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GiveLife.ca

    

PRINT EDITION
Vaping firms flout marketing rules to target young Canadians
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It's illegal for Canada's new nicotine barons to sell their wares with lifestyle advertising or kid-friendly flavours - yet with the help of social-media influencers and viral posts, many do, Carly Weeks reports
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By CARLY WEEKS
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page A8

Birthday-cake flavoured vaping liquid. Instagram influencers paid to run contests sponsored by the e-cigarette industry. Pop-up lounges featuring young, attractive models giving out vape samples.

E-cigarette companies are targeting young people in Canada through advertisements that promote flavours, make health claims and push lifestyle benefits - all of which, critics say, flouts federal laws meant to prevent the promotion of vaping as a desirable activity for young people. It is an aggressive marketing push that federal regulators are struggling to stop, even as the rates of youth vaping climb.

E-cigarettes were legalized in Canada as a less harmful alternative to smoking, but as a condition, laws were put in place to help ensure the products didn't fall into the hands of young nonsmokers.

Under federal law, companies can produce any flavour they want, but they aren't allowed to promote varieties that could appeal to young people, defined as younger than 18, such as those that taste like candy, dessert or soft drinks. It's also against the law to engage in any lifestyle advertising, use testimonials or promote nicotine products using people, characters or animals.

But an investigation by The Globe and Mail found companies are advertising e-cigarette flavours that taste like ice cream, cookies and candy. They are paying social-media influencers to promote products and hold product giveaways. At pop-up events staffed by glamorous models, they are distributing vaping samples and encouraging visitors to pose with Instagram-friendly backdrops. The most flagrant abuse occurs on social media, where companies rely on viral campaigns, testimonials and powerful influencers to attract new customers.

Health Canada representatives say they have have significantly increased compliance and enforcement activities around the sale and promotion of vaping products. In an e-mailed statement, a department spokesperson said inspectors seized more than 60,000 non-compliant products from specialty vape shops and convenience stores between July and October. Inspectors visited about 1,000 locations during that period.

More than three quarters of the specialty vape shops inspected by Health Canada were selling and promoting products that violate federal law, according to spokeswoman Maryse Durette. The most common violations were promoting child-friendly flavours and using testimonials to promote products. Under federal law, testimonials include any promotions that feature people, characters or animals.

Inspectors aim to visit 3,000 retailers by the end of the year.

The department also has a unit that focuses on online retailers and so far, it has done 68 inspections.

Members of the e-cigarette industry interviewed by The Globe say they are complying with federal rules and are committed to ensuring their products don't end up in the hands of minors.

The industry says their target market is existing adult smokers.

"The majority of our membership ... they're very responsible, they're complying with the act completely," said Charles Pisano, vice-president of the Canadian Vaping Association, which represents more than 300 retail and online vaping businesses in Canada.

But for public-health researchers and anti-smoking advocates, the marketing effort is déjà vu.

They say a new generation is becoming addicted to nicotine by the same techniques that sold cigarettes decades ago, before authorities were forced to act. "They have used the exact same playbook that the Big Tobacco companies have used for many years to appeal to young people, using colourful icons and using attractive good looking models," said Andy Tan, a researcher at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute who studies the impact of tobacco marketing.

The size of Canada's e-cigarette market is difficult to calculate (the global market is valued at $14-billion), but uptake has been significant in the 18 months since nicotine vaping products became legal. In an investor presentation delivered in March, British American Tobacco, the parent of Imperial Tobacco Canada, said nearly 100,000 Vype devices were sold in Canada in 10 months, and about 60,000 Juul devices.

Of greater concern is who is using the products, some health experts say. Nearly 40 per cent of 16to 19-year-old Canadian teens reported trying e-cigarettes in a recent survey, and nearly one in 10 said they vape weekly.

In response to what the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration has called a youth vaping epidemic, the agency has launched investigations into the marketing practices of Juul, the top-selling vape brand in the United States, and has promised to crack down on the industry. Some public health experts are urging Canadian regulators to follow the U.S.

example by first enforcing and then expanding marketing restrictions. They argue a full ban on flavours and advertising are urgently needed to slow the spread of the industry.

"The products and the way they're marketed is appealing to young people in North America.

You don't have to be a researcher or a rocket scientist to figure it out," said David Hammond, a public health researcher at the University of Waterloo and one of Canada's top vaping experts.

"When I see the marketing in Canada, I would say if [the industry's] intention has been to target adult smokers, it has been a very poorly executed campaign."

Four years ago - before the growth in teen e-cigarette use and the outbreak of vaping-related lung disease - a parliamentary committee warned the federal government that the entry of ecigarettes into the Canadian market threatened to undo decades of progress in tobacco control.

In order to stop young people and non-smokers from becoming addicted to e-cigarettes, the committee told the federal government to adopt a series of regulatory measures to limit the access and appeal of e-cigarettes, including a ban on flavoured vaping products, a cap on nicotine levels and stringent advertising restrictions.

But when the Tobacco and Vaping Products Act came into effect in May, 2018, the federal government decided to let e-cigarette companies advertise and use a variety of flavours. The industry, which has invested heavily in lobbying efforts, had argued that advertising and use of flavours were key to winning over existing adult smokers and helping them quit.

Health Canada states on its website that vaping is a lessharmful alternative to cigarettes.

Some physicians and health groups support the idea that ecigarettes could be an effective harm-reduction option for smokers. Tobacco-related illnesses kill an estimated 100 Canadians a day, according to the federal government.

Still, health experts warn the long-term effects of vaping are unknown. And young people are particularly vulnerable to nicotine addiction because their brains are still developing and sensitive to the effects of addictive drugs. Once hooked, young people are also vastly more likely to continue nicotine use into adulthood.

"Those of us in public health would like to see vaping become an off-ramp for adult smokers," said Robert Jackler, a surgeon and professor at Stanford University who studies tobacco marketing.

"Instead, it's become a heavily travelled on-ramp for nicotinenaive teenagers."

Concerns have also been stoked by the outbreak of severe lung disease associated with vaping products that has been linked to 39 deaths and more than 2,000 illnesses in the U.S., as well as a handful of cases in Canada. While most of the illnesses and deaths are tied to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) vaping products that were purchased on the black market, the illnesses have cast a pall on the entire industry and prompted calls for regulators to take immediate action. Now, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is planning to introduce a ban on flavoured e-cigarettes.

While much of the attention on e-cigarette promotions have focused on billboards, transit ads and convenience store promotions, the Globe analysis shows that much of the marketing is happening where it's harder to track: on computers and smart phones.

Liam Gunther, who goes by the handle "Chufflord" on Instagram, is a Calgary-based influencer who has nearly 50,000 followers on the platform. His near-daily posts feature him doing "smoke tricks" with vapour clouds, posts about new e-liquid flavours and product promotions or giveaways. On his Instagram feed in mid-November, he was running a contest with Stig Canada, a vape brand owned by U.S.

company Vgod Inc., that will give away free products to users who follow him and the company on Instagram and who tag their friends in a comment under the post. On Friday, there were nearly 900 comments on the post.

Federal rules state that it is illegal for companies to use people in any vaping promotions. Mr.

Gunther, who is 21, declined an interview request. Stig Canada and Vgod didn't reply to questions from the Globe.

Tamara Balazsovits, a 26-yearold professional model and social-media influencer based in Toronto, said she was approached earlier this year by an agency working with Canadian ecigarette company Stlth to promote its brand on Instagram. Ms.

Balazsovits says her Instagram account's analytic information shows most of her 41,000 followers are ages 18-24, although some are younger than 18.

On its website, the company invited people to apply for its influencer program, saying "you get paid by advertising Stlth products to your audience on your blog, website, newsletter, search landing page." The statement was removed after the Globe and Mail asked the company about the program. Stlth provides influencers with a unique product link and offers them 20 per cent of all sales processed through the link.

Ms. Balazsovits says Stlth asked if she smoked and whether she was interested in vaping.

While Ms. Balazsovits smoked for a short period in high school, she is not a current smoker or vaper and told the company that Stlth, which says on its website that its products are designed to "give adult smokers a viable alternative to traditional tobacco," recruited her for a sponsored post anyway. She posted the ad on her page on June 14. In it, she is holding a Stlth e-cigarette and wearing a bra with a blazer, a cloud of vapour coming out of her mouth.

Ms. Balazsovits, who did not disclose the compensation she received from Stlth, said she typically charges companies $200 to $1,000 for a social-media post, and the amount depends on the work involved. Now that so many stories have emerged about the health risks of e-cigarettes, Ms.

Balazsovits said she regrets the ad and would not work with an ecigarette company again.

In an interview, Stlth chief operating officer Mark Hamdan said the company had hired external marketing firms to run its Instagram account. But after reviewing their activities a few months ago, Stlth severed ties with those firms and shut down its own Instagram account.

VanGo Vapes, an e-liquid manufacturer based in B.C., runs a social-media influencer program that requires people to complete several "tasks," such as Instagram posts, each week. On its website, the company says it receives hundreds of applications a week. The program is so popular that VanGo Vapes has created a "prospector" program, under which potential influencers buy a package of merchandise to promote on social media. If the posts are successful enough, the individual may become a paid influencer. To qualify, the company says prospectors must have a strong picture style, maintain good engagement on social media and have a high number of followers and wholesale referrals, among other criteria.

The company also has a series of testimonials on its website, which are said to be prohibited under federal law.

Saadiq Daya, chief executive officer of VanGo Vapes, said in an interview that the influencer program was suspended a few months ago, although in mid-November it was still being promoted on the company's website.

VanGo Vapes used to pay influencers, he said, but the company has since moved to providing free products. "We've put it all on hold until we can get full clarification on what's allowed, what's not allowed," he said.

E-cigarette companies are also creating pop-up marketing experiences designed to be shared on social media channels.

In August, Imperial Tobacco Canada, which sells the Vype e-cigarette brand, hired a design firm to create a 3,400-square foot outdoor installation on King Street West, one of Toronto's busiest downtown streets. The installation, which was for ages 19 and older, featured young models hired to help distribute product samples, a lounge area and Instagram-friendly neon signs. Similar events were held throughout the summer in Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary and London, Ont., according to numerous Instagram posts. Dozens of socialmedia users shared photos of themselves at the pop-up events, with lush plants and neon signs in the background.

Health Canada shut down a similar event at Toronto's Yonge and Dundas Square earlier this year, telling a reporter it violated rules against lifestyle advertising, and the use of testimonials or endorsements. According to federal law, "lifestyle" is advertising that links a product to a way of life that includes glamour, recreation, excitement, vitality, risk or daring.

Eric Gagnon, head of corporate and regulatory affairs with Imperial Tobacco Canada, said he does not believe the company has broken any rules with its recent promotions.

"A lounge is not lifestyle [advertising]," he said. "We've created an environment that enables us to talk about our product with adult smokers or vapers if they're interested in hearing about it."

Mr. Gagnon said Health Canada inspectors visited most of the pop-ups and allowed them to continue operating.

At the August launch party for Relx, a major Chinese e-cigarette brand that has just arrived in Canada, prospective distributors and buyers were invited to try the product "while interacting with influencers." Guests at a trendy downtown Toronto venue were treated to "fancy cocktails and artistic finger foods" at an event, "reminiscent of a late-summer garden party," according to the website of Fervent Events, which organized the event. The company's co-founder flew to Toronto from Hong Kong for the event and was on hand as organizers gave out the evening's grand prize: a five-day trip to Turkey.

Relx did not respond to an interview request.

VapeVine, an online e-liquid store that also has a bricks-andmortar location in Windsor, Ont., has numerous social-media ads featuring people enjoying themselves. One ad posted last month features a man vaping with a glass of what appears to be Scotch in his hand. The caption under the photo reads, "The weekend is here. Let the good times roll!"

In response to questions about its use of lifestyle advertising, Vape Vine sent an e-mail statement saying the company has begun an internal audit process.

"Anything that could be misinterpreted as not being product-informative will be systematically removed," the statement said.

A survey this fall by SmokeFree Nova Scotia found that 96 per cent of 16- to 18-year-olds who use e-cigarettes prefer flavoured vape juice. Nearly 60 per cent of female vapers in that age group said flavours were the aspect of e-cigarettes they like the most.

DashVapes, which describes itself as the largest independently owned e-cigarette retailer and e-liquid manufacturer in Canada, sells an entire category of products under a "sweets and desserts" banner on its online store.

One flavour is described as a "delicious blend of mini donuts, covered with cinnamon and sugar," another is "a delicious marshmallow cookie," while another is described as "praline maple pecan ice cream." The DashVapes website notes some flavour names have been changed because of federal law. For instance, Vanilla Ice Cream is now "Van IC".

A picture of an ice cream cone was removed from the product's label earlier this month.

Shai Bekman, president of DashVapes, said he believes companies are free to describe products in any manner they wish, as long as child-friendly flavours do not appear on product labels.

"An adult needs to know what they're going to be vaping," Mr.

Bekman said.

Enticing-sounding flavours aren't hard to find online.

In September, River City Vapes, an e-cigarette store in Edmonton, posted a promotion on Facebook and Instagram for a peanut butter cup and caramel cheesecake e-liquid. Canada Vapes, an online vape store and e-liquid manufacturer in London, Ont., published a post on Instagram and Facebook in early November promoting a holidaythemed gingerbread cookie vaping flavour. The post says the eliquid is "a combination of molasses and ginger to create the perfect seasonal delight." Neither store responded to questions from The Globe about the promotion.

A study published earlier this year by Dr. Jackler at Stanford University found that Juul Labs, one of the largest e-cigarette companies in the world, engaged in similar tactics to appeal to young people. The company held numerous pop-up sampling events featuring colourful designs and lounge spaces that were attended almost exclusively by young people. Juul also heavily promoted its flavours and ran numerous advertising campaigns using words such as "satisfying" - language that has long been used in tobacco marketing to encourage people to give in to their nicotine cravings and continue using the products, Dr. Jackler said.

Juul has since suspended all advertising in the U.S. because of government scrutiny and growing criticism, although the company still advertises in public places in Canada. The Globe stopped accepting e-cigarette ads this summer amid concerns about vaping-related illnesses in the U.S.

Some Canadian companies are also creating Instagram posts that suggest vaping has health benefits and that play down potential risks. For instance, e-liquid manufacturer Canada Vapes shared a post in October that says "vaping is less harmful than smoking," citing the federal government. But federal law explicitly prohibits any health claims in vaping promotions. Canada Vapes did not respond to an interview request.

"What we're seeing are classic, tobacco-type promotions that make the product cool and attractive to youth," said Rob Cunningham, senior policy analyst with the Canadian Cancer Society.

Decades ago, tobacco companies heavily advertised their products using bright colours, cartoon mascots and photos of attractive young people in their promotions. For years, the industry said the ads were designed to target existing smokers and encourage them to switch brands.

But in 1998, secret documents from seven major tobacco companies were made public as the result of a legal battle. The documents described how companies knowingly targeted young people as "replacements" for older smokers, who would eventually die from tobacco-related causes.

For instance, a 1978 memo from the Lorillard Tobacco Company simply read "the base of our business is the high school student."

As evidence emerged in the early 1960s linking cigarettes to lung cancer, emphysema and other serious health problems, governments across Canada started adopting a series of increasingly tough restrictions on tobacco marketing and accessibility.

In the 56 years since Canada's federal health minister first publicly stated that smoking causes lung cancer, the country has become a world leader in tobacco control. Canada was the first country to mandate graphic health warnings on cigarette packages and ban all flavours except menthol in cigarettes and little cigars. Today, laws prohibit the display of tobacco products in retail stores. And this month, new rules that require plain packaging for all tobacco packages take effect.

Meanwhile, e-cigarette companies use language borrowed from the cigarette industry's decadesold playbook. This past August, Imperial Tobacco Canada posted an ad on its Facebook and Instagram pages for its Vype e-cigarette brand with the text "Quiet.

Smooth. Satisfying." Around the same time, JTI Canada posted a social-media ad for its Logic e-cigarette brand that said, "Our Intense French Berry flavor will have you coming back for more!"

In an interview, Mr. Gagnon said "satisfying" can help existing smokers understand that vape products can help with nicotine cravings. Caroline Evans, head of corporate affairs for JTI Canada, said the company targets adult smokers and is committed to reducing youth uptake.

Mr. Cunningham said examples of these types of promotions highlight the need for an outright flavour and advertising ban.

"It demonstrates how inadequate the current provisions are," he said. "These companies are engaging in doublespeak and they cannot be trusted with promotion when they're engaging with obvious illegal promotions that involve people and lifestyle messages."

Mr. Pisano of the Canadian Vaping Association said he believes most member companies are in compliance with federal law. Mr. Pisano added that while companies aren't allowed to call flavoured vaping products by any name that would be appealing to children, such as bubble gum, his understanding of the law is that companies can still use those flavours and give them innocuous names, such as "sunset."

Mr. Pisano said, according to his interpretation, federal rules only prohibit companies from promoting child-friendly flavours on product labels and that companies can freely use any language to describe product flavours online, for instance.

For Nicolas Dupont, marketing messages and the availability of sweet, fruity flavours led him to try e-cigarettes while he was in high school. Now, the 18-year-old CEGEP student in Gatineau still vapes regularly, as do the majority of his friends. "People that have never thought of smoking suddenly just vape like it's normal and like it's cool, and I find it kind of sad," he said.

He said it's a common occurrence to be out with a group of friends and for everyone to have a vaping device. Unlike smoking, which forces most people outside in the cold and leaves a lingering smell on clothes and hands, teens can vape anywhere, virtually undetected. "I know a lot of my friends just sit in bed and vape and vape and vape. Their parents won't necessarily find out unless they walk in the second they do it," Mr. Dupont said.

As reports of vaping-related deaths and illnesses started to emerge in recent months, Mr. Dupont started to re-evaluate e-cigarettes and is trying to cut down.

But, as with many of his friends, he's been unable to quit.

"The first thing you notice is that the addiction was more clear and more pronounced as soon as we started. We could just be sitting anywhere and vaping," Mr.

Dupont said.

Kevin Kaardal, superintendent of B.C.'s Central Okanagan School District, understood how serious youth vaping had become earlier this year, when schools had to call ambulances for students experiencing nicotine overdoses on three separate occasions. Symptoms of nicotine poisoning include vomiting, nausea, rapid breathing and an increase in blood pressure.

In October, Mr. Kaardal sent a letter to parents, warning them any e-cigarette products found on school property would be confiscated and suggesting they speak to their children about the dangers of vaping. The district has seen plenty of middle school students using e-cigarettes. "In rare cases, even students as young as ... Grade 5," said Mr. Kaardal, who points to flavours and increasingly small, sleek devices that resemble flash drives as lures for young people.

"I struggle to understand how [the industry] can say they're only trying to target adults when they have candy flavoured vape or e-juice," he said. "They're making [e-cigarettes] in shapes that would fool somebody. It's very hard to detect."

Every day for the past few weeks, hundreds of thousands of commuters passed by a wall-to-wall, floor-to-ceiling advertising campaign for Vype e-cigarettes in Toronto's Union Station. Unlike its social-media feed, the ads don't boast about the availability of fruit flavours or the device's ability to satisfy. The campaign focuses on the quality and safety of Vype e-cigarettes, a response to growing public concerns over the reports of illnesses and deaths linked to e-cigarettes in North America. The ads state Vype doesn't contain THC or vitamin E acetate, which have been implicated in the U.S. outbreak of vaping-related lung disease.

The campaign is part of a wider industry-led effort to counteract the growing health concerns of vaping in the eyes of the public, as well as federal and provincial regulators that have the power to crack down on the industry.

In September, several e-cigarette companies, including Juul, Imperial Tobacco Canada, which sells the Vype e-cigarette, and JTI Canada, which sells the Logic vape brand, joined forces to launch the Vaping Industry Trade Association (VITA). Each of the six founding members have pledged to contribute $100,000 every year for three years to help promote the industry.

The Canadian Vaping Association (CVA), launched a GoFundMe appeal on Sept. 27 for a public-relations campaign in response to growing concerns that flavoured vaping products are leading to rising youth vaping rates. "Flavours are not to blame," the fundraising page says. The campaign has raised more than $225,000 so far.

VITA and the CVA both want to improve the public's perception of vaping, but they each have different goals. While the CVA is focused on preventing a crackdown on flavours, VITA is lobbying the federal government for the right to promote the health benefits of e-cigarettes compared to tobacco.

The group says it is essential companies be able to communicate their message to adult smokers.

"The way the regs are, we can't talk about harm-reduction value," said Daniel David, president of the organization. "It's perceived we are using it to help sell the product or whatever, but it's factual information. It does need to be out there."

In fact, Health Canada is considering allowing vaping companies to promote the health claims on product labels. Last fall, department representatives conducted a closed consultation with industry members and other stakeholders over the proposal to let e-cigarettes carry labels stating they are a less harmful alternative to cigarettes. The proposed promotional statements include, "Switching completely from smoking to e-cigarettes will reduce harms to your health," and, "If you are a smoker, switching completely to vaping is a much less harmful option."

Public-health experts say such a move would be a serious mistake that could exacerbate the unfolding vaping crisis.

"The problem with advertising is that it reaches youth and it reaches ex-smokers and non-smokers," Mr. Cunningham said. "They simply shouldn't be advertising."

Federal and provincial governments each have the power to bring in new e-cigarette rules. As provincial regulators wait for Health Canada's next move, some are responding to mounting concerns by introducing new restrictions.

On Thursday, B.C. announced it is increasing the tax on vaping products, will ban flavours that could appeal to children, cap nicotine levels and restrict public advertising for vape products. Last month, Ontario said it will ban vaping ads in gas stations and convenience stores as of Jan. 1, 2020, while Nova Scotia's government said it will consider a ban on e-cigarette flavours. Some provinces, including Quebec and Manitoba, have already banned most forms of e-cigarette advertising. Quebec also bans online sales of e-cigarettes to minors and is seen by many tobacco control advocates as having the strongest e-cigarette legislation in Canada.

Health experts say the patchwork of provincial rules highlights why strong federal regulations are needed.

In February, Health Canada signalled it will move to further restrict many forms of e-cigarette advertising, including promotions in public places where young people could be exposed to them, such as shopping malls, public transit and parks, broadcast media during, before or after children's programs and childoriented websites. In April, Health Canada held a public consultation on other possible restrictions, such as prohibiting certain flavours and capping nicotine levels.

It's unclear whether any proposed restrictions would apply to social media platforms not specifically oriented to children, including Facebook and Instagram. It's also unclear when or if any of these rules would take effect.

At the University of Waterloo, Dr. Hammond is preparing to release a new set of data that he says shows the youth vaping problem is only getting worse.

But provinces that have adopted tough marketing restrictions, such as Quebec, are seeing a slower increase in youth vaping rates, Dr. Hammond said.

"I don't think we have the time to waste and wait," said Sandy Buchman, president of the Canadian Medical Association. "Youth vaping is a public health crisis and we need the action now."

Associated Graphic

Tamara Balazsovits is a social-media influencer with 41,000 followers on Instagram. She says she now regrets having agreed to a sponsored post this summer for the Canadian e-cigarette company Stlth.

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Student Nicolas Dupont of Gatineau is trying to cut down on vaping, so far without much success.

JUSTIN TANG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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PRINT EDITION
BIRTH AND death notices
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Wednesday, November 13, 2019 – Page B20

DEATHS J. LAVERNE BOND (née McConkey) On November 6, 2019, at age 99, Laverne, loving mother of Thomas and his wife Lynda, and Scott and his wife Debbie, and cherished grandmother of Emily, Chris, Alison (Mitch) and Peter was reunited with her late husband Alfred Bond, who passed away in 1999.

Laverne had a sharp mind but she had become very frail over the past year. Despite her frailty, she was determined to live on her own. She was fiercely independent, creative, embraced life and found humour to the end.

Laverne will be deeply missed by her family but will continue to positively influence all of our lives.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor Street W, at Windermere, east of Jane Street, on Friday, November 15, 2019. Visitation is at 10 a.m. and will be followed by a service in the chapel at 11 a.m. A reception will be held at The Lambton Golf and Country Club at 12:30 p.m.

If desired, donations in lieu of flowers may be made to Children's Wish Foundation of Canada.

HENRIETTA CHESNIE (née Farb) Passed away on Monday, November 11, 2019, at the age of 96. Beloved wife of the late Dr. Joshua Chesnie.

Loving mother and mother-inlaw of Dr. Debby Cooper, and Dr. Brian and Vicky Chesnie.

Devoted grandmother of Neri and Peter, David, Sarah and Zach, Nathan and Katie, Graeme and Rachel, and the late Joanna Cooper. Adoring great-grandmother of Joshua, Adam, Tyler, Charlotte, Claire, Canon, Emmalyn, and Blakely. Her greater family, her uncles, aunts, and many cousins all remained central to her core, throughout her entire life. She graduated with a degree in Physiotherapy.

She gave of her time to numerous charitable causes, participating in organizational roles at Mount Sinai Hospital, and Holy Blossom Temple, where she became the first female President of a Synagogue in Canada. At Holy Blossom Temple, 1950 Bathurst Street (South of Eglinton) for service on Thursday, November 14, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. Interment Holy Blossom Memorial Park. Shiva 44 Charles Street West, Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to the Joshua and Henrietta Chesnie Endowment Fund c/o Mount Sinai Hospital Foundation, 416-586- 8203.

DIANA DONALD (née Harrower) April 4, 1928 November 9, 2019 Beloved mother of 4 children, who just adored her - Rick, Rob (Karen), Nancy (Tim) and Dynah, grandmother of 9, and greatgrandmother of 5, with 2 more on their way. A friend to so many and counsellor to others. She touched everyone she met.

An extraordinary woman who beat cancer twice, and got her Masters Degree in Psychology at 60. She continued working well into her 80's because she loved helping others. They all remain friends and fans to this day. As well she was an author of 2 childrens books. She was the "block mom" to all her childrens' friends throughout her life. Young or old they sought her out.

Mom, we'll all keep dreaming of the fairies..

Service will be held at: Belvedere Funeral Home, 22025 TransCanada Hwy, Senneville Québec.

11:30 a.m. - 1 p.m. on November 15, 2019.

In lieu of flowers please send donations to the Children's Wish Foundation.

HEATHER ELIZABETH HEAPS (MacLEAN) March 6, 1943 November 10, 2019 Heather died peacefully on Sunday at Bridgepoint Palliative Care in her 76th year. Beloved wife of Frank, her husband of 53 years. Daughter of the late Elizabeth (Betty) and Dr. John MacLean. Loving mother of Ian (Niki), Angus (Josee), Cameron (Johna) and Cailey (James).

Cherished grandmother of Hugo and his brother Graeme, Magnolia and Ophelia (Ian), Kyra and Lucas (Angus), Shakeel, Samuel and Daisy (Cam), Mimi, Declan and Pippa (Cailey). Loving sister of Joanna (Al Gerdung, predeceased), Sheila (Brian Talbot) and Daphne (Doug Brown).

While Heather's death will be a profound loss to all who knew and loved her, her spirit will remain a positive influence on all of our lives.

She was born in Victoria, B.C., raised in Montreal and Knowlton, QC, educated at Smith College in Mass., U.S.A. (B.A., Fine Art and Economics) and U of T (M.Sc., Urban & Regional Planning), where Heather and Frank met.

Married in 1966 they lived in Toronto, Monaco, Ottawa, Montreal, St. Lucia and Vancouver before returning to Toronto.

Heather was a very caring and unselfish person, always with a ready smile. Respected and loved by all who knew her she was an inspiring and model wife, mother, grandmother, and friend.

She cherished her friendships with the Tea Ladies, the BVAA, her Vancouver connections, her Moore Park neighbours, her St. Lucia community, The Study and Smith College "girls," Longford cottagers and so many other connections that she built throughout her life.

After taking time off to raise her four children, Heather built and enjoyed a successful real estate business that saw her quickly recognized as one of Canada's top performers in her field. Heather's success was the result of the genuine and passionate care she shared serving her clients, many of whom became life-long friends.

She also impacted and enjoyed the comradery of her colleagues she met along the way.

Her favourite pastimes included time with family and friends, reading, gardening, enjoying the cottage and exploring at Longford Reserve, travelling and being involved with the many charities she cared deeply about.

Throughout her life, Heather felt a deep appreciation of nature from which she derived great spiritual inspiration. She stood out for her incredible ability to connect with people, both friends and strangers, her warm and open heart, unmatched hospitality, endless generosity, strong spirit and her incredible ability to always see the best in people.

Even until her last moments, she made sure the people around her knew how much she loved them.

Heather and her family are forever grateful to Dr. Neesha Dhani and the team at Princess Margaret Hospital and, in her final days, the palliative care teams from The Temmy Latner Centre and Bridgepoint Health. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to the Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation [Ovarian Cancer Medical Oncology Fund] via http://www.thepmcf.ca or call 416946-6560. Service at Christ Church Deer Park, 1570 Yonge Street, on Monday, November 18th at 11:00 a.m. followed by a celebration at the Donalda Club, 12 Bushbury Drive at 1:00 p.m. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

WERNER HIRSCHMANN Died peacefully in his sleep, age 96, on November 7, 2019, at Toronto Western Hospital, with wife Diana at his side. Born in Düsseldorf, Germany in 1923, Werner emigrated after spending time as a prisoner of war in Gravenhurst. In Canada, he leveraged his math and physics degree to become a computing pioneer, helping shape the industry during his time at the University of Toronto, KPMG, the Bank of Montreal, and the City of Toronto. Werner had a lifelong passion for the sea, nurtured under the Atlantic ocean as Chief Engineer on several U-Boats including the U-190, above water sailing on Lake Ontario aboard Anita and the Thieving Magpie, and on land through his connections to the Canadian Navy, the NAC, the RCMI, and the Esquimalt Association.

Werner is survived by a constellation of family: son Mike (Wendy), from his first marriage to Ruth; Mike's children Steve (Julie), Tyler (Suzan), Samantha (Chris), and Niki (Jon); and their children Naomi, Maeve, Chase, Connor, Brooklyn, Emmerson and Jacob. He is also survived by a son from his marriage to Diana: Thomas (Sarah), with children Wilhem and Edie. As Werner would always say when the entire family gathered, "this is all because of me." Please join us in gathering, one more time, "all because of Werner," at The Boulevard Club, Saturday, November 23rd, 2 p.m. - 4 p.m.

JOHN T. BODEN HOLDER It is with great sadness that the family of John Holder shares the news of his passing November 11, 2019.

He passed peacefully at Hospice Georgian Triangle Campbell House with his family at his side. He is survived by his wife, Barbara; three children, David, Susan, and Mark and was also predeceased by his daughter, Valerie.

A service will be held At All Saints Anglican Church in Collingwood, Ontario on November 14, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. The church is located at 32 Elgin St. in Collingwood.

There will be a reception to follow immediately after the service. In lieu of flowers, donations to the Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) or the Canadian Red Cross would be greatly appreciated.

MARGARET JORDIS NOKLEBERG/NIKIFORUK September 18, 1928 September 13, 2019 Margaret Jordis Nokleberg, the youngest of five siblings, began life on a farm in Barron Wisconsin in 1928.

Five years later the banks seized her home and her Norwegian émigré parents Emilie and Arthur divorced.

Arthur, a violin player, took Margaret out for a chocolate ice cream and then vanished from her life. Margaret and Emilie persevered during the Depression. Margaret excelled at school where the kids called her "Nockie." Her sister Astrid and her cheese making husband, Ernest, set the table with love and laughter.

After the war Margaret attended nursing school at the University of Illinois in Chicago where she met an aspiring young Ukrainian dentist from Saskatchewan, Gordon Nikiforuk. They married in 1950 as naïve as virgins. Ever the realist Margaret sent him an article on "How to Live With A Difficult Wife." It was an early happy wife-happy life manifesto.

After bearing two sons Margaret boldly returned to university as a mature student in the 1960s. She majored in history at UCLA and mastered Norwegian so she could talk to her ski-loving relatives.

(She proudly finished her degree at York University in 1971.)

But the craziness of California nearly killed her. She survived a house fire only when Bob Patrick, a burly neighbour, busted down the front door.

Then her beloved brother Chris died of a heart attack.

He spent nearly six months in a water-filled foxhole on the beaches of Anzio. She always claimed the war took years off his life, and she grieved him for months.

After moving back to Toronto Margaret returned to public health nursing and spent many years helping immigrant families in Toronto. When one of her sons became seriously ill, she founded "Parents for the Environmentally Sensitive" and battled the Ministry of Health to study the condition.

It relented and did so.

Her mother always told Margaret "you have to take the good with the bad," but when her marriage failed, she became a binge drinker.

Hallucinations and paranoia (early undiagnosed dementia) then crept into her life like a bad neighbour. A cloud of chaos and dread unsettled the family, and we became a Nordic soap opera.

But for all the trauma and tragedy, she loved life and prized its little and precious moments. A good cup of coffee at a fine restaurant. A sentimental musical. Boating on Drag Lake. Sitting by the beach in Costa Rica. Laughing about ridiculous things. The unconditional love of dogs.

Anything about Norway.

In many ways she prized the best of Norwegian virtues: courage, honesty, hard work, fidelity, hospitality, selfreliance and perseverance.

She is now at rest with her siblings: Astrid, Chris, Dagney, and Ethel. She survived her late husband, Gordon, by two months.

Her sons, Andrew and Christian, daughter-in-laws, Doreen Docherty and Mary Power, and their children, Aidan, Keegan, Torin, and Stephen and Erik wish her much happiness in the afterlife.

A celebration of life will be held at the Funeral Center at Mount Pleasant Cemetery on November 16th beginning at 12:30 with a Service at 1 p.m.

SYD LANYS Peacefully and surrounded by family, on Monday, November 11, 2019 at Mackenzie Health.

Beloved husband of Vicki. Loving father and father-in-law of Michael and the late Sandra, Sheryl, and lovingly remembered by Mehre.

Devoted grandfather of Zachary, Lindsay, and Sean. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Dorothy and the late Milton, Yetta and the late Lou, and the late Marty and Ruthie, and Izzy and Sandy. Dear brother-in-law of Bella and the late Paul.

Special thanks to Mackenzie Health Complex Care Unit, Doctors and Staff.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Wednesday, November 13, 2019 at 12:30 p.m. Interment Beth David B'nai Israel Beth Am Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Shiva 15 North Park Road, Thornhill.

Memorial donations may be made to the Syd Lanys Memorial Fund for Canadian Breast Cancer and for Bronchiectasis c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324, http://www.benjamins.ca YIO MARK SAAR November 23, 1925, Estonia My dad's final journey came to an end peacefully on October 30, 2019. He is fondly remembered by his loving family Leili, Elyn, Peter, Ross and Hayley. Special thanks to Doctors Rand, Beamish, Zalewski, Blouin and the staff at Hospice Peterborough for their wonderful care and compassion.

Arrangements entrusted to The Hendren Funeral Homes, Lakefield Chapel. A private burial has taken place. To family and friends, we invite you to a celebration of his life to be held at "The Regency Of Lakefield", 91 Concession St., Lakefield, on Saturday, November 23, 2019 from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, memorial donations to Hospice Peterborough would be appreciated by our family and can be made by visiting http://www.hendrenfuneralhome.com or by calling 705-652-3355.

J. BLAIR SEABORN, CM In Ottawa on November 11, 2019, in his 96th year, after a full and rewarding life. Predeceased in 2011 by his loving wife, dearest friend and companion of over 60 years, Carol (Trow). Blair was the proud father of son Geoffrey (Jan de Pencier) of Toronto and daughter Virginia of Mont-Tremblant, and "J.B." to beloved grandchildren Emma (Rob Grundy), Claire (Michael Currie) and Adam Seaborn. He was delighted to have lived to see two great-grandchildren, Fraser and Sloane Grundy. He is fondly remembered by Carol's siblings, Virginia Ings, Allen Trow, Ben Trow and Marion Doheny. Born in 1924, the youngest child of the Reverend Richard and Muriel Seaborn of Toronto, he was predeceased by his siblings, Kitty (Smith), Richard, Jean (Bertram), Jack, Bob, Charlie and Ted, but is survived by nieces, nephews, their spouses, and their progeny too numerous to mention.

After the University of Toronto Schools, he studied political science and economics at the University of Toronto (Trinity College) where, following three years in the Canadian Army, he earned his M.A. in 1948. He entered the federal public service and spent the next twentytwo years at the Department of External Affairs with postings in The Hague, Paris, Moscow and Saigon, the latter as Canadian Commissioner for the ICSC in Vietnam. His life as a diplomat was followed by nineteen years in senior federal positions with the Department of Consumer and Corporate Affairs (Assistant Deputy Minister), Environment Canada (Deputy Minister), the International Joint Commission (Canadian Chairman) and the Privy Council Office (Intelligence and Security Coordinator). After "retirement", he spent eight years as chair the federal Environmental Assessment Panel on Nuclear Fuel Waste Management. He was honoured to receive the Order of Canada in 2000. Blair was grateful to have had a long, varied and satisfying career, for the opportunity to contribute to the life of Christ Church Cathedral and other voluntary work; and for good health which enabled him to enjoy, into his 'nineties, numerous outdoor activities, membership in the Rockcliffe Lawn Tennis Club, the Five Lakes Fishing Club, the Rideau Club Round Table and weekends at his "dacha" in Mulgrave-et-Derry.

A man of enduring modesty and unfailing courtesy, he earned the great respect of his colleagues and the deep affection of friends and family.

A funeral service will be held at Christ Church Cathedral, 420 Sparks Street, Ottawa on Sunday, November 17 at 4:00 p.m., followed by a reception in Cathedral Hall. No flowers by request. If desired, donations in Blair's name may be made to Trinity College, Toronto or Christ Church Cathedral, Ottawa, for restorations.

GRAHAM FARRELL SIRMAN BA, MBA, LLB, LLM October 11, 1963 November 8, 2019 Cherished husband, father, son, brother, nephew, cousin and uncle, Graham died unexpectedly and tragically while hiking to the family cottage with his inseparable companion, his Landseer Newfoundland dog, Murphy.

Graham will be forever cherished by his devoted wife Allison, his sons William and Thomas, his sisters Lindsay and Hilary (Haig), and his parents Carol and Bill. He was a dear brother-in-law of Jill and Steve Conway, Debbie and Al Garrison, Clint and Susan Bowles, and Becky and Pete Moslinger. He was a beloved nephew, cousin and uncle to all in his extended Bowles and Sirman families.

A graduate of Napanee District Secondary School, Queen's University, St. Mary's University, Western University and Osgoode Hall, Graham practiced law for three years in Toronto before opening his own litigation practice in Kingston, Ontario, in 2002.

He was an accomplished intercollegiate and junior hockey player and his passion for the sport is surpassed by few.

Graham loved every minute of his involvement variously as a player, coach, General Manager and scout. He was an ardent reader of newspapers and books, particularly history and sports.

His greatest passion, however, was his family. Graham supported, loved, and was fiercely protective of Allison, William and Thomas in all aspects of their lives. He was constantly in arenas, watching his sons play across North America and Europe. Graham was modest about his own considerable accomplishments, but revelled in celebrating Thomas and William's academic and athletic successes. He loved to spend hours talking with them to help map out their futures.

Graham truly valued his many friends. He was unwaveringly loyal and happily made himself available to friends and their families at a moments notice.

Graham's life revolved around his family and friends and his death leaves an enormous void in our lives.

A service to celebrate Graham's life will be held on Saturday, November 16, 2019 at the Isabel Bader Centre for the Performing Arts, (390 King Street West in Kingston) at 11:30 a.m., following the service a reception will be held in the lobby.

A contribution to the Ontario SPCA and Humane Society in Graham's name, by those who wish, would be greatly appreciated by the family.

Arrangements in the care of Wartman Funeral Home Kingston Chapel Online condolences and donations at wartmanfuneralhomes.com ROCHELLE (RUCHEL) SWAYE It is with great sadness that we inform you of the passing of Rochelle (Ruchel) Swaye z"l, after a long, valiant battle with illness. Rochelle was 71 years old. Rochelle was loved by everyone who knew her.

She was the adored wife of 50 years to Gerald Swaye QC; beloved mother to Jason (Terry), Adam (Tanya), Marlyz and Jenna; Bubbie to Ryan and Erin; and loved by so many cousins, nieces and nephews, and friends.

She was predeceased by her brother, Harold Applebaum; her parents, Nissie and Thelma Applebaum; and her grandparents, Shima and Esther Boom.

Shiva will take place at the Swaye home, 19 Robinhood Drive, Dundas: Monday to Thursday 2-4 p.m. and 7-9 p.m. Evening services at the Shiva home, daily at 7:30pm.

WILLIAM JAMES (BILL) FAIRBURN September 24, 1934 November 13, 2016 It has been three years since we lost our adored husband, father, grandfather, brother, uncle and friend. Our memories remain ever strong. Bill taught us the value of family, country, and community.

He taught us the joy in embracing every day. He lived with meaning, intent and purpose. His generosity of time and spirit knew no bounds.

He will be forever missed. We will remain forever grateful to have been touched by the power of his enduring love.

The Fairburn Family


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Detroit is new and improved - but for whom?
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Dan Gilbert, the richest man in Michigan, put his wealth to use when his hometown needed it most. Today, the signs of renewal are clear - but so are signs of racial and economic inequality
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By ADRIAN MORROW
  
  

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Tuesday, November 19, 2019 – Page A8

DETROIT -- When Dan Gilbert moved the headquarters of Quicken Loans to downtown Detroit in 2010, the city was hitting rock bottom.Art decoskyscrapers sat empty, long-shuttered businesses lined its main street along Woodward Avenue and the municipal government was spiralling toward bankruptcy.

Born in the city in1962,near the start of its decades-long decline, Mr.Gilbert and his arc had bent in inverse parallel to that of his hometown. A lawyer and realtor by profession, he co-founded the company that would become Quicken in 1985 and built it into a major lender, ultimately becoming the richest man in Michigan.

Along the way, the gruffvoiced, silver-haired entrepreneur developed a brash public persona.As majority owner of the Cleveland Cavaliers, for instance, he once famously excoriated LeBron James in an open letter when the NBA superstar decided to leave the team.

By Mr. Gilbert's late 40s, it was time for the next chapter. He and 1,700 employees decamped from the suburbs to the city centre, bringing a sudden infusion of white-collar jobs to a struggling local economy. Then he started buying up buildings. Through his real estate firm, Bedrock, Mr. Gilbert took over more than 100 properties, mostly heritage buildings, refurbished them and brought in new offices, businesses and residents.

His motivation was a mix of business instinct and civicattachment. "I'm a fourth-generation Detroiter,"Mr.Gilbert,a wiry man with a slicked hairstyle and goatee, said at a Milken Institute event last year. "It gets in your blood,in your DNA."

Today, downtown Detroit is a place transformed. Along Woodward, high-end restaurants and new clothing stores jostle for space.Hipsters and office workers crowd bars and cafés in cobblestone alleyways. The two-year-old QLine, a streetcar whose naming rights Mr. Gilbert bought, trundlespast.

But this urban renaissance has also drawn tough criticism. For one,Quicken and Bedrock are accused of building an affluent island in the centre of a low-income city. While Mr. Gilbert's spending has revitalized the central business district, much of Detroit remains economically distressed with neighbourhoods full of boarded-up businesses and burnt-outhouses.

Detroit's racial divides factor in, too: Recent developments have tended to concentrate in the whiter neighbourhoods of a city where 79 per cent of the population is black.For another,Bedrock and its related companies have received US$767-million worth of government subsidies and tax breaks since 2010.Tosome,thisis an egregious use of funds when Detroit's schools and transit system are struggling. Mr. Gilbert's critics argue a man with a net worth For besestimates at US$6.8billion has no need for government assistance.

Whether Mr.Gilbert is the hero Detroit needed to pull it back from the precipice or an unaccountable billionaire wielding an uncomfortable amount of civic power, his rise represents an extraordinary moment in U.S. urbanism.

The rapid rebirth and future of one of the country's greatest and most troubled cities rests largely in the hands of one man and his corporate empire, which is both animating the metropolis with its work force, and directly shaping the look and feel of its streets and buildings.

Just how central Mr.Gilbert has become to the city was thrown into stark relief this spring when he suffered a stroke. The health scare,which has required months of recuperation, transfixed local media and raised questions about what would happen in his absence.

But those close to him insist his work in the Motor City is just getting started.

Detroit has been through a particularly protracted urban unravelling.

A city that grew prosperous as the centre of automobile manufacturing watched its flagship industry move facilities to the suburbsin the postwar period,taking jobs and residents with it. Then, that industry steadily declined amid the globalization of manufacturing. Racial tensions, meanwhile, exploded over five brutal days in the summer of 1967.A police raid on an unlicensed bar turned into a riot that saw the army called in, 43 people killed, buildings torched and white residents fleeing to suburbia.

Corruption and mismanagement at city hall didn't help matters.I none particularlye gregious case, Kwame Kilpatrick, mayor from 2002 to 2008, is currently serving a 28-year prison sentence for a scheme that traded government contracts for kickbacks.

From a peak near two million in the 1950s, Detroit's population has fallen to fewer than 700,000.

This was the context in which Mr.Gilbert was raised.His earliest memory, he said at the Milken event, was of his father unable to go to work because of the 1967 riot. For much of his life, the only reason to trek downtown was for sporting events. And it was the context he was determined to change when he moved Quicken to a building on Campus Martius Park,Detroit's central square.

But Mr. Gilbert didn't stop there. Rather than simply bring employment to the city,he decided to build the downtown he wanted to see."He had the capacity and the vision to think of it in a BigBang.He just said,'We're going to do it all. We're creating jobs through Quicken Loans, we're also going to create this entrepreneurial network, we're also going to invest in retail on Woodward and we're going to invest in residential,' "said Bedrock CEO Matt Cullen at the company's offices, whose hardwood floors, exposed brick and long communal workstation-allhousedinan1898formerhotelbuilding-betterresemble the digs of a tech startup than those of a property developer.

On seemingly every block sit Bedrock buildings, from the bright orange art-deco Stott skyscraper to the neoclassical Vinton Building to the Book Tower, an enormous 1917 Italianate edifice.

Quicken has also expanded exponentially, its local work force growing tenfold to 17,000 in less than a decade.

Bedrock has been careful to avoid the blunders of previous urban renewal efforts in Detroit - most famously the fortress-like 1977 Renaissance Center, cut off from the rest of downtown behind parking lots and grassy knolls. By contrast, Bedrock's developments are designed for maximum connection to the city,with street-front retail and amixofuses. One block on Woodward, for instance, features the boutique Shinola Hotel along with two independent clothing stores, a restaurant, a craft-beer bar and apartments on the upper floors.

"We, as very large-scale developers, have a big portfolio, and with that comes a lot of power," said Melissa Dittmer, the company's chief design officer."We have leadership in place who understands the power of that scale of portfolio and is trying to address inclusivity a cross all of it."

The next step is to move from restoring existing buildings to putting up new ones. These include two massive mixed-use high-rise complexes on Woodward and Monroe avenues, and an expansion of Quicken's headquarters.

There were other factors in Detroit's rebirth,from political leadership that restored fiscal order at city hall to other corporate leaders who poured money into downtown developments. But Mr. Gilbert's multibillion dollar spending has been key."To have a major investor come in and buy up 70 per cent of the buildings in downtown, move its headquarters downtown, and make that kind of investment in one place, had the kind of momentum that was needed," said Anika GossFoster, executive director of Detroit Future City, an urban-affairs think tank. "It required that sort of laser focus in one area."

Petosky-Otsego is 15 minutes by carfrom the centre of Detroit,but the west-side neighbourhood feels a world away. Stately three storey homes sit empty, some with roofs caved in, others with interiors gutted. Champagnebrick storefronts are boarded up with weathered white plywood.

On some blocks, nearly every building has been torn down, leaving acres of urban prairie where grass and weeds grow wild.

Sonia Brown was raised here in the 1960s in the same white bungalow where she still lives. Over the years,all but two of the dozen houses on her block became vacant as residents moved away or faced foreclosure.

With a combination of donations and charitable grants, Ms.Brown, a health-care worker by profession,has startedbuyingthe homes and vacant lots along the street,fixing them up and turning them into DIY social services.

There's a community kitchenand food pantry, a free health clinic staffed by volunteer medical students, an after-school tutoring program, community gardens and summercamps.

"This shows the ability to bring life back to something that was dying," said Ms. Brown, sitting in the front room of one recently renovated house on a rainy September afternoon."My grandchildren are now able grow up in that communities-unities concept that I grew up in."

The city sorely needs her efforts.Detroit's38percentpoverty rate is nearly three times the national average and median household income of US$30,344 annually is about half.

But Ms. Brown, known in the neighbourhood as Auntie Na after a diminutive of her middle name, Renia, is stridently against Bedrock or other corporate developers coming into the area.In her view, the new buildings rising downtown have nothing to offer her community and would only push people out.

"It's the dollars that's fixing to talk. The rest of us are about to walk.They're putting us out of our own city," she said. "I can't afford that $180,000 home. I can't pay $1,700foryourapartment."

Herfearsarewellfounded.One city hall study estimates that as many as10,000unitsofaffordable housing could be lost in the next five years because of rising rents and condo conversions spurred bythecity'srevitalization.

A few blocks away,Ishmail Terry walks around his neighbourhood pointing out its vanished landmarks.The local pizzaplace- closed. A doctor's office - closed.

The spot with the area's best corned beef sandwiches - replaced by a biker gang clubhouse.

Asachildinthe1970s,heremembersHalloweenstreetpartiesand mobile, truck-mounted pools arrivingin summer.

"When I was growing up here, we had swim-mobiles, librarymobiles. People were in these places, people would use these places," said Mr. Terry, a tall, bearded47-year-old,as he passed a string of vacant shops on Dexter Avenue, some boarded up and others with windows smashed and interiors stripped. "Now look at it."

Mr. Terry runs two community organizations, All Four One and Pleasant Heights Economic Development,that aim to revive the area.His work has included building two parks with government grants and trying to match new businesses with city-owned repossessed properties they can take over. His current project is setting up a farmer's market in a red-brick building with chipping green paint.

"The city is so focused on downtown.Over here,it's been 30 years we've been basically told they're going to do something," he said. "I'm just tired of seeing the shucking and jiving."

Mr. Terry points to the stark wealth and racial divides between the areas benefiting from the renaissance and those being left out: One downtown census tract, for instance,has a median house hold income of US$68,000, a median home value of US$188,000andapopulationthat is 52 per cent black. The census tract in which Ms. Brown lives, by comparison,has a median house hold income of US$21,000, a US$29,000 median home value and a population that is 93 per centblack.

Reverend Joan Ross,a community activist in the North End area, argues that the city and state have not demanded enough from Bedrock as a condition of subsidizing its developments.What good,she asked, are the company's city building aspirations when 150,000 homes have been foreclosedonsince2002?

"We can take all of these tax subsidies to do that development, but we don't have the foresight and the ability to create some kind of permanently affordable housing,"she said at the offices of WNUC, a community radio station where she has a show. "All these incentives - corporate welfare."

A city report from 2018 tallied public subsidies to Quicken, Bedrock and affiliated companies at US$766,759,061since2010.Ofthat figure, US$640-million came from direct government payments, calculated based on the tax revenues generated by the company's projects,and the other US$127-million in the form of tax breaks. In one case, the company successfully lobbied the state government to set up a special fund for "transformational brownfield plans" so that Bedrock could apply for money from it.By comparison, Detroit's budget for public schools is US$767-million,and for public transitis US$137-million.

A ProPublica report last month, meanwhile, highlighted Mr.Gilbert'seffortstobuildarelationship with U.S. President Donald Trump - including a US$750,000donationtohisinauguration - alongside a Trump administration decision to grant a relatively wealthy swath of downtown Detroit a special tax status meant to help low-income neighbourhoods. That status could boost the value of Mr. Gilbert's holdings.

The city requires developers to sign Community Benefits Agreements with the neighbourhoods in which they build, stipulating specific things the company must provide such as parks or affordable housing. But some activists contend these do not go far enough.

"If you talk to Quicken, they're going totell you that they're doing something," said Gloria Rivera, 76, an activist with the Detroit People's Platform. "The question is,are you doing enough?" Laura Grannemann, a Quicken vice-president who oversees the company's charity programs, standsinthelivingroomofanewly renovated house near Detroit's northern boundary. The twostorey, three-bedroom brick home sticks out on the street, with its fresh coat of blue paint, polished hardwood floors and fireplacenewlyfacedwithstone.

This house is part of Rehabbed & Ready, a program in which Quicken fixes up foreclosed homes and sells them back into the market to raise long-depressed property values for the city'shomeowners.

Another Quicken program pays off the back taxes on foreclosed houses that had been owned by scofflaw landlords,andsells the properties to tenants living there for between US$2,000 and US$6,000. A third helps low-income families apply for property tax exemptions in a bid to keep their homes.

"We have even more of a responsibility to be really active in that space,and we have a lot of talent to bear on this problem," Ms.

Grannemann said. "We have 17,000 team members who all, in some way, are touching housing relate dissues."

Mr. Cullen allows that Bedrock has focused nearly all of its efforts to date on the central business district and has more work to do outside of it. The company, he says, plans to push further into the neighbourhoods."Most of the great stuff that's happened in the first five years of our resurgence is in seven to10 square miles downtown, and the city of Detroit is enormous-it's140 square miles," hesaid.

"You can't have10 square miles of an ecosystem of 140 doing well and the rest of it failing and think that you're going to be successful."

But Mr. Gilbert's team makes no apologies for tapping the public purse to help fund its work.

Jared Fleisher, his chief lobbyist, said Bedrock would never have built any of the projects that received subsidies without that money, because rents alone would have been too low to cover the costs of construction.The payments are a small price, he contends, for the additional tax revenue and economic development the properties are bringing in.The city's numbers calculate that net tax from the projects, after subtracting the cost of subsidies, will be US$690-million.

"Gilbert is willing to take more risk with less return longer in the future than any traditional developer," Mr. Fleisher said. "But that doesn't mean he can go bankrupt.

That doesn't mean these development scan lose money."

A report commissioned by the Michigan state government on the single largest Bedrock subsidy - a US$618-million package from the Transformational Brownfield Plan - found that Mr. Fleisher is correct, at least to a point. The study, by Chicago-based development consultants SB Friedman, calculated that revenues from the projects,with out a subsidy,would indeed be too small to cover construction costs.

But the report also found Bedrock had significantly over estimated those costs.ItrecommendedthesubsidybecuttoUS$346.5million. Despite this advice, the state government approved the full US$618-million Bedrock wanted.

As for the special tax status conferred by the Trump administration on parts of downtown Detroit,Quicken contends it exerted no undue influence: All it did, Mr.Fleisher says,was take partinconsultations with the city and state on which areas should be suggested to the federal government for the program.

Ms. Goss-Foster, the urban-affairs expert, said the subsidies have been "necessary," but the city and state have done too little to extract benef its such as affordable housing and heritage preservation in exchange.

Rather than a divide between downtown and neighbourhoods, or Mr. Gilbert and community bootstrappers, she argued, all of these elements have to work together.

"There is no one king here that's sprinkling gold and paving streets for opportunity," she said.

"We need everybody for that. We need all of the justice voices and we need the corporate leaders." A CITY DIVIDED Detroit's wealth and race divides are stark. Critics of Dan Gilbert's revitalization efforts contend they have mostly helped a downtown that is wealthier and whiter than the city as a whole, while doing little for other neighbourhoods.

Detroit still plagued by vacant buildings Vacant property registrations as of October

Associated Graphic

Billionaire Dan Gilbert, seen in 2017, has bought more than 100 properties in Detroit through his real estate firm, and used the spaces for new offices, businesses and residences.

PHIL LONG/ASSOCIATED PRESS

SYLVIA JARRUS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

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Ishmail Terry, left, is trying to revive the area through two organizations he runs: All Four One and Pleasant Heights Economic Development. Both he and Dileo Jones, right, have fond memories in the city and high hopes for its future. 'We used to be the richest city in America,' Mr. Jones says. 'Detroit still is, but we just gotta get it together. The bodies are here and the talent's here.'

Sonia Brown, above centre, lives in the Petosky-Otsego neighbourhood turning vacant lots into sites for DIY services. She says corporate developers won't solve her area's issues, and even pose a threat to its residents. ABOVE AND BELOW PHOTOS BY SYLVIA JARRUS/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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PLAYING WITH FIRE
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Alberta and the conservative movement must decide if they want to lead, or shrink from federalism, Kenneth Whyte writes. But if the province retreats behind a firewall, it risks getting burned
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By KENNETH WHYTE
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page O1

Kenneth Whyte is chairman of the Donner Canada Foundation and publisher of Sutherland House Books. He is the former editor-in-chief of Maclean's, editor of Saturday Night, executive editor of Alberta Report and founding editor of the National Post. His books include Hoover: An Extraordinary Life in Extraordinary Times, and he writes a weekly newsletter, SHuSH.

R ed Deer lies halfway between Edmonton and Calgary, roughly 150 kilometres from each, and despite snow and ice warnings in both directions, a couple of hundred people from all over Alberta turned up early at a hotel conference room last Saturday to address the big question: How should the province respond to a disappointing outcome in last month's federal election?

This was a different gathering than the feral, amateurish Wexit rally at the Boot Scootin' Boogie Dancehall in Edmonton on Nov. 2, the one with the Make Alberta Great Again hats and chants of "The West Wants Out!" The Red Deer crowd was composed of seasoned political operatives, the sort of people who run local campaigns and sit on boards of riding associations. Their hosts were the Manning Centre and its founder, one-time Reform Party leader Preston Manning. The keynote speaker was Alberta Premier Jason Kenney.

Despite their relative savvy and experience, the Red Deer people, too, were vexed and emotive. They showered applause on Financial Post columnist Diane Francis, who took the stage to expand on her thesis that federalism allows "smug and powerful" Laurentian elites to "economically strangle and disenfranchise" Alberta. The solution, she said, to general enthusiasm, is for Alberta to adopt Quebec's playbook and threaten separatism. The result would either be a reworked federal deal or an independent Alberta.

Another speaker, Danielle Smith, former leader of the provincial Wildrose Party and now a popular Calgary talk-radio host, spends her days chatting on air to an outraged populace about a whole range of options. She raised some of them before the Red Deer crowd: a referendum on separatism, joining the United States, creating a megaprovince by combining Alberta, Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. But it was the notion of emulating Quebec and building a firewall around the province that generated the most discussion in Red Deer.

Largely undiscussed were the causesoftheanger.OnlyMr.Kenney found it necessary to recite them, probably because he was addressingalargeraudiencethan those in the room with his prepared remarks. Per capita incomes are down 5 per cent over thepastfiveyears.Businessbankruptcies are up 50 per cent.

"Thousands upon thousands of Albertans have lost their homes, their small businesses and hopes," he said. Yet, Alberta issending$23-billionayearmore to Ottawa in tax revenue than it receives back in services and transfers.

Social costs ride on the economic distress. Property crimes have quadrupled in some counties and municipalities. The opioid and addiction crises have escalated. The suicide rate is 50 percenthigherinAlbertathanin Ontario.

And in addition to the economic and social costs are open wounds caused by a Prime MinisterwhopromisestophaseoutAlberta's oil sands, a federal Environment Minister who can link any change in the weather to the energy industry and has championed pipeline-assessment legislation(BillC-69),knownlocally as the "No More Pipelines Act," and a Liberal government that engagedinallmannerofmischief to keep SNC-Lavalin in Montreal, yet couldn't manage a regretful tweet when energy giant Encana, once the largestcompany in Canada by market capitalization, announced it was decamping Calgary for Denver.

The Red Deer gathering was virtually unanimous in its view that the roots of all these problems are political, not economic.

Yes, global oil and gas prices are down. But they are especially low in Alberta because the new pipeline-assessment legislation, thetankerbanontheWestCoast, the federal carbon tax and the cancelling or bungling of a series of major pipeline projects have combined to landlock resources andcreateenoughregulatoryuncertainty to kill investment in Alberta's energy industry. Mr. Kenneyruefullynotedthatthereisno shortage of investment, drilling activity and employment across the border in North Dakota, Colorado, Texas and Oklahoma, global prices notwithstanding.

The political crisis is doubleedged: immediate and historic.

Immediate because the Liberals won re-election - Alberta gave all but one of its seats to the Conservative Party of Canada - and now lead a minority Parliament dependent on votes from the New Democrats and/or the Bloc Québécois, both of which are seen as hostile to energy interests. Albertans are imagining a short-term imposition of still more limits on their ability to develop and markettheirresources,aswellascontinuing federal indifference to their plight.

The problem is historic because it is recurring: Once every generation or so, a similar crisis arises to alert Alberta to the costs of its membership in Confederation. The previous one, in 1986, was triggered by Conservative prime minister Brian Mulroney's perceived pandering to Quebec and simultaneous reluctance to dismantle vestiges of former Liberal prime minister Pierre Trudeau's national energy program, as he had promised in the 1984 election.Overtime,Albertaabandoned the Mulroney Tories in favour of Mr. Manning's Reform movement, with its plans to reducethesizeandscopeofthefederal government, reform the Senate to give outlying regions more clout and enact populist measures such as referendums to renew Canadian democracy.

It is the recurring nature of the problem that persuaded most at theRedDeergatheringtosupport systemic change as opposed to simply regrouping to fight the Liberals in the next election.

"The ballot box does not work," Ms. Francis said flatly. Regardless of who is in power, Alberta "is treated like a stepchild" despite being the country's breadwinner.

Hercommentswereconsistent with Mr. Kenney's approach. He denounced a federalism that has squeezed $200-billion more out ofAlbertainthepastdecadethan it has returned and a federal equalization program that allowed Quebec to recently "post a $4-billionsurpluswhilereceiving $13-billion in equalization payments generated primarily by Albertataxpayers." Heannounceda commission to examine the viability of the 20-year-old proposal to build a policy firewall around his province.

The firewall strategy, associated with former prime minister Stephen Harper (before he was a federal leader), former provincial cabinet minister Ted Morton and former Harper and Manning policy adviser Tom Flanagan, begins from the premise that Alberta needs to quarantine itself against the disease of federalism.

The plan would see the province follow Quebec in opting out of the Canada Pension Plan and creating its own pensions; launching a provincial police force to replace the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; seeking representation in federal treaty negotiations that affects its interests;requiringmunicipalitiesand school boards to obtain provincial approval before entering into agreements with Ottawa; collecting its own revenue from personalincometaxesandoptingoutof federal cost-share programs with full compensation; among other measures. Mr. Manning, who has been pushing for a renegotiation ofthefederaldealthroughouthis decades-long political career, will chair Mr. Kenney's commission.

It is a measure of the depth of Alberta's anguish that storming to your room and slamming the door seems the reasonable, middle-of-the-road strategy, the let'smeet-in-Red Deer compromise for managing electoral disappointment.Granted,itislesschildishthanrunningawaywithseparatists.

It is another measure of Alberta's pain that it would emulate Quebec (or, at least, investigate the viability of emulating Quebec). Over the past 50 years of what journalist Josh Freed calls its "neverendum" on separation andsovereigntyassociation,Quebechassunkfromfifthtoseventh among provinces in GDP per capita and from 30 per cent to 22 per cent in its share of the Canadian population. Talent, capital and headofficeshavefledtostablejurisdictions,leavingbehindchronic unemployment, high bond rates on uncomfortable levels of debt and an insular, insecure political class far more effective at nursing slights than building an economy. Only blind anger could make that seem like the right approach.

Like any large organization, a province can concentrate on one big thing at a time. Alberta can decide that federalism is the problem, hive itself off and struggleagainstit,asQuebechasdone.

Or it can live up to its self-image as an enterprising, self-reliant people, admit that global economic forces and its own failures have contributed to its predicament, then work constructively to set things right.

Thefactisthateconomics,separate from politics, are a huge partofAlberta'sproblem.Oiland gaspricesdroppedbyhalfin2014 andhavestayeddown.Therewas no screaming about the inequities of federalism in the decade prior to that decline. Economics werealsoahugepartoftheproblem in 1986. Oil and gas prices dropped by half then, too. That does not delegitimize Alberta's arguments - federal inequities exist - but the province has shown it can tolerate the federal system in good times.

Alberta had one of its own as prime minister for a decade and failed to address the province's complaints with the federal equalization regime (arguably, Mr. Harper's tinkering with the formula in 2009 made it worse).

The Harper government's record on providing Alberta with pipeline capacity is reasonably good but patently insufficient. And Mr.

Harper failed to move on a range of other irritants - one that has long been an article of faith amongCanadianconservativesis the perceived bias of the CBC (it cameupofteninRedDeer,where the network's coverage of the election was as violently declaimed as the result).

The opportunity to set things right will almost certainly come within two years and seven months, which is the longest a minorityParliamenthaslastedin Canada. Electoral solutions may seem unappealing after watching Justin Trudeau execute a difficult triple-blackface manoeuvre and stick his landing in 24 Sussex, but Alberta and the West are well-positioned to return the Conservative Party of Canada to office.

It's as though Alberta and the West have forgotten and are prepared to squander the enormous gains they have made within Confederation since the 1986 crisis. It took almost two decades, but the Reform Party and its successor, the Canadian Alliance, arranged the friendly takeover of a Progressive Conservative party steeped in the Red Toryism (watered Liberalism) of Robert Stanfield, Dalton Camp and Joe Clark.

Those efforts earned Western conservatives command of a powerful machine with which to chasefederalLiberalsfromoffice.

The Conservative Party's name is no longer a contradiction in terms, and its strength and leadership are largely in the West, the most dynamic part of the country. Year after year, Canada's economic and demographic might tiltsalittlemoretowardtheRockies.Mr.Harperprovedin2011that it is possible to win a majority governmentwithjustfiveseatsin Quebec. Mr. Trudeau learned this yearthatit'sverydifficulttowina majority with four seats between Ontario and the Lower Mainland of B.C.

TheprospectsoftheConservative Party are bright, in large part because those of the Liberals are not. Mr. Trudeau survived the election, but his standing among Canadians has been irreparably damaged by personal and political scandal. His brand, once the primary asset of this incarnation of Liberalism, is now a burden.

Hispartyislikelyacoupleofyears from a rebuild.

It is true that the performance ofAndrewScheer'sConservatives in2019disappointedtheirfollowers, but it was never going to be easy. Employment across Canada was reasonably high, and it is always difficult to knock a sitting

prime minister with a majority government off his pedestal in one fell swoop.

The Conservative Party, moreover, was (and still is) in transition.Foradecade,itwasdominated by Stephen Harper, Stephen Harper's priorities and Stephen Harper's people. Mr. Scheer had the challenge of rebuilding his party while running an election.

It was similar to the challenge that frustrated a succession of Liberal leaders - Paul Martin, StéphaneDionandMichaelIgnatieff -afterthelongreignofJeanChrétien. And still Mr. Scheer's Conservatives won substantially more votes, if not seats, than the Trudeau Liberals.

The next six months are critical for the federal Conservatives.

The party must decide if Mr.

Scheer is the leader to return it to power. It needs to articulate a clear reason why it belongs in government and it needs to improve its effectiveness as an opposition force in Parliament. It needs to understand the role of social conservatism in the party and, to the extent it exists, learn howtoanswerobviousquestions about it. It needs to better integrate itself with seven like-minded provincial governments, in particular the Doug Ford gang in Ontario.

That is a lot of work, and it requires the full participation and attention of the entire Canadian conservative movement, as does preparation for the opportunity of regaining power in another year or two. How does that happen while Alberta, the keystone of Canadian conservatism, is making a bunker of itself? The West either wants in or it wants out. It either wants to lead CanadaordefenditselffromCanada.It can't suck and blow.

While Mr. Kenney has no defined federal role, he is, by virtue ofhisstaunchlyconservativeoutlook and political talent, his long experience as a Harper minister, his willingness to campaign for fellow conservatives around the country and his deliberate bridge building among conservative premiers,themostimportantfigure in contemporary Canadian conservatism. To the extent he is firewallingAlbertaandmanaging thefourseparateprovincialreferendumshehassaidcouldbepart of the province's near future (on the CPP, on the RCMP, on entrenching property rights, on c ditching equalization), he is less c useful to the larger movement. a In fairness to Mr. Kenney, he w has no choice but to get out in w frontofhispeopleonthefirewall r plan. The alternative is to be stampeded while asking citizens o to remain calm. He, at least, was t steadfast and eloquent in his op- l position to the separatist option, d no doubt to the disappointment s of many followers. Recent polls a put support for independence at s a third of Albertans. 2 Mr. Kenney has also left him- $ self options. By striking an arm's- t length commission to study the i various quarantine measures, he s can pick and choose from its rec- n ommendations. It's quite possi- w ble, for instance, that leaving the m CanadaPensionPlanmakesgood g economic sense, although a pro- a vincial police force won't. The g several months his commission c will devote to its work buys Mr. v Kenney time to gauge the intentions of Mr. Trudeau's minority a government and to see how the s Federal Court of Appeal handles t the Trans Mountain pipeline ex- f pansion case next month. c It is also possible that the fire- c wall measures are simply Mr. c Kenney'swayofmanagingpublic i sentiment and reducing tensions m in his province. There was more a than one dimension to his Red i Deerspeech.Inadditiontodetailing the firewall project, he laid out how federalism can be made to work for Alberta: "I don't understand how it would be to our advantage to isolate ourselves ... I think many Albertans have a sense that we are isolated,butthat'snottrue.We've beendevelopingarobustalliance with like-minded provinces that frankly I do not think we have seen before in our modern economic history. We have nine of the 10 provincial governments who expressed their support for energy and resources corridors, including oil and gas pipelines.

Wehavenineof10provinceswho arestronglyopposedtothefederalgovernment'sBillC-69-the'no more pipelines law.' We have the majority of provinces opposed to theimpositionofthefederalgovernment's carbon tax. We even have the government of Quebec that has agreed to join us at the SupremeCourttoopposethatintrusion in provincial jurisdiction."

That sounds like a man who couldstillgoeitherway-orsome combination of ways. Mr. Kenney also told the federal government what it could do to make peace with Alberta. His demands are reasonable.

The first is for firm guarantees on the construction and completion of the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion, which Mr. Trudeauhasalreadycommittedhimselfto.Thesecondinvolvesretroactively lifting a cap on the fiscal stabilization program back to 2014 or 2015, to give Alberta a $1.75-billion rebate on equalization, which apart from being fair is a small price, in the greater scheme of things, for enhanced national unity. Mr. Kenney also wants federal help for environmentalinvestmentandtechnology, which should be a no-brainer, andsupportforliquefiednaturalgas exports, which accelerate coal-to-gas conversion in the developing world, another win-win.

Sotherearechoicestobemade all around. Alberta and the conservativemovementwilldecideif they want to lead or shrink from federalism. The Liberals will decide if they are sincere in their recentstatementsabouttheprimacy of national unity and balancing the economy with environmental concerns. This is hardly aninsolublemess,atpresent,but it does have the makings of one.

Associated Graphic

ILLUSTRATION BY DAVID PARKINS

ILLUSTRATION BY DAVID PARKINS

Tuesday, November 19, 2019
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THE GREAT, GREEN TRANSFORMATION
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The world is running out of time to avert a climate catastrophe, but businesses have the technology to lighten our carbon footprint, and young people have the political will to make that happen. Does Canada have the courage to act?
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By JEREMY RIFKIN
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page O8

Author of The Green New Deal: Why the Fossil Fuel Civilization Will Collapse by 2028, and the Bold Economic Plan to Save Life on Earth.

He is the President of the Foundation on Economic Trends and TIR Consulting Group LLC, and is an adviser to the European Union, the People's Republic of China and to heads of state around the world on Green New Deal-style transitions.

O ur scientists tell us that human-induced climate change brought on by the burning of fossil fuels has taken the human race and our fellow species into the sixth mass extinction of life on Earth. While the Trump administration is at least upfront about its avowed commitment to exploit every possible opportunity to bring fossil fuels online for both domestic consumption and export, the Canadian government uses every public opportunity to flaunt its leadership in decarbonizing Canada and its prominent role in rallying the world to address climate change.

But when it comes to issuing permits and underwriting fossilfuel projects, the Canadian government has missed no opportunity to be at the head of the pack.

On the other hand, more than 460 Canadian municipalities have already called for urgent action to address climate change.

The negative economic consequences of those misguided federal policies to keep the fossil-fuel spigot wide open are ominous, for both Canada and the world.

Facing a global climate emergency, younger generations of millennials and Gen Zers are spearheading an unprecedented planetary mobilization in support of a global Green New Deal to save life on Earth, and they are setting the agenda for a bold political movement with the potential to revolutionize society.

Let's be clear about what is happening. This is the first planetary revolt of the human race in the 200,000-year history of our species on Earth. There have been untold social, political and economic protests throughout human history around religious differences, economic issues, governance and social grievances.

Yet, the current uprising is of a different ilk.

Gen Z and millennial protesters have now walked out of classrooms and offices and onto the streets by the millions in approximately 150 countries in planetary strikes, marking the first time in history that a global cohort of human beings has identified itself as an "endangered species." And this is the first generation that has begun to think of our fellow creatures as part of our evolutionary family and the biosphere as our indivisible community.

While the Green New Deal has become a lightning rod in the political sphere, there is a parallel movement emerging within the business community that will shake the very foundation of the global economy in coming years.

Key sectors of the economy - information and communications technology; power and electricity; transportation and logistics; real estate - are fast decoupling from fossil fuels in favour of evercheaper solar and wind energies and the accompanying clean technologies, green business practices and processes of circularity and resilience that are the central features of a Green New Deal.

The levelized costs of utilityscale solar and wind installations have plummeted and are now below the cost of nuclear power, coal and natural gas. They are continuing to plunge, and the marginal cost of generating green energy is near zero: The sun and the wind do not send a bill.

New studies from across the financial sector are sounding the alarm that upward of $100-trillion in stranded fossil-fuel assets could create a carbon bubble likely to burst by 2028, causing the collapse of the fossil-fuel civilization.

Already, more than $11-trillion has been divested or is in the process of being divested from the fossil-fuel infrastructure and related industries in what has become a stampede unparalleled in economic history.

Canada, currently the fourth largest producer of crude oil in the world, will be caught in the crosshairs, between the plummeting price of solar and wind, the fallout from surpassing peak oil demand and the accumulation of stranded assets in the oil industry. The marketplace is speaking, and Canada needs to establish a bold new economic vision if it is to adapt and prosper.

Every major economic transformation has required three elements, each of which interacts with the others to enable the system to operate as a whole: a new communication medium, a new power source and a new transportation mechanism to manage, power and move economic activity, social life and governance. In the 19th century, steam-powered printing and the telegraph, abundant coal and locomotives on national rail systems meshed in a common infrastructure, giving birth to the First Industrial Revolution and the rise of urbanization, capitalist economies and national markets overseen by nation-state governance.

In the 20th century, centralized electricity, the telephone, radio and television, cheap oil and internal combustion vehicles on national road systems converged to create an infrastructure for the Second Industrial Revolution and the emergence of suburbanization, globalization and global governing institutions.

We are now on the cusp of a Third Industrial Revolution. The digitized broadband Communication internet is converging with a digitized renewable energy internet, powered by solar and wind electricity, and a digitized mobility and logistics internet of autonomous electric and fuel-cell vehicles, also powered by green energy.

These three internets are continuously being fed data from sensors embedded across society that monitor activity of all kinds in real time, from agricultural fields, warehouses, road systems, factory production lines, retail stores and especially from the residential and institutional building stock. This technology is allowing people to more efficiently manage, power and move dayto-day economic activity and social life from where they work and live.

This is the Internet of Things (IoT). Buildings will be retrofitted for energy efficiency and then embedded with IoT infrastructure, allowing the habitats to serve as widely-distributed edge data centres that will increasingly replace today's giant big-data centres. Smart buildings will also serve as green micropower-generating plants, energy-storage sites and transport and logistics hubs for electric and fuel-cell vehicles, all in a more inclusive zero-emission society.

The Third Industrial Revolution is being accompanied by a shift from globalization to "glocalization" as individuals, businesses and communities connect with each other around the world in digitally integrated platforms and at very low fixed cost and near-zero marginal cost, allowing them to oftentimes bypass nation-state oversight and global companies that mediated commerce and trade in the 20th century. Glocalization makes possible a vast expansion of social entrepreneurship with the proliferation of smart high-tech small and medium-sized co-operative enterprises operating laterally in global networks. In short, the Third Industrial Revolution brings with it the prospect of a democratization of commerce and trade on a scale unprecedented in history.

Even if we were to upgrade carbon-based Second Industrial Revolution infrastructure, it would be unlikely to have any measurable effect on aggregate efficiency. Fossil-fuel energies have matured. And the technologies designed and engineered to run on these energies, such as the internal combustion engine and centralized electricity grids, have exhausted their efficiencies, with little potential left to exploit.

New studies, however, show that with the shift to an IoT platform and a Third Industrial Revolution, it is conceivable to dramatically increase aggregate energy efficiency over the next 20 years. This would enable a qualitative leap in generativity while we transition to a nearly 100-percent postcarbon renewable-energy society and a highly resilient circular economy.

The build-out of the Green New Deal smart infrastructure will involve every industry. The new smart sustainable infrastructure, in turn, makes possible the new business models and new kinds of mass employment that characterize the shift to a green economy.

Of course, the digital economy also raises risks and challenges, not the least of which is guaranteeing network neutrality to ensure everyone has equal access to the networks, protecting privacy, ensuring data security and thwarting cybercrime and cyberterrorism. How do we prevent nation-states from hacking into other countries' social media and spreading misinformation to influence the outcome of their elections? How do we push back against giant internet companies becoming monopolies and commodifying our personal online data for sale to third parties for commercial uses? The dark side of the internet will require vigilant regulatory oversight at the local, provincial and federal levels.

The construction of a national smart grid across Canada - think of it as an energy internet - will serve as the backbone of the Green New Deal transformation.

The electricity grid is moving from a fossil-fuel-based centralized system to a distributed electricity system, with potentially millions of solar- and wind-generation sites feeding in and off a smart, digitized, high-voltage nationwide power grid.

In the new system, every business, neighbourhood and homeowner becomes a potential producer of electricity, sharing surpluses with others on a smart continental energy internet using the same digital-driven analytics and algorithms we use to share information, news, knowledge and entertainment on the communication internet. The federal government of Canada should take the primary responsibility for financing the 10- to 20-year build-out of the smart national power grid - the energy internet - with the provinces and territories funding the remainder.

In addition to overseeing that build-out, the federal government will have to establish the codes, regulations and standards that will have to be legislated and aligned throughout the country.

It must set targets for the provinces, and prioritize both federal incentives and penalties to push the transformation along.

Still, even though the federal government will need to oversee the deployment of the national smart grid, it should be made clear that the provinces and territories are primarily responsible for financing most of Canada's infrastructure and will have to do much of the heavy lifting in the build-out of a Green New Deal zero-emission economy. The federal government, the provinces and municipalities will need to work in concert in adopting measures to speed the transition to smart green Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure and a postcarbon era.

Although some of the financing of the Green New Deal will come from tax revenue and the reprioritization of government budgets, much of the investment will come from institutional funds and, in particular, public and private pension funds - the largest pool of capital in the world, worth more than $40-trillion as of 2018.

The world's largest pension funds are worried over climate change and the prospect of their investments remaining in a fossilfuel industry beset by stranded assets, which could wipe out retirement savings of millions of workers. Funds of the world's most populous cities are beginning to divest from the fossil-fuel sector and related industries that service or depend on it, such as the petrochemical industry. They would like to reinvest in government-issued "green bonds" and the opportunities that constitute the smart Third Industrial Revolution economy.

But the managers complain that the real problem is a lack of camera-ready large-scale Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure projects in which these freed-up funds might invest. Unfortunately, cities, regions and countries are still tinkering with thousands of small, unconnected pilot projects, with little initiative to scale a massive economic transformation.

Missing is the Third Industrial Revolution narrative that describes the "nervous system" that would connect all of these isolated projects. Infrastructure, at the deepest level, is not just an incidental appendage to commerce and social life. It is always new infrastructure that is the indispensable "extended prosthesis" that binds society together as a collective whole.

While the "invisible hand" of the marketplace is upending the 200-year dominance of the fossilfuel civilization, it alone will not steer us into the Age of Resilience.

Erecting a new ecological civilization from the ashes of a collapsed fossil-fuel economy will also require a collective response by Canada's provincial governments and municipalities, which will have to take much of the responsibility for engineering, deploying and managing the Green New Deal infrastructure as a public trust.

Notwithstanding the fact that the Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure requires a smart national power grid - a digitally managed renewable energy internet - that can mediate and manage the flow of green electricity coming and going between millions of players in their homes, automobiles, offices, factories and communities, many of the actual infrastructure components that feed into and off that grid are highly distributed in nature. They are paid for and belong to millions of individuals and families, and hundreds of thousands of small businesses and local communities.

Every solar roof, wind turbine, nodal IoT building, edge data centre, storage battery, charging station, electric vehicle, etc., is an infrastructure component. The distributed and laterally scaled infrastructure of the Third Industrial Revolution is, by its very nature, fluid and open. This will allow literally millions of players to share data, energy, electric mobility, surveillance, news, knowledge and entertainment in an emerging zero-carbon "sharing economy." All will use component parts of the infrastructure where they live, work and commute, on continuously evolving digital platforms, overseen by Canadian cities, provinces and territories.

My firm's experience over the past two decades in the European Union in crafting a Green New Deal-style transition might be helpful in understanding how best to ensure a quick deployment of a distributed Third Industrial Revolution zero emission economy in the provinces and municipalities of Canada.

The global team from TIR Consulting Group LLC has worked with the EU in three regions to scale a wholesale infrastructure transition - Hauts-de-France, the Metropolitan Region of Rotterdam and The Hague, and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

In each of those regions, the entire population was engaged in a public conversation leading to the establishment of a Green New Deal "peer assembly." Each assembly was made up of elected officials and approximately 300 representatives from local chambers of commerce, labour unions, economic development agencies, public and private universities, and civic organizations. These peer assemblies have been tasked with establishing Green New Deal roadmaps to transform their economies and communities into a postcarbon era.

Peer assemblies are not focus groups or stakeholder groups but, rather, a cross-section of the public, with peers rotating in and out of the assemblies, ensuring that the citizenry at large will be involved in the continuing deliberations of proposals and the deployment of large-scale Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure over decades.

It's important to stress the timetable for ushering in a Green New Deal and the transition into a smart Third Industrial Revolution to address climate change.

The juvenile infrastructure for the First Industrial Revolution was laid down across the United States in 30 years, between 1860 and 1890. The juvenile infrastructure for the Second Industrial Revolution was built out in 25 years, between 1908 and 1933.

(Canada's first and second Industrial Revolution infrastructure transition timetable roughly paralleled that of the United States.)

The Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure can likely be built out in Canada in less than 20 years - a single generation - by building off the two industrial revolution infrastructures that preceded it and that are still partially in place to facilitate the transition. By the late 2030s, Canada should be fully transitioned into a zero-emission postcarbon economy.

The Age of Resilience is now before us. How we adapt to the new planetary reality that faces humanity will determine our future destiny as a species. We are fast approaching a biosphere consciousness. We need to be hopeful that we can get there in time.

Associated Graphic

Steel pipe to be used in the Trans Mountain Expansion Project in Kamloops, British Columbia

DENNIS OWEN/REUTERS

A field of solar panels located in Prince Edward County, Ontario owned and operated by Northland Power Inc.

JOHNNY C.Y. LAM FOR THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Tuesday, November 19, 2019
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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page B21

lois elizabeth TRUELAND (PETERSON) Born July 2, 1929 Fredericton, New Brunswick Died November 12, 2019 Oakville, Ontario Lois was predeceased by the love of her life, Peter Trueland (2000).

Lois felt her great legacy was her three children - Jim (Carrie), Pamela (Gary Turnbull) and Sean - and her six grandchildren - Kate and Meaghan Trueland, Rory and Jaime Trueland and Peter and Mike Turnbull.

Lois grew up in the village of Fredericton Junction, New Brunswick with her parents, Ina and Ray Peterson (deceased) and her sisters Sarah Peterson and Jean (Peterson) Brenan (deceased). The values instilled in Lois during those years in The Junction, through the Depression & Second World War, remained with her always. She had a love of community and people, literature and poetry and good family arguments around the dinner table. Nothing made her happier than a good "maritime" sing song around the piano.

Lois graduated with a BA from the University of New Brunswick in 1950, spent one year as a teacher in Port Elgin, NB, before Peter, also a UNB grad, rescued her, married her and took her to Bathurst, NB.

By 1962, Lois and Pete had settled in Oakville, Ontario.

Lois believed the only sport in life was golf which she played A LOT at Mississaugua Golf & Country Club. And she believed the only game one ever really needed to play was Bridge. Always a strong competitor, Lois insisted on playing by the rules and never understood "just playing for fun"! Lois's humour was legendary; there was fun in her spirit and joy in her soul. Always warm and welcoming, family and friends loved to gather around her as she "threw another potato in the pot" for dinners at the cottage in Dorset, Ontario or in the sunroom on the lake in Oakville.

Lois was forever quoting from somewhere and offering small "life lessons". This Shakespeare quote from Hamlet seemed to be her moral compass: "This above all: to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man."

Visitation will be held on Sunday, November 17, 2019 at the Kopriva Taylor Community Funeral Home, 64 Lakeshore Road West (one block East of Kerr Street), Oakville from 7 - 9 p.m. Funeral Service will be held on Monday, November 18, 2019 at St. Jude's Anglican Church, 160 William Street, Oakville at 1 p.m. with a reception to follow.

Online condolences at http://www.koprivataylor.com PEGGY IRENE WILLOUGHBY (née Ramsey) June 15, 1929 - November 8, 2019 Surrounded by family, Peggy Willoughby passed peacefully on November 8, 2019. Predeceased by husband Russell Allan, parents Stanley and Florence Ramsey, brother William and infant daughter Shelley. Survived by brother Ronald (Marlene), son Doug (Connalyn), daughters Joanne (Jonathan McSherry) and Sandra (Steve Waters), grandchildren Corene, Lauren (Sandy Ross), Adrienne, Rowan McSherry and great grandson William Ross. Heartfelt thanks to Dr. David Hood, the staff of Hospice Wellington, and Arbour Trails for providing exceptional care to Mom during her final journey.

Raised in Carlyle SK, Peggy kept the family pharmacy tradition alive by graduating from the University of Saskatchewan with a Bachelor of Pharmacy in 1953. Peggy was recognized as "Senior Stick" for her scholarship and citizenship. Peggy worked as a pharmacist at St. Joseph's and Guelph General hospitals from 1968 to 1990. She volunteered at Hospice, Probus, Health Care Professionals and University / College Women. While she contributed professionally and to the community, she was a devoted wife, mother and grandmother who supported each of us in achieving our aspirations and dreams.

Peggy sparkled when surrounded by her beloved family and dear friends.

She made everyone feel their very best and loved to entertain, play bridge and piano. She loved to travel, curl, golf, bike and swim. She enjoyed quiet conversations and lively happy hours and appreciated every meal to the last bite. Her perfectionist nature and high standards were influential and inspirational to everyone.

A celebration of Peggy's life will be held at Harcourt Memorial United Church, Guelph, at 2:00 p.m. on Friday, December 20, 2019. In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to support Hospice Wellington.

C. WILLIAM WEBSTER January 4, 1944 November 1, 2019 With great sadness we announce the passing in Vancouver of C.

William Webster on November 1, 2019 at 75 years of age. Son of Eric Webster and Elizabeth Paterson, Will was predeceased by his wife, Diana Graham Webster. He leaves their daughter Tara and son Sean, Sean's wife, Christy and grandchildren, Madison and Jaden, as well as his brother, Norman and sister, Maggie.

Will was a kind and generous man whose bright red hair and warm smile lit up the room.

He was Chief Barker of Variety the Children's Charity of British Columbia, a member of Variety's International Board and received the Gold Heart Award for his 45 years as a volunteer for the charity.

"Willie" grew up in Sherbrooke, Quebec, graduated from Bishop's University and worked in Toronto and Vancouver, returning every summer to his favourite place, his cottage in North Hatley, Quebec.

He was an inventive chef with a formidable memory for a good story. He was happiest when surrounded by close friends and family, fine wine and good music.

Even though the last year of his life was difficult medically he passed peacefully, surrounded by love.

FRANK MITCHELL WHEELER Frank Mitchell Wheeler passed away peacefully at home on September 6, 2019, surrounded by his family.

Frank was born in Chicago, IL in 1935, and was raised in Virginia, Washington State, and Europewhere he remained through his higher education. In 1970, he immigrated with his wife, Jean, and young family to Canada, a country immediately embraced as home. He was a father of three, grandfather of seven, a loving husband for 59 years, and a deeply valued member of a large and close extended family.

Dr. Wheeler received his M.Sc.

(honours) in Metallurgical Engineering in 1962, and a doctorate in 1992. In 1970, he joined Hatch Associates, retiring as Vice President, Special Projects, Iron & Steel in 2000. He continued to work with Hatch as a consultant-at-large on specific projects for the next ten years.

Since 2007, he has been an adjunct lecturer at the University of Toronto, co-authoring a metallurgical engineering plant design book, as well as authoring nearly thirty technical articles and holding four patents. In April of this year, Frank was elected a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering.

Frank traveled the world extensively, both recreationally and professionally-which fostered his innate curiosity and appreciation of cultures other than his own. This broad experience was reflected in his patient, diplomatic, and benevolent demeanor. As a husband, father, grandfather, family member, friend and colleague Frank will be deeply missed-and always remembered.

A celebration of Frank's life will take place at Glenview Presbyterian Church in Toronto.

The family may be contacted for further details.

DR. CICELY WILSON April 3, 1926 November 3, 2019 In her 94th year passed away peacefully. Predeceased by Art Wilson, and her sister, Myra.

Loving mother of Janet, Helen and David, cherished mother-inlaw to Fernand, Michie, Paul, and Joanna, and proud grandmother of Amanda, Lucas, Marlow, Martine, Hilarie, Jesse, Amanda, Kathleen and Kayla. Great grandmother to Henry, Evan, James and Shea.

A strong, determined, yet elegant woman, Cicely was a pioneer.

Born in London, England, she received her veterinary training at the Royal Veterinary College as the Second World War raged.

After leaving war-torn England, she became the first woman veterinarian in western Canada.

She quietly faced any barriers by proving she could do the job better than any man. Her plans to return to England changed when she met the debonair and charming Arthur. She was finally swept off her feet when Art proposed at the farm and confirmed his belief in the family.

She opened her own clinic in Richmond Hill beside the church where she married Art, followed by three decades of practice at the renowned Secord Animal Hospital and at St. Clair Animal Hospital in Toronto.

Cicely's dedication, discipline and patience inspired her family to be creative and hard working. Cicely was so very proud that her daughter Helen and her granddaughter Kathleen both followed in her footsteps - three generations of female veterinarians.

Cicely and Art enjoyed an active 54 year marriage with a rich network of friends, and dancing, music, laughter and always a 5 o'clock vodka and scotch. They were never far from a tennis court and a golf course. Tennis for Cicely was a passion. She was on many inter-county teams, and played into her 80s. Her drop shot was wicked. She always said that her lifelong friends were made through tennis. She golfed to be with Art, but was talented enough to become the Senior Ladies Champion at Donalda Golf Club.

Like her golf shot, Cicely was straight as an arrow. She was ever fair, direct, independent, and intelligent. Yet she was curious with a broad world view and a good sense of humour. The family skied enthusiastically during the winter and treasured the annual family reunion each summer in Muskoka. She became our family matriarch after Art passed away.

In her later years, she enjoyed the warmth of the Arizona sun during winters and her passion became bridge. She proudly played five days a week in her Dunfield home with her bridge friends.

Mum always said getting old is not for sissies. Too true. The Dunfield residents and staff always treated Dr. Wilson with kindness, patience and respect. Florie Coish welcomed her to the Dunfield and Lawrence was a true friend to the end. A huge thank you to Jean, Yvonne, Malou, Gladys, Lemelyn, Grace, Luci, Clara and Eden for their loving care of Mum in her last days. The responsiveness of Dr. Amos and the Temmy Latner palliative team made it possible for mum to stay in her home for this last journey. Thank you all, from the bottom of our hearts.

In celebration of Cicely's life, please join us on Saturday, November 16, 2019, 2:30 to 5:30 p.m. at the Dunfield Retirement Residence, second floor, 77 Dunfield Ave., Toronto. In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the Ontario or Toronto Humane Society would be gratefully appreciated.

DAVID ROBERT GILES WOOD Our son, David Robert Giles Wood passed away the morning of Tuesday, November 13, 2019, following a long illness. He was 36 years old and loved dearly by his mom and dad, Anne and Dr. Michael Wood. He was predeceased by his younger brother, James. Loved by and will be missed by his friends and family. Taken away much too soon.

Friends may call at the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St.

W., at Windermere, near the Jane subway on Monday, November 18th, from 4-8 p.m. Funeral service will be held in the Chapel, on Tuesday, November 19th at 3 p.m.

For those who wish, donations may be made to St. Joseph's Health Centre Foundation. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca WILLIAM WOODYATT (Bill) July 11, 1950 November 12, 2019 Thankfully our parents (Joe and Doreen) broke the mould when they made Bill almost better known as "Stumpy." He was truly one of a kind. To Jeff and I (MariJayne), he was our big brother who played hockey for the Marlies and raced cars. Either his own car or in his younger years, our father's, around the streets of Don Mills in the middle of the night. Bill always had stories to tell and there were a lot of them and the more he told them the bigger they became. Bill was a very proud father to his son Bryce and his daughter, Jamie, whom he missed dearly (2018). Nothing brought a smile to his face faster than his grandson, Nathan, and Bill always loved to hear about his success in school and in sports.

Look out Leafs, Stumpy said he was going to strap on the pads again and play for you and we have no doubt that somewhere he is.

Visitation will be held on Monday, November 18, 2019, at the R.S.

Kane Funeral Home between 12 and 1 p.m., with a Celebration of Bill's Life beginning at 1 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Bill's memory at http://www.nannyangelnetwork.

com/support-us/woodhaven.

Condolences can be left at http://www.rskane.ca.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159 SYLVIA NELHAM AND JOHN NELHAM We write this in tribute to Sylvia Nelham and John Nelham, our dearly loved parents. Married for over 50 years, they were inseparable, and are united again. Sylvia and John are deeply missed by their three daughters, Carolyn Nelham, Donna Nelham and Marlene Nelham and son-in-law Paul Tremlett.

Sylvia Nelham (nee Eidinger) passed away peacefully surrounded by her family on Thursday, May 17, 2018 at Place Kensington in Westmount, Quebec.

Sylvia was born in Montreal on November 17, 1933. Our father would say, "Your mum is the kindest woman I've ever met." She moved through life with grace, charm, and a keen sense of humour. Sylvia had a long, successful career as a real estate professional in Hudson, Quebec. She excluded no one, and there was always room for one more. She was a fierce 'Mama Bear' who treasured her family. Sylvia was a wonderful mother, a devoted wife, a good friend and an inspiration to many. A private service for the immediate family and close friends took place on Wednesday, May 23, 2018.

John William Riley Nelham passed away peacefully Wednesday, May 15, 2019, at Place Kensington in Westmount, Quebec. John was born in Middlesex, England on August 24, 1926. He grew up on a farm outside of Toronto and watched the first plane depart from Pearson airport from the back of his family home. John had a long, successful career in the railway industry. He had an irreverent sense of humour, loved the country and took part in various outdoor sports. A master mason since May 31, 1949. John died as he lived life, on his terms and by his own principles. Never one to back away from a challenge, if you said he couldn't do it, John would make sure he could and, to the dismay of many, he made it look easy. John was a caring father, a devoted husband and a loyal friend. A private service for the immediate family and close friends took place on Thursday, May 23, 2019.

Sylvia and John were devoted to each other and their children. They had a zest for life guided by strong values and a firm understanding of what was important - the simplicity of living a good life shared with loved ones. They are deeply missed, cherished parents who will forever remain in our hearts, Donations in their honour can be made to The Study, a private school for girls in Westmount Quebec. These funds will enable young girls whose families cannot afford tuition to benefit from an unparalleled education that helps develop the great female leaders of tomorrow.

The link: https://www.netdirectories.com/~study/olg1.cgi.


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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page B19

RUTH ELISABETH emelia auguste KAJANDER C.M. M.D., Professor Emeritus, D.Psych., F.R.C.P (C).

(née Koeppe) 1924 - 2019 Dr. Kajander passed away peacefully in her sleep in Thunder Bay, ON, on November 8th, surrounded by loved ones, at the age of 95.

Ruth was born in Goettingen, Germany in 1924 to a family of physicists, engineers and physicians spanning several generations. At the time of her adolescence, it had become difficult to pursue pre-medicine studies in Europe; though determined, and emblematic of her stoicism, Ruth, with her mother's encouragement, managed to bicycle out of Berlin the day Allied forces encircled the city. Ruth eventually arrived in Goettingen, her place of birth, to attend Giessen University, where she graduated from medical school in 1948. Four years later, after a sojourn in Finland, where she also attained her medical license, she arrived in Canada where she once more passed the medical licensing examinations. In 1958, after completing her studies at the University of Toronto, she became a specialist in psychiatry.

Ruth went on to marry Aatto Arthur Kajander, Q.C., and Honorary Consul of Finland, in 1957, with the promise of starting a life together in Port Arthur, Ontario, now Thunder Bay. Ruth and Art led a happy married life; later giving birth to their daughter Ann. Ruth enjoyed the outdoors including Finnish saunas, summers at Loon Lake and Kajander Lake, reading, travel, and art. Later on in her life, she particularly cherished the time spent with her grandchildren Arthur, Robin, and Maria.

For over 50 years, Ruth worked tirelessly to care for people with psychiatric illnesses in Northern Ontario. She was the founding director of the former Port Arthur Mental Health Clinic, and worked in both private practice and hospital settings. Early in her career, she was one of the first psychiatrists to recognize the value and use of chlorpromazine (Largactyl), an antipsychotic medication which greatly improved the lives of people with schizophrenia.

She was also the first woman to serve as President of the Ontario Psychiatric Association, the Thunder Bay Medical Association, and the OMA Section on Psychiatry. Ruth also served as a member of the Board of Governors at Lakehead University.

For her work in the field of psychiatry, she received the Order of Canada in 2011. Ruth was also bestowed the Order of the Lion, Knight First Class, one of the highest honours of the Finnish government, for her efforts in the Finnish community of Thunder Bay as wife of the local Consul. Many Finnish dignitaries and ambassadors were formally hosted at the house on Hodder Avenue.

Ruth was predeceased by her parents, Hanskurt and Else Koeppe; an infant son; her brother Herm; as well as her husband, Art Kajander, in 1998. She is survived by her daughter, Ann Kajander; her three grandchildren, Arthur Fiedler, Robin Fiedler and Maria Drohan; her brother, Peter Koeppe in Berlin, and other family in Germany and Finland.

At her request, there will not be a memorial service, but memories are welcome to be sent care of Ann at ann.kajander@lakeheadu.ca.

Memorial donations may be made to the Art and Ruth Kajander Merit Award - a scholarship at Lakehead University, the Thunder Bay Symphony, or another charity of your choice.

BRIAN KOFFLER It is with great sadness that the family announces his passing on November 6, 2019 at age 79. Loving brother of Barbara and uncle of David and Michael, Brian is remembered for his quick smile, generous spirit, kind heart and love of people, music and chocolate. Grateful thanks to Richard and to all the kind staff at Vermont Square. Donations: Schizophrenia Society, 416-449-6830. Hebrew Basic Burial, 416-780-0596.

PATRICIA ANN KONRAD (Smith) 1944-2019 Patricia Konrad passed away peacefully, surrounded by love, at Soldiers Memorial Hospital in Orillia on November 8th after a lengthy and courageous battle with cancer. Predeceased by her parents, Ray and Vera Smith, her brother Thomas Smith, and sister-in-law, Linda. Pat will be lovingly remembered by husband Alfons; fur babies Dallas and Molly (woof!); nephew Geoff (Jill Cunningham); niece Kelly (Dave Krug); niece Kim (Paul Burroughs); nephew Eric (Esther); grandnieces and nephews Kristen, Trevor, Nolan, Samantha, Ethan, Ryan, Carla, and Mateo, as well as, her dear friend Nan Wilkins and many other friends and family.

As a young woman, Pat spent many hours on the ice dazzling audiences with her skating performances with the Ice Follies. After hanging up her skates she was admired for her business knowledge and exceptional skill in supporting senior executives at both Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts and at The Delphi Corporation with colleague and friend, Arnie Cader. However, it was her strong organizational skills, immense strength in character, interior design aptitude, love of dogs, and a refined sense of style that made her our "Pat." It gives us great comfort to think she has rejoined her immediate family and the many dogs whom she loved with all her heart. From her longtime North York neighbourhood, to the shores of Lake Simcoe and the community of Lakewood Ranch in Sarasota Florida, memories of Pat will endure.There will be a private family interment. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Orillia Soldiers Memorial Hospital or The Canadian Cancer Society in memory of Pat.

CONSTANCE MARY LANGSTAFF (nee Holland) 97 years young, Connie died peacefully on Sunday, November 3, 2019, at Belmont House.

She was the widow of the late T.

James Barr, W. Douglas Terry and Dr. James R. Langstaff. Mother of Margie Barr (Paul Fisher), Jennifer Barr (Phillip Saunders) and the late Hugh Barr. Nannie of James and Christopher Fisher, Alexandra Wharin and Tessa and Mark Saunders. Sister of the late Hugh Peter Holland.

Connie's children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren were her absolute joy.

Connie was born in Winnipeg and moved to Toronto in 1937. She attended St. Clements School and then graduated from Toronto General Hospital as a Registered Nurse, making lifelong friends along the way. Connie was a born nurse and loved taking care of others.

In 1948, she married Jim Barr and later settled in Thornhill, a community she loved and lived in until 2010. Connie was a wonderful wife, mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, friend and neighbour. She loved entertaining family and friends and her Sunday dinners were legendary. Many turned to her for her wise counsel. When asked, she offered sound advice, but always with love and compassion.

In Thornhill, Connie and Jim raised their children and had a close circle of friends. Their backyard pool was a focal point for informal entertaining, family celebrations - always with several black labradors in attendance and surrounded by Connie's beautiful gardens.

She never forgot a birthday, anniversary, graduation or other individual accomplishment and her small acts of kindness (and delivery of cookies) were appreciated by all.

After being widowed twice, Connie found love again, much to her delight, when she married Dr.

Jim Langstaff. His family was also very special to her.

For the last ten years, Connie lived very happily at Belmont House.

The family would like to thank the outstanding staff at Belmont, her devoted caregivers and her lifelong friend David who visited her every week.

A service for Connie will be held at Christ Church Deer Park, 1570 Yonge Street, Toronto on Thursday, November 21st at 2:00 p.m., followed by a reception at the church. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made in Connie's memory to Belmont House Foundation or The Nature Conservancy of Canada. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

SHIRLEY PATRICIA CHESSON MAHR "Pat" Pat passed away peacefully, on November 8, 2019, in her 91st year, in Etobicoke, Ontario, surrounded by her family in her home.

Pat is predeceased by her parents, Ernest and Mary Chesson, and daughter, Carol (Mahr) Annibale.

She leaves behind her husband and soulmate Ernest of 58 years, her children, David and Sandy, and her beautiful legacy of grandchildren, Michael, Allie, Robert, Lexie, Jeremy, Lauren, Carolyn and Hannah.

A Celebration of Life will be held at St. George's Golf & Country Club in Etobicoke, Ontario on November 26th from 4:00 p.m. - 9:30 p.m., with words of Remembrance at 5 p.m. Memorial donations can be made to the Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation.

HALINA BARBARA MARSZALEK MCGREGOR October 13, 1951 November 14, 2019 November 14th marks the day we lost our beloved matriarch, Halina McGregor, who passed away in her 69th year. Cherished mother to Alexandra McGregor (Jamie Livingston), treasured grandmother to James and Ryan Livingston, dearest sister to Linda Charney and Sandra Marszalek (Jim White) and loving aunt to David Charney (Jennifer), Ricky Charney (Yana), Thomas White (Vickie) and Stewart White (Meghan).

Halina was born to Edward and Katherine Marszalek in Montreal where she spent her formative years, culminating in a Bachelor of Commerce from McGill University before continuing on to become a Chartered Accountant. Halina would go on to an esteemed career in finance as a CFO in the chemical and mining sectors for over thirty years. While her professional successes were many, it was family that brought Halina the greatest joy. Ever patient and kind, Halina was a constant source of love and encouragement to all who knew her. No problem was insurmountable, no favour too big. She was too good for this earth and will be forever missed and remembered in our hearts.

Funeral service to take place at St. Eugene De Mazenod Church in Brampton on November 16th at 11 a.m. followed by burial in the Laurentians at St. Sauveur Cemetery on November 18th.

HONEY MOORE It is with great sadness that we announce the passing of Honey Moore on Friday, November 15, 2019 in Toronto. Honey was loved by so many. Beloved mother and mother-in-law of J.

Cameron and Jayni Stark, and the late Andrea Stark. Proud Bubby of Jonah, Oliver and Charlie.

Devoted wife of 30 years to the late Bill Moore and step mum to Glen, and Lisa and Walter. Loving sister of Paul Persofsky and cherished partner of Allan Cooper. A special thank you to the outstanding team at Sunnybrook Odette Centre for their excellent care. At Temple Emanu El, 120 Old Colony Road, Toronto, for service on Sunday, November 17, 2019 at 2:00 p.m.

Interment in the Temple Emanuel section of Pardes Shalom Cemetery. Should you wish to make a donation, Honey's charity of choice was Ovarian Cancer Canada,1-877-413-7970 ovariancanada.org DARRYL KAZUO NAKAMOTO In his 64th year, Darryl completed his life's journey on Tuesday, November 12, 2019, leaving behind his loving wife, Sue Ann (Elite), his sister, Lynda (Nakamoto) and her partner Edgar (Wilson), many friends, colleagues and family, and his two basset hounds Henrietta Grace and Merton T.

Darryl was a true Renaissance man who loved art, music, superheroes, books and sports.

His memory for trivia was astounding. His Cheshire cat smile will be remembered by all who knew him and his quiet, gentle demeanour will be greatly missed. Special thanks to all our friends and family for their support during Darryl's journey in his time of need. Thanks also to Doctors Knox and Grant and the teams at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, and Michael Garron Hospital; the Local Initiative Health Care; Senior Helpers; Darryl's many friends and coworkers at The Printing House; The St. Barnabas Choir and Pastoral Caregivers and the "dog wranglers" Fanny, Floyd, Damien, Indrani, Aidan and Anusha who walked and fed Hetty and Merton.

There will be a Celebration of Life on Saturday, November 30th at 11:00 a.m. at St. Barnabas Anglican Church, 361 Danforth Avenue, Toronto. In lieu of flowers due to scent sensitivity, donations are asked to be sent to St. Barnabas Anglican Church, St.

Stephen-in-the-Fields Anglican Church or to a charity of your choice. Condolences may be forwarded through: http://www.humphreymiles.com.

HELEN REBECCA NORMAN At the age of 90, passed away peacefully in Hamilton General Hospital, Ontario on Thursday, November 7, 2019.

Survived by sisters, Marilla, Nine Mile River, NS, Sherry (Ronald) Haynes, Toronto, Ontario and sisterin-law, Shirley Norman, Halifax, NS; nephew, Stephen (Teri) Faulkner, Blackfalds, AB; niece, Nancy (Torrie) Hunter, Dawson City, Yukon; grandnephews, Darcy, Ted and Luke; and grandnieces, Miranda and Alicyn.

Predeceased by parents, Warren and Rita Norman; brother, Maurice Norman; and nephews, Tony and Geoffrey.

Helen grew up in Halifax and enjoyed many summers in West Lahave. She attended St. Paul's Anglican Church in Halifax which led to studies at Anglican Women's Training College in Toronto and Queens University, and to her becoming a youth worker in the Diocese of Moosonee, Northern Ontario. She then returned to Toronto and in her later years worked for the Federal Government.

Helen lived simply - she enjoyed travelling, loved people, especially her grandnieces and nephews, was an avid reader, and continued her volunteer work with her church until very recent years.

Helen will be missed by so many people. She was always so friendly and cheerful. A special thank you to the staff at Bertram Place for the wonderful care they gave Helen the past five years.

A Memorial Service will be held at St. James Anglican Church, 137 Melville St., Dundas on Friday, November 22 at 12 p.m.

Online condolences may be made at http://www.marlattfhdundas.com ELIZABETH ROWAN O'BRIEN We are privileged to have known the bright light that was Elizabeth Rowan "Betty" O'Brien (nee Stanley), June 30, 1931 - October 26, 2019) always positive, smart and helpful.

Loving wife to the late William John "W.J." "Bill" O'Brien (1993). Predeceased by children, Barbara Susan "Sue" (2019) and Donald Edward (2009). Survived by son, David William (Linda); son-inlaw, Mark; daughter-in-law, Kimberley; and beloved twin sister and best friend, Barbara (Stanley) Sinclair. Predeceased by parents, Alfred (1971) and Kathleen (Rowan) Stanley (1985); and sister, K. Joan Dickinson (2005) (Alan, 2006).

Beloved grandmother to the O'Briens: Michael David (Anne-Marie), Kari Lynn, Jaclyn Nicole and Gavin William and greatgrandmother to James Michael and Penelope Rose O'Brien. Aunt to Diane, Lyn and Carol Dickinson; and Heather, Judy (John) and Ian (Lorene) Sinclair.

Thank you to Mark, who was a gentle caregiver in the past decade to both Betty and Sue, and thank you to Mark's family.

From Havergal and Toronto roots, to McGill University to the half century in Don Mills and every summer on Browing Island in Muskoka...always gathering more friends.

After successfully raising her children, Betty had a decadelong Real Estate career with both Slightam and Royal LePage. She was a long-time curler at the Granite Club.

With numerous life-long friends in Muskoka and Toronto, Betty was always ready to enjoy time together at parties and on trips.

In lieu of flowers, please make donations to the Canadian Cancer Society or the charity of your choice "In honour of Elizabeth Rowan "Betty" O'Brien."

A private family and friends service has taken place at Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto.


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Monday, November 18, 2019 – Page B21

ROBERT BINNENDYK "Bob" After a brief and heroic battle with illness, Robert (Bob) Binnendyk passed away during the early morning of November 10, 2019, at the age of 78. In his final weeks, Bob was surrounded by the love of family and friends who gathered to provide company, care, and share some wonderful stories.

Son of the late Arie Binnendyk and Johanna Bos, Bob was born in Amsterdam, Holland, where he spent his early childhood before immigrating to Canada with his family in 1950. Bob is survived by his wife Lynda, children Paul (Hélène), Chris (Rosemary), Karen (Wade), Jennifer (Brinton), Michael (Joy), and Lauren (Gordon), as well as his brother Hank and sister Gerda. He was also a proud Opa to Alastair and Roan, Giorgia, Makenna and Taylor, Connor and Jake, and Charlotte.

After graduating from Seaforth High School as a multiple athlete of the year (football, track) and glee club enthusiast, Bob earned his CGA designation and joined Labatt Breweries of London, Ontario, for what would become a fruitful 35 year career that included stops in Edmonton, Vancouver, Toronto, and Edmonton again, until he retired in 1996 as President, Western Canada Region.

In addition to Bob's passion for work and family, he was a big believer in community service.

This began with his effort to save a local public school from being torn down after a devastating fire, and continued with his involvement in the Edmonton Symphony and Opera Companies.

These last roles earned Bob the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012.

Heartfelt thanks must be given to all those who provided care and comfort to Bob, in particular the staff of Unit 5D2 at the University of Alberta Hospital and Capital Care Norwood, and a very special thank you to Irv McGinnis, Bob's friend of over 50 years, who kept him company for many hours during his final days.

The family invites you to join them at the Royal Mayfair Golf Club on Friday, November 29, from 12:00 to 3:00 p.m. to raise a glass and share some stories in celebration of a life well lived. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to either the Cross Cancer Institute or the University of Alberta Hospitals Foundation.

JACK BROCK On Friday, November 15, 2019 at Sunnybrook Veterans Centre. Jack Brock beloved husband of Mildred Brock.

Loving father and father-inlaw of Barry and Gaby Brock, and Barbara and Harvey Halperin. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Gloria Brock and the late Seymour Brock.

Devoted grandfather of Shawn and Janet, Joanna and Aaron, Ari and JoLynn, Darin and Maian, and Tara. Devoted great-grandfather of Alexis, Mason, Danya, Lillian, Ellie, and Leighton. Service was held at Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, on Sunday, November 17, 2019 at 9:30 a.m. Memorial donations may be made to The Sunnybrook Veterans Centre, 416-480-4483, or to a charity of your choice.

WENDY FLYNN (née Gilchrist) Born August 7, 1936 Died November 7, 2019 Wendy died as she lived; elegantly and on her own terms. She was full of life until she died.

Wendy was born in Toronto.

Her maternal grandfather was E.R. Wood, whose estate now forms Glendon College at York University. She was educated at Bishop Strachan School, Toronto; Elmwood School, Ottawa; and at L'ecole Internationale, Geneva, Switzerland.

Finished with finishing school, Wendy sailed to London, England where, in 1960, she met her husband on board ship. She leaves her children, Sharon (Ian Graham), and Mark (Audrey Fisch). She was the adoring grandmother of Georgina, Charlie, Lucinda and Sophie Graham, and Max Flysch.

Wendy lived in Europe and spent 30 years in London, supporting such worthy causes as "Save the Children" and the "Royal Ballet."

Returning to Toronto she worked for Martin and Meredith.

Known as Wendy to her friends, as Jojo to her grandchildren, and Gloria to the Starbucks baristas, she brought joy to everyone who deserved it. No stranger to a cocktail (especially a good martini), she spent many happy winters in Key Biscayne, Florida.

Cremation has taken place. In keeping with Wendy's wishes there will be no service.

Instead, she would ask that you have a martini or, if you are so inclined, make a donation to the National Ballet of Canada or the Toronto Humane Society, in her memory. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

A celebration of Wendy's life will take place when the weather is warmer.

MARY ISOBEL MACAULEY "June" June was born in Toronto, at her Grandma Day's house at 35 Elmwood Ave. on February 22, 1928 and died peacefully at Cawthra Gardens on November 14, 2019. She was the devoted only child of the late Andrew Macauley and Annie Day.

June was predeceased by her dear Day cousins: Bert (Marg), Jean (Al), J. Murray (Marion), and Marilyn (Jerry). She is survived by their fourteen children June attended Regal Road School and Oakwood Collegiate before studying to become a secretary.

After a brief assignment at Cunard Lines, she joined Molson Breweries on Fleet Street and later its subsidiary Diversey Corp. in Mississauga where she worked for more than 35 years as an executive secretary to the presidents of those organizations, men for whom she had the utmost regard. June loved the Molson companies, and looked forward to going to work every day.

June retired in 1991 and redirected her attention for detail to wood working classes while she continued to enjoy an off-colour joke, cryptic crosswords, rum (Lemon Heart please) and coke, and time with family - especially at Christmas and in the summer on Boshkung Lake. She will be remembered for her love of Frank Sinatra, and the many canine family members, big or small, old or young. Ahhhh.

Thanks to all of the caregivers that helped June during her period of declining health, including Miryam, those at Beechwood, Bough Beaches and especially at Cawthra Gardens. It is the work of angels that you do.

Friends may call at Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere east of the Jane subway on Wednesday November 20, 2019 from 10:30 a.m. until time of service in the Chapel at 11:30a.m. Interment Prospect Cemetery will follow the reception.

If desired please consider making a donation in June's Memory to the Trillium Health Partners Mississauga Hospital Mental Health Redevelopment Fund.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca SHIRLEY PATRICIA CHESSON MAHR "Pat" Pat passed away peacefully, on November 8, 2019, in her 91st year, in Etobicoke, Ontario, surrounded by her family in her home.

Pat is predeceased by her parents, Ernest and Mary Chesson, and daughter, Carol (Mahr) Annibale.

She leaves behind her husband and soulmate Ernest of 58 years, her children, David and Sandy, and her beautiful legacy of grandchildren, Michael, Allie, Robert, Lexie, Jeremy, Lauren, Carolyn and Hannah.

A Celebration of Life will be held at St. George's Golf & Country Club in Etobicoke, Ontario on November 26th from 4:00 p.m. - 9:30 p.m., with words of Remembrance at 5 p.m. Memorial donations can be made to the Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation.

ELAINE REHOR 1947-2019 Elaine Lenore Virginia Rehor (Prior) died shortly after her 72nd birthday in Key West, Florida, her adopted home.

Born in Toronto, Elaine was the much loved daughter of Marj and Doug, wife of David, sister of Sharon (Doug) and Joan, and aunt to Scott.

Fondly remembered by her stepfamily, Will, Kimberly, Brendan, Karlie, Casey, Preston, Jeffrey, David, Scott and James and many friends and family.

Elaine was an expert knitter and needlepointer, and lover of crosswords and books. She had a varied career in business and enjoyed living abroad in the UK and Brazil.

Elaine was an avid reader of obituaries and nothing we could say would ever do justice to the wonderful and kind person she was.

After a stubborn battle with cancer, she slipped away quietly in the early morning of November 10, 2019.

A memorial gathering will be held at a later date in Toronto.

Donations to the charity of your choice or the Senior Care Group Foundation (scgfoundtion.com/giving).

MARION ALICE SIMS (née Couldridge) Passed away at Chartwell Wenleigh Long Term Care Residence, Mississauga on Friday, November 15, 2019, at the age of 96. Predeceased by husband Raymond. Loving mother of David, Stephen (Terri), and Beth (Doug) Tate. Cherished grandmother of Stephanie (Derek), Carrie (Giancarlo), Sydney (Dane), Alastair and Andrew (Ainsley).

Predeceased by siblings Donald and Ross Couldridge.

Marion was mini but mighty.

She was strong and independent and had a great sense of humour.

What an amazing role model.

A longtime Burlington resident, she had a career as a high school teacher in Hamilton, and took delight in travelling the world during school breaks, often with her good friend Alex Gall.

And, she loved the company of felines, of which there were many over the years.

Visitation at Smith's Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Wednesday, November 20th from 7 -9, and Thursday, November 21st from 12 p.m. where a Service of Remembrance will be held in the Chapel at 1 p.m. followed by interment at Woodland Cemetery.

Reception to follow. For those who wish, donations in memory of Marion to the Royal Botanical Gardens, Burlington or a charity of choice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

ANN MARIE SWEENEY B.A., M.S.W., LL.B.

Wife, Mother, Lawyer, Advocate Ann Marie Sweeney, of Toronto, and West Vancouver, passed away on November 11, 2019, in Toronto after a determined battle against cancer. She was 83 years old.

Ann Marie was raised in Hartsdale, New York, the daughter of Edward Forbes and Kathleen Fogarty, both originally from Ireland. The oldest of two bright daughters, Ann Marie was awarded a scholarship to attend the University of St. Michael's College at the University of Toronto. From there, she completed a Master of Social Work at Fordham University and worked as a psychiatric social worker first in New York and then Vancouver. Later, she earned a Bachelor of Laws from UBC and practiced law for 30 years.

She is survived by her sister, Kay Fandetti; her daughter, Brenda (Don); sons, John (Alba) and James (Jas); and her three grandchildren, Daniel, James and Lina.

Ann Marie's upbringing and education in a devout Catholic family instilled in her a strong sense of faith, hard work and social justice. She was a builder.

She built a marriage of more than 50 years with her husband, James Brian Sweeney (d. 2013), a pediatric dentist. From this marriage, she educated and launched three children into the world while practicing law. She worked tirelessly to assist six religious orders in their work among the poor. With a beloved group of friends, she created two charitable foundations, Familia Christi and the Forbes Foundation. She found great joy in the work these foundations did to help people in Canada, Haiti, Latin America and Africa.

Whether at Familia Christi holiday sales or fundraising events at her oceanside home, Ann Marie shone brightly as an active participant in life and work. Her visits to South America with her husband bonded them together in common purpose and joy.

Many thanks to the nurses, staff and physicians who provided her with expert care in Toronto, especially Dr. Esther Rosenthal, Dr. Alexandra Easson, Dr.

Raymond Jang, and devoted caregiver Haydee Coufadis.

Catholic Prayers for the Dead will be held at 7:30 p.m. on Friday, November 22, 2019 at St. Anthony's Church, 2347 Inglewood Avenue, West Vancouver. Mass of Christian Burial will be held at the same location at 11 a.m. on Saturday, November 23, 2019.

Lunch reception will follow at Hollyburn Country Club, 950 Crosscreek Road, West Vancouver.

In Toronto, a memorial mass will be held at St. Basil's Church, 50 St.

Joseph St. on December 7, 2019 at 10 a.m. Lunch reception will follow at noon at the Four Seasons Hotel, 60 Yorkville Avenue, Toronto.

In lieu of flowers, the family welcomes a donation to the BCIT Foundation and asks that the funds be directed in Ann Marie Sweeney's name to the nursing program.

ARTHUR E. VOLKER Passed away on November 9, 2019. He was 93 years old. He leaves behind his children, Michael and Audrey; seven grandchildren; and 8 great-grandchildren. He retired from GM in 1986 where his last position was manager of the TITAN plant in London, ON, which manufactured diesel electric trucks for the mining industry. He died with family by his side at Amica Lions Gate in West Vancouver.

In lieu of flowers, donations to the Alzheimer Society LondonMiddlesex would be appreciated: w w w. a l z h e i m e r l o n d o n . c a .

To write a condolence to the family, please visit www.

mckenziefuneralservices.com.

RUTH WAGMAN On Saturday November 16, 2019 at Humber River Hospital. Beloved wife of the late Dr. Benjamin B. Wagman.

Loving mother and mother-inlaw of Jill and Richard Kohn of London, Ontario, and Erica and Larry Binder. Dear sister and sister-in-law of the late Murray and Bea Fish. Devoted grandmother of Joanna and Anton Katz, Rebecca Kohn, Adam Kohn and Jenny Bird, Samantha Kohn and Steve Munn, Caley and Michael Super, and Michael Binder and Jackie Saltsman, and loving great-grandmother of Emma, Ethan, August, Georgie, Benjamin, Jonah, Blake, Abby, and Ella. Special thanks to Baycrest and to her loving and devoted caregivers Vivian, Judy, and Beth. At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West (three lights west ofDufferin) for service on Tuesday, November 19, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. Interment Beth Tzedec Memorial Park. Shiva at 500 Avenue Road.

Memorial donations may be made to the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada (416) 922-6065 or to Community Living London, 519-686-3000.


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Universal health care on trial: What you need to know about a historic Charter challenge in B.C.
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For a decade, surgeon Brian Day has been fighting to undo laws barring patients from paying for medical care at private clinics like his. Here's a primer on how the case came to be, and how its outcome could affect you
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Wednesday, November 13, 2019 – Page A8

A Charter challenge to the foundations of Canada's health-care system is finally scheduled to begin hearing closing arguments on Monday, 10 years after the pugnacious private-medicine advocate Brian Day asked the courts to undo a law that effectively bars patients from paying for necessary medical care.

At stake in the unusually long British Columbia trial - which has already consumed 179 days of court time over nearly three years - is nothing less than the survival of medicare's central organizing principle that hospital and physician care should be doled out first to those who need it most, not to those who can pay the most.

"It absolutely could set a precedent for the rest of Canada," said Rupinder Brar, a Vancouver addictions-medicine physician and member of the board of Canadian Doctors for Medicare, an intervening party in the case. "I think all Canadians should be very concerned because it's in the very fabric of who we are as a nation that we provide care for one another when we need it."

Dr. Day argues there is another, equally important principle at play: the Charter-protected right to life, liberty and personal security, which he argues is violated by interlocking legal provisions that effectively prohibit patients from buying private insurance or paying out of pocket to relieve their suffering when the public system can't help them in a timely way.

In an interview, the 72-year-old orthopedic surgeon said he has never been interested in dismantling Canada's public health-care system.

The marathon legal battle, he said, has always been about adding more private options to the public system, not unlike many European countries that provide faster access and spend less per capita on health care than Canada.

That position has made the Liverpool-born chief executive officer and medical director of the private Cambie Surgery Centre in Vancouver something of a bête noire to medicare's defenders and their political allies.

Two political parties under three premiers in B.C. have fought Dr. Day's claim; the federal government joined the case as an intervenor after Justin Trudeau's Liberals won the 2015 election.

"The only good thing about the trial process," Dr. Day said, "has been that it has moved it out of the realm of politicians. It's now in the hands of a judge. And that's that."

The question soon to be in the hands of B.C. Supreme Court Justice John Steeves is whether a handful of provisions in B.C.'s Medicare Protection Act violate Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

The B.C. law doesn't explicitly prohibit well-off patients from buying their way to the front of the queue. Rather, it dampens the market for private care by prohibiting physicians from "enrolling" to work in the public and private systems at the same time; by forbidding enrolled doctors from charging patients for publicly covered services; and by barring the sale of private insurance for medically necessary hospital and doctor care. (Private insurance is, of course, widely available for care not covered by Canada's "universal" system, which does not include prescription drugs, most dental care, home care and other services provided outside hospitals and physicians' offices.)

For more than two decades, the B.C. government looked the other way while Dr. Day's Cambie Surgery Centre, which opened in 1996, and other private surgical clinics bucked the law. The clinics did a brisk - and perfectly legal - business operating on patients exempt from the law, mainly injured workers whose care was paid for by the workers' compensation system. But the private clinics also treated regular patients who paid out of pocket for swifter diagnostic testing, specialists' assessments and surgeries, violating a law that Gordon Campbell, B.C.'s Liberal premier from 2001 and 2011, said in an affidavit his government chose not to enforce - just like its NDP predecessors.

"Allowing British Columbians to obtain private medically necessary services would not result in any harm to either the accessibility or viability of the public health-care system, as demonstrated by the experience over the past 20 years in British Columbia, when the prohibitions on access to diagnostic and surgical services were not enforced," Dr. Day's lawyers say in their final arguments, already submitted in writing. "Further, the government cannot justify imposing severe mental and physical harm on some residents on the basis of an ideological commitment to perfect equality in access to treatment, which is neither created by the legislation in question nor obtained in practice."

Although Cambie Surgeries Corp., along with a sister clinic and four patients, are technically the plaintiffs in the case, Dr. Day is undoubtedly its face.

The B.C. government, in its written closing arguments, said the history of the proceedings - which include an unsuccessful campaign by Dr. Day to block a provincial audit of his clinics - make it apparent that "the plaintiffs do not conceive of this as an actual bona fide constitutional challenge, but rather as a form of political theatre, and an attempt to force change on the health-care system for the financial benefit of the corporate plaintiffs."

That view is shared by Canadian Doctors for Medicare, the BC Health Coalition and a group of patients backed by the British Columbia Nurses' Union (BCNU), all of which are intervenors in the case. The BCNU set the stage for the case more than 15 years ago when the union agitated for the government to enforce the law against private clinics charging patients out of pocket for medically necessary care. Contrary to Dr. Day's view that private clinics act as a release valve for an overburdened public system, BCNU president Christine Sorensen fears that, if Dr. Day triumphs, public wait times will get worse, with private clinics cherry-picking uncomplicated patients and luring away health-care workers.

"And at the end of the day," Ms.

Sorensen said, "the physicians and nurses and other health-care professionals who work in these facilities can't be in two places at one time."

The BC Health Coalition, Canadian Doctors for Medicare and the patients and doctors who intervened with them, described in their written closing arguments how they believe shortages of anesthesiologists, nurses and doctors contributed to waiting lists in the public system. One doctor who testified in the case made $965,826 in 2016-17 working for Cambie and the Specialist Referral Clinic, another plaintiff in the case - about four times as much as what he usually earned in public billings.

The question of how private, paid-for options affect waiting lists is one of many that have been hashed out as more than 100 witnesses, including Dr. Day and patients on both sides of the case, testified in Justice Steeves's courtroom.

Exactly how much public money has been spent fighting the case, the B.C. government refuses to say.

The Canadian Constitution Foundation, a legal charity that describes itself as a defender of constitutional liberties, filed an access-to-information request to find out how much the provincial government had spent fighting the case from 2009 to 2017.

When the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia ruled the information should be released, the NDP government appealed to the B.C. Supreme Court and won, meaning the figure will stay secret. The Canadian Constitution Foundation has raised more than $5-million for Dr. Day's side of the case since 2011, said Joanna Baron, the foundation's executive director. She estimated nearly 200 people have contributed, some of them small donors who give $50 a month, others high-net-worth individuals who've given large sums to the cause.

One of those high-net-worth supporters is Anthony Fell, a former chairman of RBC Capital Markets who helped organize a fundraising lunch for the case at the Toronto Club last month.

Dr. Day and the plaintiffs' lawyer, Peter Gall, flew in to address the Oct. 8 gathering, which included co-host Prem Watsa, the billionaire CEO of Fairfax Financial Holdings Ltd., and former B.C.

premier Mr. Campbell, among others.

"Our system is high-cost and mediocre at best," Mr. Fell said during an interview, after retrieving a binder about Dr. Day's case from among the tidy rows in a glass case in his office at Toronto's Royal Bank Plaza. "The population is aging and the government can't afford to keep up. We see the major hospitals across this country - including on [Toronto's] University Avenue - doing what they call hallway medicine or hallway treatment. And that's not good enough."

It's true that Canada spent more on health care per person ($6,448) and as a percentage of GDP (10.7 per cent) in 2018 than the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development average ($5,175 a person and 8.8 per cent of GDP) and that Canada is often ranked poorly on wait times and access to physicians in comparative international research. However, there are deep divisions about whether Dr. Day's prescription for more privately paid-for care would cure would ails the system.

Debbie Waitkus waited 27 months for a date for spinal surgery for her son, Walid Khalfallah, at BC Children's Hospital, before she gave up and took the teenager to the Shriners Hospitals for Children in Spokane, Wash. He suffered a stroke on the operating table in 2012 and wound up paralyzed from the belly button down, a heart-breaking outcome his mother attributes, in part, to how severely her son's spine deteriorated while he languished in a Canadian queue.

Mariël Schooff, meanwhile, was told that she could wait as long as five years in British Columbia's public system for an endoscopic surgery to relieve the chronic sinus infections that had left her in excruciating pain. Fearing she couldn't wait that long, Ms. Schooff borrowed money against her home to pay $6,125.75 to have the procedure performed in a private clinic in 2002 (not Cambie) by the same doctor who would have, eventually, operated on her for free at a public hospital.

Although Ms. Waitkus and Ms.

Schooff both faced long waits in the public health-care system, they wound up testifying on opposite sides of the case. Dr. Day invited Ms. Waitkus to become one of the plaintiffs in the case, while the BCNU recruited Ms. Schooff, now 73, to become a patient intervenor. She testified that her sinus surgeon shouldn't have asked her to pay out of pocket for faster access at his private clinic.

For Ms. Waitkus, a community nurse in Kelowna, the case is not something she dwells on daily as she cares for her son, who is now 23 and attending a college program for adults with special needs.

Testifying on Oct. 4, 2016, she sobbed as she described the panicked months she spent begging anyone who would listen to schedule a surgery to correct her son's kyphosis, a dramatic forward bend in his spine.

Ms. Waitkus is deeply upset at those who suggest that Dr. Day's case could wind up undermining the public health-care system.

She said in an interview that she only wants more options for patients like her son. "We do have a strong public health-care system right now, we really do," she said.

"But waiting has become part of our health-care system." For his part, Dr. Day said he wishes he had never started Cambie or his long war with the B.C.

government. The experience has contributed to turning all six of his children, who range in age from 20 to 42, off careers in medicine. Two of three of his younger children would like to be lawyers, he said, laughing.

"I would have been personally much better off, both financially and familywise, if I'd never gotten into this," he said. "But now that we've come this far, we're not going to quit."

However Justice Steeves rules, the case is expected to be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada.

Associated Graphic

Dr. Brian Day holds a sign outside an under-construction Cambie Surgery Centre in 1995. The B.C. government of the day refused to allow British Columbians to purchase services there, so Dr. Day and others at the clinic targeted foreigners or those from out-of-province. But the clinic was still able to treat British Columbia residents for years.

THE CANADIAN PRESS

Dr. Day, seen in 2016, argues that the Charter-protected right to life, liberty and personal security is violated by legal provisions that effectively prohibit patients from buying private insurance or paying out of pocket when the public system can't help them in a timely way.

THE CANADIAN PRESS

Walid Khalfallah greets his mother, Debbie Waitkus, after a cycle ride in Kelowna. Mr. Khalfallah waited 27 months for a spinal surgery date before going to the U.S. for private care. Ms. Waitkus says patients need more options: 'We do have a strong public health-care system ... but waiting has become part of our health-care system.'

LUCAS OLENIUK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Dr. Rupinder Brar is on the board of Canadian Doctors for Medicare, an intervening party in the case between Dr. Day and the B.C. government. 'I think all Canadians should be very concerned because it's in the very fabric of who we are as a nation that we provide care for one another when we need it,' Dr. Brar says.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Mr. Khalfallah gets around Kelowna on a hand-powered cycle. He suffered a stroke on the operating table in 2012 and wound up paralyzed from the navel down, an outcome his mother attributes, in part, to how severely his spine deteriorated while he languished in a Canadian queue.

LUCAS OLENIUK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Friday, November 15, 2019 – Page B19

DEATHS EDGAR PERCE BROMLEY Passed away at The Carpenter Hospice, Burlington on Wednesday, November 13, 2019, at the age of 86. Loving long-term partner of Doreen Lowbridge.

Predeceased by spouse, Elayne Boden (1995). Beloved father of Donna (Alan) Green, and Sandra (Peter) Howe. Cherished grandfather of Sarah and Abigail.

Dear brother of Betty Jane (Tom) Travis, and brother-in-law of Bruce (Barb) Boden. He will be fondly remembered by his nieces, nephews, cousins and other extended family members.

Visitation at Smith's Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Sunday, November 17 from 3-6 p.m.

A Service of Remembrance will be held at Christ First United Church (1700 Mazo Crescent, Mississauga) on Monday, November 18 at 11 a.m. Reception to follow. For those who wish, donations in memory of Ed to The Carpenter Hospice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

WESLEY GORDON HATLELID October 16, 1925 November 8, 2019 Wesley Gordon Hatlelid, born October 16, 1925 near Flintoft, SK, died November 8, 2019 at Southwood Care Centre, Calgary, AB.

Dearly loved and fondly remembered by his wife of 69 years, Kathleen Hatlelid, and their children Doug (Margaret) Hatlelid, Betty (Steve) MacKenzie, Keith (Anne) Hatlelid, Len (Sharon) Hatlelid, and David Hatlelid, sister-in-law Beth Hatlelid, grandchildren, greatgrandchildren, and many loving nieces and nephews.

Wes was predeceased by his sisters Merle Myers and Irma Powers, brother Al Hatlelid and twin brother Lloyd Hatlelid, and by his grandson Eric Hatlelid.

Wes grew up on a rural Saskatchewan farm, and moved to Lafleche, SK with his family in the 1930s. At 16, after completing high school, he and his brothers joined the Army. He later transferred to the RCAF, trained as a flight engineer and attained the rank of Flight Sergeant. After WWII he attended U of S, graduating with a degree in Geological Engineering and meeting the love of his life, Kathleen, who he married in 1950.

A short career as a mining engineer in Flin Flon, MB was followed by a long career with Imperial Oil Exploration as a geophysicist.

He was recognized for his contributions to the evolving field of seismic stratigraphy, and co-wrote a chapter for a book on the subject. With his growing family, Wes lived and worked in rural Alberta, Edmonton, Dawson Creek, Houston, and finally Calgary. After early retirement, he consulted for junior oil companies as a Professional Engineer.

In his free time and after retirement, Wes enjoyed travel, bridge, golf, lawn bowling, hiking and time with family. His hikes with the Esso Annuitant group were the highlight of every week.

He loved poetry and sometimes recited lines when hiking.

A favorite from Robert Service was: "River, plain and mighty peak - and who can stand unawed? As their summits blazed, He could stand undazed at the foot of the throne of God."

Wes' faith was the bedrock of his life, and he was an active and generous member of his church and the community. He took great pride in his family and loved every family member unconditionally.

The family wishes to extend heartfelt thanks to Southwood Care Centre staff, Fairview and Evergreen Units, for their loving care of our husband, dad, grandpa, uncle, and friend.

Donations in Wes' memory may be made to Calgary Food Bank or the Mustard Seed.

A Memorial Service will be held at McDougall United Church Hall, 8516 Athabasca St SE, Calgary on Saturday, December 7, 2019 at 12:00 p.m. To express condolences, please visit: http://www.mountainviewmemorial.ca.

SHIRLEY PATRICIA CHESSON MAHR "Pat" Pat passed away peacefully, on November 8, 2019, in her 91st year, in Etobicoke, Ontario, surrounded by her family in her home.

Pat is predeceased by her parents, Ernest and Mary Chesson, and daughter, Carol (Mahr) Annibale.

She leaves behind her husband and soulmate Ernest of 58 years, her children, David and Sandy, and her beautiful legacy of grandchildren, Michael, Allie, Robert, Lexie, Jeremy, Lauren, Carolyn and Hannah.

A Celebration of Life will be held at St. George's Golf & Country Club in Etobicoke, Ontario on November 26th from 4:00 p.m. - 9:30 p.m., with words of Remembrance at 5 p.m. Memorial donations can be made to the Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation.

JOHN DENNIS MAILLARD Born October 16, 1929, London England. Passed away peacefully November 7, 2019 at Bridgepoint Hospital.

Much loved husband to the late Angela, father to Julia and John and father-in-law to Dorothea: loving grandfather of Teresa (Mark), Geoffrey (Emma), Christopher, and Olivia: loving greatgrandfather of Evangeline, Theodore, and Nathaniel: adored uncle of Eric, Keith and Neil Rossiter; and godfather to Tara, Una, Emmy, and Rob.

A life filled with love and adventure, with travels to Sri Lanka, Kenya, Greece, and emigration to Canada in 1964 with the family; finally a valued resident of his beloved Cabbagetown. He started his career as a civil engineer in the UK and then in 1964 joined IBM Canada where he worked for 28 years in various roles. He finally found his true calling as an educator teaching lateral thinking to middle management around the world. He was kind, loving and gracious to all - a gentle giant of a man who will always live in our hearts.

A special thanks to the staff of Bridgepoint who took care of him in his last months.

Funeral service will be held on November 22, at 2 p.m. in the Toronto Necropolis Chapel, 200 Winchester St. In lieu of flowers, donation may be made to Bridgepoint Foundation. 416-461-8285 x 2017.

JACK MCFADYEN June 13, 1935 November 11, 2019 Jack's time with us ended on November 11, 2019, but he will live on forever in our memories.

His was truly a life well-lived.

An only child, Jack was born in Toronto and raised by his mother, Lu while his father, Mac served as a Burma Bomber; this gave Jack a life-long love of World War II history. Jack's personality and life view were heavily influenced by his childhood heroes from movies and literature; to the end of his life he would tear up watching "Shane" or reading "The Catcher in the Rye." Jack was an incredibly well-educated person who could recite poetry learned in childhood, and knew the Latin root of any word. Following graduation from the University of Toronto and time in the RCAF Reserves, he travelled the world twice over before meeting his wife Stella - also a teacher - in Nairobi, Kenya. They married and returned to Canada with their first-born, Sophie. Three more children soon followed - Katie, Darcy and Jamie.

The family enjoyed many happy years on Courcelette Road. Stella was a wonderful mother and wife and Jack had a long and successful teaching career, including several years as President of the Toronto Teachers' Federation.

Jack and Stella enjoyed early retirement together, travelling and welcoming nine grandchildren.

Jack continued to be a loyal and loving caregiver to Lu and Mac.

Sadly, we lost Jamie in 2006 and Stella in 2012, but Jack recovered and continued to live life to the fullest, moving to Uxbridge where he made new friends and spent his final years breaking down barriers and crusading against political correctness. No one who met him will ever forget him.

Please join us at a celebration of Jack's life at Low & Low Funeral Home, 23 Main Street, Uxbridge (905-852-3073), on Sunday, November 17, 2019, from 1:004:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to CAMH in memory of Lu and Jamie, or to the Alzheimer Society of Durham Region in memory of Stella.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.lowandlow.ca NORMAN WILLIAM McLEOD June 7, 1926 November 12, 2019 Peacefully at Etobicoke General Hospital on Tuesday, November 12, 2019, Norman William McLeod in his 94th year. Beloved husband for 62 years of Maret Erika McLeod (nee Lukk, pre-deceased).

Loving father of Duncan McLeod (Sherry), Clark McLeod (Mary Cosentino), Tom McLeod (Kathy), and Katherine McKeown (Will).

Dear grandfather of nine: Robert, Lauren, Michael, Anthony, Andrew, Sarah, Duncan, Heather, and Halley.

Everyone is welcome to share in a celebration of our father's life in the Town Hall at the Village of Humber Heights, 2245 Lawrence Ave West, Etobicoke this Sunday, November 17th from noon to 4 p.m. A private family service and burial will be held in Ottawa.

In lieu of flowers, please donate to the Aphasia and Communication Disabilities Program marchofdimes.ca/ donate in memory of Norman McLeod.

DR. ELLEN F. SPEARS D.V.M.

(née Thomson) After a prolonged medical illness which she faced with courage and determination, and a relatively short acute deterioration, Ellen passed away on November 9, 2019 in her 85th year. She was surrounded by the love of her family and friends.

Daughter of the late Dr.

Andrew Thomson and Lally Thomson, she was born in Toronto, attended Branksome Hall and graduated from the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC) in 1958. Beloved wife of Dr. John Spears for 61 years, and loving mother to Andrew (Laleh Moshiri), Jennifer Léger (David Léger), Ian (Sarah Atkinson) and Martha. She was adored by her nine grandchildren and two greatgrandchildren.

Following graduation from OVC, Ellen worked for two years at the Defence Research Board in Kingston. A remarkable mother to four children, she also gave generously of her time to her church (Bloor Street United), the CNIB, the Daily Bread Food Bank, the Victor Home/ Massey Centre, The Toronto Children's Chorus, and the Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild of which she was a founding member.

For those in need, be they musicians, refugees, or family, she provided a welcoming home and the respect she thought all people deserved. Ellen lived a life devoted to serving and caring for others. She did it informally, with a thousand acts of unheralded kindness to both friends and people she had never met but who needed a helping hand.

Throughout her life, Ellen loved spending time with family and friends at Leith, Ontario. There was always room for one more at the dinner table and an extra bed could always be found. This love of the blue waters of Georgian Bay and its spectacular sunsets has been passed on to her children and grandchildren.

The family is grateful for the care Ellen received at the Princess Margaret Hospital (myeloma division), the kind, supportive care she received from the first floor staff at Christie Gardens and her caregiver Madeleine.

Cremation has taken place.

In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the charity of your choice would be gratefully appreciated.

A service of thanksgiving and a celebration of Ellen's life will be held a Bloor Street United Church (300 Bloor Street West) at 3:00 p.m. on Saturday, November 16, 2019 with a reception to follow at the church.

An opportunity to visit with the family will be hosted at the home of Ian Spears and Sarah Atkinson (8 Hewitt Avenue, Toronto, ON M6R 1Y3) on Friday, November 15 from 2:30-5:00 p.m. and 6:00-8:00 p.m.

We miss you Eno.

ALLAN EDWIN STAPLETON January 5, 1920 November 1, 2019 Al Stapleton passed away peacefully at Sunnybrook Hospital following a short illness on November 1. He was in his 100th year. He is survived by his wife of 70 years Grace Elizabeth, his sons John and Paul and their spouses Barbara Brown and Lee Wai Ming.

Al lived with his wife at Amica Bayview Village from April 2017 until his passing.

Al was born on January 5, 1920 in the southern Ontario town of St.

Mary's. He finished high school in June 1939 and when war was declared, he signed up in London Ontario in mid-September 1939. Al was on the first Canadian convoy to England in December 1939 on the Aquitania.

As a signalman (First Div.Sigs: Headquarters), Al learned radio operations and participated in the assembly of the now famous 'Enigma' code breaking radio sets for deployment on the continent. Al was part of the Sicily landing on July 12, 1943 and continued to serve in Italy, France, Belgium, Germany and finally in Holland. Al was looking forward to joining the official Canadian delegations to Italy and Holland to commemorate the 75th anniversary of Allied victories in World War II.

Returning in 1945, Al studied engineering for a year at Ryerson.

He was employed by the CBC from 1946 to 1982 as a technician and engineering supervisor. This choice of career was appropriate because Al was an engineer both in heart and mind. There were very few things he could not repair and he took great joy in describing the mechanisms of how things work. He was active on his computer at the age of 99.

His first radio station was located in Sackville New Brunswick where he met a young nurse, Grace Elizabeth Young. They married in 1949. On Saturday October 26, Al celebrated Grace's 97th birthday along with family two days before the event.

But his real love was sailing. And being a competitive sort, he raced his sailboat each summer during the 1960's and 1970's and gathered a sizeable cache of trophies.

He was a life member at Toronto's Ashbridge's Bay Yacht Club where he spearheaded the building of the current club house in the mid 1970's. In appreciation, the club named the main reception area after him 'Stapleton Hall'.

A celebration of life will be held at a date and place to be decided.

Al will be interred in the National Military Cemetery in Ottawa with full military honours in the New Year.

When asked by a reporter at the age of 98 why he attended the Warriors Day Parade, he answered "One more day of service".


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IT'S TIME FOR THE TORIES TO FORGE A NEW PATH
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Unless the Conservatives can tell a better story on the issues that matter to voters today - especially on the environment, immigration and the rights of women and sexual minorities - then it won't matter who leads the party
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By JOHN IBBITSON
  
  

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Friday, November 1, 2019 – Page A10

J ustin Trudeau's Liberals seemed entirely beatable in the autumn election campaign, thanks to the SNCLavalin affair, the wonky India trip, the blackface photos.

And yet the Conservatives lost.

The party leader, Andrew Scheer, failed. So the knives are out.

Former Tory cabinet minister Peter MacKay - who was rumoured even before the election to be a potential replacement for Mr. Scheer, a rumour Mr. MacKay denied being party to - said this week that the Conservative Leader had a "breakaway on an open net" in the election, but blew it by failing to address his socially conservative views. Conservative MP Mark Strahl, meanwhile, said the party is reviewing everything from staffing to policies after the loss.

But the problem facing the Conservative Party goes far beyond its leadership. "Conservatives have become a bit small in their thinking," said Dennis Matthews, who was an advertising and marketing adviser to Stephen Harper when he was prime minister. The party, Mr. Matthews says, has settled for building a few percentage points of popularity on top of its existing base of about one voter in three.

"We need to think bigger," he said. "The party needs to make a bigger appeal to the country."

To become a governing party, the Conservative Party of Canada has to grow up and advance a decade or three in its thinking.

That does not mean making the party more wishy-washy, retreating to the Red Tory nostrums of the old Progressive Conservatives. Canada does not need a second Liberal Party.

The Conservative coalition must be blue: grounded in small government, low taxes and individual freedom. But unless it tells a better story on the issues that matter to voters today - especially on the environment, on immigration and on the rights of women and sexual minorities - then it won't matter who leads the party. It will lose and it will deserve to lose.

The general consensus is that the Conservatives lost the election because they lost suburban Ontario - specifically the swath of ridings surrounding Toronto, a region called the 905 after its area code.

Middle-class suburbanites in the 905 tend to vote as a block, and because so many ridings are involved - about 30, depending on how you draw the boundary - the party they choose almost always forms the government.

And the 905 has a multiplier effect: The party that does well there does well in other suburban Ontario seats and in the suburban ridings surrounding Vancouver.

Mr. Harper won most of the seats in the 905 on his way to a majority-government victory in 2011. Mr. Trudeau's Liberals did the same in 2015 and repeated the trick on Oct. 21, securing 24 seats to the Conservatives' six.

"We hit a wall in Ontario," said Michael Fortier, a Montrealbased banker appointed to the Senate and Mr. Harper's cabinet in 2006. He pointed out that Conservatives were able to win three elections while holding only a handful of seats in Quebec because of growing support in suburban Ontario, which the party has now lost. "We need to figure out how to get traction there."

As Rachel Curran discovered, gaining traction in suburban Ontario means getting serious about the environment. When Mr. Harper's former director of policy talked to voters in Ottawaarea ridings on behalf of the Conservatives during the election campaign, the environment came up as an issue over and over again.

"It was a priority - and not just for left-wing voters," she said.

"It's a priority for swing voters and now for core conservative voters. And I think we have fallen behind there."

Every poll shows that combating climate change is a key issue for voters across the country.

"The environment came up as a heavy issue in every debate I did," said Lisa Raitt, who has represented the Greater Toronto Area riding of Milton and its predecessor since 2008, but who lost on Oct. 21 to her Liberal opponent. "It's a litmus test," Ms.

Raitt said. "Climate change may not be the reason you voted for someone. But it's the reason you voted against someone."

The Liberals imposed a carbon tax in Ontario and other provinces where the provincial government would not adopt one of its own or a cap-and-trade equivalent. The Conservatives were certain that suburban voters, many of whom commute to work by car, would rise up against the tax. But they didn't, and the woolly Tory platform, which contained vague promises to regulate emissions and invest in new technology, convinced few.

"It's carbon capture here and carbon capture there," Mr. Fortier said. While technology offers long-term solutions, he says more concrete action is required in the short term. "Whatever measures we table need to be taken seriously by voters, and I'm afraid they weren't."

While continuing to robustly promote the oil-and-gas sector, on which so much of the Canadian economy depends, the Conservatives must come up with a climate-change plan at least as credible as any on offer by the Liberals if they want to win elections. Carbon capture here and carbon capture there won't cut it.

Another core issue is immigration and diversity. Here, the party has done itself enormous harm.

When the Conservatives were last in power, Immigration Minister Jason Kenney, now Alberta's Premier, worked relentlessly and successfully to win over immigrant voters, reminding them that Conservatives, not Liberals,

held the same socially and economically conservative views they did. Mr. Harper liked to boast that he was the only conservative leader in the developed world supported by immigrant voters.

In The Big Shift, Darrell Bricker, chief executive of Ipsos Public Affairs, and I wrote that suburban immigrant voters in the 905 allied to the party's traditional base in Western Canada could provide a stable coalition that would lead to repeated Conservative victories. But the Conservatives torched that bridge during the 2015 campaign by encouraging Canadians to report "barbaric cultural practices" and by mishandling the tragic death of Alan Kurdi, the Syrian child found on a Turkish beach, with their initial reluctance to take in more Syrian refugees. The Liberals also successfully demonized the Conservatives for legislation that stripped the Canadian citizenship of dual nationals convicted of terrorist acts.

During the subsequent leadership contest, more than one candidate argued for reduced immigration. Conservative MPs voted against Motion 103, which condemned Islamophobia. (Critics wrongly argued the motion could restrict freedom of speech.) And while Mr. Scheer supports robust levels of immigration, he did himself no favours by harping on asylum seekers crossing the border into Canada from the United States at unauthorized points of entry.

"Our approach was much more about creating anger and creating fear, rather than saying this is a policy issue and here's how we would deal with it," Ms. Curran said. As a consequence, immigrant voters may have come to fear the Conservative Party.

"Is it the norm now that they are Liberal voters?" Ms. Raitt wondered. Middle-class suburban immigrant voters and their descendants may vote Conservative in times of economic difficulties, because Tories are generally seen as handling economic issues more capably than Liberals, she said. But when people do not feel economically insecure, "they vote with their hearts."

And in their hearts, they no longer trust Conservatives.

Such mistrust is misplaced.

The Conservative record in defence of immigration is robust.

John A. Macdonald was an immigrant who envisioned a land filled with fellow immigrants from sea to sea. John Diefenbaker eliminated race-based restrictions on immigration. Brian Mulroney opened the floodgates, bringing in more than 200,000 immigrants a year - a policy Liberal governments copied. Mr.

Harper kept the intake high, even during the financial crisis, because he saw immigrants as vital to the country's economic future. But as Mr. Matthews points out, "Conservatives have to work harder in Canada to show they're different on immigration from other conservative movements around the world, which in so many cases have turned inward and become xenophobic."

Social values haunt the Conservatives above all other issues.

During the election campaign, Mr. Trudeau repeatedly accused Mr. Scheer of wanting to restrict a woman's right to an abortion. He also brought up an old speech of Mr. Scheer's opposing same-sex marriage. As so often in the past, the Liberals accused the Conservatives of being in thrall to the social conservatives within the party, of harbouring some infamous hidden agenda, even though no Conservative government has ever acted on such an agenda.

Mr. Scheer insisted the samesex marriage issue was settled and that his government would never introduce legislation to limit a woman's right to choose.

But in answering questions about these issues, he seemed evasive and uncomfortable. A devout Catholic, he appeared to be at war with himself every time he spoke, reluctantly, on the subject.

There are right-to-life MPs within the Conservative caucus.

Some faith-based conservatives are uncomfortable with what they think is an LGBTQ agenda run rampant. Social conservatives were prominent within the Reform Party and its successor, the Canadian Alliance, and became part of the Conservative Party coalition.

By strength of will, Mr. Harper was able to keep the coalition together without pandering excessively to the demands of those social conservatives. Mr. Scheer struggles to convince people within his own party, let alone the broader public, that he has the same strength of will.

"The party has got to put the gay rights and abortion issue to bed, long before the next election is called," John Baird said.

Mr. Baird served in the cabinets of Mr. Harper and of former Progressive Conservative premier Mike Harris in Ontario.

"The Liberals use this as a bogeyman issue to great effect," he said, "and it costs us dearly in the Ontario suburbs."

One solution might be for the party to reject socially conservative values, which are held by only a minority of the population - polls consistently show that large majorities of Canadians support same-sex marriage and a woman's right to an abortion - and instead become more overtly libertarian, dedicated to preserving and promoting individual freedom.

Lanark-Frontenac-Kingston MP Scott Reid has been a strong voice for a more libertarian conservatism for decades, arguing for the legalization of marijuana as far back as 2001. He argues that a more overtly libertarian approach would be "not only helpful, but critical" to the party's future.

That danger is that social conservatives could forge their own party, embracing nativist, fundamentalist dogma that splits the conservative vote and corrodes public discourse. Such parties are on the march across Europe.

Could one spring up here if the Tories become more socially progressive?

"It's a risk," said Leslie Noble, a consultant who helped write the manifesto that brought Mr.

Harris to power in Ontario. "But we should be running on things that unite us as a party, such as fiscal issues, not on things that divide us or reflect the views of a minority.

"Folks may leave if that's the only issue that matters for them, but hopefully the rest of our agenda will keep them with us.

In any case, it's what we have to do."

There are signs that social conservatives would stay within the Conservative Party, even if the party refuses to endorse their views. Maxime Bernier created the populist, nativist People's Party after failing to win the Conservative leadership. The party garnered a measly 1.6 per cent of the vote on Oct. 21.

Mr. Reid says Canada's immigrant heritage and the large number immigrants here today limit the prospects for a nativist party. "Canadians are genuinely much more open to immigration than almost any country in the world," he said.

Here, then, could be a Conservative Party for our time, one that believes governments should defend your freedom to live your life as you choose, to worship as you choose, to love whomever fills your heart, to have complete control over your own body.

Greater freedom means fewer, simpler, lower taxes and less regulation. It means a smaller government that lives within its means and does not seek to intrude in the market, in your affairs or in the affairs of other governments.

But as any good Conservative knows, with freedom comes responsibility, including the responsibility to protect the environment from human harm.

And as the party of economic opportunity, the Conservative Party should embrace high levels of immigration, recognizing that immigrants built this country and are its future.

All the values embodied in this modern notion of conservatism could be voted on and affirmed through a set of resolutions at the policy convention in April. In the long run, they may prove more important than the vote on the leadership review.

The alternative is to pander to those who would impose their morality on others, who are suspicious of newcomers, who believe fighting climate change is a conspiracy to destroy capitalism.

It's one or the other. Time to choose.

Associated Graphic

Andrew Scheer speaks at a news conference in Regina on Oct. 22, one day after a disappointing result in the election. The Conservative Leader has struggled to convince people within his own party that he can keep all groups in the small-c conservative coalition united the way his predecessor, Stephen Harper, did.

TODD KOROL/REUTERS

MURAT YÜKSELIR / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: THE CANADIAN PRESS

Former Conservative MP Lisa Raitt, shown while campaigning in Milton, Ont., in September, says 'the environment came up as a heavy issue in every debate I did.'

CHRISTOPHER KATSAROV/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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What's the matter with Spain?
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By KONRAD YAKABUSKI
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page O1

BARCELONA -- There may be nowhere on Earth more pleasant on a Sunday in late October than this vibrant Mediterranean port city. It seems a shame I am not here for the weather. Rather, what has drawn me to the Catalan capital is Spain's increasingly fractured politics.

As I make my way toward the Placa de Catalunya, I melt into a crowd of thousands waving and wearing Spanish flags and hoisting placards that read: "Basta!"

The 80,000 people who have turned out to show their support for Spanish unity have had "enough" of the escalation in political vitriol and violence that erupted here following the Oct.

14 conviction on sedition charges of nine Catalan separatist leaders for their roles organizing an illegal referendum in 2017.

On this day, Javier Piera, a 24year-old notary who grew up in Barcelona, has returned to his native city from Madrid, where he now lives, to join the pro-unity demonstration. Like most Spaniards, he has watched his country's political climate deteriorate steadily since the 2017 vote. And he is increasingly worried that the decades of social and economic progress that followed Spain's late 1970s transition to democracy are being threatened by the recent accentuation of centuries-old divisions and the reopening of old wounds from the Civil War.

"I feel that what is happening in Catalonia is moving us backward," Mr. Piera explains. "I am a citizen of this place and I don't want to see this place stop being Spain."

It might be hard for any Canadian who has lived through two Quebec referendums to get too worked up about another country's unity problems.

But Spain is not Canada.

Its history is far bloodier than ours and the historical animosities at the heart of its current political strife are far more insurmountable.

Worse still, the country's political leaders seem wholly incapable of getting their act together to deal with the situation. The country just held its fourth national election in four years, growing more divided with each vote. The political paralysis in Madrid has left many wondering whether Spain has simply become ungovernable.

Over the past month, an extraordinary confluence of events has pushed Spain ever closer to the brink. While these events played out separately, they flowed into one another like acts in a play, exposing the cracks in Spain's still-young (by Western standards) democracy. The final act is still being written, but recent events do not augur well for a happy denouement.

ACT I: LA SENTENCIA After the 2017 Catalan referendum, which was marred by police violence and boycotted by Spanish nationalists, authorities threw the main organizers of the plebiscite into prison, where they spent the better part of two years in preventive detention before their mid-October conviction on sedition charges. While the Supreme Court cleared all nine of the more serious charge of rebellion, it nevertheless sentenced them to between nine and 13 years on the other charges. The court also issued a new international arrest warrant for former Catalan president, Carles Puigdemont, who fled Spain after the 2017 referendum. He remains in Belgium, where he now faces extradition proceedings.

Reaction to la sentencia, as the verdict is known, was immediate and ugly. Thousands of independentistas clashed with police on the streets of Barcelona for five nights in a row. Hundreds of antisystem rioters joined the fray, lighting fire to cars and garbage dumpsters. I watched in disbelief as peaceful neighbourhoods that I had roamed for years suddenly turned into no-go zones for tourists and locals alike.

During the day, meanwhile, thousands heeded the call of local Comites de la defensa de la Republica (Committees for the Defence of the Republic) to shut down highways, border crossings, train stations and Barcelona's main airport terminal, in an attempt to draw international attention to what they insisted was a suppression by the Spanish state of Catalans' right to self-determination.

This breakdown of public order in Catalonia occurred amid the backdrop of Spain's fourth national election campaign in as many years, and soon came to define it. As national politicians on the right called for an immediate suspension of the Catalan parliament's powers, and direct rule by Madrid, acting Socialist Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez found himself caught between his own left-wing political base, which preaches dialogue with Catalonia, and ordinary Spaniards favouring a crackdown on Catalonia. The former People's Party government briefly imposed direct rule on the region after its assembly, known as the Generalitat, passed a unilateral declaration of independence following the 2017 referendum. But for Mr. Sanchez to do so now would signal an exhaustion of all other means to resolve the crisis.

No party has fed off the Catalan crisis more than Vox, a farright upstart that, a year ago, held no seats in Spain's Congress of Deputies. Its first electoral breakthrough, last December in Andalusia, was followed in April, when it won 24 seats in Congress and more than 10 per cent of the popular vote. That was a turning point in the democratic era, marking the first time since the death of dictator Francisco Franco in 1975 that a formation on the far right had become a political force.

Like Franco, of whom he speaks glowingly, Vox Leader Santiago Abascal, a 43-year-old native of the Basque Country, advocates a zero-tolerance approach toward Catalonia and other culturally distinct regions seeking more autonomy. His party would repeal the 1979 Statutes of Autonomy under which Madrid delegated certain powers to regional governments.

The violence in Catalonia that followed la sentencia, and Mr.

Sanchez's refusal to take a tougher stand against it, put the wind in Vox's sails. Until then, Mr.

Abascal had been campaigning on largely the same issue as his far-right peers across Europe - immigration - and emerging as a Spanish version of Italy's Matteo Salvini. He rose to prominence in a 2018 video that showed him on horseback evoking the Christian Reconquista during the Middle Ages, when Muslims who refused to convert to Christianity were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. He vows to "reconquer" Spain, which has seen a sharp increase in Muslim immigrants in recent years. He appears to have discovered his political calling as the voice of Spanish nationalists nostalgic for a strongman leader.

That makes him thoroughly modern, and dangerous.

ACT II: FRANCO LIVES On Oct. 24, the remains of Franciso Franco, who ruled Spain with an iron fist for 31/2 decades, were exhumed from a burial site in the Valley of the Fallen near Madrid. Franco had himself overseen the construction of the Valley, with its massive Catholic basilica and 150-metre cross, as a memorial to victims of Spain's 1936-39 Civil War that pitted his own nationalist and Catholic forces against Republicans and Communists. After his death, the Valley became a pilgrimage site for nationalists seeking to pay homage to El Caudillo (the Chief).

Soon after he was installed as Prime Minister in mid-2018, Mr.

Sanchez vowed to make good on a promise to remove the late dictator's remains from the Valley, arguing the site should be preserved for all victims of the Civil War, and not glorify a brutal dictator. Franco's descendants went to court to stop the transfer to a private burial site. They eventually lost their case and the exhumation went ahead - although right in the middle of the election campaign.

For many Spaniards, the sight of Franco's remains being dug up and transported by helicopter to their new grave - all of it broadcast live on national television - was nothing short of surreal. The spectacle seemed to make everyone uncomfortable and Mr. Sanchez's political opponents mostly held their breath, in a collective demonstration of tact.

Mr. Abascal, however, refused to stay silent, accusing Mr. Sanchez's Socialists of a hidden agenda. "The objective is not to dig up Franco," the Vox Leader told Spanish National Radio.

"The objective is to delegitimize the transition [to a constitutional monarchy], to delegitimize the Crown, to overthrow Felipe VI and to tear down the cross of the Valley of the Fallen."

With that Mr. Abascal showed there were no taboos he is unwilling to break, thrusting Spanish politics into uncharted territory. Indeed, after Franco's death, the country's political elites entered into a pact of silence regarding the past in order to focus on Spain's future. Its economy lagged far behind most of Western Europe and it faced runaway inflation more common to South America. While Basque terrorists kept the entire country on edge for years, an overall unity of purpose among the country's political leaders meant that unfinished business of the Franco era was swept under the rug.

Yet, while Spain made remarkable economic and social progress during the first four postFranco decades, it failed to confront its past. There was no Spanish version of a truth and reconciliation commission. A 1977 amnesty law pardoned not only those convicted of political crimes under Franco, but also granted immunity from prosecution to Franco's acolytes.

The People's Party (PP) long peddled a sort of soft nationalism, becoming the main political vehicle for conservatives and devout Catholics, though stopping short of idolizing Franco. Vox and Mr. Abascal, who himself was born after Franco's death, shows no such restraint. Vox surged in the polls after Franco's exhumation, drawing on a well of sympathy among Franco nostalgics.

ACT III: FOUR YEARS, FOUR ELECTIONS No European economy outside Greece crashed harder than Spain's when the 2008 recession hit. The country's overall unemployment rate quickly surged past 20 per cent soon after the crisis, while youth unemployment was more than double that rate. In 2011, austerity measures imposed by Jose Luis Zapatero's Socialist government led to widespread protests and the creation of the radical Indignados movement. The far-left political party Podemos emerged out of that movement and contested its first national election in 2015, when it won 21 per cent of the popular vote and 69 seats in Spain's 350seat Congress of Deputies.

Podemos's breakthrough shattered the PP-Socialist duopoly that had kept the country's politics on a fairly even keel for more than three decades. Podemos (We Can) preached an anti-capitalist message that unsettled the country's elites, and along with the 40 seats won in 2015 by the centre-right Ciudadanos (Citizens), left Spain with its first hung parliament of the democratic age. Voters were forced to return to the polls in 2016, but the results were equally inconclusive. PP prime minister Mariano Rajoy subsequently formed a weak government that fell in early 2018, after a corruption scandal engulfed his party and Mr. Sanchez's Socialists used a confidence vote to seize power.

Mr. Sanchez's short-lived government fell earlier this year after its budget was rejected by a coalition partner.

April's elections produced a third hung Parliament after Mr.

Sanchez refused to agree to Podemos Leader Pablo Iglesias's demands for near equal representation in a coalition cabinet. So, on Nov. 10, Spanish voters went to the polls for the fourth time in four years. Mr. Sanchez lost his bet that voters, eager to put an end to the political uncertainty, would back his party in larger numbers. Instead, the Socialists lost ground, the PP regained some, while Ciudadanos was almost wiped off the political map.

The real winner, of course, was Mr. Abascal. Vox won 15 per cent of the popular vote and 52 seats, becoming Spain's third-biggest party in Congress and sailing past Podemos, which was reduced to 35 seats. Mr. Sanchez and Mr. Iglesias quickly agreed to bury the hatchet and take another stab at forming a coalition. But they will still need to win support from at least four smaller parties in Congress, including one that advocates Catalan independence, in order to govern.

And Mr. Sanchez will continue to face relentless calls from Mr.

Abascal and the People's Party to impose direct rule on Catalonia, an option that is increasingly favoured by voters in the rest of Spain. A Socialist-Podemos-led coalition would not likely last long.

Back at the pro-unity march, I ask Mr. Piera what he thinks about calls for Madrid to impose direct rule on Catalonia again, as Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution would allow it to do. He looks at me for a second, before taking a deep breath. "Independentistas hate three things: They hate Spain; they hate the King; and they hate intervention by the central government," he tells me. "If they invoke 155, this place will be on fire."

With that, I close my notebook, vowing to enjoy what's left of this perfect Barcelona day. After all, I'm not sure when I'll be back again. Or if this place will even be part of Spain when I return.

Associated Graphic

Catalan independence protesters block the border between France and Spain on Nov. 11 in La Jonquera, Spain. Acting Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez will likely face calls from the far-right Vox party and the People's Party to impose direct rule on Catalonia, an option that is increasingly favoured by voters in the rest of Spain.

DAVID RAMOS/GETTY IMAGES


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Young gunslingers face off in Baltimore
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Texans QB Watson and Ravens pivot Jackson have quickly become two of the NFL's best
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By DAVE CAMPBELL
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page S2

Deshaun Watson and Lamar Jackson starred three years ago in one of the more meaningful and memorable games of that college football season.

This weekend, the NFL gets to stage the show.

Watson and the Houston Texans will travel to Baltimore for a matchup with Lamar Jackson and the Ravens featuring two of the most dynamic quarterbacks in the league, both of whom are under 25, no less. The pass-run threat posed by each player already makes for good theatre, but what's more, the Texans (6-3) and Ravens (7-2) have emerged as two of the strongest challengers to defending champion New England in the AFC. The Ravens beat the Patriots two weeks ago, after all.

When Watson was at Clemson and Jackson was with Louisville in 2016, the ACC foes met in a midseason classic of two top-five teams in The Associated Press poll. Behind five touchdown passes and 397 yards of offence from Watson, Clemson won 42-36 despite a total of 457 yards and three touchdowns by Jackson.

Jackson won the Heisman Trophy that year, beating out Watson, who took the ultimate prize when the Tigers won the national championship. Watson was the 12th overall pick in the 2017 draft and Jackson was selected 32nd overall in 2018. After overcoming some early-career obstacles, Watson with a torn ACL in his rookie year and Jackson with the doubts that his slithery style would translate from college to pro, they're both well on their way to becoming two of the best in the game at their much-scrutinized position.

Watson has totalled 2,711 yards and 23 touchdowns. Jackson has accounted for 2,738 yards and 21 touchdowns.

Though they're mutual admirers, this matchup on Sunday doesn't mean they'll be trying to outdo the other. There's an opposing defence to manoeuvre against. What the other one does on the field has no relevance to what they do when it's their turn.

"I can't control what they're doing on their side or what Lamar's got going on," Watson said this week.

Jackson has captured plenty of attention since becoming the fullfledged face of the franchise this fall. His spin move during a 47yard touchdown run last week in a win over Cincinnati was an instant pick for the NFL's highlight film for 2019.

"I'm a proud quarterback, proud friend," Watson said. "All the criticism he was getting when he was coming out, he's definitely a guy I've always encouraged. He's doing everything all the naysayers said he couldn't do and even more so. His career is very, very bright."

Green Bay (8-2), Seattle (8-2), Tennessee (5-5) and the New York Giants (2-8) have their bye this week.

ATLANTA (2-7) AT CAROLINA (5-4) Christian McCaffrey has carried Carolina all season, not only on the ground but through the air.

With four catches against Atlanta on Sunday, he would pass LaDainian Tomlinson for the most by a running back in his first three years in the NFL. The Panthers must face their nemesis Matt Ryan, who is 6-1 in his past seven starts against the NFC South rival.

Ryan and the Falcons showed some fight last week with one of the most surprising outcomes in the league this season, a 26-9 victory over New Orleans that snapped a six-game losing streak for the Falcons.

BUFFALO (6-3) AT MIAMI (2-7) So much for that assumption the Dolphins were tanking this season to get the top draft pick.

They've suddenly won two straight games.

"We've got two more wins than the rest of the world thought we were going to have this year, so that's pretty cool," defensive tackle Christian Wilkins said.

Miami totalled 381 yards against Buffalo in the previous meeting, the most allowed by the Bills this year. Despite losses in two of their past three games, with a win they would post their best 10-game mark since 1999.

The combined record of the opponents in Buffalo's six victories is 12-44.

DALLAS (5-4) AT DETROIT (3-5-1) Since he entered the NFL in 2016, Dallas running back Ezekiel Elliott has 4,836 rushing yards to lead the league. If he can reach 164 rushing yards against Detroit, he'll be the fifth player with at least 5,000 rushing yards in 50 career games, joining Eric Dickerson, Earl Campbell, Jim Brown and Terrell Davis, all members of the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Elliott and the Cowboys, however, had their ground attack humbled last week in a loss to Minnesota.

He had only 47 rushing yards, the fewest of his career with 20 or more carries. The success of quarterback Dak Prescott against the Vikings helped the Cowboys stay in the league lead in total yards.

The Lions squandered lastminute leads over Kansas City and Green Bay, dropping both games to begin a tailspin accelerated last week by the surprise absence of quarterback Matthew Stafford to a back injury. With five losses in their past six games and the likelihood of Stafford sitting out again on Sunday, the Lions are in a tough spot. Their defence has forced only one turnover over the last four games.

DENVER (3-6) AT MINNESOTA (7-3) The Vikings, coming off a critical victory at Dallas fuelled again by the dual productivity of running back Dalvin Cook, have a prime opportunity to match their win total from last year against the struggling Broncos before taking their bye week. They're 4-0 at home this year and 22-7 at U.S.

Bank Stadium in the regular season and the playoffs. Minnesota's pass rush and crowd noise has proven time and again to be a daunting combination for opponents, particularly with inexperienced quarterbacks such as Denver fill-in Brandon Allen.

Allen performed admirably in his first start for Joe Flacco, when the Broncos last played before their bye and beat Cleveland, passing for two touchdowns without a turnover. Though Denver has dropped from 10th in the league last season in sacks for every pass attempt to 22nd place this year, with Bradley Chubb on injured reserve like Flacco, the Broncos still have a capable defence that could create challenges for quarterback Kirk Cousins and the Vikings. Denver has allowed an average of 18.9 points a game, the seventh-fewest in the NFL.

JACKSONVILLE (4-5) AT INDIANAPOLIS (5-4) After breaking his collarbone in the season opener, Nick Foles will finally take over again at quarterback for a Jaguars team that could use a spark after a 23-point loss in London to Houston prior to the bye week. Not only does Foles conveniently return in a division game that's a must to win if Jacksonville is to have a chance to remain in contention, but he will do so with his former offensive co-ordinator on the other side.

Colts coach Frank Reich was one of his mentors in Philadelphia, when Foles took over two seasons ago and helped lead the Eagles to their first Super Bowl title. Reich's current team has lost two straight games since quarterback Jacoby Brissett hurt his knee.

He's expected to reclaim his starting spot on Sunday.

NEW ORLEANS (7-2) AT TAMPA BAY (3-6) Despite their humbling defeat at home against Atlanta last week, the Saints still have a comfortable lead in the NFC South. Wide receiver Michael Thomas leads the NFL with 86 receptions and 1,027 yards, joining Randy Moss, A.J.

Green and Mike Evans as the only players in history to begin a career with four consecutive 1,000-yard seasons. Thomas had 13 catches for 152 yards against the Falcons.

The Buccaneers could be just as vulnerable, with a league-worst defence that's allowing an average 31 points per game. No team has allowed more passing yards, either, and Tampa Bay just cut cornerback Vernon Hargreaves III.

NEW YORK JETS (2-7) AT WASHINGTON (1-8) Here's a sign of progress for the Jets: Quarterback Sam Darnold, in last week's win over the Giants, was not picked off for the first time since the season opener. Darnold threw nine interceptions over his other four starts this year.

Washington has lost three straight games, after the only win came against another struggling team in Miami. Washington hasn't scored a touchdown during the losing streak, either. They have just 45 points over their past six games.

ARIZONA (3-6-1) AT SAN FRANCISCO (8-1) There are no undefeated teams left in the standings after the 49ers squandered several opportunities last week against Seattle and lost in overtime amid a growing list of injuries on their offence.

Fortunately for them, they'll host a Cardinals team on a three-game losing streak.

Arizona is second-to-last in the league in scoring and total defence, with at least 21 points allowed in all 10 games.

CINCINNATI (0-9) AT OAKLAND (5-4) There is one winless team remaining, with a reeling Bengals squad under rookie coach Zac Taylor having turned to rookie Ryan Finley at quarterback. One more loss would match the franchise record for the worst start to a season, established in 1993.

The Raiders have rather quietly worked their way into contention in the AFC, seeking to move two games above the .500 mark for the first time since they started 2-0 in 2017. The Raiders have a leagueleading 13 touchdowns by rookies this year, led by running back Josh Jacobs.

NEW ENGLAND (8-1) AT PHILADELPHIA (5-4) Two of the past five times these teams faced each other came in the Super Bowl, with the memory of Feb. 4, 2018, in Minneapolis still fresh for both sides. That's when the Eagles scored the go-ahead touchdown with 2:21 left, recovered a fumble by Tom Brady with a sack on the next possession for the Patriots and posted a 41-33 victory that ended with a disconsolate Brady sitting down on the U.S.

Bank Stadium turf after a desperation incompletion on the final play.

Brady said he's still carrying "a lot of mental scar tissue" from that game, even though the Patriots rebounded to become the most recent NFL champions a year ago. They had their bye week to recuperate from their only loss this season, to the Ravens and they'll send a smothering defence with several all-time records in range out to try to make the afternoon rough for Eagles quarterback Carson Wentz. The Patriots have allowed only 10.9 points and 249.3 yards a game. Wentz, who was injured prior to the 2017 playoffs and watched Foles lead the Eagles to the franchise's first Super Bowl win, has helped the Eagles tie the Cowboys for first place in the NFC East with two consecutive victories.

CHICAGO (4-5) AT LOS ANGELES RAMS (5-4) The Bears broke a four-game losing streak last week by beating Detroit behind three touchdown passes thrown by Mitch Trubisky that gave an ailing offence some life. There are still many issues to be ironed out for a team facing as daunting of a second-half schedule as any in the league, but the defence that fuelled a 15-6 victory over the Rams near the end of last season by holding them without a touchdown for the first time in 30 games under coach Sean McVay remains a strength.

The Rams, fortunately, can stop other teams, too, because their once-potent attack has been stymied often this year. Since the beginning of the 2018 season, the Bears and Rams have seven defensive touchdowns apiece, tied for second in the NFL behind Baltimore. The Rams have limited their past four opponents to a total of 57 points, as the defence produced nine points all by itself last week in a loss to Pittsburgh.

KANSAS CITY (6-4) VS.

LOS ANGELES CHARGERS (4-6) AT MEXICO CITY This AFC West matchup moves to Mexico City for an international Monday night affair at Azteca Stadium, where heavy rain and heavy use last year left the grass unfit for NFL competition and forced a Chiefs-Rams game to be relocated to Los Angeles. The Chargers still have hope of climbing back into the chase for the division title, sitting two games behind the first-place Chiefs with the Raiders in between.

The Chiefs had quarterback Patrick Mahomes back from a knee injury last week, though they didn't welcome him back with a win despite holding a nine-point lead midway through the fourth quarter at Tennessee. Mahomes has 8,007 career passing yards, the most through 25 starts in NFL history.

Associated Graphic

Baltimore quarterback Lamar Jackson runs with the ball during a game against the Bengals at Paul Brown Stadium last Sunday in Cincinnati. Jackson has led the Ravens to a 7-2 record, which includes a win over the previously undefeated New England Patriots.

BRYAN WOOLSTON/GETTY IMAGES


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YVONNE TEMPE AZIZ Yvonne Tempe Aziz (nee Salmon) passed away peacefully on November 15, 2019 in Toronto in her 101st year. A third-generation Australian, she was born in New South Wales on May 14, 1919. Yvonne was predeceased by Abdul Aziz (d. 2003), her beloved husband of nearly 60 years. She was the loving and dedicated mother of Jane Griffiths of Markham and Julian Aziz (Jennifer Dakin) of Oakville. Yvonne was also the devoted and cherished grandmother of Lesley Griffiths (Andrew), Michael Griffiths, Courtney Reistetter, Megan Kempe (Somers), Ryan Folk (Jay) and Connolly Aziz, and affectionately known as "Great Grammy" to all ten of her adoring great-grandchildren. Our memories of her will remain precious to us, as will her legacy of unreserved devotion to our family.

Raised and educated in Sydney, Australia, Yvonne was a gifted linguist, fluent in French and German, in addition to her native English. Her love of language prompted her travel to Europe at a young age and, in 1939, she left her native Australia first for England and then to France where she planned to study at the Sorbonne. The winds of World War II and the aggression of Germany saw her leave France for England, where she became a freelance translator for the British Foreign Office before immigrating to New York where she worked for British Security Coordination - the covert organization set up by the British Intelligence Service (MI6) on the authorization of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

Following her marriage in 1944 to Abdul Aziz, a member of the Royal Indian Engineers, she relocated to India where she lived through the turbulent and often violent period of Indian independence that resulted in the country's partitioning into the current nations of India and Pakistan. Her son, Julian, was born in New Delhi in 1946 and her daughter, Jane, in Karachi, Pakistan in 1949. Yvonne, her husband and daughter came to Canada in 1957 to settle in Toronto, and were later joined by their son in 1959.

In Toronto, Yvonne worked for the Canadian Association of Adult Education and soon became the editor of the Association's journal, Continuous Learning. In 1964, she joined the staff of York University, ultimately finding herself working in the President's office, where she distinguished herself, not only as an effective, competent and outstanding administrator, but as a woman of deep social conscience and a tireless champion of her gender.

Over the years of her service to York University through to her retirement, Yvonne's work ethic, uncompromising integrity, quiet dignity, tact, charm and dedication all combined to see her become one of the most beloved and respected members of the university community. In 1985, York University honored her with the degree of Doctor of Laws (honoris cause) in recognition of her distinguished career of service as an administrator for the university, respected colleague and valued friend. Through all, she was a devoted wife, a wise and loving mother, and a proud and adoring great/ grandmother.

Yvonne Tempe Aziz was an extraordinary woman who lived an extraordinary life for a full century across four continents during some of the most tempestuous and challenging times in modern history. The memory that she lived her life with grace and courage will endure. But most of all, we will remember her fondly for her love and dedication to our family.

Friends are welcomed to pay their respects to Yvonne on Monday, November 25, 2019 at St. John's York Mills Anglican Church at 19 Don Ridge Drive, Toronto. The funeral service will be at 11:00 a.m. followed by a reception at the church.

If desired, and in lieu of flowers, a donation in her memory may be made to the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada, 250 Dundas Street West, Suite 500, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2Z5.

DR. RAJAT KUMAR BHADURI Dr. Rajat Kumar Bhaduri passed away on Saturday, November 16, 2019, at the Hamilton General Hospital. Rajat was born on May 6, 1935 in Raipur, India to Manmathanath Bhaduri and Suprobha Chakravarti (aka Rosie). He had a carefree, loving childhood. The youngest of nine children, Rajat grew to be a beloved sibling, uncle, granduncle and great grand-uncle.

He made it a point to frequently phone and visit relatives both near and far.

Rajat was an outstanding student.

He held BSc and MSc degrees from the University of Calcutta (Presidency College) where he won numerous academic awards including a silver and gold medal. He studied radio physics at the Atomic Energy Training School and worked as a Research Assistant in Theoretical Physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) before coming to McMaster University as a PhD student. He completed his PhD in Physics in two years under Dr.

Mel Preston. Rajat then went to Oxford University as a Research Assistant to Sir Rudolph Peierls and he joined the McMaster Physics Department in 1968.

Although he "retired" as Professor in June 2000, he continued publishing papers in theoretical physics until his last days. His work ethic and passion for physics was boundless.

Dr. Bhaduri's contribution to physics is internationally recognized. His curiosity was a driving force in his life. For over sixty years, he worked in many areas including nuclear, particle, condensed matter, chaos theory, quantum mechanics, supersymmetry, number theory, statistical mechanics, Bose-Einstein condensates and astrophysics including black holes. He published about 200 scholarly papers and three books: Structure of the Nucleus, Models of the Nucleon: From Quarks to Soliton and Semi-Classical Physics.

Professor Bhaduri traveled globally and had friends everywhere. He worked as a Visiting Researcher in several countries including Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, South Africa, UK and USA. He was a gifted teacher and mentor that supervised many PhD and MSc students. He was generous with his time and hospitality. Colleagues, visitors and students were frequent guests for delicious dinner parties hosted alongside his loving wife Manju.

Despite his international profile, Rajat was a modest and downto-earth person. His kindness and compassion led him to help many charitable and community causes. He showed great zeal and dedication in pursuing a wide range of hobbies including bridge, tennis, table tennis, reading, guitar playing, cooking, gardening, biking and watching movies and cricket. He was active even this year: he traveled internationally, played doubles tennis, won a team event in the ACBL Hamilton Bridge Sectional Tournament in July and walked the Terry Fox Run in September.

Rajat was loved as a husband, father and grandfather. He is survived by his wife, Manju; his children, Ron, Ranjan and Mallika; his son-in-law, Manash; and his grandchildren, Madan, Milan and Nikhil. Rajat's positive energy and enthusiasm will be missed by family, friends and colleagues. He will be missed by all who knew him because he was able to see and focus on the good in people.

Visitation at Bay Gardens Funeral Home, 1010 Botanical Drive, Burlington (905.527.0405) on Friday from 9:30 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.

Funeral Service will be held at Bay Gardens Funeral Home Burlington, 1010 Botanical Drive, Burlington on Friday, November 22, 2019 at 11:30 a.m. Cremation to follow.

For those who wish, memorial donations made to the Terry Fox Foundation would be appreciated. Please sign the online Book of Condolences at http://www.baygardens.ca.

CLARENCE WILLIAM CRAWFORD "Chickie" October 4, 1939 November 17, 2019 Chickie passed away in his 80th year on November 17, 2019. Chickie was predeceased by his father (after whom he was named); his mother Elizabeth; brothers Jim, Tom, John and David; and sister Millie. He is survived by his special friend Carrieanne Tompkins; his brother George; sisters Liz, Margaret, Dorothy, Jeannie and Mary; and too many nieces and nephews to list here.

Chick served proudly in the Canadian Army and was a dedicated member of Army Navy and Air Force Veterans Club and Royal Canadian Legion's across the country - most recently as a member of the Milton branch.

Friends and family will be recieved at Ward Funeral Home (52 Main St. S, Brampton) on Friday, November 22, 2019 from 12:00 p.m. - 1:00 p.m. and a service to honour and remember his life will be held in the Chapel at 1:00 p.m. Interment to follow in the Veteran's section at Meadowvale Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, mourners are encouraged to make donations to a cause very dear to Chickie -- the Royal Canadian Legion's Poppy Fund.

Please visit the Book of Memories at http://www.wardfuneralhome.com MICHAEL JOHN EMPRINGHAM 1948 - 2019 Passed away on November 8, 2019, after a year long illness.

Michael will be missed by his sisters, Keitha Powrie (Ross) and Lisa Empringham (John Good). Michael will also be missed by his nephews, David Powrie (Nicole) and children, Rachel and Owen; and Scott Powrie (Amanda) and children, Brandon and Sarah.

Mike wrote his own obituary and we quote, "The first 70 years were great, the rest sucked."

A family memorial will be held in December. Donations in memoriam may be made to a charity of your choice.

The family wishes to thank the Palliative Care Team at Bridgepoint Hospital. Online condolences may be made at http://www.aftercare.org DR. DANIEL A. NELSON Passed away peacefully, at Pioneer Elder Care, on Monday, November 18, 2019 at the age of 87. Dan was the husband and best friend to Nancy for 59 years, dad to Jeff (Luda) and Joel (Heidi) and grandpa to Jordan, Masha, Nicholas, Peter, Orion, Brett, Michaela and Danielle. He will be dearly missed by his family and extended family members. Dan was very dedicated to his family and his work.

He had a great passion for underwater archaeology successfully discovering shipwrecks in both Lake Ontario and the British Virgin Islands.

When he wasn't working or diving, he could be found at the St. Catharines Tennis Club or the Lake of Bays cottage enjoying hours of competition and good times with his family and friends.

Thank you to the Pioneer Elder Care for the easy transition for Dan and the family. In accordance with Dan's wishes, cremation has taken place. A Celebration of Dan's Life will be held at the George Darte Funeral Home, 585 Carlton St., St. Catharines, on Tuesday, November 26, 2019 at 2:30 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Alzheimer Society. Online Guest Book http://www.georgedartefuneralhome.com RAYMOND PETERSON Retired, longtime employee of Nestlé. Peacefully at North York General Hospital on November 14, 2019 at the age of 84.

Loving husband of Meling Johnston and father of Steven (Carole). Predeceased by his parents Henry and Jean and brothers Robert and James. Ray will be sadly missed by his family.

Cremation has taken place, and a celebration of Ray's life will be held at the Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Funeral Centre. For online condolences and details of the celebration, please visit http://www.etouch.ca.

IZZIE ROSEN On Tuesday, November 19, 2019 at North York General Hospital.

Beloved husband of the late Eleanor Rosen. Loving father and father-in-law of the late Joel Rosen, Anne and the late Michael Tuszynski, Andrew and Dawn Rosen, and Sharron Rosen. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Jack and Rose Rosen, and the late Saul Rosen. Devoted grandfather of Shelby and Jared, Matthew, Sloane, Jonah, Kaelyn, and Greyson.

Special thanks to the Cheltenham team for their care and support over the years. He will be remembered as a man who always helped others.

A graveside was held on Wednesday, November 20, 2019 at 3:00 p.m. in the Apter Society Section of Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park. The family will be sitting a private shiva.

Memorial donations may be made to the Temmy Latner Foundation, 416-586-8203, ext 3936.

JENNIFER SLEIGHTHOLM Peacefully on November 18, 2019 surrounded by family. Best friend and love of Ron for 50 years. Mum of Jonathon and Pamela/Badih Schoueri. Nana of Colette and Olivier Schoueri.

Daughter of Ida Greaves. Sister of Ian/Lorraine Greaves and Angela/ Bill Greer. Sister-in-law of Robert Sleightholm and Jean MacDonald.

Auntie of Alison and Gillian Greaves, Ewan Greer.

Teacher, friend, confidant and traveller, at times intrepid. Fondly and lovingly remembered.

Family celebration of life to be held at a later date.


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MARIAN dryden paton (née Grierson) Born in Guelph, Ontario March 26, 1928, died November 9, 2019 in Ottawa.

Predeceased by her husband of almost 65 years, David S.

Paton and her youngest son, Gordon. Survived by her sons, David G. Paton of Ottawa (Susan Padmos) and John G. Paton of Sterling Forest, New York (Holly Holderman) and grandchildren Crysler Paton (Daniel Ludwin), Garnet Paton (Samantha Martin) and Norah Paton. Her great-grandson Gil Ludwin gave her much joy in her final months. She will be missed by her sister Jean Hillis (Don Hillis), her sister-inlaw Marion Paton and her nieces and nephew; Dawn and Leslie Benson, Jennifer and Peter Hillis.

Marian grew up in Guelph and lived most of her life in Toronto and Mississauga. She loved animals; her cats provided her with great comfort. She was a gifted rug hooker - her award winning rugs are truly works of art.

Many happy days were spent at the cottage on Lake of Bays. In retirement Marian and Dave realized their dream of an old stone house and moved to Merrickville.. With the onset of Marian's dementia, they left their beloved Stonecroft Cottage, moving to Manotick Place and then Park Place in Ottawa.

Many thanks to her caregivers and the staff at Park Place where she was treated with compassion and respect in her final months. Donations in her memory may be made to the Alzheimer's Society or your local Humane Society.

LOUISE PRÉVOST (Harvey) 1930 - 2019 Passed away peacefully at home in Saint-Lambert surrounded by her family on November 10, 2019, at the age of 88.

Born in Quebec City on December 13, 1930. Beloved wife of the late Aubert Prévost.

She leaves to mourn her children, Louise, Suzanne, Marc (Manuel), Michel (Caroline), Élaine (Nelson), Aubert, Françoise (François); her grandchildren, Jean-Philippe, Caroline, Marie-France, Noémie, Laurence, Maude, Camille, Jérémie, Cédric, Julien and their partners; her great-grandson, Rafaël; her sisters, Anne, Betty (Harry); her brothers, Robert (Thérèse), John (Maureen); her sisters-in-law, Pam Harvey and Judy Prévost; many nephews and nieces, cousins; as well as very dear friends.

The family will receive the condolences at Collins Clarke MacGillivray White (307 Riverside Drive, Saint-Lambert) on Thursday, November 21 from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. and from 7 p.m.

to 9 p.m.

The funeral service will be held on November 22 at 11 a.m. at SaintThomas d'Aquin Church) 311 SaintThomas Street in Saint-Lambert).

In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to the Canadian Cancer Society.

J. BLAIR SEABORN, CM In Ottawa on November 11, 2019, in his 96th year, after a full and rewarding life. Predeceased in 2011 by his loving wife, dearest friend and companion of over 60 years, Carol (Trow). Blair was the proud father of son Geoffrey (Jan de Pencier) of Toronto and daughter Virginia of Mont-Tremblant, and "J.B." to beloved grandchildren Emma (Rob Grundy), Claire (Michael Currie) and Adam Seaborn. He was delighted to have lived to see two great-grandchildren, Fraser and Sloane Grundy. He is fondly remembered by Carol's siblings, Virginia Ings, Allen Trow, Ben Trow and Marion Doheny. Born in 1924, the youngest child of the Reverend Richard and Muriel Seaborn of Toronto, he was predeceased by his siblings, Kitty (Smith), Richard, Jean (Bertram), Jack, Bob, Charlie and Ted, but is survived by nieces, nephews, their spouses, and their progeny too numerous to mention.

After the University of Toronto Schools, he studied political science and economics at the University of Toronto (Trinity College) where, following three years in the Canadian Army, he earned his M.A. in 1948. He entered the federal public service and spent the next twentytwo years at the Department of External Affairs with postings in The Hague, Paris, Moscow and Saigon, the latter as Canadian Commissioner for the ICSC in Vietnam. His life as a diplomat was followed by nineteen years in senior federal positions with the Department of Consumer and Corporate Affairs (Assistant Deputy Minister), Environment Canada (Deputy Minister), the International Joint Commission (Canadian Chairman) and the Privy Council Office (Intelligence and Security Coordinator). After "retirement", he spent eight years as chair the federal Environmental Assessment Panel on Nuclear Fuel Waste Management. He was honoured to receive the Order of Canada in 2000. Blair was grateful to have had a long, varied and satisfying career, for the opportunity to contribute to the life of Christ Church Cathedral and other voluntary work; and for good health which enabled him to enjoy, into his 'nineties, numerous outdoor activities, membership in the Rockcliffe Lawn Tennis Club, the Five Lakes Fishing Club, the Rideau Club Round Table and weekends at his "dacha" in Mulgrave-et-Derry.

A man of enduring modesty and unfailing courtesy, he earned the great respect of his colleagues and the deep affection of friends and family.

A funeral service will be held at Christ Church Cathedral, 420 Sparks Street, Ottawa on Sunday, November 17 at 4:00 p.m., followed by a reception in Cathedral Hall. No flowers by request. If desired, donations in Blair's name may be made to Trinity College, Toronto or Christ Church Cathedral, Ottawa, for restorations.

DR. ELLEN F. SPEARS D.V.M.

(née Thomson) After a prolonged medical illness which she faced with courage and determination, and a relatively short acute deterioration, Ellen passed away on November 9, 2019 in her 85th year. She was surrounded by the love of her family and friends.

Daughter of the late Dr.

Andrew Thomson and Lally Thomson, she was born in Toronto, attended Branksome Hall and graduated from the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC) in 1958. Beloved wife of Dr. John Spears for 61 years, and loving mother to Andrew (Laleh Moshiri), Jennifer Léger (David Léger), Ian (Sarah Atkinson) and Martha. She was adored by her nine grandchildren and two greatgrandchildren.

Following graduation from OVC, Ellen worked for two years at the Defence Research Board in Kingston. A remarkable mother to four children, she also gave generously of her time to her church (Bloor Street United), the CNIB, the Daily Bread Food Bank, the Victor Home/ Massey Centre, The Toronto Children's Chorus, and the Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild of which she was a founding member.

For those in need, be they musicians, refugees, or family, she provided a welcoming home and the respect she thought all people deserved. Ellen lived a life devoted to serving and caring for others. She did it informally, with a thousand acts of unheralded kindness to both friends and people she had never met but who needed a helping hand.

Throughout her life, Ellen loved spending time with family and friends at Leith, Ontario. There was always room for one more at the dinner table and an extra bed could always be found. This love of the blue waters of Georgian Bay and its spectacular sunsets has been passed on to her children and grandchildren.

The family is grateful for the care Ellen received at the Princess Margaret Hospital (myeloma division), the kind, supportive care she received from the first floor staff at Christie Gardens and her caregiver Madeleine.

Cremation has taken place.

In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the charity of your choice would be gratefully appreciated.

A service of thanksgiving and a celebration of Ellen's life will be held a Bloor Street United Church (300 Bloor Street West) at 3:00 p.m. on Saturday, November 16, 2019 with a reception to follow at the church.

An opportunity to visit with the family will be hosted at 8 Hewitt Avenue, Toronto, ON M6R 1Y3 on Friday, November 15 from 2:30-5:00 p.m. and 6:00-8:00 p.m.

We miss you Eno.

ALLAN EDWIN STAPLETON January 5, 1920 November 1, 2019 Al Stapleton passed away peacefully at Sunnybrook Hospital following a short illness on November 1. He was in his 100th year. He is survived by his wife of 70 years Grace Elizabeth, his sons John and Paul and their spouses Barbara Brown and Lee Wai Ming.

Al lived with his wife at Amica Bayview Village from April 2017 until his passing.

Al was born on January 5, 1920 in the southern Ontario town of St.

Mary's. He finished high school in June 1939 and when war was declared, he signed up in London Ontario in mid-September 1939. Al was on the first Canadian convoy to England in December 1939 on the Aquitania.

As a signalman (First Div.Sigs: Headquarters), Al learned radio operations and participated in the assembly of the now famous 'Enigma' code breaking radio sets for deployment on the continent. Al was part of the Sicily landing on July 12, 1943 and continued to serve in Italy, France, Belgium, Germany and finally in Holland. Al was looking forward to joining the official Canadian delegations to Italy and Holland to commemorate the 75th anniversary of Allied victories in World War II.

Returning in 1945, Al studied engineering for a year at Ryerson.

He was employed by the CBC from 1946 to 1982 as a technician and engineering supervisor. This choice of career was appropriate because Al was an engineer both in heart and mind. There were very few things he could not repair and he took great joy in describing the mechanisms of how things work. He was active on his computer at the age of 99.

His first radio station was located in Sackville New Brunswick where he met a young nurse, Grace Elizabeth Young. They married in 1949. On Saturday October 26, Al celebrated Grace's 97th birthday along with family two days before the event.

But his real love was sailing. And being a competitive sort, he raced his sailboat each summer during the 1960's and 1970's and gathered a sizeable cache of trophies.

He was a life member at Toronto's Ashbridge's Bay Yacht Club where he spearheaded the building of the current club house in the mid 1970's. In appreciation, the club named the main reception area after him 'Stapleton Hall'.

A celebration of life will be held at a date and place to be decided.

Al will be interred in the National Military Cemetery in Ottawa with full military honours in the New Year.

When asked by a reporter at the age of 98 why he attended the Warriors Day Parade, he answered "One more day of service".

ROBERT JOHN STUART (Bob) April 23, 1930 November 6, 2019 Born in Peterborough to Lt. Col.

Claire and Georgia Stuart (nee Cuff). Pre-deceased by wife Diana (nee Hogg) and sister Barbara.

Proud father of Stephanie (Will), Claire (Catherine) and Lex (Anna) and prouder grandfather to Tobin, Jackson, Erin and Holly and greatgrandfather to Baya and Bille. Also survived by dear friend Jackie Smith. Share memories of Bob's life November 22nd, from 4-8 p.m. at The Simple Alternative, 1535 South Gateway Mississauga.

Funeral, 2 p.m., November 23rd, St. Simon's Anglican Church, 1450 Litchfield Road, Oakville. In lieu of flowers, donations to Cancer Assistance Services Halton Hills.

PETER JACK TREGALE April 24, 1934 November 13, 2019 Peter passed away peacefully due to congestive heart failure at Crescent Gardens in White Rock, B. C.

Predeceased by his wife, Penny, in 1994, he leaves to mourn his daughters, Debby Jenkins (Ian) and Jenn Tregale (Rob Edwards); triplet grandchildren, Rachel, Matthew, Devon; and special friend, Kathy Murphy.

He also leaves extended family and friends.

After a successful career in advertising, with some unique opportunities with his best buddies, Jim Niosi and Bob Brown, he returned to his love of painting. His prolific work adorns the homes of family, friends and other venues.

Vacations at Stony Lake in Ontario, Hawaii, throughout Canada, Bermuda, the UK, and the USA provided many happy times and wonderful memories.

There will be no service by request. In lieu of flowers, donations may be sent in Peter's memory to Fraser Academy at http://www.fraseracademy.ca or 2294 West 10th, Vancouver, BC V6K2H8 or BC Children's Hospital at http://www.bcchildrens.ca or 938 West 28th Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4.


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Canada's pioneering private-equity investor, Gerry Schwartz, is reinventing his firm on the fly. At a time when many of his billionaire peers are responding to increasing competition for deals - and their looming mortality - by closing down their funds to play with their grandkids, Onex Corp.'s 77-year-old founder and chief executive is in change mode at the $8-billion Toronto company.

Onex is shifting from selling primarily one product - leveraged buyouts - to a single group of customers - institutional investors - into a broader asset manager to try to win a following among wealthy, individual clients. Contemporaries such as Blackstone Group and Brookfield Asset Management are opening their doors to the same potential investors.

Mr. Schwartz is still staging bold takeovers, as witnessed by Onex's unexpected $3.5-billion bid this spring for WestJet Airlines Ltd., two decades after the firm tried, and failed, to buy Air Canada. But the key to Onex's future lies in a growth strategy that is partly based on fixing a struggling business, recently acquired money manager Gluskin Sheff + Associates Inc., and using its ties to affluent families to dramatically increase Onex's size and profitability.

Mr. Schwartz, always introspective, and his senior colleagues also spent time this fall engaged in a productive session of corporate navel-gazing. The team stepped back and distilled the skills that helped Onex churn out an impressive 27-per-cent average annual return on investments over its 35-year history into a handful of lessons - call it the Gospel of Gerry.

The team also restructured the firm this fall, streamlining management and giving employees clear responsibility for specific investments in an effort to ensure accountability. These evolutionary steps are playing out at a time when Onex shares are underperforming the market. The company is struggling with a handful of problem children - a discount grocery chain and marine-survival equipment business - in its US$38-billion portfolio.

The reinvention of Onex started in June, when the firm closed its purchase of Gluskin Sheff for $445-million. The acquisition added plain-vanilla wealth management, in the form of funds that invest in stocks and bonds, to Onex's more exotic investment offerings, which include funds that buy entire businesses and invest in loans and other credit products.

After quietly sewing the two businesses together over the past five months, Mr. Schwartz opened up about how everything is fitting together last week before an audience of 850 finance types at the Toronto CFA Society's annual dinner.

He started by highlighting the obvious, explaining Onex is always looking for new customers and it bought a platform that serves some of the wealthiest individuals in Canada.

"We think Gluskin Sheff represents a huge opportunity," he said.

Then he dived into the strategy. Rather than competing based on low fees or last year's performance numbers, he said, it's all about trying to provide white-glove service to the rich. And that means more than investment products.

"Gluskin Sheff has the ability to be close to clients, to talk to them not just about their investment returns, but about their interests in philanthropy, then introduce them to charitable opportunities and build a vibrant, strong relationship."

Gluskin Sheff opened its doors in 1984 and strove to build a brand that is to wealth management as Tiffany's is to jewellery or Rolls-Royce is to your ride. Clients needed to commit a minimum of $3-million. For that price, they became members of an exclusive club with breathtakingly modern offices, plenty of handholding on financial decisions and head-turning events. The firm's party to celebrate the Barnes exhibit of paintings at the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1994 is still a high-water mark in Toronto society.

That cachet took a beating after founders Ira Gluskin and Gerry Sheff stepped down as executives in 2009, and left the board in 2013. The two executives turned around and sued their former company for $185-million, claiming unpaid benefits. An arbitrator eventually awarded the duo $13.8million in 2017. The dispute was a distraction for both Gluskin Sheff management and the company's customers, most of whom had ties to the departed leaders.

Investment performance also became an issue for some clients. Prior to Onex's arrival, Gluskin Sheff was bleeding assets. It went four consecutive years with existing clients pulling out more money than new customers put in. The outflow of funds was $235-million last year and $236-million the year before.

Onex is attempting to turn the tide with a renewed commitment to service and new flavours of investment products. Gluskin Sheff is out recruiting, with plans to build a team of seven experts focused solely on estate and tax planning. Financial results released last week show Gluskin Sheff clients committed US$199-million to Onex's creditbased funds in the three months ended Sept. 30 - the first full quarter after the deal - and an additional US$52-million to Onex's private-equity offerings.

In total, Gluskin Sheff takes care of US$6.4-billion, including US$60-million from Onex's own employees. In a recent report, analyst Phil Hardie at Scotia Capital said: "The outflows Onex saw at Gluskin Sheff during the first half of the year appear to have slowed significantly."

Onex, like other private-equity companies, earns the bulk of its profits when it sells businesses, but this income is lumpy. In contrast, Gluskin Sheff generates a steady stream of management fees. The firm charges clients a 1.5per-cent commission on portfolios, plus performance fees that range from 10 per cent to 25 per cent of investment gains. Those fees will translate into recurring profits for Onex.

That, in turn, is expected to mean a premium valuation for the company's stock, according to analysts. Last year, Onex collected US$199-million in management fees. Onex projects that acquiring Gluskin Sheff will boost the total to US$328-million this year.

Onex is far from the only private-equity player striving

for greater scale and more fees from taking care of other people's money. The drive to diversify is playing out at U.S.

private-equity pioneers KKR & Co. Inc. - a firm launched by Mr. Schwartz's former colleagues at investment bank Bear Stearns - as well as New York-based Blackstone and Toronto-based Brookfield.

Onex is relatively a minnow in this school of fish. KKR is four times larger when it comes to assets under management, while Blackstone and Brookfield are more than 10 times its size. In an increasingly competitive industry, asset managers want to accumulate as much cash as possible to do the largest possible transactions, on the theory that there are fewer rivals for the biggest deals.

Onex's founder is the first to concede the massive amount of capital now committed to private equity makes it increasingly difficult to find attractive targets. In his talk to the CFA Society, Mr. Schwartz said when he started his career in the 1970s, the total amount of capital committed to private equity, globally, was about US$300-million. Today, there is US$2.5-trillion looking for deals. Onex alone is sitting on more than US$2-billion of what is known in the industry as "dry powder," or capital it is looking to put to use.

"It is a very, very difficult market," said Mr. Schwartz. He said many private-equity fund managers are willing to risk overpaying to buy businesses because they are "desperate to get invested and move on to the next fund raise."

Onex is willing to row against the tide. While the company is still scouting for takeovers and working to close the WestJet acquisition - the airline's shareholders approved the deal in July but it still requires a thumbs-up from regulators - the priority is selling stakes in businesses, to take advantage of public markets that are hitting record highs. So far this year, Onex has raised more than US$900-million for its own account and millions more for clients by parting with holdings in seven businesses, including U.S. fastfood chain Jack's and Swiss packaging company SIG Combibloc Group.

Onex plans to invest more money in fewer sectors. Historically, the company's 119-member investment team cast a wide net for deals.

After what analysts describe as an "operational review" that concluded ahead of its investor day in October, Onex conducted an internal restructuring that narrowed its focus to just four areas: industrial businesses, service companies, health care and financial services. Scotiabank's Mr. Hardie said: "These cores notably exclude the retail segment, which we believe has been a source of some of its recent challenges." (The boardroom discussion of the decision to avoid retailers would have been fascinating, as Heather Reisman, chief executive of bookstore chain Indigo Books & Music Inc., is both an Onex director and Mr.

Schwartz's wife.)

Onex is in the midst of a market slump, and a grocerystore investment is partly to blame. Its stock price is up 7.3 per cent year-to-date, while shares in peers such as KKR, Blackstone and Brookfield soared by between 45 and 85 per cent. Analysts say Onex shares now trade at a 15-per-cent discount to the underlying value of the company's assets.

While this has happened in the past, there have also been times when Onex stock commanded a premium to the value of its holdings.

Analysts trace the negative sentiment to investor concerns over two business that are turning in disappointing financial performance, U.S. discount grocery chain Save-A-Lot Ltd., which Onex acquired in 2016 in a US$1.4-billion transaction, and British marine-equipment supplier Survitec Group Ltd., bought in 2015 for £450-million. Analyst Geoffrey Kwan at RBC Dominion Securities said the problems, while significant, are in Onex's past. "Underperforming investments have been written down to almost zero, so any further deterioration should have minimal impact on Onex," Mr. Kwan said. "Historically, the best times to buy Onex were when the shares traded at a discount to net asset value."

Onex's recent makeover also saw the company rework its structure. Analysts say the company got rid of "pods" of employees who were assigned to sectors, deciding the structure limited the opportunities for its staff to get to know how each company really worked. Instead, executives assign employees direct responsibility for specific investments, in a drive to increase accountability.

Formal responsibility for running the firm's different units went to three Onex senior managing directors: former banker Seth Mersky, ex-Berkshire Hathaway executive Bobby Le Blanc and Anthony Munk, son of entrepreneur Peter Munk. Each executive is in his 50s and has spent more than two decades at Onex. Those looking for signs of succession planning would start with this trio.

Finally, Mr. Schwartz and his colleagues came out of the management sessions with what could be described as Onex's private equity playbook, or the Gospel of Gerry. Scott Chan, a Canaccord Genuity analyst, summed up their efforts by saying Onex created a formal process for investing that included "a dozen key criteria predictive of investment success, such as cost-savings, growth projections, valuation of tax assets, etc. This will help adopt a more agile and targeted investing approach."

Onex deal makers all have a story on Mr. Schwartz's dedication to the company and his passion for deals. Five decades into his career, he still makes calls on Sunday nights, sweats the details of pitches to potential targets and clients, and pushes to expand the company. The founder's recent moves speak to his legacy. By acquiring Gluskin Sheff and attempting to instill a shared, methodical approach to investing, Mr. Schwartz is attempting to ensure Onex will have the scale and culture required to sail on, long after he leaves.

ONEX CASHES IN stake ininseven Onex sold stakes businesses in sevenbusinesses 2019 in 2019 sale price inofmillions In millions of U.S. dollars U.S. dollars ONEX MANAGEMENT FEES In millions of U.S. dollars

Associated Graphic

PHOTOGRAPH BY CHRIS YOUNG/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

PHOTOGRAPH BY JONATHAN HAYWARD/ THE CANADIAN PRESS

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Correction

A Saturday Report on Business article on the reinvention of Onex Corp. incorrectly said the company changed the structure of its entire 119-member investment team this fall. In fact, Onex restructured responsibilities for its large-cap private equity group, Onex Partners, which employs 52 people.


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Hussain Amarshi on the legacy and future of Mongrel Media, 25 years - and one giant film-industry shift - later
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page R1

Harvey Weinstein almost killed Hussain Amarshi's career before it even got started.

In 1994, Amarshi had just launched Mongrel Media, dedicated to the firmly unglamorous business of distributing documentaries and short films on VHS tapes to educational institutions and libraries. At the Toronto International Film Festival that year, he happened to catch a screening of The Silences of the Palace, a slow-boil feminist drama set in 1950s Tunisia. Although he had no experience in theatrical distribution - and at the time had no intention of getting into such a risky undertaking - Amarshi was so entranced by the film that he asked the sales agent if he could pick up the Canadian distribution rights.

"Harvey is doing it," she is said to have replied, referring to the co-founder of the U.S. indie powerhouse Miramax Films.

But that plan fell through - apparently because, as Amarshi recalled the other day, Weinstein wanted to edit the film against the director's wishes: "He was known for that." (Weinstein is now known for other things.)

And so, Amarshi picked up the film as the first theatrical release for what would become perhaps the premier independent film distributor in English Canada, a company whose trajectory - director-driven arthouse and foreign-language hits powering impressive growth, until recent serious headwinds and retrenchment - parallels that of the North American indie film world.

This month, Mongrel celebrates its 25th anniversary with a retrospective at the TIFF Lightbox with screenings of a handful of films it brought to Canadian audiences over the years, including Sarah Polley's Away From Her, Richard Linklater's Boyhood, Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott's The Corporation, Deepa Mehta's Water and Michael Haneke's Amour.

Recently, Amarshi, 57, sat down for a long lunch at Parallel, the Middle Eastern restaurant on Geary Avenue: an edgy, industrial strip in Toronto that is also the site of Mongrel's office after the company cut staff and leased out its elegant Siamak Hariri-designed showpiece headquarters on Dundas Street West.

You took an unusual route to the business. After growing up in eastern Africa and Pakistan, you moved to Toronto in 1984, did a degree at the University of Toronto in political studies, and then a master's at Queen's University.

You didn't set out to be a film distributor, did you?

Well, yes and no. I was at Queen's and I started a film festival. The idea was partly related to what they called Development Education. That was funded by CIDA [Canadian International Development Agency]. And the mandate was to do programming about what was happening in the [developing] world. It was not easy to get films that were not distributed in North America. I had to go to European sales agencies and get the prints from them, or go directly to the filmmakers. It was quite an undertaking, particularly at that point, with no internet - Sure. You'd have to find them first.

And when I finished my master's, I came to Toronto to run the Euclid Theatre. And had to deal with the same sort of issues: How do you find those films? How do you get them here? Because mostly, they're not distributed locally. I learned that, if films are not picked up by U.S. distributors, it's highly unlikely that they'll get distribution in English Canada.

After Silences, you distributed a couple of Israeli films, Under the Domim Tree and The Summer of Aviya. How did you find an audience for those?

There was that whole quote-unquote "arthouse" audience that would follow a review in The Globe and Mail or wherever, but there was also the non-arthouse audience that had to be found - I understand you were wandering the streets of Mississauga for Silences.

I was certainly wandering the streets of Mississauga - Handing out flyers.

Absolutely.

In Arabic.

In Arabic, yeah.

How's your Arabic?

[Nonexistent.] I had somebody write the [copy], and people on the street would speak to me in Arabic. It was the same when I was promoting Under the Domim Tree or The Summer of Aviya up on Bathurst Street.

You were handing out flyers and people were - Yeah, [assuming] I'm Jewish.

Well, sure. You could pass for Arabic, you could pass for Israeli.

The same thing happened with Iranians when I did Iranian films.

It worked out.

Well, you always saw yourself as a mongrel, as a citizen of the world.

That was the idea. Exactly.

You're Zelig! [He chuckles.] I was with Shyam Selvadurai, who wrote [the novel] Funny Boy.

I'm producing a film of it with David Hamilton [directed by Deepa Mehta]. That's why I was just in Sri Lanka. Shyam was there, and he remembered Summer of Aviya from 24 years ago. It was quite impactful. This was a first time that an Israeli film was getting a proper theatrical release, in a cinema, five showings a day.

You really helped diversify film choices for Canadian audiences. But also, there's an article in The Globe archives from 1994, which notes that when you were just beginning, you spoke about the lack of representation of visible minorities on the Ontario Arts Council and what was then the Ontario Film Development Corporation.

I was on the board there, yeah.

With Cameron [Bailey, now the co-head of TIFF].

Are you surprised at how long it's taken to get to - well, whatever point we're at?

And it still is very - I mean, the power is still very much ....

What's the adjective you were going to use there?

I would say - it's not representative. We talk about how diverse a city Toronto is, and yet in the corridors of power, it still remains very much - I'd say it does not reflect the diversity of the city. I would say that continues to be the case in many cultural and arts organizations. There are attempts to change the board here and there, but at the core it's still very much ... the centre is still holding.

Holding on to its power.

I would say so, yeah.

The programmer's note for the TIFF retrospective says that "despite the constant quest for higher profits and lower costs, the film business survives on the ingenuity of people who think beyond the bottom line."

Which is a nice sentiment, but you still need to make the numbers add up.

True. My intent was never to make Mongrel into this mega kind of [operation]. We've got all kinds of films in our catalogue, but the films that matter are the ones that personally, and from a company point of view, we can really get behind. Films like Maudie or films like Boyhood. Or Deepa's films. There's a purposefulness to those films and we find our job of matching those films to an audience takes a different kind of purpose.

So, how does the deal you struck this year to distribute the films of Lionsgate fit in?

Lionsgate is one of the big studios out there. It's quite an honour, really, to be able to work with that scale.

Okay. But when I think of Mongrel, I don't think of the action film John Wick.

You certainly don't. Yes. Well, what we're dealing with is a situation where there are more films getting made, but fewer and fewer films make sense economically, in our marketplace. So in that context, to keep us sustainable, we are looking at all kinds of possibilities. And this is an unusual opportunity, in that it allowed for a collaboration between us, [the distribution veteran] Victor Loewy - who comes with 50, 60 years of experience - and Ellis Jacob of Cineplex. So it was an unusual but very attractive opportunity, that it allows us to enhance our skill set. Knives Out [which opens Nov.

27] will open on significantly more screens, roughly our biggest ever. We're looking at more than 250 screens.

Not a surprise, really. It's not The Silences of the Palace.

No, certainly not. Very far from Silences of the Palace. But at some level, Knives Out does fit in very much with what we do. These are very high-quality films.

I'm not denying it's a high-quality film. Its director Rian Johnson - He's an auteur. And the film following, that is Bombshell [about the sexual assault allegations against the late Fox News founder Roger Ailes], and that's also a very current film. It is dealing with a very topical issue.

Yes it is. Again, not necessarily a - Silences of the Palace?

I was going to say "Mongrel film."

Although Silences of the Palace is also very much a #MeToo film.

[Laughs]. But in order to sustain a company for the length of time that we have, and hopefully for much longer, you need to be able to be malleable.

You've retrenched recently.

We had over 30 [staff, in 2015].

Now we're down to 12.

The economics are not there to continue to sustain the same independent film scene that we're used to.

That's the real challenge right now. In this context, the Canadian content situation: How are we going to ensure that our stories get made and get told, and that we find an audience for those stories? That's always been a challenge for us. Particularly in English Canada.

It's interesting to see how you've become a champion of Canadian films, even though they still don't represent the bulk of what Mongrel does.

We've always done five to seven Canadian films a year. Where we get the most satisfaction is when we're able to bring our own stories, and find an audience for those stories. The kind of audience attachment to a film like Maudie was phenomenal, particularly in Atlantic Canada. And we don't have many of those stories.

We're not making them. Partly it has to do with economics. For a film to be able to get financed you need American stars, well-known stars. Not easy to attract them. It's become much more difficult now, especially in this golden age of television, where there's so much work.

And so much money being thrown at them.

Millions of dollars.

Funded in part by Netflix taking on billions of dollars in debt, which some believe is inflating a market bubble.

Exactly. So it's become much harder than ever before.

How did the retrenchment feel?

The last office was a beautiful office and it was built with this sense of optimism. We were just starting our international sales division. But it was becoming clearer that unless we pivoted to something else, the prospects of what we were doing were going to be challenged. We would have to reimagine ourselves, possibly going back to the past. One of my happiest times was working out of my garage, a few years after I started, on Melville Avenue. I had to just walk 10 steps and I was in my office, had a small office, four or five of us were working there, and it was, like, you had your hands on everything you were doing. The videos were stored upstairs. And there was a sense that we were controlling our context. And so, in some ways, by moving into - it's called the Artisan Factory, the building that we're in now, and there are all kinds of other businesses that are very tactile, very hands-on. So, from that point of view, it's great to be able to come to work here. It's such a small space, compared to what we had.

But we've settled in quite nicely.

This interview has been condensed and edited.

The TIFF Cinematheque retrospective 25 Years of Mongrel Media runs through Nov. 29 at the TIFF Lightbox (tiff.net).

Associated Graphic

In Mongrel Media's early days, Hussain Amarshi advertised films by handing out flyers in places such as Mississauga and Bathurst Street in Toronto.

BRETT GUNDLOCK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Why Trump has failed to revitalize U.S. steel
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Good times for workers didn't last under the President, whose tariffs contributed to slower economic growth and declining demand
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By BANI SAPRA, PAUL WISEMAN
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Thursday, November 14, 2019 – Page B9

WASHINGTON -- U .S. President Donald Trump's move last year to tax imported steel triggered jeers, but also cheers. Its goal - to raise steel prices - threatened to hurt the legions of U.S.

manufacturers that depend on steel.

But at least it would benefit U.S.

steel companies and the Americans who work for them. That was the idea, anyway.

Yet Mr. Trump's 25-per-cent tariffs, it turns out, have done little for the people they were supposed to help. After enjoying a brief tariff-induced sugar high last year, U.S. steelmakers are reeling.

Steel prices and company earnings have sunk. Investors have dumped their stocks.

The industry has added just 1,800 jobs since February, 2018, the month before the tariffs took effect. That's a mere rounding error in a job market of 152 million and over a period when U.S. companies overall added nearly four million workers. Steelmakers employ 10,000 fewer people than they did five years ago.

"Even with these very high tariffs, the industry has not been able to take advantage," said Christine McDaniel, a senior research fellow at Mercatus Center, an economic think-tank at George Mason University.

Mr. Trump's pledge to rejuvenate the steel industry had helped him win votes in the 2016 election in such key states as Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. His inability to deliver a boom for the industry raises doubts about how he'll fare in those states in 2020.

Voters will be weighing whether to move on from Mr. Trump or reward him for at least taking the fight to foreign steel mills.

What's caused steel prices to fall are factors ranging from lower demand - owing to a weaker global economy - to the industry's own rush to boost production after Mr. Trump's tariffs took effect.

For the first few months after Mr. Trump's tariffs took effect, steel prices did rise. The price of a metric ton of hot-rolled band steel hit US$1,006 in July, 2018, according to the SteelBenchmarker website, which tracks steel prices.

Since then, it has plunged to US$557 - lower than before the tariffs.

The President's campaign against foreign steel has been overshadowed by his trade war with China over Beijing's industrial policies, which are widely seen as predatory. But the steel tariffs came earlier, and demonstrated Mr. Trump's willingness to overturn seven decades of U.S.

free-trade policies and aggressively target imports.

By taxing imported steel, Mr.

Trump risked raising costs for the many U.S. industries that use steel, straining ties with U.S. allies and defying the limits of his authority to unilaterally punish trading partners.

Even before Mr. Trump, steelmakers had enjoyed unusual protection from imports. In moves that often predated Mr. Trump, the U.S. has imposed more than 180 taxes on steel from 35 countries from Brazil to Belarus. The argument has been that these countries dump steel at artificially low prices or unfairly subsidize their steelmakers. Cheap Chinese steel has been virtually banned from the U.S. market.

But Mr. Trump was determined to revive heavy industries such as steel and protect them from what he termed unfair foreign competition. He installed a veteran lawyer for the steel industry, Robert Lighthizer, as his top trade negotiator.

The impulse to protect steelmakers was, in some ways, odd.

After all, the economic benefits of protecting steel are modest: The industry employs just 142,000 people. By comparison, Home Depot alone employs 400,000.

And the newest steel plants are highly automated. They don't need nearly as many workers as steelworks of the past did, so the potential job gains are limited.

Then there's the China problem. Over the past two decades, Chinese steel producers have flooded world markets, driving down prices. But the U.S. already shuts out most Chinese steel. The result is that any U.S. steel tariffs would deliver punishment elsewhere - notably to U.S. allies, and steel suppliers such as Canada, Mexico and South Korea.

Nevertheless, Mr. Trump's trade team decided steel was worth fighting for. For decades, good-paying steel jobs had lifted millions of blue-collar workers into the middle class.

One of them, Doug May, spent 43 years working at U.S. Steel's Granite City plant in Illinois before retiring. Since the Great Recession, that plant has idled and restarted its furnaces at least twice. Despite the instability, Mr.

May says the Granite City plant provided a solid job.

"You can really raise a family," he said. "I sent three boys to college working there."

Initially, steelworkers cheered the tariffs.

"Right after Trump made the announcement, U.S. Steel announced that they'd be restarting one of the two furnaces they'd idled," Mr. May said. "Everybody was pretty excited."

Mr. Trump had unsheathed an unconventional weapon. Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 gives the president broad authority to tax imports that their Commerce Department decrees a threat to national security. Section 232 tariffs are also hard to challenge at the World Trade Organization. The WTO grants countries broad leeway to determine their national security interests.

Past presidents used Section 232 power very sparingly. This was partly to avoid encouraging other countries to block imports on dubious national security grounds.

But at Mr. Trump's cue, Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross declared foreign steel a menace to the country's national security.

The Pentagon ostensibly went along, though the defence secretary at the time, James Mattis, said the military needed just 3 per cent of U.S. production of steel and aluminum, and that imports didn't hinder its ability to protect the country. Mr. Mattis also warned that the tariffs could have a "negative impact on our key allies."

In March, 2018, Mr. Trump went ahead with tariffs of 25 per cent on steel and 10 per cent on aluminum. U.S. trading partners quickly lashed back with retaliatory tariffs. The European Union imposed 25-per-cent taxes on U.S.

bourbon and tobacco.

Mr. Trump's aggressive use of Section 232 tariffs - and his threat to impose them on foreign cars, too - has sparked a backlash in Congress, which is weighing legislation to curb presidential power to tax imports on national security grounds.

With its tariffs, the administration aimed to make U.S. steel mills busier. The goal was to raise capacity utilization from around 73 per cent to 80 per cent. Indeed, imports fell. U.S. steel prices surged. Plants increased production. Steel company profits surged through 2018.

In January, Mr. Trump boasted on Twitter: "Tariffs on the 'dumping' of Steel in the United States have totally revived our Steel Industry... A BIG WIN FOR U.S."

The good times didn't last.

The first sign of trouble showed up on the stock market.

Shares of steelmakers had topped out on Wall Street in February, 2018, before the tariffs hit. Since then, the NYSE Arca Steel Index has plunged 32 per cent.

The combined earnings of U.S.

Steel, AK Steel, Steel Dynamics and Nucor tumbled more than 50 per cent in the first two quarters of this year. Capacity utilization dipped back below Mr. Trump's 80-per-cent target in July and August.

And the tariffs have so far done nothing to blunt China's dominance. China accounts for 54 per cent of world steel production.

The U.S., 5 per cent.

Growth is slowing in the U.S.

and worldwide, partly because Mr. Trump's own tariffs have raised costs and escalated uncertainties for businesses. China's economy, the world's second-biggest and for decades a reliable engine of growth, has been decelerating under the weight of Mr.

Trump's tariffs and deliberate government policies to curb debt.

Slower growth means less business for steel mills.

"Market demand right now is relatively soft," said Charles Bradford, an independent steel analyst.

The World Steel Association forecasts that U.S. demand for steel will slow from 2.1-per-cent growth last year to 1 per cent in 2019 to 0.4 per cent in 2020.

The steelmakers themselves may bear some blame for their problems. Flush with optimism after Mr. Trump's tariffs took effect, they went on an expansion spree, creating a capacity glut that Bank of America Merrill Lynch analyst Timna Tanners calls "Steelmageddon."

"They overestimated how much steel they'd need," Ms. Tanners said. As the supply of steel overwhelms demand, prices typically fall.

"We're shooting ourselves in the foot now because of all the extra capacity being built," said Mr.

May, the former Granite City steelworker.

At some plants, layoffs and closings have followed. U.S. Steel is idling its tin mill in East Chicago, Ind. Bayou Steel Group is laying off 376 and closing its mill in LaPlace, La.

"It seems like it kind of backfired," said Mark Perry, a scholar at the conservative American Enterprise Institute. "Any kind of revitalization of U.S. steel just hasn't happened."

The Commerce Department, which has overseen the tariffs, said in a statement: "Since tariffs were imposed, the American steel sector has seen increased growth and investment, which will, in turn, ensure a stable domestic supply of the materials that are crucial to our nation's security. It is true that industry conditions globally have weakened recently, but their effect on the U.S. industry would be worse without these measures."

Ned Hill, a professor at Ohio State University who studies economic development, said he thought Mr. Trump's steel tariff campaign was doomed to fail because the market would inevitably move to counter the higher costs.

And far more U.S. industries consume steel than make it. A study last year by researchers at Harvard University and the University of California, Davis, found that industries that are heavy users of steel - and stand to suffer when tariffs raise steel prices - employ two million workers.

That's 14 times the number of workers in the steel industry.

More than 800 manufacturers have petitioned the administration for exemptions from the tariffs so they can buy imported steel products that are hard to get from U.S.-based suppliers, according to research by Mercatus's Ms. McDaniels.

But U.S. steelmakers can object to the exclusion requests. And through July, Commerce had approved fewer than half the requests.

Steel-consuming companies have sought alternatives. Some have moved production overseas, where steel imports aren't subject to Mr. Trump's tariffs. Or they've reduced their steel purchases or substituted alternatives from plastic or composite materials.

Critics note that former president George W. Bush also sought to protect the steel industry by imposing tariffs in 2002. Rebuked by the WTO, Mr. Bush withdrew the tariffs the next year. While Mr.

Bush's tariffs were in place, the industry actually lost 14,000 jobs.

Citing the Bush experience, 15 former chairs of the White House Council of Economic Advisers, including several from Republican administrations, had urged Mr.

Trump not to impose steel tariffs.

"The diplomatic costs might be worth it if the tariffs generated economic benefits," they wrote.

"But they would not. Additional steel tariffs would actually damage the U.S. economy."

"Anyone that understood economics," said Ohio State's Mr. Hill, "knew there was no way [Mr.

Trump's steel tariffs] would work any longer than a year."

Associated Graphic

An operator watches as a ladle backs away after pouring red-hot iron, as part of the process of producing steel, at U.S. Steel's Granite City Works facility in Granite City, Ill.

JEFF ROBERSON/ASSOCIATED PRESS


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SWEDISH-BORN ADVENTURER HELPED SAVE CANADA'S REINDEER HERD INDUSTRY
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He came to this country to lend his expertise in animal husbandry and stayed, plotting boundaries, traversing the Northwest Passage and, improbably, becoming a dance innovator
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By TOM HAWTHORN
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page B23

The telephone call Sven Johansson received about his pending investiture into the Order of Canada left him with a nagging question: For what was he being honoured?

Was it for his work in reindeer husbandry?

Or his plotting for the Geological Survey of Canada?

Or his contributions to the International Boundary Commission?

Or his ethnographic studies of the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic?

Or was it for captaining the first private yacht to traverse the Northwest Passage from Pacific to Atlantic?

Or perhaps it was for his latein-life career as an award-winning choreographer and inventor of a gravity-defying machine to send dancers skyward.

The Swedish-born seafaring adventurer, who has died at 95, was a bush pilot, a hunting guide, a ship's captain, a wrangler of ungulates and a dreamer of dance movements. His formal education ended at Grade 6. An autodidact known for his love of Bach and sea shanties alike, Mr. Johansson had an extensive library of books and recordings that grew so heavy it threatened to scupper the houseboat he called home at Fisherman's Wharf in Victoria.

Known for a high-pitched voice delivered in the sing-song cadence of his native land, he never lost Swedish pronunciations, rendering "just" as "yoost" and "engine" as "enyin." A muscular, compact man, he was a familiar figure in Victoria, where he liked to hold forth at a downtown coffee shop - "Never had a bad day yet," he would say - and was known to sleep on his bachelor apartment's balcony in winter, an expression of his love for living outdoors.

"If you want to preserve meat," he once told the writer Sid Tafler, "you put it in the freezer."

Despite years spent in treacherous conditions in the harsh Arctic and along the unforgiving coastline of Alaska and British Columbia, where a moment's inattention could add another vessel to the Graveyard of the Pacific, Mr. Johansson insisted he rarely felt he was in danger.

"Skippers who brag about hairraising adventures at sea are generally poor navigators," he insisted.

For all his achievements in Canada, Mr. Johansson was best known in his native land for having been declared dead after being shot by a mad trapper known as the fjalldesperadon - the Mountain Desperado.

Sven Borge Johansson was born on Aug. 29, 1924, at Saffle, a rural town on the northern edge of Lake Vanern, the largest in Sweden. He was the middle of the three sons born to the former Ester Linnea and Anton Agaton Johansson, a wood sculptor and furniture carver.

The family moved to the coast outside Gothenburg when he was a boy, and he was raised exploring rivers, fjords and coastal waters in rowboats and homemade rafts.

He served in the neutral Swedish army during the Second World War, rising in rank to sergeant. After the war ended, he moved to Sapmi, also known as Lappland, in the north of Sweden, where he lived a subsistence life among the Indigenous Sami people as a reindeer herder.

In 1951, he was hunting for ptarmigan with a friend after being flown to Akkastugan, a lodge near Lappland's Akka Mountain, when they came upon an isolated cabin in the woods. A stir-crazy Norwegian trapper warned them to leave at gunpoint. As they skied away, he fired rifle shots in their direction. One shot skipped off the compact ice and struck Mr.

Johansson in the left buttock. His hunting companion, Mikkel-Erik Kuoljok, saw his companion fall with a sheet of blood surrounding the body. As he tried to crawl nearer, more shots whizzed over his head. He skied away frantically to seek help at a hamlet about 12 kilometres away.

An armed patrol returned days later in search of the attacker and to recover Mr. Johansson's body.

They heard a faint voice calling out. In their excitement, the patrol thought they heard Norwegian and so took cover. Eventually, the victim had enough of the standoff.

"Well, it is Sven Johansson," he yelled in Swedish, "and you fellows had better come up here because I'm tired of all this stuff."

A policeman found him in the snow.

"We're just here to pick up your dead body," the officer said.

"Well, you've come three days too early," Mr. Johansson replied.

The desperado was eventually tracked down and arrested, but not before he had killed two hapless Norwegians who had the misfortune to cross his path.

The manhunt was headline news in Norway and Sweden.

When Mr. Johansson returned to his homeland on a visit in 1991, he posed with 40-year-old newspapers declaring him dead.

After more than a decade in Lappland, during which time he married and fathered a daughter, he decided to leave after an expansion of hydroelectric projects was announced for the area.

Seeking to live in a pristine wilderness, he moved his young family to the Canadian Arctic, where he had signed a contract with the federal government to revive a foundering reindeer-domestication industry among the Inuit.

The Canadian Reindeer Project had been created as part of a government plan to provide residents with a steady source of hides and food, while also settling them semi-permanently in hamlets to bolster claims of sovereignty to the Western Arctic.

The project was plagued with difficulties from the start. Mr. Johansson was imported to demonstrate an expertise learned in Lappland.

"A number of problems immediately came to light," Mr. Johansson told the Victoria Times Colonist in 1990. "The animals were being driven in tight herds, much like the ranch stock in Saskatchewan and Alberta. This may be fine on prairie rangeland, but on the tundra, grazing is sparse."

Mr. Johansson introduced freerange herding, which solved a recurring problem of malnutrition.

Life at isolated Reindeer Station, a collection of small whiteframe buildings connected by wooden boardwalks about 40 kilometres north of Inuvik on the Mackenzie River Delta, was harsh. His wife returned to Sweden with their daughter and they divorced.

In December, 1967, he married Norma Buchanan in a ceremony performed by RCMP Inspector C.J.

Dent outdoors on the tundra.

"We spent our honeymoon in a tent," Mr. Johansson once recalled, "while I gathered scarce lumber to build a cabin."

A year and a half later, they had a daughter, who was named Silva, the Latin word for forest.

The 480-square-foot cabin was named Arctic Mountain House and billed as a big-game lodge for hunters. Mr. Johansson earned a pilot's licence to fly bush planes.

He also trapped food in the surrounding Mackenzie Mountains.

In summer, he lived aboard an Arctic fur-trading ship, the North Star of Herschel Island, which had been built in 1935 for a pair of Inuvialuit fox trappers. The schooner had been abandoned for nearly a decade on Banks Island. Mr. Johansson refitted the boat, adding a diesel engine. After he was hired by a company seeking to survey the Beaufort Sea for oil deposits, he added bunks, a camp stove and a portable head.

He also worked with the Geological Survey of Canada to study the Polar Continental Shelf and, years later, with his wife and child aboard, delivered workers and supplies as the International Boundary Commission blazed a trail to mark the B.C. and Alaska border. The skipper was chartered to find original border monuments on shore marking the water boundary.

In 1973, the young family left Inuvik bound for Vancouver. The North Star got as far as a fjord near the town of Teller on the Bering Strait, when a gale warning convinced him to winter in the remote community. Tractors hauled the boat out of the water and the family rented a waterfront house. A month later, a ferocious storm washed gravel from the beach over the roof of the house and they nearly drowned.

Mr. Johansson took his family to high ground before returning to the beach to rescue the boat, which was in danger of drifting away. He threw out both anchors and rode out the storm. They continued the southward journey the following summer.

In 1982, Mr. Johansson was recruited by John Bockstoce, a wealthy American historian and archaeologist, to refurbish a 18metre steel-hulled cutter for northern service. The skipper dismantled an air-conditioning system, replacing it with a diesel heater and a wood-burning stove also capable of burning sea blubber. The vessel, originally called Pacifier, was renamed Belvedere after a famous northern whaler.

"I gave him a free hand to fit it out as he felt," Mr. Bockstoce said recently. "He just knew what was needed in the north. I had a guy who could make anything out of any material available."

For six summers, Mr. Johansson captained the Belvedere on expeditions to cross the Northwest Passage from west to east, only to be turned back by treacherous ice, retreating to the home port at Tuktoyaktuk in the Northwest Territories. Finally, in 1988, the Belvedere traversed James Ross Strait, Franklin Strait, Lancaster Sound and Davis Strait to arrive at Holsteinsborg (now Sisimiut) on the west coast of Greenland, becoming the first private yacht to complete the passage.

In his many years spent at sea, Mr. Johansson contemplated the arts, notably dance and ballet. In Victoria, he incorporated a nonprofit dance society and tinkered with an instrument consisting of a long pole on a wheeled fulcrum handled by a trained operator that allowed dancers to seemingly float in the air.

"He had a question," his daughter, Silva Johansson, said.

"How can the human form express universal stories of nature and human experience with gravity as a barrier? 'Let's break that,' he said."

He called the technique permitted by his machine excedere saltatio - dance exceeding limitations. The ES Dance instrument premiered in Victoria in 1992 and has since been used in several theatrical productions, including Peter Pan and Fiddler on the Roof.

With proper lighting, the machine, technique and choreography make it appear as if dancers are leaping beyond human capability.

His productions aired on television on the CBC and Bravo Canada. Mr. Johansson won regional and international choreography prizes, and was nominated for a Dora Award in 2005. His other honours included being elected a Fellow of the Royal Canadian Geographic Society in 1979 and named a member of the Order of Canada in 1993, primarily for his reindeer husbandry. He received the Queen's Golden Jubilee Medal in 2002 and Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012.

Mr. Johansson, who died of a heart attack in his sleep in Victoria on Oct. 17, leaves daughters Asa Johansson of Sweden and Silva Johansson of Ucluelet, B.C. He was predeceased by an older brother, Alf. (The status of his younger brother in Sweden is unknown by the Canadian side of the family.) He also leaves both ex-wives.

Mr. Johansson was in good health for most of his life, although he had hip replacement surgery some years ago. X-rays revealed he still had shrapnel in his left buttock from being shot more than a half-century earlier.

Associated Graphic

Sven Johansson, seen in 1991, holds a 1951 newspaper that declares him dead after he was shot in Sweden by a Norwegian trapper. The case made headlines in Norway and Sweden.

PHOTOS COURTESY OF THE FAMILY

Left: Mr. Johansson is seen in 1950. After serving in the Second World War, Mr. Johansson moved to Sapmi in northern Sweden, where he lived among the Indigenous Sami people as a reindeer herder. Right: Mr. Johansson is seen with his daughter Silva and second wife, Norma, aboard the North Star of Herschel Island in 1975.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page B18

ROBERT BINNENDYK "Bob" After a brief and heroic battle with illness, Robert (Bob) Binnendyk passed away during the early morning of November 10, 2019, at the age of 78. In his final weeks, Bob was surrounded by the love of family and friends who gathered to provide company, care, and share some wonderful stories.

Son of the late Arie Binnendyk and Johanna Bos, Bob was born in Amsterdam, Holland, where he spent his early childhood before immigrating to Canada with his family in 1950. Bob is survived by his wife Lynda, children Paul (Hélène), Chris (Rosemary), Karen (Wade), Jennifer (Brinton), Michael (Joy), and Lauren (Gordon), as well as his brother Hank and sister Gerda. He was also a proud Opa to Alastair and Roan, Giorgia, Makenna and Taylor, Connor and Jake, and Charlotte.

After graduating from Seaforth High School as a multiple athlete of the year (football, track) and glee club enthusiast, Bob earned his CGA designation and joined Labatt Breweries of London, Ontario, for what would become a fruitful 35 year career that included stops in Edmonton, Vancouver, Toronto, and Edmonton again, until he retired in 1996 as President, Western Canada Region.

In addition to Bob's passion for work and family, he was a big believer in community service.

This began with his effort to save a local public school from being torn down after a devastating fire, and continued with his involvement in the Edmonton Symphony and Opera Companies.

These last roles earned Bob the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012.

Heartfelt thanks must be given to all those who provided care and comfort to Bob, in particular the staff of Unit 5D2 at the University of Alberta Hospital and Capital Care Norwood, and a very special thank you to Irv McGinnis, Bob's friend of over 50 years, who kept him company for many hours during his final days.

The family invites you to join them at the Royal Mayfair Golf Club on Friday, November 29, from 12:00 to 3:00 p.m. to raise a glass and share some stories in celebration of a life well lived. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to either the Cross Cancer Institute or the University of Alberta Hospitals Foundation.

IRIS EVELYN BRADFORD The family sadly announces the passing of Iris Bradford (Nana) at the age of 93 at Sunnybrook Hospital on November 14, 2019, after a short illness. Iris is predeceased by her spouse, Dr. Norman Bradford (d.

2015), her daughter Judy (d.

2015) and daughter-in-law, Roxina (d. 2001).

Iris was born in Essex, England in 1926, survived the blitz and became a war bride at the age of nineteen. She lived in many different cities before convincing her late husband to settle in Don Mills in 1957.

Iris was a homemaker, Navy wife, Brown Owl, Sunnybrook volunteer and a member of the Textile Museum. She was an avid quilter and loved having her grandchildren up to the cottage on Georgian Bay. She lived independently until 2014 when she moved to Briton House.

Iris is survived by her children Gillian Leverty (Michael), Adrian (Evelyn) and Chris (Lynn), and grandchildren Matthew (Beth), Sabrina (Michael), Emma (Daniel), and Evan and great-grandchildren Jack, Patrick, Georgia, Curtis and Norman. She will be fondly remembered for her kindhearted spirit.

The family thanks the caring staff at Sunnybrook Hospital.

Private arrangements.

EDGAR PERCE BROMLEY Passed away at The Carpenter Hospice, Burlington on Wednesday, November 13, 2019, at the age of 86. Loving long-term partner of Doreen Lowbridge.

Predeceased by spouse, Elayne Boden (1995). Beloved father of Donna (Alan) Green, and Sandra (Peter) Howe. Cherished grandfather of Sarah and Abigail.

Dear brother of Betty Jane (Tom) Travis, and brother-in-law of Bruce (Barb) Boden. He will be fondly remembered by his nieces, nephews, cousins and other extended family members.

Visitation at Smith's Funeral Home, 1167 Guelph Line (one stop light north of QEW), Burlington (905-632-3333), on Sunday, November 17 from 3-6 p.m.

A Service of Remembrance will be held at Christ First United Church (1700 Mazo Crescent, Mississauga) on Monday, November 18 at 11 a.m. Reception to follow. For those who wish, donations in memory of Ed to The Carpenter Hospice would be sincerely appreciated by the family.

RAYMOND GUY CARL Peacefully at home in Midhurst, surrounded by family, on October 29, 2019, in his 89th year. Graduate of Victoria University, University of Toronto, 1956. Actor, director, artist, musician, golfer, and retired secondary school math teacher, North York Board of Education.

Raymond was a kind and gentle soul who gave willingly of his time to his students, directing student productions for many years.

Dear brother of Garry (Mary), John (Carol), Nancy Low and the late June Pettipiere. Uncle Raymond will be fondly remembered by his many nieces and nephews. At his request, there will be no funeral.

MARGARET ALICE DAY (Peggy) née Endean June 11, 1923 November 7, 2019 Peggy passed away unexpectedly on November 7, 2019 at Mackenzie Health Richmond Hill surrounded by her family, after a long life, full of family, friendship, sports, volunteering and travel.

Born in Richmond Hill in 1923 to Robert and Myrtle (Comisky) Endean, Peggy and her younger brother Bob grew up with close family ties, particularly enjoying their maternal Grandma Comisky's baking and stories in their three-generation household.

Peggy was proud of her paternal grandmother Alice Endean's establishment of the family business of Endean Nurseries over a century ago.

She made lasting friendships at school in Richmond Hill and at Ontario Ladies' College.

In the 1940's Peggy worked in administrative positions in downtown Toronto. During this time, she met her future husband Okal (Oke) Day while playing badminton, sharing a keen interest in sports which continued all their lives. After their marriage in 1949, Oke's career in education took them to Tilbury, Arva where their three children were born, Goderich, Welland and Kitchener-Waterloo.

Peggy's generosity and drive extended beyond her friends and family. Throughout her life, she dedicated her considerable talents and remarkable energy to supporting developmentally challenged individuals. Her volunteer efforts were recognized when she received the Queen's Silver Jubilee Medal in 1977.

Retiring to Southampton in 1982, Peggy and Oke enjoyed their diverse interests, volunteering, sports and time with their precious granddaughters.

Travel and new experiences appealed to Peggy's adventurous spirit and love of learning, fostered by trips within North America and to Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. After Oke's passing in 2003, Peggy continued her golf, bridge, book club and travel until moving back to Richmond Hill in 2018.

Peggy will be fondly remembered and missed by her children, Deborah (dec.

John Scholtz) of Victoria, Richard of Teeswater, and Susan of Richmond Hill, as well as her granddaughters, Alexandra and Niki Fragiadakis of Richmond Hill and Toronto respectively.

A celebration of Peggy's life will be held in Southampton next spring. Memorial donations to Community Living WIngham and District (519-357-3562) or Autism Research - Holland Bloorview Hospital (416-425-6220 ext.

3774) would be appreciated.

JAMES DUNN "Jim" Born in Larkhall, Scotland, passed away peacefully at the age of 95 on November 10, 2019 in Windsor, Ontario. Beloved husband to Margaret, father to Elizabeth of Rochester, Minnesota and John of Calgary, Alberta, father-in-law to Wendy, Grandpa to Thomas, Jonathan (Lucy), Nicholas and Simon Ouellette and Katherine, Laura and James Dunn, Uncle Jim to John (May), Janette (Alex) and Irene (George).

Obsessed with airplanes from an early age, James spent his "pocket money" on aircraft magazines. In WWII he was conscripted as a "Bevin Boy" and was later selected for RAF fighter pilot training in England.

He celebrated his 21st birthday on VE Day and subsequently worked for Rolls Royce analyzing aircraft engine failure. At the urging of his cousin and best man, Alex Smith, he left with his family for Canada in 1964. Trained as a metallurgist and with a degree in mathematics, he worked for Ford Motor Company until his retirement. He was an early member of the Windsor Gliding Club and he enthusiastically pursued photography, music, and fixing everything that needed fixing.

James and Margaret built a home on the Detroit River and never tired of enjoying the sight of ships passing by. He became a passionate golfer at Essex Golf & Country Club, ever aware that each game drove down his unit cost. We remember his self-deprecating humour, robustly delivered in his strong Scottish accent. Thanks to him, his grandchildren know Goon Show jokes and can recite Monty Python and Billy Connolly from memory.

We thank all those who so kindly cared for James in his final year, particularly his devoted wife Margaret, the staff of the Alzheimer Society "day away" program which he loved to attend, the personal care assistants at Sunrise, and staff at Aspen Lake.

James returned our love in abundance, and we will miss him dearly. A celebration of James' life will follow at a later date. In lieu of flowers, memorials to the Alzheimer Society of Windsor & Essex County are appreciated.

WENDY FLYNN (née Gilchrist) Born August 7, 1936 Died November 7, 2019 Wendy died as she lived; elegantly and on her own terms. She was full of life until she died.

Wendy was born in Toronto.

Her maternal grandfather was E.R. Wood, whose estate now forms Glendon College at York University. She was educated at Bishop Strachan School, Toronto; Elmwood School, Ottawa; and at L'ecole Internationale, Geneva, Switzerland.

Finished with finishing school, Wendy sailed to London, England where, in 1960, she met her husband on board ship. She leaves her children, Sharon (Ian Graham), and Mark (Audrey Fisch).

She was the adoring grandmother of Georgina, Charlie, Lucinda and Sophie Graham, and Max Flysch.

Wendy lived in Europe and spent 30 years in London, supporting such worthy causes as "Save the Children" and the "Royal Ballet."

Returning to Toronto she worked for Martin and Meredith.

Known as Wendy to her friends, as Jojo to her grandchildren, and Gloria to the Starbucks baristas, she brought joy to everyone who deserved it. No stranger to a cocktail (especially a good martini), she spent many happy winters in Key Biscayne, Florida.

Cremation has taken place. In keeping with Wendy's wishes there will be no service. Instead, she would ask that you have a martini or, if you are so inclined, make a donation to the National Ballet of Canada or the Toronto Humane Society, in her memory. Condolences may be forwarded through http://www.humphreymiles.com.

A celebration of Wendy's life will take place when the weather is warmer.

SUSAN CATHERINE HARRISON Susan (b. February 24, 1947) died peacefully in her sleep, January 27, 2019. She was predeceased by her parents, Leonard and Mary Harrison; her brothers, Michael and Peter; and foster sister, Julie.

She is survived by her sister, Elizabeth Milko (Thomas); sister-inlaw, Alexandra; nephews, Daniel Milko and Andreas Harrison; and niece, Leslie Kneeland.

A graduate of the University of Toronto, Susan worked at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and later as a volunteer at the Gardiner Museum.

She will be greatly missed by her family and many caring friends.

Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery November 25th at 11 a.m.

MARK JOSEPH HEITSHU Mark, 89, passed away peacefully in Toronto on November 6, 2019.

Condolences may be forwarded through: http://www.humphreymiles.com.


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Inside Canada's next boom town as a B.C. village transforms
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page B1

KITIMAT, B.C. -- It's an awe-inspiring scene, set against a backdrop of mountains on the coast of northern British Columbia.

At a construction site larger than 600 city blocks, more than 1,000 workers have started building a massive liquefied natural gas plant and export terminal that is the only energy megaproject in Canada firing on all cylinders.

On one chilly day recently, nearly 90 road graders, dump trucks and other pieces of heavy equipment were buzzing around, clearing and preparing a flat stretch of waterfront land in the community of Kitimat, on the Haisla Nation's traditional territory.

Scheduled to open in 2025, the $18-billion project is being built by LNG Canada, a foreign-owned consortium led by Royal Dutch Shell PLC of the Netherlands, and it has emerged as a beacon of hope for Canada's beleaguered energy sector.

The giant facility will convert natural gas transported from the province's northeast on the new 670-kilometre, $6.6-billion Coastal GasLink pipeline, being built by TC Energy Corp., the only pipeline in the country that looks like it will be completed any time soon.

At the peak of construction, from 2021 through 2024, the LNG Canada project will require up to 7,500 workers - double Kitimat's population of 8,000 last year.

Once the sprawling plant is completed, it will chill natural gas to -162 C to liquefy it.

The LNG will then be loaded onto 290metre-long tankers at the terminal (one every two days to start) and piloted about 300 kilometres out of Douglas Channel to ocean water by tug boats.

Rivals such as Australia and the United States are at least a decade ahead of Canada in the global LNG race.

That LNG Canada is underway at all marks a huge breakthrough for Canada's energy industry after years of failed or stalled oil pipeline proposals, from Energy East to the Trans Mountain expansion.

The Trans Mountain expansion ran into so much resistance from environmentalists, First Nations and B.C. politicians that Ottawa, desperate to keep the project alive, spent $4.5-billion last year to take over both the existing pipeline and the expansion from Kinder Morgan Canada Ltd.

"We're definitely in a boom," said Phil Germuth, Kitimat's goateed 52-year-old mayor. "But don't just show up and think a construction job is going to happen," he cautions.

The District of Kitimat's municipal offices are located in the wellworn City Centre Mall, which sits between neighbourhoods of suburban houses that date back to the 1950s. The town was basically carved out of the wilderness by Alcan when it built a huge aluminum smelter 10 km south (now owned by Anglo-Australian giant Rio Tinto) and a hydroelectric dam to power it.

But LNG Canada, which is coowned by Royal Dutch Shell and four Asian companies, is pursuing a different megaproject strategy for a different generation. Boom towns often have negative consequences, including environmental damage, soaring house prices and rents, rowdyism and crime, and a lack of jobs for locals, especially Indigenous people. The consortium is trying to address those issues.

Most of the first wave of workers at the LNG site are now building a huge work camp called Cedar Valley Lodge, which will have space for 4,500 single-occupancy rooms, each with its own TV and bathroom.

Atco Ltd. and Bird Construction Inc. are assembling the camp from long, trailer-like modules of rooms and other building components that have been arriving by truck.

The goal is to create a self-contained community, including a health clinic, movie theatre, WiFi access, dining areas, a basketball court and separate gyms for men and women. The rooms will be free for employees of LNG Canada and its prime building contractor, JGC Fluor BC LNG JV, an engineering joint venture between JGC Corp. and Fluor Corp.

To further encourage workers to stay onsite and minimize the pressure on Kitimat's housing supply, the companies will not pay "living-out allowances," which would subsidize employees living in town.

Even so, after decades of ups and downs in Kitimat's economy, local businesses are bracing for both the rewards and challenges of a boom. About 520 of the 1,000 people employed in the project so far are from the Kitimat region, and restaurants, in particular, are scrambling to replace employees lured away by higher wages offered by LNG Canada.

Christine Drabik, co-owner of Rosario's restaurant, already closed the eatery on Mondays in recent years. Despite a recent upswing in customers, including LNG Canada subcontractors enjoying a change of pace from their regular meals at work camps, she now closes on Tuesdays as well.

"We lost three people in the kitchen, and that's hard to replace," said Ms. Drabik, who has been putting in long hours to help staff with cooking. "I'm now paying $19 to $21 an hour in the kitchen, well above the minimum wage of $13.85. And we have waitresses at $15 an hour."

At the local Tim Hortons, next to City Centre Mall, manager Corey Cotter worries that lineups at his drive-through are getting longer. "I'm losing workers to those LNG jobs and so I'm shortstaffed much of the time," he said.

To stay open 24 hours, Mr. Cotter said he will soon hire two temporary foreign workers.

House prices in Kitimat have also jumped already. The average price of detached houses sold in the district in the first half of the year hit $392,128, up 53 per cent from the same period in 2018.

Around town, new houses and apartments are under construction. Mr. Germuth is hoping to build a new fire hall and move to better offices with new funds from an expanded industrial tax base.

At the LNG Canada site, once the work-camp housing is complete, focus will shift to building the huge plant and terminal.

On a recent afternoon, Trevor Feduniak, area construction manager at LNG Canada, stood on the shore of Douglas Channel and pointed across the water to an area where enormous modules, including some 10 storeys tall, will start arriving in 2021 by vessels from China for final assembly in Kitimat.

"The modules will roll in right there and be off-loaded," he said.

The gigantic pieces are being built at a fabrication yard in Zhuhai, China, by a joint venture between Fluor and Beijing-based China National Offshore Oil Corp.

Sourcing those components abroad is controversial. Ottawa cleared the path last year by agreeing with LNG Canada that modules imported from China should not be hit with Canadian tariffs on fabricated industrial steel components.

Consortium executives also point out that they are spending huge sums in Canada - more than 60 per cent of the total budget of $40-billion for the plant, export terminal, Coastal GasLink, various infrastructure and also drilling in the years ahead in northeastern B.C.

To forestall delay or failure, LNG Canada executives went to great lengths to address concerns of environmentalists and First Nations.

"I have been learning at a rate unprecedented in my professional career. There are lots of dimensions in this project, lots of relationships," said Peter Zebedee, the veteran Canadian oil executive who took over as LNG Canada's chief executive in July.

Mr. Zebedee said the LNG Canada plant will operate at 0.15 carbon-dioxide equivalent tonnes for each tonne of LNG produced, a level below B.C.'s limit of 0.16 for emissions intensity. "Climate change is a global issue," Mr. Zebedee said. "LNG plays a role in this energy transition, and in the case of LNG Canada, that's off-setting more carbon-intensive fuels in Asia."

The Coastal GasLink pipeline from the North Montney region of B.C., which will employ about 2,500 construction workers, has the support of all 20 elected First Nation councils along the route.

The Office of the Wet'suwet'en, governed by hereditary chiefs, opposes the pipeline, saying Indigenous authority rests with hereditary and not elected leaders over a large segment of the route.

As for the LNG plant and export terminal, the Haisla's main reserve, Kitamaat Village, is a 20km drive south of town, across Douglas Channel from the site.

For Crystal Smith, the Haisla's elected chief councillor, the crux of the matter is the commodity to be exported. She said Haisla members feel at ease dealing with plans for exporting B.C. natural gas in liquid form, instead of being fearful of environmental risks, as they were when the nowdefunct Northern Gateway oil pipeline project pitched its concept to transport bitumen to Kitimat from Alberta.

Ms. Smith is also proud of the Haisla's partnership with Seaspan ULC on a $500-million, 12-year contract to build and operate the tug boats to escort LNG carriers in and out of Douglas Channel. "It's a huge contract," she said. "We also have the Gitxaala Nation and Gitga'at Nation as partners within the contract as well."

David Amos, a 53-year-old Haisla member who grew up in Kitamaat Village, moved away in 1987 for a job in Vancouver, where he cooked at restaurants for nearly three decades. In late 2016, he returned to live in the village.

Mr. Amos converted a trailer into a seasonal food hut, serving seafood items such as salmon burgers for the past three summers. He hopes to land a steady kitchen job next year in Kitimat.

But what began as a trickle with dozens of out-of-town workers arriving in Kitimat a year ago will likely turn into a torrent, with hundreds of people arriving in the weeks and months ahead.

Even with two work force accommodation sites up and running, beds have been in tight supply in town. In early November, the Chalet Motel and MStar Hotel were both sold out.

Mr. Germuth cautions that while skilled trades are in demand, everyone from labourers to electricians should still apply in advance through JGC Fluor.

Long term, the boom times likely won't last, either. LNG Canada is creating thousands of construction jobs, but fewer than 400 permanent workers will operate the Kitimat terminal when its first LNG shipment leaves for Asia in early 2025.

But that is still almost six years away, and in the meantime, there is still an awful lot of money to be made.

Associated Graphic

BRENT JANG AND JOHN SOPINSKI/THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: LNG CANADA; ROYAL DUTCH SHELL; COASTALGASLINK.COM

The Cedar Valley Lodge, a large work camp at the LNG Canada site in Kitimat, B.C., will have space for 4,500 single-occupancy rooms. The goal of the camp is to create a self-contained community for employees working on the project.

TC Energy Corp.'s Coastal GasLink natural gas pipeline project has the support of all 20 elected Indigenous band councils along the 670-kilometre route from northeast B.C. to Kitimat. But the Office of the Wet'suwet'en, governed by hereditary chiefs, opposes the pipeline project, saying Indigenous authority rests with hereditary and not elected leaders over a large segment of the route.


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Seeing the future through the past
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With Gun Island, Amitav Ghosh employs an ancient story to show the immediate dangers of climate change
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By DENISE BALKISSOON
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page R12

Tight, intricate plotting buoyed by loose, lyrical storytelling is at the heart of what makes an Amitav Ghosh novel so excellent. Both skills serve the author well in his latest, Gun Island, for which he set himself the challenge of writing a beautiful story about humanity's biggest problem - climate change.

This is Ghosh's eighth novel, and second time taking on the topic. His last work, The Great Derangement, was a non-fiction argument that only collective insanity explains humanity's refusal to deal with the crisis. In it, he lamented the art world's hesitancy to engage with the issue. He didn't realize it would be quite so tricky attempting to do so himself.

"There are aspects of the modern novel which make it difficult to confront something like climate change," Ghosh explained, pouring me a cup of turmeric tea at the University of Toronto in early October. One hurdle was the denial, or at least incredulity, with which many still respond to the climate emergency.

"The whole idea of serious fiction is that it has to be even more plausible than life," he said. That's difficult when implausible scenarios are a daily occurrence: Storms that once came every 50 years now flood towns every summer, as species disappear in front of our eyes.

Another snag was the problem's vastness, across both time and space. "Even a novel which has a very long duration, like, let's say, 100 Years of Solitude, is limited to 100 years," he said. But today's environmental problems are rooted in decisions made centuries ago, and addressing them requires imagining how actions taken here, today, will play out on the other side of the world, centuries into the future.

Modern literature failed his needs, but the 63-year-old did find a template to work with. Grand depictions of collective human precarity were abundant, he realized, in age-old myths, prophecies and folklore. And so, to craft the narrative of a cautious bookseller named Dinanath Datta, Ghosh built upon a ninth-century legend from India, where he was born.

Gun Island isn't the only recent book that weaves together images of environmental destruction with ancient stories about the human relationship to nature. It's often an intrinsic approach in what University of British Columbia professor Daniel Heath Justice calls "Indigenous wonderworks," a concept he set out in last year's Why Indigenous Literatures Matter.

Currently the Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Literature and Expressive Culture, Heath Justice argues that seemingly surreal Indigenous stories should not be lumped in with other fantasy books, or speculative fiction. A wonderwork "reminds us that the ways things are is not how they have always been, nor is it how they must be. ..." the member of the Cherokee Nation writes.

"They allow us to imagine a future beyond settler colonial vanishings, a future where we belong."

Two recent books show how broadly the idea can apply. The first is last year's Split Tooth by Inuit musician Tanya Tagaq. Encompassing poetry, teen angst and colonial horror, it defies categorization, and that's the point - as the unnamed heroine crisscrosses between real and imaginary worlds, she shows just how thin that barrier can be.

In non-fiction, there's Our History Is the Future by academic and activist Nick Estes. Published earlier this year, it's a more straightforward history of the Oceti Sakowin, people who live in the Plains area once known as the Great Sioux Reservation, overlapping parts of various midwestern United States. But as he moves from the mid-18th century through the present day, the University of New Mexico professor refuses to recognize any distinctions between scientific knowledge and so-called "superstition."

Fair enough, since overconfidence in human technology is a big reason we've found ourselves in this climate predicament. All things considered, these three books make a good argument that solving the crisis requires getting over ourselves.

Gun Island's central legend is of the goddess Manasa Devi, who controls all snakes and poisonous creatures. Ghosh adapts a story in which she follows an ungrateful merchant across seas and continents, unleashing her minions on him and his family.

In this interpretation, Dinanath finds himself struggling to reconcile his staunch belief in Western rationality with what seem to be 21st century run-ins with Manasa Devi, in the form of natural disasters and dangerous animals. His assertion that it's all just coincidence is repeatedly, severely tested.

Ghosh blames the dearth of climate-disaster art on the modern preoccupation with individuality.

He has Dinanath travel to Venice, where he visits Santa Maria della Salute. Built in 1630, the gorgeously appointed Catholic church was an offering to God during a terrible outbreak of the plague. "There was a sense in which people were creating something that they recognized to be social, collective, that was rooted within social practice," Ghosh said of eras past.

That said, as climate grief and anxiety increase, the novelist has noted an emerging instinct toward ritual, community responses. Last summer, funeral ceremonies were held for disappearing glaciers in both Iceland and Switzerland.

"I think ordinary Westerners are beginning to see that their way of living on the land is ultimately very disruptive," he said. "Some other mode of relating to the landscape has to be thought about. Where can we look?" His search has pointed him toward communities that have already experienced the attempted destruction of their ways of life.

"The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are ... literally people who've seen the end of the world and they found ways of surviving," Ghosh said. "Just think of the Indigenous peoples in the Great Plains, seeing absolutely the slaughter of the buffalo."

By Gun Island's thesis, it's perhaps not a coincidence that the book I read right before Ghosh's novel was Our History Is the Future, about the exact time and place he's referencing. In it, Estes recounts the signing of the 1868 Fort Laramie treaty, in which the United States promised Lakota-, Dakota- and Nakota-speaking people access to the Plains "as long as the buffalo shall roam."

Almost immediately afterward, it began purposefully overhunting the animal that the seven tribes of the Oceti Sakowin relied on for food, clothing and much more. Buffalo skulls were piled on the Plains by the hundreds of thousands. Hides were taken and then carcasses poisoned to accelerate Indigenous starvation. Most tribes eventually moved to reservations, and the animal became virtually extinct.

A member of the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe, Estes opens his book on the 2016 protest against the Dakota Access Pipeline at the Standing Rock reservation. The camp was the culmination of more than a century of continual resistance, he writes, as his people never stopped fighting for their space on the Plains.

It was also the fulfillment of a vision had by Black Elk, an Oglala Lakota leader who Ghosh mentioned to me as well. Estes takes as a given the validity of Indigenous knowledge, including what he calls prophecy, not myth or legend.

This knowledge begins with Oceti Sakowin origin stories, which all describe connections to the Plains land, Estes writes. The foundational tale of the people of Pte Oyate, or Buffalo Nation, concerns a formal, ancient treaty with that animal. In following strict rules for honourably taking buffalo lives, humans sustained not just themselves, but an entire ecosystem.

Grazing buffalo created healthy habitats for plants, insects and smaller animals. The buffalo slaughter destroyed this reciprocity. In treating the earth solely as a source of capital, Estes argues, colonialism has led the natural world to a state of revolt.

As with Dinanath, staunch rationalists might find his ideas difficult to grasp. Skeptics should note that Western researchers are constantly conceding to Indigenous wisdom about the natural world, from the habits of whales, caribou and nighthawks to the geography of the Arctic.

Up there, surrounded by melting permafrost, the unnamed heroine of Split Tooth has similar warnings about a warming world.

"Earth's whispers released back into the air can only wreak havoc," she says early on.

Illustrated by cult comic artist Jaime Hernandez, Tagaq's first book holds a multitude of genres.

Pages of poetry are slipped between darkly comic tween and teen high jinks. But it's also a terrifying horror story, one driven by colonizer-induced traumas and populated with otherworldly monsters, including the Inuit sea goddess Sedna.

"I saw in an instant the spiritual world we all ignore," the protagonist says at one point, as she welcomes a man-sized fox into her home.

Tagaq's heroine isn't as invested in rationality as Ghosh's Dinanath, but 21st-century life has distanced her from non-human beings. It's a problem shared with many of the more than 10,000 people who spent time at the Dakota Access camp, which "force[d] some to confront their own unbelonging to the land and to the river," Estes writes. That pretty much describes Dinanath, too, a witnesses to nature's distress who feels clueless as to how to respond.

As with Gun Island, the Standing Rock resistance was centred by a serpentine legend: that of Zuzeca Sapa, a black snake "extending itself across the land and imperiling all life, beginning with the water." To anti-pipeline activists, the Black Snake is reality, not metaphor. And in a moment of daydreaming, Dinanath realizes the same of Manasa Devi.

Finally softening his barriers between this world and another, the bookseller sees that the snake goddess isn't vengeful but desperate. As an intermediary between humans and animals, she's warning that the refusal of one to respect the other will lead to, quite literally, the end of the world.

"How can a translator do her job if one side chooses to ignore her?" Dinanath muses. "The quest for profit," he sees, has destroyed a crucial sense of "restraint in relation to all other living things."

Ghosh has successfully intertwined stark facts - such as boats of desperate migrants refused harbour by Mediterranean countries - with imaginative fantasy (no spoilers, but there are dolphins). His is a bit of a wonderwork, too, conjuring up a world where the urgency of finding harmony with other living things is a human priority.

By book's end, Dinanath believes that the path forward is summed up in an inscription in the church of Santa Maria Della Salute: Unde Origo Inde Salus, meaning "from the beginning salvation comes." Or, to restate the title of Estes's book, Our History Is the Future.

Tagaq is more blunt in Split Tooth, perhaps because her far north homeland is warming so much faster than the rest of the world.

"Only the patterns of skills gifted by our ancestors keep us living in harmony," her storyteller warns. "We obey or we succumb."

Associated Graphic

In Gun Island, Amitav Ghosh builds upon the ninth-century Indian legend of the goddess Manasa Devi. She unleashes a string of natural disasters and dangerous animals upon a merchant, who attempts to explain away the events as mere coincidences.

IVO VAN DER BENT

PHOTO ILLUSTRATION BY THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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Similar to Minneapolis, Vancouver has moved to densify, but the two cities are finding the devil is in the details
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By FRANCES BULA
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Friday, November 1, 2019 – Page H4

VANCOUVER AND MINNEAPOLIS -- Sean Reilly looked ahead to his four children's real estate future in Vancouver and it wasn't a promising sight.

Even though prices have gone down slightly from the city's crazytime peak of early 2018, it's still impossible to find a condo for less than $400,000 or a reasonable house for less than $1-million.

Mr. Reilly was looking for a solution, but he never wanted to settle for adding a small laneway house or a basement suite to his always-needing-some-kind-of-fix 80-year-old house - something Vancouver has allowed for the past decade. So, when Vancouver's city council voted a little more than a year ago to permit duplexes in all residential neighbourhoods, part of an emerging urban movement in North America to bring more housing choices such as duplexes, triplexes and quadriplexes into the single-family housing zones that dominate most cities, Mr. Reilly was on it.

He saw the move as the solution, not just for his family, but families everywhere.

"If you want families to survive in the city, if you want middleclass kids here, if you want sustainable cities, this is the kind of thing that has to happen," Mr.

Reilly said.

But, as it turns out, the duplex/ triplex/quad housing revolution is a little less revolutionary than it's often portrayed. That's because city planners everywhere, hyper-wary of doing anything too dramatic that will get the highvoting, activist, single-family homeowners upset, are limiting the sizes of the new forms they're allowing so that they will fit in.

That, in turn, means that the new duplexes or triplexes end up being on the small side. Too small for some, as Mr. Reilly has discovered.

He has a relatively large lot for Vancouver, 33 feet by 155 feet, which equates to 5,115 total square feet on the lot. (The standard in east side Vancouver, where he lives, is 33 feet by 122 feet.)

That means that he is allowed to build a new duplex as long as it doesn't exceed 70 per cent of the square footage of the lot. In other words, not bigger than 3,580 square feet for the four units the new zoning allows on larger lots: two main units and two secondary suites.

Mr. Reilly said construction costs will be $1.3-million and he hopes to eventually get $6,000 a month in rent.

If he were simply building a huge new house with a basement suite and a laneway home in the back, he would be allowed almost 4,150 square feet (81 per cent or .81 floor-space ratio, as it's called in the planner world) - a significant difference that would make each of the four units far more livable.

Mr. Reilly is hoping to get a variance to add 300 square feet to 400 square feet to the project, something he says would mean an extra four feet on the back, with no extra height.

"[My builder] has done an amazing job, but it's still quite constrained," said Mr. Reilly, whose current plan is to have one large unit for himself and then three smaller two-bedroom units for his children or rent them out.

"A lot of the spaces are not as big as we'd like them to be."

He's getting a little bit of relaxation because his builder, Bryn Davidson, co-owner of Lanefab Design/Build, is doing a passive house. But not much.

That's something Mr. Davidson sees as a fundamental flaw in the new zoning that needs to be fixed.

"There's so much demand and there's so much more we could be getting out of our properties than just McMansions, so it's just a baby step here."

He said that he got a lot of calls when the duplex zoning was initially approved, but many owners didn't follow through because they get penalized for building duplexes by getting significantly less allowable building room.

Other architects and builders report the same.

"When they changed the rules, I was getting phone calls I don't know how many times a day," said Nick Bray, who runs his own architecture firm. "Many people were intrigued."

But not one person ended up going forward with a development.

A report going to the city soon says that only 72 applications for duplexes have come in to the city in the year the new zoning has been in place. That's at the same time that 420 applications for single-family homes were received and applications to build laneways hit more than 700 in 2018.

Mr. Davidson said with dismay that the current policies still favour those who have the money to buy the whole property, build a giant house for themselves and then have some smaller spaces (the basement, the laneway) for renters, he said.

"The suites are owner-helpers.

It's not a coherent rental-housing policy."

The prime benefit of allowing duplexes, many say, is that it allows people to buy for less in a traditional single-family area.

That doesn't make it affordable to everyone, but it does lower the household-income threshold for getting a foothold in a neighbourhood.

The same kind of constraints apply in Minneapolis, the American city whose move toward allowing duplexes and triplexes in every single-family zone has generated multiple national headlines in laudatory articles from The New York Times to Atlantic magazine to Reuters news service.

With headlines such as Minneapolis, Tackling Housing Crisis and Inequality, Votes to End Single-Family Zoning, (New York Times, December, 2018) and How Minneapolis Defeated NIMBYism (Atlantic, October, 2019), the Midwest city is seen as the Shangri-La of housing reform.

But, similar to Vancouver, Minneapolis has limited the size of the duplexes and triplexes so as to ensure they look more or less the same as the single-family houses next door.

One triplex that sits at the corner of 35th and Grand in the city's leafy Lyndale neighbourhood, waiting to be legalized after Minneapolis City Council officially passed its new zoning policy last week, looks identical to the house next door. The only giveaway is the three mailboxes on the porch, instead of one. (The city encourages having only one door on the street in the new model.)

The grand triplex is limited to 2,500 square feet, the 50 per cent of lot size that Minneapolis enforces in its single-family zones where a 5,000-square-foot lot is the norm. The wiggle room that makes a triplex at all workable is that the basement area isn't counted in the total.

"There was a strong feeling that it was important to maintain the same scale as the other houses," said Jason Wittenberg, the code director for the City of Minneapolis.

That's in spite of the fact that, two doors to the north, there's a small apartment building with four roomy 800-square-foot units sitting comfortably in between single-family homes. Built in 1915, it's the legacy of an earlier era when housing wasn't so rigidly segregated.

As in Vancouver, Minneapolis got a lot of pushback initially from residents who worried that allowing duplexes and triplexes might wreck the look of the neighbourhoods and create negative environmental impacts because of the increased amount of land covered by buildings.

The city originally considered allowing quadriplexes as well, but eliminated that, in part because of resident opposition, in part because builders said they would be unworkable, given the size limits.

(In Vancouver, the opposition was so intense that a new council elected last October considered whether to reverse the duplex policy brought in during the last days of the Vision Vancouver council. In the end, council voted to allow it to continue, but to monitor to ensure that it wasn't resulting in a lot of teardowns.)

"It really was about neighbourhood character and whether density should be downtown or along corridors instead," Mr. Wittenberg said.

One difference in this American city was that there was also concern about investors buying owner-occupied housing and converting it to rentals. The trend of big corporations buying up housing and then renting it out has been reported by many U.S.

media outlets.

Minneapolis is planning to track what happens with the new policy, as Vancouver is.

In both cities, it is unclear whether there is going to be significant change under the new zoning. Policies on previous changes, such as laneway houses, show mixed signals.

Minneapolis started allowed laneway houses, called accessory dwelling units in American plannerese, in 2014. It has received only 180 applications since then.

In Vancouver, the take-up of laneway houses was much more pronounced. They went from 18 applications in 2009, the first year of permitting, to 191 the next year, rising to 500 by 2018. In 2018, there were 709 applications.

Numbers are slightly down so far for 2019, with only 364 applications as of the end of September, for a total of about 4,000 altogether in the last 10 years.

Vancouver senior city planner Paula Huber said the low number of duplex applications in the past year is actually what the city was aiming for.

"We didn't want it to be so effective that we distorted the character-house-incentive program," she said. That's the program that allows more buildable square feet for people preserving a pre-1940s house.

But, she acknowledged, there is likely more change on the horizon.

A recent survey the city did of 3,380 residents showed there is massive support for allowing duplexes - 88 per cent approval.

That's a sharp contrast to the high numbers of people who came out to public hearings to oppose them.

And builders such as Mr. Davidson are telling the city that the size restrictions are problematic.

Ms. Huber said eventually things will shift, especially as Vancouver spends the new two years consulting on and drafting the big new citywide plan for future housing.

"I think many existing regulations have been about 'fit in and match.' As part of the city plan, we'll have to start talking about how limiting that is. Are we going to continue to say that everything has to look like a house?"

Lanefab Design/Build's proposed design for a Vancouver duplex for Sean Reilly and his family.

RENDERING BY LANEFAB DESIGN/BUILD

Mr. Reilly, standing in front of his Vancouver house, is planning to take advantage of new rules regarding duplexes and create a four-unit duplex that his family can live in.

MELISSA RENWICK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Tuesday, November 19, 2019 – Page B17

ROBERT BINNENDYK "Bob" After a brief and heroic battle with illness, Robert (Bob) Binnendyk passed away during the early morning of November 10, 2019, at the age of 78. In his final weeks, Bob was surrounded by the love of family and friends who gathered to provide company, care, and share some wonderful stories.

Son of the late Arie Binnendyk and Johanna Bos, Bob was born in Amsterdam, Holland, where he spent his early childhood before immigrating to Canada with his family in 1950. Bob is survived by his wife Lynda, children Paul (Hélène), Chris (Rosemary), Karen (Wade), Jennifer (Brinton), Michael (Joy), and Lauren (Gordon), as well as his brother Hank and sister Gerda. He was also a proud Opa to Alastair and Roan, Giorgia, Makenna and Taylor, Connor and Jake, and Charlotte.

After graduating from Seaforth High School as a multiple athlete of the year (football, track) and glee club enthusiast, Bob earned his CGA designation and joined Labatt Breweries of London, Ontario, for what would become a fruitful 35 year career that included stops in Edmonton, Vancouver, Toronto, and Edmonton again, until he retired in 1996 as President, Western Canada Region.

In addition to Bob's passion for work and family, he was a big believer in community service.

This began with his effort to save a local public school from being torn down after a devastating fire, and continued with his involvement in the Edmonton Symphony and Opera Companies.

These last roles earned Bob the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012.

Heartfelt thanks must be given to all those who provided care and comfort to Bob, in particular the staff of Unit 5D2 at the University of Alberta Hospital and Capital Care Norwood, and a very special thank you to Irv McGinnis, Bob's friend of over 50 years, who kept him company for many hours during his final days.

The family invites you to join them at the Royal Mayfair Golf Club on Friday, November 29, from 12:00 to 3:00 p.m. to raise a glass and share some stories in celebration of a life well lived. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to either the Cross Cancer Institute or the University of Alberta Hospitals Foundation.

SISTER ANNE MARIE CAREY CSJ Died peacefully at the Sisters of St.

Joseph's Residence, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario, on Monday, November 18, 2019, in the 74th year of her religious life.

Sister Anne Marie was the eldest daughter of Arthur Carey from Toronto, Ontario, and Kathleen Seager from Thornhill, Ontario.

Sister Anne Marie was predeceased by her parents, Arthur and Kathleen; her brother, John Arthur and his wife, Shirley; her sisters, Sister Kathleen (Kitty) Carey, CSJ and Mary and her husband, Ken Smith. Sister Anne Marie will be missed by her nieces and nephews, friends, CSJ Associates, and sisters in community.

Sister Anne Marie entered the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto on September 8, 1946 and has celebrated over 70 years in the congregation.

Sister Anne Marie pursued a career in the field of social services at Ryerson Polytechnical Institute.

Her compassion and love for those who are marginalized in our society led her to establish St. Michael's Detox Centre, Matt Talbot Houses and St Michael's Half Way Homes, to assist men in recovery from addictions.

She drew inspiration from Matt Talbot, an unskilled Irish labourer, a patron of those struggling with alcoholism.

Sister Anne Marie was also instrumental in the early stages of establishing the Sisters of St.

Joseph Associate Program for laity who wish to live the charism of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto.

In recent years, Sister Anne Marie had been receiving care from the dedicated staff at the Sisters of St.

Joseph Care Centre.

She had a quiet, gentle, welcoming presence for everyone.

Visitation will take place at the Sisters of St. Joseph's Residence, 2 O' Connor Drive, Toronto, ON, on Wednesday, November 20, 2019 from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. with a prayer vigil at 7 p.m. Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated on Thursday, November 21, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. Chapel, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, ON. Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Fontbonne Ministries, 101 Thorncliffe Park Drive, Toronto ON M4H 1M2.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159 MICHAEL GESTRIN Michael was born May 2, 1963, in Toronto and died October 31, 2019, at St.

Joseph Hospital in Paris, France. Survived by his parents, Bengt and Carita; his beloved wife, Carly; his children, Annika, Alexander, and William; his brother, Philip; sister-in-law, Juliette; nephews, Nicolas, Oliver, and George. We fondly remember Michael's wonderful smile, his sense of humour and his joie de vivre.

During his early years Michael lived in Canada, Switzerland, France and Finland. He attended Etienne Brule Secondary School in Toronto, graduating in 1982. He had a great interest in music and achieved first class honours in Trombone at the Royal Conservatory of Music.

Michael attended the University of Toronto, graduating with BA and MA degrees in Economics. In 2004, he obtained a D.Phil.(Economics) degree from the University of Oxford, England. Michael's professional career embraced stints teaching English in China, Economics in Paris, as well as three years with the UN in Geneva (UNCTAD).

Since 2001 he worked as a Senior Economist at the OECD in Paris in the field of international direct investment. Michael was always active in sports, cycling, rowing, skiing, swimming. He spent the last 28 summers in Thornbury, Ontario with family.

A memorial service was held in Paris in November.

MARION GOULD Marion Gould, beloved wife of Frank Oberman and the late Allan Gould. Loving mother and mother-in-law of Michael and Dianne Gould, Robin Gould-Soil and Sid Soil, Allan and Debbi Oberman, and Steven Oberman.

Dear sister and sister-in-law of Shirley Osler, and Susie and Eric Sereda, and brother-in-law and sister-in-law of Harry and Rozlyn Turk. Devoted grandmother of Ashley, Jonah, Adam and Rebecca, Rebecca, Ethan, Adam and Gloria, Tara and Dave, and Lisa and Max. Loving greatgrandmother of Riley, Cole, Jake, Luke, Andie, and Kylie.

At Benjamin's Park Memorial Chapel, 2401 Steeles Avenue West, Toronto (3 lights west of Dufferin) for service on Tuesday, November 19, 2019 at 2:00 p.m.

Interment in the Beth Emeth Bais Yehuda Synagogue Section of Bathurst Lawn Memorial Park.

Shiva at 142 Hillhurst Blvd., Toronto. Memorial donations may be made to Israel Cancer Research Fund 416- 440-7780, or Beit Halochem Canada 905-6950611, or Baycrest Foundation 416-785-2875.

M. PIERRE LaFOREST September 27, 1946 November 15, 2019 Pierre passed away on Friday, November 15, 2019, after a lengthy battle with cancer, which took him on a journey that he faced with incredible courage and grace. Pierre leaves his adored and adoring wife of almost 40 years, Barbara (Campbell), his beloved children Robert (and James Roach), Michèle (and Byron Kelly), Daniel (and Meg Smith), Mary Catherine and also his late son David. Pierre delighted in his grandchildren, Devon, Siena and Hudson Kelly and Sadie LaForest.

Pierre was born in Montréal and raised by his devoted mother Mary Gordon (née Wilson).

Pierre received his MBA from McGill University in 1969 and went on to a long, successful career beginning in the brokerage business and moving into the finance department of Alcan.

Pierre then joined the Royal Bank of Canada where he spent over 30 years in a variety of roles, retiring as a senior member of the risk management division focused on power and utilities issuers.

Pierre was a lover of sports and outdoor adventures, good banter, Manchester United and keeping it simple. He will be greatly missed.

A visitation will take place at the Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto, on Thursday, November 21, from 6:00 - 8:00 p.m. A service will be held at Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Blvd., on Friday, November 22, at 10:30 a.m., followed by a private burial and a reception back at the Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, from noon - 3 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to jack.

org or a charity of your choice.

Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre Canadian Memorial Services 416-485-5572 MARY ISOBEL MACAULEY "June" June was born in Toronto, at her Grandma Day's house at 35 Elmwood Ave. on February 22, 1928 and died peacefully at Cawthra Gardens on November 14, 2019. She was the devoted only child of the late Andrew Macauley and Annie Day.

June was predeceased by her dear Day cousins: Bert (Marg), Jean (Al), J. Murray (Marion), and Marilyn (Jerry). She is survived by their fourteen children June attended Regal Road School and Oakwood Collegiate before studying to become a secretary.

After a brief assignment at Cunard Lines, she joined Molson Breweries on Fleet Street and later its subsidiary Diversey Corp. in Mississauga where she worked for more than 35 years as an executive secretary to the presidents of those organizations, men for whom she had the utmost regard. June loved the Molson companies, and looked forward to going to work every day.

June retired in 1991 and redirected her attention for detail to wood working classes while she continued to enjoy an off-colour joke, cryptic crosswords, rum (Lemon Heart please) and coke, and time with family - especially at Christmas and in the summer on Boshkung Lake. She will be remembered for her love of Frank Sinatra, and the many canine family members, big or small, old or young. Ahhhh.

Thanks to all of the caregivers that helped June during her period of declining health, including Miryam, those at Beechwood, Bough Beaches and especially at Cawthra Gardens. It is the work of angels that you do.

Friends may call at Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 2357 Bloor St. W., at Windermere east of the Jane subway on Wednesday November 20, 2019 from 10:30 a.m. until time of service in the Chapel at 11:30a.m. Interment Prospect Cemetery will follow the reception.

If desired please consider making a donation in June's Memory to the Trillium Health Partners Mississauga Hospital Mental Health Redevelopment Fund.

Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca SOPHIA VICTORIA ALMA ROSEN It is already one year since we lost our treasured Sophia. Her loss will continue to resonate within our hearts and memory for all time. Sophia was a unique human of unparalleled elegance, grace intelligence and kindness.

We miss you Sophia Sheldon, Carter, Monty, Tammy and Randall.


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New scheme could help first-time buyers
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Financing vehicle hopes to bring home ownership to Vancouver construction labourers who build the homes that few of them can afford
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By KERRY GOLD
  
  

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Friday, November 15, 2019 – Page H6

VANCOUVER It's no secret that many average income earners have been shut out of the Greater Vancouver housing market - and that's a problem for employers.

It means that workers can't live close to the urban core. As a result, building costs have soared as construction companies strive to pay their crews enough to live within the region. To help solve that problem, the non-profit B.C. Construction Association (BCCA) is launching a program that will give first-time mortgages to essential workers who don't qualify for bank mortgages, usually because of the federal government's stress-test rules. The association represents a multibillion-dollar sector that is suffering major labour shortages, and lack of affordability is a key cause.

They will offer mortgages at a comparable rate to the banks, but with longer amortization periods, so that the monthly payments are only one-third of household income. Currently, borrowers who make less than a 20-per-cent down payment can amortize the loan over a maximum of 25 years.

The BCCA has formed a mortgage-investment corporation (MIC), with the input of Peter Elkins, co-founder of Capital Investment Network. Mr. Elkins, whose business matches private funding with entrepreneurs, was at one time a paramedic on the downtown East Side. He and BCCA chief strategy officer Lisa Stevens came up with the idea to provide accessible lending, not just to tradespeople, but also to medical-care providers, emergency responders and educators. The BCCA is in the process of finding other associations to partner on the project.

"What I tell people is to close your eyes, and think of all the people you know personally who would want to own a home you know they would pay their bills but still they can't get a mortgage," says Mr. Elkins, who is acting chief executive officer for Impact MIC. "The list goes on and on and on."

He says he got the idea to use an MIC for lending to middle-income-earners when visiting his elderly parents on Hornby Island, and he saw the young caregivers there who were struggling to earn a living and find affordable housing.

"It's about realizing that there are all these great people in our community who want to own homes, but they can't meet the stress test. It's not even a working-class problem any more. I'm realizing that people making over $100,000 a year, with graduate degrees, working in the public and private sectors, can't own a home."

The BCCA plans to make the mortgages from Impact MIC available to its members by April, 2020. The association is affiliated with other construction-industry associations that serve more than 10,000 employees in the province.

Mr. Elkins and the BCCA say it's the first MIC in Canada dedicated to a social goal.

In a release, the BCCA said its board had approved funding to move the MIC forward, and they were "proud to pioneer an affordable housing solution with potential to improve the quality of life for thousands of skilled tradespeople and other essential workers."

MICs don't have to follow the federal stress-test rules, and are regulated provincially by the Securities Commission. And for those individuals who invest in an MIC, they are eligible for tax-sheltered savings plans such as RRSPs, TFSAs and RESPs. The managers are aiming for a 6 per cent or more return for investors.

BCCA is a principal shareholder in Impact MIC, and Mr. Elkins is still working to drum up more investors.

Usually, MICs offer high interest rate loans at short terms to higher risk customers, but this one will offer terms similar to bank mortgages and will cater to people who are gainfully employed and have a proven track record as a renter, Mr. Elkins says. They will also offer free financial-management coaching for borrowers.

"We really don't want to be compared to an MIC, even though we are going to be.

It's really just a legal taxation vehicle that we can use without having to change legislation or anything," he explains.

Only those needing their first mortgages for their first homes can apply. "You can't use us to speculate in the real estate market."

Applicants will be evaluated on a caseby-case basis, and he says that they would consider lower down payments.

"There will probably be less of a down payment than the banks. And again, we will look at loan-to-value ratio on a caseby-case basis. We will encourage people to have bigger down payments. ... But we don't want to shut people out. The real metric for me is what you pay in rent and what you do for living - those are really the criteria. If somebody is a nurse or paramedic or getting a paycheque from the government, they are pretty good risk."

And because the payments are affordable, the chance of defaulting is reduced.

Mr. Elkins would like to eventually get into the entrepreneurial self-employed space, which is a significant share of the millennial job market.

"That's where we are heading. Three or four years from now, we will figure out that relationship with the Chamber of Commerce so these people can buy homes."

By law, he says that 50 per cent of the MIC fund has to be devoted to the mortgages, but the other half can be involved in more traditional investments, such as lending money at a higher interest rate. In that way, the higherearning investments will subsidize the lower-rate lending program.

University of Victoria masters of business administration students and their professors spent five months studying the idea, in partnership with the BCCA. Their work formed the business case for the lending program.

A major problem for the construction industry is that companies are struggling to retain workers, who are in short supply, says Justin Bontkes, owner of Caliber Projects, a Fraser Valley based construction-management company that is 11 years old.

"As much as there has been a decrease in home sales in the last year, the construction industry outside of Vancouver is still booming here in the suburbs - and it's not small stuff, it's big stuff," Mr. Bontkes says.

He says the MIC idea intrigues him. He could see such a program becoming a key part of business owners' efforts to attract and retain good employees. It would be an appealing employee benefit, because his industry is increasing wages by around 10 per cent a year just to keep workers.

Mr. Bontkes says he would need to study the idea more thoroughly.fa "This isn't just a problem for construction now. This is a problem for just about any employment that requires you to live close to these centres. I think it's awesome that this guy is thinking outside the box and coming up with creative solutions. For myself, it's something I need to think about for my own employees. How do I extend the benefit to my own employees, so that it allows them to live nearby? It's a creative employee strategy. ... It could potentially be a huge opportunity for an employer looking to retain employees in this difficult market."

Mr. Bontkes says it could prove popular because in construction, tradespeople tend to want to own their own homes rather than pay high rents.

He has an employee who told him recently that he has to look for a new home because he can't afford the $2,600 a month in rent. Another employee who makes a good income recently told him he was having a tough time making ends meet. Mr. Bontkes says he'll have to pay the employee more.

"As a business owner, we are always looking for a competitive advantage and I think this MIC strategy may be one we need to think through a bit more," he says.

"We have access to capital and the market we are in right now is extremely competitive, so the fight for talent is on. If we could get creative, it might be what we need."

As for investing in the program, he says, "I'd have to look at it, because there is risk."

James Faulkner is co-founder of SiteMax Systems, a construction-software company that he runs with Christian Hamm. Mr.

Faulkner, Mr. Hamm and Andrew Hansen are construction-industry specialists who started a podcast on their industry a year ago, called Site Visit. Mr. Faulkner says that "any step is a good step," so he's open to the idea, but he cautions any applicants to go in with their eyes wide open. There are many people in construction who have fallen into their jobs for reasons based on life situation and it wasn't necessarily their first choice. They already have their stresses.

"They didn't put up their hand at school and say they wanted to be in a hole with mud up to their ankles," Mr. Faulkner says.

"A whole bunch of life pressures come with it and it could be a failed marriage, a previous business that failed, student debt, being out on their own really early and a life of hard knocks.

"Often what comes with that is debt and having to service that debt. They don't have enough money for a down payment - they can't even get in the game. They are churning and burning money every month, and it's paycheque to paycheque.

Any extra money is going to that credit card."

He sees "tons" of people in that situation, and he has worked with and trained those people.

"And let's say that one of these loan applications is successful. They extended themselves a little more than their rent.

They got in there and now the housing bubble totally crashes. What are we doing to these people? They are poor off as it is, and now their $522,000 condo is worth $400,000 and they have 35, 40 years on this thing, and they haven't paid down much of the principal because it's mostly interest in the beginning.

"What is the exposure? There is a lot at play here."

Associated Graphic

James Faulkner, a construction-software professional who co-created the industry podcast Site Visit, is in favour of plans to help construction workers afford houses, but is concerned it may force them to take on more debt than they can handle.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Peter Elkins, co-founder of Capital Investment Network, is working with the B.C. Construction Association to create a mortgage-investment corporation.


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The great survivor: Life inside a storied Thunder Bay factory
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Friday, November 15, 2019 – Page A1

THUNDER BAY -- Marcus Potter is laughing it up with his work pals at Cheers, a bar with an unoriginal name in a Thunder Bay strip mall. Bottles and cans of beer, two apiece, stand on the table in front of them.

This was the day that Mr. Potter and dozens of other highly skilled and wellpaid workers were laid off from the sprawling Bombardier plant down the road, a fixture in this broad-shouldered northern community for more than a century.

Mr. Potter ended his shift at 3:30 p.m.

and then walked out the door, stepping into the biting cold of a Thunder Bay November. He isn't sure when he will return.

An electrician and finisher, he put the final touches on streetcars and rail cars. He was hired on at Bombardier only in 2017.

That puts him low on the seniority list.

He doesn't look worried. A big guy with a bushy beard and a Denver Broncos tuque, he says he might go back to building houses. Or he might just wait and hope to get called back if the plant lands some new contracts. Single and 28, he has time and options.

His friends at the table seem equally unflustered by the 550 layoffs, which started last Friday and will eventually cut the plant's work force by about half. One guy who is facing layoff in the new year says he may take some time to chill in Cuba.

Another says he might go work in his cousin's hydraulics company. All of them hope to get hired back.

For these men and just about everyone else in Thunder Bay, the idea that the plant might shut its doors altogether is close to unthinkable.

The 550,000-square-foot factory next to the Kaministiquia River is the city's strong right arm, inseparable as a limb.

Thousands of Thunder Bay residents have laboured in its cavernous work bays over the years, making everything from warplanes to tree-farming machinery to Toronto's sleek (and often delayed) new streetcars. Some local families have seen three and even four generations work at the plant.

Few enterprises are woven into the identity of a Canadian city as this one is into Thunder Bay's.

And yet, it could happen, if not now then some day.

The Massey-Harris farm machinery complex that was once the cornerstone of Toronto's manufacturing economy is long gone, replaced by townhouses and condos. Montreal's towering Canada Malting silos have stood abandoned for 30 years, artifacts of a vanished era of brewing and distilling. Only last year General Motors announced it was closing its auto plant in its historic Canadian hub of Oshawa,Ont.,leavingonlyafragment of its operations behind.

The Thunder Bay plant is the great survivor. It has bent metal into wheels and wings through two world wars. It has gone through spectacular booms and depressing busts. It has been mothballed for years, only to roar back to life.

Tour the vast plant, and you can feel the history all around.

Almost half a kilometre long, with cathedral-high ceilings, the factory stands between the river and the airport in the southern end of Thunder Bay. Visitors can still see an indent in the earth that is what remains of the launch slip for the minesweepers built there during for the First World War. Two of them went down in a Lake Superior storm before they could reach the French Navy. When the company pulled down one of its buildings a few years ago, it found shell casings from the Hurricane fighter planes assembled at the plant for the Second World War. Workers had set sandbags against a wall, arranged the planes to face them and firedtheirmachinegunstomakesure they worked.

Its human history is just as striking. The head of the plant union, Dominic Pasqualino, traces his family's association with the facility back to his grandmother, a poor immigrant from Italy's Calabria region who worked in the factory kitchen. Her son, Mr. Pasqualino's father, followed her through the factory doors and stayed for four decades. Mr. Pasqualino worked beside his dad, hanging train doors. Even his daughter worked there briefly.

At an open house for the public this month, the all-in-the-family spir-

it was on display. Workers brought their children to eat free hot dogs and ride the Toronto streetcars along a test track. Retired employees with canes and walkers looked at old photos from vanished eras. When they die, the plant will lower the flags at the gate to half-mast to mark their passing. This place remembers its past. And what a past it is.

George V was on the throne when the plant first opened in 1912. The booming twin cities of Fort William and Port Arthur, later to be combined as Thunder Bay, had ambitions of becoming the new Chicago. City fathers lured Montreal's Canadian Car and Foundry Co. to town to set up a railway-car factory, offering tax breaks and riverfront property. By 1918, it was building 32 boxcars a day.

The 1920s and 30s were fallow years as contracts dried up and the company's work force shrunk to a handfulofmaintenanceworkers.Productionrampedupagainwiththeapproach and then the outbreak of another world war. The factory hired throngs of new workers, many of them women replacing men who had gone off to fight. According to Can Car, a history of the plant by Gordon Burkowski, 40 per cent of the 6,760 workers were women in 1944. At least one of them is still around, at 96.

The war's end brought mass layoffs. Three thousand workers went out the door days after hostilities ended.Theplantmovedintobuilding transit buses and streetcars. Next came commuter trains and subway cars, many of them destined for Toronto. Generations of straphangers have travelled to work on cars from the Thunder Bay plant. It built the spacious Toronto Rockets in service since 2011. It supplied the growing GO train network for Toronto's sprawling suburbs and exurbs. It found markets for the commuter cars in California, Utah, Florida and New Mexico.

Bombardier took over in 1992. The international plane and train company founded by snowmobile maker Joseph-Armand Bombardier is just the latest of several owners to slap its name on the plant.

More than once over the decades, it has looked as if the place would finally go under. It was down to 100 workers and fewer in the mid 1980s and again in the late 1990s. It came right to the brink in the late 1950s.

Can-Car Plant to Close Here, said a big black headline in a local paper. But after an intense local drive to lobby Ottawa for help, a few life-saving contractsappearedandtheplantlivedon to fight another day.

Bombardier insists it will happen again.Newbusinessisboundtocome along. The Ontario government, for one, is promising to spend billions on new subway and other transit lines.

Plant manager Dave Black glows with pride as he guides a visitor around the bright, busy floor of the plant, showing off new streetcars in gleaming red and the bilevel GO cars in avocado green. Country music plays in one GO unit as finishers make their last checks. A streetcar stands in a sealed compartment, ready for high-pressure spraying aimed to make sure it is waterproof.

Another is getting fibreglass panels applied to its metal frame in a temperature-controlled bonding chamber.

Maintenance workers bustle around in special cargo bikes that help them cover the plant's long distances. "Material expediters" deliver parts and tools in motorized carts, honking their horns to warn they are approaching.

The Thunder Bay plant is about to get a lot quieter. Big contracts for the GO trains and streetcars are running out.Thelastofthe204Torontostreetcars is to be delivered by the end of the year. What happens to the plant then? What happens to Thunder Bay?

No new deals big enough to sustain the site have been signed, although Bombardier says it is chasing them hard. "Buy America" rules make selling to the U.S. market a challenge.

The layoffs aren't as hard on the city as they might have been when Thunder Bay relied more heavily on industry for its daily bread. The forest sector hit a wall years ago. Pulp and paper mills closed. Many grain elevators in the port are idle.

The city now makes its main living as a service centre for Northern Ontario. Thirty per cent of employment is in the broader public sector, comparedwith20percentforCanadaasa whole, says Lakehead University economicsprofessorLivioDiMatteo.The regional hospital is the biggest employer, with nearly three times the staff of the plant even before the Bombardier layoffs.

Even so, 500 jobs is 500 jobs. Bombardier remains the biggest privatesector employer in the city. Dozens of smaller firms rely on it, from parts suppliers to coffee shops where workers go when they get off shift.

Down at Cheers, they worry about the impact on the community. But, no, it's not the end of the world. Sitting next to his laid-off workmate Marcus Hopper, Dylan Lagimodiere, 24, says that on the factory floor, life will go on. Even with the layoffs, they have trains to get out the door. When guys such as Mr. Hopper leave, workmates say their goodbyes, "but we still build," as they always have at the plant by the river.

Associated Graphic

An LRT train sits outside the Bombardier plant in Thunder Bay on Nov. 7. Layoffs began at the plant last Friday; they will eventually shed 550 positions and cut the work force by about half.

Union chief Dominic Pasqualino traces his family's association with the plant back to his grandmother, an Italian immigrant who worked in the factory kitchen.

PHOTOGRAPHY BY DAVID JACKSON/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Right: Employees stand in the Thunder Bay Bombardier plant parking lot on a smoke break on Nov. 7.

Middle: Current and laid-off employees gather at a local bar later that same day.

Randi Manduca inspects one of the vehicles under assembly. She's worked at the Bombardier plant for eight years.

After the Second World War, the plant shifted its focus to building transit buses and streetcars, then commuter trains and subway cars. Here, a finished LRT train goes through its final process at the plant in 2019.

During the Second World War, the Thunder Bay plant workers assembled Hurricane fighter planes. When one of the plant's buildings was taken down a few years ago, Hurricane shell casings were found from when workers would test the planes' machine guns on sandbags set against a wall.


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BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICES
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Wednesday, November 20, 2019 – Page B19

LAURA BECK Passed away peacefully in her sleep on the morning of Thursday, October 24, 2019 at her Toronto residence in her 88th year. Beloved wife of James 'Jim' (predeceased in 2017) for over 50 years. Loving mother of Timothy (Eun Mi), Jonathan (Erika) and Jeffery (Margaret). Proud grandmother ('Ma B') to 5.

A Celebration of Laura's Life will be held at Dovercourt Baptist Church, 1140 Bloor St. W., Toronto on Saturday, November 30, 2019 at 2 p.m. Funeral arrangements entrusted to the Turner & Porter Yorke Chapel, 416-767-3153. Online condolences may be made through http://www.turnerporter.ca SISTER ANNE MARIE CAREY CSJ Died peacefully at the Sisters of St.

Joseph's Residence, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, Ontario, on Monday, November 18, 2019, in the 74th year of her religious life.

Sister Anne Marie was the eldest daughter of Arthur Carey from Toronto, Ontario, and Kathleen Seager from Thornhill, Ontario.

Sister Anne Marie was predeceased by her parents, Arthur and Kathleen; her brother, John Arthur and his wife, Shirley; her sisters, Sister Kathleen (Kitty) Carey, CSJ and Mary and her husband, Ken Smith. Sister Anne Marie will be missed by her nieces and nephews, friends, CSJ Associates, and sisters in community.

Sister Anne Marie entered the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto on September 8, 1946 and has celebrated over 70 years in the congregation.

Sister Anne Marie pursued a career in the field of social services at Ryerson Polytechnical Institute.

Her compassion and love for those who are marginalized in our society led her to establish St. Michael's Detox Centre, Matt Talbot Houses and St Michael's Half Way Homes, to assist men in recovery from addictions.

She drew inspiration from Matt Talbot, an unskilled Irish labourer, a patron of those struggling with alcoholism.

Sister Anne Marie was also instrumental in the early stages of establishing the Sisters of St.

Joseph Associate Program for laity who wish to live the charism of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Toronto.

In recent years, Sister Anne Marie had been receiving care from the dedicated staff at the Sisters of St.

Joseph Care Centre.

She had a quiet, gentle, welcoming presence for everyone.

Visitation will take place at the Sisters of St. Joseph's Residence, 2 O' Connor Drive, Toronto, ON, on Wednesday, November 20, 2019 from 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. with a prayer vigil at 7 p.m. Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated on Thursday, November 21, 2019 at 10:30 a.m. Chapel, 2 O'Connor Drive, Toronto, ON. Interment at Holy Cross Cemetery. In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to Fontbonne Ministries, 101 Thorncliffe Park Drive, Toronto ON M4H 1M2.

R.S. Kane 416-221-1159 KENNETH LUKEY CUNNINGHAM At the Mill Creek Care Centre, Barrie, on Monday, November 18, 2019, at the age of 86. Ken, dearly beloved husband of Doreen and former husband of Jane (née Phippen). Loving father of John, Janet Stonehouse (Victor Salis), and Cameron (Melissa Mann). Dear step-father of Dan (Diane) Rusnell, Joanne Rusnell (the late Lee Bilan), and David (Caroline) Rusnell.

Loved Grandad of 12 and greatgrandad of 3. Ken was the Vice President and General Manager of District Trust Company, founder of Bayshore Trust and Titan Financial Corporations, and was part-owner and Business Manager of Stewart Funeral Home, Sarnia. He gave generously of his time and expertise as Chair of the Children's Aid Society of London & Middlesex, Chair of the Victoria Hospital Board during their transition to the Westminster Campus, and guest lecturer at the Ivey School of Business at his alma mater, the University of Western Ontario.

A family funeral service will be held at Ashburnham Funeral Home & Reception Centre, 840 Armour Road, Peterborough, on Saturday, November 23, 2019 at 11:00 a.m. Those wishing to attend are welcome. Friends and acquaintances are cordially invited to attend a Memorial Celebration of Ken's Life to be held later that Saturday between the hours of 2 and 4 p.m. Interment at Mikle Memorial Cemetery, Gravenhurst at a later date. Directions to the celebration and condolences to the family may be made at http://www.AshburnhamFuneral.ca.

If desired, donations to the Alzheimer's Society would be appreciated by the family.

MICHAEL GESTRIN Michael was born May 2, 1963, in Toronto and died October 31, 2019, at St.

Joseph Hospital in Paris, France. Survived by his parents, Bengt and Carita; his beloved wife, Carly; his children, Annika, Alexander, and William; his brother, Philip; sister-in-law, Juliette; nephews, Nicolas, Oliver, and George. We fondly remember Michael's wonderful smile, his sense of humour and his joie de vivre.

During his early years Michael lived in Canada, Switzerland, France and Finland. He attended Etienne Brule Secondary School in Toronto, graduating in 1982. He had a great interest in music and achieved first class honours in Trombone at the Royal Conservatory of Music.

Michael attended the University of Toronto, graduating with BA and MA degrees in Economics. In 2004, he obtained a D.Phil.(Economics) degree from the University of Oxford, England. Michael's professional career embraced stints teaching English in China, Economics in Paris, as well as three years with the UN in Geneva (UNCTAD).

Since 2001 he worked as a Senior Economist at the OECD in Paris in the field of international direct investment. Michael was always active in sports, cycling, rowing, skiing, swimming. He spent the last 28 summers in Thornbury, Ontario with family.

A memorial service was held in Paris in November.

M. PIERRE LaFOREST September 27, 1946 November 15, 2019 Pierre passed away on Friday, November 15, 2019, after a lengthy battle with cancer, which took him on a journey that he faced with incredible courage and grace. Pierre leaves his adored and adoring wife of almost 40 years, Barbara (Campbell), his beloved children Robert (and James Roach), Michèle (and Byron Kelly), Daniel (and Meg Smith), Mary Catherine and also his late son David. Pierre delighted in his grandchildren, Devon, Siena and Hudson Kelly and Sadie LaForest.

Pierre was born in Montréal and raised by his devoted mother Mary Gordon (née Wilson).

Pierre received his MBA from McGill University in 1969 and went on to a long, successful career beginning in the brokerage business and moving into the finance department of Alcan.

Pierre then joined the Royal Bank of Canada where he spent over 30 years in a variety of roles, retiring as a senior member of the risk management division focused on power and utilities issuers.

Pierre was a lover of sports and outdoor adventures, good banter, Manchester United and keeping it simple. He will be greatly missed.

A visitation will take place at the Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, 375 Mount Pleasant Road, Toronto, on Thursday, November 21, from 6:00 - 8:00 p.m. A service will be held at Eglinton St. George's United Church, 35 Lytton Blvd., on Friday, November 22, at 10:30 a.m., followed by a private burial and a reception back at the Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre, from noon - 3 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to jack.

org or a charity of your choice.

Mount Pleasant Funeral Centre Canadian Memorial Services 416-485-5572 DAVID NELSON WHEATLY PRISKE Born in Bourlamaque (Val-d'Or), Quebec on November 14, 1936, gently passed away in Toronto on Wednesday, October 30, 2019. He was 82.

He is survived by his sister, Ruth Mitchell (Ross); his daughters, Heather (Simon) Storey and Leslie (Neil) Bennett; and his grandchildren, Tom Storey and Megan Storey; and predeceased by his son, David Priske.

Nelson received his business degree from Ryerson, the same place he met his wife Catherine.

They were married in Jamaica, August 14, 1964.

Nelson was an avid reader with a thirst for knowledge. This, in addition to his natural sales ability, led to a successful career in educational publishing. He also had a passion for vintage cars.

Many have fond memories of rides in his much loved 1929 Ford Model A.

A celebration of life will be held in the Chapel of the Morley Bedford Funeral Home, 159 Eglinton Ave.

W., Toronto on Sunday, December 1st at 1:00 p.m.

Donations can be made to the Canadian Lung Association in memory of Nelson Priske at http://www.lung.ca or Greater Toronto Area Intergroup of Alcoholics Anonymous at http://www.aatoronto.org.

CLAUDE J. SAUVE 1941 - 2019 It is with profound sorrow that we announce the passing of Claude J. Sauve, peacefully, on Friday, November 15, 2019. Claude will be lovingly remembered by his wife, Deborah (Logan); his sons, Jack (Linda Begin), Frank (Lisa DiLauro) and Mark (Janelle Lafreniere). He was the adored grandfather (Grandpa, Gramps, Baba) of Jessica, Jessie, Jasmine, Ariana, Edward and Tyler.

Claude was the cherished son of the late Rosaire Sauve and the late Cecile Lafortune and much loved brother of Gilles (Carmen), Michel (Judy), Monique (Bob), Marie (Jean Paul) and the late André. He will be missed by his brotherin-law Hugh Logan (Jan) as well as his many nieces and nephews.

Above all else, Claude cherished his family and the time they spent together.

Claude lived his life with integrity and was a Hotelier who earned the respect and admiration of his colleagues and peers in the industry which was evidenced in the heartfelt retirement celebration in May capping off his 60 year career with Fairmont Hotels and Resorts.

Claude enjoyed the outdoors and was an avid bass fisherman and golfer and will be remembered by many friends at The Ottawa Hunt and Golf Club.

The family extends their gratitude to the doctors and nurses in Oncology at both the Ottawa General and Lakeshore General Hospitals for their care and support.

Sincere appreciation goes out to the team at the VaudreuilSoulanges Palliative Care Residence for their compassion and support in his final days.

The family would respectfully request that, in lieu of flowers, donations be made in Claude's memory to the Vaudreuil-Soulanges Palliative Care Residence, 90 Como Gardens, Hudson, QC, J0P 1H0.

Visitation will be 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 - 9:00 p.m.

Friday, November 22 and Saturday, November 23 at 10:00-12:00 p.m. at Collins Clarke MacGillivray White Funeral Home, Pointe-Claire, QC, H9S 3Y5. A service will be held in their chapel at 12:00 Noon.


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MAKING CHINA GREAT AGAIN
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Statements of the past few weeks show a zeal for moral micromanagement that we probably haven't seen since the last days of the Cultural Revolution
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page O3

Professor of modern China at Birkbeck, University of London, and author of Maoism: A Global History, which was the winner of this year's Cundill History Prize T he top brass of China's Communist Party (CCP) - its 370strong Central Committee - recently emerged from the Fourth Plenum of the 2017 Party Congress. Such meetings, usually one a year, are key forums for policy discussion. At the previous plenum, in February, 2018, the Central Committee made one of the most politically contentious changes of the past 40 years: the decision to abolish the constitutional restriction that limited the president to two consecutive terms, a restriction specifically introduced in 1982 to prevent a return to the unconstrained, capricious rule of the Mao years. China's current ruler, Xi Jinping, like Mao, could be ruler for life.

Many observers concluded from this development that the CCP under Mr. Xi was taking a great leap backward into the Mao era. A close look at two CCP declarations bookending the latest party conference, however, suggests a more expansive - though also contradictory - playbook for the current regime.

We will probably not learn for years - if ever - exactly what was discussed at the plenum, since its debates take place behind firmly closed doors; delegates are not allowed to leave the venue during the meeting, to guard against leaks. To outsiders, therefore, so much of elite Chinese politics remains a black box. However, two verbosely titled statements published at the start and close of the meeting give insights into the party mood. The first, "Outline for the Implementation of the Ethical Construction of Citizens in the New Era," presented the CCP's blueprint for moulding the national character; the second, "A Decision on Some Major Issues Concerning How to Uphold and Improve the System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Advance the Modernization of China's System and Capacity for Governance," was the resolution arising from the plenum. Taken together, they present a comprehensive, outwardly self-confident master plan for China's current and future trajectory.

Both documents lionize the achievements of "paramount leader" Mr. Xi: his creation of a "new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics" that will "arm the whole party and educate the people ... laying a solid foundation for the ideological and theoretical foundation of faith." Mr.

Xi's socialism is hailed as "the concentrated expression of the contemporary Chinese spirit, and the ideological and moral foundation of condensed Chinese power." All this extended homage confirms the strongman leadership cult that has been building around Mr. Xi since 2013. The CCP outlines plans to saturate the grassroots with Mr. Xi's vision of enlightened socialist virtue, through a nationwide network of community institutions and of screens and billboards. The plenum resolution proclaims the need to merge scientific Marxism-Leninism with China's "outstanding traditional culture," for Mr. Xi's big project is the "Chinese Dream." In English you might call it "Make China Great Again": the restoration of China to its old, pre-19th-century glory.

Expressions of vaunting ideological and cultural ambition are nothing new for the CCP - indeed, it runs deep in the Marxism-Leninism from which Chinese Communism has heavily borrowed.

(In their first decade in power, the Bolsheviks strove to create "new Soviet men and women.") Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has run through a series of campaigns - of varying intensity - to mould its citizens. In the 1990s, it clamoured about building a "spiritual socialist civilization," even as many of the country's novelists were writing the most scurrilous, sexually explicit stories ever penned in Chinese.

But announcements of the past few weeks enunciate a zeal for moral micromanagement that we probably haven't seen since the last days of the Cultural Revolution in 1976. The latest blueprint for moral behaviour embraces education, internet control, environmentalism, spending habits, table manners and funeral design.

Yet, despite their bombastically unitary tone, the CCP's recent edicts are fractured by contradictions between the diverse ideas and objectives that contend in contemporary China. On the one hand, these proclamations extol values such as democracy, freedom, creativity and justice, the functioning of which require individual debate and discussion. On the other, both are focused on unifying and rejuvenating the nation under the unchallenged auspices of the Chinese Communist Party and its helmsman Mr. Xi.

The directives project a seamless unity between five thousand years of "Chinese tradition" and the "red genes" of revolutionary Marxism-Leninism, ignoring the way that Chinese Communism for decades treated older patterns of belief and behaviour as dangerous heterodoxy.

Even in his dying years, Mao still found energy to wage war publicly on Confucius. Mr. Xi's credo paradoxically lauds the sage's favourite virtues - benevolence, harmony, respecting the elderly and the family - and merges them with Maoist markers of merit. Chinese emperors promoted Confucian virtues to forge loyal subjects: Just as children should revere their parents, imperial morality preached, so should subjects revere their rulers. The CCP under Mr. Xi similarly hopes to use a Confucian revival to inculcate devotion to the "motherland" and its ruling party-state.

Arguably, the greatest tensions within these mission statements spring from the CCP's own chequered history. Since 2012 - and for the first time since the death of Mao in 1976 - Mr. Xi has led an official, national revival of Maoist culture and politics. Despite the huge human cost of Mao's rule, Mr. Xi and his close comrades have renormalized parts of Maoist political culture: criticism-self-criticism sessions, the "mass line" and the personality cult. Mr. Xi, as one sharp-eyed reader has noted, even imitates Mao's handwriting. He has invoked the chuxin (original aspirations) of the Party's early leaders, above all Mao Zedong, as paradigms for political purity and success. The plenum's resolution is scattered with Maoist phraseology: the Chinese people have "stood up"; "the party controls the gun." It seems to echo Mao's official rationale for the Cultural Revolution, in calling for unending revolution to "maintain party purity."

But Mr. Xi's China is different (almost beyond recognition) from Mao's: It is tied into global finance, and its stability is bound to economic performance. The plenum therefore also has to acknowledge that the CCP's street credibility these days comes not from Mao - with his fixation on class struggle and ideological purity - but rather from what the CCP describes as the twin miracles of rapid economic development and social stability. These are the keynote projects of the post-Mao reform era, a period that - in public at least - mothballed the chaotic politics of the Cultural Revolution (such as mass-spectacle purges).

Neither document acknowledges any contradiction or inconsistency in their frame of reference and ambition. The plenum resolution simply ends by commanding "the whole party and people to closely unite around the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi as the core, strengthen confidence, maintain determination, advance strongly and innovate in order to uphold and perfect socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Party claims to be all things to all people: Confucian and Maoist, democratic and unitary, nationalist and internationalist. The precondition to achieving this smorgasbord of objectives is unquestioning loyalty to the Party.

Its façade of certitude notwithstanding, we should not overestimate the CCP's current invulnerability. In a speech delivered in September to the Central Party School, the CCP's elite training institution, Mr. Xi urged the Party to be on top alert against domestic and international threats. Economic, political, cultural, social, diplomatic, environmental and security challenges were ubiquitous and intensifying. Ominously, Mr. Xi's comrades reiterated that should the situation in Hong Kong worsen, "the Party Centre would not sit idly by ... there is no middle ground on the issue of Hong Kong, no room for hesitation or compromise." And Mr. Xi is right to be worried. Since the 1980s, the legitimacy of the CCP has depended on the delivery of economic growth. But figures for this year's second quarter indicate the lowest rate of increase in 27 years. Trade war with the U.S.

threatens the global supply chains on which China's economy relies.

The PRC government's relations with its borderlands are at rockbottom. In Xinjiang, on the northwest frontier, the central government has built a network of "reeducation centres," into which hundreds of thousands of Muslim Uyghurs have disappeared. Since June, Hong Kong has been rocked by protest against Beijing's erosion of its semi-autonomous political, economic and legal system.

At the Fourth Plenum itself, it seems that a senior official from west China died by suicide by throwing himself off the roof of the hotel in which the meeting was being held, perhaps because of ideological differences with Mr.

Xi.

How will the PRC weather these contrasts between the CCP's Maoist heritage and the hybrid, globalized nature of contemporary China? How will it reconcile its rhetoric about ancient traditions, democracy, cultural plurality and pragmatic economic benefit, with its insistence on MarxistLeninist one-party politics and Mao-style ideological purity and faith? Perhaps China's current ability to tolerate paradoxes is the most notable legacy of Mao - who admiringly identified contradictions as a wellspring of energy. Although Mao's own ideas and rule became increasingly dogmatized in the last decade of his life, his revolution - born out of civil and world war - bequeathed to China an adaptive, "guerrilla-style" mode of policy making. Maybe that is why China, for the time being, can be ruled by a party that continues to emphasize its Marxist-Leninist-Maoist heritage, while proclaiming the necessity of market forces; and that proclaims its possession of a "comprehensive plan" at a time when China is more complicatedly diverse than at any point in its history.

Associated Graphic

Chinese President Xi Jinping, centre, and other officials bow during a ceremony to mark Martyr's Day at Tiananmen Square in Beijing on Sept. 30.

MARK SCHIEFELBEIN/ASSOCIATED PRESS

Chinese workers stand in line as they are picked for temporary jobs at a luxury mall in Beijing last month. For decades, the legitimacy of the Communist Party of China has depended on its delivery of economic growth. But figures for this year's second quarter indicate the lowest rate of increase in 27 years.

GETTY IMAGES

Tuesday, November 19, 2019
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HOW TO VEGANIZE CLASSIC SIDES
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By JULIE VAN ROSENDAAL
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page P10

MASHED POTATOES Squeeze cloves of roasted garlic into boiled Yukon gold potatoes as you mash them, along with vegan butter, salt and pepper.

To roast garlic, wrap whole heads in foil and bake directly on the oven rack for about an hour, while something else is baking. Store in the fridge until you're ready to use it.

SWEET POTATOES

Bake small ones whole on a rimmed sheet in the oven until soft; reduce apple cider with a slice of ginger and a cinnamon stick to a syrupy consistency to drizzle over top.

BRUSSELS SPROUTS

Instead of roasting them with bacon, toss halved sprouts in olive oil and roast at 425 F until golden, then toss with a drizzle of balsamic vinegar and honey, and a pinch of salt and chili flakes. Or halve and thinly slice raw sprouts and toss with chopped pears or apples and a lemony vinaigrette; top with toasted walnuts.

GRAVY

The browned bits from a tray of roasted vegetables makes the perfect starting point for a pan of gravy.

There should be some residual oil on the pan, too - if not, add a drizzle, sprinkle with a spoonful flour and whisk in vegetable or onion stock on the stovetop until it bubbles and thickens.

LENTIL AND MUSHROOM WELLINGTON WITH MUSHROOM GRAVY

Serves 8 or more Justaboutanycombinationofvegetables, grains and pulses can be rolled up in a piece of puff pastry and baked. The brand of pastry you buy will determine the size and shape of your Wellingtons: Some comeprerolled, others must be rolled out.

A 10-inch square is common, but don't worryifyourshappenstobeprerolledtoa different size.

1 /4 cup+1tablespoonbutterorveganmargarine (divided, optional) Olive or other vegetable oil, for cooking 1 medium onion, finely chopped 1-11/2 pounds fresh mushrooms (button, cremini, brown, oyster or a combination) 1-2 garlic cloves, crushed 2 teaspoons fresh thyme leaves 1-2 teaspoons chopped fresh rosemary Salt and freshly ground pepper, to taste 11/2 cups cooked or canned, drained lentils 4 ounces soft goat cheese (optional) 1 package puff pastry, thawed 1 egg (optional) 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour 11/2-2 cups vegetable, mushroom or onion stock 1 teaspoon soy sauce 2 tablespoons nutritional yeast (optional) Preheat the oven to 400 F. Put 1/4cup butter into a large skillet set over medium-high heat, add a drizzle of oil and sauté the onion for 4-5 minutes, or until soft. Roughly chop and add the mushrooms along with the garlic, thyme and rosemary and cook, seasoning with salt and pepper, until the mushrooms start to turn golden and the excess liquid has evaporated. Transfer to a bowl, reserving a couple spoonfuls if you like to stir into the gravy, and stir in the lentils. Set aside to cool completely. (The filling can be made up to three days ahead, and refrigerated.)

Unroll your thawed pastry, or cut the block in half and roll each piece into a 10x10-inch square. If you're using it, spread or drop the goat cheese in spoonfuls down one third of each piece of pastry. Spoon the mushroom-lentil filling down the middle. Fold the goat cheese side over the mushrooms, and roll it over to form a log. Transfer to a parchmentlined sheet (if you have room, you could assemble them on the parchment-lined sheets) and tuck under the ends.

In a small dish, lightly beat the egg with a spoonful of water. Brush over the Wellingtons and lightly score the top with a sharp knife, allowing it to slice through in a few places. (Alternatively, cut a few slashes in the top.) Bake for 25-30 minutes, or until deep golden.

Meanwhile, return the skillet to the stovetop over medium-high heat and sprinkle the flour over the bottom of the pan. Let it sit for a minute, until it starts to turn golden. (Don't walk away - it will darken quickly.) Whisk in the remaining tablespoon of butter (or a tablespoon of oil), and the stock. Bring to a simmer, whisking constantly, until the gravy bubbles and thickens. Whisk in the soy sauce and nutritional yeast (if using) and continue to cook, stirring often, until the gravy darkens and reduces. Stir in any mushrooms you set aside.

Serve the Wellington in slices, drizzled with gravy.

TOMATO TART WITH OLIVE-OIL CRUST AND CRISPY CAPERS

Serves 12-16 Because just about everything goes well with tomatoes, you can customize this tart however you like. Spread the pastry with a thin layer of pesto or olive tapenade, caramelized onions, ricotta or soft goat cheese, bits of Brie or sharp cheddar or Parmesan. To make a cheesy pastry, toss a handful of grated extraaged Gouda, Parmesan or Gruyère into the flour and salt before adding the oil and water.

PASTRY 11/3 cups all-purpose flour 1 /4 teapsoon fine salt 1 /3 cup olive oil 1 /4 cup water FILLING 1 /3 cup pesto or olive tapenade or 1/2 cup ricotta 1 pound tomatoes, preferably in a range of colours Salt and freshly ground pepper, to taste Freshly grated Parmesan cheese (optional) Olive oil, for drizzling 2 tablespoons capers 2-4 tablespoons canola or olive oil Preheat the oven to 400 F.

In a medium bowl, stir together the flour and salt. Add the oil and water and stir just until the dough comes together.

On a lightly floured surface, roll the dough out into about an 11-inch circle, transfer to a 10-inch tart pan and gently press into the bottom and up the sides.

Spread with pesto, tapenade or ricotta.

Slice large tomatoes about 1/4-inch thick, halve cherry or grape tomatoes , and arrange them over the bottom, a placing them close together or overd lapping them slightly. Sprinkle with salt e and pepper, scatter with Parmesan if e you like, and drizzle with olive oil.

t Bake for 25-30 minutes, or until the a crust is golden and tomatoes are soft.

Pat the capers dry between two paper towels, heat the oil in a small skillet - over medium-high heat (you should have a depth almost equal to the size of a caper) and cook the capers for about 2 minutes, until crisp. Transfer to paper towel to drain. Scatter over the tart just before serving.

STUFFED WINTER SQUASH WITH HAZELNUT-CLEMENTINE GREMOLATA

Serves 8 or more Just about any vegetable can be roasted along with the whole squash, then chopped into the filling. Try wedges of onion or fennel, diced rutabaga or celeriac root, or halve and roast the Brussels sprouts instead of adding raw slices to the grains. If you like, add some soft crumbled goat cheese or grated extra-old cheddar, Gouda or Parmesan to the grain mixture.

1 medium kabocha, hubbard or butternut squash 2 1-inch slices cauliflower (or 2 cups florets) Olive, canola or other vegetable oil, for cooking Salt and freshly ground pepper, to taste HAZELNUT-CLEMENTINE GREMOLATA 1 /2 cup whole hazelnuts 1 /2 bunch flat-leaf parsley Grated zest of 1 clementine 1 garlic clove, finely crushed /4- /3 cup extra-virgin olive oil 1 1 STUFFING 1 cup farro, wheat berries, wild rice or pearl or pot barley (or a combination) 2-3 cups vegetable stock or water 4-6 Brussels sprouts or 2-3 kale leaves, thinly sliced (discard stems) 1 /4 cup dried cherries or r cranberries or golden raisins 1-2 green onions, thinly sliced CLEMENTINE VINAIGRETTE Juice of 1 clementine (or 3-4 tablespoons orange juice) 1 tablespoon white wine vinegar 1 teaspoon honey or pure maple syrup 1 /4 teaspoon garam masala (optional) /4- /3 cup olive oil 1 1 Preheat the oven to 400 F. If you're using a round squash, cut out and remove the lid as if you were about to carve a pumpkin, and scoop out the seeds and stringy bits. If you're using butternut, cut it in half lengthwise and scoop out the seeds. Place on a baking sheet along with the cauliflower, drizzle everything with oil, rub all over the surface of the vegetables with your fingers, sprinkle with salt and roast for 30-45 minutes, or until soft and turning golden. (With its solid neck, butternut might need some extra time, depending on its size and shape.)

Place the hazelnuts for the gremolata in a small pan and put them into the oven along with the squash for about 10 minutes, or until fragrant. Rub them in a dishtowel to get rid of their skins, and roughly chop. Place them in a bowl, roughly chop the parsley (discard the stems), and add it to the bowl with the hazelnuts. Add the clementine zest, garlic and a pinch of salt, and stir in enough oil to make a loose sauce.

Meanwhile, cook the farro, wheat berries, rice or barley in stock or water until the grains are just tender, but still have a little chew; 30-40 minutes for barley or wild rice, 30-60 for farro or wheat berries (or according to package directions). Drain any excess moisture, transfer to a bowl and add the Brussels sprouts or kale, dried fruit and green onion. Chop and add the cauliflower to the mix.

To make the vinaigrette, whisk or shake together the juice, vinegar, honey, garam masala and oil; season with salt and pepper, drizzle over the warm grains (use as much or as little as you like), and toss to combine.

If you're using butternut, scoop out the soft inner flesh, leaving about 3/4-inch of flesh in the shell. Spoon the grainy stuffing into the squash, mounding it at the top. If you're using butternut, place the two filled halves side by side, like an open book, then close them together and carefully tie around the two halves with kitchen string.

Serve open-topped squash by the large spoonful, scooping out some of the soft squash with each serving, or in wedges; cut stuffed butternut into inch-thick slices, and top either with hazelnut gremolata.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019
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A vibrant space near Jean-Talon Market
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By SHANE DINGMAN
  
  

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Friday, November 1, 2019 – Page H6

What luxury can look like amid Montreal's real estate boom

REAL ESTATE REPORTER MONTREAL

7439 Henri-Julien Ave.

MONTREAL Asking Price: $1,895,000 Taxes: $6,709 (2019) Lot Size: 1,896 square feet Agents: Jeff Lee and Marie-Claude Bergeron, Engel & Vvlkers Montrial THE BACK STORY Walking down the streets of neighbourhoods such as Villeray, you're treated to housing types unseen in much of the rest of the country. There are tall narrow buildings with exterior staircases that climb up to second-floor front doors, snugged up cheekby-jowl with no laneways to the rear. There's a wide variety of brick types and colours, although it's not overflowing with sentimentality or ornamentation.

Some houses look purpose-built for multifamily rental, some look like they were converted to apartments, others are clearly just for one family. It's dense and urban without being a series of towers and mini-mansions. It's the kind of "missing middle" that many Canadian communities are lacking.

In other words, it's an interesting neighbourhood to find a listing for close to $2-million. It's what luxury can look like in Montreal's booming real estate market.

The first impression that 7439 Henri-Julien makes is that it blends in with its neighbours. It's a former triplex built in 1924 that was converted into a single-family house in 2017. Inside, there's a sense that this is a showroom, a tastefully restrained space that you can project your own personality on. That's usually the goal for realtors staging a house, but this house has permanent design choices that help create that impression. That's probably not too surprising considering the current owner designed it, and her family construction company built it.

Marie-Pier Guilmain, a product designer and art director with her own design partnership (MPGMD) builds the model homes for her family construction company, specializing in townhouses and custom-homes outside Montreal.

"The house is a complete design of my own: I worked on the layout of the interior, I designed all the cabinets, selected all the finishes and I have also design[ed] the backyard layout as well as the shed and the gate," Ms. Guilmain said. "I always take things from previous projects to improve the functionality and the material choices of the next one."

THE HOUSE TODAY The house has clean, open and

contemporary spaces with mainly white walls so colour and drama find their way in through furnishings, use of space, decorative pieces (some of which are original creations, but, sorry, are going with Ms. Guilmain) and unique fixtures. Wood appears everywhere, but the same grain, stain or finish rarely appears

twice. There's a lot of light and angular metal, too, everything from bespoke steel stair railings to steel-framed windows to lighting fixtures with chains and hoops. The powder room sink on the main floor has a black faucet set into a wall - it almost looks like a shower fixture installed at torso level into the white subway

tile back splash with black grout.

The sum of these parts is a quietly confident space that commands respect.

Ms. Guilmain built this as her family home, and expected to live here for 25 years. Plans change, and while she is selling, she intends to stay in the area.

She expects buyers might look a little like her.

"I certainly imagine a family that likes the vibe of a typical Montreal neighbourhood, but also really want to have a full house to themselves," she said.

"People that love to have friends and family over for barbecue, that love to cook for them and appreciate to pick up all the ingredient[s] at the local market and meet the farmers. With seven bedrooms, you can also have family to visit from outside the city and stay for a night or two!" Through the front door is an extra-wide hallway with hidden oversized closets, perfect for navigating strollers and bikes, according to listing agent Jeff Lee.

To the left is the main-floor powder room, then a short hallway opens out into the wideopen main living (on the right) and kitchen space (on the left) that ends with a wall of windows that slides open to offer indooroutdoor space when the season allows.

The floor is all hardwood, with light grey cabinets and white subway tile back splash wall in the kitchen. A huge island with seating for four separates the living area from the food-prep zone. And in the rear corner is a mudroom area that is sectioned off with a slatted wood half-wall.

"The backdoor mud room bench is one of the sections that I am the most proud of," Ms. Guilmain said. "I wanted this to be very functional; I didn't want to see the usual back entry mess but also didn't want it to close

the open space. So when you're in the living room, you only see a half-wall with architecture element and when you are in the entry, there is a hidden shelf for storage as well as a bench to sit and put your boots on." The outdoor space is open, like a courtyard; the brick back here has been redone and is fresh and modern with black-framed windows. There's a massive, solid steel and wood sliding gate/fence that opens for the parking pad in the yard, or for playing in the alley (as local children do).

This level is the nerve centre of the house, and even an open "homework space" at the top of the second-floor stairs is connected to this family hub, just a raised voice away.

"When you have kids, you understand that every task has to be effective. So every movement has to be calculated to save time and effort," Ms. Guilmain said.

"The playroom is close to the kitchen so I can have an eye on my kids while preparing dinner, same thing with the backyard, it's only two wide steps to get to the grass and with the wide glass patio door, I can see them play outside while in the kitchen." Upstairs are four bedrooms, large and bright, some have playful paint finishes, some are more serene.

The upstairs bathroom has white tiles with the same dark grout as other wet spaces in the house, but here they are square instead of rectangles, a throwback style for sure. Cool, grey oversized tiles rise up from the floor to make a vertical cladding for the lower part of the shower tub. The walk-in shower in the basement has a similar tile, but with more black in the cabinetry and fixtures.

The laundry room is on the second floor, a feature that every new house should have (why did

we ever schlep heavy baskets up and down stairs to and from basements?).

The basement has radiant floor heating, a big media-room den and two more bedrooms for visitors. It doesn't look like a lot of house from outside, but in reality it's more than 3,330 square feet of living space in a fast-gentrifying area.

THE NEIGHBOURHOOD "Villeray is in high demand right now for the young families who desire to remain close to the centre of the action to raise their family," Mr. Lee said. "This property is also located very close to the division line between Villeray and Rosemont. What the Plateau was in the nineties then moved up towards Mile End, then Rosemont and now it's Villeray that gets lots of the traction and demand. Don't get me wrong, Plateau and Rosemont are still super cool, but not that affordable for a family any more.

Like, let's say, Trinity Bellwoods in Toronto or Kitsilano in Vancouver." The house is very close to Rue Castelnau, the main commercial strip, and about a kilometre from the Rue Jean-Talon, home to the huge farmers' market of the same name. Mr. Lee said it is close to tech, startups, cinema and advertising offices as well as good francophone public schools. "Jean-Talon Market is obviously a must and we go there almost every day to pick up some fresh vegetables and local produce," Ms. Guilmain said.

"One of our favourites is the bakery Le pain dans les voiles; you go in there to buy just a coffee and you get out with $20 of heavenly made breads and treats." And Ms. Guilmain's house offers something the area is increasingly searching for: the luxury updates are already added to a once-affordable neighbourhood.

"The inventory for these types of family homes is unfortunately very low. That's why you will see

high prices for these properties," Mr. Lee said. "Small developers are trying to get their hands on beaten-down duplex and triplex [properties] to convert them in these types of family cottages, but of course, the city and the regulators are very protective of the rental units and general affordability of the area. We of course, are all very appreciative of that tight regulation in place in these family neighbourhoods that we also happen to personally inhabit. Otherwise the panorama would be very divided and not pleasant." Montreal's mix of low-rise density and neighbourhood amenities was once one of the best-kept secrets in the country, but the city is now into its fourth year of real estate price rises according to an Engel & Voelkers report from earlier this year.

"The market is seeing investors from Toronto moving to Montreal, along with Ottawa, to invest in new builds and properties. This growth is expected to continue."

The kitchen at 7439 Henri-Julien Ave. in Montreal features hardwood floors, light grey cabinets and a white subway tile backsplash, with a huge island separating the food prep zone from the living area.

PHOTOS BY MAXIME BROUILLET

Designer and owner Marie-Pier Guilmain added colour and drama with decorative pieces and creative use of space.

PHOTOS BY MAXIME BROUILLET


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For parents of adults with autism, the battle isn't over
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Two decades after Ontario families first took the government to court to extend funding, seven are reconvening to fight new PC cuts
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By LAURA STONE
  
  

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Friday, November 1, 2019 – Page A15

ANCASTER, ONT. -- Michael Deskin stares at the computer screen, trying to calm himself as he watches The Jungle Book, the animated Disney film about a boy raised by wolves.

His mother, Brenda Deskin, asks him to move to the living room, where there is more room to talk.

"No, no, no!" Michael yells, his teeth starting to chatter, a sign that he is becoming anxious.

"What do you want? Look at Mummy."

He starts to hum. "I want blanket."

Michael makes his way outside, clutching a soft white blanket to his 6-foot-1, 205-pound frame. He rocks himself on the porch swing, as one of the family's three dogs, a petite pug named Petunia, weaves underneath his seat. A smile forms on Michael's lips.

Michael has severe autism. The 24-year-old lives at home in Ancaster, west of Hamilton, and requires constant supervision, either by trained specialists or, increasingly, his parents. He has beaten himself black and blue; run across parking lots; put a therapist in a headlock. He has recently taken to sticking his fingers down his throat until he gags or throws up. "You really can't take your eye off him for a second," Ms.

Deskin, 52, says. "Michael's behaviour has started to be getting too much for my husband and I for quite some time."

The young man's care - essentially how much treatment should be covered by the general taxpayer - is now at the centre of the latest battle between the autism community and Ontario Premier Doug Ford's government.

Michael's parents are among seven families of nine autistic adults who are suing the government for breach of contract and negligence after their funding - previously labelled "court-ordered" - was abruptly cut off this summer. Their fight raises difficult questions about fair treatment of autistic children, the limits of public funding and the duty of governments to honour past commitments. The government's autism advisory panel, which released its recommendations on Wednesday about how to fix the province's autism program for children and youth, said it was, in general, "concerned about the needs of autistic adults and we encourage the government to review this situation."

It's a battle the families fought and won once before. They were part of a larger group who went to court in 1999 to challenge the previous Progressive Conservative and subsequent Liberal governments over a policy that limited funding for behavioural therapy to children under the age of 6. Because of the group's advocacy, the government extended funding for all children to the age of 18.

In 2004, under a Liberal government, a court ordered Ontario to pay for autism therapy for the children of those families. The decision was successfully appealed two years later, but the government continued to fund the individual treatments at a total cost of about $1.5-million a year. It was part of an agreement made during the appeal process, with the money coming from outside the province's official autism program.

It continued for 15 years, the families contend, because a promised transition that would have allowed their adult children to receive equal services never materialized. In a letter to Ms. Deskin dated February, 2007, then-assistant deputy minister Alexander Bezzina wrote, "No changes would be made to the manner in which your son's program is currently administered nor to the funding amount unless you were completely satisfied with alternate arrangements." The promise was also repeated in two provincial auditors-general reports.

However, in February, the families received a letter from the Ministry of Children, Community and Social Services, formerly led by Lisa MacLeod and now by Todd Smith, telling them the money was set to end on Aug. 6.

The families were urged to apply for adult services under disability programs, which do not offer them nearly as much money or flexibility. For example, Ms.

Deskin, who manages the office for her husband, a dentist, said she used to be able to afford 80 hours a week of therapy for Michael, but that has been cut to about 30.

The seven families have retained Toronto law firm Henein Hutchison. Partner Scott Hutchison is working pro bono alongside human-rights advocate and Order of Canada recipient Mary Eberts, but the family is raising funds for the junior lawyer handling their case.

The government has not commented directly on the case, citing the legal action filed on Sept.

30.

Queen's Park has 60 days to respond and has suggested in statements that the cut-off is a question of fairness. In a May 9 letter to Ms. Deskin, government lawyer Robert Ratcliffe argues that the payments were "ex gratia" - a gift to the families as a matter of policy, not contract. The government has already doubled funding for the Ontario Autism Program, which funds children's services, to $600-million, after significant outcry from the community.

"We are committed to giving adults with developmental disabilities, including autism, the support they need to fully participate in their communities," Mr.

Smith's spokeswoman, Christine Wood, said in a statement. Autistic adults are also eligible for funding through the Passport program, which helps adults with developmental disabilities live more independently.

Laura Kirby-McIntosh, president of the Ontario Autism Coalition, said she supports the families' fight. In her view, the government is obliged to honour its original commitment to fund treatment until there's an alternative.

She praised the families as the "original autism warriors," who fought for treatment for all autistic children. "They weren't doing it just for their kids, they were doing it for all kids. So they got that court-ordered settlement, and I think it was well earned," she said.

"Am I aware that, yes, it's more than some families get? Yes, but that's not their fault."

Disability advocate and lawyer David Lepofsky, chair of the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act Alliance, said that if the families were promised ongoing payments, they should continue to receive them.

"For me, the wrong question is: Is it fair to get it when others don't? The right question is: Is it fair for others not to be getting it if these individuals have shown that they need it and benefit from it just as others would?" he said.

In total, Ms. Deskin says she's out about $150,000 a year, money that was used to pay for trained staff and consultants to work one on one with Michael. Waiting lists for group homes in the province stretch into the thousands, with only a few hundred new spots a year. Michael does get about $1,100 a month under the Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) and, since the funding cut-off, has received an additional $1,000 a year in Passport funding, for an annual total of $39,000 in Passport support, Ms. Deskin says.

She says Michael has been assessed as needing two-on-one care, but the family has never been able to afford it. He also does not have overnight care.

After Michael's funding was cut off, the government directed her to Developmental Services Ontario (DSO), which helps adults with developmental disabilities connect with services and supports in their communities. But she was told there was no extra money for her family, and the DSO told her to go to the local Salvation Army resource centre. All they had to offer was a wall of gadgets and books about autism.

"It actually boggles my mind," she says. "You don't just abandon people. You don't abandon especially high-needs adults ... give them something and then take it away. You just don't do it."

For Robyn Wynberg, who is also part of the lawsuit, the changes are already affecting the lives of her twin autistic sons, Nathaniel and Sebastian. The young men, known as Nat and Bas, are 27, stand 6-foot-4 and 6-foot-5 and weigh about 230 pounds. Until recently, they lived on their own in a Toronto apartment with 24-hour assistance. Nat has much higher needs than Bas, who can carry on a conversation about his schedule and has a part-time job at a gym and delivers baked goods.

The family came to the independent living arrangement after Nat spent years in a group home.

At 16, he was sent to the home after he wrapped his arm around his mother's throat while she was driving on the highway. "Nathaniel can be a very, very dangerous person. He cannot not have support," Ms. Wynberg said.

This summer, Bas checked himself into the emergency psychiatry department at a Toronto hospital when he felt himself becoming anxious because of lack of support.

Since the funding cut, which totals about $350,000 a year for the twins, they have had to move homes for a few days a week, as the family can't afford full-time care. Ms. Wynberg, 58, is on stress leave from her teaching job, and their 64-year-old father, Simon, a musicologist, has battled leukemia for the past seven years. The young men also each receive $1,100 a month in ODSP money and $17,500 annually in Passport funding. The family is now paying almost $6,000 a month out of pocket.

"You have two potentially aggressive and violent people walking around the city. You have parents who are not able to work. You have parents who are getting more and more sick by the day," Ms. Wynberg said. "This can't end well."

Associated Graphic

Brenda Deskin is seen with her son, Michael, above, at their home in Ancaster, Ont., in October. Robyn Wynberg sits with her son Sebastian, one of two sons with autism. Both families are currently fighting the Ontario government after it told them they would no longer receive autism therapy funding agreed to more than a decade ago. PHOTOS BY TIJANA MARTIN/ THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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In Canadian photographer Barbara Davidson's visions of war and hardship, humanity stays in the frame
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'If the reader has no empathy for the people I'm documenting, then I feel I've failed,' Pulitzer Prize-winning photojournalist says
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By BRAD WHEELER
  
  

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Monday, November 18, 2019 – Page A10

Nearly 30 years after earning a bachelor of fine arts in photography and film studies at Montreal's Concordia University, on Nov. 18 the Pulitzer Prize-winning photojournalist Barbara Davidson is to receive an honorary doctorate from her hometown alma mater.

From her start working on the student newspaper, The Link, and after a stint at the Kitchener-Waterloo Record (now the Waterloo Region Record), she covered the war in Bosnia, where she was held captive by a volunteer Serbian unit for two days.

Although Ms. Davidson swore she'd never enter a war zone again, she later covered conflicts in Iraq, Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. For the Dallas Morning News, she worked Hurricane Katrina; for The New York Times, Hurricane Harvey. On staff at the Los Angeles Times until 2017, Ms. Davidson photographed victims of the city's gang violence.

Under extreme conditions, Ms. Davidson has spent a career documenting the compassionate side of some of the worst things the world has to offer.She spoke to The Globe and Mail from her home in Los Angeles.

You earned a degree in photography, but could any course of study have possibly prepared you for the career you've had?

It's twofold. One, I learned about the qualities of what journalism was all about at the student newspaper. And when I was studying in the fine arts program, I really learned how to see freely. By that I mean didn't go to a cookie-cutter photojournalism school that teaches you the rules you shouldn't break. Was I trained to be able to do what I now do?

I think it happens and evolves over time. Each situation that I found myself in would shape and inform the next situation.

But could anything have readied you for covering the Bosnian War and your detainment there?

It was something I wasn't 100-per-cent prepared for. It was at the end of the war, and I had taken a leave of absence from the Kitchener-Waterloo Record. I had read so many horror stories about what was happening to the civilians trapped in the conflict there and I felt I had to cover it.I worked along side the International Committee of the Red Cross and I also covered stories with other journalists. I was making my way out of Bosnia and heading home when my driver accidentally drove into Serbian territory. I was detained for two days by a Serbian paramilitary unit, Arkan's Tigers.It was a terrifying experience because I didn't know whether I was going to be killed or not the entire time. But my survival instinct is pretty strong. I know how to navigate in tricky situations. A lot of it has to do with your personality.

How so?

I was terrified of what was playing out in front of me. But I certainly never let my captors see that. I would show them that this was a mistake, that I knew I was going to get let go soon. I would never let them dehumanize me. On the other hand, I could hear them torture my driver, a young Croatian, in the next room. It was a very tricky situation that thankfully ended up okay.

How did it affect you?

The experience in Bosnia had a profound effect on me. Something like that shapes you. It scars you. It informs every work that you do going forward.

After that, I imagine going back to the KitchenerWaterloo Record probably wasn't in the cards.

I had post-traumatic stress disorder and nobody really knew what that was in my profession. As journalists, nobody talked about it. But, yes, going back to a small-town newspaper that I loved was no longer an option. About six months after being held captive, I ended up moving to Washington, D.C., where I got a job at the Washington Times. It afforded me the opportunity to get my papers in order to work in a much bigger market, and to work alongside my heroes and cover much larger news.

This was around the time of [U.S. president Bill] Clinton's impeachment, yes?

That's right. So, the whole landscape of what I had been covering previously changed dramatically. I had left Canada. I didn't know a single soul in the United States. I had no family there. I left everything behind because I had this drive in me that was influenced by what happened to me in Bosnia.

On a subconscious level, I thought if I could survive that I really could do anything. I felt I could grab my dreams hard, and that's what I did.

You're being awarded an honorary doctorate for, and I quote, your "impact capturing the human condition in photographs." Is that what it says on your business card?

[Laughs] Yes, I would say that sums up quite sincerely my mission statement as a photojournalist.

I'm not interested in statistics. I want to know about the people being impacted by the violence or the poverty or being marginalized. My role is to highlight their stories from the most human perspective I can. If the reader has no empathy for the people I'm documenting, then I feel I've failed as a journalist.

On screen, photographers who work in war zones are often portrayed as adrenalin junkies. Is there truth to that?

I think with intensity of conflict zones and the intensity of being in a natural disaster, the stories are so profound in those spaces because of what is being played out. These are often life and death situations. That's when people are often at their most honest and their most raw, and that's when they need to have their stories told. You don't want human suffering to go unnoticed. That would be horrible.

Is there an excitement or a rush, covering these kinds of life and death events?

I think what you're saying is correct. But I did a story on gang violence in Los Angeles. I spent 21/2 years working on that for the Los Angeles Times, and that was literally in my backyard.The intensity I experienced was just as intense as I experienced overseas. I didn't feel I was in danger of losing my life,really,but the intensity of the emotional impact of loss, violence and heartbreak was very similar to what I had seen over seas.So,I seem to find powerful stories both abroad and in a domestic space. These are the stories I gravitate to. These are the stories I want to tell. Those intimate, under-reported stories are the ones that really fuel the desire to do what I do.

Given the stories you've covered, is your general take-away that you've seen people at their worst, or that you've seen them at their best?

I will tell you this:I have experienced incredible levels of kindness when I am in the worst scenarios possible. Covering 9/11, there was funeral after funeral after funeral.I was talking to someone,asking their name at yet another funeral. I started to cry. I was so embarrassed because I wasn't able to keep myself composed. But I remember the kindness they showed me, telling me I wasn't a robot, that I was human.

How hard is it to keep your composure?

That was a rare moment. Because if I break down, I'm not doing justice for the people I'm covering.

But I have experienced ugliness covering political rallies like I've never seen. Yet when I'm in the heat of a disaster or destruction, the kindness people show one another is unmatched. When you're in a situation of life and death, there's no time for trivialities. I mean, this is it. And when you're in a situation of that kind, people do come together.

Associated Graphic

Kolkata, 2017: The noise is deafening and the dust levels make it difficult to breathe for labourers in jute mills. For more than a hundred years, jute has been an integral part of the manufacturing industry in East Bengal, India. The British began trading it in the 17th century. BARBARA DAVIDSON PHOTOGRAPHY

Long Beach, Calif., 2010: At Long Beach Memorial Medical Center's Miller Children's Hospital, Erica Miranda waits for her bandage to be changed. Ten-year-old Erica was shot three times - in the back, knee and hip - on March 2, 2010, while playing basketball outside her home in Compton. A young man had walked up to the crowded street corner and started firing a handgun in what police believe was a gang assault. A 17-year-old relative of her stepfather and a 45-year-old family friend were also shot three times and survived. BARBARA DAVIDSON/THE LOS ANGELES TIMES

Northern Afghanistan, 2004: Suspected Taliban prisoners reach for a jug of water inside the infamous Sheberghan Prison, where 3,000 Taliban and Pakistani prisoners were locked up without legal representation. Most of the prisoners were captured during the November, 2001, U.S. invasion. The prisoners were fed once every 24 hours and permitted to wash themselves every eight days in a cargo container.

BARBARA DAVIDSON/ THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS

Kenya, 2011: Hawa Barre Osman looks for a sign of life from Abdi Noor Ibrahim, her severely malnourished one-year-old, inside a Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) therapeutic feeding centre at the Dadaab complex in Northern Kenya. She walked for a month with her five children - one of whom died along the journey - from Somalia to reach the camp during a famine. BARBARA DAVIDSON/ THE LOS ANGELES TIMES


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One sister, five siblings, zero help
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After years of hardship raising her brothers and sister, this Victoria-area woman wants caregivers to think twice before 'signing away' financial support from the government
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By JUSTINE HUNTER
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page A17

VICTORIA -- The hairdresser's chair can create the atmosphere of a therapist's couch, and this is how Marina Miller, who has carried a heavy burden for a decade now, quietly shared the frustration of her latest challenge.

Ms. Miller wasn't expecting help, just a sympathetic ear, as she contemplated a $35,000 orthodontics bill for her five siblings. The young woman has been raising the five without financial assistance since 2009.

She has endured much and knows how to persist, but this was a staggering bill.

"I was laughing about my tough week," she recalls from that moment at the salon.

"Laughing was a better option than tears."

Unlike a therapist's office, the salon lacks privacy. The conversation was overheard by another client, who shed those tears Ms.

Miller had held back. Before she left the salon, Joanna Peitler was working on a plan to provide Ms.

Miller and her brood of five the kind of help that a parade of bureaucrats, in the span of 10 years, failed to deliver.

A LEGAL TRAP But for a single ill-advised step 10 years ago, Ms. Miller, now 36, and her clan would never have needed to accept the help of strangers.

Ms. Miller doesn't like to dwell on the "why" of this story, how she chose, at 25, to take custody of siblings Clarke, Preston, Austin, Rhoan and Luccia - the oldest was 9, the youngest just 3.

But the specifics of how she did that - through a formal guardianship agreement - turned out to have a massive impact on the Greater Victoria Area family's circumstances. A more informal arrangement would have entitled them to financial assistance. Instead, the five have relied on the grit of a big sister determined to be the parent that she herself didn't have in her life.

Ms. Miller was raised by her grandparents since she was an infant. In 2009, Ms. Miller was living on her own in another country. Her mother by then was in a new relationship and had given birth to five more children in quick succession. Ms. Miller knew her mother was struggling to cope and was incapable of caring for her children, but during a visit that year, she concluded the children were not in a safe space and, with the advice of a lawyer, the family agreed to give her legal responsibility for her younger siblings.

That guardianship agreement gave her the authority to protect and care for the children, but financially, it would turn out to be a ruinous decision. She had unwittingly joined a growing cohort of families who step up to care for young relatives, but do not qualify for provincial government support that is given to foster parents and, in certain circumstances, extended family caregivers.

"Who was supposed to have their PhD in child acquisition at 25?" Ms. Miller asks. "I did not sign this knowing I was signing away help."

Just as the ink was drying on the guardianship papers, the British Columbia government was dismantling its Child in the Home of a Relative program. The timing was unfortunate, as that program would have provided her with some financial support as she suddenly scaled up to raise five children.

That program was replaced with the Extended Family Program - a more generous regime that pays roughly $1,000 a month for each child, plus options for dental, counselling, respite and other resources. (It is similar in scope to the support given to foster parents.)

The new program was designed to provide assistance in situations when it's best for a child or teenager to live with a relative or close family friend when their parents are temporarily unable to care for them. But there is an arbitrary line in the sand: That program does not help families who have legal guardianship. Ms. Miller is regarded, in the state's eyes, as the parent of the five. And parents do not qualify.

The Parent Support Services Society of BC is an advocacy group that has been researching this issue of families who have been denied support because of a guardianship agreement. The organization believes that all children should be eligible for services and benefits when they enter into care, whether it is with foster parents or extended family. Either way, these children all have experienced trauma when their parents can no longer care for them.

"We see this all the time," said Christina Campbell, a social worker who runs the agency's support line for kinship care.

"Some families are served, and some are not."

The structure of the Extended Family Program renders many families ineligible for assistance.

According to the B.C. Ministry of Children and Family Development, there are 717 families receiving funding under the current program, and another 660 families that continue to receive assistance under the old one. But Ms. Campbell says an estimated 13,000 children in B.C. are in the care of extended family, and that means thousands are not being supported.

'JUST GETTING TO TOMORROW' The Parent Support Services Society counsels families against signing a guardianship agreement, at least until they have examined the financial consequences. But Ms. Miller didn't know that when she signed on.

The early years of raising her siblings were a blur. Lunches to be made, clothes laid out for school, children out the door and then to work before they returned home. "Then it would be three o'clock and it would be supper, and then a lineup of everybody for a shower, throw some pajamas on," she said.

"There was a lot of years of just getting to tomorrow."

She didn't feel there was a choice - the alternative was giving her little brothers and sister up to government care.

The children remained in the family home, initially, while Ms.

Miller took over the family cleaning business. It was sustainable, until in 2015, when it all fell apart. What she thought was a secure foundation turned out to be a chimera.

The bank foreclosed on the house, and Canada Revenue Agency came calling about delinquent taxes on the business.

What was difficult now seemed impossible. She called a social worker. "I was in the driveway, bawling profusely, begging them, 'Please help me.' " She was told to deliver the five to child-protection workers if she couldn't manage. Perhaps they would provide her with support, but there was no guarantee the children would come back home with her.

Ms. Miller would not risk sending her five siblings into foster care, so she turned her mind to building a new home and starting a business of her own.

Somehow, her bank found a way to approve a mortgage based on her new venture, a commercial cleaning outfit.

"It was a gift from something bigger than all of us, because mathematically, that was a long stretch," she said.

A TURNING POINT Today, Ms. Miller's work keeps the family supported, but running a small business and acting as the sole parent of five teenagers means constant pressure.

They are all good kids, she says, but the work of raising the five isn't over, and Ms. Miller has finally reached the point where she is willing to fight.

She wrote to her MLA, who happens to be Premier John Horgan, in 2018. He shuffled her off to the bureaucracy and she was stonewalled. This year, she wrote again: "I ask you to please finally give direction and attention to the branches of government that have failed myself and these children."

Mr. Horgan was asked this week by The Globe and Mail for his response. On Wednesday, he promised to ask his staff for an update on this case. "My heart goes out to anyone who has to step up to care for others in difficult situations," he said.

Behind that generic statement, things began to move. Ms.

Miller was invited to a lengthy meeting with the Premier's constituency assistant. It turns out, after all these years, there is latitude for government to accommodate exceptional circumstances and provide additional financial assistance to caregivers who may not meet the eligibility requirements of the Extended Family Program. She is hopeful the Premier's new interest will finally forge that path.

KINDNESS OF STRANGERS Meanwhile, the five are getting the dental care they need after Ms. Peitler persuaded her colleagues at Otter Point Dental to provide the family free treatment.

Ms. Peitler said she hadn't meant to eavesdrop. But she was struck by Ms. Miller's stoicism and her determination to protect her siblings. "She didn't complain once, she wasn't asking for help," she said. "She didn't want the kids going into care, it was terrifying to her. ... I started to cry."

And then she went back to her office, where her colleagues didn't hesitate to commit to offering the dental work.

For Ms. Miller, it was far more than just a solution to a financial challenge.

"What they are doing is amazing to me after 10 years of being told 'no' by everybody," she said.

"The amount of hoop-jumping that I have gone through, begging and pleading and justifying and trying to show you why I'm worthy of help, and here's this person, a stranger, she doesn't know me from a bar of soap, she just looked at me and inside of three minutes was like, 'yes.' "

Associated Graphic

When Marina Miller took legal responsibility for her five siblings a decade ago, she says she didn't know she'd be ineligible for support from the provincial government.

CHAD HIPOLITO/THE GLOBE AND AMIL


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Anonymous account of Trump's White House joins the annals of political insider tell-all books
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By DAVID SHRIBMAN
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Monday, November 18, 2019 – Page A16

First came Unhinged: An Insider's Account of the Trump White House by one-time White House aide Omarosa Manigault Newman, full of lurid tales of secret recordings and accusations that U.S. President Donald Trump was a racist. Then came Team of Vipers: My 500 Extraordinary Days in the Trump White House, where communications aide Cliff Sims portrayed a White House of "venality, stubbornness, and selfishness."

But neither of those volumes, nor others that followed, created the buzz, or the booksellers' frenzy, produced by another Trump insider account, A Warning, publishing Tuesday and written by an author who dares not be identified. Of the author of this newest, and perhaps most damaging, volume, we might appropriate the title of Kenneth O'Donnell's 1972 adoring insider memoirs of the John F. Kennedy presidency and say, We hardly knew ye.

Indeed, all we know about the author of this book, a bestseller even before it went on sale, is that it is a senior official in the White House who was in the position to witness, or to hear accounts of, a President who comports himself "like a twelve-year-old in an air traffic control tower, pushing the buttons of government indiscriminately, indifferent to the planes skidding across the runway and the flights frantically diverting away from the airport."

Besides being a critique of the Trump White House, A Warning is the most prominent anonymous insider U.S. political book since Primary Colors, ostensibly a novel, but actually a dead-on portrait of Bill Clinton and his circle.

Ordinarily, works written anonymously raise the question of why an author would go to the trouble of writing a book without reaping the rewards of celebrity that volumes such as A Warning and Primary Colors bring.

In the case of this Trump tellall, the author believes that Trump "deserves to be fired," but remains anonymous apparently for fear of being fired, to avoid the obloquy of being targeted by the Trump Twitter machine - and perhaps to continue to work inside the White House for the purpose of undermining the President's initiatives.

"I have decided to publish this anonymously because this debate is not about me," the book's author wrote. "It is about us. It is about how we want the presidency to reflect our country, and that is where the discussion should centre. Some will call this 'cowardice.' My feelings are not hurt by the accusation. Nor am I unprepared to attach my name to criticism of President Trump. I may do so, in due course."

The author of Primary Colors later was unmasked as the political writer Joe Klein, who clearly calculated that anonymity served to enhance the mystery, and thus the profitability, of his book. Indeed, Klein ended up having his anonymous cake and feasting on the rewards of the book's celebrity, too. It led The New York Times' bestseller list for nine weeks and Klein, prominent in political circles but little known in the general public, emerged as one of the most famous political writers of his generation.

Mimi Alford, a grandmother when she wrote Once Upon a Secret: My Affair With President John F. Kennedy and Its Aftermath, might have done well to consider anonymity, but apparently reckoned that there was no shame, and perhaps some glamour, in telling the world that from the summer of 1962 through the days leading to Kennedy's November, 1963, assassination - including, pointedly, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when the world teetered on nuclear war - she and the president conducted a torrid (and sordid) affair.

She was a college student playing the role that would later be assumed by Monica Lewinsky, that of a young woman in a White House affair knowing, as Alford put it in her book - perhaps the only volume to merge from inside the Kennedy White House that was graphic rather than hagiographic - "that we didn't have a partnership of equals, and that my love would go unrequited." She added, plaintively if not pitifully, "He was the leader of the free world, after all. And I wasn't even old enough to vote."

James Fallows was old enough to vote - although only barely - when the freshly minted Rhodes Scholar joined the Jimmy Carter White House. He produced a critique with the devastating title The Passionless Presidency.

It was one of the most searing insider looks at a U.S. chief executive since Eric F. Goldman, a distinguished Princeton historian who was special adviser to president Lyndon B. Johnson from 1963 to 1966, described his boss - hopelessly entangled in Vietnam and wrestling with economic strains the war was causing - as a "tragic figure ... an extraordinarily gifted president who was the wrong man from the wrong place at the wrong time under the wrong circumstances."

Few insiders wrote disparagingly of Dwight Eisenhower, the hero of the Second World War and, in recent years, a president whose reputation has soared beyond anything envisioned when he was in the White House, and regarded as little more than a genial golfer. Sherman Adams, his chief of staff for more than five years, irritated Mr. Eisenhower in an otherwise favourable Firsthand Report with suggestions that he disliked politics and wasn't adept at it. In The Ordeal of Power: A Political Memoir of the Eisenhower Years, speech writer Emmet Hughes wrote that the president's good intentions were blunted by his lack of decisiveness.

"Memoirs of Eisenhower were almost all highly favourable to him, which is not surprising" said Michael Birkner, a Gettysburg College historian who has written widely on the former president, "given how competent he was and how well he treated his staff."

Richard Nixon was another matter entirely. He was skewered on the Watergate committee stand by John W. Dean III, his young White House counsel, and then was skewered on the bookstand by Mr. Dean's Blind Ambition memoirs.

Although the anti-Nixon Greek chorus cheered the perfidy of Mr. Dean - who has emerged as a prominent commentator during the Trump troubles - he did not escape criticism himself, perhaps the most withering coming from the columnist Nicholas von Hoffman, who in the New York Review of Books described Mr.

Dean as "the American ratfink of the twentieth century, so much so that a century hence 'to pull a John Dean' may mean to doublecross your pals," adding: "Dean might take solace in the fact that millions of us do regard him as a providential bottom-dwelling slug, a slug of extraordinary distinction, a slug to whom we are grateful for eating Richard Nixon's lettuce rather than our own, but a slug, who, if he was going to write this kind of book, should have entitled it, The Stoolie's Return, Or a Twice Told Tale."

The phrase "twice-told tale" is an allusion to the stories of Nathaniel Hawthorne, the 19th-century author from Salem, Mass., whose work, including The Scarlet Letter, had faint elements of the fantastic and the occult. In that context, the revelations of Ronald Reagan's chief of staff, Donald Regan, have real power.

In his twice-told tale, For the Record: From Wall Street to Washington, Mr. Regan revealed the astonishing influence that a San Francisco astrologer had on Nancy Reagan and thus, by extension, on the president himself. In his portrayal, Mr. Reagan was unduly influenced by his wife, who along with passing on the astrologer's advice on how to handle the IranContra scandal, also demanded the firing of top White House aides. All this prompted Mr. Regan to tell Mr. Reagan, "I thought I was chief of staff to the President, not to his wife."

None of these is likely to be as significant, or as enduring, as the Crossman Diaries, compiled by Labourite Dick Crossman during his time in prime minister Harold Wilson's government in Britain and published posthumously beginning in 1975. His three-volume The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister provided great insights into Mr.

Wilson and his circle. Written in defiance of the Official Secret Acts, they were published after a bruising legal battle, and provided the inspiration for the famous BBC Yes, Minister television series.

"Crossman wanted to tell us how government works in the U.K. and what went on inside the Labour Party," British historian Lawrence Goldman said. "It was scholarly and informative, but substantially different from the Trump books. Skewering will make a splash for five minutes and then be forgotten. But Crossman lives on and is still referred to."

Today, in the backwash and backlash of Anonymous's A Warning blockbuster, we might consider the wisdom that Mr. Regan provided in a book to which he gladly lent his name: "It can be suggested that the most popular poison in ... Washington is bad publicity," he argued in an unintended augury to the Trump years. "In massive doses it can destroy a reputation outright. When leaked slowly into the veins of the victim it kills his public persona just as certainly, but the symptoms - anger, suspicion, frustration, the loss of friends and influence - are often mistaken for the malady. The victim may realize that he is being poisoned; he may even have a very good idea who the poisoners are. But he cannot talk about his suspicions without adding a persecution complex to the list of his faults that is daily being compiled in the newspapers."


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Keeping the Mink Mile hot in a cooling retail era
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Merchants in Toronto's upscale Yorkville area realize it takes a village to create a must-see shopping experience
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By WALLACE IMMEN
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Tuesday, November 19, 2019 – Page B8

Toronto's Yorkville neighbourhood has come a long way from the 1960s, when cheap rents for its Victorian row houses attracted artists and trend-setters who populated the area with galleries and music clubs that featured up-and-coming talents such as Gordon Lightfoot, Joni Mitchell and Neil Young.

Today, the Bloor-Yorkville area's eclectic low-rise streets are ringed by high-rise office and condo towers whose tony retail tenants including Holt Renfrew, Gucci, Birks and Tiffany - and attract so many fashionistas, the zone is nicknamed the Mink Mile.

According to a new study by Chicago-based commercial real estate brokerage Jones Lang LaSalle Inc. (JLL): "The luxury stretch of Bloor Street West between Yonge Street and Avenue Road boasts Canada's highest retail lease rates, which averaged in 2019 about $285 a square foot, putting Bloor Street ahead of Robson Street in Vancouver (at $225 a square foot) as well as in line with upscale streets such as Newbury Street in Boston, and Lincoln Road in Miami."

HIGH-END RETAIL EXPERIENCE IS PUSHING ITS BOUNDARIES The affluence of this retail location influences nearby streets, spilling north to the area's namesake Yorkville Avenue.

Turns out this northern stretch of Yorkville Avenue between the Hazelton Hotel at 118 Yorkville Ave. and Bellair Street has seen rents nearly double over the course of three years, currently averaging between $250 and $275 a square foot, JLL found.

By comparison, leases on Toronto's Queen Street West average $100 a square foot, Robson Street in Vancouver $225 and Saint-Catherine Street in Montreal $210, JLL reports. Of course, those numbers pale in comparison to New York's upper Fifth Avenue, where rents can reach US$2,720, the Beverly Hills triangle in Los Angeles that can command US$1,100 and Oxford Street in London where prime rents are the equivalent of US$775.

GROWTH IN UPSCALE SHOPPING AREA ISN'T AN ACCIDENT Yorkville's launch into the upper echelons didn't happen by accident, though. Even a few years ago, there was speculation that with shifts in retailing toward more on-line shopping and a retrenchment of brands that the zone north of the Mink Mile would fall into decline.

Yorkville was getting decidedly shopworn by 2011, when First Capital Properties, a subsidiary of First Capital Realty Inc., acquired Hazelton Lanes, a 1970s shopping mall at the corner of Avenue Road and Yorkville Avenue.

To pump life into the area, First Capital developed a longterm vision for Yorkville that started with a total renovation of the old mall - to give it more street presence. The redevelopment also allowed for a rebranding and the mall became known as Yorkville Village.

Over the past eight years, First Capital has purchased and reconfigured several stretches of Yorkville Avenue where Victorian homes had been converted to shops in the 1970s and 80s.

The property redevelopment and management firm also took a majority position in the Hazelton Hotel, which was redesigned and relaunched as a preeminent luxury boutique hotel that is at the core of Yorkville's luxurious experience.

"We are reinventing ourselves every day," says Gregory Menzies, executive vice-president of First Capital Realty Inc., and project lead for Yorkville Village.

"Yorkville is almost a perfect storm, where you have tremendous amount of density and tremendous amount of high-networth," Mr. Menzies says.

There are about 11,000 condominium units in the immediate area and that's destined to double in the next two years based on what is planned for the area and what is currently under construction.

Add to this the tourism and the business community along Bloor Street and the University of Toronto, and the area is rich in potential customers, Mr. Menzies says.

TREND IN HIGH-END RETAILING REQUIRES CONTINUING COMMUNITY SUPPORT In the past, many brands shifted their flagship stores into enclosed malls, but there's now a shift back to brands - particularly the higher-end and exclusive name brands - having their main flagship stores at street-level in Yorkville, the JLL study found.

For example, the 102-108 Yorkville Ave. block of properties, which are new builds done by First Capital Properties, boasts flagships of many of fashion's most exclusive names, including Brunello Cucinelli's largest North American store at 8,200 square feet spread out on three levels of retail space and Versace with two floors of retail space totalling 3,000 square feet.

Upscale Italian fashion retailer Stone Island is also completing a store that is scheduled to open before Christmas this year.

At 98 Yorkville Ave., Chanel's flagship opened in a renovated yellow brick building that a century ago was the original Mount Sinai Hospital.

While the trend in high-end retailing is as much a developer's vision as it is a retailer's desire, a lot of the growth in this luxury retail space can be attributed to continual community-building efforts.

"We work in collaboration with other landlords and retailers and galleries in the area to create a sense of neighbourhood," says Melissa Campisi, First Capital's director of strategic partnerships and event management.

"People are always coming to us at events with ideas about other things we could do that involve their group. That helps grow the community," Ms. Campisi says.

To keep things fresh and attract repeat customers, there are events throughout the year and a variety of seasonal attractions.

These days, Ms. Campisi has been extremely busy preparing Yorkville Village for the holiday season.

"We have a warehouse filled with holiday décor and we add more every year so what customers see and experience is always different."

For instance, one new feature this year is a pop-up holiday market that features stocking stuffers, which, in this high-end retail district, are defined as gifts under $75.

Events and attractions throughout the year are key to building a retail experience Throughout the year there are exhibits of artists and installations. For instance, at Toronto Fashion Week in September the area showcased iconic dresses worn in films by legendary actresses including Marilyn Monroe.

Another event this year, known as 'Window Wars,' helped to attract and entertain customers and visitors to the Yorkville area as well as attract attention to two properties on Yorkville Avenue that were for rent. In a space that was formerly an Anthoropolgie store, First Capital arranged fashion talks and charity events.

"Another adjoining window in a former Diesel store was also empty so we decided to bring in a way [that] blend[ed] fashion and real estate," Ms. Campisi says.

Two art directors were challenged to try to top each other by creating window displays like film sets in the stores at the start of the Toronto International Film Festival. First Capital filmed the competition and shared it on social media, getting 1.5 million impressions.

"It was a way [of] bringing Yorkville to everyone outside the community," Ms. Campisi says, who adds, "it was a lot more fun than putting up a 'For Lease' sign in the windows." (Plus, it resulted in signing a new tenant, whose name will be released in early 2020.)

"By creating entertaining events, we keep people coming back to shop. And the more shoppers there are, the more tenants want to have a visibility here," she says.

But luxury boutiques with big windows aren't enough. Restaurants, bars, and upscale services, such as the recently opened beauty spa Majesty's Pleasure, have located on the upper levels of Yorkville buildings, where lease rates are more affordable and keep affluent clients coming regularly to the neighbourhood.

THE FUTURE OF THE HIGH-END RETAIL EXPERIENCE AT YORKVILLE The Yorkville area is destined to become even more of a worldclass retail destination as the area transforms with an unprecedented amount of construction and new leasing activity, predicts Dianne Lemm, executive vicepresident retail at JLL, which completed the recently released lease rate study.

The trends are in favour of growth for luxury retail, concludes the 2019 Canadian Luxury Apparel Market report by retail marketing research firm Trendex North America.

According to the new report, the Canadian luxury apparel market will increase by 5.8 per cent in 2019 and by 18 per cent from 2019 to 2023, to reach $3.2billion in sales within the next five years.

More importantly, report authors predict that the luxury sector growth rate will be nearly twice that of the overall clothing retail sector.

That should translate into more luxury store demand for Yorkville, Ms. Lemm says.

"It is an incredibly exciting time for Bloor-Yorkville," she says. "There has been a real renaissance to the area that will continue to propel other luxury interest and activity and help to continue the growth of this destination-shopping area.

Associated Graphic

Toronto's Bloor-Yorkville area has eclectic low-rise streets complemented by towers with tony retail tenants such as Holt Renfrew, Tiffany and Gucci.

PICTURES BY WALLACE IMMEN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Many retailers are shifting flagship stores out of malls and back to standalone locations. Yorkdale features Brunello Cucinelli's largest North American store at 8,200 square feet over three levels, while Versace's Mink Mile location has two floors of space totalling 3,000 square feet.


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DANCE'S NEXT BOLD MOVEMENT
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With Orpheus Alive, the National Ballet's Robert Binet joins the ranks of choreographers who are bending the genre's gender conventions
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By SUSAN KRASHINSKY ROBERTSON
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page R1

TORONTO -- Choreographer Robert Binet has always been interested in the ancient myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. But there was just one problem: He had no appetite to present one more damsel in distress.

The tragedy of the mythical lovers goes like this: The poet and musician Orpheus petitions the gods to let him rescue his dead beloved from the underworld. His mission is approved, on one condition: he cannot look at her until they return to Earth. Unable to resist, he looks back and loses her forever.

Mr. Binet, who is a Choreographic Associate at the National Ballet, was drawn to the story, but only wanted to tackle it if the genders could be reversed.

"There are almost no female protagonists - in the classical repertoire - who are even awake and alive, and not in captivity through the entire show," he said. "... And there is a history of male characters in ballet always having this macho, bravura kind of vibe - or like the prince in Swan Lake, just so wrapped up in his own thoughts and sadness."

Mr. Binet is among some leading choreographers today who want to change that paradigm. Why should women in ballet be fragile and naive, such as Giselle, or captive to malevolent sorcery, such as Swan Lake's Odette and Aurora in Sleeping Beauty? Why should men so often be princes and cavaliers, seizing positions of power and action but not exploring any depth of emotional expression or vulnerability?

In the world of classical ballet, gender roles are distinct. Women are the ones who strap on pointe shoes, because it gives them an ethereal quality; they are trained for strength but also to exude a delicate grace and lightness; they are lifted into the air. Men, meanwhile, execute thrilling turns, practise stratospheric jumps and do the lifting. The movement reflects the way the two genders relate to each other in the stories.

But as gender norms are becoming more fluid, some are bending ballet's traditions so that the art form reflects a fuller range of identities. The aim is not only to better represent a diversity of gender expression for its own sake, but also to keep ballet relevant in a changing world - and to better explore the creative range of all dancers. Binet believes that the more varied the choreographic repertoire, the more dancers will be trained for diverse skills and types of movement.

He's not alone in pushing for ballet to move beyond traditional gender roles. Brooklyn-based company Ballez features queer, trans and gender-non-conforming dancers, welcoming "all the people whom ballet has left out."

The company has presented its own versions of ballet classics such as Giselle and Sleeping Beauty. In 2017, New York City Ballet choreographer Justin Peck recast the central duet in his ballet The Times Are Racing - a pas de deux that had originally been danced by a man and woman was presented by two men. The ballet was conspicuously devoid of pointe shoes: dancers wore sneakers. "A major part of #TheTimesAreRacing has been an exploration of gender-neutrality to see how far we can push equality amongst the sexes through the lens of ballet," Peck wrote on Instagram. It was not the only instance of same-sex partnering at City Ballet that season: choreographer Lauren Lovette's ballet Not Our Fate showcased another pas de deux featuring male dancers.

Binet also cites Wayne McGregor, resident choreographer at London's Royal Ballet, as an influence. As the first choreographic apprentice, he studied under McGregor, whose approach to ballet is affected by his background in contemporary dance.

"From the moment he stepped into ballet, he was like, men can lift and be lifted and women can lift as much as their strength allows," Binet said.

For Orpheus Alive, Binet is not always reversing moves in this way, but is trying to provide a new context for some elements of classical dance. For example, the male and female dancer will still dance as a pair, but lifts are meant to convey the female Orpheus leading the way for Eurydice, rather than the male dancer simply "picking her up and carting her across the room," he said.

In the underworld, it is Orpheus who has to lead him out without looking at him, which Binet saw as a way of rethinking those classic lifts.

"We can still use the classical partnering technique, but really have it all driven by the woman's physicality," he said.

The ballet begins with Orpheus at the threshold of the underworld, styled as a bureaucratic nightmare Binet refers to as "DMV for the dead." There, the bereaved Orpheus makes her case to the gods to allow her entry to rescue her dead lover. Orpheus pulls in the rest of the cast - a tragic chorus of mourners all waiting their turn in this purgatorial waiting room - to play roles in her story. This ballet within the ballet is designed to persuade the gods to let her descend and find Eurydice.

"Not only is she controlling her own story, but she's in control when she's creating this ballet in front of us," Binet said.

"She's en pointe, the ballet is all there, but just to have a really commanding female character ... it felt like a much more interesting story. And for the male character to be able to explore a much gentler and softer physicality."

This is relatively unusual, not just in ballet but in Greek mythology. The root of many myths is the archetypal hero's journey, and the hero is almost exclusively male.

"Women are there to facilitate, or contribute to, or get in the way of, the man's heroic mission," said Victoria Wohl, a professor of classical Greek literature and culture at the University of Toronto.

"They are helpers or hinderers, but the mission is his."

However, she said, scholarship has gone through the same evolution that popular culture has; since the seventies, academics have been reconsidering how myths construct gender roles.

And in the past 20 years, gender fluidity has been a topic of discussion. Asked about the idea of a dramatic work deciding to change the gender of characters from the original, she pointed out that there is a tradition, dating back to antiquity, of the same myth being reimagined by different writers.

"Mythology is designed to be flexible," she said. "There is no standard version."

Binet first pitched the idea of a gender-reversed Orpheus ballet to artistic director Karen Kain five years ago. He began developing the piece during an artistic residency at the Banff Centre for Arts and Creativity in 2015, and presented an excerpt in Toronto at TEDx that year.

When he was training as a dancer, Binet was not interested in some of the more macho roles available to men in classical ballet, where the emphasis is on bravura jumps and turns; he enjoyed the emotive side of dance, focusing on musicality and storytelling. But there is not as much repertoire available to those types of dancers, he said - and the same goes for female dancers seeking to express more of the traditionally masculine qualities in dance. He was occasionally told that his dancing was too feminine, something he believes is common for men in dance, because teachers are preparing them for professional expectations: Ballet companies still draw audiences with the well-known classical works, and hire dancers who are trained to handle the repertoire.

"We have a unique opportunity to shift what is asked of dancers, and therefore hopefully widen the net as to who feels they can move forward into this career and have a voice in this art form," Binet said.

He believes it is the responsibility of choreographers like him to begin changing that repertoire, through the work they are creating - both to keep the art of ballet relevant and dynamic, and to give opportunities to both male and female dancers who want to tap into a wider range of roles.

"In theatre, there is such a thing as having a woman play Hamlet, which is fantastic," Binet said. "In ballet, that's harder because the men just don't have the training to play the Swan Queen.

So I feel like we have a responsibility to create new stories and new productions that break those moulds."

In rehearsal, principal dancer Heather Ogden, as Orpheus, spreads her hands out wide and then lifts them in an all-rise motion, bringing more than 20 dancers seated around her to their feet as she rises to pointe.

Crouching back down, she sweeps her arms back and the wave of dancers ebbs behind her.

This is just one part of Orpheus's appeal to the gods, when she compels the characters around her to help tell her story. The damsel is in distress, but not in captivity. She's on a mission.

The National Ballet's Orpheus Alive runs until Nov. 21 at the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts in Toronto.

Associated Graphic

ISTOCK

Principal dancer Heather Ogden rehearses with other dancers who will perform in Orpheus Alive. Ogden plays a gender-reversed Orpheus in the National Ballet retelling of the ancient Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice.

KAROLINA KURAS/NATIONAL BALLET OF CANADA


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Behind the Scotiabank Giller Prize book tour
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Authors shortlisted for award are thrust into a whirlwind of touring that offers increased exposure, book sales and publishing deals
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By MARSHA LEDERMAN
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page R15

On an October Sunday, a group of investors filed into the Emerald Ballroom at Vancouver's Fairmont Pacific Rim Hotel, where they were offered champagne and mimosas, a spread of delicacies and the promise of entertainment.

In a makeshift green room down the hall, the talent - five of the six authors shortlisted for the 2019 Scotiabank Giller Prize - brunched in luxe privacy. (Michael Crummey, who is shortlisted for The Innocents, wasn't able to attend). There were pastries, eggs Benedict and fresh berries. When one of the writers commented on the high quality of the blueberries and joked that an entire bowl would be nice, a bowl full of berries materialized, to their surprise. "We ate them all," says David Bezmozgis, nominated this year for his short story collection Immigrant City. "We don't waste food."

Writers of fiction toil away largely in solitude and often in obscurity. Beyond giving them a shot at the $100,000 prize, a spot on the Scotiabank Giller Prize shortlist thrusts these authors into a whirlwind of publicity and touring that at times feels more rock star than literary: fancy hotels, fans at every stop, the odd limo, backstage bowls of the finest berries.

The tour, also, more importantly, offers access to audiences in stops across the country - and beyond - leading to increased exposure for the artists, book sales and new publishing deals. This is what can happen when a major financial institution makes a commitment to bankroll culture.

"Publishers on their own couldn't manage this," says Ian Williams, shortlisted for his debut novel, Reproduction.

When Jack Rabinovitch dreamed up the Giller Prize, his objective was to make it a national award that put the spotlight on Canadian literature. The glitzy prize gala in Toronto is invitationonly, but a public reading series has emerged from it. Between the Pages, originally a single night in Toronto, has expanded to events in six cities this year, including New York, as well as two stops at high schools and two "Ultimate Book Club" brunch events for toptier banking clients of financial companies acquired by Scotiabank (full disclosure: I moderated the Pacific Rim event).

While access to readers is the main objective, Scotiabank Giller Prize executive director Elana Rabinovitch (Jack's daughter; he died in 2017) points out that it also benefits the authors themselves, and not just professionally. "They get to bond with each other, so it feels more like a family than people vying for competition," she says, adding that it also gives them something to focus on between the shortlist announcement and the gala. "So they're not just sitting on shpilkes and waiting and waiting."

The cost of the tour is "considerable," says Rabinovitch, who was unable to supply actual figures. But it's covered, for the most part, by Scotiabank - over and above the prize money (which is considerable: in addition to the $100,000 for the winner, each of the five other shortlisted authors receives $10,000). Air Canada became a sponsor this year, supplying flights, along with passes to the first-class lounges.

Before Air Canada came on board, publishers were asked to cover flight costs if they were able.

For independent publishers, that can be a hardship. When Michelle Winters's novel I Am a Truck was shortlisted in 2017, it meant a scramble for its not-for-profit publisher. Invisible Publishing head Leigh Nash had to apply for a credit card to cover the travel, and also had to order an urgent print run - 8,000 additional copies, compared with the original print run of 800.

If being shortlisted caused some short-term stress, the outlay of cash paid off in every way - in book sales (Scotiabank alone bought about 1,700 copies, which helped finance Invisible's sudden expenses). And also in exposure both for Winters, who signed with a U.K. agent after the London event, and for Invisible Publishing, which has seen a steep increase in submissions and is now eligible for additional grants. "It feels like our Cinderella story, in a way," Nash says.

While we're on fairy tales, the international exposure was also life-changing for tiny QC Fiction's Eric Dupont, shortlisted last year for Songs for the Cold of Heart (translated from French by Peter McCambridge). After the Between the Pages stop in New York, Dupont got a publishing deal with HarperCollins U.S.; the book comes out in February (with the book's original title, The American Fiancée). It is very rare for a Québécois author who writes in French to be picked up by a U.S.

publisher, Dupont says.

For the authors, it is a very busy fall with a glorious and gruelling mishmash of commitments, some made long ago - a teaching job, a book tour - some popping up because of the Giller shortlist.

Alix Ohlin, shortlisted this year for Dual Citizens, is chair of the Creative Writing program at Vancouver's University of British Columbia; Bezmozgis is program co-ordinator of the Creative Writing program at Humber College in Toronto. Megan Gail Coles, who is shortlisted for her debut novel Small Game Hunting at the Local Coward Gun Club, is doing her doctorate at Concordia in Montreal.

Williams moved heaven and earth to get back to UBC for his Wednesday Introduction to Poetry, a lecture class with 170 students from a variety of disciplines, including science and engineering. "This might be the only poetry exposure they get in four years of university," says Williams, who at times landed in Vancouver the day of the class, drove to the university to teach it, and flew back out that night. Then there are family commitments.

Steven Price, shortlisted for his novel Lampedusa, was at LaGuardia at 4 a.m. on October 31 to board the first of the flights that would get him home for Halloween. He made it to his house in Victoria just in time to take his children, aged 4 and 8, trick-ortreating. The next morning, Price was on a flight back east to Toronto for book festival events. "I was literally home for ten hours," says Price, whose wife, Esi Edugyan, has won the Giller twice, including last year. "These are nice problems to have," Price adds about the demanding schedule.

"There's no worse feeling than publishing a book and feeling like there's nobody out there that wants to hear about it. Having been in that situation many, many times ... I'm still very aware of how lucky that is."

Coles's favourite part of the tour were the visits to two innercity schools, in Winnipeg and Ottawa. This is a new initiative by First Book Canada - an organization that supplies books and other educational resources for students from low-income families - and may expand next year owing to its success. "Speaking to students about how I came to become a writer and how I came to be sitting in front of them in the hopes that maybe someone in the room also has a similar aspiration and needs to hear it said is ... very rewarding," Coles says.

The Giller allows the shortlisted authors to experience extravagances unusual in the life of most writers. Williams's room at Toronto's Four Seasons Hotel was so fancy that after checking in very late one night, he couldn't find the toilet. "I went into the bathroom and thought: I know it's in here somewhere; there's got to be a toilet." (It was behind a glass partition.) The tour has another, perhaps unintended, consequence, changing the dynamic of the actual award night. At the Giller gala on Nov. 18, they'll be back together, a glitzy reunion of people who are more friends than competitors. "You've gotten to know one another as people, as friends," says Bezmozgis, who has been shortlisted for the Giller twice previously, before the experience included such an extensive tour. He prefers it this way. "Other times, if you're on the shortlist, you show up on the day they're announcing it and you don't really don't know the people. In my case, I've always lost, so you lose and you walk away and it's kind of an empty little feeling from the moment that you don't hear your name called." (Bezmozgis has also been shortlisted twice for the Governor-General's Award and has won other prizes, including the Toronto Book Award.)

"But I think in this instance, there will be five of us who will be losing together and we all know each other ... It's kind of a communal experience in a way that it normally isn't when you're on a shortlist. I think we'll be happy no matter who wins."

Associated Graphic

Authors shortlisted for the Scotiabank Giller Prize attend an event in Toronto as part of the tour. The Giller allows the authors to experience extravagances unusual in the life of most writers, such as stays in fancy hotels.

RYAN EMBERLEY


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The greatest gift of all
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Much has changed since an oversold inn dropped the ball 2,020 years ago. These days, as Adam Bisby writes, travel alleviates seasonal stress by letting guests outsource festivities
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By ADAM BISBY
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page P14

On one hand, the holiday season is expected to be "more stressful than fun" by one in four Canadians, according to a poll last December by Vancouver's Research Co. On the other, end-of-year travel was cited as a source of stress by more than a third of respondents to an earlier American Psychiatric Association survey. Mix in the Great White North's tempestuous winter weather, and travelling does not seem like an ideal way to ease festive stress.

But that's where the hotels, resorts, lodges, trains, festivals, attractions and theme parks listed here come in. By taking all the work out of all sorts of seasonal diversions - from sleigh rides and Santa encounters to tree trimming and feast prep - they maximize merriment while making life easier throughout December and into January. Joy to the world indeed.

WINTER WONDERLANDS "Christmas Train" and Le Germain Hotels Skirting 125 kilometres of snowy St. Lawrence riverbank between Quebec City and La Malbaie, this new weekend train service kicks off just in time for the Nov. 29 opening of the renowned Baie-Saint-Paul Christmas Market. The Quebec-based Le Germain hotel chain, meanwhile, is supporting the fairy light-festooned train by providing stylish digs, festive cuisine, Santa-centric diversions and live holiday music at two of its boutique properties - one steps from the European-style market, the other in most visitors' natural departure point of Quebec City. For visitors looking to extend their stays beyond the train's final run on Dec. 7, few cities make winter more appealing, with the iconic Fairmont Le Château Frontenac hotel towering over the city's famous toboggan lanes, German Christmas Market and other festive diversions. On that note ... Fairmont Hotels & Resorts Built in part to share Canada's winter splendour with the world, it's no wonder several of the country's historic railway hotels are rolling out holiday packages.

A "Festival of Christmas Offer" from Alberta's Fairmont Jasper Park Lodge includes in-room evergreens with decorations and family photoshoots in the cozy confines of Santa's Cabin.

A snowy and outrageously scenic four-hour drive to the southeast, the stately Fairmont Banff Springs is home to similarly lavish trimmings, dining and pampering. It's also within walking distance of the Banff Gondola, which as of Nov. 16 will be offering rides to Santa's Workshop atop Sulphur Mountain, where families can decorate cookies and write letters to St. Nick, who is again defying the laws of physics by being present for photo ops.

Newer Fairmont hotels, such as those in Whistler, B.C., and MontTremblant, Que., are also pulling out all the snowy stops, with both offering "Trees of Hope" packages that include a 15-per-cent discount on accommodation, a $25 hotel credit per stay, and daily donations to Canadian charities.

Club Med les Arc Panorama Canadians looking for all-inclusive ski resort vacations need not wait until the scheduled 2021 opening of Club Med Quebec Charlevoix, the French chain's first mountain property in North America. The newest of Club Med's 24 Alpine operations, the year-old Les Arcs Panorama in the French Alps, provides instant access to one of Europe's largest ski areas, with festive feasts, activities, entertainment and more included.

Keystone Resort, Colorado An hour's drive west of Denver, Keystone cements its family-oriented reputation with the Kidtopia festival. Encompassing what's said to be the world's largest snow fort, a model village made of 7,000-plus pounds of chocolate, breakfast with Santa on Dec. 24, and a fireworks show and torchlight parade on New Year's Eve, the December-long fest is capped by a Dec. 21 "Mountaintop Spectacular" high above Keystone's 3,000-plus condos, five-acre skating lake billed as the largest in the United States and six-lane tube park that, at 3,548 metres above sea level, is apparently the loftiest on Earth.

ALL IS CALM Vintage Hotels, Niagara-onthe-Lake, Ont. Between spa treatments at any or all of its three properties in the Dickensian home of the Shaw Festival - which also happens to be staging A Christmas Carol from Nov. 13 to Dec. 22 - visitors can take part in chronologically accurate "12 Days of Christmas" packages that include daily events such as outdoor s'mores sessions, fortunetelling, and popup cocoa bars.

Wickaninnish Inn, Tofino, B.C. There's calm in the eye of a storm, which could be why watching the Pacific's December fury through the panoramic windows of Tofino's Wickaninnish Inn is so calming. There's plenty of relaxation built into the upscale inn's three-night West Coast Christmas package, which includes daily brunch, a live miniature tree with ornaments for guests to take home, a fourcourse Christmas dinner at the Pointe Restaurant, a festive tipple at On the Rocks Bar and a bottle of sparkling wine on arrival.

ALL IS BRIGHT Illumi festival and Ritz-Carlton Montreal Eat your heart out, Clark Griswold! The inaugural Illumi festival covers an Olympic Stadium-sized expanse of Laval, Que., with sculptures and video installations decorated with more than 10 million LED bulbs.

There's also a Christmas Village with local artisan vendors, seasonal refreshments, live entertainment, and a 47-metre-tall Tree of Lights.

Free shuttles whisk visitors between the fest and the nearby Montmorency Metro station, which is a 40-minute ride from the luxurious Ritz-Carlton Montreal. There, a pleasingly practical "Friends and Family" package knocks 50 per cent off connecting rooms until Dec. 31.

Niagara Falls Wonder Pass Combined with the jaw-dropping Winter Festival of Lights and a wide range of hotel packages, these Niagara Parks passes take care of local transportation, courtesy of the WEGO bus and incline railway, and include admission to attractions as diverse as the thundering Journey Behind the Falls and the elegant Butterfly Conservatory.

Westin St. Francis, San Francisco You'd need an army of helpers to pull off anything like the "Holiday Hideaway" package at home. Children are welcomed at check-in with candy canes, colouring books and a golden ticket redeemable for in-room goody delivery and a "Letter to Santa Kit." Proceeding to a designated Holiday Hideaway floor in the historic Landmark Building, families are greeted by costumed toy soldiers who escort them to accommodations housing miniature Christmas trees. After elves bring surprise evening treats for all, little ones awake the next morning to a delivery of San Franinspired gifts from the North Pole.

ALL THEY (OR YOU) WANT FOR CHRISTMAS InterContinental Toronto Centre As well as being within easy walking distance of Union Station and a short ride-share from the Distillery Historic District's glittering European-style Christmas market, this 25-storey downtown hotel offers a onenight Yorkdale Shopping Package that includes a buffet breakfast in Azure Restaurant & Bar, valet parking at the 250-store Yorkdale Shopping Centre, a $50 Yorkdale Gift Card, and a $25 Esso Gas Card.

Oak Bay Beach Hotel, Victoria, B.C. For a more intimate form of festive retail therapy, this boutique oceanside resort's "Ultimate Shopping Package" includes breakfast and chauffeured car service in the picturesque community, a canvas shopping tote, complimentary parking, access to the hotel's heated mineral pools, a $40 resort credit and a brochure filled with discounts at many of the 30-plus businesses in the area.

GRANDMA GOT RUN OVER BY ... A locomotive The week-long "Scottish Christmas" rail tour from Chicago-based Vacations by Rail follows a round-trip route that begins and ends in Edinburgh and stops at scenic spots such as Kyle of Lochalsh and Loch Ness. Travelling by Scotrail, the Kyle Line and motor coach, guests take in the Cairngorms Mountains and Eilean Donan Castle, with Christmas Day spent in Inverness and Loch Ness playing host to Boxing Day.

Aa roller-coaster Orlando's two largest theme parks make Santa's elves look positively lazy over the holidays. At Walt Disney World Resort, guests who book customizable packages at one of 25 Disney Resort hotels can check out new attractions such as Animal Kingdom's "Tree of Life Awakenings" multimedia show, and the "Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge" themed area in Hollywood Studios.

Over at Universal Orlando Resort, the five-night "Wizarding World of Harry Potter Exclusive Package" includes breakfasts at the Leaky Cauldron and Three Broomsticks, a keepsake box containing themed luggage tags and lanyards and early admission to select attractions at its namesake park, where Hogsmeade and Diagon Alley are decorated for the holidays and a new roller coaster, Hagrid's Magical Creatures Motorbike Adventure, opened in June.

Associated Graphic

While the drive to the Fairmont Banff Springs, top, is scenic, once there, visitors receive lavish trimmings, dining and pampering. Snow lovers may also enjoy the Keystone Resort in Colorado, home of what's said to be the world's largest snow fort, centre. For those who love Christmas lights, there is the inaugural Illumi festival in Laval, Que., above.

DANIEL MILCHEV (KEYSTONE RESORT)


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BIRTH AND death notices
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Thursday, November 14, 2019 – Page B23

DEATHS PAMELA JANE CULBERT (nee Rollason) February 1, 1943 November 8, 2019 The family of Pamela Jane Culbert are sad to announce the passing of their wife, and mother, at her home at Eagle Lake. Pamela leaves five children, Tracey (Kevin), Lindsay (Blair), Jenni, Kelly (Don), Fraser (Kim); husband of 54 years, Peter; and one brother, Peter (Sue) in Alberta.

Eleven grandchildren will miss their Grandmother.

Pamela attended Branksome Hall in Toronto for her high school years. She then graduated with her R.N. from Sick Children's Hospital in Toronto in 1964. In 1966, she moved with her husband, Peter, to Western Canada. They settled in the Cariboo-Chilcotin in 1968 and spent a busy career with her children and her husband Peter's medical practice. While living in Williams Lake, BC, she sat on the board of the Cariboo Friendship Society, the board of Share B.C., and was the last constituency president for the Progressive Conservative party.

As well as a wife and mother, Pamela was the COO and CFO for Peter's medical practice, and considered herself the CEO of the family. Pamela was also a Girl Guide and Pathfinder leader while residing in Williams Lake.

For the last eleven years, she resided in the Chilcotin at Eagle Lake which is nestled on the edge of the Coast Mountains. It was a home and a place that she loved.

A Celebration of Life will take place at the Tatla Lake Church on December 7th at 1 p.m.

In lieu of flowers, donations to one of the following would be appreciated. St. Luke's Anglican Church, Alexis Creek; ALS Society of Canada; West Chilcotin Health Care Society, Tatla Lake, BC.

She will be missed by her family and community.

PETER ANDREW KUDLA May 27, 1956 November 9, 2019 After a long fight with blood cancer and ALS, Peter passed away surrounded by his family. He was a fighter until the very end. Peter is survived by devoted wife, Catherine (neé Hunter), of 38 wonderful years; daughters, Diana Kudla Byers (Michael), Erin Kudla (William); grandson, Hunter; as well as his four siblings and their families. Peter was predeceased by his parents, William and Rhona (neé Evans) Kudla.

Visitation will take place at the Oshawa Funeral Home, 847 King Street West on Friday, November 22nd from 2:00 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 - 8:00 p.m. Funeral services for Peter will be held in the Chapel on Saturday, November 23rd at 11:30 a.m., small reception to follow.

Memorial donations may be made to either the Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia Foundation of Canada (wmfc.ca) or the ALS Society of Canada (als.ca).

SYD LANYS Peacefully and surrounded by family, on Monday, November 11, 2019 at Mackenzie Health.

Beloved husband of Vicki. Loving father and father-in-law of Michael and the late Sandra, Sheryl, and lovingly remembered by Mehre.

Devoted grandfather of Zachary, Lindsay, and Sean. Dear brother and brother-in-law of Dorothy and the late Milton, Yetta and the late Lou, and the late Marty and Ruthie, and Izzy and Sandy. Dear brother-in-law of Bella and the late Paul.

Special thanks to Mackenzie Health Complex Care Unit, Doctors and Staff.

Services were held at Benjamin's Park Memorial, 2401 Steeles Avenue West on Wednesday, November 13, 2019 at 12:30 p.m.

Interment Beth David B'nai Israel Beth Am Section of Pardes Chaim Cemetery. Shiva 15 North Park Road, Thornhill. Memorial donations may be made to the Syd Lanys Memorial Fund for Canadian Breast Cancer and for Bronchiectasis c/o The Benjamin Foundation, 416-780-0324, http://www.benjamins.ca JACK MCFADYEN June 13, 1935 November 11, 2019 Jack's time with us ended on November 11, 2019, but he will live on forever in our memories.

His was truly a life well-lived.

An only child, Jack was born in Toronto and raised by his mother, Lu while his father, Mac served as a Burma Bomber; this gave Jack a life-long love of World War II history. Jack's personality and life view were heavily influenced by his childhood heroes from movies and literature; to the end of his life he would tear up watching "Shane" or reading "The Catcher in the Rye." Jack was an incredibly well-educated person who could recite poetry learned in childhood, and knew the Latin root of any word. Following graduation from the University of Toronto and time in the RCAF Reserves, he travelled the world twice over before meeting his wife Stella - also a teacher - in Nairobi, Kenya. They married and returned to Canada with their first-born, Sophie. Three more children soon followed - Katie, Darcy and Jamie.

The family enjoyed many happy years on Courcelette Road. Stella was a wonderful mother and wife and Jack had a long and successful teaching career, including several years as President of the Toronto Teachers' Federation.

Jack and Stella enjoyed early retirement together, travelling and welcoming nine grandchildren.

Jack continued to be a loyal and loving caregiver to Lu and Mac.

Sadly, we lost Jamie in 2006 and Stella in 2012, but Jack recovered and continued to live life to the fullest, moving to Uxbridge where he made new friends and spent his final years breaking down barriers and crusading against political correctness. No one who met him will ever forget him.

Please join us at a celebration of Jack's life at Low & Low Funeral Home, 23 Main Street, Uxbridge (905-852-3073), on Sunday, November 17, 2019, from 1:004:00 p.m. In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to CAMH in memory of Lu and Jamie, or to the Alzheimer Society of Durham Region in memory of Stella.

Online condolences may be left at http://www.lowandlow.ca DR. ELLEN F. SPEARS D.V.M.

(née Thomson) After a prolonged medical illness which she faced with courage and determination, and a relatively short acute deterioration, Ellen passed away on November 9, 2019 in her 85th year. She was surrounded by the love of her family and friends.

Daughter of the late Dr.

Andrew Thomson and Lally Thomson, she was born in Toronto, attended Branksome Hall and graduated from the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC) in 1958. Beloved wife of Dr. John Spears for 61 years, and loving mother to Andrew (Laleh Moshiri), Jennifer Léger (David Léger), Ian (Sarah Atkinson) and Martha. She was adored by her nine grandchildren and two greatgrandchildren.

Following graduation from OVC, Ellen worked for two years at the Defence Research Board in Kingston. A remarkable mother to four children, she also gave generously of her time to her church (Bloor Street United), the CNIB, the Daily Bread Food Bank, the Victor Home/ Massey Centre, The Toronto Children's Chorus, and the Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild of which she was a founding member.

For those in need, be they musicians, refugees, or family, she provided a welcoming home and the respect she thought all people deserved. Ellen lived a life devoted to serving and caring for others. She did it informally, with a thousand acts of unheralded kindness to both friends and people she had never met but who needed a helping hand.

Throughout her life, Ellen loved spending time with family and friends at Leith, Ontario. There was always room for one more at the dinner table and an extra bed could always be found. This love of the blue waters of Georgian Bay and its spectacular sunsets has been passed on to her children and grandchildren.

The family is grateful for the care Ellen received at the Princess Margaret Hospital (myeloma division), the kind, supportive care she received from the first floor staff at Christie Gardens and her caregiver Madeleine.

Cremation has taken place.

In lieu of flowers, a contribution to the charity of your choice would be gratefully appreciated.

A service of thanksgiving and a celebration of Ellen's life will be held a Bloor Street United Church (300 Bloor Street West) at 3:00 p.m. on Saturday, November 16, 2019 with a reception to follow at the church.

An opportunity to visit with the family will be hosted at the home of Ian Spears and Sarah Atkinson (8 Hewitt Avenue, Toronto, ON M6R 1Y3) on Friday, November 15 from 2:30-5:00 p.m. and 6:00-8:00 p.m.

We miss you Eno.


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Behind the scenes at Coach's Corner, a culture of extreme deference to its stars
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page S1

TORONTO -- Last Saturday night, when Don Cherry began driving his Coach's Corner jalopy off the road with his incendiary remarks about "you people [who] come here," there were no guardrails to save him any more.

They had all fallen away, ground down and discarded over the years under what people who were previously involved in the production of Hockey Night in Canada described to The Globe and Mail this week as a culture of extreme and sometimes fearful deference toward Cherry and his friend and co-host Ron MacLean.

Gone was the seven-second delay between Cherry talking and the moment that his comments would go live to air, an electronic escape hatch that had been created in the spring of 2003 after he made controversial comments about the Iraq War. His trusted sidekick MacLean, who had McGyvered him out of numerous scrapes over the previous 33 years, could no longer be counted on, acknowledging on Sunday night that he "didn't catch" the ugly comments. And it appears that none of the Hockey Night in Canada control room and production crew who had access to MacLean, through an earpiece, raised an alarm and rushed to give him guidance on how to save Cherry.

Some people who spoke with The Globe this week drew parallels with the enabling environment at CBC that was described in an April, 2015, report, by a company hired in the wake of the firing of broadcaster Jian Ghomeshi to audit the workplace of the public broadcaster, as a toxic "host culture."

The lax culture, which grew over the more than three decades when Coach's Corner was under the editorial control of CBC and which continued after the rights to the show were taken over by Rogers Media for the 2014-15 hockey season, helped create a set of circumstances that made it almost impossible for anyone to hold the two stars to account, which ultimately proved fatal.

One person who was recently involved with the production, echoing a number of others who spoke with The Globe, said there was a lack of accountability and a large amount of fear among the staff toward the duo known as "Ron and Don."

The Globe granted confidentiality to the sources for this story because they were not authorized to speak on the subject.

That sense of fear and entitlement hadn't always existed.

When Cherry began his Coach's Corner segments during the 1980 playoffs, he offered tightly scripted advice to amateur players on how to improve their game play.

For almost 20 years, producers regularly reined him in when he wandered.

During that era, CBC showed little inclination to indulge the whims of its hockey broadcasters: In March, 1987, after the network chose to switch to a news broadcast at the end of a Toronto Maple Leafs game instead of joining a Montreal Canadiens game that was still in progress, Dave Hodge was fired for expressing frustration on air with "who's responsible for the way we do things here."

He was replaced the following week by MacLean.

Even through much of its second decade, producers would oversee and approve the content of Coach's Corner. But that control began to flag, even as Cherry's propensity for making inappropriate comments attracted more attention. One person familiar with the production environment at CBC suggested a culture of "hero worship" began to form around the two stars, as they began to make unusual demands that would benefit their segment, sometimes at the cost of the larger broadcast.

According to another person familiar with the production during the time it was under the control of CBC, Cherry would watch the first period of games for slick goals or other highlight-reel plays, and, if he spotted a particularly good camera angle, he would instruct his producer to inform the control room to not use the angle in an in-game replay, so that it would be fresh for the viewers of Coach's Corner.

That same individual also noted that, when Cherry and MacLean would travel during the NHL playoffs, they would often stay at hotels that were different from the Hockey Night production crew, underlining their special status.

A spokesperson for CBC said he could not directly address any of the allegations of the culture of deference. "Any decisions that were made regarding Don Cherry, while CBC held the national broadcast rights for NHL hockey, were made in the moment on a case-by-case basis," Chuck Thompson said. "But because none of the individuals involved in any of the decisions that were taken are with the CBC anymore, it would be unfair of us to speculate on what they were thinking, or speak on their behalf." Asked about a culture of entitlement that enabled Cherry and MacLean and left them without a safety net, Sportsnet spokesperson Andrew Garas said, "We're focused on looking ahead."

Last Saturday, Sportsnet producers knew in broad strokes what Cherry was going to say. In fact, an executive who had overseen previous broadcasts, and other production-crew members who spoke to The Globe, noted that Cherry has chastised people for not wearing poppies during the Coach's Corner segments before Remembrance Day in previous years. The bulk of his comments during last Saturday's broadcast therefore would not have caused alarm and - given the frenetic environment of a live-TV production - may not have even been noticed by the crew.

Coach's Corner is - or was - produced live, airing only in the East, during the first part of the Hockey Night double-header broadcasts. If there were three games in progress in the East, as there was last Saturday night - the Montreal Canadiens, Toronto Maple Leafs and Ottawa Senators were all seen in their home markets - the segment would air live during the first intermission of the first game that wrapped up its first period.

Then, as the other games individually entered their first intermissions, the segment would begin airing, on a time delay that could be anywhere from a splitsecond to many minutes. But it would not be produced all over again for another game in the East, no matter how delayed that game might be in concluding its first period.

Even if Cherry's comments had been noticed, there may not have been much that could have been done in the moment. The sevensecond delay had been removed in 2007, because it had little practical use except in cases where someone might use a readily identifiable racial epithet that needed to be deleted in a splitsecond.

The Hockey Night production crew is not equipped with crisismanagement experts who might have prodded MacLean to jump in on a comment Cherry had made: their expertise is in keeping the broadcast moving and reacting to a limited set of possible scenarios.

Late on Friday, Rogers said it was still working on what exactly the first intermission of the first Don Cherry-less Hockey Night in Canada in almost 40 years would look like when it unfolds Saturday night. Ron MacLean will be on air and a segment will spotlight the 2019 Hockey Hall of Fame inductees. One former producer who was involved in discussions about Rogers's postCherry plans suggested that the broadcast would probably air a soft feature in the former Coach's Corner spot for the next number of months, similar to the ones that currently air before the games and then possibly launch a new marquee segment during the playoffs. Sportsnet may also wait until next fall to launch anything new.

But, while former hockey executive Brian Burke was hired to be a Sportsnet commentator as part of succession planning, Rogers may be so snakebit by the events of the past week that it could go in an entirely different direction.

Besides, that spot may now be a poisoned chalice. As Scott Moore, the former president of Sportsnet, told the New York Times two years ago, when asked about who might succeed Cherry: "You don't want to be the guy who replaces Walter Cronkite.

You want to be the guy who replaces the guy who replaces Walter Cronkite."

Associated Graphic

Hockey commentators Ron MacLean, centre left, and Don Cherry, centre, are seen preparing to broadcast their Coach's Corner segment at Toronto's Air Canada Centre in 2005.

DONALD WEBER/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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How can you not be in love with the Nationals?
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On paper, Washington should not have made it this far, but it showed the value of hanging on and emerged victorious
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By CATHAL KELLY
  
  

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Friday, November 1, 2019 – Page B16

TORONTO -- I f you were a Canadian who followed baseball in the 1980s, you were a Montreal Expos fan.

Living in Montreal had very little to do with it. Rooting for the Toronto Blue Jays was a minor impediment. The Expos were the sort of team that defied geography and the logic of loyalties.

The roster was often patched together from weirdos, castoffs and kids, Dirty Dozen style. The results could be patchy, but they were always dynamite to watch.

Those Expos teams gave two impressions - that if they could just keep it together for a while, they could be great; and that they were never going to keep it together for a while. They were too wild to care about winning.

So, in that sense, the Washington Nationals have very little in common with the team they once were. Because the team that just won the World Series is nothing but the will to win.

The Nationals should not have made it this far. Not in the modern game. They have three wonderful starting pitchers, but no bullpen to speak of.

They started out the year with a 19-31 record, the sort of number that means it is time to begin ringing the death knell. Having scrabbled their way in the postseason, they needed a final at-bat outburst to win the wild-card game.

They were written off against the Los Angeles Dodgers in the divisional series, got blanked in the first game, were underwritten off and then won it in five.

They took care of the St. Louis Cardinals so quickly that people had no time to adjust. Baseball was all, "I'm sorry, who made the World Series again? I don't think we heard you right."

The Nationals' problem was not that they are not a good team. They just didn't look like the team people expected to win.

A great postseason team in the modern era is built from the bullpen out. The thinking goes that you send out your starter, he survives for three or four innings, your offence demoralizes the opponent with a bombing campaign, then the bullpen comes out with the incendiaries to finish them off. This was the Yankees strategy this year. It didn't go well.

People were willing to concede that what Washington had done might work in the National League, but the World Series was a different matter. In it, the Nationals faced the most complete team in baseball. Three starting pitchers even better than the Nationals top-of-the-order rotation.

A lineup with no holes. Very close to the best bullpen in baseball (Washington's had been dead-last during the regular season).

On paper, it was over before it started. Which is why you shouldn't trust what you read.

There were several irregularities in this World Series, the most memorable of which will be the fact that the road team won every game. That was a first in North American sport, and will probably never happen again.

As such, this was the worst World Series in history for people lucky enough to get tickets. All of them paid a ridiculous amount for the privilege, some more ridiculous than others. No home fan left the stadium happy.

In fact, it was a terrible World Series in terms of live-viewing.

The home team was often blown out, the games lasted forever, sitting around confused as umpires went to the video replay for 20 minutes nightly and still got it wrong.

The concentrated viewing of a seven-game series often leaves you with a few strong impressions that no amount of regularseason grazing can equal. My own from this year - a) television is a far superior way to watch baseball; b) the human experiment was a wonderful idea, but it has run its course.

Bring on the Robot Umpires.

But all of these are complaints. That's not what you'll remember about the 2019 World Series. What you'll recall is Washington's rear-bumper job. They showed the value of hanging on.

They were most effective at that in Wednesday's Game 7.

At the outset, you were getting a bad feeling. Mostly because no one likes the Astros any more and they had that look. Everything was going right for them.

The Nationals could barely manage a hit.

After six innings, it was still only 2-0 Houston, but had someone offered you outrageous odds that the Nationals were coming back, you'd have laughed at them. It felt like one-way traffic.

Then someone made a mistake. That is what makes baseball so compelling. You can watch as one little miscalculation spins out excruciatingly over 10 or 15 minutes.

It was Houston manager A.J.

Hinch's gaffe. He could have (in retrospect, should have) pulled starter Zack Greinke after six and subbed in strikeout machine Gerrit Cole for his first majorleague relief appearance.

Instead, he sent Greinke back out to face the Nationals' lineup for a third time. Then the wheels exploded off the bus.

Anthony Rendon homered.

Juan Soto walked. Owing to the hoary belief that no starter is capable of pitching in an inning that is already under way, reliever Will Harris came in instead of Cole. He gave up a two-run homer to Howie Kendrick and that was that.

They play baseball for seven months, pretty much every day.

Thousands of games in total.

And in the end, it comes down to a single iffy decision taken by one person about whether to pull the starter.

Washington won 6-2 and took the series. The Nationals played in five elimination games this postseason and won them all.

They won three winner-take-all games in comebacks staged in the seventh inning or later.

If this wasn't the most unlikely World Series victory in history, it's up there. This was the team the Expos never managed to be - not always fun to watch, but one that finds a way.

But like the Expos, the Nationals were impossible not to fall in love with. For all those who did so, that new love paid off like a slot machine on Wednesday night.

Afterward, U.S. President Donald Trump - who'd been booed while attending a game - tweeted, "Game 7 was amazing!"

They ought to put it in the Smithsonian. It's the only indisputably true thing he's said while in office.

BRONFMAN SEES 'POSITIVE STEP' IN QUEST TO BRING MLB BACK TO MONTREAL MONTREAL A recent admission from the office of the mayor of St. Petersburg, Fla., has put a big smile on the face of the man trying to bring a Major League Baseball team back to Montreal.

On Wednesday night, the Tampa Bay Times reported that Mayor Rick Kriseman admitted to being formally asked for permission by the Tampa Bay Rays to explore the possibility of playing part of the team's season in Montreal.

"This is another positive step in this story of the possibility of Major League Baseball coming back to Montreal!" Stephen Bronfman wrote in an e-mail exchange with The Canadian Press on Thursday.

Stuart Sternberg, principal owner of the Rays, first talked about the project last June, when he said sharing a season with Montreal was the best option for his team. The idea was to have the Rays play half of their 81 home games in Tampa and half in Montreal.

A few days before Sternberg's announcement, MLB commissioner Rob Manfred had said the Rays have "broad permission to explore what's available."

But the project was facing a big obstacle: St. Petersburg's mayor had shot down the two-city possibility last June.

The Rays had signed an exclusive lease with the city for all the team's home games until 2027.

Before Wednesday's news, it was never clear whether the team had formally asked the city if it could go forward with the project. The Tampa Bay Times reported that the Rays formally requested to share half a season with Montreal before the end of the lease.

THE CANADIAN PRESS

Washington Nationals manager Dave Martinez hoists the Commissioner's Trophy as he and his team celebrate defeating the Astros to win the World Series at Minute Maid Park in Houston on Wednesday.

TROY TAORMINA/USA TODAY SPORTS


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Trump pushed for 'crazy' plan to trade military aid for Biden probes: Diplomat
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New disclosure at historic impeachment hearings reinforces U.S. President's key role in pressing Ukraine to discredit rival
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By ADRIAN MORROW
  
  

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Thursday, November 14, 2019 – Page A1

WASHINGTON -- In the first public hearing Wednesday of the U.S. congressional impeachment inquiry into Donald Trump, more evidence was added to the growing case against the President, reinforcing his central role in pressing Ukraine to discredit his potential Democratic challenger, Joe Biden.

The top U.S. diplomat in Ukraine says Mr. Trump pushed one of his emissaries for an update on investigations the President wanted Kyiv to launch into his Democratic political opponents.

After the previously undisclosed conversation, acting Ambassador William Taylor said that the emissary, U.S. ambassador to the EU Gordon Sondland, confided that Mr. Trump "cares more about the investigations" than about U.S. policy in Ukraine.

Mr. Taylor, who testified alongside senior State Department official George Kent, laid out in detail a "crazy" plot to withhold nearly US$400-million of badly needed military aid to press Kyiv to announce the investigations. And both men made the case for why this effort - pursued through an "unofficial channel" of diplomacy that Mr. Trump's allies set up - undermined U.S. national security and foreign-policy goals.

"Withholding security assistance in exchange for help with a domestic political campaign in the United States would be crazy," Mr. Taylor told the House intelligence committee.

"I believed that then and I believe it now."

The historic hearings make Mr.Trump only the fourth U.S. president to face formal impeachment proceedings.

While much of the substance of Mr. Taylor's and Mr. Kent's testimony had already been revealed in closed-door depositions, the dramatic public airing of their disclosures has the potential to seize public attention and pave the way for the Democratic-controlled House to move forward with efforts to push Mr.Trump out of office.

In a July telephone conversation, Mr. Trump asked Ukraine President Volodymyr Zelensky to investigate conspiracy theories concerning Mr. Biden and supposed Ukrainian help for the Democrats in the 2016 election.

The inquiry is trying to determine whether this request - and Mr. Trump's alleged withholding of military aid - constitutes an abuse of power by soliciting foreign interference in the 2020 vote.

"The matter is as simple and as terrible as that," Democratic intelligence committee chairman Adam Schiff said.

"Our answer to these questions will affect not only the future of this presidency but ... what kind of conduct or misconduct the American people may come to expect from their commanderin-chief," Mr. Schiff continued.

Mr. Kent bluntly undermined Mr. Trump's argument that the President had legitimate reasons to ask Mr. Zelensky to investigate Mr. Biden, one of the Democratic candidates vying to face Mr.

Trump in next year's presidential election. Asked by Daniel Goldman, a lawyer for committee Democrats, whether there were any grounds to believe Mr. Biden had committed wrongdoing in Ukraine, Mr. Kent said "none whatsoever." He also said there was "no factual basis" for the conspiracy theory that Ukraine colluded with the Democrats in 2016.

"I do not believe the United States should ask other countries to engage in selective, politically associated investigations or prosecutions against opponents of those in power," Mr. Kent said.

"Such selective actions undermine the rule of law, regardless of the country."

From the time he arrived in Kyiv this spring, Mr. Taylor said, there was an "informal channel" between Mr. Trump's allies, including his personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani, and Ukraine that circumvented normal diplomatic contacts.

At first, he said, back-channel operatives tried to trade a White House invitation to Mr. Zelensky in exchange for the investigations. Then, over the summer, Mr.

Trump ordered the military aid to Ukraine frozen. Kyiv has relied on the help for its fight against Russian-backed insurgents.

Mr. Taylor said he learned from Mr. Sondland, the EU ambassador, that the President would not release the aid until Mr. Zelensky announced the investigation. Mr.

Taylor said Mr. Sondland claimed that there was "no quid pro quo," while at the same time telling him that Mr. Trump felt Ukraine "owes him something" and had to "pay up" before he would "sign the cheque."

By withholding aid, Mr. Taylor said, the U.S. was failing to help a key ally attempting to contain the Kremlin's authoritarian expansionism. The day after Mr. Zelensky's call with Mr. Trump, he said, he visited the front line of the Ukrainian fight against Russian-backed forces. "More Ukrainians would undoubtedly die without the U.S. assistance," Mr.

Taylor said.

Mr. Taylor revealed the conversation between Mr. Trump and Mr. Sondland that he only recently learned about from a member of his staff. The staffer, he said, overheard Mr. Sondland speaking by telephone with Mr. Trump the day after the President's call with Mr. Zelensky. Mr. Trump asked Mr. Sondland about "the investigations," Mr. Taylor said, and Mr. Sondland told him the Ukrainians were "ready to move forward."

Afterward, the staffer asked Mr. Sondland what Mr. Trump thought of Ukraine. "Ambassador Sondland responded that President Trump cares more about the investigations of Biden, which Giuliani was pressing for," Mr. Taylor said.

At a White House news conference Wednesday, Mr. Trump appeared to deny making this call.

"I know nothing about that," he said. "I've never heard it. Not even a little bit."

The President also said he had not watched even "one minute" of the testimony.

Jennifer Rodgers, a former federal prosecutor, said the conversation was significant because it undermines one potential defence for Mr. Trump: That his overzealous emissaries made demands of Kyiv without his approval. Mr. Taylor's account shows Mr. Trump co-ordinating the push.

"This is now the President himself saying this thing that they were trying to distance him from," said Ms. Rodgers, who now teaches law at Columbia University. "This is an important piece of evidence."

Republican members of the committee repeatedly pointed out that Mr. Taylor had not spoken directly with Mr. Trump, and his understanding of the bartering of military aid came indirectly from others.

Devin Nunes, the top Republican on the committee, also took up the conspiracy theories Mr.

Trump had pushed on Mr. Zelensky, saying that there should be a probe into "Ukraine's election meddling against the Trump campaign" and alleged that there had been a "three-year-long operation by the Democrats, the corrupt media and partisan bureaucrats" to take down Mr.

Trump.

Ravi Perry, chair of the political-science department at Howard University in Washington, said such a strategy at the hearing could prove effective. While the Democrats largely stuck to laying out a lengthy series of facts, the Republicans instead went for emotional attack lines that could play well as sound bites for their base.

"I wish I could say that the facts matter, that people realizing the details of the Ukrainian connection matter. In a normal, preTrump world, those facts would have mattered," he said. "But in the Trump world, what matters more is perception and winning the headline battle."

The hearings continue Friday with Marie Yovanovitch, a former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine who says she was ousted by Mr. Giuliani. Next week, the committee will hear from eight more diplomats and administration officials.

Associated Graphic

William Taylor, the top U.S. diplomat in Ukraine, and George Kent, a State Department official, appear before the impeachment inquiry in Washington.

DOUG MILLS/THE NEW YORK TIMES

William Taylor, the top U.S. diplomat in Ukraine, appears before the House intelligence committee in Washington on Wednesday. Mr. Taylor told the committee that U.S. President Donald Trump withheld almost US$400-million in military aid to press Ukraine to announce an investigation into potential presidential challenger Joe Biden.

ERIN SCHAFF/THE NEW YORK TIMES

Left: House intelligence committee chairman Adam Schiff speaks with Devin Nunes, the committee's top Republican, during the hearings.

LEFT: SAUL LOEB/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES;

Above: Republican Representative Jim Jordan, seen arriving at the hearings, criticized the entire investigation into the President, lamenting that Congress won't get a chance to question the whistle-blower 'who started it all.'

ABOVE: J. SCOTT APPLEWHITE/AP


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Business leaders pay thousands to dine with Ontario Premier
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Wednesday, November 13, 2019 – Page A1

TORONTO -- Doug Ford had several private dinners with business executives who paid $20,000 each at a charity auction for face time with the Ontario Premier.

Two of the companies that secured access to Mr. Ford - technology firm OnX Enterprise Solutions and retirementhome provider All Seniors Care Living Centres - were also lobbying to do business with the province. In addition, after dining with Mr. Ford, real estate developer Sam Mizrahi asked for a meeting to discuss Ontario Place, the mothballed theme park the government is planning to overhaul.

The "intimate private dinner" packages provided deep-pocketed individuals and companies an exclusive audience with the Premier. The dinners are not subject to political fundraising rules since the funds went to charity, but raise ethical concerns because they are akin to trading cash for access, observers say.

The Globe and Mail requested government records relating to dinner packages with Mr. Ford that were auctioned off at the Toronto Police Chief's fundraiser last year under the province's Freedom of Information law.

A spokeswoman for the Premier said Mr. Ford is proud to support Victim Services Toronto, which helps crime victims and received money raised at the gala, but did not answer questions about whether he was lobbied at the private dinners.

"As he has said many times before, no one can buy or unduly influence Doug Ford," Ivana Yelich said in an e-mail.

Mr. Ford is planning to attend this year's Chief's Gala on Thursday and will again donate private-dinner opportunities, Ms. Yelich said. He is the first Ontario Premier to provide such an item for the auction, according to Allison Sparkes, a police spokeswoman.

Allowing wealthy individuals and companies to pay for exclusive audiences with the Premier risks eroding the public's faith in government, even when the money benefits a charity, said Ian Stedman, a lawyer and government-ethics expert who is doing a PhD at Osgoode Hall Law School.

"It smells funky because it's a weird way for the Premier to give people access to him," he said. "As a premier, don't put yourself in a position where people can look at you and say, 'What are you doing? Selling access? What did you talk about?' " Duff Conacher, co-founder of Democracy Watch, called the dinners a clear case of trading cash for access, despite the charitable beneficiary. "It's still giving an opportunity for someone to buy access to you and that's the problem."

Ontario Integrity Commissioner J. David Wake declined comment on the dinners through a spokeswoman.

However, in previous annual reports, Mr. Wake urged MPPs to exercise caution when donating opportunities for face time to charity fundraisers. He recommended politicians reserve the right to later turn down purchasers if meeting with them would be inappropriate. (Ms. Yelich declined to say whether Mr. Ford contacted Mr. Wake beforehand or whether he asked to deny successful bidders if he saw a potential conflict of interest.)

The dinners with Mr. Ford were sold in a live auction last November after Mr. Ford gave a speech lauding police. The packages - for 10 guests at a Toronto steakhouse or Italian restaurant - were given a value of "priceless" in the item description, which noted that lobbyists must register with the Office of the Integrity Commissioner.

After the first three dinners sold quickly for $20,000 each, two more packages were added, and went for $21,000 each, Ms.

Sparkes said. A sixth dinner was sold for $20,000 several days after the event. However, only five meals took place after one was cancelled. In all, the dinners raised $101,000 out of the event's total of $653,420.

Other auction items included trips, sports games with Chief Mark Saunders and fishing expeditions and a lunch with federal Minister of Border Security and former Toronto police chief Bill Blair. MarieEmmanuelle Cadieux, a spokeswoman for Mr. Blair, said he was not lobbied at the events, but she declined to release the names of the successful bidders. Ms.

Sparkes said the lunch was sold for $8,000 and two fishing trips went for $5,000 each.

OnX Enterprise Solutions, which is also known as OnX Canada, bought a dinner with Mr. Ford as part of its "charitable contributions" to Victim Services, spokesman Roger Hamshaw said. He said the Torontobased IT company is a proud sponsor of the Chief's Gala. OnX president Paul Khawaja and other employees dined with Mr. Ford and Chief Saunders on March 20.

In early February, the company hired lobbyists from Hill+Knowlton Strategies with the goal of "bringing I.T. solutions to the government that will stabilize costs, reduce spending and improve the experience of users of government services," according to the provincial lobbyists' registry.

Mr. Hamshaw declined to answer questions about whether OnX executives lobbied Mr. Ford at the dinner and whether the company has had contact with government officials since the meal.

Government financial statements for the 2018-19 fiscal year show three payments to OnX Enterprise Solutions of between $111,000 and $116,000 each. Two contracts, signed in early 2018, were for ministry software and IT services and the other payment was for IT purchases for the Legislative Assembly, officials said.

Another dinner with Mr. Ford was purchased by Michael Kuhl, president of development at All Seniors Care Living Centres, when the company contacted organizers several days after the fundraiser, Ms.

Sparkes said. That meal took place June 4.

The Toronto-based company, which operates 31 retirement homes in five provinces and is developing several others, hired Loyalist Public Affairs in August, 2018, to lobby the Ontario government. Its goal was: "Discuss innovative solutions for improving healthcare and ending hallway medicine, including how retirement homes can play a role in freeing up hospital beds." (The relationship was terminated in August, 2019, according to the lobbyists' registry.)

Mr. Kuhl did not respond to multiple requests for comment.

Mr. Mizrahi, who is building a luxury condo and hotel tower in downtown Toronto that is slated to become the country's tallest skyscraper, had dinner with Mr. Ford on Jan. 29, according to government records.

The next day, Mr. Mizrahi e-mailed the Premier's then-chief of staff to arrange another meeting, in part about Ontario Place.

Less than two weeks earlier, the government had said it was accepting proposals to redevelop the Toronto waterfront property into a "world-class" entertainment destination.

"I look forward to our continued vision in making Ontario and Canada even greater on the world stage and getting together again soon to discuss various initiatives including Ontario Place," Mr. Mizrahi wrote.

Mr. Mizrahi did not respond to multiple requests for comment.

Another dinner was bought by Mina Bechai, chief executive of Synoptic Medical Assessments, which provides expert witnesses for legal cases. Mr. Bechai said he wanted to support Victim Services, which helped him after he lost his fiancée and best friend in car accidents. During his Feb.

26 meal, Mr. Bechai said he and Mr. Ford shared "personal stories," but did not discuss his business.

Colin Taylor, co-founder of aPriori Capital Partners, a private equity fund manager, said he bought a dinner with the Premier to support Victim Services and that his British-based company "has no dealings" with the Ontario government. In the end, Mr. Taylor was not able to attend the Oct. 9 meal and police event organizers donated it to others, he said.

In addition, George Friedmann, owner of the Windsor Arms Hotel in Toronto, bought a dinner package with Mr. Ford but a date could not be found in the time frame he wanted, he said. The meal was cancelled and no payment was made.

With a report from Stephanie Chambers

Associated Graphic

Ontario Premier Doug Ford stands beside Paul Khawaja, president of OnX Enterprise Solutions, at the 2018 Chief's Gala fundraiser in Toronto. An OnX spokesman said the company bought a dinner with Mr. Ford as a means to donate to Victim Services.

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Business leaders pay thousands to dine with Ontario Premier
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By JILL MAHONEY
  
  

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Wednesday, November 13, 2019 – Page A1

TORONTO -- Doug Ford had several private dinners with business executives who paid $20,000 each at a charity auction for face time with the Ontario Premier.

Two of the companies that secured access to Mr. Ford - technology firm OnX Enterprise Solutions and retirementhome provider All Seniors Care Living Centres - were also lobbying to do business with the province. In addition, after dining with Mr. Ford, real estate developer Sam Mizrahi asked for a meeting to discuss Ontario Place, the mothballed theme park the government is planning to overhaul.

The "intimate private dinner" packages provided deep-pocketed individuals and companies an exclusive audience with the Premier. The dinners are not subject to political fundraising rules since the funds went to charity, but raise ethical concerns because they are akin to trading cash for access, observers say.

The Globe and Mail requested government records relating to dinner packages with Mr. Ford that were auctioned off at the Toronto Police Chief's fundraiser last year under the province's Freedom of Information law.

A spokeswoman for the Premier said Mr. Ford is proud to support Victim Services Toronto, which helps crime victims and received money raised at the gala, but did not answer questions about whether he was lobbied at the private dinners.

"As he has said many times before, no one can buy or unduly influence Doug Ford," Ivana Yelich said in an e-mail.

Mr. Ford is planning to attend this year's Chief's Gala on Thursday and will again donate private-dinner opportunities, Ms. Yelich said. He is the first Ontario Premier to provide such an item for the auction, according to Allison Sparkes, a police spokeswoman.

Allowing wealthy individuals and companies to pay for exclusive audiences with the Premier risks eroding the public's faith in government, even when the money benefits a charity, said Ian Stedman, a lawyer and government-ethics expert who is doing a PhD at Osgoode Hall Law School.

"It smells funky because it's a weird way for the Premier to give people access to him," he said. "As a premier, don't put yourself in a position where people can look at you and say, 'What are you doing? Selling access? What did you talk about?' " Duff Conacher, co-founder of Democracy Watch, called the dinners a clear case of trading cash for access, despite the charitable beneficiary. "It's still giving an opportunity for someone to buy access to you and that's the problem."

Ontario Integrity Commissioner J. David Wake declined comment on the dinners through a spokeswoman.

However, in previous annual reports, Mr. Wake urged MPPs to exercise caution when donating opportunities for face time to charity fundraisers. He recommended politicians reserve the right to later turn down purchasers if meeting with them would be inappropriate. (Ms. Yelich declined to say whether Mr. Ford contacted Mr. Wake beforehand or whether he asked to deny successful bidders if he saw a potential conflict of interest.)

The dinners with Mr. Ford were sold in a live auction last November after Mr. Ford gave a speech lauding police. The packages - for 10 guests at a Toronto steakhouse or Italian restaurant - were given a value of "priceless" in the item description, which noted that lobbyists must register with the Office of the Integrity Commissioner.

After the first three dinners sold quickly for $20,000 each, two more packages were added, and went for $21,000 each, Ms.

Sparkes said. A sixth dinner was sold for $20,000 several days after the event. However, only five meals took place after one was cancelled. In all, the dinners raised $101,000 out of the event's total of $653,420.

Other auction items included trips, sports games with Chief Mark Saunders and fishing expeditions and a lunch with federal Minister of Border Security and former Toronto police chief Bill Blair. MarieEmmanuelle Cadieux, a spokeswoman for Mr. Blair, said he was not lobbied at the events, but she declined to release the names of the successful bidders. Ms.

Sparkes said the lunch was sold for $8,000 and two fishing trips went for $5,000 each.

OnX Enterprise Solutions, which is also known as OnX Canada, bought a dinner with Mr. Ford as part of its "charitable contributions" to Victim Services, spokesman Roger Hamshaw said. He said the Torontobased IT company is a proud sponsor of the Chief's Gala. OnX president Paul Khawaja and other employees dined with Mr. Ford and Chief Saunders on March 20.

In early February, the company hired lobbyists from Hill+Knowlton Strategies with the goal of "bringing I.T. solutions to the government that will stabilize costs, reduce spending and improve the experience of users of government services," according to the provincial lobbyists' registry.

Mr. Hamshaw declined to answer questions about whether OnX executives lobbied Mr. Ford at the dinner and whether the company has had contact with government officials since the meal.

Government financial statements for the 2018-19 fiscal year show three payments to OnX Enterprise Solutions of between $111,000 and $116,000 each. Two contracts, signed in early 2018, were for ministry software and IT services and the other payment was for IT purchases for the Legislative Assembly, officials said.

Another dinner with Mr. Ford was purchased by Michael Kuhl, president of development at All Seniors Care Living Centres, when the company contacted organizers several days after the fundraiser, Ms.

Sparkes said. That meal took place June 4.

The Toronto-based company, which operates 31 retirement homes in five provinces and is developing several others, hired Loyalist Public Affairs in August, 2018, to lobby the Ontario government. Its goal was: "Discuss innovative solutions for improving healthcare and ending hallway medicine, including how retirement homes can play a role in freeing up hospital beds." (The relationship was terminated in August, 2019, according to the lobbyists' registry.)

Mr. Kuhl did not respond to multiple requests for comment.

Mr. Mizrahi, who is building a luxury condo and hotel tower in downtown Toronto that is slated to become the country's tallest skyscraper, had dinner with Mr. Ford on Jan. 29, according to government records.

The next day, Mr. Mizrahi e-mailed the Premier's then-chief of staff to arrange another meeting, in part about Ontario Place.

Less than two weeks earlier, the government had said it was accepting proposals to redevelop the Toronto waterfront property into a "world-class" entertainment destination.

"I look forward to our continued vision in making Ontario and Canada even greater on the world stage and getting together again soon to discuss various initiatives including Ontario Place," Mr. Mizrahi wrote.

Mr. Mizrahi did not respond to multiple requests for comment.

Another dinner was bought by Mina Bechai, chief executive of Synoptic Medical Assessments, which provides expert witnesses for legal cases. Mr. Bechai said he wanted to support Victim Services, which helped him after he lost his fiancée and best friend in car accidents. During his Feb.

26 meal, Mr. Bechai said he and Mr. Ford shared "personal stories," but did not discuss his business.

Colin Taylor, co-founder of aPriori Capital Partners, a private equity fund manager, said he bought a dinner with the Premier to support Victim Services and that his British-based company "has no dealings" with the Ontario government. In the end, Mr. Taylor was not able to attend the Oct. 9 meal and police event organizers donated it to others, he said.

In addition, George Friedmann, owner of the Windsor Arms Hotel in Toronto, bought a dinner package with Mr. Ford but a date could not be found in the time frame he wanted, he said. The meal was cancelled and no payment was made.

With a report from Stephanie Chambers

Associated Graphic

Ontario Premier Doug Ford stands beside Paul Khawaja, president of OnX Enterprise Solutions, at the 2018 Chief's Gala fundraiser in Toronto. An OnX spokesman said the company bought a dinner with Mr. Ford as a means to donate to Victim Services.

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Niners rally for win as Cardinals squander lead
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Monday, November 18, 2019 – Page B16

Jimmy Garoppolo threw a 25-yard touchdown pass to Jeff Wilson Jr. with 31 seconds left for his fourth TD pass of the game and the San Francisco 49ers rallied for a 36-26 victory over the Arizona Cardinals on Sunday. Garoppolo connected with Wilson over the middle for the go-ahead score one play after the Niners (9-1) narrowly converted on a third-and-three pass that went to replay review. Instead of being ruled short and having to decide whether to kick a tying field goal or go for it on fourth down, San Francisco had a new set of downs and took advantage on Wilson's first career touchdown catch. David Johnson fumbled on the next play for the Cardinals (3-7-1), which squandered a 16-0 lead and lost their fourth straight game. San Francisco added a fumble recovery for a touchdown by D.J.Reed on the final play after a botched lateral by Arizona. Garoppolo threw for 425 yards and four touchdowns, but also threw two interceptions deep in Arizona territory that nearly doomed the 49ers.

VIKINGS 27, BRONCOS 23 MINNEAPOLIS Minnesota Vikings erased a 20-0 halftime disadvantage with touchdowns on each of their four drives in the second half, fending off Denver by forcing three straight incomplete passes in the end zone over the final 10 seconds to preserve a victory. This was the first time in five years - a span of 100 games including the playoffs - that an NFL team won after trailing by 20 or more points after two quarters. Kirk Cousins went 29 for 35 for 319 yards and three scores for the Vikings (8-3), overcoming a system-wide failure in the first half that included a lost fumble of his during a sack that led to one of three field goals by Brandon McManus for the Broncos (3-7). Cousins hit Stefon Diggs for a 54-yard touchdown pass that brought the crowd noise to a deafening level and cut the lead to 23-20.

McManus went wide right from 41 yards on his fourth attempt, and Cousins found Kyle Rudolph wide open for a 32-yard score on the next possession with 6:10 left.

RAVENS 41, TEXANS 7 BALTIMORE Lamar Jackson threw four touchdown passes, ran for 86 yards and helped Baltimore roll to its sixth straight victory over Houston. The game was billed as a matchup between first-place AFC teams and two of the best double-threat quarterbacks in the NFL. Jackson and the Baltimore defence made it a one-sided affair and the Ravens (8-2) are riding their longest winning streak since a seven-game run in 2000, their first Super Bowl season.

After throwing three touchdown passes to put Baltimore up 21-0 in the third quarter, Jackson followed with his most impressive play of the day: a 39-yard run in which he broke six tackles, weaving through the Houston secondary as if playing keep-away with the football.

SAINTS 34, BUCCANEERS 17 TAMPA Drew Brees threw for 228 yards and three touchdowns to lead New Orleans over Tampa Bay. The NFC South leaders (8-2) rebounded from a 26-9 loss to struggling Atlanta, with NFL receptions leader Michael Thomas becoming the first player in league history with 90-plus catches in the first 10 games of a season and Brees tossing TD passes of 16 yards to Thomas, three yards to Jared Cook and six yards to Ted Ginn Jr. after being held out of the end zone by the Falcons. Safety Marcus Williams put an exclamation point on a strong defensive performance, returning the third of New Orleans' four interceptions 55 yards for a touchdown that put the Saints up 34-17 with just more than five minutes remaining.

COWBOYS 35, LIONS 27 DETROIT Dak Prescott threw for 444 yards and three touchdowns, lifting Dallas over Detroit. The Cowboys (6-4) have won three of four games, leaning on the league's top offence. Dallas has had balance with the ball, but Prescott was passing with such ease that it wasn't necessary to try to move the ball much on the ground in the Motor City. The Lions (3-6-1) were without Matthew Stafford for a second straight game and have lost six of seven.

COLTS 33, JAGUARS 13 INDIANAPOLIS Jacoby Brissett threw one touchdown pass, ran for another score and used an impressive ground game to get Indianapolis back on track with a victory over Jacksonville. The Colts (6-4) ended a twogame losing streak and pulled back into a tie with Houston for the AFC South lead.

Jacksonville (4-6) has lost four of six, this one coming despite the return of starting quarterback Nick Foles. He had missed the previous eight games with a broken left collarbone. Marlon Mack carried 14 times for 109 yards and a touchdown before leaving in the third quarter with a hand injury.

His replacement, Jonathan Williams, had 13 carries for 106 yards, the first 100-yard game of his career. It was the first time Indy had two 100-yard rushers in the same game since Oct. 6, 1985, and only the third time in franchise history - all against the Jags' usually stingy defence.

BILLS 37, DOLPHINS 20 MIAMI GARDENS, FLA. Josh Allen tied a career high with three touchdown passes and ran for another score to help Buffalo complete a season sweep of Miami. Allen's TD tosses covered 40 and nine yards to John Brown, and 23 yards to Dawson Knox. Allen also scored on an eight-yard run and he had a 36-yard run to set up a field goal. Miami couldn't keep up against Buffalo's smothering defence. The Bills totalled a seasonhigh seven sacks and allowed only 23 yards rushing. The victory gave the Bills (7-3) their best 10-game record since 1999, but they won for only the second time in the past four games.

FALCONS 29, PANTHERS 3 CHARLOTTE, N.C. Atlanta intercepted Kyle Allen four times and sacked him five times, Kenjon Barner returned a punt 78 yards for a touchdown and the Falcons defeated Carolina for their second straight lopsided win against an NFC South foe. The Falcons (3-7) had only two interceptions all season - and none since Week 2 against the Eagles - but intercepted Allen three times in the first half to build a 20-0 lead. Matt Ryan improved to 7-1 in his past eight starts against the Panthers, throwing for 311 yards including a six-yard TD pass to Calvin Ridley.

JETS 34, WASHINGTON 17 LANDOVER, MD. Sam Darnold more than made up for an ill-timed interception by throwing for 293 yards and a career-high four touchdowns, and New York routed rookie quarterback Dwayne Haskins and Washington for its second consecutive victory. Darnold was 19 of 30 passing and tossed touchdowns to Daniel Brown, Robby Anderson, Ryan Griffin and former Washington receiver Jamison Crowder.

New York eclipsed 400 yards of offence for the first time in 20 games.

RAIDERS 17, BENGALS 10 OAKLAND Derek Carr passed for 292 yards and a touchdown, Josh Jacobs had his fourth 100-yard game in the past six weeks, and Oakland Raiders beat winless Cincinnati. Maxx Crosby had a team rookierecord four sacks as the Raiders harassed Bengals rookie quarterback Ryan Finley and shut down Cincinnati's offence after Joe Mixon had given it a lift in the first half.

The Raiders (6-4) won their third in a row.

The Bengals are the NFL's lone team without a victory, and their 0-10 record matches the 1993 team for the worst start in franchise history. They are officially eliminated from the playoffs.

Associated Graphic

Quarterback Jimmy Garoppolo of the San Francisco 49ers throws a pass under pressure from Arizona Cardinals linebacker Cassius Marsh Sr. during a game at Levi's Stadium on Sunday in Santa Clara, Calif.

LACHLAN CUNNINGHAM/GETTY IMAGES


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The inner workings of horror
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Jacqueline Baker's The Broken Hours is Esi Edugyan's choice for the second instalment of the Globe Book Club for subscribers. This week, Andrew Pyper discusses what lies at the true heart of literary fright
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By ANDREW PYPER
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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page R2

GLOBE BOOK CLUB Most of the time, when we talk about horror in fiction, we talk about what frightens us.

Hairy spiders. A demon in your head. The undead clawing at the door. A clown in need of serious dental work. What's the most terrifying of all? It's like trying to debate the merits of strawberry ice cream over rocky road. That is, you can't.

That's not scary! This is scary! So what lies at the true heart of literary fright? It's not the unsettling details that gives birth to our nightmares, but the essential inhumanity of the bogey-thingy.

You can't reason with it, you can't hug it out. Horror fiction presents us with threats notable not so much for their dripping, tentacled or snarling features, but their relentlessness. Where we can change (the tapped brakes of conscience, the shifts of will), the source of horror - no matter the mask it might choose to wear - is fixed in its ways. Monsters can't stop dismembering. Ghosts can't stop remembering.

For a writer, ghosts in particular are a tricky business. First off, as antagonists they leave something to be desired. While they may frighten by their mere appearance - Boo! - their immateriality prevents them from afflicting much direct harm on the living. (Sure, they can put us off our lunch, hide the car keys, provoke insomnia, drive one to self-harm of one kind or another, but the farther one goes along that road the closer one approaches Clichéville). There's also the predicament of how to vanquish the phantom. You can't arrest a spirit (the handcuffs just drop to the floor), a shotgun slug will only leave a nasty hole in the wall behind it and spritzing it with holy water would be as effective as using Windex.

Yet, as readers and writers we remain fatally attracted to the ghost-as-problem. Even the most lastingly influential literary masters such as James, Wharton, Dickens and Woolf (in her own fashion), all with "serious" reputations to protect, were irresistibly drawn to the phantasmal.

Jump to the present day and the siren song of the dead in fiction is even louder. Writers with the intelligence and writerly chops to explore any genre have chosen horror as their turf. (I would recommend Paul Tremblay, Zoje Stage and Josh Malerman from among many other recent American offerings, and north of the 49 there's Nick Cutter, Gemma Files and Iain Reid, to pick only a few).

What has drawn these talents and so many others to the boneyard? I have a theory.

But first, let's look at fellow Canadian Jacqueline Baker's excellent ghost story, The Broken Hours.

A desperate man (it is 1936, a time of ample desperation) named Crandle accepts the position of secretary and housekeeper to a writer "of some small reputation" we will come to learn is none other than H.P. Lovecraft.

Crandle comes to the story alone but is haunted by a life before, one that included a wife and daughter.

Soon after arriving in the spooky house just off Brown University's campus, he notices some peculiar details. The invisible malevolence on the secondfloor landing. The writer-employer who never shows himself and instead gives instructions through letters. A piece of gravestone found under his pillow. A little girl in the garden.

The Broken Hours is a psychological mystery in that the questions the novel poses, while addressed to external puzzles, seem always to loop back to Crandle, the one puzzling through them.

Why does the writer seem to never leave his room? Are the ghosts Crandle encounters real or imagined? What, according to the rules of the story, will be required of him to leave this place?

The real Lovecraft wrote stories in which the fear resides in a metaphysical concept made manifest. The extraterrestrial.

The sublime. The unspeakable.

It's no accident that Baker has her fictional Lovecraft decide to hire Crandle when, in their initial phone conversation, the latter mentions studying astronomy at university. But, Crandle notes, it was an academic pursuit he eventually abandoned. Why?

"Too much, I said, of the infinite." An excess of infinity. It's a paradox of the most Lovecraftian sort. It's also a notion that pushes us past the borderlands of objectivity and into imagined alternatives. What might live in the space beyond endless darkness?

Baker co-mingles the enormity of Lovecraftian cosmic horror with the intimately scaled disruptions of the Victorian-toned (if Depression-era set) ghost story, and the result is a fictional study of the different ways we externalize what makes us afraid. In fact, if measured in comparative weights of intent, The Broken Hours is less a horror novel than a novel about horror. It subtly pinches back the curtain of the form's mechanics to reveal, in glimpses, some of the working parts behind it.

All of this makes The Broken Hours a great book-club pick, among other merits. It's a novel populated by mysteries that pose various text-level questions (ones that collective discussion can help tease out or debate). But for me, the ambiguities of The Broken Hours also lead us to something bigger, its queries yielding a single, underlying observation.

All horror is projection. It comes from us in equal force as it comes for us.

And if I'm right about that, I'm right about this: If we want to know why the Frightening Thing has chosen to inhabit a particular story, look not to the attentionhungry beast or lurching corpse or apparition, but to the characters who encounter it. Unlike real life, the Frightening Thing of literature tends not to be arbitrary in whom it selects to visit, but rather comes to those who, in one subconscious way or another, have summoned it, deserve it or dread it most.

This is where the attraction of ghosts lies for the fiction writer: They reveal aspects of a character that would otherwise remain hidden to herself, or to us reading her. But to get there, the story must somehow shift our focus from the spectre to the point-ofview of the one who witnesses it.

When supernatural stories remain ghost-centric and only provide the narrative of people trying to figure out what buried mystery of the phantom's past has left it loitering among the still breathing crowd, it can only lead us into some historical cul-de-sac or morality classroom. Logical, sure, and with a clear takeaway.

But the thrill is gone.

So why are the best ghost stories not really about the ghosts?

Ghosts are dead. They exist on the other side, unreachable, remote.

As with the "real life" of movie stars or the pics of a glamorous Instagram feed, we aren't really interested in ghosts themselves as much as we think. What interests us is how we respond to their appearance.

It seems too simple a thing to say that ghosts function as mirrors in fiction. But then mirrors, like ghosts, can be more complicated than we assume. Warped, cracked, flattering, cruel. The image of ourselves they return may be unwanted and brief, but we escape the encounter a different being nonetheless, a step closer to our true selves.

Now that's scary.

Special to The Globe and Mail Andrew Pyper is the author of nine novels, including The Demonologist, The Damned and, most recently, The Homecoming.

For the latest on the Globe Book Club, and to find out how to get tickets for the subscriber-exclusive event with the two authors in Vancouver on Nov. 28, go to tgam.ca/bookclub and sign up for our weekly Books newsletter.

JOIN THE CONVERSATION What are your favourite horror novels, and why? Let us know at bookclub@globeandmail.com and we'll use a selection of reader comments in print and online.


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David Koepp takes on the world of books
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Hollywood screenwriter behind works such as Jurassic Park and Spider-Man discusses his debut novel, Cold Storage, and its coming movie adaptation
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By BARRY HERTZ
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page R14

David Koepp is tired of waiting for Tom Hanks's help.

As the screenwriter of such Hanks vehicles as Angels & Demons and Inferno, Koepp kept his end of the screenwriter-actor bargain while promoting those movies through media interviews and industry-junket gauntlets. So why shouldn't his onetime star return the favour, now that Koepp is out there selling his first novel, the darkly comic sci-fi thriller Cold Storage?

"I kept waiting for Tom to go on Jimmy Kimmel and sell the book, but strangely he wouldn't," Koepp says with a laugh. "But this has gotten me to appreciate how books are sold by hand, one at a time. Movies, we do a $25million advertising campaign even if we know it's not good, just to trick people into seeing it.

But the book business is a much more thoughtful process."

More thoughtful, and more slow - although this is a speed that Koepp, who has had the good fortune of barrelling through a Hollywood career at a near-record pace thanks to his work on everything from Carlito's Way to Jurassic Park to Spider-Man to War of the Worlds, could get used to.

During a recent book-tour stop in Toronto, the 56-year-old author (and screenwriter, producer and director) spoke with The Globe and Mail's Barry Hertz about the pleasures of working outside the grip of movie studios.

Do you feel like you have had to live with this book longer than any film that you've written or directed?

It's more singularly yours. Often when a movie is done, it becomes so much other people's thing that you're not quite attached to it. This is also incredibly freeing - stuff that I could never have written in a screenplay before. It was so solitary, and there were no expectations.

Is it easier to deal with notes from a book editor than a movie studio?

It's much gentler and more intelligent. I'm killing my screenwriting career by saying that out loud, but this is the first time I've been given notes from a person who viewed it as essentially mine versus essentially theirs. I don't blame directors - they have to take ownership, because everything becomes something they see and hear. Studios, I'm a little more resentful of. I've thought about it more than they have.

Was there any trepidation, then, about going into the realm of books, where your name is the only one to blame?

I was anxious because, like most people, one of the things I fear is public humiliation. And we live in a time not known for its great civility. The last thing I wanted was either blanket rejections or to be critically reviled, which is never a fun experience. But happily neither of those things came.

At least when you write a screenplay, you're shielded from public ridicule by a couple steps ... Well, not really. You don't get it as bad as the actors or the director, but screenwriters can get hammered. You tend to be hated by other writers who don't understand that screenwriting is difficult, or don't like that screenwriters are well paid. I used to feel sorry for myself about that, but now I don't know anybody who doesn't get abused on the internet. The things I've read about you are pretty nasty! Wait ... really?

I'm not being serious. But it is awful.

Well, you pan one Avengers movie ... While chatting about this book in another interview, the Sony and Marvel situation came up, as they had a little falling out [over Spider-Man], and because I worked on the first movie, I was asked what I thought about that.

I said I'm not sure why everyone is so quick to defend Disney, because they're not an underdog to be defended. And viciousness ensued. But you're reviewed very directly online, and you can choose to read that or not. It's been ever thus.

So, do you?

Of course. It's hard to avoid. But if you wait a few months and one day you get an especially peaceful inner sense, you can do a deep dive and read them all. Discount the outliers who say you're either a genius or Satan, and you can learn what's working and what's not.

The film rights to Cold Storage are already sold, and you're adapting it. How odd is it to be adapting your own voice for the screen?

I'd be lying if I didn't say that I considered a movie version of this while I was writing it. That's old instincts and hard to shut off.

But there were a bunch of things that I did in the book that would be impossible to show in a movie, and now the moment has come when I have to put it in a movie, which is when I cursed myself. But the hardest bit is cutting stuff you like. Adapting other authors' work, I can cut 50 pages without batting an eye. Now I know why I wrote those 50 pages, though, and how long it took me to write those 50 pages. The next time I go to adapt someone else's work, I might not be as effective, because now I'm sympathetic.

But you have no desire to direct this adaptation?

No, because I've lived with the idea for a long time already, and it needs fresh blood and a different perspective.

Movies are helped by the dynamism of different writers and directors. I also find directing brutally difficult work, personally and psychologically. I just finished a small movie [the horror film You Should Have Left], and I hope it's my last. There are many people who are very good at it, but for me it's turbulent and difficult.

Yet, you've directed eight films now ... I've directed more movies than most people who have never had a hit movie. I've had successful ones, but not a hit. And I've only managed one outright disaster.

So, Mortdecai with Johnny Depp, if we're talking about the same thing. But you know, that film's found quite a strong cult audience, especially in Toronto. There's a group of film writers here who are especially attached to it.

Well, that's nice to hear. There was an unfortunate confluence of events that conspired to bring that one down. One was a movie star who both the public and the critical establishment decided, "Let's get that guy, it's his turn."

And there were failings in the movie, certainly, and they're my fault. But also what surprised me about it was the vitriol for ... you know, we made a $55-million Terry-Thomas movie, which is not playing it safe. My fear was this was way too specific and esoteric a choice for a mainstream movie, and I was correct. But it wasn't done from a lack of courage.

So many of your scripts turned out to be franchise-starters: Jurassic Park, Mission: Impossible, Spider-Man. Did you write Cold Storage thinking that it could kickstart its own series?

I have ideas where the story can go in movie form, but I have different ideas for a next book. And it's also very dangerous for movies to think that way, because any time that you think, "We're going to make five of these," it's a terrible flop.

This conversation has been condensed and edited.

Associated Graphic

Screenwriter David Koepp, seen at the Shangri-La Hotel in Toronto on Nov. 4, says he was nervous about releasing his first novel 'because, like most people, one of the things I fear is public humiliation.'

GALIT RODAN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL


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The ghosts, desires and politics of writer, director Mati Diop
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By SARAH-TAI BLACK
Special to The Globe and Mail
  
  

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Saturday, November 16, 2019 – Page A17

Known previously for her work as an actor in films by art-house favourites such as Claire Denis and Matias Pineiro, Mati Diop's masterful feature debut as a writer and director, the Senegal-set ghost story Atlantics, made history when it premiered at Cannes this year, becoming the first film directed by a black woman to be featured in competition at the festival. Atlantics went on to claim another piece of history when it won the Jury Grand Prize, making Diop the first black woman to win an award in the French festival's entire 72-year history.

The Globe and Mail's Sarah-Tai Black sat down with Diop just after Atlantics' North American premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival this fall - and ahead of the film being selected as the official Senegalese entry for best international film at the 2020 Academy Awards - for an in-depth conversation about the histories and intentions behind her first feature.

Can you tell me about the development of the film? It has a purposeful ease to it that makes it seem as if you've been thinking about this story and its characters for quite some time.

It was already in my mind back when I shot my first short film in Dakar in 2008. It was a very particular period in terms of the social climate in Senegal; many young Senegalese were migrating to Spain. I was there to work on a film called 1,000 Suns, but I interrupted that project as I was swept into the urgency of the environment. I was working in a neighbourhood where a lot of young people were preparing to migrate, and through my cousin, I was able to have conversations with many of them about that specific lived experience. Atlantics, the feature, embodies that moment. All of the sensations in the social atmosphere there struck me, particularly the feeling that these young people were so taken with the idea of being elsewhere, that they were no longer "here" anymore.

When I showed what I had been working on with the short Atlantics to a mentor of mine, they kept telling me, "You see a mirror in front of you, but you are no longer here. And when you decide to leave, that means you're already dead." So I think I already knew that I was shooting a ghost movie, even at that point. The short film is only 15 minutes and I wanted to capture the mythological dimension of migration, so I knew after I had finished with the short that a longer film needed to be made because it was a period that deeply marked me. This feature has always been here in my life; it's a very personal gesture. This story of migration is not only about movement out of Senegal, but the need I had to travel back to explore my origins.

Those emotional textures of disconnection or of being perpetually in transit and trying to reconcile that with identity and a sense of home is beautifully materialized in the film - particularly the way in which you've realized this feeling and specific social moment through the fantastic or the figure of the ghost. Can you speak to using this element as both a filmic device as well as cultural narrative specific to West Africa and black Muslim experience?

The idea of a fantasy narrative set in Senegal is not exactly a prospect that is wholly disconnected from reality, because fantasy is very much part of the lived reality there. I was very happy to explore genre, but I was more interested in the intersections between fantasy and reality. When I was in the early stages of filmmaking, I wanted these ghost figures to emerge directly from the ocean, almost like in a Japanese horror film.

Atlantics itself is a mixture of so many influences. I'm very interested in certain Senegalese figures, such as djinns, who are invisible spirits who circulate and take form amongst us.

There is one in particular called faru rab, which is well known in Senegal; it's like an invisible lover who takes possession of a woman at night. In Dakar, if a woman has a problem with her husband, often times people will say it's because of this spirit.

I was very intrigued by this figure and also stories from Bretagne, a western region in France where a lot of Senegalese immigrants have settled. There are many tales or legends of seeing Senegalese people on boats from afar or of Senegalese who never arrive, assumed to have drowned, and whose spirits go on to haunt the inhabitants of the villages there.

Your style and vision in terms of your filmmaking feels so vocal in an intergenerational or even ancestral sense. Did you have any drive to speak to or to be in conversation with the art that your father [musician Wasis Diop] or uncle [filmmaker Djibril Diop Mambéty] have made?

I am definitely influenced by them. Their work has impacted the world of art, cinema and music, and my father in particular took up a lot of space in my imagination. In terms of Djibril, he was extremely demanding on the language and narrative of film, which was very personal and very radical, but also in his efforts to speak directly to the audience of his films. This is both true and not true, of course - [his film] Touki Bouki was a little too intellectual at the time of its release; it was too ahead of its time. Despite that, I feel there is an emotional frequency of the colonized African mind that is very legible in his films and that he uses the language of cinema to reaffirm African language in this way. And that is my main influence I draw from him, which is not just my own to claim, but shared.

In that vein, Africa has been given a specific image and story by the Western world, and I felt that it was very important to put my energy into making films in Senegal both for myself and the communities there. For me, that is the strength of cinema.

What do you dream of for the future of cinema?

In many ways, I am already living my dream. I had a very specific story to tell, with strong black characters, and I'm ready to see more of this. I'm extremely tired of seeing only white faces in cinema. It's important that people realize there is something wrong with that, that there must be an impossibility for that to continue. I think it's very important for filmmakers to take their stories back and share them with the world. I wish to see more films made by artists who control their own stories, especially from parts of the world which maybe haven't had access to make stories that are self-determining.

As you know, the film won the Grand Prix at Cannes and was bought by Netflix, which means that it will be seen by a wider audience, and I believe that accessible methods like that are crucial, especially with a film such as this which has been made with 100 per cent of myself. What I mean by that is a complete affirmation of a personal style and language; a way of knowing what you need to say without compromise and knowing that your audience cannot just be other artists.

This might involve, as it did for me, choosing non-professional actors or producers who have never worked on a feature - people who are willing to take risks in order to speak to what they know must be proven true.

Special to The Globe and Mail Atlantics opens Nov. 22 in Toronto; Nov. 28 in Winnipeg; and Nov. 29 in Montreal and on Netflix.


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The ghosts, desires and politics of writer, director Mati Diop
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By SARAH-TAI BLACK
Special to The Globe and Mail
  
  

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Friday, November 15, 2019 – Page A17

Known previously for her work as an actor in films by art-house favourites such as Claire Denis and Matias Pineiro, Mati Diop's masterful feature debut as a writer and director, the Senegal-set ghost story Atlantics, made history when it premiered at Cannes this year, becoming the first film directed by a black woman to be featured in competition at the festival. Atlantics went on to claim another piece of history when it won the Jury Grand Prize, making Diop the first black woman to win an award in the French festival's entire 72-year history.

The Globe and Mail's Sarah-Tai Black sat down with Diop just after Atlantics' North American premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival this fall - and ahead of the film being selected as the official Senegalese entry for best international film at the 2020 Academy Awards - for an in-depth conversation about the histories and intentions behind her first feature.

Can you tell me about the development of the film? It has a purposeful ease to it that makes it seem as if you've been thinking about this story and its characters for quite some time.

It was already in my mind back when I shot my first short film in Dakar in 2008. It was a very particular period in terms of the social climate in Senegal; many young Senegalese were migrating to Spain. I was there to work on a film called 1,000 Suns, but I interrupted that project as I was swept into the urgency of the environment. I was working in a neighbourhood where a lot of young people were preparing to migrate, and through my cousin, I was able to have conversations with many of them about that specific lived experience. Atlantics, the feature, embodies that moment. All of the sensations in the social atmosphere there struck me, particularly the feeling that these young people were so taken with the idea of being elsewhere, that they were no longer "here" anymore.

When I showed what I had been working on with the short Atlantics to a mentor of mine, they kept telling me, "You see a mirror in front of you, but you are no longer here. And when you decide to leave, that means you're already dead." So I think I already knew that I was shooting a ghost movie, even at that point. The short film is only 15 minutes and I wanted to capture the mythological dimension of migration, so I knew after I had finished with the short that a longer film needed to be made because it was a period that deeply marked me. This feature has always been here in my life; it's a very personal gesture. This story of migration is not only about movement out of Senegal, but the need I had to travel back to explore my origins.

Those emotional textures of disconnection or of being perpetually in transit and trying to reconcile that with identity and a sense of home is beautifully materialized in the film - particularly the way in which you've realized this feeling and specific social moment through the fantastic or the figure of the ghost. Can you speak to using this element as both a filmic device as well as cultural narrative specific to West Africa and black Muslim experience?

The idea of a fantasy narrative set in Senegal is not exactly a prospect that is wholly disconnected from reality, because fantasy is very much part of the lived reality there. I was very happy to explore genre, but I was more interested in the intersections between fantasy and reality. When I was in the early stages of filmmaking, I wanted these ghost figures to emerge directly from the ocean, almost like in a Japanese horror film.

Atlantics itself is a mixture of so many influences. I'm very interested in certain Senegalese figures, such as djinns, who are invisible spirits who circulate and take form amongst us.

There is one in particular called faru rab, which is well known in Senegal; it's like an invisible lover who takes possession of a woman at night. In Dakar, if a woman has a problem with her husband, often times people will say it's because of this spirit.

I was very intrigued by this figure and also stories from Bretagne, a western region in France where a lot of Senegalese immigrants have settled. There are many tales or legends of seeing Senegalese people on boats from afar or of Senegalese who never arrive, assumed to have drowned, and whose spirits go on to haunt the inhabitants of the villages there.

Your style and vision in terms of your filmmaking feels so vocal in an intergenerational or even ancestral sense. Did you have any drive to speak to or to be in conversation with the art that your father [musician Wasis Diop] or uncle [filmmaker Djibril Diop Mambéty] have made?

I am definitely influenced by them. Their work has impacted the world of art, cinema and music, and my father in particular took up a lot of space in my imagination. In terms of Djibril, he was extremely demanding on the language and narrative of film, which was very personal and very radical, but also in his efforts to speak directly to the audience of his films. This is both true and not true, of course - [his film] Touki Bouki was a little too intellectual at the time of its release; it was too ahead of its time. Despite that, I feel there is an emotional frequency of the colonized African mind that is very legible in his films and that he uses the language of cinema to reaffirm African language in this way. And that is my main influence I draw from him, which is not just my own to claim, but shared.

In that vein, Africa has been given a specific image and story by the Western world, and I felt that it was very important to put my energy into making films in Senegal both for myself and the communities there. For me, that is the strength of cinema.

What do you dream of for the future of cinema?

In many ways, I am already living my dream. I had a very specific story to tell, with strong black characters, and I'm ready to see more of this. I'm extremely tired of seeing only white faces in cinema. It's important that people realize there is something wrong with that, that there must be an impossibility for that to continue. I think it's very important for filmmakers to take their stories back and share them with the world. I wish to see more films made by artists who control their own stories, especially from parts of the world which maybe haven't had access to make stories that are self-determining.

As you know, the film won the Grand Prix at Cannes and was bought by Netflix, which means that it will be seen by a wider audience, and I believe that accessible methods like that are crucial, especially with a film such as this which has been made with 100 per cent of myself. What I mean by that is a complete affirmation of a personal style and language; a way of knowing what you need to say without compromise and knowing that your audience cannot just be other artists.

This might involve, as it did for me, choosing non-professional actors or producers who have never worked on a feature - people who are willing to take risks in order to speak to what they know must be proven true.

Special to The Globe and Mail Atlantics opens Nov. 22 in Toronto; Nov. 28 in Winnipeg; and Nov. 29 in Montreal and on Netflix.


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'A shot in the dark': A mother's harrowing escape from Iran
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Barred from leaving after her husband died mysteriously in a Tehran prison, woman flees back to Canada using plan hatched by her sons
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By MICHELLE ZILIO
  
  

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Tuesday, November 19, 2019 – Page A1

OTTAWA -- Maryam Mombeini discreetly slipped her phone into her pocket, with her sons listening in from the other side of the world, as she nervously made her way through the Tehran airport in hopes of escaping the nightmare she was living in Iran.

Ms. Mombeini's sons, Ramin and Mehran Seyed-Emami, were shaking as they listened to the muffled phone call. They heard their mother pass through security and the gate check, and kept the call going as she took her seat on the plane. They breathed a sigh of relief as the flight took off and they lost connection with their mother.

Nearly 600 days after Ms. Mombeini was barred from leaving Iran, her sons had devised a plan to get her out of the country and, to their surprise, it worked.

"Everybody's online together at the same time and we hear our mom and people are talking to her and we don't know who these people are. Why are they talking to her? Is she going to get through?" Ramin said in an exclusive interview with The Globe and Mail.

"It was just so insane. It really felt like a freaking movie the whole time."

Speaking publicly for the first time since Ms. Mombeini's return to Canada last month, Ramin recollected his mother's nail-biting escape from Iran. Ms.Mombeini, 57, was blocked from leaving the Islamic Republic after her husband, Kavous SeyedEmami, died mysteriously in Tehran's secretive Evin prison in February, 2018. The entire family has dual Canadian-Iranian citizenship.

Prof. Seyed-Emami was a sociology professor and managing director of the Persian Wildlife Heritage Foundation. He died two weeks after he was arrested by Iranian authorities on what his family says were unsubstantiated allegations of spying.

Ms. Mombeini and her sons decided to flee Iran in March, 2018, after facing threats for rejecting Iranian authorities' allegations that Prof. Seyed-Emami died by suicide. When Iranian officials prevented Ms. Mombeini from boarding the plane, she told her sons to leave without her. Iranian authorities repeatedly renewed a travel ban against her, preventing her from leaving for another 582 days.

After 20 months of high-level diplomatic talks and international headlines about Ms. Mombeini's consular case, the SeyedEmami brothers were desperate to get their mother out of Iran.

The diplomatic efforts were difficult as relations between Canada and Iran have been fraught for years. The former Conservative government expelled Iranian diplomats and closed the Canadian embassy in Tehran in 2012 over concerns about Iran's nuclear program, its deplorable human-rights record and its support for Syria. Bilateral ties between the two countries had deteriorated a decade earlier when Zahra Kazemi, a CanadianIranian photo journalist, was beaten to death in Evin prison.

The Liberals pledged during the 2015 federal election campaign to re-establish diplomatic ties, but halted talks with Iran when Ms. Mombeini was barred from leaving.

During a compulsory check-in about her travel ban in September, an Iranian official advised Ms. Mombeini that her Iranian passport, which was confiscated when she tried to leave the country with her sons, had expired.

Her sons encouraged her to apply for a new passport, in the rare chance that it was renewed so she could try to leave the country.

The plan, Ramin acknowledged, was "a shot in the dark."

He and his brother told their mother "not to tell a single soul."

The brothers shared the plan only with Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland, who kept close tabs on the consular case and phoned Ms. Mombeini a number of times while she was stuck in Iran.

"She [Ms. Freeland] had been by the far the most helpful and the most involved on a very personal level and so she was the only one that we trusted," Ramin said.

Two weeks later, Ms. Mombeini's passport arrived in the mail.

She grabbed her purse, a small carry-on bag and headed to the airport. Her sons booked her a one-way ticket to Istanbul, with the plan of buying her another flight to Canada once she got out of Iran. The journey was complicated by the fact that she was wearing a cast after breaking her leg on a hike and needed to use a wheelchair to get around the airport.

Ramin and Mehran advised Ms. Freeland's office when Mr.Mombeini's flight took off and the government arranged for Canadian officials to meet her at the airport in Istanbul. The officials helped her onto a flight to London and then onto Vancouver, where her sons were living.

Ms. Mombeini landed back on Canadian soil Oct. 10, where she had an emotional reunion with her sons and the family's dogs, which left Iran with Ramin and Mehran last year.

A month after her return, Ms.Mombeini's family is not sure if they will ever know why she was able to get out of Iran. Ramin said either his mother slipped through a crack in the Iranian bureaucracy, or a sympathetic Iranian official took a serious risk in quietly letting her board the flight.

"It's the same thing regarding my dad's death," Ramin said. "It's like a puzzle we've been trying to piece together for the longest time, but we'll never fully know the truth of what happened."

However, Ramin said one thing is for sure: The Canadian government wasn't involved in coming up with the escape plan.

While Ms. Mombeini's family is grateful to Ms. Freeland and other Canadian officials for putting pressure on Tehran to let her leave, there was only so much Canada could do. Ms. Freeland made calls to her Iranian counterpart, and the Canadian ambassador to the United Nations raised the case with the Iranian mission in New York, but Canada's ability to speak directly with Iran was limited because of the lack of diplomatic relations.

Adam Austen, a spokesman for Ms. Freeland, said the government is "extremely relieved" that Ms. Mombeini is back in Canada, but noted there has been no diplomatic engagement between Canada and Iran since her return.

Looking back on his family's ordeal, Ramin has a word of caution for Canadians who travel to or live in "hostile" countries.

"If something bad happens, you're going to be on your own.

... You can't rely on your own government or international organizations," he said.

"Even though they're sympathetic and they genuinely mean to help, it's so difficult in this international mess of a political and bureaucratic system."

Ramin said his mother is living in Vancouver now, where she is taking time to finally grieve the loss of her husband. The family has no immediate plans for the future, aside from a few road trips, and are taking things day by day.

Nearly two years after his death, the family still doesn't know how Prof. Seyed-Emami died. They hope to one day travel back to Iran to visit his grave in the mountains north of Tehran, where Prof. Seyed-Emami loved to hike.

In the meantime, Ramin said he is focused on helping his mother find happiness again. As the Iranian government continues to discredit his father in state-produced documentaries, the family has got its own revenge.

"All we can do is live a good, happy and healthy life, and that's what I've always said has been the best revenge."

Associated Graphic

Maryam Mombeini walks with her sons, Mehran Seyed-Emami, left, and Ramin Seyed-Emami, and their two dogs, Lola and Noghreh, in Vancouver last week.

RAFAL GERSZAK/THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Maryam Mombeini, centre, sits with her sons, Mehran, left, and Ramin, at the Vancouver International Airport in October, after arriving from Iran. She had been barred from leaving the country since March, 2018.


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Old friends Steinauer, O'Shea to square off as coaches in CFL's biggest game
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By DAN RALPH
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