's University. She graduated in 1936 with an Honours B.A. in Mathematics and Physics. Laura taught High School in Markdale where she met Al, and in Picton, where they married in 1944. Upon Al's return from overseas service in WWII, they moved to Orillia.

Laura was involved in many Orillia community organizations including IODE Opportunity Pennywise Shop, University Women's Club, St.

Paul's UCW, Lions' Auxiliary, Couchiching Golf Club, Curling Club, Meals on Wheels, Horticultural Society, and the Duplicate Bridge Club.

Her passion for playing bridge resulted in the rank of ACBL Bronze Life Master.

The support of Helping Hands workers, and Laura's neighbours, Lynda and Dave Nichol and the Borelli family, enabled her to live in her home until the age of 97.

Thank you all. Thank you to Peggy, Joan, Sandy and others at the Bridge Club for driving Mom to and from the games that kept her mind so active and made her so happy. Thank you to all at Champlain Manor and Trillium Manor who took such good care of Mom.

At Laura's request, a private family service has taken place.

Messages of condolence are welcomed at http://www.mundellfuneralhome.com

DAVID MURRAY GRAHAM

At Toronto on Sunday, May 13, 2018, David Murray Graham, originally of Truro, NS, born September 2, 1929.

Husband to Elizabeth (née Toye), father to Anna, Nicholas and Ian (Jann), Granda to Fraser and Calum.

Dr. Graham, a psychologist, was a graduate of Dalhousie and the University of Toronto and was the former Director of the Counselling and Learning Skills Service at U. of T. The family will hold a private burial service.

JOHN HARWOOD

Commodore, Royal Canadian Navy (Retired). 85, of Canning, NS passed away on Wednesday, May 16, 2018 in the Valley Regional Hospital, Kentville.

He is survived by his wife of 61 years, Avril Harwood (Caton), children, Janet Methot of Oakville, ON, David Harwood of ChathamKent, ON, Jennifer Harrison of Toronto, ON. He was father-in-law to Paul Methot, Lisa Harwood, and Mark Harrison.

He was the adored grandfather of Katie Methot, Michelle Methot, Tom Harwood, Caroline Harwood and Rachel Harrison.

Born on August 9, 1932 in Chatham, Kent, England, John was the son of the late Arthur and Winifred "Win" Harwood, and brother to Mary Suddon (of Toronto, ON). John immigrated to Nova Scotia as a seven-year-old boy. Even as the family moved inland to Ontario, John was drawn to the sea and as a young man pursued a career in the Royal Canadian Navy. He would serve from 1951 to 1987. He commanded HMCS Qu'Appelle, HMCS Saskatchewan, HMCS Saguenay, and HMCS Algonquin. As Captain (N), he served as Commander Fifth Canadian Squadron. He was promoted to Commodore in 1983, and would serve as Commander Canadian Fleet and MARCOM HQ as Chief of Staff (Operations) before his retirement in 1987.

In retirement, John turned to apple growing in the Annapolis Valley, cider making, model engineering at the Trecothic Creek and Windsor Railway, and worked as a board member and president of the Blomidon Naturalists Society.

Visitation will be held from 6-8 p.m. on Monday, May 21, 2018 in the White Family Funeral Home Kentville. The funeral service and reception will be held at 11:00 a.m. Tuesday, May 22, 2018, in the Pereaux Baptist Church, Reverend Mike Veenema officiating. Private burial at a later date. Family flowers only by request. Donations in memory of John Harwood may be made to the CNIB. The Harwood family would like to extend grateful thanks for the exceptional care of the doctors and nurses at Valley Regional Hospital.

Funeral arrangements have been entrusted to White Family Funeral Home and Cremation Services, Kentville. Online inquiries and condolences may be directed to whitefamilyfuneralhome.com.

ANITA FOCHS HELLER (née Fuchs) April 26, 1926 - May 16, 2018

Born Karlsruhe, Germany Died Montreal, Canada Anita Fochs Heller died suddenly on May 16, 2018.

She is survived by her daughter, Monica (Jeremy Paltiel); son, Julian (Ronni Brott); grandchildren, Natalie Kaiser (Steve Richter), Nicolas Kaiser, Jake, Alexander and Andrée Heller; as well as her sister, Natalie Isaacs (Harvey Yarosky); and cousin, Sabine Jakubovic. She was predeceased by her husband, Irving Heller; by Eric Poznansky; and by her siblings, John Foch and Yvonne Knight (Allan Knight).

She was the daughter of Godfrey and Eugenia Fochs.

She leaves behind many nephews, nieces, in-laws, relatives and friends, of whom she was very fond.

She will also be deeply missed by her dear longtime friend, Joyce Cato.

She escaped Germany by way of Switzerland and France and arrived in Canada in June, 1940. She graduated first in her class at Westmount High School. At McGill University, she received the gold medal for her B.Sc., followed by an M.Sc. in parasitology, and an M.A. in sociology. Anita was a founding member of the McGill Institute for Learning in Retirement. She was committed to education, knowledge and family throughout her life.

A funeral service will be held on Sunday, May 27, 2018 at 1 p.m. at the Mount Royal Funeral Complex, 1297 Chemin de la Forêt, Outremont, Québec H2V 2P9.

Reception to follow.

DR. RENU KHULLAR

Dr. Renu Khullar, age 59, died May 16, 2018 after an un-choreographed dance with breast cancer. She initially took the lead, but the rapid dips and slides became too much after 18 months. She leaves her beloved son, Devanand and his father, Bert Buettner; her sister, Ritu (Rob Reynolds); nephews, Samir, Nikhil; her sister, Ruby/Maien; nephews, Aaron and Evan. Predeceased by father, Jitendra (1987) and mother, Pritam (2017). Missed by her dear godmother Margaret Kortes. Renu grew up in a loving immigrant family in Morinville, Alberta and never tired of boasting of her French-Canadian roots. After graduation from the University of Alberta Medical School, her goal to become bilingual by moving to Quebec temporarily, and then returning to small town Alberta to serve the French community, never materialized. She did become fluent, but settled into life in Montreal, then Gatineau where she had success: as an Asst.

Professor in the Dept. of Family Medicine at McGill, teaching residents and students in lowrisk obstetrics, and old-fashioned family practice from cradle to grave. Former trainees are still remembering the wisdom and common sense she shared. She had 30 years of caring for families, sometimes four generations at a time, and treasured every day as one in which she could help somebody. She was much loved by patients, colleagues and staff and was gratified to have served in French.

Renu always tried new things and new people; she surrounded herself with kindred spirits who participated in adventures small and large; and she flourished with the love and friendship they provided. There was room for sports, travel, theatre, music, and of course food and wine. She was a good friend, companion, sister, daughter, neighbour, and babysitter extraordinaire.

Renu's great joy was with children: four nephews; seven god-daughters (Courtney Parker, Kaela Parker, Amelia Lodge, Camille Proulx, Madison Stewart, Haley Stewart, Caroline Evans); and Little Sister, Sindy Thibert. The existence of her own Devanand ("God's Joy") changed her life and amplified the happiness that was in her nature.

A special thanks to dear friends Jo-Anne Matheson and Lisa Addario; the Palliative Care Team at the Ottawa General Hospital; the physicians, nurses, staff and volunteers at May Court Hospice.

Thank you to all for keeping her in the light as the circle of her life closed. In memoriam donations may be made to Hospice Care Ottawa, May Court site. A celebration will be held in Ottawa at the National Arts Centre in the O'Born Room on Thursday, May 24 from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m.

Arrangements entrusted to the care of Kelly Funeral Homes, Somerset Chapel 585 Somerset ST. W.

Ottawa, ON. K1R 5K1 613-235-6712, http://www.kellyfh.ca

GRACE EVANGELENE LAPP (nee Taylor)

Born November 3, 1929 in Toronto, passed away peacefully in her 89th year on May 10, 2018 at London Health Sciences, Victoria Hospital.

She was known as Sam, Gracie, and Momma Grace. Predeceased by her father, Tom; and mother, Eva; and her loving husband, John; her sisters, Doris and Mavis. Loving sister to Joyce Smith. Dear mother of Linda (Glenn) Bartlett of Exeter, ON., Sue Kyle of London, ON., Brian (Christine) Lapp of Belleville, ON.

Grandma will be sadly missed by her grandchildren Jason Kyle and Jennifer Lapp (Owen) and GreatGrandma to Lucy Grace. Auntie Grace will be lovingly remembered by her many nieces and nephews, great-nieces and nephews and great-great nephews.

Grace lived in Toronto, London, Peterborough, Rothesay, NB., and Ancaster. She loved to sew and knit, was an avid reader and loved to do crossword puzzles.

Grace was always up for a game of Scrabble or a round of Bridge.

While living in Rothesay, NB she took ukulele lessons and was introduced to quilting becoming an honorary lifetime member of the Kennebecasis Valley Quilting Guild. Many of her family and friends received one of her handquilted quilts.

Cremation has taken place. The family will receive friends at the Dodsworth & Brown Funeral Home Ancaster Chapel 378 Wilson St. E., Ancaster, ON. (905-648-3852) from 12:30-1:30 p.m. on Sunday, May 27, 2018 until the Time of Remembrance at 1:30 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to a charity of your choice.

Online condolences available at http://www.dbancaster.ca

CRAIG PETER MALCOLM

We must start at a different place than the very end: a loving husband, dad, grandad, brother, uncle, son-in-law, brother-inlaw and friend. Craig was a joy to be around as a result of his vitality, zest for life and never ending energy. He was a hero at heart, with superior integrity and a strong sense of right from wrong - but also a mischievous prankster that ensured good fun! What a wonderful, adventurous life he lived as an accomplished skier, photographer, curler, biker, golfer and entrepreneur, doing everything he did so well, and with great passion. Craig was an extraordinary man who was knowledgeable in many areas and could always be counted on. His love and support was limitless.

Craig died tragically and suddenly on Tuesday, May 15, 2018, in Toronto.

Much loved husband and soulmate to Kelly and father to their children, Evan and Audrey.

A loving father to Peter, Elspeth, Tracey (Shane), and Jeffrey (Tiffany). Granddad to Abbey and Cole. Brother to Richard, Robin Singleton, Carol O'Grady (deceased) and brother-in-law to Tom O'Grady and John (Janice) and Greg (Caroline) Townsend.

Son-in-law to Lois and Doug Townsend. Friend to many.

Craig made outstanding contributions in the areas of fraud, criminal intelligence, major crime and homicide for over 40 years while in the Ontario Provincial Police, Peel Regional Police, and most recently as Senior Managing Director at CSO Consulting Services Inc.

A visitation will be held on Monday, May 21st from 2:00 to 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. at Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Avenue West, Toronto.

A celebration of Craig's life will be held at 10:30 a.m. Tuesday, May 22, 2018 at Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Blvd, Toronto.

In lieu of flowers, and if desired, a donation in Craig's memory to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

GORDON MATHIESON MB, ChB, MSc (McGill), FRCPC March 11, 1927 - May 17, 2018 Passed peacefully, surrounded by his loving family, on Thursday, May, 17, 2018. Gordon was the youngest son of James and Isobella; and was also predeceased by his brother, David; and sisters, Evelyn, Isabel and Marjorie.

After graduating as a medical doctor in 1949, he had a long medical career. He was involved in both practicing and teaching, which saw his medical career span 50 years from The Banting Institute, McGill University, Montreal Neurological Institute and eventually to Memorial University. He was a proud co-founder of the Canadian Association of Neuropathologists. Gordon eventually retired at 79! Gordon was a loving and devoted husband, father, grandfather, brother, uncle, and friend. Gordon leaves with fond and loving memories his wife of 47 years, Julia (nee Parker); children, Alexander (Elizabeth) and Sarah (Bryan); grandchildren, Duncan, Katie, Hillary, Malcolm, and Parker.

To send a message of condolence, please visit http://www.carnells.com

MARGARET IRENE MCBEAN (Seed)

Following an exciting, happy and fulfilling life, Irene, beloved and loving wife of Frederick George McBean, quietly slipped into the world beyond on May 10, 2018.

Proud and devoted Mother of four sons and Mother-by-marriage to their wives, James and Patricia of Scarborough, ON., John and Sharon of Edmonton, Jeff and Janet of White Rock, N.S., and Jordan and Carla of Calgary.

Cherished Nana to grandchildren, Samantha (Kate), Amanda (Nick), Sean (Catherine), Scott (Katie), Paul (Alana), Cory and Ben. Devoted Margeaux to her five great-grandchildren, Briar, Sawyer, Adelyn, Spencer and Felix. Irene was the oldest child and only daughter of Margaret (Burgess) and James Seed of Winnipeg and Toronto.

Irene was the consummate homemaker, delighting in everything to do with presenting a warm and inviting home atmosphere, being a lover of cooking and baking and entertaining as well as the "old fashioned" arts of sewing, knitting, crossword puzzles and writing letters. Irene loved old things, old friends, old books, old places and old furniture, and especially her collection of antique jewelry, which she wore with elegant dignity and elan. She enjoyed her bridge games with good friends and loved to travel.

She and Fred felt blessed to have been able to visit and explore many varied and exotic parts of the world since their retirement to White Rock, B.C. in 1987. But most of all, Irene loved "her boys."

Nothing gave her more pleasure than to be with family members, singly or in groups; her boys, their wives, the grandchildren and great-grandchildren all were her pride and joy. She was predeceased by her husband Fred in 2011, her parents, and two brothers, John and Robert.

Irene's family wishes to express their appreciation and love for her friends and staff at Touchmark at Wedgewood over the last six years and the doctors and nurses at the Misceracordia Hospital for their care and compassion over the last few weeks.

There will be a Remembrance Tea held at Touchmark at Wedgewood on Saturday, June 9, 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.

Although Irene loved flowers, her wish was that donations be made to the Cancer Society for Leukemia Research. Written tributes can be made to http://www.dignitymemorial.ca If I should die and leave you here a while Be not like others, sore undone, who keep Long vigils by the silent dust, and weep.

For my sake - turn again to life and smile, Nerving thy heart and trembling hand to do Something to comfort other hearts than thine.

Complete those dear, unfinished tasks of mine And I, perchance, may therein comfort you.

- Mary Lee Hall

GARY FRANCIS MCCAULEY

Gary Francis McCauley died on Sunday, May 13, 2018, at Queensway-Carleton Hospital.

He was born April 1, 1940, in Cochrane, Ontario, Canada. He went "Up to the Spirit in the Sky" at the age of 78. He was an Anglican priest, a Member of Parliament, an adjudicator with the Immigration and Refugee Board and the Veterans Review and Appeal Board. He was also a novelist and essayist with a quick and inventive sense of humour, a passion for the downtrodden and a compulsive attention to planning meals months in advance.

Gary has written three novels beginning with Soldier Boys, the story of a young man who goes off to fight Hitler and comes home badly scarred by his war. The novels which follow, Faith Of Our Fathers and Morgan Le Fay tell how the man's damaged psyche affects his life and the life of his son. He also wrote Fraud and Disability: The SNAFU at Veterans Affairs.

He is survived by his sister, Jane Sullivan; his former wife, Dianne Archibald; his children, Randall, Tim and Heather. His loving partner and friend, Maire J. O'Callaghan; and his purrfect pals, Daisy, Sadie, and Casey Coal McCauley, are all bereft without his loving care and sustenance.

Friends may pay respects at St. John the Evangelist Anglican Church, 154 Somerset St. W., Ottawa on Wednesday, May 23, 2018 after 1 p.m., followed by a Service in Memory of Gary at 2 p.m. Memorial donations may be made in Gary's name to the Ottawa Humane Society. Share memories and condolences at https://www.arbormemorial.ca/ en/kelly-somerset

DONALD ALLEN MEASNER

Passed away peacefully on Saturday, May 5, 2018 at Hamilton General Hospital, Neuroscience Ward, with his wife, Josephine Meeker and his niece, Wendy Nelson, by his side. Born in Osceola, Wisconsin on the St.

Croix River, on January 29, 1925, he was the youngest of nine siblings born to Edward and Mary (Busch) Measner, two of whom died in early childhood. He was predeceased by the others, but has many, nieces and nephews and grandnieces and nephews in Canada and the United States. He was also predeceased by William "Bill" Meeker and Edythe Meeker.

His studies at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he studied Landscape Architecture, were truncated by the Second World War, when he served his country in the European Theatre in France, Germany (Saarland) and Austria. His battalion returned for redeployment to the Asian Theatre when the war ended.

After some time, serving as a Landscape Architect in Arlington National Cemetery, he taught Cartography in Fort Belvoir, Virginia in the Engineer School.

His next posting was to Turkey, where he was assigned as a Geographic Attache on a team with the American Embassy in Turkey. The team traversed most roads in Turkey. Describing by word, map, and photograph the physical geography and human aspects of the landscape from horizon to horizon.

On return to the USA, he entered private life as a Cartographer and Map Editor at Rand McNally and Hagstrom in New York City. He and Jo met in graduate school at Columbia University in New York City where both were studying in the Department of Geography.

He left again for Turkey where he was studying "The Role of Sugar Beets as an Economic Innovator."

During this time, he lived and studied the industry in many villages in Central Turkey in the region of Kayseri. As the result of some publications in USA, claiming that North American Academics were really spies, all American academics in Turkey were forced to leave the country.

After his return to USA, he and Jo were married at McMaster University Chapel on June 22, 1968. They enjoyed many years of being Geographers together and theirs has been a marriage of true kindred spirits. He was active in the Thorold Horticultural Society where he was a Director and was honored with a "Life Membership."

He was also a Director on the Ontario Horticultural Society.

He was awarded the Queen's Confederation Medal for his contributions to his fellow citizens and his community. His bestloved work was as Cartographer and Map Editor on the National Historical Atlas of Canada Project, Volume II, The 19th Century which may be found in schools and libraries around the world. He was a true renaissance man; he loved people and was often called upon to help others, which he did with a great heart and caring.

Cremation has taken place and there will be a private family Graveside Service for the interment of ashes, at the Meeker Family Plot in the Hamilton Woodland Cemetery. A celebration of life will take place at a later date, as also, will the interment of ashes in the Measner Family Plot in Farmington, Wisconsin. Please sign Donald's online book of condolence at http://www.turnerfamilyfuneralhome.ca

MICHAEL MERRALL

Passed away on Wednesday, May 16, 2018 at his home in Milton, Ontario at the age of 59. Loving father of Leah.

Beloved son of Iris Keith and the late Charles Merrall.

Cherished brother of Karen (Ted) Giesbrecht. Dear uncle to Amy (Anthony) Musclow and Matthew (Christina) Giesbrecht and great-uncle of Marley and Oliver Giesbrecht.

Predeceased by infant brother, Iain Keith.

Michael enjoyed many years working as a Sports Marketing Executive with International Management Group (IMG) and his own company, High Performance Marketing Inc.

He proudly created Epic Tour, Canada's largest GranFondo.

When he wasn't working, he was cycling, playing with his dog Phoenix, or talking about sports and life with his daughter, Leah.

A memorial gathering in celebration of Michael's life will take place on Sunday, May 27, 2018 from 2:00 to 4:00 p.m. at the Henry Walser Funeral Home, 507 Frederick Street, Kitchener, 519-749-8467.

As expressions of sympathy, donations to Right to Play Canada (http://www.rightoplay.ca) would be appreciated by the family.

Visit http://www.henrywalser.com for Michael's memorial.

MICHAEL MILDE

Professor Dr. Michael Milde, Director Emeritus, McGill Institute of Air and Space Law.

With deep sorrow, we announce that Michael Milde passed away on May 6, 2018 in London, Ontario.

He leaves behind his adored wife of 63 years, Marie; daughter, Michaela (David Monod); son, Michael (Valerie Mills-Milde); granddaughters, Clara and Margaret Milde; grandson, Adam Monod; and granddaughter, Emma Monod.

Born and raised in Prague, he first studied, then taught at Charles University. In 1966 he moved with his family to Montreal, where he lived for more than four decades before moving finally to London.

He travelled the world in the service of the United Nations, and served with distinction as a scholar in the field of Air and Space Law at McGill University.

With love and care, he influenced the lives of many individuals around the world.

A private cremation has taken place. A memorial service for friends and family will be held at the Harris Funeral Home, 220 St.

James Street in London, Ontario on May 30 at 3 p.m., reception to follow. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a donation in his name either to St. Joseph's Hospice (London, Ontario) or to UNICEF, a charity that he admired and supported.

Many thanks to all who will remember him, and honour his memory.

PHILIP KIRMAN PEACOCK

Passed away peacefully on May 8, 2018 at Bridgepoint Active Healthcare in Toronto, with his loving family by his side.

Devoted father to Beverley, Phillip, Christopher (Marsha) and Johnathan. Grandfather to Colin, Cynthia, Ian, Sara, Bronson, Marshal and Heather, Greatgrandfather to Logan. Philip was predeceased by his wife, Iris Estelle Peacock.

Philip was born on April 29, 1923 at Hull, England to Lillian Emily Kirman and Ralph Duckels Peacock; he was predeceased by his sister, Betty and is survived by his elder sister, Thelma Howden.

Philip had recently celebrated his 95th birthday.

Philip left home at the age of 14 and joined the Merchant Navy.

Philip travelled all over the world during his time at sea, a passion for travel that he would later share with his wife Iris. He served with the British Merchant Navy throughout the Second World War, on ships carrying the supplies necessary to sustain the United Kingdom during the war.

Philip was a quiet man who didn't speak much about his time at sea, we recently learned that he had been involved in the Evacuation of Dunkirk.

Philip and Iris were introduced at the Overseas League by Hilda Waddell who became a lifelong friend to the couple and who became known as Auntie Hilda to the family. Iris had travelled to England to visit her parents and returned to Canada to be married to Philip on October 12, 1954 in Cornwall, Ontario. They purchased their first home in the newly created development of Agincourt, later moving to the Toronto Beaches area, where they would remain for the rest of their lives.

Philip had a long career with Sears Canada, moving up through the ranks to the buying office, where he stayed until his first retirement. He eventually came to join his wife in the business they founded together, Estelle Designs and Sales Limited. Philip would have two more retirements at the company he help found before eventually giving up his office when he was in his early 80's. We were fortunate and proud to see them both at the company's 40th anniversary in 2016.

Philip had a love of travel which was shared by his wife Iris, they travelled the world together and kept a map in their home office of all the places they had been.

In later years the couple could be found planning their next cruise, sometimes taking their friend Edna along. Philip maintained a keen interest in the family, business and current affairs right up to his passing. He loved nature and always had an eye on the horizon, often to be heard to say "look at that sky." You will be missed by all of us Dad.

HANS WILHELM PIRC 1927 - 2018

It is with great sadness that the Pirc family announces the sudden but peaceful passing of Hans Wilhelm Pirc on May 14, 2018.

Beloved husband of Ingrid of 62 years; loving father of Monica Rok (Larry Finnie) and grandfather of Matthew and Nicole Rok and Robyn and Jessica Finnie, he will be greatly missed by all who knew him. Hans was a kind and caring man whose love, commitment, and pride in his family was evident in all he did.

A Celebration of Life for Hans will be held at the Hansa Haus (located at 6650 Hurontario St., Mississauga) on Friday, May 25th from 6 p.m. - 9 p.m. Hans loved animals and was committed to their humane treatment and care.

In lieu of flowers, donations made to CETFA (Canadians for Ethical Treatment of Farmed Animals) would be appreciated by his family. Funeral arrangements entrusted to Glen Oaks Funeral Home. For further details regarding the Celebration of Life, please visit http://www.glenoaks.ca

EDITH PRUSSKY

On Thursday, May 17, 2018 at Baycrest Apotex. Beloved wife of the late Leonard Prussky. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Alan and Gail Prussky, Jack and the late Cheryl Krepel, and the late Larry Prussky. Devoted grandmother of Steven and Lek, Jordan and Lesley, Lauren, Corinne, Josh, Yitzchak, Shlomo and Lea, Joel, Bonnie, Robert, Anthony, and Daniel. Lovingly remembered by Nancy Prussky. A private family graveside service was held in the Beth Lida Synagogue section of Roselawn Cemetery on Friday, May 18, 2018. Memorial donations may be made to The Baycrest Foundation, 416-785-2875.

JOHN STATON SPEAKMAN C.M., M.D. , FRCS(C)

Passed away peacefully on May 13, 2018. John was born in Toronto, the eldest son of the late Horace and Mary Speakman; loving husband for 65 years of Betty; devoted father of Jane (Stephen), David, Nicola (David), Jennifer (David) and Heather (Neil). Cherished grandfather of Joanne, Louise, Andrew, John and Matthew. Predeceased by brother, Peter.

John attended Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto, graduating from medical school in 1952.

John's early years at Upper Canada instilled in him an interest in natural science which became a passion and a continuous source of pleasure that stayed with John throughout his life. His concern for the natural environment led to a lifetime support of the Nature Conservancy of Canada.

In particular, he supported the Conservancy's effort to protect and preserve the Carden Alvar, a unique natural landscape east of Orillia.

He was a caring and dedicated ophthalmologist and the source of inspiration to generations of ophthalmologists. He was instrumental in making the Eye Department at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre one of the major teaching units at the University of Toronto. For more than four decades John was at the forefront of providing eye care services in the High Arctic. This exposure to Canada's north had a profound and life-long effect on him.

In 2008, John was appointed as a Member of the Order of Canada.

The appointment recognized John's commitment as an educator and his dedication to the people of Canada's North.

John's life, and the life he shared with Betty, was a montage of rich experiences. Their time together at the family cottage on Lake Simcoe, on the tennis courts at The Toronto Lawn Tennis Club and on their bikes in Europe created happy memories. Their many friends, young and old, brought tremendous joy to their lives. John was also an inspiration to his grandchildren. His ability to connect with young children, whether making maple syrup at the cottage, finding a pileated woodpecker in the ravine or counting frogs in the pond, was remarkable.

The family wish to thank the staff at Belmont House for their compassionate care of John.

Memorial service will be held on Tuesday, May 22, 2018 at Grace Church on-the-Hill, 300 Lonsdale Rd., Toronto, at 2:00 p.m.

Flowers gratefully declined.

VIOLET STEPHENSON (Stevie)

Peacefully passed away at North York General Hospital on Tuesday, May 15, 2018, in her 105th year. Violet will be remembered by her family and friends in both Canada and Ireland.

Violet enjoyed a long and fulfilling retirement after many years as a respected member of the Toronto Western Hospital nursing team.

Special thanks to North York Seniors Centre, VHA Home Health Care, Canadian Helen Keller Centre and North York General Hospital.

Private funeral to be held at St. James Cemetery, Toronto.

EDMUND STEWART TELFER

It is with a deep sense of sorrow and loss that our family announces the passing of Edmund (Eamon) Stewart Telfer on April 29, 2018 at the age of 87.

Edmund S. Telfer was born on December 13, 1930 in Caledonia, Queens County, Nova Scotia, the son of Edmund Stewart Telfer, Sr. and Adelaide Louise Crooker. Ed grew up in rural Nova Scotia, where he developed a love for the natural world. He acquired a B.Sc. in Forestry from the University of New Brunswick in 1953. After working as a forester (timber cruiser) and land surveyor, Edmund returned to school, where he obtained a B.Ed. specializing in teaching science from Acadia University in 1962 and an M.Sc. in Wildlife Biology, also from Acadia University, in 1965. His thesis "Studies of moose and white-tailed deer ecology in northern Nova Scotia" set the tone for much of his professional career.

Upon graduation, Edmund was hired by the Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. For the next 31 years, he worked tirelessly, applying his intense curiosity about the natural world to his job, first as a wildlife biologist and later as a research scientist. Working first in New Brunswick and then in Alberta, Ed led research projects that studied ungulates - in particular moose and white-tailed deer - and the impact of forest management on their habitat. This research included work on understanding the impact of timber harvesting on watersheds along the eastern slopes of the Alberta Rockies.

He became a distinguished moose and habitat biologist and a loggerhead shrike expert. In the latter part of his career, he focused on the habitat requirements of forest birds. He became an expert adviser on environmental impact statements for various development projects in the Alberta Rockies.

Edmund S. Telfer was an active member of the science community. He was a longtime member of The Wildlife Society and served on their Publication Awards Committee. In 1994, the Alberta Chapter of the Society awarded him the "William Rowan Distinguished Service Award" for his outstanding contributions to the management and conservation of wildlife and their habitats. While a member of the Canadian Institute of Forestry, he served as an associate editor for the Forestry Chronicle scientific journal. When he was a member of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations, he participated in many international conferences on fish and wildlife habitat and coordinated the group's work in Canada. He was also a long-term member of The North American Moose Conference and Workshop where, for a time, he was an associate editor with the research journal, Alces. In 1984, this association recognized him with their "Distinguished Moose Biologist" award for his outstanding work towards the management of moose. Ed retired in 1996, and it is noteworthy that many of his accomplishments were after that. Past the official retirement, Ed served as a Scientist Emeritus with the CWS for several years, attending moose conferences, such as in Alaska, to maintain his professional interests and provide his insight.

Ed loved to read and he had a tremendous memory for what he read. He also was a great storyteller and a great listener. He loved family and he loved visiting with people. Ed's character was exemplified by kindness, a compassionate heart, humble, meek, patient, self-controlled, thankful, and showing perfect courtesy towards all people. Because of these characteristics, Ed was well respected by his colleagues and associates within the scientific community, and, quite simply, by anyone who had the distinct pleasure of meeting and knowing him. He firmly believed in the benefits of education, being a teacher himself, and he was a mentor of many young biology students over the years. He was a guest speaker at various universities and organizations, nationally and internationally, speaking on the topic of wildlife and habitat relationships. He took his family on many field excursions, enlisting their aid which provided them with a unique childhood experience. As a retiree, Eamon took up Scots Gaelic and mentored others in the language. For many years he attended summer sessions at the Gaelic College in St. Anne's, Cape Breton Island. And he kept in regular contact with the "CWS Old-timers" and other friends.

Ed was predeceased by his former wife, Leona (Gorman) Telfer, who was the Mother of their six children; and infant children, Kenneth Clifton and Isabel Anne. He is survived by his second wife, Morag; by his six children, Dan (Mary) Telfer (Okotoks, AB), Angus (Hazel Harper) Telfer (Vancouver, BC), Christine Telfer (Dennis Livingstone) (Riverview, NB), Ellen (Peter) Paczkowski, Jean (Charles) Ottosen (Regina, SK), Kathleen (Dave) MacNearney (Montague, PEI); by Morag's three children, Scott (Theresa) Ozeroff, Kimberly (Mike) Ozeroff, and Christopher (Sharla) Ozeroff; and by his 15 grandchildren, 8 great-grandchildren, and 7 step-grandchildren. Humanity and the world has lost a great person and he will be fondly missed! Condolences: http://www.serenity.ca. Serenity Funeral Service, South Edmonton; or http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/edmontonjournal/ obituary.aspx?n=edmund-stewarttelfer&pid=188900322&fhid=15398.

COMFORT

Happy 60th Anniversary to Doug and Darlene Comfort!!

CLARENCE W. COLE "Peter" January 26, 1937 - May 18, 2006

Lovingly remembered and sadly missed for 12 years by Jennifer, Carole and family.

BETTY RUTH MERRITT January 26, 1925 March 10, 2017 ALLEN SAMUEL MERRITT November 23,1922 March 30, 2018

Fred and Ann (Patrick) invite you to celebrate the lives of their parents Betty and Allen Merritt. A drop-in Reception will be held on Sunday, June 10, 2018 between 2 and 5 p.m. to give family, friends, former colleagues and students an opportunity to mingle and share their favourite memories.

It would be wonderful if you could join us.

The celebration of life will be held at Turner and Porter, Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor Street West, Toronto.

Parking is available on-site.

ANTHONY H. MARINUS VANDER VOET "TONY" March 24, 1945 - April 22, 2018

Neither severe malnourishment at birth during the Hunger Winter, 1945 in The Netherlands, nor immigration to Edmonton, 1950, nor a major bout with cancer in 2000 could snuff out Tony's determined, curious and lovable spirit.

Until the cancer returned.

Scientist, Teacher, Artist, Leader, Public Servant (Ontario), World traveller, Photographer, Tony embraced his life and adventure. He remained a devoted, much loved husband, father, grandfather, Tio, friend and mentor.

He met Susan McCrae at the University of Alberta where he acquired his MSc. They both sang in the Mixed Chorus and married in 1966.

Tony and Susan worked through CUSO in Bogota, Colombia, 1967 - 1969 and were gifted with two children: Jairo Raul Garzon, 13, and David (Ximena) the natural way. Tony led the Chemistry Department, Universidad Javeriana and wrote a Spanish text book for first year students. In 1970, Tony began PhD (Inorganic Chemistry) studies and taught at the University of Toronto.

In early 1973, the family pursued new adventure in Chile. Tony taught at the Universidad Téchnica del Estado, in Santiago, an endeavour interrupted by the brutal Military Coup d'état in Chile, September 1973. During this period, a third child, Andrea (Karen) was born.

In 1980, Tony joined the Ontario Geological Survey and pioneered advanced analytical techniques to assay geological samples for rare earths. A contract with the Thai Government to implement similar services led Tony and family to embark on an around the world tour in 1987 to and from an 8 month sojourn in Bangkok.

Among other OPS appointments: Program Director, Ontario Science Centre; Executive Assistant, Deputy Elaine Todres, Policy Director; Ontario rep, international ITER project.

Tony's art grew after retirement to encompass landscape painting, printmaking and photography. He and Susan shared a love of art and travelled to paint in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, The Netherlands, Ireland, Scotland, the Rockies, Royal Botanical Gardens, Killarney Provincial Park, Alaska, and Arizona. Their last major trip was to the Southern Patagonia Icefield in the Andes.

Tony applied his organizational abilities to several arts organizations as President, Colour and Form Society and Ontario Society of Artists; Treasurer, John B. Aird Gallery and board of Pastel Artist of Canada and Headwaters Arts.

His work "Inspired by the Glacier" won first prize, International Juried Online Exhibition, Society of Canadian Artists, just before his death. For shows and paintings: http://www.gallerymarinus.com.

Art is one legacy, but Tony would say the more important one was his family and large circle of friends. He was so proud of his children, Jairo, David and Andrea, their accomplishments and the families they formed, and of his adopted sister, Carmen 'Tita.' He burst with pride talking about his grandchildren and newest loves: Christian, an honours student at St. Francis Xavier with big plans; Julian, the affable big hearted hockey player; Emma Grace, his smarty pants princess who, at five, beat him at matching games.

'Tio Tony' is missed by relations: nieces and nephews, his brother Larry, in-laws Scott and Bob, Delia, Ilda, Lynne and Arla. His adopted friendship brothers, sisters, nieces and nephews which formed our family group in Ontario and Chile for decades, they miss his wit, story- telling, and love.

His broad circles of friends lined up to see him in his last days and we were buoyed by love, support and the celebration of his life. He drew crowds to the Palliative Care Unit at Princess Margaret Hospital from Chile, Mexico, both coasts of Canada, the USA -testament to the well lived life of a much loved man.

Please make a donation in Tony's name to your own charity, cancer services or the Palliative Care Unit at Princess Margaret. And to support Tony's artistic legacy, he would tell you to go out personally, buy a piece of original art from an artist and hang it on your wall.

Tony has been cremated as per his wishes. A celebration of life is planned for July, announcements of details on Tony's Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/gallerymarinus/ Photo by Geoffrey Gardner

PETER HENRY WILLIAMS

75, of Leaside, passed away May 16, 2018, surrounded by his loving family, at Michael Garron Hospital in Toronto.

Born in St Austell Cornwall, England on August 15, 1942 Peter was the son of Philip and Mary and brother to Patricia. He graduated with a BSc from University College in London in 1964. Peter is survived by his beloved wife of 52 years, Peggy Bruce Williams.

Together they immigrated to Canada in 1967. He enjoyed a long career in education as a chemistry teacher (Oakwood & Humberside) and later as an administrator (TDSB) and science text book author. Peter was deeply religious with his faith and church life (St James Bond United and Fairlawn Avenue United) forming a central part of his character. He loved music, reading, crosswords, volunteering, socializing and watching his children and grandchildren grow. Peter is also survived by his children, AnneMarie (Jason Wilson) and Philip (Holly Fennell); and his adored grandchildren, Hillary, Liam, Eliza and Adala.

A celebration of Peter's life will be held at Fairlawn Avenue United Church, 28 Fairlawn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario on Wednesday, May 23rd at 2 p.m. with a reception to follow.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Canadian Diabetes Association or the Kidney Foundation or the United Church of Canada would be appreciated.


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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page P37

Bill O'Reilly. Harvey Weinstein. Charlie Rose. Despite the Me Too reckoning underway south of the border, corporate Canada has yet to fully confront sexual discrimination, harassment and assault in the workplace.

We get it. Talking about this stuff is difficult, for both the women who've lived it and the men worried about how their own actions might be construed through the Me Too lens. But this is an issue corporate Canada needs to tackle. Consider this: One in two Canadian women have experienced sexual harassment at work, according to a 2018 Angus Reid survey, and 89% say they use strategies to avoid unwanted sexual advances in the workplace. Yet, in a survey late last year of 153 Canadian executives--95% of whom were male--the Gandalf Group reported that 94% said sexual harassment was not a problem at their companies.

It is a problem, and not just for women. Sexual misconduct is also a business risk. For Weinstein, it meant corporate bankruptcy. But it can also mean litigation and settlement costs, reputational harm, losses in productivity, and challenges in attracting and retaining talent. Indeed, there's no way to know how many capable women have been driven out of their jobs--or entire sectors--because of this type of behaviour. The upper ranks of most companies are a largely male domain. Among Canada's top 100 companies by revenue, just four are run by women, and only three of the 100 largest firms have achieved gender parity on their boards, according to Catalyst. Yet the business case for gender diversity is clear: Catalyst has found that companies with more female directors outperform their peers on major metrics, including return on equity and return on sales. And as a recent Harvard Business Review article noted, harassment "flourishes in workplaces where men dominate in management and women have little power."

We reached out to dozens of organizations and individuals to find women willing to share their Me Too moments. In the following pages, five women tell us their stories, ranging from subtle (and not-so-subtle) sexism to outright assault at work.

CHRISTINE LAPERRIERE

TORONTO Management consultant and executive director of the Women of Influence Advancement Centre When I was 25, so 15 years ago, I'd been working as a design engineer for one of the Big Three in Detroit, and I got the opportunity to move to an assembly plant in Ontario to launch a new vehicle. It was a really big deal, considering I was one of the younger engineers. I'd initially been turned down because I was too green.

Then a manager at the plant--a man I'd worked with before--offered me the job anyway. I jumped at it, thinking, This is so cool. I've been hired because of the great work I did for him before.

For the next 18 months, he sexually harassed me on a daily basis.

I'd moved by myself to Toronto--I had no family or friends here--and within a couple of weeks, I could sense a bit of tension about me joining this group. I was one of only two female engineers on the team and one of very few in the entire plant. I found out later that my boss had been saying, "I'm hiring this young, hot redhead. You'll love her." That was the start of it.

He was 25 years older than me, and he had no problem flirting with me. One day, I came into work with a purple sweater on, and I had just bought new makeup. I was talking to him--"Hey, this report needs to get filed, work, work, work"--and he said, "I love how your eyeshadow matches your sweater.

I just love it." He was just staring at me, and it was really awkward.

Another time, he said, "I got back from the States last night, and I almost stopped by your place--I bought you a fifth of whisky, your favourite kind."

We both lived downtown, and I was concerned enough that I went to the security desk of my condo and told them that if my boss ever dropped by, they were not to let him in or call me--just say I wasn't available. That's how sure I was that he wasn't joking.

He was a real macho guy and had a really big ego. But he also had a terrible work ethic, and one day I had to cover for him at an important meeting because he just didn't show up. As I was walking back to my desk, I saw him and said, "Where have you been?" And he looked at me and said, "Oooh, am I in trouble? Are you gonna spank me?" All the men in the department would tell me, "Christine, you need to report this. This is harassment." But for 18 months, they watched it happen and never spoke up on my behalf. And I didn't report it, either. I was so worried about how I would be perceived. I wanted to be tough enough to handle this environment. I kept thinking, I'm such a freaking stereotype. I didn't want to be the female who complains to HR. I knew what I was getting into when I signed up to work at a plant. But the hundreds of blue-collar guys on the floor were very kind and respectful. I never thought in a million years that harassment would come from my boss.

Fast-forward to the launch, and there were a lot of people up from Michigan, including this really tough female engineer. She, my boss and I were on a conference call with the folks in Detroit, and somebody was asking about one of the issues I had to report on. So I leaned over the table to speak into the phone, and I heard my boss giggling behind me. I turned around and gave him a dirty look, and then leaned back over the table--and he swatted me on the butt with a folder, giggling.

When I walked out of the meeting, I was humiliated. I was beet red.

And the female engineer was livid. She told me, "That was completely inappropriate. If you don't go to HR, I'm going to HR." Of course it took another female to see it, to recognize it and to do something about it--not for me, necessarily, but for the sake of the company's culture.

So that day, I finally reported my boss, and HR did a full investigation.

Six weeks later, all of a sudden, he was gone. But he didn't get fired--they demoted him out of management and into a regular engineering job, and tucked him away in a basement research facility back in the States. He got to keep his job because he was so close to retirement, which I think is bullshit. That's what they felt was a fair repercussion for this.

When I was first hired, I was put into the company's high-potential program, which had just 50 spots open each year. They paid for my engineering master's degree and gave me a day off a week to do it. But within six months of the sexual harassment investigation, I left the company.

Emotionally, it just wore me out. It took all the fun out of being a hardworking female trying to create a reputation for myself based on hard work. I went into management consulting, and today, because of that experience and a handful of other ones, I spend my days helping companies retain and advance their high-potential women.

The best thing I've heard somebody say around Me Too was: "It's not so much the harassment as it is the abuse of power." That nailed it for me. We females, we're not that fragile. We've all been at a bar and heard guys talking about a girl's chest, and we didn't go cry into our pillows because we couldn't handle it. It's about abuse of power. That's what the Weinstein thing was all about. These women really felt like they needed to have a relationship with him in order to make it in show business.

In my own case, as much as I didn't like the harassment, I had to work for him. He was my boss. So I didn't shut it down. I tried to keep things light, because I had to report to him. He did my performance reviews.

He was in charge of my raises. All those guys said to me, "You need to tell him to knock it off." Well, that's easy for you to say--I reported to him! This kind of behaviour is why there's a lack of women in STEM. In university, there were 12 girls in our program. They called us the "Calendar Girls of Engineering." And at the plant, I always felt like I was the oddball. The guys all went out together and drank, but I had to be very careful not to be the drunk girl at the bar, because I knew it would come back to haunt me. Meanwhile, the guys could get completely bombed, and it didn't hurt their careers--those were the stories they bonded over.

In the years since, I've spent a lot of time consulting with companies on how to retain women, and until the Me Too movement started, as soon as I'd bring up sexual harassment, you'd be amazed at how many people--especially in HR--didn't want to talk about it. It's like, "Oh, wait, that's too controversial." People are so superficial when they talk about women's advancement: "Work hard, find a mentor, rah-rah!" But we're doing women a disservice. We need to tell these stories. This is the harsh reality of being a female in a male-dominated environment.

SUSAN LOMAS

SECHELT, B.C. President of Lions Gate Geological Consulting and founder of the Me Too Mining Association

I have more than 30 years of experience in the mining industry. As a geoscientist, I've lived and worked at mining sites all over the world, including northern Canada, Mongolia, Ghana, Senegal, Romania and South America.

My first job out of university was at a mine in Timmins, Ontario. For three months, the mine manager wouldn't even let me go underground. When a new chief geologist came in and insisted I be allowed to go underground, the walls of the office I shared with the samplers were suddenly papered with pornography. I would take them down, and they'd come up again. I tried to talk to the guys about it, and finally one of them threatened me--if I ever touched those pictures again, they were going to put my hand in the rock crusher and break all my fingers. It was very intimidating, and my manager already didn't want a woman at the site, so there was no support. But I'm stubborn, and I wasn't going to let them chase me away.

Remote mine sites can be some of the most challenging. You're so outnumbered, with everybody watching and commenting on every aspect of what you do. As a woman, you're aware of where everyone is--just vigilant, constantly. It wears you down.

I once spent two months at a camp in Ghana with 100 to 150 men. There was not another woman in the whole camp. And the room they gave me was outside the main compound, exposed to the road. Every morning, 300 fieldworkers would gather outside my door to get their assignments for the day. I had no solid curtains, and it felt very uncomfortable. Just walking into the eating area--there was no welcome.

If I sat down, they moved away. It was very isolating.

I also spent a year in Venezuela with a crew of diamond drillers, which is a highly masculinized industry. They'd talk about the way they were treating women in the community, and it was horrifying to have no power--or what I perceived as no power. There were local women, typically from very poor communities, who thought they were in "serious" relationships with drillers.

They would turn up at the site to find out their "boyfriend" had gone back to Canada. The drillers had no regard for them as human beings.

I've talked to some men about difficult situations they've observed where they didn't know what to do. We need to encourage men to overcome the discomfort associated with speaking out. Yet most of the companies I dealt with at the time were Canadian, using Canadian drillers. And I'd have conversations with management about the culture that was allowed to develop at these sites and to offer more education. But I hear from other female geologists that not much has changed.

It's great that organizations and companies are trying to get more women interested in the mining industry, but until we change the culture, my feeling is they're not going to stay.

That was one of my motivations for starting the Me Too Mining Association. I've seen what I call the cult of personality in a lot of mining companies, where the CEO is very aggressive or a bully and the women just tend to leave. It's a small industry, and there are already so few women in it. And the mentality is that if you stick your head up, it's going to get chopped off. /T.G.

LAURIE YOUNG

TORONTO CEO of Ogilvy Canada I didn't become ambitious until I was in my 40s, when I started to look at the men who were running the agencies and said, "I think I could do better--I'm going to go for it." Interestingly, I did it all within the halls of Ogilvy, which says a lot about the organization and the opportunities it gives women. I finally got the corner office a year and a half ago, after 15 years as a managing director. There are a lot of women in the advertising industry, but there aren't as many running an office in the Ogilvy network (which is in 155 countries), so I'm pretty proud of that. And here in Toronto, I can name at least four other women running agencies, which says a lot about Canada's commitment to diversity and gender equality.

I haven't been the victim of overt physical or sexual harassment, but the sexism--yes. And those entrenched stereotypes and the resulting behaviours have made me angry.

Early in my career, I had a boss who would have me do all the work and then present it as his own at meetings, where I would be relegated to changing slides in the projector. It was shockingly bad behaviour. Or if I was dealing with a particularly cantankerous client, the guys around the office--my peers and bosses--would say, "Oh, the reason you get along with him is because he really wants to get in your pants." And that's not right. That's inappropriate. I had a couple of women who stood up for me, and that helped me develop the courage to stand up for myself.

But just last week, I was giving a personal history, and the interviewer asked what I did. I told him I worked in advertising, and this guy looked at me and said, "Oh, in admin?" And I went, "No--actually, I run the joint." In 2018, this is happening.

I'm a "don't get angry, get even" person. Now, I coach women on how to behave in the boardroom to elevate their status and overcome bias, to take a position of power at the table. For instance, I tell them not to be afraid to get up and move around--it indicates confidence, instead of sitting hunkered down, checking your notes. Speak early and often, because it establishes that you're part of the group. And use first names--it speaks to a certain authority and confidence that seems to work in the boardroom.

We also need to give women permission to be ambitious. If we start to be too aggressive in our asks, if we get very pointed in our discussions, we come off as being bitchy. A guy comes off as being assertive.

Here at Ogilvy, they've created a robust female sponsorship program to help women drive their aspirations and make connections. But our industry also has the power to make change happen on a broader scale. Consider a campaign we just finished for Kimberly-Clark's Kotex brand. It's all about exposing stereotypes attached to women who are on their period--that they're irrational. Women are responding to it, and the campaign is winning awards in both Canada and the U.S., because it's revealing a stigma women have to endure in the workplace.

KARLYN PERCIL

TORONTO Founder and CEO of SisterTalk, a women's leadership group I started working as a teller with a major Canadian bank in St. Lucia in 1994, and then moved on to become a customer service rep and personal banking officer. Sexual harassment is so prevalent in the Caribbean that it becomes normalized in the workplace, which is scary. But you come to accept it, and you know who to avoid, how to navigate the halls, who not to sit next to. I experienced it from someone in a senior leadership position--inappropriate comments and touching, as well.

When this happened, I definitely shrank. My self-doubt and self-criticism increased. I always dressed appropriately for the office, but I was extra-cautious--I thought that how I dressed was the reason I was targeted, not once but twice. I played small, taking up less space, not speaking up much for fear of engaging in conversation with certain people. If you say the wrong thing, will it be misconstrued as leading people on?

I moved to Toronto in 2003 and decided to start my first business. Being an immigrant here and not knowing many people, someone introduced me to a leader in the Black community. After a couple of meetings with him, it was very clear how he expected me to show my gratitude: with a touch on the knee, his hand on my leg. And I remember being so repulsed and, at the same time, so disappointed.

I didn't tell anyone at the time. He was such a well-known figure, who was going to believe me? I just kind of withdrew from it all. It's another barrier for women, especially women of colour--if you can't trust your own circle, in your own area, then where do you go?

Meanwhile, I was still at the bank, and eventually I took on the role of senior project manager for international banking, supporting the Caribbean and Latin America. Some of the men I worked with ignored me when I spoke up or sent an email, or made direct comments like, "Are you sure she can do the work?" or "Look at her, look at how she's built." There were a lot of comments around women's bodies.

It was more blatant in the Caribbean, but up here, the problem was more the sexism and belittling women. And that affects your ability to be creative, to be innovative--it takes a toll on your wellbeing. Especially as a woman of colour, you already have to be on guard every day because of race and gender, and then again because of harassment.

I learned so much at the bank, but in the end, I decided it was time to go, with grace. Now, in my work as a leadership coach and mentor, the majority of my clients are racialized women.

I teach them how to avoid thinking traps, leverage skills better, speak up for themselves and advocate better for each other. A lot of us are so afraid of being labelled. If I speak up, am I being the "angry Black girl"?

Having more diversity in leadership is definitely one of the steps companies can take to address these issues. Representation matters. Organizations can say inclusion is a priority, but if your senior team does not reflect the people you serve, then it's smoke and mirrors.

Me Too is in workplaces now. It has seeped in. And organizations that ignore it will lose some very highcalibre talent. You see more and more high-potential employees leaving, and it's not because of salary--it is because they don't feel valued or they're facing harassment, sexism and racism.

We can say, "Be all you can be, show up, lean in, negotiate a bigger salary."

But I've always said we can't truly empower women and girls if we don't talk about the elephant in the room.

When the people who wield the power are people who abuse that power and take advantage of our silence, who do you turn to?

AVERY FRANCIS

TORONTO Head of talent strategy, Bright + Early Being a non-technical person in a tech environment, you sometimes find yourself hovering on the outskirts of all these brilliant minds. Even though you have a lot to offer, you doubt yourself. And when bad things happen in the workplace, it shakes up your whole opinion of yourself.

I was a senior talent manager at a Toronto-based tech firm, responsible for scaling the team, and for its diversity and inclusion initiatives. A year in, I had earned a promotion to director of talent. A few days before it was officially announced, I went to one of our weekly Friday night socials--people would stay late at the office, having some drinks. I live outside the city, so I didn't usually go out after work, but this evening I stayed a bit longer, probably because I was happy about the promotion.

One of my colleagues was being a bit handsy--putting his hand up my shirt and rubbing my lower back, making suggestive comments. I just remember being completely still, looking at the faces of the people all around us, wondering if they were seeing this. I tried my best not to act weird or do anything out of the ordinary.

In an attempt to separate myself, I went to the storage closet to get more chips and snacks.

He followed me into the closet, and he assaulted me.

Your initial reaction, when something like that happens, is to challenge your own credibility. Is it because I'm ditzy or because of how I dress? Am I too provocative? Was I being too flirty? Did I invite it? Did I make him feel like he could do that? Was it because I initially didn't say no when he touched my back and stroked my leg--is that why he thought it was okay?

But the fact is, when I said no in that closet, he didn't stop. And I found myself in survival mode, trying to talk him down. There was a bit of a tussle, and I was far more concerned about keeping the incident secret, while trying to protect myself, than making a scene.

The following Monday, I sat with my executive sponsor and the company's CEO, and I shared what happened. The CEO was nothing but supportive and understanding. His first response was a heartfelt apology for what I had gone through, followed by him saying that "being nice isn't an invitation." Then he apologized again, thanked me for my bravery and said he was going to support me.

On Tuesday, I went in to work. The individual reached out to me on Slack, but I didn't respond. On Wednesday, he was let go. So it was the perfect situation: I had shared my story with the CEO; I was absolutely supported and believed; I had complete confidentiality; and the person was let go from the organization quickly. In the landscape of incidents similar to mine, I felt lucky.

But him being fired didn't change that it happened to me. It didn't change that I had to sit in front of my CEO, struggling to speak, in tears. It didn't change the fact that it completely spoiled my promotion. And it didn't change how I feel now about interacting with men at work, to be honest. I went from being extremely social to removing myself from social gatherings that used to make me feel connected to people and that are necessary for my job.

I've also been a victim of domestic violence and sexual assault in my personal life. So to have this happen at work--which should be a safe space, where we can earn a living with respect and support--made it that much more painful. It felt like there was no place I could feel safe, and I got to the point where I had a complete...what could only be described as a mental breakdown. I was crying uncontrollably. I was having panic attacks on my way to work. I was paranoid and anxious there. I also developed insomnia. I wasn't eating properly. I had to go on anxiety medication, which I'd never done before. It impacted every part of my life. So last year, I went on a leave of absence.

When I returned to work, things just weren't the same. I had lost my groove. Every day I went into that office, I felt triggered, so I ended up leaving a company I really loved, where I had close friendships, was on a strong growth trajectory, and felt trusted and valued.

I can't change what that one man did. But companies need to act swiftly when they see any bad behaviour and provide better support if something does happen. They have an obligation to make work a safe and inclusive space for everyone. That's when we'll see a shift in sexual misconduct in the workplace and can better support the people who fall victim to it.

These interviews have been edited and condensed.

Associated Graphic

PHOTOGRAPHS BY GENEVIÈVE CARON


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THIS SUMMER E-CIGARETTES WILL OFFICIALLY BECOME LEGAL IN CANADA, AND BIG TOBACCO IS PREPARING FOR ITS LARGEST THREAT YET. SOME SAY HIGH-TECH VAPING WILL FINALLY ACHIEVE WHAT THE HEALTH REGULATORS COULDN'T: A WORLD WITHOUT CIGARETTES
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AT FIRST GLANCE CARL VAS DOESN'T LOOK LIKE HE'S ON THE FRONT LINE OF A BATTLE THAT WILL DETERMINE THE FUTURE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST TOBACCO COMPANY AND THE VERY EXISTENCE OF ITS CENTURIESOLD PRODUCT

Dressed in a white lab coat and decked out in special glasses, the 28-year-old Vas looks more like a mad scientist than a highly trained specialist with a background in pharmaceuticals. He's standing next to one of many long counters laden with bizarre-looking testing equipment, while other researchers slump in their chairs, analyzing reams of data. Vas works in one of a half-dozen or so labs at British American Tobacco PLC's sprawling research park here on the outskirts of Southampton, on England's south coast. In total, there are more than 400 researchers toiling away in Britain on projects that will shape the future of British American Tobacco (BAT), a smoking colossus that makes almost 700 billion cigarettes a year and sells them in almost every country on earth. There isn't a cigarette in sight in Vas's lab; the only reminder that this is a tobacco company comes from a handful of posters hanging nearby that promote BAT's main brands, Pall Mall, Kent and Lucky Strike. Vas's work involves something that has become far more critical to the company's future: e-cigarettes. And it's clear BAT means business. The Lon-vapdon-based giant has invested $2.5 billion (U.S.) in e-cigarette development over the past six years and converted what was once an old cigarette factory into a global research centre. Vas spends most of his days analyzing the effectiveness of BAT's new e-cigarette devices, taking the products apart and putting the pieces through a battery of tests. In many ways, he embodies the very challenge facing the company--he doesn't smoke but discovered e-cigarettes a few years ago. "I'm a passionate vaper," he says with a smile. "I love it." These are tumultuous times for BAT and the other tobacco behemoths: Philip Morris, Imperial Brands and Japan Tobacco. After decades of fending off almost every conceivable challenge and generating seemingly endless profits, cigarette makers are facing their biggest threat yet. E-cigarettes have taken the world by storm, offering smokers a satisfying alternative that's less harmful and a lot cheaper.

The phenomenon has caught Big Tobacco off guard, and the giants are scrambling to catch up, putting massive resources into product development, acquisitions and lobbying efforts. The goal is to marry tobacco with slick new electronic devices that they can market as a healthier alternative to cigarettes. This is a classic technology disruption story, and the fallout could change Big Tobacco forever. Even if the big four can fight off the slew of high-tech startups elbowing in on their trade, their business models will almost certainly be turned upside down. So much so that André Calantzopoulos, the chief executive of Philip Morris, is already preparing for something once considered unthinkable: a world without cigarettes. "We are crystal clear where we are going as a company," he told reporters last year. "We want to move out of cigarettes as soon as possible."

Like most revolutions, few saw this one coming and no one knows where it's headed. E-cigarettes were born about 15 years ago out of one man's desire to find a better way to quit smoking, and vaping has now become a $15-billion-a-year (U.S.) global industry, with some forecasters saying it could grow to nearly $50 billion (U.S.) in five years. The basics of e-cigarettes are simple: They are hand-held devices that create vapour by either boiling a nicotine-laced liquid or heating a small amount of tobacco. While both are generally referred to as e-cigarettes, the devices that use tobacco are usually called "heated tobacco products," or HTPs, and tend to be regulated more like cigarettes. Both are considered less harmful than cigarettes because there's no smoke, which is the real health danger from smoking. Canada is set to become a key battleground in this revolution. New legislation is expected to come into force this summer that will open the door to e-cigarette sales across the country. The move has been welcomed by tobacco companies, Health Canada and anti-smoking advocates, all of whom agree the vaping craze needs to be brought under some kind of supervision, since no one is entirely sure just how safe these products are. Canada will become one of the few countries with a fully regulated market, and it will be well ahead of the United States, which is still figuring out what to do. The lack of rules hasn't stopped the industry from taking root in Canada.

E-cigarettes fell into a regulatory grey zone after they entered the Canadian market around 2007. Health Canada effectively banned the sale of most of them in 2009, but the department rarely enforced its edict. As a result, the e-cigarette business operated on an ad hoc basis, with roughly 1,000 independently owned vape shops popping up across the country, selling whatever they thought was legal. Big Tobacco stayed away, keeping its new devices off the shelves for fear of sparking a public backlash if it jumped into an unregulated market. Instead, the giants began a fierce lobbying campaign and became active in helping to shape the new regulations. Now, with the law set to take effect soon, Big Tobacco is preparing to rush in with e-cigarette products, massive marketing campaigns and perhaps its own retail outlets. Some say e-cigarette sales in Canada could double almost overnight to $1 billion. That troubles many public health advocates, who worry the impending regulations have given tobacco companies too much leeway, especially since it's still unclear whether e-cigarettes help or hinder anti-smoking efforts.

"It's going to fundamentally change the products that are on the market," says David Hammond, a professor in the School of Public Health at the University of Waterloo. "I don't see any evidence that e-cigarettes have increased smoking use today. But I think you'd have to be an utter fool to not have that be an ongoing concern." Eric Gagnon, who heads corporate and regulatory affairs at Imperial Tobacco Canada, a division of BAT, says the company backs the new law but would like to see greater flexibility so that companies can explain the advantages of vaping. "The government needs to get this right initially and then move forward and embrace harm reduction as a tool for consumers to switch to less harmful products," he says. The new regime puts plenty of restrictions on e-cigarettes, but also opens fresh opportunities for tobacco companies.

E-cigarette makers will be able to advertise most of their vapdon-ing products and sell them through special shops so that customers can find the best product for them. That's unheard of in the cigarette market, where advertising has been banned for decades, and packs of smokes carry dire warnings and are hidden from view in convenience stores. There are some limits, such as rules forbidding "lifestyle advertising" and prohibitions on vaping flavours that might entice children, such as "bubble gum" or "candy floss."

And heated tobacco devices, the ones that use small amounts of tobacco instead of nicotine liquid, will be regulated like cigarettes and banned from advertising. That's still enough to give Big Tobacco an edge when the market opens up. These companies already dominate the traditional cigarette market, which gives them a crucial advantage when it comes to selling e-cigarettes, since most people who vape are either current or former smokers. BAT, Philip Morris and Japan Tobacco account for 99% of all cigarette sales in Canada, with BAT's Imperial Tobacco selling nearly half. Brands like du Maurier, Player's, Number 7 and Export A are household names among Canadian smokers, and it's likely e-cigarette products will carry many of the same brand names (there's already a Marlboro e-cigarette), making them more appealing to smokers. Outside Canada, the tobacco giants have been moving fast to capitalize on their position and resources. In the past six years there's been a flurry of activity, with the cigarette makers gobbling up e-cigarette ventures and spending billions on their own creations. The first significant move came in April 2012, when U.S. tobacco company Lorillard paid $135 million (U.S.) for Blu, an upstart e-cigarette designer with a hot product that had captured 40% of the menthol vaping market at the time. About two years later, Blu was purchased by Imperial Brands, which has made it a key part of its e-cigarette strategy and plans to bring the product to a dozen more countries. That set off a wave of deals that culminated in last year's £41.8-billion tieup of BAT and U.S.-based Reynolds American Inc., instantly making BAT the largest tobacco company on the planet and giving it a roster of high-profile e-cigarette devices, such as Vuse and Vype.

Last year the combined entity's e-cigarette brands generated £500 million in revenue, and BAT expects that to double this year and rise to more than £5 billion by 2022. By 2050, BAT executives predict half of the company's revenue will come from e-cigarettes and heated tobacco. hose are big numbers, and while the e-cigarette market is now worth billions of dollars, the device itself had a humble beginning. The origin can be traced back to a faraway corner of northeastern China and a pharmacist named Hon Lik who just couldn't quit smoking. Hon had been trying for years to kick his three-pack-a-day habit, fearing he'd end up like his father, a heavy smoker who died from lung cancer. In 2001 he started dabbling with a machine that vaporized a nicotine solution, much like a home humidifier. After months of refining his invention, Hon produced a simple hand-held device that used a small heating coil to create vapour from a nicotinelaced liquid. He patented his technology in 2003 and partnered with a Chinese company called Ruyan to bring the first e-cigarettes to market in China a year later. Soon Ruyan was exporting the products overseas, and by 2007 e-cigarettes had swept across Europe, the U.S. and Canada. Hon sold his patents to Fontem Ventures in 2013 for around $75 million (U.S.), and now 66, he works for the business, which is a subsidiary of Imperial Brands. Today the biggest proponents of e-cigarettes tend to be people like Boris Giller, a Toronto businessman who, like Hon, found salvation in vaping.

Giller quit smoking several years ago and then zealously tried to get his parents to give up the habit too. He attempted everything from making threats to hiding their cigarettes. When nothing seemed to work, he went online in 2011 and bought an e-cigarette device for his father. His dad took to it instantly. "He was somebody who says no to hypnosis, acupuncture, anything like that. And yet when it was a substitute, it's a carrot and not just a stick, and when he didn't lose the perceived benefit, he liked it." His father never entirely gave up cigarettes, and he later died from heart disease caused by years of smoking. The tragedy prompted Giller into action, and he gave up an online dating service he'd launched and took up the e-cigarette call, pledging to sell the devices to as many Canadians as possible.

It wasn't long before he met Gopal Bhatnagar, a Toronto cardiovascular surgeon who'd become fed up with watching patients die from smoking. Bhatnagar was skeptical about e-cigarettes at first, but after a difficult day in the operating room, he signed on to Giller's idea. "The reason was that he did a third operation on somebody who was refusing to quit smoking," Giller recalled. "He said, 'Okay I'm in.'" In 2014 they opened a vape shop in Toronto, and today their chain, called 180 Smoke, has 16 locations in Ontario, Sas-katchewan and New York. Giller sees e-cigarettes as something akin to health products, and his shops spend more time instructing smokers on how to use them rather than pushing a particular brand. "It's a harm reduction, and that's how it should be treated," he says.

He and many others in the e-cigarette industry are hostile toward Big Tobacco, blaming cigarette makers for their habit and eager to show customers that the alternative is tobaccofree. That's led to the creation of e-cigarette companies like San Francisco-based Juul Labs Inc., founded by a pair of exsmokers who openly boast that their mission is to eliminate cigarettes altogether. Juul has become the top-selling e-cigarette in the U.S., capturing more than half of the market in just two years, according to the most recent Nielsen figures.

Its sleek look, which is similar to a USB drive, and high nicotine level have made Juul a particular favourite among high school students. Juul devices are also cheaper than many regular e-cigarettes, and they contain disposable cartridges, or "pods," that cost about $4 (U.S.) each and carry 0.7 millilitres of nicotine juice, the equivalent of a pack of cigarettes or 200 puffs. The concentration of nicotine in each pod is 50 milligrams per millilitre, roughly twice as high as most e-cigarettes. But Juul may be the exception rather than the rule--it's not clear whether the company's device is a fad. NJOY Inc. also once had a seemingly unassailable e-cigarette product back in 2012, when the Scottsdale, Arizona, company dominated the U.S. market with a 48% share. It too shunned Big Tobacco and took pride in its anti-cigarette stance.

But the company soon struggled in the face of increasing competition, patent challenges and a failed product launch. It filed for bankruptcy in 2016, and although it has re-emerged, the episode was a stark lesson in how tough the e-cigarette market has become with the arrival of Big Tobacco. Jan Verleur, co-founder and CEO of VMR Products, which owns V2 e-cigarettes, has warned that Big Tobacco will ruin the e-cigarette industry by chasing out innovative smaller companies. "Big Tobacco is trying to hop on the vaping wave, and it could be a big problem for vape manufacturers, and trickle extra cost down to the consumer," reads a blog post on his company's site. He might be right. When e-cigarettes first came on to the market a decade or so ago, liquid-based vaping devices were far more popular than heated tobacco products, and the business was dominated by upstarts and entrepreneurs.

But the market is turning, and sales of heated tobacco devices are soaring. And while Big Tobacco has been rushing out liquidnicotine devices, heated tobacco offers a far more lucrative opportunity for the giants because it's so much closer to actual smoking and provides a bigger jolt of nicotine. A June 2017 study by Euromonitor International found that heated tobacco devices are expected to represent 45% of the e-cigarette market by 2021. The sale of these devices has been growing so fast it could offset the steady decline of traditional cigarette sales, which have been falling by about 3% annually. "Simply put, rather than declining, combined cigarettes and heated tobacco value sales are forecast to grow 1% in constant terms," the report found. "All of which is to say that heated tobacco--on these indicators--is truly a coming force in global tobacco." None of this has been lost on Big Tobacco, which is now focused on developing heated tobacco devices as quickly as possible. The big winner so far has been Philip Morris, which has invested $4.5 billion (U.S.) since 2008 on e-cigarette products, targeting heated tobacco in particular with its IQOS brand. Launched in 2016, the IQOS system includes a pen-shaped holder that heats a tobacco stick, known as a Heatstick. A holder and a battery charger cost around $125, and the sticks sell for about $10 for a pack of 20, making it a reasonable alternative to smoking (the holder can last for more than a year). IQOS has proven to be a huge hit in Japan, which has strict rules governing nicotine liquid e-cigarettes, and the device has been rolled out to more than 40 other global markets, including the U.S., where it's under review by the Food and Drug Administration. Along with piggybacking on its popular Marlboro brand, Philip Morris is hoping to capture more sales by selling IQOS accessories, such as stick holders, carrying cases and cleaning devices. Initially the company could barely keep up with demand. Heated tobacco volumes jumped from 400 million units in 2015 to more than 36 billion last year, and Philip Morris is hoping to boost its IQOS production capacity to 100 billion units this year. The company has said that by 2025, all of its e-cigarette brands could generate 40% of total net revenue, up from 13% last year. BAT has taken note and launched its own heated tobacco product, called Glo. By 2022, BAT expects to generate more than twice as much revenue from its heated tobacco line of devices as it does from its nicotine liquid products. Japan Tobacco is fighting back too, with a hybrid device called Ploom Tech, which mixes flavoured liquids and tobacco leaves. Whether e-cigarettes actually are healthier than smoking is still an ongoing debate, but tobacco companies have been keen to embrace the harm reduction message. Philip Morris has gone so far as to revamp its website to carry the message "Designing a Smoke-Free Future," and all of the big cigarette makers have been rushing out studies to show e-cigarettes are far less harmful than cigarettes. "We want to transform the industry," says David O'Reilly, BAT's scientific and research director. "We want to transform the lives of smokers." For now, most governments and health agencies remain uncertain. Several countries, including Australia and Brazil, have banned e-cigarettes over concerns about safety and their potential to encourage smoking. Other countries, like the U.K., have welcomed the products and made them a part of national anti-smoking strategies. Health Canada has been more circumspect, unwilling to go as far as the U.K., at least for now. "Despite emitting fewer harmful substances than cigarettes, vaping products are harmful," the department noted last year when drafting proposed regulations. "The long-term health effects are unknown, and there is limited research on the effects on bystanders." Health Canada acknowledged the challenges posed by e-cigarettes, adding they could be useful in offering smokers a less harmful alternative. Studies vary on the safety of e-cigarettes and their effectiveness as a smoking replacement. Public Health England has concluded that e-cigarettes are 95% safer than cigarettes, and it found no evidence that the vapour is harmful to bystanders or that these products encourage smoking. But the Washington- based National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has concluded that while e-cigarettes are far less harmful than cigarettes, the long-term health effects aren't clear, and there is evidence these devices increase the risk of young people taking up smoking. And for people like Neil Collishaw, research director at Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada, the situation is even more troubling. He says studies show e-cigarette users continue to smoke as well as vape, meaning that while they might cut down on smoking, they stick with the habit longer. "When you look at the whole public health impact, it looks like it's bad news," he says. E-cigarettes "depress quitting and they are really only helpful for a small minority of people."

For Big Tobacco, the financial stakes are high, and even if it wins the battle over e-cigarettes, the cost could be punishing. The margins on vaping devices are nowhere near as healthy as they are on traditional tobacco cigarettes, which cost just pennies to make and sell for a lot more per puff. So it's hard to see a scenario where the transition to the new technology doesn't seriously hurt the tobacco companies' bottom line. For consumers, vaping is simply a lot cheaper than smoking. Devices that burn nicotine liquid start at about $30, and liquids go for about $20 for a 30-millilitre bottle, which lasts two or three weeks. Compare that to around $13 for a pack of cigarettes, which lasts a day or two. The Canadian Vaping Association estimates that a pack-a-day smoker spends about $4,800 annually on cigarettes, whereas vaping costs only about $400 annually, excluding the initial cost of the device. All of that spells looming problems for Big Tobacco. With margins squeezed on e-cigarette devices, overall sales of tobacco cigarettes in free fall and consumers spending less to satisfy their habit, the financial outlook isn't great. And developing new devices isn't easy. BAT spent years designing an e-cigarette called e-Voke that was so popular with U.K. health officials, the country's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency licensed it as a smoking cessation aid in 2016, meaning in some cases, it could actually be prescribed by doctors. That's a stunning endorsement for a tobacco company hounded for years over claims its products killed people. And yet BAT recently dropped plans to take e-Voke to market, saying only that "a lot has changed in the category and the U.K." since the company got the licence approved. Philip Gorham, an analyst who covers the tobacco industry at Morningstar, says heated tobacco devices will help the cigarette giants weather the e-cigarette storm. But Gorham is less sold on the overall impact of e-cigarettes, believing it will be many years before vaping or heated tobacco poses a real threat to traditional smokes. Most new consumer products tend to follow similar patterns, he says, with sales soaring initially as early adopters rush to buy the new gizmos. But then growth slows, and even tapers off in some cases, until a wider consumer base can be satisfied that this product genuinely offers something that adds value. That's beginning to play out in Japan, where sales of IQOS have started to soften faster than Philip Morris expected, forcing the company to adjust some of its plans for the product. "I think e-cigarettes have an opportunity to grow, but I think many people may be exaggerating the growth potential," Gorham says. The key issue is whether tobacco companies will succeed in getting regulators to approve these products as less harmful than cigarettes. "To me, that's the critical point that tips the growth one way or another. If they can market this as a safer product that gives less exposure to carcinogens, I think that's the game changer," he says. Entrepreneurs like Daniel David can't afford to wait. With Canada's e-cigarette market about to be legalized, there are real questions about how he and others will fight off the tobacco giants. He's been at the forefront of the Canadian e-cigarette industry for years, and he's concerned about Big Tobacco taking over. He believes BAT, Philip Morris and the others will change the culture of the industry, which has been nurtured by small businesses dedicated to helping people quit smoking. David, too, was a heavy smoker who twice tried to quit when his wife was pregnant. He took his first puff on an e-cigarette in 2008 and he never went back. The effect was so strong he quit his job in banking and opened a vape store in 2010 in his hometown of Wasaga Beach, Ontario. He spent years battling customs officials over imports of e-cigarettes and convincing government bureaucrats that these products were beneficial. He now has eight Evape locations across the province and he's become a tireless advocate for e-cigarettes, something he hopes to continue even as Big Tobacco moves in with its high-tech devices and massive marketing budgets. "I got into this because I firmly believe in it," he says from his office in Wasaga Beach. "I know from personal experience, from myself and from the customers who have come back to me, that this works and that it saves people's lives." When asked if he could envision a future where cigarettes no longer existed, David doesn't hesitate. "Honestly, that's the goal."

Associated Graphic

PHOTOGRAPH

A "SMOKING MACHINE" IN THE BRITISH AMERICAN TOBACCO RESEARCH FACILITY TESTS THE DRAW AND SMOKE OF TRADITIONAL CIGARETTES

ERIC GAGNON, HEAD OF CORPORATE AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS AT IMPERIAL TOBACCO CANADA

ERIC GAGNON, HEAD OF CORPORATE AND REGULATORY AFFAIRS AT IMPERIAL TOBACCO CANADA


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IN TWO YEARS, AIR CANADA WILL CUT TIES WITH THE AEROPLAN FREQUENT-FLIER PROGRAM, LEAVING ITS PARENT COMPANY, AIMIA, SCRAMBLING. CAN THE LOYALTY PROGRAM STAY ALOFT WITHOUT ITS PREMIER PARTNER?
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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page P22

Lindsay Brooks was about as loyal as they come. An owner of several small businesses in Regina, Brooks spent three decades accumulating Aeroplan reward miles by paying for nearly all of his expenses, both personal and professional, with plastic. "I charge every single thing I can on a credit card," he says. What began as a bit of a hobby eventually made him a hoarder, and ultimately he racked up 734,000 Aeroplan miles. "I was hoping to use them to fly first class to Australia or something like that."

Last May, his master plan began to unravel. That's when Brooks's brother, a financial adviser, broke the news that shares of Aimia Inc., Aeroplan's parent company, had nosedived. Aeroplan's long-standing contract with Air Canada--which spun off the points program in 2005--was up for renewal in 2020, and the airline had decided not to renew the deal. Instead, it would launch its own in-house rewards program.

Brooks was already frustrated with Aeroplan--he nada was in jeopardy could never seem to find seats, and now he feared the program's five million members would flee too, forcing the company to devalue the points in order to survive. So Brooks rushed for the exit. He was in such a scramble that he cashed in his points for gift cards, mainly from Costco and the Keg, raking in roughly $6,500 worth. "There's no hope for Aeroplan, at least in my opinion," Brooks says.

Shareholders began to panic in much the same way, questioning whether the loyalty program could survive the breakup. Without Air Canada, what was Aeroplan? And without Aeroplan--which contributes almost 80% of the earnings its parent company typically reports--what was Aimia? The company's stock plummeted 63% in a single day. (It's now down 78% in total, trading around $2 a share as of early May.)

The pain radiated to some of Canada's largest financial institutions. TD Bank had become Aeroplan's lead credit card partner in 2014, signing a 10-year contract with what was then considered the mother of all loyalty plans. Now TD was stuck with a points program that could soon be a shell of its former self. As a secondary card partner, CIBC was in a similar, albeit less severe, situation.

As for Aimia, it's staring down a nightmare scenario.

If members rush to cash in all their miles, the company might not be able to make them whole. Loyalty programs are a lot like insurers, which earn premiums up front and then pay out policies years later. But instead of holding its cash conservatively, Aimia paid a good chunk of it to shareholders in the form of fat dividends--an average of $137 million a year between 2014 and 2016. It also bought some businesses abroad. The result is that Aimia has just over $300 million reserved for the $2 billion in rewards for which it was liable as of April 30.

Aimia's saving grace, so far, is that few Aeroplan members seem to have noticed the upcoming split with Air Canada. If--when--they do, they'll realize Canada's second-favourite currency will likely be worth much less come 2020. What sets Aeroplan apart from other loyalty programs, such as RBC Avion and CIBC Aventura, is the low price at which it can buy seats from Air Canada.

Aimia's lenders are worried enough that, early this year, they slashed the size of the company's credit facility by 30% and demanded quarterly debt reductions.

Many feel a full recovery is highly unlikely. "Let's be clear--there's no replacing Air Canada," wrote Adam Shine, a National Bank Financial equity analyst, in a note to clients last year.

More ominously, Aimia's CEO, David Johnston--who'd been in the job for just a year--resigned suddenly on April 26, the night before the company's annual general meeting in Montreal. He will be succeeded by Jeremy Rabe, who previously ran Club Premier, a Mexican frequent-flier program, and joined Aimia's board this spring.

Aimia's executives aren't talking, despite multiple interview requests. Air Canada isn't saying much, either. But just about everyone on Bay Street has a theory about what brought Aimia down. Some say management was too cocky; others blame the airline, which hived off the beloved points program 13 years ago, only to abandon it and launch a new, rival program on its own. Aimia's looming crash landing is the ultimate whodunit.

For all the speculation, there's one thing that's almost universally agreed upon: It never should have come to this.

Looking back now, Aimia hit turbulence well before the Air Canada announcement in May 2017. A few months earlier, Rupert Duchesne, the company's CEO, all but disappeared.

Duchesne had run Aimia (formerly known as Groupe Aeroplan) for 17 years. But in January 2017, Aeroplan's board abruptly announced he was taking a four-month medical leave of absence. They provided almost no detail about his condition, but the news caused barely a blip in Aimia's share price.

Come May, things started to look different. On the same day Aimia reported its quarterly earnings, the company revealed Duchesne would be retiring immediately. He was said to have chronic mercury poisoning, a rare condition that can be linked to eating contaminated fish (and can, according to the World Health Organization, affect the nervous system).

Yet the news of Duchesne's retreat was overshadowed by some troubling information. In its earnings report, Aimia disclosed that contract negotiations with Air Canada weren't going well, noting "the tenor of the very recent discussions" suggested the airline "does not currently intend to renew its partnership with Aeroplan on its expiry in June 2020."

This was earth-shattering news. The Aeroplan loyalty program had been created inside Air Canada in 1984, and the brand is so closely associated with the airline that many customers would no doubt be surprised to learn it's owned by a separate public company.

As Air Canada emerged from the ashes of bankruptcy protection in 2004 (it had been driven there in part due to Sept. 11, 2001, and the SARS crisis), it hoped to spin out peripheral businesses with solid cash flows. Since Aeroplan had few capital investments--its business model was mostly just moving around cash--it was an ideal option. At its core, Aeroplan is a pretty simple operation. Members mostly accumulate miles by using branded credit cards, shopping at specific retailers and, of course, flying Air Canada. They can then cash in those miles, often to book flights on the airline--which they do on average every two and a half years. Aeroplan earns the spread between the cost of those flights and the cash its credit card and other partners pay to buy the miles.

The spinoff was championed by New York private equity player Cerberus Capital Management, one of the largest equity holders in ACE Aviation Holdings, Air Canada's post-bankruptcy controlling shareholder.

And it was shepherded, in part, by Calin Rovinescu, who had been chief restructuring officer of Air Canada and then became a principal at Genuity Capital Markets, which co-led the Aeroplan IPO. (Rovinescu rejoined the airline in 2009 and is now its CEO.)

What made investors salivate over Aeroplan's initial public offering was that Air Canada had agreed to a partnership that let the loyalty program buy seats at cut-rate prices, thereby guaranteeing fat margins, at least until 2020. To this day, Aeroplan's average cost per mile is estimated to be 1.04 cents, 20% to 30% below market prices. The airline also pledged to set aside 8% of seats on every Air Canada route each month.

Aeroplan was perfectly suited to the income trust era, since trusts were designed to distribute cash to their investors, and its IPO was a huge success. The income fund started trading in 2005 at a $2-billion valuation. Meanwhile, the airline was just starting to make money again.

Aeroplan's early days as a stand-alone company were highly fruitful for everyone involved. Air Canada got a steady stream of fliers and some cash; Aeroplan got an exclusive partnership with the airline that mattered most to Canadians, helping the points company's stock price double in two years (it hit a peak of $24); and CIBC, its longtime exclusive financial partner, was still raking in money from Aerogold credit cards. By 2012, the Aeroplan-branded cards were generating 11% of the bank's total profit.

So the news that Air Canada would not renew its Aeroplan contract was like hitting an air pocket at 30,000 feet. (The airline confirmed its intentions the morning after Aimia's disclosure.) Duchesne looked particularly bad. The Brit had long been the principal contact with Air Canada, having started the Canadian leg of his career there in 1996 as vice-president of marketing and overseeing its integration with Canadian Airlines. He'd run Aeroplan since 2000--and was paid handsomely for it. The cash components of his pay over the past decade, coupled with stock he's sold, total $26 million. When he retired, he got an additional $3.5 million in cash.

Air Canada's decision to end its relationship with Aeroplan seemingly set off an ugly chain reaction.

Within a month, Aimia's chief financial officer, Tor Lønnum, announced his departure; the company suspended its dividends; and three directors, including Beth Horowitz (the former head of Amex Bank of Canada) and Alan Rossy of Dollarama fame, resigned from its board. They all sat on Aimia's audit committee--that is, the one that oversees its financials.

Early on, Air Canada uttered barely a peep about its decision; it simply revealed it would build a new loyalty program in-house and implied it would search for a financial institution with which to partner. The airline claimed the new program would deliver benefits to the tune of $2 billion over 15 years, though it provided none of the math to back that up. To prevent consumers from cashing in their points en masse, the airline promised Aeroplan customers could still redeem their miles after the contract ended, with a big "but"--they'd be doing it at "pricing competitive with other third-party rewards programs." In other words, Aeroplan members would no longer get sweet deals on Air Canada flights.

Analysts have since speculated that having control of its loyalty program would allow Air Canada to encourage reward holders to cash in during periods with lower demand. And, of course, the airline could also slash the discount at which Aeroplan currently buys seats (which is likely where much of Air Canada's projected $2-billion benefit comes from).

At an investor day in September, Air Canada's longtime chief financial officer, Michael Rousseau, explained that moving to an in-house loyalty program could help the airline close a crucial gap between it and its U.S. rivals, whose EBITDAR margins--that is, their earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, impairment and aircraft rent as a percentage of operating revenues--are three full percentage points higher. "We believe the gap between us and U.S. airlines...is primarily due to the absence of a loyalty program here at Air Canada," Rousseau said. These plans are so profitable that private equity firms tend to value them at 15 times EBITDA as stand-alone companies.

Airline stocks, meanwhile, often fetch only five times.

What went unsaid was that Aeroplan had been facing severe headwinds for some time. Over the years, it had added scores of retail partners, which made it easier for members to earn miles. And it had signed up millions more members, while its percentage of seats on Air Canada flights hadn't changed--more demand, same supply. Aeroplan had also tweaked its redemption grid, adjusting the number of points needed for flights, and introduced some cash costs when redeeming, such as paying airline taxes and other fees. Many members were fed up. In one particularly egregious situation, a consulting manager from Peterborough, Ontario, decided to cash in the Aeroplan points he'd been stashing away for 14 years, booking business-class tickets for himself and his son on a return flight to Glasgow. He had more than enough points--almost 380,000--yet Aeroplan wanted him to cough up an additional $2,200 in fees and taxes.

The perception that Aeroplan was in it for the profits, not for its members, started to spread. Edgar Baum, a brand economist with Strata Insights in Toronto, who's also a frequent flier and an Aeroplan member, sums it up like this: "I've never heard of a new Aeroplan offering that got the market going, 'Oh my god, this is just amazing--I can't wait to be a heavier user.'" The member backlash led to a major dust-up on Bay Street. CIBC's contract with Aeroplan was up for renewal in 2014, and a few months before, the bank publicly floated the idea that it might not sign back on.

This was not something to take lightly, considering how much profit the program generated. But CIBC had had enough. Customers were venting their frustrations on the bank, yet all it could do was pass the vitriol on to Aeroplan's leadership team.

With CIBC stalling, TD swooped in. Canada's second-largest bank had historically lagged in the credit card space, so it was desperate to make a splash. Stealing Aeroplan would do just that. The two banks agreed to split the portfolio roughly in half: CIBC would keep all the cards whose owners had a second relationship with the bank, like a chequing account or mortgage, while TD would take the rest--about half a million accounts. To sweeten the deal, TD agreed to pay CIBC a guaranteed $275 million over three years and paid Aimia $100 million up front.

To outsiders, the TD deal might have seemed like a victory for both sides. Aeroplan now had a power player on board, with a commitment to heavily market the new card. For its part, Aeroplan promised to fix some of the problems that enraged members most, such as miles expiring.

By 2016, however, it was pretty clear to Massimo Bonansinga that all was not well for Aimia. Early that year, the portfolio manager was handed responsibility for a fund run by a division of CI Financial Group--one that held Aimia stock. Because he had a good grasp on the aerospace market, Bonansinga knew just how much airlines valued their loyalty programs. (Qantas, which operates out of Australia and serves a domestic airline market similar to Canada's, has raved about its Qantas Loyalty program and projects $485 million to $582 million in stable annual earnings before interest and taxes from this division by 2022.)

When Bonansinga inherited the fund, CI held more than one million Aimia shares, which were trading around nine bucks. He didn't see much more room for it to run. If the Air Canada contract were renewed, there was no way the terms would be nearly as favourable as the current deal. The data these loyalty programs collect was also becoming more valuable. "Time was against Aimia," he says. By the second quarter of 2016, he'd sold the fund's entire position. It was a prescient move--the shares are down close to 80% since then.

Other fund managers weren't so lucky, including Fidelity Investments and Burgundy Asset Management, Aimia's top two shareholders at the time of Air Canada's announcement. As of March 31, 2017, they owned 22 million and 15 million Aimia shares, respectively, then worth a combined $330 million. By the end of the following quarter--during which Air Canada and Aimia revealed their split--Fidelity had slashed its stake by 75%. But Burgundy held on at least through September; it hasn't updated its ownership since then and did not return a request for comment.

Some funds and analysts will argue there was no way to tell Air Canada was thinking of giving up on Aeroplan. Yet, in 2013, the airline unveiled its Altitude program, which offered frequent fliers five tiers, such as Elite and Super Elite. Something about this set-up was odd: Despite the historical relationship, Air Canada seemed to be branching away from Aeroplan. Rovinescu was clearly up to something.

n some level, Air Canada's decision to part ways shouldn't matter all that much. Aimia had a 15-year runway to build a business beyond this central relationship, and it had ample cash flow to invest abroad.

To their credit, Duchesne and his team did try to diversify. In 2007, Aimia paid $755 million for the Nectar rewards business in the United Kingdom. One of its major retail partners was the Sainsbury's grocery chain, and it also had a deal with British Gas to earn points at the pumps. Other investments included a 49% position in the company that controls Club Premier and a minor stake in Cardlytics, a U.S. company that monetizes data from electronic banking transactions.

In 2011, Groupe Aeroplan rebranded as Aimia to signify its broader scope.

But this past February, Aimia sold Nectar to Sainsbury's for a net price of $34 million--95% less than it paid for it. Nectar's Italian arm had shut down in 2015, it had lost the British Gas deal, and it was struggling to sign on major new partners. Aimia's other programs are worth just a fraction of Aeroplan's value, and analysts are struggling to calculate how much the company should even be worth. Its market value now hovers around $300 million.

If there's any hope of recovery, it likely lies in revamping Aeroplan. At its AGM in April, Aimia started to reveal what the program could look like in two years. As expected, it will continue to target mass affluent fliers--that is, upper-middle-class and wealthy Canadians--and will allow members to book seats on more airlines, much like rival programs Avion and Aventura, owned and run by Royal Bank of Canada and CIBC, respectively. But that flexibility will come at a higher cost.

Aimia still has a shot at profitability. As analysts at CIBC World Markets noted back in 2017, at the same time they predicted that Air Canada and Aeroplan would part ways: "Many loyalty programs that purchase rewards at market rates do exist with margins in the 20% range." Plus, Aeroplan still has a contract with TD, which is highly motivated to put its marketing might behind a revamped program.

The question is whether the wheels will fall off before the new Aeroplan can take flight. Its current partnership with American Express, which ranks behind the TD and CIBC deals but is still important, is up for renewal at the end of 2018. Even more troubling is the pending launch of Air Canada's in-house loyalty program, which will have its own financial partner. (The leading candidate is thought to be Scotiabank, because it's the only big bank without a frequent-flier program.)

Rewards programs tend to lean on a minority of loyal users, and in Aeroplan's case, many are attached to Air Canada. Assuming the airline offers deals that are at least as good as Aeroplan's, these customers will "absolutely switch" to an in-house program, predicts Robb Engen, who writes about the rewards industry for Rewards Cards Canada. "They've already got the habit of using Air Canada and business-class seats. I would expect that whatever Air Canada comes out with is absolutely going to cater to that market."

Aeroplan will also have to sell its new offering in a world awash in loyalty programs, most of them operated in-house. On average, Canadians belong to more than 12 different rewards plans, according to Bond Brand Loyalty's latest annual report. Canadian Tire is expanding its Triangle Rewards program; London Drugs launched a plan in 2016; and Loblaw's and Shoppers Drug Mart's combined PC Optimum card gives their once independent offerings more heft. Aeroplan has a strong brand name, but it's getting harder for any one program to shine. "The market is way too saturated," says Patrick Sojka, who runs the industrytracking website Rewards Canada.

What members want in a program is also evolving.

People don't just want free stuff; they want to feel special--which is why Air Canada offers certain Elite customers free seat upgrades through its Altitude program and why American Express has set up a fast-track security line at some airports.

Although Aimia now has a plan, the internal upheaval just won't let up, as evidenced by CEO David Johnston's recent departure. "As Aimia's business and geographic footprint shrinks, it was logical timing for me," he said on a conference call. "You're starting to see some new news on Aeroplan, and you'll be seeing more, and now is the right time for new leadership to step in." Investors will be the judge of that.

As for the company's finances, they can be difficult to track. Historically, Aimia was known for adjusting its adjusted earnings from quarter to quarter. The financials are inherently volatile because members could redeem their points whenever they wanted, and the company would periodically change things like its breakage rate assumptions--the number of points it assumed would never get used. Predicting cash flows was never easy, and it's only gotten harder, especially with the risk of more members cashing in miles. "If consumers redeem miles at an increased rate to take advantage of Air Canada's reward availability, it would have a significant effect on Aimia's cash flow and liquidity," wrote rating agency DBRS Ltd. recently.

Aimia's debt now has a junk rating, and $250 million in secured notes mature in May 2019.

Will long-term investors stick it out? It's hard to say. At the AGM, Aimia chair Robert Brown--a former CEO at both Bombardier and CAE Inc., and a former chair of Air Canada--hinted a rebound will likely take years. "Is it going to happen over the next two or three months? I don't think so," he told the small group of mostly suits at a Montreal conference centre. "I think people have to be patient." In the end, 43% of Aimia's shareholders withheld their support for Brown--the Canadian way of voting against a nominee.

Distressed-asset investors are also kicking around, including New York-based Mittleman, which invests in "severely undervalued securities." It has become Aimia's largest shareholder, with a 17.6% stake, and managed to get two directors appointed to the board in late April, including Rabe, the new CEO. Some analysts say hedge funds are circling and have floated the idea of selling Aimia back to Air Canada just to reap the takeover premium.

Until recently, Rupert Duchesne, Aimia's original CEO, had been keeping a low profile. But after taking a year to focus on his health, he has re-emerged. "As of April 2018, I am fully recovered and have resumed all my corporate and not-for-profit board responsibilities, as well as a number of advisory roles," he wrote on his LinkedIn profile. He's a director of several companies and arts organizations, including Mattamy Homes, Dorel Industries and the Art Gallery of Ontario.

Reached by email, he deflected questions about business decisions back to Aimia, almost as if he'd had no part in them. When asked specifically about his departure, he wrote: "My leave and retirement were, as you know, for personal medical reasons. They were not 'timed' and had nothing to do with Aimia's relationship with Air Canada." (In an email, Aimia's board concurred.) Duchesne would not disclose any details about his health.

Air Canada, meanwhile, noted in yet another email that its decision wasn't personal. "There has never been any issue between Rupert and Calin. No tension, ever. This decision was taken in the best interests of our customers and shareholders. It provides $2 billion to $2.5 billion incremental value to [Air Canada], and helps bring us closer and in direct relationship with our most valuable clients (our Altitude members)."

Air Canada, of course, doesn't worry about hurt feelings. It never really has.

And now its CEO has some swagger: A strong economy, coupled with some long-term agreements with unions and partners like Jazz, has investors giddy.

The share price is up around $24, after crashing to 78 cents during the financial crisis, and this past August, Rovinescu cashed in $35 million in stock. He never got around to commenting for this story, but as a mastermind of the saga, he must be having a good laugh.

Associated Graphic

PHOTOGRAPH (DUCHESNE) SAMI SIVA; (JOHNSTON) TEDDY CHAU

SOURCE BOND BRAND LOYALTY, BLOOMBERG


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Outside the booming city-centres of Canada's most populous province, many are feeling left behind by an economy that's gone cold. With an election looming, increasingly discouraged voters across Ontario are asking: Who will bring back the jobs? Matt Lundy, Justin Giovannetti and Ian McGugan report
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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page B1

On a good day, a 90-minute drive is all that separates two starkly different versions of Ontario's economy.

In Toronto, cranes punctuate the skyline, entrepreneurs raise millions to launch startups, and universities churn out science, math and engineering graduates who are poised to prosper in the jobs of tomorrow.

Amazon and Google, tech giants that are synonymous with the knowledge economy, employ scores of workers in the city. A financial centre and government services hub, Toronto is also a magnet for wealth, boasting the second-highest median net worth among major cities, thanks in no small part to a frenzied real estate boom.

Roughly 100 kilometres down the road, the Niagara region is stagnant: The same number of people are employed today as a decade ago, and household income has barely budged.

Once a haven for blue-collar workers and their young families, the area increasingly resembles a retirement community. More than one-fifth of the St. Catharines-Niagara population is 65 and older, and between 2001 and 2016, its cohort aged 14 and under dropped by 13 per cent. During that time, youth populations rose in areas such as Toronto (7.6 per cent), Guelph (7.5 per cent) and KitchenerWaterloo (4.8 per cent).

Niagara is hardly an outlier. Across much of Southern Ontario, cities and towns are grappling with dimmer economic prospects, slammed by decades of jobs lost to factory closings and their ripple effects. The decline has taken on renewed ferocity over the past 10 years as skyrocketing electricity prices, a volatile exchange rate and foreign competition have hit hard at local employers and surrounding communities.

Some sectors, however, are thriving. Since 2000, hundreds of thousands of jobs have been created in construction, real estate, finance and professional and technical services - a reflection of both the building boom in desirable urban areas and the tech-heavy tasks that underpin the modern economy.

The result is an Ontario that can be roughly divided into its boom and bust towns, where wealth and opportunity either pile up or dissipate. The fault line deepened over the past decade as 90 per cent of new jobs went to Toronto and Ottawa, while incomes in former industrial centres grew at anemic rates or declined.

With less than a month until the provincial election, the situation bears an eerie resemblance to that of the United States in 2016, when disillusioned voters in Great Lake states helped propel Donald Trump to the presidency. There is anger in parts of Ontario, too.

Nearly three-quarters of Ontarians believe the economy is rigged to benefit the rich and powerful, according to a recent Ipsos Reid survey. When jobs are scarce, 65 per cent of respondents want employers to prioritize hiring of "people from Canada" over immigrants and a slim majority wants a leader "who is willing to break the rules."

Against this backdrop, Doug Ford swept to a surprise victory in March to become Leader of Ontario's Progressive Conservatives. His party leads in the polls, the New Democratic Party is firmly in second and the incumbent Liberals lag in third. Beset by years-old scandals and meagre popularity for its Leader, Kathleen Wynne, the Liberals face a monumental task: to convince voters they're better off today than when the party took power nearly 15 years ago.

It's a tall task because, in a broad swath of the province, that simply isn't the case.

"WE WERE DEALT A BAD HAND"

To offer proof of their economic credentials, Ontario's Liberals often tout a well-worn stat: growth here is better here than in any Group of Seven country, including Canada as a whole. Indeed, the province has recovered smartly since the financial crisis. Gross domestic product, adjusted for inflation, climbed 2.8 per cent in 2017, following similar gains the previous two years. The province's jobless rate, at 5.6 per cent, is near its best level in two decades.

But the recovery has been uneven.

The last census made that abundantly clear.

After adjusting for inflation, Ontario's median household total income increased 3.8 per cent between 2005 and 2015, worst among all provinces and territories.

At the metropolitan level, there was a noticeable shakeup in the pecking order. In 2005, Windsor's median household income slightly trailed that of Hamilton. By 2015, the gap had widened to nearly $10,000. Likewise, London, Ont.'s household income was a tad higher than Kingston's circa 2005.

A decade later, London lagged by more than $6,000.

Women's income is a relative bright spot. Although trailing growth in other provinces, the median income figure in Ontario climbed 11.7 per cent, with most metro areas posting double-digit gains.

The rise in women's income dovetails with another trend: the growth of government jobs. Since 2000, publicsector employment has increased by 40 per cent, nearly double the rate of hiring on the private side, as the government hired thousands of workers in health care and education, two publicly funded sectors that tend to be dominated by women. Thus, it's not surprising that in places where women's wages are especially strong, such as Ottawa and Kingston, government work plays an out-sized role in the local economy.

But where women have marched ahead, men have noticeably fallen behind. Ontario was the only province or territory where median male income declined over the 10-year period, at minus 2.4 per cent.

The figures were particularly bad for male employment income, with the provincial median tumbling 6.7 per cent over the same period, another worst among the provinces.

In all but one census metro area, men's employment income dropped. The worst declines were found in areas associated with heavy industry, such as St. Catharines, Oshawa and London. Windsor fared the worst, with a whopping 25per-cent drop over 10 years. Senior officials in Ms. Wynne's government have conceded that the sobering fall in wages for male workers have weighed down their re-election chances.

No doubt, the decline of manufacturing was a major contributor. Over the decade ending mid-2014, the number of Ontarians who worked in manufacturing fell by 365,000, wiping out a significant chunk of the well-paid, union jobs that some communities relied on for generations.

By now, the culprits are well known. Automation, global competition and a strong Canadian dollar all factored in the sector's punishing decline.

"We were dealt a bad hand," Mike Moffatt, an assistant professor of economics at the Ivey Business School, said of the provincial economy post-2003. "Commodity prices were going up and up, the dollar was going up and up and competition exploded from China. We may not have played that hand as well as we could have, but the initial factors were out of our control."

Manufacturing jobs were wiped out everywhere, including Toronto. But subsequent job growth has been decidedly lopsided.

Over the past decade, Ontario has created 580,000 new positions, as measured by the increase in employed people. Metro Toronto, which accounts for less than half of the province's population, nabbed 80 per cent of those jobs. Ottawa accounts for another 10 per cent. The rest of Ontario, with millions of people from Cornwall to Thunder Bay, accounts for the remaining 10 per cent.

In Toronto, job gains have largely gone to three sectors - finance, real estate, health care and professional services - reflecting both the city's entrenched position to seize services positions, along with spinoff jobs from the red-hot housing industry.

The situation is hardly perfect in Toronto. With pockets of extreme wealth and abject poverty, income inequality has been exacerbated over decades, and overall income growth is uninspiring. But there is little doubt that the country's largest city attracts and generates an inordinate amount of opportunity.

Metro Toronto residents held 48 per cent of the province's household assets by dollar value in 2016, up from 42 per cent in 1999; blistering home-price growth has made paper millionaires out of many homeowners.

The situation is ripe for a populist to rip through the province and attract voters by exploiting the grievances of those who have been left out of the boom.

No party leader has pounded the populist drumbeat louder than Mr. Ford.

A divisive former Toronto councillor, Mr. Ford's style of politics and rustbelt support have been compared with Mr. Trump's.

Seizing on voters' anger over electricity costs, Mr. Ford has vowed to fire the chief executive of Hydro One over his compensation and staged a protest this week outside the utility's annual shareholder meeting. He's also pledged to reduce gasoline prices and if elected, plans to erect a large sign at the border that reads "Ontario is open for business."

Mr. Ford may be tapping into a deep vein of frustration that snakes through the province. A recent poll, conducted by EKOS Research Associates, ranked residents of different Canadian cities based on how "open" they were in terms of racial tolerance, economic optimism and other factors. It found that the once-prosperous manufacturing centres of Southern Ontario were clustered at the very bottom of the spectrum, indicating deep pessimism and growing intolerance.

It's "absolutely" possible that some parts of Ontario might come to echo the angry dynamic of Trump country, says Allison Bramwell, an assistant professor of political science at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and senior associate at the Innovation Policy Laboratory at the University of Toronto. "Technology benefits some places and not others," she says, "and we're definitely going to see political repercussions from that."

A RUST BELT IN FLUX

London is emblematic of the strengths and challenges in Southwestern Ontario.

The city has loads going for it, including a lively downtown and the University of Western Ontario. It also has an enviable jobless rate of 5.8 per cent, matching the provincial figure.

But London also has more sobering statistics. Once a thriving manufactur-

ing hub, the area's participation rate - that is, the percentage of people either working or looking for a job - has ebbed to about 61 per cent, compared with 66 per cent in Toronto and 68 per cent in Guelph. Fifteen years ago, London's rate was nearly 70 per cent.

To some degree, that's a reflection of an aging populace. But labour participation has also noticeably dropped among workers aged 25 to 54. Overall employment, while stronger of late, is roughly equal to where it was in the summer of 2004.

The city's population has grown at a steady clip. New subdivisions have sprung up around the city, with large homes and well-kept lawns, and some residents telecommute to jobs in Toronto or make the trek sporadically.

There are crowds of "For Lease" signs along commercial streets in downtown London, and the traffic is light even as rush hour starts.

While the city's economy has begun to improve as Ontario's economic growth has accelerated, there are still signs of struggle.

"It's really the fall in manufacturing.

London has gone from plant closure to plant closure and you get to tens of thousands of jobs lost with little difficulty," Prof. Moffatt said. "The market for a laid-off 55-year-old auto worker is pretty much non-existent. These people come from a time when plants were hiring people out of high school.

They had good paying jobs for 30 years, and then the plants closed."

One thing that has helped save London from the fate of some rust-belt cities is the presence of the local university. A number of trendy cafés in downtown London seem to overflow with some of the 36,000 young adults who study at the University of Western Ontario. A look at Chatham-Kent gives you a clue where the city would be without the university, according to Prof. Moffatt.

OUT OF OPTIONS

As with many in his generation, John Hensel has seen work opportunities vanish over the past two decades as plants have shrunk through layoffs, or closed. He's been among the laid off and has worked at least nine jobs as an adult.

The 48-year-old lives near Chatham-Kent and has seen the region's falling fortunes. The plant closings started about two decades ago, when he was in his late 20s. "I guess I wasn't thinking too much about it back then. Now, you can tell that this is a depressed economy. Wages are stuck and the hydro prices aren't helping anyone," he said, speaking from his parent's farm north of London.

Most of the people he went to school with have relocated. His brother moved to Timmins to take a job with a power utility.

Mr. Hensel considers himself lucky, but given the opportunity he would have chosen a different course in life.

Despite near constant retraining and a wide array of licenses - he's a welder, millwright and mechanic - finding steady work has been a struggle.

For nearly 15 years, he was an experimental mechanic, working on big-rig trucks that would one day be plying North America's highways. But that factory moved to Mexico. Then he got a job with Ontario Power Generation, but the provincial government moved to close the coal-fired plant where he worked. Six months after he found work at a plastics plant in Sarnia, the company went into receivership.

While his skills would earn him a six-figure salary in Alberta's oil sands, he said he doesn't want to leave his home. "Family is close here. It's hard to move. I'm stuck in Chatham-Kent," he said with a grimace.

His father, sitting nearby, begins to list all the local factories that have closed. "We used to have a glass factory in Wallaceburg, it's gone," he said. "We used to have a brass company that made household faucets, it's gone. We had a framing factory, they're gone. We used to have a big plastic company, it's gone. We had a big truck builder, it's gone. We had another glass company, they went to Mexico. We had a company that made motor wheels, it's gone.

Most of the tooling and die shops are gone. These are all big employers, and they just aren't here any more."

Since late 2014, Mr. Hensel has found work as a millwright at a nearby automotive plant, but he said he's worried that it'll soon close, too. He feels as though he's done his part in life, training for new jobs and staying mobile, but he says the government hasn't done enough for people like him.

While his family has voted Liberal in the past, he says he sees the party as too focused on Toronto. While Ms. Wynne has promised cheap tuition, free daycare and free pharmaceuticals for people younger than 25, he says the new spending means little for him.

"It's too late for me. I didn't get free childcare when I was young and raising a family. I didn't get the big childtax credits. They're giving the free drugs to everyone under 25. The NDP is talking about free dental care too. Everything is free now," said the father of two.

He says the government should focus on not running deficits and reducing its debt.

"I just feel like they're negligent when it comes to an area like this, but they'll promise the moon for Toronto," he said, shaking his head. "There's got to be a better way."

What does he think of the government? He frowns, not sure how to answer. "Corrupt," he said after a moment. "They're corrupt."

What about Mr. Ford? There's a long, uneasy silence.

"She says that he's like Trump," he said, referring to criticism from Ms.

Wynne. "Well, I hope he is. Because he'll clean it up right up."

However, there's a resignation, he says, that little will change if Mr.

Ford wins. The bureaucracy around the legislature at Queen's Park is entrenched, and most of the province's contracts are locked in.

"But I've decided who I want to vote for," he said.

"WE'VE GOT NO JOBS"

The most galling aspect of ChathamKent's decline is that there is absolutely nothing unusual about it.

On a chilly Saturday night in Welland, for example, the busiest spot in the Niagara town's largely deserted downtown strip is the Main Street Gaming Centre. About 80 people, many of them grey-haired, sit at long tables inside a brightly lit hall, waiting for a bingo caller to shout out numbers. Two dozen other customers line up for lottery tickets, or stand in front of video betting games, hoping for their own strokes of good fortune.

Lorraine Bailey, an 83-year-old retiree, is one of them. Petite and neatly dressed, she's proud to inform you she's a lifelong Wellander. But when the conversation turns to the topic of how the city is doing now, the sweetfaced octogenarian suddenly spits fire.

"It's terrible," she says. "We've got no jobs. I remember when Main Street was hopping with shops, when Atlas and Page-Hersey were going full tilt. Now? Nothing."

Ms. Bailey isn't exaggerating. A generation ago, Welland was a thriving blue-collar town, where a high-school graduate or recent immigrant could count on finding a good job and leading a comfortable life. Bustling factories employed thousands of people. At shift changes, the rush of workers jammed downtown streets.

There's not much need to worry about traffic jams now. Since the early 1980s, a toxic cocktail of globalization and technology has poisoned the local economy. One after another, major employers such as Atlas Steels, PageHersey Tubes, John Deere and others have closed or shrunk their local operations. Empty industrial sites now dot the city's core and a Canadian Tire call centre serves as the city's biggest employer.

"CAN'T SOMETHING BE DONE?"

So what are Ontario's former factory towns supposed to do? Most economic development experts stress the need to develop new enterprises by emphasizing education and building links between local schools and nearby businesses.

According to Prof. Moffatt, the province's decision to build new university campuses in Milton and Brampton is a missed opportunity to help redevelop a rust-belt town. "One of the things saving southwestern Ontario is all these college towns that are doing well, especially where schools have a big tech focus," he said. "That's something that has helped a place like London avoid the depths of what we've seen in parts of the U.S. rust belt. That's why we're talking about stagnation and not decline."

The experts also underline the importance of keeping downtowns vibrant and offering the amenities that can attract professionals and creative entrepreneurs.

Welland is an example of how even good strategies can struggle for traction. The city opened a sleek and modern civic square in 2005 to provide a new anchor for the city's decaying downtown. Meanwhile, Niagara College, with its main campus on the city's edge, enrolls more than 9,000 fulltime students, and offers dozens of programs, from accounting and gamedesign to viticulture and welding.

But all of those initiatives - as well as bike paths, a farmers' market and an ambitious program to attract businesses downtown - have failed to close the gap between Welland and prosperous cities such as Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo. "The problem in many ways is that every city is trying to do the same thing," says Pierre Filion, a professor in the School of Planning at the University of Waterloo. "When everybody is competing with much the same strategies, no one wins."

The lack of obvious economic alternatives has led the city back to its roots. Despite all the prevailing doom and gloom about manufacturing, it's trying hard to attract new factories.

"What academics and policy makers have to realize is that the phone they're talking on, or the computer they're working on, still has to be manufactured somewhere," says Frank Campion, Welland's affable and articulate mayor. "Our experience is that manufacturing isn't dead. It may be reduced in terms of the number of employees, but the need is still there."

The mayor's major success has been attracting a new GE plant that will employ 220 workers when it opens this year. What happens if other factories don't come back? Mr. Campion's other strategy is to promote Welland as a destination for retirees and long-range commuters to Toronto, a two-hour drive away.

"We're seeing a migration of people to the Niagara region and Welland," he says. "You can cash in your house in Toronto and buy a similar house with a larger yard and probably more amenities - and put hundreds of thousands of dollars in the bank."

His math is accurate. A Toronto house that might sell for $1-million would probably fetch around $400,000 in Welland. The difference in prices reflects the increasingly concentrated nature of Ontario's prosperity. As factories have declined, more and more of the province's wealthmaking activities, such as finance and technology, are concentrated in a relatively small band of communities with an hour-and-a-half drive of Toronto.

The surest way to boost the prosperity of a community outside that charmed circle is to tap the affluence of the nearby metropolis.

Nothing demonstrates that phenomenon better than the fireworks that followed the provincial government's announcement in June that it would extend GO rail service through the Niagara Peninsula to Niagara Falls by 2023. The rail link, if it comes to fruition, would make commuting between Welland and Toronto far easier than it is now.

"As soon as they announced it, the frenzy began," says Gino Villella, a real estate agent in Welland. Prices jumped 30 per cent within a matter of weeks as out-of-town buyers began to bid $50,000 to $100,000 over asking prices in anticipation of a general rise in Niagara real estate.

The jump in home prices came as a welcome surprise for local sellers.

However, Mr. Villelalla says, it also emphasized the economic gulf between those out-of-town buyers and Wellanders.

"Homes were selling in hours," he recalls. "I had local buyers saying, 'Can't something be done? We work here, we live here and we can't afford a home.' " Ms. Bailey says there's little to cheer: The city has never been the same since the factories left. She's not willing to discuss her choice in the upcoming provincial election - "none of them know what they're doing, as far as I can see" - but she is deeply angry.

Men's wages The last census showed that male employment income plummeted across the province. For men in all but one census metropolitan area in Ontario, median annual employment income declined from 2005 to 2015 - in some cases, drastically.

This data uses adjusted 2015 dollars, and only counts those who earned income from labour. The chart shows a selection of Ontario CMAs.

Associated Graphic

FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

TARA WALTON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A John Deere factory in Welland, Ont., that closed in 2009, shedding 800 jobs, remains a sobering reminder of life in the rust belt.

TARA WALTON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

The tendency for Ontario's government to focus on growth in metropolitan areas such as Toronto, below, has left residents of small towns in the rust belt such as Welland, bottom, disillusioned with the political process, looking to change-oriented messages from leadership candidates such as Doug Ford.

BELOW: FRED LUM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL; BOTTOM: TARA WALTON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Battle for the ballot: Inside the bitter nominations that divided the PCs
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A Globe investigation of contentious candidate races found widespread evidence of interference in the local democratic process
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By KAREN HOWLETT, JILL MAHONEY
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page A16

It was a busy weekend for the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party. On the Saturday, after a nearly 500-kilometre bus trip, a group of Toronto-area residents posed as local voters at a candidate nomination meeting in Ottawa. The next day, the power broker who led the journey was working at another vote in Hamilton, where a printer secretly churned out fake identity papers.

The results of both nominations were bitterly disputed and eventually overturned, along with four other votes. The Tories have never explained those decisions, or what happened inside the party over the last 19 months - how nomination battles were gamed under the supervision of senior officials, alienating party loyalists and attracting the attention of criminal investigators.

New leader Doug Ford says he's dealt with the disputed nominations that happened under his predecessor Patrick Brown and is focusing on the future. However, questions remain about how some candidates were selected to carry the PC banner. Nomination races, despite being a cornerstone of Canada's democracy, are not overseen by federal or provincial electoral watchdogs.

A Globe and Mail examination of contentious PC nomination races found widespread evidence of interference in the local democratic process. The most egregious cases involved alleged ballotbox stuffing, ineligible voters and fake memberships. In others, the process appeared to have been manipulated to benefit favoured candidates. Voting dates were moved up, information was withheld by top officials and the screening of contenders was stalled, according to unsuccessful candidates and local riding associations.

There is evidence Snover Dhillon, a businessman convicted of fraud and deemed persona non grata by federal Conservatives, played an influential role in many of the disputed provincial votes, including in Ottawa and Hamilton. The Globe investigation found that Mr. Dhillon worked as a campaign organizer for party hopefuls in at least five ridings. One of Mr. Dhillon's clients, Brampton East candidate Simmer Sandhu, dropped out of the race earlier this week, after his former employer reported an "internal theft" of 60,000 customers' names and addresses.

Mr. Ford told reporters on Friday he will not call for an external probe into whether other PC candidates may have been involved. York Regional Police are investigating the data breach. A police investigation into alleged fraud at a PC nomination race in Hamilton is also ongoing.

The Globe interviewed four dozen party insiders about the disputed nominations and obtained internal documents, including e-mails, formal appeals and some membership lists. A data analysis of the lists found numerous red flags: more than two dozen fake members at one Ottawa apartment building linked to Mr. Dhillon or his associates, and large numbers of people with the same address.

Mr. Brown did not respond to the Globe's requests to comment. He previously declined to overturn nomination decisions after the party received complaints.

The potential for abuse at the nomination level has been repeatedly identified as an issue across the political spectrum at the provincial and federal levels.

The alleged vote-rigging demonstrates that the process for selecting candidates must be monitored and regulated the same way as general elections, says Christopher Cochrane, a political science professor at the University of Toronto.

"The democratic process is only as strong as the weakest link."

From the start of his leadership, Mr. Brown promised to broaden the appeal of PC Party with a slate of candidates that were youthful, gender balanced and ethnically diverse. He said there would be open and competitive nomination battles.

Competitive nomination battles, as opposed to officials appointing a candidate, generate funds for the party - $10 per member - while building an invaluable database of supporters ahead of the general election.

But political parties face a dilemma when it comes to selecting a slate of candidates, Prof. Cochrane says. They want the process to appear democratic and locally-run; however, party leaders also have preferred candidates.

"You can have a debate about whether the central party apparatus should have more control over selecting candidates or if riding associations should be the ones doing it. I don't think you'd find much disagreement that it ought to be a transparent process," he said.

Transparency is central to the controversy that has enveloped the Tories. Numerous would-be candidates and members have accused senior party executives of manipulating local races by leading on candidates in hopes they would sell memberships, while giving an advantage to preferred winner.

Allegations of unfair treatment emerged in the PC Party's very first nomination race under Mr. Brown. Tories in Carleton, a new riding in rural south Ottawa, elected a candidate back in November of 2016, long before anyone was paying much attention to a provincial election that was still 19 months away.

The area, traditionally a Tory stronghold, attracted five candidates, including Jay Tysick, a managing partner of a lobbying and communications firm. He announced his intention to run in early October, 2016 and waited to be vetted by the party, a critical approval that would allow him access to the riding's membership list.

As he tried to rally support, Mr. Tysick began to worry when the date of the nomination meeting was bumped up twice. A week before the meeting, the party told Mr. Tysick his candidacy was rejected. No reason was given. Goldie Ghamari won the nomination. She did not respond to a request for comment.

"It was clear the fix was in," said Mr. Tysick, who left the party to run as a candidate in Carleton under the Ontario Alliance banner.

A similar controversy erupted that same month in Burlington, a riding the party lost in the 2014 election to the Liberals. Former MPP Jane McKenna was the first to declare her candidacy, hoping to reclaim her old job. Her only rival was Jane Michael, chair of the Catholic school board.

In the summer, Ms. Michael told the party's executive director, Bob Stanley, she intended to seek the nomination. He encouraged her to run, she said, but also said he hoped Ms. McKenna could be acclaimed. Mr. Stanley declined comment, as did Ms. McKenna.

For nearly five months, Ms. Michael waited to be vetted by the party's nominating committee. She said she was only interviewed and approved the night before the vote, leaving her no time to contact the riding's more than 900 party members.

After the vote, Colin Pye, then chair of the riding association, alleged in a letter to the party that the meeting was "tainted" by numerous breaches of party rules.

He alleges that several people who were not on the membership list were permitted to vote without proper identification; unused ballots were left unguarded at one point; and the room where ballots were counted was not secured. He asked for a formal hearing and a new vote, but was rebuffed.

Mr. Pye resigned his position. "The whole mess around the nomination race left a very bad taste in my mouth."

Around the same time, Snover Dhillon, a power broker and friend of Mr. Brown, was quietly helping the PC Party make inroads among voters of Indian descent mainly in the suburbs west of Toronto.

He was also a frequent presence at party events, attending at least a dozen nomination meetings. His role in many of the races - whether he was working for candidates or simply attending as a party booster - remains an open question.

In a recent Facebook posting, Mr. Dhillon said he worked for contenders, providing volunteers and getting supporters out to vote. He did not disclose who hired him.

"The candidates hired me to run their nominations, they signed contract with me and I told them in written statement very clearly that no acclamation is guaranteed," he wrote. "... Some candidates won the election and some lost."

When reached by phone in late March, Mr. Dhillon asked The Globe to send him questions by e-mail. He has not responded to multiple requests for a reply.

The relationship between Mr. Brown and Mr. Dhillon, which dates back more than a decade, worried the leader's senior advisors, according to sources in his former office. The pair had travelled together to India at least once while Mr. Brown was an MP.

Advisers in Mr. Brown's office said they warned him to stay away from Mr. Dhillon, given his criminal record. Mr. Dhillon's convictions relate to activities in 2010 - defrauding a bank of $11,500 and a woman of more than $5,000. He was sentenced to probation. He also served 41 days in jail in connection with a fraudulent real estate deal.

Mr. Dhillon came to the attention of the national media during the 2011 federal election campaign, when he was recognized at a campaign event, seated behind then Conservative leader Stephen Harper's family. Mr. Brown, a Tory MP at the time, said he wasn't aware of the fraud allegations. "I like to be supportive of anyone, but obviously I wouldn't be supportive of any conduct that is illegal," he told Canadian Press. "I'll obviously keep my distance."

However, after Mr. Brown became the leader of the PC Party of Ontario in May, 2015, Mr. Dhillon was frequently seen at Tory events. And when the nomination races kicked off over a year later, he promoted his services to would-be candidates.

Mr. Dhillon's success in helping Jass Johal, a friend, secure the nomination in a riding where three other contenders were also interested made Mr. Dhillon a hot commodity, according to party insiders.

Mr. Johal, a paralegal, was acclaimed in Brampton North in November, 2016.

As the schedule of nomination races picked up - in all, 70 took place while Mr. Brown was leader - Mr. Dhillon marketed himself as having a sizable roster of clients. It's difficult to discern in many cases if candidates hired Mr. Dhillon or if he simply threw his support behind them, whether it was welcome or not.

His efforts to bolster the party remain in an online footprint that includes a poster circulated on social media for an invitation-only barbecue Mr. Dhillon held in Brampton last summer. The poster featured Mr. Brown's photo above a slate of 17 PC Party contenders. Mr. Stanley, the party's then executive director who was at the centre of many races plagued by problems, was listed as a speaker.

The barbecue was billed as an event for Youth for You, a not-for-profit that Mr. Dhillon had recently incorporated. Sources said no one in Mr. Brown's office approved the poster, but he appeared at the event, giving a speech and posing for photos.

The Globe contacted everyone on the poster who is running in the June 7 election to ask about their connection to Mr. Dhillon, namely, Prabmeet Singh Sarkaria (Brampton South), Amarjot Sandhu (Brampton West), Sarah Mallo (Beaches-East York), Kaleed Rasheed (Mississauga East-Cooksville), Nina Tangri (Mississauga-Streetsville), Parm Gill (Milton), Rudy Cuzzetto (Mississauga-Lakeshore), Jane McKenna (Burlington), Stephen Crawford (Oakville), Harjit Jaswal (Brampton Centre) and Sheref Sabawy (Mississauga-Erin Mills). Only Mr. Crawford responded, saying he was not aware of the barbecue and Mr. Dhillon did not work on his campaign. "I did not know my photo would be on this poster."

The PC Party's most contentious nomination battles would also feature Mr. Dhillon as a central character.

On the first Saturday of May last year, Conservatives in the riding of Ottawa West-Nepean gathered at a suburban high school to choose between two contenders: Karma Macgregor, a former Tory Senate aide and businesswoman, and Jeremy Roberts, a young political staffer.

Even before the meeting began, the process had already begun to sour for Mr. Roberts. It was known among party insiders that Mr. Brown favoured Ms. Macgregor, in part because of a personal connection - her daughter was not only one of his aides, but had also once dated him. On the eve of the nomination, Mr. Roberts had told the party's president he was participating in the vote "under protest and with serious reservations," citing delays receiving the list of PC Party members in the riding and concerns about some entries, including several addresses with seven or more members.

A Globe analysis of the membership list found that more than two dozen fake members listed at one apartment building had the same names as people connected to Mr. Dhillon or his associates through social media. In interviews, two people said they had no idea how their names and Toronto-area phone numbers ended up on a list of party members in Ottawa.

"I didn't talk with anyone about this," said Meghna Randhawa, a student who knows one of Mr. Dhillon's associates.

"I'm shocked. ... I never heard of these elections."

In addition, sources allege Mr. Dhillon, who was working for Ms. Macgregor, bused people from the Greater Toronto Area to vote at the nomination meeting.

After voting started, local party stalwarts began to notice an unfamiliar face - who they later learned was Mr. Dhillon - escorting groups of young people. Instead of directing them to vote at the standard alphabetical registration stations, Mr. Dhillon took them to the credentials table, which is normally where voters are sent after encountering snags such as problems with their identification. The credentials desk was staffed by two of Mr. Brown's aides and overseen by Mr. Stanley.

One small group of people who arrived with Mr. Dhillon stayed the entire time the polls were open, recalled Carlos Naldinho, a party activist who was at the meeting.

"They kept going into the voting area then coming into the common area," he said.

Sources told The Globe that Ms. Macgregor did not authorize Mr. Dhillon's actions. She did not respond to questions from The Globe.

In addition, scrutineers with Mr. Roberts's campaign raised a host of concerns, including that officials accepted questionable identification, such as cellphone photos of ID.

Once the vote counting began, the problems escalated. Two boxes, including the one from the credentials desk, contained ballots that had been folded together in a clump - apparent evidence of ballot-box stuffing. "They couldn't have landed that way in the box," said Rob Elliott, a party vice-president who helped count the credentials ballots. A total of 17 votes were disqualified.

However, the credentials box also had 28 more ballots than registration forms filled out at that table, according to riding association officials.

Despite objections from the Roberts campaign, Mr. Stanley accepted the results of the credentials ballot box, which tipped the race in Ms. Macgregor's favour by just 15 votes.

Mr. Roberts' supporters vigorously challenged the results. But Mr. Stanley eventually declared Ms. Macgregor the winner. He declined to comment on the nominations when contacted by the Globe.

"I had never in my life - in all my years in politics - seen such blatant fraudulent activity as I saw that day," said Marjory LeBreton, a former Conservative senator who has been involved in politics since John Diefenbaker was prime minister. "It was just unbelievable."

A few weeks later, the riding association quit en masse.

News about the Ottawa irregularities travelled fast as outraged Tories phoned contacts in other parts of the province - including those involved in another nomination vote that was happening the next day in Hamilton.

The race in Hamilton West-AncasterDundas was hard fought between Ben Levitt, a political aide for a federal Tory MP; Vikram Singh, a lawyer; Jeff Peller, whose family owns the Peller Estates winery.

At the high school where the vote was held, veteran strategist John Mykytyshyn noticed Mr. Dhillon, who was working for Mr. Peller's campaign, in the parking lot greeting large coaches as busloads of voters arrived.

Behind the scenes, The Globe has learned, a printer was cranking out fake Rogers utility bills and Scotiabank statements in a classroom, according to multiple sources.

Party rules require voters to present photo ID and proof of address. The fake I.D. enabled people who were not eligible to vote to cast ballots.

Officials eventually figured out the alleged scam when they noticed voters using Rogers and Scotiabank statements with identical account numbers and balances, according to party members who were present.

Later there would also be questions about whether votes were cast illegally on behalf of people who did not attend.

Jacob Trenholm, a management consultant, said a Hamilton detective contacted him in January, 2018, and told him police had a list that showed him casting a ballot. Mr. Trenholm had bought a membership at the request of Mr. Levitt, a friend from high school, but did not attend the nomination meeting. "I was surprised and felt uncertain as to what had happened because it felt wrong," he said.

As in Ottawa, irregularities also occurred in Hamilton at the credentials table, which was staffed by aides to Mr. Brown and overseen by then party president Rick Dykstra. He did not respond to requests for comment.

Mr. Singh had the most votes at the standard stations, but Mr. Levitt received 202 out of the 345 ballots from the credentials table, pushing him to victory, according to a lawsuit Mr. Singh later filed. He alleged the meeting was tainted by party officials' predetermination that Mr. Levitt would win and by "fraudulent ballot stuffing."

An e-mail later obtained by the Toronto Star appears to suggest Mr. Brown directed his top officials to influence the outcome of the vote. "Let them all fight it out. And get me the result I want. But no disqualifications here. Kitchen is too hot," Mr. Brown e-mailed Mr. Stanley just days before the meeting. "Got it," Mr. Stanley replied.

Hamilton Police launched an investigation into allegations of forgery and fraud in June, 2017, in response to a complaint from Mr. Singh. A Hamilton detective has also interviewed key players from the Ottawa West-Nepean nomination meeting in recent months, The Globe has learned.

Mr. Peller also launched a lawsuit, alleging ballot-box stuffing. He and Singh both eventually reached settlements with the party. The Globe has reported that members of Mr. Brown's inner circle discussed a possible settlement for Mr. Peller that included $130,000 to cover his campaign expenses, including $22,000 he had paid to Mr. Dhillon. It references "various illegal activities." No further details were given.

"We ran a clean campaign," Mr. Peller said, adding he hired Mr. Dhillon to sell memberships in the Indian community.

Just one week after the chaotic back-toback Ottawa and Hamilton votes, Mr. Brown and Mr. Dhillon socialized together at a party for college students in Brampton.

Mr. Brown's presence at the party, which featured a buffet, DJ and Punjabi singer, was a surprise even to the hosts.

He delivered a few words to the crowd and posed for photos. Afterward in the parking lot, a smiling Mr. Brown posed for a selfie with Mr. Dhillon and Mr. Johal, among others.

Shortly after, Mr. Brown made it clear he had no intention of revisiting any of the disputed races. At a party executive meeting on June 3, he announced the party would not hear any appeals and that accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers would oversee future meetings.

Rob Elliott, the party vice-president, resigned that day over the decision. "I felt that those appeals needed to be heard and there were legitimate questions to be asked," he said.

In January, Mr. Brown was forced to resign amid allegations of sexual misconduct involving two young women, which he has denied. Interim leader Vic Fedeli was left to deal with the fallout over nomination races plagued by complaints and the party's inflated membership numbers. Mr. Brown boasted that the party's ranks swelled to 200,000 from 10,000 under his leadership.

Pledging to "root out the rot," Mr. Fedeli overturned two nominations, including Ottawa West-Nepean, and eliminated Bob Stanley's position. Mr. Fedeli also ordered a probe into the names and addresses of all the party's members. He later announced that the database contained just over 132,000 names, but he never got an opportunity to complete the review.

In March, Doug Ford became leader.

The party overturned four nomination races, including Brampton North, where Jass Johal had been acclaimed, and Hamilton West-Ancaster-Dundas. It also barred Mr. Brown from running as a Tory candidate.

At the same time, Mr. Johal and Mr. Dhillon were swept up in a probe by the province's ethics watchdog, who ruled that Mr. Brown broke integrity rules by failing to disclose a $375,000 loan from Mr. Johal. Mr. Dhillon witnessed a promissory note for the loan during a meeting with Mr. Johal and Mr. Brown that summer, the report says.

The party has tried to move forward.

After a new race was ordered in Ottawa West-Nepean, Jeremy Roberts was acclaimed as the candidate. In Hamilton West-Ancaster-Dundas, Mr. Levitt won a new vote.

"Anything that happened under the previous leader is in the past and our party is moving forward," Melissa Lantsman, a spokeswoman for Mr. Ford.

But the problematic nominations continue to haunt Ford, who just this week lost a candidate. Simmer Sandhu, who worked for the company that owns the 407 toll highway, dropped out because he did not want to be a distraction. He said allegations made against him relating both to his work and campaign are "totally baseless."

Mr. Ford's spokeswoman also said this week that Mr. Stanley has been told he is "not welcome to be a part of our campaign in any role - official or unofficial."

With files from Justin Giovannetti, research by Stephanie Chambers and data analysis by Tom Cardoso

Associated Graphic

Former Ontario PC leader Patrick Brown, seen third from left in the group of men, has his photo taken by Snover Dhillon, who worked as a campaign organizer for PC Party hopefuls in at least five ridings.

Last summer Snover Dhillon promoted a bbq with photos of community members, as well as several nominated and hopeful candidates for the PC Party. It's not known if all of the individuals agreed to be part of the event, which featured former leader Patrick Brown.

FACEBOOK

Patrick Brown is seen posing for a photograph with supporters.

Above: Brampton East candidate Simmer Sandhu, seen in his Facebook photo, dropped out of the Ontario race this week. Left: Snover Dhillon, second from left, attended the PC Party's most contention nomination battle in Ottawa West-Nepean in May last year.


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BOMBARDIER SPUN OFF ITS CLASSIC BUSINESS OF MAKING SKI-DOOS AND SEA-DOOS. AFTER A ROCKY START, THE OFFSPRING IS NOW ROARING AHEAD AND WINNING OVER LUCRATIVE NEW MARKETS FOR ITS BURGEONING LINE OF OFF-ROAD VEHICLES
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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page P30

Every spring, Muddy Bottoms all-terrain vehicle and recreation park in Sarepta, Louisiana, is home to a four-day gathering called the Redneck Revival and here, folks wear that label with pride: "Imma redneck. This is what we do!"

To an outsider, it looks like a bunch of people in chest waders and Muck Boots driving their big-tired, off-road four-wheelers into the mud on purpose to see if they'll get stuck. But to the hundreds of power-sports fanatics who pay as much as $665 (U.S.)

to camp out and mix with other devotees, it is an antidote to the complex trappings of modern life--a few hours distilled to simple fun. Just you and your kids or some close buddies, engines revving, and some very wet dirt.

"It's a good way to, I don't know, blow off steam," says Ola, Arkansas, native Jaquline Thomas, 18, with a grin. "Go mudding."

This is bog-and-ball-cap country. There's lots of camouflage clothing, goatees and easy smiles. Signs urging responsible driving line the mosquito-infested trails, but they feel like suggestions more than orders. In a nod to the thousands of dollars these drivers spend on their pastime, many front windshields sport decals with messages like "Lotta debt" and "It's just money."

"I love to ride," says Lawrence Gilbert, a general manager with Southern Tire Mart in Texarkana, Texas. "It's good to get out and just play in the mud, you know? I'm in my 50s. I don't know why I'm doing it, but I really love it."

As drivers speed from one trail to the next or over to a friend's campsite, the good-ol'-boy camaraderie is unmistakable. Still, the stars are not the people but the machines. Many of the most popular vehicles this weekend--clay-caked super-sized utility terrain vehicles (UTV) with roll cages, known as side-by-sides--are made by a $5-billion Quebec company famed for its snowmobiles: Bombardier Recreational Products, or BRP Inc.

Cut loose from plane and train maker Bombardier Inc. in 2003, BRP has forged a path of its own under CEO José Boisjoli. The Valcourt, Quebec, company struggled for much of its first decade. But today, the maker of SkiDoos, Sea-Doos and other off-road motor vehicles is flying high, thanks to the growing popularity of sideby-sides, a bit of luck and shrewd decision making by Boisjoli, who seems to have a natural understanding of what his customers want, whether they be in the U.S. south or Siberia.

That's hardly a surprise. He's one of them. The bespectacled country boy had his first Can-Am brand BRP dirt bike at age 12 and grew up with off-road vehicles. An engineer by training, he met his best friend while riding BRP products, and escapes onto the trails and open road at every opportunity.

Boisjoli is also on a financial roll. Over the past five years, he has increased annual sales by 40% to $4.5 billion and EBITDA by 46% to $559 million, with no acquisitions. He wants to add another $1.5-billion in sales by 2020. Since 2016, BRP's share price has soared by 175%, dramatically outpacing the S&P/TSX Composite's 12% gain. And BRP introduced a small dividend last summer.

BRP's advance has been a godsend for the company's founders and part owners, the Bombardier-Beaudoin family, who have struggled with the shaky performance of their two other major investments. Giant Bombardier has rebounded after a near collapse, but it remains a turnaround story. As for the family's new McInnis Cement plant in the Gaspé, investor-partner Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec seized control of the project in 2016 after massive cost overruns.

Since going public in May 2013, BRP's share price has gained 121%, while Bombardier's has declined by 9.6%. Its $5.1-billion market cap is now roughly 60% of Bombardier's. If BRP was once the orphaned kid with an uncertain future under the watchful eye of the family, with Boisjoli, it has found its feet. Or rather, the gas pedal.

As Boisjoli admits, BRP is not in the necessity business. True, some customers need snowmobiles and UTVs for work. But the company and its rivals mostly make toys for grown-ups--luxury items that are among the first things purchased when enthusiasts land a new job and the first things sold when their finances go sour. This is an industry that hinges on people buying the expendable.

Yet expendable doesn't mean inconsequential. Both BRP and its chief North American competitor, Polaris Industries, which was born in Roseau, Minnesota, but now has its headquarters farther south in Medina, are tied to the small towns where they grew up. Workers there have rejected unions, and their fates are wrapped up in the success or failure of BRP and Polaris.

The stakes cut even further: across continents and social classes. As historian Paul Josephson puts it in his 2007 book, Motorized Obsessions, so many offroad vehicles are currently being produced--millions a year--that "the mass production of vehicles has turned recreation into something large-scale and industrial, extending from factory to backyards and garages, from trailers and hitches to parks and trails, from distributors and gas stations to clubs and lobbying organizations for manufacturers, environmentalists and others."

The search for recreational nirvana, in other words, has become big global business with big ramifications--for workers, investors, the environment and public health. "Americans love anything that is motorized," says Josephson. "They think it's a sign of power."

Boisjoli attributes the popularity of off-road motorsports more to a need for freedom from the daily grind, a kind of mental uncluttering. "I always say that we're selling therapy," he quips. "When you're riding, you think of nothing else. You're cleaning out your brain."

The history of BRP dates to 1937 and the backwoods of Quebec, when Joseph-Armand Bombardier won his first patent for a tracked vehicle used for travelling on snow. His aim at the time was purely pragmatic: to invent a motorized vehicle that would replace horse-drawn sleds and end rural wintertime isolation.

Constructed in a garage in Valcourt, his first commercially produced machines carried seven passengers and were used by doctors, priests, police and postmen, and to carry kids to school. Later, the company would make customized equipment for forestry operations and public works.

It wasn't until 1959 that utility shifted to recreation. That year, Bombardier rolled out its first two-passenger Ski-Doo snowmobile for the masses in its classic yellow colour. Featuring an allrubber endless track, wooden skis and an air-cooled four-stroke engine, the sled boasted a maximum speed of 40 kilometres per hour. Today's fastest production models can do 160 or more.

Snowmobile production has remained in Valcourt. The town of about 1,800 in Quebec's Eastern Townships is synonymous with Bombardier, and Ski-Doo in particular. Several streets are named after members of the family. On a recent spring day, flannel-clad retirees swapped snowmobile stories over lunch and coffee at Cantine Chez Mario. Even the toddlers at the town's Crayons de couleur child care centre wore brightly coloured Ski-Doo snowsuits.

"The Montreal Canadiens are a religion. Ski-Doo in Valcourt is a religion," says Pierre Pichette, a longtime BRP executive who recently retired.

So deep is the attachment to BRP that when rumours began swirling in 2003 that then Bombardier CEO Paul Tellier was preparing to sell the unit to help pull the transport maker out of a dive, locals were shocked. Even Bombardier heirs began asking their elders whether they were going to let their heritage go.

The family couldn't and didn't. In the last message written to his children before his death in 1964, Joseph-Armand had urged them to retain control of the company "as long as humanly possible."

The family honoured that request in 2003, making a bid for BRP together with Boston private equity firm Bain in an auction.

The two partners won, and together with the Caisse de dépôt, they still hold about 60% of BRP's equity. Their six-for-one multiple-voting shares give them roughly 90% of the decisionmaking power.

BRP then began a series of gutsy moves that would boost sales and its reputation as an industry innovator. Among the first was a new snowmobile design called Rev that pushed the seating position of the driver forward by 30 centimetres, which increased the feeling of control. Half of the engineers thought it would bankrupt the company, but it proved successful.

Behind the scenes, the owners challenged management, Boisjoli says. Bain urged the CEO to use more consultants to solve strategic problems. He wasn't fully convinced at first, but when outside experts helped the company reverse the losses in its ATV segment, he hired advisers for the outboard motor business too.

The 2008 financial crisis hit BRP hard. The global economy plunged into recession, the company's nearly $3-billion annual revenue fell by 40% and its profit tanked. "It was a bloodbath," Boisjoli says. BRP slashed all costs except research and development, obtaining $80 million in loans from the Quebec government to fund work on new designs and help pay down other debt.

When the dust settled three years later, the North American power-sports industry as a whole had seen its unit sales drop by half. In its fiscal year ended in January, 2011, BRP pinched out a meagre $35 million profit on $2.1 billion in sales. It went public in 2013, floating about 10% of the company to investors hungry to buy into a leading manufacturer riding a U.S. market recovery.

Which brings us back to Boisjoli. As BRP was getting lashed in 2014 by things it could not control--like the collapse of the Russian ruble, which severely dented its snowmobile sales--the soft-spoken executive started planting the seeds for a hard push toward increased revenue and profit. This included shifting more production to the company's three plants in Mexico.

Boisjoli also went all in on side-by-sides, a product category that had taken off after Yamaha introduced the Rhino in 2004.

The Japanese manufacturer had transformed the slow and boring utility vehicle into something quick and sporty. Boisjoli thought BRP could do even better.

Joseph-Armand Bombardier would be pleasantly surprised at the size of BRP today. It has become one of Canada's premier consumer product companies. Total employees: more than 10,000. Market: more than 100 countries. Portfolio: six product lines, from Ski-Doos to Evinrude outboard engines.

But the founder might also struggle to understand the changing relationship between its customers, their machines and the natural environment. Today, dockside drinks in cottage country can easily turn into a discussion over whether Sea-Doos and other highpitched noise emitters should be banned from the lake. Likewise, conservation groups argue that parts of North America's backcountry can't handle motorized traffic even when people drive responsibly and stick to approved trails.

As Josephson puts it: How did an industry that set out to build vehicles to meet utilitarian needs and help people enjoy the natural world become one that sells superfluous machines that overwhelm nature? "I have a concern that when you take a motorized approach to recreation, it cheapens the experience and makes it less fulfilling for everyone," he says.

Over little more than a decade, sales momentum in the off-road industry has swung dramatically toward vehicles offering a more collective experience. Lone or double-rider ATV sales are in decline. Side-bysides, which can seat as many as six people, are on the rise. The new thrill-craft models are increasingly carlike and cost much more than the older versions, juicing up companies' profits.

Polaris was out of the gate early with side-by-sides in 1998, producing models like the RZR and General. BRP, selling under its off-road Can-Am brand, entered the game in 2010 with its Commander and is now enjoying success with its Defender and Maverick models. Side-by-sides account for almost half of BRP's revenue growth from fiscal 2010 to 2018.

As prices have climbed toward luxury automobile territory--BRP and Polaris both sell models topping $35,000--so too have their capability and popularity.

Today, there are organized events for off-road dune Four innovation coups from BRP 1 | Ski-Doo Bombardier introduced the first recreational snowmobile in 1959 and then shook the industry in 2003 by shifting the driver's position on its Rev model forward.

2 | Sea-Doo When the personal watercraft market bottomed in 2010, BRP jump-started sales with the Spark, a compact plastic model priced at just $4,999 (U.S.).

3 | Spyder Critics mocked the three-wheel trike as a motorbike for the geriatric set when it was introduced in 2007. But its best days may still lie ahead. A low-cost new model priced under $10,000 (U.S.) might do for the Spyder what it did for the Sea-Doo.

4 | Can-Am side-by-side Bigger and more comfortable than lone or double-rider ATVs, side-by-side vehicles have made up almost half of BRP's revenue growth over the past eight years.

bashing, mudding and rock crawling, in addition to more standard trail riding. Polaris estimates that half a million people worldwide bought a side-by-side last year, roughly the same number of Ram pickups Fiat Chrysler sold in the United States.

Those buyers want comfort. "I got too old to ride [an ATV]," says Redneck Revival attendee Oliver Phillips.

"It'll wear you out."

They also want singularity. Customization is huge.

"It's not keeping up with the Joneses. It's outdoing the Joneses," says Johnny Weeks, a major BRP dealer in Houston. "If your buddy puts a 30-inch tire on, you want a 36-inch tire. If your buddy puts a roof on his side-by-side that's got six speakers, you want to put in a subwoofer and six speakers."

Boisjoli has carefully courted U.S. dealers like Weeks since the last recession by making them an attractive offer for year-round product supply and profit sharing that they can't refuse. BRP had a good dealer network in the North American snowbelt and in coastal areas, where Sea-Doos were popular. But it had little to sell in many southern U.S. states. Boisjoli waited to woo dealers in the U.S. southwest until the company introduced its Defender side-by-side in 2015. At a sales meeting that fall, he signed 150 dealers on the spot.

He also pledged that BRP would introduce one new side-by-side model every six months until 2020. First came the 2016 Can-Am Defender utility-recreation model, followed by a six-seat Defender Max package and the Maverick X3, a 172-horsepower beast that BRP calls "the alpha" off-road vehicle. Today, the company has six models and more than 40 different packages--key offerings in its push to double its market share and become the industry's No. 2 manufacturer of side-by-sides.

To quickly bring new models to market, BRP borrowed an idea from German automakers. A few years ago, Volkswagen Group introduced a manufacturing system called modular matrix, which basically uses a standardized set of parts to build a variety of cars. One kit--the MQB platform for VW's transverse frontengine autos, for example--can be used to build dozens of cars with identical components, like axles and drivetrains. The system lets VW design cars for specific markets without beginning from scratch, and it substantially cuts the manufacturing time.

Boisjoli spent two days in Europe in 2010 trying to understand the system and another two years after that to figure out how to implement it at BRP. Today, every power-steering mechanism on a BRP ATV, side-by-side or Spyder three-wheel roadster is the same. So are lots of other parts.

"We're not geniuses," Boisjoli says. "We've just adapted what successful European car companies have done to the powersports industry. The beauty is, I'm convinced we're the only ones doing it."

Boisjoli is widely credited for BRP's rise. Company insiders say he has a deep sense of pride and responsibility to protect the legacy of Joseph-Armand Bombardier and warn that you shouldn't be fooled by his calm demeanour. Behind it lies an ultra-competitive and aggressive CEO determined to prove that a smalltown company can be a world leader.

To be sure, luck has also played a role in BRP's ascent. As the company pushes hard in side-by-sides, archrival Polaris remains mired in a reputational mess, following the recall of thousands of its off-road vehicles. The latest one came in April, when Polaris recalled 107,000 RZR models because of manufacturing defects that could lead to fires and burns. That month, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission slapped the company with a $27-million (U.S.) fine for failing to alert regulators immediately about the defects, which began cropping up as early as 2013. Meanwhile, Japaneseowned competitors have been steadily losing market share to BRP and other North Amercian companies, especially in ATVs and side-by-sides.

Polaris has taken major steps to improve product safety and design, and it will likely quickly make up lost ground. "We play to win," Polaris CEO Scott Wine told analysts. "We're not a company that takes losing lightly." Trouble at Polaris's factory in Roseau, Minnesota, doesn't mean cheers and beers in Valcourt. They've been through adversity there too. It's just that right now, distress seems like a distant memory.

Truth is, the mood at BRP headquarters these days is downright upbeat, and with good reason. The average side-by-side customer is a 45- to 50-yearold male with $100,000 in annual income. And he keeps buying.

"People still feel pretty flush with cash. I don't think there is any impending doom for the consumer," says Jaime Katz, a Morningstar Research analyst. She's impressed with BRP but doesn't believe it will meet its ambitious growth targets, because it is selling into a slow-growth industry that will eventually hit a wall. "At some point there will be a recession, and these businesses struggle in recessionary periods. That's just how they are."

Boisjoli insists BRP is better equipped to weather a crash than it was in the last recession. The company offers a bigger lineup of products that are of better quality than ever before, at wider price points and in more countries. It is doing more low-cost manufacturing. It also has more flexible bank agreements. That's true, says Katz, but so does the competition.

Bain is another source of strength. Big private equity firms often don't have a lot of patience, but Bain has stuck with BRP. The firm is selling its stake slowly over time, and it still owns about 27% of the company. "To me, that's encouraging," says Nicolas Chevalier, a portfolio manager with Pembroke Management Ltd., which holds BRP shares. "They probably see a higher stock price at some point."

New products are the key to keeping the party going. BRP's share price probably won't leap much higher until the company comes up with another killer product category to fuel demand when side-by-side sales peak.

The next leg of growth could come from BRP's own architects of novelty, its in-house design team. A group of mostly men in their 30s and 40s, from various corners of the world, they often win design awards like Red Dot.

Keeping the team intact and healthy is a high priority. "We measure the mood index of all staff members every second week," says Denys Lapointe, BRP's senior vice-president of design and innovation. "They won't produce if they're overstressed and they can't sleep at night."

Boisjoli has also assembled a small M&A team to scout for partnership and acquisition opportunities, and says he could spend $500 million or more on a deal. He's very tight-lipped about the direction the company could take, saying the only limitation is that new vehicles must be motorized--be that a traditional combustion engine, electric or hybrid. "Don't expect BRP to launch a line of sailboats. That's not who we are," he says.

Back at Muddy Bottoms, families are packed around the drag strip to watch the monster truck race, swapping stories of conquering the muck and of vehicle parts broken and fixed. Here, there are no debates about the future, only moments anchored in the present and tales shared with other gearheads--moments given meaning by motors and metal.

"Nothing compares to the power of these," says Mason Watkins, a pawnshop manager, praising his Can-Am Maverick X3 side-by-side. "I started out with a small Yamaha, a Kodiak [owned by friends]. And then eventually I got a job and got my own stuff. It's my hobby. It's what I like doing."

Associated Graphic

A duck-faced Trump fan shows off a Polaris Ranger EFI 900, a model that competes against the BRP Can-Am Defender seen at left. Below, spectators sit back to watch a truck race after listening to an opening prayer and a speech praising the U.S. military, and singing the Star-Spangled Banner

Left, Toby Robinson, from Ola, Arkansas, looks ahead on the trail in his Can-Am Maverick. Below, enthusiasts will pay more than $600 (U.S.) apiece for a weekend of mudding with fellow powersports devotees

PHOTOGRAPHS AND ADDITIONAL REPORTING BY KATIE SADIE


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For Port of Vancouver, underestimating Pacific sea-level rises could come at a high price
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B.C.'s Lower Mainland is a busy and constantly growing centre of Pacific commerce, but as oceans rise, storm surges could leave many of the biggest facilities under water, Matthew McClearn reports
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Monday, May 14, 2018 – Page A10

Roberts Bank defies that old adage about land - that they're not making any more of it. This artificial island was built in the late 1960s for a coal terminal and is joined to British Columbia's southernmost coast by a four-kilometre causeway stretching into the Strait of Georgia.

The island expanded as the Port of Vancouver struggled with a dearth of available industrial land across British Columbia's densely populated Lower Mainland region. Today, midnightblack mountains of coal share the island with Deltaport, a sprawling container terminal that has berthed some of the world's largest vessels.

It is about to double in size yet again. The Vancouver Fraser Port Authority proposes to add a new appendage to the island that will be 1.7 kilometres long and 700 metres wide made out of concrete caissons and nearly 18 million cubic metres of rock, gravel and compacted sand. Roberts Bank Terminal 2 is intended to "remain in perpetuity," according to a document that describes the project.

But submerged deep within regulatory documents is a reason to wonder whether that statement amounts to pure engineering hubris. The world's oceans have been rising for the past century and a half, and scientists predict this imperceptible upward movement will accelerate as the planet continues to warm up and its great ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica melt. The terminal's preliminary design anticipates a rise of 50 centimetres by 2100; it assumes that storms, and the waves and flooding they bring, will not change much. "Sea level rise is not expected to adversely affect the Project over the long term," one document asserts.

The federal environment department challenged that assumption during the environmental review process. A major danger is storm surge, which is rising seawater caused primarily by high winds. "Future storm surges will be affected by changes in storm intensity and local sea level, which is projected to rise in the region and consequently to result in larger storm surges," it noted in a submission in November, 2017. "Assuming that future storms will be within the envelope of the past ignores the additional uncertainty associated with climate change."

The port authority had heard such warnings before. In 2013, it received a report from a technical advisory group that considered potential sea-level rise at Roberts Bank. The lowest scenario considered in that report was 50 centimetres of sea-level rise over the next century. The medium projection was one metre, and the highest scenario was a devastating 2.2 metres. It also warned that existing projections may underestimate the impact of factors such as Greenland's melting ice cap, and the ocean's tendency to expand in volume as it warms.

But all that's decades off. The more immediate concern is keeping up with surging trade volumes throughout the Pacific Rim.

Last year, shippers experienced serious delays at Canada's West Coast ports, raising doubts about whether they can handle increases in shipping traffic. The Port of Vancouver is building and upgrading facilities to relieve the pressure. According to InterVISTAS, a consultancy that produces regular reports for the port authority, capital spending on port facilities is expected to reach more than half a billion dollars each year during the next decade.

Roberts Bank Terminal 2 alone is anticipated to cost more than $2billion.

In addition to managing its own facilities, the port authority is the landlord for many privately leased port lands. A joint venture is building a new grain export facility called G3 Terminal Vancouver in North Vancouver. Further east along Burrard Inlet, Trans Mountain (a subsidiary of energy transportation giant Kinder Morgan Canada Ltd.) is constructing three new berths at its Westridge Marine Terminal as part of a major expansion that would triple the capacity of its pipeline. The project's future has been cast in doubt by a dispute among multiple levels of government, much of it concerning how the Alberta crude it will carry will contribute to climate change and other environmental problems.

These projects have something in common: Proponents have assumed sea-level rise will be on the low range of current projections. If they have underestimated the Pacific Ocean, those facilities could be condemned to a future of regular flooding, extensive damage and costly service interruptions.

The implications would be felt far beyond the Vancouver area.

According to the International Maritime Organization, more than 90 per cent of the world's traded goods are transported by sea. The Port of Vancouver moved 142 million tonnes of cargo last year, a record high. This included massive quantities of coal and grain, wood pulp, logs, steel, Korean and Japanese cars. A few million shipping containers, their contents diverse beyond comprehension, flow in both directions every year.

ASSESSING THE DANGER

The Port of Vancouver is comprised of 28 major marine cargo terminals and two cruise ship terminals dispersed among pockets of land stretching from Burnaby to Delta. Nobody knows how much all of those facilities are worth. One-quarter of port tenants responded to a recent port survey asking for the replacement cost of their fixed capital, and the sum came to $9.3-billion.

To assess the danger rising seas could pose to these facilities, The Globe and Mail examined flooding scenarios for the Port of Vancouver using ArcGIS, a geographical information system (GIS). We used data provided by the Fraser Basin Council, which simulated a storm surge with a return period of 500 years - that is, a storm with an estimated 0.2 per cent chance of occurring in any given year. Although a storm of that magnitude would by definition be considered extreme, climate change is expected to make such storms far more frequent by the end of the century. Kerr Wood Leidal, an engineering consultancy hired by the council, recommended that 1in-500-year coastal flooding should be the minimum standard when assessing the vulnerability of heavily populated areas like Vancouver.

Steve Litke, the council's senior program manager, noted that the simulated flooding ignores wave action and assumes water levels would be uniform.

An actual storm's effects are far more complex.

Our simulations showed a onein-500-year storm today would inundate much of the Lower Mainland's port lands, including some of its busiest facilities. Add to that the one metre of sea-level rise anticipated by 2100, and most major port facilities would be under water.

CONFLICTING PERSPECTIVES

So far, flooding has not been much of a problem for Vancouver's port. Unusually high tides that occur naturally - known colloquially as "king tides" - have become a minor nuisance. Port Authority spokesperson Danielle Jang noted two recent small floods affected a low-lying parking lot and two sites along the Fraser River, creating some traffic and parking challenges. "To date, we have not had to actively deal with flooding situations," Ms. Jang wrote in an e-mail.

And in stark contrast with ports on the Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico, hurricanes and tropical storms are virtually unheard of in Vancouver. The culprit in the region's two benchmark floods (in 1894 and 1948) was the Fraser River.

But that is likely to change. Not only are rising sea levels expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of coastal flooding greatly, but higher ocean waters could also cause rivers and streams in the lower reaches of the Fraser Valley to back up. "We can expect bigger and more frequent flood events, both on the coast and the river," Mr. Litke said.

Vancouver's problem is compounded because large river deltas tend to sink. A 2009 paper from the Geological Survey of Canada asserted that sediments in the Fraser River delta are slowly compacting, causing much of the land in the Vancouver area to subside at a rate of one or two millimetres a year. Large structures in the Fraser River basin - including Roberts Bank - sink faster.

There are many conflicting perspectives on what future flooding in Vancouver will look like. The port authority's land-use plan contemplates sea-level rise of 20 to 60 centimetres by 2114.

The B.C. government, by contrast, recommends preparing for a full metre by the end of this century.

Some port authorities are more cautious. "Rhode Island's guidance is for two metres by 2100," said Austin Becker, a professor of coastal planning, policy and design at the University of Rhode Island. "I think one metre is pretty low at this point, for anywhere."

Project proponents seem to be following the port authority's lead. Although neighbouring municipalities urged G3 to build its new grain terminal to their standards, G3 adopted the port authority's guidance, which was half a metre lower.

Trans Mountain, meanwhile, turned to a 2008 paper by the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans that predicted local sea levels will climb 20 to 30 centimetres by 2100. It based its design on DFO's extreme-high scenario - half a metre. Flooding is "not anticipated to be an issue" at the terminal, according to a document the company filed last year to the Port Authority as part of the project's review process.

But Rick Thomson, the DFO research scientist who wrote the paper, said those projections are outdated. (He published updated estimates in 2012.) That would not be worrisome if Trans Mountain intended its facility to last only to mid-century; most forecasts say much of the change in sea level will happen late in the century. But if Trans Mountain wants its terminal to last that long, it might want to update its projections. "For the next 100 years, we were being conservative," Mr. Thomson advised. "If you really want to push it, you should be considering one to two metres."

Trans Mountain said in a statement that it expects the 50-centimetre allowance should "be adequate for the very long term." And if it is not, "future adaptive measures will be considered."

THE RESEARCH PHASE A severe storm can wreak havoc on a port. On Oct. 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy directly struck the ports of New York and New Jersey.

Thomas Wakeman, a transportation professor at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, N.J., spent much of his career working on port infrastructure: He helped New York and New Jersey with dredging challenges in the 1990s, and in early 2004, he helped reopen Iraq's ports after the 2003 invasion. Now an educator, he studied Sandy's aftermath and published a report in 2013.

"Water does a lot of things we didn't anticipate - particularly when you've got four to 12 feet of it over your facility," Prof. Wakeman said. "It screwed up all the electricity, it made a bunch of electric cars burn up. It mixed the water and waste water so you had a hazardous-waste problem. It knocked out all the power for communications. It made a mess."

Saltwater ruined ship-to-shore crane motors, tractor trailers and train brake systems. Power failures took nuclear-detection portals offline, meaning cargo could not be screened in accordance with federal regulations. They also knocked out traffic signals and overhead lighting required for night operations. It took weeks to re-establish port operations. Such prolonged interruptions force a port's customers to redirect their supply chains. The lost business may never be recovered.

Every port, and every storm, is unique, but Prof. Wakeman argued some lessons from Hurricane Sandy are broadly applicable. For starters, buildings, electrical systems and workers' offices should be moved to higher elevations, his report said, and building codes and standards should be updated.

Some ports are already responding. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey published engineering guidelines for the construction of new projects. The Massachusetts Port Authority introduced a flood-proofing design guide aimed at minimizing damage to crucial facilities.

The Port of Seattle, 200 kilometres south of Vancouver, has drafted a climate-change adaptation plan. That plan proposed filling in low-lying land vulnerable to flooding, and discussed upgrading stormwater systems that are at risk of backing up at times of high water. The port authority has also considered how capital projects should be designed to make them more resilient in the face of rising sea levels. The Vancouver Fraser Port Authority has yet to do any of those things.

Its lands are technically under federal jurisdiction. But Sean Smith, a Port Authority engineer, said projects that are in planning or construction today largely conform to the regulations of neighbouring municipalities. The port's jurisdiction borders 16 municipalities, and their requirements vary considerably. For example, the City of Port Moody's zoning bylaw requires structures be built at least 1.5 metres above "the natural boundary of the sea."

The City of Vancouver recently updated its bylaws to increase minimum construction elevations in areas vulnerable to flooding by about one metre.

"At this point, we don't really have any guidelines that we've set for ourselves," Mr. Smith said.

"We're still in the research phase, trying to figure out what would be appropriate for us."

But the port authority's approach could evolve considerably over the next few years. It is surveying its lands with LiDAR, a technique that uses laser pulses to create detailed topographical data. The data are used to draw up flood maps identifying the facilities most at risk. It also plans to form a new team this year to study the effects of climate change, including rising sea levels. Although its mandate has yet to be determined, Mr. Smith said it could conceivably result in the port adopting its own flood-construction levels and other measures.

The port is among dozens of agencies and municipalities across the region involved in the Lower Mainland Flood Management Strategy, an initiative led by the Fraser Basin Council that seeks to co-ordinate adaptation measures.

THINKING SHORT-TERM There are broad strategies for responding to uncertainties about future sea levels. Paradoxically, one is to think short-term.

Major port infrastructure, such as docks and port terminals, is often built to last half a century or longer. Some argue it's now sensible to plan to rebuild facilities more often as sea levels rise, rather than investing tremendous sums based on assumptions that could be mistaken. "Instead of designing for the next 80 years, you design instead for 35," Prof.

Wakeman said. "When I'm in the dark and I'm trying to feel my way around, I take smaller steps than I do in bright sunlight."

That, in a nutshell, is the Port of Seattle's philosophy. It's betting that significant sea-level rise will not occur until about 50 years from now. "Fifty years is the longest design life that we assign to any of our assets," said spokesman Peter McGraw. "We would be replacing those assets, and raising them theoretically, before sea-level rise would inundate them."

Another approach is to leave room to erect future seawalls and other defences. And while no port can retreat completely from the shore, Dr. Becker said many may relocate tank farms, container storage facilities and other infrastructure to higher ground.

But academics who study how ports adapt to climate change warn that ports' decision-making processes are particularly ill-suited to address problems that unfold over decades, and involving this degree of uncertainty.

Adolf Ng, a professor at the University of Manitoba's Transport Institute, has studied port adaptation, and published a book on the subject in 2015. The industry is intensely competitive, and port actors focus on preserving and growing their market share; their planning seldom extends beyond five years. "From the industrial point of view and the port operation point of view, the future is tomorrow," Dr. Ng said.

"The future is not 10, 30, 50 years."

Another disincentive is the perception that third parties will bail out disaster-stricken ports.

"They don't necessarily need to be planning for that worst-case scenario," Dr. Becker said. "Because once their damage reaches a certain level, the insurance kicks in and makes up the difference." If insurance does not absorb the damage, port actors expect national governments to intervene. "Which is what we saw after [Hurricane] Sandy and other events," he said.

In any case, port authorities are limited in what they can accomplish unilaterally. Vancouver is a "landlord port," meaning private operators run facilities according to agreements that last three to five decades. Those operators may choose to do little or nothing to protect facilities because such efforts might benefit future leaseholders more than themselves.

And then there's what happens "beyond the fence." Ports depend on roads, rail lines and other infrastructure to move workers and cargo, not to mention a reliable power grid. Inaction by neighbouring municipalities, railroads and utilities could nullify the port's own adaptation efforts. No port wants to pick up a hefty adaptation tab while others who stand to benefit pay nothing.

"This will become the tricky part," Dr. Ng said. "That's why a lot of these things are discussed for years."

SEA CHANGE: ABOUT THE SERIES The world's oceans have been rising in lockstep with global temperatures since the mid-1800s - and the pace is accelerating. In this occasional five-part series, Sea Change, The Globe and Mail examines how Canada's most vulnerable coastal communities are preparing for an inexorable force that will reshape their coastlines - in potentially catastrophic ways - for generations to come.

To read more on the science behind this series go to: tgam.ca/climate-primer PART 5: VANCOUVER Population: 2,463,431 Projected sea-level rise by 2100: 44 cm to 62 cm

Associated Graphic

Roberts Bank Terminal 2 is a planned addition to one of the Port of Vancouver's major hubs of shipping traffic, built on an artificial island off the southernmost B.C. coast.

WILLIAM JANS PHOTOGRAPHY/VANCOUVER FRASER PORT AUTHORITY

MURAT YUKSELIR / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: VFPA

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: PORT OF VANCOUVER

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: FRASER BASIN COUNCIL; BING MAPS

Some argue it's now sensible to plan to rebuild facilities more often as sea levels rise. MELISSA TAIT/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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THE PERFECT IMPERFECT PRINCESS
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For a daughter of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver, the People's Princess offered a model of devotion, duty and defiance. Jen Sookfong Lee looks back at the royal wedding of 1981 and how the years that followed changed Diana's life, and hers
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By JEN SOOKFONG LEE
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page O6

Author of several books, including The Conjoined, The End of East and The Better Mother

When Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's wedding is broadcast on Saturday, it will be four in the morning in Vancouver, where I live in a tiny townhouse on the eastern border of the city. I will set my alarm for 3:45 a.m., make coffee and, while my son sleeps, I will huddle in bed with my laptop, waiting for that magical moment when the future princess steps out of her car in her gown and pauses on the steps of Windsor Castle. I will catch my breath at her dress and tear up, just a little. I know exactly how my reactions will unfold because this isn't a new ritual: I have done this before.

In July of 1981, when Lady Diana Spencer married Prince Charles, I was weeks away from turning five years old. I lived with my family in a Vancouver Special - the ubiquitous, once maligned, box-like house style that was designed for maximum urban space and most definitely not architectural creativity. My father was born in China and moved to Canada at the age of 13, where he grew up with an Elvis pompadour and a taste for DuMaurier Lights. My mother arrived nine years later to marry him, a man she had never met but had improbably fallen in love with over letters and photographs. Even more improbably, my parents had five children, all girls. We all had names intended to shield us from racist Canadian ridicule: Linda came first, then Pamela, Tina, Emma and me, Jennifer, the youngest by seven years, the one who was, according to my sisters, given the most freedom.

"I broke Mom and Dad in for you," my sister Linda still says to this day, before laughing maniacally. I'm almost 42 now. She's turning 59.

In 1981, my sisters and I had learned a particular way of moving through the world. We were Chinese girls from an immigrant family with a complicated history.

My grandfather lived alone in Vancouver for 39 years, visiting his village in China periodically to see his wife and conceive four children, and was among the first Chinese men to apply for Canadian citizenship after the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in 1947. I still have his citizenship letter and the documents for his wife and children that he kept, carefully ordered in a cigar box, easily accessible in the top drawer of his dresser. In one, the Ministry of Immigration and Citizenship wrote it could not verify that his daughter Mary was real, and rejected her application.

Photographs of my aunts and father as children and young adults are folded carefully into faded airmail envelopes, visual proof our family existed, even if the Canadian government didn't always accept their legitimacy. For my grandfather, citizenship was a tenuous state. He had lived through the head tax, the Second World War and the strident racism from the Asiatic Exclusion League. All of this reinforced the fact that, for half of his life, he was stateless, a man with no rights in the country he had chosen to live in, but who also could not return to the country he had come from, where poverty and political instability were constant threats. Keeping every piece of paper proved he and his family deserved to be here, even if no one else believed that to be true.

My parents and grandparents wanted us to be safe. No makeup, no patting stray dogs, no boyfriends, no sleepovers. Performing well at school was a way to ensure future safety. Attending church was a way to keep busy and be protected from risk. Sewing your own ill-fitting clothes hid your body. No one lost track of girls who were on the honour roll, taught Sunday school and wore homemade pants with crotches that were too long. In a rare spurt of rebellion, I pierced the upper cartilage on my right ear three times during my final year of high school and my mother, who noticed while we were eating dinner, threw down her chopsticks and cried, "Are you one of those people who sits at the back of the bus?" We were the girls who were going to work in stable careers, marry men who did not hurt us and raise children who cared for us in our old age, in our own homes.

We were, in 1981, on track for all of that. Linda had just finished her undergraduate degree in microbiology and was working in a lab.

Pamela was entering her first year at university. Tina was still in high school and spent every Friday night styling our hair in the safety of our kitchen, one sister at a time.

Emma, at 11 years old, was already a gifted singer, but only performed at church. And me? I had already learned to read and my parents were trying to decide how they could rein in my busy, restless brain. "You'll make a good lawyer one day," my father said.

"You like to talk back."

The year before, Lady Diana Spencer was 19 years old and working as a teacher at a kindergarten in London. Her relationship with Prince Charles was new and her identity unknown to the public, until one sunny fall day when paparazzi photographers caught her taking her students to a public park. The resulting image - of an unsmiling and fresh-faced young woman, balancing one child on her hip while holding the hand of another, backlit by afternoon sunshine, her legs plainly visible through her thin cotton skirt - is visual magic.

She was all the things my sisters and I were supposed to aspire to back then - pretty but not flashy, devoted to children, demure enough to be acceptable to a prince and, especially, his mother. And yet, there is a glimmer of defiance. She is standing with her legs wide apart, light filtering through her skirt. Diana was an assistant kindergarten teacher, a lady, the girlfriend of a prince, and she did not wear a slip or practical trousers or hose of any kind. Maybe she knew she would be photographed that day, maybe she didn't. Maybe when she dressed that morning, she knew the day would be humid, as warm days in London can be. Maybe she just didn't care.

My sisters and I, limited as we were by what was safe and guaranteed success, saw in this photograph the promise of subversion.

Being a woman, especially a woman of colour, meant that life was always a long game. You worked hard. You kept your reputation clean. You waited for your opportunities. And then, one day, maybe you could be who you wanted. My entire childhood and adolescence I wrote poems and stories, which my parents - and particularly my father - read and enjoyed, but I never said that my greatest wish was to be a writer.

Instead, I was on track to go to law school and I bided my time, waiting for the moment when this choice, being a writer, would seem safe enough. Even then, I knew I might have to wait for midlife, when I had six weeks of paid vacation to write, or even later, when I was retired and living in a nice waterfront condo and needed something to fill up my time.

Diana was hinting at a life she had yet to live. One day, propriety would no longer matter as she left her marriage and found her place as a humanitarian. She would admit to feeling giddy with happiness when she danced with John Travolta at a White House gala.

She would tell the world the heir to the British throne had cheated on her and ridiculed her intelligence and emotions. She would date as a single mother, publicly.

She would offer physical comfort to HIV-positive patients. That skirt, transparent in broad daylight, and her bare, uncompromising legs, were forecasting the future. She was not the sort of woman to wear a lined tweed suit and never would be. In 1980, well before the rest of her life would unfold, she was already telling us that.

In August of 1997, I turned 21. To celebrate, my girlfriends from high school and I borrowed a Dodge Caravan and drove down the coast to Los Angeles and then inland to Las Vegas. On our way, our van started smoking through the gas pedal, causing Vicki, who was driving, to yell, "Is my foot on fire???" We stopped in the middle of the night at the only rest stop between Barstow, Calif., and the city, and were swarmed by bats, which dive-bombed our heads while we huddled at a phone booth, trying to find a way to get towed to Circus Circus, the hotel I had booked because I had read Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas twice that summer and had decided any hotel that was weird enough for Hunter S. Thompson was weird enough for us.

Stuck in Las Vegas for three ex-

tra days while our van was repaired, we haunted hotel lobbies for cheap buffets and clean bathrooms. It was there we saw Michael Jordan stride into the back of a glitzy casino, where he disappeared through a pair of double doors that closed behind him with a whisper. At another casino, Vicki played blackjack against a trio of boys from Harvard and won. We drank watered-down margaritas at the nickel slots and ventured outside only at night to avoid the oppressive heat. It was an untethered, surreal time. By the time the van was fixed, we were itching to just get home.

We left our hotel the afternoon of August 31 and wasted no time speeding down the desert highway. We stopped for water, food, gas and toilets, sometimes brushing our teeth in service station bathrooms, sometimes not bothering. Afraid our van would break down again, we didn't turn on the air conditioning and fell asleep with our heads at right angles, pressed against the car's rubbery interior, only to wake up in pools of our own sweat that had collected under our cheeks. That night, the highway was pitch black, and we drove with NPR turned up loud, reasoning that if we were going to return to real life, then we should know what had been happening outside of the 24-hour climate-controlled casinos.

A man's voice cut through the air. "We have breaking news," he said. His solemn tone was alarming and Vicki turned up the volume even louder. I had been dozing in the back and sat up straight.

"We have received a report that Princess Diana has been involved in a car accident and has died in Paris. We are still waiting to confirm, but it appears that, again, Princess Diana has died at the age of thirty-six."

We were silent for a minute, Vicki fiddling with the volume dial as if she could fix this announcement that seemed so totally wrong. Finally, it was Sandra who yelled into the darkness, "What???" I cried, the tears big and silent, running down my face, the same face that had sweated during our hours-long drive through the Mojave Desert. I remembered that photograph of Diana on a roller coaster with her sons, laughing as if nothing else mattered. I remembered her wedding, the puffed sleeves that made her seem more fairy-like and insubstantial than she ever really was.

And I remembered that first public photograph and her legs in silhouette, a harbinger of what she became: the princess who divorced the future King of England, the princess in khakis and a helmet, looking for landmines, the princess who loved a man from Egypt.

At 21, on that day in August, I was just starting to figure out what my adult life was going to be.

Within three months, I would meet the man I would go on to marry and then divorce. I was plotting to escape my mother's house by attending grad school in Montreal, not for law, but for creative writing. I had already put in 21 years as a good Chinese girl. I knew how to make a perfect pot of rice. I had finished Cantonese school and piano lessons. I had already decided that in one year, I would be the person I wanted at my new school, in my own apartment, in a different city. Diana had done this. I had watched her my entire life.

According to Diana, when she confronted Camilla Parker Bowles about her affair with Charles, Camilla's response was, "You've got everything you ever wanted.

All the men in the world fall in love with you. You've got two beautiful children. What more would you want?" Diana replied, "I want my husband." This conversation has always made my heart hurt.

Diana had what the world had scripted for her. She was a beautiful, high-born woman who looked good in a tiara and ball gown. She loved a prince who did not love her back, but, during the course of her marriage, she did what was expected of her. She gave birth to two princes. She didn't make a fuss. What Camilla assumed was not necessarily what Diana had dreamed for herself, but rather what the world had trained her to believe was the right way to security, respectability and happiness. As it turned out, Diana wanted other things.

Romance. Charity. Glamour. Maybe some drama, too. After her divorce and before her death, it seemed, at least for a short time, she got what she wanted. She sat on the prow of her wealthy boyfriend's yacht in a swimsuit, feet dangling above the Mediterranean. A real, individual, and distinctly unroyal moment caught in a paparazzi photograph. It was a moment that was all hers.

It has been 21 years now since Diana's death. Her sons, William and Harry, are adults with adult lives.

Charles has remarried, to Camilla.

I am a single mother. I am a writer.

This is not what my parents imagined for me.

For years, I have been a royal apologist and many people have been confused as to why I care so much for the British monarchy.

After all, I'm a Chinese-Canadian woman with no real ties to Britain, whose life could carry on, untouched by anything related to the Windsors, if I so wished.

Now Prince Harry is preparing for his wedding to Meghan Markle, a woman who is divorced, American and mixed race, and her respectability is not based on circumstance or origins, as Diana's was. Meghan is 36 years old and has had time to have an adult life, well away from Kensington Palace. If the world expects her to be a good princess - pretty, personable and proper - then she has chosen to be a good princess. She isn't 20 years old. She will not be subjected to a public discussion on her virginity. She is making a decision, one in a series of decisions she has made throughout her adulthood and career as an actress.

In the end, Diana left behind the future king and some respectability. She admitted to an affair.

She told her story. She gambled on a womanizing businessman.

These were her postmarriage choices, which led to the world understanding that princesses, no matter how beautiful, no matter how polite, are not at all perfect. Harry, the once-misbehaving prince who dressed up as a Nazi and played billiards naked in Vegas, is marrying Meghan, who is not the woman that long-time royal watchers might have expected. Without Diana and her insistence on beating back respectability, it's hard to imagine this wedding happening at all. Despite Diana's apparent princess-ready exterior, she was made of less traditionally royal stuff. She upended expectations for herself and, as it turns out, for Meghan.

My career goal was a secret until I was 30 and my first book was published. My intimate goals were a secret too, until I was 38 and my marriage ended. I have had a few moments that remind me of Diana's postrespectable life, when taking a risk resulted in pure joy: The launch of my third novel. The day I moved into the townhouse that I alone had paid for. Playing on a Thai beach with my son on our first vacation without his father. Had I followed the respectability script, none of this would have happened.

Maybe Diana was never really all that good in the first place. And maybe neither am I.

Associated Graphic

Lady Diana Spencer, then a 19-year-old kindergarten teacher, takes pupils in her charge to a public park.

REX/SHUTTERSTOCK


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EMBRACING THE NEGATIVE
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Kate Taylor introduces her son to old-fashioned film-and-chemical photography - and returns to the slow joy of analog
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By KATE TAYLOR
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page R1

Conversations with my teenage digital native about chemical photography did not begin promisingly. Since he was little, my son has enjoyed fiddling with an old 35 mm camera I keep in my office, clicking the shutter as though it were a toy.

"That's not a toy," I would say.

Last year, at the age of 13, Jed picked it up one day and asked me in passing how it actually worked. I explained how you shoot pictures, unload the film and develop it with chemicals in a darkroom and then repeat a similar process to produce prints.

"Sounds complicated," he said, putting down the camera and picking up his phone.

But he was intrigued by photography, so his father bought him a digital camera and Jed became more and more interested in seeing the world through a lens. He's an engaged and curious personality, always jumping on the next project: Inevitably, he returned to the subject of the old camera.

Could we try it out? We could, but then we would need to find a photo store that still developed film and pay for prints and it gets expensive. But couldn't we develop photos ourselves? There were still some old darkroom supplies in the basement, but I had given away the daylight tank used for developing film, thinking it would never be used again. Besides, to make prints, you need an enlarger, a big piece of equipment I had never owned, relying instead on a camera club. But if we got a new daylight tank, Jed reasoned, we could develop the film and just look at our pictures that way. It dawned on me that, now 14, he did not understand what a negative was.

And why should he - or any millennial for that matter? The developed piece of film, on which black represents white and vice versa, is a 20th-century artifact, an analog curiosity. And yet, in the midst of this triumphantly digital era, there are also many enthusiasts such as my son, intrigued by old-fashioned film-and-chemical photography. It's a niche interest, but a growing one.

I had not done any serious photography in decades, but in my 20s and early 30s, I had been an occasional hobbyist, printing up black-and-white shots of architecture, trees and landscapes: I specialized in subjects that could be relied on to neither move nor speak. It was a creative outlet, a way for someone with no talent for drawing or painting to try making visual art.

As with many a young person before me, I discovered a camera was both a way of seeing the world and of keeping it at bay. Meanwhile, in the darkroom, I fell in love with an alternative kitchen, an alchemist's laboratory where images materialized from pans of water. Shooting pictures was fun, developing them was magic.

But life got busy and one of my last subjects defeated me: I had come home from a trip to the U.S.

Southwest with pictures in which the desert only looked dull. And then, in 2003, something happened that ensured I no longer had any time nor any technological inclination to shoot and develop film: I got pregnant. My husband and I were going to have a baby. Clearly, it was time to finally buy a digital camera.

Today, that camera sits in a drawer somewhere and I only take photos with my phone. They are snapshots of family gatherings, flowers in the garden or the dog at play - and many, many pictures of my growing son, the very personification of our break with the analog who was now demanding its revival.

Evidence of the passing of analog photography is all around us. Some markers are banal: The corner store no longer sells film. Others are dramatic: In 2012, Kodak filed for bankruptcy protection. For a generation for whom the distinctive yellow-andred logo symbolized leisure, memory and ritual, it seemed unthinkable that there might be no more Kodak moments, but the slimmed-down company that re-emerged in 2013 specializes in commercial printing and imaging. Meanwhile, in the school of image arts at Toronto's Ryerson University, a centre for training the next generation of image makers, workers keep ripping out darkrooms: There used to be more than 100; then 35. This summer, the remaining 25 will be reduced to four.

And yet, in the midst of this decline, there are also many signs of analog's persistence. After killing it off in 2012, Kodak reintroduced its colour transparency film Ektachrome last year - to the delight of the enthusiasts who value its vivid colours.

And the venerable British brand Ilford, rescued from bankruptcy through a management buyout in 2005, reports that sales of its products - black-andwhite film, and the papers and chemicals with which to process it - are rising at an annual rate that has now moved into the double digits.

"Film bottomed out in 2012 and it's been growing ever since," Ilford sales and marketing director Giles Branthwaite says over the phone from Mobberley, in Cheshire.

When the company did an online poll of its customers in 2014, it found 30 per cent were under the age of 35 and 60 per cent had only started using film in the previous five years. That trend shows no signs of slowing.

"Why?" he asks. "It's very tangible; it makes you slow down and think. It's all about the counter movement to everything being immediate and convenient."

It is also produces a physical object. Here in Canada, Deanna Pizzitelli, one of three winners of the inaugural New Generation Photography Award announced in March, has worked exclusively with film since she was introduced to darkroom photography 14 years ago at a high school in Orillia, Ont.

"I have always been interested in the photograph as a physical object and its relationship to touch," she said recently. "With the advent of digital we have seen more pictures than ever, but we have seen fewer prints. We tend not to print our images, we just see them on screen. What I love about photography is holding the images in your hands."

This winter, my husband hunted out the best of our discarded analogue cameras and I loaded it with black-and-white film. We both delivered lectures about how, since each image would cost money to process, one had to think before one clicked. And so Jed set off to shoot film.

In the meantime, I sought out an authority on the status of analog photography. In The Disappearance of Darkness, Toronto artist Robert Burley published the results of a decade spent photographing the remains of the chemical photography industry: the abandoned Polaroid plant in Waltham, Mass., the empty expanses of the oversized Agfa-Gevaert plant in Mortsel, Belgium, and, most memorably, the implosion of buildings 65 and 69 at Kodak Park in Rochester, N.Y. Those implosion images, and similar ones from a Kodak-Pathé factory in France, had stayed with me since I saw them in a Toronto gallery in 2008. They showed former Kodak employees recording these melancholy events on phones and digital cameras, deploying the very technology that had destroyed their jobs. The images seemed to summarize the cultural paradox we are living in, or "the creative destruction of the digital age," as Burley calls it.

Turns out my timing is perfect: This year, for the first time in his 20-year teaching career in the photography and digital-media program at Ryerson, Burley signed on to teach first-year students because he wanted to see digital natives react to the compulsory analog assignments in these introductory classes. Film cameras draw back the curtain, showing students how lenses, shutter speeds and F-stops physically work.

When I meet up with Burley at the school of image arts, he's worried, however, that I might be writing a nostalgia piece about the good old days of chemicals and film. In his artistic practice, he's steeped in digital; his recent work includes The New Suburb, suburban cityscapes inspired by the multiple viewpoints of Google Street View. I reassure him that I, too, want to know what attracts the digital generation to an analog technology, but as I step into one of the student darkrooms, it's a Proustian moment: The amber safe light and the vinegary smell of the fixer transport me back 20 years, to time spent in these sheltered, measured places where exposures were counted in seconds, yet hours just seemed to evaporate.

"It becomes physical, the smells of the chemicals; the touch of the materials and the subdued light," Burley agrees.

At home, however, our darkroom experiments are not going well. I pull out the thermometer and measures used to correctly mix the developer and fixer and I buy a new daylight tank to shelter the film as it develops; in a windowless basement bathroom, I reacquaint my fingers with the process of loading film onto a reel in utter darkness. Jed follows along, carefully timing the developer, stop bath and fixer with a phone, but the first film, supposedly exposed to the light of a March break trip to Boston, is entirely blank. I hadn't loaded the camera properly and the film has not wound through it.

"The future of film photography is bright," the sales clerk at the photography store tells me as he hands over another roll of 36 exposures. The place is packed with funky little instant cameras in pastel plastic that produce a paper photo half the size of a postcard. Film cameras for the selfie generation, they remind me of the technological gimmicks of my youth, the transistor radios or portable record players that were all the rage one Christmas and forgotten the next. Maybe this new-old analog thing is only a fad.

Certainly, I'm ready to give up after our second fiasco. Jed wants to try loading his film, filled with pictures shot in a Toronto ravine, into the daylight tank himself. I step back and, in the confines of the bathroom, brush against a light switch. The split second of light is enough to completely fog the film.

We now have the props for a basic lesson on the negative - one completely clear film that has never been exposed to light and one black film obliterated by it - but we don't have any pictures. We buy a third roll and hit Cabbagetown, where Jed shoots a neighbourhood that dates back to the age of the daguerreotype.

Of course, we could just take the film to a commercial processor. Digital gadgetry has taken over the shelves of most camera stores but a few have decided to make analog their specialty.

"It's not an easy thing, but it's a beautiful thing," says Claudia Mac, assistant manager at Toronto's

Downtown Camera, where staff still process both colour and black-and-white film, keeping the aging equipment in working order by using it daily - whether there's demand or not.

There's no point exaggerating the growth here - at Ilford, Branthwaite estimates the current company is less than one-10th the size of its predecessor - but enthusiasts are working their furrow.

"We spend all day on our computers - who wants to do a hobby on a computer?" asks Jacques Brodeur, who launched Argentix, an online supplier of black-and-white photographic supplies, in 2010 in Racine, Que., and has attracted an increasing clientele of returning hobbyists and newcomers.

At Ryerson, Burley introduces me to two of his second-year students, committed analog photographers who explain how the attraction happens. In first year, they are required to try out a large-format camera that uses 4x5 pieces of film. Mounted on a tripod, it's tricky to deploy: You even have to pop your head under a hood to see into the viewfinder, the way photographers did in the 19th century.

"You either fall in love with it or you hate it," Lucy Alguire explains .

For her and classmate Cole LeGree, it was the former. He's a landscape photographer and naturelover who hails from Canmore, Alta.; it takes half an hour for him to set up and take a picture in the outdoors: "You can't just show up, take a few shots and go home. You have to be more methodical and each one of these sheets [of film] costs $4. You have to be sure you want the photo. ... You have to be there, you have to be present."

Meanwhile, he has also found that his first experiments with portraiture work better with analog: The photographer is not continually looking away from the subject to check the camera's screen.

Alguire has started shooting nudes and believes they are only possible using film: "They can't see the photo until they have a print. It's about trusting the photographer."

Yet, both students agree with Burley that the best results require both analog and digital technology: You shoot film for the special quality that it offers, but scan the negatives so the images can be manipulated digitally.

"The students see photography as part of this wheel of digital media," Burley said. "There's photography, print media, video, the web, social-media platforms. They see it as an integrated whole. No one is allowed to stay in their own medium-specific world any more. As an old grey professor in the photo department, I don't have a choice of remaining in the light-sensitive world. Nor would I want to."

On a second visit to Ryerson, I bring Jed along - as well as some successfully developed negatives. The big darkroom that Burley shows us is a fabulous place, with hoses like elephant trunks to suck out the fumes and light switches placed so high nobody can bump into them. He instructs Jed how to mount one of his negatives in the enlarger, shine the light through the film onto the photo-sensitive paper and develop the image in the trays of chemicals. As the black-and-white film holds back light in some places and lets it through in others, negative will become positive. Jed concentrates furiously to get it all right and his picture of an iron railing, shot a few days before in Cabbagetown, slowly appears in the pan of developer. It's that magical moment, captured so often in the movies, as the image, ghost-like at first, then increasingly solid, appears out of the chemical bath.

But perhaps the digital natives have seen too many technological miracles in their short lives because later, when I ask Jed what impressed him most, he says developing was "cool," but what he really liked was when the lights came on and he could see the photograph he had taken. At home, he holds it in his hands, as though weighing his work.

These days, he is debating how much analog he might add to his digital mix and hoping to use a darkroom when he starts high school next fall. But he is also talking about typewriters. I find myself explaining how the IBM Selectric worked and reminiscing about anxious typing tests where one mistake cost you 10-words-a-minute off your official speed. I tell him the technology is cumbersome and obsolete, but he won't be deterred. He wants to buy a typewriter. He thinks it will help him write.

Associated Graphic

Ryerson University photography student Cole Legree looks at negatives on a light table inside one of the few remaining darkrooms at the the school's Image Centre in Toronto. Despite analog's decline in the face of digital technology, there are many signs of traditional film photography's persistence.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Kate Taylor and her son Jed check a proof. When the writer asked what impressed him most about analog photography, he said developing was 'cool.'

ROBERT BURLEY

The image, left, from the Urban Landscape series, was shot on 4x5 colour film and developed by Toronto Image Works.

COLE LEGREE

The implosion of buildings 65 and 69 at Kodak Park in Rochester, N.Y.: Former Kodak employees recorded this event on phones and digital cameras, deploying the very technology that had destroyed their jobs.

ROBERT BURLEY

Ryerson University photography students Lucy Alguire, left, and Cole LeGree are seen with their film cameras at the school's Image Centre in Toronto. The two students are fans of analog photography because of the connection this technology engenders between photographer and subject.

J.P. MOCZULSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Jed concentrated furiously to get it all right with his picture of an iron railing in Toronto's Cabbagetown neighbourhood.

JED SEARS


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A fish out of water
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On the Yukon River, First Nations people whose way of life depends on salmon are seeing fewer and smaller fish than they have in years. What is driving their decline, and how can we fix it?
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By ADAM WEYMOUTH
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page O4

Author of Kings of the Yukon: A River Journey in Search of the Chinook

Teslin, Yukon Territory, has a population of roughly 450, the majority Tlingit First Nation. The Alaska Highway crosses Teslin Lake here on a long bridge of steel girders. The road came through in 1942 - part of the war effort, in case the Japanese turned up via Alaska - and Teslin transformed, in a few short weeks, from a remote bush community into an overnight drive to Vancouver. Elders still remember bulldozers cresting the horizon and forging a path toward their village.

Teslin sits on another highway, too. The lake fills from Nisutlin Bay, and flows out by way of the Teslin River, which in its turn feeds into the Yukon River at a spot called Hootalinqua. From there, it winds west out of Canada, bisects Alaska and comes, at last, to the Bering Sea.

Each spring, the chinook salmon, which have spent the majority of their adult lives far out in the Pacific, enter the Yukon Delta and commence their journey upriver, aiming for the spawning grounds of their birth. Many will peel off into tributaries across Alaska, but plenty will cross the Canadian border, and some of those fish will make it as far as Teslin.

The Yukon River is the longest salmon run in the world: Those fish that travel farthest swim 3,200 kilometres against the current. Navigating by their sense of smell, an imprint of the mineral makeup of the waters of their youth, they return to the exact same pools where they were hatched, to spawn and then to die. It is said that pilgrimages began with nomads returning to the graves of their ancestors: Such is the salmon's return.

For as long as anyone could remember, the Tlingit of Teslin would make fish camps along the lake each summer as the salmon neared their village, setting nets or drifting them from boats, harvesting this annual bounty. The people here, along with the others who line the river's banks from Teslin to the sea, could stock enough fish in their caches to make it through the coming winter. Unlike moose hunting or muskrat trapping, this annual influx of protein was reliable, and arrived on cue at fishing spots that had been used for generations.

Fish camp is often remembered as a happy time, full of abundance. A time for swapping stories, for catching up with friends, for teaching the youngsters how to fish and how to respect the water. Fish were roasted on open fires; fish were cut and dried and smoked and packed away for the coming winter of 40 below.

But that was then. Twenty years ago, the First Nations of Teslin decided to stop fishing for chinook. Their elders had been telling them for years that something was happening to their fish, and it had reached a point where no one could ignore that not just their overall numbers, but also their individual size, were dramatically in decline.

One of the chinook's nicknames had once been the June hog; 80-pounders were not uncommon. (In 1949, near Petersburg, Alaska, a 126-pounder was caught in a fish trap, the upper limit of a featherweight boxer.)

Now, a good fish was 20 pounds.

And, because smaller fish lay fewer eggs, every summer, there were fewer salmon returning.

In Teslin, the people had tried restricting their fishing to five days of the week, then to three days, then two. Nothing seemed to make a difference, and 20 years ago, they took a collective decision to lay off it altogether. It was intended only as a temporary move, until the runs picked up.

But the runs never did pick up, and Teslin has yet to return to subsistence fishing.

Situated at the Yukon's headwaters, those in Teslin were the first to have seen the changes that the chinook had undergone. But every community downriver is now suffering with the declines.

Before 1997, an average 300,000 chinook entered the Yukon River every year. In 2013, just 37,000 fish came back. In 2014, and again in 2015, fishing for chinook was banned entirely on both sides of the border, an unprecedented move.

Since then, some limited fishing has been permitted. But the Tlingit of Teslin, and also the Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in of Dawson City, have elected not to catch chinook, as have many fishermen in Alaska. In Dawson, the youngsters are now taught how to prepare fish with salmon from the freezer; it can be hard to generate the same excitement. In Teslin, they fly their fish in from Atlin, B.C., another Tlingit community many kilometres to the south.

There are those in their late teens, those who have never caught a fish, who associate the drone of a bush plane from beyond Mount Bryde with the start of the salmon run. Flying fish, they call it now.

It is not only the people on the river who have developed a life intimately bound up with the chinook. As the salmon flow into the continent, they bring with them the nutrients and minerals they have amassed from a life at sea.

There is perhaps no image more iconic of the northern wild than a bear haunch-deep in the turbulence, fielding leaping salmon like a goalkeeper.

A grizzly can get through 40 salmon in eight hours. Where the salmon are plentiful, bear numbers can be 80 times higher than elsewhere, and the quantity of salmon they get through before hibernation directly influences the number of cubs they will give birth to the next spring. There are more than 50 mammals - otters, wolverines, lynx - that draw sustenance from the chinook.

As the salmon carcasses break down into the soil, the carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus and fat that they carry in their bodies from the oceans are spread throughout the ecosystem. Along some streams, the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil can exceed that of commercially produced fertilizer. Up to 70 per cent of the nitrogen in these forests had its origin in the sea. Imagine, if you like, the salmon swimming up the capillaries of the spruce and birch; it is not so far from the truth. If you know the land well, you can gauge the state of the salmon run by the fecundity of the forest. Up the Porcupine River, where the chinook no longer come, the forests are dying.

What is driving the decline of the chinook? There are as many theories as there are fishermen on the river. But what is certain is that the salmon are now smaller, a result of a long-term lack of regulation by the government on net size (the Yukon may have been the last large-mesh commercial salmon fishery in the world) and a deliberate targeting of the biggest specimens by fishermen.

The largest fish would have been the strongest fish with the farthest to travel, those bound for Canada. The upshot has been a skewing of the genetics in favour of smaller fish. Rather than the 20,000 eggs that the 80-pounders used to lay, smaller fish lay closer to 5,000, and rather than five fish returning for every spawning adult, it is closer to one to one.

That does not leave much resiliency in the system.

And the other knocks the chinook are now taking - overfishing in the oceans, warming waters that are exacerbating the spread of diseases and algal blooms - are consequently being felt much harder.

I first became aware of the decline of the chinook when I travelled in Alaska in 2013. In Bethel, a town of 6,000 people far out on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, I reported on the trial of 23 Yup'ik fishermen accused of catching chinook at a time when the Alaska Department of Fish and Game had placed a ban on the catching of the salmon. Yet the Yup'ik had chosen to go out and fish - had even news-released their intentions to do so. They defended the taking of salmon to be as much a part of their culture, their spiritual practice, as it was for the filling of their larders. In the courtroom, there were tears and impassioned speeches, and I began to see how deeply entwined were the lives of the people and the fish.

The farther that I travelled in Alaska, the further I uncovered this connection, whether it was First Nations fishing at their ancestral spots, or urban families jumping in the car on the Fourth of July weekend to go catch some salmon for the freezer. The people seemed as wedded to the rhythms of the fish as the fish were to those of the landscape.

Since that initial trip, I have returned to the North twice more. For the past two summers, I canoed the length of the Yukon River, the same distance as the salmon that travel farthest to try to better understand how those who rely on the chinook's annual arrival are coping with the decline. I travelled at the same time as the salmon run, and I spoke with people, fished with them, shared their food and heard their stories.

I came to see that to ask people questions about the chinook was to probe deeper into their lives. It was to ask them how they thought about the food they ate, about what they hoped for their children's futures.

About what it meant to be Indigenous in the 21st century, and why they chose to live where they do. It was to question whether a subsistence lifestyle can co-exist with a capitalist world.

There has been a collapse of salmon across its entire range.

Throughout Europe and Russia, up the east and west coasts of North America, the numbers are a fraction of what they once were. Alongside the raft of other pressures facing the salmon has been the decimation caused by dams, deforestation, pollution and fish farming (which transfers diseases and parasites to wild populations). At the start of the 20th century, 45 million fish swam up the rivers of Washington and Oregon and California each year; today, that number is two million.

Alaska is still known for its abundance of salmon, is still on the bucket list of every fisherman I know. But Alaska is special only because it is almost all that's left. The Yukon remains the longest stretch of free-flowing water in North America (despite one small dam near the headwaters at Whitehorse) and is largely unsullied by the industry that rivers have been subject to elsewhere. As a result, the watershed retains the sort of pristine environment that salmon appear to demand. That makes the recent crash in numbers even more concerning, and harder to comprehend: Even some of the farthest-flung parts of the planet no longer seem impervious to the forces shaping the rest of the globe.

Fred Andersen, a former fisheries biologist, has called the Yukon River probably the most complex salmon fishery in the world. Teslin might sit 3,200 km from the Yup'ik village of Emmonak, Alaska, at the Yukon's mouth, where the river stretches 11 km wide; but these two groups of people, although strangers, are intimately connected by the chinook, and there is profound distrust both ways. Those at the Canadian end of the river hear of commercial fishing at the mouth and feel resentful that someone is making a buck on fish that should be coming their way.

Those at the mouth, in one of the poorest boroughs in the entire United States, wonder what the Canadians would do in their position, if there were no other jobs about.

Stephanie Quinn-Davidson, who managed the chinook run for the Alaska Department of Fish and Game until 2015, told me that the vast majority of her job was communication - with other managers; with the media; and, most crucially, with fishermen. The chinook pass through a mosaic of state and federal land, and through the United States and Canada, each country with different divisions to its fisheries. Diplomacy between the United States and Canada is a further complication: The Yukon River Salmon Agreement, hammered out more than 30 years ago, requires that between 42,500 and 55,000 Chinook must be let across the border into Canada each year. This is a target that the United States has failed to deliver five times in the past 10 years.

The strict bans of 2014 and 2015, followed in the years since then by the permitting of very conservative fishing, have gone some way to stabilizing, and even slightly increasing, the number of fish returning. The chinook teeter on the brink, but however late in the day, fisheries management is waking up to this fact, long after Teslin and others first raised the alarm. Yet with "productivity" (the number of fish that come back for each spawning adult) still hovering near one to one, the whole system, if not yet imperilled, is extremely precarious.

What is needed, more than anything, is to get the weight of the fish back up. It is estimated that could take from 50 to 100 years, which is a long time to keep a strict fisheries policy in place. And it is a long time for cultures so bound up with the chinook to find alternative sources of sustenance, both nutritional and cultural.

Salmon can be brought back from the brink. Atlantic salmon are swimming through Sheffield in England since the rivers have been cleaned, after disappearing for 200 years. Salmon are back in Portland, Ore., and in Paris, France. There are not many, but it is a start. The future of the Yukon chinook does not seem hopeless, either, if reconciliation can be achieved. A reconciliation between commercial and subsistence fishing; between those who live at the river's mouth and those who live at the source; between those who see their entitlement to food and wealth and culture swimming past them up the river and those who want a conservative approach, if not an outright ban on harvesting, forever.

A genuine approach to managing the chinook can only be holistic: one that involves the creation of an ecological web able to integrate culture and politics, histories and stories and beliefs. Nature is not "something else," isolated, out there; it is as much a part of us as we are of it, and neither can be altered without impacting the whole. Whatever we choose to do, we cannot pretend that we did not know what was happening. What is certain is that, for the chinook at least, the Yukon is the last chance to get it right.

Associated Graphic

A pair paddles their way down the Tatchun River near Carmacks, Yukon.

PETER MATHER

Adam Weymouth hangs salmon strips to dry in a smokehouse in Rampart village.

ULLI MATTSSON

Mr. Weymouth works on his book at a campsite near Rampart.

ULLI MATTSSON

Top, an illustration of an adult male chinook salmon, from The Fishes of Alaska, 1907. PUBLIC DOMAIN

Preparing chinook salmon strips in Rampart village. ULLI MATTSSON

Mary Demientieff at her fish camp in Rampart village. ULLI MATTSSON

Mary Demientieff stands outside her fish camp. ULLI MATTSSON


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THE MEGHAN PARADOX
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She's a successful, worldly woman and a champion of social justice. So why is Meghan Markle marrying into an institution built on hereditary privilege? Royal biographer Andrew Morton looks at how the duchess-in-waiting fits into the contradictions of an evolving monarchy
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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page O1

Author of Diana: Her True Story - In Her Own Words, Meghan: A Hollywood Princess and Wallis in Love: The Untold Life of the Duchess of Windsor, the Woman Who Changed the Monarchy.

During the research for my biography of the late Diana, Princess of Wales, I remember talking to a close friend of Diana's about her own weekend stay at Balmoral, the regal home in the Scottish Highlands adored by Queen Victoria and subsequent royal generations.

After a hard day tramping through the heather, she came down for predinner drinks and, after paying her obeisances to the Queen, Queen Mother, Princess Margaret and the rest, she headed for an inviting highbacked chair. As she plonked herself down, there was an audible gasp from the assembled regal throng. "Don't sit there, that's Queen Victoria's chair. Nobody ever sits there." She jumped up and moved smartly away rather quicker than a scalded cat. For the next couple of days, she was on eggshells, nervously wondering what other taboos she might unknowingly break.

I recalled this story as I pondered the unspoken rules that Ms. (but not for long) Markle will have to learn now that she is on the brink of permanently joining a bizarre and, to some, anachronistic tribe.

The girl who, as a college student, carefully followed The Rules - the famous dating book from the 1990s - will find that the complexities of budding romance are simple by comparison with the many and various unspoken royal rubrics.

As Catherine Middleton discovered, she is joining a family where who enters a room first, who sits where and who bows or curtsies to whom are part of a labyrinthine pecking order. Learning lines of legal jargon for her TV drama, Suits, is nothing on this lot. Last Christmas, I harboured the delicious comic fantasy that, during Ms. Markle's stay at Sandringham with the extended Royal Family, the Californian, bright eyed and eager, would announce that she had just finished the jigsaw that lies in wait for the unwary in the drawing room. Of course, as everyone in the Royal Family knows, the last piece of the jigsaw is always left for the Queen. The look of horror on the faces of the royals at Ms. Markle's announcement could only be imagined, perhaps matched by the wan sympathetic smile from Catherine, silently standing in the wings.

No wonder Diana couldn't wait to escape the clinging embrace of this Norfolk fastness. At least Ms. Markle, friend of designer and animal-rights activist (and possible wedding-dress maker) Stella McCartney, was spared the après-Christmas ordeal of standing in a muddy field and watching Prince Harry, one of the finest shots in England, knocking off a few dozen pheasant before supper. She has swapped her world of taste-makers, influencers and brand ambassadors for a confusing flurry of equerries, beaters and gillies.

There is a very telling photograph of the last American to marry a royal, Wallis Simpson, wearing an inappropriate white fur coat and sitting on a shooting stick, looking bored to death, as the Duke of Windsor blasted away. It was an incongruous image, the metropolitan American wincing at the noise and the unpleasantness of the country killing fields. Ms. Markle avoided this ritual last year because her fiancé was the host of the BBC Radio Four current-affairs show Today and had to leave Sandringham early. She won't be so fortunate this year.

Which brings me on to what could be called the Meghan Paradox.

For the past few weeks, I have been travelling around North America and Europe talking about my biography of the duchess-in-waiting.

The one unifying observation made by one and all is what she has given up - a successful career, a thriving social-media presence and charitable positions as ambassador for World Vision Canada and the United Nations - in order to marry into the Royal Family. This is not some shy girl from the shires fresh out of finishing school, but a divorced woman of the world who is an advocate of gender equality, women's rights and an individual being the "change" - a word that does not spring readily to mind when considering the monarchy. As Diana joked, the only thing they change is their clothes.

The Meghan Paradox cuts two ways. Feminists see her being swallowed whole by the royal system, fatally compromising her agenda as an equal-rights activist, swapping her values and principles for the appellation "Her Royal Highness" - and the chance to curtsy to Catherine Middleton for the rest of her life.

On the other hand, traditionalists fear she is a well-groomed stalking horse, her values and lifestyle inimical to an 1,000-year-old institution that is studiously hierarchical and encourages deference and acceptance of the existing order. No cool designer cycling monarchy wanted here.

Of course, the ultimate irony is that, even though Ms. Markle was successful in her own right, we only take notice of her - Meghan was the most googled name of 2017 - not for her own achievements but because she is marrying a man whose place in society is secured by virtue of his birth rather than his abilities.

Perhaps the reason why the Meghan Paradox holds good is that she is marrying into a family - and an institution - defined as much by its contradictions and incongruities as its position at the apex of society.

It doesn't make sense, but that is why it makes sense. As Thomas Paine, author of the 18th-century tome Rights of Man, observed: "A hereditary monarchy is as absurd a position as a hereditary doctor or mathematician."

Since then, European monarchies have withered on the vine and these days it could be argued that Britain is less of a monarchy and more a "crowned republic," its political importance and authority largely irrelevant to the workings of government.

It was noticeable that at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) last month, the Queen expressed a "sincere wish" that Prince Charles be named as the next head of the Commonwealth. Although her request was unanimously granted by the assembled political leaders, it was telling that it was a royal invitation, not a decree.

As the Queen no longer undertakes long overseas flights and as CHOGM will not be held again in London for some years, this was her last appearance as head of this organization. That Harry was appointed youth ambassador sets the stage for the newlyweds to spend their days turning left at the plane door and settling in for endless visits to projects in Africa - Harry's second home - the Caribbean, Australia and of course, Canada, the adopted home of the newly minted duchess.

The decision at the conference was a reminder that the country is entering into a period of genuine change. Within the next decade or so, it is facing a transition from one reign to another, at a time when Britain, still undergoing post-Brexit convulsions, ponders a future without the security blanket of the European Union.

It is Ms. Markle's fortune - or misfortune depending on your viewpoint - to enter the Royal Family when the political and social tectonic plates are genuinely shifting. In a few years time, Britain will no longer be the country it is today.

Nor will the Royal Family. Time will have taken its toll and members of the younger generation will have expanded their influence. Kensington Palace - home of the so called "Fab Four" - will become the competing centre of authority when Prince Charles moves to Buckingham Palace.

Like President F.W. De Klerk in South Africa and President Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union, Prince Charles is often described as a "transitional" figure until the reign of William and his son Prince George set the tone and style for the monarchy for the next century.

Not only is Ms. Markle beginning her royal adventure at a critical moment in regal and British history, she is entering a very different institution and world from when the Queen came to the throne. For a start, as a divorcée, she can marry into the family. In the first years of the Queen's reign, her younger sister Princess Margaret had to renounce her relationship with the King's former equerry and divorcée, Group Captain Peter Townsend. And we all know what happened when David met Wallis.

This was a time when divorce was contrary to the teachings of the Church of England, then a powerful institution.

The waning of its influence coincided with tugging away of the many strands that bind the public to the Crown: the presentation of debutantes at court, the singing of the national anthem in cinemas and theatres, the Queen's decision to pay tax and the disassociation of the monarchy from the old aristocratic ruling class, at least in the public's imagination. The days are long gone when, as one poll reported, four in 10 members of the public believed the Queen, who referred to her position as Sovereign as a calling, was "especially chosen by god."

In this age, William talks about doing a job - which hints at retirement - while Harry tells people to call him "H" or "Spike." No bowing and scraping here.

Apart from the immediate family, there is a distinctly proletarian feel about the makeup of the House of Windsor. Every new recruit, with the exception of Lady Diana Spencer, has been a commoner, ranging from a public relations executive and society photographer to daughter of Prince Charles' polo manager. Kate Middleton would be the first commoner to become queen for 400 years. Their arrival has always been presaged by the communal feeling that they were a "breath of fresh air" who would in some way reinvigorate the Royal Family. Of course, the good ship Windsor simply sailed serenely on its settled course.

The arrival of Toronto's most famous adopted daughter may, for once, jolt the royal direction.

Not because of anything she does or says but because of the symbolism of her ethnicity and, as important, her international appeal.

Already her mixed-race background - her mother, Doria Ragland, is an African American and is descended from slaves who worked in the cotton fields of Georgia; her father, Tom, now famous for having a fitting for his wedding-day suit in front of the cameras, is white and from Pennsylvania - has created debate in Britain about ethnic tolerance. At the very least, a biracial royal bride makes the Royal Family, if not the country, seem more inclusive and relevant. The enthusiastic reception she and Harry received when they visited Brixton in south London, a traditionally Afro Caribbean community, was testament to her appeal to people of colour. There is also anecdotal evidence that Ms.

Markle's arrival has sparked interest in the monarchy among the country's ethnic minorities.

Then there are those who argue that, farther down the line, her presence in the Royal Family will eventually encourage the royal household to employ more ethnic minorities so that the institution whose job it is to represent the best of British is not a laggard in gender and ethnic equality.

Where she is indeed following in Diana's footsteps is giving the House of Windsor an international appeal. Although she is from California, she does not seem especially American. If anything her gloss, glamour and, to use a Markle word, "layered" allure are more reminiscent of a poised Parisian. Her look is from everywhere and nowhere.

Not since Diana's day has the arrival of one person given the House of Windsor such renewed global appeal. It is doubtful that the media pouring into London for the wedding from such unlikely countries as Chile, China and Poland would have been so excited had Harry chosen a nice upperclass girl from the county set.

Not only has the majestic pageantry of this last royal wedding for a quarter-century proved magnetic, but the puzzle remains of whether this ambitious, intelligent, modern and successful woman will stay the course.

While she has given up her humanitarian work with the United Nations and World Vision Canada, what historian Frank Prochaska calls "the welfare monarchy" will soon harness her energy and commitment. Whatever she chooses to focus on - probably women's issues and gender equality - will have the backing of the institution, ensuring she has worldwide appeal and impact.

There is concern that her liberal political views - her dismissal of

U.S. President Donald Trump as a "misogynist" and her avowal on a late-night chat show that if the property tycoon won the presidency she would emigrate to Canada - will compromise her work inside the Royal Family.

Again, Diana's legacy proves instructive. The late princess took up causes, notably AIDS and landmine eradication, which at the time were controversial and encountered opposition both inside and outside the palace. However, she stuck to the mantra that she was a humanitarian, not a politician, a perspective that will serve Ms. Markle well. In reality the monarchy was an agency of social empowerment, although in rather more restrained hues, long before Diana joined its ranks.

Although Ms. Markle will trip over some of the more arcane tribal rules, she is no longer becoming a cheerleader for a rigidly hierarchical institution in a country of forelock-tugging subjects.

This is a country of citizens who show respect, not deference, to their Sovereign; the Queen is seen as a neutral, unifying figure. Britain today is a republic with a crown worn rather lightly.

Now, if Canadians want to see an ancient regime monarchy in all its overblown, corrupt glory, just head south across the border.

There you will find an elected tyrant issuing royal decrees like confetti, surrounded by a fawning court made up of family, friends and sycophants. Only the wigs and pomade are missing from this tableaux.

In a curious way, Ms. Markle has made good on her pre-election promise to leave America, bidding farewell to a government that echoes an absolute monarchy reminiscent of the Sun King for a democratic if crowned republic.

How did we get to this state?

Pull up a chair and I will tell you.

No, not that one...

Associated Graphic

Meghan Markle greets well-wishers at Birmingham's Millennium Point in March.

PAUL ELLIS/AFP/GETTY IMAGESAFP/GETTY IMAGES

At Madame Tussauds in London, visitors can meet a new wax model of Meghan Markle alongside Prince Harry and other members of the Royal Family.

ED/JWLED/JWL/CAMERA PRESS/REDUXCAMERA PRESS/ED/JWL


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Wednesday, May 23, 2018 – Page B21

IDA DEBORAH ABRAMS (nee Katz) April 15 1924 - May 20, 2018

Ida passed away peacefully at her home in Toronto at the age of 94. She was surrounded by the love of her family and friends.

Predeceased by her husband, David, she will be remembered always by her children, Jude and Terry, Howie and Pauline, Ellen, Peter and Sandy, Carolyne; and by her granddaughter, Emily; and grandsons, Daniel and Ryan.

With great gratitude for their care, we thank Ida's family physician, Dr. Susan Joyce; caregivers, Valerie Stewart, Charito Halago, Elsa Cawagas, Anne-Marie Blackwood; dedicated PSW Angie Adams; and palliative care nurses, Janina, Irene and Renata; and all the team at the Temmy Latner Centre.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) on Thursday, May 24, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Interment United Jewish Peoples Order Section at Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park. Shiva will be held at 77 Camborne Ave North York. In lieu of flowers, please make a donation in Ida's name to Covenant House, 416-598-4898.

MURRAY AXMITH May 14, 1940 - May 20, 2018

On the 20th of May 2018, Murray passed away peacefully in the loving presence of his wife, son and sister. Son of the late Maish and Esther Axmith, husband of Arei Bierstock and the late Elizabeth Magder, brother of Faye Dorfman and brother-in-law of the late Jeff Dorfman, father of Michael Axmith. Step-father of Alyse Rosenberg and partner Claude Dufour, Jill Rosenberg and husband Cihan Saydam, Jordan Rosenberg and wife Annie Beauchemin. Brother-in-law of Dr. Sam and Anna Bierstock, Dr. Sheldon Magder and Annette Lefebvre, Dr. Ted Magder and Alicia Pascaris. Step-grandfather and friend to Sophie and Isaac Teversham, Janel, Jayda and Aliye Saydam, Jackson Rosenberg, Zoe and Sophie Long, Cameron and Erin Dufour.

Murray had a special relationship with his primary caregivers, Jean Walker Wright, Mia Rivera, and Erica Plummer, each of whom contributed so much to the quality of his life and have become an integral part of our family. We acknowledge with immense gratitude all that they gave of themselves to Murray and to us. In addition, we wish to thank Baycrest and the 6th floor health care and service staff who assisted in his care. Our special thanks to Dr. Nada Malek for her attentive, compassionate care of Murray.

Founder and CEO of Murray Axmith & Associates, Murray was often referred to as the "Father of the Outplacement Industry in Canada". From its inception in 1975 the company grew too provide services from 22 offices coast to coast in this country, as well as, through 11 Davidson and Axmith offices in Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia. Murray served as the first Canadian elected president of the Association of Outplacement Consulting Firms International.

In 2002, the Association awarded him the first Lifetime Professional Achievement Award for his significant contribution to the development of the career management industry.

Renowned and respected for his vision, integrity, leadership, and professional practice standards, he was equally treasured for his humour, positivity, and straightforward honesty. No one was more adept at delivering the most difficult messages in the kindest possible way. He treated every person he encountered with dignity and respect and inspired many others by his example. A master at managing conflict and resolving issues, he was once referred to as "the best Prime Minister Canada never had".

Every fine quality that Murray exhibited in his business he brought to his family and friends.

We admired him, learned from him, delighted in him, quoted him, teased him, and deeply cherished him.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, May 23, 2018 at 12:45 p.m. Interment in the Shaarei Tzedec section of Roselawn Cemetery. Shiva at 11F Tranby Avenue, Toronto.

Donations may be made to The Murray Axmith Memorial Fund c/o Benjamin Foundation 416-780-0324 http://www.benjamins.ca.

DOUGLAS BALDWIN CROSBIE

On Wednesday, May 16, 2018, Douglas Crosbie died suddenly at the age of 54.

Doug was the husband of Christine Crosbie and the adoring father of Marina and Davis. He leaves behind his parents, Donald and Betty Ann Crosbie, and his brother, R. Ian Crosbie (Jolie Lin).

Doug studied English at the University of Toronto, going on to post-graduate studies in journalism at Concordia University in Montreal, where he fell in love with his wife of 25 years.

A talented and respected journalist, writer and producer, Doug's career began at the CBC. He traveled the world as a field producer for the Discovery Channel and recently won a Canadian Screen Award for Mayday, the documentary series he produced for more than ten years.

Doug had many passions including music, F1 racing, cars and travel, but his family was his greatest love and achievement. His loss will leave a great void in the many communities he was part of.

A celebration of his life takes place on Wednesday, May 23 at 4 p.m. at Eastminster United Church, 340 Danforth Ave. Toronto.

ALOYSIUS RODRIGO HYGINUS DSOUZA

Passed away peacefully on May 19, 2018, at the age of 102, surrounded by his family.

He was predeceased by his loving wife of 71 years, Ruth.

He is survived by his four daughters, Melba Alphonso (Philip), Mildred Fernandes (Stan), Muriel Rocha (Carroll) and MaryAnne Nigli (Ronald), 10 grandchildren and six great-grandchildren.

The funeral Mass will be held on Saturday, May 26, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. at St. Ambrose Parish, 782 Browns Line, Etobicoke. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to The Dorothy Ley Hospice.

STANLEY HOWARD FELDMAN

After living a wonderful life Stan passed away at Mount Sinai Hospital on Saturday, May 19, 2018. Beloved husband of Susan. Loving father of Jon (Shlomit) and Amy. Best grandpa to his granddaughters, Mia and Noa.

Funeral will take place on Wednesday, May 23, 2018 at Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel. Please contact Benjamin's at 416-663-9060 or check their website for details.

As expressions of sympathy, donations to Stan's Gym (stanfeldman.baycrest.org) or to the Sick Kids Foundation in the area of cancer care, would be appreciated by the family.

DR. RENU KHULLAR

Dr. Renu Khullar, age 59, died May 16, 2018 after an un-choreographed dance with breast cancer. She initially took the lead, but the rapid dips and slides became too much after 18 months. She leaves her beloved son, Devanand and his father, Bert Buettner; her sister, Ritu (Rob Reynolds); nephews, Samir, Nikhil; her sister, Ruby/Maien; nephews, Aaron and Evan. Predeceased by father, Jitendra (1987) and mother, Pritam (2017). Missed by her dear godmother Margaret Kortes. Renu grew up in a loving immigrant family in Morinville, Alberta and never tired of boasting of her French-Canadian roots. After graduation from the University of Alberta Medical School, her goal to become bilingual by moving to Quebec temporarily, and then returning to small town Alberta to serve the French community, never materialized. She did become fluent, but settled into life in Montreal, then Gatineau where she had success: as an Asst.

Professor in the Dept. of Family Medicine at McGill, teaching residents and students in lowrisk obstetrics, and old-fashioned family practice from cradle to grave. Former trainees are still remembering the wisdom and common sense she shared. She had 30 years of caring for families, sometimes four generations at a time, and treasured every day as one in which she could help somebody. She was much loved by patients, colleagues and staff and was gratified to have served in French.

Renu always tried new things and new people; she surrounded herself with kindred spirits who participated in adventures small and large; and she flourished with the love and friendship they provided. There was room for sports, travel, theatre, music, and of course food and wine. She was a good friend, companion, sister, daughter, neighbour, and babysitter extraordinaire.

Renu's great joy was with children: four nephews; seven god-daughters (Courtney Parker, Kaela Parker, Amelia Lodge, Camille Proulx, Madison Stewart, Haley Stewart, Caroline Evans); and Little Sister, Sindy Thibert. The existence of her own Devanand ("God's Joy") changed her life and amplified the happiness that was in her nature.

A special thanks to dear friends Jo-Anne Matheson and Lisa Addario; the Palliative Care Team at the Ottawa General Hospital; the physicians, nurses, staff and volunteers at May Court Hospice.

Thank you to all for keeping her in the light as the circle of her life closed. In memoriam donations may be made to Hospice Care Ottawa, May Court site. A celebration will be held in Ottawa at the National Arts Centre in the O'Born Room on Thursday, May 24 from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m.

Arrangements entrusted to the care of Kelly Funeral Homes, Somerset Chapel 585 Somerset ST. W.

Ottawa, ON. K1R 5K1 613-235-6712, http://www.kellyfh.ca

KATHLEEN MARY LONGO (nee Matera)

Lovingly referred to as Gramma Kay, peacefully passed away with her children by her side on Monday, May 21, 2018.

Kay, a beautiful, elegant and independent woman built a life full of love and laughter with her late husband, Lawrence Longo.

She was an honorary Michelin star cook, accomplished artist and an inspiration to her children: Rene and Rocky Pantalone, Frank and Joyce Longo, Larry and Rita Longo and Dino Longo, along with Rosemarie Longo and Thomas Heilborn. Her cookie jar was always full and her arms were always open for her grandchildren: Deena, Jason and Julia, Mathew and Julia, Lawrence and Astrid, Alana and Nicolas, Lia and Dave, Natalie, Jordana, Daniel, Zachary, Michael and Alex. She was blessed with the good fortune to enjoy 10 great-grandchildren: Ava, Sabrina, Charlie, Ella, James, Briana, Alessia, Lawrence, Simona and Florence.

Kay said good-bye with dignity, humour and all her sensibilities.

She asked that her family "take care of each other."

Her children are an extension of her grace and generosity and they will forever hold her in their hearts as a guiding matriarch while fulfilling her final wish.

Funeral arrangements will be held on Wednesday, May 23, 2018 at Turner and Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. West, Toronto, ON, from 2- 4 p.m. and 6- 9 p.m. Funeral Mass to be held on Thursday, May 24, 2018 at Our Lady of Sorrows Church, 3055 Bloor St. West, Etobicoke, 10 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to Humber River Hospital Foundation - Respiratory Unit.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

ERIC MARSHALL MCLUHAN, PHD. "Thomas"

"Thomas" Aged 76, died suddenly on Friday, May 18, 2018. Much loved, and loving, husband, father, grandfather, writer, teacher, and friend. Eric will be greatly missed by his wife of almost 44 years, Sabina; daughters, Emily (Scott Boms) and Anna; son, Andrew (Ronika Dayton); grandchildren, Gillian and Liam Boms, and Ezra and Virgil McLuhan. Proud son of the late Marshall and Corinne McLuhan; he is survived by his siblings, Mary, Teri, Stephanie, Elizabeth, and Michael McLuhan.

A Mass of Christian burial will be celebrated by Father Robert Chisholm and Father Daniel Utrecht at St. Gregory the Great Roman Catholic Church, 7 Church Street, Picton, Ontario at 11 a.m., Friday, May 25th. Arrangements entrusted to the Whattam Funeral Hone, 33 Main Street, Picton.

Donations to the Canadian Diabetes Association in Eric's memory will be much appreciated.

"A way a lone a last a loved a long the."

THOMAS VINCENT PHILLIPS

On May 8, 2018, Toronto artist Tom Phillips, son of Tom and Nessa Phillips, wished us all a final "have a good" at the Bickle Centre for Convalescent Care. Born June 17, 1931 in Etobicoke, Tom's life was devoted to his art and Artists 25, the co-operative studio he co-founded. He will be sadly missed by his many artist friends; his friend and second cousin, Lisa Moses; cousin, Donald Carr (Anna); and daughter, Audrey. A date for his memorial service to be announced later.

HAZEL SHEAFFER

Passed away peacefully at home in the presence of her family on Sunday, May 20, 2018, Hazel Sheaffer beloved wife of the late Herbert Sheaffer. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Robert and Sheila Sheaffer, Gary and Dragana Sheaffer, the late Susan Sheaffer and Lloyd Gilbert. Dear sister and sister-in-law of Sheldon Black and Sonia Weinreb, David Cheifetz and Jerrold Wilhelm, and the late Ruth and Norman Englander.

Cherished grandmother of Lisa, Carrie and Jeff, Adam, Emily, and Evan. Devoted great-grandmother of Sebastian, and Oscar. Special thanks to care-givers, Eldercare, Din Din, Cherry, Jenny, Maddie and extra special thanks to her care-giver, Nenette. A Family Service will be held on Wednesday, May 23, 2018. Shiva details available at Benjamin's website, http://www.benjamins.ca.

Memorial donations may be made to the Susan Sheaffer Scholarship, OTTS, University of Toronto, 416-978-4437.

MARY ELIZABETH WADDELL "Liz" (nee Stephenson)

Liz passed away at home after brief illness on Sunday, May 20, 2018.

Beloved mother of Thomas (Lisa), Alexander, Jonathan (Elizabeth).

Cherished grandmother to Alexandra, Harrison, Nathaniel, Campbell "Ellie," Beatrice and Josephine. Predeceased by her husband, Walter; son, Stephie; parents, Leslie and Margaret; and sister, Ann. Survived by adoring and adored brothers, Tom and Colin; and many nephews and a niece.

She was born and raised in Perth, Ontario, graduating from Perth and District Collegiate Institute and from Queen's University. She attended The Royal Conservatory of Music where she trained as a lyric soprano. After an initial career as a high school teacher, she worked for publisher McClelland and Stewart; co-founded the public relations firm Waddell Solomon Associates; and worked at the National Arts Centre. Her lifelong passion for music inspired her volunteer work for the Ottawa Symphony Orchestra.

Friends may pay their respects at Blair and Son Funeral Home, 15 Gore Street West, Perth on Friday, May 25, 2018 between 3:00 and 5:00 p.m. Funeral service will be held at St. James Anglican Church, Perth on Saturday, May 26th at 11:00 a.m. Interment, Elmwood Cemetery.

Donations in her memory may be made to the Great War Memorial Hospital and Canadian Cancer Society - Wheels of Hope. The family wishes to thank Doctors McLean, Charenko, Wheatley Price, and Perry. Special thanks to Kim Jardine, TJ Burger, Courtney Costello, Pam Ross, Kelly Murphy, Lesli Richmond and the many caregivers over the years.

For condolences or further information, visit our website at http://www.blairandson.com


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Thursday, May 17, 2018 – Page B22

VARICH BUZBUZIAN "Vi"

Passed away peacefully at the Guelph General Hospital on Tuesday, May 15, 2018 at the age of 95 years. Beloved husband of the late Beatrice (2012).

Devoted and proud father of the late Armand (1977), Gregory (Manoush) of Guelph and Jeffrey (Amber) of Toronto. Cherished grandfather of Vicken, Raffi, Sasha, Michael, Alexander and Anna. Dear brother of Clara Ferracioli and Anita Braden.

Predeceased by his brothers, Ivan and Sarkes and his sisters, Alice and Audrey. Fondly remembered by many nieces and nephews.

Grateful for all of the wonderful care from the staff at the Guelph General Hospital, CCAC and the Arbour Trails. Vi was a proud member of Cutten Fields for 57 years. He will be remembered as a story teller, avid reader, golf and hockey enthusiast, historian, teacher, lover of opera, architecture and politics.

Family and friends will be received at the Gilbert MacIntyre and Son Funeral Home, Hart Chapel, 1099 Gordon St., Guelph on Thursday, May 17, 2018 from 2-4 and 7-9 p.m.

A funeral service will take place in the funeral home chapel on May 18, 2018 at 11:00 a.m.

As expressions of sympathy, donations may be made to the Foundation of the Guelph General Hospital, or to the Buzbuzian Library, Cambridge Armenian Community Centre.

Donation cards are available at the funeral home (519-8215077) or online donations and condolences may be left at http://www.gilbertmacintyreandson.com.

BARBARA RUTH CRIBB

September 27, 1929 May 12, 2018 Barbara Ruth Cribb passed away peacefully at dinner on Saturday, May 12 at Thompson House in Don Mills. With happy visits from her son, George on Friday afternoon; her husband, Keith Saturday morning; and daughter, Cynthia Saturday afternoon, this sudden passing was a blessing for all.

She had only been in this Better Living facility for five weeks enjoying great care and making new friends.

Barbara was born in Toronto, to parents, George and Jean (Treloar) Bateman. The youngest of the family, she is predeceased by her parents and sister, Betty. She graduated from Havergal College in 1947, became a Registered Nurse through Toronto General Hospital in 1952, and moved into private practice until her marriage to Keith in 1956.

Barb loved music, having learned to play piano as a young girl, and enjoyed attending musicals at the Drayton, Stratford and Shaw festivals. She enjoyed the beaches of Southampton where her family had a childhood cottage.

Throughout her life, she was an avid golfer, in Toronto and Sarasota, Florida, where she and Keith spent the winter.

Together, they enjoyed many memorable cruises and trips to Europe. Barb treasured time spent with life-long friends, school and nursing classmates. Most of all, she cherished special occasions with family and friends. She supported many charities including the Arthritis Society, Salvation Army, and Better Living.

Barbara was a loving wife, mother, aunt and friend, who brought us great joy. She will be forever in our hearts. A private service will be held at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, May 17th. A celebration of life for all will follow as soon as arrangements have been made. In lieu of flowers, donations to Better Living would be appreciated.

JOHN EDWARD HUTTON ELVIDGE

John passed away peacefully, surrounded by his family, on Monday, May 7, 2018 at the age of 85. We will remember him as a valiant man and the gentlest of gentlemen. He is survived by his wife of 60 years, Sylvia; his son, Mark; his daughters, Tracey and Julia; and his grandchildren, Cameron and Sarah (Liz).

John was the second of six sons to Thomas and Evelyn Elvidge (nee Hutton). He grew up in Canterbury, Kent, England with his brothers, Harry, Bob, Tom, Phil, and Michael.

A loving husband and father, successful businessman, and a passionate cyclist and sailor, John will be missed.

A service will be held at O'Neill Funeral Home, 6324 Main Street, Stouffville, Ontario at 1 p.m. on Friday, May 18, 2018 with visitation starting at noon. In lieu of flowers, please consider donating to the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research.

BARRY FLUXGOLD

Peacefully after a brave struggle on Tuesday, May 15, 2018 at Humber River Hospital. Loving husband of Beverly. Devoted father and father-in-law of Jeff and Kallie, and Gary and Stephanie. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Naomi and Berny Neskar, and the late Frances and Arnold Better, and Ruth and the late Sidney Fluxgold. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west ofDufferin) for service on Thursday, May 17, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Interment Temple Sinai Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 78 Ridelle Avenue through Friday afternoon with visits Saturday, Sunday and Monday from 12:00 to 6:00 p.m.

and 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Memorial donations may be made to the JNF, 416-638-7200 or to The Parkinson Foundation of Canada, 416-227-9700.

JAMES ANGUS IVORY 1932 - 2018

Died peacefully on May 14, 2018 at Greenway Farm, Tockenham, his beloved home and the centre of his family's universe. Devoted husband of Nancy (d. 2015), and cherished father of Gavin (Betty), Colin and Gillian. Adored and indulgent Grampa of Julia (Harvey), James, Robin, Dana, Grace, Brian and Maxwell, and Great-Grampa of Henry Angus.

Predeceased by his brother, Neil in 1988; and survived by his sister-in-law, Joan Ivory of Montreal; niece, Sarah; and nephew, Andrew.

Angus was born at Binny, Ecclesmachan, Scotland, the son of Basil Gerritsen and Joan (White) Ivory. After Eton he changed gears and continents, studying farming at Ontario Agricultural College before his second parents Tuzo and Isabel Wilson steered him to Trinity College in Toronto where he met his bride. Angus' career in the investment business brought him from Montreal to New York to Brown Brothers Harriman in London, from where he retired in 1997. While living in Greenwich, Connecticut, he and Nancy formed a lifelong bond with a group of friends who would all resettle in the UK, continuing the party for another 45 years.

The 80s, he said, were the best of times: weeks in the City, weekends entertaining and gardening in Wiltshire, and summers in Muskoka, Canada with the extended family, friends from U of T days, and visitors from around the world. To his kids and grandkids, Angus' countless connections and improbable but always true stories are legendary - he knew everyone, and everyone loved him.

Despite increasing physical hardships in recent years, Angus' good humour made him popular with his caregivers, most importantly Alexandra Strange and Ria Tagsa. He will be sadly missed by Pauline Waite, whose friendship, shared love of the farm, dogs and horses, and faithful visits were a highlight of his days. Funeral services will be held at St Giles Church in Tockenham, Wiltshire on Friday, June 1 at 10:30 a.m. Donations would be gratefully accepted to Hope and Homes For Children.

JEAN JENNINGS August 10, 1920 - May 14, 2018

A lifelong resident of Hamilton, Jean (nee McEwen) passed away in her 98th year. The eternally beautiful Jean is survived by her children, Laird (Joan) Jennings; Mary (Barry) McKeon; Barbara Lazier; Maggie Butterfield (Ditch) Dickinson. Beloved grandmother to Sarah Hendrie and Stephen (Laura) Jennings; David and Holly (Ralph Carter) McKeon; Amy (Erik) Schaefer; Kate (Richard Wong) Lazier; Colin (Natalie) Lazier; Will (Amanda) Lazier; David (Lauren Mentjox) Dickinson; Andrew (Morgan Batson) Dickinson; Taylor (Madeleine Werker) Dickinson; and 15 great-grandchildren. She was predeceased by her loving husband, Laird; dear son-inlaw, Colin Lazier; sisters, Mary Schroeder and Babs Lattal; and close friend, John Vanderboom.

Aside from being a masterful lifelong knitter and a faithful churchgoer, Jean volunteered at the Art Gallery of Hamilton, Junior League, Royal Botanical Gardens, and was Past President and curler at the Hamilton Thistle Club. She was a voracious reader, a Jumble aficionado, bridge player and will be missed by many, including her friends at The Meadowlands Retirement Home, for her quick wit and warm smile. Thanks to Dr. Paul Hart for his many years of fine care and the wonderful staff at The Meadowlands.

A memorial service will be held at St. John's Anglican Church, 272 Wilson Street East, Ancaster, Ontario on Tuesday, May 22 at 1:00 p.m. with a reception following in the Parish Hall. Donations in Jean's memory may be made to St. John's Anglican Church or a charity of your choice.

GEOFFREY DEANE JOHNSTON

The family are sad to announce that he died Monday, May 14, 2018, at the Haldimand War Memorial Hospital in Dunnville. He was 84.

He leaves his wife of 60 years, Mary Lou (Nash) Johnston; and his children, John (MarieClaude Marcotte), Tim (Margara Goyzueta), Patrick (Eddi McKay), Mark (Susan Johnston), his daughter Leni (Sean Barry); three grandchildren, Adrian, Julian and Levi, his siblings; John Johnston, Marjorie Ross and Alexandra Johnston as well as many extended family and friends.

Celebration of life at Knox Presbyterian Church, Dunnville on May 19, 2018 at 11:30 a.m. Visitation at the church will follow the service.

J.W. Hart Funeral Home, 905-774-6335, online condolences jwhartfuneralhome.com

ELIZABETH MARY MCISAAC "Betty" (nee Wilmot ) September 24, 1925 - May 14, 2018

Betty died peacefully on Monday, May 14, 2018. She died as she lived, surrounded by family and embraced by love.

Betty was predeceased by her beloved husband, Rod; her parents, John H.A. Wilmot and Berthe-Alice (nee McCully); siblings, Brian Wilmot and Geraldine O'Grady; and granddaughter, Alexandra McIsaac. She leaves in sadness her clan - Catherine, Rod (Gisèle), Joan, Michael (Kim Robertson), Judy (Steven Van Huyse), Susan (Norm Brignall - deceased), Father Peter SJ, and Elizabeth (Barry McMann); and cherished grandchildren, Andrea McIsaac (Chris Semenuk) Erin Anello (Joe Anello) Megan McIsaac (Ben Geddes); Christopher Van Huyse (Kohi Richardson), Matthew Van Huyse, Stephanie Van Huyse (Krista Pace); Robert Roy (Krystal Antonio), Adrienne Roy, Michael Roy; Alexander McIsaac (Monika Lechowicz) and Stephen McIsaac.

Also, deeply saddened by her death are many relatives in the McIsaac and Wilmot families and many family friends.

Betty lived a full life. She and Rod had many happy years raising the family in Winnipeg and then Toronto. In her final months she often reminisced about her many blessings over the decades. She was the epitome of love and caring and her memories were focused most often on her big and "unique" family. She had an amazing sense of fun and humour and she was no-nonsense right to the end. Her faith was her guiding force. Her remarkable outlook on life is her legacy. She was always filled with hope.

The family is grateful to the incredible team at Kensington Hospice who cared for Betty with gentleness in her final days.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Thursday, May 17th from 4:30 to 7:30 p.m.

Betty's life will be celebrated at a funeral Mass at Our Lady of Lourdes Church, 520 Sherbourne Street, Toronto on Friday, May 18 at 10:00 a.m.

If desired, the family would welcome donations to Kensington Hospice, 38 Major Street, Toronto M5S, 2L1 or online at www. kensingtonhealth.org.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com

JOHN STATON SPEAKMAN C.M., M.D. , FRCS(C)

Passed away peacefully on May 13, 2018. John was born in Toronto, the eldest son of the late Horace and Mary Speakman; loving husband for 65 years of Betty; devoted father of Jane (Stephen), David, Nicola (David), Jennifer (David) and Heather (Neil). Cherished grandfather of Joanne, Louise, Andrew, John and Matthew. Predeceased by brother, Peter.

John attended Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto, graduating from medical school in 1952.

John's early years at Upper Canada instilled in him an interest in natural science which became a passion and a continuous source of pleasure that stayed with John throughout his life. His concern for the natural environment led to a lifetime support of the Nature Conservancy of Canada.

In particular, he supported the Conservancy's effort to protect and preserve the Carden Alvar, a unique natural landscape east of Orillia.

He was a caring and dedicated ophthalmologist and the source of inspiration to generations of ophthalmologists. He was instrumental in making the Eye Department at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre one of the major teaching units at the University of Toronto. For more than four decades John was at the forefront of providing eye care services in the High Arctic. This exposure to Canada's north had a profound and life-long effect on him.

In 2008, John was appointed as a Member of the Order of Canada.

The appointment recognized John's commitment as an educator and his dedication to the people of Canada's North.

John's life, and the life he shared with Betty, was a montage of rich experiences. Their time together at the family cottage on Lake Simcoe, on the tennis courts at The Toronto Lawn Tennis Club and on their bikes in Europe created happy memories. Their many friends, young and old, brought tremendous joy to their lives. John was also an inspiration to his grandchildren. His ability to connect with young children, whether making maple syrup at the cottage, finding a pileated woodpecker in the ravine or counting frogs in the pond, was remarkable.

The family wish to thank the staff at Belmont House for their compassionate care of John.

Memorial service will be held on Tuesday, May 22, 2018 at Grace Church on-the-Hill, 300 Lonsdale Rd., Toronto, at 2:00 p.m.

Flowers gratefully declined.


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Now that Toys "R" Us Canada is untethered from its bankrupt U.S. parent and has a deep-pocketed new owner in Fairfax Financial, president Melanie Teed-Murch has big plans to bring back the fun
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By TREVOR COLE
  
  

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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page P9

You've got to hand it to Melanie Teed-Murch. Despite all that the president of Toys "R" Us Canada has been through--struggling for years to keep her company profitable while sending the fruits of that effort to its debt-burdened U.S. parent, only to have that parent fail anyway, launching a barrage of bleak headlines last fall that ripped a hole in her Christmas season earnings--she still has a smile on her face. Of course, one reason for the smile is that Teed-Murch's company has come out the other side of all that trouble. Through the spring, as creditors stripped the American Toys "R" Us for parts and the future of her own division hung in the balance, TeedMurch and her team made sales pitches to half a dozen prospective bidders. Her childfriendly positivity--and some solid numbers--convinced Fairfax Financial Holdings, led by billionaire investor Prem Watsa, to buy Toys "R" Us Canada's 82 stores for $300 million and give the company a chance. Teed-Murch's job now is to turn the negativepublicity frown upside down, and a rare interview at her office in Concord, Ontario, just a few days after the Fairfax announcement, is a start.

In a nutshell, what went wrong at Toys "R" Us?

I'm not sure it's a case of what went wrong, from a Canadian perspective. We were forced into a CCAA filing because we shared a debt facility with our U.S. parent. At the time, our sales were trending positively. For the last decade, we've been the jewel in the crown of global sales and EBITDA performance.

Then tell me what you think went wrong with the U.S. stores.

The pace of change--I think that's something our team would look at. Moving with our customer is something we've done very well in Canada: testing new technologies, moving with the pace of digital investment in our stores, the experience in our stores. That's not something we moved with as quickly in the U.S. I think that's a function of size--having more than 800 stores versus 82 in Canada.

We're a culture of vite and collaboration here in Canada.

Size does impact speed.

Did you say a culture of veet?

Being vite. Being quick to market, decisive in decision-making.

Putting our customer at the first thought of every action we do. I don't think that was necessarily embedded into our U.S. culture.

You've been with Toys "R" Us for 22 years. Was there something 10 or 20 years ago the company could have done to take a better path?

Absolutely. Fifteen years ago in Canada, we embarked on a Toys "R" Us-Babies "R" Us side-byside concept store. We have no free-standing Babies "R" Us stores. And the two brands are harmonious with one another.

You start on this journey with new parents, and they're starved for information. It's a perfect area where we can be authoritative experts and pull them through our Toys "R" Us family. In the U.S., they still have, to this day, free-standing 50,000-square-foot Babies "R" Us stores and freestanding 50,000-square-foot Toys "R" Us stores. Not even side by side or adjoined, but in different locales.

When did things begin trending down a dark hole?

When we filed for CCAA (1) in September 2017, it was fairly catastrophic. From a customer perspective, it created great confusion. From a supplier perspective, we were trying to build inventories into our most critical period of sales. That created uncertainty. In smaller companies, it created not wanting to do business with us. And that took us down a very steep decline from September to November.

Canadians don't understand CCAA, but they know it's bad.

At the most critical point of the year--in November, when I want people to be searching my web store--I was fighting with bankruptcy headlines, and searches for my URL came up below the fold at No. 8.

The official press release announcing the Fairfax purchase quoted Prem Watsa as saying, "We look forward to building for the long term and allowing the Toys "R" Us team in Canada to reinvest in the business instead of the past history of just sending earnings to the U.S."

Very powerful quote.

It's kind of a slap to your U.S. head office.

Mmm hmm.

Who forced you to send earnings to the U.S.?

I don't know if we were forced.

As part of a global company, obviously we ladder into our U.S. parent company. And for the benefit of paying the $5 billion in debt, certain mechanisms and levers were required to hit those financial burdens.

Did you do it willingly?

Absolutely--we had to.

That's an interesting choice of words. Did you fight the decision?

At any point, did you stand up for Canada and say no?

I would say my job, proudly, is the leader of Canada. And my fighting, if you will, is always in the best interests of this division, both financially and for the betterment of my team members.

Many times we may have had differences of opinion, and I would absolutely voice what I believed to be in the best interests of Canada.

You never offered to resign over that issue?

[Long pause] No. I didn't. No.

It's important to not have an ego when you're part of a greater team. And if the betterment of our global company meant sending funds, then that was the best position at that time. At no time did that decision compromise the Canadian division.

Right now, what does a Toys "R" Us Canada store offer customers that can't be found anywhere else?

I would start with a culture of expertise that's second to none, from a toy and baby perspective.

Our merchants spot trends before we know they're going to be trends. As a parent or caregiver, or as a child, you know you're going to find that next cool playground widget at Toys "R" Us. The store experience is something we do well, but we are not where I want us to be.

We opened two new stores--in Langley, British Columbia, in July and in south Barrie, Ontario, this past November. (2) Those really embody our customercentric experience: having vignettes of product storytelling, imagination-creation stations, having hopscotch on the floors, really having those moments of experience and delight.

I visited a Toys "R" Us store recently, and it was like walking into a Kmart. There were shelves and shelves of merchandise, but there was no life. There was no sense of creativity.

Tall gondola shelving, I'm sure.

White, bright lighting.

Yes. Why weren't you able to bring more of the experience you're talking about to all your stores?

We haven't had the capital to do so. Especially when the cash was being taken out of the country instead of allowing it to be reinvested. What you're going to see in the very near future is a Toys "R" Us and Babies "R" Us that's taking the learnings from these customer-centric stores, and dropping gondolas and creating customer-centric shopping experiences. Having 45 weeks of demonstrations.

Every Saturday and Sunday, parents and grandparents should be able to bring their kids to Toys "R" Us and know there's going to be something to do--launch or first-to-market events. Give us a little bit of time and you'll start to see an infusion of newness, delight and experience.

Obviously Amazon is an issue for you. What do you have to change to fight more effectively online? (3) Digital content--creating that tether between the bricks-andmortar experience and the online experience. We know from our research that customers who shop both channels with us are more loyal and spend more money throughout the year. We really need to eventize parents and grandparents bringing those children in, shopping for convenience when they want to online and picking it up curbside.

I'm sure you've studied the mindset of customers. A toy purchase from Amazon versus a toy purchase from Toys "R" Us: Is there something different behind those two decisions?

I can't say I've studied the research on it. But we know our customers shop for ratings and reviews; they shop for content; they shop for differentiation.

Almost 30% of our product is differentiated, meaning you can't buy it somewhere else. Most importantly, we want to be first.

We want to launch the market.

When we do so, we often have higher than 40% market share (4) on those items.

Why doesn't Toys "R" Us have better prices than Walmart? You've been around longer (5), and you specialize in toys. Wouldn't you have a better relationship with manufacturers?

The answer is, very simply, that we only trade in toy and baby product. We don't sell bread. We don't sell the clothing for mom and dad that they do. So our competitors have the opportunity of a full-basket shop to blend up the margin.

On to the Fairfax deal. How long have you known Prem Watsa?

I am meeting Prem Watsa this afternoon, and I'm very excited.

I've obviously met with his team and the president, Paul Rivett.

What was the determining factor for choosing Fairfax? (6) The harmony between their culture, their beliefs, and ours.

They have retail, so there's lots of opportunities for synergy across some of their other retail and restaurant banners. And there are no egos. We work as a team.

That's the culture here, and it melds perfectly with theirs.

Paul Rivett talked about "bringing the business into the modern retail era." What does that mean to you?

To me, it means creating storytelling and experience in-store. It means knocking down those tall gondola shelves, having sight-lines. Being able to navigate, and creating vignettes of experience around the store.

That's modern retail.

Let your children go through the imagination-creation station.

Let them colour or make a Lego make-and-take, or play with PlayDoh. Let them experience the power of play.

Will you be adding coffee shops or something else for parents?

We're currently evaluating a number of exciting opportunities, from birthday rooms to adult experiences. You'll see some testand-learn strategy from us in a few stores this fall.

Your sales are just over $1 billion.

How high can you go?

It's really looking at what are all those other businesses that our customer uses day-to-day that we are not offering. We've aggressively expanded our online marketplace, and we allow customers to buy in-store and ship to their homes. So if you're using a small appliance at home to make a smoothie in the morning or a lit-up makeup mirror as a mom, we want to be in every business you use in our demographic.

Given what happened, is there anything more that you personally could have done?

I would've loved to open Langley and south Barrie two years ago.

Perhaps the 50 stores we are looking to touch (7) would already be done, and Canadians would already be having that experience and handshake.

When you look back, when was the most fun time for you?

The early 2000s. I'd just become a mom, and seeing product through my son's and daughter's eyes was probably the most exhilarating time. Fast-forward to today and we have this amazing journey ahead of us, where we are at the helm, controlling the vision on our own, with our new partner. I have never been more excited to get out of bed in the morning and get to work.

Trevor Cole is the awardwinning author of five books.

His latest is The Whisky King, a non-fiction account of Canada's most infamous mobster bootlegger.

1. The Companies' Creditors Arrangement Act allows companies to avoid bankruptcy while they restructure.

2. These two stores are incubators for new ideas.

Sales in Langley have increased by double digits compared with stores in similar markets.

3. 14% of Toys "R" Us Canada's sales are online.

4. Toys "R" Us Canada is the country's second-largest toy chain, with 25% of the market.

Walmart is No. 1.

5. Toys "R" Us opened its first store in Canada in 1984.

Walmart came to Canada 10 years later.

6. The final choice was up to the Toys "R" Us Canada board and current equity ownership.

As a fiduciary for Canada and head of the board, Teed-Murch had a strong voice in the decision.

7. "Touch" is Teed-Murch's term for a store alteration that's not a full reno.

Associated Graphic

PHOTOGRAPH RAINA + WILSON


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Lawsuit challenges B.C.'s foreign-buyers tax
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Plaintiff argues the levy is unlawful and discriminatory
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By KERRY GOLD
  
  

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Friday, May 18, 2018 – Page H11

VANCOUVER -- The battle is about to begin.

Local real estate experts are submitting their testimonies for both sides of what promises to be a hugely significant lawsuit, not just for British Columbia, but for other provinces.

A foreign buyer is claiming that the B.C. property transfer tax for foreign buyers is unlawful and discriminatory, and she's setting in motion what could become a class action lawsuit, with potentially huge costs to the province if it were to lose.

The summary trial for the case runs the week of June 25, and again on July 16. A judge will determine whether the foreign-buyers tax is legal, in response to the lawsuit filed by Chinese citizen Jing Li against the province of B.C.

At this point, Ms. Li is, technically, waging the battle on her own. But she also represents all foreign buyers who paid the tax and who would become part of a potential class action, her lawyer, Luciana Brasil, says. Ms. Brasil couldn't give a number, but said she's heard from a lot of buyers.

"This is the kind of case that no one individual would have the resources to prosecute on her own," she says. "We have heard from lots of people who are interested. Our class definition is everyone who has paid the tax up to the certification of the case."

As well, the Class Proceedings Act is currently being amended to automatically include non-residents in a class action, Ms. Brasil says, so the number of plaintiffs could significantly grow.

The summary trial is unorthodox because usually there would be a drawn-out process to determine whether the case would qualify for class action certification. In this case, the Crown asked the judge to first determine the legality of the tax, which is more efficient and economical for everybody involved.

"Because if the tax is legal, then it's end of the case, but if illegal, then it also allows us to have a very good understanding of what are the grounds of illegality and tailor the certification to match that," Ms. Brasil says.

And if the judge determines the tax is legal, don't expect it to end there, she quickly adds.

"Nobody should be under any misunderstanding that this case will be decided at first instance. I think this case is so big and important - regardless of who loses, the case is going to be appealed, and it will go to the court of appeal. And it may eventually end up at the Supreme Court of Canada.

"It's not an easy case. But is an important case we thought it had to be brought. The fight is far from over. It's not going to end at this hearing."

Ms. Li's legal team is arguing that the foreign-buyers tax, which is now 20 per cent of a property's fair market value (it was 15 per cent at the time of her purchase), has violated foreign treaties, is not within the province's power and discriminates against non-residents on the basis of national origin, which, they say, is contrary to Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Experts who've submitted testimony on behalf of Ms. Li include University of B.C. professors, economist Tom Davidoff, associate professor of sociology Nathanael Lauster and history professor Henry Yu, as well as mathematician and data analyst Jens von Bergmann, who is a consultant.

UBC economist Tsur Somerville and Simon Fraser finance professor Andrey Pavlov have submitted affidavits on behalf of the province. It's a point of interest that the two lead economists on the proposed B.C. Housing Affordability Fund - Prof. Davidoff and Prof. Somerville - have filed affidavits for opposing sides in the case.

"We have a multifaceted group of experts, bringing lots of evidence to this case," Ms. Brasil says.

"[Prof. Davidoff] brings two things: He is also not only an expert but also a factual witness, because he was one of the signatories of the BCHAF proposal put forward by all academics, including the defence's experts. So he brings that in factual evidence. On expertise, he talks about how it works and whether or not the tax achieves the purposes that we understood were the purposes that it was designed to achieve.

"When you get to this breach of charter claim, there is going to be a component about whether it was the right tool for the job, or whether it is arbitrary at the end of the day."

The province has a lot at stake.

A loss for the province would mean substantial repayments to all those who've paid the tax. That means the province would have no choice but to appeal. But because the plaintiff would likely appeal, it means the case could drag on for years. Ms. Brasil, whose law firm specializes in class action suits, is one of several lawyers representing the plaintiff, including constitutional expert, Joseph Arvay.

The plaintiff, Ms. Li, is from China. She obtained her degree at the University of Saskatchewan before settling in Burnaby. She was forced to pay the tax after she made an offer on a $560,000 townhouse in Langley, according to court documents. If she reneged on the deal, she says she would have lost her $55,900 deposit. Because of the tax, which was introduced by the BC Liberal government in August, 2016, she was looking at an additional cost of $83,850, she says in her affidavit. She went through with the sale, with the help of borrowed money from her family and friends, which, she says, put her further into debt.

"Overall, the message I received from the tax and the many public comments thereafter, is that I am not welcome in Canada," she says in her claim. "I felt that the tax unfairly labelled me and many others like me as being the cause of housing unaffordability in the [Greater Vancouver Regional District]."

"I feel the tax penalizes me despite no wrongdoing on my part. I understand that many people in the GVRD have been frustrated and even angry with the housing situation. However, I feel that this anger has been directed towards people like me and other Asian nationals, due to unfair biases and stereotypes which the tax has further reinforced," the claim says.

The plaintiff's lawyers will argue that the foreign-buyers tax was based on nationality, as opposed to other tax measures. For example, the B.C. Housing Affordability Fund taxes those who own empty homes, or who don't contribute to the economy, at a surcharge of 1.5 per cent.

"The BCHAF proposal was based on cross-referencing ownership of homes with people paying taxes and contributing to the economy and creating credit, so it's a bit different," Ms. Brasil says.

"That's the big issue we have in this case. We think it was an arbitrary measure that just decided to target certain people based on nationality, and, by and large, it was predominantly aimed at the Chinese."

Mr. von Bergmann is a member of Abundant Housing, a group that lobbies for higher density zoning in low-density neighbourhoods. As the founder of MountainMath, he provides data analysis reports for non-profits, government and commercial enterprises, according to his submission.

"We concluded [his input] was good because the tax didn't have the effect of doing what they said they wanted to do, in terms of increasing affordability," Ms. Brasil says.

Prof. Lauster has written a book called The Death and Life of the Single Family House: Lessons from Vancouver on Building a Livable City.

Prof. Lauster prepared a lengthy report for the plaintiff that says the foreign-buyers tax impedes the immigration process. As well, he supports the plaintiff's argument that it is a discriminatory tax. He says, "There are clear indications that the inception and implementation of the foreignbuyer tax has reflected and invoked xenophobic, racist, and specifically Sinophobic tendencies and sentiments. Chinese immigrants and home buyers have been the primary targets of rhetoric. A variety of historically rooted stereotypes and biases have been perpetuated targeting Chinese home buyers and immigrants."

Prof. Lauster says fearful middle-class residents scapegoated the Chinese buyers, blaming them for rising home prices. Studies on their role in escalating prices caused a "moral panic," and evoked "Yellow Peril" discourse, he says. He says this moral panic played out in the B.C. Legislature and in media stories.

Prof. Yu is a historian and his submission, according to Ms. Brasil, speaks to the history of discrimination toward Chinese people in B.C. and Canada.

Real estate lawyer Ron Usher, who is watching the case closely, says it will be a tough case for the plaintiff to win since other provinces already have restrictions in place that limit foreign ownership.

He refers to the case of Prince Edward Island, which for many decades has had strict restrictions on foreign buying of its properties, particularly its shoreline, even for Canadians living outside the province. PEI long ago started to worry about foreign entities buying up the island, and the province recently tightened the rules. Legal challenges to PEI's foreign ownership laws have so far failed. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec limit foreign ownership of farmland. As well, the case could impact Ontario, which brought in a 15 per cent foreign-buyers tax last year.

"Would Ontario be very interested in the legality of the B.C. tax?" Mr. Usher asks. "Yeah.

Would the Supreme Court of Canada be interested in this as a national issue? Yes.

"Eventually, 10 judges could go at this," he says of the likelihood of a drawn out process. "I don't know what 10 judges would do with this, but my sense is it seems like a weak case.

"It would be very surprising to see a quick end to this, other than the plaintiff giving up. The province won't let go of this; they have a lot at stake."

The expert opinions do not deny the existence of foreign capital flowing into B.C.

The BC Housing Affordable Fund was the subject of much discussion with government officials in 2015 and 2016. Part of Prof. Davidoff's affidavit includes a letter written in 2015 to then-deputy minister to the Office of the Premier, John Dyble, in which the UBC professors write: "We doubt that a property tax increase will meaningfully slow the flow of foreign capital into Vancouver real estate, but it would increase the cost of keeping units vacant while providing funds for improving affordability."

Prof. Pavlov, who specializes in real estate finance at Simon Fraser University's Beedie School of Business, states in his submission for the province that in the six weeks prior to the introduction of the foreign-buyers tax in the summer of 2016, foreign buyers were involved in approximately 30 per cent of residential building permits.

"Considering that some building permits represent replacement of existing properties, foreign buyers absorbed a very high proportion of the net supply increase in the region, especially in the single-family segment," he writes. "Furthermore ... foreign buyers spent nearly 50 per cent more than local buyers on their real estate purchases. Therefore, foreign investment is likely to have a larger impact on prices than an equivalent natural increase in the local population."

"Foreign investment directly increases the demand for real estate," Prof. Pavlov concludes. "In addition to the direct demand, foreign investment likely induces local investors and residents to also increase, or at the minimum accelerate, their real estate investments. Since the GVRD is supply constrained, the increase in demand translates into higher prices."

The foreign-buyers tax was expected to curtail foreign investment in the Greater Vancouver Regional District residential property markets and improve housing affordability.

"Both theoretical considerations on foreign investment and the prior empirical literature on the topic support this conclusion," he writes.

Ms. Brasil says the case will raise "interesting issues" for Vancouverites.

"I think part of the problem is there has been some discourse about why shouldn't my kids be able to buy single detached homes? And I don't know whether that's a realistic expectation in a city like Vancouver or a city like Shanghai or Tokyo, where there is densification. And that's one key issue in this case: What was the province trying to do when they talk about affordability? Which type of residence were they trying to make more affordable? Was it a $10-million home they were trying to make more affordable? Or was it an entry-level condo?" Not all affidavits have been filed yet, and some will not be made available for reasons of confidentiality.

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A loss for B.C. in the foreign-buyers-tax lawsuit would mean having to refund those who have paid the tax.

JONATHAN HAYWARD/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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Hope blooms from the rubble of war
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One of the bloodiest clashes of the Second World War, the Battle of Monte Cassino is remembered on its 74th anniversary as veterans assemble to pay respect to victims of one of history's most 'barbaric' chapters
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By ERIC REGULY
  
  

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Tuesday, May 22, 2018 – Page A10

A few minutes before 11 in the morning, Waclaw Fieglar walked slowly into the heart of the ancient Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino, pushing a walker to steady himself. His smart blue blazer was festooned with eight war medals; a pin on his right lapel depicted the Polish and Canadian flags.

Taking in the grandeur of the enormous rebuilt mountaintop abbey - the thick, cream-coloured stone columns, the vaulted ceilings forming the arcades, the lush greenery of the courtyard - Mr. Fieglar looked astonished.

"Exactly 74 years ago today, to this very hour, I was here," he said. "It was just rubble. There was only one wall standing."

Mr. Fieglar, sturdy for his age, with a full head of hair and bushy eyebrows, was pumped up with a shot of cortisone to relieve back pain. He is 96, has lived in Canada since 1966 and is the father-in-law of Canada's ambassador to Italy, Alexandra Bugailiskis, and the father of Alex Fieglar, a retired Canadian Armed Forces lieutenantcolonel.

Last Friday, he was one of 20 Polish veterans, three of them Polish-Canadians, to visit the abbey to celebrate the 74th anniversary of the end of the Battle of Monte Cassino, one of the bloodiest clashes of the Second World War. Hundreds of Canadians were among the horrific number of casualties in the epic battle.

After five months of fighting by the Allied forces - composed of Americans, British, Canadians, Free French, Australians, New Zealanders, South Africans, Indians, Nepalese, Moroccans and Poles - it was the Poles who finally took the abbey, or what little was left of it. The abbey, once the Catholic Church's greatest monastery, was the focal point of the Gustav Line, the German army's formidable defensive line halfway between Rome and Naples.

While the Allies ultimately won the battle, allowing them to enter Rome in June, 1944, it came at a huge cost.

Various historical records say the Allies took 55,000 casualties during the Monte Cassino campaign, almost three times higher than the German casualties. The Poles paid a horrific price for their final assault. In the shadow of the abbey lies the Polish Cemetery, with 1,051 graves, including the grave of the Polish army general, Wladyslaw Anders, who commanded the Polish 2nd Corps throughout the Italian campaign (he died in 1970 and had wished to be buried at the site of his greatest victory).

"Anders' Army," as it was known, fills Poles with pride to this day and Mr. Fieglar was part of it. General Anders' daughter, Anna Maria Anders, a senator and Secretary of State in the Polish government, attended the Monte Cassino remembrance ceremonies, an event that becomes more emotionally difficult for her every year as the number of veterans dwindles. Two years ago, 32 veterans attended the ceremony. Last year, there were 22; this year 20.

With the youngest of the veterans in their early nineties, next year's big 75th anniversary event no doubt will see fewer still.

"At Monte Cassino, the Poles were fighting for freedom far away from their home," Ms. Anders told The Globe and Mail. "It was a huge victory for the Poles and put Poland on the fighting map."

Poland was ripped apart by the German and Soviet armies in the Second World War and virtually no family emerged unscathed (about six million Poles died - 20 per cent of the prewar population). Mr. Fieglar's family was shattered by the war. His survival is something of a miracle, given his perilous odyssey from Poland to Italy by way of central Asia and the Middle East.

Mr. Fieglar was born in eastern Poland (now in western Ukraine) in 1921, the son of a small-town mayor. After the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, the entire Fieglar family was exiled to a slave labour camp in Kazakhstan, then a Soviet republic. When Adolf Hitler turned against Joseph Stalin in 1941 and invaded the Soviet Union, the Soviets gave the Poles in Kazakhstan the choice of staying in the camps "to die of starvation and sickness," according to Fieglar family notes, or join an expatriate Polish army to fight the Germans. That army would be formed in Uzbekistan under General Anders.

Mr. Fieglar and his brother made it to Samarkand, in eastern Uzbekistan, in late 1941. Overcome by typhoid, Mr. Fieglar's brother died. Mr. Fieglar himself almost succumbed to typhoid and malaria but was able to make it to General Anders's staging site. The new Polish army's first assignment was to protect the Kirkuk oilfields in Iraq, north of Baghdad, from German attack (Kirkuk was not attacked). In Iraq, Mr. Fieglar learned to use British-made Vickers anti-aircraft guns and was enlisted into an anti-aircraft regiment.

The next stop was Palestine, where he completed his officer's training. Mr. Fieglar remembers that one of the Poles who crossed into Palestine with General Anders's army was Menachem Begin, who would fight in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and become Israel's prime minister in 1977.

In early February, 1944, four months before the D-Day landings in Normandy, it was finally time for the Poles to join the campaign to liberate Europe from the Nazis. They went from Palestine to Egypt, then across the Mediterranean to Taranto, in the extreme south of Italy, which was occupied by the British 8th Army.

By then, the Battle of Monte Cassino was already well under way, with disastrous results for the Allies, who had vastly underestimated the strength of the German defences along the Gustav line. The U.S. 5th Army, under General Mark Clark, took such heavy losses - the 36th Division suffered 2,100 casualties in one 48-hour period alone in January - that the officers' conduct during the battle would became the subject of a U.S. Congressional inquiry.

On Feb. 15, 1944, the Americans, mistakenly thinking that the abbey itself was occupied by German soldiers, used B-17 bombers to obliterate the monastery, which was founded in the 6th century and would become one of the medieval world's greatest artistic, cultural and medical centres. "We watched the monastery get destroyed," Mr. Fieglar said. "It was a barbaric thing."

Its destruction was considered perhaps the greatest single aesthetic disaster of the war and was entirely counterproductive. By agreement with the Vatican, the Germans had not occupied the abbey but were happy to do so after it was reduced to rubble. Burrowing into the ruins with their guns, they were virtually unassailable.

Mr. Fieglar was never on the front lines of the battle, but his regiment fought around the clock only a few kilometres away. Its soldiers directed their 3.7-inch anti-aircraft guns on German ammunition dumps, road crossings, warehouses and other fixed targets - softening up the German defenses in preparation for the final assault on Monte Cassino that would be made on May 17 and May 18, 1944. "We were so tired from shooting that we'd fall asleep next to the guns and not hear them firing," he said.

An hour after General Anders's fighters reached the top of Monte Cassino, Mr. Fieglar and three other Polish officers jumped into a Jeep and drove along a former donkey trail to the abbey.

"Along the way, we saw bodies, probably Polish bodies, covered in flies," he said. "Wherever there were flies, there were bodies. We saw so much destruction, no trees, everything bare, every stone broken from the barrages.

But we saw red flowers. The Poles wrote a song about these red flowers."

The red flowers were poppies and Poles repeatedly sang their song, The Red Poppies of Monte Cassino, during the ceremony on Friday.

Traipsing through the ruins, Mr. Fieglar found five postcards, three of the abbey and two from elsewhere that had been addressed to residents of the abbey.

He took them as "trophies," he said. At the 72nd anniversary of the battle in 2016, he presented the postcards to the abbot of Monte Cassino and begged for forgiveness for having taken them. The abbot not only forgave him, but blessed him for having preserved the postcards, which are now on display in the Monte Cassino museum.

After the battle of Monte Cassino, Mr. Fieglar kept fighting all the way up to Ancona, the Adriatic port in central Italy. Even before the war ended, he finished his studies in Italy, met a young, multilingual Greek woman named Adelaide at his Rome hotel and married her in Rome in 1946. After Mr. Fieglar was demobilized from the Polish army in Britain, where their daughter Diana was born, they emigrated to Argentina, the birthplace of their son, Alex.

Almost two decades later, as Argentina was collapsing economically, they went to Canada, arriving with virtually nothing.

Starting with menial jobs, Adelaide eventually became a translator and Mr. Fieglar a quality assurance inspector at a printing firm. In North Toronto, where they lived, they were able to build a solid middle-class life. Last year, they moved to Rome with their son and their daughter-in-law and live in the Canadian official residence in Rome. It's a grand residence, but both Mr. Fieglar and his wife say they miss the city that gave them a new life.

The anniversary ceremonies at Monte Cassino were held on a warm day under blazing sun. Polish soldiers, dignitaries and priests in their finest garb toured the abbey and chatted with the veterans, including several Polish female medics, before a commemorative mass was held at the Polish cemetery late in the afternoon. One of the medics, Krystyna Farley, 92, was beaming with pride. "The Allies were here for six months and nothing happened," she said. "Then the Poles came. They had a couple of drinks, charged up the mountain and won."

Mr. Fieglar was thrilled to be with his few remaining war colleagues, especially the two PolishCanadian vets. One was Edward Moczulski, 92, who lives in Kitchener, Ont.; the other was Paul Lojko, 91, of Brantford, Ont., who was in a wheelchair. He was only 18 during the battle of Monte Cassino, making him the baby of the veterans.

While the veterans celebrated their war victory, Ms. Bugailiskis, the Canadian ambassador, made sure the Canadians who fought along the Gustav Line were not forgotten. She and her husband broke away and drove down the mountain to the Cassino War Cemetery where the remains of almost 4,300 Commonwealth soldiers, including 855 Canadians, are buried. She laid a wreath next to the Canadian monument.

There were no other visitors at the cemetery.

Up the mountain, in the abbey, all the adulation was making Mr.

Fieglar feel a bit uncomfortable. "I was no hero," he said. "The heroes are in the cemetery."

MONTE CASSINO: GATEWAY TO ROME

The Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino (Abbazia di Montecassino) traces its origins to the 6th Century. Perched on a hill more than 500 metres above the town of Cassino, it proved a cornerstone in the formidable German Gustav Line of defenses stretching across Italy from the Adriatic to Tyrrhenian Seas. It overlooks the entrance to the Liri river valley and during the war provided the German defenders the high ground giving them a distinct advantage over Allied forces trying to break through and push toward Rome. The abbey was finally liberated by Polish forces on May 18, 1944, after five months of bloody fighting.

Associated Graphic

Reduced to rubble by German forces in the Second World War, the Abbey of Monte Cassino was eventually rebuilt and became the annual meeting place for the dwindling number of veterans who took part in the bloody battle that marred the sacred site.

CHRIS WARE/GETTY IMAGES

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Polish-Canadian veterans of Monte Cassino, Edward Moczulski, left, and Waclaw Fieglar, centre, wait in the afternoon sun for a commemorative mass to begin in the Polish Military Cemetery near the Abbey of Monte Cassino.

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL SOURCE:HISTORY.COM; WORLD WAR II DATABASE; 3D MAP GENERATOR; GOOGLE MAPS

Dignitaries and veterans bow their heads in silence as two Polish soldiers stand guard during the 74th anniversary of the Battle of Monte Cassino at the Polish Military Cemetery on May 18.

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Anna Maria Anders, the daughter of General Wladyslaw Anders and senator and Secretary of State in the Polish government, arrives at the Abbey of Monte Cassino during ceremonies commemorating the 74th anniversary of the historic battle.

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

A wreath rests at the Cassino War Cemetery, placed there by the Canadian Ambassador to Italy, Alexandra Bugailiskis, on May 18.

JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Irish women won't back down in the fight for abortion rights
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Whatever happens in the Irish referendum, a new generation of young women is mobilized. If the proposal is rejected, they will not wait another 35 years for change
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By KITTY HOLLAND
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page O3

DUBLIN -- Social-affairs correspondent for The Irish Times and author of Savita: The Tragedy that Shook a Nation

Six years after the death of a young woman in an Irish hospital, arguably as a result of being refused an abortion, Ireland is preparing to vote on whether, finally, to allow abortion services.

The result of the referendum on May 25 will reflect not only how Ireland's attitude to abortion has changed, but also the degree to which its difficult, often cruel, relationship with women has changed.

This vote is about more than just abortion - it's a sort of reckoning about the kind of society Ireland has been and the kind it wants to be. The momentum continues from six years ago and it's so enormous that no matter what the result of the referendum, this generation of young women will not stop mobilizing. They will wait no longer for a system that provides access to a safe, standard medical procedure.

Irish women have confronted the harsh reality that, despite growing up in a society they believed to be progressive and safe, the country has always had its own isolating, shaming, controlling and destructive form of misogyny - and one which most heinously affects the poorest women and their children.

Six years ago, the country witnessed the heartbreaking case of Savita Halappanavar. Her tragic story forced the country to come face to face with abortion laws that can have dire consequences.

Savita, 31, a dentist who had immigrated from India, was 17 weeks pregnant when she was admitted to University Hospital Galway in the west of Ireland, with severe back pain. She was told she was miscarrying - and the baby would not survive. It was Sunday, Oct. 21, 2012.

After a day in agonizing pain, Savita and her husband, Praveen, asked for the pregnancy to be terminated. They were told, because there was a fetal heartbeat, that this was not legal in Ireland.

On the Tuesday, Savita was in increasing pain and distress and asked again for a termination.

Again she was refused. A midwife explained to her the law around abortion in Ireland that a pregnancy could not be terminated when the fetus was alive and the mother's life was not in danger.

Savita protested that she was neither Irish nor Catholic, but a Hindu, but was again refused.

Over the next few days, Savita deteriorated. She contracted sepsis and lost the fetus. By Saturday, she went into septic shock and multi-organ failure.

Late on Saturday night, a nurse came out of the ICU to get Praveen, who recently told me what happened. "'Are you okay to be with Savita during her last few minutes?' the nurse asked. 'We are losing Savita.' I said 'yes.' " "When we went in there was a big team around Savita. They were pumping her heart ... then ... she passed away." Savita died at 1:09 a.m. on Oct. 28, one week after arriving at the hospital.

Although there was a litany of catastrophic failures in her care - failure to read blood-test results properly, a failure to recognize rapidly developing sepsis, clinicians' failure to communicate - no one has since disputed the facts as I first reported them. Nor has anyone ever denied that had Savita had the abortion she requested, she would be alive today.

That the narrative of why and how she died was so immediately contested by the anti-abortion lobby is a measure of how immediately they, too, recognized the importance of her death to the abortion debate.

The reason Savita was refused the abortion dated, legally, to 29 years previously, when Article 40.3.3. was inserted into the Constitution as the Eighth Amendment in late 1983, after a bitterly divisive campaign.

It reads: "The State acknowledges the right to life of the unborn and, with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother, guarantees in its laws to respect, and, as far as practicable, by its laws to defend and vindicate that right."

In short, unborn human life was endowed with the same right to legal and constitutional protection as the actual life of the woman or girl carrying it.

No woman under the age of 53 has ever had a say in this. The question before the people, on the last Friday of May, is whether to repeal the Eighth Amendment.

It's worth noting that abortion was already illegal in Ireland in 1983 under the 1861 Offences Against the Person Act. In the early 1980s, there was no public demand this should change.

The determination by a powerful and wealthy Catholic right that legislation alone was not sufficient to "keep abortion out of Ireland" and that a constitutional bulwark was needed, underlines the anxiety clearly felt by many in the Irish, male establishment that women elsewhere were becoming too socially and economically empowered. This trend could eventually influence Irish women.

This was the Ireland where, in the 1950s, a government proposal to introduce free medical care for mothers and children was dropped following intense Catholic Church lobbying that GPs could not be trusted not to "interfere" in the Irish family, perhaps even providing contraception to women who wanted, or desperately needed, it.

This was the Ireland where unmarried women (and girls) who became pregnant, whether through rape or consensual sex, were still being sent to Churchrun Magdalene laundries - in secret, in shame - to be incarcerated, to work for nothing and to have to give up all rights to their babies. By such means would they "atone for their sins." The last of these laundries - to which poor women mainly were sent - was not closed until 1996.

Thousands of babies born in these institutions were effectively sold to what were regarded as good Catholic couples in the United States, while thousands more - born of supposed sin - died of neglect or ended up in Church-run orphanages where the savagery of beatings, emotional cruelty and sexual abuse have since been widely documented.

Britain had legalized abortion services under the 1967 Abortion Act. In the United States, Roe v.

Wade saw access to abortion widened in 1973. And when the Irish courts legalized contraceptives for married couples in 1974, the country's Catholic culture was put on notice that its way of life was under threat.

The Pro-Life Amendment Campaign was established in January, 1981, made up of Catholic organizations, and with breathtaking success, it achieved passage of the Eighth Amendment in a referendum in September, 1983.

Some 67 per cent voted for it, and 33 per cent against.

Since then, 170,000 women and girls have travelled to Britain to access abortion services, and 3,000 a year still do. In addition, about 2,000 a year are importing abortion pills illegally, online, and taking them without medical supervision and facing a 14-year prison sentence if they're caught.

An abortion, free to British women on the National Health Service, costs an Irish woman anywhere between 600 ($908) and 2,000 ($3,024), the costs rising as the pregnancy progresses.

Add to that flights and accommodation and the right to choose abortion really is the preserve only of those who can pay for it.

In Ireland, abortion is a class issue as much as it a woman's.

And there have been the tragedies.

Among the most notorious, the 1992 "X" case, in which a 14year-old girl, suicidal and pregnant as a result of rape, was prevented from travelling to Britain for an abortion. Her case went to the Supreme Court, which overturned the injunction on her travelling, establishing that suicidality was a "real and substantial threat" to the girl's life and so she had the right to an abortion.

The 1997 "C" case involved a 13year-old child, pregnant after rape, but unable to travel to Britain as she was in state care. She, too, was eventually allowed to travel with social workers because she was suicidal and the court deemed her life was in danger.

There were further horrendous cases - D, a woman who, having received a diagnosis of a fatal fetal abnormality, had to travel to Britain for a termination; another known as Miss D, a 17-year-old in state care, pregnant and wanting an abortion; and "C", a woman who had cancer and who had to leave Ireland to have an abortion as she was being refused cancer treatment that would kill her unborn child.

Savita Halappanavar's death six years ago shocked and horrified Ireland because, whereas in past tragedies we had no idea who the women and girls were, now we had a face, a name and a grieving family - confused and bewildered over why their Savita had been refused what they viewed as a standard medical procedure.

On the Wednesday evening that the story broke, around 3,000 people gathered outside the Irish parliament - the Dail - holding candles, weeping, clutching images of Savita. On the Saturday, around 20,000 marched through Dublin chanting, "Never Again."

For young women in particular, who had grown up in an Ireland they regarded as modern, outward-looking and sophisticated, the juxtaposition between that perception and the seemingly medieval circumstances of Savita's death was horrifying.

New organizations, such as the Abortion Rights Campaign (ARC) and for Reproductive rights against Oppression, Sexism and Austerity (ROSA) have grown enormously, to the point now where they are campaigning in their thousands for change.

Over the past six months opposing canvassing teams have been knocking on doors in neighbourhoods across the country, asking people to vote Yes or No. I have spoken to people - almost all women - campaigning for Yes who have become politically active for the first time. Many said they were nervous about getting involved in campaigning, but said they had to do this.

Long-time political activists such as Michael O'Brien, a Socialist Party councillor in Dublin City, told me in other political campaigns one of the biggest problems is persuading people to canvass.

"But people are involved in huge number in this. Canvassing teams of 60 to 80 people, where normally you'd have 10 or 12, are out. I've never seen a campaign like it."

Older women, too, who have lived through some of the cruelties of womanhood and motherhood in Ireland-past, are finding their voice. Many in their 60s and 70s whom I have spoken to in the past few weeks say they are voting Yes, and tell of having lost babies in childbirth, of having had babies with severe disabilities, and of being told to simply, "Go home and have another."

For those opposing repeal, in such groups as Love Both and Save the 8th, there is a cherished sense of an Ireland where family, faith, children and community are prized, and one in which abortion - synonymous with individualism and even selfishness - is antithetical.

The outcome of the vote is far from clear. Polls are tightening and the Yes campaign's lead - which appeared unassailable weeks ago - has narrowed. People are telling canvassers they are concerned repeal could mean abortion being used as a form of contraception, and a British-style "abortion on demand" culture would emerge here. (The government's proposed legislation would permit abortion on request up to 12 weeks and then only under certain circumstances thereafter.)

May 26 will be a hugely emotional day for Ireland - one of enormous celebration and shattering disappointment.

The result of the referendum will reverberate for women and girls across the developed world, particularly in the Americas - in the United States and in Central America, from which anti-abortion activists are closely observing what happens here.

For this lobby, Ireland - developed, affluent and with one of the most restrictive abortion regimes in the world - is the jewel in the pro-life crown. Win or lose here next weekend, the result will be hugely significant.

Whatever happens, a new generation of young women is mobilized. If their hopes are dashed by the referendum, these women will not wait another 35 years.

Abortion rights are firmly on the Irish political agenda - put there by thousands of mobilized and active women and girls, and by 'X', 'C' and 'D', and by Savita.

The issue is not going away.

Nor are Irish women until the goal, of free, safe and legal abortion services, at home, has been achieved.

Associated Graphic

A woman pushes her bicycle past a pro-choice mural ahead of a referendum on abortion law in Dublin.

CLODAGH KILCOYNE/REUTERS


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Winnipeg looks to make a tropical splash in a city defined by winter
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In Assiniboine Park, the lush Canada's Diversity Gardens could help bring the world to a city on the grow, Roy MacGregor writes
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Thursday, May 24, 2018 – Page A10

WINNIPEG -- They've heard it all.

"Winter-peg."

"City of mosquitoes and potholes."

The old knocks got a few new ones this winter when, for inexplicable reasons, a National Hockey League team in California, the San Jose Sharks, suddenly posted a video on its team website in which some of its players gleefully slammed Winnipeg. "I don't like it there," one said. The players thought it the worst city in the 31-team NHL to visit. Cold and dark and, as one of them put it, "I don't know if they have WiFi there yet."

There was a chance the Sharks might have met the Winnipeg Jets in the Western Conference final, as both teams stormed through their opening round in the Stanley Cup playoffs. That possibility, however, ended when the Sharks fell to the upstart Vegas Golden Knights, who went on to knock out the Jets.

Had the two teams managed to meet, the visiting players might have wanted to check out more than the hotel WiFi. They would have landed, for example, at the state-of-the-art James Armstrong Richardson International Airport. They could have taken a short walk from their downtown hotel to the Forks and viewed the Canadian Museum of Human Rights, a three-year-old building so instantly iconic that this fall it will be recognized on the new $10 bill. They could have checked out the relatively new Investors Group Field, where the CFL's Blue Bombers will soon begin to play again. There is the Winnipeg Art Gallery, which is building what will one day house the largest Inuit art collection in the country. Or they could check out the Assiniboine Park Zoo's award-winning Journey to Churchill exhibit, now with 10 rescued polar-bear cubs.

The city's historic Assiniboine Park is also the site of what may one day stand as the Prairie city's greatest attraction: Canada's Diversity Gardens, a 35-acre biodome that Winnipeggers hope will one day earn the city world renown. The new conservatory is already under construction and is set to open in the summer of 2020. The $75-million project is part of what some see as a "continuing renaissance" for the city, a renewed confidence in the idea of Winnipeg as one of the most populous, robust cities in Canada.

Some might consider the project and wonder about bringing tropical plants to a place that hits -40 degrees in both temperature measures. Why Winnipeg?

Gerald Dieleman, the project director of Canada's Diversity Gardens, has an answer for that.

"Why not Winnipeg?" They called it "Winnipeg Destiny" back in 1912, when The Dominion magazine predicted great things for what was then Canada's most cosmopolitan and youngest city, with most of its residents under the age of 40. The arches at the entrance of the city back then proclaimed "Progress" on one side, "Prosperity" on the other. With the population having tripled over the previous decade to 170,000, it was said that soon a million people would live where the Assiniboine and Red Rivers converge.

Winnipeg today remains some 300,000 people short of that mark. There is prosperity but also poverty. There has been progress but there is also homelessness, crime and racism.

No city is perfect and Winnipeg would never dare make such a claim. It has its rough edges, some very rough, but it is equally true that those born there and those living there hold their city precious.

Many feel that, just maybe, the promised "destiny" is merely arriving a century behind schedule.

Margaret Redmond, the head of the Diversity Gardens project, agrees. She mentions the airport, art gallery and museum, then details what the reimagined Assiniboine Park will entail: an Indigenous Peoples' Garden, a Cultural Mosaic Gardens, The Grove and, perhaps most impressive of all, a massive biodome known as "The Leaf," all glass and plastic and home to everything from tropical plants to a waterfall to a third-storey "butterfly room."

Many say that this renewed civic confidence - last seen at the dawn of the Great War - came back with the Jets in 2011. The original Jets had left 15 years earlier for Arizona, where they became the Coyotes; in 2011, however, the NHL's Thrashers left Atlanta and landed in Winnipeg as the reborn Jets.

"There is a cultural need for Winnipeg to celebrate its hockey team," Shannon Sampert, an associate professor of political science at the University of Winnipeg, wrote recently in the Winnipeg Free Press.

"For Winnipeg, the need to prove we're economically competitive enough to sustain a hockey franchise has been like a scar on our collective identity."

"I think it started long before that," Ms. Redmond contends. She would date the beginning of the current "renaissance" back to 2008, when then-mayor Sam Katz asked local businessman and philanthropist Hartley Richardson to think about how the city might rejuvenate its massive Assiniboine Park.

The original 300-acre park had been established by city council in 1904, when it was inexpensive farmland in the distance.

Now expanded to 400 acres, the park is surrounded by neighbourhoods, several of them of the high-end variety, and the land is considered invaluable.

During his decade as Winnipeg's mayor, Mr. Katz was a great admirer of what New York had done with its Central Park Conservancy, which has raised many millions of dollars for the restoration and refurbishment of areas in the park that had been in serious decline. Graffiti was re- moved, ponds and reservoirs cleaned, infrastructure improved and new attractions created.

Mr. Richardson helped set up the notfor-profit Assiniboine Park Conservancy, which he chairs. Ms. Redmond came on as president and chief executive officer. She is an admirer of those city councillors who had the foresight to establish the park back in 1904, even though many citizens considered it a waste of taxpayers' money.

"How do you be as visionary as those people were?" she asks. "Our challenge is, how do we keep the park relevant for the next 100 years?" The Assiniboine Park Conservancy exists at arm's length from the city to give it more latitude in fundraising. The staff were given a mandate to "rethink" the park and its financing, as they would need to raise funds far beyond any city commitment. Years of deficit budgeting at city hall had seen the park and zoo deteriorate steadily.

The centre of the original park had always been the old conservatory, built in 1908 and, to no surprise, modelled on the Victorian style of several such buildings in Britain. Although updated in 1968, the building was beyond repair and tagged for demolition, but not before Winnipeggers were recently given the opportunity to come to the park and pay their last respects to the site of countless birthday celebrations and wedding photographs.

"They came by the thousands to say goodbye," Ms. Redmond says.

There was never any thought given to replacing the conservatory. The mandate, as Ms. Redmond and staff interpreted it, was to "look into the future." Within a year, they had a master plan together and predicted the cost of what they hoped to do with the park would be in the neighbourhood of $200-million. So far, some $70-million has been raised, with the three levels of government and the private sector putting up roughly a quarter each of the funds. The zoo's Journey to Churchill exhibit was the first completed large project in the plan.

To gain a sense of how a possible biodome might fit into their plans, Assiniboine Park Conservancy staff visited several such projects in England, including Kew Gardens in London, which is now a UNESCO World Heritage site. They were most taken, however, with the Eden Project, a popular visitor attraction in Cornwall, England, that boasts two biomes housing plants collected from diverse climates and environments.

"That's the one that left the greatest impression," Mr. Dieleman says.

"The Brits call it the 'Cathedral of Nature,' " Ms. Redmond adds. "That's what we want here."

The aim, according to Ms. Redmond, was "to build something of national importance." They wanted to show biodiversity but also cultural diversity - e.g. the Indigenous Peoples' Garden - and "to leave people with a meaningful environmental message."

The conservancy invited submissions from 16 architectural firms, many with international reputations, and they chose KPMB Architects of Toronto, which is working in conjunction with Architecture 49, a Manitoba-based design firm.

The main attraction, the Leaf, is to be constructed using ETFE (ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene), a plastic-like material that is translucent and extremely lightweight yet strong. It is also resistant to wild fluctuations of temperature. Staff travelled to Astana, capital of Kazakhstan, to examine a mall constructed with ETFE and came away convinced it was perfect for their purposes.

"How do you build a tropical garden in Winnipeg, where it goes down to minus-35 Celsius?" asks Mitchell Hall, principal architect at KPMB.

Using this revolutionary building material, Mr. Hall says, "was a real breakthrough for us." The challenge was how to heat the substantial volume of air in the largest biodome in the dead of winter and also cool it in summer. Using a combination of sunlight, geothermal heating and earth tubes (underground pipes through which warm or cold air is drawn), KPMB is convinced it can be done in a sustainable way.

For the Indigenous Peoples' Garden, the conservancy brought in the local fatherdaughter design team of Dave and Cheyenne Thomas, who trace their Anishinaabe-Ojibwa heritage to the Peguis First Nation, two hours north of Winnipeg. A major concern for the conservancy was how they might attract Indigenous visitors to the park in the future - an important consideration given that First Nations visitors to the park have been virtually nonexistent in the past.

"We talked about things non-Indigenous designers never think of, things that were never discussed at architectural school," Mr. Thomas says of his company's first meetings with the conservancy. "We believe it's not just concrete and design, but song and dance and stories - all these are also part of the architecture."

Ms. Thomas adds: "Working on this project means I have the honour to be a bridge as a designer in the representation of my peoples' stories, values and intuitions. We have always been innately 'artists' and 'designers.' " Ms. Thomas grew up hearing stories of her grandmother being trapped in a different sort of architecture - a residential school - and she sees the Indigenous Peoples' Garden as a significant opportunity on the road to reconciliation.

"For the city of Winnipeg," she says, "this is a step toward finally allowing Indigenous designers and people to define the way we are represented [beyond] a non-Indigenous perspective.

"Once that respect is there, the future of non-Indigenous and Indigenous people becomes very exciting for the city."

The final cost for the Canada Diversity Gardens is estimated to be $75-million, with $35-million coming from the federal government, $15-million from the province of Manitoba, $10-million from the City of Winnipeg and the remainder raised through private donations - a donor gala will be held on June 20.

Organizers hope to continue to raise money through such events, but admissions, special events, a restaurant and parking will also contribute to the bottom line.

"We're hoping it will be a huge attraction," Ms. Redmond says, "drawing not only from around the province and the country, but from around the world."

Critical, they admit, will be making the Diversity Gardens a four-season attraction, particularly in that one season that has so often defined the city.

"Winter," a supremely confident Ms. Redmond says, "has become quite trendy in Winnipeg.

"We don't fight it any more."

Associated Graphic

An artist's rendering shows the Leaf, the planned biodome in Canada's Diversity Gardens in Winnipeg's Assiniboine Park.

IMAGES COURTESY OF ASSINIBOINE PARK CONSERVANCY

The Leaf's largest planted space is the tropical biome, which will include specimens that could eventually grow to six storeys high.

Clockwise: At the kitchen garden, visitors will get to see the growth of crops. The Leaf is to be constructed using ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, a plastic-like material that is translucent and extremely lightweight, yet strong. At the Shirley Richardson Butterfly Garden, visitors will see species from around the world in year-round tropical conditions.

An illustration imagines visitors enjoying winter attractions in the project's Cultural Mosaic Garden.


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How Canada's big banks are plotting to dominate the ETF world
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Independent brokers are starting to feel nervous as sthe investment products are drawing the attention of big financial institutions
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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page B12

Canada's big banks are muscling into exchange-traded fund offerings and forcing a transformation of an industry dominated by independents, even while putting at risk the high profits and huge asset bases of their traditional mutual-fund businesses.

With a fourth Canadian bank recently announcing plans to offer ETFs, and several new product offerings coming to market from others, a shakeup is materializing in the wealth-management industry that has parallels to the banks' successful move to dominate the mutual-fund industry in the late 1990s.

ETFs generally track an index and, unlike mutual funds, trade like a common stock on a stock exchange. Until recently, the majority of Canada's major banks have been sluggish in bringing ETFs to market.

Relative to the United States, ETF adoption was slow to take off in this country as banks believed that widely offering the lower-fee products could cannibalize their highly profitable mutual-fund businesses.

The banks currently account for more than half of the $1.48-trillion in assets that sit in mutual-fund products, according to the Investment Funds Institute of Canada.

But ETFs have recently seen a flurry of investment dollars piling in amid greater familiarity with the product and its cost advantages - and that trend may only be in its infancy. Canadian ETF assets under management are expected to jump to $406.9-billion by the end of 2026 from current levels of $153-billion, according to Strategic Insight Canada.

As a result, Canadian banks are no longer turning a blind eye to the investment products, and are exploring options such as launching robo-advisers - online portfolio managers that automatically rebalance a suite of ETFs - to increase uptake.

Given their formidable distribution network made up of thousands of advisers and bank branches on nearly every corner in the country, independents are getting nervous.

"We know [all] the banks will enter and they are formidable competitors," says Atul Tiwari, managing director at Vanguard Investments Canada Inc., the largest ETF provider globally. "We know the industry doesn't need another index fund but there are certain parties that can compete with that type of product and those parties are the ones with distribution."

A powerful distribution network was the main reason why the banks were able to sweep into the mutual-fund industry with huge success in the 1990s - and why they could potentially dominate a fragmented ETF market. There are now 28 ETF firms in the marketplace, up from 18 in 2016.

Last month, the Bank of Nova Scotia filed with regulators to become the fourth Canadian bank to offer ETFs. The bank's asset-management division filed a preliminary prospectus with regulators for four ETFs. Each would be a so-called fund-offunds, made up of underlying funds that allow for a more diversified product than the typical ETF that just tracks an index.

Offering fund-of-funds ETFs has been a popular strategy among several of the larger asset managers with substantial distribution networks and prominent brands.

In many respects, the product offering is similar to a traditional mutual fund.

"There is absolutely no doubt in my mind that all the banks will be in the ETF space at some point in the near future, whether they decide to do it organically or from an acquisition perspective," says Steve Hawkins, president and co-CEO at Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc., the fourth-largest ETF provider in Canada.

"They are seeing other people making money and eating their lunch. They will have no choice from an optics perspective to make that move, and they will do it exactly the same way they did when they entered the mutual fund industry."

In 2010, 91 per cent of investment fund dollars went into mutual funds, compared with only 9 per cent going into ETFs. Today, 34 per cent of fund sales are going toward ETFs, while mutual funds have dropped to 66 per cent, according to a 2017 report by Strategic Insight Canada.

Independent ETF providers - both large and small - have managed to open up shops and reap the benefits of that growth without much interference from the Canadian banks. As of October, 2017, Canadianlisted ETF assets grew 30.4 per cent year-over-year, compared with mutual fund assets that grew at a much slower rate, increasing 11 per cent year-over-year.

With the banks looking to expand their tentacles into the ETF market, independent asset players are at risk of losing market share in an already crowded market.

"We believe there is still room for independence - but it's not going to be easy. It's definitely tough to get in front of decision makers," says Raj Lala, CEO of Evolve Funds Group Inc., a small independent provider of ETFs. "Banks have done a phenomenal job of [providing] customers with multiple products and services - if you deal with a bank on your investments, mortgage and checquing account - you will usually stay with them.

Therefore, if they launch ETFs there's a higher probability customers will use them."

Currently, Bank of Montreal, Royal Bank of Canada and Toronto-Dominion Bank offer ETF products through their asset-management divisions. BMO launched its ETF business in 2009 and has since expanded the business to $48.4-billion in assets under management, second only to investment giant Blackrock Asset Management Canada Ltd.

In 2016, it launched its own robo-adviser platform BMO Smartfolio, which added another line of distribution to sell its ETFs.

It also repackaged its ETF products in a mutual-fund wrapper to be able to sell in its BMO bank-branch locations, bringing in an additional $6-billion to BMO's ETF assets.

RBC Global Asset Management wasn't far behind BMO, entering the market in 2011 with a group of plain-vanilla target maturity bond ETFs. Since then the bank has been moving up the ranks, recently becoming the country's fifth-largest ETF provider, up from seventh in September, 2017.

Today, RBC manages $4.6-billion in ETF assets.

Like BMO, RBC also launched an inhouse robo-adviser platform - RBC InvestEase - offering portfolios comprised of only proprietary RBC ETFs.

TD Asset Management re-entered the ETF industry in 2016 with the launch of six index ETFs. It had first introduced ETFs back in 2001, but exited the business in 2006 owing to low trading volumes. Unlike its ETF counterparts, TD has seen lacklustre growth in its ETF business with only $75-million in assets under management.

It has done minimal marketing campaigns to promote its ETF products and walked away from a project that was looking to build an in-house robo-adviser.

While TD continues to predominately focus on its mutual fund business, which includes more than $3-billion in its popular low cost e-series mutual funds, TD Bank's group head of wealth management, Leo Salom, says that the bank's infrastructure and asset-management division is well positioned "for an expanded ETF and robo-advice offering in the near future."

One major roadblock for the ETF industry - and the banks in particular - is the inability for mutual-fund advisers to sell ETFs. As a result, Canadian banks are not equipped to sell ETFs directly to clients in any of the 6,000 bank branches across the country. Investors looking to access the lower-cost products can only do so by setting up a discount brokerage account, through a financial adviser or with a robo-adviser.

Exchange-traded funds are defined under law as mutual funds and therefore mutual-fund advisers are technically licensed to sell the products. But, in most cases, they are still prevented from doing so because most mutual-fund providers do not have access to an exchange in order to buy and sell ETFs.

The Canadian ETF Association, along with other industry groups, have tried to offer a solution to that issue through a trading platform developed by National Bank Correspondence Network. But it proved too difficult and costly to incorporate the technology into existing infrastructure for many investment firms.

Another effort is under way. Vexo, a Toronto startup, announced a year ago the launch of Vexo ETFbahn, a trading platform specifically designed to allow mutual-fund advisers to gain widespread access to ETFs. Several months later, the platform partnered with robo-adviser Justwealth to offer them preselected ETF portfolio options. The solution is still in its infancy and many wealth managers are still testing the waters with other fintech providers as well.

Whether the banks will open their branch network to sell ETFs also remains to be seen. It would involve a major overhaul and educational initiative on the banks' behalf to ensure their sales force is up to speed on the intricacies of ETF products.

But the banks have successfully taken on such a task before.

During the late 1980s, independent asset managers were booming in mutual fund sales. Canada's banks were late bloomers to get in on the fast-paced growth, but by the early 1990s, all six big banks had launched asset management divisions with their own proprietary mutual fund families. Along with the large independent brands, overall mutual fund profits surged by 1,700 per cent - raising assets to $426billion by 2001 from $25-billion in 1990, according to IFIC.

"Independent fund companies such as Investors Group and Trimark were industry leaders as the banks' funds were never standout performers," notes Dan Hallett, a principal with HighView Financial Group.

"The numbers still looked good on paper.

Yet the banks didn't know how to take advantage of those products for the benefit of their wealth management businesses; largely because their branch staff (including managers) lacked the knowledge and sophistication to do so."

As the decade came to an end, banks began to become more educated and started to regain market share to secure the dominant position they continue to hold today.

A decade ago, the independent fund companies accounted for 57 per cent of the net assets in the fund industry, while the banks and credit unions only made up 31 per cent, according to research conducted by Strategic Insight. Today, the independents have dropped to 39.5 per cent, while the banks and credit unions have surged to 49.5 per cent of market share as of October, 2017.

Similar trends could soon be seen in the ETF industry.

"The banks ultimately are the largest asset managers in Canada and they have big shoulders they can put behind big projects," Horizons Mr. Hawkins says. "There's no doubt that the banks will knock us off from our number four spot at some point in time."

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and National Bank of Canada have yet to launch proprietary ETF products within their asset-management divisions, but their entrance is imminent.

Last summer, CIBC Asset Management Inc. posted an online job advertisement looking to hire an individual for ETF product development and management but has yet to fill the role. National Bank - unlike its competitors - has one of the strongest ETF research teams in the country, as well as one of the largest ETF trading desks in Canada.

"Today, the industry has a much better understanding of the ETF product and a better understanding on how to use that product in an investor's portfolio," says Kevin Gopaul, head of BMO Global Asset Management and the chair of the Canadian ETF Association. "As we continue to see advisers become more comfortable, we will certainly see the pendulum swing much more towards using ETFs."

Associated Graphic

The ETF market has recently seen a flurry of investment dollars piling in amid greater familiarity with the product and its cost advantages - a trend that may only be in its infancy.

GARY HERSHORN/GLOBE AND MAIL


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Royal wedding: What's happening, who's paying, why it makes some people mad, and how it includes the Mulroney family
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On Saturday, Prince Harry and Meghan Markle tie the knot at Windsor Castle amid colourful spectacle and public controversy. Paul Waldie explains what to expect
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By PAUL WALDIE
  
  

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Thursday, May 17, 2018 – Page A12

WINDSOR, ENGLAND -- The biggest royal celebration since the Queen's Diamond Jubilee six years ago takes place on Saturday when Prince Harry marries Meghan Markle in St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. More than 100,000 people are expected to descend on Windsor to catch a glimpse of the newlyweds while millions watch the ceremony live on television.

The couple has broken royal convention by holding the wedding on the weekend instead of a weekday, and they aren't planning to go on a honeymoon right afterward, preferring to do their first public engagement as husband and wife next week.

Ms. Markle's background as a divorced American actor with mixed-race parents has also attracted much attention along with her recent confirmation in the Church of England. Kensington Palace says 5,000 members of the media will be covering the event, including 160 photographers and 46 television stations from the United States.

The event has not been without controversy, including a public row over calls in Windsor to round up homeless people before the wedding and attempts by some locals to cash in on the craze by renting out rooms for more than £500 a night, or $868. Ms. Markle's father, Thomas Markle Sr., has also caused a stir by reportedly wavering on whether to attend the service. It's still unclear if he'll show up to walk his daughter down the aisle, leading royal officials to call it a "difficult situation."

And while the Royal Family is paying for the cost of the wedding, taxpayers won't be off the hook. The government will have to foot the bill for roughly £30million to cover security costs.

But the wedding could provide an estimated £80-million ($138,517,600) boost to the economy in increased tourism and added business for pubs and restaurants.

THE WEDDING

The ceremony starts at noon local time in St. George's Chapel, which dates back to 1475 and is the resting place of 10 monarchs including King Henry VIII. Members of the Royal Family will arrive around 11:20 a.m. by car and on foot, including Harry, who will be accompanied by Prince William, his brother and best man.

Ms. Markle and her mother, Doria Ragland, will stay at Cliveden House Hotel in Windsor the night before the wedding, where cottages go for up to £2,000 ($3,462.94) a night. Harry will stay that night with William at another Windsor-area hotel, the Coworth Park, where premium suites start at £1,270 ($2,198.97) a night.

On Saturday morning, Ms. Markle will arrive by car at the chapel with her mother. Once there, she is supposed to be greeted by Mr. Markle, who was to walk her down the aisle.

However, doubts have emerged about whether Mr. Markle will attend the wedding because of controversy over staged photos of him trying on a suit for the occasion near his home in Mexico. Mr. Markle has reportedly said he doesn't want to go to the wedding for fear of embarrassing the Royal Family and his daughter. If he doesn't show up, Ms. Ragland may walk her down the aisle.

The ceremony will last about an hour and it will be conducted by the Dean of Windsor, Right Rev. David Conner, and Most Rev.

and Right Honourable Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, who officiates as the couple take their vows. There will also be an address by Most Rev. Michael Bruce Curry, presiding bishop and primate of the Episcopal Church of the United States, which is part of the global Anglican Communion.

After the ceremony, the newlyweds will board a horse-drawn carriage for a short ride through the streets of Windsor and back to the castle for a private reception.

THE MULRONEY CONNECTION

Ms. Markle won't have a maid of honour at the wedding, but her BFF, Canada's Jessica Mulroney, is playing a starring role in the ceremony.

Not only are Jessica and her husband, Ben Mulroney, guests at the wedding, but their four-yearold daughter, Ivy, will be one of six bridesmaids, and their two sons, seven-year-old twins Brian and John, will be page boys alongside Prince George and Harry's godson, Jasper Dyer.

Ms. Mulroney, a 37-year-old, Toronto-based bridal expert, stylist and public-relations manager, was reportedly flown to Kensington Palace in January to help Ms. Markle pick her dress for the big day. The two are believed to have been friends since 2011, when Ms. Markle moved from Los Angeles to Toronto to film Suits. They reportedly bonded over a shared love of yoga.

In 2016, Harry and Ms. Markle hunkered down at the Mulroneys' Toronto home to escape the intense media scrutiny of their relationship. The four hit it off smashingly, as the Brits might say. That same year, Ms. Mulroney and Ms. Markle took a trip to Italy's Amalfi Coast, posting pictures on Instagram with the hashtag #MJxItaly.

Last year, Ms. Mulroney was one of only three people to join Harry and Ms. Markle in the royal box at the Invictus Games in Toronto, the multisport event for armed-services personnel and veterans founded by Harry.

So if they're besties, why isn't Ms. Mulroney appointed Ms. Markle's maid of honour, as many thought she would be? Ms. Markle is opting not to have one. "She has a very close-knit group of friends and she did not want to choose one over the other," according to a statement from Buckingham Palace.

THE GUESTS

There is no official guest list, but about 600 people will be inside the chapel, all friends and family members. Most of the Royal Family is expected to attend, including the Queen. However, it's not clear if Prince Philip, 96, will make it and palace officials have said Prince Louis, born last month, won't be there.

The 600 guests will attend a lunchtime reception at St. George's Hall hosted by the Queen and, in the evening, about 200 will be invited to the private reception hosted by the Prince of Wales at Frogmore House, near Windsor Castle.

Another 2,640 people have been invited inside the castle grounds to watch the arrival of the wedding party and the newlyweds' departure by carriage (these guests will be standing outside the chapel). Roughly 1,200 have been selected by local officials for their charity work and the remainder consist of students from local schools and members of the royal staff.

THE CONTROVERSY

Windsor has a reputation for being snobbish given that it's home to Windsor Castle, Eton College and the annual Royal Ascot horse race which is a favorite of the Queen. That reputation wasn't enhanced when the head of the borough council, Simon Dudley, called on police to round up the city's few homeless people before the wedding.

During a Twitter tirade in January, while he was on a ski holiday at Jackson Hole in Wyoming, Mr. Dudley said the town faced "an epidemic of rough sleeping and vagrancy" and he demanded police "focus on dealing with this before the Royal Wedding."

In a letter to police, he wrote: "Obviously, the level of tourist interest is set to multiply with the Royal Wedding in May, 2018, and there are increased concerns from our residents about their safety. ... The whole situation also presents a beautiful town in a sadly unfavourable light."

Mr. Dudley faced a sharp rebuke from Prime Minister Theresa May, whose riding includes part of Windsor, and groups that work with the homeless. Police also responded by saying that all levels of government needed to work together to solve homelessness. Mr. Dudley later apologized and said he was not referring to genuine homeless people.

"They don't care about us," said Keith, who lives in a bus shelter opposite the castle and declined to give his last name. Keith has been living on the streets of Windsor for 10 years, ever since he lost his job and his relationship. Despite Mr. Dudley's apology, he's still convinced the council will try to get the police to clear the streets of the homeless before the wedding.

"Why should I move just because they want to spend millions of pounds on a wedding?" he said indignantly. "This is the real world. This is what's happening out here."

THE MONEYMAKING

Almost everyone is trying to cash in on the wedding, from pubs and restaurants to souvenir sellers and even the Royal Family. The Royal Collection Trust, a charity that looks after the royal art collection, is offering a wide range of wedding memorabilia, including china sets, cakes, truffles, shortbread, candles, almonds, Champagne and jewellery.

Sales of the trust's royal trinkets have been soaring in recent years and reached a record £19million ($32,897,930) last year, up 20 per cent from the previous year. The wedding is expected to smash that tally.

Pauline Jack and her husband, Albert, are among those snapping up wedding souvenirs. "I'm a strong royalist and I'm very excited about the wedding," Ms. Jack said during a recent visit to Windsor where she bought a souvenir bag, tea towel, scarf and a baby mug for the couple's granddaughter, all featuring pictures of Harry and Ms. Markle.

The couple lives near Portsmouth and Mr. Jack said they plan to host a wedding day party at their home, decorated with souvenir wedding bunting they bought at another store.

Another charity, the Windsor Homeless Project, is also hoping to cash in on the wedding and the controversy caused by the local council. It's selling a line of wedding souvenirs called "For Richer, For Poorer" that includes a commemorative plate for £5,000 ($8,657.35) that will help furnish a new flat for a homeless person.

Some homeowners in Windsor are also trying to cash in with many renting rooms for £600 ($1,038.88) a night on Airbnb. One enterprising homeowner promised that for nearly £500 ($865.73) a night, visitors would be able to see "three to five minutes" of the royal carriage procession from the balcony.

But not everyone is so eager to profit off the wedding. Roger Gaywood and his wife, Dolly, live on the route of the carriage procession, giving him one of the best views in Windsor. He wouldn't dream of missing the wedding and he's invited some friends over to watch Harry and Ms. Markle pass by.

A British television station asked to put a camera on his front step and Mr. Gaywood obliged.

"They gave me a case of Champagne," he said. "That's enough payment." With a report from Dave McGinn

Associated Graphic

Top: Union flags decorate Regent Street, London. Above: Royal fans sit on a street corner near Windsor Castle, along the wedding procession route, to secure their viewing spots for the wedding day.

TOP: TOLGA AKMEN/AFP/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE: ADRIAN DENNIS/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Top: Craftsman Richard Wright makes Smith-Watkins fanfare trumpets, ahead of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's wedding. Above: A four-year-old boy named George is dressed as a soldier as he walks past a decorated shop window in Windsor.

TOP: DANNY LAWSON/PA; ABOVE: FRANK AUGSTEIN/ASSOCIATED PRESS


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DIRECTOR OF THE EPIC WAR FILM THE DAM BUSTERS
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His work inspired other directors, including George Lucas, who modelled a scene from Star Wars after the 1955 film's climactic sequence
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By LIAM LACEY
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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page B24

Michael Anderson, who died last month at the age of 98 at his home on British Columbia's Sunshine Coast, directed a diverse array of films, including the historical air-raid drama The Dam Busters, the Oscar-winning comedy Around the World in 80 Days and the dystopian science-fiction drama Logan's Run.

Mr. Anderson made more than three dozen movies in a career of more than six decades in England, the United States and Canada, where he spent the last third of his life. Far from being a tormented auteur, Mr. Anderson was known for his even temper and self-effacing personality.

"I've never really gone out of my way to cultivate recognition perhaps in the way I should," he told The Globe and Mail in 1986. "Maybe I should have made a lot more noise in the early days. Directors are expected to make a fuss, even if things are right, but it's not in my nature."

His stepdaughter Laurie Holden, an actor who has appeared in The X-Files, The Walking Dead and The Americans, wrote via e-mail: "Michael was the quintessential English gentleman. He had the patience of a saint. I never saw him lose his temper, curse or speak unkindly about anybody, ever. He was a profoundly spiritual person and had a calming effect on everyone around him."

Mr. Anderson's most influential film remains his 1955 black-and-white drama The Dam Busters, recounting the 1943 Royal Air Force raid on German hydroelectric dams, which incorporated actual RAF test footage of the "bouncing bomb" created by inventor Sir Barnes Wallis. The carefully researched film starred Richard Todd as Wing Commander Guy Gibson and Michael Redgrave as Sir Barnes, with a script by playwright R.C. Sherriff, and inventive cinematography by his frequent collaborator the German-born Erwin Hillier.

Mr. Anderson and his wife, Adrienne Ellis, had been working to complete his memoirs in time for the 75th anniversary of the raid on May 17.

Novelist David Lodge observed that the film transposed the story of modern technological warfare into a kind of chivalric romance. While the film was "saturated in an archaic and class-ridden ideology of leadership, loyalty and courage derived from the public school ethics, imperialistic adventure stories and memories of the First World War" it held up better than most war films because it was "singularly lacking in hatred" or the vicarious pleasure in violence.

The Dam Busters was a source of inspiration to director George Lucas, who shot much of Star Wars in Hertfordshire at Elstree Studios, where Mr. Anderson worked. Mr. Lucas modelled one of his film's pivotal scenes - depicting an attack on the Death Star - after a raid sequence in The Dam Busters.

The Dam Busters also cast a spell on The Lord of the Rings director Peter Jackson, who has been trying to remake the classic war film for more than a decade.

Previous owners of the film rights include Mel Gibson and the late Sir David Frost.

During the war, Mr. Anderson served in the Royal Signal Corps, where he befriended the actor, dramatist and director Peter Ustinov and later worked as his assistant director. Mr. Anderson shared his first directorial credit with Mr. Ustinov on the 1949 comedy Private Angelo. The film was based on an Eric Linklater novel and starred Mr. Ustinov in the title role.

Mr. Anderson had his solo directorial debut the following year with Waterfront, which featured a 24-yearold Richard Burton. Of that film, the Daily Telegraph critic Campbell Smith wrote: "I can burn my boats and props that young Michael Anderson is possibly the most promising discovery since Carol Reed and David Lean."

While Mr. Anderson never quite lived up to those high expectations, he quietly made a good name for himself. In his book about the making of The Dam Busters for the British Film Institute, John Ramsden notes that, by the early 1950s, Mr. Anderson was considered "the best assistant director around," with a reputation for working well with difficult people.

He made a half-dozen more minor films, including the first cinematic treatment of George Orwell's 1984, before he was hired for The Dam Busters, though he was still considered inexperienced for such a complex and important project. He had to persuade Richard Todd, who was already attached to the film, so he charmed the actor during a dinner, sharing his vision of the movie.

A year later, Mr. Anderson was tapped to direct Around the World in 80 Days, the brainchild of Broadway impresario Mike Todd, who was about to become Elizabeth Taylor's third husband. The original director of the film, John Farrow, had been fired on the second day of shooting. According to Art Cohn's biography of Mr. Todd, "Mike decided a young, intelligent director of good taste and absolutely no Hollywood experience would be best. He chose Michael Anderson, who had been earning 60 pound a week."

A comic adaptation of the classic Jules Verne novel, it involved 112 locations in 13 countries and 140 sets, with a cast of more than 68,000 people and almost 8,000 animals, with 44 cameos including Frank Sinatra, Marlene Dietrich and Buster Keaton, all shot in Mr.

Todd's wide-screen format, Todd AO. Not surprisingly, the production kept running out of money. Mr. Anderson once recalled how Mr. Todd insisted he keep shooting long past the usual quitting time to avoid insurrection among unpaid employees.

'It's getting too dark, the director complained. Mr. Todd shouted back, Keep shooting until you see the white car with the black driver and the red bag. That's the payroll." Around the World was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including one for best director, and won five, including best picture. It opened the door to more international productions for Mr. Anderson.

He turned down a chance to direct the first James Bond movie, Dr. No, but had a second chance at the spy genre with The Quiller Memorandum, written by Harold Pinter, starring George Segal as an American spy fighting a revivified Nazi party in Berlin in 1960.

This time he used his charm to convince Alec Guinness, then a highly in-demand star, to play a British spy. Mr. Guinness agreed to meet for lunch on condition that they not speak about the script. At the end of another lunch, and a dinner, Mr. Guinness finally signalled that he was ready for the part by pulling out "a little wallet full of moustaches," saying 'I could play it like a Yorkshireman. I could play it like a military gentleman. I could play it like an English squire. ... Now which one would you like?" In 1976, Mr. Anderson made Logan's Run, one of the most complex and expensive pictures that the fading MGM studio had made in many years, involving nine sound stages, new lenses and the first use of Dolby 70mm sound. The film, which won an Oscar for its special effects and earned a profit, is generally written off as campy but maintains a cult following. Mr. Anderson's 1977 horror disaster film Orca, starring Richard Harris, Charlotte Rampling and Bo Derek, has a similar reputation.

Mr. Anderson relocated to Canada in 1980 with his third wife, the Canadian-born Ms. Ellis, which was, he later said, "the best move I ever made. There's so much talent; it's exciting, clean, young, fresh and it's been very good to me." Mr. Anderson quickly established himself as a well-liked member of the fledgling Canadian industry. In 2005, he was awarded a lifetime achievement award by the Directors Guild of Canada.

Mr. Anderson directed a number of small-budget movies, including the Canuck horror special Bells (killer dial tones) with Richard Chamberlain, and a number of television movies and mini-series. These included the television adaptation of Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles, in which his step-daughter Ms.

Holden played her first role. While visiting her stepfather on set, she was asked to fill in as Rock Hudson's daughter when the actress originally cast for the role failed to show up.

Among Mr. Anderson's Canadian productions of note was the 1986 four-hour television movie The Sword of Gideon, based on George Jonas's book Vengeance, about Mossad agents hunting down and killing the perpetrators of the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre. His last film was the 1999 children's movie The New Adventures of Pinocchio.

Although he was not Catholic, Mr. Anderson had a penchant for movies about popes, including the 1968 film The Shoes of the Fisherman, starring Anthony Quinn as the first Eastern European pope, challenged with the threat of nuclear war. Mr. Anderson also made the 1972 feature Pope Joan, starring Liv Ullmann as a medieval female pope.

In the 1980s, an Italian producer came up with the idea of turning John Paul II's play The Jeweller's Shop into a feature film. The Pope was a fan of The Shoes of the Fisherman, so Mr. Anderson was asked to direct.

After the 1988 film was screened at the Vatican, the Pope gave Mr. Anderson and his wife commemorative rosaries. The director called it "the crowning moment in my career."

For the TV movie Rugged Gold, with Jill Eikenberry and Graham Greene, the veteran Canadian actor Art Hindle was contracted as lead actor and, as a precaution, as back-up director to the septuagenarian director.

However, "Michael was the most energetic person on the set," Mr. Hindle said. When the actor asked if he could take his picture with the director, Mr. Anderson said yes, but only if he could have a copy. "As if I was as important as some of the great actors and names he had worked with in his career. It made this B-actor very proud and we remained lifelong friends," Mr. Hindle said.

Mr. Anderson, who died of heart failure on April 25, leaves his wife, Adrienne Ellis; son, Michael Anderson Jr.; stepchildren, Ms. Holden, Christopher Holden and Emilie Zeug.

"He was so in love with my mother, Ms. Holden says, "It was like something out of the movies." To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

Filmmaker Michael Anderson, whose most influential film chronicles the 1943 air raid on German dams, spent the later part of his life in British Columbia, having always spoken highly of Canadian talent.

TIBOR KOLLEY/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Wednesday, May 23, 2018

Correction

A Saturday obituary of filmmaker Michael Anderson included an incorrect spelling for Mr. Anderson's wife. She is Adrianne Ellis, not Adrienne as published.


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A battle between Japanese subcompact hatchbacks
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Unlike econoboxes of the past, modern-day versions of the Honda Fit and Toyota Yaris come equipped with some of the best safety features in the business
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By DAVID MILLER
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FACEOFF HONDA FIT VS. TOYOTA YARIS

The Honda Fit and Toyota Yaris, always leading figures in the subcompact segment, are testaments that cheap and cheerful are still in need.

Whether it's consumers looking for their first ride, families purchasing on a budget or urbanites in need of a simple ride, subcompact car-buying tendencies lean away from enhanced accoutrements and toward the practical, such as getting from A to B in a safe and comfortable manner.

Unlike econoboxes of the past, featuring roll-up windows and bottom-feeder audio systems, these modern-day versions of the Fit and Yaris come nicely equipped with some of the best safety features in the business.

Everything else they do is a little different, as we discover the pros and cons of both vehicles in this latest subcompact hatchback face-off.

LOOKS

Honda Fit: Like many subcompact cars, the Honda Fit can easily go unnoticed despite its taller frame. For 2018, it adds a little more flash throughout the trim line thanks to a two-tone black-and-chrome grille. The front fascia change is subtle, but sometimes that's all you need to create a more mature look allowing for that seamless integration of logo, grille and headlights. In the rear, its back fenders extend horizontally for a wider appearance allowing for a break from its previous mini-minivan appearance and into more of a true hatchback.

Toyota Yaris: Front fascia improvements are also found in the 2018 Toyota Yaris. It's shifted into a happier place with fog lights acting as dimples, as opposed to the outgoing model's Mr. Grumpy look. All jokes aside, the Yaris has a more sleek and chiselled appearance, adjectives that don't come lightly in this segment. The best feature has to be its new 16inch aluminum alloy wheels that come standard on its top-of-theline SE trim. Is that worth a couple more grand? The answer is a simple no. You're in a Yaris, so you might as well save some shekels.

INTERIOR

Honda Fit: If space is what you're after, the Fit presents itself as your bottomless buffet. Frontseat passengers receive typical comforts, but the magic is all in the rear with copious amounts of rear headroom and legroom. But that's only the starting point, as Honda's "Magic Seat" has flip-up capabilities creating an SUV-type environment with various seat configurations and ample cargo space for hockey equipment, golf clubs or even a standing bicycle.

The Fit is as versatile as it comes with Long, Tall, Utility and Refresh modes that should resonate with many city dwellers looking for flexibility and extra space as they go about their active lifestyles.

Toyota Yaris: The Yaris doesn't come with many magical touches on the inside, but there really is no other subcompact that compares to the versatility the Fit brings to market. The makeup of the Yaris hatchback's interior is the epitome of average and could do without those circular and bulky climate-control buttons underneath the infotainment unit - Honda is the king of bulky, but Toyota gives them a run for their money.

Over all, the design is inoffensive and reminiscent of most Toyota experiences dating back a few years. Bonus points, however, are given to its simplistic and easy-to-understand layout, as well as an adequate amount of headroom and legroom. In the back, taller passengers will feel it in their knees as they get up close and personal with how soft the cloth is on the back of the front seat. Make sure to avoid this situation by practising your rockpaper-scissors skills for that shotgun position.

PERFORMANCE

Honda Fit: A 1.5-litre four-cylinder engine with 128 horsepower and 113 lb-ft of torque matched to a continuously variable transmission (six-speed manual transmission comes standard and bumps horsepower by two) is far from inspiring. Visions of driving the Autobahn are the furthest thing from mind, yet surprisingly behind the wheel, one doesn't feel inadequate with car envy. More importantly for these smaller cars is fuel economy and the LX trim provided is the front-runner in that department with fuel-economy ratings of 7.0 L/100 km in the city and 5.9 L/100 km on the highway.

Within the city, the Fit handles its own on twists and turns, thanks to quick steering and reasonable responsiveness. With a little momentum, it can weave its way through traffic despite its fair share of body roll. Don't expect a smooth and quiet ride, but that's part of the fun in having one of these entry-level commuters to motor around in.

Toyota Yaris: The Yaris also comes to play with a 1.5-L four-cylinder, but its performance ratings produce a paltry 106 hp and 103 lbft of torque mated to a standard five-speed manual transmission or four-speed automatic with a super electronically controlled transmission (Super ECT) and overdrive. My tester was the latter that Toyota is sure to upgrade shortly in order to compete with the newer Kia Rios and Hyundai Accents.

There's no point in beating around the bush - performance isn't the Yaris's strong suit, with limited power when attempting to get up to speed, only to be made worse with an accompanying growl. A lag in throttle can cause a few stressful highway lane changes, but at least those manoeuvres can be made easily with great outward visibility. Once at cruising speed, the Yaris chugs along with the flow of traffic at least until the pace slows down and the slow process repeats itself. The Yaris also sips fuel at a slow pace, but this is a good thing with a fuel-economy rating of 7.9 L/100 km in the city and 6.8 L/100 km on the highway; not as good as the Fit, but impressive fuel savings nonetheless.

TECHNOLOGY

Honda Fit: There's a good and a bad story when it comes to Honda's technology in the Fit. Let's get the bad out of the way: its rinky-dink five-inch HondaLink touch screen. It's understandable that consumers shouldn't expect a giant screen from such a small car, but Honda must put more effort into graphics and style if they hope to lure younger crowds into dealerships. Adding the volume knob back on the screen just doesn't do the trick.

As for the good, starting at the second-tier LX trim, the Fit comes with heated front seats and is loaded with safety technology as part of its Honda Sensing Suite that's sure to make every parent feel content. For CVT versions (not sure why manual buyers get the short straw), the Fit provides adaptive cruise control, forwardcollision warning, lane-keeping assist, lane-departure warning, collision-mitigation braking system, road-departure mitigation, hill-start assist, vehicle-stability assist and a rear-view camera.

Toyota Yaris: The only hatchback that can rival Honda's technology is the Yaris through Toyota's Safety Sense C. A backup camera, heated front seats and hillstart assist are provided throughout the trim line, along with its various precollision systems and automatic high beams.

The Yaris's infotainment unit isn't only larger at 6.1 inches, it's presented in a more stylish way enclosed by various buttons and knobs. But as you take one step forward, the Yaris manages to take two steps back in terms of navigation. If you wanted any semblance of a navigation, go to Best Buy and purchase a vent clip for your phone, as the Yaris doesn't come with Apple CarPlay or Android Auto (unlike the Fit), nor is any navigation offered as an add-on feature.

CARGO

Honda Fit: Its nameplate is apropos given the amount of cargo it can fit. Trunk space is decent at 470 L, but that all changes when the second-row seats are folded almost flat for up to 1,492 L of space. In addition, that can be expanded with the front passenger seat making a full recline. If you're playing sports, in a band, or going on road trips, there's no better subcompact for cargo room than the Honda Fit.

Toyota Yaris: The trunk space in the Yaris clocks in similar to the Fit at 442 L. That's all you really need for a couple sets of carry-ons and a few extra bags. Toyota Canada doesn't list a figure with the second-row seats folded down, but the European total is 1,119 L.

That still leaves plenty of room for storage, but gets marked down for not folding flat and dealing with a slight incline.

THE VERDICT

As of March, 2018, the Honda Fit and Toyota Yaris are separated by a mere 26 units in Canadian sales, making this subcompact hatchback face-off a common one for consumers looking for a reasonably priced ride. These two are neck and neck when it comes to fuel economy and safety technology, but the Fit separates itself in performance and cargo space.

In the end, personal preference and comfort assist many buying decisions, but the biggest factor of all typically comes down to price. When comparing apples to apples in five-door hatchbacks, the Fit starts at $16,872, but only with a manual transmission. The Yaris's manual-transmission model is similarly priced at $16,800, but the more popular CVT starts at $16,470 and this is where the Yaris gets those extra sales, as the cheapest-priced Fit CVT rings in at $20,372. At that price, consumers can already opt for a Hyundai Elantra, Mazda3 or get close to its larger Civic sibling.

If you're a stick shifter, the Fit has the upper hand over the Yaris, but for the majority of automatic buyers, they're left to weigh price versus performance and cargo - a tougher decision than it would first appear.

Shopping for a new car? Check out the new Globe Drive Build and Price Tool to see the latest discounts, rebates and rates on new cars, trucks and SUVs. Click here to get your price.

Associated Graphic

As of March, 2018, the Toyota Yaris, left, and Honda Fit are separated by a mere 26 units in Canadian sales, making this subcompact hatchback face-off a common one for consumers looking for a reasonably priced ride.

DAVID MILLER/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Monday, May 14, 2018 – Page B17

DEATHS

MARJORIE CHRISTINE ELDRED

(neeKidd)

Born May 30, 1931 in Galt, Ontario; died May 10, 2018 in Oakville, Ontario. Survived by her sisterin-law, Joan (Walt) Ferguson of Guelph, Ontario; her sisterin-law, Kathy (Steve) Eadie of Oakville, Ontario; her sisterin-law, Catherine PattersonKidd of Ottawa, Ontario; and numerous nieces, nephews, and friends. She was predeceased by her father, Andrew Kidd of Clydebank, Scotland and her mother, Bessie Kidd (nee Blain) of Branchton, Ontario. She was also predeceased by her husband, Gerry Eldred; by her son, Peter and her infant son, Andrew.

Marjorie was a lifetime champion and supporter of the arts in Canada. She was a teacher by profession and included teaching stints at the National Ballet School on her resume. She will be sadly missed by many famous and artistic Canadians who came under her guidance early in their careers. She will also be sadly missed by her newfound friends at Amica on Bronte Road in Oakville.

Cremation has taken place.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Neweduk-Erin Mills Chapel, 1981 Dundas St., W. Mississauga (just east of Erin Mills Pkwy) on Wednesday, May 16, 2018 from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. A small, private family service will be held in Breslau, Ontario followed by interment at Memory Gardens at a later date. In lieu of flowers, a donation to the charity of one's choice would be appreciated.

Online condolences may be sent through http://www.turnerporter.ca

FRANK WALTER KING

P.Eng.,O.C.,LL.D (Hon)

August 22, 1936 - May 9, 2018

Frank King passed away on May 9, 2018 in Calgary, Alberta. Frank is survived by his devoted wife of 59 years, Jeanette; daughter, Linda (Bill) Maslechko; his two sons, David (Christine) King and Stephen (Kimberley) King; as well as 9 grandchildren, Michael Stuemer, Christopher Stuemer, Katie Maslechko, Sarah Maslechko, Jenna Maslechko, Zoe King, Vanessa King, James King, and Carter King. Frank was predeceased by his daughter, Diane Stuemer; grandson, Jonathan Stuemer; sister, Ethel King-Shaw; and brother, Arthur King.

Frank was born in Redcliff, AB and graduated from the University of Alberta with a B.Sc. Chemical Engineering, in 1958, and moved to Sarnia, ON to begin his career in the petrochemical industry. Frank's indomitable entrepreneurial spirit flourished, as he created opportunities with some of his best friends at Ralph M. Parsons and Turbo Resources, participating in Western Canada's oil and gas boom. He came to actively serve in many other sectors as a Board Member with CanWest Global, RioCan, Acclaim Energy, Agrium, Toronto Sun Publishing, Wi-LAN, Networc Health, Air BC, Westaim, Calgary Chamber of Commerce, and advisor to Marsh Canada. He was also an active participant and past President of the Calgary South Rotary Club.

Frank carried an infectious enthusiasm, a can-do attitude, and a passionate love of life. He deeply touched those around him and spent much of his adult life building successful companies and giving back to the community, particularly in sports, where he was an avid athlete, coach, spectator, volunteer and builder.

Frank may have best been known for his roles as Chair of the Olympic Bid Committee and CEO of OCO '88 hosting the XV Olympic Winter Games in Calgary in 1988. He worked as a volunteer for all but the final year of his 10year commitment to bring Calgary onto the world stage, and leave a legacy for youth. Together with the people of Calgary and all levels of Government, Calgary's western spirit came together to put on the "best ever" games. He chronicled his experience by writing and publishing a book about the inside story of the games, titled "It's How You Play the Game". Frank continued to work closely with the group that is now WinSport, which manages the financial legacy from the Olympics, and participated as an advisor to the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Committee. In 1992, he was Co-President of the Canada 125 Committee, commemorating Canada's 125th Birthday.

Frank's outlook and desire to build a better world was recognized with an Officer of the Order of Canada (1988), Olympic Order in Gold from the International Olympic Committee (1988), the Alberta Premier's Order of Excellence (1981 and 1988), an Honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Calgary (1988), named one of Maclean's Magazine's Top 12 Canadians (1988), Gold Medal Champion d'Afrique (1988), Governor General's 125 Medal (1992), the Canadian Olympic Order (1997), Bnai Brith Honoree (1999), Member Alberta Sports Hall of Fame (2002), the Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal (2002), the Calgary Booster Club Builder Award (1988), and Alberta Sportsman of the Year (2003). He was named one of 150 Influential Albertans by the Calgary Herald in honour of Canada's 150th Birthday celebration.

Generous with his friendships, he was the most uplifting and positive person one could imagine, with a sense of humour and gamesmanship that could instantly create fun, wherever he went. He was a thoughtful, loving husband, and a role model father, that was admired, loved and cherished by his grandchildren and the many people he proudly called his friends. Our family and community will miss him dearly.

Funeral Services will be held at Christ Church (3602 8 Street S.W., Calgary, AB) on Thursday, May 17, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. A Celebration of Frank's Life to follow at the Red and White Club (McMahon Stadium, 1833 Crowchild Trail N.W.) from 3:30 - 6:00 p.m. Condolences may be forwarded through www.

mcinnisandholloway.com.

The family would appreciate the sharing of personal memories of Frank, by emailing them to memories@cdzking.com. In lieu of flowers, tributes may be made to the Calgary Booster Club Sports Legacy Fund for Amateur Athletes, 2424A University Drive N.W., Calgary, AB T2N 3Y9 Telephone: (587) 350-9583. http://www.calgaryboosterclub.com, or other charity of choice.

In living memory of Frank Walter, a tree will be planted at Fish Creek Provincial Park by McInnis & Holloway Funeral Homes, Park Memorial, 5008 Elbow Drive S.W. Calgary, AB, T2S 2L5, Telephone: 403-243-8200.

ERIC MELLISH LANE

Died Wednesday, May 2, 2018, after a short stay in North York General Hospital.

Although he lived in Toronto for 63 years, he always considered himself a Nova Scotian.

Born, raised, and educated in Nova Scotia, Eric moved to Toronto for a job with the legal department of CNR. When it became known that he was a trained pilot, Eric began acting on behalf of Air Canada and their insurers. Moving to a small firm, Eric travelled to many parts of the world to deal with aviation accidents of all types and the ensuing legal actions. Later on, he joined the law firm Miller Thomson and worked there until his retirement.

As soon as Eric arrived in Toronto, he joined 411 Squadron, a reserve unit of the RCAF. With his excellent hand-eye coordination, he became a skilled jet pilot, flying on weekends for ten years.

Always a keen athlete, Eric played baseball, hockey, rugby, tennis, basketball, badminton and then settled on golf. Finally, in 2014, his last year of play, Eric hit a holein-one at Cedar Brae Golf Club, his home away from home for over forty years.

In retirement Eric joined a company carrying food into war zones in Africa. Using de Havilland Buffalo planes, they could land in impossibly small air fields and deliver food aid.

Congestive heart failure grounded Eric and gradually narrowed his life to TV for movies and basketball games.

His grandchildren continued to be of great interest. "What news of the kids" was his favourite question. Married for 62 years, Eric leaves his wife, Laura, a fellow Nova Scotian; three sons, Chris (JoAnne), Andrew (Dörte) and Steven (Claire); his sister, Rosemary; as well as seven grandchildren, Eva (Chris Laser), Ben, Eric, Mathew, Fiona, Carly and Abbey.

A celebration of Eric's life will be held on May 16th at 1:30 p.m. at Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge Street. A reception will follow.

In lieu of flowers, please make a donation to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or North York General Hospital.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

VIVIAN DIANE MANTELLA

193 6 -2 01 8 Passed away peacefully surrounded by her family on Tuesday, April 25, 2018 at the age of 81. A private ceremony was held at Glendale Memorial on Saturday, April 28th, where she was laid to rest.

Loving wife of the late Frank Mantella. Cherished Mother of Dan (Rose), Kathy, and Anthony (Natasha). Wonderful and devoted grandmother to James, Chelsea, Brett, Michaela, Alexandra, Jessica. Forever in the hearts of Lisa Mantella, Erik Innis, Monique Mantella, And Tony Hamilton.

Special thanks to Salma, Ruby, Madison, Mary and all the wonderful caregivers at Hearthstone by The Bay for your extraordinary kindness to our mother, she treasured you all.

Thank you to all for your wonderful memories of our thoughtful and generous mother. She lived a beautiful and fulfilling life.

I am a butterfly Please set me free, And grieve not long, Nor weep for me, I am a butterfly, Let me go, To fly above the sunset glow, For I will come, while you sleep, And place butterfly kisses on your cheek Happy Mother's Day We love you so much

LUKE SKLAR

On Saturday, May 12, 2018, just before his 63rd birthday, our beloved Luke lost his battle with depression. Dear husband of 34 years of Lise (nee Sternthal), and adoring father of Rebecca, Naomi and Kira. Brother and brother-inlaw of Mark and Barbara, and David and Leslie. Son of the late Bertha and Joe Sklar. Devoted family man; celebrated entrepreneur; bright, caring, passionate individual; and friend to so many. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, May 15, 2018 at 1:00 p.m.

Interment Holy Blossom Temple Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Shiva 582 Castlefield Avenue, Toronto. See http://www.benjamins.ca for shiva information. Memorial donations in support of mental health may be made to sicknotweak.com, a community that was very dear to Luke's heart.


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COOKING UP CONFIDENCE
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Many groups are beginning to understand the importance of culinary education for children, with the cooking process working as an important tool in helping kids build healthy relationships with food, experts say
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By JULIE VAN ROSENDAAL
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Tuesday, May 22, 2018 – Page A16

Historically, the kitchen has been a grownup domain, a place for adults to play with knives and flames. When it's time to get dinner on the table, any kids who happen to be underfoot are often shooed out of the way, perhaps because the home cook prefers a quiet kitchen, or fears the chaos and mess small hands tend to generate.

But we all have to feed ourselves three times a day and the earlier we figure out how to do it (and enjoy it), the better. In fact, when Health Canada introduces its new food guide this year - its first in almost a decade - it's expected to encourage Canadians to learn more about what they're eating by preparing their own meals and sharing them with family. The cooking process, dieticians emphasize, is an important way to help children build healthy relationships with food.

"We should be making them feel relaxed and excited about food," says Erin MacGregor, a registered dietitian and co-owner of How To Eat, a Toronto company that offers nutrition consulting, meal planning and private cooking lessons. "The best way to do this is through exposure - planning meals, grocery shopping, cooking and sitting down to share a meal together."

And kids can pick up other valuable skills along the way, no matter how old they are. "Toddlers can hone their fine-motor skills, stirring, whisking, rolling, sprinkling and, yes, even cutting with a plastic knife," MacGregor says. "As children learn to talk and reason, they'll be refining their communication and early math skills, reading and measuring. As kids get older, teaching them basic knife and fire-safety skills will give them self-confidence and autonomy in the kitchen."

Those benefits continue past childhood. "As an adult? Cooking your food is healthier and will save you money."

Teachers have also been noticing the importance of food education. At Royal St. George's College, an independent boys' school in Toronto, French teacher Mardi Michels has been running a cooking club for seven-to-14-year-olds since 2010. Les Petits Chefs transforms the science lab into a kitchen for an hour after school twice a week. As with MacGregor, she says learning about food can be about so much more than cooking. "It's also about science, math, reading comprehension and teaches the boys life skills like problem-solving, budgeting, nutrition, collaboration ... even how to load a dishwasher."

The club tackles dishes far more complex than what's commonly thought of as "kid food," such as chicken fingers and pizza; one week in February, Les Petits Chefs made Polish gnocchi from Ren Behan's Wild Honey and Rye. They've rolled arancini, fried aloo tikki, torched crème brûlée and pinched dumplings, often with visiting chefs or cookbook authors at their side. (Yes, they learned how to use a real brûlée torch, safely and closely supervised.)

And their fearlessness means they're happy to try out new recipes. "They have a real 'can do' attitude that means they'll happily tackle what are considered complicated dishes with the expectation that they will succeed because they don't know otherwise.

Michels also incorporates food into her regular French language curriculum - her Grade 4 class is researching classic French foods such as baguettes, crêpes and crème caramel; they'll then cook and bake them in class, eventually producing "how to" videos of the process. Although Michels doesn't have children herself, spending almost a decade cooking with them has inspired a cookbook, In the French Kitchen with Kids, scheduled for release this summer.

"Cooking club is a place where I see students who may not always find success in the classroom really shine, too," she says. "The kinaesthetic aspect of cooking - they're always busy, always moving - is a wonderful place for kids to release energy in a controlled environment. They know they must listen well and follow the rules and recipe steps, otherwise they don't get to eat their creation. Food is a great motivator."

The creative process, with its appetizing end result, has also turned many kids into eager consumers and participants of cooking shows. Top Chef Junior launched on the Family channel last fall, and 12year-old Edmontonian Alex Czajka is the first (and only) Canadian to be a contestant on the fourth season of Kids Baking Championship. A new YouTube series called Kitchen Little also sees kids take the lead in creating new dishes, calling the shots for their celebrity sous chefs.

Competition and technical elements aside, food is a connector, even among sixyear-olds. At the Prince of Wales School in Calgary, for example, Grade 1 kids are collecting family recipes and sharing the stories behind them in their own cookbook.

After weeks spent discussing food culture, reading cookbooks and analyzing the structure and requirements of a written recipe, all three Grade 1 classes and their parents gathered in the gym one morning in February for a potluck, each student bringing the homemade dish they chose to share in the book.

There were hand-pinched dumplings and tourtière, taco salad and biryani topped with hard-boiled eggs.

"The purpose was to learn about traditions in a meaningful way and how they contribute to the students' unique family and cultural identities," teacher Elysa Morin says. "And to further build community within our school - we've had a new neighbourhood bus coming in this year and we've been trying to reinforce a sense of welcoming. We hoped students would appreciate food as a medium for family and togetherness."

The cookbook, which they all hope to bring home a copy of for spring break, will also include photos of the students' process, the recipe steps laid out comic strip-style, complimented by writing and journal entries about their recipes.

Other organizations have also been setting up extracurricular and spring break activities with culinary benefits. In Saskatoon, for example, the Local Kitchen was created as a sort of clubhouse and hip, yet productive, hangout for people who love food.

The multiuse space acts as a support system for emerging food businesses, with two incubator kitchens that small producers can rent to prep for their food truck, market stall or retail shop. On any given day, there might be someone simmering an enormous pot of lentil soup to sell at the weekend farmers market, a team of young chefs roasting and grinding their own spice blends or caterers preparing for an event. Owners Bailey Wilmot, Julie Gryba and Caitlin Olauson also see it as a place for kids to come learn basic cooking and develop a love of being in the kitchen.

Wilmot and Olauson are food scientists; Olauson has her masters in food security and Gryba is a mother of three, so when they launched a kids' cooking camp last year, they felt comfortable heading up the classes themselves. Aside from nutrition and food science, they also wanted to teach kids about local food and agriculture.

So, in the summer, kids help tend the outdoor garden, where they pick fresh herbs for their recipes.

They also use locally grown products such as canola, lentils and frozen saskatoon berries.

The team also wants to introduce children to global flavours. One series of classes focused on world cuisine, with a different culture represented in each session. "Kids have an idea that they don't like certain things," Wilmot says, "but after they've gone through the process of making it, learning what goes into it and seeing how it all comes together, they're more willing and excited to try it." They emerge proud of their culinary skills and parents report that they become more adventurous eaters.

The work also teaches kids an element of responsibility. At a class last summer, the children made burritos, fruit tarts and smoothies, doing all the chopping and cooking themselves, then sitting down to eat at a long table beside the kitchen. "I think it's important for everyone to consider the process and hard work that goes into getting food to their plates," Wilmot says. "It can be helpful for families to share food responsibilities and it fosters some appreciation for the work that goes into preparing a meal, so kids don't take it for granted that food just shows up." And as kids grow older, those lessons go a long way. In February, the group's first Fend for Yourself class taught teenagers on the verge of leaving home or heading to college some cooking basics. They learned how to mix up a jar of salad dressing or a pot of lentil Bolognese and to save veggie scraps and chicken bones to make broth for soup, as well as how to deal with the real-life challenges of feeding yourself on a daily basis. "Like how to pack your lunch for the week, or not order Domino's every night," Wilmot says. "Even just some batch cooking - how to make a pot of soup or chili, something nutritious and budget-friendly that doesn't take a ton of time."

For these teachers - no matter the age of their students - it's all about cultivating comfort with food, finding opportunities to use it as a learning tool and reinforcing its ability to bring people together.

"If kids are given the opportunity to enjoy being in the kitchen, it'll just lead to spending more time there," Wilmot says. "Developing a joy of cooking."

Associated Graphic

Students at Prince of Wales School in Calgary enjoy a potluck with all the Grade 1 classes and their parents.

PHOTOS BY JULIE VAN ROSENDAAL

The food at the potluck at Prince of Wales School in Calgary come from students' family recipes, which were then made into a cookbook. The aim was to teach students about traditions and further build community within the school.


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Saving her sorries
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Kathy Griffin is defiant of those who want to 'decimate her' and is using her Trump photo controversy to fuel her comedy
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By JOHANNA SCHNELLER
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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page R10

The day Kathy Griffin's severed-Trump-head photo hit the fan, May 30, 2017, the sharp-edged comedian was at home in Los Angeles, sobbing.

(You know the photo and video, right? Griffin wears a purple dress and a lot of eyelashes.

Looking solemn, she holds up a $10 rubber Donald Trump mask that's been dunked in ketchup.)

Her Twitter feed was spattered with hate; she was public enemy No. 1 on Fox News. Then Jim Carrey phoned.

"I would give my right arm for this story," he told her. "You now have an experience comedians dream of. You can present it comedically however you want, and you're the perfect person for that, because this is what you do."

"Well," she replied through her tears, "I do have this story about a day I spent with Trump and Liza Minnelli."

Obviously, Griffin has already sculpted the Carrey call into a practised, capital-A Anecdote. In a recent phone interview, her answers feel equally prebaked. My questions bounce off her like rain, and she can crack four to 12 zingers in the time it takes me to ask one. Griffin is the human embodiment of free associations fed through a batting-cage pitching machine set on high - she never stops whipping stuff at you.

She made the infamous photo/video with Tyler Shields, a fellow provocateur, and posted it on her Twitter and Instagram accounts. In the immediate aftermath, she defended it - she wanted to shame Trump; she was referencing his "blood coming out of her ...wherever" slam of broadcast journalist Megyn Kelly. After things got ugly, she apologized for it: "The image is too disturbing," she said in another video. "I get it. I beg for your forgiveness." Then, in August, 2017, she retracted that apology. Now she's on a Laugh Your Head Off world tour that includes stops in Ottawa; Toronto; Kitchener, Ont.; Calgary and Vancouver (details at KathyGriffin.com). In her ads, she wears the same purple dress and holds a blow-up Earth.

The first question I manage to slip in - "But you must have known a severed-head image would offend people?" - elicits a 10-minute response that bounces around like a pinball, randomly setting off lights and bells. The reaction to the photo was a coordinated "campaign of shock and awe ginned up against me by an apparatus that was in place long before I put ketchup on a Trump mask," Griffin says.

It began with Lock Her Up chants at Trump rallies, and Donald Trump Jr. saying on Good Morning America, "We don't want to just ruin Griffin's career, we want to decimate her." Soon, there were death threats on her social-media feeds, which continue to this day; Breitbart and Fox were saying she committed a crime (she didn't - she's protected by U.S. free-speech laws); CNN dropped her annual New Year's Eve broadcast gig; and TMZ was reporting the cancellation of dates on her 50-city tour in real time.

"What happened to me is unprecedented," Griffin says. "Not in the history of the United States has a sitting president put his thumb on the shoulder of an American citizen, and mobilized the right-wing media and bot farms and robo-calls against them. But I'm a perfect target, a 57-year-old female with no franchise or studio behind me. Then everyone turned on me, left, right and centre."

"Two federal agencies investigated me for two months," she rattles on seamlessly, "to see if they wanted to charge me with - wait for it - conspiracy to assassinate the President of the United States." (When I ask her if the feds had any sense of humour, she deflects - perhaps that's a punch line she's saving for her paying customers.)

Still, I persist, she was riffing on terrorist videos of real severed heads.

"Have you been to Iraq or Afghanistan?" she replies. "I have.

Having been in war zones, I kind of don't want to hear, 'Why didn't you think of ISIS?' Because I've actually been around ISIS. It didn't even cross my mind until Rosie O'Donnell said to me, 'What if Daniel Pearl's mother saw it?' That's when I raced to do my apology. But what I found out in the last year is that most of the outrage was faux. And why don't people ask Trump if he was thinking about ISIS when he said, 'There was blood coming out of her eyes'?" If there's a joke that would shock Griffin, she hasn't heard it yet. She calls it her stand-upcomedy disorder - any thought that comes into her head, she immediately frisks to find the funny. (When she learned that she's on a kill list, her first reaction was, "Who else is on it? Any other celebrities?") "I believe inappropriate humour is essential," Griffin says.

"I'm going to do a name-drop that's obnoxious, get ready: When I was at Buckingham Palace with Joan Rivers - hold for applause - she introduced me to Chuck." Prince Charles.

"Joan called him Chuck," Griffin rattles on. "She was supertight with him and Camilla. She introduced me as an 'outrageous, outspoken American comedian.' He pulled me in and said, 'If it weren't for journalists and comedians, who would keep us honest?' " Beat. "You're not going to get that answer from Ellen DeGeneres."

Most comedians start with stand-up and segue to acting.

Griffin did it backward. Growing up in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, the youngest of five children of left-leaning parents, she devoured comedy albums and variety-show appearances by George Carlin, Freddie Prinze and Rivers, who became her mentor - "comedians who shone a light on uncomfortable things," she says.

Her dream was to be a sidekick on a sitcom, à la Phyllis or Rhoda on The Mary Tyler Moore Show.

"My philosophy was, let the pretty girl carry the show," she says.

"I'll come in, get the laughs and go home."

She moved to Los Angeles in 1978, studied at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and joined the comedy troupe the Groundlings. Her personal experiences quickly became her stock in trade; she'd get on stage and tell stories about whatever guy she'd slept with the night before. Over the years, she began weaving in current events. She's now done 23 televised stand-up specials, "more than any comedian living or dead, male or female - I'm in the Guinness Book of World Records - every word of which I wrote myself," she says proudly.

"Two years ago, I did an 80-city American tour. So don't talk to me about the real America, by the way. When you're a comic, it gives you a close-up view of what's on people's minds."

Her 80-U.S.-date days are behind her, for now. "I'm not crazy," she says. "I know I can't go back to those Bible-belt cities where, God love these people, but they think Hillary Clinton ran a child sex ring out of a pizza parlour." So she told her speaking agent, "Send me to countries where they hate Trump." Almost immediately, she booked shows in 23 cities in 15 countries. She claims she was detained in every airport, and got a standing ovation at every gig. She started out doing two hours; by the time she played Reykjavik, she'd added so much material that the set had ballooned to three. For extra laughs, she throws in a few stories about her next-door neighbours in Bel Air: the KardashianWests.

"I've known this idiot Trump for 20 years, off and on," Griffin says. "Have you been to New York? He stands at the airport waiting to wave to people. I've been on so many bizarre daises with him." He twice hired her to roast him, and whenever he sees her, "he, like every bully, puts two fingers together in the sign of a cross, like 'Uh-oh, clear the room, fellas,' " she says. But she's never told these stories before, "because nobody cared about him before. Now audiences are hungry for them." In New York, she sold out Carnegie Hall, and will play Radio City Music Hall the night before.

Despite her bulwarks of defiant words, Griffin obviously was shaken by this experience.

"Of course I was frightened, I still am," she says. "Am I bitter that Tyler Shields - a man - didn't suffer the way I did? A little. Do I wish he'd be a gentleman and give me the photo's copyright?

Yes." She wonders whether things would be different if she'd posted the video after the Harvey Weinstein scandal broke. But she wouldn't bank on it.

"Don't talk to me about #TimesUp," Griffin says. "I've got news for you, Time's Not Up Yet.

The sexism and misogyny I've experienced in stand-up comedy is immeasurable. On top of that, I'm doing these gigs for 20 per cent of what I was paid two years ago."

But Griffin did what she did because she is who she is. So this is what she's doing about it. "I love my job," she says. "That's why I'm fighting and biting my way back."

Associated Graphic

Kathy Griffin attends the 2018 White House correspondents' dinner on April 28 in Washington. Griffin says she was detained in every airport on her Laugh Your Head Off world tour.

RON SACHS/CNP/ABACAPRESS.COM


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SOOK-YIN LEE and CANADA'S NEW QUEER CINEMA
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No stranger to pushing boundaries on film, the multihyphenate's stirring new psycho-sexual ghost story, Octavio is Dead!, delves into delicious ambiguities and refuses to surrender to stereotypes of gender identity
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By CHANDLER LEVACK
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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page A16

Filmmaker, broadcaster, musician, artist and activist Sook-Yin Lee could easily be dubbed Canada's Queen of All Media - although more than a decade ago, she almost lost her job for pursuing her artistic ambitions.

Twelve years ago, Lee was the source of a national controversy after she played a key role in Shortbus, the 2006 erotic dramedy directed by John Cameron Mitchell. The film, from the provocative mind behind Hedwig and the Angry Inch, featured explicit sex scenes, including one instance of unsimulated masturbation performed by Lee - at the time, host of CBC's national radio program, Definitely Not the Opera. Once the CBC learned of the material, it threatened to fire Lee.

"It became about how much control your boss can have over your life, which was a very important conversation to have at the CBC at that time," Lee recalls over drinks at restaurant Grey Gardens, in Toronto's Kensington Market neighbourhood.

The incident sparked a public outcry as letters of support flooded in from the likes of Yoko Ono, Francis Ford Coppola and David Cronenberg. Shortbus ended up receiving a standing ovation at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, and Lee continued on with the CBC, where she currently hosts the podcast Sleepover, now as a freelancer for the corporation.

"It was a puritanical response," Lee recalls.

Nearly a decade after her quirky 2009 romantic comedy, Year of the Carnivore, the multihyphenate is preparing to premiere her second feature film, Octavio Is Dead!, at the city's Inside Out film festival, and is in the mood to reminisce.

"What was good was that I pushed through and they were forced to see they were wrong, that 'People are behind this, they're not homophobic and it's okay. ... Sex is okay.' " Octavio is Dead!, which premieres June 2 and will receive a theatrical release in Toronto starting June 22, is a stirring psycho-sexual ghost story, exploring themes of gender and sexual identity. There's an eyebrow-raising sex scene between an older man and his younger lover, and the film's lead actress, Sarah Gadon, spends half the movie in male drag.

The irony is not lost on the filmmaker that the film's financer is the CBC's new Breaking Barriers Fund, a production fund intended to help Canadian women and visible minorities make their movies.

Created in November, 2016, and also financially supported by Telefilm Canada, Lee's film was one of three initial projects greenlit by the program, which included Mina Shum's bittersweet mother-daughter comedy Meditation Park and Marie-Hélène Cousineau and Michelle Derosier's Indigenous survival story Angelique's Isle.

"There's always a tension between total constriction and fear, then openness as a result of past oppression," Lee says. "It's so cool that the CBC is supporting diverse voices and queer voices.

... That fund helped us close financing ... but as a person of colour and a woman, you can feel like a token. I hope they give it a good time slot!"

Octavio is Dead! represents a new direction for Lee - one borne of gender queering and delicious ambiguity. Daniel Grant's languid cinematography creates a visual language of evocation and lenses Hamilton as a dark and gothic city of ghosts.

Gadon plays Tyler, a withdrawn, listless twentysomething who lives with her volatile mother (an unhinged Rosanna Arquette). When they discover the news that her estranged father, Octavio (Raoul Max Trujillo), has died and left Tyler his apartment, she decides to pay her late father a visit.

Upon returning to his abandoned study, she encounters his ghost, which leads her on a journey of self-exploration, dressing up in his clothes to present as a boy. Tyler soon forms a deep attraction to the hunky gay student Apostolis (Dimitris Kitsos).

The only catch is that he believes she is a man.

While Twelfth Night and The Tempest have shown how crossdressing can lead to deeper revelations of who we are, Gadon's soulful performance centres a film that can raise more questions than it answers. It's unclear whether Apostolis actually believes Tyler is a man, or is just seeing what he wants to believe.

Like Shortbus, the lines between sex, gender, love, desire and attraction are there to be redefined.

For Gadon, 31, who has been typecast at times for her Hitchcockian blonde persona, the opportunity to do something radically outside her comfort zone was thrilling.

"After I read it, I thought, 'This is bonkers, nobody's has ever thought of me in this way,' " says Gadon, who also serves as executive producer. "Sook-Yin does not feel confined by any cinematic rules. At her core, I see her as a fantastic storyteller, and I wanted her to have the opportunity to make another film."

To prepare, Lee and Gadon had a "cross-dressing party" at Gadon's apartment where Gadon tried her on her boyfriend's clothes to get into character. The classic olive-green 1960s men's suit she wears in the film was originally bought by Lee at a vintage suit refurbishing shop on Church Street and is Sook-Yin's own.

For Gadon, the face of Armani cosmetics, the film was a chance to tap into the more masculine aspects of her identity.

"I have definitely played into the more feminine side of the industry," she says, "But Sook-Yin would say to me, 'You have a really masculine energy, you're very direct, your house isn't girly.' We would talk a lot about the different energies that co-exist inside of you."

Lee adds: "She was extremely scared, which was another cue that this was great. The fear factor wasn't something she could easily control, or explain her way out of."

Tyler's fraught relationship with her gender is inspired by Lee's own fluidity.

"Although I am fluid, bisexual and unadhering to gender roles, there's also something in sexuality and even the incarnation of typical femininity that still gives me the heebie-jeebies," she says.

"I feel neither male nor female, but really go between these things."

However this novel depiction of gender identity has proven to be an obstacle for some film festivals.

"I've had programmers say, 'Loved the movie, but she didn't look "guy enough" for me!' "Lee says.

"In this day and age, you can't stop yourself from projecting what you think a guy's supposed to look like and not respect that this individual is coming up with their own incarnation? What was I supposed to do, put hair on her chest?" "Sarah is blessed with a face that creates a lot of easy projection. So much of her brilliant performance in Alias Grace dealt with this; she's now being afforded more and more of these kinds of roles. The reason I stopped acting was that too often I was being offered roles where I was supposed to be the Chinese science student who lives at home with her grandfather who makes firecrackers, or the Vietnamese sidekick to a small person," Lee adds. "There is a tendency to put people in boxes. As an actor and as a filmmaker, I want people to bust out."

After a difficult journey determining where the film should land, Lee is excited to introduce the world to Octavio at Inside Out. The festival, which is in its 28th year, is now seeing a dramatically different landscape for queer cinema, one that's broadened into diverse and intersectional programming.

For Andrew Murphy, director of programming at Inside Out, Octavio is Dead! represents a new continuum in Canada's queer cinematic history. Beginning with David Secter's Winter Kept Us Warm in 1965, and perhaps typified into stereotype with Thom Fitzgerald's The Hanging Garden (1997), it includes filmmakers such as Patricia Rozema, Bruce LaBruce and Xavier Dolan.

Rarely do trans or non-binary filmmakers become empowered to make their own films.

"When you think of what makes it to the cinema, there's so much we're not seeing," Murphy says.

"I think it's great that Telefilm is now working toward gender parity, but people who identify as non-binary and trans also need to be part of that conversation. Sook-Yin has created a film that's dark and mysterious and also taps into a conversation that's unlike anything we've seen in the last couple of years."

"It [used to be] very easy to be complacent and just show films with white dudes in locker rooms. Things aren't as clear cut as they were even 10 years ago ... and we've noticed that between the LGBT, there's a lot more 'Q.' " Octavio Is Dead! premieres June 2 at the Inside Out film festival in Toronto (insideout.ca) before opening in Toronto on June 22, and Aug. 6 on video-on-demand.

Associated Graphic

Sook-Yin Lee has served as host of the CBC radio program Definitely Not the Opera, starred in John Cameron Mitchell's 2006 erotic dramedy, Shortbus - which put her at the centre of a national controversy - and has directed two films: 2009's Year of the Carnivore and this year's Octavio Is Dead!

YUULA BENIVOLSKI


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Amid vocal Indigenous opposition, a chief speaks out in favour of Trans Mountain expansion
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Ernie Crey says impression of total opposition to pipeline from First Nations is inaccurate
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By WENDY STUECK
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page A16

When the Chiefs of Ontario, which represents 133 First Nations in the province, joined a cross-Canada network that has vowed to stop Kinder Morgan's Trans Mountain pipeline project earlier this month, Ernie Crey gave the online version of an eye-roll.

"Ontario First Nations are opposed to the Kinder Morgan expansion?" the Cheam First Nation chief said on Twitter from 3,000 kilometres away, in Chilliwack, B.C.

"A noble stance, but let's not forget they don't actually have any skin in the game. It's the First Nations directly on the pipeline route who have much to lose if the new pipeline is not built," he added.

Mr. Crey has emerged as a spokesman for First Nations that support the Trans Mountain proposal, a group not nearly as prominent as the Indigenous protesters and leaders who have travelled between Ottawa and Kinder Morgan's home in Texas to make their opposition known.

Mr. Crey has gained prominence in the past as a First Nations leader with lived experience with many of the issues facing Canada's Indigenous community: The DNA of his sister, Dawn Crey, was found on the farm of serial killer Robert Pickton. Mr. Crey himself was part of the Sixties Scoop.

Kinder Morgan has signed Mutual Benefit Agreements with 43 Indigenous groups along the pipeline route, including 33 in British Columbia. As part of those deals, First Nations agree not to disclose the terms, which can include financial payments for band members as well as training and employment commitments.

So there's a built-in incentive to stay quiet. Pipeline opponents maintain the majority of First Nations affected have not signed such agreements. Kinder Morgan says it engaged with more than 133 Indigenous groups along the route. There's also debate over whether signing agreements reflects support or simply pragmatism - that is, if the pipeline goes ahead despite opposition, First Nations want to be in a position to benefit.

Kinder Morgan says the agreements will amount to more than $400-million in benefits for communities that have signed on.

Meanwhile, Indigenous groups that oppose the project have been speaking out, loudly.

Earlier this month, two Indigenous leaders - Chief Judy Wilson of the Neskonlith Indian Band and Rueben George, representing the Tsleil-Waututh Nation Sacred Trust Initiative - headed to Houston to highlight Indigenous opposition to the $7.4-billion project at Kinder Morgan's annual general meeting.

Tsleil-Waututh and Neskonlith are among several First Nations that have filed legal challenges against the project.

Mr. Crey says he respects the positions taken by other First Nations, particularly those pursuing the matter in court.

But after Kinder Morgan set a May 31 deadline for making a decision on the project, turning up the temperature on an already heated debate, he says he felt an obligation to speak up.

"I started to get concerned about the impression that in B.C. - in particular, along the proposed Kinder Morgan TMX expansion project - that it was wallto-wall opposition from Indigenous communities," he says.

"And I knew that wasn't so."

Now 68, Mr. Crey has been speaking out for decades on Indigenous issues, including missing and murdered Indigenous women, child welfare and Indigenous fishing rights. He knows the value of a pithy quote: In 2016, speaking in support of a Sto:lo chief who had been charged under federal fishing regulations for catching a fish during a closed season (the catch was for ceremonial purposes), Mr. Crey likened the charge to someone being charged for taking communion, asking, "How would people feel if they were charged for accepting the holy sacrament?" In 2011, during a provincial inquiry looking into Vancouver's missing women, which catalogued a string of police failures, he was asked how he felt about B.C.'s justice system.

"I feel it failed my sister and failed my family and failed the other families," he said at the time. "I can't begin to tell you how angry I am about that, the frustration and anger my family carries."

He has been a social worker, a federal fisheries employee and First Nations fisheries adviser. He served a term as band councillor before being elected chief in 2015.

He was part of the Sixties Scoop, when scores of Indigenous children were removed from their families and placed in adoptive or foster homes. Mr. Crey was removed from the family home on the Cheam First Nation as a teen. His father died young, of a heart attack, and his mother struggled with an alcohol addiction. Authorities apprehended her children.

As a boy, Mr. Crey had been hanging out with a crowd of youths who would steal candy and get into other mischief. He ended up spending a few months in the Brannan Lake Industrial School on Vancouver Island, sent there under the provisions of B.C.'s former Juvenile Delinquents Act.

He was brought back to the mainland by the same RCMP officer who delivered him to Brannan Lake. Mr. Crey thought he was going home, but when they got close to Chilliwack, the officer broke the news that he was instead taking Mr. Crey to a foster home.

Decades later, Mr. Crey would co-author a book called Stolen from Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities.

He has five grown children and several grandchildren, with whom he plans to spend more time after he retires - possibly after this term as chief.

Recently, he has used social media to comment on Trans Mountain, maintaining that opinion on the project in the Indigenous community - as in the broader Canadian community - is divided and that environmental groups are using First Nations as cover.

"My advice to First Nations is be watchful of environmental groups who want to 'red wash' their agendas under an Indigenous flag," Mr. Crey said in an April 13 Twitter post.

"Trust me, their goals & aspirations are far different than ours.

Check out where they've trashed Indigenous economies to meet their ends."

Ellis Ross, a former Haisla Nation councillor and current Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly for B.C.'s Skeena riding, says he was relieved to see Mr. Crey speak out.

"Community leaders, especially the elected leaders, are the ones who have to deal with the suicides, poverty, poor housing," says Mr. Ross, who has been an outspoken proponent for liquefied natural gas development in B.C.'s north.

"They are accountable to the people who elected them ... but provincial and national [Indigenous] leaders have no accountability to aboriginal members," he adds.

The $7.4-billion project, which would nearly triple the capacity of an existing, 65-year-old pipeline that ships Alberta oil to the B.C. coast, has generated debate since it was announced in 2012.

Kinder Morgan's May 31 deadline upped the stakes for the federal Liberal government - which, under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, insists the project will be built - and carved a deeper rift between Alberta Premier Rachel Notley, who backs the pipeline, and B.C. Premier John Horgan, who opposes it. The company's deadline also brought renewed attention to First Nations along the proposed pipeline route.

Tsleil-Waututh Nation Chief Maureen Thomas declined an interview request to speak about apparent divisions in the Indigenous community over the project, with a Tsleil-Waututh spokesman saying she was focused on court proceedings, including allegations this month that Ottawa made a show of going through consultations when it had already decided to approve the project.

The Lower Nicola Indian Band, near Merritt, B.C., has a conditional agreement with Kinder Morgan after a 2017 referendum in which a majority of members voted in favour of the deal.

But turnout for that referendum was low, with only 19 per cent of eligible members casting a ballot, one of the reasons chief and council have not yet finalized the agreement.

"If you look at First Nations or Indigenous peoples between Vancouver Island and Alberta, it reflects many different communities, many different nations and a diverse set of concerns and opinions on the project. And I believe it's really important that Indigenous leaders, like Ernie and others, regardless of what their opinion is, make sure they're vocal," Lower Nicola Indian Band Chief Aaron Sumexheltza says.

With Mr. Crey, Mr. Sumexheltza helped come up with a concept that resulted in the Indigenous Advisory and Monitoring Committee - a joint federal-First Nations group that would monitor the pipeline if it is built.

"Over the last month or so, we've heard from Premier Notley, we've also heard from Premier Horgan, we've also heard - of course - the Prime Minister," Mr.

Sumexheltza says.

"In many instances, the Indigenous voice hasn't been heard enough. I believe for the benefit of the whole country that everyone's voices be heard," he adds.

Associated Graphic

Chief Ernie Crey of the Cheam First Nation, which has a Mutual Benefit Agreement with Kinder Morgan, stands on the current route of the Trans Mountain pipeline that runs through Bridal Veil Falls Provincial Park near the Trans-Canada Highway just east of Rosedale, B.C., earlier this month.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, May 16, 2018 – Page B21

VINCENZO BRUNO (Enzo)

Peacefully, at Humber River Hospital on Sunday, May 13, 2018, in his 86th year.

Beloved husband of Nancy (Kress) and loving brother of Luciana and the late Angelo. If desired, donations in memory of Enzo may be made to The Sunnybrook Hospital Foundation.

ROBERT BRYDEN OGDEN

Bob was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba on June 10, 1924 and passed away at Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket, Ontario on Sunday, May 13, 2018.

Beloved husband of Greta (nee Tienkamp) of King.

Loving father of Robert of King and Andrea Collette (Paul) of Orton. Cherished grandpa to Alexa, Matthew and William. Predeceased by his brother, John.

A Memorial Gathering will be held at Thompson Funeral Home, 530 Industrial Parkway South, Aurora (905-727-5421) on Sunday, May 27, 2018 from 2-4 p.m. Donations to Southlake Regional Health Centre Foundation would be appreciated by the family.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.thompsonfhaurora.com

BARRY OVEREND

Suddenly passed away at his home on April 24, 2018 at the age of 75.

Loving father of Lori Overend (Paul Schultz) and Barry Edmondson.

Dear brother of Susan Overend and John Overend (Norma). Barry was a retired Victaulic Mining Market Sales Manager as well as an avid fisherman and golfer. He will be sadly missed by all those whose lives he touched.

A Memorial Gathering will be held at Northcutt Elliott Funeral Home, 53 Division Street North, Bowmanville, on Saturday, May 19th from 2 - 4 p.m. If desired, memorial donations may be made to The Heart & Stroke Foundation.

Online condolences may be made at: http://www.northcuttelliott.com.

LEO DONLEVY JR.

It is with great sorrow that we announce the passing of Leo Donlevy Jr. on May 12, 2018, at the age of 59 years. Leo passed away peacefully at home, surrounded by his loving family, as was his wish. He is survived by his loving and devoted wife, Therese, and their four children, Richard, Anne (Rory), Colin and Kevin (Daniela). Leo will also be sadly missed by his sisters, nieces, nephews, extended family and plethora of friends, colleagues and students; he was preceded in death by his parents, Leo Sr. and Evelyn Donlevy; his sister, Cathy; brother, Patrick; and brother-in-law, Wilf.

Born on September 11, 1958 in Calgary Alberta, Leo was the youngest of eight children, six girls and two boys; he was a long awaited gift to his Roman Catholic parents. The church was a large part of Leo's early life; an altar and choir boy until he lost his boyish soprano, Leo spent much time in the church with his devout family. Groomed at an early age to take over the family business, Leo worked with his father at Marshall and Donlevy Ltd., a printing company, until Leo Sr. retired in 1981. Leo Jr. took over the company until he sold it in 1991.

In 1979, on May 12, Leo married the love of his life, Therese (nee Godbout), and proceeded to spend the next 39 years together, embodying the fundamentals of their vows through sickness and health, demonstrating the true meaning and strength of marriage as partners and parents.

In 1993, Leo passed his soccer referee certification and spent the rest of his life in the referee community as an assessor, provincial level instructor and mentor. Leo's impact upon the community as an advocate for education and development in its strive for excellence was far reaching.

Leo pursued his MBA at the University of Calgary, putting his experience in business to good use, graduating in 1995, with a job offer to teach at the University in their Entrepreneurship and Innovation department. For the next 21 years, Leo devoted himself to the University of Calgary and his students, excelling as a Tenured Senior Instructor and heralding in an increased respect for the department and its case teams. Leo spearheaded an unprecedented rise in respect for the case teams in the "Olympics" of the MBA world, the prestigious John Molson MBA International Case Competition, for 17 years with an unmatched record of success.

In 2016, Leo and his wife, Therese, took a leave of absence from the University of Calgary and moved from Calgary, Alberta, to Ottawa, Ontario, to pursue a business opportunity; he became the President of VairTEX Canada Inc. and was completely dedicated to the mission of taking VairTEX from a small, local Ottawa firm, to a company with International ties.

Over his lifetime, Leo was a volunteer with many associations, including, but not limited to, the Aerospace Museum Association of Calgary, the Alberta Referee Development Committee, the Alberta Soccer Association, the Catholic Bible College of Canada, the Calgary and District Soccer Referees Association, the Calgary Graphics Arts Association, the Calgary Winter Club, the Caloha board of Directors, the Canadian Business Forms Association, the Canadian Printing Industries Association, the Developmental Disabilities Resource Centre, the Earl Grey Golf Club, the Glencoe Club, the InterFaith Thrift Stores Association, the Knights of Columbus, the MBA Alumni Association of the University of Calgary, the National Graphic Arts Association, The Pastoral Reporter (The Official Print Communication of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Calgary), the Printing and Graphics Industries Association of Alberta, the Printing Industries of America and the SAIT Graphic Arts Administration Program.

Leo will be remembered as a man of integrity, honesty and wit; a man who loved his family, honored his wife above all else, had a keen mind and was self-effacing to the point he could never see the lasting impacts he made. He was a man who couldn't let pass the opportunity of a good pun, no matter how pun-ishing, appreciated debate with a passion and loved unconditionally.

The family would like to thank the staff at the Ottawa Civic Hospital Emergency, Urgent Care and Acute Monitoring Area for their compassionate care.

Relatives and friends are invited to viewing and visitation at Hope Cemetery Chapel (4660 Bank St., Ottawa, ON, K1T 3W7 Cemetery) on Thursday, May 17, 2018 from 4 p.m. until 7 p.m. Funeral Mass will be held at St. Leonard's Roman Catholic Church (5332 Long Island Road, Manotick, Ontario K4M 1E8) on Friday, May 18, 2018 at 11 a.m. with Rev. Titus Egbueh presiding. Leo will be cremated following the service. A celebration of life will be held in Leo's place of birth, Calgary, Alberta, (date and location to be announced) after which Leo will be buried with his parents, older brother and brother in-law, Wilf Backhaus, at St. Mary's cemetery.

In Leo's memory, and in lieu of flowers, the family would appreciate donations be made in his memory towards one of the following: the Leo Donlevy Memorial MBA Case Team Fund; donations can be made at https://netcommunity.ucalgary.ca/LeoDonlevyMemorialFund or can be sent to c/o Development Department, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB or the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society; donations can be made at http://www.toomuchiron.ca/donate/legacy/ or they can be reached Toll-Free at 1-877-BAD-IRON (1-877-223-4766).

MARY BARBARA SPENCER (nee O'Connor)

Passed away peacefully on Monday, May 14, 2018, at Barnswallow Place in Elmira, Ontario in her 95th year.

Predeceased by her husband, Frank Spencer; and her siblings, Alice Frawley and Morgan O'Connor.

Beloved mother of Mark and Cordell and grandmother to Ruth, Vance, Katie, and Patrick Spencer.

Dear Aunt to many, including Mary Helen Frawley, Paddy Newton, Cathy Braden, Riley O'Connor, Megan O'Connor, Matt Spencer, Joan Turner, and close to many other cousins, nieces, nephews and their children.

Mary will be fondly remembered by many. She was lively and active, and enjoyed a wide variety of experiences in her life. Born in Dundalk, Ontario in 1923, Mary spent many years in Toronto, and over 20 years in Montreal, before retiring to Elmira with her husband, Frank, in the 1980s.

Mary held many and varied jobs - a teacher, an accountant for a steakhouse, a railroad comptroller, a gift store owner, and an executive assistant. She managed her own investments until the age of 90, was very active socially, and volunteered in the church and the communities where she lived. She particularly enjoyed spending time with relatives, playing bridge, reading, and international travel.

The family would like to extend their sincere gratitude to the staff at Barnswallow Place and Chartwell Elmira for the compassionate care they provided for the last few years of her life, and to the many relatives and friends who visited her.

Visiting will take place on Friday, May 18, 2018 from 3-6 p.m. at the Dreisinger Funeral Home, 62 Arthur St. S., Elmira. Funeral Mass will be celebrated on Saturday, May 19, 2018 at 2 p.m., at St. Teresa RC Church, 19 Flamingo Dr., Elmira, with interment in St. Teresa's RC Cemetery, RR 1, Elmira. Reception to follow at the Elmira Golf Club, 40 Eldale Rd., Elmira. In Mary's memory, donations to Community Care Concepts (Meals on Wheels) would be appreciated as expressions of sympathy.

http://www.dreisingerfuneralhome.com


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Make time for New Zealand wines
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Every vino drinker should know about the consistent quality coming out of the island country - even if it keeps being left off maps
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By BEPPI CROSARIOL
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page P7

Spellbinding sauvignon blanc secured New Zealand's place on the world wine map back in the 1980s. But how's this for irony: The island nation has since gone missing. Nobody can seem to find it, cartographically speaking. Cast your eyes to the south and east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and all you see is crystalblue Pacific Ocean.

I'm only half-joking. New Zealand's omission from no shortage of less-thanauthoritative world maps has become a source of amusement and frustration to many in the country - the equivalent of a map of Canada without Newfoundland or Prince Edward Island. It's also the theme of a hilarious short video featuring New Zealand's awesome Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern. (Yes, I'll be serving up a wine angle shortly, so bear with me through the political content.)

Produced for Tourism New Zealand, the video went viral earlier this month and stars Kiwi comedian-writer Rhys Darby, best known for playing the band manager in the Flight of the Conchords TV series. In the role of a dim-witted investigator, Darby phones an amused Ardern, who plays herself, promising her he'll get to the bottom of the mapmaking conspiracy.

"We're quite a fiddly-looking-shaped country," he tells her on the phone, "a bit like a half-eaten lamb chop. Perhaps people are just leaving us off thinking we're a mistake." Well, that's his runner-up theory, offered at the end. His main suspicion actually comes with some digging.

Darby pores over the evidence, including maps from Starbucks, IKEA, a Spanish in-flight magazine and an English Rugby World Cup promo, among others. Embarrassingly for Canada, Vancouver makes a cameo as Darby tacks up a real photo on his bulletin board of the giant (and clearly New Zealand-free) metal globe outside the city's International Village mall.

Finally, Darby turns his suspicions to his country's constant rival, Australia. A quick internet search reveals that Australian tourist numbers have been on the rise, presumably thanks to New Zealand's airbrushed disappearance. And, yes, another important sector is under threat. "Our wine!" Darby says to himself while gazing at an abbreviated world wine map. "Sacre Bleu! Sneaky Frenchies."

He phones in his brainstorm to Ardern, whom he amusingly refers to as "Your Highness." Australia wants New Zealand's tourists, he declares. England clearly wants to get rid of the mighty All Blacks rugby team once and for all. "And the wine industry - they can't beat our pinot or sav!"

The tourism campaign has its own Twitter hashtag: #getnzonthemap, which captures the self-effacing humour so pervasive in that gorgeous, tiny country of 4.7 million. I'm not sure about every point in Darby's conspiracy theory, but I am certain the French, and most other wine-producing countries, ought to be nervous about the consistent quality of New Zealand wine. It may not yet compete with France or Italy in the high-stakes game of trophy wines or quirky, old-vine curiosities (its industry is mere decades old), but I'd say unequivocally that no country yields more consistent quality from producer to producer and vintage to vintage. Any world wine map that would leave out New Zealand gets a big fail in my geography course.

WINES TO TRY NAUTILUS CHARDONNAY 2016, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 94 PRICE: $27.95 Simply great. Medium-full-bodied and fleshy, with a crazy combination that brings together a generously creamy texture, flavours of toasted nuts, grilled pineapple and buttered popcorn and a nosetickling quality of flint and mineral. Fans of Burgundian chardonnay would undoubtedly call it Meursault-like in style, but there's more energy here than in most Meursaults you'd find at this price - and I suspect you couldn't find a Meursault at this price unless you live near a discount liquor warehouse in Boca Raton, Fla., and this were the year 1990. Available in Ontario.

GREYWACKE WILD SAUVIGNON 2014, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 93 Price $39.95 An awesome producer, Greywacke is the label of Kevin Judd. He was born in Britain and raised in Australia, but made his fame in New Zealand as a winemaker in the 1980s for Cloudy Bay, the country's first and still iconic trophy sauvignon blanc. This superpremium beauty exhibits impressive mid-palate density and silky texture, offering succulent and soft tropical fruit along with grapefruit, dried grass and flinty notes. The acidity is perfectly integrated.

Top class. Available in Ontario at the above price, various prices in Alberta.

MT. BEAUTIFUL PINOT NOIR 2015, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 93 PRICE: $37.95 The winery sits in the shadow of its namesake, a peak north of Christchurch in North Canterbury on New Zealand's South Island. It's also distinguished for the high intellectual standing of its founder, David Teece, a Kiwi who lives in California, where he is a professor in global business at the University of California, Berkeley. He's also the author of more than 30 books and was named by international professional-services company Accenture as one of the world's top-50 business intellectuals. More importantly, he makes superb wine, such as this concentrated, creamy and flawless pinot. Voluptuous for pinot noir, yet remarkably unsweet, it delivers ripe berry fruit infused with hints of coffee, baking spice and cedar. In Burgundy, you'd have to pay $150 for this sort of pleasure. Alas, quantities are extremely limited. Available in select Ontario Vintages stores.

GRASSHOPPER ROCK EARNSCLEUGH VINEYARD PINOT NOIR 2015, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 92 PRICE: $44.95 From Central Otago, New Zealand's pinot capital. Silky in the middle and filled with strawberry jam, balanced by crisp acidity and a proper bite of spice. Subtly earthy, too. Available in limited quantities in Ontario Vintages stores.

ELEPHANT HILL PINOT NOIR 2013, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 91 PRICE: $29.95 A Central Otago pinot noir with good concentration and, yay, five years behind it. It's correctly evolved and showing nicely, with plum edging into prune terrain, a hint of leather and invigorating earthiness. Time in a bottle. Available in Ontario.

TRINITY HILL THE TRINITY RED BLEND 2014, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 91 PRICE: $22.95 Excellent producer, known especially for sumptuous and structured syrahs. There's a splash of syrah here, too, but it's mostly merlot, with the Spanish variety tempranillo and malbec providing added support.

An unusual combo, but it's compelling.

Full-bodied, with a powdery tannic backbone, it's firm yet generously fruited, with plum and blackberry and hints of coffee, dark chocolate, licorice and pepper. Decant it now or stash it away for up to eight years. Grilled red meats or beef short ribs would be grand. Available in Ontario.

MOMO ORGANIC PINOT GRIS 2017, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 90 PRICE: $19.95 A shining pinot gris for the money (I wish Oregon could often do as well at this price with this signature Pacific Northwest white grape). Medium-bodied, fleshy and ripe with tropical fruit and pear backed by whispers of ginger, white pepper and minerality. Very good length and integrated acidity. Good for grilled salmon. Available in Ontario.

SPY VALLEY SAUVIGNON BLANC 2016, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 90 PRICE: $21.95 A spring/summer wine, to be sure. Vibrant, green and grassier than Canada will be after cannabis legalization. There's juicy tropical fruit and grapefruit in the middle, joined by snap peas as well. Classic Marlborough sauvignon blanc, fine for asparagus topped with crumbled goat cheese and chives - that sort of thing. Available in Ontario at the above price, various prices in Alberta, $18.02 in Manitoba, $20.29 in New Brunswick, $22 in Prince Edward Island.

VILLA MARIA PRIVATE BIN HAWKES BAY ROSÉ 2017, NEW ZEALAND SCORE: 88 PRICE: $17.95 Light candy-pink in colour, silky and with subtle sweetness that finishes dry. Strawberry chewing gum and watermelon. It won't be confused with a delicate Provençal rosé, but it would be nice served over ice in the sunshine. Available in Ontario at the above price, $20.99 in New Brunswick (it was on sale for $12.99 at press time), $20 in Nova Scotia, $19.58 in Newfoundland (on sale for $16.32).

Associated Graphic

A still from a New Zealand Tourism video starring comedian Rhys Darby, who investigates the conspiracy to leave New Zealand off many world maps. Darby concludes that one of the conspirators is the global wine industry because "they can't beat our pinot or sav!"


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In secular Uruguay, a populist cardinal rallies the faithful and kicks off a feud
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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page A12

MONTEVIDEO -- When Daniel Sturla, a smiley and charismatic Salesian Catholic priest, was named archbishop of Montevideo in 2014, he took over the post from a man whose profile was as low and reserved as that of the church itself, in this most secular of Latin American countries.

The new archbishop - who a year later was named a cardinal by Pope Francis, with whom he had once worked - was having none of it. Cardinal Sturla launched a multipronged and energetic campaign to get Uruguay's Roman Catholics to swallow their embarrassment and take pride in their faith. He has held public masses, launched a campaign to paper city balconies with images of the Virgin Mary and found other ways for his faithful to demonstrate publicly their religious devotion.

But recently, it has become clear that Cardinal Sturla has another goal: to turn Uruguayan Catholics into a political force of the kind they are in other neighbouring countries where far more people identify themselves as religious. This effort has brought the cardinal into conflict with the country's strong women's movement, which he has criticized for advancing what he calls "gender ideology," and reignited a conversation about what kind of a say, if any, the church should have on social and political issues.

Uruguay has had a determinedly secular political system for more than 100 years. Gerardo Caetano, a prominent Uruguayan historian, said the church was never a foundational power here as it was elsewhere in Latin America because colonialism came relatively late. The leaders of the independence era admired radical French-style democracy.

They stripped crucifixes from hospitals and gave all the holidays secular names. (Christmas is officially Family Day, while what's known in other countries as Holy Week, at Easter, is called Tourism Week here. Cardinal Sturla finds the practice so abhorrent that he wrote a book about it.)

Today, Uruguay is a bastion of progressive politics in the region: Divorce, at the request of a wife, was made legal in 1912, decades before neighbouring countries.

Abortion was legalized here in 2012; equal marriage for gay people a year later.

Between 1995 and 2013, the percentage of Uruguayans who said they were Catholic dropped from 61 per cent to 41 per cent, according to Ignacio Zuasnabar, director of Equipos Consultores, a polling company. "Catholics are a big group in our country but with a sense of shame because we are a secular country and religion is not a positive value," he said.

Mr. Zuasnabar recently presented a range of data to the cardinal on how many people say they are Catholic and how many more are willing to say they believe in God or have Christian values. Evangelical churches are drawing new adherents here, but not at the speed they are in nextdoor Brazil, where they dominate politics.

"Sturla wants the church to break with the traditional model where religion was private and related to issues of faith," Prof.

Caetano said. "He wants a much bigger role in public life."

The cardinal has had some successes: He drew a giant crowd to an outdoor mass in January, a sight that startled many here. On the Feast of the Immaculate Conception last December, images of the Virgin Mary fluttered from balconies across the capital and other cities. "We originally ordered 5,000 balconeras [cloth posters], but we sold out with 30,000," the cardinal reported happily in a recent interview in his office adjacent to the Montevideo cathedral.

He has not, so far, managed to convince city council that the church should erect a large statue of the Virgin on Montevideo's seaside walkway, which is dotted with other pieces of statuary, including ones that depict Confucius and a Candomble goddess.

Cardinal Sturla says he is fulfilling a mandate given by Jesus, to share the "good news" and bring people to the church - attendance at mass had fallen precipitously when he was made archbishop, he said. His campaign involves everything from keeping church doors open to putting musical groups in parishes to draw Catholics back.

Cardinal Sturla believes that the increasingly liberal laws passed by recent governments clash with church values. And, in particular, he is determined to speak out about the menace of what he calls "gender ideology."

"Gender has become an ideology, including in education - teaching children in a way that separates the biology of sexuality from gender and talks about a number of genders - up to 31!" he said. That's a dangerous and baseless idea, he went on: "Each one of us is born with a biological sex ... that comes as God created it."

In invoking "gender ideology," Cardinal Sturla has aligned himself with a conservative movement across Latin America that accuses feminists and LGBTQrights activists of advancing an anti-family agenda.

"Gender ideology" is a catchall term critical of the belief that gender is socially constructed rather than biologically innate, as well as other progressive arguments such as those for transgender rights. The church has organized mass demonstrations in Brazil, Paraguay, Ecuador, Colombia and Panama in recent years that have blocked changes to school curriculums and shifted election outcomes.

But when Cardinal Sturla inveighed against gender ideology from the pulpit, he angered Uruguay's women's movement. "He blames us for things we never said - he says that we say there is a range of sexual identities - that's not us, that's Kinsey, in the founding studies of sexuality," from the 1950s, says Teresa Herrera, a prominent feminist thinker who chairs a national network of women's organizations. (The Kinsey Reports plotted sexual orientation on a scale of one to six - Ms. Herrera says it's anyone's guess where the cardinal came up with 31.) "We say the construction of gender is social and sexual orientation is another thing."

But what frustrates her much more is that the cardinal is focused on the supposed threat represented by transgender rights or sexual education, but does not speak out about sexual abuse of children within the church, or domestic violence.

There were 30 cases of Uruguayan women murdered by their partners in 2017, she said - in a country of 3.4 million people - but the cardinal has yet to say a word about them.

"He says feminists are destroying the Uruguayan family - but we have men who think they have the right to kill their wives and children - surely that is also destroying the Uruguayan family, no?" she said. In rural areas in particular, she said, men are still viewed as the head of the family and the owner of the bodies of their wives and daughters; 75 per cent of domestic-violence cases go unreported, something the church could easily take on in a public campaign, she said.

Relations deteriorated to the point that in February, Ms. Herrera led a delegation of representatives from more than 30 women's groups to see the cardinal - a summit that attracted a lot of media attention here.

But Prof. Caetano said the secular nature of the state is so entrenched here that while the cardinal might be allying himself with a continentwide movement, his successes would be more emotional than political. "There won't be an explosion of Catholicism here," the professor said.

Associated Graphic

Top: Cardinal Daniel Sturla, middle, speaks during a meeting with Teresa Herrera, right, the chair of a national network of women's organizations. With them are Blanca Armand Pilon, left, Clyde Lacasa, second left, and Laura Alvarez, second right.

MATILDE CAMPODONICO/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Cardinal Sturla's rhetoric against 'gender ideology' has angered Uruguay's women's movement. Relations deteriorated to the point that in February, a delegation of representatives from more than 30 women's groups met with the cardinal.

MATILDE CAMPODONICO/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Activists display the Pride flag and a banner that reads 'No More Homophobia' over the stairs of the Legislative Palace in Montevideo in 2007. Cardinal Sturla has aligned himself with a conservative movement across Latin America that accuses feminists and LGBTQ-rights activists of advancing an anti-family agenda.

PABLO PORCIUNCULA/ AFP/GETTY IMAGES

People celebrate in the Uruguayan General Assembly building after legislators pass a bill legalizing same-sex marriage on April 10, 2013.

ANDRES STAPFF/ REUTERS

Activists pose before the start of the March of Diversity at Independence Square on Sept. 30, 2016, in Montevideo. Today, Uruguay is a bastion of progressive politics in the region.

MIGUEL ROJO/AFP/ GETTY IMAGES


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, May 18, 2018 – Page B21

JAMES RAYMOND COWLING November 28, 1928 May 14, 2018

Ray passed away peacefully on Monday, surrounded by friends and family.

He was predeceased by his loving parents, Frank and Catherine Cowling, by his brother, Frank, and by his partner, Michael LaPatrillo. He is survived by his nephew, Brian Cowling; his niece, Lynn Cowling; his great-nephews, Jamie and Stephen Mogavero.

Ray came from humble beginnings. He cut his teeth at Menzies-Gibson Limited at 80 George Street in Toronto. Over the years, Ray's career blossomed. He became one of Canada's leading independent food brokers, importers and distributors. Ray finished his business career as the founder and president of the Cowling Group of Companies, conveniently located ten houses away from his principal residence.

Ray, through the James Raymond Cowling Foundation, established in 1994, was a great philanthropist who primarily helped children with intellectual disabilities. He contributed to many charities including Best Buddies, Casey House, and numerous hospitals.

Ray lived in Rosedale for over 50 years. In 2012 he donated the money to erect the "Gates of Rosedale" at the entrance to Crescent Road.

Ray was an athlete who loved football and squash. He was a world traveller who enjoyed spending his winters in Palm Beach. His dogs (including Nemo) and polar bears held a very special place in his heart.

Ray loved his friends. He entertained frequently. He was true and loyal and he kept in touch.

Ray will be remembered for his generosity, his natural charm and his infectious smile and laugh.

It was Ray's wish that there be no funeral. There will be a small gathering to see Ray off at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles- Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) from 11:15 a.m. to 12:00 noon on Tuesday, May 22nd. In lieu of flowers, please make a donation in Ray's memory to your favourite charity. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

BARBARA RUTH CRIBB September 27, 1929 May 12, 2018

Barbara Ruth Cribb passed away peacefully at dinner on Saturday, May 12 at Thompson House in Don Mills. With happy visits from her son, George on Friday afternoon; her husband, Keith Saturday morning; and daughter, Cynthia Saturday afternoon, this sudden passing was a blessing for all.

She had only been in this Better Living facility for five weeks enjoying great care and making new friends.

Barbara was born in Toronto, to parents, George and Jean (Treloar) Bateman. The youngest of the family, she is predeceased by her parents and sister, Betty. She graduated from Havergal College in 1947, became a Registered Nurse through Toronto General Hospital in 1952, and moved into private practice until her marriage to Keith in 1956.

Barb loved music, having learned to play piano as a young girl, and enjoyed attending musicals at the Drayton, Stratford and Shaw festivals. She enjoyed the beaches of Southampton where her family had a childhood cottage.

Throughout her life, she was an avid golfer, in Toronto and Sarasota, Florida, where she and Keith spent the winter.

Together, they enjoyed many memorable cruises and trips to Europe. Barb treasured time spent with life-long friends, school and nursing classmates. Most of all, she cherished special occasions with family and friends. She supported many charities including the Arthritis Society, Salvation Army, and Better Living.

Barbara was a loving wife, mother, aunt and friend, who brought us great joy. She will be forever in our hearts. A private service will be held at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, May 17th. A celebration of life for all will follow as soon as arrangements have been made. In lieu of flowers, donations to Better Living would be appreciated.

CHRISTINA JAMES

Chris passed peacefully at Stratford General Hospital on May 15, 2018 after a pulmonary embolism. She was 79 years old.

Chris fell in love with Stratford after starring in the Stratford Festival's iconic production of "The Mikado" in 1982. She played Katisha for two seasons, including the Canadian tour and the Old Vic engagement in London, England.

In 1993 she was one of only three original cast members to take part in the ten year revival.

Her theatrical career took her to so many interesting places, including Japan where she toured with Charlottetown's "Anne of Green Gables."

While highly regarded as an actor and singer, her lasting legacy will be as a teacher. Chris was head of the vocal program at Sheridan College's prestigious Music Theatre Program for 23 years and was treasured by her many students.

Through her students she is now represented on stages across Canada and the world, including Broadway and of course the Stratford Festival. At one Festival performance there were sixteen people onstage and she had taught thirteen of them to sing.

Chris leaves her husband, David; her daughter, Elissa; her stepchildren, Glyn, Karen and Diana; and her grandchildren, Kristofer, Adam and Lauren.

Visitation at the W.G. Young Funeral Home, 430 Huron Street, Stratford on Sunday, May 20, from 1-4 p.m. The funeral service will be held at Avondale United Church, 194 Avondale Avenue, Stratford on Monday at 2 p.m. As expressions of sympathy, memorial donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation through the funeral home. 519-271-7411 http://www.wgyoungfuneralhome.com

MICHAEL NISKER

On Wednesday, May 16, 2018 at Princess Margaret Hospital.

Beloved father of Ryan, and Danielle. Loving son of Frances and Ab. Dear brother and brotherin-law of Randi Shuval, and Joanne Nisker and Darryl Ura.

Michael will be forever missed by Felicia Weinstein, and lovingly remembered by Julia Zvigelsky.

Loving uncle of Joshua and Miriam, Leora, Karley, Morgan, Daniel, and great-uncle of Nina, and Gil. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Friday, May 18, 2018 at 1:00 p.m.

Interment in the Adath Israel section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. The family will be receiving friends on Sunday and Monday at 25 Scrivener Square, Toronto. Donations may be made to The Michael J. R. Nisker Memorial Fund c/o Benjamin Foundation 416-780-0324 or http://www.benjamins.ca.

ROBIN IAIN PATRICK STRUMP September 13, 1950 May 8, 2018

On Tuesday, May 8th Iain took his last bike ride on the Trans Canada Trail near Shawnigan Lake, B.C., passing suddenly at the age of 67 while on the trail. He was the loving husband of Sandra and cherished father of Reade. Iain's sister, Pamela; sister in-law, Laurie (Craig); and mother in-law, Grace Reade, will miss his unconditional support and presence. He was the ultimate Uncle Iain to Aimee, David, Leif, Cole, Jonah, Paisley, Chase and Troy and many friends of Reade.

Iain graduated with a MBA from The University of Western Ontario.

He joined the TD Bank Group in 1974, leading a distinguished 35 year career with postings in Toronto, Los Angeles and Calgary.

Known for an aggressive, get-itdone style, he cared deeply for his team and customers alike.

He finished his banking career as Senior Vice President, Prairie Region retiring in 2006.

Retirement took the Strumps to Arbutus Ridge on Vancouver Island to live by the ocean, close to family, while enjoying golf, cycling and touring around in Iain's fast vehicles. Iain was a challenged golfer, yet an ardent ball retriever. World travels and California winters made many more opportunities to make wonderful memories with family and friends alike.

Iain was a Husband, Father, Uncle, Friend and Banker like no other.

Iain possessed a keen wit, sharp sense of humour and had a way with words that certainly kept us entertained! Though he has left us unexpectedly, the love, laughter and memories will live on forever. A private service was held Sunday, May 13th on a favourite biking trail. The family invites the many friends and family to celebrate his life as he lived his, surrounded by many and raising a pint to a life well lived.

Condolences may be offered online at http://www.sandsduncan.ca.

Funeral Arrangements entrusted to Sands Funeral Chapel - Duncan, BC 250-746-5212.

ERIC JON STEINBACH June 3, 1969 - May 18, 2015

Our wonderful and much loved son and brother died three years ago.

It is still hard to believe.

We miss him every day.


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There's a new sound of summer: Shhhh
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Monday, May 21, 2018 – Page A1

MYERS LAKE, ONT. -- In the warm and sunny days heading into the long weekend, it is so quiet you can almost hear the trilliums bloom.

There is not a ripple, not a vessel, not even a loon on Myers Lake this warm mid-May day as the first buds and wildflowers announce that winter has finally been beaten back. Soon, the cottagers will arrive in numbers.

If Henry James thought the two loveliest words in the English language are "summer afternoon," the two loveliest in Canadian English must be "spring awakening."

This weekend, once and in some places still known as the Victoria Day celebration but better known in Ontario's cottage country - a vast territory of lakes, forest and rugged Canadian Shield that includes Muskoka , and Georgian Bay - as "May 2-4 Weekend," an homage to cold beer and the now-traditional launch of summer partying.

Heavy partiers might want to give Muskoka's Myers Lake a pass this year, though.

In early March, at the request of many, but not all, Myers Lake cottagers, council for Georgian Bay Township (year-round population 2,499), passed a special bylaw for the lake and surrounding properties.

It bans "human sound" - yodelling loons can breathe easy - "such as yelling, shouting, hooting, whistling, singing," as well as loud noise from speakers no matter what the time of day or night.

Noise bylaws are common in such tourist areas, but invariably involve a set time period, say from 11 p.m. to 7 a.m.

This particular bylaw is far more restrictive, and has divided support among the 60-odd properties on Myers Lake.

Last summer, there were seven complaints about noise on the lake.

At a public meeting in February, eight property owners came out, seven of them supporting the bylaw change. Nine property owners wrote to the townships, four backing the change but five against it.

Wrote one cottager in support: "We have been having a terrible time with the noise on the lake.

All types of noise. I am two cottages over from a rental property in a small bay which is rented all summer. Unfortunately, many of the renters have no respect."

One cottager who is against the bylaw sent a lawyer's letter opposing the new "Quiet Zone," as it might affect "the current lawful use of cottage properties for short-term rentals."

Excessive noise is hardly a new issue in any summer vacation area. Many find personal watercraft as annoying as spring blackflies.

Large boats, particularly the speedy monsters known as "cigarette boats," can render canoeing and conversation next to impossible. Weekend parties, with music and beer on the dock, is commonplace. To many, these are the sounds of summer.

Not surprisingly, once the new bylaw was announced on MuskokaRegion.com, ridicule was quick to follow.

"This is insanity at its best! You cannot regulate respect or common sense - not to mention summer fun!"

"Welcome to tyranny. Everyone with a spine should show up at this lake and have a really loud water barge party; the residents don't own the water."

"Wow. Kids can't squeal with laughter and we can't whistle down the road to a happy tune.

Sad."

"God help someone if they are drowning or their canoe flips and they can't yell for help or if their toddler is not listening and parents have to whisper!!! What a joke!!!" "The no-fun police strike again."

"Seriously - next thing is no farting allowed."

One commenter seized on the term "summer residents" in the announcement. "If you actually lived there," he wrote, "then you might have an issue."

Subtle and not-so-subtle tensions between visitors and locals is nothing new in cottage country. Locals often view vacationers as rich city-dwellers with little or no sense of how a jet pump works but with a sure sense of privilege.

When Fanny Cox Potts, writing under the pen name Ann Hathaway, published her novel Muskoka Memories in 1904, she took note of the rift. "For the past few years," she wrote more than a century ago, "the population of Muskoka has been gradually dividing itself into two classes - tourists and settlers, otherwise capital and labour, pleasure and toil, butterflies and bees ... and between the two there is a great gulf fixed ... one thing is sure, each class would be badly off without the other."

The initial appeal of cottaging was escape. The late historian W.L. Morton spent a lifetime studying the Canadian identity - he wrote a whole book on it in 1961 - and he concluded that the "alternative penetration of the wilderness and return to civilization is the basic rhythm of Canadian life."

That can mean the isolation and challenge of a canoe trip or the relative comfort - complete with WiFi - of a permanent or rented cottage. The relatively reachable Muskoka-Georgian Bay area has long appealed to Americans as well. The attraction is the same: getting away from it all.

"Every so often a disappearance is in order," Colorado naturalist John A. Murray once wrote. "A vanishing. A checking out. An indeterminate period of unavailability." The people of Myers Lake - a small body of water surrounded by modest cottages - like their peace, as do most cottagers, but perhaps none has gone so far as to outlaw even whistling.

As one of the website commenters put it: "Good luck in enforcing this," before adding the hashtag "#youcantfixstupid."

Georgian Bay Township thinks perhaps you can. The fire chief, Tony VanDam, who is also the bylaw officer, told council that police will only investigate if a complaint is made and that police would have discretion as to whether a warning will suffice or a charge should be laid.

In the event of recurring noise problems from renters, he said: "If there are repeat offenders, the property owner will be charged, unless the property owner can prove that they've done everything reasonable to stop the noise."

One councillor, Brian Bochek, suggested to council that those renting their cottages could put in the contract that the renter pay a $2,000 security deposit for potential noise violations, and if a bylaw charge is laid the renter would lose that $2,000. Both owners and renters share responsibility, he argued.

Clearly, there is an issue here about cottage rentals, something that has become increasingly common in cottage county.

"Cottaging is becoming more a rich man's sport," says councillor Patrick Edwards, a semi-retired CPA who divides his year between a Toronto home and an island in Georgian Bay. "People are being forced to rent out part of the time just to help pay for the place."

Mr. Edwards says his cottage, built decades ago by his in-laws, was once charged $50 a year in property taxes. Today, he pays $9,000.

After eight years on council, Mr. Edwards says he will not stand again for office, but he has never forgotten something a previous mayor, the late Mike Kennedy, told him: "If you don't have a bylaw, you can't do anything.

People will just laugh at you."

"You have to have some rules," Mr. Edwards believes. "The question is, how and when do you enforce them? I think you only have to do it once. Just nail one guy. Do that once and that will control bad behaviour."

The new bylaw, Mayor Larry Baird says in an e-mail, has just been put in place - "and so far no complaints that I'm aware of."

That may well have changed on May 2-4 Weekend, when the empty roads surrounding Myers Lake filled with cottagers and renters desperate for a break after the longest winter of "cabin fever" in memory.

"We need a summer to be able to analyze if it works or is too restrictive or has resolved the problem of alleged disrespect for peace and quiet," the mayor wrote.

"At this point I have no opinion on the success or failure of the bylaw."

Associated Graphic

Tensions between visitors and locals is nothing new in cottage country. Fanny Cox Potts, writing under the pen name Ann Hathaway, noted it in her 1904 novel Muskoka Memories.

DONALD WEBER /THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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How does MoviePass plan to save the theatre industry?
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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page R8

Depending on whom you ask, MoviePass is either destroying the movie-going experience, or saving it.

Last month, the New Yorkbased subscription service - which applies the all-you-canwatch approach of Netflix to movie theatres - was the hot, and dreaded, topic of conversation at CinemaCon, the annual convention held by the U.S. National Association of Theatre Owners (NATO) in Las Vegas.

North America's three largest theatre chains (AMC, Regal and Cinemark) were quick to dismiss MoviePass's business model, while Canada's Cineplex also expressed doubts. ("Every day at CinemaCon, I was hearing about what seemed to be a change in policy," Cineplex chief executive Ellis Jacob told The Globe and Mail. "There is no way they can replicate anything we have.") Yet, other players remain optimistic, hopeful the company might be the one millennial-friendly lure left to reel in audiences who have fled the theatrical experience for the comfort of at-home streaming.

Most discussion revolves around MoviePass's seemingly too-good-to-be-true conceit: For US$9.95 a month, subscribers can see one non-premium movie (i.e., no IMAX or 3-D) a day - or less than the cost of a single ticket in most major American cities.

MoviePass pays theatres the full price of each admission, meaning the company is reliant on a gymlike business model where more people pay for the service than use it.

MoviePass has been operating since 2011, but last summer saw its profile dramatically rise after slashing its monthly cost - its user base rising from 20,000 people in August to about two million today. And the company aims to grow at an exponential rate - if it can keep its skeptics at bay and its business model afloat.

Just a day before MoviePass's parent company, Helios and Matheson (which also recently acquired Moviefone), announced in a U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filing that it had only US$15.5-million in cash - and that it was spending US$21.7-million on average each month over the past seven - MoviePass CEO Mitch Lowe spoke with The Globe and Mail about the company's future, its plans to save independent film and whether it may come to Canada.

You were at CinemaCon in Las Vegas last month to talk with exhibitors - what was the reception like?

Everyone was very positive. Exhibitors started out skeptical, reading all the press that said we were going out of business, but at the end, they said, "Send us a contract."

What changed their skepticism?

There's a belief out there that we want a piece of the concessions.

I've made it clear that we don't want to take any of your concession stand revenue - we only want the same discount you'd give anyone who came up and offered to buy $50,000 worth of tickets. In exchange for that, we'll together create a much better experience for our subscribers, we'll promote your theatre like crazy, and help you understand what movies are working. It's a pretty simple equation, and everybody thought we wanted, say, $4 from every ticket and 30 per cent from concession sales. But that's not accurate.

What kind of share are you looking for from admission sales?

An average of 20 per cent on the face value of a ticket they'd charge.

Can you say who these partners are that said they'd sign up?

No, but you'll see the names rolling out over the next three or four weeks.

AMC, for one, has made it very clear they have no intention of working with you. AMC CEO Adam Aron said MoviePass was "hemorrhaging money."

We don't need AMC or Regal or any of those guys. We're buying a million tickets-plus a month at their theatres, and increasing their business. They're happy taking our money. ... I think this is a political thing. I think the majors would probably like to have their own subscription business, and they're going to do a lot better if we're not competing with them.

The New York Times recently quoted a survey saying that 32 per cent of your own subscribers don't believe your service will last.

That's what they said about us when I was at Redbox renting movies for $1 a night. But we were able to make it work with technology, reducing overhead and running a lean machine. No one is worried about Spotify, even though they paid more for royalties than they earned in revenue.

No one worries about Netflix borrowing a billion and a half dollars.

We have incredibly supportive investors willing to fund us all the way, as long as we grow dramatically.

Where do you hope to see the service in two years' time?

We'll have more than 10 million subscribers, and we'll be buying 30 per cent of all the tickets in the United States. And we'll be getting more people to see the smaller independent films. We have the ability to de-risk the independent film market. It's the same way as in my early days at Netflix when we were sending DVDs by mail.

Using the subscription model, we got more people watching things they never would have rented from Blockbuster: documentaries, foreign films, independent cinema. We can add value to the theatrical run by generating income profits that run downstream: exclusive screenings and visits by filmmakers to markets all over the country that are exclusive to MoviePass subscribers.

We have the new heist film American Animals premiering on May 29, and only MoviePass subscribers will be able to go. We're going to do the same with Gotti, and have [star] John Travolta attend red-carpet screenings exclusively for MoviePass subscribers, in markets where you'd normally never have the opportunity to see a screening like that.

One thing mentioned by NATO at CinemaCon was concern about the collection of MoviePass's data and the privacy of theatre guests.

Well, the No. 1 thing is we never sell data. We use our understanding of what kinds of films people enjoy to generate revenue in marketing partnerships. Whether it's selling advertising on the site, or having ad partnerships with studios, that's how we'll become valuable. Unlike anyone else, we can close the loop in which ad or promotion a customer saw that resulted in them buying a ticket.

We're not selling the data, we're only using it in a way that gives subscribers more relevant and valuable information.

But there is a line in a recent Hollywood Reporter feature that says, "Helios and Matheson also will sell data it collects on MoviePass users," which concerned NATO.

I don't know where in the world they got that from. We have said over and over again that we never intend to sell our data. ... My theory is that NATO is dominated by the big three theatres and their agendas. And, therefore, whatever you hear from [NATO president] John Fithian is not just the facts, but what outcomes they want to see happen.

Do you have plans to come to Canada?

Canada is a different animal in that it's dominated by Cineplex.

In markets like Canada and Mexico, maybe there's an opportunity to white-label [partner with a company to support one product that's made by one firm, and sold by another] with the dominant player. But our service works when there's not a 60- or 80-percent market share by one owner or brand. It works because customers like choice, and they can decide, maybe I'll go to the AMC today, but tomorrow I'll go to my little art-house local. I'd love to work with Cineplex, but they should probably just do it on their own.

This interview has been condensed and edited.

Associated Graphic

MoviePass chief executive Mitch Lowe envisions the subscription service will have more than 10 million subscribers and will be buying 30 per cent of all movie tickets in the United States in two years' time.

VIVIEN KILLILEA/GETTY IMAGES FOR MOVIEPASS


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Every team should have its place
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While North American clubs fail if they don't win - or lose - it all, Europe's model makes finishing in the middle a respectable thing to do
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By CATHAL KELLY
  
  

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Monday, May 14, 2018 – Page B12

TORONTO -- As bad as things can get for a North American sports franchise, they're never that bad. Actually, they are always amazing - as long as you own the team.

Thanks to a change in perspective over the past decade or so, we've rebranded dead-last as the best-worst position. That was accomplished through the clever use of linguistics - you aren't losing any more. You're tanking.

Sports executives have convinced people that tanking is, in fact, more difficult than winning.

Because the winners have good players and you, the tanker, are saddled with a bunch of muppets who should probably be digging ditches for a living.

Since the saddest North American sadsack often gets the first pick in next year's draft, losing can become a species of victory.

In three of the four big leagues, 30-something is an easier ranking to sell to the fan base than 17th.

Now that the Edmonton Oilers have the best player in the world and are vaguely competent, do you think they feel better than they did three years ago when they were dredging the NHL's sea floor and believed things could only get better? Likely not.

This is our own fault. We created a trophy-for-every-child culture. It was inevitable that it would bleed upward.

Everywhere else in the world, a loser is just a loser.

In Europe, for instance, there is a cost to failing. It is more than hurt feelings.

Over the weekend, it was observed most keenly in Hamburg, Germany. The local soccer team, Hamburger SV, has not been great in a while. But it did have one thing going for it - it had not been relegated out of the Bundesliga since that entity's creation in 1963.

Good years or bad years, as with the ramshackle city it represents, Hamburg held on.

Until Saturday. Hamburg won its final game of the season, but could not climb out of the bottom three and, thus, avoid demotion to the second division.

In North America, when you finish close to last, they sack the coach and say, "Next year for sure." Meanwhile, the TV money and equalization payments continue to pour in. Since its elite status is ensured, the team's value rises exponentially. Even the worst offenders can usually get themselves a new stadium built with some taxpayer assistance. It's not like they're going anywhere.

If they can't bully the city council into a balloon payment, they move to a more gullible corner of the continent. It's a racket.

When the losses mounted in Hamburg, people knew it might be the end. So the more emotional types tried to light the stadium on fire with flares. Riot police flooded the field to stave off mass pandemonium. It was quite a scene.

In Britain, three clubs were relegated from the highest tier on Sunday - Swansea, Stoke and West Brom.

Wales's Western Mail newspaper did the complicated math on what that cost Swansea.

This year, the team collected $168-million in payments from the Premier League. And that's for finishing 18th out of 20. Better sides got much more.

Next year in the Championship? Swansea will earn something on the order of $12-million.

If someone asked you to take a 93-per-cent salary haircut, you'd quit.

When a team goes down, it sets off a chain reaction of disaster. The best players can no longer be afforded, so they must be sold off. That fools owners into believing they are still flush with cash.

But if you cut too deep, you ruin your chances of finding your way back up the next year. Teams are generally very poor at determining the happy medium.

Some - usually clubs with super-wealthy individual owners - manage the jump. Just as many hit a hurdle the next season and tumble into a sinkhole of failure.

Twenty years ago, Leeds United was the most exciting young side in the Premiership. Its owners borrowed against the prospect of future inclusion in the Champions League - another rich vein of transfer payments.

Leeds came up short of that goal and began coming apart at the accounting seams. Its top talent was sold off to cover losses and Leeds began going ass-overteakettle down the table.

It was bumped down to the Championship within five years.

Three years after that, it had fallen another rung. Leeds has hauled itself back up one step, but isn't anywhere close to reaching the top level again.

Not that long ago, Leeds was a global concern. Now, it's only a thing if you're from Leeds.

In North America, Leeds would have muddled around for a while, saved up its coins and mounted a half-hearted comeback at some point. Either way, they'd still be getting rich.

Is their way of doing things the better way?

Don't expect a "well, on the one hand ..." argument. Of course it is.

But it is only better for fans.

In the Premier League (and the Bundesliga, and Serie A, and so forth) there is some dignity to finishing in the middle. The clubs that find themselves in that bracket are the small-ish, local sides that don't aspire to sell replica uniforms in Malaysia or Chile. They're the mom-and-pop shops of world soccer. Once in a while, they'll get lucky in their player development and poke their heads up for a bit - and that feeling will be glorious.

Even for a club as big as Liverpool, finishing fourth on Sunday felt titanic. And for a club as big as Chelsea, finishing fifth (out of the Champions League picture) was apocalyptic.

In Europe, they've designed a system where every team can have its place. The emotions created in so doing are spread about and amplified. Winning just enough may be euphoric, but failing to do so is ashen.

In North America, from a fan perspective, everyone but the champion has wasted their efforts. The rest shrug their shoulders and continue cashing cheques.

That system was designed only to benefit owners. Regardless of where their teams finish in the standings, they win every year.

REVOLUTION 3, TORONTO FC 2 FOXBOROUGH, MASS. Cristian Penilla scored twice in the first seven minutes and New England held off Toronto FC on Saturday.

Sebastian Giovinco pulled defending MLS Cup champion Toronto within a goal on a penalty kick in the 89th minute.

But before the following kickoff, the Italian grabbed Wilfried Zahibo's face and was sent off for violent conduct.

Penilla opened the scoring for the Revs (5-3-2) in the fourth minute with a run up the middle of the central defence and a straightaway finish after Teal Bunbury's takeaway and feed from near midfield.

Penilla pounced on an errant pass deep in Toronto's territory and sent it quickly back at net to catch goalkeeper Alex Bono out of position in the seventh.

Bunbury made it 3-0 in the 46th with his fifth goal of the season. Antonio Delamea conceded an own goal in the 55th minute to give Toronto (2-6-1) its first goal.

UNION 2, IMPACT 0 MONTREAL Cory Burke and Haris Medunjanin scored Philadelphia's first two away goals of the season and the Union beat Montreal with each side down a man.

Burke headed in a pass from Raymon Gaddis in the 43rd minute, and David Accam fed Medunjanin for a goal off the left post in the 88th.

Burke was sent off in the 58th minute, and Montreal's Daniel Lovitz was ejected in the 67th.

Philadelphia (2-5-2) lost its first four road games, being outscored 9-0.

Montreal (3-8-0) has lost two in a row and six of seven.

THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

Associated Graphic

Levante's Roger Marti, left, kicks at the ball against Barcelona's Gerard Pique in Valencia, Spain, on Sunday. The match ended in a tie, thwarting Barca's bid to go undefeated in all its La Liga matches.

HEINO KALIS/REUTERS


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Psychedelic research is making a comeback
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Michael Pollan's new book looks at the potential benefits of drugs such as LSD
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By WENCY LEUNG
  
  

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Monday, May 21, 2018 – Page A12

The city of Weyburn, Sask., population of around 11,000, is a desirable place to work and raise a family, according to its New Residents Handbook, which promotes its low crime rates, bountiful green spaces and family-friendly recreational facilities.

Its placid image stands in contrast to the 1950s, when this Prairie city was also a hub for cuttingedge psychedelic research.

At the now-demolished Weyburn Mental Hospital, psychiatrists Abram Hoffer and Humphry Osmond conducted experiments, administering lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) to volunteers, co-workers, friends, family members and themselves.

They eventually used the drug to treat patients with alcohol addiction, often successfully, and their work was recognized around the world.

Now, after decades of dormancy, psychedelic research is being revived, as drugs such as LSD, psilocybin (found in magic mushrooms) and MDMA (commonly known as ecstasy) are tested as potential treatments for addiction, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric disorders.

Author Michael Pollan, famous for his exploration of where our food comes from in The Omnivore's Dilemma, has shifted his focus to the history and revival of psychedelic research. In his new book, How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression and Transcendence, he looks back at some of the pioneering work conducted in Saskatchewan and interviews those at the forefront of this renewed field of exploration.

He also embarks on his own journey to experiment with psychedelics for himself.

Pollan says his book wasn't written to inspire others to do the same. ("The vicarious experience, I hope, has some value, too," he says.) Rather, he says, he hopes to convince readers that psychedelics can be a powerful resource for understanding the human mind.

The work that Humphry and Osmond began in Weyburn so many years ago needs to be continued, he says. "Because they were on to something important."

Pollan spoke to The Globe and Mail by phone from Cornwall, Conn.: Why is there a revival of psychedelics now?

I think what happened was very unnatural; we suspended a very promising line of research, so there were always people who felt there was great value in these drugs and sought to restart research. At a certain point in the 1990s, a lot of the resistance seemed to melt away. In America, there were some new people at the FDA [Food and Drug Administration], who - not that they were encouraging, but they were not going to discriminate against these drugs just because they were psychedelics. And that kind of opened the door.

The second factor is ever since the introduction of the SSRI [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor] anti-depressants, there really hasn't been much new in the pipeline that can help people struggling with common forms of mental illness such as depression and addiction. So I think there was some openness to try some radical new ideas - even though they weren't all new.

How did psychedelics acquire a dangerous reputation?

Beginning in the sixties, the drugs escaped the lab and were taken up by the counterculture. In a way, it's the same story with MDMA later, which was a very promising drug in psychotherapy, but when it became a club drug, the government cracked down on it. In the case of LSD and psilocybin, there was a full-scale moral panic in the sixties, where it was very destabilizing to the culture.

Yet some people did have very negative experiences with psychedelic drugs. How might these bad trips have occurred?

People do have bad trips on these drugs. They're very powerful and they don't have a set response in people. For some people, it brings up trauma they haven't dealt with. "Set" and "setting" are really key terms, [which refer to] your mindset going in and the setting in which you take the drugs. And if these are frightening in any way, that will be exaggerated.

In a clinical setting, bad trips actually become very productive because they bring up important psychological issues.

But when you're a young person and you're taking drugs whose provenance you really don't understand, and then you're going to a concert or walking in the woods, yeah, you can have some negative psychological experiences. The question is what then happens?

I also think a certain number of bad trips were really panic reactions that were misdiagnosed because they look like psychotic breaks - people are seeing things, their sense of self is disappearing.

But usually the symptoms pass within 24 hours.

I don't want to minimize the fact that there are risks associated with these drugs - psychological risks, not so much biological risks. But they become much more problematic in a recreational context, than in a clinical context.

When it comes to using psychedelics to treat addiction and depression, what's the thinking around why they work?

There are some very interesting theories. The drugs essentially disrupt the patterns in your mind, and those patterns, in the case of depressed people or addicted people, are these learned thought loops: "I'm not worthy," "I can't get through the day without that drink."

Some of the people I talked to had the most banal insights during their trip, such as, "Gee, there's so many great things to do in life, and how silly is it to kill yourself with smoking?" Anyone could have told them that, but for some reason, on the drug, an insight such as that becomes quite profound and authoritative.

Can you explain the idea of using psychedelics for "the betterment of well people"?

This is a term Bob Jesse, who is one of the researchers and motive forces behind the revival of the research beginning in the nineties, has used. He expresses some concern that if you just medicalize these drugs - in other words, make them only available to people with serious pathologies - you're missing something.

And that these drugs have potential benefit for people who are otherwise healthy, but could be better - in other words, happier, more creative.

What were you looking to get out of trying them yourself?

I started out with your basic journalistic curiosity. I was talking to people who had this very powerful experience that had changed them in some way. I was curious to know what that was like.

It also became a more personal quest because I was approaching 60 when I started this project, and I was really aware that I had gotten locked into thought behaviours that were fine; I was productive, and certainly not unhappy.

But I had this sense that "Boy, I would really like to break out of that rote way of experiencing and seeing things." And I hadn't had a spiritual experience, and there comes a time in your life when you get curious about those things. What is a spiritual experience? How might it unfold in my mind?

What did you take away from your psychedelic journeys?

I would say the biggest takeaway was my relationship with my ego changed, especially after a highdose psilocybin trip.

That chattering voice in my head that was telling me what's right and wrong and what to do wasn't all of me and wasn't necessarily the best part of me.

To see my ego as something I didn't always have to listen to all the time, and to realize there was another ground on which you could stand, that was big news to me. I think since, it's allowed me to get a little more perspective.

That's the same perspective you might get with 10 years of psychoanalysis, but I got it in an afternoon.

Associated Graphic

In Michael Pollan's new book, How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression and Transcendence, he looks back at some of the pioneering work in psychedelic research, and interviews those at the forefront of the renewed field.

JEANNETTE MONTGOMERY BARRON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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What's the point of pointless jobs?
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On the moral and psychological effects of meaningless employment
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By DAVID GRAEBER
  
  

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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page O9

Professor of anthropology at the London School of Economics and author of Bullshit Jobs: A Theory

There are many people who complain that their jobs make no difference in the world. By this I mean not simply that their work has no profound effect on transforming society, which, after all, very few jobs actually do, but rather that they make no difference of any kind at all - if their position, or even the division or branch of the company where they work were to vanish, no one would notice. Their jobs literally do nothing.

In Britain, where I live, surveys reveal that almost 40 per cent of all workers feel their jobs make no meaningful contribution to the world. It seems to me there is every reason to believe such people are right. The implications are profound. If you include those who are doing work in support of these jobs - say, the cleaners or receptionists or security staff in buildings inhabited entirely by publicists, lobbyists, financial consultants or corporate lawyers whose sole responsibility is to arrange elaborate tax scams - plus the hours of pointless meetings and paperwork inflicted on those with useful jobs, which are in large part to justify the existence of the useless ones, it's quite possible that as much as half the work we're doing could be eliminated without negative consequences, and with dramatic positive effects on everything from health to climate change.

Here, I'm not so much interested in how we wound up in this situation as much as the moral and psychological effects this situation has on workers. It's come to the point where millions of people wake up every morning and head off to perform tasks they secretly believe to be unnecessary, or even counterproductive.

Over the past year, I've collected hundreds of testimonies from those languishing in these pointless positions. Take Dan, who worked for a large insurance firm based in Toronto. He technically provided graphics for an online data depository no one ever consulted, but most days, he did nothing at all. "It's honestly hard," he told me, "to describe how mad and useless I felt. There were easily twice as many managers as actual employees in the building. How ridiculous is that?" His office housed six managers, who were all arranged around one large desk in such a way that the others would notice if any one of them stopped pretending to work. "It all felt like some Kafkaesque dream sequence that only I had the misfortune of realizing, but deep down inside, I felt we must have all known how stupid what we were doing was!"

Dan was unlucky enough to have someone looking over his shoulder at every moment and couldn't, as many so, simply spend his day watching YouTube.

But he was lucky in that at least his co-managers were supportive.

Everyone reassured each other what a great job they were all doing, and how indispensable to the team, however absurd they secretly believed the enterprise to be.

Those I interviewed reported that levels of stress and instances of workplace bullying increase when everyone is aware their work is pointless; others reported psychosomatic ailments - anxiety or depression - that vanished as soon as they found themselves doing meaningful work.

The thing that struck me most about these accounts is that in theory - and by theory, I'm referring mainly to economic theory - most of these people should not have been miserable. In fact, they should have been absolutely delighted. Economists assume that humans can be treated as machines whose actions can be predicted by attempting to gain the maximum reward for the least expenditure of resources or effort. For the past several decades, this has been the assumption underlying social policy, as well (i.e., handouts make you lazy; this is why the poor have to be compelled to work). But if this were actually true the symptoms of moral, psychological and social breakdown so regularly reported by those in pointless jobs would be utterly inexplicable.

In fact, one could go further. In wealthy, consumer societies, overall rates of clinical depression tend to be higher, to the point where in the United States, for instance, almost half the population can be expected to experience symptoms of mental illness (overwhelmingly depression) at some point in their lives. This is often laid at the feet of consumerism. While this may be true, might it not also be that those living in consumerist societies are also much more likely to be trapped in meaningless employment themselves? (Those who spend their lives toiling away at useful, productive jobs - teachers, for instance, or nurses - are often underpaid and treated poorly, but they're much more likely to be angry than depressed.)

It seems to me that much of the moral basis of our civilization is simply wrong. We are different creatures than we assume ourselves to be. Humans want to contribute to society. If some resist paid employment, it's largely because they are trapped between a job that doesn't contribute to society (telemarketing) and a useful job whose conditions are so extraordinarily awful that they'd literally do anything else. For proof, one need only look at prisons. Prisons house some of society's least altruistic members, but, even here, when given a choice between watching TV and playing cards all day or pressing shirts in the prison laundry, prisoners almost invariably choose the latter. Indeed, refusing prisoners the right to work is typically a form of punishment.

We are constantly warned that, as a society, we have become complacent. ("I can barely scroll through Facebook," one twentysomething Londoner wrote me, "without hitting some preachy think piece about my generation's entitlement and reluctance to just do a bloody day's work."

She ended up postponing her advanced degree in physics to become something called a "Catastrophe Risk Analyst," massaging figures for a bank.) As a society, we're told work is the ultimate value. "Job creators" are celebrated. Everyone who is not working harder than they would wish to at something they don't particularly enjoy is treated as a parasite, a bad person, who therefore does not deserve the love and support of their neighbours. Every time there is an economic crisis, warnings appear that we all need to tighten our belts and work harder. The idea we are all working a bit too hard and might do well to relax is virtually unthinkable. But our frantic moral imperative to keep everyone working - and working under someone else's orders in a job they despise - is not improving society at all.

A century and a half ago, the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky, sentenced to four years of hard labour in a Siberian prison camp, noted with surprise that "hard labour" was not actually all that difficult. Peasants, he observed, worked far harder. What made it "hard" was mainly the fact that the convict himself got nothing out of it. Still, he thought, the fact that it was useful to someone made it bearable. "It once occurred to me that if one desired to reduce a man to nothing - crush him in such a manner that the most hardened murderer would tremble, all one would have to do would be to give him work of a completely useless character... Let him be constrained to pour water from one vessel into another, to pound sand, to move a heap of earth from one place to another, and then immediately move it back again, then I am convinced that at the end of a few days, the prisoner would hang himself or commit a thousand capital crimes, preferring rather to die than endure such humiliation, shame, and torture."

But what is this, really, except a description of as much as half the paid work currently being done in the world.

And we wonder why we're all depressed.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY GRAHAM ROUMIEU


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Pilla's plan to slim down Rexall for healthier profit
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By MARINA STRAUSS
  
  

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Tuesday, May 22, 2018 – Page B1

Pharmaceuticals veteran Domenic Pilla got an unwelcome surprise soon after he took the helm at the company that had just acquired the Rexall drugstore chain.

The chief executive officer of McKesson Corp.'s Canadian division, which snapped up Rexall for $2.9-billion in late 2016, was hit this year with sweeping new rules that slashed prices on generic drugs.

At the same time, Mr. Pilla's company was grappling with other changes to health-care regulations and higher minimum wages in Ontario and Alberta, all hurting drugstores' profits.

"These things have happened before, but never to the degree and to the co-ordination that we've seen across Canada," Mr. Pilla, past CEO of archrival Shoppers Drug Mart Corp.

who assumed that role at McKesson Canada in early 2017, said in an interview.

Today, Rexall is closing underperforming stores - almost 10 per cent of its 450 pharmacies. Its parent, San Francisco-based health-care giant McKesson, warned last month it would take an after-tax asset-impairment charge of between US$600-million and US$1.98-billion, tied partly to its Rexall business and underlining the challenges at the chain.

Rexall joins other drugstore retailers in Canada wrestling with profit-pinching health-care reforms that are forcing them to cut costs and find new ways to operate amid rising labour and other expenses.

Under new leadership and shifting strategies, Rexall is now counting on McKesson's deep pockets and resources to help the retailer run more efficiently and increase profit from helping Canadians take care of their health. Rexall is focusing on fewer products and freeing up pharmacists to spend more time with customers.

Among other moves, Rexall is tying its recently acquired Well.ca online drugstore to its bricksand-mortar stores, cross-stocking their merchandise and allowing customers to pick up their online orders at physical outlets or have them delivered to their homes. It is also dropping the Pharma Plus brand in favour of Rexall to help create a more consistent look to the chain.

"It's about reinvesting in our future," said Beth Newlands Campbell, the new president of Rexall.

Other drugstore players also feel the pain of generic-drug price reductions, cutbacks in government subsidies for pharmacists' services (such as medication counselling) and higher minimum-wage laws. Loblaw Cos. Ltd., which owns Shoppers - the country's largest drugstore chain - expects health-care reforms alone this year to squeeze its operating profit by $250-million.

"It's a lot to take in one year, and I wouldn't say that was part of our long-term outlook," Loblaw CEO Galen G. Weston said recently.

In January, the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance, which represents the provincial, territorial and federal governments, and the Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association agreed that prices of almost 70 commonly prescribed generic drugs would be discounted by up to 90 per cent of their brand-name equivalents, beginning April 1.

In the past, provinces had individually, and at different times, lowered their generic-drug prices, but this year all the provinces made the move at once.

Sobeys Inc., which owns Lawtons drugstores, anticipates up to a $40-million pinch from healthcare reforms. "We're lucky that we have ... an ability to reduce costs at a higher rate than our competitors," said Michael Vels, chief financial officer at Sobeys, which is in the midst of a broader cost-cutting plan.

Clint Mahlman, chief operating officer of London Drugs Ltd., said the company was recently was forced to stop running a blood-clot testing clinic it had operated in Vancouver for a decade because it couldn't afford it any more.

"We can't continue to offer too many things for free and continue to have a viable business," he said.

He said the biggest fallout from lower generic prices is a shortage of some drugs as their makers cut back supplies to Canada.

Other drugstores are grappling with the changes. "The last round of price cuts is the biggest single cut in the industry's history," said Jim Danahy, CEO of pharmacy think tank and training firm AdhereRx, which coowns a drugstore in Gibsons, B.C.

"At some point there will be fewer pharmacies."

Mr. Danahy said Rexall has been a lagging performer among its peers in Canada as a result of insufficient investment in the business by former owner Katz Group of Edmonton.

That may be changing. Rexall's Ms. Campbell said it is spending $50-million in the next 12 months to refresh stores, starting with a test in Ottawa. It's working on bringing the same look to its outlets, adding its distinctive "poolside blue" hue to all its stores to replace its deepblue-and-orange colours. It began rolling out the aqua-blue redesign about five years ago, but only completed 30 per cent to 40 per cent of Rexall's outlets, she said.

And it's stepping up its offerings of more profitable privatelabel lines such as Be Better vitamins, aiming to have its own brands make up more than 50 per cent of sales eventually, from less than 25 per cent today, Mr. Pilla said. The company is even testing running one of its stores - executives wouldn't say which one - with only private labels.

They can be less expensive for consumers and generate higher margins for the retailer.

Together with Well.ca, Rexall is launching more natural, environmentally friendly and organic products in the food, skin care and home-leaning aisles - items that can also yield higher margins than traditional lines. It's expanding its Well.ca home delivery to allow for "click and collect" pick-up of orders at stores.

Still, a key weapon of choice is putting the pharmacists at the core of the business, encouraging them to move out from behind the counter and advise customers, Ms. Campbell said. Rexall's research found that while customers still recognize the Rexall brand and trust pharmacists, they want more advice from them. As a result, the retailer is building or renovating private consultation rooms in stores.

And it is giving pharmacists training in responding to questions about using cannabis, opioids and Naloxone, a medication used to block the effects of opioids.

Rexall is catering especially to chronic-condition sufferers, caregivers and those needing expensive specialty drugs, Mr. Pilla said. "The pharmacist can be at the centre of the care, help you navigate your condition and the health-care system.

"That's a differentiator because today nobody is providing that co-ordination of care," he said.

To improve the shopping experience, Rexall is expanding its store hours, introducing reserved seniors parking spots and accessible washrooms and piloting pharmacist follow-up calls after a medication is dispensed.

Along with Rexall, McKesson has other drugstore chains, including IDA, Guardian and Medicine Shoppe. While the company doesn't break out its Canadian results, trade publication Chain Drug Review estimated McKesson Canada retailers rang up US$3.95-billion of sales last year, second after Shoppers. McKesson is searching for more pharmacy acquisitions; last year it bought the 380-store Uniprix.

Still, in many respects Rexall is merely catching up to its rivals.

For instance, it is moving to "central fill" automated drug dispensing to free up pharmacists to speak to customers rather than count pills. But Shoppers, London Drugs and others already have centralized automated dispensing.

Mr. Pilla said Rexall will have an edge because of its access to McKesson's resources and advanced technological capabilities.

"Our strategies will be much more about health-care services and much less about consumer products," he said. "We don't want to catch up - we want to leapfrog" the competition.

MCKESSON (MCK) CLOSE: US$146.50, DOWN US$2.42

Associated Graphic

Under new leadership and shifting strategies, Rexall is now counting on McKesson's deep pockets and resources to help the retailer run more efficiently and increase profit.

KEVIN VAN PAASSEN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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How Liverpool came back from the brink
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Club will take on Real Madrid in the Champions League final just eight years after facing both relegation and bankruptcy
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By ROB HARRIS
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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page B19

KIEV -- Preparing for the pride and angst of watching Liverpool contest the biggest game in club football, John Henry is ready to take stock of the often-fraught, eight-year journey as owner.

The perilous plight of the club he inherited; the early mistakes as the Boston Red Sox ownership group found its feet in soccer; the challenge of restoring the team to the pinnacle of the European game; and the toughest decisions of them all: reluctantly selling players adored by supporters.

"Maybe it's because I'm an American, but I have a difficult time understanding why anyone would want to leave Liverpool," Henry told The Associated Press in an in-depth discussion of the club carried out by e-mail. "The club is so rich in history and tradition, supported by so many millions around the world, in virtually every country of the world."

That global standing wasn't enough to prevent Barcelona twice in the past four years tempting Liverpool's star forwards, paying around 240-million (about $363-million) for Luis Suarez and Philippe Coutinho.

"You don't want to be in the position where players want to go somewhere else, even if it is a great club like Barcelona," Henry said. "It's hard to understand why players would want to go to a league where the competition is so weak. They must play 30 or so meaningless matches per year waiting for Champions League matches."

When the final of the Champions League is played on Saturday, it will be Liverpool taking on Real Madrid in Kiev's Olympic Stadium. For Coutinho and Suarez, the Champions League ended in the quarter-final.

"They'll be watching this weekend and could have been playing," Henry said. "But [part owner] Mike Gordon, [sporting director] Michael Edwards and everyone in our scouting department have done a terrific job in making the best of those two difficult situations."

2010 TAKEOVER

The squabbling and financial strife of the previous U.S. owners - Tom Hicks and George Gillett Jr.

- left Liverpool facing not just relegation from the Premier League but bankruptcy in 2010. It took a court battle instigated by the Royal Bank of Scotland in the midst of a global financial crisis for Henry's Fenway Sports Group to be able to wrest control of the debt-ridden club.

In the heat of the October, 2010, Merseyside derby - Henry's first game as principal owner - the hazardous state of his new asset was brought home by taunts from rival supporters. Relegation was looming after a 2-0 loss to Everton left Liverpool only off the bottom of the Premier League on goal difference.

"Evertonians were chanting 'You're going down,' " Henry recalled. "We were 19th at the time, but we managed to stay up despite a lot of early mistakes."

That includes when then-director of football Damien Comolli oversaw the £50-million ($86.3million) generated by selling Fernando Torres to Chelsea in 2011 being reinvested in paying £35million ($60.4-million) on an unproven Andy Carroll, who was blighted by injuries.

"Football isn't easy," Henry said, "and building from that squad, if you remember that squad, took a lot time."

TRANSFORMING THE CLUB

While fan unrest was dissipated with the return of an Anfield hero as manager, Kenny Dalglish was only a short-term fix. Unity had been restored, but it took Brendan Rodgers to come within touching distance of winning the Premier League in 2014.

Rodgers was fired in October, 2015, but FSG was working behind the scenes to create an appealing environment to attract Juergen Klopp, one of the new generation of super coaches who won the Bundesliga twice with Borussia Dortmund.

"It took Michael Edwards winning more and more of the battles internally to get us to the point that when we met with Juergen he said, 'I really want to coach this group. This will be fun,' " Henry said.

Boisterous on the sidelines, Klopp ensured his team was similarly expressive on the pitch with high-energy, attacking football.

There have been setbacks: An eighth-place finish and Europa League final loss meant Liverpool failed to return to the Champions League in 2016. But given Liverpool has not even featured in the Champions League in consecutive seasons over the past decade, it represents unexpected progress under Klopp.

"He has done a tremendous job getting us into this position," Henry said. "He has been just as effective in inspiring not just our players but everyone who loves this club. He is an inspired, natural leader who is sensitive to what some might see as small things, but are very important over the long term."

Few expected Klopp to be able to find a way past Manchester City in the Champions League quarter-final. But Liverpool won home (3-0) and away (2-1) against a formidable City side that went on to win the Premier League by 19 points.

"On European nights, I felt like the supporters at Anfield pushed the club past opponents to the point that we were just unbeatable on those nights," Henry said.

"On away nights, the resolve and effort of this group of highly talented players got us to the finals.

"Being in the final is a reflection of the incredible support this club gets at Anfield and the ability [of] Juergen and the entire staff to put our players in the position to be successful. You can do all of that but the players have to step up and they have."

SALAH SURPRISE

For all the mistakes Henry acknowledges have been made at Liverpool, decisions can be made with unexpectedly fruitful consequences. None more so than the 50-million ($75.6-million) deal to sign Mohamed Salah from Roma last year. After struggling to make an impact at his first Premier League club - Chelsea - the Egypt forward has been the revelation of the season, netting 44 goals in 51 games for Liverpool to sweep the board of domestic individual honours.

"His record-setting scoring became one of the biggest stories in England this year," Henry said.

"Perhaps my favourite Anfield songs ever are a couple about Mo. We are proud of more than what he has meant to us on the field. It is highly significant for a global club with a particular set of values to have a huge star who personifies what can be accomplished with unity rather than the divisions among people we see so often these days."

TITLE DROUGHT

While Liverpool has more European titles than any other Premier League club, it won the last of its 18 English league titles in 1990 and has been usurped as the most successful domestic team by 20-time winner Manchester United.

"Liverpool has a history in European competition and it may be more important to many of our supporters," Henry said. "Is a European championship bigger than an English championship?

Most people would say, 'Yes, much more so.' However, in many ways the Premier League is the world's Premier League - there is nothing like it.

"Viewership dwarfs other leagues. Interest in the Premier League is far greater than the Champions League until the last month of the season. Probably because the vast majority of Champions League matches are not compelling for the first few months of the competition."

There's no doubting the final will be captivating when Liverpool's players try to dethrone Madrid, which has won the past two Champions League titles.

"They've been on a mission," Henry said. "I expect that will continue this weekend in Kiev."

Associated Graphic

Mohamed Salah, left, celebrates a goal for Liverpool in a match against Brighton and Hove Albion at Anfield on May 13. After struggling at his first Premier League club - Chelsea - the Egypt forward has made an impact with Liverpool this season, netting 44 goals.

MICHAEL REGAN/GETTY IMAGES


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Palestinians mourn, bury their dead
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Wednesday, May 16, 2018 – Page A8

Palestinians buried the dead on Tuesday from the bloodiest day in Gaza in years, after Israeli forces killed 60 Palestinians near the Gaza-Israel border during demonstrations against the opening of the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem.

Israeli forces shot dead two more Palestinians on Tuesday, although protests were quieter than the previous day. It appeared that many protesters had gone to mourning tents rather than back to the scene of Monday's bloodshed. Mourners marched through the strip, waving Palestinian flags and calling for revenge.

"With souls and blood, we redeem you martyrs," they shouted.

Hundreds marched in the funeral of eight-month-old Leila al-Ghandour, whose body was wrapped in a Palestinian flag.

"Let her stay with me, it is too early for her to go," her mother cried, pressing the baby's body to her chest. The family said she died of inhaling tear gas.

At Gaza's hospitals, families crowded the halls and spilled out of rooms as patients awaited treatment. Bassem Ibrahim, who said he was shot in the leg by Israeli troops, said at one stage he had feared losing the limb because of the delays.

"There are not many doctors. They are unable to see everyone, with all the injuries," said Mr. Ibrahim, 23.

On the Israeli side of the border, Israeli sharpshooters took up positions to stop any attempted breach of the fence should demonstrations break out again. Tanks were also deployed.

But if the violence tapered off, it still had a forceful impact internationally, with countries criticizing both the Israeli use of deadly force and the U.S. decision to open its new embassy at a ceremony attended by President Donald Trump's daughter Ivanka and son-in-law Jared Kushner.

Turkey expelled Israel's ambassador, and Israel expelled the Turkish consulgeneral in Jerusalem. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan exchanged heated words on Twitter with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The Palestinians summoned home their representative in Washington, citing the embassy decision.

Mr. Netanyahu blamed Hamas for provoking the violence. "They're pushing civilians - women, children - into the line of fire with a view of getting casualties. We try to minimize casualties. They're trying to incur casualties in order to put pressure on Israel, which is horrible," Mr. Netanyahu told CBS News.

The United States echoed that charge, with State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert saying the United States regretted all loss of life but blaming "the misery that is faced by people in Gaza" on Hamas. She said Hamas used the U.S. embassy move "as an excuse to rile people up and to encourage violence."

"We have seen how Hamas continues to incite violence," she told a briefing.

"The activities that are taking place there ... would certainly stop if violent protests were to stop."

For six weeks, Palestinians have been holding Gaza border demonstrations demanding access to family land or homes lost to Israel when it was founded in the 1948 Middle East war. Israel rejects that demand, fearing it would deprive the state of its Jewish majority.

Palestinian medical officials say 107 Gazans have now been killed since the start of the protests and nearly 11,000 people wounded, about 3,500 of them by live fire.

Israeli officials dispute those numbers. No Israeli casualties have been reported.

Palestinian leaders have called Monday's events a massacre, and the Israeli tactic of using live fire against the protesters has drawn worldwide concern and condemnation.

The United Nations Security Council met to discuss the situation.

Israel has said it is acting in self-defence to protect its borders and communities. Its main ally, the United States, has backed that position. Hamas, which rules Gaza and opposes Israel's existence, denies instigating violence.

The Israeli military said at least 24 of those killed on Monday were "terrorists with documented terror background" and most of them were active operatives of Hamas.

The Islamic Jihad militant group posted portraits of three uniformed members, who it said were killed when they took part as non-combatants in the protests, and the Hamas-led Interior Ministry posted pictures of 10 of its security men killed in the protests whom it said were unarmed and monitoring the crowds.

May 15 is traditionally the day Palestinians mark al-Nakba, or the Catastrophe, when hundreds of thousands fled or were driven from their homes in violence culminating in war between the newly created Jewish state and its Arab neighbours in 1948. More than two million people are crammed into the Gaza Strip, more than two-thirds of them refugees. Citing security concerns, Israel and Egypt maintain tight curbs on the enclave, deepening economic hardship and raising humanitarian concerns.

A senior Israeli commander said that of the 60 Gazans killed on Monday, 14 were carrying out attacks and 14 others were militants. He also said Palestinian protesters were using hundreds of pipe bombs, grenades and firebombs. Militants had opened fire on Israeli troops and tried to set off explosives by the fence.

Many casualties were caused by Palestinians carrying devices that went off prematurely," he said.

In Geneva, the UN human-rights office condemned what it called the "appalling deadly violence" by Israeli forces.

UN human-rights spokesman Rupert Colville said Israel had a right to defend its borders according to international law, but lethal force must only be used a last resort, and was not justified by Palestinians approaching the Gaza fence.

The UN rapporteur on human rights in the Palestinian territories, Michael Lynk, said Israel's use of force may amount to a war crime.

Many shops in East Jerusalem were shut throughout the day following a call by Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas for a general strike across the Palestinian Territories. A 70-second siren was sounded in the occupied West Bank in commemoration of the Nakba.

Most Gaza protesters stay around tent camps but groups have ventured closer to the border fence, rolling burning tires and throwing stones. Some have flown kites carrying containers of petrol that spread fires on the Israeli side.

On Tuesday the number of protesters gathered at the frontier was estimated by the Israeli army at 4,000, well down on Monday.

Monday's protests were fuelled by the opening ceremony for the new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem following its relocation from Tel Aviv.

The move fulfilled a pledge by Mr. Trump, who in December recognized the city as Israel's capital.

Palestinians envision East Jerusalem as the capital of a state they hope to establish in the occupied West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Israel regards all of Jerusalem, including the eastern sector it captured in the 1967 Middle East war and which it later annexed, as its "eternal and indivisible capital."

Most countries say the status of Jerusalem - a sacred city to Jews, Muslims and Christians - should be determined in a final peace settlement and that moving their embassies now would prejudge any such deal.

Mr. Netanyahu on Monday praised Mr. Trump but Palestinians have said the United States can no longer serve as an honest broker in any peace process.

Talks aimed at finding a two-state solution to the conflict have been frozen since 2014.

Mr. Trump said on Monday he remained committed to peace between Israel and the Palestinians.

His administration says it has nearly completed a new Israeli-Palestinian peace plan.

Associated Graphic

Israeli firefighters extinguish tractor tires set ablaze on Tuesday. Israel is facing growing backlash and new accusations of using excessive force a day after Israeli troops fired from across a border fence, killing dozens of Palestinians and wounding thousands at a mass protest in Gaza.

TSAFRIR ABAYOV/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Women mourn on Tuesday at the funeral of a Palestinian infant who died after allegedly inhaling tear gas during a protest against the U.S. embassy move to Jerusalem.

MOHAMMED SALEM/REUTERS


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Mexico's low wages a sticking point in NAFTA talks, but labour activists say pay is just start of the problem
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Wednesday, May 23, 2018 – Page B1

MEXICO CITY -- Imelda Jimenez spent four years making motorheads at a plant in Monclova, in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. The salary was 1,300 pesos for a 60-hour work week, she said - the equivalent of about $1.50 an hour.

It was too little to provide for her four children.

"It wasn't enough to do what you had to do. You could eat, or you could send your kids to school," the 40-year-old told The Globe and Mail. "I had to take out payday loans."

Ms. Jimenez had a union, the Confederacion de Trabajadores de Mexico. But the CTM - which is tied to Mexico's governing political party and is often accused of signing sweetheart deals with multinational corporations - did nothing to get her and her co-workers a raise, she said. So they staged a wildcat strike in the spring of 2014, demanding the right to form a more effective union.

After persuading the strikers to come back to work with promises of better treatment, Ms. Jimenez said, the company fired them.

Mexico's low wages have become a key sticking point in the renegotiation of the North American freetrade agreement. The Trump administration in the United States is demanding that auto companies be forced to source 40 per cent of their car parts from factories that pay at least US$15 to US$17 an hour. Mexican negotiators are fighting the proposal, worried it would move jobs out of the country, where auto sector wages average the equivalent of US$4 an hour.

On the ground in Mexico, however, workers and union activists say pay is only part of the problem. They point to a raft of poor working conditions, including companies refusing to allow workers to take their allotted holiday time, 60-hour workweeks, and supervisors who demand sex from female employees in exchange for better treatment.

At the heart of the problem, they say, is Mexico's system of "protection unions" - so-called because, far from representing the interests of workers, these labour organizations are accused of protecting corporations from labour strife by signing agreements that keep wages low and working conditions poor.

These groups - the largest of which are the CTM, the Confederacion Revolucionaria de Obreros y Campesinos (CROC) and the Confederacion Regional Obrera Mexicana (CROM) - are aligned with the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), which has governed the country for eight of the past nine decades.

In Mexico's industrial system, a corporation will sign a labour deal with CTM, CROC, CROM or another protection union before they open the plant or hire any workers. The advantage for the company is that having a pliant union makes it harder for the workers to join other more independent unions that would fight for better conditions.

"When a company is going to open a factory, it buys a contract.

The union signs the contract without having even met a worker," says Kimberly Nolan Garcia, a labour expert at the Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas university. "When a worker is hired, they're already bound by an agreement they had no input in, which was decided by the owners of the factory."

Josefina Martinez Hernandez, a bespectacled 48-year-old, said she ran up against the CTM juggernaut while organizing the wire harness factory she worked at in Ciudad Acuna, another city in the state of Coahuila.

Ms. Martinez Hernandez accused the company of exploitative working conditions: Supervisors forced employees to request permission to use the washroom and rationed toilet paper to cut costs, she said. And some managers demanded workers on the line have sex with them in exchange for overtime or time off.

"If you want some extra hours to make more money, then they'll say, 'Okay, you have to do something for me.' Even sometimes just to take your vacation ... sleep with them. Especially the young women are subject to this all the time," she said at a meeting with U.S. congressional Democrats on the sidelines of a NAFTA negotiating round in Mexico City in March.

But when Ms. Martinez Hernandez and her colleagues organized a vote to leave the CTM and switch to a different union that would fight these abuses, she said, the company rigged it by bringing in people who didn't work at the plant, including managers, to cast ballots. She and the rest of the union organizers were fired by the company, PKC Group, in December, 2012.

Finland-based PKC did not respond to a request for comment.

Calls to the CTM's Mexico City headquarters were unanswered when The Globe phoned the two numbers listed on the union website.

A spokeswoman for Fiat Chrysler, the parent company of Teksid - which owns the motorhead factory at which Ms. Jimenez worked - described the 2014 strike as an "unauthorized and illegal" job action in response to a dispute over Teksid's calculation of bonus pay; she said the calculation was subsequently upheld by a labour board.

"Teksid respects the rights of its employees and takes its responsibility for ensuring their fair treatment very seriously," Shawn Morgan said in a statement.

Both U.S. congressional Democrats and the Canadian government are pushing for NAFTA provisions that would make it easier for workers to join an independent union outside the control of the protection system.

"If this issue isn't addressed, there will be virtually no support among Democrats for renegotiating NAFTA," said Sander Levin, a Democratic congressman and member of the committee overseeing trade, after meeting with workers in Mexico City in March.

Canadian union leader Jerry Dias, who has been consulting with the Canadian government on NAFTA, said a revamped deal should force labour reforms in Mexico that go beyond the U.S. wage proposal.

"Fifteen dollars an hour is a good start. Is that where I want to be at the end of the day? No," said Mr. Dias, whose union, Unifor, represents Canadian auto workers. "The key issue is the principle of free collective bargaining and the elimination of the yellow unions and the protection agreements that are signed which screw workers in Mexico."

Whether such reforms will make it into a revised NAFTA is an open question: The Trump administration's chief motivation at the bargaining table is to restore factory jobs to the United States.

But many in Mexico say they would be happy to see the American wage demand written into the deal.

Alex Covarrubias, a labour expert at El Colegio de Sonora who has studied pay in the Mexican auto industry, contends that there is room for it to rise.

"In economic terms, there is everything in place for Mexico to raise wages in the auto sector.

Productivity is growing and employment is growing," he said.

"There is not any reason to keep the wages the way that they are."

Isidro Mendez of Los Mineros, the independent mine workers' union, doesn't share the Mexican government's concern that better pay would push industry out of the country.

"It's incredible the Canadian government and the U.S. want the same wages for Mexican workers. We are asking the same thing," he said at a gathering of labour leaders at the offices of the telephone workers' union, on a side street in the shadow of the postmodern office towers of Mexico City's business district. "If we do the same work here in Mexico, we should be paid the same as in Canada and the U.S.

They have in an hour what we have in a day." With reports from Mike Hager in Vancouver

Associated Graphic

Workers and union activists in Mexico say wages are only part of the problem; they also point to poor working conditions, such as 60-hour workweeks and no holiday time.

BRETT GUNDLOCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Asian investors get the Edmonton pitch
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Tallest building west of Toronto looks for buyers in Singapore
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By TIM QUERENGESSER
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Friday, May 25, 2018 – Page H4

EDMONTON -- Squint hard, in the exact right spot, and Edmonton's newly vertical skyline can look a bit like Vancouver. Two glass mixeduse residential towers still under construction - The Legends and Sky Residences - now tickle the clouds. When it opens in 2019, the latter will be the tallest building in Canada west of Toronto.

Beyond the glittering spires, however, similarities between the two cities vanish. Vancouver is becoming a bling state of 20somethings driving Porsche Panameras to coastal condos, while Edmonton is landlocked and filled with pickup trucks. But that has not stopped some marketers from trying to entice wealthy overseas buyers to invest in North American condominium properties to compare the two cities directly - and recommend Edmonton.

Singapore-based real estate marketing company SQFT Global Properties held a workshop on April 29 and 30 at the Four Seasons Hotel in Singapore to showcase investment opportunities at Sky Residences.

Paul Robinson - a Vancouver resident who attended a similar SQFT seminar in January - received an e-mail from SQFT on April 25. The subject line read: "Edmonton Greatest Investment Opportunity."

Mr. Robinson says he was "shocked" that the marketers would compare Vancouver's buoyant real estate market with Edmonton, where residential sales have slogged through several soft years. "I know people with properties [in Edmonton] that have done nothing," he says. But, he says, "if you're not from Canada, you may not know the difference."

In the e-mail, SQFT praises Sky Residences, the 66-storey, 483unit luxury condominium that Katz Group Real Estate is building in downtown Edmonton as part of the Ice District project, which includes the $604.5-million, publicly subsidized Rogers Place arena and attached amenities, as well as proposed future developments.

Edmonton-based Katz Group, which once owned the Rexall Drug chain, is one of Canada's largest private companies.

The SQFT pitch states that Edmonton is one of Canada's fastest-growing cities; that its downtown has received more than $5billion in investment and that with "so much input from the city council and various stakeholders, a promising return is expected after the completion of the transformation on 2020."

SQFT also compares Edmonton favourably with Toronto and Vancouver, the more popular destinations for real estate foreign investment in Canada.

"With a similar capital outlay, you could purchase a larger property with a higher yield due to lower purchase price." SQFT also adds that a land-transfer tax is "not required in Alberta."

In Edmonton, real estate insiders say the SQFT pitch glosses over the local context - that the multifamily housing market in Edmonton is currently flatlining at best and is not expected to recover for some time.

Outside the recent booms of 2007 and 2013, Edmonton multiunit and detached house prices have, for the most part, tracked inflation rather than hit the double-digit growth that owners love and buyers hate in Vancouver and Toronto. And a recent multifamily building boom, which the towering Sky Residences is symbolic of, combined with aging inventory at the lower end of the market, has only softened prices.

Experts say Edmonton has two years of condo inventory sitting for sale right now along with two years of "ghost" inventory, or properties being built that will soon come online.

"I think in Vancouver, you can put up a building anywhere in the city and you're able to go to any Chinese investor and sell them the dream," says Jandip Deol, an Edmonton-based broker with Colliers International, who specializes in multifamily housing. "I can see why marketing the best most luxurious tower in Edmonton to foreign investors would make sense, because you see how we're growing even though the price of oil and gas has gone down in the last few years. So, those things alone, it's a very compelling reason for foreign investors to think the market is going to get better; rental rates are going to go up and luxury condo prices are going to go up."

But while Edmonton's economy may be soldiering on, Mr. Deol says that does not mean its real estate market offers an investor anything close to what a place like Vancouver's does - especially in the condo game.

"We're not quite there yet," he says.

Several industry watchers have noted that units in the Sky Residences - which start at $300,000 and go up to more than $1-million - have sold slowly. The developer has offered up to three years in guaranteed rent to buyers as a deal sweetener.

Simon O'Byrne, a vice-president with Edmonton-based Stantec, whose new corporate office will be in the lower floors of the building that will house the Sky Residences, says the decision to build the Sky Residences was likely based on a perception of a potential new market. Stantec played an early part in the plans to build Rogers Place arena, Ice District and Sky Residences.

"We don't have a big population of folks in Edmonton willing to spend half a million or more on a condo downtown, or even $400,000 on a condo downtown, when you can get single-family home for the same amount," Mr. O'Byrne says. But, he says, the city does have many business owners who have prospered and are now becoming empty nesters, yet want to remain connected to the city.

"We're talking about people who have the ability and the means to have a secondary home in Victoria, Kelowna or Palm Springs, Palm Desert or Scottsdale, and folks like that are basically half the year here and half the year there. Maybe it's five per cent of the market, maybe it's less than that, but there's a cohort out there that I think surprises people."

Both Stantec Tower and the 27-storey Edmonton Tower, an office property in the Ice District, were put up for sale earlier this year, with owners Katz Group and ONE Property Management LP hoping to fetch about $1-billion for the pair or approximately $500-million for each tower.

Stantec Tower was reportedly pulled off the auction block in April owing to lack of interest. Alberta Investment Management Corp. is reportedly in talks to buy Edmonton Tower.

Mr. O'Byrne says overseas buyers would be a welcome phenomenon. "In Edmonton it's more of a demand problem than a supply problem, so I don't see some of the demand being taken up overseas as that bad," he says.

"It's just going to help make more projects get out of the ground and convert more surface parking lots to towers."

Malcolm Bruce, chair of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region Board and appointed CEO of Edmonton Global, a new regional economic-development organization, says he is not surprised Edmonton condos are being marketed overseas, given Edmonton's healthy growth projections, which see the city adding up to one million residents in the next 30 years.

Nevertheless, Mr. Bruce says, housing affordability is a "trademark" for Edmonton that he does not want to lose.

"What we're keeping an eye on is the affordability factor to make sure that we don't become a Vancouver or a Toronto," he says.

"We'll look at all those factors. So, speculation is one factor that we'll look at. I would say to you that it's not a concern today but then again it may be in the future."

Officials with Katz Group Real Estate and SQFT did not respond to requests for comment.

Associated Graphic

Industry watchers have noted that units in the Sky Residences - which start at $300,000 and go up to more than $1-million - have sold slowly.

Sky Residences is part of Edmonton's Ice District project, which includes Rogers Place arena, attached amenities and proposed future developments.


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South African probe urges suspension of Bombardier locomotive deal
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Wednesday, May 23, 2018 – Page A1

JOHANNESBURG -- An internal investigation has urged the South African government to consider suspending a US$1.2-billion contract with Bombardier Inc. as part of a wider probe into corruption and soaring costs in a US$5-billion locomotive project.

Canada's export agency, Export Development Canada, provided US$450-million in financing for the locomotive project to help Bombardier become one of four manufacturers to secure contracts in the deal.

The cost of the locomotive project ballooned by nearly 40 per cent after South Africa's controversial Gupta family gained influence over procurement decisions at South Africa's state-owned freight company, Transnet.

The Guptas, now the targets of arrest warrants and police raids, were at the heart of the country's biggest post-apartheid corruption scandal, which led to the resignation of former president Jacob Zuma, whose son was a business partner of the Guptas.

The new government of President Cyril Ramaphosa, who took office in February, has launched a massive clean-up campaign at Transnet and other state-owned companies in which the Guptas were influential. It says it is now taking action on the recommendations of the locomotive investigation, which was conducted by Werksmans, a South African law firm hired by Transnet, with the assistance of a forensic auditor.

Mr. Ramaphosa's Minister of Public Enterprises, Pravin Gordhan, is threatening to imprison those responsible for the soaring cost of the locomotive project. Originally estimated to cost 38 billion rand in 2013, the cost leaped to 54 billion rand (about US$5-billion at the time) when the contracts were awarded to Bombardier and three other manufacturers in March, 2014.

"I can assure you that our intention is to get to the bottom of all of this and make sure that the true facts are known," Mr. Gordhan told the South African parliament last week.

"The sudden expansion from 30odd billion rand to 50-odd billion rand has either a valid explanation or some orange uniforms need to be waiting for the people concerned."

In an e-mail to The Globe and Mail on Tuesday, a spokesman for Mr. Gordhan provided excerpts from a document that the minister had used in a recent briefing, based on the recommendations from the investigation by the Werksmans law firm.

"It was recommended that consideration be given to suspending all or certain of the transaction agreements, to review and possibly set aside said agreements under the principle of legality, in particular in relation to CNR and BT," the minister's statement said.

His statement refers to two of the four companies that received locomotive contracts: China North Rail (CNR) and Bombardier Transportation (BT).

Olivier Marcil, vice-president of external relations at Bombardier, said the company cannot comment on the content of documents that are not public and have not been seen by the company. "We are aware that reports have been produced about Transnet procurement process, but we did not get a copy," he told The Globe in response to questions.

"Bombardier Transportation has never been questioned nor asked any information by the law firm or auditor regarding Transnet," he said. "Bombardier denies any suggestion of misconduct in connection with this contract."

Shelley Maclean, a spokeswoman for Export Development Canada, said the agency could not provide any specific comment on Mr. Gordhan's statement about the Bombardier contract "for reasons of commercial confidentiality." She added: "EDC takes this matter seriously and is following developments closely."

The 219-page report from the Werksmans investigation has not been officially released, but a leaked copy was obtained by a South African newspaper, City Press. It quoted the report as concluding that the locomotive deal was "cloaked in corrupt and reckless activity." The evidence of "bribery and similar unlawful conduct" should be investigated by a judicial inquiry, it said.

The soaring cost of the locomotive deal "appears inexplicable, unreasonable and excessive" and was tainted by "suspicious conduct" and "a cavalier waste of vast sums of money," the report said, according to City Press.

Mr. Gordhan, who was dismissed from cabinet by Mr. Zuma and reinstated in a different portfolio by Mr. Ramaphosa, has now replaced the entire board of directors of Transnet, accusing the former directors of failing to act on the recommendations of the internal investigation into the locomotive project - the biggest locomotive acquisition project in South Africa's history.

The investigation by Werksmans reported "scathing" findings on "wasteful expenditure" and "malfeasance" in the locomotive deal, Mr. Gordhan told the recent briefing.

When this report was submitted to Transnet last December, the response of the Transnet board was "reckless or worse," he said, in explaining why he decided to sack the remaining members of the board last week after months of inaction.

He said he has directed the new Transnet board members to act on the findings of the Werksmans investigation and to review the legality of the locomotive contract.

So far, the bribery allegations have focused on a Chinese company, China South Rail, one of the four manufacturers to receive contracts in the locomotive deal.

The company paid about US$320million in "consulting fees" - about 20 per cent of the value of its contract - to a Gupta-controlled company in Hong Kong, according to leaked e-mails cited in the South African media.

In 2015, when Canadian export agency EDC announced US$450million in financing for Bombardier's US$1.2-billion contract to produce 240 locomotives for Transnet, it hailed the deal as a "showcase" for "Canadian capability to build and deliver on landmark projects worldwide."

Brian Molefe, the chief executive of Transnet at the time, said the EDC loan was "a massive thumbs-up for our country."

Today, however, the locomotive contract is years behind schedule, partly owing to South Africa's decision to require Bombardier's locomotives to be assembled by a less experienced Transnet company in the port city of Durban, and only a small fraction of Bombardier's planned 240 locomotives have been delivered to Transnet.

A separate investigation in 2016 by South Africa's Public Protector, an anti-corruption watchdog with official powers, found evidence of a "cozy relationship" between Mr. Molefe and the Guptas, including 58 phone calls in a seven-month period between the Transnet CEO and a senior member of the Gupta family.

Several weeks before the locomotive contract announcement in 2014, Bombardier agreed to sell a US$52-million luxury jet to the Guptas, with EDC providing 80 per cent of the financing. This year, EDC cancelled its financing for the airplane deal and is fighting a court battle to recover the plane.

"At Transnet, governance structures were repurposed to enable corruption and rent-seeking," Mr. Gordhan said in a speech to Parliament last week.

"There is evidence that contracts were awarded to people with close links to some of the Transnet officials," he said.

"There were clear conflicts of interest. The directors of Transnet as well as senior executives were derelict in their duties and there were regular violations of the Public Finance Management Act, the Companies Act and the Prevention of Corruption and Criminal Activities Act."

Police investigators and criminal prosecutors are reviewing the evidence from the Werksmans report and other forensic reports on Transnet and other state-owned companies, Mr. Gordhan said.

"We shall not only be satisfied with putting the criminals in jail," he said. "The money that have stolen from the state-owned companies and the things they have bought with them - expensive houses, flashy cars, jets - must be recovered and returned.

They belong to our people, not to crooks."

Associated Graphic

Bombardier Transportation executives visit the rail link from Johannesburg's airport to the city in 2010.


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A hard lesson: The digital classroom can really fail
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Technology in the classroom requires more of our teachers - not less
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Saturday, May 19, 2018 – Page O8

Toronto-based writer

Recently, my son mentioned, in an irritated aside, that he was tired of being called "the Nazi" by some of his friends at school, and that he didn't appreciate the playground jokes about throwing him into the gas chamber.

Being half-German, my son - unlike his Grade 4 peers - knew this wasn't funny.

When I raised the issue with those friend's parents, they were shocked and appalled - all the more so when their kids revealed that the jokes originated in videos they had been watching at school. As they reluctantly explained, they were using the 15 minutes their teacher granted them on the classroom laptop at the end of the day to watch videos that they knew were inappropriate.

In addition to exposing gross negligence on the teacher's part, the incident raises uncomfortable questions about the use - and abuse - of technology in the classroom. Parents, on the whole, have bought into the promise of connected, digital, paper-free classrooms; we clamour for more devices and faster connections in our schools.

And while we struggle to ensure that screens have their time and place at home, we assume that at school they're a force for good - developing the "global competencies that will allow students to communicate, collaborate and create ... in a globally connected technology engaged world" as an Ontario Ministry of Education spokesperson put it.

Have we been naive?

The videos that my son's Grade 4/ Grade 5 French-immersion class were watching - projected from the classroom laptop onto a whiteboard - were episodes of children's animated television series, such as Peppa Pig or Caillou, redubbed with misogynist, anti-Semitic and racist text and intercut with endorsements of guns, marijuana and junk food. In the emergent lexicon of the online world, these subversive mashups of video content are called YouTube Poop.

The teacher claims he thought the kids were watching bona fide kids' television and that he used the time to get some marking done or clean up the classroom at the end of the day. Students in the class say he was mostly at his computer or on his phone. There are many things wrong with this picture.

Of course, YouTube Poop has no place in a classroom, but it's not hard for it to land there. Since the Toronto District School Board's WiFi rollout completed in 2016, all schools in the board - like most in the country - have wireless networks and as many devices as they've been able to obtain from their slice of the board's $3-million annual technology budget, plus fundraising initiatives.

(Last year, $10,000 of our school's parent-council funds were spent on iPads, MacBooks and a cart to transport them.)

As Kevin Bradbeer, senior manager of the TDSB's IT services, explains, the filters on the school board's network, which block pornography and adult content, are fallible, as are the computer systems programmed to flag and remove these kinds of videos - which often violate copyright and hate laws - from YouTube. My son and his friends got a kick out of the TDSB content-warning banner floating impotently across the screen.

It's hard to gauge the prevalence of technology abuse in the classroom. Gabrielle Barkany, spokeswoman for the Ontario College of Teachers, the provincial body that licenses and regulates public-school teachers, says there has been "a significant increase in reports of inappropriate electronic interactions" in the past decade, and estimates that roughly a quarter of the 80-90 disciplinary hearings held annually at the College involve inappropriate use of social media. But, as she points out, this is pretty much par for the course in a device-rich environment.

It's also hard to measure the overall impact of technology in the classroom. In 2015, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) released its first report on "Students, Computers and Learning," correlating 31 countries' Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test results with their investment in information technology in the classroom.

Its sobering conclusion was that there was no "appreciable improvement" in student achievement in countries that had invested most over the past decade, and, critically, that technology in the classroom had done very little to bridge the skills gap between advantaged and less advantaged students - one of the central aspirations of digitalclassroom proponents.

While it's hard to draw specific lessons from a study of this scale, the report's author, Andreas Schleicher, points to one glaring truth: "Technology can amplify great teaching but great technology will not replace poor teaching."

This may be the rub. In order for teachers to use technologies meaningfully, they need much more than network filters and the general guidelines for use that school boards provide.

"If there's one thing teachers and parents agree on, it's that teachers need more support integrating technology in the classroom," says Matthew Johnson, director of education for MediaSmarts, an Ottawa-based non-profit that promotes media literacy, which, in 2015, partnered with the Canadian Teachers' Federation to survey more than 4,000 teachers across Canada about their use of networked technologies.

Mr. Johnson says teachers often lament that their training on new technologies rarely goes beyond the technical "on and off" level. As a result, their use of devices remains shallow; they use today's digital technologies the same way they would have used a DVD player a decade ago - to show a video for instruction, for a break or as a reward - rarely exploiting their creative and interactive potential.

Shallow use is one thing; misuse - such as what happened in my son's classroom - is another. But in the opinion of Matt Miles, a high-school teacher from Virginia, misuse is baked into the system. Together with fellow teacher Joe Clement, he is author of the 2017 book Screen Schooled: Two Veteran Teachers Expose How Technology Overuse Is Making Our Kids Dumber.

"We're told to be 'guides on the side,'" Mr. Miles says. "To flip the classroom, put our lectures online to be listened to at home, allow kids to work on devices alone and at their own pace." own pace."

The YouTube Poop incident at our school comes as no surprise to him.

"You can't trust kids to use these incredibly entertaining and addictive tools for educational purposes."

Mr. Miles and Mr. Clement believe the digital classroom requires more of teachers, not less. With the virtual death of the textbook, teachers have to mine the internet for quality instructional material and don't always find it, as the grammatically and factually flawed homework sheets my son regularly brings home demonstrate. Online materials to be used in class need to be screened in advance to avoid the shock inflicted on a friend's daughter's Grade 1 class, when a video on gummy-bear production took a sharp turn into a slaughterhouse to show how gelatin is made. Students using the internet require more, not less, supervision, to help them discern reliable from unreliable sources, and to steer them away from its very dark corners.

Should they land there, teachers may have a lot of explaining to do.

This is not to suggest technology get the boot, but that educators, like parents, have to think hard about why and how they're using it. My son's teacher admits that he made a mistake, but he also feels the incident reflects social ills that extend well beyond his classroom. He's right on both points.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: THE GLOBE AND MAIL/ISTOCK


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