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GiveLife.ca

    

PRINT EDITION
BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page B15

RUSSELL STAFFORD ALLISON

Russ passed away peacefully on Sunday, July 29, 2018 at London in his 94th year. Russ was the loving and cherished husband of Jean Allison (McKillop) for over 65 years. Russ was born in Tichborne, Ontario. He was educated at Queen's University where he graduated as a Civil Engineer. Graduating in 1946 Russ started work at CP Rail where he had the unparalleled joy of working at his hobby through his entire 44 year career. He often said he never worked a day in his life. Russ's first job at CP Rail was a Transitman in the London Engineering Department. Russ worked through the ranks and retired in 1989 after 6 years as President. Russ was a railroader.

What made Russ special was that he was able to work with people.

He said "I was fortunate to work with great people throughout my career". Russ earned trust through honesty, integrity, humility and a tremendous ability to listen.

He never could have achieved what he did without the unfailing support of Jean.

Russ worked on numerous major projects throughout his career that added value to the railway, Canada and all Canadians. Russ believed in thinking big and believed in reaching further his whole life. He participated in projects such as bridging the St.

Lawrence Seaway, the building of Roberts Bank (now known as Westshore Terminals) and with this project came the development of the Bathtub Car Unit Trains.

The crowning achievement of his career with his participation in the abolishment of the Crow Rate came the potential to complete the grade reduction of westward CP Rail tracks in the Rocky Mountains from 2.2% to 1%. This allowed the building of the 1 Mile Shaughnessy Tunnel and the 9 mile Mount MacDonald tunnel through the Selkirk Mountain range. This project solved the capacity issues the railway had in serving the Canadian west coast ports. This project also earned Russ the Sir John Kennedy Medal from the Engineering Institute of Canada in 1991.

Russ served as President or Director of numerous companies and organizations: Toronto Terminal Railway Company, Shawinigan Terminal Railway Company, Sault Ste. Marie Bridge Company, Soo Line Corporation, Algoma Steel Corporation, Incan Ships Limited, The Railway Association of Canada, Canadian Pacific Consulting Service Ltd., Canadian Pacific Subsidiary Companies Pension Plan, Canadian Transportation Education Foundation, University of Manitoba Transport Institute Advisory Board, Alliance for a Drug Free Canada. Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada.

In retirement Russ and Jean became world travelers and loved to spend time with their family. Russ was an elder in the Metropolitan United Church and he volunteered with the University of Western Ontario.

Predeceased by his parents, William and Gertrude Allison; his loving wife, Jean; sisters-in-law, Cela Sloan, Mary Bailey; brothersin-law, Jack Turner, Murray Bailey, Duncan McKillop and Dr.

George Sloan.

Survived by daughter, Joan Mowle (Kevin) and son, John W. Allison (Noreen). Loving Grandfather to Darius Maze (Jen) and Siobhan Farrell (Jon); Delage, Aibhlin and Declan Mowle; Sydney and Jane Allison. His sisters, Valorie Engle(Greg) and Edith Turner; sister-in-law, Lilias McKillop. Fondly remembered by many nieces and nephews.

Friends will be received at the Harris Funeral Home, 220 St.

James St. at Richmond London ON, on Tuesday, August 7th from 2-4 and 7-9 p.m. A Celebration of his Life will be held at Metropolitan United Church, 468 Wellington St., London, ON on Wednesday, August 8th at 11 a.m., with Rev. Dr. Jeff Crittenden officiating. Private interment later at Mount Pleasant Cemetery. As an expression of sympathy and in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Metropolitan United Church Foundation, 468 Wellington St., London, ON N6A 3P8 or a charity of your choice.

AUDREY ROSE ARMSTRONG May 7, 1919 - July 27, 2018

Audrey's long and happy life began in Toronto with her parents, Elsie and Walter Boon, who predeceased her. Audrey and her two younger brothers, Doug and Russell, also deceased, came from a large, extended family of Richardsons, Boons and Nowells who immigrated to Canada from the UK in the 1910s.

Audrey was a very musical, multitalented lady: she started playing the piano at five and, as a young woman, danced professionally at the CNE. She and her husband Bob Armstrong were always the stars on the dance floor. Married in 1942, Audrey and Bob enjoyed 37 happy years together in Toronto, Ottawa and Thornhill. Audrey's work was in accounting, but her great love was entertaining family and friends.

Always stylish and a keen bridge player well into her 90s, Audrey had a tremendous zest for life and a preference for a tall pina colada.

She started out to travel the world with her husband, Bob, and after he passed away in 1980, Audrey had a great second act with her partner, Bob Klein, of Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Audrey and Bob enjoyed 28 cruises in their 29 years together.

Audrey will be dearly missed by her daughter, Barbara Baker; granddaughter, Anthea Baker and great-grandsons, Tristan and Garrett; granddaughter, Adrienne Baker (Andrew) and great-grandsons, Ferris and Julian; nieces, Ellen Tyson, Karen MacMillan (Ian) and Linda Bush (Terry). Our sincere thanks to the nurses and staff of the Streetsville Care Community. A private family service will be held; donations, if desired, to the Heart and Stroke Foundation would be appreciated.

Condolences http://www.rskane.ca R.S. Kane 416-221-1159

ALICE ANN BACON

Alice died peacefully at North Shore Hospice on July 30, 2018, thirteen years to the day after the death of her beloved husband Bryan. Alice is survived and mourned by her stepdaughters, Sarah (Don), Elizabeth (Rob); stepson, Matthew (Lila); stepgranddaughters, Nicole (Peter), Caroline (Andrew), Abigail, Katelyn and Lauren; stepgrandson, Nathan; step-greatgrandsons, Liam and Harrison; as well as her loving cousins in British Columbia and the United States; and many friends and former colleagues.

Born in Vancouver in 1932, Alice attended Magee High School and gained a BA at University of British Columbia in 1953. During this time she enjoyed her singing roles in Theatre Under The Stars productions. She worked briefly for BC Tel in Kitimat, where she was crowned Miss Kitimat in 1956, before embarking on what proved to be a distinguished career in librarianship. Alice received her BLS degree in 1962 and worked initially at the Vancouver, Bellingham and Burnaby Public Libraries before becoming the Lower Mainland Coordinator for the BC Library Services Branch, the role in which she was to have a major impact on public library development in the Province.

Alice was instrumental in setting up and managing the Provincewide Taped Books Service and also played a significant role in the establishment of the Greater Vancouver Library Federation in 1975. For these and other contributions, Alice was presented with the rarelybestowed Helen Gordon Stewart Award and named an Honorary Life Member of the BC Library Association. Alice was an adjunct professor in the 1990s at UBC's School of Library, Archival and Information Studies (SLAIS).

In their busy retirement, Alice and Bryan travelled extensively in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Following his death, Alice continued to travel with close friends. She also became an avid sports fan, regularly attending Vancouver Canucks, BC Lions and Vancouver Whitecaps games. Utilizing her quick intelligence and innate mastery of detail, Alice delighted in besting acknowledged hockey experts among her wide circle of friends, regularly winning their hockey pools.

The family extends special thanks to the staff of Nurse Next Door for their attentive care of Alice during the past few months.

At Alice's request there will be no service. A reception for family and friends to celebrate her life will be held at a date to be announced. Flowers gratefully declined. To honour Alice's generous nature and the lively and warm personality that captivated so many of us, donations in her name to the North Shore Hospice or the BC Library Association's Alice Bacon Professional Development Award would be appreciated.

JOHN DAVID BATES

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of John David Bates at the South Muskoka Memorial Hospital in Bracebridge on Tuesday, July 31, 2018 in his 78th year. Beloved husband of Heidi Bates of Bracebridge. Loving father of Scott (Jennifer) Bates and Kristina Bates (Harris Davidson).

Proud grandfather of Oliver, Alexander, Dylan and Jacob.

Brother of Gerry Bates (Linda), Margaret (Habib) Khan and the late Dr. Robert Bates (Judith).

David's priority was his family and he cherished his friends in Toronto, Muskoka and Florida.

David enjoyed business success and lived life to the fullest.

Cremation has taken place. A private interment and celebration of life with friends will be held at a later date.

Thank you to the caring nurses and doctors at SMH for their attentiveness during his final days. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations can be to the South Muskoka Hospital In Bracebridge or St. Michaels Hospital in Toronto. Messages of condolence can be offered to the family at http://www.reynoldsfuneral.com

ROBERT BRADY (Bob) (July 25, 2018 Vancouver)

At 86 years. Predeceased by parents, (Marguerite and Allen Brady); and siblings, (Eileen, Allen and Jack). Husband to Kathy (Johnson) and proud father to Suzanne (Rob), Michael (Lela) and Patrick (Debbie). Loving Grandpa to Rhys, Cole, Tyson, Maiya, Natalie, Nathan, Riley and Toryn.

Bob attended McGill and UBC (Commerce), playing for the Redmen and TBird (Captain) football teams. He met the love of his life, Kathy, after throwing a dart at her photo at a Delta Upsilon frat party. Bob played guard for the CFL's BC Lions (1956-60) and Toronto Argos (1961). Bob then became the General Sales Manager for Canadian Technical Tape in Montreal. In 1978, he moved to Calgary as Fording Coal's VP Marketing, then to Vancouver's Westar Marketing International as President where he retired in 1988. Bob was active in the Arthritis Society and at Shaughnessy Golf Club on the Board and as Club President in 1992.

Bob was a devoted, funny and firm father. He loved to travel, see new countries, history and cultures with Kathy. He engaged easily with strangers, stopping to smile and talk to children and dogs. He loved ice cream- lots of it! He was the best Santa at family parties. His greatest joys were his grandchildren, enthralling them with Bearilla, SuperBob and Kid Dangerous adventures, and later sharing his vast business knowledge.

Bob loved a good cigar, a round of golf with his buddies, a scotch and a good joke. The memory of his booming voice, laughter and big hugs fills our hearts with joy. Thanks to Thelma and Editha for their devotion and care in his final years. The family will hold a celebration of his life at a later date.

Donations will be gratefully accepted at the Alzheimers Society.

JOAN BOSWELL (Nee Young)

After a life truly well lived and filled with many adventures, accomplishments, and contributions to her community, Joan left this world peacefully in the early morning hours of July 28, 2018, a few weeks shy of her 80th birthday. The world lost an elegant, independent, intelligent, compassionate, respectful and beautiful woman.

Joan spent her childhood moving throughout Canada with the various military postings of her parents, Dr. and Mrs. Edgar Young. As a result, she grew up to be an incredibly independent person who had an amazing ability to adapt to new scenarios.

Her fierce independence was one of her great strengths, but it did not prevent her from falling in love with her UNB sweetheart, Ted Boswell, and build a life with Ted over their forty-three happy years of marriage. Ted and Joan had an incredible ride as they pursued careers, raised their 4 boys, travelled the world, and were involved in many aspects of Ottawa life. Sadly, Ted passed away too young in 2004 and since then Joan focused her attention on family and on her many incredible and loving friends in Ottawa, Toronto, Fort Myers, Lake of Bays and around the world. Joan leaves behind her younger brother, John Young; her four sons, Chris (Kelly), Marc (Carol), David (Michelle), and Matthew (Amanda); and her seven grandchildren, Nick, Katie, Francis, Trevor, Christy, Brendan and Tyler.

Joan had many and varied academic and professional accomplishments. Having earned a B.A. (Hons.) and then a Teaching Certificate, she worked in a oneroom schoolhouse on the Six Nations Oneida Territory. Later, she obtained an M.A. in Canadian Studies and then a Ph.D. in Canadian history. She earned these degrees while also raising 4 mischievous boys - quite an accomplishment. In the 80s she worked at the former Ministry of Indian Affairs in the federal government. Later, Joan obtained a B.F.A. and pursued a career as a painter. Perhaps her most well known accomplishment in this aspect of her life was having one of her paintings appear in an episode of "Seinfeld" in the 90s. She continued to paint until shortly before her death.

Joan was also a talented author and in the early 90s she and a group of great friends formed a murder-mystery writing group called the "Ladies Killing Circle".

This group edited and published several short story anthologies.

Joan also wrote and published four novels of her own. Among other awards, in 2000 she won the Toronto Sunday Star short story writing contest for her story about a pig, a sauna and a murder.

Joan was a true dog-lover and was never without at least one fourlegged friend. Not long ago she could be seen out walking her 3 flat-coated retrievers, all together! Joan found time to give back to her community throughout her life by volunteering and giving to many organizations, trying to make the world a better place.

As an example, we will always remember the many nights when she went off to answer the phones at the Ottawa Distress Centre during the overnight shift.

Many thanks to the incredible staff at the Ottawa Hospital (8 West) and the compassionate and caring palliative team at the Elisabeth Bruyere for taking care of our mother.

In lieu of flowers, please go and do something to make the world a better place - she would be so happy to know you were doing that in her honour.

A celebration of Joan's life will take place in Ottawa in the Fall.

Tributes and condolences may be made at http://www.tubmanfuneralhomes.com

SONDRA CRAWSHAW

Sondra Elizabeth Crawshaw (née Winegard) -- 1927-2018, of Dundas, Ontario passed away peacefully on July 24, 2018 in her 91st year.

Predeceased by her beloved husband, Robert (1996). Sorely missed by her children, Donald, John and Diane; grandchildren, Rebecca, Nicole, Dale, Jasmine and Janelle; sons-in-law, John and Matthew; and daughter-in-law, Jean; as well as her many friends.

They will remember her kindness, generosity, positive attitude, concern for others, wise and practical counsel, limitless energy, enthusiasm for new life experiences, senses of humour and style, and welcoming smile, as well as her devotion to family, church and community.

Funeral service following cremation will be at 10:30 a.m. at St. John's Anglican Church, Ancaster on September 1, 2018.

In lieu of flowers donations may be made to St. John's Anglican Church, Ancaster, or the Royal Botanical Gardens.

ANNE ELIZABETH ESSLINGER

It is with great sadness that the family of Anne Elizabeth Esslinger of Karsdale, Annapolis County, announces her death at home on Tuesday, July 24, 2018 at the age of 91. She was predeceased by her beloved husband, William Esslinger; brothers, Major Robert George (Bill), (Brenda) and Lieut. Cdr. Donald Loughlin, (Doreen). She is survived by her loved children, William Robert (Louise), Montreal; Ellen Winifred Riley, Jacksonville, FL; George Matthew (Andrea Patriquin), San Francisco, CA and Mary Elizabeth (Daniel Ritchie), Karsdale. Also surviving are nine grandchildren, Krista (Bryn Edgeley) Montreal; Lorne (Emma), Toronto; and Lindsay Esslinger (Ryan Clarke), Ottawa; Michael (Laura), Atlanta, GA; Dylan, Jacksonville, FL; and Hunter Riley, Jacksonville, FL; Erica Butler (Sean), Halifax, Marina (Jonathan Dulmage) and Owen Ritchie (Shauna Aucoin); as well as nine great-grandchildren.

Born in 1926 in Twyford, England to Robert Donald and Winifred Laura (Roberts) Thexton, Anne emigrated with her family in 1933 to Nova Scotia. She was educated at the Halifax Ladies College and Mount Saint Vincent Academy.

Upon graduation she was employed for the next two years as a reporter with the Halifax Daily Star. She then attended the University of Kings College, where she obtained a diploma in journalism, finishing up her university years with a BA from Dalhousie University.

Anne met her husband, William, in Toronto, and they married in 1951. In 1960, they left Ontario for Montreal, and in 1980 they retired to Karsdale, and purchased the 9-hole Hillsdale Golf Course, which was renamed the Annapolis Golf and Country Club and extended to 18 holes.

Active in the community of Annapolis Royal, Anne served on the boards of Kings Theatre and the Annapolis Valley Regional Library. She was a volunteer with the local Library, UNICEF and the community health centre, ACHC, and was a literary tutor with LAUBACH. A longtime member of the Annapolis Drama Society, Anne appeared in many plays and musicals. She sang for years with St. Luke's Anglican Church choir and with the choral group, Annapolis Consort.

The family would like to extend a very grateful thank you to Mum's wonderful and loving caregivers as well as the empathetic and warm devotion of Dr. Buchholz.

Cremation has taken place under the care and direction of the Kaulbach Family Funeral Home, Annapolis Royal. The funeral service was held 11:00 a.m., Saturday, July 28 at St. Luke's Anglican Church, Annapolis Royal.

Rev. Juanita Barteaux officiating.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Annapolis Royal Public Library, Kings Theatre or ACHC Foundation would be gratefully appreciated. Online condolences may be sent to www.

kaulbachfamilyfuneralhome.com.

BARBARA CHRISTINE GLEDHILL

June 9, 1931 - July 25, 2018

Peacefully, in the early hours of Wednesday, July 25, 2018, at Toronto's Sunnybrook Hospital. She will be greatly missed by her family, friends and all who came in contact with her caring and generous spirit.Predeceased by her husband, Tom Gledhill (1930-2004); and son, Peter (Pam) (1960-1996). Survived by her sister, Janet (Geoff) Thorne; brother, Bruce (Ginny) Thomson; sons, Andrew, David (Emma), John (Cathy), and Mark (Kim); daughter, Sarah; and her many grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Born to Walter and Margaret Thomson in Montreal, Barbara loved life and lived her life well, with a ready smile and a wry sense of humour, whatever the challenges.

Growing up in Whitby, Ontario, she married her high school sweetheart after training and working as a nurse at Toronto's Wellesley Hospital. She and Tom, a geophysicist, raised six children in a busy loving home. She was also thoroughly involved in her community - at the Don Mills' Church of the Ascension, the North York General Hospital (50 years a volunteer), the "Mining Wives" (WAMIC) and in creating affordable housing in the city through the Family Action Network. Barbara never forgot a birthday or a significant date and always knew, somehow, the perfect gift to send and the right words to say.

The world has lost a wonderful person, however, she will live on forever in the memories of all who knew her.

A funeral service will be held at the Church of the Ascension (Don Mills) at 11 a.m., Friday, August 10th.

There will be a visitation at 10 a.m. before the service and then a reception following the service.Donations in her memory can be made to The Church of the Ascension, 33 Overland Drive, North York, ON M3C 2C3 or to the North York General Hospital Volunteer Services.

STANLEY JOSEPH LINDEBLOM

Peacefully on August 2, 2018 at Markham Stouffville Hospital in his 87th year.

Predeceased by his parents, Erik and Annie; and his wife, Mildred (nee Cuthbert).

Survived by his wife, Janet (Sheridan); his children, Greg (Michael), Doug (Cathy), and Jill; and his step-children, Katherine (Brian), Rob, and John. Proud grandfather of Laura (Kris), Daniel (Dianna), Julianne, David, Lindsay, and Megan; and great-grandfather to Kaia and Linden.

Born and raised in Saskatchewan. Graduated from University of Saskatchewan (B.Comm), he joined CIBC before transitioning to a 25-year career in teaching in the Toronto Region. Stan's passions included curling, choral singing, travel, and cottage life.

Visitation will be held at Dixon-Garland Funeral Home, 166 Main Street N. (Markham Road) Markham on Tuesday, August 7 from 5 - 8 p.m.

Memorial Service to take place in the Chapel on Wednesday, August 8 at 11:00 a.m. Donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation or Markham Stouffville Hospital.

S I ST E R M A RY M ACO R E T TA C SJ (Formerly Sister Mary Felice) Died peacefully on August 2, 2018 in the 64th year of her religious life.

She was predeceased by her parents, Felice Macoretta and Genevieve Bruno; and her brothers, Gerald and Alfred. She will be dearly missed by her sister-in-law, Jo Ann; many nieces and nephews; and her cousin, Sister Mary Nicholas Macoretta.

Sister Mary entered the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1954, and served in a variety of places and ministries.

She was known for her gentleness, humour, simplicity and willingness to serve. As a teacher and principal in schools in Toronto, Barrie, St.

Catharines and Terrace, B.C., Mary was loved and respected. In addition to her service as a teacher, Mary served the community of the Sisters of St. Joseph in a variety of ways including formation work, refugee care and service for the physical and spiritual needs of the retired Sisters.

In her life, Mary realized the mission of the Sisters of St. Joseph: "we are sent to serve those in need in simplicity and compassion."

Her wake will be held at the Sisters of St. Joseph's Residence, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto on Wednesday, August 8, 2018, from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. with a prayer vigil at 7:00 p.m. Mass of Christian burial will be celebrated on Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 10:30 a.m. in the Chapel, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario. Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery.

GEORGE GLENDAY April 23, 1931 - July 16, 2018

George was born and grew up in East York spending many summers at the family cottage in Bala. One winter day after taking the streetcar to the top of Yonge Street with his older sister Betty (Glozier), he strapped on his first pair of skis.

And a life long passion began.

George graduated from East York Collegiate in 1950 and still maintained cherished friends from that time. He articled to become an Ontario Land Surveyor and went on to run his successful business until retiring in the 1990's. In the summer of 1957, he ventured to Wigwassan Lodge where he met Marjorie (nee Kellett) and fell quickly in love. They married September 20, 1958. A full life ensued that included three kids, Peter (Karen), Craig (Tamsyn) and Linda (Simon); and his ultimate joy, granddaughter, Katie.

George and Marj were involved in the Curran Hall community where they lived in Scarborough, enjoying tennis, bridge and the odd costume party with many close friends. In 1963, George built a ski chalet at Craigleith, and that life long passion was shared with the whole family. It was there that we spent so much time together, grew our own passion for skiing and most importantly made lifelong friends. He loved to travel, and with Marj visited France, Scotland and Nashville for a reputed country stars' wedding...they skied in Aspen, Lake Tahoe and most recently in Whistler while visiting their grown children who had moved to British Columbia. The passion lives on.

Marj and George retired in Craigleith (Collingwood), and continued to ski, play tennis, golf, film fest and enjoy the fabulous community. George had a sharp wit, a love of good jazz and lived work life balance before it was 'a thing'. He enjoyed carpentry (how many times did the kitchen move at the chalet?) a good read, a tough crossword, debating current events and a cold beverage on the deck. George passed away after a long illness with Lewy body dementia and Parkinson's disease with Marj cuddled up beside him. He faced his disease with grace and continued to charm and make wonderful friends up until the end. We are incredibly grateful to the staff at Sunset Manor in Collingwood for their outstanding care.

In lieu of flowers or donations, please take some time and go enjoy something you love to do.

The celebration of George's life will take place Sunday, September 30, 3:00 p.m. at the Craigleith Ski Club Main Lodge.

WILLIAM PHILLIMORE MAIZE "Bill"

Bill passed away peacefully at home August 2, 2018 in his 94th year. Married for 68 wonderful years to his beloved wife, Barbara Jane (nee Richardson). Dearly loved father of John (Margaret Rand), Jeff (Jill Maize) and Andy (Andrea Nann). Loving Grandfather of Andrew, Will, Sam, Laura, John, and Owen. Predeceased by granddaughter, Chi Lin.

Bill served with the Canadian Army during WWII (#2 Canadian Army University Course). After graduating from the University of Toronto he spent 32 years in the finance department of Shell Canada Limited in Montreal and Toronto. He was a graduate of the Certified Public Accountants Course (1957) and became a Chartered Accountant in 1962. An accomplished multi-sport athlete, Bill's retirement years were spent on the golf course at The Toronto Golf Club and in many competitions around Canada, the U.S. and the U.K. He served 15 years as Secretary of the Canadian Seniors' Golf Association, many years as an executive of the Ontario Golf Association and was a Governor of the Royal Canadian Golf Association.

Cremation has taken place and interment to follow. Barbara and the family thank the fabulous team at Christie Gardens for their care and support.

A celebration of Bill's life will be held on Thursday, August 9th from 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

If desired, donations to the Diabetes Society of Canada or the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada would be appreciated.

HELEN JOYCE NIMECK (nee Southam)

Passed away suddenly on Monday, July 30, 2018 at the age of 86. Helen "Joyce" Nimeck, born in Pierson Manitoba, was the third child of Gordon and May Southam.

Joyce often referred to her prairie upbringing as the reason for her core values of honesty, generosity and warmth. Her motto being, "Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery and today is a gift. That is why it is called 'The Present'." Always positive, happy and grateful, Joyce will surely be missed but never forgotten.

Beloved wife of the late Edward (Ed) Nimeck. Loving mother of Scott (Robin), Reg (Isabella) and Gordon (Vera). Cherished grandmother of Jacob, Kristopher, Isabella, Antonia and Jacqueline.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel 2180 Hurontario Street, Mississauga (Hwy 10 N. of QEW) on Monday from 5-8 p.m. Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 at 11 a.m. Interment Springcreek Cemetery. For those who wish, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

DOUGLAS JOHN MCILROY April 5, 1959 - July 31, 2018

Doug died peacefully at home, surrounded by family. Loving husband of Tanya, adoring father to Lauren and Ryan. Predeceased by his parents Ellen and Bill. Doug leaves siblings, Bill (Nancy), Anne (Bob), Geoffrey (Margaret), and multiple nieces and nephews.

Born in Toronto, Doug graduated from Upper Canada College (Prefect, Howards House, 1st Hockey and Football) followed by McMaster University B'Comm. where he played varsity football. He spent his entire career in financial services, most recently at Caldwell Investment Management. Doug loved his childhood at the family farm in Bolton and summers in Temagami and at Camp Ponacka. He had a tremendous curiosity about the world and the extraordinary gift of befriending people wherever he went.

Most of all Doug loved Tanya, and his children about whom he was fond of saying he loved more than himself. Together they enjoyed family time at home, skiing, the Granite Club and holidays in Hawaii.

Profound gratitude to the caring staff at Princess Margaret Hospital, and the Temmy Latner Centre for their compassion in helping Doug navigate his end of life with dignity and comfort. A private service of cremation has taken place. A Celebration of Life will be held at the Granite Club on Thursday, August 9, 2018, 12:30 - 2:30 p.m.

If desired donations can be made in his name to the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care 416-586-4800 extension 3936

DEREK GEORGE PENNEY

He Could Not Have Planned It Better! "Live every day like it's your last," DGP 1933-2018.

July 29th, 2018 was a perfect summer evening on the beautiful shores of Lake Huron in Grand Bend, Ontario. Having enjoyed a glorious afternoon spent reading, Derek George Penney put down his latest book to embrace the idyllic and majestic view and took in his final breaths of "La Mer Douce" - the fresh water sea he so loved. From the horizon, a sudden blissful wave of tranquility enveloped him and gently carried him away. "Bon Voyage DGP!"

Born in Southampton, England in 1933 to Olive Georgina (Downing) and George Arthur Penney, Derek's love and respect for the sea came by way of his father who served in the British Merchant Navy and his many uncles who worked the Southampton Shipyards. In 1951, following the death of his parents, Derek immigrated to Toronto, Canada with his Aunt and Uncle, Yvonne Frances (Downing) and James Murray (AVRO Canada), both predeceased. He went on to establish a long and rewarding career at NACAN Products Limited, a company whose steadfast and principled values contributed to much of his personal and professional success.

In retirement, notwithstanding his fanatical love of sports - especially NFL, Derek indulged his passion for reading, deepening his vast knowledge and keen interest in history, politics, science and math. He would remark that the most valuable trait his parents ever encouraged in him was curiosity - "the key to life."

A true gentleman and a man of solid integrity and undiminished humor and wit, Derek will be lovingly/dearly/ fondly remembered by his closeknit family, Wife, Jo Penney; Cousins, Colin (Susan) Murray; In-laws: Mother, Jenny (Terlegan) Pauk; Brothers, Alex (Alexina Louie) Pauk, Jim (Cathryn Dajka) Pauk, Ron (Ann Marie Paixao) Pauk; Nieces, Jasmine and Jade Pauk. Derek was predeceased by his Father-in-law, Alex Pauk, Sr and Sister-in-law, Donna Pauk.

Derek has requested final cremation. Honoring his lifetime love of animals, memorial donations to the Toronto Humane Society. Condolences at http://www.hoffmanfuneralhome.com.

KAREN RENÉE TOMBLIN August 5, 2017

A letter from Heaven When tomorrow starts without me, And I am not here to see, If the sun should rise and find your Eyes, filled with tears for me.

I wish so much you would not cry, The way you did today.

While thinking of the many things, We didn't get to say.

I know how much you love me, As much as I love you, And each time you think of me, I know you'll miss me too.

When tomorrow starts without me, Don't think we're far apart, For every time you think of me, I'm right there in your heart.

I miss you Sweetie.

Paul Antonie

JOE ROBERTSON, ANITA ROBERTSON AND LAURA ROBERTSON

The family of Joe and Anita Robertson are deeply saddened to announce the sudden deaths of prominent Niagara Peninsula business people Joe and Anita Robertson, and their daughter Laura Robertson of Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario on July 30, 2018 in Greenville, Maine. They were on their way from their family cottage to Prince Edward Island in Joe's personal airplane. Joe, Anita and Laura were the only occupants.

ANITA

Anita Elizabeth Robertson (nee Rodger) was born in Parry Sound to Eleanor and Arnold Rodger on June 24, 1960. She was the eldest of three sisters. After returning from the Northwest Territories in 1964, Anita's parents, Arnold and Eleanor, moved home to Stittsville to be amongst Eleanor's family. Anita and her sisters grew up in a very large and loving family of aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents in the Ottawa Valley. In her youth, Anita was active in ballet and track and field, and as an adult started figure skating, winning gold in many events.

She attended South Carleton High School, graduating in 1977. She studied nursing at St. Lawrence College in Kingston (1978-1980) and worked in the neo-natal intensive care unit at CHEO. She later earned her B.Sc. in Nursing at McMaster University in 1989, graduating ten days after giving birth to her first child.

Anita was a partner to Joe in business and family. She played a vital role in the early operation of Pro-Mart (which later became Arcona Health Inc.) while simultaneously running the house and raising three children. Anita's presence in the community is demonstrated through her volunteer work with the Niagara Nursery School & Child Care Centre, Ridley College in St. Catharines, and most recently as the volunteer of the year (2017) for the St. Catharines & District United Way.

JOE

Joseph Charles Robertson was born in Ottawa to Jim and Helen Robertson on September 21, 1959. He was the youngest of five children. Joe attended Confederation High School in Nepean, St. Michael's University College in Victoria, and then graduated from Bell High School in Nepean in 1977. After graduating, Joe spent a yearworking at McDonald's to gain experience in a successful business, and then attended Carleton University where he earned a B.Comm. in 1981. He then worked for the Mercantile Bank before returning to school, this time at Harvard University where he completed an MBA. Just shy of his 30th birthday, Joe purchased a small dental supply company in St. Catharines, Ontario. Together with his business partner, Carman Adair, Joe grew the business under the name Arcona Health Inc. They sold the business to Henry Schein Dental and Joe became CEO and Chair of the Board of Directors of its Canadian subsidiary, which became known as Henry Schein Arcona Inc. After moving on from Arcona, Joe became an active volunteer. He was part of Brock University's Board of Directors for over a decade, and between 2012-14 he was Chair of the Board of Governors. Joe also acted as the Chair of the Council of Chairs of Ontario Universities and later became a board member of the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2017.

LAURA

Laura Elizabeth Robertson was born in St. Catharines to Joe and Anita Robertson on September 16, 1993, the youngest of their three children. Laura attended high school at Ridley College in St. Catharines, graduating in 2011. Laura then moved to Vancouver where she earned her B.Kin from University of British Columbia in 2017 and was recognized with a student leadership award. While attending UBC, she developed an interest in forestry and logging, and excelled in competitive Logger Sports. She had a lifelong passion for the arts and was a skilled illustrator and oil painter. Laura recently returned to Niagaraon- the-Lake and started work as a Facilities Coordinator in Brock University's Kinesiology Department. She had a love of horses and volunteered at Red Roof Retreat. Laura was proud to serve her community as a volunteer firefighter with Niagara-on-the-Lake Volunteer Fire and Emergency Services.

Joe and Anita met working at McDonald's in Bells Corners in Nepean as teenagers. They married in 1986 and had three children, Taylor, Clark, and Laura. Joe and Anita were lifelong lovers, best friends, and business partners. Joe, Anita and Laura lived their lives as best as they could be lived. They excelled in their careers, maintained close family relationships, and became leaders in their community. They loved spending time at their cottage in Golden Lake, Ontario. They were extremely generous with their successes, inspiring and improving the lives of countless individuals they encountered. They were incredibly loyal to those around them.

The Robertsons were philanthropically active in the Niagara-on-the-Lake and St. Catharines communities. They contributed to the FirstOntario Performing Arts Centre to build a multipurpose theatre, the Niagara Health Foundation to support the construction of the hospital, and the Niagara-on-the-Lake nursery, as well as many other worthy causes. They also co-chaired the St. Catharines & District United Way and were active with the Young President's Organization. They were huge supporters of Music Cares, SOCAN, Bravo Niagara, and the Brock Performing Arts Centre.

Joe, Anita, and Laura are survived by their loving sons and brothers, Taylor and Clark Robertson, who will proudly continue the legacy of community building that their parents started; by Joe's siblings, Dorothy Corbeil (Pierre, deceased), Jim, Andy (Brenda), and Mary Robertson; by Anita's sisters, Leisa Daly (Kevin), Sonya Rodger; and many nieces, nephews, and cousins.

A celebration of lives will be held on Friday, August 10th in the Ian Beddis Gymnasium, Walker Complex, Brock University, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St. Catharines, where family will receive friends from 12:30 to 2:30 p.m. Service will follow in the gymnasium at 2:30 p.m. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the St. Catharines and District United Way, War Child, or a favourite charity of your choice. Arrangements have been entrusted to Morgan Funeral Home, Niagara-on-the-Lake. Memories, photos, and condolences may be shared at http://www.morganfuneral.com.

JEAN SILVER

Sadly on Friday, August 3, 2018 in her 94th year. Beloved wife, mother, grandmother, and greatgrandmother, passed away peacefully. Wife of the late Joseph Silver of Montreal, mother to Sharin (Eric) and Catherine (the late Sydney), grandmother to Jason (Beverly), Cindy (Ryan) and great-grandmother to Hayley and Nolan. Jean was the martriarch of the whole family and will be sorely missed by all.

A funeral service will be held on Sunday, August 5 from Steeles Memorial Chapel (350 Steeles Ave. West, Thornhill) at 10 a.m. Interment at Pardes Shalom Cemetery, Community 2 section. Shiva to be observed by immediate family only please. In Jean's memory, donations to Hatzalah 416-398-2300 would be appreciated.

CRAIG ROBERT WILLIAMS July 11, 1968 August 4, 1990

28 years ago we lost our beloved son and brother. This year would have marked his milestone 50th birthday. We often wonder where his life would have taken him and all the joy he would have brought to so many. We are grateful for the many special memories he gave us but always long for more..... He remains forever in our hearts and missed beyond words. Love Mom, Dad, Natalie and Andrea.

J. GRANT SINCLAIR

Joel Grant Sinclair, 80, of Toronto, Canada, passed away in the early hours of July 26, 2018, with his family by his side. Joel Grant Sinclair was born December 10, 1937 in Regina, Saskatchewan, to Sol and Elsie Sinclair. Growing up in Winnipeg, Manitoba, he was a standout scholar and athlete, and a pivotal member of the Robertson Pee-Wee Allstars lineups of the 1940s. After attending Kelvin High School, he served in the Reserve Officer Training Corps at Shiloh, Manitoba. Grant graduated at the top of his class at the University of Manitoba, obtaining a Bachelor of Commerce degree, and then received his LL.B from Osgoode Hall Law School. He subsequently won an academic scholarship to Yale Law School, where he earned his Master of Laws degree. Grant and Janet Elizabeth Sinclair (formerly Robertson) married in 1966, and had four children together. Grant enjoyed a rich and diverse career in academia, private practice and public service. After joining the faculty of Queen's University Law School in 1965, he returned to Osgoode Hall Law School as a professor in 1968, and spent a sabbatical year as a visiting professor at the University of Edinburgh (1972-1973). Grant left academia to practice law, becoming a partner at Lang Michener. In 1981, his professional integrity, good character and excellence in the practice of law were recognized by his appointment as Queen's Counsel. He later accepted a position as General Counsel in the Federal Department of Justice, advising on how Canada's then-fledgling Charter of Rights and Freedoms would affect legislation, and he represented governmental agencies in matters involving human rights and Charter challenges. In 1999, he was selected as Deputy Chair of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, becoming Chair in 2004. During his work with the Tribunal, he participated in over 100 adjudications under the Canadian Human Rights Act. Throughout his career Grant made significant contributions to the law, particularly in the development of human rights policy in Canada, and advancements of human rights in society more generally. His Tribunal decisions were notable not only for their analytical rigor, but also for their compassion and a deep investment in the principles of equality, fairness and human dignity. He also made many contributions to his local communities through his charitable activities and pro bono legalwork, and in later years served as a distinguished speaker on human rights law across Canada and internationally. As an athlete, Grant cherished a wide variety of sporting activities with his family and friends, as participant and coach. In his 60s, Grant took up swimming with new purpose, becoming an avid competitor in Masters swimming programs in Ottawa and Toronto, and winning numerous medals in the individual and team categories in national and international competitions.

Grant was throughout his life a devoted reader, traveller, theatergoer and noted connoisseur of fine food and conversation, and he was, especially in later years, a great patron of park benches and lively public spaces the world over. He was interested in everything and made connections everywhere, and his enthusiastic questioning of market vendors and fellow travellers, perhaps informed by his legal training, became legendary among his family and friends. Grant was an engaged and exceptional brother, father and grandfather, and a beloved friend and mentor to his children, grandchildren and many friends and colleagues. His signature phrases, "What's the plan?" and "But how are you doing," were testament to his endless curiosity about the world and about others, and helped to initiate countless meaningful debates and discussions throughout his wide network of relationships. Grant is survived by his wife, Janet; his sisters, Carole and Perky; his three sons, Daniel (Siobhan), Struan (Victoria) and Gavin; his daughter, Rebecca (Robert); as well as his grandchildren, Etaoin, Madoc, Ciara and Oscar. Although he will be missed enormously, Grant will remain always present in the lives of his family and friends. In remembrance of Grant, and his passionate, lifelong commitment to social justice, we ask that people consider a donation to a charity of their choice.

JOSEPH SOBIE

Peacefully, in his favourite chair with his favourite person beside him, Joseph Sobie passed away on the evening of Thursday, July 26, 2018, at home in Oakville, Ontario. Joe was born August 15, 1934 in Vita, Manitoba. He leaves behind his loving wife of 62 years, Gerry; his children, Michael, Paul, Joanna (David Fonseca), and Karen (Jim Hilbert); his grandchildren, Hannah Sobie and Matthew Fonseca; and his sister, Diane (Jerry Welchinski). His parents and his sister, Olga Kuehn, predeceased him.

Joe was a true inspiration in the business world, working his way from humble beginnings in the Benjamin Moore Paint plant in Winnipeg to become CEO of the Canadian company in Toronto (and director of the US parent company), a position he held until retirement in 1997, after 42 years at Benjamin Moore.

Joe served as a President of the Canadian Paint and Coatings Association (CPCA) and, together, he and Gerry travelled globally with the paint industry. He was honoured to receive the Chairman's Award for Outstanding Achievement in 1989 and the Industry Statesman Award in 1997. Joe was an accomplished professional musician for many years, playing trumpet for dance and concert bands in Winnipeg, Vancouver and Toronto. He was a golfer, a tennis player and a curler in his earlier days. When MLB came to Toronto, Joe bought season tickets and the family enjoyed watching the Blue Jays from just above the dugout for many years.

Joe and Gerry particularly enjoyed their time every March on Sanibel Island and later, Siesta Key, Florida. Their long-time home in Lorne Park was a great source of comfort and pride for the entire family.

Joe will be remembered as a brilliant, honest and quiet man, willing to give any sound idea a chance. His innovative management skills fostered a culture of empowering his people and encouraging teamwork and mentorship.

At Joe's request, no service will be held. His body has been donated to the University of Toronto for the study of Dementia and Alzheimer's. Joe's family would like to thank Darshani Chatterpaul-Sagar for all of her support and companionship over the past years and all of the staff at the Seniors Life Enhancement Centre in Oakville. If you are so inclined, a donation to a charity of your choice, in his memory, would be appreciated. No flowers please.

MAUREEN STUART-SHEPPARD (nee Johnstone) 1926- 2018

Maureen passed away suddenly at Lakeridge Health Ajax as a result of a fall, with family by her side, on Wednesday, August 1, 2018 in her 92nd year. She was the beloved wife of the late Ivor and devoted mother of Peter and his wife, Pat, and Rick and his wife, Tracy. Loving grandmother of Leah, Sophie, Alexandra, Katie, Robert (Bobby), and Rosemary. Dear sister of Dr. Brian Johnstone and the late Ailsa Shuttleworth. She will be lovingly remembered by the rest of her family and many friends.

Maureen was born in Mt. Gambier, Australia. As a young girl she immigrated to England with her parents and siblings. Working as a nurse in London she met and married Ivor. In 1966 they immigrated to Canada with their two young sons, eventually settling in Ajax. Maureen worked in Human Resources at the Ajax Pickering Hospital from 1968 until her retirement in 1993. She and Ivor were active in both St. Francis de Sales and St. Bernadette's parishes in Ajax. Maureen and Ivor enjoyed travelling, researching family history, music and dancing, and their growing family of grandchildren. A memorial Funeral Mass will be held at St. Francis de Sales Catholic Church, 1001 Ravenscroft Rd., Ajax on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 at 10:30 a.m. In lieu of flowers, donations to Ajax Pickering Hospital Foundation, or a charity of your choice would be appreciated. Special thanks to her generous circle of caring friends who gave her love, support, and affection over the past years.


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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page B17

HARRY TEDFORD GEE ANDREWS "Ted"

Chief Judge, Ontario Provincial Court (Family Division) (retired) December 9, 1927 - August 1, 2018 Surrounded by his "angels," with his beloved wife and Irish Wolfhounds at his side, Ted passed gently into that good night on August 1, 2018. Ted is survived by his partner/wife of 44 years, Judith P. Ryan; sister, Patricia (age 100 years); two sons, Jim (wife Theresa) and Rob; granddaughter, Shannon; and "adopted" son, Steve Cheeseman. He was predeceased by his parents, Rev. T.W.F.G. and Erma Andrews; and sister, Joyce.

Ted left behind a legacy of over 40 years with the Family Courts of Ontario, and many longtime, close friends and colleagues, too numerous to mention.

Ted was a beloved and highly respected jurist whose vision for the delivery of family justice services in this province served as a model of excellence, compassion and fairness which has been emulated throughout the world.

Ted's adventurous nature, generosity of spirit, kind-heartedness and respect for others was legendary.

Ted was named Chief Judge of the Family Courts of Ontario at the youthful age of 42 years, and served in that capacity for some 22 years. As Chief Judge, he instituted many important advances, including court-based mediation services and specialized judicial education for family court judges. He also spearheaded the development of the Unified Family Courts in Ontario. His mission was to make the family courts more accessible and user-friendly for those who needed its services. At his retirement, Ted was the longest standing judge at any level of court across Canada, having served a total of 42 years.

Outside the courtroom, Ted and Judi shared their love of the outdoors white-water canoeing and camping on some of Canada's finest rivers in the summers (including one month on the Nahanni River) and powder skiing in Europe and Vail, Colorado during the winters. In his 50's, Ted achieved his black belt in karate. He also taught karate at the National Ballet School and McGill club.

Ted was a man of many talents. He was a poet, a pianist and a handyman (he built an island cottage in Parry Sound which he visited the last weekend of his life). Together, he and Judi were "news junkies." They also enjoyed travelling and visited many countries around the world. Ted will be sorely missed by those with whom he came in contact on those voyages.

A private cremation, Irish wake and "Viking" funeral in Ireland will be followed by a formal service at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto, ON M4T 2V8 on September 29, 2018. Visitation from 10 to 12 noon. Service at noon, followed by interment in the family plot, and luncheon to which all attendees are invited. Judges are asked to bring their robes and to sit together in solidarity with Ted. Donations to Zachary's Paws, an organization that unites dying persons with their beloved pets, would be greatly appreciated. (http://www.zacharyspawsforhealing.com) For online condolences, please visit http://www.etouch.ca.

PAUL GEORGE SAMUEL CANTOR

Paul Cantor died on August 10, 2018. He was not surprised. There were just too many things going sideways from the neck down. Paul is survived by all the people who didn't die before him, including his sister, Sharon Abbott, who he always said looked younger anyway; his partner, Helen Sinclair; his former wife, Lynn Morgan; their children, Adam, Andy, and her husband, Alastair Miller, and their children, Wyn and Sadie; Helen's children, Mark Coatsworth and Anna Coatsworth, and her partner, Alex Teijeira; and Helen's mother, Sonja Sinclair. There are no dogs or cats which will pine at the foot of his empty armchair.

He had a deliciously eclectic career that spanned the private sector, public sector and civil society. From his early wet-feet days at World University Service of Canada, he went on to work with Canada's Department of Finance, Polysar Limited, CIBC, Confederation Life, National Trust, the Toronto Leadership Centre, Russell Reynolds Associates, and Bennett Jones LLP. Chutzpah, good timing, and perhaps the vision thing, led to increasingly senior appointments. But his mother always asked: "Why can't you keep a steady job?" Later, he held a number of directorships and chaired the boards of the Public Sector Pension Investment Board, York University, the Global Risk Institute, Revera Living, and Quadreal Property Group. He did not crave power, and found that being a board chair suited him better than being the CEO.

Paul considered himself less than an intellectual heavyweight, but he was a good listener, sometimes made good decisions, and occasionally provided inspiring leadership. He was called "Candid Cantor" because he told people what they would do if they were him, rather than what he would do if he were them. He believed that people, particularly young people, did not need to know their career goal, but only what they did not want to do, and then to steer between those extremes. That said, after swearing in law school that he would never practice taxation, in his view the most socially reprehensible field of law, he spent ten years as a tax specialist doing just that. And what's worse, most of it was for a bank.

He published a series of articles over the years ranging from taxation to governance and developed the key concept distinguishing between the board's role in providing oversight and the role of individual directors offering insight. Later, he found that his vacation journals titled "Travels with Helen," were immensely more popular.

Lacking eye-hand coordination, Paul limited his sport activities to those where the ball was stationary prior to the moment of impact, such as golf and billiards. He enjoyed the company of his fellow sportsmen and of his friends, not least his breakfast group where erudition, humour, and irony all reigned with equal force. He read widely, mainly in history, science, public affairs, and fiction; but never ever in self improvement.

Paul received his undergraduate Arts degree from the University of Alberta, his Law degree from the University of Toronto, and articled and was admitted to the Ontario bar from Goodmans LLP. His community achievements were recognized by the University of Alberta, York University, and the Order of Canada In lieu of flowers, Paul invites you to go to a bar, order a martini and toast, not him, but life. L'Chaim.

Paul's celebration of life - fully orchestrated by him - will be at the York Club (135 St. George Street at Bloor and St. George), on Sunday, September 30 at 3 p.m.

To leave a message, go to http://www.etouch.ca.

FREDERICK ANTHONY BURJAW "Rick"

Novem ber 21, 1944 - August 7, 2018

Passed away peacefully at Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, with his family by his side. Many people knew him, by many different names: Rick, Ricky, Uncle Rick, Freddy, Professor B, and Gramps; to name a few.

Rick was the youngest of Frederick and Kathleen's (nee Hennesy) five children.

His siblings, Barb, Deece, and Paul, predeceased him. Survived by his wife of 53 years, Diana Lee (nee Gasbarrini); his children, Richard (Dana), Michelle (Rob Penteliuk); his grandchildren, Stephanie, Sarah, Mason, and Sellah; his dear big sister, Bev Dubois; and his two dozen nieces and nephews.

He was a man of fun, adventure, and stories. Depending on when you asked him, he may have been born at St. Joseph's in Hamilton, or in a barn in Waterdown, or at halftime during a Tiger-Cat game.

Rick was eleven years younger than his next closest sibling, Paul. He used to joke that his mom, Kathleen, needed that break to rest up for Rick's arrival.

Rick occasionally used the Latin expression 'Carpe Diem' (seize the day) to summarize his view of life. This view was shaped in his teens and early twenties after life threw him some curves.

The loss of his father, Frederick, when Rick was still a teenager, left him home alone with his mother, Kathleen. Shortly after his father's death, Rick was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes and told he had 25 years to live. These events - all before the age of 20 - cemented Rick's view that a good life of (any length) should be simply a string of good days. Rick embodied the idea of being present in every moment.

He was raised primarily in Westdale and attended Canadian Martyrs and Cathedral Boys High School. Unbeknownst to Rick, his future wife Diana was his Grade 2 classmate at Canadian Martyrs. He would claim not to remember her because he was focusing on his studies.

After a year in seminary at St. Francis on Staten Island - Rick used to joke that his records were sealed but they used his experience to tighten up future seminary admissions - Rick returned home for grade 12 and a second more memorable meeting of his future wife, Diana.

Rick and Diana were married on July 17, 1965 and quickly set about starting their family. Richard and Michelle were born in the three years following their marriage. Rick graduated from Wilfrid Laurier in 1968 (B.B.A.) and McMaster in 1969 (M.B.A.).

Somehow the young married couple managed to juggle university and family; and by the late 60s the four of them settled into life in Burlington. It looked like a typical family journey was ahead, but Rick had bigger dreams for his family. Propelled by his short life expectancy, Rick was determined to be an entrepreneur.

He combined his professional dreams with his love of tennis and went on to found Arlington Racquet Sports. He and his partners built, owned, and operated five tennis clubs across Ontario. It was one of Canada's first chains of recreation and fitness centers.

The tennis club experience moved the family to London where Rick became more active in the community. He became an active board member of The Make A Wish foundation; and was its President. He also founded two informal social groups that continue to this day. There was the Friday afternoon tennis group and Wednesday night hockey (a.k.a. River City Rink Rats).

Although Rick retired from hockey a decade ago, he continued at Friday tennis until recently; when his health prevented it. More recently he was an active member of the Burlington G&CC Men's Curling League. And throughout his entire adult life, Rick was always part of a regular poker night; too many to mention! Rick's next big business adventure took the family to England in 1983. He set up the European manufacturing and sales division of Big O Drain Tile. And as only Rick could do, he picked up a sideline as head coach of The Solihull Barons, a professional hockey team in England's Premiere League.

After returning to Canada, Rick settled into his college and university teaching career. It was a role that harnessed his personality and life experiences. It really was his calling. In his usual self-deprecating way, Rick started his small business class by saying that starting a business was easy - he'd done it many times! His success as a teacher was recognized in 2016 when he was awarded the faculty leadership award at The Dan School of Management (at Western).

Along this amazing ride, Rick accumulated hundreds of friends and connections. While he was known by many different social groups, work colleagues, and students, he remained a devout family man his entire 73 years. His family always came first.

For Rick and Diana's 50th wedding anniversary, their grandchildren built word art with words like: family, laughter, cigars, and Ellicottville. They could have filled an entire billboard with words because of how dynamic Gramps was. His legacy of the grandchildren made him most proud. The values and personality he instilled in them will ensure his memory survives.

Visitation at Smiths Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333) on Sunday, August 12 from 3 - 8 p.m.

Funeral Mass will be celebrated at Holy Rosary Roman Catholic Church (287 Plains Rd E, Burlington) on Monday, August 13 at 10:30 a.m.

Carpe diem.

The family requests any donations be directed in Rick's name towards The Princess Margaret Hospital foundation or Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Canada.

MARY DEE

August 1, 2018

Born in East end Toronto, Mary enjoyed a happy and unspoiled childhood, surrounded by love.

Mary was the first woman in her family to obtain a university degree, graduating with a degree in Moderns from Victoria College, University of Toronto. After teaching French and German at Weston Collegiate for a few years, she married Charles, a fellow teacher, in 1955. Mary enjoyed every minute of being a stay-athome mother to care for their two children, Jonathan and Mary, returning to teach French for a few fun years at Meisterschaft College later in their lives.

Charles and Mary shared a love of classical music, with adventures to Tanglewood and New York City to hear Leinsdorf and Bernstein.

Finally getting to Paris was one of the highlights of Mary's life, as was the excitement of travelling to Petra, Jordan, the culmination of a long-held fascination with TE Lawrence and the desert. Despite these events, Mary counts seeing her babies' faces for the first time as the thrill of her life.

A member of the Metropolitan United Church choir in Toronto for 21 years, Good Friday concerts were especially meaningful to Mary. She cherished the love, friendship and laughter of the other choristers and Dr. Patricia Wright. Mary was grateful for her relationship with Dr. Malcolm Sinclair and the faith he gave her in the love and goodness of God.

Mary had a kind and gentle heart, taking a genuine interest in everyone she met. The most loving mother, grandmother, and giving wife, Mary always had a twinkle in her eye and an abiding love of life. We are all richer for having known her.

Friends are invited to attend a reception at 12 noon and a service at 1 p.m. for Mary at Metropolitan United Church, 56 Queen St. E., Toronto, on Tuesday, August 14, 2018. Donations in her honour may be made to the Metropolitan United Church choir.

BRYAN ELLIS

Passed away on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 surrounded by his family.

Beloved husband of Leslie Crawford and loving father to Jacquelyn and Kimberley (Vic).

Bryan was predeceased by his mother, Jean (nee Spencer). He is survived by his father, Willard and sisters, Nancy (John), Joan (Allan) and Pat (Nick). Bryan was truly an inspiration to all who knew him and will be sadly missed.

A lifelong lover of the media industry, woodworking, and "having a plan," Bryan will be remembered for his unwavering sense of humour, his determination to achieve his goals and his bravery.

Bryan profoundly impacted many lives along his life's journey, from the young to the young-at-heart.

His wisdom and worldliness ensured that all those around him felt respected and appreciated.

While he battled on, his trademark twinkle was ever present.

A celebration of Bryan's life will be held at Rattlesnake Point Golf Club in Milton on Wednesday, August 15th from 5 p.m. - 8 p.m., with memories of Bryan being shared at 6 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a donation to the Tomorrow Stems from You initiative, (https://hamiltonhealth.

ca/tomorrow-stems-from-you/) through Hamilton Health Sciences or to the charity of your choice.

GRACE FRANKS

Born in Toronto, March 26, 1917, passed away peacefully at age 101 on August 4, 2018, with family at her side.

Predeceased by loving husband, Herb and sisters, Marjorie and Joyce. Grace will be greatly missed by her children, John, Bob (Dave), Jim (Pam), and Mary; grandchildren, Wendy (Lindsay), Mark, and Sharon (Paul); and greatgrandchildren, Cameron, Vivian, Lucy, and Oliver.

We will remember Grace for her positive outlook and her wonderfully generous nature.

(And her love of baking!) She was active in the Birchcliff community and her church for over 50 years. Summers were enjoyed at her Kushog Lake cottage with family and friends.

The family thanks the community of Christie Gardens, especially the Cedarvale staff for their exceptional care.

At Grace's request, her body has been donated to the University of Toronto Medical School.

An informal gathering will be held at a later date. If desired, donations may be made to Christie Gardens Foundation, or Birchcliff Bluffs United Church.

GLORIA FRASER

It is with sorrow that we announce the passing of Gloria Phyllis Fraser, peacefully at home on Friday, August 3, 2018.

Beloved wife of the late Ray Fraser, loving mother of Kathy (Peter) and Janet, and proud grandmother of Geoffrey (Katie), Erin, Scott, Jennifer and Fraser.

Gloria and Ray had a wide circle of wonderful friends and were always active participants in their community. They Scottish Country danced, played bridge, entertained, enjoyed theatre, traveled and volunteered in so many settings but very loyally at Sunnybrook Hospital where Mom dedicated over 40 years of her time. Gloria was an avid gardener and a great baker. Her pies and cookies are legendary. She was always beautifully presented, kind, gracious, gentle, friendly and grateful - a real lady. We will miss her terribly.

A heartfelt thanks to all of the staff at Chartwell Grenadier Retirement Residence for their extraordinary care and compassion, and to Dr.

Roy and the community palliative care team from the Dorothy Ley Hospice who so thoroughly supported Mom and our family through her last weeks.

The family will receive friends at the Turner and Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor Street West (near Jane) from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m.

on Tuesday, August 14th. A funeral service and celebration of her life will be held at 3 p.m. on Wednesday, August 15, 2018. If desired, donations may be made to Metropolitan United Church, 56 Queen St. East, Toronto, or a charity dear to your own heart.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

JOAN ROBERTSON HARRISON (nee Hanley)

Born on February 23, 1928 in Montreal, QC. Passed away peacefully at home on August 2, 2018. Predeceased by her husband, Albert "Abby" Harrison in 1989 and her daughter, Wendy (Wayne) in 2013. Loving mother of Tracey and Jill (Brian). Dear "Nan" of Shannon (Paul), Sarah (Adam), Harrison, and Taryn. Cherished sister of Audrey Smith.

In keeping with Joan's wishes, cremation and a private family gathering will take place at Woodland Cemetery followed by a Celebration of Life at The Bellamere Winery at a later date in London, ON. Online condolences may be left at http://www.woodlandcemetery directcremationcompany.ca.

FREDERICK ALBERT HELPS

Born on St. Patrick's Day in 1930 and forever known as Patrick, passed peacefully in his sleep in the wee hours of August 9, 2018, at the age of 88. Lovingly remembered by his two surviving children and their families, Gary Helps (m. Janet Helps, grandchildren, Evie and Lou) and Karen Helps Pilosof (m. Richard Pilosof; grandchildren, Jordan, Kit and Eli). Patrick is now reunited with his eldest son, Michael Helps (mother, Mary Helps).

Patrick was many things, a forester, a singer, a sailor, a cyclist, a motorcyclist, an adventurer and a teacher. First and foremost, he was a loving father and grandfather, doting on and never passing judgement on his beloved children and grandchildren. We will remember him at his finest, navigating the waters of Georgian Bay, steering us out of danger, protecting us from deer flys, bears and rattlesnakes and sheltering us from lightning and thunder.

He was our hero of the woods and will be remembered in our hearts for his strength, courage, knowledge, tenderness and love.

He made friends everywhere, with his hearty laugh and dry keen wit.

Special thanks to Ruth Hawkes for her love and friendship and personal care workers Donald, Nico, Linda, Mariza and Ador who did their utmost to make Patrick happy and comfortable in his final months.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the David Suzuki Foundation, https://davidsuzuki.

org. A celebration of life to follow, details to be determined.

EDWIN CLARK HODGETTS "Ted"

March 8, 1946 August 4, 2018 Ted died at his home near Millbrook on the morning of August 4, 2018. He was predeceased by his parents, John Edwin Hodgetts and Ruth (Woodger) Hodgetts. Ted will be deeply missed by his life partner of 42 years, Jane Wilson; his brother, Geoffrey Hodgetts (Cathleen Hoeniger); sister, Anne Hodgetts; sister-in-law, Mary Stikeman; and nieces and nephews, Geoffrey Hodgetts, Melanie Hodgetts, Sarah Power, Matthew Hodgetts, Paul Hodgetts and Roben Stikeman.

Ted's work life centred around the arts. For almost 30 years he pursued a career as a woodturner and his exquisite and profound pieces found their way into public and private collections around the world. Thirteen years ago his deep love of music, especially jazz, and the printed word led him to found JazzFirst books, an online bookstore devoted to jazz and blues books and ephemera. The synthesis of these two passions gave him much joy. Elegant in mind and person, deeply intelligent, Ted was treasured by his family and friends for his capacity for sympathic joy, his generous encouragement and confidence in them to live their best lives. Ted traversed a path of deep engagement and curiosity instilled with compassion and great kindness. We will miss him dearly.

There will be a gathering for family and friends in September at Ted and Jane's home. Arrangements entrusted to the Fallis & Shields Funeral Home, Millbrook. Online donations and condolences may be made at fallis-shields.com.

MICHAEL C. KIRKHAM

Michael C. Kirkham, Professor Emeritus of English at the University of Toronto, passed away on July 29, 2018, at the Christie Gardens retirement residence, where he had lived since 2012 with his wife, Ruth Grogan.

Michael was born in 1934, in Stockport, U.K., where he and his parents experienced the war years and the bombing of nearby Manchester.

After the war the family moved south to Portsmouth. He was educated at Portsmouth Grammar School where he was regularly "slippered" for mischief. Being clever as well as mischievous, he proceeded later to Christ Church, Oxford. Granted leave after his first year to do the then-required National Service, he chose to join the Intelligence Corps (as he abhorred and ridiculed officer training) and was put to the boring, if occasionally amusing, task of intercepting coded Russian communications. After two years he returned to Oxford, taking his BA in English and a Diploma in Library Science.

He met his first wife, Angela, when working in a public library in Penge, a small borough on the outskirts of London, and they married in 1963.

A small inheritance enabled them to spend a year in Greece where he worked on his book about the poet Robert Graves, who wrote him later that he had gotten closer to the essence of his poetry than any other critic.

Back in England, he studied for an M. Phil. at Birkbeck College, University of London (where, as it happens, his daughter Natasha now holds an academic position). On the strength of that degree as well as his publications (during his years in London he was associated with the New Left Review), he was offered an appointment in the English Department, University of Toronto in 1968. He was first at Scarborough College, and after 1975, at University College. He retired in 1999.

His and Angela's daughter, Natasha was born in 1969. After Angela's death in 1994, he married Ruth Grogan, a member of the English Department, York University. She shared his interests in modern poetry, his love of music, his sense of humour, and enjoyment of holidays in the UK.

Michael was a strong presence in the English Department. His collegiality, scholarship, and administrative work were highly valued. He expressed himself forcefully (some said "vehemently"), often in the face of prevailing academic trends though keeping informed about them. His main intellectual interests were poetry, especially modern English and American, as well as twentieth century fiction. He published prolifically: the book on Robert Graves was followed by books on English poets Edward Thomas and Charles Tomlinson, as well as many articles and reviews. His writings are based on an exceptionally sensitive close reading and are given scope by philosophical and social awareness. His was a distinguished career that enhanced the reputation of the department and university.

He also wrote poetry, and after his retirement published two volumes, A Dark Clarity (2009) and The Years Between (2012), the latter being markedly personal; in its last four poems Michael confronts the incipient ravages of Lewy Body Dementia, of which he eventually died.

As well as by his wife, Ruth, Michael is survived by his daughter, Natasha Kirkham, her husband Daniel Richardson; and his three grandchildren, Samuel, Isaac, and Calla, who live in London, U.K. He will be much missed by family, friends, colleagues, and former students.

A memorial gathering will be held at Christie Gardens, October 21, 2.30 - 5.30 p.m. Michael's friends, the family's friends, University colleagues, former students, and all who remember him will be welcomed. Before coming, friends are asked to confirm the date and details on the updated website of Morley Bedford Funeral Services (http://www.morleybedford.ca).

DR. HARRY M. B. HURWITZ

Passed away after a brief illness in his 95th year on August 4, 2018, surrounded by his loving family. He was a much-beloved husband to Hilde Thornton; father to Marc, Sebastian, and Christopher Hurwitz; and to Dianne, Ian, and Robin Thornton; grandfather to 11 remarkable grandchildren, and great-grandfather to two.

Born in Berlin, Germany to Richard and Meta (née Schlossman), he grew up with a passion for music that won him the chance to guestconduct the Cape Town Symphony at the age of 14.

He completed his PhD at University of London after graduate studies with Karl Popper. Harry became a research psychologist, working at a number of academic institutions in Great Britain and the US before settling in Canada in 1971 to become Chair of the Department of Psychology at University of Guelph, Ontario.

Throughout his life he studied and adored classical music, art, and history, and was the author of a blog on the philosophy of science and language well into his 90s. Above all these accomplishments, he will always be remembered as our dear Dad, Papa, Bapa, Gramps, Uncle Harry, and friend.

In lieu of flowers, please send donations to Doctors Without Borders.

DR. GERALD ARTHUR KLASSEN "Gerry"

MD, FRCPC, FACC, FACP

85, of Halifax, died Monday, August 6, 2018 in the QEII Health Sciences Centre, Halifax. Born in Kerrobert, SK, on January 12, 1933, he was the son of the late William and Agnes (Hamm) Klassen. He is survived by his wife and partner of 57 years, Andree (Dauphinee); his son, Timothy William, Edmonton; his daughter, Sonja Elizabeth LePage; her husband, Stephen LePage and his son, Adam LePage and family; sister-in-law, Judy Damberger, North Vancouver; several nieces and a nephew; and many longtime colleagues and friends.

He graduated from the University of British Columbia Medical School in 1957. He had wanted to be a doctor since he was 4 years old and he was that and a teacher to the end (negotiating treatment options with the resident).

You may leave condolences at: http://www.jasnowfuneralhome.com.

DR. CESIUS KURAS

Passed away peacefully at home with family by his side in his 98th year on July 30, 2018. Loving husband of Joana for 68 years.

Proud father of Joana, Paul (Rasa Kuras), Virginia (Linas Zubrickas), Ruth (Dan Dionne). Cherished grandfather of Tomas (Vija), Daina (Brady), Vaiva (Matas), Darius, Viktor, Elena, Christine and Alexander.

His was a remarkable and fulfilled life, from the chaos of a Lithuania torn by war, through Germany to Winnipeg, Manitoba where he met and married Joana Klimaite.

He enjoyed a long career as a veterinarian with the federal Department of Agriculture in Manitoba and Ontario. Cesius also supported his relatives in Lithuania, and instilled a love for the Lithuanian language and culture in his children and grandchildren who participate in community activities in Canada, the United States and internationally.

A funeral Mass will be held at 11 a.m. on August 18, 2018 at Lithuanian Martyrs Church, 2185 Stavebank Road, Mississauga.

Online condolences can be made at http://www.FamiliesFirst.ca.

DR. GEOFFREY JOHN LLOYD

M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S.(C).

Geoff, (85) died peacefully at Sunnybrook Hospital on July 25, 2018. He was born April 11, 1933, in Sheffield, England.

This physician, outdoor adventurer, and educator will be remembered with love by Barbara, Neil, Karen (Carl), Anne, Alison, John, Janet, Leslie (Courtenay), John, Stephen (Paolina), and Jacqueline, Beck, Nicole, Jessie, Myriah, Matthew, Brianna, Lindsay, Joshua, Nolan, and Paige.

A service will be held at St.

Clement's Church, 70 St.

Clements Avenue, Toronto.

Friday, August 17th at 11 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Nature Conservancy of Canada, nature@natureconservancy.ca.

VINETTA MARY LUNN (nee Burke)

Oct 23, 1917 - Aug 3, 2018 At 100 years, in Montreal. Predeceased by her husband, Hugh Lunn in 2011.

She leaves her children, Bridget, Anthony and Sarah; grandchildren, Naomi, Isabelle, Anne-Mathilde, Catherine, and Sebastian; and four great-grandchildren. Also her niece, Roberta Young of Barrie and many Lunn nieces and nephews.

Vinetta was born in Toronto to Anne Purtle (born of Irish parents from Galway and Cashel) and Gerald Burke (born in Joggins, NS of Acadian parents). She attended Loretto College and St.

Michael's College (University of Toronto) graduating with a BA in 1938. During the war she worked in Ottawa and Vancouver on government war effort jobs, then joined the Navy as a WREN. Posts included Halifax and Cornwallis, NS and England where she worked in London until the end of the war and where her future husband was in the RCAF. All her life, she kept in touch with her many friends in the Navy.

After the war Vinetta and Hugh married in Vancouver, had three children and moved frequently back and forth from Canada to Europe, including Vancouver, Montreal, Chicoutimi, Isle of Wight (England), Guernsey, Brussels and Zweibrucken (Germany). Settling in Ottawa in 1965, Vinetta worked at the public library and the National Gallery library. The last move was to Vancouver in the 70s where Vinetta worked at the UBC psychiatry library and where they lived on the waterfront for over 35 years in False Creek, Vancouver.

In retirement, she and Hugh loved to travel through North America and Europe, play tennis every day and read. Vinetta especially loved hosting her grandchildren in Vancouver every summer.

There will be a funeral Mass at St. Irenaeus Church (3030 Delisle, Montreal) on Saturday, August 11 at 9 a.m. followed by a reception.

Online condolences may be sent to dignitequebec.com.

GEORGE LUCIUS O'BRIEN

September 19, 1944 August 4, 2018 Passed away peacefully in Toronto after a long battle with Alzheimer's. Loving husband of Beth. Proud father of Liam (Nina), Katie, and Meg (predeceased). Cherished brother of Deirdre, Brian (Barbara), and Ruth (predeceased). George will be greatly missed by his relatives and friends. He will also be missed by colleagues at York University where he taught mathematics since 1971.

A private service will take place at a later date.

JULIA MACDONALD ORMSBY (Drysdale) "Bammy"

July 4, 1931 - July 24, 2018 Passed away peacefully at Kilrie, aged 87, after a long illness bravely born. Beloved wife of Anthony, mother of Anne, Penny, John, and Claire, and much loved grandmother of 13.

Thanksgiving service took place at Auchtertool Kirk on Friday, August 3, 2018.

Donations may be given if so desired in aid of Cure Parkinson's Trust and Sandpiper Trust, in the UK.

ROLAND PENNER

C.M., O.M., Q.C.

It is with great sadness that the family of Roland Penner remembers his passing on May 31, 2018.

A celebration of Roland's life will take place on Thursday, August 23 at Neil Bardal Funeral Centre, 3030 Notre Dame Avenue (across from Brookside Cemetery) at 11:30 a.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations in Roland's memory can be made to the Manitoba Chamber Orchestra, the Council of Canadians or to any arts or social justice charity of your choice.

Neil Bardal Funeral Centre 204-949-2200 neilbardalinc.com

MORLEY MAYHEW POWELL

1930 - 2018

Shortly after a fun, happy interaction with some of his very caring caregivers at Sunset Manor, Morley's wonderful journey of 88 years ended on July 21, 2018.

Dearly loved, (often late) husband of Diane since 1959. Loving, very proud father to Bruce (Melanie Boyd-Brown) and Jodi (Kevin Clark) and much loved and loving "Gramps" to Hudson, Sawyer and Zuzu, Meghan, Jessica and Jeremy. Dear Uncle to Shelley Robson and brother-in-law to Robbie McKenzie of Vancouver.

Ottawa born, Queens Commerce 1952 and Western MBA 1954.

Summers working at Jasper Park Lodge where he met many lifelong friends and the future love of his life, Di Robson, from Vancouver.

His happy, very rewarding career in food and beverage industries had him travelling all of Canada, Europe, California and Australia.

It also had his family living in Toronto, St. John's, Vancouver and Oakville before retiring to Collingwood in 1996. Mo had a cup half full attitude and a smile and warmth to light up a room.

He loved big band music, cool jazz, sudoku, football, skiing, golf, a perfect martini and his many great friends. With world wide travel, canoes to paddle, boats to sail, golf and tennis balls to hit, cottages to enjoy, gondolas, chair lifts, tuktuks, rickshaws, horses, elephants and camels to ride plus a 652lb Blue Fin Tuna to catch in Newfoundland and Labrador Life was Good! Sadly missed, remembered and loved forever by all who knew him.

Celebration of a Life well lived will be held Friday, September 14 from 2 p.m. at Devils Glen Country Club, Simcoe County Rd. 124, Glen Huron, ON.

Donations may be made to Parkinson Society Canada or Collingwood General and Marine Hospital.FriendsmayvisitMorley's online Book of Memories at http://www.fawcettfuneralhomes.com.

GWEN RAPOPORT (nee Goodrich)

January 21, 1921 - August 9, 2018 Peacefully at home. Widow of Anatol Rapoport, beloved mother of Anya, Alexander and Anthony, grandmother of Leo and Brenagh. Lifelong community builder, from Cooperative League of the USA and Cooperative Health Federation of America to her Toronto home, a hub for friends, neighbours, musicians and activists since 1970.

THOMAS PETER ROCKLIFFE "Wayne"

1937-2018

Born in Swan River, Manitoba.

Wayne passed away suddenly on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 playing golf, a passion he loved.

Predeceased by father, James Henry; mother, Elizabeth Kirk; and sisters, Beverley Winter and Dorris Braithwaite. Will be lovingly missed by Marilyn Bardeau. Survived by brother, Morris; loving sons, Roman (Ali) and Blayne (Niki); and adoring grandchildren, Tristan, Chanel, Gunnar, London and Westin.

Wayne had a distinguished career as a Chartered Accountant after graduating from the University of Toronto, working for Hollinger before moving into stock and tech fields with CMQ and Computerland. His passion for golf was only matched by his love of real estate investment, where he owned and operated commercial and residential properties throughout Oakville.

A dedicated entrepreneur who refused to retire, he always knew the value of a dollar, telling us boys, "If you watch the pennies, the dollars will take care of themselves." If not in the office, he could be found on the links with his Tuesday morning seniors group at Clublink, or cheering on his beloved grandson's '08 Oakville Ranger team from the stands or behind the goal line.

His interests were many: horses, travelling, music, family, and fitness. He spoke often about his parents and siblings, his early life growing up in Toronto, British Columbia, and finally Oakville. He loved his sons and their families and was so proud of their achievements and had wonderful hopes and dreams for them. A social man, he fit so seamlessly into everyone's life, charming family and friends wherever he went. A public toast to a great son, brother, father and grandfather. Taken too soon but forever remembered.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to The Scott Mission.

Please visit the Book of Memories at http://www.wardfuneralhome.com

ALEC STABLES

Died peacefully in Toronto on August 8, 2018 in his 87th year. Devoted and loving husband to Mary for 64 years.

Cherished father of Robin (spouse Lisa Stables) and Sabrina (spouse Dave O'Connor). Proud grandfather of Julian, Eamon, Sean, Avalon and Madlen.

Alec lived a full, adventurous life, travelling the globe with Mary by his side, and working in various countries on three continents. He was a gifted artist and gardener, and at all times, a true gentleman. He will be missed tremendously.

In keeping with Alec's wishes, a cremation with no service has already taken place. We will celebrate his life at a later date. His family thanks Drs.

Trinos and Myers, and the staff at Bridgepoint for their kindness and exceptional care. Personal online condolences may be made at http://www.mcdbrowneglinton.ca.

In lieu of flowers, donations to a charity of your choice would be appreciated.

HOWARD JOHN WATSON

June 3, 1932 - August 8, 2018 Howard passed away peacefully in the Palliative Care Unit of Sunnybrook Hospital with his wife and his daughter, Karen, by his side.

Howard was born on a farm near Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan. He leaves behind his loving wife of 58 years, Margaret; his children, Karen (Mortimer Phills) and Miriam (Steven Christie); his grandchildren, Johnathan and Katelin Phills, Zachary and Dylan Christie; his sister, Gwen Favel; his brothers, George and Doug; and his extended family, Nariman, Amanda, Cheyenne and Shawnee Matinnia. His parents and his brothers, Don, Mel, Al, and Bill, predeceased him.

Howard earned his degrees in arts and theology at St.

Andrew's College, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.

In 1958, he was ordained a Minister of the United Church of Canada and served for four years as a minister on a four point Charge in Saskatchewan. In 1963, he was awarded his Master of Social Work degree at the University of Toronto.

Howard worked as a Social Worker in a number of agencies until he established his own business, an Employee Assistance Program.

Howard was an active member of the congregation at Eglinton United Church and Eglinton St. George's United Church. He was a member of the Choir in both of these churches.

After retiring from full time work, Howard took an active role in Seniors Organizations where his focus was on housing issues. Howard enjoyed his role as a grandfather and was always interested in his grandchildren's activities.

A Memorial Service will be held at Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Blvd., Toronto on Wednesday, August 15 at 2:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please make a donation to a charity of your choice.

JOYCE NAOMI WATSON

1924 - 2018

Born in Toronto, Ontario. Our dear friend Joyce passed away peacefully on Wednesday, August 1, 2018.

She was predeceased by her parents, Miriam and John Watson; and her sister, Evelyn.

One of the greatest loves in her life were the 30 years she spent teaching the mentally challenged. Joyce also loved all wildlife creatures and spent 60 years sharing life with them on her beloved Campbell Island in Georgian Bay.

Joyce will be sadly missed by many and especially by her friend and companion of many years, Karen Chi-Ying Li.

She will also be missed by her adopted Chinese families, the Tongs and the Li's.

As per Joyce's request, there will not be a funeral or celebration of life. She wished only to be remembered through good memories of times spent together during her life and times on Georgian Bay.

PROFESSOR LEO ZAWADOWSKI

A distinguished linguist and romance language philologist, passed away on August 4, 2018 in his 104th year. He taught in underground schools during the occupation of Warsaw, and after the war was appointed chairman of the Department of Linguistics in Wroclaw University. Later he chaired the Dept. of Languages at Lakehead University. His highly respected scientific research continues to be widely quoted and his seminal works, "Inductive Semantics and Syntax" and "Linguistic Theory of Language" are considered classics.

On the occasion of his 100th birthday, the Polish National Academy of Sciences, honoured him with a plenary symposium devoted entirely to his lifetime achievement.

Predeceased by his beloved wife, Yvonne (Iwona); mourned by his sons, Raphael, Peter, and Andrew (Iris); his grandchildren; and great-grandchildren.


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THE DISTURBING RECORD BEHIND ONE OF B.C.'S TOP-BILLING DOCTORS
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Patients who claim they were harmed by obstetrician-gynecologist Winston Tam are demanding to know how he was disciplined and why action wasn't taken sooner
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By ANNIE BURNS-PIEPER
  
  

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Tuesday, August 7, 2018 – Page A1

For 13 years, Winston Tuck Loke Tam was British Columbia's top-billing obstetrician-gynecologist, seeing as many as 90 patients a day and bringing in up to $1.7-million a year.

He said he started his days at 4 a.m. and worked nights and weekends because he loved his job in women's health. His clinic on the top floor of a beige concrete medical building in Surrey, B.C., was so busy that some pregnant women sat on the floor, sometimes waiting up to four hours for their appointments with urine samples in hand.

What Dr. Tam's patients didn't know was that his high earnings and elevated patient loads were raising troubling questions about his billings and medical care at least as far back as 2010. Yet, he continued to treat patients for another five years - collecting millions more in public dollars - as confidential provincial and regulatory investigations into his medical practice dragged on until he resigned in 2015.

Now, former patients who say they were harmed under his care are demanding to know what was done to discipline him and why it wasn't done sooner.

"The system is flawed," said Alison Pillar, who saw Dr. Tam for an infected cesarean-section incision in 2014.

"Like most of our systems, it needs to be evaluated, reviewed and changed."

Ms. Pillar is one of almost 40 former patients who allege they were poorly treated by Dr. Tam and who The Globe and Mail communicated with as part of its probe.

The newspaper also contacted the doctor's past colleagues and examined more than 1,400 pages of transcripts from an audit hearing into his billings obtained through the province's freedom-of-information legislation.

The experiences many of Dr. Tam's former patients describe are disturbing. The women allege he performed medical procedures, such as vaginal exams, without their consent and made disparaging remarks about their bodies, weight and sex life. They also accuse him of botching the births of their babies, performing unnecessary C-sections and failing to do basic tests, such as urine analysis and pelvic exams.

A government finding in 2016 exposed that he had overbilled the province and was directed to pay $2.1-million. It is the highest repayment order ever issued to a doctor in B.C. and one of the highest ever in the country.

Amanda Stewart, whose twins he delivered in 2010, asserts Dr. Tam did not care about his patients.

"He was just there to cut people open, get his money and go home."

Obstetrician-gynecologist Keith Still acknowledges that the process for dealing with problematic doctors can seem unduly long. Dr. Still was part of a fivemember audit panel that scrutinized Dr. Tam's billings.

"Unfortunately people are harmed, either mentally or physically or both, before the conclusion of these things," said Dr. Still, who worked at Surrey Memorial Hospital at the same time as Dr. Tam.

Almost from the start of his medical career in B.C., Dr. Tam was a prolific biller. Aside from his clinic, he worked at the Surrey Memorial Hospital, the largest in the area, where he once delivered 15 babies in a single shift. Dr. Tam also worked at Indigenous and youth-health clinics and with cancer patients.

He came to Canada in 1990, abandoning 41/2 years of medical training in Singapore to start his education from scratch. Dr. Tam attended the University of Toronto medical school and then did a residency program to become an obstetrician-gynecologist in B.C., which he completed in 2001.

Within only a year of finishing his five-year residency program with the University of British Columbia, he became the province's top billing obstetrician-gynecologist, jumping from $176,000 in 2001 to $875,000 the following year.

He would continue billing at a higher level than his peers - five times as much as the average feefor-service obstetrician-gynecologist between 2004 and 2014 - until he resigned from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia in 2015 and left Canada.

His earnings had placed him in the top 2 per cent of doctors of any specialty in the province. Yet, it wasn't until 2010 that Dr. Tam's billing practices landed on the radar of the B.C. Billing Integrity Program. Less is known about when patient complaints began coming in.

The communications departments of the Fraser Health Authority, which operates 12 hospitals in its area, and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia, which regulates the practice of medicine in the province, both declined to say when they started receiving complaints or how many they received, saying it would violate Dr.

Tam's privacy rights.

However, Dr. Peter Beresford, who has been the program medical director for the maternal infant child program at the Fraser Health Authority since 2013, estimated he was informed of more than 10 official complaints.

Two of the women who made official complaints spoke to The Globe. One of them was kindergarten teacher Charisma Jurica.

She and her husband, Emil, never expected the birth of their first child would transform their marriage, lead to post-traumatic stress disorder and, for years, prevent them from having more children.

It all started at Surrey Memorial Hospital on New Year's Day, 2013. After labouring for more than 13 hours, Ms. Jurica's midwife called Dr. Tam for a consult because she was concerned the baby's heart rate had decreased.

When Dr. Tam arrived, the midwife told him the heart rate had returned to normal and he wasn't needed, Ms. Jurica recalled. But within minutes, Dr.

Tam declared it was time for the baby to be born, telling Ms. Jurica she would have to push immediately or have a C-section. He then commented on her weight, calling her a "really big girl," Ms. Jurica recounted.

He chastised her for screaming as he put both his hands into her vagina without consent, Ms. Jurica alleges. The couple were confused. Ms. Jurica's midwife had told her she wasn't fully dilated.

Ms. Jurica remembers that after only a few attempts at pushing, Dr. Tam cut the opening of her vagina without any explanation, inserted forceps without informed consent and pulled her baby out.

Her husband began to cry. "I saw Ava's head and I said, 'Oh my god, my baby is deformed.' " The Juricas said the forceps had misshapen Ava's head and her eye was swollen shut. Photos during the early part of their daughter's life would be taken at particular angles to hide the damage. The shape of her head eventually returned to normal but she is left with a scar from the forceps.

After the delivery Dr. Tam stitched up the tears in Ms. Jurica's cervix and the episiotomy without offering pain relief, she alleges.

The Juricas were horrified. Instead of resting when she got home, Ms. Jurica spent days writing complaints to the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia and the Fraser Health Authority. She said a nurse who witnessed the birth encouraged her to speak up.

Ms. Jurica sent her complaint to the medical college in February, 2013, and received an official response about a year later. The eight-page letter includes Dr.

Tam's rebuttal.

Dr. Tam said his reason for the rushed birth and the forceps delivery was that the baby was in distress. He said he had examined Ms. Jurica's cervix and it was fully dilated, and he claimed he had communicated clearly about what he was doing and the options.

He said he discussed Ms. Jurica's weight because a high body mass index can lead to obstetric complications. "The intention of bringing this up was never to insult or offend but a means to explain why her delivery was more challenging," he stated.

The college disagreed with Dr.

Tam's assertions. Its letter to Ms.

Jurica stated that its inquiry committee was "troubled by Dr. Tam's clinical judgment and performance" in relation to Ava's delivery. The college told the Juricas that the letter would be retained on Dr. Tam's file and that he had entered into an agreement with the Fraser Health Authority to restrict his use of forceps. The health authority never sent an official reply to Ms. Jurica.

This wasn't the only concern patients raised about Dr. Tam.

Amanda Stewart, now a 39year-old mother of three, had seen Dr. Tam for her first pregnancy in 2008 and it hadn't gone well. She remembers on two occasions waiting more than four hours for her appointments and said he repeatedly berated her over her weight. She would leave in tears.

In 2010, when she became pregnant with twins, she was relieved to have a new doctor. But Dr. Tam happened to be on duty when she went in for a routine ultrasound at 34 weeks.

When he said something looked off, she and her husband were confused. He told them that one of the babies was much larger than the other and she needed an emergency C-section.

"Dr. Tam was pushy. He said, 'Do you want your kids to die? Do you want your babies to die?

They could die,' etc. All I could hear was die," Ms. Stewart recalled.

She and her husband asked for another ultrasound but the doctor wouldn't hear of it.

"I thought, well you are in a hospital and they are really rushing us along, maybe there really is an emergency. You don't know.

You put your trust into these guys. We were scared," Jeff Stewart said.

They were taken into surgery.

Dr. Tam delivered the twins by Csection without saying anything to the couple. While still on the operating table, Ms. Stewart demanded to know the weights of the twins - the reason she was given for their premature delivery. She found out hours later that the difference was only half a pound.

After the delivery, one of their sons was blue, his undeveloped lungs failing him. "I was heartbroken," Mr. Stewart said.

The premature babies had to stay in the hospital for several weeks. After they came home, Ms. Stewart worried constantly, sleeping by their side for a month in fear they would stop breathing.

Ms. Stewart complained orally at the hospital in 2010 but was overwhelmed by caring for three small children and didn't submit an official complaint to the Fraser Health Authority until 2014, after she learned about the treatment of other patients through a Facebook group for local mothers.

The Stewarts said that they never received an official response to their complaint. The health authority told The Globe that: "We made several attempts

to connect with Ms. Stewart and get the details of her complaint.

She did not provide further information after her initial contact with us. As a result, the file was closed."

Ms. Stewart said she never received any follow-up messages.

And after recently receiving her medical records, she has more questions than ever.

She found that Dr. Tam wrote that his reason for the emergency C-section was speculation that there was placental insufficiency as a result of her type 1 diabetes.

This reason was never relayed to her, she said. The report shows that the twins were in good health.

Dr. Beresford at the Fraser Health Authority said patients were not told about the outcomes of their complaints because of Dr. Tam's privacy rights.

He said the doctor's hospital privileges were temporarily suspended after an incident, but declined to disclose further details. Dr.

Tam was allowed to resume practice at the hospital with restrictions.

When the Stewarts and Juricas heard about Dr. Tam's overbilling, they began to wonder whether their rushed deliveries were financially motivated. Because the babies were born on Dr. Tam's watch, he garnered the billings.

"I fully believe he put our kids at risk for money," Mr. Stewart said. "I was a walking price tag," added his wife.

Between 2001 and early 2015, Dr.

Tam billed $19.3-million through the taxpayer-funded Medical Services Plan. During those years, he built his dream home on a treelined street in Vancouver's upscale west side, only to put it up for sale soon after it was finished.

He sold it for $4.4-million in February, 2015, shortly before he resigned.

The province's Billing Integrity Program audits around 15 health practitioners a year to detect and deter financial abuses. A 2010 review of Dr. Tam's billings found significant abnormalities and determined there was cause to order an audit of his practice. The audit used a random sample of 44 of the doctor's 13,378 patients between Nov. 1, 2005, and Oct. 31, 2010. It found 332 possible "irregularities" in 38 of the 44 charts.

One chart alone had 58 irregularities.

Auditors found various issues driving up Dr. Tam's billings. For example, they found he was racking up charges for being called out to the hospital when he was likely already there, improperly billing around $100 extra in each case. He regularly billed for a urine examination involving a microscope, but when auditors visited his office they found he did not have the instrument. (The different billing code meant he could charge about $3 more for each of these routine tests.)

The auditors also found Dr. Tam billed for an emergency Csection when the records showed it had been scheduled. The difference meant he could bill approximately $50 more.

Dr. Tam was presented with the audit's findings in mid-2012.

He challenged the audit and asked for a hearing, which was held over 7½ days in 2015.

In his opening remarks, Robert Musto, the lawyer who represented the government, argued that: "Whatever was happening in this practice with regard to pregnant patients was not driven by medical necessity alone. There was something else at work there."

But Dr. Tam and his lawyers maintained his high earnings were a result of hard work and commitment. They contended that any errors were clerical mistakes - par for the course in the fast-paced medical world.

"There's no ulterior motive here. There was some sloppiness," Nevin Fishman, one of Dr. Tam's lawyers, said during the hearing.

The five-member audit panel disagreed. "Dr. Tam did not impress us as a wholly credible witness. He attempted to portray himself as a victim whose extreme hard work and dedication to his patients was not appreciated," they wrote in their decision.

The panel described his records as "meager," "bereft" and "unintelligible" and said the mistakes and omissions raised questions about whether Dr. Tam was providing many of the services for which he billed the province.

The audit's mandate was to examine finances, but evidence presented also revealed concerns about the care of his patients.

Obstetrician-gynecologist Mary Lynn Simpson was the medical inspector in the audit. In the hearing, she testified that she was bothered by a finding that Dr.

Tam had failed to perform pelvic examinations, even though he was billing for them. She said the exams were critical to patient care.

The audit panel was also concerned about the high number of patients Dr. Tam was seeing and the quality of care he was providing. On some audited days, the doctor saw 90 patients, which meant if he spent even 10 minutes with each, he would be working 15 hours a day without breaks.

Mr. Fishman maintained Dr. Tam's high patient loads were a service to British Columbians, by providing access to a physician in a province with a shortage of doctors.

"He's passionate about being known as the obstetrician and gynecologist in Surrey who will come in when needed, and doesn't have the ridiculously long wait lists that we've all heard about. He'll see patients quickly and make himself available," Mr. Fishman told the hearing.

Dr. Tam's patient volumes seemed excessive to Brenda Wagner, an obstetrician-gynecologist who has also worked in administrative roles for various health authorities in B.C., including Fraser Health. She told The Globe that on a busy day she sees 25 patients, each for a minimum 20-minute appointment. Appointments for high-risk patients can take up to an hour.

Forty patients on a busy day is typical of some of her colleagues, she added. She does not know how appropriate care could have been provided to the high number of patients Dr. Tam was seeing daily.

Stories of inappropriate care relayed to The Globe allege far more egregious behaviour than just rushed appointments. For example, one woman who went to see Dr. Tam for dark spots on her labia said several large chunks of her labia were taken for a biopsy without pain medication. She remembers screaming so loudly a friend could hear her from the waiting room. She said her sex life has been severely affected by the damage to her genitals and believes Dr. Tam removed too much tissue.

A nurse, who does not want to be named out of fear of losing her current employment, observed Dr. Tam when she was a student.

She said he made disparaging comments about a patient who was under general anesthesia for a tubal ligation. She remembers Dr. Tam saying he was doing the world a service because the patient already had multiple children and earned a low income.

Dr. Tam sang "burn baby burn" while cauterizing the patient's fallopian tubes to the shock of the students present, the nurse said.

The Globe heard from patients who had positive experiences with Dr. Tam as well. "Dr. Tam was the most caring, consistent and helpful doctor on the planet," wrote Bev Everest in an email.

That wasn't Ms. Pillar's experience. In August, 2014, she saw Dr.

Tam for an infected C-section incision. Without warning, she said he took a swab from her partly healed incision and ripped it from end to end, opening stitches and scar tissue. She alleges he didn't offer any explanation, pain relief or even put on gloves or wash his hands.

"I was screaming, 'What are you doing? Stop!' " Ms. Pillar said.

She is one of many patients who did not complain officially.

She said she still feels guilty for not saying something sooner but, like many of the women The Globe spoke to, life as a new mother was overwhelming and she was trying to put the trauma behind her.

In May, 2016, six years after B.C.'s Medical Services Commission began looking into Dr. Tam, it ordered him to pay $2.1-million for improperly billed medical services, interest and the cost of the hearing. The audit scrutinized only five of the 14 years Dr. Tam worked in the province. Nine years of his billings were never examined, even though for most of those years, he was billing at a similar level as the years audited.

Dr. Still says that, had an audit of those years been completed, it would have found similar problems. A spokesperson with the B.C. Ministry of Health said those years were not audited because its practice is to conclude one audit before initiating further work.

By the time Dr. Tam's initial audit was concluded, he had stopped working in the province.

The B.C. Ministry of Health will not say if Dr. Tam has repaid his overbilling. The only public record of Dr. Tam's reprimand is the 22-page audit decision posted on B.C. Medical Services Commission's website.

A search of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia's website lists Dr. Tam as resigned - the same status given to a doctor who has retired or moved out of the province.

While the college said for privacy reasons it cannot confirm nor deny the existence of an investigation into Dr. Tam, the 2014 letter sent to Ms. Jurica by the college states that a wider investigation of his practice was planned.

The letter said that this investigation would identify and remedy any failings in the physician's practice that could put the public at risk. Ms. Jurica was assured that the investigation would "be geared towards ensuring that Dr.

Tam's future patients are provided with appropriate obstetrical care."

But none of the college's findings or the patient complaints against Dr. Tam were ever made public.

The senior deputy registrar for the college, J. Galt Wilson, said that while the regulator can offer criticism of a doctor's practice, issue reprimands and order further training, nothing can be made public until formal discipline is meted, which requires a hearing or an admission of guilt by the doctor involved.

"When we resort to naming and blaming, when we go the disciplinary route, it's often counterproductive because people fight back, they lawyer up, they defend and it's much better and much more effective to get the physicians to work with us," Dr. Wilson said.

Whether Dr. Tam would be allowed to work in B.C. or elsewhere in Canada again is unclear.

The college will not say if Dr. Tam would be accepted if he ever came back to the province.

When applying to work elsewhere, Dr. Wilson said a doctor would need to give permission for an outside licensing body to access his or her B.C. record, which would include a reference to any open investigations at the time of their resignation.

Dr. Wilson said disclosure of open investigations can cause problems for doctors wanting to work abroad. But in Dr. Tam's case, almost immediately after his resignation, he was able to resume working as a doctor in China.

According to a web archive of the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at the Shanghai United Family Hospital, Dr. Tam was listed there as a doctor in May, 2015. His name disappeared off the website nearly one year later.

Lonna Grady, a patient-service representative from Shanghai United Family Hospital, said Dr.

Tam is no longer employed there and he said he was planning to return to Canada.

The Globe searched for Dr.

Tam's current whereabouts and reached out to three of his former lawyers, but they did not know how to contact him.

Colleen Flood, director of the University of Ottawa Centre for Health Law Policy & Ethics, said patient-complaint systems across the country need to be strengthened. Often, she said, issues brought to provincial medical colleges are the tip of the iceberg and take a long time to deal with because of the quasi-judicial nature of the colleges' disciplinary processes.

"If there is a serious problem, they don't seem to be set up to act very quickly," Ms. Flood said.

In the case of Dr. Tam, Dr. Beresford said at the health authority level, there was little that could be done to permanently keep the doctor from practising.

That decision rests with the medical college.

"Is it difficult to take privileges away? Yes, it is difficult. And so that is why there were limitations set on how he could practise," Dr.

Beresford said.

"As frustrating as it is, there is a process that is undertaken and it has to run its course," he added.

"But from our point of view, there was an awareness of the situation and [of] a need to deal with it."

It's an outcome that is deeply unsatisfying to patients such as Ms. Jurica. More than five years after her daughter, Ava, was born, she is pregnant again. But it was a long road to get where she is today.

Her traumatic birthing experience led to postpartum depression, anxiety, PTSD and physical ailments. She would even see visions of Dr. Tam in her home and took three years off work because she was terrified of leaving Ava.

Her relationship with her husband also suffered.

"She didn't want me touching her. She didn't want to be intimate. We couldn't even kiss in the beginning," her husband said.

Ms. Jurica developed a deep distrust of doctors, and couldn't stomach the idea of getting pregnant again for years. She feels failed by institutions she thought were there to protect her and knows she's not the only one Dr.

Tam harmed. "He hurt a lot of women."

With data analysis by Michael Pereira and reporting by Xiao Xu If you have further information about this story, please e-mail tips@globeandmail.com

Associated Graphic

Charisma Jurica of Delta, B.C., has filed an official complaint against a B.C. doctor who now faces allegations of mistreatment from almost 40 former patients.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Alison Pillar, seen at home in Delta, B.C., saw obstetrician-gynecologist Winston Tuck Loke Tam for an infected cesarean-section incision in 2014.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

For about a dozen years, Winston Tuck Loke Tam was British Columbia's top billing obstetrician-gynecologist, seeing as many as 90 patients a day and billing up to $1.7-million a year.

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: BRITISH COLUMBIA MEDICAL SERVICES PLAN (MSP)

Instead of resting when she got home after giving birth to her first child in 2013, Charisma Jurica spent days writing complaints to the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia and the Fraser Health Authority. Ms. Jurica, photographed at her home in Delta, B.C., in April, is pregnant again, though it took her years to work through the deep distrust of doctors that she says she developed after her experience with Dr. Tam.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

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Green rush: The race to sell pot
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In the 'Wild West' of Canada's emerging cannabis market, there will be winners and losers - and who ends up in which camp is still a hazy affair
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By MARINA STRAUSS, CHRISTINA PELLEGRINI
  
  

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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page B6

In Spruce Grove, Alta., people camped out by city hall, waiting for the doors to open so they could apply to open a cannabis store.

In other places in the province, retailers are signing leases with rents that are as much as twice the usual rate, in the hope they will eventually win the right to sell marijuana in those locations.

In Ontario, veteran retailer Michael Serruya says he has identified 27 future locations for cannabis shops - even though the province's new government hasn't officially said whether it will allow a single privately owned store to sell recreational marijuana.

It's the next wave of the green rush: As legalization nears in October, the spotlight is shifting from marijuana growers to sellers. That has ignited frenetic activity among prospective store owners, commercial real estate players, cannabis producers and the federal, provincial and municipal governments that have designed a thicket of rules about how and when the drug can be sold to consumers.

It is taking entrepreneurs like Mr. Serruya to places like West Hollywood, Calif., where he recently went for a lesson in how to sell cannabis.

In a store on Santa Monica Boulevard, Mr. Serruya found what he was looking for.

Surrounded by slick wood furnishings, security guards watch over crowds of consumers hovering over display tables as they inspect and sniff encased samples. It's a sleek retail operation that has the highend feel of an Apple store - only instead of the latest tech gadgets, people line up here to buy a US$20 brownie or an eighth of an ounce of dried flower for US$60.

The location is one of 14 dispensaries run by U.S.-based MedMen Enterprises Inc., a company that went public in Canada in May and has plans to expand here. It's a far cry from some of the "disgusting, horrible," spray-painted "pot head" stores that Mr. Serruya says he saw on a recent trip to California and other pot-friendly U.S. states in search of a model for his own nascent marijuana-retailing business.

An investor best known as a co-founder of the Yogen Fruz Canada Inc. frozen-yogurt chain, Mr. Serruya sees a big opportunity in selling marijuana. Now he, along with two brothers, two sons and a nephew, is aiming to launch a chain of cannabis dispensaries.

"Everyone is trying to figure it out," says Mr. Serruya, whose family private-equity firm has stakes in other cannabis-related businesses as well. For one, he sits on the Second Cup Ltd. board of directors and is leading a push to breathe new life into the challenged coffee chain by converting some of its cafes into standalone cannabis dispensaries in Canada.

"For the next little while, it's going to be a bit of a Wild West," he says. "But mark my words, the amount of money that's going to be made over the next couple of years for the people that figure this out and position themselves properly - this is going to be a huge business."

Mr. Serruya is far from alone among would-be cannabis retailers in a frenzied sprint to nab a piece of the action as Ottawa prepares to legalize recreational marijuana on Oct. 17. But Mr. Serruya and his potential competitors are in a race with uncertain rules while facing rising costs to secure store locations.

A mixed bag of players is aiming to cash in: provincial governments, growers, new companies hoping to open anything from one store to a big chain, Indigenous groups, U.S. dispensaries such as MedMen and existing domestic retailers ranging from grocery giant Loblaw Cos. Ltd. (which also owns Shoppers Drug Mart and a stake in landlord Choice Properties REIT), to Second Cup and Edmonton-based liquor store outfit Alcanna Inc. (formerly called Liquor Stores NA).

For landlords, the advent of a new segment of brick-and-mortar retailers is a welcome addition to shopping centres that are searching for new ways bring shoppers to the mall in a digital age.

"There's going to be a gold rush - there's going to be winners and there's going to be losers," said Edward Sonshine, chief executive of RioCan Real Estate Income Trust, one of the country's largest mall landlords.

RioCan has already signed 18 cannabis-dispensary leases in Alberta, Ontario and British Columbia.

"On the retail side, the winners will be the ones, like all retail, with the best locations."

The Serruyas have yet to receive government approvals to open a single shop. In Ontario, for example, they don't even know if they'll be in the game - although they plan to apply for dispensary licences at 27 of their properties.

Like many, they're basing their plans on what they think Ontario regulations will look like after a report last month in The Globe and Mail that the newly elected Progressive Conservative government will turn to the private sector for brick-andmortar cannabis retailing, scrapping a model of government-controlled sales.

The Serruyas and others presume the Ontario rules will be similar to those in Alberta, which is looking to dole out about 250 licences to private retailers in Year One.

For months, potential players from coast to coast have been grappling with a web of often confusing and sometimes shifting regulations from the federal, provincial and municipal governments. Rules include specified distances from schools, churches, playgrounds, daycare centres and other cannabis dispensaries, which narrow the options. Municipalities are weighing in with zoning constraints - or outright bans in some cases.

There's a lot at stake. The cannabis industry could reach almost $7.2-billion by next year, more than half of that from the legal recreational market, according to a recent Deloitte study.

But the regulatory regime is "a work in progress," said Jennifer Lee, partner at Deloitte and national cannabis sector leader.

"It is a complete maze," she said. "Even the regulations that have been laid out can change. Look at how fast Ontario changed.

... Every couple of weeks something changes. If you can't be agile, you actually won't survive."

BUILDING A POT STORE For years, legal cannabis producers have garnered attention as the most direct opportunity for investors to get a piece of the nascent sector. Under Canada's medical cannabis regime, producers operate mailorder businesses - the only permitted retail method. In October, another method will emerge.

In Alberta, competition for space has been fierce among would-be cannabis retailers looking to nab real estate before all the prominent units are gone, with some agreeing to 10-year leases at double the market rate even before they have been approved to sell a gram.

"It's unprecedented - there's never been anything like this in commercial real estate in Alberta where we've had one category just fresh onto the scene seeking locations," said Michael Kehoe at retail-real-estate specialist Fairfield Commercial in Calgary. "It was like a green rush of demand for retail space in the past year or so."

Since January, Alcanna, the country's largest privately owned liquor retailer, has acquired leases in Alberta for as many as 50 to 60 locations where it could open a cannabis store, although it will be allowed to operate only 37 stores, the maximum permitted for a single retailer under provincial regulations in Year 1, said James Burns, chief executive of Alcanna.

Some of its locations are in existing liquor stores run by Alcanna under banners such as Liquor Depot, which the retailer wants to convert to cannabis shops, he said. Rents for cannabis stores have as much as doubled at some sites - to roughly $65 a square foot annually - compared with the rate for a liquor store.

Despite the high rents, Alcanna will hang on to the best locations and bear the costs until more licences become available in Year 2, Mr. Burns said. In Edmonton, for example, the retailer has taken a lease for a store on the tony White Avenue but doesn't expect to get a licence for the site because of its chances in a lottery, he said. Still, Alcanna plans to build a cannabis education centre offering some accessories and other unregulated products to take advantage of the prominent site and try to build its brand, he said.

SmartCentres REIT, whose power centres are known for their Walmart Inc.

stores, has signed more than 10 leases for cannabis shops on its properties and is negotiating for more, executive vice-president Rudy Gobin told analysts this week.

"There's a lot of frenzy with people calling us up because we're all over the country," he said. "And as you know, this is not a product for consumption in urban markets only. It's a consumption of products everywhere. So whether it's for the elderly, for the sick and so on - so we're getting a massive amount of interest, so we are in discussions with a lot of parties on this."

Trevor Fencott, chief executive of Fire and Flower, an Edmonton-based retailer with four cannabis producers among its investors, also plans to operate cross-country where possible. The company has been

signing leases for sites since last year, taking a risk that these locations might end up on the wrong side of future bylaw changes.

"Essentially it is a risk capital decision on our part," Mr. Fencott said. "When you leap before things are entirely clear, obviously that's risky but that's what entrepreneurs do."

To help make its cannabis shops more acceptable, Fire and Flower recently opened a concept store in Edmonton for landlords and regulators.

The store has many of the elements that other cannabis chains are striving for: an upscale look with, in this case, an "experience table" (a bar) and chairs around it, digital screens from which shoppers can find more information, "smell jars," a reception area where shoppers' identification and age are checked and "cannistas" - its version of café baristas - who mill around to help shoppers.

"We want our customers to be provided with an experience and perceive us more similarly to a Whole Foods store," Mr. Fencott said.

But federal regulations forbid retailers from overtly marketing cannabis products and claiming a positive or negative effect of product use, while provincial rules ban them from stocking merchandise openly in the store, instead requiring that the goods be locked away in a secure showcase or back room. The pot itself must be stored in sealed containers to ensure no weedy odour.

It means that customers can't ask staff to weigh in on the best type of cannabis to help them relax over a few hours of Netflix, said Mark Goliger, chief executive of retailer National Access Cannabis Corp. (NAC), which has teamed with Second Cup to run its standalone weed stores and plans to operate its own shops as well under the Meta banner.

NAC, which calls its staff educators or "cannapros," will still train them on cannabis science and risks and "whenever possible fill in the blanks without stepping over the line," Mr. Goliger said.

Nevertheless, the Nova Scotia Liquor Corp., which runs cannabis stores in that province, is mounting signs in its new shops saying "relax," "unwind" and "enhance" and plans to promote various strains with words such as "soothing," "relaxing and calming," or involving "livelier experiences" that "invigorate the senses."

At least one critic complained to Ottawa this week that the messages violate federal laws against promoting a glamourous or positive image. A Health Canada spokeswoman said the department is aware of the complaint and is working with the cannabis industry and governments on how its rules for promoting marijuana will be applied.

POTHOLES: RULES AND RISK How cannabis retail is going to work depends on where you are.

While Ottawa is regulating cannabis production, store advertising and packaging, the provinces are responsible for setting a retail model, and wholesaling legal product to stores. In all but two instances, provinces will run the only available legal online stores. In provinces that are allowing private-sector retailers, such as Alberta, the municipalities control where pot shops can open through zoning and other development restrictions. The province completes the process by handing out retail-cannabis licences.

Five provinces and two territories will let the private sector open stores. (Ontario's model is up in the air.) Saskatchewan will allow companies to distribute product to retailers, and both Saskatchewan and Manitoba will also let firms operate online stores, two jobs that other regions said they'd do themselves.

Alberta is an emblem of just how tangled the regulatory web has become, with a maze of rules in each municipality for who will be chosen to open stores, where they can be located and how they should look.

For cannabis chains trying to build a brand from scratch, this is a challenge.

"Every town is different," said Mr. Burns of Alcanna, which operates 229 liquor stores in Alberta. "There's a lot to keep track of. It's kept everyone on their toes."

Red Deer, Alta. threw Alcanna for a loop.

"It's been very much a build-anythinganywhere-you-want-kind of city," said Mr.

Burns. So, Alcanna had three sites secured, but its plans were scuttled after the city - the third-largest in the province - put zoning limits in place a few weeks ago that would make these locations non-viable.

"You go back to the drawing board," Mr. Burns said.

Alcanna's luck was better in Spruce Grove, Alta.

The city required hopeful retailers to deliver applications in hard copy starting on different days in July. Because they would be considered on a first-come, first-served basis, lines formed outside city hall with people camping out as though "you're waiting to get Rolling Stones tickets," Mr. Burns said. Alcanna was second in line.

Retail fates in Edmonton were left to a random lottery that set the order in which applications would be processed.

But even once lotteries are won, more restrictions exist. For instance, the province requires at least 100 metres between a cannabis store and a school or hospital. Cities can add to these limits, shrinking viable real estate.

Then, there are rules around how close two pot shops can be from each other: Edmonton wants 200 metres, while Calgary says there needs to be 300 metres. In Banff, Alta., cannabis stores also can't have windows that face a sidewalk.

Cannabis players can face Catch-22 situations. Aurora Cannabis Inc. has signed a lease for a relatively large - 10,000-squarefoot - store in West Edmonton Mall, says Cam Battley, its chief corporate officer. The store will have an Aurora brand but be operated by Alcanna. (Aurora is an investor in Alcanna.) But Aurora is still working with the city to make it permissible to sell cannabis at the mall, where he also hopes to "create a world-unique experience" by offering yoga, cooking and educational classes, he said.

In British Columbia, which will allow a mix of private and government-run stores, several municipalities - Whistler, Tofino, Richmond, North Vancouver and Abbotsford - have moved to prohibit the sale of cannabis altogether.

For some, it's just a matter of time. Many municipalities were advised by legal counsel to ban cannabis retail as a temporary measure to prevent companies from opening up shop before towns can set rules, said Tofino Mayor Josie Osborne. Instead of going through a lengthy rezoning process, as most towns are doing, Tofino is plans to issue temporary-use permits that last for three years and can be renewed for another term.

"It's been a rush to get ready to meet the federal timeline," Ms. Osborne said. "I know there's a lot of pressure. I know I have felt pressure from people saying get your house in order, you've got to be ready.

But I'd rather be cautious and take our time."

On Tuesday, the final draft of Tofino's policy goes to council for approval. Ms. Osborne expects the application process to open later this month or in September, with the surfing district set to permit as many as three marijuana stores toward the end of the year.

Brian Harriman, chief executive of New Brunswick Liquor Corp., said it will have 20 cannabis stores up and running on Oct. 17 after spending the past two-and-a-half years preparing for that day. The province saw it as an economic opportunity and quickly mobilized to make itself a cannabisfriendly destination.

The new stores will be a cross between an Apple store and a jewellery shop, with products locked away in modern cupboards and drawers, Harriman said. "If you didn't know what was in there, it could be DavidsTea, it could be the Apple store."

But navigating the regulatory waters wasn't easy, he acknowledged. "It's not been a black and white project, which is kind of what makes it fascinating but also what's made it very challenging."

AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE Mr. Serruya wears multiple hats in the cannabis world.

His family's private equity firm is an investor in Second Cup, where he's leading its push to sell marijuana. His family firm also has stakes in cannabis producers such as Aphria Inc. and Scythian Biosciences Corp. And the Serruyas' firm is landlord of a bevy of properties, including the Promenade mall north of Toronto, in which it wants to set up its own cannabis store, if Ontario allows privatization.

Mr. Serruya and other industry insiders are betting that the rules could change entirely in three to five years, becoming more relaxed and opening up new opportunities.

"What we're trying to do as seasoned retailers is figure out where the puck is going as opposed to where it is today," he said.

"How do we design our stores so it looks and feels cool to buy raw bud, pre-rolls and oils now, but be able to put in a fridge for food and drinks or a display counter for olive oil?" said Will Stewart, a vice-president at Hiku Brands Co. Ltd., which is looking to open cannabis stores in multiple provinces and last month agreed to be bought by Canopy Growth Corp. "We have to think of that now so we don't have to renovate a year from now."

But by then cannabis retailing could shift more online, making it even more competitive among bricks-and-mortar stores, Mr. Serruya acknowledged.

As for Oct. 17, don't expect many marijuana stores to be open for business.

"Canadians will probably not be blown away by the feeling they get going into a retail environment on Day 1," said Dan Sutton, founder of Tantalus Labs, a B.C.-based grower of cannabis that is vying for a sales licence. "I think it's going to get off to a rocky start."

He doesn't expect stores will have a lot of product offerings because most will likely have been hastily set up and staffed with people who don't know their cannabis, he said. Bad experiences early on might push cannabis users back to the illicit market, especially in B.C., he warned.

The image problems persist. After Second Cup revealed its cannabis plans this spring, it received three letters from customers who said they would no longer patronize the cafes because they didn't approve of it going into the cannabis business, Mr. Serruya said.

Nevertheless, people's impressions can change. Even Loblaw has applied for and received licences to sell recreational cannabis at 10 of its Dominion supermarkets in Newfoundland. And its Choice REIT real estate business got the green light in New Brunswick to build a handful of cannabis stores on its properties.

"As an established retailer with a secure supply chain and decades of experience selling controlled products, including alcohol and tobacco, we believe there may be very select opportunities for our stores to sell recreational cannabis," Loblaw spokeswoman Catherine Thomas said.

Liquor stores were once frowned upon as places that spread a sinful message. And many mall operators once turned their back on leasing their space to dollar stores because they feared their down-market look would sully their centres' reputation, said Michael Zakuta, chief executive of mall owner Plaza Retail REIT. Now landlords can't get enough dollar stores, he said.

Mr. Zakuta is moving cautiously into the cannabis world, having signed leases for three cannabis stores in New Brunswick.

He believes they will bring more shoppers to his strip plazas. "That's why we're doing it," he said.

Calgary real estate broker Mr. Kehoe said many landlords started accepting cannabis retailers in their properties when they saw that operators had relatively sophisticated retail plans without the stigma of the illegal dispensaries and ties to organized crime.

"And as Alberta goes, so will go Ontario," Mr. Kehoe predicted. "Landlords are in the business of leasing space. As long as it is legal you'll see them everywhere."

It doesn't mean that retailers won't stumble in the coming months and years.

Shane MacGuill, an analyst at market researcher Euromonitor International, expects a rush of sales in the first couple of years but a slower pace of growth after that as an oversupply results in cheaper prices.

He forecast cannabis sales will rise to about $10-billion in 2025 from $7-billion in 2019.

Even so, Ms. Lee at Deloitte said pot-infused edibles, which are expected to become legal in the next year or so, will help pump up sales in future years because cannabis-infused foods and drinks don't carry the stigma of smoking.

"It's all a recipe for a very stuttering start," Mr. MacGuill said.

Associated Graphic

The Serruya family, from left to right: Aaron Nathaniel, Samuel, Sammy, Michael, Simon and Aaron, has big plans for the cannabis industry.

MARK BLINCH/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

These concept images present an idea of what the Serruya family's privatized cannabis stores might look like if given the government go-ahead.

JUMP

Left, packaged cannabis is ready for retail sale at a MedMen dispensary in Venice, Calif. Michael Serruya took inspiration from MedMen while developing concepts for his own cannabis retail business. Mock-ups of the Serruya family's products are shown on the right.

LEFT: RICH POLK FOR MEDMEN ENTERPRISES/GETTY IMAGES; RIGHT: PHOTOS BY JUMP


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Wednesday, August 1, 2018 – Page B13

LOIS KATHERINE AGNEW Milton, Ontario July 11, 2018 - Calgary, Alberta

It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Lois Agnew, who died of natural causes on July 11, 2018.

Lois's dedication as an executive secretary to what is now Petro Canada resulted in her being transferred to Calgary from Toronto in 1983. She created a new home in Calgary with her own garden, which she enjoyed.

She also enjoyed baking family birthday cakes and was an active supporter of the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra. She was involved in many areas of Grace Presbyterian Church especially the Christmas cake baking to raise funds for the church.

Lois lived a full life. She was conscientious, supportive, caring and giving. She enjoyed her family, loved life and nature and celebrated the small things as well as the large ones.

A Celebration of Life was held at Grace Presbyterian Church (1009 - 15th Avenue S.W., Calgary, AB) on Today, August 1, 2018 Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.mcinnisandholloway.com.

If friends so desire, memorial tributes may be made directly to the Canadian Cancer Society, 200 - 325 Manning Rd. N.E., Calgary, AB T2E 2P5 Telephone: (403) 205-3966, email donorservices@ cancer.ab.ca, or to the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra 205 8 Ave SE, Calgary, AB T2G 0K9 Telephone: (403) 571-0849, https://calgaryphil.showare.

com/DonationAddToBasket. asp?camp=24

RUSSELL STAFFORD ALLISON

Russ passed away peacefully on Sunday, July 29, 2018 at London in his 94th year. Russ was the loving and cherished husband of Jean Allison (McKillop) for over 65 years. Russ was born in Tichborne, Ontario. He was educated at Queen's University where he graduated as a Civil Engineer. Graduating in 1946 Russ started work at CP Rail where he had the unparalleled joy of working at his hobby through his entire 44 year career. He often said he never worked a day in his life. Russ's first job at CP Rail was a Transitman in the London Engineering Department. Russ worked through the ranks and retired in 1989 after 6 years as President. Russ was a railroader.

What made Russ special was that he was able to work with people.

He said "I was fortunate to work with great people throughout my career". Russ earned trust through honesty, integrity, humility and a tremendous ability to listen.

He never could have achieved what he did without the unfailing support of Jean.

Russ worked on numerous major projects throughout his career that added value to the railway, Canada and all Canadians. Russ believed in thinking big and believed in reaching further his whole life. He participated in projects such as bridging the St.

Lawrence Seaway, the building of Roberts Bank (now known as Westshore Terminals) and with this project came the development of the Bathtub Car Unit Trains.

The crowning achievement of his career with his participation in the abolishment of the Crow Rate came the potential to complete the grade reduction of westward CP Rail tracks in the Rocky Mountains from 2.2% to 1%. This allowed the building of the 1 Mile Shaughnessy Tunnel and the 9 mile Mount MacDonald tunnel through the Selkirk Mountain range. This project solved the capacity issues the railway had in serving the Canadian west coast ports. This project also earned Russ the Sir John Kennedy Medal from the Engineering Institute of Canada in 1991.

Russ served as President or Director of numerous companies and organizations: Toronto Terminal Railway Company, Shawinigan Terminal Railway Company, Sault Ste. Marie Bridge Company, Soo Line Corporation, Algoma Steel Corporation, Incan Ships Limited, The Railway Association of Canada, Canadian Pacific Consulting Service Ltd., Canadian Pacific Subsidiary Companies Pension Plan, Canadian Transportation Education Foundation, University of Manitoba Transport Institute Advisory Board, Alliance for a Drug Free Canada. Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada.

In retirement Russ and Jean became world travelers and loved to spend time with their family. Russ was an elder in the Metropolitan United Church and he volunteered with the University of Western Ontario.

Predeceased by his parents, William and Gertrude Allison; his loving wife, Jean; sisters-in-law, Cela Sloan, Mary Bailey; brothersin-law, Jack Turner, Murray Bailey, Duncan McKillop and Dr. George Sloan.

Survived by daughter, Joan Mowle (Kevin) and son, John W. Allison (Noreen). Loving Grandfather to Darius Maze (Jen) and Siobhan Farrell (Jon); Delage, Aibhlin and Declan Mowle; Sydney and Jane Allison. His sisters, Valorie Engle(Greg) and Edith Turner; sister-in-law, Lilias McKillop. Fondly remembered by many nieces and nephews.

Friends will be received at the Harris Funeral Home, 220 St.

James St. at Richmond London ON, on Tuesday, August 7th from 2-4 and 7-9 p.m. A Celebration of his Life will be held at Metropolitan United Church, 468 Wellington St., London, ON on Wednesday, August 8th at 11 a.m., with Rev. Dr. Jeff Crittenden officiating. Private interment later at Mount Pleasant Cemetery. As an expression of sympathy and in lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Metropolitan United Church Foundation, 468 Wellington St., London, ON N6A 3P8 or a charity of your choice.

JOHN C. FITZPATRICK

With great sadness we announce the passing of John Carrigan Fitzpatrick on Monday, July 30, 2018. He will be deeply missed by his wife, Maureen (O'Rourke); his sons, Sean and Michael Fitzpatrick; his daughters-inlaw, Sherry (Cromaz) and Stacey (Callahan); his grandchildren, Cal, Arowyn, Greer and Riley. John was predeceased by his parents, John and Mary Fitzpatrick.

John grew up and spent most of his life in Toronto. Upon completion of his B. Comm. at Loyola University (Montreal), John returned to Toronto and began a very long and successful career at TD, where he retired as an SVP after 30+ years with the Bank. John was very active in the Toronto business community where he was a good friend, dealmaker, and mentor to many.

Outside of work, John had many passions which included the outdoors, squash with his Granite buddies, golf, and fishing, which took him on many great adventures across Canada and the U.S. John was also very community minded, as reflected by his years of work on the Women's College Hospital Board, his (and Maureen's) work with, and contributions to, Providence Healthcare, his time on the Granite Club Board, and many years coaching his sons' hockey/ soccer/baseball teams.

Most of all John loved his family and was a dedicated husband to Maureen and a great 'dad' to his sons Sean and Michael. John and Maureen shared a wonderful life together, having met in Toronto at the age of 16 on the night of Hurricane Hazel. Together they had a fantastic life, travelling the world and enjoying many a noisy dinner party with their friends. His warm and loving personality, and sense of humor will be dearly missed.

A celebration of John's life will be held in Blessed Sacrament Church, 24 Cheritan Avenue on Friday, August 3rd at 11:30 a.m. A reception will be held at the church immediately following the mass. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

WILLIAM STEWART HAMILTON P.Geo "Bill" 1952 - 2018

It is with great sadness that we announce the sudden passing of William (Bill) S. Hamilton, peacefully at home on Thursday, July 26, 2018, in his 67th year.

Bill will be sadly missed by his wife, Lorna MacGillivray; and by his sisters, Betty and Alice; his brother, Arthur (Lorena) and sister-in-law, Sylvia MacGillivray.

Also mourning the loss are his nieces, Vicki Myers (Andrew MacDonald), Genii Myers (Derek Kowalski) and Olivia Hamilton; his nephews, John Hamilton, Danny, Greg, Ted and Chris MacGillivray; grandnieces, Lauren and Jenna Kowalski; and grandnephews, Alex and Jack MacDonald.

Bill was born in Huntingdon, Quebec to the late John and Elizabeth (Todd) Hamilton.

He graduated with a B.Sc. in Geology from Mount Allison University in 1973 and became a Toronto-based gold geologist with extensive experience in Canada and Mexico. Since the mid 1970's Bill practiced exploration geology for several mining companies in those regions, including Corona Corporation and Campbell Resources Inc.

In his earlier years he was employed by the Geological Survey of Canada and the New Brunswick Mines Department.

Since 2001, Bill has been a private consultant, providing exploration services to a number of companies, principally in Mexico.

In 2016, Bill joined the Board of Directors of War Eagle Mining Company Inc. and served on its Audit and EHS Committees.

Bill particularly enjoyed his time spent in Mexico and the Mexican colleagues with whom he worked over the past twenty-some years. He loved the mining and exploration business and enjoyed entertaining his colleagues and friends with comical stories of his bush experiences.

The family will receive friends at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue on Wednesday, August 1st from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. A service will also be held at Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel on Thursday, August 2 at 11:00 a.m.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Bill's memory to the Canadian Cancer Society, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Big on Beagles Rescue, or to a charity of your choice.

DR. ROBERT MICHAEL CANTILUPE HARRISON FRCS (C)

Mike died peacefully at Joseph Brant Hospital, Burlington, Ontario on July 26, 2018.

Predeceased by parents, Juliet Marion Menzies Harrison (nee Dallas) and Dr. Cecil Cantilupe Harrison, and by his sister, Juliet Elizabeth Harrison-Renner (Karl).

Mike is survived by his partner of 41 years, Helena Langer and her son, James; by his children, Susan Harrison (Todd Lefebure), Lesley Reichenfeld (Stephen), Robert Harrison, Diana (Diny) Harrison, Carol O'Neil (David) and Michael Harrison; and 13 grandchildren and 2 greatgrandchildren; and by sister, Margaret Francesca Fullerton; and her children, Anne Fullerton (Mark Pritzker), John Fullerton, Jane Fullerton (Daniel Meyerhans), Juliet Fullerton (John Morand); 5 grandnieces and nephews and 1 great-grand nephew.

Born Chuapera T.E. Dooars, India, April 18, 1927, Mike and his sister, Francesca came to Canada in 1940 as war guests under the auspices of the Alumni of the University of Toronto, staying with Lady Mary Gooderham. Mike graduated from Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Canada, Mike received his FRCS in 1958. Mike was an accomplished and compassionate orthopedic surgeon who practiced and taught for many years in Hamilton, Ontario and, later, Washington, Indiana. After retiring to Dundas, Ontario in 1998, Mike spent many happy hours with friends and family at Hamilton Golf and Country Club, Ancaster, Ontario.

A private cremation service has taken place with a celebration of life to come in early October.

SHIRLEY HELEN MCKEAN LAKING BSP

Shirley died peacefully at home in Toronto on July 27, 2018 at age 91 after facing illness for most of the last years of her life. Her alert and communicative self didn't cease to exist till the end, just the way she lived her life. Shirley was predeceased by her beloved husband of 63 years, Robert Therol "Bud" Laking; and cherished cousins, Maxine Roberta Marcotte (Ray), Gordon Rogers (Evelyn), and Barbara Elaine Atkinson (Harold). She is survived by her daughter, Roberta; son-in-law, Robert Kananaj; great-nephew, Emanuele; sisters, Eleanor Finlayson (John), Maurine Smith (Stewart); and cousin, Caroline Peck (John). She was the loved "Auntie Shirley" to generations of Rogers nieces and nephews, "Nëne Shirley" to Emanuele and, most recently, "Big Auntie" to her caregivers.

Shirley was born May 22, 1927 in Regina, SK, the oldest child of Alexander Firman McKean and Lydia Muriel McKean (nee Rogers). The McKean and Rogers families were part of the wave of homesteaders who came to Saskatchewan from the American midwest in the early 1900s. She grew up on her parents' wheat farm near Rouleau, with a 360-degree view of the sky and across the fields to the horizon. From the kitchen window she could see the skyline of Regina thirty miles away across the level prairie.

All her life Shirley took pride in being a "Saskatchewan farm girl." She helped with farm chores from an early age, gathering eggs from beady-eyed hens, and churning butter when she got older. These were an important supplement the family income during the lean times of the Dirty Thirties.

She started school at Lily View, a one-room schoolhouse where for a while she was the only girl, soon learning to stand up for herself. She excelled academically, eventually graduating from Rouleau High School as a winner of the Governor General's Bronze Medal.

Shirley's parents and grandparents came from a long line of firm believers in higher education and professional training for girls, who were expected to be able support themselves and, if necessary, their children. An avid reader and polymath since childhood, Shirley chose to go to Saskatoon to study Pharmacy at the University of Saskatchewan, graduating in 1948.

During her first winter at U of S she was knocked off her feet at the local skating rink by a six-foot tall redhead who claimed it was just his "hockey reflexes" kicking in as they passed each other. He promptly enlisted his friends to help him comb through all the student photos until this mystery girl was identified. For their first date "Bud" Laking and Shirley went to see a student production of Romberg's "The Student Prince," a memory they treasured lifelong. They were married in Rouleau after Shirley's graduation in 1948; Shirley worked as a pharmacist in Saskatoon and Moose Jaw while Bud finished his B. Comm. In 1951 with his degree completed, Bud joined the Royal Canadian Air Force and this meant a new beginning for Shirley.

Life in the RCAF meant picking up and moving at short notice: Moose Jaw, Portage la Prairie (where daughter, Roberta, was born), Ottawa, then in 1960 just after they had bought their first house a sudden opportunity to go to NATO base 1 Wing in France. Bud, Shirley and Roberta spent the next four years living in a small town in Belgium far from all other family except Eleanor and John Finlayson, who were living comparatively close by in Paris and could visit back and forth. Roberta attended the local school in Virton. Holidays were spent exploring Europe by car, though within limits: members of NATO forces were expected to stay well away from countries behind the Iron Curtain.

In Europe of the early 1960s in chilling contrast with peaceful Canada, stops for military and police checkpoints were commonplace, with submachine guns pointed through the car windows. The Cold War and the Cuban Missile Crisis showed Shirley some harsh realities of geopolitical planning: in the event of nuclear war or Russian invasion, any Canadian child such as Roberta would be given false identity papers and be sheltered by the local Belgian population. Their fathers would presumably be dead or fighting in the war, and their mothers would be left to fend for themselves.

The next posting, with a different sort of chill, was to a base near Brandon MN where the wind never stopped and winter temperatures could hover for days in the -30s. Bud was transferred back to Ottawa in 1966, and they lived in the same house for the next 45 years. Shirley got her Ontario pharmacist's licence and went back to work, using her income to support Roberta's education, numerous house improvements, many quiet good deeds, and eventually a carefully tended portfolio.

After retirement, Shirley and Bud spent summers in Saskatchewan visiting their aging parents, their many friends and relatives. Winters were spent in Ottawa volunteering at the Rideau Veterans Home and 410 William Barker VC Wing, Royal Canadian Air Force Association. Shirley was an early adopter of home computers and related gadgetry. She used these to compile databases of old family records and letters and various family trees, which she shared with anyone who showed interest. All her life she would ask every new acquaintance their name, which she would promptly memorize, and where they were from, which she could readily find on a map long before there was such a thing as the internet.

Shirley and Bud eventually moved to the Grenadier Residence in Toronto to be closer to Roberta and Robert. Bud died in 2013; Shirley remained at the Grenadier for another three years, when the house next door to Robert and Roberta became available. She moved in for Christmas 2015 and lived there, enjoying family dinner every day with Roberta, Robert and Emanuele.

She enjoyed her porch swing, her garden, computer Solitaire, Turner Classic Movies, and the doings of assorted local creatures who wandered through her open doors. From her bed she loved to watch the neighbours' cats strolling along the fence outside her window, and made sure she learned the names of each one.

The family wish to thank the staff of Toronto Central Palliative Care Network and Dorothy Ley Hospice, who helped maintain Shirley in comfort and dignity at home until the end of her life.

A funeral service will be held at St Martin in the Fields Anglican Church, 151 Glenlake Avenue, Toronto on Thursday, August 2nd at 11 a.m., reception to follow in the Guild Room. Interment of ashes and a celebration of the lives of both Shirley and Bud will take place in Regina, SK at a later date.

JAMES WILLIAM ALEXANDER PATTERSON

Always a diva, rattling the ice in his drink to signal, "just one more" screwdriver (His Vitamin C!), Our Dad has passed away suddenly at the Village of Tansley Woods on Saturday, July 27, 2018 at the age of 87. He is finally with our Mom, Roena (nee Goodale). Loving father of Erin (Bob) Blackie, Bill, Cameron and Elizabeth Barton (Joe). Grandfather of eight and great-grandfather of four.

Predeceased by some of his favorites such as Barb Warnke and son-in-law, Steve Barton.

A father figure to the Warnkes, Krista, Marc and Susan.

We invite friends and family to a celebration of Jim's life at the Burlington Golf and Country Club (422 North Shore Blvd. E., Burlington) on Sunday, September 2, 2018 between 12 and 5 p.m.

Please RSVP to rsvpburlingtonpatterson @gmail.com.

If desired, donations to a local animal shelter in memory of Jim would be greatly appreciated. Special thanks to the Village of Tansley Woods for their kindness and care.

Funeral arrangements entrusted to Smith's Funeral Home, Burlington (905-632-3333).

Lastly, Oskee-wee-wee Tigers, Eat 'em Raw!

DONALD McQUEEN SHAVER 1920 - 2018

On Saturday, July 28, 2018 at Innisfree House, Kitchener in his 98th year, beloved husband of the late Leila Maria (Oman); devoted father to Jill Searson (Robert), Catherine Wendy Shaver, Donald Shaver Jr. (Catherine) and Jonathan Shaver (Erica).

Caring step-father to Anne Eklund, Bjorn Richard and Ylva Byars (Bill). A great joy in his life were his treasured grandchildren and greatgrandchildren with whom he shared many lively adventures and learning experiences within Canada and abroad.

Predeceased by brother, Marshall; sister, Margaret (Douglas Rundle); and parents, James Earle and Betty Duncan Shaver. Also pre-deceased by friend and former wife, Rena Graham Butler.

Donald was founder of Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms Ltd and was its Chairman and C.E.O. for 35 years, establishing a worldwide system of distribution in more than 90 countries. After retiring and selling the business in 1985, he continued his lifelong advocacy for a sustainable agricultural industry, maintaining foundation stocks in both poultry and cattle until 2005.

He also had a second career as a corporate director in insurance, energy, communications and manufacturing, retiring in 2008, aged 88 years, as Chairman of Canada Development Investment Corporation, where he served as a director for 25 years.

Donald was a proud member of the Canadian Armoured Corps and saw active service in North Africa, Italy and Western Europe in World War II. He was a Past Honorary Colonel of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada and was honoured to be an Officer in the Order of Canada.

Donald gave generously of his time, energy and resources to church, community and educational endeavours and served several trade and agricultural organizations throughout his lifetime. He greatly prized his citizenship and regarded public service as both a privilege and a duty.

Funeral arrangements entrusted to T. Little Funeral Home in Cambridge. A private family service and cremation have taken place. Friends and family are invited to attend a memorial service to be held at Central Presbyterian Church, 7 Queens Square, Cambridge, ON at 11:00 a.m. on Tuesday, August 14, 2018.

Dad was a supporter of the local hospital throughout his adult life and most recently has contributed to a project termed "Accountable Care", with emphasis on the burgeoning geriatric population's special needs. As a gesture of sympathy and remembrance, the family would appreciate donations to the Cambridge Memorial Hospital or to Innisfree House, Kitchener.


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Friday, August 10, 2018 – Page B15

FREDERICK ANTHONY BURJAW

"Rick" November 21, 1944 - August 7, 2018 Passed away peacefully at Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, with his family by his side. Many people knew him, by many different names: Rick, Ricky, Uncle Rick, Freddy, Professor B, and Gramps; to name a few.

Rick was the youngest of Frederick and Kathleen's (nee Hennesy) five children.

His siblings, Barb, Deece, and Paul, predeceased him. Survived by his wife of 53 years, Diana Lee (nee Gasbarrini); his children, Richard (Dana), Michelle (Rob Penteliuk); his grandchildren, Stephanie, Sarah, Mason, and Sellah; his dear big sister, Bev Dubois; and his two dozen nieces and nephews.

He was a man of fun, adventure, and stories. Depending on when you asked him, he may have been born at St. Joseph's in Hamilton, or in a barn in Waterdown, or at halftime during a Tiger-Cat game.

Rick was eleven years younger than his next closest sibling, Paul. He used to joke that his mom, Kathleen, needed that break to rest up for Rick's arrival.

Rick occasionally used the Latin expression 'Carpe Diem' (seize the day) to summarize his view of life. This view was shaped in his teens and early twenties after life threw him some curves.

The loss of his father, Frederick, when Rick was still a teenager, left him home alone with his mother, Kathleen. Shortly after his father's death, Rick was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes and told he had 25 years to live. These events - all before the age of 20 - cemented Rick's view that a good life of (any length) should be simply a string of good days. Rick embodied the idea of being present in every moment.

He was raised primarily in Westdale and attended Canadian Martyrs and Cathedral Boys High School. Unbeknownst to Rick, his future wife Diana was his Grade 2 classmate at Canadian Martyrs. He would claim not to remember her because he was focusing on his studies.

After a year in seminary at St. Francis on Staten Island - Rick used to joke that his records were sealed but they used his experience to tighten up future seminary admissions - Rick returned home for grade 12 and a second more memorable meeting of his future wife, Diana.

Rick and Diana were married on July 17, 1965 and quickly set about starting their family. Richard and Michelle were born in the three years following their marriage. Rick graduated from Wilfrid Laurier in 1968 (B.B.A.) and McMaster in 1969 (M.B.A.).

Somehow the young married couple managed to juggle university and family; and by the late 60s the four of them settled into life in Burlington. It looked like a typical family journey was ahead, but Rick had bigger dreams for his family. Propelled by his short life expectancy, Rick was determined to be an entrepreneur.

He combined his professional dreams with his love of tennis and went on to found Arlington Racquet Sports. He and his partners built, owned, and operated five tennis clubs across Ontario. It was one of Canada's first chains of recreation and fitness centers.

The tennis club experience moved the family to London where Rick became more active in the community. He became an active board member of The Make A Wish foundation; and was its President. He also founded two informal social groups that continue to this day. There was the Friday afternoon tennis group and Wednesday night hockey (a.k.a. River City Rink Rats).

Although Rick retired from hockey a decade ago, he continued at Friday tennis until recently; when his health prevented it. More recently he was an active member of the Burlington G&CC Men's Curling League. And throughout his entire adult life, Rick was always part of a regular poker night; too many to mention! Rick's next big business adventure took the family to England in 1983. He set up the European manufacturing and sales division of Big O Drain Tile. And as only Rick could do, he picked up a sideline as head coach of The Solihull Barons, a professional hockey team in England's Premiere League.

After returning to Canada, Rick settled into his college and university teaching career. It was a role that harnessed his personality and life experiences. It really was his calling. In his usual self-deprecating way, Rick started his small business class by saying that starting a business was easy - he'd done it many times! His success as a teacher was recognized in 2016 when he was awarded the faculty leadership award at The Dan School of Management (at Western).

Along this amazing ride, Rick accumulated hundreds of friends and connections. While he was known by many different social groups, work colleagues, and students, he remained a devout family man his entire 73 years. His family always came first.

For Rick and Diana's 50th wedding anniversary, their grandchildren built word art with words like: family, laughter, cigars, and Ellicottville. They could have filled an entire billboard with words because of how dynamic Gramps was. His legacy of the grandchildren made him most proud. The values and personality he instilled in them will ensure his memory survives.

Visitation at Smiths Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333) on Sunday, August 12 from 3 - 8 p.m.

Funeral Mass will be celebrated at Holy Rosary Roman Catholic Church (287 Plains Rd E, Burlington) on Monday, August 13 at 10:30 a.m.

Carpe diem.

The family requests any donations be directed in Rick's name towards The Princess Margaret Hospital foundation or Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Canada.

DR. NANCY M. DUNNE

It is with profound sorrow that we must announce the passing of Nancy M. Dunne on August 4, 2018. She was 63. She leaves behind her loving husband of 32 years, C.

Richard Fischer and her dear family of sister Cathy Dunne; brother Ken Dunne; nephews, Graham Prosser, Simon Prosser, Aaron Prosser, Arthur Dunne; niece, Vanessa Dunne; and many other dear family and friends. Nancy was predeceased by her father, Donald Dunne and mother, Melita Dunne.

A ceremony commemorating her life will be held at the York Cemetery and Funeral Centre (at the Centre) 160 Beecroft Road, near Sheppard and Yonge. Visitation will be Thursday, August 9, 4-8 p.m. and Friday, August 10, 10-11 a.m. with the funeral to follow at 11:00 a.m. Reception will be 12-2 p.m.

In memory of Nancy and in lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Ontario Equestrian, the Toronto Botanical Gardens or the Humber River Hospital.

Thank you.For further details, please see http://www.etouch.ca.

BRYAN ELLIS

Passed away on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 surrounded by his family.

Beloved husband of Leslie Crawford and loving father to Jacquelyn and Kimberley (Vic).

Bryan was predeceased by his mother, Jean (nee Spencer). He is survived by his father, Willard and sisters, Nancy (John), Joan (Allan) and Pat (Nick). Bryan was truly an inspiration to all who knew him and will be sadly missed.

A lifelong lover of the media industry, woodworking, and "having a plan," Bryan will be remembered for his unwavering sense of humour, his determination to achieve his goals and his bravery.

Bryan profoundly impacted many lives along his life's journey, from the young to the young-at-heart.

His wisdom and worldliness ensured that all those around him felt respected and appreciated.

While he battled on, his trademark twinkle was ever present.

A celebration of Bryan's life will be held at Rattlesnake Point Golf Club in Milton on Wednesday, August 15th from 5 p.m. - 8 p.m., with memories of Bryan being shared at 6 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider making a donation to the Tomorrow Stems from You initiative, (https://hamiltonhealth.

ca/tomorrow-stems-from-you/) through Hamilton Health Sciences or to the charity of your choice.

SAMUEL HAYTHORNE 173rd (Highlanders) Battalion, C.E.F.

Born in Sheffield, England, October 21, 1885.

Died in Action August 10, 1918.

Buried in Fouquescourt, France.

ROBERT PAUL KLEIN "Bob"

June 8, 1960 - July 22, 2018 It is with great sadness and heavy hearts we announce the peaceful passing of our beloved Bob at his favorite place, his cottage in Prince Edward Island, surrounded by his loving family on Sunday, July 22, 2018 at the age of 58 years.

Bob was born and raised in Barrie, Ontario, where he attended school at Prince of Wales, as well as Central Collegiate and then on to York University, where he majored in business. Bob then went on to have an amazing career with UPS over many years, in which he travelled the world, making many friends and having various great experiences that he enjoyed sharing with all.

His passion for fun sports, cooking, entertaining, and socializing made him both a fantastic host and guest.

Bob retired last year and was very happy to spend all of his time with family, friends and at home.

Bob leaves behind his loving wife, Natalie; daughter, Margaux; sister, Ann; nephews, Tyler, Ryley, and Dimitri; loving in-laws, Fred and Phyllis Theriault, Nicole (Bill), and many more. He was predeceased by his parents, Peter and Margaret (Pulford) Klein.

A celebration of life will be held at Steckley-Gooderham Funeral Home, 30 Worsley Street, Barrie, Ontario, on Friday, August 24, 2018 from 12 p.m. - 3 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, please make a donation in honour of Robert Paul Klein, to his favorite charity, Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation, http:// http://www.thepmcf.ca/Ways-to-Give/ Donate-Now. Online condolences and memories may be left at http://www.steckleygooderham.com.

MARTIN LEVENE

Passed away peacefully at home on August 8, 2018, in his 91st year. Beloved husband of Charlotte for 69 years. Dear brother of the late Sam Levene, and Roby Hochman. Proud and loving father and father-in-law to Myrna and Steven Singer, Gary Levene and Debbie Eisenberg, Ronald and Shifra Levene. Adored Zaida of Eric and Robin, Kate and Dave, Alex and Sarah, Jana, Merrick and Merav, Marly, Casey, Leejay z"l, Elli. Devoted greatgrandfather of Jordana, Joel and Naomi, Amelia and Ari, Noga and Ori.

A graduate of the University of Toronto, and a Mechanical Engineer, Martin was the third President of his family's business, Ontario Die Company Ltd.

With Charlotte always at his side, Martin was an avid member of Devil's Glen Ski Club, Conestoga Sailing Club, K-W Granite Club, and Oakdale Golf and Country Club. Martin served as President of Beth Jacob Synagogue, and was active on many local boards. He was a dedicated Rotarian, attending meetings around the world during his travels with his soulmate Charlotte.

Martin was passionate about life, family, friends, community, travel and philanthropy.

Evening prayers at 8 p.m., Thursday, August 9, Saturday, August 11-Tuesday, August 14.

Morning prayers at 8 a.m., Friday, August 10 and Wednesday, August 15. Shiva visits on Sunday, August 12-Tuesday, August 14, 1 - 3 p.m. and 7 - 9 p.m. Shiva concludes Wednesday morning, August 15. For more details, see: http://www.benjamins parkmemorialchapel.ca.

Memorial donations may be made to Rotary's Kids Ability Foundation, Waterloo, 519-886-8886 or http://www.kidsability.ca.

JOAN KALTEISSEN LEWIS

On Sunday, August 5, 2018 in Long Term Care at Belmont House, Toronto, at the age of 81.

Born in New Jersey, she loved school and devoted herself to her education. She attended Vassar College and ultimately graduated from the University of Pennsylvania. She received a Master's Degree in library science from Rutgers University and, for a time, worked to establish library resources at the Matheny School for children with developmental disabilities. She lived for five years in Japan, where her first husband, Dr. John T. Hart, was an Air Force Physician at a military base near Tokyo. Her two children, Elisabeth (Lisa) and Christopher, were born there. After returning to New Jersey, she volunteered with organizations established to fight poverty and advance civil rights, including the Urban League. After her divorce in 1978, she married John M. Lewis of Toronto and moved to Toronto.

There she continued to do volunteer work, including as a member of the board of the Dixon Hall Music School.

Although she moved permanently to Canada, she was a passionate American who spent several weeks each year on Sanibel Island and considered it her second home.

She will be remembered for her sharp wit, sense of humour and fashion sense. A photograph of her was featured in the New York Times style edition in 1969 and she was profiled, for her personal style choices, in Toronto Life magazine in her 40s. There wasn't any woman alive who could pick out better ties for the men in her life. She will also be remembered for her love of literature, music, Broadway musicals, baseball, tennis and her abiding love of animals, including the cats and dogs, many of them strays, which she cared for during her life. Very few of her children, step-children, and grandchildren will forget her strict insistence on the proper use of English words, grammar and pronunciation (e.g."unique" means one of a kind so don't ever say "very unique"). A longtime supporter of Dying with Dignity, it is unfortunate that the last years of her life were marred by the inevitable progression of dementia. If she could have summed up this experience herself we believe that she would say that we, as a society, within the bounds of respecting personal choice, need to find a better way to deal with such debilitating diseases until we find cures.

She leaves behind her husband; her daughter and son; her grandson, Connor; her stepchildren, Eve, Suzanne, Catherine, Duncan, Michelle and Nicole and their children. The family would like to thank her care-givers, Margaret, Analyne, Haydee and Purita as well the staff of Belmont House for the compassionate care they provided to her. The family is planning a private memorial event for a future date. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Alzheimer Society Canada or the Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through http://www.humphrey milesnewbigging.com.

VINETTA MARY LUNN (nee Burke)

Oct 23, 1 917 - Aug 3, 2018 At 100 years, in Montreal. Predeceased by her husband, Hugh Lunn in 2011.

She leaves her children, Bridget, Anthony and Sarah; grandchildren, Naomi, Isabelle, Anne-Mathilde, Catherine, and Sebastian; and four great-grandchildren. Also her niece, Roberta Young of Barrie and many Lunn nieces and nephews.

Vinetta was born in Toronto to Anne Purtle (born of Irish parents from Galway and Cashel) and Gerald Burke (born in Joggins, NS of Acadian parents). She attended Loretto College and St.

Michael's College (University of Toronto) graduating with a BA in 1938. During the war she worked in Ottawa and Vancouver on government war effort jobs, then joined the Navy as a WREN. Posts included Halifax and Cornwallis, NS and England where she worked in London until the end of the war and where her future husband was in the RCAF. All her life, she kept in touch with her many friends in the Navy.

After the war Vinetta and Hugh married in Vancouver, had three children and moved frequently back and forth from Canada to Europe, including Vancouver, Montreal, Chicoutimi, Isle of Wight (England), Guernsey, Brussels and Zweibrucken (Germany). Settling in Ottawa in 1965, Vinetta worked at the public library and the National Gallery library. The last move was to Vancouver in the 70s where Vinetta worked at the UBC psychiatry library and where they lived on the waterfront for over 35 years in False Creek, Vancouver.

In retirement, she and Hugh loved to travel through North America and Europe, play tennis every day and read. Vinetta especially loved hosting her grandchildren in Vancouver every summer.

There will be a funeral Mass at St. Irenaeus Church (3030 Delisle, Montreal) on Saturday, August 11 at 9 a.m. followed by a reception.

Online condolences may be sent to dignitequebec.com.

RITA RUSKIN

On Wednesday, August 8, 2018 at Humber River Hospital. Beloved wife of the late David Ruskin.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Dr. Ron and Marilyn Ruskin, Dr. Dennis and Carol Ruskin, and Steve and Vivian Ruskin. Devoted grandmother of Danielle and Aaron, Natalie and Mike, Joelle and Daniel, Hayley and Jeff, Morgan and Mike, Erica and Adham, and Jessica. Devoted great-grandmother of Ben, Jacob, Isaac, Samuel, Jack, Nathan, David, Isaac, Cooper, Mackenzie, Yaseen, and Kadeen. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Friday, August 10, 2018 at 11:30 a.m. Interment in the Beth Tzedec Memorial Chapel. Shiva at 633 Briar Hill Avenue, Toronto.

Memorial donations may be made to Mt. Sinai Hospital Foundation 416-586- 8203.

J. MICHAEL SIGEL

On Wednesday, August 8,2018 at Sunnybrook Hospital. Best friend and husband of Deenna.

Extraordinary father and father-inlaw of Lauren Sigel and Michael Godel, Derek Sigel and Shannon O'Hearn, and B.D. Sigel and Adam Starr. Loving brother and brother-in-law to Skip and Lynn Sigel. Proud grandfather of Cooper, Arlo, Eliza, Abby, Henry, Norah, Walter, Ezra, Nyla and Yael. Amazing uncle, great-uncle and friend. Will be missed by his constant shadow, Sunshine. With much appreciation to Doctors Wells, Scales, Rubenfeld and Spaner and all of the nurses and healthcare staff for their care.

Service at Beth Tzedec Synagogue, 1700 Bathurst Street, on Friday, August 10, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. Interment in Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 561 Avenue Road, Unit #401, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to the Sunnybrook Hospital Foundation, 416-4804483.

ALEXANDER JAMES ROBB TODD

At Craiglee Nursing Home, Scarborough, Ontario on August 6, 2018 in his 78th year. Formerly of Paris, Ontario, he was the beloved husband of Donna (nee Willson). Loved father of Stephanie Todd (Matthew Kaufman), Aimee Todd-Mussett (Tristan Mussett), Lindsay Todd (Milay), Peter Todd (Rhonda) and Geordie Todd. Loving grandfather of 16, great-grandfather of one.

Alex was born on April 12, 1941 at the Willett Hospital in Paris. He was the firstborn of Alexander and Winnifred (nee Robb) Todd.

He will be missed by siblings, Linda McLauchlin (Jim, 2004), Greg Todd (Aimee), Doug Todd (Petra), Mike Todd (Carmelle), and Kristine (Debb Bergsson) and their families.

Alex spent an idyllic childhood in Paris, then earned his degree in HRI from Michigan State University, graduating first in his class in 1963. Alex loved life and enjoyed his career in the foodservice industry. He was wellliked by everyone who knew him.

A stroke at age 52 forced his early retirement, but he recovered enough to be able to enjoy another 20 years volunteering and socializing. His health began declining over the past three years and he required nursing home care about a year ago. The staff at Craiglee Nursing Home were excellent and we can't thank them enough for their wonderful care.

Alex died on August 6, 2018.

Unfortunately, his organs did not meet the standards for donation.

At Alex's direction, there will be no funeral, simply a graveside service at St. James Anglican Cemetery in Paris at 11 a.m. on August 11, 2018.

Alex was a great guy and he will be missed. His favourite charity is "Doctors without Borders/MSF," 551 Adelaide St. W., Toronto, Ontario, M5V 0N8.

Condolences may be sent to the family at 137 Toynbee Trail, Scarborough, ON., M1E 1G5 or email alext01@roger.com.

TEMI ZWEIG (nee Zosky)

July 26, 1932 - August 8, 2018 It is with deep sense of loss that we announce the passing of Temi Zweig. In the past several years, she fought a courageous battle with Multiple Myeloma and other major health issues. Always strong, always determined, she provided those she loved with care, devotion, generosity, and contagious sense of humour. She was a wonderful daughter (the late Joe and Hilda Zosky), wife (the late Sam Zweig) and mother (the late Cheryl Zweig). She leaves behind her son, Lorne (Lori); brother, Jack (Louise); grandchildren, Hayley, Courtney, Jaymie, Mason (Alexa), and Cydney; and great-granddaughter, Logan. She was a loving aunt to Jack and Louise's children and grandchildren, as well as many cousins and close friends. She will be greatly missed.

A funeral service will take place at Steeles Memorial Chapel, 350 Steeles Avenue West, on Friday, August 10, 2018 at 12:30 p.m. Interment will follow in the Y.M.H.A.

Section at Mount Sinai Memorial Park, 986 Wilson Avenue. For shiva details and condolences, please refer to: http://www.steelesmemorialchapel .com/condolence/temizweig.


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Asylum seekers in Canada: A look at the issues and facts
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This country is seeing more refugees crossing the border. Although it's a very small part of the global picture, the flow of people has pitted governments and political parties against one another. Tavia Grant looks at what the numbers and the experts say
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By TAVIA GRANT
  
  

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Thursday, August 2, 2018 – Page A8

The issue of asylum seekers who are crossing into Canada between border points has sparked fiery political debates this summer.

In special hearings of the House of Commons immigration committee last week, the opposition Conservatives accused the federal government of mismanaging the refugee file and driving up costs for provinces and cities such as Toronto and Montreal. The federal government says it is dealing with a "challenge, but it is not a crisis," and that it is fulfilling its international obligations. Both sides accuse each other of using language of "fear and division."

Beyond the war of words in Ottawa is the global context: A record number of people around the world are fleeing war, persecution and armed conflict. The vast majority of them are displaced internally, or leave for neighbouring countries.

Canada, too, has seen recent increases - although in the global context, this country has experienced far smaller inflows.

Last year, Canada received less than 0.2 per cent of the overall refugee population in the world, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

The majority of refugee claimants arrived this year and last through regular entry points, such as an airport. Since the start of 2017, however, an influx of people has come by land, crossing the border from the United States between official entry points.

Most of these crossings occurred in Quebec, with 1,179 arrivals in June. Although these numbers have subsided (in June, they fell to a one-year low), more than 31,000 people have crossed into Canada this way since the start of last year.

Their arrival corresponds with the election of U.S. President Donald Trump, whose approach to refugees differs markedly from Canada's. Under the Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement, refugee claimants who first arrive in the United States and then seek entry to Canada will likely be denied. A growing chorus of Canadians are calling for the suspension of the agreement, which they say would diminish the need to cross at unofficial border points.

This influx has caused concerns over costs. In July, the premiers of Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba jointly called on the federal government to review its policies on border crossings outside of regular ports of entry, "fully compensate" the provinces for impacts to services from the recent increase and "make the necessary investments" to ensure that hearings are adjudicated in a timely way.

Ontario Premier Doug Ford's government has formally requested $200-million from the federal government to cover the costs of resettling thousands of asylum seekers now in the province, who crossed between ports of entry.

Toronto estimates the direct costs to the city budget this year for housing refugee claimants in motels and college dorms, food and other support services at about $72-million.

Under growing pressure, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau also shuffled his cabinet in July, putting former Toronto police chief Bill Blair in charge of both border security and the "irregular migration" file.

The issue of refugee claimants has become divisive for politicians and confusing for many Canadians. Here are some facts:

IS THIS SITUATION UNPRECEDENTED?

Globally, the refugee population rose to 25.4 million at the end of last year, the highest level since at least the Second World War, according to the UN refugee agency. About half of this population comprise of children. The number of people who became refugees last year grew by about 2.9 million people, the biggest annual increase on record.

Canada received about 50,000 refugee claimants last year. Although that is about double 2016 levels, by way of context, "this is literally one day in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, during the peak of the Rohingya crisis," the UNHCR's Canada representative JeanNicolas Beuze said.

"When we're speaking about a crisis, a crisis of refugees does exist - but it's not in Canada, it's not in the U.S. and it's not in Europe. The big numbers remain in the developing world, whether it's Bangladesh, Uganda, Lebanon - those are the countries that are facing a refugee crisis."

Movements of people typically happen in waves, depending on geopolitical conditions. In Canada, the number of new claims for refugee status recorded by the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) last year was the highest number since recordkeeping began in 1989, although it's very similar to 2001 levels.

As for border crossings between ports of entry, though Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) said comparable data isn't available before 2017, a senior government official said the number of irregular border crossers last year was the highest in at least six years.

On a monthly basis, the recent peak was in August, 2017, with an average of 184 asylum seekers a day. The average is now 42 people a day.

DOES CANADA HAVE AN OUTSIZED REFUGEE POPULATION?

On a per capita basis, Canada doesn't crack the top 10. The countries with the highest number of refugees per 1,000 inhabitants, as of the end of last year, were Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey, according to the UNHCR's global trends report for 2017. Syria is still the main country of origin for refugees worldwide, at 6.3 million people.

In global movements of refugees last year, 99.8 per cent of people went to countries other than Canada, the UNHCR says.

And in proportion to Canada's overall population, incoming refugees represented 0.13 per cent of this country's total population last year, the agency says.

The situation is different for some European countries. In Sweden, for example, asylum claims reached 169,000 - or 1.7 per cent of its population - in 2015, an April report by former Canadian immigration deputy minister Neil Yeates noted.

"Translated into the Canadian context it would be akin to a surge of more than 600,000 claims - double total current immigration levels and more than a tenfold increase in 2017 refugee claims."

WHERE ARE PEOPLE CROSSING?

The majority of people making refugee claims in Canada are using the regular channels, such as making a port-of-entry claim at an airport.

Last year, the IRCC recorded 50,445 refugee claims. Fewer than half of these - 20,593 - were "interceptions" or asylum seekers crossing the border at unofficial points who were apprehended by the RCMP.

So far this year, 10,744 people have crossed this way (fewer than half of all claims, which total 25,710 in the first half of the year). These numbers declined in May and June, to the lowest level in a year, a drop the federal government says is due to its dissuasion efforts. In June, on average 42 border crossers came into Canada a day at unofficial points, of which 39 were in Quebec. In recent months, most people crossing this way were from Nigeria, followed by Congo, Haiti and Colombia, according to the federal government.

Still, movements can ebb and flow, It's difficult to tell whether the recent decline is a lasting trend or a temporary blip.

As for outcomes, nearly half of claimants who crossed this way and whose cases were finalized were granted refugee status. Of the finalized IRB decisions on people who crossed between ports of entry last year and early this year, 47 per cent were accepted, 36 per cent of claims were rejected (some of whom may appeal the decision) and the rest withdrawn or abandoned. (For context, of these claims, there were 3,462 finalized cases between January, 2017, and March, 2018, and 20,116 claims still pending.)

ARE THEY ILLEGAL?

A political debate has raged over language and whether asylum seekers crossing between official points are entering Canada illegally. The term "irregular" is viewed by some as vague jargon and a euphemism.

The use of "illegal" (Ontario Premier Doug Ford calls them "illegal border crossers") is seen by others as inflammatory and dehumanizing.

Legal experts say Canada's immigration laws are clear: "They're not illegal border crossers," said James Hathaway, founding director of the University of Michigan's program in refugee and asylum law, who is Canadian and a leading global authority on refugee law.

Internationally, Canada is signatory to the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Within Canada, the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) is the legislation that governs the flow of people - i.e., non-citizens who enter Canada. The legislation that governs the flow of goods into Canada is the Customs Act, which applies to everyone, citizens and non-citizens.

Article 31 of the UN refugee convention says receiving countries may not penalize refugees for how they enter a country, as long as they present themselves "without delay" to authorities and show "good cause" for their presence.

In line with international practice, Canadian law under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, Section 133, says that someone who has claimed refugee protection, and is either waiting for a hearing or has been accepted as a refugee, can't be charged under the IRPA with an offence over how they came to Canada.

Illegal entry is not an offence in Canada's Criminal Code. But the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations 27 (2) says anyone who does not enter at a port of entry must check in "without delay" at a border point.

Many of Ontario's new arrivals came via the U.S.-Quebec border, crossing at places other than a designated port of entry. If they promptly go to, or are taken to, a port of entry after they arrive, they have not breached immigration law, said Audrey Macklin, a professor and chair in humanrights law and director of the Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies at the University of Toronto. In any case, if they file a refugee claim after they arrive, and are recognized as refugees, the manner by which they entered Canada doesn't legally matter.

"If someone a) comes forward voluntarily, and b) explains that the reason they crossed the border illegally was they were looking for protection, it's clear as a bell: You may not under any circumstance penalize them" for how they arrive, said Mr. Hathaway, who is also a professor at the university's law school.

In other words, the laws recognize that someone fleeing for their lives may not have the time or ability to collect documents or their passport, or to apply and wait for travel visas, and that desperate people may need to take desperate measures to escape life-threatening situations.

And once they seek protection in another country, that country is obliged to hear their claim to refugee status and make a determination on that claim.

There are ways that the mode of entry can breach the Immigration and Refugee Act. If someone crosses at an unofficial border point, doesn't promptly go to a port of entry and doesn't file a refugee claim, that entry violates the IRPA. If a person is rejected as a refugee, their manner of entry could be in breach of the Immigration Act and they could be charged. In practice, however, this is rarely carried out as it's more efficient for Canada if they leave or are deported.

Otherwise if someone enters Canada and files a claim, and while that claim is pending, there is nothing illegal about them. "What they're doing is what the governments that drafted the treaty said they can do," Mr. Hathaway said.

Government of Canada signs at unofficial border crossings say it is illegal to cross the border here. This, Ms. Macklin said, refers to the Customs Act, not the IRPA. The Customs Act stipulates that everyone arriving in Canada enter only at a customs office. This act, however, is intended for regulating imported goods, and for those who cross-border shop, not for asylum seekers. Three experts in refugee law told The Globe and Mail they are not aware of any time that refugee claimants who crossed at unofficial crossings have been charged with violating this act.

The blanket term "illegal border crossers" is "inaccurate and misleading," said Mr. Macklin, as it stigmatizes people as lawbreakers when their conduct is either not unlawful or its legality cannot be determined at the moment of entry, she said.

People who cross between border points and are taken directly to a port of entry are not in breach of immigration law.

"It's important to acknowledge that using the term 'illegal' is not just a good-faith disagreement about terminology," she added. "The use of 'illegal' is deliberately pejorative. It is intended to encourage the public to criminalize people who seek asylum and to portray them as a menace, so that we forget that refugees are people fleeing persecution who are asking Canada to fulfill its legal undertaking to protect them."

Since decisions on refugee status can't be made immediately, it's only later that it can be determined whether the border crossing was unlawful or not. So the lawfulness of the act of crossing by someone seeking refugee protection cannot be determined until after a claim has been decided. And a claimant's manner of entry to Canada is irrelevant in assessing the merits of their claim.

The Immigration and Refugee Board - an independent tribunal - uses the term "irregular" border crossers.

The RCMP uses the term "interceptions."

Ms. Macklin prefers irregular. "The use of the term 'irregular' acknowledges that we cannot know the legal significance of their entry at the moment of entry because their claim to refugee protection will not be determined until later." It also acknowledges "that this is not what is understood to be the typical, usual, routine way of crossing the border."

The language is so charged that Calgarybased lawyer Raj Sharma prefers the term "border crossers" without any modifiers.

He compares the situation to a marriage that is annulled. "It's like the law is scrubbed," said Mr. Sharma, who formerly worked at the IRB. Ultimately, he says "irregular" is a more appropriate term, given the nuances in the laws.

WHAT IS THE PROCESS?

These are typically the steps: If someone crosses between official ports of entry, they are arrested and detained by the RCMP. Everyone is screened through security checks, including fingerprinting, criminal checks and health checks. Those found inadmissible on security grounds are prohibited from proceeding with their refugee claims. Those who are not flagged in the security screening process may proceed to have their refugee claims heard by the Immigration and Refugee Board.

If their claim is accepted - meaning they have shown they face persecution or threats to their lives in their home country - then they receive protected-person status, and can apply to become a permanent resident.

If their claim is denied, some appeal the decision but most must leave the country or face deportation.

While waiting for a decision, refugee claimants can apply for a work visa and social assistance and access some health care; their children can go to school.

The growing number of claims in the past year has caused a ballooning backlog of hearings for decisions on refugee status.

Average wait times for a decision on whether someone can stay in Canada are now 20 months or longer, up from 16 months last fall, according to the IRB.

ARE THEY JUMPING THE QUEUE?

Canada has two separate processes for admitting newcomers: the immigration stream (which includes refugees resettled from abroad) and the asylum stream. The immigration process generally has a wait list, and once accepted they apply for permanent-resident status. This process doesn't apply to asylum claimants.

An immigrant "is a person who chooses to move, and a refugee is a person who is compelled to move. If you're compelled to move by a fear of being persecuted, there isn't a queue for you - there's a distinct procedure," Mr. Hathaway said.

The two groups are processed by separate organizations: Immigration applicants are processed by IRCC, while asylum claims are decided by the IRB.

Asylum claimants are also not taking the place of refugees who are coming to Canada from abroad for resettlement, IRCC said in an e-mail. Its website says that because asylum claimants are in a different stream from resettled refugees, those crossing the border at unofficial points "are not queue jumpers."

Refugees "are unique in the sense that they are recognized for the situation they are in, that they're fleeing some sort of terrible situation, i.e., persecution," said Jamie Chai Yun Liew, immigration and refugee lawyer and associate professor at the University of Ottawa's faculty of law. "Because of that recognition of the special situation they're in, you can't accuse someone of queue jumping. There's no such thing as queue jumping in refugee law."

Refugees have a right - protected by international law - to seek asylum, whether they arrive by foot, boat or plane, notes the Canadian Association of Refugee Lawyers.

"There is no queue."

Canada does set an annual target for the number of refugees. For this year, the target (which is not a cap) is 43,000 refugees and protected persons; for next year, it is 45,650 people.

WHY CAN'T CANADA JUST TURN PEOPLE AWAY AT THE BORDER?

In many cases, Canada does turn people away at the border. Under the Safe Third Country Agreement (STCA) between Canada and the United States, in effect since 2004 as a way to address pressures on asylum systems from global migration growth, they must ask for protection in the first safe country they arrive in. This means if they come from the United States and present themselves to a Canadian border agent at a land-border port of entry as a refugee claimant, they are generally denied and sent back.

The agreement does not, however, apply to some groups, such as unaccompanied minors, nor to those who cross into Canada other than at an official border post and make an in-land claim. This is precisely why many of those seeking protection have crossed at non-designated points, rather than at an official crossing where they would be automatically directed back into the United States. In Manitoba, and especially in winter and at night, this has posed safety risks for both claimants and patrol officers who conduct search and rescue.

This agreement is being challenged in the Federal Court of Canada, as lawyers argue that the United States under President Donald Trump can no longer be considered safe, and that the agreement violates parts of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

It's not just refugee advocates saying so.

The agreement "should be suspended right away," said Chris Alexander, former Conservative immigration minister. "No Canadian who believes in upholding our obligations under international humanitarian law can say, in all good conscience, that the U.S. is a safe country."

This would reduce the need to risk crossing at unofficial places, and let asylum seekers make claims "safely and efficiently" at official points of entry. Although this would cause an increase in claims initially, he said, "it would restore order to our rules-based system."

If the STCA were suspended, "irregular migration would evaporate tomorrow," Ms. Macklin said. "People would just go to a regular port of entry ... and show up in an orderly fashion, and ask for protection."

As for simply closing the door to asylum seekers, "we cannot and should not do this," Mr. Alexander said. "Asylum seekers have the right to make claims, especially given the additional barriers erected by the Trump administration. We should ensure they are able to make claims safely and efficiently at points of entry, while resourcing the IRB properly so that it can rapidly come to grips with its growing backlog."

Associated Graphic

Asylum seekers line up for processing last summer after being escorted from their tent encampment to the Canada Border Services facility in Lacolle, Que.

CHRISTINNE MUSCHI/REUTERS

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE:IMMIGRATION, REFUGEES AND CITIZENSHIP CANADA


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GREEN SHIFT TO GREEN SLUMP
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Politicians have embraced solar and wind energy - and not just to improve air quality. They also hoped to create thousands of well-paying manufacturing jobs in places that needed them. How trade decisions and electoral politics are crippling that vision of a clean Canadian power play
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page B1

OTTAWA -- To save his company, Martin Pochtaruk had to split it between Canada and the United States.

Eight years after he founded Heliene Inc., a solar-panel manufacturing firm based in Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., opportunities have all but dried up in Ontario.

The province's Green Energy Act, enacted in 2009 as the economy was coming through a major recession, should have created a windfall for firms such as Heliene. It was also meant to create thousands of well-paying manufacturing jobs in a place that was bleeding them, while positioning Ontario at the vanguard of green energy innovation.

That vision is now dead. In fact, it never really materialized. It fizzled out as electricity demand stagnated and rising prices created a political backlash. More recently, new Premier Doug Ford kneecapped the renewable-energy sector, axing 759 solar, wind and small hydro contracts - including a wind farm already under construction in Prince Edward County - in the name of cost savings.

Heliene's survival strategy? Expand to the United States and downsize operations back home. At the plant in Sault Ste. Marie, Mr. Pochtaruk has reduced his staff from a high of 112 employees to 70. Forty-eight of those are employed under a federal job-share program that has them work half the time and collect employment insurance the other half. A new plant in Minnesota will employ almost twice as many Americans.

"There's no Canadian market left, really - just little orders here and there," said Mr. Pochtaruk, one of the country's leading renewable-energy entrepreneurs. "Most of what we have been doing in the last few years has been going into the U.S., because the Ontario market ceased to be attractive."

Heliene is emblematic of the seismic challenges facing Canada's renewable energy business. Whipsawed by shifting government policy, many companies have no choice but to chase opportunity in more favourable markets, such as Alberta and Saskatchewan, only to find stiff competition from deep-pocketed foreign rivals.

And, as Ontario has proven, abrupt changes in governance could all but put the renewables industry on life support, reducing it to a shell of what policy-makers envisioned.

"Ontario had been the big player, and it has essentially taken itself out of the game," said Mark Winfield, a professor of environmental studies at Toronto's York University. "Alberta is in major deployment mode, but the risk there is that you could have a change of government that could put the brakes on."

The fledgling Canadian industry - barely a decade old and nurtured by government policy - is now at a crossroads. It must prove it can compete with traditional electricity sources and seek out customers eager to generate their own sources of power rather than rely on major utilities.

At stake is Canada's participation in the global energy economy of the 21st century, as new technologies increasingly enable a "smart" grid that features small-scale sources of electricity, aggressive policies to manage demand, as well as new storage options that eliminate concerns about running low on power. While prices have plummeted, wind and solar are still not always able to supply power when it's needed.

Still, even with those problems and the retrenchment in Ontario, the National Energy Board projects solid growth for renewable-power generation for the next two decades. It bases that view on the prospect of even lower solar and wind prices, making them increasingly competitive, as well as continued policy support from governments. "We see strong growth from the renewable sector, both from wind and solar," NEB chief economist Jean-Denis Charlebois said in an interview. "We understand that there are policy decisions being made currently that can create doubt about whether or not this will occur and we continue to monitor the Ontario situation. But elsewhere across the country, policies continue to be in place to support the growth that we expect."

In fact, the NEB long-term growth forecast is rather modest - at least compared with the dream of a power grid that is 100-per-cent supplied by green energy. The board sees renewables producers roughly doubling their share of the electricity market to 13.5 per cent by 2040, with total generation set to grow by 13.2 per cent over that time. By way of comparison, natural gas is forecast to increase from 9.7 per cent to 17.5 per cent of total power generation. But the renewables industry - wind, solar, small-scale hydro and biomass - is seen as an integral part of the transition to a low-carbon economy being championed by the federal Liberal government as Canada engages in the global battle against climate change. Ottawa has a long-term goal to virtually eliminate coal- and gas-fired power and rely on non-emitting sources for electric cars and even heating homes and offices.

Compared with other countries, Canada has an advantage in the fight against climate change. About 82 per cent of the electricity we consume already comes from non-emitting sources - large-scale hydroelectric dams in Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, Manitoba and British Columbia and a combination of hydro and nuclear power in Ontario.

In some respects, the dominance of such traditional power sources makes it harder for renewables to compete. In many provinces, wind and solar producers must edge out entrenched power generators with deep, historical ties to government - often public utilities - and powerful political constituencies.

Mr. Ford recently visited Ontario Power Generation's Pickering nuclear plant and vowed to keep the aged facility open to protect the 7,500 direct and indirect jobs that depend on it. He made no mention of the jobs that will be lost in the renewables sector with the cancellation of those 759 contracts.

The renewable-energy industry is part of the broader "clean technology" sector that Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Environment Minister Catherine McKenna argue will provide the jobs of the future. It includes a number of players: manufacturers, project developers, financiers and owners who buy existing generation assets for their long-term revenue streams.

Across the country, local utility companies, municipalities and even farm groups are taking stakes in projects to generate revenue and local employment and to meet their own greenhouse gas-reduction goals. Indigenous communities have invested in clean-energy projects to help wean themselves off dirty diesel generators and to generate profit that can be invested back into the community.

Renewable power - including large-scale hydro - is the fastest-growing component of the electricity industry globally. Last year, it accounted for 70 per cent of new generation, according to REN21, a Frenchbased research organization.

But without consistent market development at home, Canadian firms will have a hard time gaining a share of the international market, which is dominated by giants such as Siemens AG, General Electric Co., a handful of large Chinese solar-panel makers and international project developers such as Électricité de France SA (EDF) and Energias de Portugal S.A. (EDP).

Nine years ago, then-premier Dalton McGuinty announced with great fanfare the introduction of the Green Energy Act. The legislation would not only result in a dramatic surge in renewable-energy construction, it would spur the development of a domestic manufacturing sector in a 21st-century industry.

"Now, investors, renewable-energy companies and skilled workers can really move our green economy forward," Mr. McGuinty said at the time. His government forecast that 50,000 renewable-energy jobs would be created and said that adding low-carbon electricity to the power grid would support the shutdown of the province's greenhouse gas-emitting, coal-fired power plants.

The government struck a $9.7-billion deal with a consortium led by South Korean-based Samsung to construct manufacturing plants in the province for renewable-energy contracts.

Other companies also set up manufacturing facilities to benefit from the Green Energy Act, which required renewable-project developers to source 60 per cent of their content locally in order to benefit from lucrative subsidies.

As with solar-panel makers Silfab Solar Inc. of Mississauga and Guelph-based Canadian Solar, Heliene used the activity generated by the act to build a business in Ontario.

Following complaints from the European Union and Japan, the World Trade Organization ruled in 2013 that Ontario's local-content requirement was illegal, so the provincial government dropped it. As a result, manufacturing operations set up to serve the provincial market found themselves competing head to head with industry giants.

Several solar producers, including Heliene, pivoted to the U.S. market, where the solar industry is booming despite President Donald Trump's political support for coal and nuclear.

Solar and wind projects accounted for 56 per cent of new generation last year and fully 95 per cent in the first quarter of this year, according to consultancy Wood Mackenzie Ltd.

Earlier this year, foreign solar-panel makers were slapped with a 30-per-cent tariff by the Trump administration.

The tariffs hit the Ontario operations hard.

The three companies launched a lawsuit that failed. The Canadian government is now pursuing a NAFTA arbitration panel, even as Mr. Trump pushes for a new trade deal that would exclude such remedies, while Heliene is seeking exemptions for its products from the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative.

In the meantime, the tariffs solidified the case for the Minnesota production facility, and the company is hiring 130 people in Mountain Iron, a town of 3,000 in the northeastern part of the state.

"We're seeking every possible avenue to access the [U.S.] market from the Canadian facility," Mr. Pochtaruk said. "In parallel, we have to manufacture in the U.S."

But solar-panel manufacturers are not the only ones who unwisely counted on the promises of the Green Energy Act.

Last summer, Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy SA closed down a wind turbine plant in Tillsonburg, Ont., eliminating 340 well-paying jobs. A few months earlier, the plant had been transferred to Siemens Gamesa when Siemens AG, the German parent company, merged its renewable-energy business with Spain's Gamesa.

The Tillsonburg plant produced some 2,000 wind-turbine blades for projects under Ontario's Feed-in-Tariff Program - which allowed participants who generate renewable energy to sell it to the province at a guaranteed price - as well as projects in the United States and other provinces. But when the Ontario government cancelled a wind-energy procurement in 2016, the Siemens-Gamesa plant was slated for closing.

The future of three other small manufacturing plants in London, Toronto and Windsor - all born out of the Green Energy Act - is also threatened. A few years ago, the province had 11 solarpanel manufacturers; that has dropped to three major ones, plus a couple of small-scale producers. At the peak, there were seven windcomponent makers; there is only one shrunken operation left. And beyond Ontario, there is virtually no manufacturing capacity for renewables in Canada.

GE owns LM Wind Power, a blade manufacturer that employs 450 people in the Gaspé region of Quebec and has received US$5.7-million in loans and grants from the provincial government to support an expansion.

4,500 Megawatts of installed wind capacity in Ontario, about 12 per cent of its generation capacity of 37,000 MW 1,479 Megawatts of wind capacity in Alberta at the end of 2017; the province expects that number to increase as it phases out 6,300 MW of coal-fired power by 2030

Ontario and Quebec have long dominated the renewable-energy industry in Canada, along with strong activity in the smaller market of Nova Scotia. Now, Alberta and Saskatchewan are poised to take over as growth leaders.

Ontario has roughly 4,500 megawatts of installed wind capacity, about 12 per cent of its generation capacity of 37,000 MW, according to the Independent Electricity System Operator - although actual energy production from those wind turbines fluctuates wildly.

Alberta had 1,479 MW of wind capacity at the end of 2017 but expects to increase that dramatically as it phases out 6,300 MW of coal-fired power by 2030. Alberta Premier Rachel Notley has laid out a plan to replace coal with a mix of natural gas and renewable sources - 70 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively.

Next door, the conservative Saskatchewan Party government has also set a target of 30-percent renewable generation for its electricity system by 2030.

Project developers are flocking to those two provinces to compete for contracts.

Alberta held a competition for 600 MW of power last year, and the four winning bids came in at an average price of 3.7 cents a kilowatt hour - far less than the 15 cents offered under Ontario's original Feed-in-Tariff rates and still less than the 6.5 to 10.5 cents of more recent Ontario procurements.

With more than a dozen companies bidding, the three winning firms were Edmonton's Capital Power, with a 201-MW project, Portugal's EDP with a 248-MW one and Italy's Enel Green Power Canada, which proposed projects of 115 and 31 MW.

Now, developers are gearing up for two more procurement opportunities in the province, a 300-MW round that must include Indigenous partners and a 400-MW round.

Siemens Gamesa is among the companies that will be looking to bid for contracts in the western provinces, said David Hickey, head of the company's business in Canada. While the firm was not affected by Ontario's cancellations, Mr. Hickey expressed concern that the Ford government's actions are hurting investor confidence.

"While the wind industry is obviously disappointed in these cancellations, we are continuing to focus on driving down the cost of energy to maintain our current position as the most cost-effective option for new electricity generation in Canada," he said. "We anticipate the winning prices [in Alberta and Saskatchewan] from these procurements will reinforce wind energy's position as the cheapest form of new electricity generation in Canada."

However, looming over the Alberta market is the spectre of the 2019 election and questions about whether a victorious Jason Kenney, the United Conservative Party Leader, will follow Mr. Ford's lead and hammer the renewables sector or take his cue from Saskatchewan Premier Scott Moe and commit to an increased role for wind, solar, biomass and small hydro.

Mr. Kenney has yet to announce whether he would continue with the scheduled coal phaseout - a policy that was advanced by former Conservative prime minister Stephen Harper and accelerated under the provincial NDP - or with the ambitious addition of renewable power. He has pledged to cancel the NDP's carbon tax as one of his first acts should he take office - although that would trigger the imposition of the federal government's levy - and he has highlighted the importance of reliability and affordability in the electricity system.

"Mr. Kenney has been clear that a Conservative government's focus will be on ensuring reliable, low-cost electricity for Albertans," spokeswoman Annie Dormuth said in an e-mail.

"Immediately following the next elections we will pass the Carbon Tax Repeal Act, which will repeal the NDP's 2015 Climate Leadership Plan Act. We will review all outstanding programs that increase power prices for Albertans."

However, the renewables sector has attributes that appeal to small-c conservatives, including a more community-based electricity system and the provision of additional revenue streams for landowners, said Sara Hastings-Simon, managing director for clean energy at the Pembina Institute in Calgary. Many Republicandominated, conservative states are among the leaders in adopting wind and solar power, she noted. "The idea of energy independence and distributed power has good overlap with conservative ideology," she said. "It's a meeting of the Green Party and the Tea Party - people call it the Green Tea Party."

Increasingly, developers are looking to work directly with large energy consumers to build renewables projects that are not dependent on provincial energy operators or government.

The so-called "non-utility" generation comes from a number of sources, including corporations that have set internal greenhouse gas-emission targets or companies looking to offset their obligation to pay carbon taxes by creating clean-energy credits.

In Alberta, there are a number of large companies developing their own renewable energy sources, a trend that is made easier by the deregulated nature of the market, Ms. Hastings-Simon said. Suncor Energy Inc., for example, has a portfolio of project sites in the early stages of development, with a focus on wind and solar applications in both Saskatchewan and Alberta, spokeswoman Nicole Fisher said. The portfolio has the potential to exceed 1,000 MW of new renewable energy in Western Canada, including the Hand Hills and Forty Mile projects in Alberta and the Shaunavon and Willow Bunch projects in Saskatchewan.

Toronto-based RESCo Energy Inc. is focusing on that non-utility market to develop rooftop solar projects for corporate clients such as Sweden's IKEA Group, which has a global commitment to produce as much renewable power as it consumes by 2020. RESCo has 60 MW of solar projects under management, most of which it built, and has a pipeline for more generation, company president Fidel Reijerse said.

"If companies have the capital to spend, then I think they are in a position to take a long view on energy and take the volatility out of the equation," Mr. Reijerse said. "Many companies are already to a point where - depending on their cost structure and how they pay their power bills - this is particularly beneficial to the small to medium class of business that right now have the highest power bills out of any of the rate classes."

If the new Ontario government is serious about reducing electricity costs for businesses, ensuring they have the wherewithal to generate their own renewable power would provide an opportunity to deliver on that goal, he said.

To better facilitate that, the government would need to follow through on promises to allow "net metering," in which companies can generate their own power and sell surplus electricity but also rely on the grid when they cannot meet their own needs.

Ontario now has a surplus of electricity but must plan for the day - forecast for the mid-2020s - when it needs new supply as its two biggest nuclear plants undergo simultaneous refurbishments.

Renewable-energy developers insist they can be the low-cost option for that future need.

While skeptics complain that renewable sources are not reliable, the industry insists the modern grid can easily manage a much greater percentage of renewable power.

Associated Graphic

Martin Pochtaruk, centre, is one of Canada's leading renewable-energy entrepreneurs, but he says the Canadian market for renewables is drying up.

WESTON HANDREN PHOTOGRAPHY

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE:BLOOMBERG NEW ENERGY FINANCE

Ontario-based solar-manufacturing firm Heliene Inc. is now opening a U.S. plant to rescue its business.

WESTON HANDREN PHOTOGRAPHY


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IDENTIFIED AT LAST
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page A10

The Battle of Hill 70 in the First World War sent many Canadian soldiers to lost graves - until excavations in recent years revealed them. Now, DNA analysis and other clues are attaching names to the remains. This month, four newly identified soldiers will be formally laid to rest in a cemetery in France created by the Canadian Corps a century ago. As Roy MacGregor reports, for relatives, it represents more than closure - the discovery of their ancestors' remains helps animate lives lived in a distant, yet important, place and time

The great-grandfather must have known something.

He could not possibly have known that his four-yearold great-grandson would one day fly faster than the speed of sound, another day hurdle through space without crashing into meteorites - but he knew the quick, determined youngster would go places. He could not know, of course, that one of those places would be 400 kilometres above the Earth's surface.

"We were living in Sarnia," remembers the great-grandson, Col. Chris Hadfield. "We had a little house on Flamingo Drive. It was a rainy summer's day and I was running outside and I saw him and ran into his arms. He told me I ran so fast that I'd run between the raindrops."

The tall, elderly man with the English accent and the warm smile made the four-year-old future astronaut feel special that day. Being 4, the boy had no idea then just how special was the great-grandfather.

Jack Hadfield had gambled on bringing his family to a new country that was then regarded very much as a colony. He had been in the army, a sniper and later a regimental sergeant-major, who in the late 1930s had been hired by the Toronto Maple Leafs to "whip the boys into shape." He had fought in both wars. He and his younger brother, Vic, were both in the Battle of Hill 70 in August, 1917, which marked the first time the Canadian Corps fought as one, and the first time it was commanded by a Canadian, Lieutenant-General Arthur Currie. Six Canadian soldiers were awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest military decoration in the Commonwealth, for their gallantry at Hill 70.

Weeks after that battle, which is now said to have been pivotal in turning Canada from a British colony into a country, Lance-Corporal Victor Hadfield, having just turned 27, fell during the Battle of Passchendaele. His body was never found. "I count myself lucky to have known him a little bit," Col.

Hadfield says of his great-grandfather. "He was a lovely man. I'm afraid my great uncle Vic is one of those whose bones are anonymous and will never be found."

Some bones are found, however. While it is estimated that as many as 20,000 Canadian soldiers have no known grave, every so often a few more remains are uncovered by workers and machines intent on anything else but disturbing the dead.

In recent years, they have included the remains of 31Canadian soldiers who died at Hill 70.

On Aug. 23, four of these fallen soldiers will be reinterred in the Loos British Cemetery, which was created by the Canadian Corps a month before the Battle of Hill 70 and now holds hundreds of the soldiers who died there - all within sight of a magnificent monument unveiled there last year.

Spearheading the identification of those soldiers has been a team, led by forensic anthropologist Sarah Lockyer, from the Department of National Defence's Directorate of History and Heritage. To describe the task Dr. Lockyer's group faced as daunting would be to vastly understate the situation. The Battle for Hill 70 was one of the fiercest of the First World War.

Both the French and English had failed in earlier attempts to take the city of Lens, an important coal centre in the north of France. Lieutenant-General Currie's insistence that his troops be allowed to first take the high ground near the town - a hill 70 metres above sea level - and then contain the German occupants was successful but costly. The Canadians held their position through 21 German counterattacks, and although they suffered less than half the casualties of the enemy, 1,877 Canadians lost their lives. Roughly half of those killed were never recovered to be given proper burials.

Identification of remains is never easy, but a variety of indicators - place found, badges, buttons, rings, watches - helps narrow the possibilities, before National Defence genealogists can begin the complex task of tracking potential relatives, who are then asked to give a DNA swab. If the DNA is a match to the DNA of the bones, a positive identification is made, and arrangements proceed to give the remains a proper military burial - near where they fell.

Dr. Lockyer and her colleagues have dealt with remains that range from 95-per-cent in place to bones that existed only "from the knees down." Her group has at times contacted relatives, often distant, always generations removed, who "had no interest at all" in what the team had found.

One relative of the four soldiers who will be reinterred this month acknowledges that her first reaction was that she was being lured into a "scam," and she refused to take the call. It was only when a subsequent phone message mentioned her great-uncle by name that she decided to call back - and will now be travelling to France to attend the burial of the relative she never knew.

Most relatives, however, have been immediately eager to participate. And for Dr. Lockyer and her colleagues, the ability to help establish long-lost connections is gratifying. When a DNA link is solidly connected to living relatives, the bones "become people," she says. "Until then, we keep that wall up and deal with human remains like it's a job."

Once arrangements have been made - the Canadian government pays for two relatives to attend the reinterment; other family members must pay their own way - Dr. Lockyer travels with the remains and attends the burials.

"That," she says, "is when you allow yourself to feel a lot more."

She sees the effect on the family and also on the soldier's regiment, which is always represented. The Moncton native says without hesitation that she has broken down herself.

Sergeant Archie Wilson will have plenty of family on hand at the Loos British Cemetery this month. The Scottish-born barber, whose remains were uncovered in August of 2011 during a munitions-clearing operation, enlisted in Winnipeg - as did two of his brothers, John and Gavin. None survived the war.

Several of their family members can remember the photograph of the three lost sons that their grandmother and greatgrandmother kept. His niece, who lives in Saskatchewan, turns 100 in October and cannot attend the ceremony, for health reasons. But Holly Chong and Heather Aldrich, great-grand-nieces from Sundre, Alta., are booked to go.

The name Archie has now been passed down through five generations, and the large family is relieved that, at last, the original Archie has been found: Seven years ago, the family was asked for DNA samples regarding other remains that had been found at Hill 70, and when news came back that there was "no match," they were devastated. "It was almost like he had died again," Ms. Chong says.

Years later, Dr. Lockyer called again. New remains had been studied - and this time the match was perfect. "We were so elated," Ms. Chong says.

Their cousin Gavin Wood - named after Archie's brother - is going over from Regina. "This," he says, "is a mind-boggling experience."

"We were such a close family," Ms. Chong says of their childhood. Eventually, however, families moved far away and, as she says with no small surprise, "We haven't seen each other in - what?

- 50 years or more."

"Ridiculous," Mr. Wood says.

"We've even found three cousins in Manitoba we didn't know we had. Now we have to go to France to get together."

Bonnie Murphy doesn't even have to be at the Loos grave site to break down in tears. She does so over the phone from New Jersey, where she lives, talking about the great-uncle she never knew. Private John (Jack) Henry Thomas, a New Brunswicker, was killed on Aug. 19, 1917, at the age of 28, and was found in 2016 when workers were digging on the grounds of a plastic manufacturer.

When Ms. Murphy discovered a voicemail from "the Government of Canada" on her phone, she thought perhaps she had lost some important papers while attending a wedding in Vancouver.

When she learned why Dr. Lockyer had been calling, in search of a DNA sample, she was puzzled.

"Why me?" she asked. Genealogy, she was told: The Government of Canada thinks you might be a relative of a man you never knew who died a century ago.

"They sent me a kit, and I did it and sent it back," she says. "I knew my grandmother had lost a brother, but all I had was a picture of him. Every Veterans Day, I would post it alongside photos of my brothers, my dad and my grandfather, who had all been in the service."

Speaking of Pte. Thomas, she says: "He was just a kid. My children are older than he was, and his life just stopped."

Five of Pte. Thomas's nowAmerican relatives - Ms. Murphy, her sister, their brother, a daughter and a niece - will make the journey to Loos for the reinterment. "It's such a wonderful story," she says.

And for some, a story of surprise. Catherine Manicom, of Guelph, had no idea that someone in the family had fought in the Great War when Dr. Lockyer contacted her regarding Private Henry Edmonds Priddle, who was killed on the second day of the Battle of Hill 70. Age 33 and married, the broom-maker had enlisted in Winnipeg; his remains were uncovered in the spring of 2011 during munitions clearing.

Now, Ms. Manicom and her 84year-old mother, Margaret Murray, and other family members are headed for France. They have asked that their ancestor's marker bear the words "In our lives for a short time, in our hearts forever."

The white-crossed cemetery at Loos holds hundreds of Canadian soldiers who died there - and will, with the Aug. 23 ceremony, also become the final resting place of Ottawa-born Private William Del Donegan, 20, who enlisted in Winnipeg and was identified through a wristwatch found with remains during a munitionsclearing operation in 2010. Relatives of Pte. Donegan will be in attendance at his reinterment.

The cemetery is within sight of the magnificent monument that was unveiled last year on the centennial of both Vimy and Hill 70.

It sits in an eight-hectare park leased to Canada for 99 years at a cost of one euro by the municipality of Loos en Gohelle. The memorial has been costed at $12.8-million, all of which is being raised privately by volunteers, with the government of France helping considerably by waiving certain taxes and import duties.

The monument comprises an obelisk just over 20 metres high, its apex sitting, appropriately, at 70 metres above sea level. It features the sword of sacrifice, the words "CANADA 1917" and is the main focus of the General Sir Arthur Currie Amphitheatre. Visitors reach it by following a twisting, slowly rising pathway that is embedded with 1,877 maple leafs, one for each fallen soldier.

Col. Hadfield, who serves as the national spokesman for the Hill 70 Memorial Project, understands perfectly why the reinterment and military funeral would mean so much to those who could not possibly have known the family member being buried again.

"It means both nothing and everything," he says. "Once a person is dead, that person doesn't care any more. They're not coming back. We all die. So you can be just brutal about it and say the remains don't mean anything, they're just like your cast-off clothing. You have to decide how important the body is in itself."

Col. Hadfield sometimes wonders about his Uncle Vic, lying somewhere in that hell that was the Passchendaele battlefield. "If his remains were to be found after they've been lying in the dirt for 100 years," he says, "it wouldn't matter to the remains. It wouldn't matter much to whoever dug them up. But it would mean a lot to my family.

"Psychologically, it can mean everything. Especially if it is someone who was lost while they were away, and who was lost in defence of a higher purpose.

Someone whose family was in great fear that they wouldn't return - and then they didn't."

He knows this personally. Not just because of his great-great-uncle Vic, but through his profession as a fighter pilot, a test pilot and, of course, an astronaut, during which he has lost several friends, whether at war, in preparation for war, or in setting out to explore this small part of the universe.

He also knows that, in those tragedies - "It's just that violent" - there will usually be absolutely nothing left of the body, nothing at all to bury.

"So finding these remains physically," he says "it's minor - but mentally, and emotionally, and yes, historically, it could not be more significant."

For further details on the identification program, search for Hill 70 on http://www.canada.ca

Associated Graphic

Private William Del Donegan, just 20 when he was killed in the Battle of Hill 70, was identified through a wristwatch found with remains during a munitions-clearing operation in 2010.

COURTESY OF FAMILY OF CAROLINE CONSITT

Family members in Saskatchewan and Alberta can recall an old photograph kept by their grandmother and great-grandmother of the Wilson brothers, Archie, John and Gavin, who all died in the First World War. Some family members will be in attendance for the ceremony when Archie, pictured, is laid to rest at the cemetery in France. He was recently identified through buttons of the 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), found with his remains.

A Canadian General Service button helped identify the remains of Private Henry Edmonds Priddle, who was killed on the second day of the Battle of Hill 70. His relatives have asked that the marker for his grave in France bear the words: 'In our lives for a short time, in our hearts forever.'

COURTESY OF DECOOMAN FAMILY

Private John (Jack) Henry Thomas was killed on Aug. 19, 1917, and his remains were found in 2016 with a collar badge from the 26th Canadian Infantry Battalion (New Brunswick). His relatives would later move to the United States, and five of them will be in attendance for his reinterment in France this month.

VETERANS AFFAIRS CANADA

The First World War devastated the coal mining region of Northern France, as seen in this photo from 1919.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Chris Hadfield's great-grandfather, Jack Hadfield, is seen with family members in this undated photo.

COURTESY OF HADFIELD FAMILY

Chris Hadfield serves as the national spokesman for the Hill 70 Memorial Project. He often wonders what became of the body of his great-uncle Vic Hadfield, pictured here with his wife, Flo.

COURTESY OF HADFIELD FAMILY


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Some people think they drive better after a joint. The science says otherwise.
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Wednesday, August 8, 2018 – Page A8

From the second-storey window of the High Life Social Club in Halifax, which is planted discreetly above a café serving all-day breakfast, the owner Chris Henderson points to the bus stop across the street. Until a few weeks ago, it displayed a poster for every departing patron of his cannabis-friendly lounge to see, part of a citywide public-education campaign to prepare for the legalization of marijuana on Oct. 17.

"Drive better on weed?" the poster asked, with a touch of snark, as if you'd have to be on drugs not to know the right answer. As it happens, that's a question easily answered on a warm Tuesday evening in July, doused in the sweet, skunky perfume of pot, with club members drinking bottled water between hits on a water bong.

Turns out, they think they do. The science, however, begs to differ.

For instance, a 21-year-old High Life regular, and early childhood educator, lounging on a black couch beside a large mural of the caterpillar from Alice in Wonderland, offered an anecdote about a friend who passed her driving test while stoned. (The woman asked not to be identified; her employers, she noted, wouldn't be so cannabis friendly.) After a day chasing toddlers, she says, smoking a joint helps her focus on the road. Most nights at the lounge, she waits an hour or so, and drives home. Anyway, she insists, if you find yourself too stoned to drive, just pull over and wait 15 minutes to sober up.

A retired telecom technician in his 60s wanders over and joins the conversation.

While he now bikes everywhere, he describes driving stoned regularly, with no problems. (Not so with alcohol, he notes, which resulted in an impaired-driving conviction three decades ago, and one accident.) Compared with drinking, he says to general agreement, pot keeps you more chilled out on the road - and less likely to rage at other drivers.

Later in the evening, a 19-year-old engineering students fields questions about his own habits at the counter where chocolate is for sale. He would never drink and drive, he explains, and wouldn't have driven when he first started using cannabis. But six months in, he figures he knows his limit - today, he says, he wouldn't take a road trip without a joint. It's not dangerous, he claims. Among his evidence: He always stop at stop signs.

Collectively, they are candid and amiable - and working hard to convince a stranger that they're upstanding, clearly aware that their drug of choice suffers from some bad PR. But none of these assertions is supported in the growing research on cannabis. The sum of all the science - the driving simulations and on-road experiments, the cognitive testing, even the albeit mixed crash-collision statistics - shows clearly that there are far from "zero problems" with driving high.

Marilyn Huestis, a leading American expert who has been studying cannabis for 30 years, including offering advice on driving issues to Canadian policy makers, says that for non-daily users, it takes six hours for the effects of one joint to completely disappear. That's even if your blood level of THC, the drug's psychoactive ingredient, is low - an issue that creates additional complications for police testing suspect drivers for

legal limits, and a public trying to abide by them. Needless to say, if you're "too stoned" behind the wheel, don't expect a 15-minute pause to make you safe. Occasional users perform more poorly than regular users in studies. But even for the pros, the danger exists - although, as it happens, familiar stop signs may be the least of it.

At the same time, research does suggest that people who are stoned are more aware of their impairment than those who've been drinking - a self-safety check, undeniably, in their favour. Traffic collision statistics show that driving high increases the risk of a crash or collision, although by how much is still the subject of debate, and the overall risk is nowhere near as high as alcohol. For instance, a French study of drivers in fatal collisions found those with cannabis in their blood were twice as likely to be found culpable for the crash than sober driver, compared with nine times for those with alcohol in their system.

According to a 2016 study by Norwegian researchers, which updated earlier findings and analyzed 13 international crashcollision studies between 1982 and 2015, cannabis use increases the risk of a crash by about 30 per cent, compared with a sober, attentive driver. Drunk drivers over the legal limit, on the other hand, are more than 600 times more likely to crash, according to report by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the United States.

In 2016, the NHTSA was also behind what is considered one of the most comprehensive - and controversial - experiments to assess the risk of marijuana and driving.

Researchers investigated crashes in real time in Virginia, 24 hours a day for 20 months. They compared the crashed drivers with THC to a control group of drivers stopped in the same location, at the same time as the crash, who agreed to be screened for cannabis. Once researchers adjusted for age and gender - particularly, young and male - and the presence of alcohol, they found no increased risk of collisions compared with drug-free drivers. But despite its great design, there were some flaws in the study's execution, says Mark Asbridge, the MADD Canada professor in impaired-driving research and prevention at Dalhousie University. The location was near a military base, which regularly tested soldiers for the presence of drugs, an external influence on driving behaviour, and the control-study drivers could refuse to participate, reducing the sample of those with drugs in their system. As with most cannabis studies, there was a delay or problem in getting blood samples, especially for more serious crashes. Even the authors of the U.S.

study warned not to interpret their findings - one sample of drivers in one location - to be saying it was safe to drive high.

One of the complications of studying cannabis is how often it is combined with alcohol, a particularly dangerous driving cocktail, the research suggests. In the French study on fatal crashes, for example, drivers who had consumed both alcohol and cannabis were 14 times more likely to be found responsible for the crash when compared with sober drivers - much higher than those who had consumed either drug on its own.

Still, these mixed results suggest why, according to a September, 2017, survey commissioned by Public Safety Canada, a hearty portion of Canadians believe that driving high isn't so bad. Twenty-eight per cent of the 2,132 respondents said they'd driven high, and of those, 17 per cent said the influence of cannabis "posed no real risks." Nearly one in 10 of all respondents believe cannabis makes a person "a better driver." For Canadians under the age of 24, risk was perceived to be even lower. In a 2017 large-scale Ontario survey, 8 per cent of teenagers admitted to driving an hour after using cannabis - compared with 4 per cent who said they had driven drunk. The good news is that the driving-high figure has fallen slowly since 2011, when the question was first asked. The bad news is, in the Public Safety survey, 43 per cent of Canadians said they didn't know how long to safely wait after a joint before driving, with young people more likely to predict shorter wait times.

"We used to say the same thing about drinking and driving. 'I can have a few drinks and it relaxes me.' 'I can have one for the road,' " says Robert Mann, a researcher at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Hopefully, he says, changing attitudes about marijuana won't take as long.

"The clear message is that using cannabis increases your risk of an accident."

Collision stats clump drivers together to see a highway of cars. They aren't measuring the safety of individuals, on their own route home. Occasional users appear to score worse when acutely stoned than more frequent users who may have developed a tolerance. (Although, Dr. Heustis notes that the cognitive deficits that result from chronic use may also lower driving skills.) New drivers are likely to be more challenged than veterans. An issue with all marijuana research to date, is that it's usually focused on smoking the drug, typically at lower THC levels than today's versions.

It's not clear the difference that newer forms of consumption will have on driving, including edibles, which make a user high more slowly, and can lead to people ingesting too much.

Even with those limitations, however, driving simulations in the lab show that cannabis clearly impairs drivers, if somewhat differently than alcohol. Drunks put their foot on the gas; stoners dance their toes on the brake. They both weave on the road, but the latter does it more often at a safer speed. The notion that being high "makes you a better driver" likely originates here - cannabis users appear to compensate for their impairment with some caution, such as putting more space between the car in front of them.

So on a quiet ride on a familiar route, a driver under the influence of cannabis may be able to get home without incident. But driving, as Dr. Heustis notes, is marked by unexpected events - a kid riding their bike into the street, an elderly man dropping his key on the crosswalk, another swerving car.

Being high, she says, makes it harder for drivers to compensate for surprises - in simulations, marijuana slows reaction times, divides a driver's attention and makes decision-making foggy. For example, she says, in lab tests, cannabis users can add a row of numbers as well as a sober person - but throw in a complicated problem and they falter. With driving, Dr. Heustis says, they may be concentrating so hard at the just-getting-it-done task, that a sudden rush of complex information is overwhelming.

Back at the High Life Social Club, Mr.

Henderson, the businessman with a smoking angel tattoo dancing up his neck and a devil staring from his back, tries to navigate the views of his patrons, and the fears of a worried public. He has a marijuana prescription to deal with chronic pain - he could consume up to six joints a day, although he usually takes much less. Even a few hours after using, he is "100-per-cent confident" he is safe on the road. He'd have no problem taking a roadside test, he says, but he worries about being charged for having THC in his blood, even when he is not impaired.

The new law is "better-safe-than-sorry legislation," by his way of thinking. "But the most important thing is that the roads remain safe," he says. "If that means people taking a cab because they smoke a joint, that's probably not a bad thing." CANNABIS AND DRIVING: BREAKING DOWN CANADA'S NEW LIMITS What's the new legal limit for cannabis while driving? The government has set 2 nanograms of THC per millilitre of blood as a summary conviction, with up to a $1,000 fine. At 5 ng, a driver would be charged with a criminal offence - similar to the blood alcohol limit of .08 - with a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison. And there's also a more serious penalty if you are caught with a combined blood limit of .05 and 2.5 ng of cannabis. There is no exception of medicinal users.

How many puffs is that? Unlike alcohol, there's no clear guideline, and the government hasn't provided any. It depends on how much and how deeply you inhale, the strength of the cannabis you use and how you consume it, your experience using and your individual characteristics. For edibles, which take longer to take effect, it is even trickier.

What the science says: Research shows that a driver's THC (the psychoactive ingredient in the drug) blood levels is an unreliable indicator of impairment. While alcohol is absorbed and eliminated in the blood at a linear rate, blood levels of THC fall quickly after smoking and then flatten out. This means people may feel the most high even when their THC blood level is at a very low rate. Since THC leaves the blood so quickly - but remains in the brain for a longer period - a higher legal limit may not capture drivers who are still seriously impaired, especially given the added delay in collecting blood samples. In any event, says Marilyn Huestis, a leading American cannabis researcher, there is no one simple measurement of THC at which everyone using cannabis will be impaired.

How Canada's law compares: While some countries and U.S. states have zero-tolerance limits for cannabis, Canada's new legal limits are roughly in line with other jurisdictions, such as Colorado and Washington, where cannabis is legal. Britain, however, allows for a medical defence if the driver can demonstrate they were not impaired.

So what if I use marijuana medicinally? This is a real issue, one that experts have said will probably need to be resolved with court cases.

People taking cannabis regularly may have a residual dose of THC in their blood even though they haven't used recently and are not impaired. Since measuring drug amounts is complicated, New Zealand's policing approach, for instance, has emphasized evidence of impairment and not relied so heavily on blood tests.

What if I get stopped? As before legalization, a police officer may give you a three-part sobriety test - walk the line, balance on one foot, track the finger - if they have reason to believe you have been using cannabis, or any drug that is making you a danger on the road. Police will also be able to administer a saliva test once they are approved and distributed. If you fail those tests, a more detailed interview happens back at the station, but, because THC levels fall so quickly, the new law also allows police to skip right to a blood test.

What's my best strategy? The guideline recommended by the Canadian Centre for Addiction and Mental Heath - and in research by the National Institute for Drug Abuse in the United States - is to wait at least six hours before driving after a smoking a joint. If you use only occasionally, studies suggest, the effect on your driving will be worse than more frequent users. Be extra careful mixing marijuana with alcohol - when combined, research shows, they may impair drivers much more than either drug alone.

Associated Graphic

Chris Henderson, owner and operator of the High Life Social Club in Halifax, smokes a joint in the cannabis-friendly lounge.

PHOTOS BY DARREN CALABRESE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mr. Henderson rolls and then lights a joint at High Life. He says he is '100-per-cent confident' that he is safe to drive even a few hours after smoking marijuana.

TRISH McALASTER / THE GLOBE AND MAIL SOURCE: EKOS RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC. DRUG IMPAIRED DRIVING AD CAMPAIGN, 2017


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Tom Thomson's mysterious death just won't die
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Yet another book is examining the famous painter's demise on Canoe Lake in Algonquin Park 101 years ago. But this one enlists detectives to sort through the evidence. Their conclusion? Let's just say it's now a whodunit
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page R1

ALGONQUIN PARK, ONT. -- Finally, after 101 years, the police are closing in ... Was it really an accident, as the first ruling had it? Was it suicide, as the earliest gossip had it?

Or was it ... murder, as has long been the speculation?

Disturbing questions about the fate of Tom Thomson, Canada's most famous painter, arose almost immediately among the locals of Canoe Lake following his disappearance on July 8, 1917, and the discovery of his floating, decomposing body eight days later, a bad bruise on the side of his head and fishing line carefully wrapped more than a dozen times around an ankle.

Some of the locals immediately had suspicions regarding foul play, but kept them to themselves. It was not until 1935, when author Blodwen Davies released A Study of Tom Thomson, that the mumbled questions around the tiny community were first expressed in public: "Who met Tom Thomson on that stretch of grey lake, screened from all eyes, that July noon?

"Who was it struck him a blow across the right temple - and was it done with the thin edge of a paddle blade? - that sent the blood spurting from his ear?

"Who watched him crumple up and topple over the side of the canoe and sink slowly out of sight without a struggle?" Davies, who never met Thomson, was voicing the concerns of Algonquin Park ranger Mark Robinson, who had been a close friend of the artist. Robinson's journals, letters and taped reminiscences are considered the primary source for all of the investigations of Thomson's death. The most significant secondary source would be the work of Judge William Little, whose investigations in the 1950s and 60s - including the recovery of human remains from an unmarked grave off to the side of the tiny Canoe Lake cemetery - led to a CBC documentary, Was Tom Thomson Murdered?, as well as Little's own 1970 bestseller, The Tom Thomson Mystery.

Since then, there have been a multitude of books, novels, poetry, songs, even a movie (The Far Shore, 1976). This year alone has seen a novel, Tom Thomson's Last Bonfire by Geoff Taylor, and a book by Tim Bouma, Tom Thomson: Journal of My Last Spring, that grew out of Bouma's Twitter account (@TTLastSpring), which fictionally traces the final days of the artist.

In August, John Little's book Who Killed Tom Thomson?: The Truth about the Murder of One of the 20th Century's Most Famous Artists will be published (Thomas Allen & Son). John Little is the son of William Little, who died in 1995, convinced to the end that Thomson had been done in by another Canoe Lake resident.

What the younger Little has done is take a novel approach to a mystery that seems, at times, to have been examined to death. First, he has done an admirable job of assembling the actual evidence, the hearsay evidence and all the various theories, from solid to ridiculous, concerning the death of Tom Thomson. His research he then turned over to the two former detectives whose professional careers were taken up solving difficult crimes.

The police, in essence, were being handed a Rubik's Cube of confusion and intrigue assembled by a long list of amateur investigators. Little wonder the story so fascinates Canadians. It is not just the painter's majestic, brilliant art, but his unknown end.

Thomson has been murdered by the owner of the lodge where he stayed, by a local cottager with whom he had argued, by poachers and even by German agents seeking to sabotage the troop lines in the final months of the First World War. He has been killed by a water spout that picked him and his canoe up and spun him through air until he struck his head on the gunwales. He has slipped and fallen on a portage, striking his head on a rock and spinning into the water. He has committed suicide in a black mood brought on by bipolar disorder. He has stumbled while attempting to pee from a wobbly canoe. And, of course, the official report of accidental drowning, which few believe, could still be right.

Just consider for a moment what is known and what is not known 101 years after the painter's body rose to the surface in Canoe Lake.

At a heavy-drinking party the night before the 39-year-old painter went missing, Thomson had argued with local cottager Martin Blecher. Blecher was an American of German descent from Buffalo and the United States was not in the war. Ranger Robinson the ranger believed he might be a German spy.

Thomson's empty canoe was supposedly spotted overturned the following afternoon; yet, no one bothered to check on it. The supplies he supposedly set out with were never found, nor was his favourite paddle.

A doctor who checked the body after it surfaced found no air in the lungs, fishing line wrapped around his leg and, he recorded, a wound to the right temple.

Robinson in his journal noted the wound was to the left temple.

The police were never notified. The park superintendent at the time declared himself ex officio coroner, concluded it had been death by accidental drowning and signed the death certificate so that Thomson's friends could have the body embalmed and buried in the little cemetery at Canoe Lake.

When coroner A.E. Ranney arrived from North Bay, there was no body to examine. Following a half-hearted inquiry held at the Blecher cottage, he signed a burial certificate and took the first train out.

Another undertaker arrived from nearby Huntsville to exhume the body on behalf of the Thomson family. He worked at night, alone, and in the morning was at the train station with a sealed steel casket, as train transportation required.

The new casket was buried in the Thomson family lot at Leith, Ont., without anyone seeing the body (although decades later, it was claimed they had). Robinson, for one, believed the Huntsville undertaker could not possibly have exhumed the body on his own and that Thomson remained buried at Canoe Lake.

In the fall of 1956, four men, including William Little, dug in the tiny cemetery and found human remains in a deteriorating wooden casket. The skull had a hole in the left temple. It was briefly believed the burial mystery had been solved. They were certain they had found Tom Thomson.

The Ontario AttorneyGeneral then said scientists had determined the remains belonged to an Indigenous male, much younger and shorter than Thomson had been. The hole in the skull was not from a blow or bullet, but was a medical procedure called trephination to relieve pressure on the brain.

None of the men who dug up the remains believed this official report; they felt it was a whitewash intended to prevent additional pain to the much-respected Thomson family.

But there was so much more to this puzzle. Local gossip initially had the painter committing suicide, something his friends - some of whom would go on to form the Group of Seven - denied vehemently.

Local gossip also had him engaged to a Canoe Lake cottager, Winnifred Trainor of Huntsville, who had apparently been pressing him on marriage. Her long disappearance over the winter - she and her mother staying with "friends" in Philadelphia - led some to believe she had been left with a child that she had given up for adoption.

John Little was essentially born into this story. Now 57, a writer, editor and the owner of Nautilus North fitness centre in nearby Bracebridge, his earliest recollections are of tromping around Canoe Lake with his father as the elder Little talked to old-timers about what they thought had happened to the painter, and subsequently to his body.

William Little came to the conclusion, in his 1970 book, that Thomson had been murdered by Blecher.

The two had argued the day before. Blecher had once swung a paddle at another Canoe Lake local and some, such as Robinson, thought the wound to the temple looked like it had been caused by the blade of a paddle.

Later on in the 1970s, Daphne Crombie who, with her husband, had spent time in the same Mowat Lodge where Thomson stayed, came forward with a startling new version of events. It was hearsay - quickly dismissed by many - but fascinating to those caught up in the mystery. She claimed, in both a park archival interview and in a magazine interview, that the man who killed Thomson was Shannon Fraser, proprietor of the lodge.

Crombie claimed Shannon's wife, Annie, told her she had seen letters in the painter's room from Winnie Trainor imploring him to get a new suit because marriage was now a necessity. Her husband and the painter fought over money, apparently, and Annie Fraser said that Thomson fell into the fire grate after being struck by Shannon. She had helped her husband take the body out onto the lake under cover of dark, tie a weight to his leg and then dump the canoe.

John Little spent considerable time trying to prove his father's theory that Thomson had been murdered. The initial suspect, of course, had been Blecher, but both Littles came to believe that Shannon Fraser had to be considered, as well, especially as Annie repeated her "confession" to a Huntsville family much later in her life.

The younger Little was told in a latenight phone call that the nephew from New York State who had inherited all of Trainor's property - including a dozen or more Thomson originals - was, in fact, her rumoured child. He was convinced this had to be true, only to discover, as so often happens in this convoluted tale, the "fact" did not survive closer scrutiny. The nephew, still living, was born years after 1917-18.

The younger Little also inherited from his father a romantic vision of the painter as a charming "stand-up guy." When he began interviewing the few old people who had actually been around Algonquin Park in 1917, he found this was not everyone's opinion.

In an interview with the late trapper Ralph Bice, a recipient of the Order of Canada, Little was taken aback when the old trapper dismissed Thomson as "a drunken bum" and disparaged his memory. "Within three minutes [my notion] of Tom Thomson was dumped upside down," Little said. Speaking as Bice, he added: "'This is ridiculous! Why don't they let it die? They've got a lake named for him. He couldn't paint unless he had a bottle of gin beside him.' " Bice subscribed to the official conclusion of accidental drowning. He even saw merit in the theory put forward by David Silcox and Harold Town in their 1977 book, Tom Thomson: The Silence and the Storm, that the painter had risen in his canoe to relieve himself, stumbled, struck his head and fell overboard.

"The majority of drowned fishermen are found with their flies open?" Little said incredulously. "Are there studies that show this?" Little believed, as others have, that if a DNA analysis could be done on the bones at Canoe Lake, it might rule out the possibility that the remains belonged to an Indigenous man. In 2005, he approached Pikwakanagan First Nation at Golden Lake, whose traditional territory includes Algonquin Park, and they pointed out that the remains unearthed in 1956 at Canoe Lake had not been buried in any of their traditions. They agreed to petition the Ontario government to exhume the bones so they could, if indeed the remains were Indigenous, rebury the bones under Algonquin custom. The government would not agree to this.

"Even though the natives had requested it," Little says. "That really caught us by surprise."

There was no chance the Thomson family was going to exhume the Leith grave to see if there were any remains.

They had refused often. In 1999, a Toronto Star article quoted Tracy Thomson, a grand-niece who is also an accomplished artist, as saying: "I fear that once people know the truth, that's the end of the intrigue and the chatter about it."

As the years passed, Little's research became as voluminous as his father's decades-long collection of material. The question now was what to do with it?

"Thomson was like a ghost that needed to be exorcized," he says. "I didn't want to write a biography because it's been done. I didn't want to write about his art. ... It was always the hand behind the art that interested me. If in fact he was killed, then in actuality that killer launched the Canadian art world. Thomson's popularity began it."

Little's key contribution to this everspinning tale was to bring in qualified investigators as "consultants." One of his Bracebridge neighbours happened to be a retired Ontario Provincial Police detective, Dan Mulligan, a 34-year police veteran who had led dozens of suicide and sudden-death investigations, as well as multiple homicide examinations. Mulligan was able to connect Little to another ex-detective, Scott Thomson of Barrie, Ont., a 33-year veteran who served as detective inspector for Major Case Manager Criminal Investigations from 2008 to 2012.

Their conclusions? Far too detailed to go into here in depth, but essentially this: no suicide, definitely foul play by blunt force trauma.

As Scott Thomson writes, "The evidence that has been presented leaves no other conclusion."

As for who was dug up at Canoe Lake in 1956, Mulligan says, it is "undoubtedly Tom Thomson."

As for who exactly did this foul deed, it would be unfair to give away too much, but both detectives believe that, had there been a proper police investigations, there would have been charges laid.

As for Little, he says: "I kind of feel like Socrates, in that all I know is that I know nothing.

"That was why I left any and all conclusions in the matter to the detectives."

Associated Graphic

Top: Tom Thomson, right, canoes with future Group of Seven member Arthur Lismer in 1914. Above: Thomson's works included the 1916 painting Bateaux.

TOP: COURTESY OF JOHN LITTLE; ABOVE: ART GALLERY OF ONTATIO

Tom Thomson, seen with a catch of brook trout in front of Mowat Lodge circa 1914, died in 1917. His death was officially ruled an accidental drowning.

William Little, above, was a judge whose investigations in the 1950s and 60s - including the recovery of human remains from an unmarked grave off to the side of a tiny Canoe Lake cemetery in Ontario's Algonquin Park - led to a CBC documentary as well as a bestselling book. The painting behind him is of the cemetery at Canoe Lake. Little's son John has written Who Killed Tom Thomson?, which is set to be published in August.

PHOTOS COURTESY OF JOHN LITTLE

John Little's earliest recollections are of tromping around Canoe Lake with his father, who talked to people about what they thought had happened to Thomson.

William Little kneels by the gravesite - which many people believe contains the remains of Tom Thomson - he helped discover at Canoe Lake in 1956. He was convinced to the end that Thomson had been killed by another Canoe Lake resident.


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Up against the wall
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Thousands of miles of walls and fences have gone up around the world in the 21st century. How can it be, wonders Tim Marshall, that we are seemingly as divided as ever?
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By TIM MARSHALL
  
  

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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page O1

Tim Marshall's books include The Age of Walls: How Barriers Between Nations Are Changing Our World, which will be published in October and from which this essay is adapted.

The border wall between Israel and the West Bank is among the most forbidding and hostile in the world. Viewed from up close, whichever side you find yourself on, it rears up from the ground, overwhelming and dominating you.

Faced by this blank expanse of steel and concrete, you are dwarfed not only by its size but by what it represents. You are on one side; "they" are on the other.

Thirty years ago, a wall came down, ushering in what looked like a new era of openness and internationalism. In 1987, president Ronald Reagan went to the Brandenburg Gate in divided Berlin and called out to his opposite number in the Soviet Union, "Mr. Gorbachev - tear down this wall!"

Two years later, it fell.

Berlin, Germany and then Europe were united once more.

In those heady times, some intellectuals predicted an end of history. However, history does not end.

In recent years, the cry "Tear down this wall" is losing the argument against "fortress mentality."

It is struggling to be heard, unable to compete with the frightening heights of mass migration, the backlash against globalization, the resurgence of nationalism, the collapse of communism, and the 9/11 attacks and their aftermath.

These are the fault lines that will shape our world for years to come.

Many of us travel during the summer. It's an opportunity to broaden the mind, experience new cultures - and discover just how many countries are busy walling themselves off from the outside world.

(You won't see this highlighted by the various tourism departments.)

Israel's fencing-off the West Bank, Donald Trump's proposed wall along the Mexico-United States border, as well as the outrage over the separation of undocumented migrants from their children are garnering all the headlines, including earlier this week, when Mr. Trump tweeted that he "would be willing to 'shut down' government if the Democrats do not give us the votes for Border Security, which includes the Wall!"

But wall-building is a worldwide phenomenon in which the cement has been mixed and the concrete laid without most of us even noticing.

We are seeing walls being built along borders everywhere. Despite globalization and advances in technology, we seem to be feeling more divided than ever.

Thousands of miles of walls and fences have gone up around the world in the 21st century. At least 65 countries, more than a third of the world's nation-states, have built barriers along their borders; half of those erected since the Second World War sprang up between 2000 and now. Within a few years, the European nations could have more miles of walls, fences and barriers on their borders than there were at the height of the Cold War. They began by separating Greece and Macedonia, Macedonia and Serbia, and Serbia and Hungary, and as we became less shocked by each stretch of barbed wire, others followed suit - Slovenia began building on the Croatian border, the Austrians fenced off Slovenia, and Sweden put up barriers to prevent illegal immigrants crossing from Denmark, while Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have all started on defensive fortifications on their borders with Russia.

In most of these cases, the force driving the walls even higher is the mass movement of peoples, especially from the developing world, which in turn is changing voting patterns. The media narrative in Europe is that the continent's electorates are stemming the rise of political extremes; this is both wrong and complacent. In last year's French presidential election, Emmanuel Macron did indeed roundly beat Marine Le Pen of the National Rally. But Ms. Le Pen won 34 per cent of the vote - doubling what her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen, achieved in the 2002 election.

That is not holding back the tide.

Nor is the entry of the AfD (Alternative for Germany) into the German Bundestag last fall, the landslide victory for the Victor Orban in Hungary this past spring, or the recent election in Italy, which brought to power a coalition government between the Luigi Di Maio's Five Star Movement and Matteo Salvini's Lega Nord, which is unabashedly anti-immigrant, and has been turning migrant ships away from the country's shores.

Europe is certainly not alone in fortifying its borders. The UAE has built a fence along its border with Oman, Kuwait likewise with Iraq. Iraq and Iran maintain a physical divide, as do Iran and Pakistan - all 435 miles of it. In Central Asia, Uzbekistan, despite being landlocked, has closed itself off from its five neighbors, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. The border with Tajikistan is even mined. And on the story goes, through the barriers separating Brunei and Malaysia, Malaysia and Thailand, Pakistan and India, India and Bangladesh, China and North Korea, North and South Korea, and so on around the world.

We erect walls for many reasons because we are divided in many ways - in wealth, race, religion and politics. Sometimes, divisions lead to violence, and walls are erected to protect or defend. Sometimes, walls go up to keep certain people out. Sometimes, physical walls don't go up at all, but we still feel the separation; it's in our minds. These invisible barriers are often just as effective.

These walls tell us much about international politics, but the anxieties they represent transcend the nation-state boundaries on which they sit.

The primary purpose of the walls appearing throughout Europe is to stop the wave of migrants - but they also say much about wider divisions and instability in the structure of the European Union and within its member nations. President Trump's proposed wall along the U.S.-Mexico border is intended to stem the flow of migrants from the south, but it also taps into a wider fear many of its supporters feel about changing demographics. Division shapes politics at every level - the personal, local, national and international. It's essential to be aware of what has divided us, and what continues to do so, in order to understand what's going on in the world today.

Picture the beginning of Stanley Kubrick's 1968 sci-fi masterpiece, 2001: A Space Odyssey, in the sequence titled "The Dawn of Man." On the African savanna in the prehistoric era, a small tribe of proto-man/apes are drinking peacefully at a watering hole when another tribe turns up. The individuals are quite happy to share with their own group - but not with this new "other" tribe.

A shrieking match ensues in which the new group succeeds in taking over the watering hole, forcing the others to retreat. At this point, if the newcomers had had the nous to make a few bricks and mix some cement, they could have walled off their new possession and guarded it.

But given that this is set a few million years ago, they have to fight it out again when the first tribe returns some days later, having boned up on warfare, to reclaim its territory.

Grouping into tribes, feeling alarmed by a lot of outsiders, or responding to perceived threats are very human things to do. We form ties that are important for survival, but also for social cohesion. We develop a group identity, and this often leads to conflict with others. Our groups are competing for resources, but with an element of identity conflict also - a narrative of "us and them."

In the early history of mankind, we were hunter-gatherers: we had not settled or acquired permanent fixed resources that others might covet. Then, in parts of what we now call Turkey and the Middle East, humans started farming. Instead of roaming far and wide to find food or graze livestock, they plowed the fields and waited for the results.

Suddenly (in the context of evolution), more and more of us needed to build barriers: walls and roofs to house ourselves and our livestock, fences to mark our territory, fortresses to retreat to if the territory was overrun, and guards to protect the new system. The Age of Walls has long gripped our imagination ever since. We still tell each other tales of the walls of Troy, Jericho, Babylon, Great Zimbabwe, Constantinople, and of the Great Wall of China, Hadrian's Wall, the Inca Walls in Peru and many others. On and on they stretch, through time, region and culture, to the present - but now they are electrified, topped with searchlights and CCTV.

These physical divisions are mirrored by those in the mind - the great ideas that have guided our civilizations and given us identity and a sense of belonging - such as the Great Schism of Christianity, the split of Islam into Sunni and Shia, and in more recent history the titanic battles between communism, fascism and democracy.

The title of Thomas Friedman's 2005 book, The World Is Flat, was based on the belief that globalization would inevitably bring us closer together. It has done that, but it has also inspired us to build barriers. When faced with perceived threats - the financial crisis, terrorism, violent conflict, refugees and immigration, the increasing gap between rich and poor - people cling more tightly to their groups. The co-founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, believed social media would unite us. In some respects it has, but it has simultaneously given voice and organizational ability to new cybertribes, some of whom spend their time spewing invective and division across the world wide web. There seem now to be as many tribes, and as much conflict between them, as there has ever been. The question we face today is, What form do our modern tribes take? Do we define ourselves by class, by race, by religion, by nationality? And is it possible for these tribes to co-exist in a world where the concept of "us and them" remains?

It all comes down to this "us and them" concept and the walls we build in our minds. Sometimes the "other" has a different language or skin colour; a different religion or other set of beliefs. One example of this came up recently when I was in London with a group of 30 leading young journalists from around the world whom I was helping to train. I'd mentioned the IranIraq war, in which up to one million Iranians had died, and had used the possibly clumsy phrase "Muslims killing Muslims." A young Egyptian journalist jumped from his chair and shouted that he could not allow me to say this. I pointed out the statistics from that terrible war and he replied, "Yes, but the Iranians are not Muslims."

The penny dropped, along with my heart. The majority of Iranians are Shia, so I asked him, "Are you saying that the Shia are not Muslims?" "Yes. The Shia are not Muslims."

Such divisions do not come down to competition for resources, but rather to a claim that what you think is the only truth, and those with differing views are lesser people. With such certainty of superiority, the walls quickly go up. If you introduce competition for resources, they go up higher. We seem to be in that place now.

In China, we see a strong nation-state with a number of divisions within its borders - such as regional unrest and wealth disparity - that pose a risk to national unity, threatening economic progress and power; thus the government must exert control over the Chinese people. The United States is also divided, for different reasons: the era of Mr. Trump has exacerbated race relations in the Land of the Free, but has also revealed a hitherto unrivalled split between Republicans and Democrats, who are more opposed than ever before.

The divisions between Israel and Palestine are well established, but with so many further subdivisions within each population, it is almost impossible to try to agree on a solution. Religious and ethnic divisions also spark violence across the Middle East, highlighting the key struggle between Shia and Sunni Muslims - each incident is the result of complex factors, but much of it comes down to religion, especially the regional rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran. In the Indian subcontinent, population movements, now and in coming years, reveal the plight of those fleeing religious persecution as well as that of the many economic and climate refugees.

In Africa, the borders left behind by colonialism are proving difficult to reconcile with tribal identities that remain strong.

Across Europe the very concept of the EU is under threat as the walls go back up, proving that the differences of the Cold War years haven't entirely been resolved, and that nationalism that has never gone away in the age of internationalism. And as Britain leaves the EU, Brexit reveals divisions throughout the kingdom - long-established regional identities, as well as the more recent social and religious tensions that have formed in the era of globalization. In a time of fear and instability, people will continue to group together, to protect themselves against perceived threats. Those threats don't just come from the borders. They can also come from within.

Copyright © 2018 by Tim Marshall.

From the forthcoming book The Age of Walls: How Barriers Between Nations Are Changing Our World, by Tim Marshall, to be published by Scribner, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, Inc. Printed by permission.

Associated Graphic

PALESTINIANS CLIMB OVER THE WALL INTO EGYPT FROM THE RAFAH REFUGEE CAMP IN GAZA, 2005. KHALIL HAMRA/ASSOCIATED PRESS

East German workers use broken glass on a 15-foot-high wall to deter East Berliners from trying to escape the city on Aug. 22, 1961.

KREUSCH/ASSOCIATED PRESS


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For Uyghur diaspora, there is no escape
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Immigrants struggle with guilt after family members detained in Chinese camps
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By NATHAN VANDERKLIPPE
  
  

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Monday, August 13, 2018 – Page A1

MISSISSAUGA -- Sometimes, at the Vista Heights Public School in Mississauga, when the teacher gathers students around for a community circle, Khadija Abdulaziz talks about her relatives in China, the dozens of people who have disappeared.

"I told them about the concentration camps and the thing that my grandma died," said Khadija, who is 10.

Those camps are what the Chinese call political re-education centres. They are internment facilities where Chinese authorities have placed large numbers of Muslims as part of a campaign to counter what Beijing deems religious radicalism in the country's far-western Xinjiang region.

It is weighty material for an Ontario primary school. But Khadija talks about it in hopes that "Canadians will understand us, and they might help us." She talks, too, because what's happening 10,000 kilometres away in China has cast a pall over her home in Canada, where she and her family, once prosperous textile traders in China, have been unable to escape what is happening in Xinjiang, even as they have sought safety for themselves as refugees.

In the past year, more than 50 people in Khadija's extended family have vanished.

Her mother and father believe the disappeared have been placed into indoctrination camps, where, according to the accounts of others who have been released, detainees undergo forcible Chinese-language instruction, skills training and political instruction - which includes praising the Communist Party and declaring religious belief stupid.

Although China has not formally acknowledged its re-education campaign, satellite imagery and online governmentprocurement documents have confirmed an extensive effort that has incarcerated hundreds of thousands in Xinjiang, locking many behind high walls and barbed wire.

The campaign has also reached far beyond China, to the homes of a Uyghur diaspora made up of hundreds of thousands of immigrants and refugees around the world. Many of them are now struggling to cope with what is taking place in China, where the Uyghurs are a largely Muslim minority group that the Chinese government has accused of committing acts of terror and of harbouring extremism.

What's happening in Xinjiang is serious enough that it should merit a broader re-examination of relations between Western democracies and China, says James Leibold, a scholar at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia, who studies ethnic polices and conflict in China. "It really casts the party state in the light of darkness that I think it deserves," he says. "We need to start seeing China as a global competitor that espouses a very different set of values than those that we hold dear in the liberal West, and we need to give up on this fantasy of engagement." China has produced no official statistics on a re-education program it has sought to keep from public view, but scholars have estimated that at least hundreds of thousands of people have been placed in internment. Among them are Uyghurs who have previously travelled abroad or even communicated with people elsewhere. Those with overseas connections, scholars say, have been specifically targeted for indoctrination.

As a result, those in Xinjiang - which Uyghurs call East Turkestan - have cut communication with siblings and even children outside China, deleting them from messaging apps and disavowing family ties.

That has left those in the Uyghur diaspora haunted by anxiety and guilt. In neighbouring Kazakhstan, worries about China indoctrinating large numbers of ethnic Kazakhs have prompted relatives of people in internment camps to beg the United Nations for help. Elsewhere, including in Canada, Uyghurs have been experiencing nightmares and thoughts of suicide. Some have been placed on antidepressants. "If Uyghurs inside the camps can be seen as direct victims," then "the Uyghurs in the diaspora are indirect victims of these very policies," says Mamtimin Ala, a Uyghur scholar and activist in Sydney, who has written a book on what he calls China's longstanding efforts to "re-engineer the psyche" of the Uyghur people. "Almost all Uyghurs have at least one family member being detained inside the camps," he says, and the ruptured ties with those in Xinjiang have contributed to a loss of belonging and identity. In March, Nurgul Sawut, a clinical social worker in Canberra, conducted a Facebook survey of Uyghurs around the world. Roughly 870 people responded from 18 countries. Ms. Sawut was startled by the results; almost a quarter regularly experienced suicidal thoughts. More than a third showed signs of clinical depression. Nearly half reported difficulty concentrating. A small percentage described being in a state of pervasive numbness. The survey wasn't scientific, but it made clear that "the mental health of our wider community, in the diaspora, is actually in crisis," says Ms. Sawut, who is herself Uyghur.

At least 12 of Ms. Sawut's own family members have disappeared since the beginning of 2018. She believes they are in indoctrination camps.

Part of the strain for overseas Uyghurs lies in knowing that their presence abroad is likely one reason relatives have been detained in Xinjiang. "So, it's quite a huge guilt to carry," Ms. Sawut says. She has organized online lectures to discuss mental health. People have reached out to her in tears, saying, "I need help." Serious problems have emerged - self-harm and paranoia among them.

"Some cases have even developed to schizophrenia," she says. The burden is augmented by the magnitude of the number of people being interned: Ms. Sawut knows one couple in Australia who count 54 relatives and close friends among those who have disappeared, presumably to internment camps. More than 30 family members of Rebiya Kadeer, an activist and former president of the World Uyghur Congress, have either vanished or been detained. More than 20 relatives of Gulchehra Hoja, a broadcaster with the Uyghur service of Radio Free Asia, have gone missing. Some Uyghurs have been able to see the effects of indoctrination from afar.

In Mississauga, one Uyghur man said that two of his nieces, one of them only 15, were "abducted" for 15 days of indoctrination in March before being allowed back to regular school studies. He showed The Globe and Mail some of his niece's subsequent posts to WeChat, the Facebook-like social-media service. They include a video of people singing the Communist Party anthem and a memorial tribute to 97 years of the party's history. "Everything they post online is related to Xi or pro-China," said the man, referring to Chinese President Xi Jinping. According to former detainees, repeatedly pledging fealty to Mr. Xi is a central part of the indoctrination process.

The man, who asked that his name not be published for fear of further consequences for his family, counts 20 relatives in indoctrination centres. His sister was taken from a hospital while she was awaiting brain surgery. "It's the 21st century - it's unbelievable that things like this are happening," the man said. But it is the unknown that most plagues many Uyghurs who, cut off from family, must rely on scraps of information they can glean through others. Ayesha Hameed has lived in Canada since 2006; her father died this March. She wasn't told until April, through intermediaries. "The last time I heard my daddy's voice was a year ago," she said in an interview, her voice cracking. She herself came to Canada because, after leaving China for religious studies in Pakistan, she feared what would happen if she returned home. As for her other relatives still in Xinjiang, she says, "I don't know if they're inside the prison or outside, alive or not."

The full extended family of another Uyghur woman in Southwestern Ontario, who asked that her name not be used, is still in China. She was told her sister was "studying," the term typically used for indoctrination, but hasn't been able to speak with any relatives since last fall. When she calls, they either don't answer or hang up.

It has taken a toll. "I cannot concentrate on anything. My mind is off. I cannot sleep," she says. A doctor prescribed antidepressants. "I lost a lot of weight because I don't want to eat any more. Whenever I eat something, I remember back home." A Canadian citizen, she called on Ottawa to intervene with China. "Canada is concerned about reports of widespread detentions of Uyghurs in Xinjiang," says Global Affairs Canada spokeswoman Krista Humick. Although Ottawa is not aware of any Canadian citizens in indoctrination centres, she said in a statement to The Globe and Mail that "the Canadian Embassy has expressed concern about detentions of family members of Canadians to the Chinese government. Canada has consistently called on China to respect, protect and promote the freedom of opinion and expression, freedom of assembly and association, and freedom of religion or belief of all Chinese citizens, including its Uyghur citizens." Chinese officials have denied knowledge of a broader campaign in Xinjiang, and have boasted about the economic advancements Beijing has brought to the region. In a report last year to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, China said that "discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited." Xinjiang's economy doubled in size between 2008 and 2015, and its 2015 rise in disposable income was the largest in the country.

On Friday, however, a vicechair of the committee, Gay McDougall, accused China of turning Xinjiang into a "no-rights zone," one "that resembles a massive internment camp." China's treatment of the Uyghurs has also begun to attract attention in the United States, where it was the subject of a late- July hearing by the Congressional- Executive Commission on China. Commission co-chair Chris Smith, a New Jersey Republican, called the re-education campaign "the largest jailing of an ethnic and religious minority maybe since the Holocaust, certainly since the apartheid days in South Africa."

That scale is not an abstraction in Khadija's house in Mississauga. Her mother, Adalet Rahim, counts a brother and six cousins in indoctrination programs. Her father, Abdulaziz Sattar, says that some 50 of his relatives have been incarcerated - among them bureaucrats, teachers and a medical doctor. Mr. Sattar's parents are among them. In 2016, he met up with his mother and father in Turkey. After she returned to China, his mother was detained and interrogated for two days. Her interrogators called Mr. Sattar a "dangerous enemy of the Communist Party of China," she told her son late that year. Months later, he heard that his parents had been sent to indoctrination camps. His father, now retired, had worked as a local government functionary, conversant in Chinese. His mother had been a housewife, devoted to her children. Racked by worry about them, Mr. Sattar lost his appetite and suffered from bad dreams. Then, he was told his mother had died in internment. He cried on the spring day he received the news, the first time his wife had seen him in tears. "He told me that there is nothing more painful than this," Ms. Rahim says.

Chinese authorities did not return the body of Mr. Sattar's mother to relatives in Xinjiang. He does not know why she died, whether she was given a religiously suitable burial or even the exact day of her death. He is left asking what sin she committed. "China," he says, "should answer for this."

Associated Graphic

Khadija Abdulaziz sometimes talks to students at her school about the dozens of her relatives in China who have disappeared.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Abdulaziz Sattar and Adalet Rahim pose with their children for a portrait in their Mississauga home on July 26. Even as they have sought safety for themselves as refugees in Mississauga, what's happening 10,000 kilometres away in China has cast a pall over life in Canada for many Uyghur families.

DEBORAH BAIC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

In the past year, more than 50 members of Khadija Abdulaziz's extended family have vanished in China. Khadija's parents believe those who have disappeared have been placed in indoctrination camps, where, according to the accounts of others who have been released, detainees undergo forcible Chinese-language lessons, skills training and political instruction.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Khadija has shared stories of the internment camps with her classmates at Vista Heights Public School in Mississauga.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

DEBORAH BAIC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Adalet Rahim holds pictures of her mother-in-law and brother. China has produced no official statistics on the re-education program, but scholars say those with overseas connections have been specifically targeted for indoctrination.

DEBORAH BAIC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mr. Sattar appears in a family photo with his parents. The two were interned in China months after visiting Turkey in 2016. Mr. Sattar was later informed that his mother had died in re-education, but was not given any further details on the cause of her death or whether she was afforded a suitable religious burial.


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Death becomes him
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David Sedaris, the gold standard for confessional writing, returns with his latest book Calypso. On tour in Toronto, he takes some time for a stroll down Philosopher's Walk where he considers the state of the essay, his ideal reader and more - all with his trademark eloquence
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By ANNE T. DONAHUE
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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page P14

David Sedaris is, by all accounts, a warm and generous figure.

Yet, a conversation with the author seems like a terrifying proposition. After all, the past few decades have seen the author set the gold standard for an entire generation of confessional writing. His essays and approach to storytelling have paved the way for the type of first-person vulnerability that has fuelled conversations online and beyond. And his mix of humour, honesty and willingness to examine the best and worst parts of being alive have made his work both a source of comfort and, well, the opposite. He actively reminds us that perfection and its associated myths have no place in being a human. And that is rare.

So, to catch up with Sedaris on the Toronto stop of his book tour feels as though I'm approaching my own emotional precipice, with the man himself waiting at land's end. Especially since Calypso - his newest collection of essays - further delves into themes of mortality, death and the evolution of one's self alongside one's family. (All of the above feeling even more dire amidst our current social and political landscape.)

But then Sedaris shows up. He shakes my hand. We set off down Philosopher's Walk and roam the University of Toronto campus, and I immediately feel that aforementioned warmth and generosity I'd nearly forgotten about. Here, then, was our very generous conversation that day; about death and family and all those lighthearted topics. And yes, he had his FitBit on.

Has it surprised you the way essays, and books of essays, have exploded?

No. It used to be the personal essay was about some important thing, and now it's just using the important thing to talk about your divorce. You know what I mean? Which I don't have any problem with. Somebody introduced me the other day and it was a very little bit about me and mainly about him, but it was so clever the way he did it! And it came around full circle, and I went up to him afterward and said, "God, you did such a good job! And I learned so much about you." I learned so much about him in an introduction of me. But the audience is the important thing. They liked it as much as I did.

So when you're writing now, who are you writing for?

Gosh, I think my ideal reader ... I had a student for a number of years when I taught named Cindy House. And she's just kind of turned into my teacher. And when I'm writing something, I wonder what Cindy will think of it. I don't know if she knows that, how I live for her approval, but I really do. She's such a good reader. Not just of me, but of anybody. And she's so wise. And also, she's a generous person. And she's really thoughtful.

And when she does offer criticism, it's just perfect. I think, "Why didn't I see that?" I always think that when you're writing from a personal standpoint, there's always an audience in mind. But with me, and maybe I'm just a narcissist, I'm like, "This is for my enemies."

Do you think your enemies are going to read it?

No! When you write for your enemies - and I don't even know who they are - it's so no one can poke holes in what you write. I think they're the ones who would be the harshest critics, so I have to write a steel-clad argument. Maybe that's deranged.

Hm. Well, there are a few people I know who hate me. I mean, I'm sure there are a lot of them, but there are a few that I know who hate me, but I never think they're going to read what I write. This kid came up to me the other day and he said, "Our teacher asked us who we wanted to write like and I said you." And the teacher said, "You might want to aim a little higher." And I said, "What's higher than No. 1 on the New York Times bestseller list?" That's a good question! What would that be? What's higher than writing for The New Yorker?

Could you tell me, please, what that would be? I wondered who the teacher was. And really, I was so hurt. But I understood what the teacher meant.

The teacher was wrong! But see, I'm like, "Oh, who? He said what?" That's me. Does criticism affect you the way it once did?

I don't read anything. But if you get a bad review in The New York Times, people love to tell you about it.

I don't understand that.

Oh, they love it. Nothing more! Then you think, "Well, I guess they need that." If I had a [bad] review in The New York Times, I think that's for my enemies. But if I got a good one, they wouldn't read it.

I liked the way you get into mortality and aging and getting older in Calypso. Does writing about death make you feel more comfortable about it?

Hm, no. I mean, I didn't notice that I wrote about mortality more. I think, when you have a dad who's 95, it's something you think about. You're around somebody who should've died a long time ago, and he hasn't yet.

And also you're an adult child. And if you have an adversarial reaction with a parent, you're taking that adolescent rage and anger well into adulthood.

And I feel like it deforms you. If my soul stepped out my body right now, it would be a hunchback. So I noticed that. I didn't set out to write about those things. But as you get older, they become more real to you.

It becomes a constant instead of something in the future.

I think about someone my dad's age, where everyone in his address book is dead. And I'm not that far from people starting to get cancer and starting to have strokes - friends of mine. I'm sure my writing will just get more like that as I get older.

My dad just got put into an assisted living place. He put his mother into a nursing home, so there's no way he can not be thinking of when he put his mother into assisted living [and] probably thought, "Well, this is never going to be me." When we put my father into assisted living my sisters and I were all thinking, "Well, that'll never be us." But it will. It will be us in a little more than 20 years. Twenty years ago, I moved to France. It didn't seem like that long ago.

Has time started to make you see your family differently? The way you write about your dad, you seem to see him for the man he was and the way he is.

Or maybe I'm just projecting.

That's very nice of you to say that. I wrote something in 1997. My mother hadn't been dead for very long, and I wrote something about her dying.

And I was so mean about my dad there. And when I look back on it, I think, "What did I know about a longterm relationship?" Hugh and I had been together five years when I wrote that. Six years maybe. And now it's been 26 years, but still that's not as long as my parents had been. So what did I know? Who was I to judge how I perceived him in the marriage? I'm embarrassed by it.

But I think that's also growing as a writer who writes about themselves. It forces you to take accountability in a really strange way.

You're right. Part of it is maturing as a writer.

There are certain things I could write that happen - like I had a root canal. So I wrote this essay about getting a root canal. No problem, two weeks later.

And then there are other things that I kind of need to sit on for a while. I'm sure my sister's suicide will look different to me in 20 years as well. Because in 20 years, she'll have been a child when she died, comparatively.

Her birthday is tomorrow, and she would've been 54.

But when I'm 94, I'll think "She died so early." I don't know if I want to be 94.

I have a fear of being old, old, old, and my other fear is dying at all. I think that's why writing about death and reading about death is so important.

And you write about it in a way that makes it feel like we all have these thoughts. Or we all worry.

Well, I think I'm going to be hit by a car.

Really?

Uh-huh. I had a friend who was hit by a car when we were in college together. She was 18 and she got hit by a car and killed. Because I spend so much time on the side of the road picking up trash, and all I see is people texting when I look into cars. People aren't looking at all. It's only a matter of time before they plow into you.

I spent 10 days at the medical examiner's office, and I did it in 1994 or 1995 in Phoenix. That's the first time I'd ever written anything for a magazine. They said, "We'd love to have you in a magazine." And I said, "Well I've always wanted to see a lot of dead people." That's something I wish I could've sat on and just written about now. Because I mean, it was a lifechanging experience. And I saw dead people - a lot of suicides. And just how ugly suicide is. How messy.

You've had time to process your sister Tiffany's dying, but did writing about her for this book make you see her differently? Or understand her a bit better?

I haven't had that luxury yet, you know? It might come later. We couldn't have her body or anything.

She left everything to this woman she used to work for. And my sister Lisa went to this woman and said, "Can we have a handful of ashes?" And the woman said no. And I understand, that was Tiffany's wish, but time has passed. Now this woman is just stuck with all this stuff. She just sent us these notebooks that Tiffany had, and it'll be interesting to look through them. But when my mom died, she left us each a box of letters she'd written us and we'd written her.

And I never went through it. I just sold it to Yale, with all my papers.

And I can't bear to look through it. I can't. I don't know. I can't bear to look at it. So maybe it'll be like that with Tiffany's notebooks. We looked at one notebook she left, but the notebooks were so troubling. It was just so painful.

Do you ever feel sure of yourself when you're writing about something hard?

I do now. That doesn't mean everything I write works, but I was saying to someone the other day: that story about the last time I saw Tiffany. That wasn't in the first 12 drafts of that story. It just hit a wall every time. And I thought, "I'll throw away the last page that I've got here and take a different path." And then all of a sudden I was writing about shutting the door in her face the last time I saw her, and I thought, "Am I really doing this? Am I really admitting this?" And then it felt like I didn't have a choice. It would be dishonest not to.

And every [time] when I read that, I think "I can't believe this is who I am. I can't believe I'm the man who shut the door in his sister's face." I think, who are you? What kind of a monster are you? And I feel the audience thinking too. I feel the audience thinking, "Oh, you're the kind of monster I am."

This interview has been edited and condensed.

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David Sedaris's latest book, Calypso, delves further into themes of mortality, death and the evolution of one's self alongside one's family.

BRUCE GLIKAS/GETTY IMAGES/FILMMAGIC


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MBS: The next-generation royal is now a leader who can reach around the world
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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page A12

Thousands of students are packing up and searching for new schools in another country. Hospitals here will have to cover for hundreds of medical students. Canada's ambassador to Saudi Arabia was declared persona non grata. New business deals are frozen. And Saudi investment funds have given orders to sell off Canadian assets, according to reports, "no matter the cost."

The trigger was a tweet. But where did the sudden, sweeping reaction - one of the most rapid, hair-trigger escalations in the annals of modern diplomacy - come from?

The answer is Mohammed bin Salman.

Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince, a son of King Salman and his third wife, has vowed to transform the kingdom, proposing reforms that would alter its economy and its society - and he has already transformed its foreign policy.

He is a reformer. He is also a represser. Under MBS, as he's widely known, Saudi Arabia has famously allowed women to drive, and access health services and education without constant consent from their male guardians.

But the Saudis have also arrested women's rights activists in a crackdown.

To Western eyes, that's a halting contradiction. In the logic of the Saudi Crown Prince, ruling a kingdom named for his family, they appear to go together. MBS has laid out plans for major economic and social reforms, but not political reforms that share royal power.

And he is also keen to ensure that social change does not appear to be the result of political activism. Or foreign criticism.

"It's important to understand that Saudis are not citizens. They're subjects," said David Chatterson, a former Canadian ambassador to Saudi Arabia. "What's most important for the House of Saud is that they have control. Reform is not going to be delivered by demand.

It's going to be driven by the decisions of the royal family, and MBS."

The Saudis once dealt with the outside world the way they governed, cautiously and conservatively. Since King Salman came to the throne in 2015, and since Mohammed bin Salman's rapid rise as the prince who wields his father's power, Saudi Arabia has prosecuted a horrific and seemingly stalemated war in Yemen, led a blockade of neighbour Qatar, and browbeaten visiting Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri into resigning - a resignation he later rescinded.

Now, the kingdom has launched a sudden wave of vitriol at Canada to ensure that Justin Trudeau's Liberal government felt its displeasure.

There have been debates about whether Canada is merely a convenient example that allows Saudi Arabia to warn other countries not to criticize its human-rights failings, or whether Mr. Trudeau's government exacerbated years of neglected relations with indelicate Twitter diplomacy - including a tweet in Arabic that offended Saudi sensibilities by appearing to demand that arrested activists be released immediately.

Yet there's no doubt that the unprecedented response had to be directed by MBS, the nextgeneration royal who has centralized power in a way no Saudi leader ever has. And there's no doubt the blistering Saudi blasts at Canada would not have occurred five years ago.

"This could only happen under Mohammed bin Salman," Mr. Chatterson said.

"Saudi Arabia is a very traditional, very conservative society that fundamentally arose out of Bedouins in the desert," he said. "MBS kind of overthrew everything when his father became king. For Saudi Arabia, he's incredibly brash."

THE POWER OF THE 70 PER CENT As the dispute with Canada demonstrated, he is now a leader who can reach around the world. U.S. President Donald Trump's administration, which backs the Saudis as regional rivals to a common adversary, Iran, has given MBS wide latitude for his foreign-policy adventures. In a multipolar world, where Mr.

Trump's United States shows little interest in bolstering a Western alliance over issues such as human rights, MBS is emboldened to push back middle powers like Canada. Mr. Trump did not complain. Neither did the European Union. And MBS, now 32 years old, could conceivably rule Saudi Arabia for 50 years.

He has so far acted as though he is a young leader who is not used to being opposed and does not accept it. He has brushed aside rivals, consolidated power and arrested activists. Reforms are to come from MBS.

When Saudi Arabia allowed women to drive in June, authorities contacted activists to warn themtokeepquiet,saidKristianCoatesUlrichsen, fellow for the Middle East at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy: "They were told, 'Don't take credit for this.' " MBS, Mr. Ulrichsen said, "is not a democrat.

He's not a political reformer. He's an economic and social reformer."

His reforms are nonetheless sweeping by Saudi standards. The Vision 2030 plan that MBS laid out in 2016, when he was deputy crown prince, calls for diversifying the Saudi economy to break its dependence on oil. It foresees a future where the country will be less able to rely on revenue from high oil prices to distribute benefits, and well-paid public-service jobs, to Saudis.

The implications are vast. It means opening the economy and making the finances of firms more transparent to attract a variety of international investments. One symbol is a planned initial public offering of shares in Aramco, the Saudi national oil company - the valuation of which, according to the Saudis, approaches $2trillion, twice the size of Apple Inc. But that would also disturb the elites, including thousands of royal princes and worthies, who skim riches from Saudi's inbred business world.

The plan to open Saudi Arabia to tourism and entertainment implies a long-term loosening of conservative cultural rules. In April, the country opened its first cinema in more than35years.ThepowersoftheSaudireligious police, the Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice, have been trimmed. He has expressed a distaste for "guardianship" laws for women.

They are changes driven by demographics.

Seventy per cent of Saudi Arabia's population is under 30. They grew up in a connected world. They are the ones who feel left out of Saudi Arabia's elite-controlled economy.

"He's certainly making a pitch to the 70 per cent of Saudis that are his age or younger, and if he really wants to rule successfully for the next 50 years - as he could do - he's got to win them onside," Mr. Ulrichsen said. "He's also got to produce and deliver results. That will be the test of Vision 2030, whether he can create jobs and economic prospects for the huge number of young Saudis that have felt that the system wasn't working for them."

There is a gap between MBS's promises and actual reforms. There is also the risk of reaction from disrupted elites and royals, the conservative clerics who have long been allied with royal rule, and what Mr. Ulrichsen calls a "large minority" of socially conservative Saudis.

THE RISK TAKER

Until now, the Saudi royal family was risk averse. Modernization, including the introduction of television, in the 1960s and 70s, caused a backlash, Mr. Ulrichsen said, and the royal family was scarred when extremists seized its GrandMosquein1979.Themonarchyhassince passed among brothers who remember those events, the sons of the kingdom's founder, Abdulaziz. But MBS is from the next generation.

He is a risk taker. He moved briskly to gain power- and has wielded it audaciously. As a young man, he remained at home to study law and stayed close to his father, serving as an adviser to Salman when the latter was governor of Riyadh, and later crown prince. When Salman became king, he named favourite son MBS as defence minister, then later deputy crown prince, and finally crown prince. But MBS didn't just receive rank. He moved to consolidate power.

The most stunning move was the anti-corruption campaign decreed by the king but carried out by MBS, in which senior royal princes and major business tycoons were delivered to Riyadh's five-star Ritz-Carlton last November and browbeaten until they agreed to repay billions in allegedly embezzled funds. It also served as a purge of power rivals. The three arms of Saudi security, the defence ministry, interior ministry and national guard - previously dispersed among separate branches of the royal family - were brought under MBS' control.

He has made Saudi foreign policy more impetuous. As defence minister, he launched a war in Yemen against Iranian-backed Houthi insurgents that was a stark, interventionist step in his country's proxy war with regional rival Iran. A Saudi-led coalition in Yemen now appears locked in a bloody conflict with no end in sight that the United Nations has described as the worst humanitarian disaster on Earth. The sudden move to blockade Qatar on the grounds it was too close to Iran has also dragged on without sign of a decisive Saudi gain. Now, a sudden escalation with Canada.

It's likely MBS is emboldened by strong support from Mr. Trump, whose administration sees him as a bold reformer and an ally against Iran and has at least given a yellow light to Saudi foreign ventures - and certainly raised no public objection to recent Saudi blasts at Canada. But his big moves have been unpredictable and, to many, ill-advised.

"They all seem to fit into a pattern of decision-making," Mr. Ulrichsen said. "It's abrupt.

It's unpredictable. And it doesn't necessarily have a Plan B to fall back on."

MBS does portray himself as a populist and many young Saudis supported his corruption purge, for example, Mr. Ulrichsen said. He has tried to create a new Saudi nationalism, and bloodying Canada's nose can be portrayed as standing up to meddling foreigners. It might intimidate others, notably European nations, into keeping mum about human rights. But the sudden, arbitrary slashing of business and education ties can also undermine the idea behind Vision 2030-that Saudi Arabia is a stable, predictable place to invest. And it drew media attention to the arrests of activists, and newspaper editorials calling for Western nations to back up Canada's criticism.

The Saudi royal family's desire to push back foreign criticism of its rights record didn't start with MBS. In 2015, before MBS had consolidated power, Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallstrom sparked Saudi ire by criticizing the sentence of1,000 lashes for Raif Badawi - who, along with his sister, Samar Badawi, was among the activists defended by Foreign Affairst Minister Chrystia Freeland last week - as "medieval." Sweden cancelled a defence sale; Saudi Arabia stopped processing visas for Swedish nationals.

The Saudis were still living with the aftershocks of the Arab Spring, and feared that other countries would follow Sweden's criticism, Swedish Middle East analyst Bitte Hammargren said in an e-mail. The spat was defused, although precisely how remains unclear. The Swedish king contacted the Saudi king, and there was an exchange of letters - Saudi media portrayed them as a Swedish apology, while the Swedish Prime Minister insisted they merely spoke of a misunderstanding.

This time, the Saudi reaction was far bigger.

The spat with Canada might not be smoothed over as quickly as that with the Swedes. The difference is MBS. He is in charge now, he has taken risks on change at home, and is driven to retain control. And he moves impetuously.

Mr. Chatterson thinks his blast at Canada was a "tantrum," not a calculated strategy, because it is likely to damage the Saudis' international reputation. But he is convinced MBS will be out to avoid showing weakness - as he has in past misadventures. "He never backs down," he said. "If anything, he doubles down."

Associated Graphic

Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman attends a meeting with United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres in New York in March.

BRYAN R. SMITH/AFP/GETTY IMAGES

Top: A young woman drives a car in Jeddah in June, on the first day women were legally allowed to drive in the Middle Eastern country. Above: Riyadh is seen from a bird's-eye view.

TOP: SEAN GALLUP/GETTY IMAGES; ABOVE: NARIMAN EL-MOFTY/ASSOCIATED PRESS


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Under new management
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Eric and Florence Pierce left a legacy of providing affordable housing, but now some of their beneficiaries say they've been forgotten
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By KERRY GOLD
  
  

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Friday, August 10, 2018 – Page H2

VANCOUVER -- The story of socially conscious landlord Eric Pierce was a rare good news story in a housing market too often rife with tales of greed.

Mr. Pierce, who died at the age of 91 in February, 2011, stated in his will that he wanted his arts and crafts heritage home at 2850 W.

3rd Ave., in Kitsilano, to be left to the City of Vancouver to benefit the community.

The city has put out a request for proposals to groups that have ideas on what to do with the heritage house, which Eric and Florence Pierce lived in for more than 50 years. Various non-profit groups have come forward with ideas to use the house as a community space and to provide lowcost housing.

The Pierces, who didn't have children, were fiercely devoted to providing below-market affordable housing. They owned at least five properties, including another house on their street at 2832 W.

3rd Ave., and an apartment block at 2415 W. 4th Ave. Mr. Pierce had inherited a couple of the properties, according to a family member.

However, some tenants who'd lived at Mr. Pierce's properties have come forward to say that they are the forgotten tenants who've been evicted. They say Mr.Pierce would never have approved of what happened to them after he died, although they understand that the relatives who inherited the properties likely had their legal reasons for selling them off.

Steven Maglica grew up in a two-bedroom apartment in the 4th Avenue building. His parents had raised him and his sister there, and when he was the only one who remained, Mr. Pierce told him he should stay on. He paid $1,022 a month for the apartment and he helped out around the building.

"My whole life I lived there - 51and-a-half years," Mr. Maglica said. "I was part of a 'renoviction.' I got kicked out. As far as I know, everybody left." The new owners, he said, gave the tenants the option of moving back once the renovations were complete. Mr. Maglica didn't know what the new rent would be. Instead, with his sister's help, he found a condo for purchase down the street, which means he now has mortgage payments much larger than he was paying in rent. It means that money is a lot tighter.

"I like the old place better," he said.

Mr. Pierce likely didn't imagine his own house would one day be assessed at $2.89-million - or that the need for affordable housing would become the city's greatest priority.

Well-known community activist Mel Lehan agrees that "it was a different ball game then." He theorizes Mr. Pierce might have thought his rentals would just continue on as they were; that he didn't need to draw up any legal protection for them. Mr. Lehan was a neighbour and good friends with the Pierces for 30 years.

"He said, 'Look, I had a good life. I don't need the money. I want to help people.' And he said, 'When I die, I would very much like to see [the properties] kept affordable in some way.' Now, he might not have meant all the properties," Mr. Lehan added.

"But Eric would have been very upset [at the evictions]. It's not an accident that those rents were so cheap - that was his philosophy.

"Eric and Florence were just salt-of-the-earth types. They wanted to do the right thing."

Ian Waddell, a retired lawyer, former member of Parliament and former provincial cabinet minister, was a neighbour who got to know Mr. Pierce in his later years. Mr. Pierce, he says, told him how he was the lone survivor of an air attack during the Second World War.

"It's 1942 in North Africa, just before [the] battle of El Alamein.

A young, 22-year-old Canadian, Eric Pierce from Vancouver is with the Canadian air force, stationed at a North Africa airfield, refuelling American planes. Two planes ready to go on the runway, German bombers blow them all to smithereens. Everybody dies except Eric ... He got behind a truck and survived."

Mr. Pierce, grateful he came through the war alive, wanted to give back, Mr. Waddell says.

"When he passed away, it kind of got into an estate fight over property," Mr. Waddell said. "Finally, the house sold a couple of years ago and it went to the City of Vancouver with stipulations in the will to honour Florence and help the community. It's a remarkable story.

"I'm very pleased that the city property people have really tried to implement their wishes, and they should get some credit for that, because they could just rent the house out and make a pile of money."

Mr. Waddell, with Mr. Lehan's help, has submitted a proposal to the city to use the Pierce house for below-market housing for an Indigenous student and a young family who would do maintenance on the house.

The evictions, he says, reflect the harsh reality of Vancouver these days, as well as the reality of inheritance.

"It's like the real word compared to the world that Mr. Pierce tried to create," Mr. Waddell said.

"I guess it is a bit ironic. But the Pierce family, they are nice people. They just wanted to wind up the estate and some [relatives] came in with protracted litigation."

Joanna Nagel, who is 86, lived at Mr. Pierce's property at 2832 W.

3rd Ave. for about 25 years. She was paying $440 a month for her apartment, which had a large shared bathroom. Mr. Pierce's relatives sold the house in 2016, at which point Ms. Nagel says she panicked. She knew the rent she'd been paying was more in line with rents in the Downtown Eastside, an area famous for its social problems.

"I couldn't think. I practically couldn't function when [the property manager] told me the house was going to be sold. I was like a zombie," she said.

"There were a lot of elderly people in a terrible predicament when the housing market went up and people were selling houses. A lot of them lived in the area for 30 or 40 years."

Mr. Lehan advised her to go to David Eby's constituency office for help. Mr. Eby, the current B.C.

Attorney-General, is the MLA for Vancouver-Point Grey. She says his office helped her find a onebedroom unit at a low-income seniors housing project nearby.

"I think the profiteering in housing should never have been allowed," Ms. Nagel said. "It's like we worship making money, like it's a virtue. It's very sad. There ought to be enough for everybody to go around.

"Eric did want to protect us so that we wouldn't be put out. But it hasn't been what he intended."

Ulduz Maschaykh moved to Vancouver from Germany to complete her PhD at UBC and write a book, which is, ironically, on a subject she's lived all too well. It is titled The Changing Image of Affordable Housing. Ms. Maschaykh had lived in the house with Ms. Nagel and basement tenant Brandon Gowing. Ms. Maschaykh is angry that their house has been sitting empty for the past eight months, and she feels it should have been saved for affordable housing, too. Seated on the front steps, she looks around at the messy garden and questions the fairness of leaving a house empty amid an affordability crisis.

"It's completely falling apart and nobody is paying attention.

... I believe that this house is also just as much [Mr. Pierce's] legacy and it could have been a living legacy if people could have stayed here. We are part of that legacy and we pass the story on to people like you, who can spread it to the public," she said.

Ms. Maschaykh says her $595 monthly rent enabled her to get started in a new country. She has since obtained her permanentresident status and works as a researcher, which means she can afford an apartment nearby at a higher rent. She is grateful to Mr.Pierce for giving her that head start, even though she never met him.

"For me, it was a huge help coming here, not having a job yet and not having money, to be able to move in here first, in order to establish that life that I wanted to have. And I think that is what the Pierce family intended for their properties to be, for those who are able to be successful at some point, but just needed a little bit of help."

Her friend Mr. Gowing, who stands nearby, is on his way to look at another apartment in the area. He has only temporary accommodation in New Westminster, B.C. He's been to 17 showings in Kitsilano within a month.

He says his low rent of $650 a month enabled him to get started again while embarking on a career transition.

But after the house sold, the landlord-tenant relationship changed completely. The electricity was cut off because the owners didn't seem to even know that people were living there, he says.

He never knew who the new owners were and could only find a numbered company on title. Mr.Gowing was the last tenant to leave, in January.

Amy van den Hooven, who studied urban planning and design, had lived at the house for five years. At the time it was sold, she had been living on Vancouver Island and staying with family, due to an illness. But she had continued to pay her rent, with plans to return to the house - until she received an eviction notice.

"Instead of having a housing market that builds people up, it just breaks them," she said. "It's incredibly sad. And a lot of people want to do good in the community, but we are just forced out."

She's certain Mr. Pierce would be "devastated" if he were alive today and saw the evictions.

"He probably didn't see this coming. ... If he'd known what this market would do, I'm sure he would have made [his wishes] more clear."

A family member who was reached for comment said that settling the estate has been "very, very complicated," which is why it had taken years to donate Mr.

and Ms. Pierce's residence to the city.

"We had no options - there was no way to preserve what they wanted, legally," said the relative, who asked not to be named because the long, drawn-out case has not yet been settled.

She said she and her husband had negotiated with the city to save the Pierce residence for community use, with Mr. Waddell's help.

"We had to negotiate to get it turned over to the city - that was our role. It's a legacy and we were really glad we were able to negotiate to make that happen."

She didn't know what motivated the Pierces to provide affordable housing, but they lived simple lives, she says.

"They didn't live lavishly at all.

They were great people."

Mr. Lehan says that the situation illustrates the pitfalls of charitable bequests.

"You know, you can't give enough kudos to Eric and Florence for their kindness, during their lives, and what they hoped for after their lives ended.

"There's a lesson here, that if you have these dreams and hopes - get it in writing."

Associated Graphic

Ulduz Maschaykh moved from Germany and found an apartment at 2832 W. 3rd Ave., where she paid $595 a month in rent: 'For me, it was a huge help coming here, not having a job yet and not having money, to be able to move in here first, in order to establish that life that I wanted to have.'

KERRY GOLD/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Good luck finding contractors in Vancouver
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Tradespeople cite traffic congestion as top reason to turn down jobs in the city
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Friday, August 3, 2018 – Page H3

VANCOUVER -- Owning a home in Vancouver already comes at a premium.

And increasingly, homeowners are facing the high cost of renovation and maintenance as tradespeople either opt out of working in the city entirely, or charge extra for having to go there.

A big reason for the premium cost of hiring the trades is the city's traffic, contractors say. Vancouver traffic is so congested and so time-consuming it makes working there a losing proposition. Considering that a lot of tradespeople live outside the city, it means the options are fewer.

John Van Kammen, based in Chilliwack, B.C., who owns Jovak Landscape & Design, no longer services Vancouver, citing "prohibitive" traffic and an employee base that simply doesn't want to deal with it.

"I started this business 13 years ago and primarily we did work in Vancouver while being based in Abbotsford," he said. "It took us typically one to one-and-a-half hours one way to be in most places around Vancouver - it now takes two to three hours one way. People in Metro Vancouver are going to suffer in the next 20 years, either not being able to find trades or they will be paying exorbitant rates to have them come [into the city]."

Mr. Van Kammen has his theories on why Vancouver has become a no-go zone for companies such as his own. The traffic, he said, is due to the fact people who can't afford to live centrally have moved east, but they still work in or around the city, where the jobs are located. As well, the infrastructure has not kept up with the growth - Highway 1 has only two lanes from Langley to Chilliwack, even though it's probably the busiest road in British Columbia, he said.

As a result, there are daily traffic jams in that long 64-kilometre section of highway that takes Fraser Valley residents into the city. It doesn't help that the toll was removed from the Port Mann Bridge from Surrey to Coquitlam, which has increased traffic and closed off that option to workers willing to pay the toll.

And anyway, who needs congested Vancouver? So many people have moved eastward that there are tons of construction work elsewhere in the region. On top of it all, Mr. Van Kammen's younger workers simply don't want to be stuck in a truck in a traffic jam half the day.

"They are willing to sacrifice dollars for more time," he said. "Everyone hates sitting in traffic, hence many of my employees who live in Abby [Abbotsford] or Chilliwack will quit if I continually send them to Vancouver. They either will not want to go to Vancouver or they will charge a hefty price for their time.

"Bottom line, as younger people who typically enter the trades move east to afford homes, homeowners in Vancouver will find it exceptionally hard to find competent trades or they will have to pay much higher prices," Mr. Van Kammen said.

"This, of course, will cause even higher home prices. Can we fix it with bigger roads, more tolls, transit, carpool lanes, higher rates from [the Insurance Corp. of British Columbia] based off kilometres driven, more roads et cetera? Probably anything can be fixed, but not without an impossible collaboration of minds, huge costs and, no doubt, an increase in taxes.

And unfortunately, these days, everyone thinks someone else should have to pay for it. Good luck to Vancouverites."

The housing market in Vancouver has softened greatly since a host of provincial tax measures and federal government lending measures were introduced. A flattened market often motivates people to renovate, since it's not a good time to sell.

While waiting for the market to go up, they may as well fix up the house.

In a high-priced market, it also helps if there's considerable equity to be tapped into, by way of home equity lines of credit (HELOCs). Altus Group released a report last week that said British Columbia is poised to lead the way in increased spending on home renovations. The majority of that spending will come from the 50-plus age group, because of the equity that group holds. In 2017, more than $17-billion of new borrowing in Canada was for the purpose of renovations, according to the report. Two-thirds of borrowing using HELOCs for the purpose of renovations was carried out by homeowners older than 50.

"Renovations are one of the top reasons why people borrow with lines of credit," said Patricia Arsenault, executive vice-president at Altus Group. "The upward trend we've seen in Canada as a whole, but it applies almost everywhere, is that renovation goes hand in hand with the fact that HELOCS are growing at the same time, and that also goes hand in hand with the fact that house values have been going up over time."

However, not all Vancouver homeowners have available cash for the climbing cost of repairs. Writer and broadcaster Jennifer Van Evra is constantly working on her old house on the east side of Vancouver. She said it's getting more difficult to find trades that'll quote on small jobs, which is making it harder to get the standard three quotes to help her determine a fair price. She's seeing people who get frustrated and settle for one quote, which opens the door to inflated prices and even shoddy work.

"We've had literally dozens of tradespeople through here, and I would divide them into two camps: those who quote based on a fair or typical market price, and those who quote based on what the market will bear - basically, how much they can get away with. I think it has a lot to do with the neighbourhood, as well as the level of knowledge of the client.

"Now that property values have skyrocketed across the city, there's a perception that everyone is flush with cash, and most people aren't because they're pouring every penny they have into their hefty mortgage and repairs. At the same time, when people have more equity, they spend more, and they renovate more, so in a roundabout way, that equity could be driving up renovation prices. The more demand and limited supply leads to higher prices. It also leads to some companies getting away with incredibly shoddy work."

Jak McCuaig, who owns a house on the east side of the city, doesn't buy the argument that traffic is scaring off the trades.

He said the bigger challenge is that a lot of tradespeople simply don't need the small residential jobs.

"I'm a consulting engineer and we work in construction. Part of my job is renovations and multiunit residential. We do lots of work for the City of Vancouver and BC Housing, so I have access to all of the best practices, and all the good contractors, all that stuff.

We're always working on several buildings in Vancouver, the whole Lower Mainland and elsewhere in B.C., so you would think I would have no problems at our own house.

"But I'm in the same boat as everybody else, with the caveat that I know when I'm being ripped off."

Mr. McCuaig advises homeowners to get everything in writing, get referrals and make sure tradespeople have up-to-date insurance coverage. You could also consider doing the work yourself if it's not specialized.

"There's so much work now and a lot of it comes from big-league players who are hiring all these guys, so it's a knock-on effect all the way down. For a homeowner, we can't compete."

Rod MacKay has been a realtor for 40 years and also manages about 50 properties around the city. He has lost handymen over the years owing to the high cost of commuting, and as a result is also having a tougher time finding trades.

"With smaller jobs, you can't even get a quote, and they bid high because they know you won't get three quotes," he said.

"It doesn't matter whether it's electricians or plumbers, or handymen, it's an issue."

Mr. MacKay has established a relationship with a builder who'll do the small jobs because he also gets the big jobs. For the average homeowner, however, that "carrot" is not an option.

"If we didn't dangle the carrot, and give them $15,000 or $75,000 jobs, we wouldn't get them to recaulk the tub or do the smaller jobs."

Mr. MacKay said people are renovating because those who were thinking of downsizing no longer see the value in it.

The price gap between the single-family detached house they own and the price of a condo they could move into has narrowed. It means they get less value, so they stay put instead. As well, upgrading to a nicer property means extra taxes, which also means less value. So, they are fixing up their homes until it's worthwhile to sell.

"If you come onto the market with a single-family house that's an inferior product, it will sit there," Mr. MacKay said.

Jake Fry - a builder of laneway housing - is based in Vancouver and Abbotsford, but does most of his work in Vancouver.

He has made a point of hiring people who are local to keep turnover low. He recently lost a key Vancouver employee because he was commuting 15 hours a week by car.

Arriving to work early in the morning is easy enough; however, getting home in rush-hour traffic is exhausting.

Even within the city, traffic is so congested and time consuming, he has had to make efficiency adjustments. To retain staff, Mr. Fry now looks for office staff who are close enough to get to work by bike or transit.

To keep fuel costs down, he has created a system so crews don't have to traverse one end of the city to the other. With projects throughout the city, he has assigned work teams according to neighbourhoods.

But the rising cost of materials is also having an impact, as is the fact tradespeople are in high demand and rates have gone up.

"I think it's more expensive to work in Vancouver and you have to overcome those obstacles, like transportation," he said. "But I just think everything is expensive and part of it is because we don't have a lot of trades here."

Bryan Roberts is a builder who lives in the city and he said he'll avoid jobs that require too much car time.

"I live in the city, but that is rare for trades," he said. "I take the easiest work I can get, and if that means avoiding a crushing two-hour-a-day commute, then I will."

As a homeowner, he tries to do all his maintenance and repair himself because he can't find other trades to do small jobs.

"It has become ridiculously expensive to try to find a guy willing to drive through town to do a two-hour job. If they do come, it's with a premium.

Associated Graphic

Above: Traffic crosses over the Lions Gate Bridge into Vancouver in 2015. As housing prices in the city increase, more people are moving elsewhere but continue to commute into Vancouver to work. Meanwhile, a flattened market is motivating people to stay put and renovate their homes, including Jennifer Van Evra, left, who is constantly working on her house on Vancouver's east side. She said it's getting more difficult to find tradespeople who will quote on small jobs, which is making it harder to get the standard three quotes to help her determine a fair price.

ABOVE: DARRYL DYCK/ THE CANADIAN PRESS


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THE SOUND OF SILENCE
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What Bella Bathurst learned after 12 years of deafness
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By BELLA BATHURST
  
  

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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page O5

Bella Bathurst is a writer and furniture maker living in Wales. Her book Sound: A Memoir of Hearing Lost and Found, will be published by Greystone Books in October.

I had a couple of head injuries when I was in my 20s, and, soon after the second one, I started to go deaf.

The decline wasn't immediate - it wasn't as if one minute I had full hearing and the next I had nothing - but a steady falling-off of sound, day upon day.

It would be good to say that it was the decline of childrens' voices or the silencing of my boyfriend's laugh that forced me to do something about it, though to be honest, it wasn't.

Instead, it was the fear of being unprofessional.

At the time, I was working as a freelance journalist, and had just started writing my first book, an account of the Stevenson family of engineers. Much of my time was spent in archives going through family papers, but my research also took me out to the darkest corners of Scotland to interview the last generation of lighthouse keepers.

Keepers, I soon discovered, fell into two distinct categories: unstoppable, silent. Either all I had to do was switch on the tape recorder and let it flow, or I was there for hours, tweezering out each individual word. But when I transcribed the interviews afterward, I noticed how often I had misheard or leapt in at the wrong moment.

Admittedly, some of the interviews had been conducted outside, and lighthouses are high and windy places. Even so, there seemed to be a lot of gaps. All the grace of a conversation had gone, and now there was only a series of jolting observations. I could hear how hard I was trying, but I could hear how hard the keepers were trying, too - the note of bemusement in their voice when I failed to pick up on something they'd said, or came back with something completely unrelated.

It was frustrating, sitting there at my desk, turning the volume up on my own mistakes. Every time I listened to one of the tapes, I could hear - at top volume, and as many times as I chose to repeat it - just exactly how many times I hadn't been able to hear.

At the local National Health Service audiology clinic, they told me I was indeed going deaf and that I had already lost around half my hearing in both ears.

They fitted me with a pair of hearing aids, and, for the next 12 years, that was pretty much it.

Though I didn't realize it at the time, deafness is a common problem, as is not talking about deafness. Absolute figures are hard to come by, but in Britain an estimated 11 million people - nearly one in six - have some form of hearing loss. The same is true elsewhere. In Canada, 3.2 million do, and in the United States 20 per cent of the population are partly deafened.

In the vast majority of cases, hearing loss is age-related; around 40 per cent of the population over 40 experience hearing loss, and around 70 per cent of those over 70 do. I was among the 2 per cent who had lost their hearing young.

But as it slipped away, I realized something odd.

I'd just assumed that, as I became deafer, things would gradually just get quieter and quieter, as if every year someone were sliding another layer of glazing into the space between me and the world. But this wasn't like that. Yes, the volume was definitely going down, but the odd thing was that deafness wasn't making me less aware of sound, it was making me more. Having been indifferent to acoustics, I was now - well, not obsessed with them exactly, but they certainly seemed to occupy a lot more space in my life.

I'd never really thought about the difference between the sound in a room with high ceilings and a room with low ceilings, or why it was that some streets sounded softer than others. Did it really matter if you sat in the big main room of a pub or squeezed into one of the snugs? In hearing terms, was there much of a discrepancy between a doubleglazed sixties tower block and a suburban house near a busy road?

Lunch appointments were tricky. How could I say I'd rather meet in a place with coleslaw and no atmosphere than somewhere where it might take me 20 minutes to figure out what the waiter had said? Was it better to go to a meeting in a shouty coffee chain and have people think you were a weirdo for staring fixedly at their lips the whole time, or confess and meet on a cold park bench like characters in a spy novel?

It seemed like such a small thing, but our priorities seemed to be pulling apart: My friends and colleagues wanted to catch up and have something decent to eat. I just wanted to know whether they were speaking English.

By 2004, I had a part-time job working in a pro photographic lab in East London, and my regular bus commute took me along one of the city's main routes, the Marylebone Road.

In British Sign Language, the sign for London is the same as for noisy, though by the round-theclock standards of other great international cities - Mumbai, Buenos Aires, New York - London has a muffled quality.

Before I lost my hearing, I'd loved the sound of this bit of the city. The shush of rain under tires over the roar of leaf blowers. The ticking of hot car metal. The unsynchronized click of stilettos. A panhandler, propping himself up against the wall of the bank: "Yous! Gies yer change!" The collective rush of trucks passing.

Fragments as people pass: "Most of salami is, like, donkey. Or sometimes horse." Two armed policemen in stab vests and jackboots, discussing bargains on the QVC shopping channel. The shudder of the Metropolitan Line beneath my feet. Tourists queuing outside Madame Tussauds.

Workmen putting up scaffolding; the flat notes of boards and poles being set in place, the chink of the couplers thrown down on the pavement. The rattle of fighting magpies. "Yeah, well, he talks about it so much, it's obvious he's a virgin." Musicians wrangling coffin-sized double basses over the road, yanking at their trolleys before the lights change. Somewhere behind, the diesel-y snort of trains at each station. And far beyond that, the sound of London breathing.

In the mornings, I'd sit there on the top deck of the 205, listening to the schoolkids.

"I was like, Un. Believable. I mean."

"Yeah, an' really I done my mum a Hollywood the other day."

"Likewellsickyeah?" "Not like I mean what that's wrong, but I'm saying by now you should be peeing orange."

"I mean, whodehell?" "He was like, yalright? I was like, yalright?" That was before. And then there was after.

Imagine London turned down.

Cut out the traffic. Cut the trees and the pigeons. Cut the leaf blower, the trains, the smoothing rain. Cut the air brakes, the scaffolders, the click of heels. Cut the beep of a reversing truck or the bang of its shuttered back. Cut the air-brake exhalation of the bus. Cut the kids outside Madame Tussauds or the chat of passers-by. Cut the angle-grinder's rushed complaint and the rise of a motorbike's frustration. Cut the tourists. Cut music. Cut conversation. Cut Korean, Scottish, Arabic, Spanish, English, American, French, Estonian. Cut the occasional shout over the traffic or the bark of a dog. Cut the shriek of a black cab's brakes. Cut the whole lot. Cut everything except the sirens and the wails of unchanged babies.

Silence it all.

Or rather, take it all down by about 80 per cent. Take out all of the juice and most of the pith. Remove half the sense and flatten the rest. Leave what remains as a disconnected sequence of hisses and sibilants. The edges of sound are still there but the sense in its centre has gone. I can still feel the vibration of the bus and the windows shaking slightly as it stands.

I can see the drills and the grinders but the sound is stopped off.

None of this is unpleasant or uncomfortable and, because it's happened over a long time, I've adapted to it. But it is strange.

I know some sounds because I catch the end of them, like catching the last words of a wellknown quote or phrase. I can hear the edge of a diesel's idling motor not because I can really hear it, but because my brain knows the sound of it so well it completes the missing phrases. I know the station announcement is a station announcement because of the rhythm and the distance, not because of the words.

But other sounds, disconnected from their source and from any surrounding links in the auditory chain, make less sense.

Half a word in a sentence. A slice of ringtone. A shout.

The closest analogy would be to imagine putting on ear defenders and then listening to a radio on the other side of the room.

You can't hear much, but you can hear the difference between the fenced-in sentences of a news bulletin and the ramblings of chat. If it's sport, you know exactly where the goals are in a match report or a horse race rising to the finishing post.

When it got to the stand at Euston Station, the bus would loiter for a while beneath the concrete canopy. Outside on the forecourt were the usual mixture of travellers, junkies, dog-walkers, tourists, skater kids and students. I'd look out the window at all these different tribes and start to read.

Those two, they look like they're in love but it's always him who moves toward her. The man with his bag on the ground, talking to the older guy. What's their relationship to each other? Is there some kind of deal going on?

The retired couple standing slightly apart beside their unscuffed suitcases. He moves stiffly, like he can't move his neck, like there's always something he doesn't want to look at. Look at the queue for the 68. There's nine people there. How come some of them really stand out, and some seem always to be part of the concrete?

I would watch all of this, and the longer I watched it, the more something became evident. I was seeing all these people, their intentions and anxieties, and, four times out of five, I reckoned I could make a reasonable guess at what was going on. If I looked through the silence - really looked, with the whole of my attention - then I could see the whole hubbub of interaction.

I could see the way homelessness rendered men invisible, or the sheer, ceaseless 24-hour hard work the addicts put in to feeding their needs. I could see the gap between who people wanted to be, and where they really were.

The odd thing was, I couldn't hear a thing, but I was having no difficulty in understanding every word.

It wasn't sound I was concentrating on any more; it was vision. In here, I could get hooked on looking, I could stare to my heart's content, I could teach myself a whole new communication.

I was still deaf, but I had found a way out.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY JAMIE BENNETT

Tuesday, August 14, 2018
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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, August 14, 2018 – Page B13

PAUL GEORGE SAMUEL CANTOR

Paul Cantor died on August 10, 2018. He was not surprised. There were just too many things going sideways from the neck down. Paul is survived by all the people who didn't die before him, including his sister, Sharon Abbott, who he always said looked younger anyway; his partner, Helen Sinclair; his former wife, Lynn Morgan; their children, Adam, Andy, and her husband, Alastair Miller, and their children, Wyn and Sadie; Helen's children, Mark Coatsworth and Anna Coatsworth, and her partner, Alex Teijeira; and Helen's mother, Sonja Sinclair. There are no dogs or cats which will pine at the foot of his empty armchair.

He had a deliciously eclectic career that spanned the private sector, public sector and civil society. From his early wet-feet days at World University Service of Canada, he went on to work with Canada's Department of Finance, Polysar Limited, CIBC, Confederation Life, National Trust, the Toronto Leadership Centre, Russell Reynolds Associates, and Bennett Jones LLP. Chutzpah, good timing, and perhaps the vision thing, led to increasingly senior appointments. But his mother always asked: "Why can't you keep a steady job?" Later, he held a number of directorships and chaired the boards of the Public Sector Pension Investment Board, York University, the Global Risk Institute, Revera Living, and Quadreal Property Group. He did not crave power, and found that being a board chair suited him better than being the CEO.

Paul considered himself less than an intellectual heavyweight, but he was a good listener, sometimes made good decisions, and occasionally provided inspiring leadership. He was called "Candid Cantor" because he told people what they would do if they were him, rather than what he would do if he were them. He believed that people, particularly young people, did not need to know their career goal, but only what they did not want to do, and then to steer between those extremes. That said, after swearing in law school that he would never practice taxation, in his view the most socially reprehensible field of law, he spent ten years as a tax specialist doing just that. And what's worse, most of it was for a bank.

He published a series of articles over the years ranging from taxation to governance and developed the key concept distinguishing between the board's role in providing oversight and the role of individual directors offering insight. Later, he found that his vacation journals titled "Travels with Helen," were immensely more popular.

Lacking eye-hand coordination, Paul limited his sport activities to those where the ball was stationary prior to the moment of impact, such as golf and billiards. He enjoyed the company of his fellow sportsmen and of his friends, not least his breakfast group where erudition, humour, and irony all reigned with equal force. He read widely, mainly in history, science, public affairs, and fiction; but never ever in self improvement.

Paul received his undergraduate Arts degree from the University of Alberta, his Law degree from the University of Toronto, and articled and was admitted to the Ontario bar from Goodmans LLP. His community achievements were recognized by the University of Alberta, York University, and the Order of Canada In lieu of flowers, Paul invites you to go to a bar, order a martini and toast, not him, but life. L'Chaim.

Paul's celebration of life - fully orchestrated by him - will be at the York Club (135 St. George Street at Bloor and St. George), on Sunday, September 30 at 3 p.m.

To leave a message, go to http://www.etouch.ca.

RUTH KENEDY

On August 12, 2018 at Carefree Lodge. Beloved wife of the late Mickey. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Steven Rayson and Elissa Gamus, Rivanne and Randy Lopatin, Andrea and Stephen Streisfield, stepmother to Robert and Helen Kenedy, and Steven and Jennifer Kenedy.

Devoted grandmother of Daniel, Michelle, Jordyn, Joseph, stepgrandmother of Jedd, Adam, Alexis and Sophie. A graveside service will be held on Tuesday, August 14, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. in The Pride of Israel section of Mt.

Sinai Memorial Park. Shiva at 10 Overbrook Place, Toronto.

Friends and family wishing to provide shiva meals please provide peanut and nut free meals. Memorial donations may be made to The Alzheimer Society of Canada 1-800-616-8816 or Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada 1-800-361-2985.

TENG HIN TAN August 27, 1954 August 11, 2018

Passed away peacefully on Saturday, August 11. He will be greatly missed by his partner, Carlo Vigna, and by his loving family, including his father, Tjeng Giok Tan; his sisters, Ing TanWilson (John Wilson) and Suzy Tan; his niece, Elizabeth Wilson (Jeremy Wong); his nephew, Sean Wilson; and his pride and joy grandnephew, Espen Won. Hin was predeceased by his mother, Kim Lan Tan.

He lived with dignity through a diagnosis of cancer for several years. He was a dedicated family doctor, a passionate follower of the performing arts (theatre and opera), and a skilled creative force in the kitchen.

Friends and family may call for a visit on Tuesday, August 14, 2018 from 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m. at R.S.

Kane Funeral Home, 6150 Yonge St., Toronto. A Funeral Service will be held on Wednesday, August 15, at 11:00 a.m. in the R.S.

Kane Chapel. Private cremation will follow. As an expression of sympathy, donations may be made to the Canadian Cancer Society. Condolences may be left at http://www.rskane.ca. R. S. Kane 416-221-1159

DR. ELI IVAN ROBINSKY(Usha) Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto, Consulting Geotechnical Engineer July 19, 1925 - August 2, 2018

On the morning of August 2, Eli's family and the world lost a brilliant engineer, inventor, teacher, kind and compassionate man, with a great sense of humour and wanderlust. He will be sorely missed by his loving wife, Marisha; daughters, Lisa (Randy) and Susie (Chris); sister, Tanya; stepson, Chris (Sharon); nephews and nieces, Kathy (John), Rurik (Roberta), Paul, Mary and Nick; grandchildren, Ava and Aidan; and grandnephews, Jamie and Christopher. He will be fondly remembered by many friends, both in Canada and on distant shores.

Eli was born in 1925 in the ancient city of Damascus, Syria, of Russian parents, who were World War I refugees. Growing up in Beirut, Lebanon, he attended the American Community School and American University of Beirut, graduating with B.A and B.Sc. degrees in Civil Engineering. While waiting for a U.S. immigrant visa, Eli worked for the Iraq Petroleum Company on the construction of two 30" oil pipelines across the Syria-Iraq desert from Kirkuk to the Mediterranean coast.

Within two months of landing in New York in 1950, he received a U.S. Army draft notice to report for a medical exam - the Korean War was in progress.

He chose the option of attending graduate school, which postponed his stint in the military service. After receiving his Master of Science degree in Civil Engineering from Harvard University, he was employed by Porter-Urquhart, Skidmore Owings & Merrill of New York as a geotechnical engineer for the construction of U.S. air bases in Morocco. After two years in Morocco, he immigrated to Canada, making it his permanent home.

He always had the desire to become a teacher, following his father's footsteps. His wish was answered after receiving a Doctorate degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Toronto in 1963. Invited to join the Department of Civil Engineering, he remained on staff until retirement in 1992, after which time he was honoured with the title Professor Emeritus.

During his 29-year teaching career he enjoyed lecturing mostly to the first year students (curious and enthusiastic), and the fourth year students with whom he would discuss his many active civil engineering consulting projects. He was honoured twice by the civil engineering students as 'Professor of the Year.' In 1972, Eli established the consulting engineering firm, E.I. Robinsky Associates Ltd., specializing in geotechnical engineering. He operated primarily as sole practitioner, completing more than 640 projects worldwide. In Canada, as abroad, his experience shows much variety. In 1975 he received the Arthur M. Wellington prize from the American Society of Civil Engineers for a paper in which he introduced the concept of 'Insulated Foundations' (1973) - an economical design for foundations in cold climates.

The construction industries in both Canada and the United States have enthusiastically adopted this concept. A few of his more interesting projects include the following: feasibility studies for expanding several Inuit towns in permafrost terrain in the Arctic, including the provision of water supply, docking facilities, and air strips; a feasibility study for a lead/zinc mine in permafrost terrain on Baffin Island; developing a novel environmental protection scheme for preventing oil spills from tank farms across Canada; and developing special equipment and organizing local field crews to test foundation soils for high tension transmission towers in East Pakistan.

In Toronto, he was one of the group of engineers that designed the unique flexible foundation of the CN Tower. In 1970 he introduced an environmentally superior approach for disposal of mine tailings. For this paper, he received the Leonard Medal from the Engineering Institute of Canada (1976). This innovation resulted in studies and reports for 73 mines worldwide.

Dr. Robinsky published articles in the field of pile foundations and lightweight insulating materials, as well as 13 papers, articles and a textbook dealing with the disposal of mining wastes. He held patents on sixteen inventions. He was a member of the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario, Consulting Engineers of Ontario, Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, and the American Society of Civil Engineers.

As an engineer and professor he knew the importance of hand-on experience in any profession. He therefore donated his body for anatomical study and medical research at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto.

Memorial donations, if desired, could be made to the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care.

DR. ROBERT JAMES WHELER

It is with sadness we announce the death, in Oakville, on August 10, 2018 of Jim, in his 86th year.

Beloved son of the late Dr. and Mrs. E. G. Wheler. Jim is survived by Ruth, his devoted wife of 55 years. Loving father of the late Adam, Jonathan (Tricia) and Cameron (the late Jodii). Dearly missed by his three grandsons, Matthew, Joshua, and Trenton.

Jim was predeceased by his brother, John (Margaret). Lovingly remembered by his sister-in-law, Jan (Derek) and brother-in-law, John (Ann) in the U.K.

Jim grew up in The Beaches where his father was a family doctor for 45 years and where he attended Malvern Collegiate. Jim graduated from University of Toronto in 1957.

He enjoyed a busy family practice in Weston for 35 years. He was a kind, gentle and caring doctor.

He was also the Medical Director of York University for 23 years and was the Attending Physician for the National Ballet for 27 years.

Upon moving to Oakville in 1987 he became an active member of the Oakville Club, enjoying tennis, squash and through other members, golf. He particularly enjoyed the Saturday brunch with his golf buddies. Jim's other interests were ballet, music, travelling, his pewter collection but more than anything he was a gentle and kind man.

Private cremation has taken place and a Celebration of Life will be announced at a later date. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Alzheimer Society. Online condolences and memories can be shared through http://www.glenoaks.ca.


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Prohibition, then and now
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When it comes to legalized cannabis, learning from the boozy past might help us make sense of the future
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By DAN MALLECK
  
  

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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page O3

Associate professor at Brock University and author of Try to Control Yourself: The Regulation of Public Drinking in Post-Prohibition Ontario and When Good Drugs Go Bad: Opium, Medicine and the Origins of Canada's Drug Laws

The Cannabis Act has passed, a date is set for the introduction of legal recreational cannabis across the country: What comes next? Full drug legalization? Easy access to narcotics, psychotropic escapism, values corroded, families torn apart, Canada spinning into the abyss?

Remember this feeling; log these concerns. Because this is similar to how people felt nearly a century ago. Then the drug was alcohol and the worries were much more profound. Social decline, moral corruption, economic collapse, national disaster - these were the concerns that drove liquor prohibition, shaped post-prohibition regulation and provided a template for cannabis legalization.

The main comparison people make with cannabis legalization is the legalization of alcohol after prohibition. Although they are different substances, many of the issues are similar enough that understanding the past might help us understand what is going on now, and what comes next with respect to cannabis legalization.

Canadian provinces began passing prohibition laws early in the 20th century, but during the First World War the federal government mandated that all provinces pass prohibitory laws. This law set an end date to one year after hostilities ended. Immediately after November, 1919, Quebec legalized the sale of beer, cider and light wines, retaining a prohibition on spirits until 1921. That year, British Columbia followed suit, and the end of prohibition rolled generally west-to-east across the country. Ontario ended it in 1927. For the record, Prince Edward Island was the last to go, ending prohibition in 1948.

The end of prohibition allowed most governments to reconsider the way liquor was distributed.

Most provinces decided to distribute liquor through provincially run outlets. In Ontario, the provincial store system was joined by a private co-operative brewers' warehousing system, which led to the current private Beer Store system.

In most provinces, when prohibition ended, it permitted sale for private use, but not public drinking of liquor. In B.C., the "beer parlour" model debuted in 1925. In Ontario, it was introduced in 1934, mostly in hotel beverage rooms. (Alberta legalized both general sale and public consumption the same year; in Quebec, the distinction was not made in 1919, making Montreal the go-to place for American musicians seeking legal booze during their country's long prohibition.)

Although prohibition is a notable benchmark, many post-prohibition changes were not radical breaks from the past. For example, in Ontario placing public drinking in hotels was not an innovation, it was a continuity.

From at least the 1870s, the hotel beverage room was the main public place for Ontarians to drink alcohol. Standalone drinking spaces - saloons - were few, limited by law, and phased out in 1897. Similarly, the provincial oversight of licensing was rooted in the 1870s. Then, owing to corrupt municipal officials issuing far more liquor licences than a community could sustain, the province took the power of licensing out of the hands of municipal councils.

The emphasis upon provincial governments taking the lead in the distribution of alcohol had a constitutional foundation. The British North America Act divided responsibilities between the Dominion (federal) and provincial governments, among which were the right of provinces to license taverns and other places for the sake of revenue generation. The Dominion's responsibilities included "trade and commerce."

Not surprisingly, the fact that licensing applied to places of trade and commerce meant that the provinces and the federal government ended up in court numerous times to define their spheres of influence. Most cases went through the Supreme Court and on to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London, at the time the final court of appeal.

By the 1890s, the provinces had secured the right to institute the prohibition of the retail sale of liquor.

Yet, the sale, prohibition, manufacture, distribution and use of substances that affect your behaviour and state of mind was not just an issue of making the right policy that respected jurisdictions. It was also an issue that drew upon powerful concerns about the future of the nation.

Before prohibition, many people were worried about the proliferation of liquor and the amount of drunkenness in their communities. This "temperance" movement had its roots in the early part of the 1800s in an effort to encourage moderation, but by the end of the century it was fullfledged prohibitionism, urging total abstinence on the part of the individual, and complete prohibition of liquor on the part of the state.

It is important to emphasize how mainstream such concerns were. Political parties on both sides of the spectrum included temperance voices. Many of the strongest came from respectable progressive leaders, who saw it to be their role to help elevate the working classes, and improve the society. These were the same class and mindset of people who supported shorter workdays, elimination of child labour, development of libraries and hospitals, and even the creation of social welfare systems. Many temperance figures had been passionate supporters of the abolition of slavery. They were not crackpots. Their goal was to improve society and, moreover, to remove the worst dangers to the economic and social elevation of the poorer classes.

Rhetorically, the opponents of alcohol voiced a range of fears and threats that "King Alcohol" posed to the individual and the nation, including financial ruin, immorality, sexual impropriety, physical degeneration and social collapse. Morality was a key concern since the moral failure of the individual led to all sorts of degeneration of the state. Health was also important, with temperance organizations emphasizing the need to include "scientific temperance" in school curricula, to indoctrinate children into the fear of what would happen to the body under the assault by liquor.

Health and morality are two intertwining concepts that continue to dog concerns about substance use, be it alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, sugar or other "harder" drugs. Health seems like an objective measure, based upon science and rational processes of investigation. Yet at the same time, no matter how objective health information may be (and we can debate that another time), this information is then used to insist or suggest a certain mode of behaviour on the individual. Health has become the new morality.

If you need examples of health as a moral tool, think of the way pregnant women are assailed not to drink any alcohol whatsoever; how overweight people are judged if they have a hamburger and fries or how people scoff at smokers. Anywhere. Transgressing established health expectations (alcohol-free pregnancy, pleasure-free obesity, tobaccofree everything) can result in shaming, isolation and condemnation, sometimes passive, sometimes aggressive.

This health/morality nexus is fundamental to cannabis legalization. The main concern of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and his team was to make sure cannabis legalization followed a "public health" model, and also that it would protect children - two approaches that seem beyond criticism. Who can argue with doing something in a way that promotes health and protects our children?

Having drafted legislation that would legalize cannabis sales, created frameworks for its legal manufacture and increased criminal offences over some types of sale, for example to minors, Mr. Trudeau then punted the nuts and bolts of the implementation to the provinces. This was considered by many as a bold abnegation of the federal government's duty, but it was in fact a constitutionally valid way of allowing the provinces to make their own choices. Residents in each province have different expectations about access to booze. Why should we assume that people in one province will accept purchase of cannabis the same way as people in another?

Yet, the moralistic rhetoric continued. When the Ontario government introduced the first locations for Ontario Cannabis Stores, people in Toronto freaked out because one of them was close to a school. Well, it was close-ish. Even after liquor prohibition, with the massive concern, the temperance movement had voiced to the proximity of liquor stores and beverage rooms to schools and churches, 450 metres was not an issue. Being across the street, or a block away was a concern. Yet, this idea that a store 450 metres from a school was going to somehow destroy the lives of children, however ridiculous, had tremendous moral power, and long legs to pedal the media cycle.

The moral fear of cannabis reaches into its manufacture. In Hamilton recently, a proposal to expand a medical marijuana facility was faced with opposition from councillors who noted that cannabis plants should not be supplanting agricultural products that "feed cities" in the green belt.

They did not seem to be so opposed to farmers tearing up peach, plum and other tender fruit to grow grapes for wine. Cannabis, however, carried much more moral weight and perceived danger.

The moral fear meant that the restrictions on cannabis are so severe to be nearly dysfunctional.

Since the main way of consuming cannabis has been to smoke it, the "public health" model has imposed the harshest elements of liquor and tobacco legislation on the use of cannabis. Tobacco cannot be smoked inside public spaces; alcohol cannot be consumed outside of private residences and licensed spaces.

According to Ontario's law, as with liquor, cannabis will not be consumed in public at all; indoor or outdoor public spaces are all prohibited. This suggests again that cannabis must be worse than either tobacco or alcohol, although the type of "worse" is debatable since by every measure (except criminal), cannabis is not as socially or physically as dangerous as tobacco or alcohol.

This issue of smoking in public has been the first step toward treating cannabis as something other than a sort of hybrid of the worst elements of alcohol and tobacco. We see it with the federal government bending on the issue of selling consumables. If the main way of ingesting cannabis is to smoke it, and you don't want to smoke indoors around children, how do you get high? We also see it with the previous Ontario government's suggestion that they might legalize "cannabis lounges" so that people can consume their personal stash in a semi-public, licensed space.

The year after alcohol was legalized, the provincial government passed another law fixing many problems and loopholes in that first law. This is not unusual.

The LCBO also tweaked and modified its rules around public drinking for the first few years after it became legal. It is entirely reasonable to expect governments, once they see how the cannabis law is operating, to modify it to make it more suitable to social expectations. In the course of these changes, old stereotypes will be discarded and new ideas of this legal substance will be implemented into law.

The unique nature of cannabis as a psychotropic that is distinct from tobacco and alcohol, and which does not have many of the same risks and physical dangers as tobacco and alcohol, suggest that in the first few years of legalization, as the moralistic rhetoric eases, and the gaps and blips in regulatory policy become clear, changes will smooth the way to a more reasonable and less onerous path to getting high, shorn of many of the worst concerns that currently drive people into the hands of the criminals.

Associated Graphic

Police in Moncton empty barrels of alcohol down the sewer in front of the local courthouse.

ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA


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What would Jesus buy?
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We live in a period of extreme plenty and extreme poverty. What's an economically secure and ethically minded believer to do?
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By RANDY BOYAGODA
  
  

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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page O8

Professor of English at the University of Toronto, where he is also principal of St. Michael's College. His new novel, Original Prin, will be published in September.

We probably barbecue half of what we eat for dinner these summer days. A little while ago, I finally tossed the rusted-out splinter stick I've been using to flip burgers for years and went to Canadian Tire in search of a replacement. New spatulas range in price from $9.99 to $59.99 - like cable packages and phone plans, what you really need is bundled with lots of useless stuff. I Googled reviews, tested torque by turning over imaginary steaks, reflected whether a stained wood or stainless steel or stain-free rubber handle best conveyed what I want to tell family and friends about my grilling identity, and still, I couldn't decide.

I've been here before, sort of.

Fourteen years ago, my wife and I, then newlyweds, had just moved into our first home, a one-room basement apartment in Boston. We were in graduate school and earning US$24,000 a year (combined). Back then, we struggled to decide how much money it was right - economically and ethically - to spend on a reading chair. In our defence, good seating matters a great deal to two people working on PhDs in English. Eventually, we spent US$20 on a yard-sale find that was far shabbier than chic. Today, if I wanted, I could spend triple that, on a spatula.

But should I?

I know, I know, this is a textbook example of a First World problem. But it's more than that.

It's also a believer's problem, or, more accurately, a bourgeois believer's problem. The dilemma that bedevils me these days is not just what I should spend on something: It's what I ought to spend.

The New Testament offers many counsels, directly from Christ in the Gospels as well as from St. Paul in his letters to early Christian communities, that invite and challenge believers to be in the world but not of the world, and to love others as oneself. In turn, across two millenniums the Christian tradition has offered a variety of answers and models for doing so. Tithing, or donating a tenth of one's funds to the poor, as the Bible proposes, is the most obvious and clearest option: Your pilgrim's progress is quantitatively measurable. Far greyer is the call to reject worldly goods in order to create more space for God in one's life and to contribute to a more equitable sharing of resources with others. Short of forsaking everything that glitters for God, also known as "the full St.

Francis" - and not even Pope Francis, in his used Ford Focus and old black shoes, has gone so far as his famous namesake from Assisi - what's an economically secure and ethically minded believer to do, especially in a dizzying period of extreme plenty and extreme poverty?

Beside our current reading chair (more expensive than its predecessor, and far more chic than shabby), I have a copy of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century, the most influential account of inequality to have been published in the past decade. It rests just underneath the Liturgy of the Hours, a centuries-old book of daily Christian prayer and meditation. I read both. I can be convinced by both to change how I live and behave and see what's happening in this world. I'm also open to being persuaded by all the many kinds of polemics and statistics and graphs to be found elsewhere. Economic inequality, alongside the geopolitics of migration, is the most vexed and pressuring crisis of our time. Something needs to be done, at all levels of government and by all kinds of people, including me and you. But what, exactly?

Two of the most distinctive efforts of late to answer that very question found unexpected sideby-side endorsements when the (former) president of the United States shared his summer reading list. The most striking juxtaposition Barack Obama offered was of conservative Catholic scholar Patrick Deneen's muchdiscussed new book, Why Liberalism Failed, alongside progressive journalist Matthew Stewart's news-making new essay for The Atlantic, "The 9.9 percent is the New American Aristocracy." Both argue robustly for specific causes and sources of growing inequality: According to Mr. Deneen, it's liberalism's very success, its emergence as the exclusive socio-political-economic system of our era, with no forces to check or challenge its inherent expansiveness, that has led to its failure to extend its promised goods to all and points to its ultimate unsustainability.

Lamenting at various points that under triumphant liberalism, "Material comforts are a ready salve for the discontents of the soul," and that "freedom in areas such as consumer choice [has expanded] exponentially, leading many to take on too much debt to feed ultimately unfulfillable cravings," Mr. Deneen recommends we drop out of a globe-spanning system of atomizing, alienating consumption that is both corrupt and corrupting. Instead, and recalling the work of other religiously minded thinkers, such as Orthodox Christian writer Rod Dreher in The Benedict Option, and Catholic philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre in After Virtue, and ultimately St.

Benedict himself, with his sixthcentury set of rules for monastic life, Mr. Deneen argues eloquently for the durable goods of intentional small community living.

This is made possible by "an economy of households, in which friendships, places and histories are relevant considerations in economic transactions."

As for the individual households that are part of this, "The ability to do and make things for oneself - to provision one's own household through the work of one's own and one's children's hands - should be prized above consumption and waste." In so doing, and in intentionally sharing with others likewise committed, Mr. Deneen proposes, we can cultivate greater civic virtues of meaningful unity and felt belonging, and simultaneously gain "independence from the culturedestroying ignorance and laziness induced by the ersatz freedom of the modern market."

Amen, professor, but nobody around me can make a spatula, and to devote time and effort to figuring this out myself - something absolutely afforded by the economic, cultural and geographic privileges enjoyed by tenured First World professors such as me and Mr. Deneen - strikes me as leading, at best, to dropped burgers and a terrible memoir. At worst, it's a decadent pantomime of the situation faced by what Oxford economist Paul Collier has termed "the bottom billion," the extreme poor of the world today, those whose geographic and economic isolation means self-reliance and hyper-local exchange are their only, and very meagre, sources of subsistence.

Meanwhile, in his Atlantic essay, Mr. Stewart declares: "The defining challenge of our time is to renew the promise of American democracy by reversing the calcifying effects of accelerating inequality." According to Mr.

Stewart, the primary source of inequality in the contemporary United States is the refusal of its top 9.9 per cent of income earners, including himself and most of his readers, to acknowledge that their ever-expanding forms of privilege and security come at the expense of the bottom 90 per cent of the population, never mind the dastardly 0.1 per cent at the very top. The essay offers abundant evidence in support of this argument, with a particular emphasis on the nearly caste-like effects of zip codes, schools and parentage, amounting to a statistical confirmation of the situations faced by millions of Americans of late, as recounted in books such as Amy Goldstein's Janesville, Matthew Desmond's Evicted and J.D. Vance's Hillbilly Elegy.

To emphasize just how unlikely the American Dream is in America these days, Mr. Stewart compares the state of inequality and prospects for bettering one's prospects in Canada favourably with that of the United States, using the concept of Intergenerational Earnings Elasticity. Based on IGE measures, a child born to poor American parents will find it twice as hard to move past his parents' economic position as compared with the prospects for a child born to poor Canadian parents. That being said, we should avoid our great national temptation. Don't feel good and proud and superior and complacent because at least things are better here than down there. Indeed, as the recent studies gathered together by the Institute for Research on Public Policy in the collection Income Inequality: The Canadian Story suggest, just because economic stratification here is not happening as rapidly or dramatically doesn't mean it's not happening at all.

That's also why Mr. Stewart's concluding recommendations can speak beyond his American context. He emphasizes that all levels of government have roles to play in turning back inequality, and that "It's going to take something from each of us, too ... We should be fighting for opportunities for other people's children as if the future of our own children depended on it. It probably does." Is ensuring that our own children's futures remain secure really why we should care for others stuck in far less fortunate and far more fixed positions? If so, that's ultimately just a more enlightened form of the virtuoso selfishness of the 9.9 per cent that Mr. Stewart so forcefully criticizes elsewhere in his essay. But, as a secular-progressive elite whose worldview is ordered by economic first principles, he can see no credible source of a higher calling to service and solidarity than, at best, conscientious selfinterest, just as Mr. Deneen, a traditionalist conservative elite ordered by religious first principles, can offer no viable alternative to cracked and crumbling communities than to pursue earnest meta-monasticism in neighbourhoods where you and your fellow churchgoers build the gates yourself.

In fact, many more of us can think and act for others by practising self-sacrifice, out of love and concern for those others, whether we know them or not.

And more than any other religious believers, Christians have an especially dramatic example of self-sacrifice to follow, from someone who also predicted, correctly, that the poor will always be with us.

That sense of a permanent need to help others, matched to the accompanying realism about the staying power of poverty, and inspired by a life of great love and personal sacrifice, should always animate an ordinary bourgeois believer's daily life of seemingly endless abundance, in the aisles of Canadian Tire and elsewhere.

And in the end, I bought a spatula set for $39.99 that I intend to last me until the Second Coming (stain-free rubber handle) - it was neither the least nor the most expensive option, and neither especially self-sacrificing nor especially self-indulgent. As for that other $20 I could have spent, it went to supporting a camp for children from families who don't have the luxury of thinking biblically about IGEs around the backyard BBQ this summer.

Associated Graphic

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY BRYAN GEE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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How the country's police are changing the way they handle sexual-assault cases
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In the year since The Globe and Mail's series, many police departments have recorded steep drops in unfounded rates, with Ontario showing one of the biggest declines among the provinces
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Friday, August 3, 2018 – Page A8

TORONTO -- North Bay is a city of about 59,000 people in northern Ontario that, until a few years ago, had one of the worst sexual-assault unfounded rates in the country at 44 per cent.

But in the year since The Globe and Mail revealed Canadian police were disproportionately dismissing sexual-assault allegations as baseless, North Bay has emerged as one of the leaders of reform.

According to an analysis of annual crime data released by Statistics Canada last week and numbers compiled as part of a Globe investigation covering 2010-14, North Bay reported one of the sharpest drops in sexualassault unfounded rates in the country - down to 16 per cent.

This was just two percentage points above the national rate in 2017.

The North Bay service was one of 62 Canadian police departments to record a double-digit decrease in unfounded sexual-assault rates after The Globe's Unfounded series, which last year revealed 19 per cent of sexual-assault complaints were being rejected as invalid.

The Globe's series requested data from roughly 175 police services - the numbers change year to year as forces dissolve or are absorbed by others - and of those, 113 provided complete data for all five years, enabling statistical analysis. About half showed double-digit decreases, 31 had single-digit decreases, a handful showed no change and 16 showed increases. (There are about 1,117 police jurisdictions in Canada.

Municipal forces are each responsible for one jurisdiction, but four agencies - the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ontario Provincial Police, Sûreté du Québec, and Royal Newfoundland Constabulary - handle multiple, sometimes hundreds, of jurisdictions.)

Other cities that produced dramatic declines were: Saint John (51 per cent to 11 per cent), Sudbury (33 per cent to 9 per cent), Hamilton (30 per cent to 9 per cent), Halton Region in Ontario (also 30 per cent to 9 per cent) and Laval, Que., (22 per cent to 8 per cent).

Last week's release marked the first time since 1994 that the federal statistics agency published detailed unfounded data for individual police services. The figures showed that, on average, Canadian police dismissed 14 per cent of sexual-assault allegations as unfounded, a term that means the officer does not believe a crime occurred. By contrast, only 9 per cent of physical-assault complaints were deemed to be invalid in 2017.

Statistics Canada's decision to resume the collection and publication of unfounded numbers is one that academics have been calling for since the agency ceased the practice over concerns about data quality. At the time, agency officials worried some police services were either not tracking these complaints or not using the code correctly.

The unfounded designation is only to be applied in the rare instance when an investigation has shown a crime did not occur - not if there is not enough evidence to substantiate an allegation. Once a case is classified as unfounded, it no longer counts as a sexual-assault complaint.

The Globe used freedom-of-information requests to collect unfounded statistics from 873 police jurisdictions - this represented 92 per cent of the country - for the years 2010 to 2014. While The Globe's figures cannot be directly compared with the 2017 Statistics Canada numbers because of differences in methodology and data coverage, they are the best benchmark available to measure the impact of the sweeping changes around sexual-assault investigations that most Canadian police services have adopted since the Globe series.

For North Bay's chief, Shawn Devine, the most crucial initiative his police service pursued was external case reviews of sexual-assault complaints.

Chief Devine was one of the first police chiefs in Canada to publicly support the then-radical idea of providing rape crisis centre staff with access to raw police files. The advocates would then review the case to see whether officers had been influenced by rape myths and stereotypes or whether there had been any investigative missteps. (Half of Canadians are now living in a jurisdiction where the local police service has adopted some form of advocate case review, which is inspired by a program that has been running in Philadelphia for the past two decades.)

Chief Devine said that it's great that his city's unfounded rate has fallen, but that was never his primary focus. The goal, he said, was to improve the quality of investigations. He believes the unfounded decline is likely a byproduct of several changes, including new coding training and feedback from the reviews.

He cautioned that while there has certainly been progress, the advocate audits have shown that officers would benefit from specialized sexual-assault training, particularly training that addresses new research into how trauma can affect victim behaviour. The key shift is in under standing that you can't approach a sexual-assault investigation in the same way that you would other types of investigations, Chief Devine said.

"If an interview turns into an interrogation, that's a problem," the chief said. "There's a lot of stuff, even for a small organization like this, where we're probably going to have to address the need for specialized training ... but where do we find the time and money?" Ontario showed one of the biggest unfounded rate drops among the provinces, according to a comparison of The Globe's 2010-14 data with Statistics Canada's 2017 figures.

Previously, Ontario's unfounded rate for sexual-assault cases was 25 per cent. The latest numbers put it at 14 per cent. Two other regions showed double-digit drops: The Northwest Territories, which is policed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, went from 30 per cent to 17 per cent, while New Brunswick's rate declined 12 percentage points, from 32 per cent to 20 per cent.

New Brunswick previously held the highest rate of unfounded sexual-assault cases in the country. According to the 2017 Statistics Canada figures, Prince Edward Island police services - a mix of municipal forces and RCMP jurisdictions - is now the highest at 24 per cent. (Because the largest municipal police service in PEI - Charlottetown, which polices about 40,000 people - declined to provide The Globe data for last year's series, it is not possible to gauge the province's shift.)

Jenn Richard is the director of community development at the Fredericton Sexual Assault Centre. She is also the vice-chair of a provincial working group responsible for improving New Brunswick's response to sexual violence.

"I think there is a willingness to change and also a willingness to learn [among police services]," she said. "There was a bit of a steep learning curve at the beginning just understanding what the issues are, understanding what trauma-informed means ... I do feel really optimistic."

One of the findings of The Globe's Unfounded series was that rates fluctuated - sometimes wildly - between jurisdictions, even jurisdictions located in similar geographic areas and with similar demographics. For example, in Fredericton, a city of about 60,700, The Globe found that 16 per cent of sexual-assault files were being dismissed as unfounded (today, it's 13 per cent).

But just an hour south in Saint John, a city of about 70,800, the unfounded rate was 51 per cent (it has since dropped to 11 per cent).

Staff Sergeant Tony Hayes, who works in media relations with the Saint John Police Force, attributed the initially high number to a coding error.

After police conclude a sexualassault investigation, they give it a closure code to signify the outcome for statistical purposes - such as cleared by charge. This is part of the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey, which police services use to report data back to Statistics Canada.

As part of its plan to resume collecting and publishing unfounded numbers, the federal statistics agency and the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police said it would update its UCR classifications. Those changes, which were announced in July and include new case closing options and a more explicit definition of a "founded" allegation, are not reflected in the latest Statistics Canada data release. However, after The Globe's series, police services were reminded of the correct use of the unfounded code - that the allegation is baseless and no crime occurred.

One large police service that continued to have a high unfounded rate was the Ontario Provincial Police, collectively responsible for policing 2.3 million people. The Globe found OPP officers were closing 34 per cent of sexual-assault cases as unfounded. In 2017, the number fell to 26 per cent - still significantly higher than the national average of 14 per cent and drastically higher than the false reporting rate, which studies show is between 2 per cent and 8 per cent.

The rate remains high despite the fact that the OPP has been among the more aggressive police services in terms of policy change. The agency has rolled out new trauma-informed training, created a team of specialized sex-assault officers and implemented advocate case review in each of its regions.

Detective Inspector Karen Arney heads up the OPP's newly formed unit of five detective sergeants who specialize in sexualassault cases. She said that many of the biggest reforms made within the agency didn't take effect until later in the year - her team only got started in January of 2018, for example. This, she says, is why the unfounded rate didn't move much.

So far in 2018, internal OPP statistics show the unfounded rate is below 20 per cent. As the service continues to implement feedback from the case review committees and once the new UCR coding options are available, the numbers will come down even more, she said.

One of the jobs of Det. Insp.'s Arney's team is to take part in the review committees. If a problem is identified, her officers send the case back to the initial officer.

"Sometimes this will be because more work needs to be done or we'll be providing recommendations ... there's a lot of officers doing some great work out there, but of course, there's always room for improvement," she said. "As a police officer, you want to know: who, what, when, where, how, but sometimes you need to step back and think about if the victim is being treated respectfully."

Data analysis by Chen Wang, Laura Blenkinsop, Jeremy Agius and Michael Pereira

DRAMATIC DECLINES TO UNFOUNDED CASES

51% to 11%

SAINT JOHN

44% to 16%

NORTH BAY

33% to 9%

SUDBURY

30% to 9%

HAMILTON

22% to 8%

LAVAL, QUE.

Associated Graphic

North Bay Chief of Police Shawn Devine says it's great that his city's unfounded rate has fallen, but that his primary goal was to improve the quality of investigations. He believes the decline is a byproduct of several changes.

GALIT RODAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: STATSCAN

Note: The Globe received data from 873 police jurisdictions, which represented 92 per cent of the population, for the years 2010 to 2014.


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Last tango with Ernest
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By SARAH LAING
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page P16

Bestselling author Paula McLain never intended to write about Hemingway, but became enthralled with the women who loved him. Her latest book tackles his tumultuous time with Martha Gellhorn. Critics may dismiss McLain's brand of historical fiction, but, as she tells Sarah Laing, 'honestly, how is Philip Roth doing anything different?'

There is a double double bind at the heart of Paula McLain's new novel, Love and Ruin (Bond Street Books). That's not a typo: For just as much as this is a tale about Martha Gellhorn, pioneering war correspondent and third wife of Ernest Hemingway, it's also a story of Paula McLain, bestselling author and unwitting medium to Ernest Hemingway.

Both are equally complicated, tempestuous and passionate entanglements.

"If you had told me at 20, or even 30, that Ernest Hemingway would change my life, I'd have said you were ridiculous," McLain says emphatically over an Americano at a Toronto cafe. "But he really has, and my relationship with him is this thing to navigate."

The 53-year-old, you see, never intended to write even one novel about the lionized American writer, let alone two. She'd read his works, "greats" such as For Whom The Bell Tolls and The Old Man and the Sea, in college and been unmoved, and anyway, she was more of an F. Scott Fitzgerald woman, because he, in McLain's words, "was prettier and wrote better sentences."

But then, well into a career as a poet and memoirist, she reread A Moveable Feast and instantly became obsessed with Hadley Richardson, Hemingway's first wife and the one he never quite got over. Something a bit like "voodoo magic" took over, and suddenly, she was writing historical fiction.

"It was like I was an actress and [Hadley] was the role of my life," recalls McLain, who, tall and elegant in widelegged pants and leopard-print heels, could pass for a studio head or bigdeal showrunner, if not quite a thespian herself. "I was inside her skull, looking out her eyeballs, and I just happened to be in Gertrude Stein's salon having tea with Alice B. Toklas."

Four million copies of The Paris Wife later, her life well and truly changed, McLain thought she was done with the pioneer of modernism and his circle.

Not because she'd fallen out of Hemingway's thrall by any means, but because she didn't want to be "that" writer who fixated on one particular seam of inspiration. She wrote another book - historical fiction again - based on the life of legendary aviatrix Beryl Markham, Circling The Sun, which was named a Best Book of 2015 by NPR.

And then McLain had a "freaky" dream.

It's a story she tells in her author's letter, one that also informs the book's cover. (When it was suggested that the artwork, which is strongly reminiscent of an iconic scene in The Notebook, might be a clever bit of Sparksassociative-marketing for the airport crowd, McLain denies she's read the book or seen the movie, but is all for some "subliminal" marketing).

In this dream, she is in a boat with Hemingway, magnetic as ever. She thinks they are alone until she turns and sees another woman there, a woman with "a glint silver-blond bob and the strong, self-possessed posture of a Modigliani" who she knew to be Martha Gellhorn.

She began to research this woman - an extraordinary character who covered six major conflicts and worked as a war correspondent into her 80s - and knew this had to be her next subject.

"Martha makes me feel very conservative and very tame," says McLain, who says she was "flabbergasted" she didn't know more about this trailblazing American woman. "She was a firecracker! She went to cover the Spanish Civil War at 28, she was the only journalist period on the beach at D-Day, and she spent the balance of the war travelling around with papers, lying to get across borders and landing up at Dachau concentration camp just as it was liberated."

Oh, as for why Gellhorn didn't have any papers to travel around as a journalist? Well, that's because her then-husband, Ernest Hemingway, had essentially "stolen" her credentials from Collier's, the outlet she was writing for, in an act of petty vengeance for what he perceived as her abandonment.

It's a betrayal that comes toward the end of their romance, and McLain's book, whose scope is the years of Gellhorn's life where it intersects with Hemingway, by then well on his way to become an American icon.

The pair - who began their affair while both covering the Spanish civil war and Hemingway was married to his second wife - were married for a rocky five years, many of them spent in Cuba, at the Finca Vigia, now a pilgrimage spot for Papa's faithful.

"I made a conscious effort not to read too far ahead," says McLain, who mined Gellhorn's personal correspondence and published work to unlock her personality, attitudes, even speech rhythms. "I really tried not be influenced about the way she wrote about Hemingway later in her life, blazing a hole of hatred in his direction. She really believed she never loved him and that he ruined her life, but we also have their letters to each other that are so grounded in passion and mutual admiration."

If there is a criticism to be levelled at McLain - and it has been - it is the narrowness of this scope, that out of all the episodes in the life of someone as extraordinary as Gellhorn, the focus must be on her relationship to a man ... even if he is one of the 20th century's most famous ones.

"He is the pivot point," McLain acknowledges when asked about the feminist credentials of writing two books now that tell the story of two women's lives through the lens of one significant romantic partner. "For me, I'm interested in human relationships, and why they are the battleground for us to work out who we are and what we are not. That's how we engage in self-making. We all have these Russian dolls inside ourselves, but for women in particular, who you are at 16 is not who you are 21, or 28, or 36. More and more, I'm only interested in how women discover who they are, and for me, relationships are one of those spheres of discovery."

Throughout this conversation, McLain ties and re-ties her blouse's pussy bow. It's not a nervous gesture, but something she seems to do when she's really considering her words. She does this now, this subject clearly being one that's captured her intellectual interest.

"Honestly, how is Philip Roth doing anything different? He just does it with more sex and degradation.

What's War and Peace about? That Tolstoy - obsessed with relationships!"

Later, she revisits the theme when asked if she feels like sometimes historical fiction can be dismissed a genre. She nods emphatically.

"It's like, 'Oh, so I'm writing bodice rippers?' There can't be something that's literary, emotionally and intellectually challenging? I don't want to apologize for the work that I do, and I'm very serious about it."

That said, she's the first to admit she's got a weakness for the pull of a cracking love story.

"Maybe I've always been interested in love relationships in particular? I remember when I read The Hobbit in Grade 7, and being so disappointed that they were heading off to Mordor and there were no girl hobbits."

The central tension in this novel is, in a way, related to that sort of stark separation of the domestic and the professional. It isn't a spoiler to say that Gellhorn's and Hemingway's relationship falls apart because she wants to have a career as something other than his third wife. Hemingway, for his part, both simultaneously encourages her as a writer and sabotages her work.

It's gas-lighting performed at a virtuoso level.

"We all have to survive certain people in our lives, and for Martha, Hemingway is one of those people. It's a double bind, because she needs to find her own identity that is so much larger than this relationship, but she keeps trying to have it all, to have this work out."

And that, in a way, is McLain's own double bind. She wanted to be free of Hemingway, but at the same time, his world has proved, for whatever reason, to be the most fertile for her imagination. In fact, while her portrait of Martha is vivid and engaging, it is the moments where she switches to Hemingway's perspective that McLain's writing begins to crackle and hum.

There are only a few of these breaks in POV scattered throughout the story, but they are the sections that stick with a reader longest, emotionally resonant in a way that's almost ... eerie.

And McLain kinda knows it.

"I write those in a fugue state," she confesses. They initially began as a writing exercise for The Paris Wife, when she was trying to get in Hemingway's head to understand some his crueler, more idiotic life choices. She felt that those were the passages that felt the most "embedded" and so they made it into the final draft. For this book, she realized she had gotten halfway through without popping into Hemingway's headspace.

"I felt like it was my last chance to really intersect with him. I've been to all his places, I've surfed along on his consciousness, so this was a moment for me to really dig in and be present.

It's my version of him, but it comes from a place of pure human understanding, trying to plumb the recesses of his inner life."

It was, in a way, a way of saying a proper goodbye to the man who did really change everything for her.

"I don't know how else to say it, but it was bittersweet. I was really conscious as I was writing those passages that this would be the last visitation."

McLain is in the early stages of her next project. Any possibility it could be about Pauline Pfeiffer or Mary Walsh, a.k.a. Hemingway wives two and four?

"Never ever ever ever. Then I really would be that lunatic writer!"

Associated Graphic

Paula McLain's book Love and Ruin is about Martha Gellhorn, a war correspondent and the third wife of Ernest Hemingway.

MARTA IWANEK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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The day I met a serial killer
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In 1996, future Globe journalist Jana G. Pruden unwittingly told a fugitive murderer where he could find new victims. It left her with a chilling lesson: The most dangerous people look just like anyone else
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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page O3

The day I met a serial killer, I was 21 years old, an art student living in Halifax.

It was late on the afternoon of Saturday, June 1, 1996. I know that date for certain because he was arrested a few hours after I met him and charged with three counts of first-degree murder.

I have seen him described as both a serial killer and a spree killer, and there are varying definitions for both. You could certainly call him a spree killer, since the murders he committed all happened one after another on a single night. I've always thought of him as a serial killer, because of how he targeted certain victims, and because the murders were so intentional and specific. I call him a serial killer because, by the time I met him, 12 days after the murders, he'd acquired a new gun and a knife and several cartridges of ammunition. I call him a serial killer because I've always believed that when he walked up to my friend Trina and me on the street in Halifax that day, he was looking for more victims. We, unwittingly, told him exactly where to find them.

Trina and I had been hanging my graduation show at the student gallery at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, near the waterfront on Granville Street in Halifax. The show was a series of photographs that included a large number of portraits of drag queens and transgender people in Halifax, the focus of my final term of work.

Sometimes I photographed my subjects as they got dressed or put on their make-up, recording their captivating process of transformation and change. I photographed them at clubs, performing, backstage. I took glossy, gauzy, glamorous studio portraits of them like they were Hollywood starlets.

It was different then, long before the word trans entered the mainstream lexicon - except for the sweeping term, transvestite - and when the trans experience was more often contained to gay bars, or shut inside private parties and homes. It had taken me months to earn the trust of those in the community in Halifax before they were willing to be photographed. Violence and what was then called "gay bashing" were common among those I met. Many had been victimized before.

Trina and I had just finished hanging my photographs in the waterfront gallery and were sitting on a bench outside when a man approached us. He was about 30, clean cut and handsome.

He was carrying a bag from a local tourist shop. Trina remembers that the USS Theodore Roosevelt was docked in Halifax at the time, and that we initially thought he was a sailor, one of the many young men the massive aircraft carrier had spilled into the streets, looking for the diversions and pleasures to be found on land.

He was nice and friendly. Trina had little tolerance for strange men, but he was likeable enough that she didn't tell him to get lost.

Instead, we all stood together chatting in the sun, and after he asked enough times for somewhere "alternative" to go, we knew he was asking us for a gay bar. There was a big drag show at one of the clubs that night. Many of the people I'd been photographing were going, and we were, too. We told him about it, and promised that it would be a lot of fun.

The next time we saw him, it was his picture staring out from the front page of a newspaper. We learned then that his name was Marcello Palma, and that he'd been arrested not long after we spoke to him. Police had already been waiting for him at his hotel, and undercover officers were apparently already watching him on the street. A couple of the news stories mentioned the shopping bag he was carrying when he spoke to us.

His killing spree began in Toronto on Victoria Day. He fought with his mistress, and lost his temper in the office of his air conditioning business. That night, he went to his parents' house, and when he left he carried with him a knife and a handgun with five hollow-point bullets loaded inside.

He pulled up to Brenda Ludgate first, luring the 25-year-old inside his red pickup truck with the promise of $25, then shooting her in the back of the head and leaving her body on the ground behind a warehouse in Parkdale.

Then he picked up 19-year-old Shawn Keegan and 31-year-old Deanna Wilkinson, both born men but reported at the time to have been selling their bodies as women in the area around Homewood Avenue, a place better known in those days as "Tranny Alley" or "the Tranny Stroll."

He killed them all in barely more than an hour. There was a storm that night, and the crack and pop of thunder and the holiday fireworks covered the sound of gunshots in the streets.

He stayed in Toronto for a week before fleeing to Montreal, then on to Halifax, where he bought a new Winchester rifle and ammunition and checked into two different rooms at two different Halifax hotels, both under his own name. He was on his way back to one of them when he was arrested. There had been a Canada-wide warrant for his arrest, and police had been warned he was considered armed and dangerous. News stories said he had been carrying eight firearm cartridges and a knife, as well as a rosary he got from a priest in Montreal.

After his arrest, police found among his possessions a book called Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of Psychopaths Among Us.

Officers made sure he hadn't killed anybody in Halifax before Toronto detectives accompanied him back to Ontario to face his charges.

He was convicted of three counts of first-degree murder in the spring of 2001 and sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole for 25 years, which will be about three years from now. I found him mentioned in a news story from last fall about a theatre program for prison inmates. The story said Mr. Palma had the starring role in the production.

In the years that followed our meeting, I became a newspaper reporter, and came to specialize in court and crime. I've met more killers, learned more about murder and murderers, about fraudsters and sex offenders, about people who are able to mould and manipulate the people around them.

I have had people swear to me, repeatedly and convincingly, that they are innocent, only to see evidence in court that proves undoubtedly that they aren't. In other cases, I'm still not sure.

I have met and covered both spree killers and serial killers since then, and have thought often about the space between their regular lives and what lay beneath.

I've thought often about my brief meeting with Marcello Palma, even moreso recently because of the unfolding case of Bruce McArthur, currently accused of killing eight men in Toronto's LGBTQ community. I think about the people who knew Mr. McArthur before, now forced to grapple with the knowledge the person who had been to them a friend, a lover, a father, a gardener, a mall Santa, may have been also - or maybe instead - a monster.

One of Mr. McArthur's friends described him as the kindest person they'd ever known; others were so surprised they couldn't even comprehend that it was allegedly the same person.

"It was an absolute shock," one friend told a reporter. "If the concept is hiding in plain sight, he did it."

Like illness or injury, it's easier to understand evil if it shows on the outside. How do you comprehend that someone could hold something so brutal within themselves, completely hidden and undetected? How could someone capable of such horror appear just like everyone else?

It's tempting to think you can see it or sense it somehow. But Marcello Palma showed me long ago that sometimes you can't.

Mr. Palma told his psychiatrist he had sex with people described then as "prostitutes, transvestites and homosexuals," and admitted he thought about killing people, especially "street people or 'scum.'" As allegedly with Mr. McArthur, there were moments his anger and violence spilled forth. But except for those glimpses, what Mr. Palma was capable of remained largely unseen. News stories described his beautiful wife, his new baby daughter, his tidy house.

"It freaks me out. He looks like a nice guy," said one neighbour, speaking to a reporter after news that Mr. Palma was wanted in the three murders.

"It's a dreadful thing," said another. "They seemed to be such a nice family."

Even after Mr. Palma was arrested, his girlfriend continued to support him, seemingly unable or unwilling to comprehend that the allegations could be true. As she said in court, "I'll always love the person that I knew."

At times, I've wondered what would have happened if Mr. Palma had not been arrested that night, if he had killed one of my friends after I'd unknowingly sent him to the bar to find them. It's a question with no answer, a whatif, dark and unknowable.

When I think back to that meeting, I'm always struck by how there was no feeling of danger, no strangeness, that I had no instinct to get away. I've always remembered how nice he seemed, how much we liked him.

I remember how we invited him to the show that night, and how as he walked away toward his hotel on the waterfront, he smiled and told us he'd probably see us there.

"Who could have known?" asked one of Mr. Palma's neighbours, speaking to a reporter after news of his arrest. "We didn't even know enough to be scared."

Associated Graphic

Marcello Palma was convicted of killing three people in Toronto before eventually making his way to Halifax, where he bought a rifle and ammunition before being arrested by police in June, 1996.

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: THE GLOBE AND MAIL; SOURCE PHOTO: MOE DOIRON/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, August 3, 2018 – Page B15

JOAN BOSWELL (Nee Young)

After a life truly well lived and filled with many adventures, accomplishments, and contributions to her community, Joan left this world peacefully in the early morning hours of July 28, 2018, a few weeks shy of her 80th birthday. The world lost an elegant, independent, intelligent, compassionate, respectful and beautiful woman.

Joan spent her childhood moving throughout Canada with the various military postings of her parents, Dr. and Mrs. Edgar Young. As a result, she grew up to be an incredibly independent person who had an amazing ability to adapt to new scenarios.

Her fierce independence was one of her great strengths, but it did not prevent her from falling in love with her UNB sweetheart, Ted Boswell, and build a life with Ted over their forty-three happy years of marriage. Ted and Joan had an incredible ride as they pursued careers, raised their 4 boys, travelled the world, and were involved in many aspects of Ottawa life. Sadly, Ted passed away too young in 2004 and since then Joan focused her attention on family and on her many incredible and loving friends in Ottawa, Toronto, Fort Myers, Lake of Bays and around the world. Joan leaves behind her younger brother, John Young; her four sons, Chris (Kelly), Marc (Carol), David (Michelle), and Matthew (Amanda); and her seven grandchildren, Nick, Katie, Francis, Trevor, Christy, Brendan and Tyler.

Joan had many and varied academic and professional accomplishments. Having earned a B.A. (Hons.) and then a Teaching Certificate, she worked in a oneroom schoolhouse on the Six Nations Oneida Territory. Later, she obtained an M.A. in Canadian Studies and then a Ph.D. in Canadian history. She earned these degrees while also raising 4 mischievous boys - quite an accomplishment. In the 80s she worked at the former Ministry of Indian Affairs in the federal government. Later, Joan obtained a B.F.A. and pursued a career as a painter. Perhaps her most well known accomplishment in this aspect of her life was having one of her paintings appear in an episode of "Seinfeld" in the 90s. She continued to paint until shortly before her death.

Joan was also a talented author and in the early 90s she and a group of great friends formed a murder-mystery writing group called the "Ladies Killing Circle".

This group edited and published several short story anthologies.

Joan also wrote and published four novels of her own. Among other awards, in 2000 she won the Toronto Sunday Star short story writing contest for her story about a pig, a sauna and a murder.

Joan was a true dog-lover and was never without at least one fourlegged friend. Not long ago she could be seen out walking her 3 flat-coated retrievers, all together! Joan found time to give back to her community throughout her life by volunteering and giving to many organizations, trying to make the world a better place.

As an example, we will always remember the many nights when she went off to answer the phones at the Ottawa Distress Centre during the overnight shift.

Many thanks to the incredible staff at the Ottawa Hospital (8 West) and the compassionate and caring palliative team at the Elisabeth Bruyere for taking care of our mother.

In lieu of flowers, please go and do something to make the world a better place - she would be so happy to know you were doing that in her honour.

A celebration of Joan's life will take place in Ottawa in the Fall.

Tributes and condolences may be made at http://www.tubmanfuneralhomes.com

CAROL DONNA CEBALLOS (nee Warrington)

Carol, dearly loved mother of Arnold Jr., Arthur, Aaron, and Adrian; grandsons, Will and Andrew; granddaughter, Natalie; sister, Michelle Bjornson; and parents, William and Elizabeth Warrington. She was born October 26, 1937 in Cornwall, ON. Carol lived most her life in Toronto except for eight years in Mexico with husband, Arnold Ceballos (separated).

After completing Toronto Teachers College, she taught elementary school for one year after which she enrolled at University of Toronto Victoria College, graduating 1961 (B.A. Eng. Major). She worked as a book and journal editor for Canadian Education Assoc., McGraw-Hill, and Macmillan in London, UK where she lived for one year.

Carol greatly believed in the power of nature, the arts, and literature as a means to elevate one's life, and enjoyed classical music, visits to the Art Gallery of Ontario, and woodland hikes. She was also sustained by her spiritual beliefs, particularly teachings of the Rosicrucian Order (AMORC) of which she was a lifetime member.

Carol passed away July 10, 2018 at Royal Victoria Hospital, Barrie. She will rest at Sanctuary Park Cemetery, Toronto. A Memorial will be held 3:00 p.m. August 19, at Toronto Rosicrucian Lodge.

REGINALD PETER DICOLA

Reginald Peter DiCola died peacefully in his sleep after a long battle with multiple myeloma on August 1, 2018. He is survived by his wife, Rollande (nee Boulerice); his daughters, Marina and her husband, Mark Nawrocki and Gilda and her husband, Brent Mills; as well as grandchildren, Fiona Mills and Peter Mills.

Reg was a longtime manager with Scotiabank in Pembroke, Milton, Guelph and Toronto. He loved music of all types and was an accomplished singer, choral director and trumpet player. The family expresses its sincere thanks for the care Reg received from Dr. Christine Chen and her team at Princess Margaret Hospital and the excellent care he received in home from the doctors, nurses and personal support workers who cared for him in recent months.

In lieu of flowers, please support the charity of your choice or Princess Margaret Hospital or the Etobicoke Community Concert Band.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel, 2180 Hurontario St., Mississauga (Hwy.

10, N. of QEW) on Monday from 6-9 p.m. and Tuesday from 12-1 p.m. Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 at 1 p.m. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

DIANE EMILIA LUBINSKI

It is with great sadness we announce the sudden and unexpected passing of Diane E. Lubinski, a daughter, wife, sister, and aunt on July 11, 2018. Diane was predeceased by her father Daniel Lubinski, mother Kathleen Lubinski and husband Roman Huzar.

Survived by brother Ron Lubinski and wife Gillian of Meaford. Brother Gerry Lubinski and wife Brenda of Innisfil. Much loved aunt to Owen Lubinski (Cora) of Meaford, Cara Rodgers (Jason) and daughter Mackenzie of Innisfil, Cynthia Grundmann (Bryan) and their two sons Phoenix and Easton of Toronto, David Lubinski of Meaford and Christopher Lubinski of Innisfil.

Diane worked as a licensed realtor at Coldwell Banker, The Real State Centre, Brokerage in the Barrie and Innisfil area for more than 33 years. Avid in the Ukrainian Community, Diane was president of a committee to found a Ukrainian Church in Barrie, Chairperson in annual Ukrainian Festival and was even selected by the Canadian Government to go to Ukraine as an official observer in their government election process during the orange revolution. Diane was also a committed volunteer with the Barrie Animal Shelter.

Cremation has taken place.

There will be a visitation held at the Innisfil Funeral Home (7910 Yonge St. Stroud), on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 from 7:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.

Memorial Service will take place on Wednesday, August 8, 2018 at 10:00 a.m. at Exaltation of the Holy Cross Church, (19 Parkside Drive, Barrie). Interment at Sanctuary Park Cemetery, (1570 Royal York, Etobicoke), following the Service. Words of comfort may be forwarded to the family by visiting http://www.innisfilfuneralhome.ca.

HELEN JOYCE NIMECK (nee Southam)

Passed away suddenly on Monday, July 30, 2018 at the age of 86. Helen "Joyce" Nimeck, born in Pierson Manitoba, was the third child of Gordon and May Southam.

Joyce often referred to her prairie upbringing as the reason for her core values of honesty, generosity and warmth. Her motto being, "Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery and today is a gift. That is why it is called 'The Present'." Always positive, happy and grateful, Joyce will surely be missed but never forgotten.

Beloved wife of the late Edward (Ed) Nimeck. Loving mother of Scott (Robin), Reg (Isabella) and Gordon (Vera). Cherished grandmother of Jacob, Kristopher, Isabella, Antonia and Jacqueline.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Peel Chapel 2180 Hurontario Street, Mississauga (Hwy 10 N. of QEW) on Monday from 5-8 p.m. Funeral Service will be held in the Chapel on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 at 11 a.m. Interment Springcreek Cemetery. For those who wish, donations may be made to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

BOHDAN BASIL ZAROWSKY BA, LLB, Q.C. April 16, 1925 July 27, 2018

Our dedicated father, grandfather, great-grandfather and uncle died peacefully at home in Toronto. A knowledgeable lawyer (University of Toronto Class of '58) who practiced law until age 91, he was an active member of the Ukrainian diaspora community and a keen skier, gardener, and lover of nature and the arts. Predeceased by his wife, Anizia, in 2005 and by three brothers and two sisters; he is survived by two sisters, five children, 11 grandchildren, a greatgrandson, and numerous nieces, nephews, and friends.

Our family is very grateful for the support of relatives and friends during his final months, and for excellent care from St. Joseph's Health Centre and Toronto General/Princess Margaret Hospitals, and the Dorothy Ley Hospice. In lieu of flowers, we encourage donations to the Holodomor Memorial Project (tufoundation.ca/holodomor) or to a registered charity of your choice.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W. (East of the Jane subway) on Wednesday from 6 to 9 p.m. with panachyda at 8 p.m., and Thursday from 2 to 4 and 6 to 9 p.m. with panachyda at 8 p.m. Funeral Mass will be held at St. Nicholas Ukrainian Catholic Church, 4 Bellwoods Ave., Toronto, on Friday, August 10, 2018 at 10 a.m. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.


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Fighting to not be forgotten
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By ELIZABETH RENZETTI
  
  

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Thursday, August 9, 2018 – Page A7

KINGSTON -- On a sunny summer's day, a group of visitors is gathered under a high limestone wall, waiting to explore one of Canada's most notorious prisons. Tours of the Kingston Penitentiary, which closed in 2013, have proved hugely popular, drawing tourists from around the world and providing more than $1-million to the local United Way.

There is no crowd across the street at another limestone building, which is nearly as imposing but lacking in gun towers. Perhaps tourists walk past this abandoned building and wonder if it was an asylum, or a girls' school. They might ask a local and be told that this, for 66 years, was the place where hundreds of Canadians were incarcerated, and where some died: the Prison for Women, more commonly known as P4W.

Despite its once-fearsome reputation - a 1977 government report called it "unfit for bears, much less women" - P4W has fallen out of the public imagination since it was closed in 2000. Now, the site is on the verge of redevelopment and a small group of former inmates and academics is fighting to keep alive the memory of the women who lived and died there.

What the women of the P4W Memorial Collective would like is some physical remembrance that the site, recently bought by a local developer from Queen's University, has a unique history. "It should be a place where people can come and respect our fallen sisters, and pray and be at one with them, or whatever they need to do," says Fran Chaisson, a member of the collective, who served two terms in P4W.

"The healing is very important, because if you don't heal from an institution, you'll end up back in it."

Ms. Chaisson is sitting at a lakeside café, only a few hundred metres from the abandoned hulk of P4W, alongside her friend and former P4W inmate Ann Hansen. They're meeting with two professors from Queen's University who are also members of the collective, Lisa Guenther and Jackie Davies.

The women's memories of their incarcerations are fresh, vivid and complex.

Ms. Chaisson, who was imprisoned in 1973 on charges of assault and a decade later for attempted murder, remembers helping cut down a friend who had tried to hang herself. Ms. Chaisson, too, tried to kill herself after being put into segregation: She had been awake for five nights, unable to sleep because of the screams of the other prisoners. "There were too many horrific things going through my mind," she says now. "I was caught like an animal in a cage and the walls kept coming in." She tried to hang herself, and only regained consciousness when the guards cut her down and her head hit the concrete floor.

Seven women in P4W killed themselves in a three-year span beginning in 1988; six of them were Indigenous. Ms. Chaisson and Ms. Hansen knew all of them. Ms. Hansen, who was convicted of crimes committed with the anarchist group called Direct Action or the Squamish Five, remembers one inmate friend who was meeting with her father at P4W.

The woman got up, left the meeting and hanged herself. Her father found her.

This is what they want to remember: the pain felt by the prisoners, which continues to this day (women make up the fastest-growing segment of the federal prison population in Canada, and Indigenous women the largest proportion of that). They would like the memorial to be a living thing, perhaps a garden, both for a sense of calm and solace and also for its metaphorical value: Suffering is alive, too.

"The challenge with a memorial is that it can give a sense of nostalgia, like this is just a morbid spectacle from the past," Ms. Hansen says. "I see that in the fascination with KP [Kingston Penitentiary]. People think we've come such a long way, and we haven't."

The most immediate challenge is to have the City of Kingston and the company that plans to develop the site, ABNA Investments Ltd., agree to a memorial in the first place. The signs are promising: The memorial collective has meetings scheduled with ABNA, and Kingston's mayor, Bryan Paterson, agrees in principle. "Kingston is a city with a lot of history, and we've embraced the idea of telling all the stories of that history," he says.

"Sometimes those stories have not been told to the same degree. ... So this is an opportunity for an exciting redevelopment, but to redevelop in a sensitive way that points to the past." (Executives at ABNA did not respond to requests for comment, but a spokesperson earlier told Global News that the company "definitely will pay homage" to the site's past.)

There are other hurdles to face, as well - the site is contaminated to some degree, and P4W is designated as a "recognized heritage building." To date, what little discussion there has been about the future of P4W has revolved around its architectural significance.

This emphasis annoys the women of the collective. Ms. Davies visited the prison often while teaching courses such as women's studies to the inmates: "A lot of the conversations have been about the architecture, which is not unimportant. But what's more important is the human history that site has, all the stories. I feel it viscerally when I walk past, I remember the women who were there. There were students of mine who died in there, so I can't walk by without feeling the power of that."

Almost from the time it opened, Prison for Women was recommended for closure. It was built by inmates from Kingston Penitentiary - where women had been incarcerated alongside men for a hundred years - and opened in 1934. Four years later, the Archambault report recommended its closing, and a dozen others over the years came to similar conclusions, citing poor treatment and facilities, as well as the fact that, as the only federal women's prison, its inmates were taken from across the country, often far from their families and support systems.

By the time Ms. Hansen arrived in 1984, changes had been made to improve women's conditions. The Native Sisterhood was allowed to conduct healing ceremonies and hold support meetings. Tourist buses still drove by, pointing out the place where "the most dangerous women in Canada live," but inside inmates were working in the beauty parlour and woodworking shop. In many ways, Ms. Hansen says, it was a warm community: "The bonds you had with the other women were very powerful. We'd have some fun times, we'd be laughing and singing. We were living in a void, and we filled that void with our relationships."

But there were also women killing themselves, and being driven to despair in segregation. The Canadian public became aware of what was going on behind the stone walls in 1995, after a flashpoint conflict the previous year led to a national conversation.

It began with a confrontation over medication between a small group of women and staff. There was a hostagetaking, and the women were placed in segregation. A male emergency-response team - which the inmates called "the goon squad" - arrived from Kingston Penitentiary. The female inmates were stripsearched by the team, a degrading ordeal that was caught on video and broadcast on CBC's The Fifth Estate. In the ensuing uproar, Justice Louise Arbour was appointed to investigate the conflict. She released a report in 1996 condemning conditions at P4W as "cruel and inhumane."

Four years later, the prison was closed.

Queen's University bought the property seven years after that, with speculation that it would be turned into a dorm or a storage for archives. Last year, a group interested in prison history and reform proposed that the building be turned into a women's history museum, but Queen's didn't go for the idea. Recently, it accepted ABNA's offer, although it is unclear what form the redevelopment would take.

So, for nearly 20 years P4W sat, forgotten and abandoned. Across the street, Kingston Penitentiary also closed, but tourists lined up outside its doors, curious to see the jail that housed some of the country's most infamous criminals - and perhaps not realizing that it once imprisoned women and girls, some as young as 9.

The causes and consequences of women's incarceration didn't disappear along with P4W. In the 10 years since 2007, for example, the number of federally sentenced women has grown by 30 per cent; for Indigenous women, it's 60 per cent.

Many of those women will have come into prison experiencing mental-health issues and physical abuse, and as the federal corrections Ombudsman, Ivan Zinger, pointed out in a 2017 report, prisons are failing women with serious mental-health issues.

On Friday, the P4W Memorial Collective will gather for their annual healing ceremony outside the walls that once locked them in. They'll be thinking about the building, and how it can be used to remember the women who did not make it out, and those who are inside other walls.

"That's why we need a memorial," Ms. Hansen says, "to show that this is not in the past. It's still going on."

Associated Graphic

The Kingston Prison for Women, seen in February, 1979, was once deemed 'unfit for bears, much less women.' The facility was closed in 2000.

Nicole Turcotte of Montreal stands outside an area for the prison's newcomers in 1979. To date, the little discussion there has been about the site's future has mostly centred on its architectural significance.

TOP AND ABOVE: ERIK CHRISTENSEN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

From left: Ann Hansen, Jackie Davies, Fran Chaisson and Lisa Guenther are part of a collective pushing to have a memorial of some kind at the Kingston site when it is finally redeveloped.

JOHNNY C.Y. LAM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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The eternal darkness of Iain Reid's spotless mind
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Author of hard-to-classify novels and touching memoirs is a rising star in literary circles and Hollywood alike
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By BARRY HERTZ
  
  

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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page R1

Iain Reid would really prefer it if you knew as little as possible about his work.

It's not as if the 37-year-old author is sensitive or secretive - or carries even a whiff of being a sensitive and secretive jerk. It is just that his two novels - 2016's I'm Thinking of Ending Things and this month's anticipated new release, Foe - are not what you might expect from their sparse cover designs and brief jacket copy. I'm Thinking of Ending Things focuses on a road trip involving a woman and her boyfriend that turns very dark very quickly; Foe follows a marriage after one half of the couple is selected by a shadowy organization for a topsecret mission. Both works could be called thrillers, domestic dramas, literary character studies, page-turner horrors, surreal dark comedies. No one would be wrong to employ any of those labels, but they wouldn't exactly be right, either.

"It's rare when you're reading a manuscript and you're the acquiring editor and you just scream out, 'What the hell!?' " recalls Martha Sharpe, who signed Reid to Simon & Schuster Canada before she left the company in 2014. "There is so much of what you as the reader can bring to the real meaning of his work - and this feeling of real danger. He might be the kind of writer Plato was worried about when he warned us about poets."

That is why Reid hopes you simply walk into his stories blind.

"I understand there are different genre aspects in these books. And I know it's tough for those in the publishing industry because readers can be so concerned with category," Reid says from his Kingston home. "If someone only reads thrillers and they come to Foe expecting traditional thriller elements, where you can trace the mystery from beginning to end, they'll leave disappointed. So for me, it'd be ideal if no one knew anything about these books while reading them."

But that will be exceedingly difficult given how much of Iain Reid you're going to be reading, seeing and hearing about. Not just this month, when Foe will be released, but over the next few years, as Hollywood begins to devour his sharp, cerebral tales.

Already, writer-director Charlie Kaufman (Being John Malkovich, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind) is working on an adaptation of I'm Thinking of Ending Things for Netflix. And early this year, months before it hit shelves, Foe's screen rights were snapped up by Anonymous Content, the production company behind the Oscar-winning films The Revenant and Spotlight.

This sits perfectly well with Reid, who is especially delighted that Kaufman is handling I'm Thinking of Ending Things, which spins heads even as it cracks them wide open. "There's simply no one else I would've wanted," he says.

Yet, for readers interested in what drives him - the dark thrill of anxiety, the almost paradoxical pleasure of embracing the uncertain - here is a small piece of advice: Seek out Reid's material now, before the twin marketing machines of the publishing and film industries conspire to make the unknowable known. Because Hollywood - especially Netflix, with its vast reams of user data and the resources to make all your subconscious entertainment desires a reality - is no dummy; by so quickly glomming onto him, movie producers are simply confirming what the literary community already knows: Iain Reid just might be the most exciting and excitingly unclassifiable author working in Canadian fiction today. Even if fiction was once the furthest thing from his mind.

Back in the mid-aughts, Reid was adrift - although not unhappily. A graduate of Queen's University's history program, he mulled going to grad school but instead worked odd jobs in Toronto while submitting short fiction to journals, duly awaiting rejection. Realizing there was more of an eager market for his personal essays and non-fiction, he transitioned to writing for magazines and newspapers.

So when a CBC gig in Ottawa came along, he thought nothing of moving to his parents' nearby hobby farm for a spell. And when that job evaporated and his brief return home turned into a yearlong stay, he mined the material for the comic and heartfelt 2010 memoir One Bird's Choice: A Year in the Life of an Overeducated, Underemployed Twenty-Something Who Moves Back Home. He followed that with 2013's The Truth About Luck: What I Learned on My Road Trip with Grandma, another compassionate and hilarious memoir, which helped net him the $10,000 RBC Taylor Emerging Writer Award.

Almost accidentally, Reid had become a non-fiction star.

"I didn't anticipate writing about either experience, but they were so wonderful and pleasant that I decided I had to," he says today. "Non-fiction, it's like comfort food for me."

Rereading his memoirs today, against the stark and disturbing worlds of Foe and I'm Thinking of Ending Things, a disconnect surfaces: How can the same man who concocted such self-described comfort food also be responsible for extremely unsettling fiction? But just as quickly as that thought emerges, it disappears. Whether his narratives are gentle or disturbing, his talent rests in his ability to strip mine a story to examine larger, often impossible-to-answer questions: Are we defined by our relationships? Can you ever really know someone? Do we live our own lives or the lives of others?

"Regardless of whether his books are in the memoir world or the fiction world, they both have a philosophical nature to them.

There's a surface, but it exists to serve the ideas lurking underneath," says Nita Pronovost, editorial director for Simon & Schuster Canada. "It's that surprising underworld that we discover as a reader - that's what drives Iain's work."

It helps that Reid's prose is gripping to an absurdly confident degree. I'm Thinking of Ending Things and Foe are of reasonable enough lengths (210 and 260 pages, respectively), but they demand single-sitting consumption.

"For me, that's the ideal situation - that if someone starts, there's a sense of urgency, and then they push through and finish it," Reid says. "The last few stages of my work, I consider liposuction. It's months of going through and removing parts that, even if I like them and the prose might be fine, if it doesn't 100 per cent have to be there, it's cut. The end for me is deletion."

Adds Pronovost: "He does a kind of master class in writerly tightrope walking. These stories are studies of containment, and that means increasing the pressure, and one way to do that is a style that's lean and sparse and particular, where every word counts. Every discussion we had is, 'What is the least we need?

What is the minimum? And can we push those minimums?' "Also critical to Reid's propulsive style is his knack for making the imaginary feel as if it's been ripped from reality, to the point of uncomfortable intimacy. In I'm Thinking of Ending Things, readers only know the narrator as "The Girlfriend," yet she and her partner quickly become intensely familiar. In Foe, we don't learn much about Junior and his wife Hen's past - or their near-future world - but quickly and subtly, Reid dissects their marriage with enough passion and pain that the book feels less like a novel than the final pages of a doomed diary.

"When I started writing fiction, everything is made up, yet it always feels very personal, too. I didn't anticipate that," Reid says.

"I think it's because you feel like you're inviting people into your brain. It's more that the ideas are personal rather than the details of the story itself. So I'll use my own experiences and observations, but mostly to work through those big questions I want to think about."

Yet, when you write two books back to back that pivot on the sheer difficulty of maintaining a relationship - of trying to figure out just what the hell that other person is thinking - questions are going to be asked about where memoir ends and fiction begins.

"I'm not married, but I do find the idea of marriage appealing," Reid says with a laugh. "The statistics say the majority of marriages don't make it, yet it's interesting that so many people choose to still do it. I don't feel pessimistic about marriage, but this tension is appealing to explore. I still have an optimistic view of it. Maybe one of these years ..." In the meantime, he is content to see where Hollywood will take his work - and enjoy the uncertainty of what his follow-up might be.

"I try to leave myself open to opportunity. I'm not the type of person who writes every day - I write when I have an idea," he says. "Plus, it's exciting that I don't know what I'm doing for two or three or however many years."

After all, sometimes it is best to know as little as possible about what might come next.

Associated Graphic

Iain Reid's novel, Foe, follows a marriage after one half of the couple is selected by a shadowy organization for a top-secret mission, and tells a story that defies classification as a thriller, horror or domestic drama.

JOHNNY C.Y. LAM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Iain Reid's novels are of reasonable lengths (210 pages for I'm Thinking of Ending Things and 260 for Foe), but they demand to be read in a single sitting.

JOHNNY C.Y. LAM/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Argentine-Canadian writer's resignation from National Library spurs suspicion, controversy
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Alberto Manguel cited health reasons for his departure, but leaving a post so steeped in politics was always going to raise questions
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By GABRIELA SAMELA
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Thursday, August 9, 2018 – Page A12

BUENOS AIRES -- On a cold afternoon last month in Buenos Aires, in the middle of winter, Argentine workers gathered outside to "hug" the venerable National Library. They surrounded the iconic brutalist structure of one of the world's most famous libraries, an institution at the heart of the fiery intellectual and cultural life of the country, and historically led by its greatest writers and thinkers - Jorge Luis Borges comes to mind. Today's hug was a traditional show of union support for library workers who feared an upheaval of their ranks. They worried about mass layoffs after the deficit-focused federal government warned of widespread cuts to funding, but particularly after the surprise resignation of the library's head.

Such displays aren't uncommon for a country in the midst of economic crisis. But for those who keep track of the endeavours of Canadians abroad, this particular demonstration marked an unceremonious end for one of this country's brightest lights out in the world. Citing health reasons, Alberto Manguel, one of Canada's most celebrated literary figures, had suddenly announced he would be stepping down from his native land's most prestigious - and highly political - cultural appointment. He exited Aug. 1, his last official day.

At a news conference last month, Manguel (who declined requests from The Globe and Mail for further comment) emphasized his resignation was strictly personal. "My decision is exclusively medical, the doctor told me that I had to stop. This is not a farewell but a thank you. This experience was the most extraordinary of my life."

What is of no surprise is that Manguel's exit after two years at the helm would be debated just as closely as his arrival and the rest of his tenure. After all, the library was created in the aftermath of independence two centuries earlier, and how it's run, and who is appointed to run it, is often viewed as a point of pride for ruling governments. Whichever way Argentina's political winds are blowing, the library's administration tails those gusts very closely.

In Canada, Manguel is an international darling of letters who made the country his home for two decades and became a citizen. He is known for such titles as A History of Reading and The Library at Night. Here, despite his laurels and his well-documented admiration for Borges and Borges's work at the library, Manguel was viewed as an outsider on arrival. Not only was he an Argentine who had left ages ago, he was also the first library appointee of President Mauricio Macri's neoliberal government, which had campaigned on cleaning up the economic excesses of the previous leftist administration that governed for more than a decade.

Manguel had vowed to rise above the partisan fracas that usually coloured the role of library director. His supporters and critics would be able to point to his success and challenges. But what most can agree on is that his time at the library will be forever tied to the political and economic realities of Argentina he so steadfastly tried to transcend and, it seemed to some, avoid.

At the same conference, alongside Manguel, Culture Minister Pablo Avelluto said "we are very happy with the work he is doing with his team; we have had two brilliant years in this institution."

Those high-water marks include, in Avelluto's estimation, the acquisition of 17,000 volumes that belonged to Adolfo Bioy Casares, friend and frequent collaborator of Borges, and Casares's wife, the poet and short-story writer Silvina Ocampo; Microsoft's donation of almost US$2million in software and cloud services; collaborative agreements with other libraries around the world and the visits of international authors such as Margaret Atwood and the French historian Élisabeth Roudinesco. They were all achievements that were indicative of Manguel's global stature, fully leveraged into his role as an ambassador and deal maker for Argentine literary culture.

Avelluto also said that "there is no intention of producing massive dismissals" at the library.

Manguel added: "We understand the uncertainty, because this is an uncertain country, but I believe in the word of Pablo."

For library workers, the tenor of the news conference proved markedly different from that of a recent meeting between Manguel and union leaders. Multiple union members confirmed to The Globe details of the meeting, which were first reported in the newspaper Tiempo Argentino: In short, that Manguel said he would resign if the government decided to go on with dismissals at the library.

"He always spoke well of us as workers and at this point we saw him as an ally," said Diego Martinez, a representative for the union board at the National Library, as he was preparing for the hug. But once Manguel announced he would resign because of health issues, many union members remained suspicious of his timing, so soon after news of further government austerity.

"Then, we decided to act preventively," Martinez said of the hug.

Manguel's comments to union leaders about government influence at the library echoed his previous statements on the issue. "In Argentina, ever since the library was founded, the position of director of the library was seen as a political appointment, if not a political position," he told The Globe's Stephanie Nolen last year.

"When I decided to accept, I accepted on condition that this would not be a political position."

Legally, the library "acts independently of any political decisions and I only answer directly to the Minister of Culture on the understanding that if I get any instruction that I don't feel I can follow, I will resign."

Controversy and skepticism have dogged Manguel since the beginning of his tenure, when 250 library workers were cut prior to his start date, which had already been delayed several months.

Critics such as Valentina Viglieca, a workers' representative attached to the Culture Ministry for the country's largest public-sector union, had concerns about absences that stemmed from Manguel's commitments abroad. She contends that they were also a way of disengaging himself from the layoffs. "He asked that if people had to be fired, the task should be done when he was not present," she said. "The same now, when he argues he has health reasons to leave when everything indicates that, again, he wants to detach himself from an eventual process of dismissals." Manguel's tenure ended with 870 people employed at the library, down from 1,048 when the current government took office in late 2015.

While Manguel's boss was quick to point out his successes, those who worked under him can just as easily point to the challenges he faced as director. He "carried out a policy of adjustment in the community services the library provides," Martinez said, such as the revamping of the Museum of Books and Language after staff cuts, the abandonment of public presentations in the library's amphitheatre and the scaling back of book-related festivals.

Even those programs that survived, such as the library's poetry courses and workshops, could not escape the effects of budget-tightening behind the scenes. "They are free and many people attend," said one of the teachers, the writer and poet Eduardo Mileo. "But teachers are rotating because the salary paid to them has been frozen since the beginning of 2016 at 5,000 pesos a month." (About $235. The minimum wage in Argentina is currently10,000 pesos.)

The latest government cuts were announced earlier this year after a dramatic devaluation of the peso in May and an accelerated rate of inflation. It had been forecast at 15 per cent at the end of 2017 and is projected to exceed 30 per cent by the end of this year. To mitigate the blow, Macri recently closed a standby agreement for US$50-billion with the International Monetary Fund, an action that resulted in the need for drastic reductions of the national deficit.

In practice, Manguel was not immune to speaking on Argentine politics. Of the economic clawbacks and their effects on his work, he said "At the National Library we do not have a single peso to buy coffee," during a talk at the Book Fair of Buenos Aires, where he also acknowledged the work of the library staff and said that, in many cases, they are paid "miserable wages."

Officials at the Culture Ministry say the library's budget for 2018 was set at 649 million pesos, compared with 400 million pesos a year during the previous administration; the 62-per-cent increase has not been enough to offset the alarming rate of inflation during Manguel's time at the helm, at one point exceeding 40 per cent in 2016.

The writer Federico Andahazi, whose book The Anatomist was translated into English by Manguel, still believes his colleague to be the "perfect library director."

"It is not mandatory that the director of the library must be a writer," he said, "But he does have to be a reader."

Andahazi also noted that staffing and budget issues should not be attributed to Manguel, that he took charge "in a bad moment."

(Those problems now fall to Elsa Barber, Manguel's deputy, who was announced as the new head.)

He is a strong critic of previous director Horacio Gonzalez, whom he says ran "a terrible administration" and "lacked suitability for that position."

Andahazi believes Manguel was simply saddled with Gonzalez's legacy: an overstaffed institution. And, he added, "no one likes to be an executioner."

Associated Graphic

Multiple union members say Alberto Manguel, seen in Buenos Aires in April, 2017, vowed to resign if the government continued with dismissals at Argentina's National Library.

HORACIO PAONE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Friday, August 10, 2018
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GMO wheat mystery could be a whodunnit
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Japan, South Korea have lifted bans on Canadian crops, but Alberta plants still puzzle investigators
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page A8

CALGARY -- A handful of unwelcome plants growing on the side of a road in Alberta were all it took to stop two Asian governments from accepting Canadian wheat.

The stalks were found to be genetically modified wheat, which is banned from commercial production worldwide. But despite a seven-month investigation, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) representatives still can't explain how they got there.

Canada, it seems, has a cereal killer on its hands and suspects range from activists to sloppy geneticists.

Japan, a major buyer of Canadian wheat, and South Korea suspended trade in June, immediately after the CFIA announced that a "few" wheat plants survived the application of glyphosate - the herbicide best known as Roundup - last year. That shouldn't have happened: Wheat that resists the deadly effects of the popular weed killer is genetically modified.

While both countries have since lifted their bans, the rogue plants highlight how susceptible Canada's multibillion-dollar agriculture industry is to the polarized fight over genetically modified grain and certain herbicides - and, potentially, to sabotage.

Canada is at tremendous economic risk if activists are behind the wheat scare.

Glyphosate is a divisive herbicide. Monsanto patented it in the 1970s and its glyphosate-resistant crops - branded as Roundup Ready - first came to market in 1996 in soybeans. Roundup Ready canola is planted widely in Western Canada, and consumed globally. Supporters argue that glyphosate is safe and that genetically modified plants are necessary to feed the world's population. (Roundup Ready wheat, for example, is an appealing idea to some farmers because it means they can spray a field with the herbicide and kill off everything but their crop.)

But detractors point to competing studies that indicate glyphosate may cause cancer. Late last year, the European Union, for example, narrowly voted to allow glyphosate in the region for another five years, well short of the normal 15-year renewal period for similar products.

Canadian investigators have yet to figure out what kind of wheat was found in southern Alberta, let alone how the problematic plants ended up there.

Two factors are at play in understanding this mystery: The wheat's traits and its variety. Researchers determined that the plants contained a genetically modified gene that makes it resistant to glyphosate. That's the troublesome trait: It has been tested in Canada, but never approved for commercial production. But scientists have not sorted out what type of wheat is involved. The unidentified variety has never been approved either.

In short, neither the trait nor the variety should be in the country, whether in combination or otherwise.

Pierre Bilodeau, the executive director of the CFIA's planthealth directorate, the agency leading the investigation, argues what is most important is that Canada found the unwelcome wheat.

"We basically were able to find the needle in a haystack," Mr. Bilodeau said. "We know what it is not. We just don't know what it is."

Independent experts argue the mystery could still have economic consequences and solving it - or at least gathering more evidence - would help prevent future cases like this one. The science, a number of genetics experts argue, points to human intervention.

Alan McHughen is a professor at the University of California, a molecular geneticist who has developed genetically modified plants. Mr. McHughen said this seemingly loopy hypothesis about the wheat's origins should be taken seriously. Every other plausible option, he said, is extremely unlikely.

The mystery started last growing season when a contractor sprayed glyphosate, on a lease road in a field. The field was seeded for canola, and the contractor was trying to kill weeds on the road. The contractor, according to the CFIA, reported the surviving wheat plants to Alberta's department of Agriculture and Forestry. The provincial government then launched an investigation, although it was not publicly announced. Alberta turned its results over to the CFIA in January and its findings were only made public in June.

The CFIA determined the wheat contained MON71200, a trait Monsanto developed and the factor that made it resistant to glyphosate.

Monsanto conducted field research on wheat sporting MON71200 between 1998 to 2000 in Alberta, planting fewer than two hectares, according to Trish Jordan, the company's director of public and industry affairs in Canada. Companies test and market herbicide-resistant plants because they can increase yield by better controlling some weeds.

The wheat found in 2017 was located more than 300 kilometres from Monsanto's earlier research sites and while both carried MON71200, the varieties differed. Simply put, the plants grown by Monsanto and the ones found on the side of the road are not the same. This rules out a seed escape.

"It's inexplicable," Ms. Jordan said in an e-mail.

Wheat self-pollinates, meaning it doesn't need material from male and female plants to intermingle in order to reproduce. As a result, kernels in a wheat head will be exact replicas of the seed that sprouted the plant.

Occasionally, wheat plants will naturally cross-pollinate, aided by insects or wind. If the mating plants are not identical, the resulting kernels will contain genetic traits from both contributors, creating hybrid seeds.

This is called outcrossing and it is rare in wheat. This could explain how MON71200 jumped from one variety to another.

Outcrossing, however, is detectable thanks to DNA fingerprinting of the plants.

The CFIA has determined MON71200 did not sneak out of the old test plots (and happen to breed with a variety of wheat that is unknown in Canada) this way.

That leaves some experts speculating about human interference.

"It sounds more and more like a rogue breeder was doing his [or] her own breeding with some purloined MON71200 seeds," Mr. McHughen said.

Tom Clemente, a biotechnology professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's department of agronomy and horticulture, says activists opposed to genetically modified plants or with grudges against giant agrifood companies are to blame rather than natural causes.

"The biology doesn't make sense," he said. "The way it occurred sounds more like somebody sprinkled some seeds. They knew it was there."

And, the theory goes, whoever did it knew, somehow, someone would report the surviving plants to agricultural authorities.

The idea is that the rogue stalks would be used to highlight how even testing with glyphosate might contaminate the food chain.

It is possible that someone had access to MON71200 for research purposes and whipped up this trait-variety combination on their own. Researchers and students at universities, for example, might have access to the gene, an array of varieties, and necessary breeding skills.

The farmer who owns the property where the mystery wheat was found last year has not been identified. He last sowed wheat in the field in 2014.

The Alberta government refused to identify the herbicide contractor who sprayed the road. The farmer's field is fallow this year, and being monitored by the CFIA.

Monsanto shelved development plans for so-called Roundup-resistant wheat in Canada in 2004 after buyers in Japan and Europe said they wouldn't buy Canadian wheat if it were introduced here.

Canada exported about 15 million tonnes of wheat and 4.3 million tonnes of durum in 2016, according to Cam Dahl, the president of Cereals Canada. Japan sucks up between 1.5 million tonnes and 1.7 million tonnes of Canada's wheat annually. That market is worth about $800-million to Canada, he said.

"There's also nervousness around this issue in other markets as well, places such as the EU, for example," Mr. Dahl said.

Canada has already faced a similar mystery there, with similar fallout.

In 2009, Europe banned flax from Canada for about four months after traces of genetically modified material showed up in shipments. The trade damage totalled $80-million between Canada and Europe, according to the University of Saskatchewan's Mr. Smyth.

Canada lost $30-million in exports, while Europe lost $50-million as the processing industry stalled, he said. The flax freeze forced 600 people out of work in Europe, he said. At the time, the European flax market was worth $320-million annually to Canadian farmers.

The material was initially linked to a flax called Triffid, which had been developed by Mr. McHughen when he was at the University of Saskatchewan.

Triffid was supposed to be destroyed in 2001. Triffid, which had genes from a weed that allowed it to grow in herbicide-contaminated soil, had been deemed safe by Canadian authorities after it passed stringent food and feed safety tests. Although the contaminated shipments were found to have about one genetically modified seed out of every 10,000, it was enough for Europe to turn its back.

Mr. McHughen now says Triffid was wrongly accused.

The CFIA is confident it found all the rogue wheat plants and that troublesome kernels did not slip into Canada's grain system. It has not given Monsanto access to a sample of the unwelcome wheat, meaning the company cannot check the DNA against its database in an effort to nail down the variety. Experts say knowing more about the wheat may allow the company to provide clues about who may have had access to the suspect genes.

Mr. Bilodeau said the glyphosate-resistant trait is the trade concern. Determining the wheat's variety and origins are lower on the priority list.

"There are so many variables.

There are so many ways that this could have come there," Mr. Bilodeau said.

Associated Graphic

An Alberta farmer harvests wheat, a grain that's crucial to Canadian agribusiness and one that could be jeopardized if unapproved genetically modified strains contaminate crops.

BAYNE STANLEY/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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MARIE-THÉRÈSE KOTHAWALA (nee Loignon)

A shining light was extinguished in the early hours of Saturday, August 4, 2018. Marie-Thérèse was no ordinary light. Thérèse left behind in her aura an inconsolable and devoted husband, Percy of 53 years; her treasured daughter Anne (John); and two wonderful and deeply loving grandsons, Eric and Justin, both of whom loved and looked up to their extraordinary grandmother.

Thérèse saw goodness in all.

Her warmth, caring and compassion touched countless family and friends.

Those that knew her well admired her stoicism and courage as she endured without complaint the aftermath of life-altering cancer surgery.

Thérèse was the shining light in the lives of her family, relatives and friends. Her legacy by example will endure for generations.

A funeral service will be held at the Humphrey Funeral Home A.W. Miles - Newbigging Chapel, 1403 Bayview Avenue (south of Davisville Avenue) on Friday, August 10th at 1:00 p.m. followed by a reception. In lieu of flowers, the family would appreciate donations to the Princess Margaret Hospital. Condolences, photographs and memories may be forwarded through www.

humphreymilesnewbigging.com.

ANNE LUSTHOUSE

On Monday, August 6, 2018 at Mackenzie Health. Beloved wife of the late Ossie Lusthouse.

Loving mother and mother-in-law of Hushy Lusthouse and Cheryl Green, Cary and Benita Lusthouse, and the late Lorne Lusthouse, and the late Spencer Lusthouse. Dear sister and sisterin-law of the late Esther and Sam Wucher, Abe and Esther Raiman, Jake and Stella Raiman, Morris and Ruth Raiman, and Peter and Claire Raiman. Devoted grandmother of Tali and Mike, Landon, Jessica, Aaron, and Leiana, great-grandmother of Adam, and Paige. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, August 8, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Interment Kiever Synagogue Section of Mt. Sinai Memorial Park. Shiva 1 Prince Edward Blvd., Thornhill. Memorial donations may be made to the Mackenzie Health Hospital Foundation, 905-883-1212.

WILLIAM PHILLIMORE MAIZE

"Bill"

Bill passed away peacefully at home August 2, 2018 in his 94th year.

Married for 68 wonderful years to his beloved wife, Barbara Jane (nee Richardson). Dearly loved father of John (Margaret Rand), Jeff (Jill Maize) and Andy (Andrea Nann).

Loving Grandfather of Andrew, Will, Sam, Laura (Dan Epstein), John, and Owen. Predeceased by granddaughter, Chi Lin.

Bill served with the Canadian Army during WWII (#2 Canadian Army University Course). After graduating from the University of Toronto he spent 32 years in the finance department of Shell Canada Limited in Montreal and Toronto. He was a graduate of the Certified Public Accountants Course (1957) and became a Chartered Accountant in 1962. An accomplished multi-sport athlete, Bill's retirement years were spent on the golf course at The Toronto Golf Club and in many competitions around Canada, the U.S. and the U.K. He served 15 years as Secretary of the Canadian Seniors' Golf Association, many years as an executive of the Ontario Golf Association and was a Governor of the Royal Canadian Golf Association.

Cremation has taken place and interment to follow. Barbara and the family thank the fabulous team at Christie Gardens for their care and support.

A celebration of Bill's life will be held on Thursday, August 9th from 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m. at Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca.

If desired, donations to the Diabetes Society of Canada or the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada would be appreciated.

NADA MIHIC

It is with great sorrow that we announce the passing of our Beloved Nada on Friday, August 3, 2018.

Beloved wife of Marko, dearly loved mother of Niko (Beatriz Gongora), and Alan (Sonsoles Carvajal). Loving grandmother of Luka, Tiziana and Marina, Alejandra and Goran. She will be dearly missed by her brothersin-law and sisters-in-law, Ivanka, Uros, Visnja, Ante, Annette, and the late Srecko, Stanko, Nadica, Drazen and Daniela, and all their children.

Nada leaves precious memories behind with her many other relatives and friends.

Born in Zagreb, Croatia, she was the loyal companion of her husband of 63 years. Together they travelled the world and lived life to the fullest. She loved the arts, her flower garden, and a good book, but most of all spending time with her children and grandchildren. She was loved and cherished by all who knew her and will always be remembered for the beautiful smile on her face.

A visitation beginning at 11:30 a.m.

and Funeral Mass at 1:30 p.m. will be held at Holy Cross Catholic Funeral Home, 211 Langstaff Road East, Thornhill, ON L3T 3Z6 on Monday, August 13th.

BESSIE MEDLAND WILLCOCKS

Passed away peacefully in Toronto on August 1, 2018 in her 93rd year.

Predeceased by her father, Maxwell Medland and mother, Bessie Crofton Medland. Predeceased by her beloved and devoted husband of 55 years, Bill Willcocks. Bessie is survived by her children, Courtenay Skeat and her husband, Bob Skeat; and Ted Willcocks and his wife, Pam Cape. Adoring grandmother of Sarah, Lauren, Christopher, Teddy, and Harry. Bessie was predeceased by her son, Hugh Willcocks (1970).

Born in Toronto on December 29, 1925, Bessie graduated from St. Clement's School and joined the nursing program at Wellesley Hospital, an institution to which she would devote her attention to for the next 50 years and build many lifelong friendships, culminating in her appointment to the Wellesley Board of Directors in 1988. Her continuous involvement in numerous charitable pursuits brought great pleasure, specifically her roles with IODE.

A life-long learner who enlightened the lives of everyone who knew her, she created a loving home life for her family, and in turn also gave back to the community in so many ways. An avid traveler and adventurer, she always carried herself with style and dignity. "A life well lived."

A private family service and celebration of Bessie's life has taken place at Mt.

Pleasant Cemetery.

Expressions of sympathy may be made to her favoured organizations, the Alzheimer Society of Canada and the Hugh Willcocks Memorial Library at St.

John's York Mills Anglican Church, Toronto.

DONALD SCOTT McKINNON

Our beloved Don/ Dad/ Bop passed away peacefully and surrounded by his loving family on August 4, 2018, at the age of 77. We are heartbroken. He leaves to mourn his sons, Scott, Michael (Judy), and Christopher; and daughter, Kate Innanen (Karl). His eight grandchildren were the light of his life, Miranda Hargraves, Lola and Finn McKinnon, Zoë, Michael and Jack Innanen, Drew and Owen McKinnon.

Don will be missed by his treasured niece, Heather Mason. Predeceased by his wife, Kathy; sister, Carol Mason; and his parents, Bruce and Dorothy McKinnon.

Born in Toronto, Don married the love of his life in 1962. He was hired by Dillon Consulting Ltd. in May 1965, his only employer for the next 38 years. He went on to earn his Master of Engineering Degree from the University of Toronto in 1968.

During his career, Don was involved in the rehabilitation of over 200 railway bridges in Bangladesh and the design of Highway 407, among many other exciting projects. Dillon took Don and his family from Toronto to Cambridge and Thunder Bay, back to Cambridge and then to Toronto once more, where he retired in 2003. Don and Kathy returned to Cambridge in 2012, where they celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary.

He was an inspiration to his children, encouraging them to pursue their interests and always be themselves. He had a tremendous wit and a wonderful twinkle in his eye when he told (and often retold) stories. Many of his one-off sayings and fatherly advice have become oftrepeated legends. He was an excellent tennis player in the 1980s, loved Stevie Wonder and Elton John, and was a passionate golfer. The Big Bopper, as he was called by his adoring grandchildren, will be greatly missed.

We thank Queen's Square for its warmth and friendship, St.

Andrew's Terrace for its recent warm welcome, and Cambridge Memorial Hospital for the care and kindness in the past few months, especially for the warm, compassionate care he received in his final days.

A funeral service will be held at Coutts Funeral Home & Cremation Centre located at 96 St. Andrews Street, Cambridge on Saturday, August 11, 2018 at 2 p.m. with a visitation one hour prior.

Friends are invited to join the family for a reception at the funeral home following the funeral service and burial at Mountview Cemetery.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Parkinson Canada. Online condolences can be made at www.

couttsfuneralhome.com.

PHILIP PINKUS

On Sunday, August 5, 2018, in Vancouver. Beloved husband of Carol McCandless and the late Ruth Pinkus. Loving and devoted father to Susan Pinkus and Sarah Townsend.Dear brother and brother-in-law to Jack and Miriam Pinkus; Annette (Honey) Bot and the late Bill Bot; Arthur and Eileen Peck, Sidney Peck and the late Martin Peck. Sadly missed by nieces and nephews and great-nieces and nephews.

Many thanks to Fidelia Ncham and Dorcas Donkor for their compassionate and loving care.

Funeral services will be held Thursday, August 9, at 11:00 a.m., at Temple Shalom Cemetery, White Rock, BC.

Shiva to be observed at 76 Old Colony Road, Toronto, beginning Sunday, August 12, between the hours of 2 - 4 p.m. and 7 - 9:00 p.m. ending on Tuesday, August 14.


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Thursday, August 9, 2018 – Page B14

DR. NANCY M. DUNNE

It is with profound sorrow that we must announce the passing of Nancy M. Dunne on August 4, 2018. She was 63. She leaves behind her loving husband of 32 years, C.

Richard Fischer and her dear family of sister Cathy Dunne; brother Ken Dunne; nephews, Graham Prosser, Simon Prosser, Aaron Prosser, Arthur Dunne; niece, Vanessa Dunne; and many other dear family and friends. Nancy was predeceased by her father, Donald Dunne and mother, Melita Dunne.

A ceremony commemorating her life will be held at the York Cemetery and Funeral Centre (at the Centre) 160 Beecroft Road, near Sheppard and Yonge. Visitation will be Thursday, August 9, 4-8 p.m. and Friday, August 10, 10-11 a.m. with the funeral to follow at 11:00 a.m. Reception will be 12-2 p.m.

In memory of Nancy and in lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Ontario Equestrian, the Toronto Botanical Gardens or the Humber River Hospital.

Thank you.For further details, please see http://www.etouch.ca.

PETER HUBNER

Businessman, entrepreneur, gardener, living room philosopher.

Born October 30, 1928, in London, England, passed away peacefully in Burlington on Sunday, August 5, 2018 at the age of 89. Devoted and loving husband to Gladys for 62 years. Cherished father of Paul (spouse Luisa) and Sue. Proud grandfather of Mark, Katrina, Brent, Maija and Ryan. Son of Harry and Louisa. Dear brother of Marion, John and Pauline.

Peter's interest in gardening developed at an early age. While he could not remember the house he lived in as a boy, he fondly remembered his parent's garden, a garden in which he was told not to play on the vegetable plot and not to eat the fruit from the gooseberry and blackcurrant bushes before they were ripe.

This last lesson seemed to stick with Peter as he grew into a successful entrepreneur and businessman. After he and Gladys immigrated to Canada, they started married life, not only without any money, but in deficit, owing $5 on the installment plan for Gladys' winter coat.

Fiercely intelligent and driven by his curiosity and discipline, Peter worked hard within the shoe industry, an industry his own father was connected to, as a worker in a boot and shoe warehouse in London. Peter worked his way from being a shoe salesman, to owning a children's shoe shop, to ultimately creating his own successful winter boot company.

Beyond business, he was always curious about the customs, cultures and ways of life extending beyond his own and was an avid traveler, reaching all corners of the globe with Gladys by his side.

This curiosity permeated into his intimate family circle, as he was always interested in knowing about the details of his children and grandchildren's jobs, studies and interests.

Peter spent his retired years enjoying the fruits of his labour, puttering about his idyllic garden, engaging in political and philosophical conversations and debates, enjoying the simple pleasures of a cup of tea, sweets, and toffee and spending time with those he loved. His sharp wit and keen sense of humour continued up until his last days, as he cheekily continued to crack jokes from his hospital bed.

He truly was an exceptional man in all regards and will be missed tremendously.

In keeping with Peter's wishes, a cremation and a private service for immediate family members will take place. A celebration of life will take place at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, donations made to The Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB), an organization which was a huge help to Peter during his later years would be greatly appreciated.

DAVID LEWITTES

Born in Portland, Maine, May 28, 1939 - Died in Toronto, August 7, 2018. On Tuesday, August 7, 2018, after a lengthy illness and surrounded by his family. Son of the late Ethel and Rabbi Mendel Lewittes, z"l, David is survived by his wife, Denise; his children, Malka (Elan Pratzer), Lori (Ted Saskin), Avi, Dini (Andi Lewittes), and Nathalie (Richard Wachsberg).

He is also survived by his siblings Joseph (Esther Lewittes), Pnina (Moshe Raziel) and Rhona. His seventeen grandchildren include Ariella, Noam and Aviva Pratzer, Oren, Aliza and Michael (Hillary), and Tamar Saskin, Dani, Eitan and Orly Lewittes, Jonathan, Aaron, Isaac and Nomi Tannenbaum, and Jacqueline, Daniel and Andrew Wachsberg. He attended Maimonides School in Boston before moving to Montreal. David attended Talmud Torah, Merkaz HaTorah and McGill University.

Moved to Toronto in 1978 and in the midst of his business career received his PhD in Modern European History from the University of Toronto. The family wishes to extend appreciation to David's devoted caregiver Merilyn Maranez and the medical care provided by Dr. Giulia Perri and the Palliative Care team at Baycrest Hospital. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West for service on Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 1:00 p.m. Interment Adath Israel Synagogue Section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Donations may be made to the David Lewittes Memorial Fund at UJA, donations may be made by calling 416-631-5685.

VINETTA MARY LUNN (nee Burke)

Oct 23, 1917 - Aug 3, 2018 At 100 years, in Montreal. Predeceased by her husband, Hugh Lunn in 2011.

She leaves her children, Bridget, Anthony and Sarah; grandchildren, Naomi, Isabelle, Anne-Mathilde, Catherine, and Sebastian; and four great-grandchildren. Also her niece, Roberta Young of Barrie and many Lunn nieces and nephews.

Vinetta was born in Toronto to Anne Purtle (born of Irish parents from Galway and Cashel) and Gerald Burke (born in Joggins, NS of Acadian parents). She attended Loretto College and St.

Michael's College (University of Toronto) graduating with a BA in 1938. During the war she worked in Ottawa and Vancouver on government war effort jobs, then joined the Navy as a WREN. Posts included Halifax and Cornwallis, NS and England where she worked in London until the end of the war and where her future husband was in the RCAF. All her life, she kept in touch with her many friends in the Navy.

After the war Vinetta and Hugh married in Vancouver, had three children and moved frequently back and forth from Canada to Europe, including Vancouver, Montreal, Chicoutimi, Isle of Wight (England), Guernsey, Brussels and Zweibrucken (Germany). Settling in Ottawa in 1965, Vinetta worked at the public library and the National Gallery library. The last move was to Vancouver in the 70s where Vinetta worked at the UBC psychiatry library and where they lived on the waterfront for over 35 years in False Creek, Vancouver.

In retirement, she and Hugh loved to travel through North America and Europe, play tennis every day and read. Vinetta especially loved hosting her grandchildren in Vancouver every summer.

There will be a funeral Mass at St. Irenaeus Church (3030 Delisle, Montreal) on Saturday, August 11 at 9 a.m. followed by a reception.

Online condolences may be sent to dignitequebec.com.

THOMAS PETER ROCKLIFFE

"Wayne" 1937-2018 Born in Swan River, Manitoba.

Wayne passed away suddenly on Tuesday, August 7, 2018 playing golf, a passion he loved.

Predeceased by father, James Henry; mother, Elizabeth Kirk; and sisters, Beverley Winter and Dorris Braithwaite. Will be lovingly missed by Marilyn Bardeau. Survived by brother, Morris; loving sons, Roman (Ali) and Blayne (Niki); and adoring grandchildren, Tristan, Chanel, Gunnar, London and Westin.

Wayne had a distinguished career as a Chartered Accountant after graduating from the University of Toronto, working for Hollinger before moving into stock and tech fields with CMQ and Computerland. His passion for golf was only matched by his love of real estate investment, where he owned and operated commercial and residential properties throughout Oakville.

A dedicated entrepreneur who refused to retire, he always knew the value of a dollar, telling us boys, "If you watch the pennies, the dollars will take care of themselves." If not in the office, he could be found on the links with his Tuesday morning seniors group at Clublink, or cheering on his beloved grandson's '08 Oakville Ranger team from the stands or behind the goal line.

His interests were many: horses, travelling, music, family, and fitness. He spoke often about his parents and siblings, his early life growing up in Toronto, British Columbia, and finally Oakville. He loved his sons and their families and was so proud of their achievements and had wonderful hopes and dreams for them. A social man, he fit so seamlessly into everyone's life, charming family and friends wherever he went. A public toast to a great son, brother, father and grandfather. Taken too soon but forever remembered.

A Visitation will take place on Friday, August 10, 2018 from 6 p.m until 8 p.m. at Ward Funeral Home, 109 Reynolds Street, Oakville. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to The Scott Mission.

Please visit the book of memories at http://www.wardfuneralhome.com

HEATHER JANE WARD

With great sadness Linda and Fred Ward announce the passing of our daughter, Heather on Sunday, August 5, 2018. A Celebration of Heather's Life will be held on Thursday, September 20, 2018 at 1 p.m. at Richmond Hill United Church, 10201 Yonge Street, Richmond Hill, ON, L4C3B2.

In lieu of flowers donations, may be made to The Raymond James Canada Foundation, in support of The Ward Family Charitable Foundation, and will be directed toward assisting homeless and displaced women and girls.

Further details will be available shortly through http://www.ThompsonFH-Aurora.com


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Even as researchers continue to investigate the relationship between social-media use and mental health, the actual conditions of our everyday digital lives remain neglected, Jake Pitre writes
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page O4

Jake Pitre is a freelance writer and academic based in Ottawa.

I was born in 1993, meaning I was part of the first generation to grow up with social media. In 2006, the year I became a teenager, Facebook opened to the public and Twitter launched that same year. Social media very quickly came to define our lives in ways that we still don't fully understand.

Conventional wisdom would have us believe that while social media has helped connect us in exciting new ways - ostensibly bringing us closer together and bridging previously insurmountable distances - it has also poisoned the proverbial public sphere.

Many have blamed it for, among other things, the political divide that hangs over our society. Regardless, social media has an undeniably complicated relationship with our mental well-being that we struggle - endlessly, it often feels - to understand.

We tend to blame social media and smartphone overuse for a vast range of modern afflictions, from increased narcissism to what's been called "Facebook depression." We've seen something of a cavalcade of research into the relationship between social media and mental health. You can grasp a handful of studies that show a correlation between social media use and loneliness, and just as soon find another handful that suggest the opposite is true.

This lack of consensus, though, has forced researchers to think creatively to discover new ways of understanding the implications of our digital lives.

In a study published in the August issue of the journal Computers in Human Behavior, the authors, Bruce Hardy and Jessica Castonguay, make a rather surprising argument: Social-media use may actually decrease anxiety for young people under the age of 30. By analyzing data from the 2016 General Social Survey (GSS), the only full-probability, personal-interview social survey being conducted in the United States, Mr. Hardy and Ms. Castonguay argue that there is a connection between age, how many socialmedia networks one uses and anxiety - i.e., the more socialmedia networks used by people aged between 18 and 29, the less anxiety they suffer from. I'm not so sure.

After looking over previous studies on the subject, Mr. Hardy and Ms. Castonguay noticed that those focused purely on young adults and university students tended to show no link between social media and mental health.

They decided to use age as a moderator, taking into account how many social-media apps and websites are used, and how frequently. They argue that, over all, the more one uses, the greater their anxiety - if they're over the age of 30. Those that are under 30 - or in other words, the generation that has grown up with the Internet - appear to have less. How do they square this circle?

Of course, those that are prone to anxiety or have been diagnosed with anxiety disorders will often ignore positive or affirming information, whether online or off, in favour of the critical or harmful.

Could there be a generational element at play? An obvious consequence of social media is social comparison, wherein we become envious of those we follow; our emotional well-being suffers as a result. The study suggests that social comparison is greater among those over the age of 30, presumably as they begin to take stock of their lives and measure their achievements against others. One could just as easily, though, argue that young people engage in social comparison just as often as they struggle to assert their own identities and differentiate themselves from their peers.

Other studies have shown that social-media use in adolescence is linked with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low selfesteem, including one by Heather Cleland Woods and Holly Scott that found that the increased emotional intensity of adolescence results in higher investment in social media, leading to feelings of distress and isolation.

It also seems as though young people are more inclined to addictive behaviour with social media, and some have associated this risk with depression and anxiety.

For example, a new study released last week by the Torontobased Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, which surveyed 11,435 students from Grades 7 to 12 across Ontario in 2017, found that both experts and teenagers themselves suggested social media was a stress-inducing factor, particularly for girls. In contrast to Mr. Hardy and Ms. Castonguay, this study framed its findings through the prism of gender, suggesting that the trend of social media's increasing toll on mental health is more pronounced for girls.

Although they note that it's unclear whether social media is a cause or a symptom, it's hard to argue with data that show 61 per cent of girls who spend more than five hours a day on social media report moderate to serious psychological distress, compared with 33 per cent of boys.

At any rate, it's easy to register my cynicism in reading the conclusion to Mr. Hardy and Ms. Castonguay's study, which quotes a Mark Zuckerberg Facebook post from 2017 about how the platform is "connecting the world" and bringing it "closer together."

Young people, they argue, are using social media in this way, the "way it was intended." This is naively utopic, and certainly doesn't seem to capture the way I feel while I peruse Twitter, or what I hear from friends and colleagues, young and old, about their own experiences.

A tangential point made in their study, though, strikes a chord that feels far more real. Citing others, it seems that teenagers and adolescents often use social media to openly discuss mental health and even suicidal ideation (research is hopelessly mixed on the relationship between ideation and social-media use). They find support by being open online, while older people seem more adept at coping with stressors in their lives without social media, perhaps having learned by necessity growing up without it.

These expressions of distress help to decrease the effects of depression and ideation, whether as a way of crying out for help or simply to share with similarly afflicted people. As Alice Gregory wrote for The New Yorker, "The act of writing, even if the product consists of only a hundred and forty characters composed with one's thumbs, forces a kind of real-time distillation of emotional chaos, and although tapping out a text message isn't the same as keeping a diary, it can act as a behavioral buffer, providing distance between a person and intense, immediate, and often impulsive feelings." This communication can be protective, then, against the risks of ideation.

However, the study uses this potent point to pose that social media therefore fosters mental well-being in younger adults, which seems like a leap. Openly discussing mental illnesses can be a useful preventive measure, but that doesn't mean social media improves the mental health of young people across the board.

Moreover, the sociological and cultural understanding of this issue seems to consistently treat it with bad faith, barely taking the medium (social media) or the subjects (young people) seriously. Each is often portrayed as an abstraction, simplified or otherwise considered so narrowly as to lose all context. For example, when Facebook introduced its suicide-prevention protocol in 2017, using AI to identify suicidal users and send them personalized mental-health resources, it felt like an opportune moment to better understand the power these companies and organizations have over our well-being in this new social order. Instead, of course, we have focused entirely on Facebook's and social media's role in elections, the ways in which our political divide plays out there, and social media's capacity as media and journalism.

These are important issues to consider, but we also have failed to account for how these companies are impacting our everyday lives and well-being.

Reddit has a SuicideWatch board where users can look for and give advice; Tumblr, among other initiatives, has #PostItForward, which shares stories of users' struggles with mental health; even Instagram has ways of directing users to external resources. Facebook's tool, which uses machine-learning code to identify those at risk and give a personal response. Of course, what has been largely overlooked is how this can be used to justify the company's data-mining in general - in order to step in for cases of mental health, the platform needs to be collecting everyone's data at all times. It was shown in a leaked in-house study that Facebook used this data to identify users suffering through self-esteem issues (what they called "moments when young people need a confidence boost") to advertise certain products to them (though Facebook disputes this version of events). One way or another, I can see how knowledge of how these companies surveil us might actually dissuade someone who is suffering from sharing that information online, undercutting the one possible benefit these tools offer.

All this to say that even as researchers continue to manufacture creative ways of quantifying and analyzing the relationship between social-media use and mental health, the actual conditions of our everyday digital lives remain neglected. All our time wasted on determining whom to blame for what ails us could be better spent seeking to understand how it affects us and what we can do to take advantage of it.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY BRYAN GEE


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Teachers' math training a variable equation
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Tuesday, August 14, 2018 – Page A1

For four years now, an Ontario teachers' college has administered a Grade 6- and 7level math test to new students during orientation week, one that includes converting a percentage into a fraction and multiplying a decimal number by a whole number. About one-third of teacher candidates scored at or below 70 per cent, the provincial standard.

A Globe and Mail analysis has found the amount of classroom time elementary student teachers spend on math in university training programs across Ontario and the country varies from as few as 36 hours to more than 100 hours. Further, the focus in teacher education programs primarily involves learning how to teach the subject, with less time spent relearning math concepts.

This fall, student teachers at the University of Toronto will learn fractions, percentages and other basic arithmetic in a new 24-hour mandatory course on top of another 54 hours focusing on math pedagogy and research.

At Nipissing University in North Bay, primary-school teacher candidates will spend 36 hours learning how to teach math, while student teachers at the University of Ottawa will spend more than 100 hours on courses that teach concepts, but focus mostly on integrating math with other subjects.

The disparities in training are significant amid growing concern around math knowledge among Canadian students, dropping test scores and the search for where the fault lies.

Premier Doug Ford's government in Ontario, where half of the province's Grade 6 students failed to meet provincial standards on an annual math test in 2017, is taking stock of the issue.

The Ministry of Education recently sent a survey to institutions, a copy of which was obtained by The Globe, asking about the math training teachers receive and the number of hours they spend studying the subject before entering a classroom.

In an e-mail to the education community in July, Education Minister Lisa Thompson wrote that the Progressive Conservative government is looking to make math mandatory in teachers' college programs - a statement that caused some confusion, because the subject is already part of the training program at teachers' colleges. There is speculation that this is related to standardizing the training, rather than introducing it.

Faltering math scores continue to be a concern nationally.

Some parents and mathematicians have blamed provincial curriculums they say fail to teach children the basics and instead encourage problem-solving and expressing ideas in a variety of ways. Alberta is looking at a curriculum overhaul that, among other things, would have children memorize more of their multiplication tables earlier. And the new Ontario government has indicated that it wants to return to teaching students the fundamentals.

But experts and politicians are also zeroing in on teachers' math skills and the time they spend on the subject during their training - not just how to teach it, but on relearning basic concepts such as fractions and decimals.

One province where students have consistently done well is Quebec, and experts believe that is mostly attributable to its intensive four-year training program at teachers' colleges - as opposed to one- or two-year programs elsewhere - and teacher candidates spending more hours on math.

At Concordia University in Montreal, elementary-school teacher candidates take three courses that focus on school mathematics, such as geometry and fractions, how children learn math and how to teach math, for a total of 146 hours of instruction.

Helena Osana, a professor at the university and a research chair in mathematical cognition and instruction, said the number of courses went from two to three about six years ago after a discussion with the provincial government about how prepared graduates were to teach math and science.

Dr. Osana said she is concerned about how prepared teachers are nationally, because there are no common standards from one province to the next, despite the scores revealing to provincial governments how students are faring.

"Even within one province, I know Quebec for sure, there is not one consistent vision of how to prepare teachers," she said.

The Globe survey found that in many Ontario universities, student teachers spend anywhere from 36 hours to 72 hours on math. Memorial University in Newfoundland provides 60 hours of math instruction to its teacher candidates. The University of British Columbia requires elementary- and middle-school teacher candidates to enroll in a 39-hour prerequisite math course and a 26-hour methodology course.

Mary Reid, an assistant professor at the University of Toronto's Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), said the issue is that many programs offer math pedagogy courses, which are based on theory and how children learn, but fail to refresh basic concepts. She said this sparked the idea of giving the test to the teacher candidates.

"We're not blaming teachers. If anything, we're supporting teachers," said Dr. Reid, who created the new standalone mathcontent course that will be a requirement for graduation from OISE. "The scores are declining for a reason. ... I pull up math questions from [Ontario's provincial assessment] every year.

Generally, Grade 6 students should be able to answer them.

Why can't they answer them?" She added: "The repercussions of this is not just about scores, it's about a labour market that is so desperately needing STEM [science, technology, engineering and math] graduates and we don't have enough.

There's research that suggests the lack of STEM aspirations can be linked to poor mathematics confidence. Not science, not technology, not so much engineering, it's math."

But Mark Ramsankar, president of the Canadian Teachers' Federation, said to blame teachers' math skills or to focus on a test, rather than what is happening day in and day out in the classroom, does not paint a full picture. He said Canada's education system is highly regarded internationally and teachers participate in professional development to improve their teaching.

"To simply try to quantify a system based on a singular test really flies in the face of the yearlong work that a student and teacher does," he said.

And while many agree that scores don't tell the full story, they also say dismissing them entirely is disingenuous.

"A myriad of explanations exist as to why some kids don't do well in math. But the research is showing pretty consistently that the major predictor for students' difficulties in mathematics is the lack of quality instruction and opportunity to learn," Dr. Osana said.

Alex Lawson, an associate professor at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay who has researched math education, said the curriculum, if done well, supports children in learning and enjoying math. "But that means," she said, "the new teachers need to know more content and they need to know more pedagogy, because it's very different from when I went to school and [when] most of them went to school."

Lakehead administers a written math-competency exam - no calculators - on numeracy basics, including fractions and volume, to teacher candidates. About one in three fail and must take a course to understand the concepts. They can take the test three more times, but must pass it to graduate.

Dr. Lawson said that as the curriculum has changed to teach children problem-solving, the weaknesses among teacher candidates who do not understand the mathematics become more complicated in front of a classroom.

"[The graduates] have to have the content knowledge. They have to. You can't teach something that you don't understand," she said.

Chrystal Smith's "lost years" in math were in Grades 10 and 11, a time when she struggled with algebraic concepts. She is more confident in the subject now, but admits being a bit anxious. Ms. Smith, who is doing her masters in teaching at OISE, joined classmates for an informal tutorial session on a Saturday morning earlier this year, organized by Dr. Reid, during which they were guided on math content by a mix of finance and business students, one of whom was pursuing a PhD.

Ms. Smith said the falling scores among Canadian students are perplexing. "I don't want to blame teachers, because I'm a teacher myself. But I find, in my experience, if I don't truly understand something, the student is not going to come out with a full and complete understanding of that," she said.

"So I came for help."

LOW SCORING NUMERACY SKILLS

Researchers at the University of Toronto's Ontario Institute for Studies in Education administered a Grade 6 and 7 level math test to incoming primary-junior and junior-intermediate teacher candidates during orientation week. They found that about one-third of teacher candidates scored at or below 70 per cent. Student teachers showed slight improvement after a year in the teacher education program, the researchers found. In the quiz below, you can try some of the questions from the test.

Associated Graphic

Attendees receive help during a math tutorial session at the University of Toronto's Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) in January. The event, organized by OISE assistant professor Mary Reid, offered guidance on math content from a mix of finance and business students.

PHOTOS BY CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Chrystal Smith, right, attends the informal session at the OISE in January. Ms. Smith says the falling scores among Canadian students are perplexing.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, August 7, 2018 – Page B13

RAE ALDERTON

November 15, 1929 - August 2, 2018

Rae passed away peacefully on August 2, 2018 surrounded by her devoted family at Markham Stouffville Hospital in her 89th year. She was predeceased by her beloved husband of 56 years, Dr. Harvey Randall Alderton (2010).

Loving and proud mother of daughters, Susan (Paul Culliton), Jennifer (Peter Suckling) and Gillian (Ray Brown), she enjoyed sharing in the lives of her grandchildren, Shannon (Scott Mighton) and Brendon Culliton; Meagan (Alex) and Jonathan Suckling; and Sarah and Adam Brown. She was thrilled to become greatgrandma to Henry and Sam Mighton. She will be dearly missed by Edna, whose friendship and shared love of flowers brought her great joy in their years together at Stouffville Creek Retirement Home.

Mum trained as a nurse and midwife at London Hospital in England where she met Dad.

With Susan in tow, they immigrated to Canada in 1957 where Jennifer and Gillian were born. Mum was an active volunteer and served as President of the Women's Auxiliary at Branson Hospital, as well as on home and school councils. Her caring nature, calm voice and warm hands provided comfort to many in Palliative Care at York County Hospital in Newmarket where she volunteered for 20 years. She worked with Dad in his medical practice and after their retirement, they moved to Victoria, BC to enjoy the active lifestyle and family visits. Mum was the most caring and thoughtful person whose acts of kindness were cherished by all who were fortunate enough to know her.

A celebration of Rae's life will be held at O'Neill Funeral Home, 6324 Main St., Stouffville on Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 1 p.m., followed by private family interment. To honor Rae, please consider sending flowers to someone or, if desired, donating to her favorite charity, the Toronto Humane Society, or a charity of your choice.

CAROLINE CARSWELL

It is with sadness that we announce the sudden passing of Caroline on Thursday, August 2, 2018. Dear wife of the late David Carswell.

Loving sister of the late Sue Taraschuk and her husband the late Bohdan Taraschuk.

Caroline will be greatly missed by her daughter, Lisa and son-in-law, Michael.

Loving Babunia to Benjamin, Isabelle and Zoe. Cherished cousin of Stephanie Orlick, Patricia Hatashita and the late Bob Glowacki. She was predeceased by her parents, Mary and Anton Glowacki.

Visitation will be held at Cardinal Funeral Home, 92 Annette St., on Wednesday, August 8, 2018 from 6-9 p.m.

Panachyda at 7:30 p.m. The Funeral Mass will be held at St. Demetrius The Great Martyr Ukrainian Catholic Church, 135 La Rose Ave., on Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 10 a.m. Interment to follow at Park Lawn Cemetery.

Donations in memory of Caroline may be made to St.

Demetrius Church.

BARBARA MARY CLARE (nee Melvin)

On August 3, 2018 at Southlake Regional Health Care Centre, Newmarket.

Daughter of the late Kathleen Wade Melvin and the late Robert Skene Melvin.

Predeceased by her husband, James C. Clare. Mother of Penny Barr (George), Lynne Geisel (Heiner), James Clare (Stephanie) and Roberta Clare.

Grandmother to Heather and James, Jeremy, and Anton.

Great-grandmother to Julia, Cameron, Jackson and Charlotte.

Cremation and interment in the Rose Garden at Mount Pleasant Cemetery. At Mrs.

Clare's request, no funeral service will be held.

SISTER MARY MACORETTA CSJ (Formerly Sister Mary Felice)

Died peacefully on August 2, 2018 in the 64th year of her religious life.

She was predeceased by her parents, Felice Macoretta and Genevieve Bruno; and her brothers, Gerald and Alfred. She will be dearly missed by her sister-in-law, Jo Ann; many nieces and nephews; and her cousin, Sister Mary Nicholas Macoretta.

Sister Mary entered the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1954, and served in a variety of places and ministries.

She was known for her gentleness, humour, simplicity and willingness to serve. As a teacher and principal in schools in Toronto, Barrie, St.

Catharines and Terrace, B.C., Mary was loved and respected. In addition to her service as a teacher, Mary served the community of the Sisters of St. Joseph in a variety of ways including formation work, refugee care and service for the physical and spiritual needs of the retired Sisters.

In her life, Mary realized the mission of the Sisters of St. Joseph: "we are sent to serve those in need in simplicity and compassion."

Her wake will be held at the Sisters of St. Joseph's Residence, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto on Wednesday, August 8, 2018, from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. with a prayer vigil at 7:00 p.m. Mass of Christian burial will be celebrated on Thursday, August 9, 2018 at 10:30 a.m. in the Chapel, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario. Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery.

JAMES ALBERT PROUDFOOT "Bert"

James Proudfoot passed away August 3, 2018, at the age of 93; peacefully in his sleep at the Sunnybrook Veterans Centre in Toronto.

Surviving are sons, David (Monique), Victoria, BC, and James Cameron (Lorraine), Fort McMurray, AB; and daughter, Kelli (Alan), Toronto, ON; and grandchildren, Danielle, Simon, Jillaine, Lyndi and Charlotte. James was predeceased by his loving wife, Irene (Bryck), and sisters, Evelyn Cameron, Mary MacKinnon and Adelaide Proudfoot.

Bert was born and raised in Inverness, Cape Breton. He enlisted and was sent overseas. Upon returning he attended Dalhousie University, earning a Bachelor of Science degree. After taking a summer job with Hudson's Bay in Flin Flon, Manitoba, he caught the mining bug; becoming one of the great adventurers - and storytellers - of the Canadian Shield. He was equally comfortable living in the city, or camping in a tent as he surveyed the terrain. A respected geophysicist, Jim spent much of his career in the remote, northern areas of Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. A Cape Bretoner to the core, he never strayed away from home for long and the lure of the bagpipes.

At James' request, his body has been gifted to the University of Toronto Medical School, after which time interment will be in St.

Matthew's Corner Cemetery, Inverness, along with his parents, the late Dr. James Adam and Harriet Anne Proudfoot.

The family would like to thank the caring nursing staff of the K3C Wing of the Sunnybrook Veterans Centre for the extraordinary care they provided to James over the past several years.

JOHN CHRISTOPHER REIFFENSTEIN

John died on August 5, 2018 in Oakville in his 89th year. He was the beloved son of John and Lesley (Lightbourn) Reiffenstein and was predeceased by them, his older sister, Ruth (Sprigs), and his twin, Mary/Pinky Ursel (Lorne). He is survived and missed terribly by his wife, Jessie (née Wallace); sons, John (Anne) and Tim (Christina); and grandchildren, Grace, Katherine, Eleanor, and Lucas.

John was born and lived most of his life in Oakville, with a few detours during the 1930's and the war years to Allenwater and Moncton. He was tremendously proud to have graduated from the Royal Military College of Canada in 1952, where he met many lifelong friends. He taught Mechanical Engineering at RMC, before enjoying a long career as a civil engineer. A lifelong member of the Oakville Club, John could be found during his free time aboard his beloved boat Whiskey Jack.

The label on his homemade wine 'Old Sailor', tells you all you need to know about his favourite pastime. He was a 25-year member of the Oakville Yacht Squadron, the Oakville Golf Club and latterly the Oakville Masters.

His precious vacation time was spent with family at the cottage he built in Nares Inlet, on Georgian Bay, a place he loved above all others. John was many things: an accomplished athlete, a clever wit, a builder of many boats, a loving husband and father (carving wooden toys for sons and grandchildren, or waking at 6 a.m. to flood the backyard rink), and a great friend to his golf and tennis partners. Above all, he was a kind, decent and humble gentleman.

The funeral service will be held at 2:00 p.m. on Thursday, August 9th at St.

Jude's Anglican Church.

Memorial donations may be made to The Alzheimer Society or Community Living Oakville.

JOHN DAVID THORDARSON

In his 82nd year, passed away peacefully on August 1, 2018 at Chapman House, Owen Sound. He leaves behind his wife, Alice; his children, Stephen (Kelly) of Burlington, Susan of Spain, Lynn (Catherine) of Kimberly; his granddaughter, Emma; and four brothers. He was predeceased by his father, John Thordarson (1936); his mother and step-father, Gudrun and Eyolfur Thorsteinson; brother, Dennis; and his son-in-law, Carlos Ibanez.

There will be a Celebration of Life service at Sauble Beach United Church, 899 Main St., Sauble Beach, on Sunday, August 12, 2018 at 2 o'clock.

Reception to follow.

Donations to the Brain Tumour Foundation of Canada, or to Sauble Beach United Church-Mission and Service Fund, would be appreciated and can be made through the Thomas C.

Whitcroft Funeral Home & Chapel, 814 Bruce Rd. 8, Sauble Beach, (519) 422-0041.

Condolences may be expressed online at www.

whitcroftfuneralhome.com.


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Love's labour almost lost deep in the Ontario woods
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After years of neglect, advocates in Muskoka work to restore a dedicated U.S. couple's elaborate memorial
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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page A10

HUNTSVILLE, ONT. -- Russ and Audrey Black went out for a drive last week.

They headed up Ontario's Highway11from Bracebridge, took the Highway 60 turnoff, then 11B north out of the town of Huntsville to a crossroads where a couple of turns in the backroad would take them in to the lost hamlet of Williamsport. Here, once a small community and sawmill stood. And for those who know where to look, there is a rather-worn sign that says "Dyer Memorial" down a challenging, deeply-rutted dirt road.

Mr. Black is 87. He was an engineer, then a lawyer, and is now an honorary director of the Muskoka Conservancy. He has lived long enough to know that while the past isn't what it used to be, neither is the future.

There are as many twists in the road to "perpetuity," it turns out, as there are to reach the Dyer Memorial.

Mr. Black first came here in the mid-1960s. A friend, Doug McFarland, drove him in and once they crossed the bridge over the Big East River and drove up the thenwell-maintained road to the parking lot, he knew he had come upon one of the great surprises of his life.

"I didn't believe it," he says.

"Here was this beautiful English garden way back in the bush."

Betsy and Clifton Dyer were from Detroit and spent their 1916 honeymoon on a canoe trip to Algonquin Park, where this meandering, charming river has its source.

Twenty years later, with Clifton a very successful attorney, they returned to the area, bid on a large acreage owned by a thenstruggling lumber company and soon built a year-round cottage on river.

The Dyers were as old-fashioned a love story as could be told.

"Doug McFarland's father had been roads superintendent for the township," Mr. Black says. "He told me that as a kid he'd journeyed out here with his dad to talk about building a road in and said he found it kind of 'sickening' to see such old people - the Dyers would have been in their 50s around this time - holding hands all the time and calling each other 'dearie' and things like that."

The Dyers had property, they had money, they had each other, but they had no children. When Betsy died in 1956, Clifton commissioned a special memorial to be the final resting place for her ashes. The towering memorial is reached by a long, breathtaking climb over wide concrete steps.

The tower, built of quartz-andmica-flecked granite, stands 14 metres high and rises, altar-like, above the surrounding pines.

For two years, extensive landscaping was added: exquisite flower beds, immaculate lawns and lovely ponds that once held small fish. The design was such that various sectors symbolized the four elements - earth, water, wind and fire - and were to respect the First Nations who had originally hunted and fished in these lands.

In 1959, Clifton passed away and his ashes were also added to the top of the tower.

A plaque reads:

"ERECTED IN FOND MEMORY OF BETSY BROWN DYER 1884-1956 BY HER HUSBAND CLIFTON G. DYER 1885-1959 AS A PERMANENT TRIBUTE TO HER FOR THE NEVER-FAILING AID, ENCOURAGEMENT AND INSPIRATION WHICH SHE CONTRIBUTED TO THEIR MARRIED CAREER AND AS A FINAL RESTING PLACE FOR THEIR ASHES."

Just below, in smaller letters, is added: "An Affectionate, Loyal, and Understanding Wife is Life's Greatest Gift."

Clifton Dyer's determination was that his then-vast estate would maintain the grounds forever - in perpetuity. And for decades it seemed to be working. The memorial became a popular tourist attraction, sometimes hundreds of cars a day making the twisting journey in to the parking lot. Wedding photos were taken by the ponds. Families gathered for picnics. People came alone to sit and meditate on the benches.

On Saturday nights, the parking lot became a popular, and highly romantic, place for local teens to explore the back seats of their parents' cars.

That the memorial remained a place of exquisite beauty into the next century was largely the result of one man's dedication. In the early 1980s, Floyd Bartlett, a local handyman, became groundskeeper and guide to what would become his life's project. A shy, lifelong bachelor, he could be found there any given day from early spring until late fall. He maintained this routine into his 80s.

"God bless Floyd," says Mr.

Black. "He kept the place going."

Mr. Bartlett said he met representatives of the Detroit law firm handling the Dyer fund twice in all the many years he worked there.

They paid him regularly, but he received absolutely no feedback.

"They never phone me or anything," Mr. Bartlett once told a local reporter. "They never say, 'Do this,' or 'You're doing a good job, you're doing a bad job.' Don't say a word, just give me a cheque."

In 2007, with Mr. Bartlett's health failing, he was "terminated," according to a relative. He died in 2013 at the age of 87.

"It was after Floyd became physically unable to continue that the Dyer started to go downhill," says Mr. Black.

Not only was the memorial deteriorating, but the road was neglected and signage poor. People still find it through directions available on Google, but the lack of a regular groundskeeper and visiting tourists eventually saw the parking lot becoming a popular partying area. There was vandalism. Neighbours along the road became disenchanted and, from time to time, heated signs were posted about parking and privacy.

The details of the Dyer trust fund are not known. Attempts to reach the Detroit lawyer charged with dispersing the funds were unsuccessful. It became clear, at one point, that a pitch was made to have the District of Muskoka or the Town of Huntsville take over the site and turn it into, once again, a popular tourist destination. However, preparations were underway for the G8 Summit, held in 2010, with new money available for flashy new projects.

Refurbishing a fading memorial was not seen as a priority.

George Young, a Huntsville town councillor at the time, was the one who presented the offer made by the trustees, but it was not accepted. "It was a fair offer," remembers Mr. Young. "But there wasn't the appetite around the council table to make the investment and commitment to the upkeep."

The Dyer Memorial might have faded back into the wild had it not been for Mr. Black and his fellow conservancy members. When the offer eventually came to them, they decided to act, taking over the property in 2010.

The Muskoka Conservancy exists to protect and care for Muskoka's natural lands. It is land trust and membership-based registered charity that currently protects 39 properties totalling some 2,500 acres, more than 400 acres of important wetlands and 40,000 feet of sensitive shoreline.

While the focus of the Dyer Memorial will always be the tall monument and the surrounding two acres or so of landscaped property, the conservancy considers the larger treasure the 155 acres on both sides of the Big East River and the 1.5 kilometres of undisturbed shoreline. (More information is available at http:// muskokaconservancy.org/protected-properties/dyer-nr/) There are locals who believe the trustees failed the Dyers, but, in fact, some $680,000 remains in the fund that was transferred over. The money is fully committed to the upkeep of the memorial - even if it will never return to the glory days of Floyd Bartlett's tender loving care.

Scott Young, executive director of the organization, says there are plans that include everything from repairs to the long stairway to the planting of oak trees in memory of others who have passed on and wish to contribute to conservancy.

"We hope perpetuity will last a very long time," Mr. Young say.

As for Mr. Black, he has become deeply involved over the passing years, almost as a new Floyd Bartlett. "On my 80th birthday," Mr.

Black brags, "I was standing on the very top of the thing." He had climbed up the scaffolding to put a concrete coating on the top layer to prevent leaking.

The man-made ponds are not scheduled for repair. "They aren't natural," he says. "Mother Nature does a better job than any landscaper."

As for the condition of the road in to the "English garden way back in the bush," he doesn't really care if this surprising memorial to love remains a sometimes difficult place to reach.

"As a member of the Muskoka Conservancy," he says, "I have to think that anything that deters people from going in there isn't such a bad thing."

Associated Graphic

The Dyer Memorial, commemorating the love of Betsy and Clifton Dyer of Detroit, stands 14 metres tall in an area northeast of Huntsville, Ont., that the couple discovered while canoeing on their honeymoon in 1916. Though the Dyers died in the late 1950s, the memorial and its grounds were well maintained through a trust fund until 2007.


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Raising its voice: Sonos' Canadian CEO strives to boost platform in a crowded market
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Wednesday, August 8, 2018 – Page B1

Patrick Spence knew Sonos Inc. had to find its voice.

As the former top sales executive at BlackBerry Ltd., he had a healthy paranoia about missing market shifts. So in 2015, the chief commercial officer of Sonos, the high-end wireless speaker maker based in Santa Barbara, Calif., became one of the first to buy the newly released voice-activated Echo speaker from Amazon.

Mr. Spence noticed his two daughters started using the Echo to listen to music. At his request, he asked Sonos's data team to measure and it confirmed what he suspected: Once the Echo moved into his kitchen, the Sonos speakers in that room - with no voice function - got less use.

The executive warned his fellow executive team members that Sonos had to adapt quickly or it could be in trouble. He met some initial resistance, but slowing growth at the speaker company eventually proved Mr. Spence right.

That sparked a three-year transformation that resulted in Mr.

Spence, who is from Kitchener, Ont., becoming chief executive in early 2017 and, last Thursday, Sonos going public on the Nasdaq - a debut whose reception revealed lingering uncertainty about its place in a shifting market.

"On the [pre-IPO] roadshow we learned we have a lot more educating to do about what it is that we do and how we do it," Mr. Spence said in an interview last week.

After setting out to sell 13.9 million shares at US$17 to $19 apiece, Sonos cut the offering price to US$15, in part because of the recent sell-off in tech stocks - but also because many investors don't quite know what to make of it.

Sonos has partnered with tech giants Amazon, Google and Apple to offer their voice assistant platforms through its high-end speaker hardware while also competing with those companies, which all sell their own speakers. Sonos's products are built to last for years and many sales come from customers expanding their Sonos systems, whose wireless speakers can be placed in multiple rooms in a house, playing music from any streaming service or nearby computer and controlled through smartphones.

Close to 40 per cent of sales last year were to repeat buyers; 27 per cent of its customers have at least four Sonos products.

"Our model is completely different" than other consumer electronics firms that have gone public - and disappointed investors - such as Fitbit Inc. and GoPro Inc., Mr. Spence said. The Sonos prospectus noted revenue growth has been volatile and that investors should expect "short-term fluctuations and uneven product cadences."

The stock hit US$23.60 last week and has since eased back to close at US$19.15 Tuesday, but many questions linger. "Does a great product necessarily make for a great investment?" Sanford C. Bernstein analyst Toni Sacconaghi, Jr. asked in a report on Sonos this week. "That's a harder question to answer."

Without the shift to voice, however, it's safe to assume Sonos wouldn't have been close to ready to face an audience of public investors.

Sonos was founded in 2002 by former CEO John MacFarlane and three other dot-com-era entrepreneurs with no audio technology or hardware business experience who set out to transform the stereo system for the internet age.

They believed listeners should be able to control the system and pick any song they wanted from their couches, while doing away with the tangle of wires connecting audio equipment, according to a 2014 Bloomberg Businessweek article.

The pricey devices they invented and began selling in 2005 produced quality sound and were sleek, sturdy and simple to use.

Reviewers and customers loved the products, which today range in price from US$150 to US$700.

One of them was Mr. Spence, who bought his Sonos system in 2010 and joined the company two years later; wireless speakers now account for about 60 per cent of the roughly US$10-billion global high-end speaker market, Mr. Sacconaghi said.

Fuelling the company's rise was the exploding use of paid music streaming services, which reached 79 million subscriptions in 2015, up from 29 million two years earlier (the number rose to 176 million last year and is expected to hit 293 million in 2021, according to market research firm Futuresource). Sonos revenues in 2014 increased by 75 per cent over the prior year to $774.5-million, and management expected the amount to top $1-billion in 2015.

"We've reached a watershed moment for streaming music," Mr.

MacFarlane said in a blog post on June 6, 2015.

But another mass market technology trend was about to take root. That July, Amazon shipped its first Echo and sales surged, while Sonos's stalled: Sonos revenues in 2015 gained just 8.9 per cent over the previous year, then increased 6.8 per cent in 2016 and 10.1 per cent in 2017; they are only expected to surpass US$1-billion this year.

And while Mr. Spence pressed hard to shift Sonos into voice-activated speakers, debates dragged on internally for months about what to do.

Finally in March, 2016, Mr. MacFarlane announced Sonos would bring voice-enabled control to its devices. "Voice is a big change for us, so we'll invest what's required to bring it to market in a wonderful way," he wrote in a blog post.

Three months later, Mr. Spence became president, and the following January, he took over as CEO.

"To his credit, [Mr. MacFarlane] eventually said, 'Look, you got that one right, you could see that and I didn't,' " Mr. Spence said (Mr.

MacFarlane left the company and now lists his position at Sonos as "intern" and "unFounder" on LinkedIn. He was not available for an interview). "That's part of why we made the transition. He felt ... I was the right person to scale it up."

Rather than develop its own artificial-enabled voice software - an expensive effort undertaken by Silicon Valley's data-centric software giants - Sonos pursued the "Switzerland" strategy it had previously deployed to open its speakers to any and all streaming services.

Sonos aimed to make its speakers compatible with all voice-enabled assistants while pushing the selling point that its speakers put the listener first. Sonos struck its first deal with Amazon in 2016 for its Alexa platform; the first Alexa-compatible Sonos speaker came out last fall. Google and Apple voice assistants have been added to Sonos this year.

While Amazon and Google will likely capture the lion's share of smart speaker sales with lowerprice devices (IHS Markit forecasts Sonos will sell 2.8 million smart speakers this year, compared with 24 million for Amazon and 15 million for Google out of a total market of 50 million units), Sonos can likely maintain an edge over many of its competitors for a couple of years as "one of the very few agnostic players staking out that realm," said Paul Erickson, senior analyst with IHS Markit.

Bernstein's Mr. Sacconaghi said Sonos's best bet is "riding the adoption curve" as streaming continues to take off. But he warned the emergence of voice assistants will do little to change the size of the fragmented, mature US$10-billion market for high-end audio equipment, where Sonos has been taking share from established players without growing the total size of the segment faster than GDP growth. And further gains in the high end might be limited as established rivals catch up - and as Apple pushes it own high-end, $349 HomePod. Amazon and Google also offer higher-end models.

Mr. Sacconaghi also warned that, like most consumer hardware companies, money-losing Sonos will have a hard time improving margins "even during stages of high growth," he wrote.

Sonos products, which are made in China, will also be hit with 10per-cent tariffs this fall.

Sonos built a name for itself by offering an updated product for the connected age in an established category. It is now betting its future on a rapidly evolving market for a new category whose future is hard to read. For Sonos to thrive, Jason Low, senior analyst with market research firm Canalys, said Mr. Spence may have to change tune again and "the company may have to evolve quickly and rethink how it positions its products, as smart assistants will soon be integrated into more devices and appliance beyond speakers."

For now, Mr. Spence is hoping that "Switzerland" is the place to be.

"What we bring uniquely to the table is a hardware and software platform that supports anything," he said. "We think we're in a position to become that mass premium brand."

Associated Graphic

People pass a Sonos store in New York in 2016. Sonos began selling its smart speakers in 2005 and the sleek, sturdy devices were embraced by reviewers and customers alike. The devices currently range in price from US$150 to US$700.

DANIEL KRIEGER/THE NEW YORK TIMES


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Rogers Cup community remembers one of its own, struck down by tragedy
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page S1

During her many summers as a Rogers Cup volunteer, Anne Marie D'Amico had seen it all. She'd worked as a ball kid, booked practice courts, filled ice baths and towelled off wet stadium seats after rainfall.

Once, she was summoned to the women's changing room, where a player had misplaced the keys to her locker. D'Amico pried it open with a crowbar.

"There was no limit to what Anne Marie would do for someone," said David Catalfo, a longtime Rogers Cup volunteer and friend who had known D'Amico since they were both ball kids.

With the Rogers Cup set to return to Aviva Centre next week, the tournament will be without D'Amico, one of its most valued volunteers. The 30-year-old was among 10 people killed in the Toronto van attack in April. Tennis Canada will honour her and her family's combined 85 years of tournament service during a ceremony on centre court on Monday. Despite still dealing with their loss, D'Amico's family members were the first to pick up their volunteer packs for this year's tournament.

For a close-knit group of volunteers who worked alongside her for the better part of two decades, D'Amico's absence leaves a profound void this year.

"I think Monday night will be very emotional, and it will be comforting to see her family," Catalfo said.

"Tennis Canada's group of volunteers is a strong community - like a family - and I think that will be even more prevalent this year."

Tennis Canada has established two annual awards in D'Amico's name.

The first award is for exemplary volunteer customer service. The second is a $2,500 scholarship for a ball kid in both Toronto and Montreal.

Staff and volunteers will wear red bracelets inscribed with the phrase "What would Anne Marie do?" as a reminder of D'Amico's loyalty, generosity and helpfulness.

"We want people to think about how she treated people," said Gavin Ziv, Tennis Canada's vice-president of professional events and managing director of Toronto's Rogers Cup. "She'd become such a part of the fabric of this tournament."

D'Amico began as a ball kid at Rogers Cup around the age of 13 and had returned every summer since. In her teenage years, she'd dart attentively about the courts, chasing down tennis balls for some of the world's top players. As she became more senior on the crew, she worked the finals on Sunday.

Because D'Amico was used to spending time around famous players, she went on to volunteer with the player-services team. For several years, she was a familiar face in a small office that serves as the pulse of the players' quarters during the Rogers Cup.

D'Amico kept the tiny space interesting, folding towels into little animals, joking around with players, booking their practice courts and taking on fellow volunteers in office games. She would jump into action at any request.

During years when Toronto held the women's event (the men's and women's competitions alternate between Montreal and Toronto), she would help run the players' locker room, stocking the counters with beauty products.

"She made everything fun, and she went above and beyond trying to make people feel happy and comfortable, and the players totally remembered her every year," said Jocelyn Luk, who had volunteered with D'Amico since the two were teens. "We have a close group, and it's like coming back to the same awesome camp every summer. It will be weird not to have Anne Marie there this year. She will definitely be missed in many areas."

A dedicated volunteer, D'Amico often spent free time chipping in on various projects. Aside from the Rogers Cup, she'd used her vacation time to help out at the Pan Am Games. D'Amico, who had earned a business degree from Ryerson, also travelled to the Dominican Republic to build homes for those in need.

She didn't play much tennis, but loved volunteering at the Rogers Cup, a family tradition for decades: Her grandmother Franca and mother, Carmela, in guest services; her father, Rocco, as a driver for players; and her older brother, Nick, on the ball crew. The D'Amicos would arrive early each morning and stick around well after their shifts were over, staying through the last match. They'd share stories from the day.

"It always feels more like an annual international family reunion, with relatives coming from all over the world. And there just happened to some famous personalities who could play tennis really well," her brother, Nick, said.

"The Rogers Cup has been like a second family to us for over 20 years. It's the cornerstone of our summer and blocking off the nine days is a nobrainer."

D'Amico was selected as the Rogers Cup volunteer of the year in 2016. Tennis Canada took notice of the way she dealt with the players and coaches, and wanted to use those people skills in a more public-facing volunteer role in 2017, so she was asked to oversee the tournament's largest volunteer group - the 200 who work inside centre court, seating and interacting with the fans.

"I asked her to fill a role that was perhaps not as glamorous as working with the players had been, but she was constantly thinking, 'Where else can I help?' " said Greg Jauncey, Tennis Canada's operations manager. "Her natural customer-service skills transitioned so well to any task."

D'Amico had built strong friendships with the group of people her age who returned as volunteers yearly since being ball kids. They enjoyed a cherished early-week tradition at every Rogers Cup: a "legends of ball kids" match, where many of them came out of retirement to be ball kids for one late-night match. They weren't as quick as they used to be, but chasing down balls came back to them just like riding a bike.

"I'd been on the court with Anne Marie for that in recent years," Catalfo said. "She would often lead some stretching exercises for us, even though we knew we'd all still be feeling those aches and pains for three days."

D'Amico and the group of close friends had a Friday night tradition, too: spending an allnighter on site instead of going home. They'd work until after midnight as usual and then hang out late, trying to squeeze more out of their short time together. They'd sleep on couches that night or in residence rooms on the York University campus.

D'Amico put in more than the nine long days of the tournament. She'd attend meetings periodically during the year to help with planning.

She had just been at a meeting a few weeks before her death. The venue where they met that day happened to be clearing out some floral table centrepieces. Volunteers were invited to take some flowers home.

"Anne Marie took one for every member of her family, because she didn't want anyone to feel left out, and she thought it would make them all so happy," Luk recalled. "I remember taking a Snapchat of her that day, walking down the hallway awkwardly trying to carry out all these vases full of water and flowers. She was like, 'I got it.' That's my last memory of her. I couldn't even give her a hug because her arms were full of so many flowers."

As the first victim police publicly identified after the van attack, D'Amico became the early face of the tragedy. Word spread quickly throughout the Tennis Canada community.

Messages of condolence came from across the country and from the world of tennis.

A funeral for her at a Catholic church in Toronto was packed. Her brother delivered the eulogy. Many of her long-time Rogers Cup friends were there and afterward, they went to lunch at a favourite restaurant where they'd gone with Anne Marie many times.

"Anne Marie loved to get involved and was always there to make sure the little things got done right. And whatever she did, she would make it memorable because she would put in her whole heart and soul until it was perfect," her brother said. "Perfection was her obsession.

Going the extra mile to make someone else feel better was very natural for Anne Marie."

Associated Graphic

Rafael Nadal and Serena Williams are just two of the world's top players at next week's Rogers Cup tournaments in Toronto and Montreal.

CLIVE MASON AND BEN CURTIS/GETTY IMAGES

Anne Marie D'Amico, standing left of Roger Federer, became an early face of the tragic Toronto van attack as the first victim to be identified.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Ode to the concrete jungle gym
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Alexandra Lange tracks and unpacks the social, intellectual and aesthetic currents that have shaped children's physical worlds
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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page R7

On a recent sunny Saturday, I took my younger son to the park. He and his friend quickly joined a game of tag on the pirate-ship climber, as I sat on a bench in the shade, ignored my book and chatted with a friend.

Nothing could be more natural, right?

And yet. Why was there a fence around the playground? Why was the climber themed as a pirate ship and why did it get rebuilt a few years ago to become fallproof and boring? Why was I there, anyway, rather than working in the garden or relaxing with my wife at home?

The answers are contained in design critic Alexandra Lange's witty and insightful new book, a wide-ranging history full of big and small insights. Lange, the architecture critic for Curbed and a widely published design writer, unpacks the complex social, intellectual and aesthetic currents that have shaped the physical world of kids.

That world is our world, and yet it isn't. Over the past 200 years, children in Western societies have taken on different positions in their own homes, in school and in the wider society That's a problem, Lange believes, and her book is both a history and a manifesto that "reveals the building blocks of resistance to fenced-in fun."

Starting in the mid-19th century, Lange writes, childhood "had become its own domain and started to acquire its own furnishings.

Toys and books were first, furniture second and eventually space would follow."

Lange reads those things and places, moving upward in scale from toys to the city. It's a journey from wooden Froebel blocks to LEGO to monkey bars to familysized condo units.

And, like any good parent, she makes it fun. Lange - who is, full disclosure, a friend and respected colleague of mine - has an architectural-history PhD and a sense of humour. She is also a mother of two school-aged children and that relationship is an important subtext to the book. "I had to get over my own unconscious bias," she writes, "toward writing about kids - revealing myself as both a critic and a mother - in order to take them seriously."

First, the toys. The story begins with Friedrich Froebel, a German polymath who established a kindergarten in 1837 - "changing the form of school, from rows of desks and an emphasis on reading, writing and arithmetic to an open room and outdoor garden with child-size furniture, blocks and songs," as Lange writes.

The blocks were critical: a set of simple playthings, or "gifts."

Made from simple geometric forms, cubes, a sphere, a cylinder, these were used by the children to mimic the world, to make abstract patterns and to do arithmetic. This would happen in a way that was relatively free-form and, to use today's language, child-led.

The idea that learning happens through play and that simple objects can be windows onto the world - these are principles that come to shape both education and adults' ideas of what childhood is.

In time, a new vision of childhood touches everything: the middle-class home, with the "hygiene aesthetic," the playroom and the open kitchen. Then the streetscape, through the birth of the playground - spaces carved out of rapidly growing cities at the end of the 19th century. The reformers of the Progressive Era in American cities saw playgrounds as tools of health and of assimilation. (This was absolutely true in Canada, too, where "Canadianization" was the goal of educators in Toronto's immigrant ghetto of the Ward.)

The school becomes a rich subject for Lange's analysis, too - and though her view is American-centric, ideas of education and school design generally travel cross the border. The one-room schoolhouse of Little House on the Prairie gets remade for an urbanizing society, stacked up into three- and four-storey piles of classrooms that are built for rows of desks.

Windows up high to provide light without distracting views, materials that wouldn't create echoes and a general high-mindedness to the architecture. These schools of the 1890s onward were machines for learning - proof of philosophies of top-down, directive learning.

There's evidence of that thinking a few steps from that park where I was sitting, at an elementary school built around 1912: high-ceilinged, big-windowed, raised haughtily a few steps above the ground. (It's in bad shape, thanks to a crazy 20-year consensus in Ontario that taking care of school buildings is unnecessary.)

And the school wing next to it, from the late 1950s, captures the next Modernist wave in design.

Lange takes us to its template, the Crow Island School, completed in Winnetka, Ill., in 1940. Designed by young architects Perkins, Wheeler & Will with the Modern legend Eliel Saarinen, it was not childish but child-friendly: low and bright, with doors painted in primary colours so little ones can find their way, modern furniture sized for little bodies and shelves that small arms can reach. The materials were hardy brick to stand up to abuse and pine cabinets to catch stapled-up artwork.

Not least, classrooms were connected to the outdoors: the "whole child" movement in education saw being outside as crucial to children's learning.

On the other hand, being outside became more difficult with North Americans' move to the suburbs. The private lawn displaced the park or street as the ideal play space, but public playgrounds were stocked with seesaws and jungle gyms. The 1950s and 1960s were a period of radical innovation, in which the "junk playground" of postwar Europe was adopted into "adventure playgrounds." Here, kids got to quench their thirst for exercise and risk.

And then, in the United States, the lawyers got involved: Lange pegs the moment as 1978, when a Chicago toddler was badly injured on a playground and his family won US$9.5-million in damages. Regulation and standardization of playgrounds grew, inevitably, from there.

In other respects, too, the past 40 years of childhood have seen children progressively lose their freedoms. Lange - who grew up in the still-radical 1970s - has got a problem with that. Parents who both work; the social fragmentation that came with the car and car-oriented planning; social bonds, parents' (unwarranted) fear of predators and the (warranted) fear of cars - all these things work together to limit children's development as independent thinkers and, eventually, citizens. So where's the answer?

To Lange, it's a new sort of city and a revised society. She goes to Japan to see what a more collective view of parenting would look like, and to Vancouver, where she finds inspiration in the 1970s work of planner Ann McAfee.

(There are a lot of women in this book, which is very unusual for architectural and design history.)

Vancouver's family-oriented downtown seems like an excellent model, particularly False Creek South. Its low, dense labyrinths, riddled with courtyards and never far from the water, provide rich territory for kids to create different social relationships and learn to find their own way.

It's the product of a century-long radical tradition that, as Lange says, "wanted to give children back the city through design."

And yet if a city can be made more friendly to children, whose children exactly will end up there? Lange points out how expensive downtown Vancouver has become. And when she speaks with Toronto city planners, she admires their designs for kid-ready downtown districts, but their ideal three-bedroom apartment is 1,140 square feet - which, if it existed, would cost well more than $1-million in the central city. "It has typically been middle-class white families' interest in living centrally that has spurred planners to action," she writes.

True. And it's time for parents, following her lead, to think harder about both the design and politics of childhood. While many of us obsess over our kids' development and education, there's a common tendency to be selfish about it: What are my kids going through? What does their school need?

Too many of us have spent a few years deeply interested in education and then left the topic entirely. But we "need to think beyond our own offspring," Lange says. It's clear that kids do better in a wider, safer, more playful world: Designing that world is the ultimate group project.

Alex Bozikovic is The Globe and Mail's architecture critic.

The Design of Childhood: How the Material World Shapes Independent Kids BY ALEXANDRA LANGE BLOOMSBURY, 416 PAGES

Associated Graphic

Crow Island School in Winnetka, Ill., is the template for the Modernist wave of school design that implemented child-friendly design elements, such as low and bright spaces, doors painted in primary colours, furniture sized for little bodies and classrooms connected to the outdoors.

HEDRICH BLESSING PHOTOGRAPHERS


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ARCHITECT OF QUEBEC'S EDUCATION SYSTEM
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A key figure of the Quiet Revolution, he modernized the province's backward school system, putting the curriculum into the hands of the province rather than the church
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Thursday, August 9, 2018 – Page B15

The great shakeup that would modernize Quebec's education system began in a guest room of the Château Frontenac hotel on the evening of June 30, 1960.

His Liberals freshly elected to government on a reformist agenda, premier Jean Lesage held a postelectoral meeting at the landmark Quebec City hotel, then had a private meeting with one of his new caucus members, Paul Gérin-Lajoie.

Mr. Lesage had previously picked Mr. Gérin-Lajoie as his attorney-general, but now, the new premier had changed his mind and wanted him instead to be minister of youth.

Mr. Gérin-Lajoie, a strong-willed, ambitious lawyer who two years before had competed against Mr. Lesage for party leadership, said he would only take the youth portfolio if it also included responsibility for education.

Quebec had not had an education ministry in 85 years and Mr. Gérin-Lajoie wanted to change that.

The premier said he would check the next morning with his legal adviser, Louis-Philippe Pigeon, to find out if legislation needed to be tabled to expand Mr. Gérin-Lajoie's portfolio to include education.

However, Mr. Gérin-Lajoie insisted that Mr. Lesage phone Mr. Pigeon right away.

Reached at home, Mr. Pigeon confirmed a ministerial decree would be enough to get it done.

"You've won," Mr. Lesage told Mr. Gérin-Lajoie.

Mr. Gérin-Lajoie, the first education minister in modern Quebec history, died at home on June 25 at the age of 98. He will be given a national funeral in Montreal on Thursday.

One of the key figures of the Quiet Revolution, he was a member of Mr. Lesage's Équipe du tonnerre (in English, Thunder Team), the band of politicians including René Lévesque and Georges-Émile Lapalme who transformed Quebec into a modern state during the 1960s.

Reforming Quebec's backward school system was one of the greatest accomplishments of the time, Mr. Lévesque would later say. "If there was a revolution, that's where it really happened," he wrote in his 1986 memoirs, Attendez que je me rappelle.

In the six years that followed his meeting with Mr. Lesage at the Château Frontenac, Mr. Gérin-Lajoie initiated many of the features now taken for granted in Quebec education: free textbooks and education for all children until the age of 16, regional school boards, curriculum priorities set out by the province rather than the church, comprehensive high schools rather than classical colleges.

"There's going to be more done in the next five years than I would have thought possible in 50," a civil servant told The Globe and Mail in 1964, describing the enthusiasm Mr. GérinLajoie had injected into the Education Department.

Mr. Gérin-Lajoie was a constitutional law specialist. He articulated what became known as the Gérin-Lajoie doctrine, justifying forays by the Quebec government in some areas of foreign affairs. He was also an early advocate for granting a special status to Quebec to protect its language and culture.

Born in Montreal on Feb. 23, 1920, he was the eldest of the six children of Henri Gérin-Lajoie and the former Pauline Dorion.

He grew up in a high-achieving family. His father and paternal grandfather and great-grandfather were lawyers. Other ancestors included trailblazing feminist Marie Lacoste Gérin-Lajoie, children's hospital founder Justine Lacoste-Beaubien and Antoine Gérin-Lajoie, author of the anthemic folk song Un Canadien errant.

Young Paul studied and edited the student paper at the elite Jesuit school Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, where he was a year ahead of the future prime minister Pierre Trudeau.

In 1938, he was selected as a Rhodes Scholar but couldn't go study at Oxford University until the fall of 1945 because of the Second World War.

His Oxford doctoral thesis was on a topic that would eventually dominate decades of Canadian political debate: how to amend the Constitution.

Back in Quebec, he practised law and honed his interest in education when he acted as legal counsel for organizations such as the federations of school boards and of classical colleges. He was also involved with the provincial Liberals, running unsuccessfully in the 1956 election and a 1957 by-election.

He also vied for the party leadership, but lost to Mr. Lesage, who led the Liberals to victory in the June, 1960, general election.

Within a year of becoming a cabinet minister, Mr. GérinLajoie unveiled a school-reform program, la Grande Charte de l'éducation, and overcame his first major hurdle: persuading the premier to collect across Quebec a 2-per-cent sales tax to finance the proposal.

After the Liberals won another election, in 1962, the next step was Bill 60, which created an Education Department, despite the Roman Catholic clergy's fears that schools would lose their denominational character.

Mr. Gérin-Lajoie stumped across Quebec to promote the bill, having breakfasts with village notables, lunching with the Rotary club, meeting bishops and parish priests, and ending his days with evening public assemblies.

"All the children of Quebec, all the boys and girls had the right to access education at all levels as soon as possible. ... It was a duty for us to go as fast as possible," he recalled in 2009 in a legislature oral history.

On May 14, 1964, he was sworn in as Quebec's first education minister since 1875.

He hired as his personal adviser Jean-Paul Desbiens, the Marist brother who had published under the pen name Frère Untel a stinging criticism of Quebec's church-run public education.

The reforms Mr. Gérin-Lajoie championed didn't come without a backlash. His foes painted him as the man who was taking the crucifix out of the classroom. Chief Justice Frédéric Dorion of the Quebec Superior Court complained that religious content was being removed from school books "to please a handful of agnostics."

Mr. Gérin-Lajoie also ruffled feathers in Ottawa after his government bypassed federal officials and signed an educational exchange agreement with France in 1965. In a speech before the consular corps in Montreal, he outlined the argument that, under the British North America Act, Quebec had the power to act internationally in areas of provincial jurisdiction such as education or culture.

The heady days of the Lesage government ended abruptly in 1966, when the Liberals were defeated in a general election. In opposition, their unity would be tested by rising nationalist feelings and conflicting views on constitutional issues.

At the party convention in 1967, Mr. Lévesque quit the Liberals after delegates rejected his independence proposals. The convention instead voted in principle for Mr. Gérin-Lajoie's idea to seek a special status for Quebec within the federation.

However, a year later, the party abandoned its drive for special status.

With his proposal shunted aside and little chance of fulfilling his ambition to become Liberal leader, Mr. Gérin-Lajoie resigned his seat in June, 1969.

His old schoolmate, Mr. Trudeau, now the prime minister, reached out and named him to a post with the federal Prices and Incomes Commission, then appointed him to head the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1970.

Under his direction, CIDA expanded foreign aid beyond Commonwealth countries, into French-speaking Africa. But his seven-year term didn't end happily. The former senior cabinet minister didn't turn into a low-key bureaucrat and he was criticized for his imperious style and spendthrift manners.

He went on to head his own eponymous foundation to support education programs in developing countries.

In another move that left an imprint on Canadian education, his foundation launched in 1991 La Dictée P.G.L. A Frenchlanguage dictation challenge combined with charitable fundraising, it has become a popular event in francophone schools across the country.

In 2008, in an interview with the journalist Jean Paré, Mr. Gérin-Lajoie was asked to name the lasting achievement of his long career. "Without a doubt, to have broadened access to education, from elementary to the end of high school, to all children of Quebec," he replied.

Mr. Gérin-Lajoie leaves his four children, François, Bernard, Sylvie and Dominique. His wife, Andrée Papineau, died four months before him.

Associated Graphic

Paul Gérin-Lajoie, the first education minister in modern Quebec history, waves at an awards ceremony at the legislature in Quebec City in 2013. Mr. Gérin-Lajoie's initatives in the role included free textbooks and education for children until the age of 16 and comprehensive high schools rather than classical colleges. JACQUES BOISSINOT/THE CANADIAN PRESS


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Through no fault of mine, my car was wrecked. Why do I feel I'm to blame?
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In Ontario, it is the victim who is forced to put her life on hold and suffer not only the impact but also the consequences
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By ANNE BAYIN
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Friday, August 10, 2018 – Page D2

One summer night a few weeks ago, I was preparing for a dinner party. Hmm, what frock to wear? There came a knock on my door. I nearly didn't answer, suspecting evangelists or a student collecting to save polar bears, but I did. I was met by a distraught woman and her cousin, a neighbour. The woman explained that while attempting to parallel park her Jeep 4X4, she'd accidentally slammed the gas instead of the brake and crashed into my car, which was parked on the street, from behind.

OMG.

"There is some damage," she said. "I'm so sorry."

My Toyota RAV4's hood was twisted like a fortune cookie. The bumper was askew, the headlights broken. The woman was remorseful. Kudos she'd even come to my door. We took pictures on our iPhones and exchanged insurance information. I was new to this. Should I even inform police in case the damage was expensive? I didn't want to bother them.

Did this count as an emergency?

"Lucky you weren't in it," the cousin said. The line, intended to comfort, oddly didn't. I consider myself a peacemaker, but those words - and I would hear them often in coming days - kind of rankled.

Lucky. Yes, well, okay. The front end of my vehicle was destroyed.

My car was not driveable and I was inconsolable. How lucky can I get?

What follows is a novice's journey into the underworld of collision and insurance; the helplessness felt as I attempted to sort the players from the program while trying to figure out who, if anyone, had the best interests of my RAV4 at heart.

I know the woman who hit me was not evil. Accidents can happen to anyone. She did not set out to wreck my car. On the contrary, she seemed pleasant and tearyeyed. She immediately pulled out her phone to contact her husband for solace and guidance. I point this out only because I didn't have the equivalent marital soother in place, so the balance of power was already not tipping in my favour.

Where I live, Ontario - a province of "no-fault" insurance - it is the victim, not the perpetrator, who is forced to put her life on hold and suffer not only the impact, but the consequences.

It is the victim who will spend frustrating hours at the reporting station, hitching rides in tow trucks, pleading misguidedly with powers-that-be in autobody shops, waiting on hold to speak with insurance agents ("Due to higher volume of calls and longer wait times than usual etc."), bargaining with used-car salespeople, arranging for safety checks and coping with firstworld stress.

The hitter says sorry and drives away with a tiny dent to the fender; the hittee descends into a bureaucratic hell without wheels.

No single point-person will be assigned to guide her through the steps and minutiae to follow. No matter she has never had a prior accident. No matter she has been a loyal customer for decades.

Agents are friendly but programmed to dispense with the problem as quickly and cheaply as possible.

My car, a coddled 1997 RAV4, with a mere 120,000 kilometres on it, had dignity and character.

When purchased, lightly used in 2002, it was love at first sight. It soldiered through blizzards, delivered artworks to galleries, picked up friends from cancer treatments, transported others to parties. It was the Betty White of SUVs, aging brilliantly. It had brand-new tires and CV shafts and had passed the emissions test. But, by the book, it was old.

Age was against it.

When the Total Loss specialist named it a "writeoff," I was stunned. What? You're refusing a hood replacement? My imagination leapt to the bigger picture, to my own age (the equivalent in RAV4 years) to my hip or perhaps my cracked skull and the surgeon regretfully pronouncing, "Sorry, too old."

The morning after the accident, two tow truck drivers, assigned from a body shop contacted by the insurance agent, wrangled my car onto a lift. They graciously allowed me to ride along to Collision Reporting Station Hellandgone, saving me $70 in cab fare. They waited while I took a number, sat in a row of plastic chairs and attempted to fill out undecipherable forms. There was no category describing my type of accident. I found whiplash and death and all kinds of crash variations, but no place for "innocently parked car bashed in by stranger."

I had whiplash all right. Inside.

When my number was called, I spoke with a sequence of officials, received multiple photocopied forms and stamps were applied.

A uniformed police officer took the papers away. The one I spoke with was empathetic, considering how distracted we were by the woman reporting beside me. She had placed bunnies named Mork and Mindy in separate kitty carriers on the counter.

Who wouldn't be distracted?

They conjured in me images of the killer rabbit in Monty Python and The Holy Grail - you know, the one that flies wildly and bites heads off its enemies? I was now that person.

Reporting dispensed with, my car (and, by extended courtesy, me) were towed to an autobody shop, where I pleaded my case to the owner, convinced he controlled the fate of my car. Alas, he only estimated the damage. It wasn't his call whether to fix or write off a vehicle.

"Only 120,000 kilometres!" I said, pitifully, before Ubering home.

If it was insurance's call, who, exactly, at insurance? Give me a name, please. Because it's called no fault, my company would be footing the bill.

I waited.

Over the next 10 days, I slept badly. I was depressed. You need focus and optimism to work as a freelancer and I had neither. My new full-time unpaid job was navigating the system.

My broker was on vacation. My assigned adjuster worked in phone queue rotation, rarely available to pick up directly. My Total Loss adjuster made a lowball offer and fell silent for days.

I'm not sure when it dawned on me that the insurance company was not going to replace my car. Perhaps, when it asked that I remove plates and personal belongings. (I learned, too late, there is a provision that allows you to buy back your car, but the cash offer is lower so will likely not equal damages. My mechanic called it "too risky.") Bottom line: A comparable vehicle would cost an additional several thousand dollars and the difference was coming from my pocket.

Am I alone in thinking there is something morally and ethically wrong with this picture? I was the victim, remember.

Here are the numbers.

51: the number of years I had driven accident-free.

34: the number of years with the same insurance company.

0: the number of phone calls returned from the manager of my insurance company.

10: the number of days spent searching on Kijiji, Auto Trader, and Car Guru looking for equivalent RAV4s (the closest was in Surrey, B.C.).

15: the number of days before my claim was settled.

0: the number of floral bouquets I received from the woman who damaged my car.

$3,700: the out-of-pocket cost to me in expenses and for replacing my vehicle.

$381: the increase in my premium for the newer model car $130: the fee for 50 minutes of counselling.

On Day 12, I found a car that spoke to me. It was pretty (jellybean green) and had a spirit name (Soul). It wasn't the RAV4 I was still grieving, but it had attitude. It also had a high kilometre count (190,000) and had been in a fender-bender, which would freak my brother out, but I decided it was the car for me. We're all of us flawed, right?

I took it for a test drive. I liked the ride. The dealership drove it to my mechanic for a safety check.

They agreed to fix a dent, detail the car and replace the shocks. I closed the deal with a personal (not certified) cheque, auspiciously dated Friday the 13th.

The one shock no one could fix was losing my car in the first place.

Associated Graphic

Anne Bayin's Toyota RAV4 was badly damaged after another car backed into it, destroying its front end. After a long process culminating in the realization that her insurance company would not replace her car, Bayin ended up buying a new vehicle.

ABOVE: ANNE BAYIN; BELOW: BREE TIFFIN


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How much bite do the FAANG stocks have?
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U.S. tech titans' recent results show they're all profitable, but their business models and prospects vary greatly
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By GORDON PAPE
  
  

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Tuesday, August 14, 2018 – Page B6

Back in 2000, most investors believed all high-tech stocks were cut from the same cloth. There was little to choose from between AOL, 360Networks, Pets.com, Excite, GeoCities and the dozens of other companies that were publicly listed at the time. They all were part of the fascinating new world of the internet and people wanted in on the action at whatever price.

So when the dot-com bubble burst in March of that year, the whole sector went down in flames. Over half the dot-com companies disappeared between 2000 and 2004. More than US$5trillion in market capitalization was lost. The Nasdaq Composite Index dropped 77 per cent between March, 2000, and October, 2002.

Investors were left shellshocked. Many vowed to never again invest in the tech sector.

Some are convinced to this day that all technology stocks are money losers and are about to suffer another horrific collapse.

For example, here's an excerpt from an e-mail I recently received from a reader: "Why does it make sense to invest in such companies as the FAANG stocks (Facebook, Amazon, Netflix, etc.) when most of them are not yet generating profits? Is it a pure speculation that in the future they will be finally profitable? I have not yet started to invest in these companies because they make me afraid."

I can understand our reader's concern and certainly some of these stocks look very pricey right now. But there are some huge differences between 2000 and today.

For starters, the majority of publicly traded tech companies are profitable, some immensely so. That includes all the FAANG stocks. Every one of them reported second-quarter earnings in the millions or billions of dollars.

They may have other problems, but profitability is not one of them.

Let's take a quick look at the latest results from the FAANG list.

FACEBOOK INC. (FB-Q)

Facebook stock dropped dramatically in late July after the company released second-quarter results. At first glance, investors might be left scratching their heads as to why. Revenue was up 42 per cent year-over-year to more than US$13-billion. Profit increased 31 per cent to US$5.1-billion (US$1.74 a share, fully diluted). Yet, the stock plunged by more than US$41 (about 20 per cent) on the day after the figures were released. What happened?

This is a classic example of investors looking forward, not back.

Sure, the latest quarter looked good. But the company warned of slowing revenue growth for the remainder of the year. One analyst referred to the guidance as a "nightmare." Plus, user growth is slowing. About 2.5 billion people use one of Facebook's products already, so there's not much room left for expansion.

The company is also struggling with its image after the Cambridge Analytica scandal and growing concerns over user privacy.

Conclusion: Facebook will continue to be highly profitable, but it appears to be reaching its limits of growth. That's a killer for a momentum stock.

APPLE INC. (AAPL-Q)

In contrast with Facebook, Apple shares jumped in value after the company released third-quarter results for fiscal 2018 on July 31.

The price surge pushed Apple's market capitalization to more than US$1-trillion, the first U.S. company to crack through that barrier.

The company posted quarterly revenue of US$53.3-billion, an increase of17 per cent from last year.

Earnings per diluted share were US$2.34, up 40 per cent year-overyear. Surprisingly strong sales of high-end iPhones drove the increases in revenue and profit.

Apple also offered a bullish forecast for the fourth quarter, predicting revenue would come in between US$60-billion and US$62-billion.

The stock price gained US$11.21 (about 6 per cent) after the results were released and have been trending higher since.

Conclusion: The company is on a roll, and even with the upward move in the price, the stock still trades at a reasonable P/E of 18.7.

The one cautionary note is the company is heavily dependent on the iPhone to drive future growth.

If sales should falter, the stock will get hit.

AMAZON.COM INC. (AMZN-Q)

For years, the knock against Amazon has been that its great revenue growth was never reflected in profit. That's now changing. Sales continue to increase, coming in at US$52.9-billion (up 39 per cent from a year ago) in the second quarter. No surprise there. But profit took a huge jump, rising to US$2.5-billion (US$5.07 a share, fully diluted), compared with US$197-million (40 US cents) in the second quarter of 2017. The industry consensus was for earnings of US$2.48 a share.

Analysts reacted positively to the results, with several increasing their target prices on the stock. Both Bank of America Corp. and JPMorgan & Co. predict a price in the US$2,200 range next year.

The share price keeps rising, hitting an all-time high last week of US$1,914.57 before retreating a little to close on Friday at US$1,886.30.

Conclusion: There appears to be no stopping this company, despite increased online competition from Walmart Inc. and others. The main concern is the high price of the stock, which currently has an out-of-sight trailing priceto-earnings ratio of 145.5.

NETFLIX INC. (NFLX-Q)

Netflix reported second-quarter profit of US$385-million (85 US cents a share, fully diluted). That was a big improvement over 15 US cents the year before, but investors were more interested in new subscriber numbers, which came in well below expectations. The company also lowered its projections for user growth for the rest of the year.

The stock was hammered as a result, dropping more than US$20 a share after the results were released. It has continued to decline since, closing on Friday at US$345.87. That's down18 per cent from the all-time high of US$423.21, reached in late June.

Conclusion: With any momentum stock, a slowdown in growth is bad news. We saw it with Facebook and we are seeing it here.

Like Amazon, it has a wildly inflated P/E ratio (152.4). Unlike Amazon, it is not displaying the growth needed to justify the share price.

ALPHABET INC. (GOOGL-Q)

This is Google, the "G" in FAANG.

The company changed its name a few years ago, so technically these stocks should now collectively be referred with the acronym FAAAN, but that hasn't caught on.

Whatever the name, the company is performing well. Secondquarter results beat estimates.

Revenue was US$32.7-billion, up about 26 per cent from just more than US$26-billion in last year's same quarter. Profit declined to US$3.2-billion (US$4.54 a share, fully diluted) from US$3.5-billion (US$5.01) in the prior year. However, that included the cost of a US$5.07-billion fine assessed by the European Commission for violation of competition laws, which the company is expected to appeal. Stripping out that cost, Alphabet made US$8.3-billion (US$11.75) in the quarter.

The stock rose after the release of the results, then retreated a little to the current level of US$1,252.51. RBC Dominion Securities raised its target on the stock to US$1,400.

Conclusion: There is no sign of a slowdown here. The main concern is corporate overreach; this is the second time that the company has been hit by huge fines from Europe over competition laws.

As you can see, all the FAANG companies are profitable. However, their business models and prospects are quite different, so they do not move in lockstep; each stock must be assessed on its own merits. This is not 2000 redux. The technology business has changed dramatically in the past 18 years.

Gordon Pape is editor and publisher of the Internet Wealth Builder and Income Investor newsletters.

For more information and details on how to subscribe, go to buildingwealth.ca.

Associated Graphic

People chat in front of a Facebook booth at a developer conference in San Jose, Calif., in 2017. Facebook's latest quarterly earnings looked solid, but investors were spooked by warnings about slowing revenue growth for the rest of the year, as well as slower user growth.

NOAH BERGER/AP


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CPPIB sets sights on China's commercial property for its next wave of growth
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Tuesday, August 7, 2018 – Page B1

Canada's biggest pension fund is riding China's wave of urbanization for its next stage of real estate growth, as it looks to boost investments in emerging markets.

A property investment strategy that started with shopping centres in places such as Thunder Bay and Stoney Creek, Ont., in 2003 has now grown to $46.1-billion in commercial real estate in Europe, the Americas, Australia and Asia for the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board.

China and real estate have become critical parts of CPPIB's vast $356.1-billion portfolio as the fund works to earn the returns needed to pay Canadians a monthly pension when they retire. Now, CPPIB is poised to invest even more of Canadians' retirement savings in Chinese commercial property.

"There is huge demand for real estate and we see a great investment opportunity over the next couple of years," said Peter Ballon, global head of real estate for CPPIB, which manages investments for 20 million CPP contributors and pensioners.

Part of its investment strategy is to hold up to one-third of its assets in emerging markets by 2025, with China, the world's second largest economy, playing a vital role. The fund currently holds 16 per cent of its assets in emerging markets, which include China, India and Brazil.

There are risks: The Chinese commercial real estate market is opaque; state policies have caused overbuilding in some areas; the Chinese economy is swimming in high levels of debt; and businesses are vulnerable to government intervention and changes in policy.

But the potential for growth is big.

The stock of premium offices in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other top urban centres is forecast to increase 75 per cent by 2022, according to commercial realtor Cushman & Wakefield, and retail is expected to expand by 30 per cent.

"A massive jump within just four to five years," said Catherine Chen, Cushman's head of forecasting for Greater China.

REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS CPPIB and other property investors have already benefited from the country's decades-long plan to move tens of millions of people from rural areas to urban centres.

The Canadian fund has a stake in some of the most prosperous cities, such as a shopping centre in Chongqing, distribution centres in the country's financial capital of Shanghai and huge warehouses in Beijing's only international air and road freight centre.

"China is a very policy-driven market with significant government intervention," Ms. Chen said, adding that less experienced foreign investors may have a harder time adapting to "rapidly changing government policies" and intense competition from large Chinese developers and investors.

As its middle class expands, the Chinese government is under pressure to keep its economy humming and people employed.

Ambitious plans are in the works to create an economic hub in southern China, build new trade routes to connect China to southern Asia, Europe and Africa, as well as to transform the country into a hightech superpower.

"Although the growth is higher in China, there is more economic risk in China as growth is still heavily dependent on the government policy," said Benjamin Abramov, fund manager with LaSalle Investment Management. China, he said, "is considered to be a semi-transparent property market to transact in, when compared to countries like Canada and the U.S."

China has imposed population caps in Beijing and Shanghai and identified cities where it would like to grow. Its central bank recently pumped money into the financial system in an effort to counter negative effects of its trade war with the U.S.

The initiative to pull the economy away from lower-skilled manufacturing and into higher technology and artificial intelligence, known as "Made in China 2025," is seen boosting demand for industrial and R&D facilities. It may also create massive redevelopment opportunities.

Chinese President Xi Jinping has selected places such as Chengdu and Guangzhou as pilot cities for the Made in China 2025 plan, but not yet the biggest employment areas such as Shanghai.

"With significant government support at their back, it's more likely that these cities will be able to grow their current advanced industries base," said Joseph Parilla, a fellow at think tank Brookings Institution who co-authored a report on China's urbanization. "Although, nothing is certain and there are some questions about the efficacy of the strategy in general."

CPPIB has prime property in the biggest labour markets of Beijing and Shanghai. It recently made a US$817-million investment to build apartments and other rental homes in the country's biggest cities after the Chinese government made a push to increase rental housing supply as a way to deal with the frenzied residential real estate market.

"Right now, the Chinese government is very supportive of creating a good environment to create rental housing. There is strong support for that and strong demand," Mr. Ballon said.

COMPETITION As the opportunities in China grow, CPPIB is facing increased competition. Total investment in Chinese commercial property increased 40 per cent to a record high of US$639.5-billion last year, surpassing total investment in the United States, the world's biggest and most liquid big real estate market, according to Cushman data.

But CPPIB can compete against foreign and domestic real estate investors with its cash, long time horizon and government ties and name.

Chinese property developers need foreign capital since the major lenders in the country tend to lend to state-owned enterprises.

CPPIB has funds and will soon have more cash to deploy as Canadians are set to increase their CPP contributions next year.

It has the added bonus of being viewed favourably by Chinese operators because the fund is seen as an extension of the Canadian government and Chinese companies are accustomed to working with stateowned enterprises.

"They see [CPPIB] as more of a branch of the Canadian government," said Gordon Houlden, director with the University of Alberta's China Institute, which tracks Chinese investment in Canada. "I suspect the Chinese would see that and be reassured."

CPPIB has formed a partnership with big Chinese developer Longfor Properties Co. Ltd. and has a dedicated team of real estate experts on the ground in China. It has about 30 commercial property complexes that are fully leased and producing revenue, as well as numerous projects under development.

CPPIB would not provide the total value of its Chinese real estate assets, arguing that it is competitive information. But across all asset classes, $22.4-billion, or 6.3 per cent, of the fund is in China, according to its annual report. About 15 per cent of the fund's assets are in Canada.

PERFORMANCE Since CPPIB started investing in real estate after the turn of the century, it has become a major part of its portfolio. Commercial property now accounts for 13 per cent of the fund's total assets, compared with about 1 per cent in 2005.

More importantly, real estate has raked in money for the fund. Real estate returns were in double-digit territory from 2011 through 2016, with one year hitting a whopping 18 per cent.

The fiscal year ended in March showed real estate investment gains of 9.4 per cent.

CPPIB and much of the industry benefited from a decade-long bull market in commercial real estate, driven in part by low global interest rates. Those that made big acquisitions after the Great Recession, as CPPIB did, are reaping the rewards of the property boom.

It is unknown how CPPIB's Chinese real estate assets are performing. The fund would not disclose its return on investment numbers in China, citing competitive information.

The fund's chief executive officer has said CPPIB's overall investment returns will be lower over the next five years compared with the past five. As for real estate, Mr. Ballon said, "we are feeling quite positive that right now real estate continues to perform quite strongly."

Associated Graphic

A billboard lines the wall of a construction site in Beijing's central business district. Total investment in Chinese commercial property increased 40 per cent to a record high of US$639.5-billion last year.

GREG BAKER /AFP/GETTY IMAGES

The US$817-million investment CPPIB made to build rental homes in China's biggest cities is among the efforts the pension fund is making to boost its emerging-markets real estate portfolio and capitalize on China's wave of urbanization.

JOHANNES EISELE/AFP/GETTY IMAGES


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BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANT PIONEER SAVED LIVES
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He was earnest about his work, offering the procedure at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre to many patients who had exhausted all other options
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By NADINE YOUSIF
  
  

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Saturday, August 11, 2018 – Page B21

When Dr. Hans Messner received the Order of Ontario in 2015 for his contributions in advancing cancer treatment research, he humbly refused to wear his pin.

"I was just doing my job," his wife, Sandy Messner, recalled him saying. Dr. Messner continued to do his job until he no longer could. He was instrumental in establishing the allogeneic bone-marrow and stem-cell transplant program at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, where he served as director.

Despite retiring five years ago, he continued to work 12-hour days until last month, when he was admitted to palliative care.

"He was passionate about his work, absolutely passionate, and he would've done anything for his patients," Sandy said. Dr.

Messner died on July 24 at the age of 77 after battling bladder cancer. Over his 44 years of service at Princess Margaret, Dr.

Messner became a pioneer for bone-marrow transplantation in Canada - one of the only known curative treatments for certain hematological cancers and leukemia. In the late 1970s, he was the first to perform a successful bone-marrow transplant in Ontario, according to Dr. Jeffrey Lipton, a medical oncologist at the Princess Margret Cancer Centre and long-time colleague of Dr. Messner.

Dr. Messner was born in Brunn, Czechoslovakia, on May 26, 1941 to August and Anna Messner. His family is of German descent and were transported to Fulda, Germany, at the end of the Second World War, where he grew up. He later studied medicine in Freiburg, Germany, and moved to Canada in1969 to complete his PhD at the University of Toronto.

In Toronto, Dr. Messner studied under Dr.

Ernest McCulloch, who was one of the fathers of stem-cell science and among the first to explore the benefits of bone-marrow transplants for the treatment of patients with leukemia. Dr. Messner then went on to build on the field through his work at Princess Margaret, where about 300 people now receive transplant treatments a year, according to Dr. Ivan Pasic, a colleague of Dr. Messner's.

A bone-marrow transplant is often the last resort for treatment because of the high risks associated with it, Dr. Pasic said. It involves the extraction of bone marrow cells from a donor, which are then transplanted into the patient to suppress the disease and restore their immune system. In the restoration process, however, the body can become vulnerable to basic infections that can turn deadly. Still, bone marrow transplants have proven to be an effective option for many.

"He was able to save the lives of some individuals who basically had no [other] options for treatment," Dr. Pasic said. One of those individuals, Margaret Lynch, maintains she would not be alive today if it wasn't for Dr. Messner. Ms. Lynch was diagnosed with an acute form of leukemia at age 30. After four months of chemotherapy, she suffered life-threatening infections and a seizure that put her in a coma for two days. She was told she would not be able to withstand any more chemotherapy.

"I like to think that when he got into that room, he saw me as a young woman and he wanted to do anything that he could do to help me," Ms. Lynch said of the moment she met Dr. Messner.

He took a risk and offered Ms. Lynch the option of a bone-marrow transplant. "Against all odds, the transplant worked," Ms.

Lynch said. She walked out of her isolation room18 days later. It was 30 years ago, and the leukemia never returned.

Ms. Lynch remembered Dr. Messner as always being attentive and caring to his patients. "He always had time for questions, he always had time to explain," she said. His positive attitude, she added, helped her find the courage to agree to the treatment that ultimately saved her life. "I needed him to be optimistic because I was undergoing a procedure ... that seemed very likely that it would kill me." Dr. Pasic's sister, Natasa Pasic-Knezevic, was a patient of Dr.

Messner's for18 years. During their first appointment in1996, Dr.

Pasic recalled sitting with Dr. Messner for two hours.

"All the clinic staff had left, the nurses had left, the lights were off everywhere around the clinic," Dr. Pasic said. "But he stayed with us the entire time until we completely ran out of questions to ask."

"It seemed like he had all the time in this world for us," said Dr. Pasic, who went on to shadow Dr. Messner during his studies and recently became a certified oncologist. His sister's experience in Dr. Messner's care inspired Dr. Pasic to pursue oncology.

"He was a very valuable mentor, he taught me many things in my professional life that I use on a daily basis," Dr. Pasic said.

Ms. Pasic-Knezevic survived her cancer, and recently climbed Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. She dedicated her climb to Dr. Messner, Dr. Pasic said.

Dr. Messner has received many accolades during his long career. Alongside the Order of Ontario, he was one of only13 recipients of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation lifetime achievement award, given to those who made significant clinical and scientific contributions to the field. But Sandy, who is an oncologist specializing in breast cancer, says one of her husband's proudest achievements was receiving the Gerald Kirsh Humanitarian Award at Princess Margaret, which he was nominated for by his patients.

"He was a friend to anyone," she said of Dr.

Messner's time at Princess Margaret. "It didn't matter who you were and what you did."

"It doesn't matter if it was the person coming in to clean his room at the hospital ... or the head of the hospital," Ms. Lynch said.

"He's just a guy who does the right thing."

Another proud achievement for Dr. Messner, his wife said, was receiving a platinum bicycle helmet in 2017 for 10 years of participation in the Ride to Conquer Cancer, an annual event in which cyclists ride more than 200 kilometres to raise money for cancer research at Princess Margaret. That year's ride would be his last.

Sandy said her husband encouraged many of his patients to ride along with him, as he believed it was an important step in their healing process. Ms. Lynch was one of those patients.

"I'm much slower, but he waited for me at the finish line" for around three hours, Ms.

Lynch said. "He just wanted to be there and celebrate the fact that I was still there and still able to do it."

Dr. Messner rode with the Heme Team, a word-play on hematology. Last year, his children, Anne, Kristy, Andrew and Erica accompanied him on his last ride. The team will continue to ride next year in honour of Dr. Messner, Ms. Lynch said.

In addition to his work at Princess Margaret, Dr. Messner sat on several boards and volunteered his time to provide advice on cancer research internationally, including in his home country of Germany. During his last months, Sandy received e-mails from people around the world highlighting Dr. Messner's influence on their lives. "He had such an impact everywhere he went," she said.

In his spare time, Dr. Messner spent many weekends at the cottage with his family, Sandy said. He built furniture for them - dressers, tables - in his garage-turned-workshop. He leaves his wife, Sandy, four children and six grandchildren.

Sandy admired her husband's dignity and strength in his final days. "[He] always smiled, right to the end," she said. Dr.

Santhosh Thyagu, a long-time colleague of Dr. Messner, said he maintained an open-door policy at the hospital, even near the end of his life.

"He welcomed anyone that visited him and when they left, always made it a point to thank them for visiting," Dr. Thyagu said. Ms. Lynch said she thanked Dr. Messner once, but he repeated his well-known phrase, "I'm just doing my job."

"I did a job, too," Ms. Lynch said, "but not many of us get to save lives." To submit an I Remember: obit@globeandmail.com Send us a memory of someone we have recently profiled on the Obituaries page.

Please include I Remember in the subject field

Associated Graphic

Dr. Hans Messner was instrumental in establishing bone-marrow and stem-cell transplants in Toronto.

COURTESY OF THE MESSNER FAMILY

Dr. Hans Messner


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Nova Scotia tourist town suffering from harbour stench
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Community in iconic Lunenburg embroiled in debate over waterfront's condition
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By ERIN ANDERSSEN
  
  

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Saturday, August 4, 2018 – Page A7

LUNENBURG, N.S. -- For a town that dons its Sunday best come tourist season, Lunenburg is having a caught-with-its-pants-down kind of summer.

You can't see for looking that anything's amiss. The comefrom-aways are still crowding the wharves, snapping more selfies than anyone needs of the crayoncoloured houses set into the hill.

The Bluenose II comes and goes in the waters that launched its famous original. On a quiet morning, a classic yellow dory of old passes by, a co-ed pair of rowers heaving oars in perfect harmony.

A few weeks back, the province announced $750,000 to make the town's UNESCO Heritage waterfront, the classic Nova Scotia tableau, even more postcard perfect - interesting timing, some might say, given recent trouble.

That is, the historic harbour lapping up against human activity - the town's very reason for being - is in a rather sorry state.

Blue it may appear. But it's dirty with sewage.

"I wouldn't touch it," says biologist Shanna Fredericks, the assistant director of the Bluenose Coastal Foundation, a local environmental group that has been testing along the waterfront, on the town's dime, all summer. "I wouldn't even want to get it on the bottom of my shoes."

Now the locals would say, in their defence, unless you've never flushed a toilet, don't be judging.

Sewage treatment plants can't perform vanishing acts, and the one in the town of Lunenburg is, according to the province, meeting required standards. But the leftovers have to go somewhere - and in this case, it happens to be a pipe under the local fishermen's wharf, in the back throat of the harbour, just down from the hub of tourist and fishing activity. Not the best place, Mayor Rachel Bailey concedes, but that decision was before her time.

Still, this summer, the debate over the harbour's condition who's to blame, what's to be done, if anything - has taken up a renewed ferocity. To hear Ms. Bailey tell it, the rounds of socialmedia exclamations and passionate editorializing amount to picking on Lunenburg. A busy harbour is never going to be pristine, she rightly argues, and she's never heard of anyone getting sick from the water. (Though until the tests came back, it would have been difficult to make the link.)

Yes, there have been issues with a rotten-egg smell from the sewage plant, but the town is trying to get a handle on it.

The weather of late hasn't helped - hot, and steamy, followed by heavy, sudden rank that overflows the storm drains. The choice is either backed-up plumbing, which the tourists and townsfolk are bound to notice, or a temporary dump into the harbour, which, until recently, few paid mind to.

But that was before intrepid, young Stella Bowles took a few samples of the harbour home with her last summer, to test it for the presence of fecal enterococci, which is basically what its name implies. Stella is 14, not yet in high school, but, around here, she's an award-winning environmentalist, with a Facebook following of 4,000 and a book coming out this fall. Her Grade 6 science project exposed a similar contamination in the LaHave River, down the coast from Lunenburg, and eventually prompted the federal government, the province and the municipality to kick in funding to replace the old straight pipes still running from homes along the riverbank.

Stella saw a picture of what looked like floaters in Lunenburg Harbour, and chose her next target. In her basement, last summer, she waited for the test results to come in. Usually, she explains one afternoon in July, sitting on a wharf in Lunenburg among the day's tourist throng, you let the test sit for 36 hours. She had to take the sample out in less than 12. "You couldn't pay me," she says, to swim in this water. "It's beautiful here. But it has a dirty secret."

Hardly secret, any more. The official testing this summer, publicly announced by the town, only confirmed Stella's results.

To simplify the science, think of a bar graph: Up to 175 on this graph is the limit that Health Canada has set for "secondary contact." This means the water is deemed safe for boating and fishing, but not swimming, or any activity where you might accidentally take a few gulps. Out in the middle of the harbour the results are "pretty good," says Ms. Fredericks; the tides are flushing the water relatively clean, and close to secondary contact level.

But it's a different story at the waterfront, especially by the wharf with the sewage pipe and the new boat launch where the town hoped to encourage day sailors and kayakers. In some cases, those sites are recording levels of fecal enterococci greater than 2,500 - the point at which the lab just stops counting. (It's hard to compare bodies of water, but LaHave River, even close to the local sewage system, is well below secondary contact levels.)

"The town has a serious contamination issue," Ms. Fredericks says. "We need to be upfront and honest about that."

Some people think the town has been too slow to come around to this reality, including Bill Flower, who offers fishing tours out of the harbour, and just happens to dock at the wharf with the infamous pipe.

Mr. Flower has been making waves for years now - he describes walking up to town hall in years past with his sewage-covered fenders and fishing rope, and dumping it on the previous mayor's desk - but he became notorious last year when he was charged with assault, after he rubbed sludge from the harbour on Mayor Bailey's ankles. (The case was settled with a court-ordered apology and a peace bond; the mayor says tersely, "It's been resolved.") "All I am trying to do is clean up the harbour," Mr. Flower says.

This summer, there is some movement on that front. A stakeholders committee has had its first meeting. The results of the water tests are being publicly announced. As a current measure, the town is sorting out a warning sign at the waterfront - presumably one that's honest enough, but not tourist-deterring. The testing is expected to narrow in on the problem, which Ms. Fredericks says she increasingly expects will turn out to be the sewage pipe, too short and in the wrong spot. The town already received federal funds last year to divert some of its rainwater, but a larger fix for the harbour may prove be costly - especially for a town of 2,300 residents to cover, Ms. Bailey says. (The province's new money is only for improving the human-built structures, not the one created by nature.)

But perhaps, it's not for nothing that Lunenburg has become the centre of a discussion about the acceptable level of water quality in our oceans and what responsibility we owe the bodies of water that are the soul of our communities.

Bruce Hatcher, a marine ecologist at the University of Cape Breton, suggests this is an opportunity, not a burden - a chance for three levels of government with overlapping jurisdiction to set an example in a town with an international reputation to uphold.

The harbour water is no doubt cleaner than it was in the days when a row of straight pumps poured in raw sewage, or when fish guts from the latest catch were tossed in willy-nilly, he says, but people's expectations are higher now. "This could be the place where we draw a line."

After all, if people give up on a jewel of a harbour like Lunenburg, what hope is there for all the rest?

"I am only 14," Stella says, pointedly, on the bench at the waterfront. "It's up to the adults to take this on."

Associated Graphic

Tourists prepare to sail in Lunenburg Harbour on Monday. The province says the town's sewage-treatment plant is meeting its standards. But some waste is let into the harbour via a pipe under the local fisherman's wharf, near a hub of activity.

PHOTOS BY DARREN CALABRESE/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Two young people sit on the edge of a wharf in Lunenburg Harbour on Monday. The waterfront has a UNESCO Heritage classification.


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